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Sample records for enhances action potential-dependent

  1. Mechanisms of action of ligands of potential-dependent sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, D B

    2008-06-01

    Potential-dependent sodium channels play a leading role in generating action potentials in excitable cells. Sodium channels are the site of action of a variety of modulator ligands. Despite numerous studies, the mechanisms of action of many modulators remain incompletely understood. The main reason that many important questions cannot be resolved is that there is a lack of precise data on the structures of the channels themselves. Structurally, potential-dependent sodium channels are members of the P-loop channel superfamily, which also include potassium and calcium channels and glutamate receptor channels. Crystallization of a series of potassium channels showed that it was possible to analyze the structures of different members of the superfamily using the "homologous modeling" method. The present study addresses model investigations of the actions of ligands of sodium channels, including tetrodotoxin and batrachotoxin, as well as local anesthetics. Comparison of experimental data on sodium channel ligands with x-ray analysis data allowed us to reach a new level of understanding of the mechanisms of channel modulation and to propose a series of experimentally verifiable hypotheses.

  2. Bursting regimes in a reaction-diffusion system with action potential-dependent equilibrium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R Meier

    Full Text Available The equilibrium Nernst potential plays a critical role in neural cell dynamics. A common approximation used in studying electrical dynamics of excitable cells is that the ionic concentrations inside and outside the cell membranes act as charge reservoirs and remain effectively constant during excitation events. Research into brain electrical activity suggests that relaxing this assumption may provide a better understanding of normal and pathophysiological functioning of the brain. In this paper we explore time-dependent ionic concentrations by allowing the ion-specific Nernst potentials to vary with developing transmembrane potential. As a specific implementation, we incorporate the potential-dependent Nernst shift into a one-dimensional Morris-Lecar reaction-diffusion model. Our main findings result from a region in parameter space where self-sustaining oscillations occur without external forcing. Studying the system close to the bifurcation boundary, we explore the vulnerability of the system with respect to external stimulations which disrupt these oscillations and send the system to a stable equilibrium. We also present results for an extended, one-dimensional cable of excitable tissue tuned to this parameter regime and stimulated, giving rise to complex spatiotemporal pattern formation. Potential applications to the emergence of neuronal bursting in similar two-variable systems and to pathophysiological seizure-like activity are discussed.

  3. Amphetamine elevates nucleus accumbens dopamine via an action potential-dependent mechanism that is modulated by endocannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Dan P; Bunner, Kendra D; Schuweiler, Douglas R; Cheer, Joseph F; Garris, Paul A

    2016-06-01

    The reinforcing effects of abused drugs are mediated by their ability to elevate nucleus accumbens dopamine. Amphetamine (AMPH) was historically thought to increase dopamine by an action potential-independent, non-exocytotic type of release called efflux, involving reversal of dopamine transporter function and driven by vesicular dopamine depletion. Growing evidence suggests that AMPH also acts by an action potential-dependent mechanism. Indeed, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry demonstrates that AMPH activates dopamine transients, reward-related phasic signals generated by burst firing of dopamine neurons and dependent on intact vesicular dopamine. Not established for AMPH but indicating a shared mechanism, endocannabinoids facilitate this activation of dopamine transients by broad classes of abused drugs. Here, using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry coupled to pharmacological manipulations in awake rats, we investigated the action potential and endocannabinoid dependence of AMPH-induced elevations in nucleus accumbens dopamine. AMPH increased the frequency, amplitude and duration of transients, which were observed riding on top of slower dopamine increases. Surprisingly, silencing dopamine neuron firing abolished all AMPH-induced dopamine elevations, identifying an action potential-dependent origin. Blocking cannabinoid type 1 receptors prevented AMPH from increasing transient frequency, similar to reported effects on other abused drugs, but not from increasing transient duration and inhibiting dopamine uptake. Thus, AMPH elevates nucleus accumbens dopamine by eliciting transients via cannabinoid type 1 receptors and promoting the summation of temporally coincident transients, made more numerous, larger and wider by AMPH. Collectively, these findings are inconsistent with AMPH eliciting action potential-independent dopamine efflux and vesicular dopamine depletion, and support endocannabinoids facilitating phasic dopamine signalling as a common action in drug reinforcement

  4. Amphetamine elevates nucleus accumbens dopamine via an action potential-dependent mechanism that is modulated by endocannabinoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Dan P.; Bunner, Kendra D.; Schuweiler, Douglas R.; Cheer, Joseph F.; Garris, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    The reinforcing effects of abused drugs are mediated by their ability to elevate nucleus accumbens dopamine. Amphetamine (AMPH) was historically thought to increase dopamine by an action potential-independent, non-exocytotic type of release called efflux, involving reversal of dopamine transporter function and driven by vesicular dopamine depletion. Growing evidence suggests that AMPH also acts by an action potential-dependent mechanism. Indeed, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry demonstrates that AMPH activates dopamine transients, reward-related phasic signals generated by burst firing of dopamine neurons and dependent on intact vesicular dopamine. Not established for AMPH but indicating a shared mechanism, endocannabinoids facilitate this activation of dopamine transients by broad classes of abused drugs. Here, using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry coupled to pharmacological manipulations in awake rats, we investigated the action potential and endocannabinoid dependence of AMPH-induced elevations in nucleus accumbens dopamine. AMPH increased the frequency, amplitude and duration of transients, which were observed riding on top of slower dopamine increases. Surprisingly, silencing dopamine neuron firing abolished all AMPH-induced dopamine elevations, identifying an action potential-dependent origin. Blocking cannabinoid type 1 receptors prevented AMPH from increasing transient frequency, similar to reported effects on other abused drugs, but not from increasing transient duration and inhibiting dopamine uptake. Thus, AMPH elevates nucleus accumbens dopamine by eliciting transients via cannabinoid type 1 receptors and promoting the summation of temporally coincident transients, made more numerous, larger and wider by AMPH. Collectively, these findings are inconsistent with AMPH eliciting action potential-independent dopamine efflux and vesicular dopamine depletion, and support endocannabinoids facilitating phasic dopamine signalling as a common action in drug reinforcement

  5. Action video game training for cognitive enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Green, C. Shawn; Bavelier, Daphné

    2015-01-01

    Here we review the literature examining the perceptual, attentional, and cognitive benefits of playing one sub-type of video games known as ‘action video games,’ as well as the mechanistic underpinnings of these behavioral effects. We then outline evidence indicating the potential usefulness of these commercial off-the-shelf games for practical, real-world applications such as rehabilitation or the training of job-related skills. Finally, we discuss potential core characteristics of action vi...

  6. Motor expertise interacts with physical enactment to enhance action memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jieyu; Li, Anmin; Zhu, Qin

    2018-01-01

    Previous research on action memory showed the advantage for performing the action in memorising the action phrases. We tested if performing the action would help participants with or without motor expertise to memorise the novel action poses. Thirty novel action poses performed by an expert were photographed to constitute memory and interference stimuli. Eighty college students observed to remember the randomly displayed stimuli; however, half were asked to perform the displayed stimuli. Both free-recall and recognition tests were administered immediately and 24 h after the memory task. The results showed that acting was better than observing for memorising the novel action poses, which not only promoted the absolute retention but also alleviated the retention loss caused by interference. Motor expertise enhanced the overall memory performance by promoting a deeper motor encoding. Based on our results, novices should act with (rather than just observe) the model to learn novel motor skills.

  7. Assessing farmer involvement in collective action for enhancing the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing farmer involvement in collective action for enhancing the sorghum value chain in Soroti, Uganda. ... in six sub-counties of Soroti, Uganda, where associations are established. A binomial logit regression model was employed to ascertain socio-economic factors that influenced membership to farmer associations.

  8. Effective corrective actions to enhance operational safety of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-07-01

    The safe operation of nuclear power plants around the world and the prevention of incidents in these installations remain key concerns for the nuclear community. In this connection the feedback of operating experience plays a major role: every nuclear plant operator needs to have a system in place to identify and feed back the lessons learned from operating experience and to implement effective corrective actions to prevent safety events from reoccurring. An effective operating experience programme also includes a proactive approach that is aimed at preventing the first-time occurrence of safety events. In April 2003, the IAEA issued the PROSPER guidelines for nuclear installations to strengthen and enhance their own operating experience process and for self-assessment on the effectiveness of the feedback process. Subsequently, in the course of the Operational Safety Review Teams missions conducted by the IAEA that focused on the operational safety practices of nuclear power plants, the IAEA enhanced the review of the operating experience in nuclear power plants by implementing a new module that is derived from these guidelines. In order to highlight the effective implementation of the operating experience programme and to provide practical assistance in this area, the IAEA organized workshops and conferences to discuss recent trends in operating experience. The IAEA also performed assistance and review missions at plants and corporate organizations. The IAEA is further developing advice and assistance on operating experience feedback programmes and is reporting on good practices. The present publication is the outcome of two years of coordinated effort involving the participation of experts of nuclear organizations in several Member States. It provides information and good practices for successfully establishing an effective corrective actions programme. This publication forms part of a series that develops the principles set forth in these guidelines

  9. Action Research on Enhancing Academic Excellence in A study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    In this action research primary data have been used to study the academic performance of students currently enrolled in first year Physics department. Investigations revealed that a substantial number of students in Jimma University are enrolled in a course or study programme in which they have little or no interest.

  10. Development of lidocaine gels for enhanced local anesthetic action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang-Chul; Cho, Cheong-Weon; Yang, Kyu-Ho

    2004-12-09

    In relieving local pains, lidocaine, one of ester type local anesthetics, has been used. To develop the lidocaine gels of enhanced local anesthetic effects, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) based bioadhesive polymer gel containing an enhancer was formulated. As the drug concentration in the gels increased up to 3%, the permeation rate of drug linearly increased, thereafter reaching a plateau. As the temperature of surrounding solutions increased, the permeation of drug increased. The activation energy of drug permeation was 3.29 kcal/mol for lidocaine. The permeation rate of drug through skin was studied using various enhancers, such as glycols, non-ionic surfactants, and bile salts. Among the enhancers studied, diethylene glycol showed the greatest enhancing effects on drug permeation through skin. The analgesic activity was examined using a tail-flick analgesimeter. In the area under the efficacy curve (AUEC) of the rat-tail flick tests, lidocaine gel containing diethylene glycol showed about 3.89-fold increase in analgesic activity compared with the control. The addition of vasoconstrictor in the gels prolonged the analgesic effects. The result of this study supports that the bioadhesive gel with efficient anesthetic effect could be developed using HPMC with combination of enhancer and vasoconstrictor.

  11. Chemical enhancer solubility in human stratum corneum lipids and enhancer mechanism of action on stratum corneum lipid domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sarah A; Li, S Kevin

    2010-01-04

    Previously, chemical enhancer-induced permeation enhancement on human stratum corneum (SC) lipoidal pathway at enhancer thermodynamic activities approaching unity in the absence of cosolvents (defined as Emax) was determined and hypothesized to be related to the enhancer solubilities in the SC lipid domain. The objectives of the present study were to (a) quantify enhancer uptake into SC lipid domain at saturation, (b) elucidate enhancer mechanism(s) of action, and (c) study the SC lipid phase behavior at Emax. It was concluded that direct quantification of enhancer uptake into SC lipid domain using intact SC was complicated. Therefore a liposomal model of extracted human SC lipids was used. In the liposome study, enhancer uptake into extracted human SC lipid liposomes (EHSCLL) was shown to correlate with Emax. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to evaluate lipid phase alterations in enhancer-treated intact SC. IR spectra demonstrated an increase in the lipid domain fluidity and DSC thermograms indicated a decrease in the phase transition temperature with increasing Emax. These results suggest that the enhancer mechanism of action is through enhancer intercalation into SC intercellular lipids and subsequent lipid lamellae fluidization related to enhancer lipid concentration.

  12. Experiential Learning and Research Ethics: Enhancing Knowledge through Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira-Poit, Stephanie M.; Cameron, Abigail E.; Schulman, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    How can instructors use experiential learning strategies to enhance student understanding of research ethics and responsible research conduct? In this article, the authors review literature on using experiential learning to teach research ethics and responsible research conduct. They present a three-step exercise for teaching research ethics and…

  13. Moving the Classroom Outdoors: Schoolyard-Enhanced Learning in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broda, Herbert W.

    2011-01-01

    Since Herb Broda published Schoolyard-Enhanced Learning, his groundbreaking first book on outdoor learning, many schools across North America have embraced the benefits of "greening" their learning programs. Herb has visited dozens of these schools and nature centers, and he showcases the very best examples of schoolyard-enhanced…

  14. Compensatory plasticity in the action observation network: virtual lesions of STS enhance anticipatory simulation of seen actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avenanti, Alessio; Annella, Laura; Candidi, Matteo; Urgesi, Cosimo; Aglioti, Salvatore M

    2013-03-01

    Observation of snapshots depicting ongoing motor acts increases corticospinal motor excitability. Such motor facilitation indexes the anticipatory simulation of observed (implied) actions and likely reflects computations occurring in the parietofrontal nodes of a cortical network subserving action perception (action observation network, AON). However, direct evidence for the active role of AON in simulating the future of seen actions is lacking. Using a perturb-and-measure transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) approach, we show that off-line TMS disruption of regions within (inferior frontal cortex, IFC) and upstream (superior temporal sulcus, STS) the parietofrontal AON transiently abolishes and enhances the motor facilitation to observed implied actions, respectively. Our findings highlight the critical role of IFC in anticipatory motor simulation. More importantly, they show that disruption of STS calls into play compensatory motor simulation activity, fundamental for counteracting the noisy visual processing induced by TMS. Thus, short-term plastic changes in the AON allow motor simulation to deal with any gap or ambiguity of ever-changing perceptual worlds. These findings support the active, compensatory, and predictive role of frontoparietal nodes of the AON in the perception and anticipatory simulation of implied actions.

  15. Neuronal oscillations enhance stimulus discrimination by ensuring action potential precision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaefer, Andreas T; Angelo, Kamilla; Spors, Hartwig

    2006-01-01

    --permitted accurate discernment of up to 1,000 different stimuli. At low oscillation frequencies, stimulus discrimination showed a clear phase dependence whereby inputs arriving during the trough and the early rising phase of an oscillation cycle were most robustly discriminated. Thus, by ensuring AP precision......, membrane potential oscillations dramatically enhance the discriminatory capabilities of individual neurons and networks of cells and provide one attractive explanation for their abundance in neurophysiological systems....

  16. Fructose consumption enhances glucocorticoid action in rat visceral adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursać, Biljana N; Djordjevic, Ana D; Vasiljević, Ana D; Milutinović, Danijela D Vojnović; Veličković, Nataša A; Nestorović, Nataša M; Matić, Gordana M

    2013-06-01

    The rise in consumption of refined sugars high in fructose appears to be an important factor for the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Fructose has been shown to be involved in genesis and progression of the syndrome through deregulation of metabolic pathways in adipose tissue. There is evidence that enhanced glucocorticoid regeneration within adipose tissue, mediated by the enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Type 1 (11βHSD1), may contribute to adiposity and metabolic disease. 11βHSD1 reductase activity is dependent on NADPH, a cofactor generated by hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH). We hypothesized that harmful effects of long-term high fructose consumption could be mediated by alterations in prereceptor glucocorticoid metabolism and glucocorticoid signaling in the adipose tissue of male Wistar rats. We analyzed the effects of 9-week drinking of 10% fructose solution on dyslipidemia, adipose tissue histology and both plasma and tissue corticosterone level. Prereceptor metabolism of glucocorticoids was characterized by determining 11βHSD1 and H6PDH mRNA and protein levels. Glucocorticoid signaling was examined at the level of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression and compartmental redistribution, as well as at the level of expression of its target genes (GR, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxyl kinase and hormone-sensitive lipase). Fructose diet led to increased 11βHSD1 and H6PDH expression and elevated corticosterone level within the adipose tissue, which was paralleled with enhanced GR nuclear accumulation. Although the animals did not develop obesity, nonesterified fatty acid and plasma triglyceride levels were elevated, indicating that fructose, through enhanced prereceptor metabolism of glucocorticoids, could set the environment for possible later onset of obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Randomized Trial of SMART Goal Enhanced Debriefing after Simulation to Promote Educational Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amish Aghera

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Goal setting is used in education to promote learning and performance. Debriefing after clinical scenario-based simulation is a well-established practice that provides learners a defined structure to review and improve performance. Our objective was to integrate formal learning goal generation, using the SMART framework (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, and Time-bound, into standard debriefing processes (i.e., “SMART Goal Enhanced Debriefing” and subsequently measure the impact on the development of learning goals and execution of educational actions. Methods This was a prospective multicenter randomized controlled study of 80 emergency medicine residents at three academic hospitals comparing the effectiveness of SMART Goal Enhanced Debriefing to a standard debriefing. Residents were block randomized on a rolling basis following a simulation case. SMART Goal Enhanced Debriefing included five minutes of formal instruction on the development of SMART learning goals during the summary/application phase of the debrief. Outcome measures included the number of recalled learning goals, self-reported executed educational actions, and quality of each learning goal and educational action after a two-week follow-up period. Results The mean number of reported learning goals was similar in the standard debriefing group (mean 2.05 goals, SD 1.13, n=37 residents, and in the SMART Goal Enhanced Debriefing group (mean 1.93, SD 0.96, n=43, with no difference in learning goal quality. Residents receiving SMART Goal Enhanced Debriefing completed more educational actions on average (Control group actions completed 0.97 (SD 0.87, SMART debrief group 1.44 (SD 1.03 p=0.03. Conclusion The number and quality of learning goals reported by residents was not improved as a result of SMART Goal Enhanced Debriefing. Residents did, however, execute more educational actions, which is consistent with the overarching intent of any educational

  18. A Randomized Trial of SMART Goal Enhanced Debriefing after Simulation to Promote Educational Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghera, Amish; Emery, Matt; Bounds, Richard; Bush, Colleen; Stansfield, R. Brent; Gillett, Brian; Santen, Sally A.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Goal setting is used in education to promote learning and performance. Debriefing after clinical scenario-based simulation is a well-established practice that provides learners a defined structure to review and improve performance. Our objective was to integrate formal learning goal generation, using the SMART framework (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, and Time-bound), into standard debriefing processes (i.e., “SMART Goal Enhanced Debriefing”) and subsequently measure the impact on the development of learning goals and execution of educational actions. Methods This was a prospective multicenter randomized controlled study of 80 emergency medicine residents at three academic hospitals comparing the effectiveness of SMART Goal Enhanced Debriefing to a standard debriefing. Residents were block randomized on a rolling basis following a simulation case. SMART Goal Enhanced Debriefing included five minutes of formal instruction on the development of SMART learning goals during the summary/application phase of the debrief. Outcome measures included the number of recalled learning goals, self-reported executed educational actions, and quality of each learning goal and educational action after a two-week follow-up period. Results The mean number of reported learning goals was similar in the standard debriefing group (mean 2.05 goals, SD 1.13, n=37 residents), and in the SMART Goal Enhanced Debriefing group (mean 1.93, SD 0.96, n=43), with no difference in learning goal quality. Residents receiving SMART Goal Enhanced Debriefing completed more educational actions on average (Control group actions completed 0.97 (SD 0.87), SMART debrief group 1.44 (SD 1.03) p=0.03). Conclusion The number and quality of learning goals reported by residents was not improved as a result of SMART Goal Enhanced Debriefing. Residents did, however, execute more educational actions, which is consistent with the overarching intent of any educational intervention. PMID

  19. Action observation as a useful approach for enhancing recovery of verb production: new evidence from aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, S; Tomaiuolo, F; Altoè, G; Ceravolo, M G; Provinciali, L; Marangolo, P

    2013-08-01

    Evidence exists that the observation of actions performed by others enhance word retrieval and can be used in aphasia rehabilitation to treat naming impairments. The aim of the present study was to assess to what extent action observation treatment may improve verb retrieval in chronic aphasics. This was an observational study. Patients were recruited from the Neurorehabilitation Centre of Ancona Hospital. Six aphasic patients underwent an intensive language training to improve verb naming. Language evaluation was carried out before and after the treatment. A rehabilitation therapy based on observation of actions was administered daily to each patient for two consecutive weeks. Four different rehabilitation procedures were adopted: 1) "observation of action performed by the examiner"; 2) "observation and then execution of action"; 3) "observation of videoclips of actions"; and, as a control condition; 4) "observation of action and execution of meaningless movement". In four participants, a significant improvement in verb retrieval was found for the three experimental procedures (χ² (3)=75.212, Pverb semantics (χ² (3)=0.592, P=0.892). Action observation therapy may become a useful intervention strategy to promote verb retrieval in aphasic patients. The observation of videoclips of actions may be an efficacious alternative approach to traditional rehabilitation programs for lexical deficits. This finding endorses the planning of innovative low-cost interventions in language rehabilitation.

  20. [Optimization and Prognosis of Cell Radiosensitivity Enhancement in vitro and in vivo after Sequential Thermoradiactive Action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkina, S V; Petin, V G

    2016-01-01

    Previously developed mathematical model of simultaneous action of two inactivating agents has been adapted and tested to describe the results of sequential action. The possibility of applying the mathematical model to the interpretation and prognosis of the increase in radio-sensitivity of tumor cells as well as mammalian cells after sequential action of two high temperatures or hyperthermia and ionizing radiation is analyzed. The model predicts the value of the thermal enhancement ratio depending on the duration of thermal exposure, its greatest value, and the condition under which it is achieved.

  1. Action Video Game Playing Is Reflected In Enhanced Visuomotor Performance and Increased Corticospinal Excitability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Morin-Moncet

    Full Text Available Action video game playing is associated with improved visuomotor performance; however, the underlying neural mechanisms associated with this increased performance are not well understood. Using the Serial Reaction Time Task in conjunction with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, we investigated if improved visuomotor performance displayed in action video game players (actionVGPs was associated with increased corticospinal plasticity in primary motor cortex (M1 compared to non-video game players (nonVGPs. Further, we assessed if actionVGPs and nonVGPs displayed differences in procedural motor learning as measured by the SRTT. We found that at the behavioral level, both the actionVGPs and nonVGPs showed evidence of procedural learning with no significant difference between groups. However, the actionVGPs displayed higher visuomotor performance as evidenced by faster reaction times in the SRTT. This observed enhancement in visuomotor performance amongst actionVGPs was associated with increased corticospinal plasticity in M1, as measured by corticospinal excitability changes pre- and post- SRTT and corticospinal excitability at rest before motor practice. Our results show that aVGPs, who are known to have better performance on visual and motor tasks, also display increased corticospinal excitability after completing a novel visuomotor task.

  2. Enhancing Intercultural Communication in Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language : An Action Research Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ip, Wei Hing

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing Intercultural Communication in Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language – An Action Research Study Over the past few decades, the rapid development of information communication technology, internationalization and globalization worldwide have required a shift in the focus of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) towards competence in intercultural communication in which the role of culture in the acquisition of CFL and in the pragmatic use of the language is emphasized and promoted. How...

  3. Noise Enhances Action Potential Generation in Mouse Sensory Neurons via Stochastic Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorato, Irene; D'Alessandro, Giuseppina; Di Castro, Maria Amalia; Renzi, Massimiliano; Dobrowolny, Gabriella; Musarò, Antonio; Salvetti, Marco; Limatola, Cristina; Crisanti, Andrea; Grassi, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Noise can enhance perception of tactile and proprioceptive stimuli by stochastic resonance processes. However, the mechanisms underlying this general phenomenon remain to be characterized. Here we studied how externally applied noise influences action potential firing in mouse primary sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia, modelling a basic process in sensory perception. Since noisy mechanical stimuli may cause stochastic fluctuations in receptor potential, we examined the effects of sub-threshold depolarizing current steps with superimposed random fluctuations. We performed whole cell patch clamp recordings in cultured neurons of mouse dorsal root ganglia. Noise was added either before and during the step, or during the depolarizing step only, to focus onto the specific effects of external noise on action potential generation. In both cases, step + noise stimuli triggered significantly more action potentials than steps alone. The normalized power norm had a clear peak at intermediate noise levels, demonstrating that the phenomenon is driven by stochastic resonance. Spikes evoked in step + noise trials occur earlier and show faster rise time as compared to the occasional ones elicited by steps alone. These data suggest that external noise enhances, via stochastic resonance, the recruitment of transient voltage-gated Na channels, responsible for action potential firing in response to rapid step-wise depolarizing currents.

  4. Dynamic noise from action errors enhances network reciprocity in the prisoner's dilemma game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Jun; Ogasawara, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the fact that people make mistakes in a transient, fluctuating or chaotic environment, we establish a spatial prisoner's dilemma model where an agent commits action errors proportionally varying with the increasing/decreasing rate of the global cooperation fraction. A series of numerical simulations reveal that the cooperation level is enhanced in games in which the stag hunt (SH)-type dilemma is dominant; however, it is slightly diminished in games in which the chicken-type dilemma is dominant, compared with the standard network reciprocity model. Intensive analysis reveals that the noise created by the action error contribute to the spatial expansion of a cooperators' cluster, because a dilemma that is less chicken-type and more SH-type makes it disadvantageous for defectors to neighbor cooperators. Our finding, that errors in behavior in a chaotic environment contribute to the evolution of cooperation, might aim to explain the problem of how network reciprocity works. (paper)

  5. Enhanced change detection performance reveals improved strategy use in avid action video game players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kait; Fleck, Mathias S; Mitroff, Stephen R

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has shown that avid action video game players (VGPs) outperform non-video game players (NVGPs) on a variety of attentional and perceptual tasks. However, it remains unknown exactly why and how such differences arise; while some prior research has demonstrated that VGPs' improvements stem from enhanced basic perceptual processes, other work indicates that they can stem from enhanced attentional control. The current experiment used a change-detection task to explore whether top-down strategies can contribute to VGPs' improved abilities. Participants viewed alternating presentations of an image and a modified version of the image and were tasked with detecting and localizing the changed element. Consistent with prior claims of enhanced perceptual abilities, VGPs were able to detect the changes while requiring less exposure to the change than NVGPs. Further analyses revealed this improved change detection performance may result from altered strategy use; VGPs employed broader search patterns when scanning scenes for potential changes. These results complement prior demonstrations of VGPs' enhanced bottom-up perceptual benefits by providing new evidence of VGPs' potentially enhanced top-down strategic benefits. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhanced activation of motor execution networks using action observation combined with imagination of lower limb movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villiger, Michael; Estévez, Natalia; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Kiper, Daniel; Kollias, Spyros S; Eng, Kynan; Hotz-Boendermaker, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    The combination of first-person observation and motor imagery, i.e. first-person observation of limbs with online motor imagination, is commonly used in interactive 3D computer gaming and in some movie scenes. These scenarios are designed to induce a cognitive process in which a subject imagines himself/herself acting as the agent in the displayed movement situation. Despite the ubiquity of this type of interaction and its therapeutic potential, its relationship to passive observation and imitation during observation has not been directly studied using an interactive paradigm. In the present study we show activation resulting from observation, coupled with online imagination and with online imitation of a goal-directed lower limb movement using functional MRI (fMRI) in a mixed block/event-related design. Healthy volunteers viewed a video (first-person perspective) of a foot kicking a ball. They were instructed to observe-only the action (O), observe and simultaneously imagine performing the action (O-MI), or imitate the action (O-IMIT). We found that when O-MI was compared to O, activation was enhanced in the ventralpremotor cortex bilaterally, left inferior parietal lobule and left insula. The O-MI and O-IMIT conditions shared many activation foci in motor relevant areas as confirmed by conjunction analysis. These results show that (i) combining observation with motor imagery (O-MI) enhances activation compared to observation-only (O) in the relevant foot motor network and in regions responsible for attention, for control of goal-directed movements and for the awareness of causing an action, and (ii) it is possible to extensively activate the motor execution network using O-MI, even in the absence of overt movement. Our results may have implications for the development of novel virtual reality interactions for neurorehabilitation interventions and other applications involving training of motor tasks.

  7. Transportation Security : federal action needed to enhance security efforts : statement of Peter Guerrero, Director, Physical Infrastructure Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-09

    Mr. Guerrero's testimony examines (1) challenges in securing the nation's transportation system; (2) actions transportation operators, as well as state and local governments, have taken since September 11 to enhance security; (3) the federal role in ...

  8. Geodiversity action plans for the enhancement of geoheritage in the Piemonte region (north-western Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ferrero

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A geoethical approach to geodiversity allows better understanding of the value of abiotic nature and enhances its conservation and development. Our basic assumption is that even during an economical crisis, geoheritage sites can serve both public and private interests. A set of nine strategic geothematic areas were chosen to represent the geodiversity of the Piemonte region, north-western Italy, each of which is characterized by great potential for scientific studies, enhancement of public understanding of science, recreational activities, and economic support to the local communities. Specialized research teams individuated critical aspects to advance our knowledge of the geological history of the Piemonte region, through climate and environmental changes, natural hazards, soil processes, and georesources. The scientific concepts and techniques were coupled with geodiffusion actions and products: not only geosites, but also museum collections, evidence of mining and quarrying activities, science exhibitions, and nature trails. The preliminary results have allowed action plans to be developed with local partners, to assess the geoheritage management requirements. A series of investigations were carried out to improve the visual representation of the geological processes and the evolutionary scenarios. Further outcomes of the project will include didactic tools for educators, schools, and the public in general.

  9. Cognitive enhancement through action video game training: great expectations require greater evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisoglio, Joseph; Michaels, Timothy I; Mervis, Joshua E; Ashinoff, Brandon K

    2014-01-01

    Action video game training may hold promise as a cognitive intervention with the potential to enhance daily functioning and remediate impairments, but this must be more thoroughly evaluated through evidence-based practices. We review current research on the effect of action video game training on visual attention and visuospatial processing, executive functions, and learning and memory. Focusing on studies that utilize strict experimental controls and synthesize behavioral and neurophysiological data, we examine whether there is sufficient evidence to support a causal relationship between action video game training and beneficial changes in cognition. Convergent lines of behavioral and neurophysiological evidence tentatively support the efficacy of training, but the magnitude and specificity of these effects remain obscure. Causal inference is thus far limited by a lack of standardized and well-controlled methodology. Considering future directions, we suggest stringent adherence to evidence-based practices and collaboration modeled after clinical trial networks. Finally, we recommend the exploration of more complex causal models, such as indirect causal relationships and interactions that may be masking true effects.

  10. Cognitive Enhancement Through Action Video Game Training: Great Expectations Require Greater Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph eBisoglio

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Action video game training may hold promise as a cognitive intervention with the potential to enhance daily functioning and remediate impairments, but this must be more thoroughly evaluated through evidence-based practices. We review current research on the effect of action video game training on visual attention and visuospatial processing, executive functions, and learning and memory. Focusing on studies that utilize strict experimental controls and synthesize behavioral and neurophysiological data, we examine whether there is sufficient evidence to support a causal relationship between action video game training and beneficial changes in cognition. Convergent lines of behavioral and neurophysiological evidence tentatively support the efficacy of training, but the magnitude and specificity of these effects remain obscure. Causal inference is thus far limited by a lack of standardized and well-controlled methodology. Considering future directions, we suggest stringent adherence to evidence based practices and collaboration modeled after clinical trial networks. Finally, we recommend the exploration of more complex causal models, such as indirect causal relationships and interactions that may be masking true effects.

  11. Enhanced visual short-term memory in action video game players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacker, Kara J; Curby, Kim M

    2013-08-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is critical for acquiring visual knowledge and shows marked individual variability. Previous work has illustrated a VSTM advantage among action video game players (Boot et al. Acta Psychologica 129:387-398, 2008). A growing body of literature has suggested that action video game playing can bolster visual cognitive abilities in a domain-general manner, including abilities related to visual attention and the speed of processing, providing some potential bases for this VSTM advantage. In the present study, we investigated the VSTM advantage among video game players and assessed whether enhanced processing speed can account for this advantage. Experiment 1, using simple colored stimuli, revealed that action video game players demonstrate a similar VSTM advantage over nongamers, regardless of whether they are given limited or ample time to encode items into memory. Experiment 2, using complex shapes as the stimuli to increase the processing demands of the task, replicated this VSTM advantage, irrespective of encoding duration. These findings are inconsistent with a speed-of-processing account of this advantage. An alternative, attentional account, grounded in the existing literature on the visuo-cognitive consequences of video game play, is discussed.

  12. Examination of mechanisms underlying enhanced memory performance in action video game players: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianchun; Cheng, Xiaojun; Li, Jiaying; Pan, Yafeng; Hu, Yi; Ku, Yixuan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown enhanced memory performance resulting from extensive action video game playing. The mechanisms underlying the cognitive benefit were investigated in the current study. We presented two types of retro-cues, with variable intervals to memory array (Task 1) or test array (Task 2), during the retention interval in a change detection task. In Task 1, action video game players demonstrated steady performance while non-action video game players showed decreased performance as cues occurred later, indicating their performance difference increased as the cue-to-memory-array intervals became longer. In Task 2, both participant groups increased their performance at similar rates as cues presented later, implying the performance difference in two groups were irrespective of the test-array-to-cue intervals. These findings suggested that memory benefit from game plays is not attributable to the higher ability of overcoming interference from the test array, but to the interactions between the two processes of protection from decay and resistance from interference, or from alternative hypotheses. Implications for future studies were discussed.

  13. Use of an extruder for pre-mixing enhances xylanase action on wheat bran at low water content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santala, Outi; Nordlund, Emilia; Poutanen, Kaisa

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the work was to test the hypothesis that at low water content enzyme action on biomass is enhanced when the raw material is in the form of a continuous mass instead of powder/granular form. Effects of two pre-mixing methods, blade-mixing and extrusion, on xylanase action were studied during stationary incubation of wheat bran of different particle sizes, also in comparison with incubation at high water content with continuous stirring. The use of an extruder enhanced arabinoxylan (AX) solubilisation at low water content (water stirring treatment, but based on molecular weight, xylanase action on solubilised AX was similar as in the extrusion-aided process. Pre-mixing by extrusion enabled efficient enzyme action at low water content without the requirement for continuous mixing, probably due to the enhanced diffusion by the formation of a continuous mass in the extruder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. MCH and apomorphine in combination enhance action potential firing of nucleus accumbens shell neurons in vitro

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    F Woodward Hopf

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The MCH and dopamine receptor systems have been shown to modulate a number of behaviors related to reward processing, addiction, and neuropsychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia and depression. In addition, MCH and dopamine receptors can interact in a positive manner, for example in the expression of cocaine self-administration. A recent report (Chung et al., 2011a showed that the DA1/DA2 dopamine receptor activator apomorphine suppresses pre-pulse inhibition, a preclinical model for some aspects of schizophrenia. Importantly, MCH can enhance the effects of lower doses of apomorphine, suggesting that co-modulation of dopamine and MCH receptors might alleviate some symptoms of schizophrenia with a lower dose of dopamine receptor modulator and thus fewer potential side effects. Here, we investigated whether MCH and apomorphine could enhance action potential firing in vitro in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAshell, a region which has previously been shown to mediate some behavioral effects of MCH. Using whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology, we found that MCH, which has no effect on firing on its own, was able to increase NAshell firing when combined with a subthreshold dose of apomorphine. Further, this MCH/apomorphine increase in firing was prevented by an antagonist of either a DA1 or a DA2 receptor, suggesting that apomorphine acts through both receptor types to enhance NAshell firing. The MCH/apomorphine-mediated firing increase was also prevented by an MCH receptor antagonist or a PKA inhibitor. Taken together, our results suggest that MCH can interact with lower doses of apomorphine to enhance NAshell firing, and thus that MCH and apomorphine might interact in vivo within the NAshell to suppress pre-pulse inhibition.

  15. Enhancing aesthetic appreciation by priming canvases with actions that match the artist’s painting style.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Francesco Ticini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The creation of an artwork requires motor activity. To what extent is art appreciation divorced from that activity and to what extent is it linked to it? That is the question which we set out to answer. We presented participants with pointillist-style paintings featuring discernible brushstrokes and asked them to rate their liking of each canvas when it was preceded by images priming a motor act either compatible or incompatible with the simulation of the artist’s movements. We show that action priming, when congruent with the artist’s painting style, enhanced aesthetic preference. These results support the hypothesis that involuntary covert painting simulation contributes to aesthetic appreciation during passive observation of artwork.

  16. Enhancing the language development of immigrant ESL nursing students: a case study with recommendations for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malu, K F; Figlear, M R

    1998-01-01

    Immigrant nursing students who use English as a Second Language (ESL) are becoming a significant population in nursing education classrooms today. Frequently, nurse educators feel at a loss as they struggle to help students achieve their educational goals. The authors offer an analysis of one of the problems nurse educators and immigrant ESL nursing students face: language development. A case study that has as its theme the problem of language development is presented. Relevant second language acquisition research findings are outlined and appropriate teaching practices are suggested. This research and these practices are used to identify actions that nurse educators and their students can take to enhance and improve the language development of immigrant ESL nursing students.

  17. Mechanisms of vanadium action: insulin-mimetic or insulin-enhancing agent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cam, M C; Brownsey, R W; McNeill, J H

    2000-10-01

    The demonstration that the trace element vanadium has insulin-like properties in isolated cells and tissues and in vivo has generated considerable enthusiasm for its potential therapeutic value in human diabetes. However, the mechanisms by which vanadium induces its metabolic effects in vivo remain poorly understood, and whether vanadium directly mimics or rather enhances insulin effects is considered in this review. It is clear that vanadium treatment results in the correction of several diabetes-related abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and in gene expression. However, many of these in vivo insulin-like effects can be ascribed to the reversal of defects that are secondary to hyperglycemia. The observations that the glucose-lowering effect of vanadium depends on the presence of endogenous insulin whereas metabolic homeostasis in control animals appears not to be affected, suggest that vanadium does not act completely independently in vivo, but augments tissue sensitivity to low levels of plasma insulin. Another crucial consideration is one of dose-dependency in that insulin-like effects of vanadium in isolated cells are often demonstrated at high concentrations that are not normally achieved by chronic treatment in vivo and may induce toxic side effects. In addition, vanadium appears to be selective for specific actions of insulin in some tissues while failing to influence others. As the intracellular active forms of vanadium are not precisely defined, the site(s) of action of vanadium in metabolic and signal transduction pathways is still unknown. In this review, we therefore examine the evidence for and against the concept that vanadium is truly an insulin-mimetic agent at low concentrations in vivo. In considering the effects of vanadium on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, we conclude that vanadium acts not globally, but selectively and by enhancing, rather than by mimicking the effects of insulin in vivo.

  18. Actions for Professional Development to Enhance Competence in Communicating Scientific Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexeis Ruíz-Díaz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research is to propose an action plan for professional development to enhance competence in communicating scientific results in teachers of municipal secondary schools. The research is part of a complementary methodological approach that combines different quantitative and qualitative methods based on specific objectives. The diagnosis was made at the Municipal University Center of Sagua La Grande, with a sample of 25 teachers who are members of the Industrial Engineering career staff at the institution, attached to the Central University “Marta Abreu” of Las Villas, Cuba. Regularities were found from the stage of the initial diagnosis of professional development needs and the level in which the “competence in communicating scientific results” variable was. With this information justifying the purposes of this research, a process was designed following a systemic approach, and the practical result was the proposal of the organization and design of an action plan for development through postgraduate education forms during the implementation phase.

  19. Enhanced Performance and Mode of Action of a Novel Antibiofilm Hydrofiber® Wound Dressing

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    David Parsons

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm development in wounds is now acknowledged to be a precursor to infection and a cause of delayed healing. A next-generation antibiofilm carboxymethylcellulose silver-containing wound dressing (NGAD has been developed to disrupt and kill biofilm microorganisms. This in vitro study aimed to compare its effectiveness against various existing wound dressings and examine its mode of action. A number of biofilm models of increasing complexity were used to culture biofilms of wound-relevant pathogens, before exposure to test dressings. Confocal microscopy, staining, and imaging of biofilm constituents, total viable counting, and elemental analysis were conducted to assess dressing antibiofilm performance. Live/dead staining and viable counting of biofilms demonstrated that the NGAD was more effective at killing biofilm bacteria than two other standard silver dressings. Staining of biofilm polysaccharides showed that the NGAD was also more effective at reducing this protective biofilm component than standard silver dressings, and image analyses confirmed the superior biofilm killing and removal performance of the NGAD. The biofilm-disruptive and silver-enhancing modes of action of the NGAD were supported by significant differences (p<0.05 in biofilm elemental markers and silver donation. This in vitro study improves our understanding of how antibiofilm dressing technology can be effective against the challenge of biofilm.

  20. Enhanced Performance and Mode of Action of a Novel Antibiofilm Hydrofiber® Wound Dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, David; Meredith, Kate; Rowlands, Victoria J; Short, Darryl; Metcalf, Daniel G; Bowler, Philip G

    2016-01-01

    Biofilm development in wounds is now acknowledged to be a precursor to infection and a cause of delayed healing. A next-generation antibiofilm carboxymethylcellulose silver-containing wound dressing (NGAD) has been developed to disrupt and kill biofilm microorganisms. This in vitro study aimed to compare its effectiveness against various existing wound dressings and examine its mode of action. A number of biofilm models of increasing complexity were used to culture biofilms of wound-relevant pathogens, before exposure to test dressings. Confocal microscopy, staining, and imaging of biofilm constituents, total viable counting, and elemental analysis were conducted to assess dressing antibiofilm performance. Live/dead staining and viable counting of biofilms demonstrated that the NGAD was more effective at killing biofilm bacteria than two other standard silver dressings. Staining of biofilm polysaccharides showed that the NGAD was also more effective at reducing this protective biofilm component than standard silver dressings, and image analyses confirmed the superior biofilm killing and removal performance of the NGAD. The biofilm-disruptive and silver-enhancing modes of action of the NGAD were supported by significant differences ( p silver donation. This in vitro study improves our understanding of how antibiofilm dressing technology can be effective against the challenge of biofilm.

  1. Enhancing the Empathic Connection: Using Action Methods to Understand Conflicts in End-of-Life Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tanzi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Empathy is a core feature of patient-centered care. It enables practitioners to better understand the patient and family concerns that are key to patient and family satisfaction, prevention of anxiety and depression, and provider empowerment. Current methods of teaching communication skills do not specifically focus on enhancing the ability to “stand in the patient's shoes” as a way of connecting with the patient and/or family experience and understanding feelings that may be a source of conflict with providers. In this paper, we present a model for deepening empathic understanding based upon action methods (role-reversal and doubling derived from psychodrama and sociodrama. We describe these techniques and illustrate how they can be used to identify hidden emotions and attitudes and reveal that which the patient and family member may be thinking or feeling but be afraid to say. Finally, we present data showing that these methods were valuable to participants in enhancing their professional experience and skills.

  2. Enhancement of soft X-ray lasing action with thin blade radiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckewer, Szymon; Skinner, Charles H.; Voorhees, David R.

    1988-01-01

    An enhancement of approximately 100 of stimulated emission over spontaneous emission of the CVI 182 Angstrom line was obtained in a recombining magnetically confined plasma column. The plasma was formed by focusing a CO.sub.2 laser beam on a carbon disc. A magnetic solenoid produced a strong magnetic field which confined the plasma to the shape of a column. A single thin carbon blade extended parallel to the plasma column and served to make the column axially more uniform and also acted as a heat sink. Axial and transverse measurements of the soft X-ray lasing action were made from locations off-set from the central axis of the plasma column. Multiple carbon blades located at equal intervals around the plasma column were also found to produce acceptable results. According to another embodiment 10 a thin coating of aluminum or magnesium was placed on the carbon disc and blade. The Z of the coating should preferably be at least 5 greater than the Z of the target. Measurements of the soft X-rays generated at 182 Angstroms showed a significant increase in intensity enhancement.

  3. Surface mediated cooperative interactions of drugs enhance mechanical forces for antibiotic action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndieyira, Joseph W.; Bailey, Joe; Patil, Samadhan B.; Vögtli, Manuel; Cooper, Matthew A.; Abell, Chris; McKendry, Rachel A.; Aeppli, Gabriel

    2017-02-01

    The alarming increase of pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to multiple antibiotics is now recognized as a major health issue fuelling demand for new drugs. Bacterial resistance is often caused by molecular changes at the bacterial surface, which alter the nature of specific drug-target interactions. Here, we identify a novel mechanism by which drug-target interactions in resistant bacteria can be enhanced. We examined the surface forces generated by four antibiotics; vancomycin, ristomycin, chloroeremomycin and oritavancin against drug-susceptible and drug-resistant targets on a cantilever and demonstrated significant differences in mechanical response when drug-resistant targets are challenged with different antibiotics although no significant differences were observed when using susceptible targets. Remarkably, the binding affinity for oritavancin against drug-resistant targets (70 nM) was found to be 11,000 times stronger than for vancomycin (800 μM), a powerful antibiotic used as the last resort treatment for streptococcal and staphylococcal bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Using an exactly solvable model, which takes into account the solvent and membrane effects, we demonstrate that drug-target interactions are strengthened by pronounced polyvalent interactions catalyzed by the surface itself. These findings further enhance our understanding of antibiotic mode of action and will enable development of more effective therapies.

  4. Enhancing practice teachers' knowledge and skills using collaborative action learning sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydock, Deborah; Evers, Jean

    2014-06-01

    This research project was designed to enhance the critical thinking and problem-solving skills of practice teachers (PTs) and promote role modelling to specialist community public health nursing (SCPHN) students. This paper explores the impact of action learning sets (ALS) on the trainee PT role and associated students and stakeholders. Pre- and post-intervention surveys were completed by eight trainee PTs and three focus groups were held consisting of trainee PTs, practice education facilitators and students. Three focus groups for the trainee PTs, practice education facilitators and allocated students were held. Findings are presented in relation to three themes: knowledge, skills and role modelling in practice; dedicated practice teacher development; and ALS in practice. Data analysis demonstrated that the PTs valued the dedicated module and ALS enhanced their knowledge and skills. These skills were role modelled to students to guide reflection and knowledge acquisition. All participants intended to develop ALS as part of continued professional development. The paper concludes with recommendations to improve the educational development of both trainee and experienced PTs through the integration of ALS as part of PT development.

  5. Developing patient education to enhance recovery after colorectal surgery through action research: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Fiona; Spalding, Nicola; Gregory, Sheila; McCulloch, Jane; Sargen, Kevin; Vicary, Penny

    2017-06-30

    To understand the role of preoperative education for patients undergoing colorectal surgery by involving patients, carers and staff in: (1) identifying its perceived value and deficits for enhanced recovery; (2) modifying current education practices to address educational deficits; and (3) evaluating these changes for preparing patients to enhance their recovery. Qualitative study of three cycles of action research using mixed methods within a 24-month naturalistic enquiry to identify, implement and evaluate changes through observations, questionnaires, semistructured longitudinal interviews, focus groups and documentation review. A UK 1200-bed National Health Service (NHS) hospital providing colorectal surgery in a small city in a rural county. Ninety-sevenpatients having colorectal surgery, 19 carers and 22 clinical staff. Themes identified were: (1) knowledge and engagement; (2) situated understanding and confidence building; and (3) partnership and proactive involvement in enhancing recovery. All patients articulated needs to prepare mentally and physically to plan for colorectal surgery and rehabilitation. Patients and carers wanted to counter uncertainty about medical procedures: likely bodily changes, recovery timescales and future. They therefore sought as much personalised, relevant information as possible about their disease, planned surgery and recovery. Staff implemented preoperative education to more specifically inform and respond multimodally to individual needs. Patients wanted to be proactively involved in managing their recovery to re-engage with their everyday lives. Preoperative education supported this through developing patients' situated understanding of hospital and bodily processes related to colorectal surgery. Situated understanding was achieved through educational product to give knowledge and processes promoting engagement. Multimodal, comprehensive and timely preoperative education on the whole patient pathway facilitates active

  6. Combining xenoestrogens at levels below individual no-observed-effect concentrations dramatically enhances steroid hormone action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Nissanka; Silva, Elisabete; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2002-09-01

    The low potency of many man-made estrogenic chemicals, so-called xenoestrogens, has been used to suggest that risks arising from exposure to individual chemicals are negligible. Another argument used to dismiss concerns of health effects is that endogenous steroidal estrogens are too potent for xenoestrogens to contribute significantly to estrogenic effects. Using a yeast reporter gene assay with the human estrogen receptoralpha, we tested these ideas experimentally by assessing the ability of a combination of 11 xenoestrogens to affect the actions of 17ss-estradiol. Significantly, each xenoestrogen was present at a level well below its no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC). To derive accurate descriptions of low effects, we recorded concentration-response relationships for each xenoestrogen and for 17ss-estradiol. We used these data to predict entire concentration-response curves of mixtures of xenoestrogens with 17ss-estradiol, assuming additive combination effects. Over a large range of concentrations, the experimentally observed responses decisively confirmed the model predictions. The combined additive effect of the 11 xenoestrogens led to a dramatic enhancement of the hormone's action, even when each single agent was present below its NOEC. Our results show that not even sub-NOEC levels of xenoestrogens can be considered to be without effect on potent steroidal estrogens when they act in concert with a large number of similarly acting chemicals. It remains to be seen to what degree these effects can be neutralized by environmental chemicals with antiestrogenic activity. Nevertheless, potential human and wildlife responses induced by additive combination effects of xenoestrogens deserve serious consideration.

  7. Mussel-inspired superhydrophobic surfaces with enhanced corrosion resistance and dual-action antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hongchang; Li, Minglu; Li, Zhong; Lou, Yuntian; Huang, Luyao; Zhang, Dawei; Xu, Dake; Du, Cuiwei; Lu, Lin; Gao, Jin

    2017-11-01

    In this study, a multilayer antibacterial film was assembled onto 316L stainless steel via mussel-inspired depositions of polydopamine (PDA) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles followed by post-modification with 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecanethiol. The resulting surface exhibited excellent superhydrophobicity with hierarchical micro/nanostructures that were constructed by both PDA and Ag nanoparticles. The crystal structure and chemical composition of these surfaces were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements revealed that the corrosion resistance of the as-prepared surfaces were sequentially increased after each step of the fabrication process. Compared with the surface covered with only Ag nanoparticles, the superhydrophobic surfaces exhibited substantially enhanced antibacterial activity against the Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, resulting from the synergistic antibacterial actions of the superhydrophobic surface and Ag nanoparticles. The superhydrophobic surface exhibited lower cytotoxicity, compared to the surface covered with Ag nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhancing elementary-school mathematics teachers' efficacy beliefs: a qualitative action research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Sara; Stupel, Moshe

    2016-04-01

    Individuals and societies that can use mathematics effectively in this period of rapid changes will have a voice on increasing the opportunities and potentials which can shape their future. This has brought affective characteristics, such as self-efficacy, that affect mathematics achievement into focus of the research. Teacher efficacy refers to the extent to which a teacher feels capable to help students learn, influence students' performance and commitment, and thus plays a crucial role in developing the student in all aspects. In this study, we used two sources of efficacy beliefs, mastery experiences and physiological and emotional states, in an interesting and challenging seven month workshop, as tools to foster teacher efficacy for six elementary-school teachers who were frustrated and wanted to leave their job. Our aim was to study the nature of these teachers' efficacy in order to change it. In this qualitative action research, we used open interviews, non-participant observations and field notes. Results show that these teachers became efficacious, their students' achievements and motivation were enhanced, and the school climate was changed. Qualitative inquiry of this construct sheds light on efficacy beliefs of mathematics teachers. Nurturing teacher efficacy has borne much fruit in the field of mathematics in school.

  9. Computer Simulations Support a Morphological Contribution to BDNF Enhancement of Action Potential Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico F Galati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF regulates both action potential (AP generation and neuron morphology. However, whether BDNF-induced changes in neuron morphology directly impact AP generation is unclear. We quantified BDNF’s effect on cultured cortical neuron morphological parameters and found that BDNF stimulates dendrite growth and addition of dendrites while increasing both excitatory and inhibitory presynaptic inputs in a spatially restricted manner. To gain insight into how these combined changes in neuron structure and synaptic input impact AP generation, we used the morphological parameters we gathered to generate computational models. Simulations suggest that BDNF-induced neuron morphologies generate more APs under a wide variety of conditions. Synapse and dendrite addition have the greatest impact on AP generation. However, subtle alterations in excitatory/inhibitory synapse ratio and strength have a significant impact on AP generation when synaptic activity is low. Consistent with these simulations, BDNF rapidly enhances spontaneous activity in cortical cultures. We propose that BDNF promotes neuron morphologies that are intrinsically more efficient at translating barrages of synaptic activity into APs, which is a previously unexplored aspect of BDNF’s function.

  10. Enhancing Care for Older People Living in Nursing Homes in Rural Australia Using Action Learning as a Catalyst for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Wendy; Meyer, Julienne; Cash, Penny; Clinnick, Lisa; Martin, Louise

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of action learning workshops in three nursing homes in rural Victoria, Australia has been critical in the re-visioning of how care can be enhanced for residents. The workshops were designed with the intent of improving quality of care for residents by providing health care staff with opportunities to learn together and effect…

  11. Learning of Precise Spike Times with Homeostatic Membrane Potential Dependent Synaptic Plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Albers

    Full Text Available Precise spatio-temporal patterns of neuronal action potentials underly e.g. sensory representations and control of muscle activities. However, it is not known how the synaptic efficacies in the neuronal networks of the brain adapt such that they can reliably generate spikes at specific points in time. Existing activity-dependent plasticity rules like Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity are agnostic to the goal of learning spike times. On the other hand, the existing formal and supervised learning algorithms perform a temporally precise comparison of projected activity with the target, but there is no known biologically plausible implementation of this comparison. Here, we propose a simple and local unsupervised synaptic plasticity mechanism that is derived from the requirement of a balanced membrane potential. Since the relevant signal for synaptic change is the postsynaptic voltage rather than spike times, we call the plasticity rule Membrane Potential Dependent Plasticity (MPDP. Combining our plasticity mechanism with spike after-hyperpolarization causes a sensitivity of synaptic change to pre- and postsynaptic spike times which can reproduce Hebbian spike timing dependent plasticity for inhibitory synapses as was found in experiments. In addition, the sensitivity of MPDP to the time course of the voltage when generating a spike allows MPDP to distinguish between weak (spurious and strong (teacher spikes, which therefore provides a neuronal basis for the comparison of actual and target activity. For spatio-temporal input spike patterns our conceptually simple plasticity rule achieves a surprisingly high storage capacity for spike associations. The sensitivity of the MPDP to the subthreshold membrane potential during training allows robust memory retrieval after learning even in the presence of activity corrupted by noise. We propose that MPDP represents a biophysically plausible mechanism to learn temporal target activity patterns.

  12. Learning of Precise Spike Times with Homeostatic Membrane Potential Dependent Synaptic Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Christian; Westkott, Maren; Pawelzik, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Precise spatio-temporal patterns of neuronal action potentials underly e.g. sensory representations and control of muscle activities. However, it is not known how the synaptic efficacies in the neuronal networks of the brain adapt such that they can reliably generate spikes at specific points in time. Existing activity-dependent plasticity rules like Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity are agnostic to the goal of learning spike times. On the other hand, the existing formal and supervised learning algorithms perform a temporally precise comparison of projected activity with the target, but there is no known biologically plausible implementation of this comparison. Here, we propose a simple and local unsupervised synaptic plasticity mechanism that is derived from the requirement of a balanced membrane potential. Since the relevant signal for synaptic change is the postsynaptic voltage rather than spike times, we call the plasticity rule Membrane Potential Dependent Plasticity (MPDP). Combining our plasticity mechanism with spike after-hyperpolarization causes a sensitivity of synaptic change to pre- and postsynaptic spike times which can reproduce Hebbian spike timing dependent plasticity for inhibitory synapses as was found in experiments. In addition, the sensitivity of MPDP to the time course of the voltage when generating a spike allows MPDP to distinguish between weak (spurious) and strong (teacher) spikes, which therefore provides a neuronal basis for the comparison of actual and target activity. For spatio-temporal input spike patterns our conceptually simple plasticity rule achieves a surprisingly high storage capacity for spike associations. The sensitivity of the MPDP to the subthreshold membrane potential during training allows robust memory retrieval after learning even in the presence of activity corrupted by noise. We propose that MPDP represents a biophysically plausible mechanism to learn temporal target activity patterns.

  13. Learning of Precise Spike Times with Homeostatic Membrane Potential Dependent Synaptic Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Christian; Westkott, Maren; Pawelzik, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Precise spatio-temporal patterns of neuronal action potentials underly e.g. sensory representations and control of muscle activities. However, it is not known how the synaptic efficacies in the neuronal networks of the brain adapt such that they can reliably generate spikes at specific points in time. Existing activity-dependent plasticity rules like Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity are agnostic to the goal of learning spike times. On the other hand, the existing formal and supervised learning algorithms perform a temporally precise comparison of projected activity with the target, but there is no known biologically plausible implementation of this comparison. Here, we propose a simple and local unsupervised synaptic plasticity mechanism that is derived from the requirement of a balanced membrane potential. Since the relevant signal for synaptic change is the postsynaptic voltage rather than spike times, we call the plasticity rule Membrane Potential Dependent Plasticity (MPDP). Combining our plasticity mechanism with spike after-hyperpolarization causes a sensitivity of synaptic change to pre- and postsynaptic spike times which can reproduce Hebbian spike timing dependent plasticity for inhibitory synapses as was found in experiments. In addition, the sensitivity of MPDP to the time course of the voltage when generating a spike allows MPDP to distinguish between weak (spurious) and strong (teacher) spikes, which therefore provides a neuronal basis for the comparison of actual and target activity. For spatio-temporal input spike patterns our conceptually simple plasticity rule achieves a surprisingly high storage capacity for spike associations. The sensitivity of the MPDP to the subthreshold membrane potential during training allows robust memory retrieval after learning even in the presence of activity corrupted by noise. We propose that MPDP represents a biophysically plausible mechanism to learn temporal target activity patterns. PMID:26900845

  14. Action Video Game Playing Is Reflected In Enhanced Visuomotor Performance and Increased Corticospinal Excitability

    OpenAIRE

    Morin-Moncet, Olivier; Therrien-Blanchet, Jean-Marc; Ferland, Marie C.; Th?oret, Hugo; West, Greg L.

    2016-01-01

    Action video game playing is associated with improved visuomotor performance; however, the underlying neural mechanisms associated with this increased performance are not well understood. Using the Serial Reaction Time Task in conjunction with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, we investigated if improved visuomotor performance displayed in action video game players (actionVGPs) was associated with increased corticospinal plasticity in primary motor cortex (M1) compared to non-video game play...

  15. Exploiting Three-Dimensional Gaze Tracking for Action Recognition During Bimanual Manipulation to Enhance Human–Robot Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Haji Fathaliyan

    2018-04-01

    the gaze object sequence is a promising feature for action recognition whose impact could be enhanced through the use of sophisticated machine learning classifiers and algorithmic improvements for real-time implementation. Robots capable of robust, real-time recognition of human actions during manipulation tasks could be used to improve quality of life in the home and quality of work in industrial environments.

  16. Gaming to see: action video gaming is associated with enhanced processing of masked stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Carsten; Kunde, Wilfried; Ganz, Thomas; Conzelmann, Annette; Pauli, Paul; Kiesel, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Recent research revealed that action video game players outperform non-players in a wide range of attentional, perceptual and cognitive tasks. Here we tested if expertise in action video games is related to differences regarding the potential of shortly presented stimuli to bias behavior. In a response priming paradigm, participants classified four animal pictures functioning as targets as being smaller or larger than a reference frame. Before each target, one of the same four animal pictures was presented as a masked prime to influence participants' responses in a congruent or incongruent way. Masked primes induced congruence effects, that is, faster responses for congruent compared to incongruent conditions, indicating processing of hardly visible primes. Results also suggested that action video game players showed a larger congruence effect than non-players for 20 ms primes, whereas there was no group difference for 60 ms primes. In addition, there was a tendency for action video game players to detect masked primes for some prime durations better than non-players. Thus, action video game expertise may be accompanied by faster and more efficient processing of shortly presented visual stimuli.

  17. Gaming to see: Action Video Gaming is associated with enhanced processing of masked stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten ePohl

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent research revealed that action video game players outperform non-players in a wide range of attentional, perceptual and cognitive tasks. Here we tested if expertise in action video games is related to differences regarding the potential of shortly presented stimuli to bias behaviour. In a response priming paradigm, participants classified four animal pictures functioning as targets as being smaller or larger than a reference frame. Before each target, one of the same four animal pictures was presented as a masked prime to influence participants’ responses in a congruent or incongruent way. Masked primes induced congruence effects, that is, faster responses for congruent compared to incongruent conditions, indicating processing of hardly visible primes. Results also suggested that action video game players showed a larger congruence effect than non-players for 20 ms primes, whereas there was no group difference for 60 ms primes. In addition, there was a tendency for action video game players to detect masked primes for some prime durations better than non-players. Thus, action video game expertise may be accompanied by faster and more efficient processing of shortly presented visual stimuli.

  18. Enhanced sensitivity to the lethal and mutagenic effects of photosensitizing action of chlorpromazine in ethylenediaminetetraacetate-treated Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonei, S.; Todo, T.

    1982-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) treatment of Escherichia coli H/r30 (Arg - ) enhanced cell sensitivity to the lethal and mutagenic effects of the photosensitizing action of chlorpromazine (CPZ). The most obvious effect of EDTA on the fluence-survival curve was an elimination of the shoulder. In the absence of EDTA, CPZ plus near-UV radiation did not induce the reversion from arginine-auxotroph to autotroph of E. coli H/r30. However, when EDTA (5 mM)-treated cells were subjected to CPZ plus near-UV radiation, the induced reversion frequency increased with time of irradiation. It is concluded that the enhanced penetration of CPZ into E. coli cells by EDTA facilitates the drug binding to DNA within the cells upon near-UV irradiation and that this is the cause for the enhanced photosensitized lethal and mutagenic effects of CPZ. (author)

  19. Enhancing the quality of nursing care in methadone substitute clinics using action research: a process evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loth, Christien; Schippers, Gerard M.; Hart, Harm't; van de Wijngaart, Goof

    2007-01-01

    AIM: This paper is a report of a study to answer the research question: can participative action research help to halt the deterioration in methadone substitution treatment and develop new care strategies which are better geared toward the patients' needs? BACKGROUND: In the Netherlands, methadone

  20. An action research proposal to enhance the ideation practices among shopfloor level employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paalanen, Anne; Bergenholtz, Carsten

    proposes an inter-unit solution to activate the shopfloor level employees to give innovation ideas and to share the ideas between different units. The methodology used in this paper is action research. The results suggest that the bottom-up approach to create new active roles to harvest innovation ideas...

  1. Using Action Research to Enhance Learning on End-Use Energy Demand: Lessons from Reflective Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Saska; Torres Garcia, Miguel; Bouzarovski, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    This paper responds to the need for a greater integration of energy and environment themes in the higher education curriculum. We explore the practical implications of empowering students towards the implementation of individual action research projects focused on investigating and addressing insufficient or wasteful energy consumption among…

  2. Mental simulation of drawing actions enhances delayed recall of a complex figure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucia, Natascia; Trojano, Luigi; Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; Conson, Massimiliano

    2016-10-01

    Motor simulation implies that the same motor representations involved in action execution are re-enacted during observation or imagery of actions. Neurofunctional data suggested that observation of letters or abstract paintings can elicit simulation of writing or drawing gestures. We performed four behavioural experiments on right-handed healthy participants to test whether observation of a static and complex geometrical figure implies re-enactment of drawing actions. In Experiment 1, participants had to observe the stimulus without explicit instruction (observation-only condition), while performing irrelevant finger tapping (motor dual task), or while articulating irrelevant verbal material (verbal dual task). Delayed drawing of the stimulus was less accurate in the motor dual-task (interfering with simulation of hand actions) than in verbal dual-task and observation-only conditions. In Experiment 2, delayed drawing in the observation only was as accurate as when participants encoded the stimulus by copying it; in both conditions, accuracy was higher than when participants were instructed to observe the stimulus to recall it later verbally (observe to recall), thus being discouraged from engaging motor simulation. In Experiment 3, delayed drawing was as accurate in the observation-only condition as when participants imagined copying the stimulus; accuracy in both conditions was higher than in the observe-to-recall condition. In Experiment 4, in the observe-only condition participants who observed the stimulus with their right arm hidden behind their back were significantly less accurate than participants who had their left arm hidden. These findings converge in suggesting that mere observation of a geometrical stimulus can activate motor simulation and re-enactment of drawing actions.

  3. Enhancing Web-based mindfulness training for mental health promotion with the health action process approach: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Winnie W S; Chan, Amy T Y; Cheung, Eliza Y L; Lin, Cherry L Y; Ngai, Karin C S

    2015-01-19

    With increasing evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of Web-based interventions and mindfulness-based training in improving health, delivering mindfulness training online is an attractive proposition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two Internet-based interventions (basic mindfulness and Health Action Process Approach enhanced mindfulness) with waitlist control. Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) principles were used to enhance participants' efficacy and planning. Participants were recruited online and offline among local universities; 321 university students and staff were randomly assigned to three conditions. The basic and HAPA-enhanced groups completed the 8-week fully automated mindfulness training online. All participants (including control) were asked to complete an online questionnaire pre-program, post-program, and at 3-month follow-up. Significant group by time interaction effect was found. The HAPA-enhanced group showed significantly higher levels of mindfulness from pre-intervention to post-intervention, and such improvement was sustained at follow-up. Both the basic and HAPA-enhanced mindfulness groups showed better mental well-being from pre-intervention to post-intervention, and improvement was sustained at 3-month follow-up. Online mindfulness training can improve mental health. An online platform is a viable medium to implement and disseminate evidence-based interventions and is a highly scalable approach to reach the general public. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR): ChiCTR-TRC-12002954; http://www.chictr.org/en/proj/show.aspx?proj=3904 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6VCdG09pA).

  4. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of parietal cortex enhances action naming in Corticobasal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa eManenti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Corticobasal Syndrome (CBS is a neurodegenerative disorder that overlaps both clinically and neuropathologically with Frontotemporal dementia and is characterized by apraxia, alien limb phenomena, cortical sensory loss, cognitive impairment, behavioural changes and aphasia. It has been recently demonstrated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS improves naming in healthy subjects and in subjects with language deficits.Objective: The aim of the present study was to explore the extent to which anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (anodal tDCS over the parietal cortex (PARC could facilitate naming performance in CBS subjects. Methods: Anodal tDCS was applied to the left and right PARC during object and action naming in seventeen patients with a diagnosis of possible CBS. Participants underwent two sessions of anodal tDCS (left and right and one session of placebo tDCS. Vocal responses were recorded and analyzed for accuracy and vocal Reaction Times (vRTs. Results: A shortening of naming latency for actions was observed only after active anodal stimulation over the left PARC, as compared to placebo and right stimulations. No effects have been reported for accuracy.Conclusions: Our preliminary finding demonstrated that tDCS decreased vocal reaction time during action naming in a sample of patients with CBS. A possible explanation of our results is that anodal tDCS over the left PARC effects the brain network implicated in action observation and representation. Further studies, based on larger patient samples, should be conducted to investigate the usefulness of tDCS as an additional treatment of linguistic deficits in CBS patients.

  5. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Knowledge Enhancement Events: Waste Management Workshop After Action Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    REPORT DATE 16 MAR 2012 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 16 Mar 2012 - 30 Apr 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Wide Area Recovery and...Resiliency Program (WARRP) Waste Management Workshop After Action Report 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...the current situation. A new study from 2009 deems composting an option and this will be added to the tables. A suggestion was to add a vaccine

  6. Enhanced bactericidal action of acidified sodium chlorite caused by the saturation of reactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, N H; Park, T H; Rhee, M S

    2014-06-01

    Factors affecting the antibacterial action of acidified sodium chlorite (ASC), a widely used disinfectant, have not been determined. This study investigated the significant factors suggesting efficient production method to maximize bactericidal action of ASC. The effects of (i) preparation procedures (total three methods); (ii) initial concentrations of reactants: sodium chlorite (SC) and citric acid (CTA) (up to maximum solubility of each reactant) and (iii) final pH values (3·0 and 2·5) to the bactericidal action of ASC were investigated with a fixed final concentration of SC (10 ppm) using various foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus). The antimicrobial compounds produced and the bactericidal effects depended on the preparation procedure and the initial concentrations of the reactants. The ASC prepared by premixing highly concentrated reactants (in particular > 40%) followed by dilution (dilution after reaction, DAR) was more effective in inactivating foodborne pathogens, and it produced higher antimicrobial compound (Cl(2) and ClO(2)) yields than the other procedures. A 5-min treatment with ASC, produced using the other procedures, resulted in a reduction of bactericidal effects of the ASC solutions. This study will contribute to increase the efficiency of ASC treatments for disinfections reducing the effective SC concentrations for industrial use. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Knowing when not to swing: EEG evidence that enhanced perception-action coupling underlies baseball batter expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraskin, Jordan; Sherwin, Jason; Sajda, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Given a decision that requires less than half a second for evaluating the characteristics of the incoming pitch and generating a motor response, hitting a baseball potentially requires unique perception-action coupling to achieve high performance. We designed a rapid perceptual decision-making experiment modeled as a Go/No-Go task yet tailored to reflect a real scenario confronted by a baseball hitter. For groups of experts (Division I baseball players) and novices (non-players), we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) while they performed the task. We analyzed evoked EEG single-trial variability, contingent negative variation (CNV), and pre-stimulus alpha power with respect to the expert vs. novice groups. We found strong evidence for differences in inhibitory processes between the two groups, specifically differential activity in supplementary motor areas (SMA), indicative of enhanced inhibitory control in the expert (baseball player) group. We also found selective activity in the fusiform gyrus (FG) and orbital gyrus in the expert group, suggesting an enhanced perception-action coupling in baseball players that differentiates them from matched controls. In sum, our results show that EEG correlates of decision formation can be used to identify neural markers of high-performance athletes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Methylphenidate enhances NMDA-receptor response in medial prefrontal cortex via sigma-1 receptor: a novel mechanism for methylphenidate action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available Methylphenidate (MPH, commercially called Ritalin or Concerta, has been widely used as a drug for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. Noteworthily, growing numbers of young people using prescribed MPH improperly for pleasurable enhancement, take high risk of addiction. Thus, understanding the mechanism underlying high level of MPH action in the brain becomes an important goal nowadays. As a blocker of catecholamine transporters, its therapeutic effect is explained as being due to proper modulation of D1 and α2A receptor. Here we showed that higher dose of MPH facilitates NMDA-receptor mediated synaptic transmission via a catecholamine-independent mechanism, in layer V∼VI pyramidal cells of the rat medial prefrontal cortex (PFC. To indicate its postsynaptic action, we next found that MPH facilitates NMDA-induced current and such facilitation could be blocked by σ1 but not D1/5 and α2 receptor antagonists. And this MPH eliciting enhancement of NMDA-receptor activity involves PLC, PKC and IP3 receptor mediated intracellular Ca(2+ increase, but does not require PKA and extracellular Ca(2+ influx. Our additional pharmacological studies confirmed that higher dose of MPH increases locomotor activity via interacting with σ1 receptor. Together, the present study demonstrates for the first time that MPH facilitates NMDA-receptor mediated synaptic transmission via σ1 receptor, and such facilitation requires PLC/IP3/PKC signaling pathway. This novel mechanism possibly explains the underlying mechanism for MPH induced addictive potential and other psychiatric side effects.

  9. A change in strategy for a CERCLA Removal Action Demolition Project in progress results in overall project enhancements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertin, M.; Nichols, R.M.; Edwards, D.T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses changes made in a demolition project at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), a site on the National Priorities list (NPL), owned by the Department of Energy. The project, to demolish fourteen uranium ore silos and their structure, was based on a Removal Action Work Plan, submitted and approved by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), that integrated Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements to remove the source of contamination and threat to public health and the environment. After the demolition contractor defaulted at 30% complete, completion of the project by the USEPA deadline was threatened. The recovery plan included re-evaluation of project documents in addition to the schedule. It was determined that re-interpretation of the removal action criteria, including design and Removal Action Work Plan, would eliminate road-blocks, and optimize resources, resulting in project completion by the original deadline even after lost-time in mobilizing another contractor. This presentation will discuss the open-quotes lessons learnedclose quotes by the project team and illustrate how simplification of construction methods resulted in enhancements to the environmental controls, improved material handing, and created a safer work environment

  10. Preliminary results of BRAVO project: brain computer interfaces for Robotic enhanced Action in Visuo-motOr tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamasco, Massimo; Frisoli, Antonio; Fontana, Marco; Loconsole, Claudio; Leonardis, Daniele; Troncossi, Marco; Foumashi, Mohammad Mozaffari; Parenti-Castelli, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of the project BRAVO (Brain computer interfaces for Robotic enhanced Action in Visuo-motOr tasks). The objective of this project is to define a new approach to the development of assistive and rehabilitative robots for motor impaired users to perform complex visuomotor tasks that require a sequence of reaches, grasps and manipulations of objects. BRAVO aims at developing new robotic interfaces and HW/SW architectures for rehabilitation and regain/restoration of motor function in patients with upper limb sensorimotor impairment through extensive rehabilitation therapy and active assistance in the execution of Activities of Daily Living. The final system developed within this project will include a robotic arm exoskeleton and a hand orthosis that will be integrated together for providing force assistance. The main novelty that BRAVO introduces is the control of the robotic assistive device through the active prediction of intention/action. The system will actually integrate the information about the movement carried out by the user with a prediction of the performed action through an interpretation of current gaze of the user (measured through eye-tracking), brain activation (measured through BCI) and force sensor measurements. © 2011 IEEE

  11. Immunomodulating actions of carotenoids: enhancement of in vivo and in vitro antibody production to T-dependent antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyonouchi, H; Zhang, L; Gross, M; Tomita, Y

    1994-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated an enhancement of in vitro antibody (Ab) production in response to T-dependent antigens (TD-Ag) by astaxanthin, a carotenoid without vitamin A activity. The effects of beta-carotene, a carotenoid with vitamin A activity, and lutein, another carotenoid without vitamin A activity, on in vitro Ab production were examined with spleen cells from young and old B6 mice. In addition, the in vivo effects of lutein, astaxanthin, and beta-carotene on Ab production were studied in young and old B6 mice. Lutein, but not beta-carotene, enhanced in vitro Ab production in response to TD-Ags. The depletion of T-helper cells prevented the enhancement of Ab production by lutein and astaxanthin. In vivo Ab production in response to TD-Ag was significantly enhanced by lutein, astaxanthin, and beta-carotene. The numbers of immunoglobulin M- and G-secreting cells also increased in vivo with the administration of these carotenoids when mice were primed with TD-Ags. Antibody production in response to TD-Ags in vivo and in vitro was significantly lower in old than in young B6 mice. Astaxanthin supplements partially restored decreased in vivo Ab production in response to TD-Ags in old B6 mice. Lutein and beta-carotene also enhanced in vivo Ab production in response to TD-Ags in old B6 mice, although to a lesser extent than did astaxanthin. However, none of the carotenoids had an effect on in vivo or in vitro Ab production in response to T-independent antigen. These results indicate significant immunomodulating actions of carotenoids for humoral immune responses to TD-Ags and suggest that carotenoid supplementation may be beneficial in restoring humoral immune responses in older animals.

  12. Autoantibodies Enhance Agonist Action and Binding to Cardiac Muscarinic Receptors in Chronic Chagas’ Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Ciria C.; Nascimento, José H.; Chaves, Elen A.; Costa, Patrícia C.; Masuda, Masako O.; Kurtenbach, Eleonora; Campos de Carvalho, Antônio C.; Giménez, Luis E.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic Chagasic patient immunoglobulins (CChP-IgGs) recognize an acidic amino acid cluster at the second extracellular loop (el2) of cardiac M2-muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (M2AChRs). These residues correspond to a common binding site for various allosteric agents. We characterized the nature of the M2AChR/CChP-IgG interaction in functional and radioligand binding experiments applying the same mainstream strategies previously used for the characterization of other allosteric agents. Dose-response curves of acetylcholine effect on heart rate were constructed with data from isolated heart experiments in the presence of CChP or normal blood donor (NBD) sera. In these experiments, CChP sera but not NBD sera increased the efficacy of agonist action by augmenting the onset of bradyarrhythmias and inducing a Hill slope of 2.5. This effect was blocked by gallamine, an M2AChR allosteric antagonist. Correspondingly, CChP-IgGs increased acetylcholine affinity twofold and showed negative cooperativity for [3H]-N-methyl scopolamine ([3H]-NMS) in allosterism binding assays. A peptide corresponding to the M2AChR-el2 blocked this effect. Furthermore, dissociation assays showed that the effect of gallamine on the [3H]-NMS off-rate was reverted by CChP-IgGs. Finally, concentration-effect curves for the allosteric delay of W84 on [3H]-NMS dissociation right shifted from an IC50 of 33 nmol/L to 78 nmol/L, 992 nmol/L, and 1670 nmol/L in the presence of 6.7 × 10−8, 1.33 × 10−7, and 2.0 × 10−7 mol/L of anti-el2 affinity-purified CChP-IgGs. Taken together, these findings confirmed a competitive interplay of these ligands at the common allosteric site and revealed the novel allosteric nature of the interaction of CChP-IgGs at the M2AChRs as a positive cooperativity effect on acetylcholine action. PMID:18702010

  13. Enhancing reading performance through action video games: the role of visual attention span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antzaka, A; Lallier, M; Meyer, S; Diard, J; Carreiras, M; Valdois, S

    2017-11-06

    Recent studies reported that Action Video Game-AVG training improves not only certain attentional components, but also reading fluency in children with dyslexia. We aimed to investigate the shared attentional components of AVG playing and reading, by studying whether the Visual Attention (VA) span, a component of visual attention that has previously been linked to both reading development and dyslexia, is improved in frequent players of AVGs. Thirty-six French fluent adult readers, matched on chronological age and text reading proficiency, composed two groups: frequent AVG players and non-players. Participants performed behavioural tasks measuring the VA span, and a challenging reading task (reading of briefly presented pseudo-words). AVG players performed better on both tasks and performance on these tasks was correlated. These results further support the transfer of the attentional benefits of playing AVGs to reading, and indicate that the VA span could be a core component mediating this transfer. The correlation between VA span and pseudo-word reading also supports the involvement of VA span even in adult reading. Future studies could combine VA span training with defining features of AVGs, in order to build a new generation of remediation software.

  14. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Prieto, Antonio; Mayas, Julia; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Ponce de León, Laura; Reales, José M; Waterworth, John

    2014-01-01

    Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-h non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity) on a series of age-declined cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing. Two groups of healthy older adults participated in the study, the experimental group who received the training and the control group who attended three meetings with the research team along the study. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. All participants were assessed individually before and after the intervention, or a similar period of time, using neuropsychological tests and laboratory tasks to investigate possible transfer effects. The results showed significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group, in processing speed (choice reaction time), attention (reduction of distraction and increase of alertness), immediate and delayed visual recognition memory, as well as a trend to improve in Affection and Assertivity, two dimensions of the Wellbeing Scale. Visuospatial working memory (WM) and executive control (shifting strategy) did not improve. Overall, the current results support the idea that training healthy older adults with non-action video games will enhance some cognitive abilities but not others.

  15. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Prieto, Antonio; Mayas, Julia; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Ponce de León, Laura; Reales, José M.; Waterworth, John

    2014-01-01

    Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-h non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity) on a series of age-declined cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing. Two groups of healthy older adults participated in the study, the experimental group who received the training and the control group who attended three meetings with the research team along the study. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. All participants were assessed individually before and after the intervention, or a similar period of time, using neuropsychological tests and laboratory tasks to investigate possible transfer effects. The results showed significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group, in processing speed (choice reaction time), attention (reduction of distraction and increase of alertness), immediate and delayed visual recognition memory, as well as a trend to improve in Affection and Assertivity, two dimensions of the Wellbeing Scale. Visuospatial working memory (WM) and executive control (shifting strategy) did not improve. Overall, the current results support the idea that training healthy older adults with non-action video games will enhance some cognitive abilities but not others. PMID:25352805

  16. Oral salmon calcitonin enhances insulin action and glucose metabolism in diet-induced obese streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feigh, Michael; Hjuler, Sara T; Andreassen, Kim V

    2014-01-01

    study we hypothesized that oral sCT as pharmacological intervention 1) exerted anti-hyperglycemic efficacy, and 2) enhanced insulin action in DIO-streptozotocin (DIO-STZ) diabetic rats. Diabetic hyperglycemia was induced in male selectively bred DIO rats by a single low dose (30mg/kg) injection of STZ....... Oral sCT by gavage was delivered as once-daily administration with lead-in (2mg/kg) and maintenance (0.5mg/kg) dose of oral sCT for a total of 21 days. Food intake, body weight, blood glucose, HbA1c, glucose and insulin tolerance test, and parameters of insulin sensitivity were investigated. Plasma...... glucoregulatory hormones and pancreatic insulin content were analyzed. Oral sCT treatment induced a pronounced anorectic action during the 7 days lead-in period and markedly reduced food intake and body weight in conjunction with improved glucose homeostasis. During the maintenance period, oral sCT normalized...

  17. Making the Third NCA Actionable: How the Third NCA is Being Used in the Field to Enhance Adaptive Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasley, E.

    2016-12-01

    A significant goal of the Third National Climate Assessment (NCA) was to provide actionable data and information for use by decision-makers from the National to local scales. Since the successful rollout of the assessment in May 2014, the data, graphics, information, and network of experts that were brought together to develop the assessment have been an incredible resource for Federal government agencies, private consultants, local leaders, and next generation students as they work to better understand vulnerabilities associated with changes in the climate and enhance adaptive capacity at multiple scales. The purpose of this presentation is to provide specific examples of how data, graphics, information, and experts as part of the Third NCA have been used to: (1) understand baseline changes in the climate at the regional to local scales; (2) conduct vulnerability assessments, (3) engage stakeholders and decision-makers through participatory scenario planning, and (4) educate the next generation on the regional and sectoral impacts of climate change, and (5) enhance adaptive capacity from the National to community scales.

  18. Potential dependent adhesion forces on bare and underpotential deposition modified electrode surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafin, J.M.; Hsieh, S.J.; Monahan, J.; Gewirth, A.A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1998-12-03

    Adhesion force measurements are used to determine the potential dependence of the force of adhesion between a Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} cantilever and a Au(111) surface modified by the underpotential deposition (upd) of Bi or Cu in acid solution or by oxide formation. The measured work of adhesion is near zero for most of the potential region examined in Bi upd but rises after the formation of a full Bi monolayer. The work of adhesion is high at positive potentials for Cu upd but then decreases as the Cu partial and full monolayers are formed. The work of adhesion is low in the oxide region on Au(111) but rises following the sulfate disordering transition at 1.1 V vs NHE. These results are interpreted in terms of the degree of solvent order on the electrode surface.

  19. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad eBallesteros

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-hr non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity on a series of age-declined cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing. Two groups of healthy older adults participated in the study, the experimental group who received the training and the control group who attended three meetings with the research team along the study. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. All participants were assessed individually before and after the intervention, or a similar period of time, using neuropsychological tests and laboratory tasks to investigate possible transfer effects. The results showed significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group, in processing speed (choice reaction time, attention (reduction of distraction and increase of alertness, immediate and delayed visual recognition memory, as well as a trend to improve in Affection and Assertivity, two dimensions of the Wellbeing Scale. Visuospatial working memory (WM and executive control (shifting strategy did not improve. Overall, the current results support the idea that training healthy older adults with non-action video games will enhance some cognitive abilities but not others. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02007616http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02007616

  20. Trans-generational radiation-induced chromosomal instability in the female enhances the action of chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camats, Nuria; Garcia, Francisca; Parrilla, Juan Jose; Calaf, Joaquim; Martin, Miguel; Caldes, Montserrat Garcia

    2008-01-01

    Genomic instability can be produced by ionising radiation, so-called radiation-induced genomic instability, and chemical mutagens. Radiation-induced genomic instability occurs in both germinal and somatic cells and also in the offspring of irradiated individuals, and it is characterised by genetic changes including chromosomal rearrangements. The majority of studies of trans-generational, radiation-induced genomic instability have been described in the male germ line, whereas the authors who have chosen the female as a model are scarce. The aim of this work is to find out the radiation-induced effects in the foetal offspring of X-ray-treated female rats and, at the same time, the possible impact of this radiation-induced genomic instability on the action of a chemical mutagen. In order to achieve both goals, the quantity and quality of chromosomal damage were analysed. In order to detect trans-generational genomic instability, a total of 4806 metaphases from foetal tissues from the foetal offspring of X-irradiated female rats (5 Gy, acute dose) were analysed. The study's results showed that there is radiation-induced genomic instability: the number of aberrant metaphases and the breaks per total metaphases studied increased and were found to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05), with regard to the control group. In order to identify how this trans-generational, radiation-induced chromosomal instability could influence the chromosomal behaviour of the offspring of irradiated rat females in front of a chemical agent (aphidicolin), a total of 2481 metaphases were studied. The observed results showed that there is an enhancement of the action of the chemical agent: chromosomal breaks per aberrant metaphases show significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in the X-ray- and aphidicolin-treated group as regards the aphidicolin-treated group. In conclusion, our findings indicate that there is trans-generational, radiation-induced chromosomal instability in the foetal cells

  1. Trans-generational radiation-induced chromosomal instability in the female enhances the action of chemical mutagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camats, Nuria [Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina (IBB), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia, Francisca [Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina (IBB), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Parrilla, Juan Jose [Servicio de Ginecologia y Obstetricia, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, 30120 El Palmar, Murcia (Spain); Calaf, Joaquim [Servei de Ginecologia i Obstetricia, Hospital Universitari de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Martin, Miguel [Departament de Pediatria, d' Obstetricia i Ginecologia i de Medicina Preventiva, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Caldes, Montserrat Garcia [Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina (IBB), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: Montserrat.Garcia.Caldes@uab.es

    2008-04-02

    Genomic instability can be produced by ionising radiation, so-called radiation-induced genomic instability, and chemical mutagens. Radiation-induced genomic instability occurs in both germinal and somatic cells and also in the offspring of irradiated individuals, and it is characterised by genetic changes including chromosomal rearrangements. The majority of studies of trans-generational, radiation-induced genomic instability have been described in the male germ line, whereas the authors who have chosen the female as a model are scarce. The aim of this work is to find out the radiation-induced effects in the foetal offspring of X-ray-treated female rats and, at the same time, the possible impact of this radiation-induced genomic instability on the action of a chemical mutagen. In order to achieve both goals, the quantity and quality of chromosomal damage were analysed. In order to detect trans-generational genomic instability, a total of 4806 metaphases from foetal tissues from the foetal offspring of X-irradiated female rats (5 Gy, acute dose) were analysed. The study's results showed that there is radiation-induced genomic instability: the number of aberrant metaphases and the breaks per total metaphases studied increased and were found to be statistically significant (p {<=} 0.05), with regard to the control group. In order to identify how this trans-generational, radiation-induced chromosomal instability could influence the chromosomal behaviour of the offspring of irradiated rat females in front of a chemical agent (aphidicolin), a total of 2481 metaphases were studied. The observed results showed that there is an enhancement of the action of the chemical agent: chromosomal breaks per aberrant metaphases show significant differences (p {<=} 0.05) in the X-ray- and aphidicolin-treated group as regards the aphidicolin-treated group. In conclusion, our findings indicate that there is trans-generational, radiation-induced chromosomal instability in the foetal

  2. Transplantation of Glial Cells Enhances Action Potential Conduction of Amyelinated Spinal Cord Axons in the Myelin-Deficient Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzschneider, David A.; Archer, David R.; Kocsis, Jeffery D.; Waxman, Stephen G.; Duncan, Ian D.

    1994-01-01

    A central issue in transplantation research is to determine how and when transplantation of neural tissue can influence the development and function of the mammalian central nervous system. Of particular interest is whether electrophysiological function in the traumatized or diseased mammalian central nervous system can be improved by the replacement of cellular elements that are missing or damaged. Although it is known that transplantation of neural tissue can lead to functional improvement in models of neurological disease characterized by neuronal loss, less is known about results of transplantation in disorders of myelin. We report here that transplantation of glial cells into the dorsal columns of neonatal myelin-deficient rat spinal cords leads to myelination and a 3-fold increase in conduction velocity. We also show that impulses can propagate into and out of the transplant region and that axons myelinated by transplanted cells do not have impaired frequency-response properties. These results demonstrate that myelination following central nervous system glial cell transplantation enhances action potential conduction in myelin-deficient axons, with conduction velocity approaching normal values.

  3. An Action Research Study into the Role of Student Negotiation in Enhancing Perceived Student Engagement during English Speaking Classes at University Level in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uztosun, Mehmet Sercan; Skinner, Nigel; Cadorath, Jill

    2018-01-01

    A major issue in English language teaching in Turkey and other monolingual countries is the teaching of spoken English. This article reports the initial and final stages of an action research study which used student negotiation to enhance student engagement in speaking classes. The research was conducted in the English Language Teaching…

  4. The influence of D2O, perchlorate, and variation in temperature on the potential-dependent contractile function of frog skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulks, J.G.; Morishita, L.

    1985-01-01

    D 2 O and perchlorate manifest opposing effects on the contractile function of skeletal muscle (amplitude of twitches and maximum K contractures, potential dependence of contraction and inactivation), and when combined the influence of one may effectively antagonize that of the other. The ratio of perchlorate concentrations required to produce effects of equal intensity, (e.g., twitch enhancement and restoration of maximum K contractures in media lacking divalent cations or containing a depressant concentration of a cationic amphipath) in H 2 O and D 2 O solutions was generally rather constant. These findings are compatible with the view that both agents can influence contractile function by virtue of their effects on solvent structure. In the absence of divalent cations, the effects of reduced temperature resemble those of D 2 O whereas the effects of increased temperature resemble those of the chaotropic anion. However, in other media, variation in temperature was found to result in additional nonsolvent effects so that low temperature could oppose rather than enhance the effects of D 2 O. These observations are discussed in terms of a model which postulates a role for solvent influences on the kinetics of two separate potential-dependent conformational transitions of membrane proteins which mediate the activation and inactivation of contraction in skeletal muscle

  5. Immobilized silver nanoparticles enhance contact killing and show highest efficacy: elucidation of the mechanism of bactericidal action of silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, Shekhar; Mukherji, Soumyo; Mukherji, Suparna

    2013-07-01

    Antimicrobial materials with immobilized/entrapped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are of considerable interest. There is significant debate on the mode of bactericidal action of AgNPs, and both contact killing and/or ion mediated killing have been proposed. In this study, AgNPs were immobilized on an amine-functionalized silica surface and their bactericidal activity was studied concurrently with the silver release profile over time. This was compared with similar studies performed using colloidal AgNPs and AgCl surfaces that released Ag ions. We conclude that contact killing is the predominant bactericidal mechanism and surface immobilized nanoparticles show greater efficacy than colloidal AgNPs, as well as a higher concentration of silver ions in solution. In addition, the AgNP immobilized substrate was used multiple times with good efficacy, indicating this immobilization protocol is effective for retaining AgNPs while maintaining their disinfection potential. The antibacterial surface was found to be extremely stable in aqueous medium and no significant leaching (~1.15% of total silver deposited) of the AgNPs was observed. Thus, immobilization of AgNPs on a surface may promote reuse, reduce environmental risks associated with leaching of AgNPs and enhance cost effectiveness.Antimicrobial materials with immobilized/entrapped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are of considerable interest. There is significant debate on the mode of bactericidal action of AgNPs, and both contact killing and/or ion mediated killing have been proposed. In this study, AgNPs were immobilized on an amine-functionalized silica surface and their bactericidal activity was studied concurrently with the silver release profile over time. This was compared with similar studies performed using colloidal AgNPs and AgCl surfaces that released Ag ions. We conclude that contact killing is the predominant bactericidal mechanism and surface immobilized nanoparticles show greater efficacy than colloidal Ag

  6. Potential dependent superiority of gold nanoparticles in comparison to iodinated contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Price A.; Rahman, Wan Nordiana W. Abd.; Wong, Christopher J.; Ackerly, Trevor; Geso, Moshi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the benefits in image contrast enhancement using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) compared to conventional iodinated contrast media. Materials and methods: Gold nanoparticles and iodinated contrast media were evaluated for contrast enhancement at various X-ray tube potentials in an imaging phantom. Iopromide and AuNP suspension were equalized according to molar concentration of radiopaque element (0.5077 Mol/L). Contrast-to-noise ratio is used to quantify contrast enhancement. Both projectional radiographic (40-80 kVp) and computed tomography (CT) (80-140kVp) imaging modalities were examined. Results and conclusions: Findings indicate 89% improvement in CNR at low energies near the mammographic range (40 kVp). However, as expected no significant difference in enhancement was observed at potentials commonly used for angiography (around 80 kVp) probably due to the k-edge influence for iodine. At the highest energies typically available in computed tomography, significant improvement in contrast enhancement using gold nanoparticles is obtained, 114% greater CNR than that produced by iodine at 140 kVp. Experimental findings for 70-120 kVp spectra correlate well with the theoretical calculations based on linear attenuation coefficients. Superior attenuation of gold nanoparticles at low and high kVp potentials support their further (pre)clinical evaluation.

  7. Enhanced Neural Processing of Goal-directed Actions After Active Training in 4-Month-Old Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Marta; Sommerville, Jessica A; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2016-03-01

    The current study explores the neural correlates of action perception and its relation to infants' active experience performing goal-directed actions. Study 1 provided active training with sticky mittens that enables grasping and object manipulation in prereaching 4-month-olds. After training, EEG was recorded while infants observed images of hands grasping toward (congruent) or away from (incongruent) objects. We demonstrate that brief active training facilitates social perception as indexed by larger amplitude of the P400 ERP component to congruent compared with incongruent trials. Study 2 presented 4-month-old infants with passive training in which they observed an experimenter perform goal-directed reaching actions, followed by an identical ERP session to that used in Study 1. The second study did not demonstrate any differentiation between congruent and incongruent trials. These results suggest that (1) active experience alters the brains' response to goal-directed actions performed by others and (2) visual exposure alone is not sufficient in developing the neural networks subserving goal processing during action observation in infancy.

  8. Improved mitochondrial function in brain aging and Alzheimer disease - the new mechanism of action of the old metabolic enhancer piracetam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Leuner

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Piracetam, the prototype of the so-called nootropic drugs’ is used since many years in different countries to treat cognitive impairment in aging and dementia. Findings that piracetam enhances fluidity of brain mitochondrial membranes led to the hypothesis that piracetam might improve mitochondrial function, e.g. might enhance ATP synthesis. This assumption has recently been supported by a number of observations showing enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, enhanced ATP production, and reduced sensitivity for apoptosis in a variety of cell and animal models for aging and Alzheimer disease (AD. As a specific consequence, substantial evidence for elevated neuronal plasticity as a specific effect of piracetam has emerged. Taken together, these new findings can explain many of the therapeutic effects of piracetam on cognition in aging and dementia as well as different situations of brain dysfunctions.

  9. Modafinil and its metabolites enhance the anticonvulsant action of classical antiepileptic drugs in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolkowska, Dorota; Andres-Mach, Marta; Prisinzano, Thomas E; Baumann, Michael H; Luszczki, Jarogniew J

    2015-07-01

    Seizures occur when the excitability of brain circuits is not sufficiently restrained by inhibitory mechanisms. Although modafinil is reported to reduce GABA-activated currents and extracellular GABA levels in the brain, the drug exerts anticonvulsant effects in animal studies. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of modafinil and its metabolites (sulfone and carboxylic acid) on the anticonvulsant action of four classical antiepileptic drugs (AEDs)-carbamazepine (CBZ), phenobarbital (PB), phenytoin (PHT), and valproate (VPA). Anticonvulsant activity was assessed with the maximal electroshock seizure threshold (MEST) test and MES test in mice. Brain concentrations of AEDs were measured to ascertain any pharmacokinetic contribution to the observed anticonvulsant effects. Intraperitoneal injection of 75 mg kg(-1) of modafinil or its metabolites significantly elevated the threshold for electroconvulsions in mice, whereas 50 mg kg(-1) of each compound enhanced the anticonvulsant activity of CBZ, PHT, and VPA, but not that of PB. A 25-mg kg(-1) dose of modafinil or its sulfone metabolite enhanced anticonvulsant activity of VPA. Modafinil and its metabolites (50 mg kg(-1)) did not alter total brain concentrations of PB and VPA but did elevate CBZ and PHT. Enhancement of anticonvulsant actions of VPA by modafinil in the mouse MES model is a pharmacodynamic effect. Collectively, our data suggest that modafinil may be a safe and beneficial adjunct to the therapeutic effects of AEDs in human patients.

  10. Improving family carers' experiences of support at the end of life by enhancing communication: an action research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosser, Isabel; Kennedy, Catriona

    2014-12-01

    This paper builds on findings from phase one of a participatory action research study, which investigated support for family carers at the end of life in an acute hospital setting in Scotland, UK ( Dosser and Kennedy, 2012 ). The research presented here is the second phase of the participatory action research study, in which nursing staff from an acute hospital ward are involved in ongoing analysis of data and ideas guided by action cycles and reflection. Two key change initiatives are reported; improving nurses' communication skills and improving the environment for family carers of loved ones at the end of life within the acute hospital setting. To address these points, nurses were enrolled on a communications skills course, and a new room for family carers was integrated into the hospital. Data were analysed from interviews and questionnaires with the nurses, and from insights gathered in a reflective diary taken by the researcher. The changes implemented improved the confidence of participants in communicating with carers as well as patients and colleagues. The findings highlight practical strategies and communication issues that can potentially impact on the grief experience of family carers, such as having a safe space nearby to rest in private, away from the bedside.

  11. A brief motivational interview with action and coping planning components enhances motivational autonomy among volunteer blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Christopher R; France, Janis L; Carlson, Bruce W; Kessler, Debra A; Rebosa, Mark; Shaz, Beth H; Madden, Katrala; Carey, Patricia M; Fox, Kristen R; Livitz, Irina E; Ankawi, Brett; Slepian, P Maxwell

    2016-06-01

    In contrast to standard donor retention strategies (e.g., mailings, phone calls, text messages), we developed a brief telephone interview, based on motivational interviewing principles, that encourages blood donors to reflect upon their unique motivators and barriers for giving. This study examined the effect of this motivational interview, combined with action and coping plan components, on blood donor motivations. The design was to randomly assign blood donors to receive either a telephone-delivered motivational interview with action and coping plan components or a control call approximately 6 weeks after their most recent donation. Participants completed a series of surveys related to donation motivation approximately 3 weeks before telephone contact (precall baseline) and then repeated these surveys approximately 1 week after telephone contact (postcall). The sample was 63% female, included a majority (52.6%) of first-time blood donors, and had a mean age of 30.0 years (SD, 11.7 years). A series of analyses of variance revealed that, relative to controls (n = 244), donors in the motivational interview group (n = 254) had significantly larger increases in motivational autonomy (p = 0.001), affective attitude (p = 0.004), self-efficacy (p = 0.03), anticipated regret (p = 0.001), and intention (p = motivational interviewing with action and coping planning as a novel strategy to promote key contributors to donor motivation. © 2016 AABB.

  12. Report: Enhanced EPA Oversight and Action Can Further Protect Water Resources From the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #15-P-0204, July 16, 2015. Enhanced EPA oversight of the permitting process for diesel fuel use during hydraulic fracturing can further EPA efforts to protect water resources, and establishment of a plan for determining whether to propose a chemical

  13. Enhanced sensitivity of A549 cells to the cytotoxic action of anticancer drugs via suppression of Nrf2 by procyanidins from Cinnamomi Cortex extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuma, Tomokazu; Matsumoto, Takashi; Itoi, Ayano; Kawana, Ayako; Nishiyama, Takahito; Ogura, Kenichiro [Department of Drug Metabolism and Molecular Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Hiratsuka, Akira, E-mail: hiratuka@toyaku.ac.jp [Department of Drug Metabolism and Molecular Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan)

    2011-10-07

    Highlights: {yields} We found a novel inhibitor of Nrf2 known as a chemoresistance factor. {yields} Overexpressed Nrf2 in lung cancer cells was suppressed by Cinnamomi Cortex extract. {yields} Cytotoxic action of anticancer drugs in cells treated with the extract was enhanced. {yields} Procyanidin tetramers and pentamers were active components in suppressing Nrf2. -- Abstract: Nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an important cytoprotective transcription factor because Nrf2-regulated enzymes play a key role in antioxidant and detoxification processes. Recent studies have reported that lung cancer cells overexpressing Nrf2 exhibit increased resistance to chemotherapy. Suppression of overexpressed Nrf2 is needed for a new therapeutic approach against lung cancers. In the present study, we found that Cinnamomi Cortex extract (CCE) has an ability to suppress Nrf2-regulated enzyme activity and Nrf2 expression in human lung cancer A549 cells with high Nrf2 activity. Moreover, we demonstrated that CCE significantly enhances sensitivity of A549 cells to the cytotoxic action of doxorubicin and etoposide as well as increasing the intracellular accumulation of both drugs. These results suggest that CCE might be an effective concomitant agent to reduce anticancer drug resistance derived from Nrf2 overexpression. Bioactivity-guided fractionation revealed that procyanidin tetramers and pentamers contained in CCE were active components in suppressing Nrf2.

  14. Enhancement of High-Intensity Actions and Physical Performance During a Simulated Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Competition With a Moderate Dose of Caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Lara, Francisco Javier; Del Coso, Juan; Portillo, Javier; Areces, Francisco; García, Jose Manuel; Abián-Vicén, Javier

    2016-10-01

    Although caffeine is one of the most commonly used substances in combat sports, information about its ergogenic effects on these disciplines is very limited. To determine the effectiveness of ingesting a moderate dose of caffeine to enhance overall performance during a simulated Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) competition. Fourteen elite BJJ athletes participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled experimental design. In a random order, the athletes ingested either 3 mg/kg body mass of caffeine or a placebo (cellulose, 0 mg/kg) and performed 2 simulated BJJ combats (with 20 min rest between them), following official BJJ rules. Specific physical tests such as maximal handgrip dynamometry, maximal height during a countermovement jump, permanence during a maximal static-lift test, peak power in a bench-press exercise, and blood lactate concentration were measured at 3 specific times: before the first combat and immediately after the first and second combats. The combats were video-recorded to analyze fight actions. After the caffeine ingestion, participants spent more time in offensive actions in both combats and revealed higher blood lactate values (P Performance in all physical tests carried out before the first combat was enhanced with caffeine (P caffeine and placebo. Caffeine might be an effective ergogenic aid for improving intensity and physical performance during successive elite BJJ combats.

  15. Assessing participants' perceptions on group-based principles for action in community-based health enhancing physical activity programmes: The APEF tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herens, Marion; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2017-12-01

    In community-based health enhancing physical activity (CBHEPA) programmes, group-based principles for action such as active participation, enjoyment, and fostering group processes are widely advocated. However, not much is known about participants' perceptions of these principles as there are no assessment tools available. Therefore, this article describes the development of the APEF (Active Participation, Enjoyment, and Fostering group processes) tool and reports on its implementation in a Dutch CBHEPA programme. Indicators for the principles have been identified from literature research, interviews with professionals, and secondary analysis of three group interviews with 11 practitioners. To address the identified indicators, the APEF tool was developed, pretested, and used in 10 focus groups with 76 participants. The APEF tool consists of eight statements about group-based principles for action, on which CBHEPA participants vote, followed by in-depth discussion. The voting procedure engages participants. Spider diagrams visualise participants' perceptions of group-based principles. The APEF tool addresses the challenge of relating group level outcomes to individual outcomes such as physical activity behaviour. The tool facilitates as well as evaluates group-based principles for action, it stimulates dialogue and is culturally sensitive, but it needs strong facilitating skills to manage group dynamics. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Towards tailored teaching: using participatory action research to enhance the learning experience of Longitudinal Integrated Clerkship students in a South African rural district hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Pressentin, Klaus B; Waggie, Firdouza; Conradie, Hoffie

    2016-03-08

    The introduction of Stellenbosch University's Longitudinal Integrated Clerkship (LIC) model as part of the undergraduate medical curriculum offers a unique and exciting training model to develop generalist doctors for the changing South African health landscape. At one of these LIC sites, the need for an improvement of the local learning experience became evident. This paper explores how to identify and implement a tailored teaching and learning intervention to improve workplace-based learning for LIC students. A participatory action research approach was used in a co-operative inquiry group (ten participants), consisting of the students, clinician educators and researchers, who met over a period of 5 months. Through a cyclical process of action and reflection this group identified a teaching intervention. The results demonstrate the gaps and challenges identified when implementing a LIC model of medical education. A structured learning programme for the final 6 weeks of the students' placement at the district hospital was designed by the co-operative inquiry group as an agreed intervention. The post-intervention group reflection highlighted a need to create a structured programme in the spirit of local collaboration and learning across disciplines. The results also enhance our understanding of both students and clinician educators' perceptions of this new model of workplace-based training. This paper provides practical strategies to enhance teaching and learning in a new educational context. These strategies illuminate three paradigm shifts: (1) from the traditional medical education approach towards a transformative learning approach advocated for the 21(st) century health professional; (2) from the teaching hospital context to the district hospital context; and (3) from block-based teaching towards a longitudinal integrated learning model. A programme based on balancing structured and tailored learning activities is recommended in order to address the local

  17. Investing in commitment: Persistence in a joint action is enhanced by the perception of a partner's effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, Marcell; Michael, John

    2018-05-01

    Can the perception that one's partner is investing effort generate a sense of commitment to a joint action? To test this, we developed a 2-player version of the classic snake game which became increasingly boring over the course of each round. This enabled us to operationalize commitment in terms of how long participants persisted before pressing a 'finish' button to conclude each round. Our results from three experiments reveal that participants persisted longer when they perceived what they believed to be cues of their partner's effortful contribution (Experiment 1). Crucially, this effect was not observed when they knew their partner to be an algorithm (Experiment 2), nor when it was their own effort that had been invested (Experiment 3). These results support the hypothesis that the perception of a partner's effort elicits a sense of commitment, leading to increased persistence in the face of a temptation to disengage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A demonstration of the applicability of implementing the enhanced Remedial Action Priority System (RAPS) for environmental releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, G.; Droppo, J.G. Jr.; Strenge, D.L.; Walter, M.B.; Buck, J.W.

    1989-12-01

    The Remedial Action Priority System (RAPS) and the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) were developed to prioritize problems associated with potential releases of hazardous chemical and radioactive materials in a scientific and objective manner based on limited site information. This report documents the model testing efforts of the RAPS/MEPAS methodology for the atmospheric, surface water, groundwater, and exposure components. Comparisons are given of model outputs with measured data at three sites: the US Department of Energy's Mound facility in Ohio and Hanford facility in Washington, and a chromium-cadmium plating site in New York. The results show that the simulated magnitudes, spacial and temporal trends, and distributions of contaminants corresponded well with the measured data. 25 refs., 86 figs., 26 tabs.

  19. Encapsulation into Stealth Liposomes Enhances the Antitumor Action of Recombinant Cratylia mollis Lectin Expressed in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Cássia R. A.; da Silva, Luís C. N.; Almeida, Fábio J. F.; Ferraz, Milena S.; Varejão, Nathalia; Cartaxo, Marina F. de Souza; de Miranda, Rita de Cássia M.; de Aguiar, Francisco C. A.; Santos, Noemia P. da Silva; Coelho, Luana C. B. B.; Santos-Magalhães, Nereide S.; Correia, Maria T. dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vivo antitumor potential of the recombinant lectin from seeds of Cratylia mollis (rCramoll) expressed in Escherichia coli, free or encapsulated in stealth liposomes, using mice transplanted with sarcoma 180. rCramoll-loaded stealth liposomes (rCramoll-lipo) were formulated by hydration of the lipid film followed by cycles of freezing and thawing, and about 60% of rCramoll was encapsulated. This novel preparation showed particle size, polydispersity index, and pH suitable for the evaluation of antitumor activity in vivo. Tumor growth inhibition rates were 59% for rCramoll and 75% for rCramoll-lipo. Histopathological analysis of the experimental groups showed that both free and encapsulated lectin caused no changes in the kidneys of animals. Hematological analysis revealed that treatment with rCramoll-lipo significantly increased leukocyte concentration when compared with the untreated and rCramoll group. In conclusion, the encapsulation of rCramoll in stealth liposomes improves its antitumor activity without substantial toxicity; this approach was more successful than the previous results reported for pCramoll loaded into conventional liposomes. At this point, a crucial difference between the antitumor action of free and encapsulated rCramoll was found along with their effects on immune cells. Further investigations are required to elucidate the mechanism(s) of the antitumor effect induced by rCramoll. PMID:27695439

  20. Using Participatory Action Research to Develop a Working Model That Enhances Psychiatric Nurses' Professionalism: The Architecture of Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin

    2017-11-01

    Ward rules in psychiatric care aim to promote safety for both patients and staff. Simultaneously, ward rules are associated with increased patient violence, leading to neither a safe work environment nor a safe caring environment. Although ward rules are routinely used, few studies have explicitly accounted for their impact. To describe the process of a team development project considering ward rule issues, and to develop a working model to empower staff in their daily in-patient psychiatric nursing practices. The design of this study is explorative and descriptive. Participatory action research methodology was applied to understand ward rules. Data consists of audio-recorded group discussions, observations and field notes, together creating a data set of 556 text pages. More than 100 specific ward rules were identified. In this process, the word rules was relinquished in favor of adopting the term principles, since rules are inconsistent with a caring ideology. A linguistic transition led to the development of a framework embracing the (1) Principle of Safety, (2) Principle of Structure and (3) Principle of Interplay. The principles were linked to normative guidelines and applied ethical theories: deontology, consequentialism and ethics of care. The work model reminded staff about the principles, empowered their professional decision-making, decreased collegial conflicts because of increased acceptance for individual decisions, and, in general, improved well-being at work. Furthermore, the work model also empowered staff to find support for their decisions based on principles that are grounded in the ethics of totality.

  1. Rat amylin-(8-37) enhances insulin action and alters lipid metabolism in normal and insulin-resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, M; Chalkley, S; Furler, S M; Choong, Y S; Heller, M; Cooper, G J; Kraegen, E W

    1997-11-01

    To clarify roles of amylin, we investigated metabolic responses to rat amylin-(8-37), a specific amylin antagonist, in normal and insulin-resistant, human growth hormone (hGH)-infused rats. Fasting conscious rats were infused with saline or hGH, each with and without amylin-(8-37) (0.125 mumol/h), over 5.75 h. At 3.75 h, a hyperinsulinemic (100 mU/l) clamp with bolus 2-deoxy-D-[3H]glucose and [14C]glucose was started. hGH infusion led to prompt (2- to 3-fold) basal hyperamylinemia (P hGH-infused rats. Amylin-(8-37) corrected hGH-induced liver insulin resistance, increased basal plasma triglycerides and lowered plasma nonesterified fatty acids in both groups, and reduced muscle triglyceride and total long-chain acyl-CoA content in saline-treated rats (P hGH infusion; 2) amylin-(8-37) increases whole body and muscle insulin sensitivity and consistently reduces basal insulin levels in normal and hGH-induced insulin resistant rats; and 3) amylin-(8-37) elicits a significant alteration of in vivo lipid metabolism. These findings support a role of amylin in modulating insulin action and suggest that this could be mediated by effects on lipid metabolism.

  2. Cenderitide: structural requirements for the creation of a novel dual particulate guanylyl cyclase receptor agonist with renal-enhancing in vivo and ex vivo actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Candace Y W; Huntley, Brenda K; McCormick, Daniel J; Ichiki, Tomoko; Sangaralingham, S Jeson; Lisy, Ondrej; Burnett, John C

    2016-04-01

    Cenderitide is a novel dual natriuretic peptide (NP) receptor chimeric peptide activator, which targets the particulate guanylyl cyclase B (pGC-B) receptor and pGC-A unlike native NPs. Cenderitide was engineered to retain the anti-fibrotic properties of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP)/pGC-B with renal-enhancing actions facilitated by fusion to the carboxyl terminus of Dendroaspis NP (DNP), a pGC-A agonist, to CNP. Here, we address significance of the DNP carboxyl terminus in dual pGC receptor activation and actions of cenderitide compared with CNP on renal function and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in vivo and ex vivo in normal canines. In vitro, only cenderitide and not CNP or three CNP-based variants was a potent dual pGC-A/pGC-B activator of cGMP production (from 5 to 237 pmol/mL) in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells overexpressing human pGC-A while in pGC-B overexpressing cells cenderitide increased cGMP production (from 4 to 321 pmol/mL) while the three CNP-based variants were weak agonists. Based upon our finding that the DNP carboxyl terminus is a key structural requirement for dual pGC-A/pGC-B activation, we defined in vivo the renal-enhancing actions of cenderitide compared with CNP. Cenderitide increased urinary cGMP excretion (from 989 to 5977 pmol/mL), net generation of renal cGMP (821-4124 pmol/min), natriuresis (12-242 μEq/min), and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (37-51 mL/min) while CNP did not. We then demonstrated the transformation of CNP ex vivo into a renal cGMP-activating peptide which increased cGMP in freshly isolated glomeruli eight-fold greater than CNP. The current study establishes that dual pGC-A and pGC-B activation with CNP requires the specific carboxyl terminus of DNP. In normal canines in vivo and in glomeruli ex vivo, the carboxyl terminus of DNP transforms CNP into a natriuretic and GFR-enhancing peptide. Future studies of cenderitide are warranted in cardiorenal disease states to explore its efficacy in overall

  3. Transferability of soil cleanup standards in remedial actions associated with technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials: Geochemical perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landa, E.

    1999-01-01

    The regulation of public exposures to technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other regulatory and advisory organizations is the subject of a report released early this year by the National Research Council. Some organizations have developed guidelines for TENORM in soil based on concentration limits in current EPA guidelines for cleanup of soil contaminated with 226 Ra at uranium mill tailings sites. A conclusion of the National Research Council report is that the transferability of standards developed for a specific class of TENORM is limited to the extent that the physical and chemical properties of the TENORM being considered, as well as projected exposure pathways, are similar to those considered for uranium mill tailings. The radon emanation coefficient and leachability of 226 Ra for TENORMs can vary over a considerable range, thus influencing the inhalation and ingestion pathways of radiation exposure. (author)

  4. An Enhancing Effect of Gold Nanoparticles on the Lethal Action of 2450 MHz Electromagnetic Radiation in Microwave Oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollazadeh-Moghaddam, Kamyar; Moradi, Bardia Varasteh; Dolatabadi-Bazaz, Reza; Shakibae, Mojtaba; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza

    2011-10-01

    Today, there is an increasing interest in the use of metal nanoparticles in health sciences. Amongst all nanoparticles, the gold nanoparticles have been known to kill the cancer cells under hyperthermic condition by near-infrared frequency electromagnetic waves. On the other hand, although there are different physiochemical methods for disinfection of microbial pollution, however applications of irradiated gold nanoparticles against microorganisms have not yet been investigated. In this study, gold nanoparticles were prepared using D-glucose and characterized (particle size electromagnetic radiation generated at a microwave oven operated at low power (100 W), was investigated by time-kill course assay against Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) ATCC 29737. The results showed that application of gold nanoparticles can enhance the lethal effect of low power microwave in a very short exposure time (5 s).

  5. An Enhancing Effect of Gold Nanoparticles on the Lethal Action of 2450 MHz Electromagnetic Radiation in Microwave Oven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollazadeh-Moghaddam, Kamyar; Moradi, Bardia Varasteh; Dolatabadi-Bazaz, Reza; Shakibae, Mojtaba; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza

    2011-01-01

    Today, there is an increasing interest in the use of metal nanoparticles in health sciences. Amongst all nanoparticles, the gold nanoparticles have been known to kill the cancer cells under hyperthermic condition by near-infrared frequency electromagnetic waves. On the other hand, although there are different physiochemical methods for disinfection of microbial pollution, however applications of irradiated gold nanoparticles against microorganisms have not yet been investigated. In this study, gold nanoparticles were prepared using D-glucose and characterized (particle size effect of the non toxic level of gold nanoparticles (50 µg/mL) on the antimicrobial activity of 2450 MHz electromagnetic radiation generated at a microwave oven operated at low power (100 W), was investigated by time-kill course assay against Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) ATCC 29737. The results showed that application of gold nanoparticles can enhance the lethal effect of low power microwave in a very short exposure time (5 s). PMID:23407707

  6. Identifying factors which enhance capacity to engage in clinical education among podiatry practitioners: an action research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abey, Sally; Lea, Susan; Callaghan, Lynne; Shaw, Steve; Cotton, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Health profession students develop practical skills whilst integrating theory with practice in a real world environment as an important component of their training. Research in the area of practice placements has identified challenges and barriers to the delivery of effective placement learning. However, there has been little research in podiatry and the question of which factors impact upon clinical educators' capacity to engage with the role remains an under-researched area. This paper presents the second phase of an action research project designed to determine the factors that impact upon clinical educators' capacity to engage with the mentorship role. An online survey was developed and podiatry clinical educators recruited through National Health Service (NHS) Trusts. The survey included socio-demographic items, and questions relating to the factors identified as possible variables influencing clinical educator capacity; the latter was assessed using the 'Clinical Educator Capacity to Engage' scale (CECE). Descriptive statistics were used to explore demographic data whilst the relationship between the CECE and socio-demographic factors were examined using inferential statistics in relation to academic profile, career profile and organisation of the placement. The survey response rate was 42 % (n = 66). Multiple linear regression identified four independent variables which explain a significant proportion of the variability of the dependent variable, 'capacity to engage with clinical education', with an adjusted R2 of 0.428. The four variables were: protected mentorship time, clinical educator relationship with university, sign-off responsibility, and volunteer status. The identification of factors that impact upon clinical educators' capacity to engage in mentoring of students has relevance for strategic planning and policy-making with the emphasis upon capacity-building at an individual level, so that the key attitudes and characteristics that are linked

  7. Bowman-Birk Protease Inhibitor from Vigna unguiculata Seeds Enhances the Action of Bradykinin-Related Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice da Cunha M. Álvares

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The hydrolysis of bradykinin (Bk by different classes of proteases in plasma and tissues leads to a decrease in its half-life. Here, Bk actions on smooth muscle and in vivo cardiovascular assays in association with a protease inhibitor, Black eyed-pea trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor (BTCI and also under the effect of trypsin and chymotrypsin were evaluated. Two synthetic Bk-related peptides, Bk1 and Bk2, were used to investigate the importance of additional C-terminal amino acid residues on serine protease activity. BTCI forms complexes with Bk and analogues at pH 5.0, 7.4 and 9.0, presenting binding constants ranging from 103 to 104 M−1. Formation of BTCI-Bk complexes is probably driven by hydrophobic forces, coupled with slight conformational changes in BTCI. In vitro assays using guinea pig (Cavia porcellus ileum showed that Bk retains the ability to induce smooth muscle contraction in the presence of BTCI. Moreover, no alteration in the inhibitory activity of BTCI in complex with Bk and analogous was observed. When the BTCI and BTCI-Bk complexes were tested in vivo, a decrease of vascular resistance and consequent hypotension and potentiating renal and aortic vasodilatation induced by Bk and Bk2 infusions was observed. These results indicate that BTCI-Bk complexes may be a reliable strategy to act as a carrier and protective approach for Bk-related peptides against plasma serine proteases cleavage, leading to an increase in their half-life. These findings also indicate that BTCI could remain stable in some tissues to inhibit chymotrypsin or trypsin-like enzymes that cleave and inactivate bradykinin in situ.

  8. N-Acetylcysteine enhances the action of anti-inflammatory drugs as suppressors of prostaglandin production in monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Hoffer

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs is associated with inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX, the rate-limiting enzyme responsible for the synthesis of prostaglandins. Since oxygen free radicals can act as second cellular messengers, especially to modulate the metabolism of arachidonic acid and the prostaglandin tract, it seems plausible that antioxidants might affect the production of prostaglandin by activated cells. This research is focused on the effect of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC on the inhibition of prostaglandin E2 formation in activated monocytes by specific and non-specific COX inhibitors. We found that lipopolysaccharide-induced prostaglandin E2 formation was significantly reduced by rofecoxib and by diclofenac, two NSAIDs. Addition of NAC to each of these drugs enhanced the effect of the NSAIDs. These results suggest that one might expect either a potentiation of the anti-inflammatory effect of COX inhibitors by their simultaneous administration with NAC, or obtaining the same anti-inflammatory at lower drug levels.

  9. Metformin exerts glucose-lowering action in high-fat fed mice via attenuating endotoxemia and enhancing insulin signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zi-yu; Ren, Li-wei; Zhan, Ping; Yang, Han-yan; Chai, Dan-dan; Yu, Zhi-wen

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Accumulating evidence shows that lipopolysaccharides (LPS) derived from gut gram-negative bacteria can be absorbed, leading to endotoxemia that triggers systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. In this study we examined whether metformin attenuated endotoxemia, thus improving insulin signaling in high-fat diet fed mice. Methods: Mice were fed a high-fat diet for 18 weeks to induce insulin resistance. One group of the mice was treated with oral metformin (100 mg·kg−1·d−1) for 4 weeks. Another group was treated with LPS (50 μg·kg−1·d−1, sc) for 5 days followed by the oral metformin for 10 d. Other two groups received a combination of antibiotics for 7 d or a combination of antibiotics for 7 d followed by the oral metformin for 4 weeks, respectively. Glucose metabolism and insulin signaling in liver and muscle were evaluated, the abundance of gut bacteria, gut permeability and serum LPS levels were measured. Results: In high-fat fed mice, metformin restored the tight junction protein occludin-1 levels in gut, reversed the elevated gut permeability and serum LPS levels, and increased the abundance of beneficial bacteria Lactobacillus and Akkermansia muciniphila. Metformin also increased PKB Ser473 and AMPK T172 phosphorylation, decreased MDA contents and redox-sensitive PTEN protein levels, activated the anti-oxidative Nrf2 system, and increased IκBα in liver and muscle of the mice. Treatment with exogenous LPS abolished the beneficial effects of metformin on glucose metabolism, insulin signaling and oxidative stress in liver and muscle of the mice. Treatment with antibiotics alone produced similar effects as metformin did. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of antibiotics were addictive to those of metformin. Conclusion: Metformin administration attenuates endotoxemia and enhances insulin signaling in high-fat fed mice, which contributes to its anti-diabetic effects. PMID:27180982

  10. Dual actions of albumin packaging and tumor targeting enhance the antitumor efficacy and reduce the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng K

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ke Zheng,1 Rui Li,2 Xiaolei Zhou,2 Ping Hu,2 Yaxin Zhang,2 Yunmei Huang,3 Zhuo Chen,2 Mingdong Huang2 1College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, People’s Republic of China; 3Fujian Academy of Integrative Medicine, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Doxorubicin (DOX is an effective chemotherapy drug used to treat different types of cancers. However, DOX has severe side effects, especially life-threatening cardiotoxicity. We herein report a new approach to reduce the toxicity of DOX by embedding DOX inside human serum albumin (HSA. HSA is further fused by a molecular biology technique with a tumor-targeting agent, amino-terminal fragment of urokinase (ATF. ATF binds with a high affinity to urokinase receptor, which is a cell-surface receptor overexpressed in many types of tumors. The as-prepared macromolecule complex (ATF–HSA:DOX was not as cytotoxic as free DOX to cells in vitro, and was mainly localized in cell cytosol in contrast to DOX that was localized in cell nuclei. However, in tumor-bearing mice, ATF–HSA:DOX was demonstrated to have an enhanced tumor-targeting and antitumor efficacy compared with free DOX. More importantly, histopathological examinations of the hearts from the mice treated with ATF–HSA:DOX showed a significantly reduced cardiotoxicity compared with hearts from mice treated with free DOX. These results demonstrate the feasibility of this approach in reducing the cardiotoxicity of DOX while strengthening its antitumor efficacy. Such a tumor-targeted albumin packaging strategy can also be applied to other antitumor drugs. Keywords: amino-terminal fragment of urokinase, urokinase receptor, drug carrier, human serum albumin, doxorubicin, cytotoxicity

  11. Building a basis for action: enhancing public health surveillance of vision impairment and eye health in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambelli-Weiner, April; Friedman, David S

    2012-12-01

    To examine the ability of current surveillance systems to assess and monitor disparities in: (1) vision impairment, (2) eye disease, (3) vision-related functioning, (4) access to vision and eye care, and (5) access to supports and services for those needing vision rehabilitation. Review of surveillance systems and instruments. We defined surveys and surveillance systems as data collection systems that used an active survey or data abstraction instrument, regardless of the sampling unit, and excluded strictly administrative data sources. We assessed 8 surveys against key surveillance attributes of representativeness, flexibility, and timeliness, as well as their contribution to establishing a national vision surveillance system. The key challenges facing a national vision surveillance system are: (1) the lack of consistent outcome data with adequate sample size and coverage to enable identification and tracking of vision health disparities, (2) lack of standardized data elements, and (3) a paucity of data that influence disability such as behavioral and environmental data. Current systems for assessing and monitoring vision health in the United States are limited and do not provide adequate information to guide interventions and policy decisions. Vision surveillance can help to document the burden of the condition, to identify high-risk populations, to develop strategies to reduce the individual and societal burden, and to guide public health programs and policies. Existing surveillance systems could be enhanced by integrating data and by periodically including patient-reported outcomes measurements including, but not limited to, specific barriers for people with vision impairment and related disabilities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Methylferulate from Tamarix aucheriana inhibits growth and enhances chemosensitivity of human colorectal cancer cells: possible mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaza, Mohamed Salah I; Afzal, Mohammad; Al-Attiyah, Raja'a J; Guleri, Radhika

    2016-10-01

    Natural products are valuable sources for anticancer agents. In the present study, methylferulate (MF) was identified for the first time from Tamarix aucheriana. Spectral data were used for identification of MF. The potential of MF to control cell growth, cell cycle, apoptosis, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cancer cell invasion, nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) DNA-binding activity and proteasomal activities, as well as the enhancement of chemosensitivity in human colorectal cancer cells, were evaluated. The possible molecular mechanism of MF's therapeutic efficacy was also assessed. Column chromatography and spectral data were used for isolation and identification of MF. MTT, immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, in vitro invasion, fluoremetry, EIA and Real time qPCR were used to measure antiproliferative, chemo-sensitizing effects and other biochemical parameters. MF showed a dose-dependent anti-proliferative effect on colorectal cancer cells (IC 50  = 1.73 - 1.9 mM) with a nonsignificant cytotoxicity toward normal human fibroblast. Colony formation inhibition (P ≤ 0.001, 0.0001) confirmed the growth inhibition by MF. MF arrested cell cycle progression in the S and G2/M phases; induced apoptosis and ROS generation; and inhibited NF-kB DNA-binding activity, proteasomal activities and cell invasion in colorectal cancer cells. MF up-regulated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (p19 INK4D , p21 WAF1/CIP1 , p27 KIP1 ), pro-apoptotic gene expression (Bax, Bad, Apaf1, Bid, Bim, Smac) and caspases (caspase 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9). Moreover, MF down-regulated cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk1, Cdk2) and anti-apoptotic gene expression (c-IAP-1, c-IAP-2, Bcl2,FLIP). In addition, MF differentially potentiated the sensitivity of colorectal cancer cells to standard chemotherapeutic drugs. MF showed a multifaceted anti-proliferative and chemosensitizing effects. These results suggest the chemotherapeutic and co-adjuvant potential of MF.

  13. Inhibitors of GLUT/SLC2A Enhance the Action of BCNU and Temozolomide against High-Grade Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Azzalin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Glucose transport across glioblastoma membranes plays a crucial role in maintaining the enhanced glycolysis typical of high-grade gliomas and glioblastoma. We tested the ability of two inhibitors of the glucose transporters GLUT/SLC2A superfamily, indinavir (IDV and ritonavir (RTV, and of one inhibitor of the Na/glucose antiporter type 2 (SGLT2/SLC5A2 superfamily, phlorizin (PHZ, in decreasing glucose consumption and cell proliferation of human and murine glioblastoma cells. We found in vitro that RTV, active on at least three different GLUT/SLC2A transporters, was more effective than IDV, a specific inhibitor of GLUT4/SLC2A4, both in decreasing glucose consumption and lactate production and in inhibiting growth of U87MG and Hu197 human glioblastoma cell lines and primary cultures of human glioblastoma. PHZ was inactive on the same cells. Similar results were obtained when cells were grown in adherence or as 3D multicellular tumor spheroids. RTV treatment but not IDV treatment induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPKα phosphorylation that paralleled the decrease in glycolytic activity and cell growth. IDV, but not RTV, induced an increase in GLUT1/SLC2A1 whose activity could compensate for the inhibition of GLUT4/SLC2A4 by IDV. RTV and IDV pass poorly the blood brain barrier and are unlikely to reach sufficient liquoral concentrations in vivo to inhibit glioblastoma growth as single agents. Isobologram analysis of the association of RTV or IDV and 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea (BCNU or 4-methyl-5-oxo-2,3,4,6,8-pentazabicyclo[4.3.0]nona-2,7,9-triene-9-carboxamide (TMZ indicated synergy only with RTV on inhibition of glioblastoma cells. Finally, we tested in vivo the combination of RTV and BCNU on established GL261 tumors. This drug combination increased the overall survival and allowed a five-fold reduction in the dose of BCNU.

  14. Mechanism of cell death by 5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic action and its enhancement by ferrochelatase inhibitors in human histiocytic lymphoma cell line U937.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo, Takashi; Kawanishi, Noriaki; Uchida, Masataka; Fujita, Hirofumi; Oyanagi, Eri; Utsumi, Toshihiko; Ogino, Tetsuya; Inoue, Keiji; Shuin, Taro; Utsumi, Kozo; Sasaki, Junzo

    2009-12-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for tumors is based on the tumor-selective accumulation of a photosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), followed by irradiation with visible light. However, the molecular mechanism of cell death caused by PDT has not been fully elucidated. The 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-based photodynamic action (PDA) was dependent on the accumulation of PpIX, the level of which decreased rapidly by eliminating ALA from the incubation medium in human histiocytic lymphoma U937 cells. PDA induced apoptosis characterized by lipid peroxidation, increase in Bak and Bax/Bcl-xL, decrease in Bid, membrane depolarization, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization. PDT-induced cell death seemed to occur predominantly via apoptosis through distribution of PpIX in mitochondria. These cell death events were enhanced by ferrochelatase inhibitors. These results indicated that ALA-based-PDA induced apoptotic cell death through a mitochondrial pathway and that ferrochelatase inhibitors might enhanced the effect of PDT for tumors even at low concentrations of ALA.

  15. CD40 agonist converting CTL exhaustion via the activation of the mTORC1 pathway enhances PD-1 antagonist action in rescuing exhausted CTLs in chronic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Aizhang; Wang, Rong; Freywald, Andrew; Stewart, Kristoffor; Tikoo, Suresh; Xu, Jianqing; Zheng, Changyu; Xiang, Jim

    2017-03-11

    Expansion of PD-1-expressing CD8 + cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and associated CTL exhaustion are chief issues for ineffective virus-elimination in chronic infectious diseases. PD-1 blockade using antagonistic anti-PD-L1 antibodies results in a moderate conversion of CTL exhaustion. We previously demonstrated that CD40L signaling of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific vaccine, OVA-Texo, converts CTL exhaustion via the activation of the mTORC1 pathway in OVA-expressing adenovirus (AdVova)-infected B6 mice showing CTL inflation and exhaustion. Here, we developed AdVova-infected B6 and transgenic CD11c-DTR (termed AdVova-B6 and AdVova-CD11c-DTR) mice with chronic infection, and assessed a potential effect of CD40 agonist on the conversion of CTL exhaustion and on a potential enhancement of PD-1 antagonist action in rescuing exhausted CTLs in our chronic infection models. We demonstrate that a single dose of anti-CD40 alone can effectively convert CTL exhaustion by activating the mTORC1 pathway, leading to CTL proliferation, up-regulation of an effector-cytokine IFN-γ and the cytolytic effect in AdVova-B6 mice. Using anti-CD4 antibody and diphtheria toxin (DT) to deplete CD4 + T-cells and dendritic cells (DCs), we discovered that the CD40 agonist-induced conversion in AdVova-B6 and AdVova-CD11c-DTR mice is dependent upon host CD4 + T-cell and DC involvements. Moreover, CD40 agonist significantly enhances PD-1 antagonist effectiveness in rescuing exhausted CTLs in chronic infection. Taken together, our data demonstrate the importance of CD40 signaling in the conversion of CTL exhaustion and its ability to enhance PD-1 antagonist action in rescuing exhausted CTLs in chronic infection. Therefore, our findings may positively impact the design of new therapeutic strategies for chronic infectious diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Qualitative evaluation of the implementation of the Interdisciplinary Management Tool: a reflective tool to enhance interdisciplinary teamwork using Structured, Facilitated Action Research for Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancarrow, Susan A; Smith, Tony; Ariss, Steven; Enderby, Pamela M

    2015-07-01

    Reflective practice is used increasingly to enhance team functioning and service effectiveness; however, there is little evidence of its use in interdisciplinary teams. This paper presents the qualitative evaluation of the Interdisciplinary Management Tool (IMT), an evidence-based change tool designed to enhance interdisciplinary teamwork through structured team reflection. The IMT incorporates three components: an evidence-based resource guide; a reflective implementation framework based on Structured, Facilitated Action Research for Implementation methodology; and formative and summative evaluation components. The IMT was implemented with intermediate care teams supported by independent facilitators in England. Each intervention lasted 6 months and was evaluated over a 12-month period. Data sources include interviews, a focus group with facilitators, questionnaires completed by team members and documentary feedback from structured team reports. Data were analysed qualitatively using the Framework approach. The IMT was implemented with 10 teams, including 253 staff from more than 10 different disciplines. Team challenges included lack of clear vision; communication issues; limited career progression opportunities; inefficient resource use; need for role clarity and service development. The IMT successfully engaged staff in the change process, and resulted in teams developing creative strategies to address the issues identified. Participants valued dedicated time to focus on the processes of team functioning; however, some were uncomfortable with a focus on teamwork at the expense of delivering direct patient care. The IMT is a relatively low-cost, structured, reflective way to enhance team function. It empowers individuals to understand and value their own, and others' roles and responsibilities within the team; identify barriers to effective teamwork, and develop and implement appropriate solutions to these. To be successful, teams need protected time to take

  17. Peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1 associates with insulin receptor substrate-1 and enhances insulin actions and adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsu, Yusuke; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Kushiyama, Akifumi; Zhang, Jun; Ono, Hiraku; Fujishiro, Midori; Kikuchi, Takako; Fukushima, Toshiaki; Yoneda, Masayasu; Ohno, Haruya; Horike, Nanao; Kanna, Machi; Tsuchiya, Yoshihiro; Kamata, Hideaki; Nishimura, Fusanori; Isobe, Toshiaki; Ogihara, Takehide; Katagiri, Hideki; Oka, Yoshitomo; Takahashi, Shin-ichiro; Kurihara, Hiroki; Uchida, Takafumi; Asano, Tomoichiro

    2011-06-10

    Peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1 (Pin1) is a unique enzyme that associates with the pSer/Thr-Pro motif and catalyzes cis-trans isomerization. We identified Pin1 in the immunoprecipitates of overexpressed IRS-1 with myc and FLAG tags in mouse livers and confirmed the association between IRS-1 and Pin1 by not only overexpression experiments but also endogenously in the mouse liver. The analysis using deletion- and point-mutated Pin1 and IRS-1 constructs revealed the WW domain located in the N terminus of Pin1 and Ser-434 in the SAIN (Shc and IRS-1 NPXY binding) domain of IRS-1 to be involved in their association. Subsequently, we investigated the role of Pin1 in IRS-1 mediation of insulin signaling. The overexpression of Pin1 in HepG2 cells markedly enhanced insulin-induced IRS-1 phosphorylation and its downstream events: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase binding with IRS-1 and Akt phosphorylation. In contrast, the treatment of HepG2 cells with Pin1 siRNA or the Pin1 inhibitor Juglone suppressed these events. In good agreement with these in vitro data, Pin1 knock-out mice exhibited impaired insulin signaling with glucose intolerance, whereas adenoviral gene transfer of Pin1 into the ob/ob mouse liver mostly normalized insulin signaling and restored glucose tolerance. In addition, it was also demonstrated that Pin1 plays a critical role in adipose differentiation, making Pin1 knock-out mice resistant to diet-induced obesity. Importantly, Pin1 expression was shown to be up-regulated in accordance with nutrient conditions such as food intake or a high-fat diet. Taken together, these observations indicate that Pin1 binds to IRS-1 and thereby markedly enhances insulin action, essential for adipogenesis.

  18. Committed dis(s)idents: participation in radical collective action fosters disidentification with the broader in-group but enhances political identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Julia C; Tausch, Nicole; Spears, Russell; Christ, Oliver

    2011-08-01

    The present research examined the hypothesis that participation in radical, but not moderate, action results in disidentification from the broader in-group. Study 1 (N = 98) was a longitudinal study conducted in the context of student protests against tuition fees in Germany and confirmed that participation in radical collective action results in disidentification with the broader in-group (students) whereas participation in moderate collective action does not. Both types of action increased politicized identification. Study 2 (N = 175) manipulated the normativeness of different types of imagined collective actions in the same context and replicated this disidentification effect for radical actions, but only when this action mismatched the broader in-group's norms. This study also indicated that these effects were partially mediated by perceived lack of solidarity and perceived lack of commitment to the cause among the broader in-group. The implications of these findings for understanding radicalization within social movements are discussed.

  19. ENHANCING THE LEGAL PROFESSION’S CAPACITY FOR INNOVATION: THE PROMISE OF REFLECTIVE PRACTICE AND ACTION RESEARCH FOR INCREASING ACCESS TO JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele M Leering

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent national reports have documented growing justice gaps in Canada and have identified a compelling need for innovation in the justice sector to better meet the needs of the public. Nurturing a greater capacity for individual, collective, and critical reflection will ensure the legal profession is much better equipped to respond creatively and strategically to a lack of equal access to justice. In this article, I explore the generative and transformative potential of reflective practice – an important professional competency in other professional disciplines, but under-theorized in law, and action research – a dynamic and flexible form of qualitative research for supporting a culture of innovation in the legal profession and the justice system. Reflective capacity is a crucial enabler of innovative thinking, and it undergirds approaches to encouraging individual and systems change emerging from the organizational learning and innovation literature. An enhanced capacity for reflection will also support more generative and “future-forming” dialogues within the profession and between justice system stakeholders. Furthermore, systematically reflecting on disorienting empirical data about the troubling state of access to justice could develop an “access to justice consciousness” in law students and legal professionals, leading to a stronger willingness to take action to narrow the justice gaps. Introducing action research as an unpretentious and effective enabler of profound transformation and innovation in individual and organizational practices offers significant promise for tackling the “wicked problem” of access to justice. Practical illustrations of action research as an enabler of innovation drawn from legal practice are provided.   De récents rapports font état de lacunes croissantes du système de justice canadien et de la nécessité impérieuse d’innover dans le secteur de la justice afin de mieux répondre aux

  20. Using a participatory action strategic approach to enhance accessibility and participation in arts and cultural events: results of four focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Nancy Vandewiele; Nieuwenhuijsen, Els R; Grawi, Carolyn L

    2014-01-01

    Cultural events are abundant in a midwestern college town; however, individuals with disabilities have expressed concerns about their accessibility. Policymakers, business owners, and managers often ignore disability-related issues. Research shows accessibility is the main environmental barrier to participation in arts and cultural events. Individuals with disabilities are disconnected from managers of cultural organizations and city leaders. The lack of awareness about accessibility, including access to the built environment, impedes participation in cultural events in this college town. To encourage the participation of people with disabilities in cultural events in a midwestern college town, a bold strategic project was initiated to conduct a community-based needs assessment as a foundation for an action plan. Participation in arts and culture was selected as a unique focal point for exploring ways to enhance accessibility. Thirty-nine stakeholders participated in four different focus groups: individuals with disabilities, managers of cultural organizations, caregivers and health care providers, and other stakeholders including politicians. Critical problem areas identified were mapped onto the environmental factors in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). Three themes emerged: 1) limited awareness about accessibility among the residents with disabilities and a lack of awareness about disability-related issues and accessibility among the managers of cultural organizations; 2) the need for a "central information clearinghouse" to share, provide, and retrieve information; 3) the need for inclusive city-level policies. Raising awareness about disabilities and accessibility, providing a clearinghouse for information sharing and implementing inclusive policies are crucial to strengthen participation in community life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Modes and nodes explain the mechanism of action of vortioxetine, a multimodal agent (MMA): blocking 5HT3 receptors enhances release of serotonin, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Stephen M

    2015-10-01

    Vortioxetine is an antidepressant with multiple pharmacologic modes of action at targets where serotonin neurons connect with other neurons. 5HT3 receptor antagonism is one of these actions, and this leads to increased release of norepinephrine (NE), acetylcholine (ACh), and serotonin (5HT) within various brain circuits.

  2. Action physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-09-01

    More than a decade ago, Edwin Taylor issued a "call to action" that presented the case for basing introductory university mechanics teaching around the principle of stationary action [E. F. Taylor, Am. J. Phys. 71, 423-425 (2003)]. We report on our response to that call in the form of an investigation of the teaching and learning of the stationary action formulation of physics in a first-year university course. Our action physics instruction proceeded from the many-paths approach to quantum physics to ray optics, classical mechanics, and relativity. Despite the challenges presented by action physics, students reported it to be accessible, interesting, motivational, and valuable.

  3. Problem-Based Learning Associated by Action-Process-Object-Schema (APOS) Theory to Enhance Students' High Order Mathematical Thinking Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrikah, Achmad

    2016-01-01

    The research has shown a model of learning activities that can be used to stimulate reflective abstraction in students. Reflective abstraction as a method of constructing knowledge in the Action-Process-Object-Schema theory, and is expected to occur when students are in learning activities, will be able to encourage students to make the process of…

  4. Improved Mitochondrial Function in Brain Aging and Alzheimer Disease – the New Mechanism of Action of the Old Metabolic Enhancer Piracetam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuner, Kristina; Kurz, Christopher; Guidetti, Giorgio; Orgogozo, Jean-Marc; Müller, Walter E.

    2010-01-01

    Piracetam, the prototype of the so-called nootropic drugs’ is used since many years in different countries to treat cognitive impairment in aging and dementia. Findings that piracetam enhances fluidity of brain mitochondrial membranes led to the hypothesis that piracetam might improve mitochondrial function, e.g., might enhance ATP synthesis. This assumption has recently been supported by a number of observations showing enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced ATP production, and reduced sensitivity for apoptosis in a variety of cell and animal models for aging and Alzheimer disease. As a specific consequence, substantial evidence for elevated neuronal plasticity as a specific effect of piracetam has emerged. Taken together, this new findings can explain many of the therapeutic effects of piracetam on cognition in aging and dementia as well as different situations of brain dysfunctions. PMID:20877425

  5. 2. Cannabidiol enhancement of serotonergic and glutamatergic signalling in a mouse model of depression induces fast and maintained antidepressant actions: implication of 5-HT1A receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Linge Méndez, Raquel; Jiménez Sánchez, Laura; Campa, Leticia; Pilar Cuéllar, María Fuencisla; Vidal Casado, Rebeca; Pazos Carro, Ángel; Adell Calduch, Albert; Díaz Martínez, Álvaro

    2016-01-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD), the main non-psychotomimetic component of marihuana, exhibits anxiolytic-like properties in many behavioural tests, although its potential for treating major depression has been poorly explored. Moreover, the mechanism of action of CBD remains unclear. Herein, we have evaluated the effects of CBD following acute and chronic administration in the olfactory bulbectomy mouse model of depression (OBX), and investigated the underlying mechanism. For this purpose, we conducted be...

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July - September 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  10. A Teacher Action Research Study: Enhancing Student Critical Thinking Knowledge, Skills, Dispositions, Application and Transfer in a Higher Education Technology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Jack Gordon

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a critical thinking instructional intervention in a higher education technology course with the purpose of determining the extent to which the intervention enhanced student critical thinking knowledge, skills, dispositions, application and transfer abilities. Historically, critical thinking has been considered…

  11. Antiproliferative Action of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Human MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells Mediated by Enhancement of Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication through Inactivation of NF-κB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdur Rakib

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The major conjugated linoleic acid (CLA isomers, c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA, have anticancer effects; however, the exact mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. Evidence suggests that reversal of reduced gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC in cancer cells inhibits cell growth and induces cell death. Hence, we determined that CLA isomers enhance GJIC in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. The CLA isomers significantly enhanced GJIC of MCF-7 cells at 40 μM concentration, whereas CLA inhibited cell growth and induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. CLA increased connexin43 (Cx43 expression both at the transcriptional and translational levels. CLA inhibited nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB activity and enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS generation. No significant difference was observed in the efficacy of c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA. These results suggest that the anticancer effect of CLA is associated with upregulation of GJIC mediated by enhanced Cx43 expression through inactivation of NF-κB and generation of ROS in MCF-7 cells.

  12. InterAction Database (IADB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The InterAction Database includes demographic and prescription information for more than 500,000 patients in the northern and middle Netherlands and has been integrated with other systems to enhance data collection and analysis.

  13. Vitamin D enhances glucocorticoid action in human monocytes: involvement of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and mediator complex subunit 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Leung, Donald Y M; Goleva, Elena

    2013-05-17

    Vitamin D (VitD) is now recognized for its pleiotrophic roles in regulating immune function. VitD interaction with other steroid receptor superfamily receptors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells is poorly understood. In the current study, we demonstrate that VitD enhanced glucocorticoid (GC) responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells because it stimulated GC induction of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) and enhanced GC inhibition of LPS-induced IL-6. These VitD effects were abolished in purified CD14(+) and CD14(-) cells but were recovered in CD14(+) cells co-cultured with CD14(-) cells separated by tissue culture inserts. GM-CSF, found in culture supernatants from CD14(-) cells, was shown to mediate VitD enhancement of GC-induced MKP-1 production in monocytes via increased production of mediator complex subunit 14 (MED14). Recruitment of VitD receptor and MED14, 4.7 kbp upstream of the human MKP-1 gene transcription start site, enhanced binding of glucocorticoid receptor and histone H4 acetylation at the 4.6-kbp glucocorticoid response element of the MKP-1 promoter in the presence of GM-CSF in U937 cells. Knockdown of MED14 abolished VitD-mediated enhancement of GC-induced MKP-1 production. These data demonstrate VitD-mediated stimulation of GC anti-inflammatory effects in human monocytes and identify a role for GM-CSF and MED14 as mediators of this process.

  14. Hopefulness Fosters Affective and Cognitive Constructs for Actions to Cope and Enhance Quality of Life among People Living with HIV in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siril, Hellen; Fawzi, Mary C Smith; Todd, Jim; Wyatt, Monique; Kilewo, Japheth; Ware, Norma; Kaaya, Sylvia

    The aims of this study were to describe how people living with HIV (PLWH) perceive hope and illustrate implications for HIV care and treatment. This is a qualitative study done to explore perceptions and meanings of hope among PLWH attending care and treatment clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. In all, 10 focus group discussions and 9 in-depth interviews were conducted. People living with HIV described the following 3 dimensions of hope: cognitive, positive emotions, and normalization. Being cognizant of the effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment (ART) often led to positive emotions, such as feeling comforted or strengthened, which in turn was related to positive actions toward normalizing life. Improved treatment outcomes facilitated hope, while persistent health problems, such as ART side effects, were sources of negative emotions contributing to loss of hope among PLWH. Hope motivated positive health-seeking behaviors, including adherence to ART, and this may guide interventions to help PLWH cope and live positively with HIV.

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  9. Action of caffeine on x-irradiated HeLa cells. VII. Evidence that caffeine enhances expression of potentially lethal radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beetham, K.L.; Tolmach, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    HeLa cells irradiated with 2 Gy of 220-kV X rays suffer a 60-70% loss of colony-forming ability which is increased to 90% by postirradiation treatment with 10 mM caffeine for 6 hr. The detailed postirradiation patterns of cell death and sister-cell fusion in such cultures and in cultures in which the colony-forming ability was brought to about the same level by treatment with a larger (4 Gy) X-ray dose alone or by longer (48 hr) treatment with 10 mM caffeine alone were recorded by time-lapse cinemicrography. Because the patterns of cell death and fusion differ radically in irradiated and in caffeine-treated cultures, the response of the additional cells killed by the combined treatment can be identified as X-ray induced rather than caffeine induced. The appearance of cultures after several days of incubation confirms the similarity of the post-treatment patterns of proliferation in cultures suffering enhanced killing to those occurring in cultures treated with larger doses of X rays alone. It is concluded that x rays do not sensitize cells to caffeine, but rather that caffeine enhanced the expression of potentially lethal radiation-induced damage

  10. Bone Marrow Suppression by c-Kit Blockade Enhances Tumor Growth of Colorectal Metastases through the Action of Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Rupertus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mobilization of c-Kit+ hematopoietic cells (HCs contributes to tumor vascularization. Whereas survival and proliferation of HCs are regulated by binding of the stem cell factor to its receptor c-Kit, migration of HCs is directed by stromal cell-derived factor (SDF-1. Therefore, targeting migration of HCs provides a promising new strategy of anti-tumor therapy. Methods. BALB/c mice (=16 were pretreated with an anti-c-Kit antibody followed by implantation of CT26.WT-GFP colorectal cancer cells into dorsal skinfold chambers. Animals (=8 additionally received a neutralizing anti-SDF-1 antibody. Animals (=8 treated with a control antibody served as controls. Investigations were performed using intravital fluorescence microscopy, immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and western blot analysis. Results. Blockade of c-Kit significantly enhanced tumor cell engraftment compared to controls due to stimulation of tumor cell proliferation and invasion without markedly affecting tumor vascularization. C-Kit blockade significantly increased VEGF and CXCR4 expression within the growing tumors. Neutralization of SDF-1 completely antagonized this anti-c-Kit-associated tumor growth by suppression of tumor neovascularization, inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and reduction of muscular infiltration. Conclusion. Our study indicates that bone marrow suppression via anti-c-Kit pretreatment enhances tumor cell engraftment of colorectal metastases due to interaction with the SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway which is involved in HC-mediated tumor angiogenesis.

  11. The Consortium for Evidence Based Research in Rural Educational Settings (CEBRRES): Applying Collaborative Action Research as a Means of Enhancing the Development of Rural Middle School Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, A. H.

    2006-05-01

    Kentucky ranks third in the U.S. in need of rural education attention. Rural schools in Kentucky serve nearly 40% of the total student population, and graduation rates and NAEP scores are low. A two-year pilot study is being completed addressing psychological, social, and content knowledge based constructs, as they apply to science and mathematics achievement in rural environments. The goals are to identify the key aspects of rural teachers knowledge and skills, use a framework to describe how knowledge and skills develop in the rural classroom, apply a useful model of intervention to promote teacher development and increased student learning. If proven successful the knowledge can be incorporated into the practice of current teaching and preservice pedagogical methods. The problem that was identified and addressed by CEBRRES is the high level of student disengagement and the shortage of rigorous stimulating curriculum models. The action taken was the development and implementation of model eliciting activities. Teachers at the target school were expected to utilize action research methodology to execute model-eliciting activities in the classroom, and then communicate results in forms that are useful for other teachers. Benefits to teachers included stipends, increased science content depth and breadth, support to achieve "highly qualified teacher status", extensive professional development, and technology, equipment, and supplies for their school. Survey instruments were devised to address school perceptions (61% worry that they are not doing well enough in school), future plans (80% expect to attend college vs. the current 47.5%), various self concepts, academic self concepts (23% feel that learning is difficult for them), and family self concepts. Science was identified by the students as the subject that interests them the most, followed by math, yet Kentucky ranks near the bottom of the U.S. in math and science training in the workplace. Geology

  12. Joint action modulates motor system involvement during action observation in 3-year-olds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, M.; Hunnius, S.; Elk, M. van; Ede, F.L. van; Bekkering, H.

    2011-01-01

    When we are engaged in a joint action, we need to integrate our partner's actions with our own actions. Previous research has shown that in adults the involvement of one's own motor system is enhanced during observation of an action partner as compared to during observation of an individual actor.

  13. Students in Action Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Theresa; Mottiar, Ziene; Quinn, Bernadette; Gorman, Catherine; Griffin, Kevin; Craggs, Ruth; Quinn, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    The Students in Action Project in the School of Hospitality Management and Tourism was established in 2012 as a way of engaging students and working with stakeholders in a destination. The overall aim of the project was to immerse students in an active collaborative learning environment within the destination to identify ways in which tourism could be enhanced. In the 2014/2015 academic year the project involved over 300 students from a variety of programmes and modules working with local sta...

  14. Co-ordinate action of bacterial adhesins and human carcinoembryonic antigen receptors in enhanced cellular invasion by capsulate serum resistant Neisseria meningitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Helen A; Griffiths, Natalie J; Hill, Darryl J; Virji, Mumtaz

    2007-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) is a human specific opportunistic pathogen that occasionally penetrates mucosal barriers via the action of adhesins and invasins and evades host immune mechanisms during further dissemination via capsule expression. From in vitro studies, the primary adhesion of capsulate bacteria is believed to be mediated by polymeric pili, followed by invasion via outer membrane adhesins such as Opa proteins. As the latter requires the surface capsule to be down-modulated, invading bacteria would be serum sensitive and thus avirulent. However, there is recent evidence that capsulate bacteria may interact via Opa proteins when host cells express high levels of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs), their target receptors. Such a situation may arise following increased circulation of inflammatory cytokines that upregulate certain adhesion molecules on host cells. In this study, using a tetracycline controlled expression system, we have developed cell lines with inducible CEACAM expression to mimic post-inflammation state of target tissues and analysed the interplay between the three surface components capsule, pili and Opa proteins in cellular interactions. With two distinct cell lines, not only the level but also the rate of adhesion of capsulate Opa-expressing Nm increased concurrently with CEACAM density. Moreover, when threshold levels of receptor were reached, cellular invasion ensued in an Opa-dependent manner. In studies with cell lines intrinsically expressing pilus receptors, notable synergism in cellular interactions between pili and Opa of several meningococcal strains was observed and was independent of capsule type. A number of internalized bacteria were shown to express capsule and when directly isolated from host cells, these bacteria were as serum resistant as the inoculated phenotype. Furthermore, we observed that agents that block Opa-CEACAM binding substantially reduced cellular invasion, while maintaining

  15. Enhancement of physicochemical properties of nanocolloidal carrier loaded with cyclosporine for topical treatment of psoriasis: in vitro diffusion and in vivo hydrating action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Siti Hajar; Basri, Mahiran; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza; Shamsudin, Norashikin; Salim, Norazlinaliza

    2017-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune disease that cannot be cured. It can however be controlled by various forms of treatment, including topical, systemic agents, and phototherapy. Topical treatment is the first-line treatment and favored by most physicians, as this form of therapy has more patient compliance. Introducing a nanoemulsion for transporting cyclosporine as an anti-inflammatory drug to an itchy site of skin disease would enhance the effectiveness of topical treatment for psoriasis. The addition of nutmeg and virgin coconut-oil mixture, with their unique properties, could improve cyclosporine loading and solubility. A high-shear homogenizer was used in formulating a cyclosporine-loaded nanoemulsion. A D-optimal mixture experimental design was used in the optimization of nanoemulsion compositions, in order to understand the relationships behind the effect of independent variables (oil, surfactant, xanthan gum, and water content) on physicochemical response (particle size and polydispersity index) and rheological response (viscosity and k -value). Investigation of these variables suggests two optimized formulations with specific oil (15% and 20%), surfactant (15%), xanthan gum (0.75%), and water content (67.55% and 62.55%), which possessed intended responses and good stability against separation over 3 months' storage at different temperatures. Optimized nanoemulsions of pH 4.5 were further studied with all types of stability analysis: physical stability, coalescence-rate analysis, Ostwald ripening, and freeze-thaw cycles. In vitro release proved the efficacy of nanosize emulsions in carrying cyclosporine across rat skin and a synthetic membrane that best fit the Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetic model. In vivo skin analysis towards healthy volunteers showed a significant improvement in the stratum corneum in skin hydration.

  16. Surgical robotics beyond enhanced dexterity instrumentation: a survey of machine learning techniques and their role in intelligent and autonomous surgical actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassahun, Yohannes; Yu, Bingbin; Tibebu, Abraham Temesgen; Stoyanov, Danail; Giannarou, Stamatia; Metzen, Jan Hendrik; Vander Poorten, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    Advances in technology and computing play an increasingly important role in the evolution of modern surgical techniques and paradigms. This article reviews the current role of machine learning (ML) techniques in the context of surgery with a focus on surgical robotics (SR). Also, we provide a perspective on the future possibilities for enhancing the effectiveness of procedures by integrating ML in the operating room. The review is focused on ML techniques directly applied to surgery, surgical robotics, surgical training and assessment. The widespread use of ML methods in diagnosis and medical image computing is beyond the scope of the review. Searches were performed on PubMed and IEEE Explore using combinations of keywords: ML, surgery, robotics, surgical and medical robotics, skill learning, skill analysis and learning to perceive. Studies making use of ML methods in the context of surgery are increasingly being reported. In particular, there is an increasing interest in using ML for developing tools to understand and model surgical skill and competence or to extract surgical workflow. Many researchers begin to integrate this understanding into the control of recent surgical robots and devices. ML is an expanding field. It is popular as it allows efficient processing of vast amounts of data for interpreting and real-time decision making. Already widely used in imaging and diagnosis, it is believed that ML will also play an important role in surgery and interventional treatments. In particular, ML could become a game changer into the conception of cognitive surgical robots. Such robots endowed with cognitive skills would assist the surgical team also on a cognitive level, such as possibly lowering the mental load of the team. For example, ML could help extracting surgical skill, learned through demonstration by human experts, and could transfer this to robotic skills. Such intelligent surgical assistance would significantly surpass the state of the art in surgical

  17. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  18. Regulatory actions post - Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciurea Ercau, C.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the safety reviews performed in Romania after the Fukushima accident and the resulting actions for improving the safety. The actions taken by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) to improve the regulatory framework include the development of new regulations and the enhancement of inspection practices, taking account of the lessons learned from the Fukushima accident. A regulation on the response to transients, accidents and emergency situations at nuclear power plants has been developed, which includes requirements on transient and accident scenarios that have to be covered by the Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs), accident scenarios to be covered by the Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMGs), emergency situations to be covered by the on-site emergency response plan and emergency response procedures. (authors)

  19. Learning ActionScript 30

    CERN Document Server

    Shupe, Rich

    2010-01-01

    If you're new to ActionScript 3.0, or want to enhance your skill set, this bestselling book is the ideal guide. Designers, developers, and programmers alike will find Learning ActionScript 3.0 invaluable for navigating ActionScript 3.0's learning curve. You'll learn the language by getting a clear look at essential topics such as logic, event handling, displaying content, classes, and much more. Updated for Flash Professional CS5, this revised and expanded edition delivers hands-on exercises and full-color code samples to help you increase your abilities as you progress through the book. Top

  20. The Alchemy of Action Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Penny; Choueke, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the authors' experiences as action learning set facilitators within a public sector organisation undergoing change. Our objectives were to assist in the identification of internal and external drivers for change and to work with the set to explore how people's roles and responsibilities might be enhanced and developed in a…

  1. Dance Education Action Research: A Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giguere, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author compares the practices, philosophy, and history of action research, also known as participatory action research, to the purposes and practices of dance education. The comparison yields connections in four categories, enhancing self-reflective teaching and curriculum design, taking responsibility for teaching outcomes,…

  2. Entrepreneurial learning requires action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove; Madsen, Svend Ole

    2014-01-01

    apply in industry. The findings of this study show that SME managers employ a practice-shaped holistic multi- and cross-disciplinary approach to learning. This learning approach is supported by theory dissemination, business challenge applications, and organisational prerequisites. Diversified learning......This paper reveals how managers of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) can utilise their participation in research-based training. Empirical research from a longitudinal study of 10 SMEs managers in the wind turbine industry is provided to describe a learning approach that SME managers can...... that is enhanced by essential large-scale industry players and other SME managers are required to create action and value in learning. An open-mindedness to new learning approaches by SME managers and an open-mindedness to multi- and cross-disciplinary collaboration with SME managers by facilitators is required....

  3. Transcriptional Modulation of Penicillin-Binding Protein 1b, Outer Membrane Protein P2 and Efflux Pump (AcrAB-TolC) during Heat Stress Is Correlated to Enhanced Bactericidal Action of Imipenem on Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkaoui, Abdessalam; Diene, Seydina M.; Fischer, Adrien; Leo, Stefano; François, Patrice; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the penicillin binding proteins (PBPs), drug influx and efflux modulations during heat stress and their effects on the bactericidal action of imipenem on non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Methods: The two NTHi clinical isolates (GE47 and GE88, imipenem MICs by E-test > 32 μg/mL) examined in this study were collected at Geneva University Hospitals. The imipenem killing activity was assessed after incubation of the NTHi strains at either 37 or 42°C for 3 h with increasing concentrations of imipenem. The detection of PBPs was carried out by Bocillin-FL. Global transcriptional changes were monitored by RNA-seq after pre-incubation of bacterial cells at either 37 or 42°C, and the expression levels of relevant target genes were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Results: Quantitation of NTHi viable cells after incubation with 0.25 μg/mL of imipenem for 3 h revealed more than a twofold decrease in GE47 and GE88 viable cells at 42°C as compared to 37°C. Transcriptome analysis showed that under heat stress conditions, there were 141 differentially expressed genes with a | log2(fold change)| > 1, including 67 up-regulated and 74 down-regulated genes. The expression levels of ponB (encoding PBP1b) and acrR (regulator of AcrAB-TolC efflux pump) were significantly increased at 42°C. In contrast, the transcript levels of ompP2 (encoding the outer membrane protein P2) and acrB gene (encoding AcrB) were significantly lower under heat stress condition. Conclusion: This study shows that the transcriptional modulation of ponB, ompP2, acrR, and acrB in the heat stress response is correlated to enhanced antimicrobial effects of imipenem on non-typeable H. influenzae. PMID:29375536

  4. Transcriptional Modulation of Penicillin-Binding Protein 1b, Outer Membrane Protein P2 and Efflux Pump (AcrAB-TolC during Heat Stress Is Correlated to Enhanced Bactericidal Action of Imipenem on Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdessalam Cherkaoui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the penicillin binding proteins (PBPs, drug influx and efflux modulations during heat stress and their effects on the bactericidal action of imipenem on non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi.Methods: The two NTHi clinical isolates (GE47 and GE88, imipenem MICs by E-test > 32 μg/mL examined in this study were collected at Geneva University Hospitals. The imipenem killing activity was assessed after incubation of the NTHi strains at either 37 or 42°C for 3 h with increasing concentrations of imipenem. The detection of PBPs was carried out by Bocillin-FL. Global transcriptional changes were monitored by RNA-seq after pre-incubation of bacterial cells at either 37 or 42°C, and the expression levels of relevant target genes were confirmed by qRT-PCR.Results: Quantitation of NTHi viable cells after incubation with 0.25 μg/mL of imipenem for 3 h revealed more than a twofold decrease in GE47 and GE88 viable cells at 42°C as compared to 37°C. Transcriptome analysis showed that under heat stress conditions, there were 141 differentially expressed genes with a | log2(fold change| > 1, including 67 up-regulated and 74 down-regulated genes. The expression levels of ponB (encoding PBP1b and acrR (regulator of AcrAB-TolC efflux pump were significantly increased at 42°C. In contrast, the transcript levels of ompP2 (encoding the outer membrane protein P2 and acrB gene (encoding AcrB were significantly lower under heat stress condition.Conclusion: This study shows that the transcriptional modulation of ponB, ompP2, acrR, and acrB in the heat stress response is correlated to enhanced antimicrobial effects of imipenem on non-typeable H. influenzae.

  5. Enhancing Video Games Policy Based on Least-Squares Continuous Action Policy Iteration: Case Study on StarCraft Brood War and Glest RTS Games and the 8 Queens Board Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahenda Sarhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid advent of video games recently and the increasing numbers of players and gamers, only a tough game with high policy, actions, and tactics survives. How the game responds to opponent actions is the key issue of popular games. Many algorithms were proposed to solve this problem such as Least-Squares Policy Iteration (LSPI and State-Action-Reward-State-Action (SARSA but they mainly depend on discrete actions, while agents in such a setting have to learn from the consequences of their continuous actions, in order to maximize the total reward over time. So in this paper we proposed a new algorithm based on LSPI called Least-Squares Continuous Action Policy Iteration (LSCAPI. The LSCAPI was implemented and tested on three different games: one board game, the 8 Queens, and two real-time strategy (RTS games, StarCraft Brood War and Glest. The LSCAPI evaluation proved superiority over LSPI in time, policy learning ability, and effectiveness.

  6. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  7. Doping as a means to probe the potential dependence of dopamine adsorption on carbon-based surfaces: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarva, Anja; Laurila, Tomi; Caro, Miguel A.

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we study the adsorption characteristics of dopamine (DA), ascorbic acid (AA), and dopaminequinone (DAox) on carbonaceous electrodes. Our goal is to obtain a better understanding of the adsorption behavior of these analytes in order to promote the development of new carbon-based electrode materials for sensitive and selective detection of dopamine in vivo. Here we employ density functional theory-based simulations to reach a level of detail that cannot be achieved experimentally. To get a broader understanding of carbonaceous surfaces with different morphological characteristics, we compare three materials: graphene, diamond, and amorphous carbon (a-C). Effects of solvation on adsorption characteristics are taken into account via a continuum solvent model. Potential changes that take place during electrochemical measurements, such as cyclic voltammetry, can also alter the adsorption behavior. In this study, we have utilized doping as an indirect method to simulate these changes by shifting the work function of the electrode material. We demonstrate that sp2- and sp3-rich materials, as well as a-C, respond markedly different to doping. Also the adsorption behavior of the molecules studied here differs depending on the surface material and the change in the surface potential. In all cases, adsorption is spontaneous, but covalent bonding is not detected in vacuum. The aqueous medium has a large effect on the adsorption behavior of DAox, which reaches its highest adsorption energy on diamond when the potential is shifted to more negative values. In all cases, inclusion of the solvent enhances the charge transfer between the slab and DAox. Largest differences in adsorption energy between DA and AA are obtained on graphene. Gaining better understanding of the behavior of the different forms of carbon when used as electrode materials provides a means to rationalize the observed complex phenomena taking place at the electrodes during electrochemical oxidation

  8. Action potentials: to the nucleus and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Ramendra N; Dudek, Serena M

    2008-04-01

    The neuronal nucleus is now widely accepted as playing a vital role in maintaining long-term changes in synaptic effectiveness. To act, however, the nucleus must be appropriately relayed with information regarding the latest round of synaptic plasticity. Several constraints of doing so in a neuron pertain to the often significant spatial distance of synapses from the nucleus and the number of synapses required for such a signal to reach functional levels in the nucleus. Largely based on the sensitivity of transcriptional responses to NMDA receptor antagonists, it has been postulated that the signals are physically relayed by biochemical messengers from the synapse to the nucleus. Alternatively, a second, less often considered but equally viable method of signal transduction may be initiated by action potentials generated proximal to the nucleus, wherefrom the signal can be relayed directly by calcium or indirectly by biochemical second messengers. We consider action potential-dependent signaling to the nucleus to have its own computational advantages over the synapse-to-nucleus signal for some functions. This minireview summarizes the logic and experimental support for these two modes of signaling and attempts to validate the action potential model as playing an important role in transcriptional regulation relating specifically to long-term synaptic plasticity.

  9. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnkö, M.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Sere, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time-derivatives in modell......In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time...... to the differential action, thus, allowing stepwise development of hybrid systems Udgivelsesdato: JAN 1...

  10. From Voluntary Collective Action to Organized Collaboration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattke, Fabian; Blaschke, Steffen; Frost, Jetta

    2016-01-01

    in three fields of action: the training of young scientists, internationalization, and gender diversity. The findings indicate that organized collaboration may lead to improved performance in the training of young scientists and gender diversity. Conversely, voluntary collective action enhances......Our study examines the relationship between voluntary collective action, organized collaboration, and the provision of public goods in pluralistic organizations. Using German higher education as a context, we investigate whether specialized central support structures contribute to performance...... internationalization. Based on our results, we suggest that, depending on the field of action, voluntary collective action and organized collaboration are substitutes with regard to performance. Our study contributes to the literature on collective action and to research on public organizations in pluralistic...

  11. Pedagogical actions under pressure? Primary school teachers’ perceptions of their pedagogical actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemmink, Michelle; Fokkens-Bruinsma, Marjon; Pauw, Ietje; van Veen, Klaas

    2017-01-01

    In Dutch primary schools, pedagogical actions seem to receive much less attention than content knowledge. This is the consequence of several developments and innovations that aimed at enhancing pupils’ learning outcomes and at improving teachers’ content knowledge and didactic actions. This results

  12. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  13. THE ANTI-FIBROTIC ACTIONS OF RELAXIN ARE MEDIATED THROUGH A NO-sGC-cGMP-DEPENDENT PATHWAY IN RENAL MYOFIBROBLASTS IN VITRO AND ENHANCED BY THE NO DONOR, DIETHYLAMINE NONOATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao eWang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The anti-fibrotic hormone, relaxin, has been inferred to disrupt TGF-beta1/Smad2 phosphorylation (pSmad2 signal transduction and promote collagen-degrading gelatinase activity via a nitric oxide (NO-dependent pathway. Here, we determined the extent to which NO, soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP were directly involved in the anti-fibrotic actions of relaxin using a selective NO scavenger and sGC inhibitor, and comparing and combining relaxin’s effects with that of an NO donor. METHODS AND RESULTS: Primary renal cortical myofibroblasts isolated from injured rat kidneys were treated with human recombinant relaxin (RLX; 16.8nM, the NO donor, diethylamine NONOate (DEA/NO; 0.5-5uM or the combined effects of RLX (16.8nM and DEA/NO (5uM over 72 hours. The effects of RLX (16.8nM and DEA/NO (5uM were also evaluated in the presence of the NO scavenger, hydroxocobalamin (HXC; 100uM or sGC inhibitor, ODQ (5uM over 72 hours. Furthermore, the effects of RLX (30nM, DEA/NO (5uM and RLX (30nM+DEA/NO (5uM on cGMP levels were directly measured, in the presence or absence of ODQ (5uM. Changes in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2, MMP-9 (cell media, pSmad2 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA; a measure myofibroblast differentiation (cell layer were assessed by gelatin zymography and Western blotting, respectively. At the highest concentration tested, both RLX and DEA/NO promoted MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels by 25-33%, while inhibiting pSmad2 and α-SMA expression by up to 50% (all p<0.05 vs untreated and vehicle-treated cells. However, 5uM of DEA/NO was required to produce the effects seen with 16.8nM of RLX over 72 hours. The anti-fibrotic effects of RLX or DEA/NO alone were completely abrogated by HXC and ODQ (both p<0.01 vs RLX alone or DEA/NO alone, but were significantly enhanced when added in combination (all p<0.05 vs RLX alone. Additionally, the direct cGMP-promoting effects of RLX, DEA/NO and RLX+DEA/NO (which all

  14. Workplace Learning by Action Learning: A Practical Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter

    2003-01-01

    An action learning approach to help managers enhance learning capacity involved a performance management seminar, work by action learning sets, implementation of a new performance management instrument with mentoring by action learning facilitators, and evaluation. Survey responses from 392 participants revealed satisfaction with managerial…

  15. DAPs: Deep Action Proposals for Action Understanding

    KAUST Repository

    Escorcia, Victor

    2016-09-17

    Object proposals have contributed significantly to recent advances in object understanding in images. Inspired by the success of this approach, we introduce Deep Action Proposals (DAPs), an effective and efficient algorithm for generating temporal action proposals from long videos. We show how to take advantage of the vast capacity of deep learning models and memory cells to retrieve from untrimmed videos temporal segments, which are likely to contain actions. A comprehensive evaluation indicates that our approach outperforms previous work on a large scale action benchmark, runs at 134 FPS making it practical for large-scale scenarios, and exhibits an appealing ability to generalize, i.e. to retrieve good quality temporal proposals of actions unseen in training.

  16. Playing Action Video Games Improves Visuomotor Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Chen, Rongrong; Chen, Jing

    2016-08-01

    Can playing action video games improve visuomotor control? If so, can these games be used in training people to perform daily visuomotor-control tasks, such as driving? We found that action gamers have better lane-keeping and visuomotor-control skills than do non-action gamers. We then trained non-action gamers with action or nonaction video games. After they played a driving or first-person-shooter video game for 5 or 10 hr, their visuomotor control improved significantly. In contrast, non-action gamers showed no such improvement after they played a nonaction video game. Our model-driven analysis revealed that although different action video games have different effects on the sensorimotor system underlying visuomotor control, action gaming in general improves the responsiveness of the sensorimotor system to input error signals. The findings support a causal link between action gaming (for as little as 5 hr) and enhancement in visuomotor control, and suggest that action video games can be beneficial training tools for driving. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. The beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists clenbuterol and salbutamol enhance the hypothermic action of 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) in mice by a central mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A R; Goodwin, G M; De Souza, R J; Heal, D J

    1986-01-01

    The hypothermic response of mice to injection of 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) was enhanced by injection of the beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist clenbuterol with an ED50 of 0.4 mg/kg. This effect of clenbuterol is through a central mechanism since salbutamol, a beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist with poor penetration into the brain, had no effect at a dose of 2 mg/kg, whereas intracerebroventricular injection of clenbuterol (3 micrograms) or salbutamol (2 micrograms), produced a significant enhancement. The enhancing effect of clenbuterol was unaffected by pretreatment with the beta 1-adrenoceptor antagonist metoprolol but was totally antagonised by the beta 2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 118,551 and to a lesser extent by butoxamine. Clenbuterol therefore enhances the function of the presynaptic 5-HT1 receptor through a beta 2-adrenoceptor mechanism.

  18. Recovery Action Mapping Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Recovery Action Mapping Tool is a web map that allows users to visually interact with and query actions that were developed to recover species listed under the...

  19. Drinking Water Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Drinking Water Action Plan serves as a national call to action, urging all levels of government, utilities, community organizations, and other stakeholders to work together to increase the safety and reliability of drinking water.

  20. Action Rules Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Dardzinska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    We are surrounded by data, numerical, categorical and otherwise, which must to be analyzed and processed to convert it into information that instructs, answers or aids understanding and decision making. Data analysts in many disciplines such as business, education or medicine, are frequently asked to analyze new data sets which are often composed of numerous tables possessing different properties. They try to find completely new correlations between attributes and show new possibilities for users.   Action rules mining discusses some of data mining and knowledge discovery principles and then describe representative concepts, methods and algorithms connected with action. The author introduces the formal definition of action rule, notion of a simple association action rule and a representative action rule, the cost of association action rule, and gives a strategy how to construct simple association action rules of a lowest cost. A new approach for generating action rules from datasets with numerical attributes...

  1. Conservation Action Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Rifle Association, Washington, DC.

    Conservation problems are identified, with some suggestions for action. General areas covered are: Wildlife Conservation, Soil Conservation, Clean Water, Air Pollution Action, and Outdoor Recreation Action. Appendices list private organizations or agencies concerned with natural resource use and/or management, congressional committees considering…

  2. Action research: Scandinavian Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2004-01-01

    The article focus on paradigms, methods and ethics of action research in the Scandinavian countries. The special features of the action research paradigm is identified. A historical overview follows of some main action research projects in Norway, Sweden and Denmark. The tendency towards upsclae...

  3. Entrepreneurial action, sustainability and bricolage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen T.

    This paper explores the relation between entrepreneurship and sustainability. It is explored whether bricolage, a specific form of entrepreneurial action, is particularly conducive to the creation of sustainable solutions. This question is investigated through a case study of an entrepreneur who...... has a long history of sustainable entrepreneurship in which bricolage plays a central role. The study identifies six distinct forms of bricolage practised by the entrepreneur. Furthermore, it is found that, while there is no direct link between bricolage and sustainability, the two concepts have...... a potentially synergetic relationship between them so that bricolage skills may enhance a sustainable mindset, and vice versa....

  4. Music Enhances Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campabello, Nicolette; De Carlo, Mary Jane; O'Neil, Jean; Vacek, Mary Jill

    An action research project implemented musical strategies to affect and enhance student recall and memory. The target population was three suburban elementary schools near a major midwestern city: (1) a kindergarten classroom contained 32-38 students; (2) a second grade classroom contained 23 students and five Individualized Education Program…

  5. Transcriptional Modulation of Penicillin-Binding Protein 1b, Outer Membrane Protein P2 and Efflux Pump (AcrAB-TolC) during Heat Stress Is Correlated to Enhanced Bactericidal Action of Imipenem on Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae

    OpenAIRE

    Abdessalam Cherkaoui; Seydina M. Diene; Adrien Fischer; Stefano Leo; Patrice François; Jacques Schrenzel; Jacques Schrenzel

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the penicillin binding proteins (PBPs), drug influx and efflux modulations during heat stress and their effects on the bactericidal action of imipenem on non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi).Methods: The two NTHi clinical isolates (GE47 and GE88, imipenem MICs by E-test > 32 μg/mL) examined in this study were collected at Geneva University Hospitals. The imipenem killing activity was assessed after incubation of the NTHi ...

  6. Transcriptional Modulation of Penicillin-Binding Protein 1b, Outer Membrane Protein P2 and Efflux Pump (AcrAB-TolC) during Heat Stress Is Correlated to Enhanced Bactericidal Action of Imipenem on Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae

    OpenAIRE

    Cherkaoui, Abdessalam; Diene, Seydina M.; Fischer, Adrien; Leo, Stefano; François, Patrice; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the penicillin binding proteins (PBPs), drug influx and efflux modulations during heat stress and their effects on the bactericidal action of imipenem on non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Methods: The two NTHi clinical isolates (GE47 and GE88, imipenem MICs by E-test > 32 μg/mL) examined in this study were collected at Geneva University Hospitals. The imipenem killing activity was assessed after incubation of the NTHi st...

  7. PTTSA Action Plan Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The Pre-Tiger Team Self-Assessment (PTTSA) Report identified findings with respect to the way Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque, (including Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and Kauai Test Facility (KTF)) conducts its environment, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) activities. It presented Action Plan Requirements (APR) addressing these findings. The purpose of this PTTSA Action Plan Report is to assist in managing these action plan requirements by collecting, prioritizing, and estimating required resources. The specific objectives addressed by this report include: collection of requirements for the resolution of the findings presented in the PTTSA Report; consolidation of proposed Action Plan Requirements into logical Action Plan groupings for efficiency of resolution; categorization of Action Plans according to severity of the hazards represented by the findings; provision of a basis for long-range planning and issues management; documentation of the status of the proposed corrective actions; establishment of traceability of the corrective action to the original problem or issue; and integration of these plans into the existing ES ampersand H structure. The Action Plans in this report are an intermediate step between the identification of a problem or a finding in the PTTSA Report and the execution of the solution. They consist of requirements for solution, proposed actions, and an estimate of the time and (where applicable) resources required to develop the solution. This report is an input to the process of planning, resource commitment, development, testing, implementation, and maintenance of problem resolution. 2 figs

  8. Action Research for Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scandinavian Action Research showing different openings towards democratic development. The book’s first part contributes with a wide range of examples such as Action Research in relation to the Triple Helix/Mode II contexts, to design as a democratic process, to renewal of welfare work and public institutions......, to innovation policies combining Action Research with gender science. In the second part of the book epistemological and ontological dimensions of Action Research are discussed addressing questions of validity criteria related to Action Research, the transformation of knowledge institutions and the specific......Contemporary society encounters profound economical, socio-ecological and political crises challenging the democratic foundation of our societies. This book addresses the potentials and challenges for Action Research supporting democratic alternatives. It offers a broad spectrum of examples from...

  9. Perceptual learning during action video game playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C Shawn; Li, Renjie; Bavelier, Daphne

    2010-04-01

    Action video games have been shown to enhance behavioral performance on a wide variety of perceptual tasks, from those that require effective allocation of attentional resources across the visual scene, to those that demand the successful identification of fleetingly presented stimuli. Importantly, these effects have not only been shown in expert action video game players, but a causative link has been established between action video game play and enhanced processing through training studies. Although an account based solely on attention fails to capture the variety of enhancements observed after action game playing, a number of models of perceptual learning are consistent with the observed results, with behavioral modeling favoring the hypothesis that avid video game players are better able to form templates for, or extract the relevant statistics of, the task at hand. This may suggest that the neural site of learning is in areas where information is integrated and actions are selected; yet changes in low-level sensory areas cannot be ruled out. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. The effective action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt, B.

    1987-01-01

    The concept of the effective action in quantum field theory was introduced into physics by Julian Schwinger in 1954. The effective action summarizes, in a single functional, all the quantum properties of the fields under consideration. The functional derivative of the effective action yields the effective field equations, which replace the classical field equations as descriptors of the dynamical behavior of quantized fields. Solutions of these equations are 'in-out' matrix elements of the field operators and, when substituted back into the effective action itself, yield logarithms of the corresponding 'in-out' amplitudes. The classical field equations are gauge covariant, a fact that derives from the gauge invariance of the classical action. One has learned how to construct effective actions that are similarly gauge invariant (in each order of perturbation theory) and that yield effective field equations having the covariance properties of their classical analogs. Despite this advance, problems remain, stemming from the fact that there is not one but an infinite number of gauge invariant effective actions, one for every background-covariant choice of supplementary conditions and ghost fields. Vilkovisky (1984) has argued persuasively that by requiring additionally that the effective action be invariant under local invertible changes in the choice of basic field variables, one can construct a natural unique gauge invariant effective action. This lecture will examine Vilkovisky's ideas. 3 refs

  11. Action Type Deontic Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    2014-01-01

    A new deontic logic, Action Type Deontic Logic, is presented. To motivate this logic, a number of benchmark cases are shown, representing inferences a deontic logic should validate. Some of the benchmark cases are singled out for further comments and some formal approaches to deontic reasoning...... are evaluated with respect to the benchmark cases. After that follows an informal introduction to the ideas behind the formal semantics, focussing on the distinction between action types and action tokens. Then the syntax and semantics of Action Type Deontic Logic is presented and it is shown to meet...

  12. Talk and Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Morsing, Mette; Thyssen, Ole

    -action relationships. While we illustrate our theoretical points with examples from both corporate and political contexts, we draw especially on the field of corporate social responsibility (as an extreme case) where expectations of consistency between talk and actions are most explicitly pronounced.......The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between organizational talk and action. Focusing in particular on the temporal dimension of this relationship, that is, the potential for talk to become action over time, we put forward ideal types of organizational strategies for possible talk...

  13. Global action networks: agents for collective action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasbergen, P.

    2010-01-01

    Global action networks (GANs) are civil society initiated multi-stakeholder arrangements that aim to fulfill a leadership role for systemic change in global governance for sustainable development. The paper develops a network approach to study some of these GANs as motivators of global collective

  14. Motor imagery during action observation modulates automatic imitation effects in rhythmical actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lloyd Eaves

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that passively observing a task-irrelevant rhythmical action can bias the cycle time of a subsequently executed rhythmical action. Here we use the same paradigm to investigate the impact of different forms of motor imagery (MI during action observation (AO on this automatic imitation (AI effect. Participants saw a picture of the instructed action followed by a rhythmical distractor movie, wherein cycle time was subtly manipulated across trials. They then executed the instructed rhythmical action. When participants imagined performing the instructed action in synchrony with the distractor action (AO + MI, a strong imitation bias was found that was significantly greater than in our previous study. The bias was pronounced equally for compatible and incompatible trials, wherein observed and imagined actions were different in type (e.g., face washing vs. painting or plane of movement, or both. In contrast, no imitation bias was observed when MI conflicted with AO. In Experiment 2, motor execution synchronised with AO produced a stronger imitation bias compared to AO + MI, showing an advantage in synchronisation for overt execution over MI. Furthermore, the bias was stronger when participants synchronised the instructed action with the distractor movie, compared to when they synchronised the distractor action with the distractor movie. Although we still observed a significant bias in the latter condition, this finding indicates a degree of specificity in AI effects for the identity of the synchronised action. Overall, our data show that MI can substantially modulate the effects of AO on subsequent execution, wherein: (1 combined AO + MI can enhance AI effects relative to passive AO; (2 observed and imagined actions can be flexibly coordinated across different action types and planes; and (3 conflicting AO + MI can abolish AI effects. Therefore, combined AO + MI instructions should be considered in motor training and

  15. From Knowledge to Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmar, Ulf; Møller, Anne Mette

    2016-01-01

    of a greater process of bringing knowledge to action, encompassing the social and organisational contexts of research utilisation. The article concludes by stating that knowledge portals have the potential to be effective instruments in knowledge-to-action processes. The two main challenges, however...

  16. Critical Utopian Action Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birger Steen; Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard

    2016-01-01

    The specific concept of critical utopian action research is presented and discussed, as to its origin, use and potentials. The inspiration from Robert Jungk and his future creating workshops is elaborated.......The specific concept of critical utopian action research is presented and discussed, as to its origin, use and potentials. The inspiration from Robert Jungk and his future creating workshops is elaborated....

  17. Action research: Scandinavian Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2004-01-01

    action research projects from organisational or small community projects yo large-scale, regional based network apporaches are also outlined and discussed. Finally, a synthesised approach of the classical, socio-technical action research approach and the large-scale network and holistic approaches...... is suggested as a promising approach for the future....

  18. Human Actions Made Tangible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Caglio, Agnese; Jensen, Lars Christian

    2014-01-01

    , a method developed to engage people from different backgrounds in collaboratively analysing videos with the help of physical objects. We will present one of these tools, Action Scrabble, for analysing temporal organisation of human actions. We work with a case of skilled forklift truck driving...

  19. Action and Interactiv research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard; Svensson, Lennart

    The text is written as a first version of editors introduction to a book about action research/interactive research in Nordic countries. You can read abouttrends and contradictions in the history of action research.The authors question the trends and demands a more explicit critical approach...

  20. Technologies as incarnated action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schraube, Ernst

    represent incarnated or reified actions. I will conclude that an understanding of human activity today has to embrace an imagination of how the inherent action principles of the objects situate the activities and relationships of the subjects to themselves and to others....

  1. Normative Action Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baboroglu, Oguz; Ravn, Ib

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an argument for an enrichment of action research methodology. To the current state of action research, we add a constructivist epistemological argument, as well as a crucial inspiration from some futures-oriented planning approaches. Within the domain of social/organizational ...

  2. Action Learning in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  3. Differential Equations as Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    We extend a conventional action system with a primitive action consisting of a differential equation and an evolution invariant. The semantics is given by a predicate transformer. The weakest liberal precondition is chosen, because it is not always desirable that steps corresponding to differential...

  4. Freedom in Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miltenburg, N. van

    2015-01-01

    Free will is the capacity to select and execute one really possible action alternative. In recent years this simple libertarian picture of our capacity to freely act has drawn much criticism. Many neuroscientists claim that we do not have a capacity to select alternative courses of action since our

  5. An Action Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Brand, Mark; Iversen, Jørgen; Mosses, Peter David

    2004-01-01

    constructs underlying Core ML. The paper also describes the Action Environment, a new environment supporting use and validation of ASDF descriptions. The Action Environment has been implemented on top of the ASF+SDF Meta-Environment, exploiting recent advances in techniques for integration of different...... formalisms, and inheriting all the main features of the Meta-Environment....

  6. Creativity as action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Lubart, Todd; Bonnardel, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    The present paper outlines an action theory of creativity and substantiates this approach by investigating creative expression in five different domains. We propose an action framework for the analysis of creative acts built on the assumption that creativity is a relational, inter......-subjective phenomenon. This framework, drawing extensively from the work of Dewey (1934) on art as experience, is used to derive a coding frame for the analysis of interview material. The article reports findings from the analysis of 60 interviews with recognized French creators in five creative domains: art, design......, science, scriptwriting, and music. Results point to complex models of action and inter-action specific for each domain and also to interesting patterns of similarity and differences between domains. These findings highlight the fact that creative action takes place not “inside” individual creators but “in...

  7. Perception, Action, and Consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What is the relationship between perception and action, between an organism and its environment, in explaining consciousness? These are issues at the heart of philosophy of mind and the cognitive sciences. This book explores the relationship between perception and action from a variety of interdi......What is the relationship between perception and action, between an organism and its environment, in explaining consciousness? These are issues at the heart of philosophy of mind and the cognitive sciences. This book explores the relationship between perception and action from a variety...... hypothesis The former champions the role of sensorimotor dynamics in perceptual awareness while the latter favours a functional dichotomy between perception and action. At least on the surface, these two approaches are in conflict. Where one emphasizes the interdependence of action and perception, the other...... suggests that action and perception are functionally distinct. The dialogue between these two approaches brings out wider theoretical issues underlying the research paradigm of cognitive sciences and philosophy of mind....

  8. Altered awareness of action in schizophrenia: a specific deficit in predicting action consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Martin; Moore, James; Hauser, Marta; Gallinat, Juergen; Heinz, Andreas; Haggard, Patrick

    2010-10-01

    Patients suffering from schizophrenia may report unusual experiences of their own actions. They may either feel that external forces are controlling their actions or even their thoughts, or they may feel in control of events that in fact are not caused by their actions. Most theories link these disturbances in the sense of agency to deficits in motor prediction, resulting in a mismatch between predicted and actual sensory feedback at a central comparator mechanism. Such theories therefore can account for situations in which the sense of agency is reduced. However, other experiments as well as clinical observations show an enhanced rather than reduced sense of agency in schizophrenic patients. Here, we distinguish between a predictive and a retrospective mechanism where both contribute to the experience of agency, and show that schizophrenia is associated with a specific impairment to the predictive component. We measured subjective time estimates of self-initiated voluntary action (a key press) that were followed by a sensory effect (a tone). When the voluntary actions had a high probability of causing tones, healthy volunteers showed a predictive shift of the perceptual estimate of the action towards the tone, even on occasional trials where the tone was omitted. No such shift occurred in the absence of the tone on blocks when tones were less frequent. The predictive component of action awareness was calculated as the difference between time estimates on 'action only' trials from blocks with lower and higher tone probabilities. Schizophrenic patients lacked this predictive component of action awareness, showing a shift on 'action only' trials, regardless of the probability of the tone. Importantly, the schizophrenic deficit in predicting the relation between action and effect was strongly correlated with severity of positive psychotic symptoms, specifically delusions and hallucinations. Furthermore, the patients showed an exaggerated retrospective binding between

  9. Handbook of group actions

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulos, Athanase; Yau, Shing-Tung

    2015-01-01

    Groups and group actions are probably the most central objects in mathematics. Comprising volumes 31 and 32 of the ALM series (with further volumes forthcoming), the Handbook of Group Actions presents survey articles on the topic of group actions and how they appear in several mathematical contexts. The general subject matter is organized under the following sections: geometry, mapping class groups, knot groups, topology, representation theory, deformation theory, and discrete groups. The various articles deal with both classical material and modern developments. They are written by specialists in their respective subject areas, and addressed to graduate students who want to learn the theory, as well as to specialists as a reference.

  10. Renewable energy action agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    To assist the long-term development of the renewable energy industry, the Commonwealth Government, in partnership with industry, has developed the Renewable Energy Action Agenda. New Era -New Energy, launched in June 2000 by Minister for Industry, Science and Resources, Senator Nick Minchin, Minister for the Environment and Heritage, Senator Robert Hill, and Greg Bourne, Regional President of BP Amoco, sets an ambitious target for growth and identifies the strategies and actions necessary to achieve it. The objective of the Renewable Energy Action Agenda was to develop a policy framework underpinning growth in a commercially viable and internationally competitive Australian renewable energy industry

  11. Theater and action research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tofteng, Ditte Maria Børglum; Husted, Mia

    2011-01-01

    Action research on marginalization and exclusion often seeks to examine relations between recognition, respect, and inclusion, but addressing these topics is difficult. Theatre-based action research opens up a new way to communicate and make visible knowledge and experiences from below that have...... difficulties reaching the public agenda or influencing structures of power. In this article we follow the creation of a play and of scenes that address the life, sufferings, and wishes of unemployed people. The skills of actors, writers, and producers are worked into a critical utopian action research project...

  12. Action Investment Energy Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Laursen, Simon; Srba, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the formalism of action investment energy games where we study the trade-off between investments limited by given budgets and resource constrained (energy) behavior of the underlying system. More specifically, we consider energy games extended with costs of enabling actions and fixed...... budgets for each player. We ask the question whether for any Player 2 investment there exists a Player 1 investment such that Player 1 wins the resulting energy game. We study the action investment energy game for energy intervals with both upper and lower bounds, and with a lower bound only, and give...

  13. Talk and Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Morsing, Mette; Thyssen, Ole

    . While we illustrate our theoretical points with examples from both corporate and political contexts, we draw especially on the field of corporate social responsibility (as an extreme case) where expectations of consistency between talk and actions are most explicitly pronounced....... of organizational talk and their associated activities, the paper discusses the different ways time shape the relationship between talk and action. Acknowledging that talk gives rise to different expectations over time, we put forward ideal types of organizational strategies for possible talk-action relationships...

  14. Phenomenography: Implications for Expanding the Educational Action Research Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Rodney

    2017-01-01

    Action research is a growing tradition for improving teachers' practice and students' learning outcomes, and it draws from a variety of methods for collecting and analysing data. In this article, phenomenography is proposed as an innovative approach for enhancing action research. With an emphasis on mapping variations on students' experience,…

  15. Collective Action Competence: An Asset to Campus Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Charlotte R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to operationalize theories of social learning and collective action for campus sustainability practitioners at higher education institutions (IHEs) to enhance their work, and to introduce the concept of collective action competence as a practical tool. Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents a…

  16. Action Based Teaching in Nigeria: Issues and Reflections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    terms of intrinsic motivation and autonomy, motivation and autonomy being two sides of the same coin. Action based teaching stimulates motivation and autonomy in learning. This paper regards action based ... structures that enhance rather than impede the processes that lead to meaningful and lasting learning.

  17. The Antidepressant-Like Actions of Furosemide, Bumetanide and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects on down-stream signalling and neuroplasticity are the ways the actions of the presently-used antidepressants, the tricarboxylic acids (TCAs) and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are enhanced and effected. The present study aims to determine whether the actions of the calcium channel blocker, ...

  18. Yukon Government climate change action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-02-01

    This Climate Change Action Plan described the measures that are being taken by the Yukon Government to adapt to, understand, and reduce contributions to climate change. The action plan is the result of input received from more than 100 individuals and organizations and provides clear direction for a strategy that will minimize the negative impacts of climate change and provide economic, social and other environmental benefits through climate change mitigation. The Yukon government has already taken many actions that respond to climate change, such as: developing the Yukon Cold Climate Innovation Centre; supporting the Northern Climate Exchange for public education and outreach; funding community recycling depots and other groups that reduce waste generation, promote public awareness and divert solid waste; and working with provincial and territorial counterparts to enhance national building standards. The main objectives of the climate change actions are to enhance knowledge and understanding of climate change; adapt to climate change; reduce greenhouse gas emissions; and lead Yukon action in response to climate change. tabs., figs.

  19. Commitment to action. Population Action International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, S

    1994-01-01

    The national chair of Population Action International (formerly the Population Crisis Committee), Robin Chandler Duke, is a crusader for women's reproductive rights. She was in Bangladesh in 1971 during its civil war. Soldiers would rape young Muslim women, and their families would reject them when they became pregnant. The head of the exiled government agreed to let physicians from IPPF perform abortions on these women, which allowed families to take them back. Opposition to the abortions arose, however. This experience in Bangladesh sparked Ms. Duke's interest in population control. Her years as the wife of a US diplomat granted her access to powerful people worldwide. Her predecessor, retired US Army General Bill Draper, called Ms. Duke from his death bed in 1974 to ask her to be national chair of PAI. She served as a delegate in various international meetings, e.g., the 1980 UNESCO meetings in Belgrade. Spain and Luxembourg honored her for her work of campaigning for women's reproductive rights. She believes that rapid population growth is the most significant problem in the world today. It exacerbates poverty, environmental destruction, and political instability. She believes that universal availability of high quality, voluntary family planning services, including safe abortion, is needed to save humanity from the vicious cycle. Since family planning, sex education, and abortion are the most personal and sensitive parts of people's lives, Population Action frames family planning in the context of basic health care. AIDS complicates the issue, because contraception is no longer limited to birth control. Even though the organization realizes that sexual abstinence is the best way to avoid AIDS, it tries to educate female teenagers not to let boys coerce them to have sex. If they do, have sex Population Action advocates condom use. Ms. Duke cites the family planning successes of Indonesia, Zimbabwe, and Thailand.

  20. 'Action 2016': AREVA's strategic action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, Patricia; Briand, Pauline; Floquet-Daubigeon, Fleur; Michaut, Maxime; De Scorbiac, Marie; Du Repaire, Philippine

    2011-01-01

    On December 13, 2011, Luc Oursel, CEO, and Pierre Aubouin, Chief Financial Officer presented the group's strategic plan for the period 2012-2016. The plan has been drawn up collectively and is based on a thorough-going analysis and a realistic assessment of perspectives for all group activities and associated resources. Development of nuclear and renewable energies: the fundamentals are unchanged. In this context, the German decision remains an isolated case and the great majority of nuclear programs around the world have been confirmed. More conservative in its projections than the International Energy Agency, the group expects growth of 2.2% annually, reaching 583 GW of installed nuclear capacity by 2030, against 378 GW today. However, the Fukushima accident will lead to delays in launching new programs. 'Action 2016' plan aims to consolidate AREVA's leadership in nuclear energy and become a leading player in renewable energy. The group's strategic action plan 'Action 2016' is based on the following strategic choices: - commercial priority given to value creation, - selectivity in investments, - strengthening of the financial structure. These demand an improvement in the group's performance by 2015. This plan makes nuclear safety a strategic priority for the industrial and commercial performance of the group. This ambitious performance plan for the period 2012-2016 will give the group the wherewithal to withstand a temporary slowdown in the market resulting from the Fukushima accident and to deliver safe and sustainable growth of the business. The plan sets out the strategic direction for the group's employees for the years ahead: taking advantage of the expected growth in nuclear and renewable energies, targeted investment programs, and return to self-financing as of 2014

  1. Government Actions and Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, John B.

    2009-01-01

    There is empirical evidence that government actions and interventions prolonged and worsened the financial crisis, because they were based on faulty diagnosis of the problem and did not follow clear predictable principles.

  2. Benzidine Dyes Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Action Plan addresses the use of benzidine-based dyes and benzidine congener-based dyes, both metalized and non-metalized, in products that would result in consumer exposure, such as for use to color textiles.

  3. Asthma action plan

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2014-01-01

    This action plans allow each child (or parent/carer) to record his or her asthma treatment to help manage their asthma when they are well, when their symptoms get worse and when they are suffering an asthma attack.

  4. Stabilizing bottomless action theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greensite, J.; Halpern, M.B.

    1983-12-01

    The authors show how to construct the Euclidean quantum theory corresponding to classical actions which are unbounded from below. The method preserves the classical limit, the large-N limit, and the perturbative expansion of the unstabilized theories. (Auth.)

  5. Actions and Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monthoux, Pierre Guillet de

    2017-01-01

    How management philosophy is conceived depends on if pragmatism is acknowledged or not! After having been under the main domination of management science both research and education has until recently widened its scope from a decision-making to an action-perspective. It seems to be a recent...... but contain more than that. A decision-perspective explains by causal inference modelling choices as calculated or programmed. The action-perspectives strive at understanding intentions of agents by philosophical interpretations of action stories. It is less limited to finding the logics for constructing...... worlds, to paraphrase Herbert Simon’s favorite philosopher Rudolf Carnap, than embarking on plausible, although not certain, reconstructions of intentions giving meaning to action stories. This can be illustrated by turning to Elizabeth Anscombe’s Wittgensteinian investigation of intentions...

  6. Bicycle Safety Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) Bicycle Safety Action Plan (BSAP) : identifies improvements, programs, and strategies that, upon their implementation, will : reduce the frequency of bicyclist fatalities and injury crashes that occur o...

  7. Updating action domain descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiter, Thomas; Erdem, Esra; Fink, Michael; Senko, Ján

    2010-10-01

    Incorporating new information into a knowledge base is an important problem which has been widely investigated. In this paper, we study this problem in a formal framework for reasoning about actions and change. In this framework, action domains are described in an action language whose semantics is based on the notion of causality. Unlike the formalisms considered in the related work, this language allows straightforward representation of non-deterministic effects and indirect effects of (possibly concurrent) actions, as well as state constraints; therefore, the updates can be more general than elementary statements. The expressivity of this formalism allows us to study the update of an action domain description with a more general approach compared to related work. First of all, we consider the update of an action description with respect to further criteria, for instance, by ensuring that the updated description entails some observations, assertions, or general domain properties that constitute further constraints that are not expressible in an action description in general. Moreover, our framework allows us to discriminate amongst alternative updates of action domain descriptions and to single out a most preferable one, based on a given preference relation possibly dependent on the specified criteria. We study semantic and computational aspects of the update problem, and establish basic properties of updates as well as a decomposition theorem that gives rise to a divide and conquer approach to updating action descriptions under certain conditions. Furthermore, we study the computational complexity of decision problems around computing solutions, both for the generic setting and for two particular preference relations, viz. set-inclusion and weight-based preference. While deciding the existence of solutions and recognizing solutions are PSPACE-complete problems in general, the problems fall back into the polynomial hierarchy under restrictions on the additional

  8. Action Learning as Invigoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Terence S.

    2011-01-01

    The present account of action learning describes its adoption for pragmatic reasons by the University of the Third Age (U3A). The reason for the existence of this movement is the education of retired people. The account seeks to explain why the action learning method spread from one local U3A to another and across it to other local U3As. The case…

  9. Genre as Fictional Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auken, Sune

    2014-01-01

    The arcticle is an interdisciplinary study between literary and rhetorical genre research. Its starting point is the well-deserved leading position held by Rhetorical Genre Studies (RGS). The article proposes a scholarly collaboration between Literary Studies and RGS and posits one possible...... starting point for this collaboration by utilizing Carolyn Miller´s central concept of "Genre as Social Action" as a way to analyze literary characters´ social actions within narratives through an interpretation of their uses of genre....

  10. Institutional Logics in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lounsbury, Michael; Boxenbaum, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This double volume presents state-of-the-art research and thinking on the dynamics of actors and institutional logics. In the introduction, we briefly sketch the roots and branches of institutional logics scholarship before turning to the new buds of research on the topic of how actors engage ins...... prolific stream of research on institutional logics by deepening our insight into the active use of institutional logics in organizational action and interaction, including the institutional effects of such (inter)actions....

  11. Introducere in Action Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Søren Witzel

    In these years action learning has become an increasing aspect of qualifying in service training of teachers in Western European countries. In this article the model of action learning which has been developed by teachers at VIA University College and introduced to the teachers at the SCAN...... in service program will be described and the interaction and the learning aspects in the model will be analyzed....

  12. Electrophysiology of action representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadiga, Luciano; Craighero, Laila

    2004-01-01

    We continuously act on objects, on other individuals, and on ourselves, and actions represent the only way we have to manifest our own desires and goals. In the last two decades, electrophysiological experiments have demonstrated that actions are stored in the brain according to a goal-related organization. The authors review a series of experimental data showing that this "vocabulary of motor schemata" could also be used for non-strictly motor purposes. In the first section, they present data from monkey experiments describing the functional properties of inferior premotor cortex and, in more detail, the properties of visuomotor neurons responding to objects and others' actions observation (mirror neurons). In the second section, human data are reviewed, with particular regard to electrophysiological experiments aiming to investigate how action representations are stored and addressed. The specific facilitatory effect of motor imagery, action/object observation, and speech listening on motor excitability shown by these experiments provides strong evidence that the motor system is constantly involved whenever the idea of an action is evoked.

  13. Remedial action planning for Trench 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primrose, A.; Sproles, W.; Burmeister, M.; Wagner, R.; Law, J.; Greengard, T.; Castaneda, N.

    1998-01-01

    The accelerated action to remove the depleted uranium chips and associated soils and wastes from Trench 1 at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) will begin in June 1998. To ensure that the remedial action is conducted safely, a rigorous and disciplined planning process was followed that incorporates the principles of Integrated Safety Management and Enhanced Work Planning. Critical to the success of the planning was early involvement of project staff (salaried and hourly) and associated technical support groups and disciplines. Feedback was and will continue to be solicited, and lessons learned incorporated to ensure the safe remediation of this site

  14. Prooxidant action of xanthurenic acid and quinoline compounds: role of transition metals in the generation of reactive oxygen species and enhanced formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Keiko; Haneda, Miyako; Yoshino, Masataka

    2006-08-01

    Xanthurenic acid, a product of tryptophan-NAD pathway, and quinoline compounds produced reactive oxygen species as a complex with iron. Aconitase, the most sensitive enzyme to oxidative stress was inactivated effectively by xanthurenic acid and to a lesser extent by 8-quinolinol in the presence of ferrous sulfate. The inactivation of aconitase was iron-dependent, and was prevented by TEMPOL, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species, suggesting that reduced iron bound to xanthurenic acid or 8-quinolinol can activate oxygen molecule to form superoxide radical. However, kynurenic acid and quinaldic acid without 8-hydroxyl group did not produce reactive oxygen species. Of the quinoline compounds tested, xanthurenic acid and 8-quinolinol with 8-hydroxyl group stimulated the autooxidation of ferrous ion, but kynurenic acid and quinaldic acid did not affect the oxidation of ferrous ion. Hydroxyl group at 8-positions of quinoline compounds was essential for the binding of iron causing the generation of reactive oxygen species. 8-Quinolinol effectively enhanced the ascorbate/copper-mediated formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in DNA, suggesting the quinolinol/copper-dependent stimulation hydroxyl radical formation. Xanthurenic acid and 8-quinolinol as the metal-chelate complexes can show various cytotoxic effects by generating reactive oxygen species through the ferrous or cuprous ion-dependent activation of oxygen molecule.

  15. Redox cycling of a copper complex with benzaldehyde nitrogen mustard-2-pyridine carboxylic acid hydrazone contributes to its enhanced antitumor activity, but no change in the mechanism of action occurs after chelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yinli; Li, Cuiping; Fu, Yun; Liu, Youxun; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yanfang; Zhou, Pingxin; Yuan, Yanbin; Zhou, Sufeng; Li, Shaoshan; Li, Changzheng

    2016-03-01

    Many anticancer drugs used in the clinical have potent metal chelating ability. The formed metal complex(es) may exhibit improved (or antagonistic) antitumor activity. However, the underlying mechanism has received limited attention. Therefore, investigation of the mechanism involved in the change upon chelation is required to extend our understanding of the effects of various drugs. In the present study, the proliferation inhibition effect of benzaldehyde nitrogen mustard-2-pyridine carboxylic acid hydrazone (BNMPH) and its copper complex on tumor cell lines was investigated. The copper chelate exhibited almost a 10-fold increase in antitumor activity (with IC50 copper complex induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and caused upregulation of caspase 8 and Bax as well as the downregulation of Bcl-2, indicating that apoptosis was involved in the cytotoxic effects. DNA fragmentation noted in the comet assay further supported ROS involvement. The present study indicated that BNMPH and its copper complex effectively induced S phase arrest and the cell cycle arrest was associated with the downregulation of cyclin D1. The formation of acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs) and an increase in cleaved LC3-II demonstrated that autophagy occurred in the HepG2 cells treated with the agents. Taken together, BNMPH and its copper complex exhibited proliferation inhibition via apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and autophagy, which was dependent on ROS. The enhanced antitumor activity of the copper complex was due to its redox-cycling ability, but the mechanism was not altered compared to BNMPH. Our findings may significantly contribute to the understanding of the anti-proliferative effect of BNMPH and its copper complex.

  16. Enhanced Preliminary Assessment Report: Jefferson Proving Ground Madison, Indiana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williamson, S; Ehrman, C; Venkateswar, R

    1990-01-01

    An enhanced preliminary assessment of Jefferson Proving Ground was performed to characterize the environmental impacts of actions occurring at the property, and to provide a basis for the development of remedial actions...

  17. Motor action, emotion, and motive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Howard M

    2004-01-01

    The experience, imagery, and fantasy of self in motion play a central part in the dreams, aspirations, and affective life of individuals, and in their growth. Human infants are supplied with an intrinsic drive to move to, with, and against forces and objects in the natural world, for that action maps a developing self into the world. This striving is not derivative from some other drive; it is a motivational force in and of itself intertwined with other essential strivings of the developing individual. Clinical observations and recent findings of developmental and neurobiological studies demonstrate that positive aspects of a person's striving in the sphere of motor control imbue a person's sense of self with qualities of energy, agency, and mastery. And, when thwarted, distorted, or unbalanced in relation to other strivings, one's physicality may also be a locus for conflict and maladaptive defenses. Schemas of self in relation to the world at large and especially to significant others are often encoded in procedural modes of remembering and perceiving, where movement is central. When the analyst is attuned to the experience of motor action in the life of the person he or she seeks to know fully and to help, the appreciation of that person's motives, emotions, and sense of self is deepened and enhanced.

  18. Chemical Penetration Enhancers for Transdermal Drug Delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for transdermal administration. The permeation of drug through skin can be enhanced by both chemical penetration enhancement and physical methods. In this review, we have discussed the chemical penetration enhancement technology for transdermal drug delivery as well as the probable mechanisms of action.

  19. Action Research for School Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Emily J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the use of structured action research for the professional development of teachers. Describes how a high school used structured action research to improve reading comprehension. Includes a sample schoolwide action-research matrix. (Contains 14 references.) (PKP)

  20. Video Game Learning Dynamics: Actionable Measures of Multidimensional Learning Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Debbie Denise; Tabachnick, Barbara G.; Kosko, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Valid, accessible, reusable methods for instructional video game design and embedded assessment can provide actionable information enhancing individual and collective achievement. Cyberlearning through game-based, metaphor-enhanced learning objects (CyGaMEs) design and embedded assessment quantify player behavior to study knowledge discovery and…

  1. Immigration Enforcement Actions - Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  2. THE ACTION RESEARCH METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre GEORGIEVSKI

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The effort in this work to elaborate an action research method as a central research problem considering the recent contemporary sociological and educa­tional literature. The author begins with the statement that the method is a complex notion, composed of three main components: approach to the research problem, data gathering procedures and data analysis procedures. This point of view is further applied and elaborated in the author's text, emphasizing the action research characteristics: interruption with the positive tradition in social research and the divided of the objective and subjective, application of the qualitative data. The sub­stantial difference between the action research in regard with the other kinds of research, is not only in getting to new knowledge's, but also in problem solving or a change in the situation in a concrete social context.

  3. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    to provide local citizens with a greater say in the future of urban sustainability research, this book shows how action research can make important methodological contributions to processes of social learning between citizens and scientists by enabling free spaces in peoples everyday life and within academia...... to renew itself without eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming......How can action research further new research orientations towards sustainability? This book, empirically situated in the field of upstream public engagement, involving local residents, researchers and practitioners in bottom-up processes deliberating on urban sustainability, answers this question...

  4. Flood action plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slopek, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Safe operating procedures developed by TransAlta Utilities for dealing with flooding, resulting from upstream dam failures or extreme rainfalls, were presented. Several operating curves developed by Monenco AGRA were described, among them the No Overtopping Curve (NOC), the Safe Filling Curve (SFC), the No Spill Curve (NSC) and the Guaranteed Fill Curve (GFC). The concept of an operational comfort zone was developed and defined. A flood action plan for all operating staff was created as a guide in case of a flooding incident. Staging of a flood action plan workshop was described. Dam break scenarios pertinent to the Bow River were developed for subsequent incorporation into a Flood Action Plan Manual. Evaluation of the technical presentations made during workshops were found them to have been effective in providing operating staff with a better understanding of the procedures that they would perform in an emergency. 8 figs

  5. Mitigation Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) focuses on mitigation commitments stated in the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Specific commitments and mitigation implementation actions are listed in Appendix A-Mitigation Actions, and form the central focus of this MAP. They will be updated as needed to allow for organizational, regulatory, or policy changes. It is the intent of DOE to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local environmental, safety, and health laws and regulations. Eighty-six specific commitments were identified in the SEIS and associated ROD which pertain to continued operation of NPR-1 with petroleum production at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER). The mitigation measures proposed are expected to reduce impacts as much as feasible, however, as experience is gained in actual implementation of these measures, some changes may be warranted.

  6. The action of nitric oxide to enhance cell survival in chick cardiomyocytes is mediated through a cGMP and ERK1/2 pathway while p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathways do not alter cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabkin, Simon W; Tsang, Michael Y C

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the dual action of nitric oxide (NO) on cardiomyocyte cell viability is mediated through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-induced cell death and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2)-mediated cell survival pathways, and whether either of these is mediated through a cGMP-protein kinase G (PKG) pathway. Cell viability of embryonic chick cardiomyocytes was assessed by the MTT assay, which is based on the ability of viable cells to reduce 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide. The NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) produced a significant (P death. Sodium nitroprusside induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK1/2) inhibitor PD 98059 significantly increased cell death. In contrast, SB202190, a relatively selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK, did not affect SNP-induced cell death. The cardioprotective effect of NO was prbably mediated in part via cGMP because 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, a selective inhibitor of NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase, produced a significant enhancement of SNP-induced cell death. In contrast, the PKG inhibitor KT5823 did not affect cell viability. In summary, these data suggest that NO, via stimulation of soluble guanylyl cyclase, activates MEK1/2 whose product, ERK1/2, protects against cell death. In contrast, SNP-induced p38 MAPK activation does not modulate NO-induced cardiomyocyte cell death. Not all cGMP targets affect NO-induced cell death, since the PKG pathway does not enhance or suppress NO-induced cardiomyocyte cell death. Enhancement of the ERK1/2 responses to NO may permit the beneficial effects of NO to predominate.

  7. Consumer concerns: motivating to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, C M

    1997-01-01

    Microbiologic safety is consumers' most frequently volunteered food safety concern. An increase in the level of concern in recent years suggests that consumers are more receptive to educational information. However, changing lifestyles have lessened the awareness of foodborne illness, especially among younger consumers. Failure to fully recognize the symptoms or sources of foodborne disease prevents consumers from taking corrective action. Consumer education messages should include the ubiquity of microorganisms, a comprehensive description of foodborne illnesses, and prevention strategies. Product labels should contain food-handling information and warnings for special populations, and foods processed by newer safety-enhancing technologies should be more widely available. Knowledge of the consequences of unsafe practices can enhance motivation and adherence to safety guidelines. When consumers mishandle food during preparation, the health community, food industry, regulators, and the media are ultimately responsible. Whether inappropriate temperature control, poor hygiene, or another factor, the error occurs because consumers have not been informed about how to handle food and protect themselves. The food safety message has not been delivered effectively.

  8. Class Actions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the relatively new Danish Act on Class Action (Danish: gruppesøgsmål) which was suggested by The Permanent Council on Civil procedure (Retsplejerådet) of which the article's author is a member. The operability of the new provisions is illustrated through some wellknown Danish...... cases: Hafnia case (investment prospectus), and Danish Eternit (roof elements) where the existence of Danish provisions on class actions might have made a difference, and the article also deals with the delicate questions of opt-in and opt-out....

  9. Facilitating Dissident Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thydal, Signe; Svensson, Christian Franklin

    2018-01-01

    Firefund.net. crowdfunds and provides resources for direct action movements. The organisation positions itself within a political struggle to create a global solidarity network. Firefund.net’s challenges and possibilities are analysed in relation to juridical issues and issues of control and shar......Firefund.net. crowdfunds and provides resources for direct action movements. The organisation positions itself within a political struggle to create a global solidarity network. Firefund.net’s challenges and possibilities are analysed in relation to juridical issues and issues of control...

  10. Wetland Resources Action Planning (WRAP) toolkit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunting, Stuart W.; Smith, Kevin G.; Lund, Søren

    2013-01-01

    The Wetland Resources Action Planning (WRAP) toolkit is a toolkit of research methods and better management practices used in HighARCS (Highland Aquatic Resources Conservation and Sustainable Development), an EU-funded project with field experiences in China, Vietnam and India. It aims...... to communicate best practices in conserving biodiversity and sustaining ecosystem services to potential users and to promote the wise-use of aquatic resources, improve livelihoods and enhance policy information....

  11. National Biofuels Action Plan, October 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2008-10-01

    To help industry achieve the aggressive national goals, Federal agencies will need to continue to enhance their collaboration. The Biomass Research and Development (R&D) Board was created by Congress in the Biomass Research and Development Act of 2000. The National Biofuels Action Plan outlines areas where interagency cooperation will help to evolve bio-based fuel production technologies from promising ideas to competitive solutions.

  12. Action Video Gaming and Cognitive Control: Playing First Person Shooter Games Is Associated with Improved Action Cascading but Not Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbergen, Laura; Sellaro, Roberta; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2015-01-01

    There is a constantly growing interest in developing efficient methods to enhance cognitive functioning and/or to ameliorate cognitive deficits. One particular line of research focuses on the possibly cognitive enhancing effects that action video game (AVG) playing may have on game players. Interestingly, AVGs, especially first person shooter games, require gamers to develop different action control strategies to rapidly react to fast moving visual and auditory stimuli, and to flexibly adapt their behaviour to the ever-changing context. This study investigated whether and to what extent experience with such videogames is associated with enhanced performance on cognitive control tasks that require similar abilities. Experienced action videogame-players (AVGPs) and individuals with little to no videogame experience (NVGPs) performed a stop-change paradigm that provides a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of action cascading and response inhibition. Replicating previous findings, AVGPs showed higher efficiency in response execution, but not improved response inhibition (i.e. inhibitory control), as compared to NVGPs. More importantly, compared to NVGPs, AVGPs showed enhanced action cascading processes when an interruption (stop) and a change towards an alternative response were required simultaneously, as well as when such a change had to occur after the completion of the stop process. Our findings suggest that playing AVGs is associated with enhanced action cascading and multi-component behaviour without affecting inhibitory control.

  13. Action Video Gaming and Cognitive Control: Playing First Person Shooter Games Is Associated with Improved Action Cascading but Not Inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Steenbergen

    Full Text Available There is a constantly growing interest in developing efficient methods to enhance cognitive functioning and/or to ameliorate cognitive deficits. One particular line of research focuses on the possibly cognitive enhancing effects that action video game (AVG playing may have on game players. Interestingly, AVGs, especially first person shooter games, require gamers to develop different action control strategies to rapidly react to fast moving visual and auditory stimuli, and to flexibly adapt their behaviour to the ever-changing context. This study investigated whether and to what extent experience with such videogames is associated with enhanced performance on cognitive control tasks that require similar abilities. Experienced action videogame-players (AVGPs and individuals with little to no videogame experience (NVGPs performed a stop-change paradigm that provides a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of action cascading and response inhibition. Replicating previous findings, AVGPs showed higher efficiency in response execution, but not improved response inhibition (i.e. inhibitory control, as compared to NVGPs. More importantly, compared to NVGPs, AVGPs showed enhanced action cascading processes when an interruption (stop and a change towards an alternative response were required simultaneously, as well as when such a change had to occur after the completion of the stop process. Our findings suggest that playing AVGs is associated with enhanced action cascading and multi-component behaviour without affecting inhibitory control.

  14. Improved motion description for action classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir eJain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though the importance of explicitly integrating motion characteristics in video descriptions has been demonstrated by several recent papers on action classification, our current work concludes that adequately decomposing visual motion into dominant and residual motions, i.e.: camera and scene motion, significantly improves action recognition algorithms. This holds true both for the extraction of the space-time trajectories and for computation of descriptors.We designed a new motion descriptor – the DCS descriptor – that captures additional information on local motion patterns enhancing results based on differential motion scalar quantities, divergence, curl and shear features. Finally, applying the recent VLAD coding technique proposed in image retrieval provides a substantial improvement for action recognition. These findings are complementary to each other and they outperformed all previously reported results by a significant margin on three challenging datasets: Hollywood 2, HMDB51 and Olympic Sports as reported in (Jain et al. (2013. These results were further improved by (Oneata et al. (2013; Wang and Schmid (2013; Zhu et al. (2013 through the use of the Fisher vector encoding. We therefore also employ Fisher vector in this paper and we further enhance our approach by combining trajectories from both optical flow and compensated flow. We as well provide additional details of DCS descriptors, including visualization. For extending the evaluation, a novel dataset with 101 action classes, UCF101, was added.

  15. Learning, attentional control and action video games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C.S.; Bavelier, D.

    2012-01-01

    While humans have an incredible capacity to acquire new skills and alter their behavior as a result of experience, enhancements in performance are typically narrowly restricted to the parameters of the training environment, with little evidence of generalization to different, even seemingly highly related, tasks. Such specificity is a major obstacle for the development of many real-world training or rehabilitation paradigms, which necessarily seek to promote more general learning. In contrast to these typical findings, research over the past decade has shown that training on ‘action video games’ produces learning that transfers well beyond the training task. This has led to substantial interest among those interested in rehabilitation, for instance, after stroke or to treat amblyopia, or training for various precision-demanding jobs, for instance, endoscopic surgery or piloting unmanned aerial drones. Although the predominant focus of the field has been on outlining the breadth of possible action-game-related enhancements, recent work has concentrated on uncovering the mechanisms that underlie these changes, an important first step towards the goal of designing and using video games for more definite purposes. Game playing may not convey an immediate advantage on new tasks (increased performance from the very first trial), but rather the true effect of action video game playing may be to enhance the ability to learn new tasks. Such a mechanism may serve as a signature of training regimens that are likely to produce transfer of learning. PMID:22440805

  16. The action of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    After a favorable period for the weapons mastership, the disarmament and the non-proliferation, the conditions of international safety and the strategical context revealed recently worrying developments. The France is decided to continue its action in favor of the disarmament and the non-proliferation in the continuity of its political engagements. (A.L.B.)

  17. Affirmative Action Fallout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Race-conscious affirmative action in higher education survived a close challenge in 2003 when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that race was a valid academic admission criteria in the "Grutter v. Bollinger" case. Two years later, a number of "pipeline" programs to help under-represented minorities gain admission to and complete graduate school have…

  18. RPII Action Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    This document outlines RPII's committments under the Public Service Action Plan 2010 to 2014, otherwise known as the Croke Park Agreement. The document describes the proposed changes to the workplan, the benefits arising from the changes and the timeframe for implementing the committments

  19. Sensemaking from Actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Rekom (Johan); C.B.M. van Riel (Cees); B. Wierenga (Berend)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThis study presents a method to establish empirically what drives organization members in their day-to-day behavior. The method starts from the sense employees make of their own actions. The approach consists of two steps: qualitative laddering interviews to determine the most central

  20. Collective Action under Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    Collective action in the form of industrial conflict has declined dramatically since the high tide in the 1970s in Europe. This article argues that this decline is the result of significant changes in both economic and institutional factors, influencing the calculations of employees and of their ...

  1. Simplicial Palatini action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatsymovsky, V. M.

    2018-01-01

    We consider the piecewise flat spacetime and a simplicial analog of the Palatini form of the general relativity (GR) action where the discrete Christoffel symbols are given on the tetrahedra as variables that are independent of the metric. Excluding these variables with the help of the equations of motion gives exactly the Regge action. This paper continues our previous work. Now, we include the parity violation term and the analog of the Barbero-Immirzi parameter introduced in the orthogonal connection form of GR. We consider the path integral and the functional integration over the connection. The result of the latter (for certain limiting cases of some parameters) is compared with the earlier found result of the functional integration over the connection for the analogous orthogonal connection representation of Regge action. These results, mainly as some measures on the lengths/areas, are discussed for the possibility of the diagram technique where the perturbative diagrams for the Regge action calculated using the measure obtained are finite. This finiteness is due to these measures providing elementary lengths being mostly bounded and separated from zero, just as the finiteness of a theory on a lattice with an analogous probability distribution of spacings.

  2. Mathematics in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    December 2004-November 2007 Denmark, Hungary, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia and Spain have cooperated in the project Mathematics in Action (MiA). The MiA project is supported by the Grundtvig action in the Socrates program of the European Commission. The aim of the project is to su......December 2004-November 2007 Denmark, Hungary, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia and Spain have cooperated in the project Mathematics in Action (MiA). The MiA project is supported by the Grundtvig action in the Socrates program of the European Commission. The aim of the project...... is to support quality of learning and teaching of mathematics in adult education in the EU countries and to support participation and success rates of adult learners. The target groups are teachers in adult learning institutions and teacher trainers. As a result of the MiA project this handbook presents...... examples of good practices and theoretical thoughts about doing and learning mathematics in actual real life situations. The first chapter gives an overview. The second chapter concerns important papers from the European Commission on key competences and how they set up challenges for teachers in adult...

  3. Justifying Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helskog, Guro Hansen

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I use a general philosophy of science perspective in looking at the problem of justifying action research. First I try to clarify the concept of justification, by contrasting it with the concept of validity, which seems to be used almost as a synonym in some parts of the literature. I discuss the need for taking a stand in relation…

  4. Action Research in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piggot-Irvine, Eileen

    2009-01-01

    Action research places a powerful tool for school improvement in the hands of teachers. By highlighting the outcomes that are possible and presenting clear steps in the research process, this book is one to encourage anyone who is seeking to implement evidence-based school improvement. Eileen Piggot-Irvine uses her Problem Resolving Action…

  5. Citizens' action group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andritzky, W.

    1978-01-01

    For the first empirical study of citizens' action groups 331 such groups were consulted. Important information was collected on the following aspects of these groups: their self-image, areas and forms of activities, objectives and their extent, how long the group has existed, successes and failures and their forms of organisation. (orig.) [de

  6. 'grass roots' reconstructive action

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses a two year action research investigation of conceptual, evaluation and adoption tensions that led to a revised approach to environmental ... a sustained dialogue around the prevailing science curriculum, local environmental issues and everyday classroom activities fostered reconstructive change at a ...

  7. Quick action clamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calco, Frank S. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A quick release toggle clamp that utilizes a spring that requires a deliberate positive action for disengagement is presented. The clamp has a sliding bolt that provides a latching mechanism. The bolt is moved by a handle that tends to remain in an engaged position while under tension.

  8. Jump into Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stephen; Cohen, Ann; Meyer, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Jump Into Action (JIA) is a school-based team-taught program to help fifth-grade students make healthy food choices and be more active. The JIA team (physical education teacher, classroom teacher, school nurse, and parent) work together to provide a supportive environment as students set goals to improve food choices and increase activity.…

  9. The Specificity of Action Knowledge in Sensory and Motor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E Watson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies have found that sensorimotor systems are engaged when participants observe actions or comprehend action language. However, most of these studies have asked the binary question of whether action concepts are embodied or not, rather than whether sensory and motor areas of the brain contain graded amounts of information during putative action simulations. To address this question, we used repetition suppression (RS functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine if functionally-localized motor movement and visual motion regions-of-interest (ROI and two anatomical ROIs (inferior frontal gyrus, IFG; left posterior middle temporal gyrus were sensitive to changes in the exemplar (e.g., two different people kicking or representational format (e.g., photograph or schematic drawing of someone kicking within pairs of action images. We also investigated whether concrete versus more symbolic depictions of actions (i.e., photographs versus schematic drawings yielded different patterns of activation throughout the brain. We found that during a conceptual task, sensory and motor systems represent actions at different levels of specificity. While the visual motion ROI did not exhibit RS to different exemplars of the same action or to the same action depicted by different formats, the motor movement ROI did. These effects are consistent with person-specific action simulations: if the motor system is recruited for action understanding, it does so by activating one’s own motor program for an action. We also observed significant repetition enhancement within the IFG ROI to different exemplars or formats of the same action, a result that may indicate additional cognitive processing on these trials. Finally, we found that the recruitment of posterior brain regions by action concepts depends on the format of the input: left lateral occipital cortex and right supramarginal gyrus responded more strongly to symbolic depictions of actions than

  10. Elements of social action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Miloš

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the significant analytical advantages, the author prefers social action as initial sociological concept in the relation to social phenomenon. Its basic elements are: actors, subjects and tools, needs and interests, values and norms, positions and roles. Actors set in motion and unify the rest of elements, guide to the magic triangle of sociology (movement, change, order, reaffirm actor paradigm to systemic paradigm. Subjects and tools materialize an action and its overestimate results in technological determinism or (by means of property as institutional appropriation of nature in the (unclassed historical type of society. Needs and interests are the basis of person's motivation and starting point for depth analysis of sociability. The expansion of legitimate interests circle develops techniques of normative regulation. Values and norms guide to institutional-organizational, positions to vertical and roles to horizontal structure. Values give the meaning to the action as well as to human existence, they are orientations of motivate system of personality but also basic aspect of society. As abstractions, values are latent background of norms and they tell to us what to do, and norms how to do something. Norms are specified instructions for suitable behavior Without normative order, not to be possible the satisfying of needs and the conciliation of interests. Riches, power and prestige are components of social position, and legal status is the determination of rights and obligations of the position. Roles are normative expectation of behavior. Toward kinds of sanctions roles are classified. Roles but also other elements of social action are starting point for sociological analysis of legal norms and institutes. On the other side, the observation of legal component of social actions enriches, strengths and precises sociological analysis of them.

  11. Learning Action Models: Qualitative Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolander, T.; Gierasimczuk, N.; van der Hoek, W.; Holliday, W.H.; Wang, W.-F.

    2015-01-01

    In dynamic epistemic logic, actions are described using action models. In this paper we introduce a framework for studying learnability of action models from observations. We present first results concerning propositional action models. First we check two basic learnability criteria: finite

  12. Partial Actions and Power Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Ávila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a partial action (X,α with enveloping action (T,β. In this work we extend α to a partial action on the ring (P(X,Δ,∩ and find its enveloping action (E,β. Finally, we introduce the concept of partial action of finite type to investigate the relationship between (E,β and (P(T,β.

  13. Neural basis of understanding communicative actions: Changes associated with knowing the actor's intention and the meanings of the actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möttönen, Riikka; Farmer, Harry; Watkins, Kate E

    2016-01-29

    People can communicate by using hand actions, e.g., signs. Understanding communicative actions requires that the observer knows that the actor has an intention to communicate and the meanings of the actions. Here, we investigated how this prior knowledge affects processing of observed actions. We used functional MRI to determine changes in action processing when non-signers were told that the observed actions are communicative (i.e., signs) and learned the meanings of half of the actions. Processing of hand actions activated the left and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, BA 44 and 45) when the communicative intention of the actor was known, even when the meanings of the actions remained unknown. These regions were not active when the observers did not know about the communicative nature of the hand actions. These findings suggest that the left and right IFG play a role in understanding the intention of the actor, but do not process visuospatial features of the communicative actions. Knowing the meanings of the hand actions further enhanced activity in the anterior part of the IFG (BA 45), the inferior parietal lobule and posterior inferior and middle temporal gyri in the left hemisphere. These left-hemisphere language regions could provide a link between meanings and observed actions. In sum, the findings provide evidence for the segregation of the networks involved in the neural processing of visuospatial features of communicative hand actions and those involved in understanding the actor's intention and the meanings of the actions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Stimulus Novelty Energizes Actions in the Absence of Explicit Reward.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Koster

    Full Text Available Novelty seeking has been tied to impulsive choice and biased value based choice. It has been postulated that novel stimuli should trigger more vigorous approach and exploration. However, it is unclear whether stimulus novelty can enhance simple motor actions in the absence of explicit reward, a necessary condition for energizing approach and exploration in an entirely unfamiliar situation. In this study human subjects were cued to omit or perform actions in form of button presses by novel or familiar images. We found that subjects' motor actions were faster when cued by a novel compared to a familiar image. This facilitation by novelty was strongest when the delay between cue and action was short, consistent with a link between novelty and impulsive choices. The facilitation of reaction times by novelty was correlated across subjects with trait novelty seeking as measured in the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire. However, this li between high novelty-seeking and action facilitation was driven by trials with a long delay between cue and action. This prolonged time window of energization following novelty could hint at a mechanistic underpinning of enhanced vigour for approach and exploration frequently postulated for novelty seeking humans. In conclusion, we show that stimulus novelty enhances the speed of a cued motor action. We suggest this is likely to reflect an adaptation to changing environments but may also provide a source of maladaptive choice and impulsive behaviour.

  15. INFORM'ACTION

    CERN Document Server

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    INFORM’ACTION Commission ! It’s all in the title ! At a time when one of the keywords is COMMUNICATE, the Staff Association has a duty to take it seriously. This is why, among other reasons, the youngest of the Staff Association internal commissions was created in 20005. As its name indicates, this commission is responsible for INFORMING, TRAINING (FORMER) and organizing ACTIONs. INFORMING : The members of this commission endeavour to work using all imaginable and known channels of information: articles, emails, alerts, posters, web site, organizing meetings, distributing flyers, banners, videos, etc. In 2009 a new web site (http://cern.ch/association) was put on line.   Since then this site has been continually updated to provide information regarding the latest news in the social domain (Pension Fund, CHIS, 5YR), and also special offers for our members, club news, and social and cultural activities. In 2009 and 2010, the Staff Association notice boards were ...

  16. The Body in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Thor

    2008-01-01

    intentional action. In "The problem," I describe why this should be thought to be problematic. In "Motives for denying epistemic role," I state some of the main motives for denying that bodily awareness has any epistemic role to play in the content of the agent's awareness of her own action. In "Kinaesthetic...... awareness and control," I sketch how I think the experience of moving and the bodily sense of agency or control are best described. On this background, I move on to present, in "Arguments for epistemic role," three arguments in favour of the claim that normally the experience of moving is epistemically...... important to one's awareness of acting intentionally. In the final "Concluding remarks," I round off by raising some of the worries that motivated the denial of my claim in the first place....

  17. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    Analysing processes of social learning this work addresses how action research can further new research orientations towards sustainability. Empirically situated in the field of upstream public engagement, involving local residents, researchers and practitioners in bottom-up processes deliberating...... on urban sustainability the need to move towards sustainability at societal level is conceptualised as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By understanding sustainability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously to renew itself without...... eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming to provide local citizens...

  18. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    How can action research further new research orientations towards sustainability? This book, empirically situated in the field of upstream public engagement, involving local residents, researchers and practitioners in bottom-up processes deliberating on urban sustainability, answers this question...... by analysing processes of social learning. The book addresses the need to move towards sustainability at societal level as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By conceptualising sustain-ability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously...... to renew itself without eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming...

  19. Sustainability and Entrepreneurial Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen T.; Anderson, Alistair

    instrument in the pursuit of sustainability.  Prior Work - Extant literature identifies two main approaches to sustainable entrepreneurship. (i) traditional exploitation of environmentally relevant opportunities and (ii) institutional entrepreneurship creating opportunities. We identify a novel form......: resource oriented sustainable entrepreneurial action.  Approach - The paper uses a case study approach to build deeper theoretical knowledge of environmentally sustainable entrepreneurship.  Results - The paper identifies and analyses a distinct form of sustainable entrepreneurship -  resource oriented...... entrepreneurship - which uses bricolage in various ways to create sustainable solutions. Implications and value - The concept of resource oriented sustainable entrepreneurship contributes to the theoretical understanding of how entrepreneurial action can support sustainability, Furthermore the case study has...

  20. Empirical microeconomics action functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Du, Xin; Tanputraman, Winson

    2015-06-01

    A statistical generalization of microeconomics has been made in Baaquie (2013), where the market price of every traded commodity, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable. The dynamics of commodity market prices is modeled by an action functional-and the focus of this paper is to empirically determine the action functionals for different commodities. The correlation functions of the model are defined using a Feynman path integral. The model is calibrated using the unequal time correlation of the market commodity prices as well as their cubic and quartic moments using a perturbation expansion. The consistency of the perturbation expansion is verified by a numerical evaluation of the path integral. Nine commodities drawn from the energy, metal and grain sectors are studied and their market behavior is described by the model to an accuracy of over 90% using only six parameters. The paper empirically establishes the existence of the action functional for commodity prices that was postulated to exist in Baaquie (2013).

  1. Archetypes as action patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenson, George B

    2009-06-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons by researchers at the University of Parma promises to radically alter our understanding of fundamental cognitive and affective states. This paper explores the relationship of mirror neurons to Jung's theory of archetypes and proposes that archetypes may be viewed as elementary action patterns. The paper begins with a review of a proposed interpretation of the fainting spells of S. Freud in his relationship with Jung as an example of an action pattern that also defines an archetypal image. The challenge that mirror neurons present to traditional views in analytical psychology and psychoanalysis, however, is that they operate without recourse to a cognitive processing element. This is a position that is gaining increasing acceptance in other fields as well. The paper therefore reviews the most recent claims made by the Boston Process of Change Study Group as well as conclusions drawn from dynamic systems views of development and theoretical robotics to underline the conclusion that unconscious agency is not a requirement for coherent action. It concludes with the suggestion that this entire body of research may lead to the conclusion that the dynamic unconscious is an unnecessary hypothesis in psychoanalysis and analytical psychology.

  2. Platform for Action: update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The Center for Women's Global Leadership (CWGL) has collaborated in the preparation of amendments and strategies designed to withstand the challenges being posed to the Platform for Action of the Fourth World Conference on Women. Specific challenges include the inappropriate use of the word "universal" to modify "human rights." This implies that some human rights are less than universal. The strategy proposed is to accept the use of the word "universal" in this context only when it affirms principles of universality contained in the Vienna Programme of Action and not where its use would restrict the rights to which women are entitled. A second concern is over the use of the word "equity" rather than "equality" when referring to gender relations. The use of these terms will be carefully monitored to insure that "equity" not be used to undermine the principle of gender equality. The third concern is the efforts of some governments to hinder the integration of women's human rights throughout the UN system. Such efforts will be opposed. Fourth, the CWGL will seek the inclusion of language which recognizes the barriers that different groups of women face when trying to secure their rights. Finally, the CWGL will propose inclusion of language recognizing and protecting sexual orientation rights. The CWGL is also going to work to translate the abstract language of the Platform for Action into political organizing potential to insure that governments will follow through on their agreements.

  3. Action embellishment: an intention bias in the perception of success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jesse Lee; Ritter, Ryan S; Wegner, Daniel M

    2011-08-01

    Naïve theories of behavior hold that actions are caused by an agent's intentions, and the subsequent success of an action is measured by the satisfaction of those intentions. However, when an action is not as successful as intended, the expected causal link between intention and action may distort perception of the action itself. Four studies found evidence of an intention bias in perceptions of action. Actors perceived actions to be more successful when given a prior choice (e.g., choose between 2 words to type) and also when they felt greater motivation for the action (e.g., hitting pictures of disliked people). When the intent was to fail (e.g., singing poorly), choice led to worse estimates of performance. A final experiment suggested that intention bias works independent from self-enhancement motives. In observing another actor hit pictures of Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama, shots were distorted to match the actor's intentions, even when it opposed personal wishes. Together these studies indicate that judgments of action may be automatically distorted and that these inferences arise from the expected consistency between intention and action in agency.

  4. Project HealthDesign: enhancing action through information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Casper, Gail; Downs, Stephen; Aulahk, Veenu

    2009-01-01

    Project HealthDesign is a country-wide initiative in the United States designed to stimulate innovation in personal health records (PHRs). Nine grantee teams engaged in an 18-month long design and prototyping process. Two teams addressed the needs of children and adolescents; three created novel approaches to help adults prevent or manage metabolic syndrome; three groups employed interface innovations to assist patients with chronic care management and one team devised a novel calendaring system to assist patients undergoing complex medical/surgical treatments to integrate care processes into their daily lives. These projects not only included development and testing of novel personal health records applications, but also served as the starting point to specify and implement a common technical core platform. The project advanced PHR development in two key ways: intensive user-centered design and a development architecture that separates applications of PHRs from the infrastructure that supports them. The initiative also allowed systematic investigation of significant ethical, legal and social issues, including how privacy considerations are changed when information technology innovations are used in the home and the rebalancing of the authority structure of health care decision making when patient-centered approaches guide the design of PHRs.

  5. Enhancing the Action Research Capacity of the International Model ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The International Model Forest Network (IMFN) dates from a commitment made by Canada at the UNCED (United Nations Conference on Environment and Development) Rio Conference in 1992 to create an international network of working models of sustainable forest management that are based on local-level ...

  6. Action Research on Enhancing Academic Excellence in A study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Questionnaires were used to ascertain preliminary claims “that lack of interest in a course of study is a fundamental factor responsible for poor academic performance”. Data collated and analysed shows that amongst the students currently enrolled in first year Physics department, only 34% selected the Faculty of Education ...

  7. Enhanced surface structuring by ultrafast XUV/NIR dual action

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakubczak, Krzysztof; Mocek, Tomáš; Chalupský, Jaromír; Lee, G.H.; Kim, T.K.; Park, S.B.; Nam, Ch. H.; Hájková, Věra; Toufarová, Martina; Juha, Libor; Rus, Bedřich

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 5 (2011), s. 1-12 ISSN 1367-2630 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN300100702; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA MŠk LA08024; GA ČR GC202/07/J008 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M100100911 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : XUV beam * ultrafast NIR laser pulses * high-order harmonics * laser-induced periodic surface structures Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 4.177, year: 2011 http://iopscience.iop.org/1367-2630/13/5/053049

  8. Learning Actions Models: Qualitative Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Gierasimczuk, Nina

    2015-01-01

    —they are identifiable in the limit.We then move on to a particular learning method, which proceeds via restriction of a space of events within a learning-specific action model. This way of learning closely resembles the well-known update method from dynamic epistemic logic. We introduce several different learning...... identifiability (conclusively inferring the appropriate action model in finite time) and identifiability in the limit (inconclusive convergence to the right action model). We show that deterministic actions are finitely identifiable, while non-deterministic actions require more learning power...... methods suited for finite identifiability of particular types of deterministic actions....

  9. On Research in Action and Action in Research

    OpenAIRE

    Bodil Stilling Blichfeldt; Jesper Rank Andersen

    2005-01-01

    A unique (and challenging) characteristic of social sciences is that these sci-ences are multi-paradigmatic and adhere to a wide range of research strategies. One research strategy that social scientists can choose to rely on is action re-search. However, action research qualifies as a research strategy much criticised for not being subject to scientific rigor. Drawing on an extensive review of the literature on action research, this paper discusses what action research is (not) and what it c...

  10. On the Inclusion of Externally Controlled Actions in Action Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsai, C.C.; Knoblich, G.K.; Sebanz, N.

    2011-01-01

    According to ideomotor theories, perceiving action effects produced by others triggers corresponding action representations in the observer. We tested whether this principle extends to actions performed by externally controlled limbs and tools. Participants performed a go-no-go version of a spatial

  11. On the Inclusion of Externally Controlled Actions in Action Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jessica Chia-Chin; Knoblich, Gunther; Sebanz, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    According to ideomotor theories, perceiving action effects produced by others triggers corresponding action representations in the observer. We tested whether this principle extends to actions performed by externally controlled limbs and tools. Participants performed a go-no-go version of a spatial compatibility task in which their own actions…

  12. Power effects on cognitive control: Turning conflict into action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Petra C; Kleiman, Tali; Amodio, David M

    2015-06-01

    Power is known to promote effective goal pursuit, especially when it requires one to overcome distractions or bias. We proposed that this effect involves the ability to engage and implement cognitive control. In Study 1, we demonstrated that power enhances behavioral performance on a response conflict task and that it does so by enhancing controlled processing rather than by reducing automatic processing. In Study 2, we used an event-related potential index of anterior cingulate activity to test whether power effects on control were due to enhanced conflict sensitivity or action implementation. Power did not significantly affect neural sensitivity to conflict; rather, high power was associated with a stronger link between conflict processing and intended action, relative to low power. These findings suggest a new perspective on how social factors can affect controlled processing and offer new evidence regarding the transition between conflict detection and the implementation of action control. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Neurobiological actions of cysteamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.; Fisher, L.; Mason, R.T.; Rivier, J.; Vale, W.

    1985-06-01

    Somatostatin (SS)-related peptides act within discrete brain regions to inhibit adrenal epinephrine (E) secretion, to prevent hypothermia, and to produce hyperthermia. Depletion of brain concentrations of these SS-related peptides using cysteamine (CSH) or central administration of an SS receptor antagonist increases adrenal E secretion and impairs thermoregulation. These actions of CSH and the SS receptor antagonist are reversed by administration of SS into the central nervous system. These results support the hypothesis that endogenous brain SS-related peptides are involved in the regulation of adrenal E secretion and thermoregulation.

  14. VIOLENT FRAMES IN ACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; McGrath, Liam R.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2011-11-17

    We present a computational approach to radical rhetoric that leverages the co-expression of rhetoric and action features in discourse to identify violent intent. The approach combines text mining and machine learning techniques with insights from Frame Analysis and theories that explain the emergence of violence in terms of moral disengagement, the violation of sacred values and social isolation in order to build computational models that identify messages from terrorist sources and estimate their proximity to an attack. We discuss a specific application of this approach to a body of documents from and about radical and terrorist groups in the Middle East and present the results achieved.

  15. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    on urban sustainability the need to move towards sustainability at societal level is conceptualised as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By understanding sustainability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously to renew itself without...... eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming to provide local citizens...

  16. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    by analysing processes of social learning. The book addresses the need to move towards sustainability at societal level as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By conceptualising sustain-ability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously...... to renew itself without eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming...

  17. Digital computers in action

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, A D

    1965-01-01

    Digital Computers in Action is an introduction to the basics of digital computers as well as their programming and various applications in fields such as mathematics, science, engineering, economics, medicine, and law. Other topics include engineering automation, process control, special purpose games-playing devices, machine translation and mechanized linguistics, and information retrieval. This book consists of 14 chapters and begins by discussing the history of computers, from the idea of performing complex arithmetical calculations to the emergence of a modern view of the structure of a ge

  18. Public affairs committee actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The AGU Public Affairs Committee will create an ad hoc committee to consider possible AGU position statements concerning the effects of nuclear war.The action was taken at the May 31, 1983, meeting of the Committee at the AGU Spring Meeting in Baltimore. Present were Carroll Ann Hodges, Chairman, and members Thomas J. Ahrens, David Cauffman, Jared Cohon, Stamatios Krimigis, Robert Murphy, Raymond Roble, and George Shaw. Also attending were the current Congressional Fellow Arthur Weissman and SPR—Cosmic Rays Section Secretary Miriam Forman.

  19. Planning an action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilucci, M; Negrotti, A; Gangitano, M

    1997-06-01

    The motor control of a sequence of two motor acts forming an action was studied in the present experiment. The two analysed motor acts were reaching-grasping an object (first target) and placing it on a second target of the same shape and size (experiment 1). The aim was to determine whether extrinsic properties of the second target (i.e. target distance) could selectively influence the kinematics of reaching and grasping. Distance, position and size of both targets were randomly varied across the experimental session. The kinematics of the initial phase of the first motor act, that is, velocity of reaching and hand shaping of grasping, were influenced by distance of the second target. No kinematic difference was found between movements executed with and without visual control of both hand and targets. These results could be due to computation of the general program of an action that takes into account extrinsic properties of the final target. Conversely, they could depend on a visual interference effect produced by the near second target on the control of the first motor act. In order to dissociate the effects due to second target distance from those due to visual interference, two control experiments were carried out. In the first control experiment (experiment 2) subjects executed movements directed towards spatial locations at different distances from the first target, as in experiment 1. However, the near second target was not presented and subjects were required to place the object on an arbitrary near position. Distance of the second (either real or arbitrary) target affected the reaching component of the first motor act, as in experiment 1, but not the grasp component. In the second control experiment (experiment 3), the pure visual interference effect was tested. Subjects were required to reach and grasp the object and to lift it in either presence or absence of a second near stimulus. No effect on the initial phase of the first motor act was observed. The

  20. The Norwegian Plan of Action for nuclear safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The Plan of Action underlies Norwegian activities in the field of international co-operation to enhance nuclear safety and prevent radioactive contamination from activities in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Geographically the highest priority has been given to support for safety measures in north-west Russia. This information brochure outlines the main content of the Plan of Action for nuclear safety issues and lists a number of associated measures and projects

  1. How to learn action research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard; Svensson, Lennart

    2006-01-01

    The authors suggest routines and educational structures that could improve a succesfull learning and education of action research.......The authors suggest routines and educational structures that could improve a succesfull learning and education of action research....

  2. Action Research: Some basic issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2003-01-01

    The article introduces the main characteristica of action research as well as its origin. In addition the epistmological criteria are presented and discussed. Finally power relationships and ethical concerns are reflected in relation to the practice of action research....

  3. Research to Action: an evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gail Tomblin; Alder, Rob; MacKenzie, Adrian; Cook, Amanda; Maddalena, Victor

    2012-03-01

    potential benefits of reduced turnover among nurses, the cost of which has been identified as a major burden on the Canadian healthcare system (O'Brien-Pallas et al. 2010). One of the goals of the pan-Canadian framework for health human resources (HHR) planning adopted by the Federal/Provincial/Territorial Advisory Committee on Health Delivery and Human Resources is to enhance all jurisdictions' capacity to build and maintain a sustainable workforce in healthy, safe work environments (ACHDHR 2005).Within this context, Health Canada's Office of Nursing Policy provided funding to the Canadian Federation of Nurses Unions (CFNU) and partner agencies in October 2008 to develop pilot projects across the country aimed at improving nurse retention and recruitment through various workplace improvement schemes. Each of the provincial partners contributed funds, in-kind support or both to the projects. The initiative was entitled Research to Action: Applied Workplace Solutions for Nurses (RTA). A national steering committee including representation from unions, governments and employers, each pilot project, CFNU and its national partners – the Canadian Nurses Association, the Canadian Healthcare Association and the Dietitians of Canada – was formed to oversee the development of 10 pilot projects. There was one project in each of Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia and Nunavut. The pilot projects, led by their own steering committees, focused on various aspects of nursing practice identified as particularly relevant to each jurisdiction, with a specific emphasis on improving the work life of nurses and transforming research knowledge into practice. The goals of the RTA initiative were to promote high-quality workplace environments, improve the retention and recruitment of nurses (RNs and LPNs), enhance the quality of patient care and engage stakeholders in collaborative partnerships

  4. Effect of metal complexation to anti-inflammatory over the action against oxidative and free radicals: ketoprofen action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manente, Francine Alessandra; Mello, Lucas Rosolen de Almeida; Vellosa, Jose Carlos Rebuglio; Khalil, Omar Arafat Kdudsi; Carvalho, Claudio Teodoro de; Bannach, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    Free radicals are highly reactive species generated in living organisms for the purpose of protection. However, in some circumstances, they are responsible for the occurrence or aggravation of tissue damage. Many anti-inflammatory drugs have a direct effect on free radicals and not radical reactive species, which contributes to its actions against inflammation. Ketoprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent that generates free radicals by photo irradiation and has an important hemolytic effect with that. The complexation of metals to different drugs has been used as a strategy to improve the pharmacological action of different molecules and reduce their side effects. This paper presents the results of ketoprofen and their metallic complexes action on erythrocytes and free radicals. It was observed that the cerium enhances the scavenger properties of ketoprofen on free radicals, while copper enhances its action over non-radical oxidants. Copper also reduced the hemolytic effect presented by ketoprofen meanwhile its cerium derivative maintained it. (author)

  5. Action Research and Interactive Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, lennart; Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard

    2006-01-01

    The authors present trends in Nordic action research. They ask critical questions in the development towards mode 2 and points out alternative roads for a scientific consolidation of action research and interactive research.......The authors present trends in Nordic action research. They ask critical questions in the development towards mode 2 and points out alternative roads for a scientific consolidation of action research and interactive research....

  6. Ionic channels underlying the ventricular action potential in zebrafish embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alday, Aintzane; Alonso, Hiart; Gallego, Monica; Urrutia, Janire; Letamendia, Ainhoa; Callol, Carles; Casis, Oscar

    2014-06-01

    Over the last years zebrafish has become a popular model in the study of cardiac physiology, pathology and pharmacology. Recently, the application of the 3Rs regulation and the characteristics of the embryo have reduced the use of adult zebrafish use in many studies. However, the zebrafish embryo cardiac physiology is poorly characterized since most works have used indirect techniques and direct recordings of cardiac action potential and ionic currents are scarce. In order to optimize the zebrafish embryo model, we used electrophysiological, pharmacological and immunofluorescence tools to identify the characteristics and the ionic channels involved in the ventricular action potentials of zebrafish embryos. The application of Na(+) or T-type Ca(+2) channel blockers eliminated the cardiac electrical activity, indicating that the action potential upstroke depends on Na(+) and T-type Ca(+2) currents. The plateau phase depends on L-type Ca(+2) channels since it is abolished by specific blockade. The direct channel blockade indicates that the action potential repolarization and diastolic potential depends on ERG K(+) channels. The presence in the embryonic heart of the Nav1.5, Cav1.2, Cav3.2 and ERG channels was also confirmed by immunofluorescence, while the absence of effect of specific blockers and immunostaining indicate that two K(+) repolarizing currents present in human heart, Ito and IKs, are absent in the embryonic zebrafish heart. Our results describe the ionic channels present and its role in the zebrafish embryo heart and support the use of zebrafish embryos to study human diseases and their use for drug testing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Educators as action researchers: some key considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daneel Rossouw

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A characteristic of expert educators is their ability to interpret classroom acti­vities critically, to identify and solve problems regarding their teaching practice, and to make thoughtful or reflective instructional and classroom management decisions that are conducive to learning. For educators to be efficacious, they should be active participants in the classroom and observers of the learning and teaching processes, assessing and interpreting the data forthcoming from the classroom and using that knowledge, together with more academic or public theory and research, as a basis for planning and decision-making. Action re­search provides educators with a strategy to enhance their reflective teaching practice, thereby sharpening their understanding of instruction and improving their instructional and classroom management skills, thus promoting educa­tional change. In this article I discuss an action research model for educators to assist them in finding alternatives to current practice by gathering data and using the data to create meaning, which is then fed back into the system with a view to improved action. The proposed action research model is highly rele­vant to pre-service and in-service teacher training.

  8. Transforming practices: a primer on action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Sandra; Goltz, Heather Honoré

    2014-07-01

    Action research (AR) is a powerful tool for health education and promotion practitioners who want to focus on improving the quality of their programs and services. In this Tool, we describe the characteristics and controversial aspects of AR, differentiate between traditional and action research, present the benefits of applying AR methods/techniques for investigating problems related to professional practice, and offer a four-phase methodological framework for conducting AR studies. Unlike traditional research, AR is a methodology that links theory, research, and practice; advances new knowledge and understandings via iterative action cycles; employs frontline health practitioners as researchers; and promotes collaborative practitioner-community partnerships. Egalitarian in its approach, AR offers an "insider's perspective" centered on context-specific problems and issues related to health promotion. AR falls into two categories: large-scale community-based research and small-scale practice-based research. Each cycle of the AR framework includes four phases: (a) preplanning/needs assessment, (b) planning/study organization, (c) action and observation/study implementation, and (d) reflection and planning/data analysis and interpretation. Using the AR primer in this Tool has the potential to empower health education/promotion practitioners, encourage collaborative partnerships, enhance practitioners' knowledge base, and promote social change. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  9. Remedial action technology - arid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.; DePoorter, G.L.; Nyhan, J.W.; Perkins, B.A.; Lane, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    A summary is presented of the low-level waste remedial action program at Los Alamos. The experimental design and progress is described for the experiments on second generation intrusion barriers, subsidence effects on SLB components, moisture cycling effects on chemical transport, and erosion control methodologies. The soil moisture data from the bio-intrusion and moisture cycling experiments both demonstrate the overwhelming importance of vegetation in minimizing infiltration of water through trench covers and backfill. Evaporation, as a water loss component in trench covers, is only effective in reducing soil moisture within 40 cm of the trench cover surface. Moisture infiltrating past the zone of evaporation in unvegetated or poorly vegetated trench covers is in storage and accumulates until drainage out of the soil profile occurs. Judicious selection of vegetation species for revegetating a low-level waste site may prevent infiltration of moisture into the trench and, when coupled with other design features (i.e. trench cover slope, tilling and seeding practice), may greatly reduce problems with erosion. Standard US Department of Agriculture erosion plots, when coupled with a state-of-the-art water balance and erosion model (CREAMS) promises to be highly useful in screening proposed remedial action cover designs for low-level waste sites. The erosion plot configuration allows for complete accounting of the water balance in a soil profile. This feature enables the user to optimize cover designs to minimize erosion and infiltration of water into the trench

  10. Developing an Action Concept Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    We report on progress towards the development of an Action Concept Inventory (ACI), a test that measures student understanding of action principles in introductory mechanics and optics. The ACI also covers key concepts of many-paths quantum mechanics, from which classical action physics arises. We used a multistage iterative development cycle for…

  11. Collaborative Action Research: Historical Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulyan, Lisa

    This paper presents a historical overview of the use of action research in education and describes the basic assumptions and expectations that continue to characterize collaborative research projects today. Action research was initiated in the 1930's by Kurt Lewin and adapted by educators in the 1940's. Interest in action research declined between…

  12. Action Research: Trends and Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Rodney J.

    2013-01-01

    Action research continues to grow as a research tradition, yet misconceptions about what it is and is not remains, even among scholars. For example, some mistakenly believe action research is only about professional development and is not a scholarly research approach. Some assume action research must be accomplished through a collaborative…

  13. Safety enhancement in NPP Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipar, M.; Mihalik, M.

    1997-01-01

    The upgrading and safety enhancement of both the Bohunice V-1 and V-2 reactors is described in detail. The total estimated cost of the gradual reconstruction of these two units during 1996 to 1999 is 180 mil. US dollars. For the 1995 to 1997 period, the actions common for both units include a quality assurance programme, a personnel training programme, installation of a multifunction simulator, implementation of symptom-oriented operation procedures, installation of diagnostic systems, of a site security system, and of a teledosimetric system. At present, the main maintenance tasks are: to carry out major repair of units, to remedy service interruptions, to enhance equipment service availability, to enhance the technical level of corrective actions at equipment. Investment into maintenance level upgrade has grown from 7.5 mil. Slovak crowns in 1994 to estimated 32 mil. in 2000. The partners of international cooperation are mentioned. (M.D.)

  14. Tip enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, Satoshi

    2007-01-01

    This book discusses the recent advances in the area of near-field Raman scattering, mainly focusing on tip-enhanced and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Some of the key features covered here are the optical structuring and manipulations, single molecule sensitivity, analysis of single-walled carbon nanotubes, and analytic applications in chemistry, biology and material sciences. This book also discusses the plasmonic materials for better enhancement, and optical antennas. Further, near-field microscopy based on second harmonic generation is also discussed. Chapters have been written by some of the leading scientists in this field, who present some of their recent work in this field.·Near-field Raman scattering·Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy·Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy·Nano-photonics·Nanoanalysis of Physical, chemical and biological materials beyond the diffraction limits·Single molecule detection

  15. Unsupervised Learning of Action Primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baby, Sanmohan; Krüger, Volker; Kragic, Danica

    2010-01-01

    Action representation is a key issue in imitation learning for humanoids. With the recent finding of mirror neurons there has been a growing interest in expressing actions as a combination meaningful subparts called primitives. Primitives could be thought of as an alphabet for the human actions...... and scale, the use of the object can provide a strong invariant for the detection of motion primitives. In this paper we propose an unsupervised learning approach for action primitives that makes use of the human movements as well as the object state changes. We group actions according to the changes...

  16. The minimalist grammar of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastra, Katerina; Aloimonos, Yiannis

    2012-01-01

    Language and action have been found to share a common neural basis and in particular a common ‘syntax’, an analogous hierarchical and compositional organization. While language structure analysis has led to the formulation of different grammatical formalisms and associated discriminative or generative computational models, the structure of action is still elusive and so are the related computational models. However, structuring action has important implications on action learning and generalization, in both human cognition research and computation. In this study, we present a biologically inspired generative grammar of action, which employs the structure-building operations and principles of Chomsky's Minimalist Programme as a reference model. In this grammar, action terminals combine hierarchically into temporal sequences of actions of increasing complexity; the actions are bound with the involved tools and affected objects and are governed by certain goals. We show, how the tool role and the affected-object role of an entity within an action drives the derivation of the action syntax in this grammar and controls recursion, merge and move, the latter being mechanisms that manifest themselves not only in human language, but in human action too. PMID:22106430

  17. The minimalist grammar of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastra, Katerina; Aloimonos, Yiannis

    2012-01-12

    Language and action have been found to share a common neural basis and in particular a common 'syntax', an analogous hierarchical and compositional organization. While language structure analysis has led to the formulation of different grammatical formalisms and associated discriminative or generative computational models, the structure of action is still elusive and so are the related computational models. However, structuring action has important implications on action learning and generalization, in both human cognition research and computation. In this study, we present a biologically inspired generative grammar of action, which employs the structure-building operations and principles of Chomsky's Minimalist Programme as a reference model. In this grammar, action terminals combine hierarchically into temporal sequences of actions of increasing complexity; the actions are bound with the involved tools and affected objects and are governed by certain goals. We show, how the tool role and the affected-object role of an entity within an action drives the derivation of the action syntax in this grammar and controls recursion, merge and move, the latter being mechanisms that manifest themselves not only in human language, but in human action too.

  18. Taking action against violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, K

    1996-05-01

    Significant increase in violent crimes in recent years forced Icelandic men to take action against violence. Television was seen as a major contributory factor in increasing violence. Surveys indicate that 10-15 years after television broadcasting commences in a particular society, the incidence of crime can be expected to double. While the majority of the individuals arrested for violent crimes are men, being male does not necessarily mean being violent. The Men's Committee of the Icelandic Equal Rights Council initiated a week-long information and education campaign under the theme "Men Against Violence". This campaign involved several events including an art exhibit, speeches on violence in families, treatment sought by those who are likely to resort to violence, booklet distribution among students in secondary schools, and a mass media campaign to raise public awareness on this pressing problem.

  19. Biophysics of radiation action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dertinger, H.

    1984-01-01

    Understanding the cellular response to ionizing radiation is not only necessary to meet the requirements of radioprotection, but also for medical application of radiation in cancer treatment. In terms of radiobiology, cancer therapy means the selective inactivation of malignant cells without affecting the normal healthy tissue. However, for several physical and biological reasons, this ideal situation is normally not attained. The elaboration of biophysical parameters that could be used to improve the selective sterilization of tumor cells has become one of the main activities of cellular radiobiology during the last two decades. Progress in this field has been facilitated by the development of tissue culture techniques allowing to grow and analyze cells in a synthetic nutrient medium. This chapter describes the physical and biological factors which determine cellular radiosensitivity and which are important to know for better understanding the cellular radiation action, in particular with reference to cancer treatment

  20. Energy transition in action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    By presenting examples and experiments implemented in France, this publication illustrates the various ways to translate the objectives of energy transition into practical actions. A first part addresses the building sector and shows how to better renovate buildings: exemplary rehabilitations, techniques of construction to decrease energy consumption and equipment to control it, insulation by vegetal fibres, control of consumption decrease. The second part addresses the development of renewable energies: a heat network for household heating, innovative use of biogas, production of hot water by using solar energy, a waste incineration plant, heating by using waste waters. The third part addresses the promotion of circular economy: a recycling project, an optics-based glass sorting system, the commitment of Parisian restaurateurs for waste valorisation, a plant for waste sorting and valorisation

  1. The 1986 action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Discussion covers the actions that must be taken and the standards to be met to achieve the goals of the 20 year plan. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has agreed to develop detailed work plans for achieving the objects of the plan, through a public process in consultation with the Council and interested parties. BPA work plans and activities are outlined. The Council's plan emphasizes the following priorities: (1) a stronger regional role for BPA; (2) development of the capability to acquire conservation on a regional basis; (3) strategies to make better use of the hydropower system; (4) building conservation capability in all sectors; (5) demonstrating the cost effectiveness of renewable resources so they are available before the region has to build new generating resources; (6) allocation of costs for two unfinished nuclear power plants and elimination of barriers to their completion; and (7) a study of electric power sales and purchases between regions

  2. Guam Energy Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, M. D.; Ness, J. E.

    2013-07-01

    Describes the four near-term strategies selected by the Guam Energy Task Force during action planning workshops conducted in March 2013, and outlines the steps being taken to implement those strategies. Each strategy addresses one of the energy sectors identified in the earlier Guam strategic energy plan as being an essential component of diversifying Guam's fuel sources and reducing fossil energy consumption 20% by 2020. The four energy strategies selected are: (1) expanding public outreach on energy efficiency and conservation, (2) establishing a demand-side management revolving loan program, (3) exploring waste-to-energy options, and (4) influencing the transportation sector via anti-idling legislation, vehicle registration fees, and electric vehicles.

  3. CLICing into action

    CERN Multimedia

    Barbara Warmbein

    2015-01-01

    Putting its acronym into action, the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) collaboration is testing its first compact accelerator module in the CTF3 test facility. Fed by high-power waveguides, cables and cooling tubes, the module has all the functions of future CLIC modules and allows the experts to test all the features, including frequency, losses, damping, acceleration and deceleration.   The new CLIC module in the CTF3 test facility. CLIC is one of the potential follow-up projects to the LHC, alongside the International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Future Circular Collider (FCC) studies. Instead of smashing protons into protons, it is designed to collide electrons with positrons. Following the publication of its CDR in 2012, the CLIC collaboration entered the project preparation phase - testing its unique technology, making improvements and taking a closer look at the cost of the individual components. This is where the new module comes in. While many of the techniques and technologies neede...

  4. Actions Speak Louder Than Goals: Valuing Player Actions in Soccer

    OpenAIRE

    Decroos, Tom; Bransen, Lotte; Van Haaren, Jan; Davis, Jesse

    2018-01-01

    Assessing the impact of the individual actions performed by soccer players during games is a crucial aspect of the player recruitment process. Unfortunately, most traditional metrics fall short in addressing this task as they either focus on rare events like shots and goals alone or fail to account for the context in which the actions occurred. This paper introduces a novel advanced soccer metric for valuing any type of individual player action on the pitch, be it with or without the ball. Ou...

  5. Enhancing Cognition with Video Games: A Multiple Game Training Study

    OpenAIRE

    Oei, Adam C.; Patterson, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous evidence points to a causal link between playing action video games and enhanced cognition and perception. However, benefits of playing other video games are under-investigated. We examined whether playing non-action games also improves cognition. Hence, we compared transfer effects of an action and other non-action types that required different cognitive demands. Methodology/Principal Findings We instructed 5 groups of non-gamer participants to play one game each on a mob...

  6. Action-based flood forecasting for triggering humanitarian action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan de Perez, Erin; van den Hurk, Bart; van Aalst, Maarten K.; Amuron, Irene; Bamanya, Deus; Hauser, Tristan; Jongma, Brenden; Lopez, Ana; Mason, Simon; Mendler de Suarez, Janot; Pappenberger, Florian; Rueth, Alexandra; Stephens, Elisabeth; Suarez, Pablo; Wagemaker, Jurjen; Zsoter, Ervin

    2016-09-01

    Too often, credible scientific early warning information of increased disaster risk does not result in humanitarian action. With financial resources tilted heavily towards response after a disaster, disaster managers have limited incentive and ability to process complex scientific data, including uncertainties. These incentives are beginning to change, with the advent of several new forecast-based financing systems that provide funding based on a forecast of an extreme event. Given the changing landscape, here we demonstrate a method to select and use appropriate forecasts for specific humanitarian disaster prevention actions, even in a data-scarce location. This action-based forecasting methodology takes into account the parameters of each action, such as action lifetime, when verifying a forecast. Forecasts are linked with action based on an understanding of (1) the magnitude of previous flooding events and (2) the willingness to act "in vain" for specific actions. This is applied in the context of the Uganda Red Cross Society forecast-based financing pilot project, with forecasts from the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). Using this method, we define the "danger level" of flooding, and we select the probabilistic forecast triggers that are appropriate for specific actions. Results from this methodology can be applied globally across hazards and fed into a financing system that ensures that automatic, pre-funded early action will be triggered by forecasts.

  7. Tracking in Object Action Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Volker; Herzog, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    -dependent or as, e.g., in the case of a pointing direction convey important information. One common way to achieve recognition is by using 3D human body tracking followed by action recognition based on the captured tracking data. For the kind of scenarios considered here we would like to argue that 3D body...... tracking and action recognition should be seen as an intertwined problem that is primed by the objects on which the actions are applied. In this paper, we are looking at human body tracking and action recognition from a object-driven perspective. Instead of the space of human body poses we consider...... the space of the object affordances, i.e., the space of possible actions that are applied on a given object. This way, 3D body tracking reduces to action tracking in the object (and context) primed parameter space of the object affordances. This reduces the high-dimensional joint-space to a low...

  8. Joint action aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicary, Staci; Sperling, Matthias; von Zimmermann, Jorina; Richardson, Daniel C; Orgs, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Synchronized movement is a ubiquitous feature of dance and music performance. Much research into the evolutionary origins of these cultural practices has focused on why humans perform rather than watch or listen to dance and music. In this study, we show that movement synchrony among a group of performers predicts the aesthetic appreciation of live dance performances. We developed a choreography that continuously manipulated group synchronization using a defined movement vocabulary based on arm swinging, walking and running. The choreography was performed live to four audiences, as we continuously tracked the performers' movements, and the spectators' affective responses. We computed dynamic synchrony among performers using cross recurrence analysis of data from wrist accelerometers, and implicit measures of arousal from spectators' heart rates. Additionally, a subset of spectators provided continuous ratings of enjoyment and perceived synchrony using tablet computers. Granger causality analyses demonstrate predictive relationships between synchrony, enjoyment ratings and spectator arousal, if audiences form a collectively consistent positive or negative aesthetic evaluation. Controlling for the influence of overall movement acceleration and visual change, we show that dance communicates group coordination via coupled movement dynamics among a group of performers. Our findings are in line with an evolutionary function of dance-and perhaps all performing arts-in transmitting social signals between groups of people. Human movement is the common denominator of dance, music and theatre. Acknowledging the time-sensitive and immediate nature of the performer-spectator relationship, our study makes a significant step towards an aesthetics of joint actions in the performing arts.

  9. Status of funded actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The GEDEPEON workshop is organised to review the GEDEPEON research actions, which have been funded in 2003. Presentations are made by research teams actively involved in GEDEPEON research areas. Speakers were invited to show how the presented research data are related to the general goals of transmutation, for which 2006 is an important milestone, and innovative systems. document gathers the slides of 9 presentations among the 19 given at this workshop: 1 - nuclear and physical data: the TRADE experiment (Steckmeyer J.C.); actinides incineration - Mini-Inca (Chabod S.); NTOF: measurement of capture cross-sections (Gunsing F.); 2 - systems: analysis of uncertainties and sensitivity factors of nuclear data in molten salt reactor concepts (Mastrangelo V.); 3 - targets and corrosion: diffusion-controlled intergranular penetration and embrittlement of metals by liquid bismuth (Wolski K.), behaviour of T91 steel under cyclic loading in the liquid Pb-Bi alloy (Verleene A.); 4 - materials for future systems: helium impurities corrosion resistance of high temperature resistant materials for gas-cooled reactors (Cabet, C.); 5 - accelerators: Spoke cavities R and D and their role in the driver of an accelerator-driven system (ADS) (Junquera T.); 6 - Gedeon-Gedepeon 2001-2004 synthesis: spallation and nuclear data (Tassan-Got L., Barreau G. and Leray S.). (J.S.)

  10. Grails in action

    CERN Document Server

    Ledbrook, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Web apps shouldn't be hard to build, right? The developers of Grails agree. This hyper-productive open-source web framework offers "code by convention", leaving developers to focus on what makes their app special. Through its use of Groovy, it gives a powerful, Java-like language and full access to all Java libraries. Grails in Action is a comprehensive guide to the Grails framework. First, it covers the basics: the domain model, controllers, views, and services. Then, the fun! It dives into a Twitter-style app with features like AJAX/JSON, animation, search, wizards-even messaging and Jabber integration. It also offers loads of great plugins that'll make apps shine. RETAIL SELLING POINTS Fast track to super productivity Covers Grails 2.1 from the ground up Tons of tips and tricks from the trenches AUDIENCE No Java or Groovy background is required, but it is helpful for readers to have a background in web development and knowledge of an object-oriented language. ABOUT THE TECHNOLOGY Grails is an open source w...

  11. Less chalk more action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitriceski Andelkovic, Bojana; Jovic, Sladjana

    2016-04-01

    Less chalk more action Education should not be a mechanical system that operates according to the principles of the orders and implementation. Education should respect the basic laws of the develop and progress. Curiosity is the engine of achievement and children spontaneously and happily learn only if they get interested, if teacher wake up and stimulate their creativity and individuality. We would like to present classes that are realized as thematic teaching with several subjects involved: chemistry, geography, math, art and biology. Classes were organized for students at age from 10 to 13 years, every month during autumn and winter 2015. Better students identified themselves as teachers and presented peer education .Teachers were monitoring the process of teaching and help to develop links between younger and older students, where older students were educators to younger students. Also one student with special needs was involved in this activities and was supported by other students during the workshops The benefit from this project will be represented with evaluation marks. Evaluation table shows that group of ten students(age 10 to13 years) which are selected in October as children with lack of motivation for learning, got better marks, at the end of January , then they had it in the beginning of the semester.

  12. NGOs organize for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    NGOs, regionally and globally, made 1997 a year to consolidate the networking begun at the NGO Forum and the FAO Regional Conferences in 1996. They came together in meetings, strengthened their food security networks, and identified the major events of the next 3 years where the civil society voice for food security needs to be heard. The Asian NGO Coalition for Agrarian Reform and Rural Development (ANGOC) held a regional meeting in Bangkok, Thailand, during August 5-8, 1997, which drew up a plan of action for World Food Summit follow-up on the part of Southeast Asian NGOs. This included calling for a food security clause in the review of the WTO Agreement on Agriculture, joining the campaign for reform of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), a focus on regional institutions (the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Council and the Asian Development Bank), supporting national policies of food self-reliance (to reduce "food kilometers"--the distance between where food is produced and where it is consumed) and a baseline survey in 200 villages in 10 countries in order to compare food security indicators after 5 and 10 years. full text

  13. Solr in action

    CERN Document Server

    Grainger, Trey

    2014-01-01

    Whether handling big data, building cloud-based services, or developing multi-tenant web applications, it's vital to have a fast, reliable search solution. Apache Solr is a scalable and ready-to-deploy open-source full-text search engine powered by Lucene. It offers key features like multi-lingual keyword searching, faceted search, intelligent matching, and relevancy weighting right out of the box. Solr in Action is the definitive guide to implementing fast and scalable search using Apache Solr 4. It uses well-documented examples ranging from basic keyword searching to scaling a system for billions of documents and queries. Readers will gain a deep understanding of how to implement core Solr capabilities such as faceted navigation through search results, matched snippet highlighting, field collapsing and search results grouping, spell checking, query auto-complete, querying by functions, and more. RETAIL SELLING POINTS Clearly-written comprehensive guide In-depth coverage of Solr 4 Uses real-world examples ba...

  14. Is credit for early action credible early action?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolfe, C.; Michaelowa, A.; Dutschke, M.

    1999-12-01

    Credit for early action as a tool for greenhouse gas emissions reduction is compared with various market instruments as a means of narrowing the gap between projected emissions and those of the Kyoto Protocol. Market instruments work by creating a market price for emissions and use the market to encourage reductions at the lowest price, which is done by placing limits on greenhouse gas emissions and allowing the market to decide where reductions occur, or by imposing a carbon tax or emissions charge. While they can be applied within a sector, they are usually used to encourage reductions throughout the economy or across large sectors. Credit for early action also creates an incentive for emissions reductions throughout the economy or at least across many sectors. Credit for early action tools do not work by either imposing a carbon tax or emissions charge or placing limits on emissions, rather they promise that entities that take action against greenhouse gases prior to the imposition of a carbon tax or emissions limits will receive a credit against future taxes or limits. An overview is provided of the Kyoto Protocol and the rationale for taking early action, and a review is included of the theory and specific proposals for market instruments and credit for early action. A comparative analysis is provided of these approaches by examining their relative efficiency, environmental effectiveness, and impacts on the redistribution of wealth. Credit for early action is viewed as problematic on a number of counts and is seen as an interim strategy for imposition while political support for market instruments develop. The environmental effectiveness of credit for early action is very difficult to predict, and credit for early action programs do not yield the lowest cost emissions reductions. Credit for early action programs will not achieve compliance with the Kyoto Protocol at the lowest cost, and credits for early action will increase the compliance costs for those who

  15. Derivation of the Polyakov action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachkachi, M.

    1999-11-01

    We develop another method to get the Polyakov action that is: tile solution of tile conformal Ward identity on a Riemann surface Σ. We find that this action is the sum of two terms: the first one is expressed in terms of the projective connection and produces the diffeomorphism anomaly and tile second one is anomaly and contains the globally defined zero modes of the Ward identity. The explicit expression of this action is given on the complex plane. (author)

  16. DOE'S remedial action assurance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welty, C.G. Jr.; Needels, T.S.; Denham, D.H.

    1984-10-01

    The formulation and initial implementation of DOE's Assurance Program for Remedial Action are described. It was initiated in FY 84 and is expected to be further implemented in FY 85 as the activities of DOE's Remedial Action programs continue to expand. Further APRA implementation will include additional document reviews, site inspections, and program office appraisals with emphasis on Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program and Surplus Facilities Management Program

  17. Collective action, clientelism and connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shami, Mahvish

    action studies, however, is that collective action will often break down under hierarchical social relationships. This is unfortunate news for rural societies in developing countries, as these are often entrenched in patron-client networks. And while studies of collective action under clientelism...... that the unequal relationship between landlords and peasants does not, in and by itself, block peasant collective action. Rather, it is the interaction between clientelism and isolation that allow patrons to block community based projects. Despite still relying on powerful landlords, peasants in connected villages...

  18. Pro-lipogenic Action of Lysophosphatidic Acid in Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    synthetic progestins used in oral contraceptives enhances fatty acid synthase-dependent breast cancer cell proliferation and survival. Int. J. Oncol. 26...acid in ovarian cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Xianjun Fang CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Virginia Commonwealth University Richmond...2011-30 December 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Pro-lipogenic action of lysophosphatidic acid in ovarian cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  19. Understanding Participatory Action Research: A Qualitative Research Methodology Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Participatory Action Research (PAR) is a qualitative research methodology option that requires further understanding and consideration. PAR is considered democratic, equitable, liberating, and life-enhancing qualitative inquiry that remains distinct from other qualitative methodologies (Kach & Kralik, 2006). Using PAR, qualitative features of an…

  20. Action simulation plays a critical role in deceptive action recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidoni, Emmanuele; Borgomaneri, Sara; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Avenanti, Alessio

    2013-01-09

    The ability to infer deceptive intents from nonverbal behavior is critical for social interactions. By combining single-pulse and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in healthy humans, we provide both correlational and causative evidence that action simulation is actively involved in the ability to recognize deceptive body movements. We recorded motor-evoked potentials during a faked-action discrimination (FAD) task: participants watched videos of actors lifting a cube and judged whether the actors were trying to deceive them concerning the real weight of the cube. Seeing faked actions facilitated the observers' motor system more than truthful actions in a body-part-specific manner, suggesting that motor resonance was sensitive to deceptive movements. Furthermore, we found that TMS virtual lesion to the anterior node of the action observation network, namely the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC), reduced perceptual sensitivity in the FAD task. In contrast, no change in FAD task performance was found after virtual lesions to the left temporoparietal junction (control site). Moreover, virtual lesion to the IFC failed to affect performance in a difficulty-matched spatial-control task that did not require processing of spatiotemporal (acceleration) and configurational (limb displacement) features of seen actions, which are critical to detecting deceptive intent in the actions of others. These findings indicate that the human IFC is critical for recognizing deceptive body movements and suggest that FAD relies on the simulation of subtle changes in action kinematics within the motor system.

  1. Methodology in action: exploring action research for Masters studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article focuses on action research as a research design approach for Masters studies in information science and the various research methods that support and assist the research process. In this case, action research acts as a framework to guide the research and allows integration between theory, research and ...

  2. SADC establishes a regional action plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klouda, T

    1997-02-01

    The regional meeting held on AIDS strategy in Lilongwe, Malawi, in December, 1996, made important advances. The 12 countries of the SADC (Southern Africa Development Community) joined the European Union to institute a regional action plan for the reduction of susceptibility of people to HIV because of social, cultural, and environmental factors; the vulnerability of people with HIV infection to social and other difficulties; and the vulnerability of institutions because of the foregoing impacts. At the conference the issues explored were employment, mining, medical drugs, education, and tourism. An employment charter was seen as crucial for the success of AIDS and workplace activities. Facilitation of travel across borders was important for the reduction of susceptibility to HIV infection. Enhancement of regional policies for essential drugs was vital for drugs for the treatment of AIDS. The clarification of the regional role was critical for regional support of national action (strengthening technical and institutional capacities) and for regional joint action such as studies on research, harmonization of data collection on HIV/AIDS; organization of training; development of information and education on HIV/AIDS; facilitation of manufacturing of drugs and condoms; and the development of a regional information and education program about HIV/AIDS. The conference also clarified HIV/AIDS programs in relation to other health and socioeconomic problems.

  3. Future Earth Health Knowledge-Action Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Paul; Raivio, Kari; Kasuga, Fumiko; Tewksbury, Joshua; Haines, Andy; Daszak, Peter

    Future Earth is an international research platform providing the knowledge and support to accelerate our transformations to a sustainable world. Future Earth 2025 Vision identified eight key focal challenges, and challenge #6 is to "Improve human health by elucidating, and finding responses to, the complex interactions amongst environmental change, pollution, pathogens, disease vectors, ecosystem services, and people's livelihoods, nutrition and well-being." Several studies, including the Rockefeller Foundation/Lancet Planetary Health Commission Report of 2015, the World Health Organization/Convention on Biological Diversity report and those by oneHEALTH (former ecoHEALTH), have been conducted over the last 30 years. Knowledge-Action Networks (KANs) are the frameworks to apply Future Earth principles of research to related activities that respond to societal challenges. Future Earth Health Knowledge-Action Network will connect health researchers with other natural and social scientists, health and environmental policy professionals and leaders in government, the private sector and civil society to provide research-based solutions based on better, integrated understanding of the complex interactions between a changing global environment and human health. It will build regional capacity to enhance resilience, protect the environment and avert serious threats to health and will also contribute to achieving Sustainable Development Goals. In addition to the initial partners, Future Earth Health Knowledge-Action Network will further nourish collaboration with other on-going, leading research programmes outside Future Earth, by encouraging them in active participation.

  4. Our actions in my mind: Motor imagery of joint action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesper, Cordula; Knoblich, Günther; Sebanz, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    How do people imagine performing actions together? The present study investigated motor imagery of joint actions that requires integrating one's own and another's part of an action. In two experiments, individual participants imagined jumping alone or jointly next to an imagined partner. The joint...... condition required coordinating one's own imagined actions with an imagined partner's actions to synchronize landing times. We investigated whether the timing of participants' own imagined jumps would reflect the difference in jump distance to their imagined partner's jumps. The results showed...... that participants' jump imagery was indeed modulated to achieve coordination with an imagined task partner, confirming prior findings from a performance task. Moreover, when manipulating both target distance and target size, the same violation of Fitts' law reported for individual jumping was present in imagery...

  5. Joint action aesthetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staci Vicary

    Full Text Available Synchronized movement is a ubiquitous feature of dance and music performance. Much research into the evolutionary origins of these cultural practices has focused on why humans perform rather than watch or listen to dance and music. In this study, we show that movement synchrony among a group of performers predicts the aesthetic appreciation of live dance performances. We developed a choreography that continuously manipulated group synchronization using a defined movement vocabulary based on arm swinging, walking and running. The choreography was performed live to four audiences, as we continuously tracked the performers' movements, and the spectators' affective responses. We computed dynamic synchrony among performers using cross recurrence analysis of data from wrist accelerometers, and implicit measures of arousal from spectators' heart rates. Additionally, a subset of spectators provided continuous ratings of enjoyment and perceived synchrony using tablet computers. Granger causality analyses demonstrate predictive relationships between synchrony, enjoyment ratings and spectator arousal, if audiences form a collectively consistent positive or negative aesthetic evaluation. Controlling for the influence of overall movement acceleration and visual change, we show that dance communicates group coordination via coupled movement dynamics among a group of performers. Our findings are in line with an evolutionary function of dance-and perhaps all performing arts-in transmitting social signals between groups of people. Human movement is the common denominator of dance, music and theatre. Acknowledging the time-sensitive and immediate nature of the performer-spectator relationship, our study makes a significant step towards an aesthetics of joint actions in the performing arts.

  6. Fukushima action plan 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-02-01

    Immediately after the reactor accident of the Japan power plant (NPP) at Fukushima-Daiichi on 11 th March 2011, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) took measures to verify the safety of the Swiss NPPs which were formulated in 4 ordinances. In the first three, immediate actions and additional verifications were required. They included the building of a common external emergency equipment storage facility for all Swiss NPPs and the required plant-specific connections for accident management equipment as well as an update of ducts used for the external water supply of the fuel assembly storage pools. Subject of additional checks was the design of the Swiss NPPs as far as earthquakes, external flooding and the combination of both are concerned. Further, checking the coolant supply of the safety systems and fuel assembly storage pools was required. At the same time as the checking carried out by the plant operators, ENSI conducted inspections to examine the cooling systems of the fuel assembly storage pools, protection against external flooding and the filtered containment pressure-release systems. The inspections made in 2012 examined the strategies of the plant operators in the case of a long-lasting loss of electricity supply, the process and documents for the evaluation of external events and the premises foreseen in case of emergency. In 2013 the material for protection against radiation which is a fundamental condition for the mastering of a severe accident, was inspected at all NPPs. Radiation protection material is also essential for the long-lasting use of premises by the emergency organisation. The ENSI inspection results have confirmed that the Swiss NPPs show a high degree of protection against the effects of earthquakes, flooding and the combination of both, and that appropriate actions have been taken against loss of electricity supply and/or heat removal. All analysed accidents can be managed under consideration of the presently valid

  7. Speech enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob; Chen, Jingdong

    2006-01-01

    We live in a noisy world! In all applications (telecommunications, hands-free communications, recording, human-machine interfaces, etc.) that require at least one microphone, the signal of interest is usually contaminated by noise and reverberation. As a result, the microphone signal has to be ""cleaned"" with digital signal processing tools before it is played out, transmitted, or stored.This book is about speech enhancement. Different well-known and state-of-the-art methods for noise reduction, with one or multiple microphones, are discussed. By speech enhancement, we mean not only noise red

  8. Bodily action penetrates affective perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantoni, Carlo; Rigutti, Sara; Gerbino, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Fantoni & Gerbino (2014) showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP), they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015) would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer's internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification) task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer's internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions), in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top-down effect on

  9. Nanoparticles for cells proliferation enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, V.; Braniste, F.; Tiginyanu, I.M.; Lisii, C.; Nacu, V.

    2013-01-01

    The potential of semiconductor nanoparticles as stimulator for avian mesenchyme stem cells proliferation enhancement is demonstrated. The effect is related to nanoparticles polarization due to external ultrasound field resulting in local electrical stimulation. Our preliminary results demonstrates that the number of cells have been increased by 23 % ±2%) in cell cultures under the action of external ultrasound stimulation. Morphological analysis and viability shows no differences between the control group and the group studied. These results suggest the possibility for tissue regeneration enhancement by remote stimulation of implanted semiconductor nanoparticles. (authors)

  10. Transforming Welfare Institutions through Action Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Bilfeldt, Annette

    Abstract til ALARA 9th Action Learning Action Research and 13th Participatory Action Research World Congress, South Africa from 4 – 7 November 2015 Pretoria, Sydafrika......Abstract til ALARA 9th Action Learning Action Research and 13th Participatory Action Research World Congress, South Africa from 4 – 7 November 2015 Pretoria, Sydafrika...

  11. Action Research and Teacher Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Karel; Ponte, Petra

    2009-01-01

    The present article reports on a case study into the influence and impact of action research carried out by teachers in a special school. The action research was an important component of the two-year, post-initial, in-service course in special educational needs, provided by Fontys University of Applied Sciences, Department of Inclusive and…

  12. Quantum identities for the action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozzi, E.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we derive various identities involving the action functional which enters the path-integral formulation of quantum mechanics. They provide some kind of generalisations of the Ehrenfest theorem giving correlations between powers of the action and its functional derivatives.

  13. Action Recognition using Motion Primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeslund, Thomas B.; Fihl, Preben; Holte, Michael Boelstoft

    The number of potential applications has made automatic recognition of human actions a very active research area. Different approaches have been followed based on trajectories through some state space. In this paper we also model an action as a trajectory through a state space, but we represent...

  14. The Perception-Action Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Thor

    2017-01-01

    Milner and Goodale’s Two Visual Systems Hypothesis (TVSH) is regarded as common ground in recent discussions of visual consciousness. A central part of TVSH is a functional model of vision and action (a functional perception-action model, PAM for short). In this paper, I provide a brief overview ...

  15. Thought and Action in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rømer, Thomas Aastrup

    2015-01-01

    In much theory there is a tendency to place thought above action, or the opposite, action over thought. The consequence of the first option is that philosophy or scientific evidence gains the upper hand in educational thinking. The consequence of the second view is that pragmatism and relativism become the dominant features. This article discusses…

  16. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis

  17. Alternative Perspectives on Action Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, Gail; Jung, Burga

    1990-01-01

    Action research can take on different characteristics because underlying it are differing epistemological assumptions, which in turn shape methodological choices as well as how problems are formulated. This article examines three perspectives, and their accompanying methodologies, common to action research: positivism, interpretivism, and critical…

  18. American Samoa: Energy Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, J. Erik [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Conrad, Misty [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This document outlines actions being taken to reduce American Samoa's petroleum consumption. It describes the four near-term strategies selected by the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee during action-planning workshops conducted in May 2016, and describes the steps that will need to be taken to implement those strategies.

  19. Action Research: Theory and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Renée N.

    2014-01-01

    Action research as a methodology is suitable for use within academic library settings. Its theoretical foundations are located in several disciplines and its applications span across many professions. In this article, an overview of the theoretical beginnings and evolution of action research is presented. Approaches generally used in conducting an…

  20. Communicative Elements of Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    This review considers human communications as utilized within a research design; in this case collaborative action research (CAR), a derivative of action research (AR), to achieve outcomes that change, and move participants forward. The association between AR and CAR is a deliberate attempt by the author to draw attention to communicative actions…

  1. Action Research Empowers School Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Successful school library programs occur through careful planning and reflection. This reflective process is improved when it is applied in a systematic way through action research. The action research described in this paper enabled school librarians to reflect based on evidence, using data they had collected. This study presents examples of the…

  2. Integrating CHAT and Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    The question as to how action research (AR) is related to cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) is not answerable in categorical terms. Both CHAT and AR have been variously interpreted and much depends on the individual biographies of those who pronounce on their relationship. The aim of this paper is to show how action research, conducted…

  3. Action Research in European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2004-01-01

    The article gives an overview of how different Italian and Danish contributions to action research can be viewed in an European perspective.......The article gives an overview of how different Italian and Danish contributions to action research can be viewed in an European perspective....

  4. Motion Primitives for Action Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Holte, Michael Boelstoft; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2007-01-01

    The number of potential applications has made automatic recognition of human actions a very active research area. Different approaches have been followed based on trajectories through some state space. In this paper we also model an action as a trajectory through a state space, but we represent t...

  5. Modified Steiner functional string action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillie, C.F.; Johnston, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    It has recently been suggested by Ambartzumian et al. that the modified Steiner functional has desirable properties as an action for random surfaces and hence string world sheets. We perform a simulation of this action on a dynamically triangulated random surface to investigate this claim and find that the surfaces are in a flat phase

  6. Local Sustainability and Cooperation Actions in the Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberio Daddi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The populations of the Middle East and Africa are increasing rapidly, contributing to rapid urban growth. This paper describes a two-year action research process involving diverse public, private, and community stakeholders. The actions aimed to develop and strengthen the capabilities of three Mediterranean cities (Marrakech, Morocco; Sin el Fil, Lebanon; and Bodrum, Turkey in managing and promoting local sustainable development. The needs and priorities of each Mediterranean partner were identified and pilot actions were elaborated to promote urban sustainability, the exploitation of local resources, and the enhancement of local tangible and intangible assets. The paper describes the outputs of pilot actions carried out in these cities, highlighting how these experiences contribute to the current debate on urban sustainability. Broad implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  7. Euler-Heisenberg-Weiss action for QCD +QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Sho; Arai, Takashi; Hattori, Koichi; Itakura, Kazunori

    2015-07-01

    We derive an analytic expression for one-loop effective action of QCD +QED at zero and finite temperatures by using the Schwinger proper time method. The result is a nonlinear effective action not only for electromagnetic and chromo-electromagnetic fields but also for the Polyakov loop, and thus reproduces the Euler-Heisenberg action in QED, QCD, and QED +QCD , and also the Weiss potential for the Polyakov loop at finite temperature. As applications of this "Euler-Heisenberg-Weiss" action in QCD +QED , we investigate quark pair productions induced by QCD +QED fields at zero temperature and the Polyakov loop in the presence of strong electromagnetic fields. Quark one-loop contribution to the effective potential of the Polyakov loop explicitly breaks the center symmetry, and is found to be enhanced by the magnetic field, which is consistent with the inverse magnetic catalysis observed in lattice QCD simulation.

  8. Improving multi-tasking ability through action videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappe, Dan; Conger, Mark; Liao, Janet; Caldwell, J Lynn; Vu, Kim-Phuong L

    2013-03-01

    The present study examined whether action videogames can improve multi-tasking in high workload environments. Two groups with no action videogame experience were pre-tested using the Multi-Attribute Task Battery (MATB). It consists of two primary tasks; tracking and fuel management, and two secondary tasks; systems monitoring and communication. One group served as a control group, while a second played action videogames a minimum of 5 h a week for 10 weeks. Both groups returned for a post-assessment on the MATB. We found the videogame treatment enhanced performance on secondary tasks, without interfering with the primary tasks. Our results demonstrate action videogames can increase people's ability to take on additional tasks by increasing attentional capacity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Security actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Ramona; Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne; Nyberg, Lars; Johansson, Magnus

    2010-05-01

    In a project funded by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, the effort and work to reduce different kinds of accidents are being evaluated. The project wants to illuminate the links between actions and outcome, so we can learn from today's performance and in the future select more effective measures and overall deal with accidents more efficiently. The project ESS covers the field of frequent accidents such as sliding accidents at home, in house fires and less common accidents such as chemical and land fill accidents up to even more rare accidents such as natural accidents and hazards. In the ESS project SGI (Swedish geotechnical institute) will evaluate the work and effort concerning various natural hazards limited to landslides, erosion and flooding. The aim is to investigate how municipalities handle, especially prevention, of such natural disasters today. The project includes several aspects such as: • which are the driving forces for risk analysis in a municipality • do one use risk mapping (and what type) in municipal risk analysis • which aspects are most important when selecting preventive measures • in which way do one learn from past accidents • and from previous accidents elsewhere, by for example use existing databases • etc There are many aspects that play a role in a well-functioning safety promotion work. The overall goal is to examine present work and activities, highlight what is well functioning and identify weak points. The aim is to find out where more resources are needed and give suggestions for a more efficient security work. This includes identification of the most efficient "tools" in use or needed. Such tools can be education, directives, funding, more easily available maps and information regarding previous accidents and preventive measures etc. The project will result in recommendations for more effective ways to deal with landslides, erosion and flooding. Since different kinds of problems can occur depending on level of

  10. Action research: changing nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegney, Desley Gail; Francis, Karen

    2015-06-03

    This article describes action research as a methodology and gives two examples of its application to nursing and health services research. Action research is cyclical in nature and involves the development, evaluation and redefining of an action plan using four basic steps: planning, action, observation and reflection. These cycles of action continue until the research group is satisfied that its objectives have been met. Data generation and analysis are iterative processes that occur continuously throughout the project, which is usually time-limited. Factors that should be taken into account to ensure success include: engaging the community, consideration of 'insider' versus 'outsider' perspectives, competing agendas, expectations not being met and the integrity of the research methodology.

  11. Collective action and its interpreters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alfredo Costa de Campos Melo Júnior

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article intention is to give the theorical and intellectual map production regarding collective actions. For such, we will analyze the propositions of five thinkers who have work for the better understanding of this question. We will discuss the contributions of the Chicago School, especially psic-sociology, and Herbert Blumer symbolic interactionism; the classical Marxists approaches on collective actions; Claus Offe and the Marxist point of view on the new models of collective actions; Charles Tilly and his social-historic perspective analysis about social movements; and finally Mancur Olson and collective action from a rational perspective. What we intend is to present comparatively the theorical and practical similarities and exclusions of these contemporary authors who contribute with collective actions today.

  12. Modification of Biomolecules and Combined Actions by Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Yang, J. S.; Lee, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    Basic knowledge necessary for the future R and D plans can be derived from the results of this study. This study has focused on development of fundamentals for radiation applications based on the existing radiation technology, and on enhancement of biological effectiveness of radiation through theoretical approach to the combined actions of radiation with another factor. Application of radiation technology together with the existing technologies to enhance the physical, chemical, biological characteristics through modification of biomolecules will lead to creation of de novo scientific and industrial values. A mathematical model for the combined action of ionizing radiation with another factor has been established. Prediction and optimization of the maximum value of synergistic interaction and the conditions for it are possible by means of the established model. Conclusively the results of this study can provide scientific bases for enhancing the biological efficacy of ionizing radiation in relation to industrial applications

  13. Terminology versus action (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Glynn

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available I have heard it said, as many of us have, that evidence based library and information practice is an area dominated and led by librarians in the health sciences. It is a logical leap to say that medical librarians may be more familiar with the evidence based model of practice because of their need to be familiar, on some level, with evidence based medicine. The idea of making a decision based on the appropriate evidence is as familiar to a medical librarianas is how to effectively search PubMed. How pervasive is the influence of the medical profession on this area? Being a librarian looking for quick information, I turned to Google. The results on the first two pages from a Google search for evidence based practice are 100% health/medicine related. Being a good librarian, I refined my search to see how the results would differ, and I added the term library to the search. This time there were 75% health/medicine results and 5% representing evidence based library and information practice (eblip. Note that a high percentage of the health/medicine hits were library webpages on evidence based medicine. Being an obsessive‐compulsive librarian, I changed my search strategy again by replacing library with librarianship. This time there were 30% health/medicine results and 65% eblip. A final search for evidence based information had this journal as the top hit. Being a busy librarian with a lot of work to do, I stopped right there. OK, so the terminology appears to point strongly in one direction and weighs heavily on the health sciences penetration. Let’s leave terminology aside for a moment and look at action. Since Evidence Based Library and Information Practice is the first journal on this topic, the list of contributors and their backgrounds should give an indication on whether or not there is a concentration of medical librarians. Approximately two thirds of the articles that we have published are non‐health/medicine related. Only 29% of our

  14. THE RELATION BETWEEN THE CRIMINAL ACTION AND THE CIVIL ACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGDAN FLORIN MICU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, the free access to the law is considered a fundamental human right, enriched by the Constitution itself. In practice, the committing of an illegal act may cause prejudice, being described as a civil offense, but at the same time may create a report of criminal law, attracting the criminal liability, in which case it is called offense. This is how we find in the jurisprudence, both civil action and criminal action, so that, in this study we try to present some singularities of these two types of actions, and of the relation between them.

  15. 'Action 2016': AREVA's strategic action plan to improve performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, Patricia; Floquet-Daubigeon, Fleur; Michaut, Maxime; De Scorbiac, Marie; Du Repaire, Philippine

    2011-01-01

    On December 12, 2011, Luc Oursel, Executive Officer of AREVA, and Pierre Aubouin, Chief Financial Executive Officer, presented the group's 'Action 2016' strategic action plan based on an in-depth analysis of the market's outlook. This document makes, first, a Detailed presentation of the 'Action 2016' plan and then presents the group's financial outlook: - Full-year 2011 immediate accounting consequences of the new market environment: operating losses expected in 2011; - 2012-2013 transition period Objective: self-finance capex in cumulative terms; - 2014-2016: safe growth and cash generation, free operating cash flow at break-even beginning in 2013, above euro 1 bn per year beginning in 2015

  16. Effects of action video game training on visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacker, Kara J; Curby, Kim M; Klobusicky, Elizabeth; Chein, Jason M

    2014-10-01

    The ability to hold visual information in mind over a brief delay is critical for acquiring information and navigating a complex visual world. Despite the ubiquitous nature of visual working memory (VWM) in our everyday lives, this system is fundamentally limited in capacity. Therefore, the potential to improve VWM through training is a growing area of research. An emerging body of literature suggests that extensive experience playing action video games yields a myriad of perceptual and attentional benefits. Several lines of converging work suggest that action video game play may influence VWM as well. The current study utilized a training paradigm to examine whether action video games cause improvements to the quantity and/or the quality of information stored in VWM. The results suggest that VWM capacity, as measured by a change detection task, is increased after action video game training, as compared with training on a control game, and that some improvement to VWM precision occurs with action game training as well. However, these findings do not appear to extend to a complex span measure of VWM, which is often thought to tap into higher-order executive skills. The VWM improvements seen in individuals trained on an action video game cannot be accounted for by differences in motivation or engagement, differential expectations, or baseline differences in demographics as compared with the control group used. In sum, action video game training represents a potentially unique and engaging platform by which this severely capacity-limited VWM system might be enhanced.

  17. Defense Acquisitions: Department of Defense Actions on Program Manager Empowerment and Accountability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    .... In addition, as part of a new strategy for program manager empowerment and accountability, DOD plans a variety of actions to enhance development opportunities, provide more incentives, and arrange...

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Semiannual progress report, January 1996--June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This document summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period of January-June 1996. The report includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violations sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to the enforcement actions.

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Semiannual progress report, January 1996--June 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This document summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period of January-June 1996. The report includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violations sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to the enforcement actions

  20. Action learning across the decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Ken

    2017-05-02

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore how action learning concepts were used in two healthcare projects undertaken many decades apart. The specific purpose in both cases was to examine how action learning can contribute to shared learning across key stakeholders in a complex socio-technical system. In each case study, action learning supported joint design programmes and the sharing of perspectives about the complex system under investigation. Design/methodology/approach Two action learning projects are described: first, the Hospital Internal Communications (HIC) project led by Reg Revans in the 1960s. Senior staff in ten London hospitals formed action learning teams to address communication issues. Second, in the Better Outcomes for People with Learning Disabilities: Transforming Care (BOLDTC) project, videoconferencing equipment enabled people with learning disabilities to increase their opportunities to communicate. A mutual learning process was established to enable stakeholders to explore the potential of the technical system to improve individual care. Findings The HIC project demonstrated the importance of evidence being shared between team members and that action had to engage the larger healthcare system outside the hospital. The BOLDTC project confirmed the continuing relevance of action learning to healthcare today. Mutual learning was achieved between health and social care specialists and technologists. Originality/value This work draws together the socio-technical systems tradition (considering both social and technical issues in organisations) and action learning to demonstrate that complex systems development needs to be undertaken as a learning process in which action provides the fuel for learning and design.

  1. Typological Analysis of Buying Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Teodorescu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The typology of buyers and buying actions contracts are specific categories of consumer behaviour, determining group buyers and buying actions in classes, to fragment the markets. Market fragmentation through buyer typoligy and/or segmentation is presently characterized by a multitude of theoretical approaches and are especially generated by the common practice in the respective business. These two concepts are used for the same purpose, the essential difference being their starting point: the segmentation fragments the markets as a whole, while the typology of the buyer and of buying actions generate classifications starting from individual cases.

  2. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis. This summary report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the operating reactors licensing actions program. Its content will change based on NRC management informational requirements

  3. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis. This summary report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the operating reactors licensing actions program. Its content will change based on NRC management informational requirements

  4. [Humanitarian action threatened by standardization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamou, J

    2002-01-01

    The author analyses the new international context in which humanitarian action is being undertaken. He raises the problem caused by the diverging objectives of impartial, neutral humanitarianism and politically motivated actions that implement strategies of prevention and conflict resolution. He reviews the criticism that humanitarian has come under in recent years and that has resulted in establishment of codes of conduct. However he points out the threat that the concepts of control and "jurisdiction" over humanitarian action represent and analyzes discrepancies between minimal standards and universal principles. The article concludes with a presentation of an alternative solution based on the "Quality" platform being developed by several French NGOs.

  5. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis. This summary report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the operating reactors licensing actions program. Its content will change based on NRC management informational requirements

  6. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis. This summary report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the operating reactors licensing actions program. Its content will change based on NRC management informational requirements

  7. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis. This summary report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the operating reactors licensing actions program. Its content will change based on NRC management informational requirements

  8. The Neurobiology of Collective Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Joseph Zak

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay introduces a neurologically-informed mathematical model of collective action that reveals the role for empathy and distress in motivating costly helping behaviors. We report three direct tests of model with a key focus on the neuropeptide oxytocin as well as a variety of indirect tests. These studies, from our lab and other researchers, show support for the model. Our findings indicate that empathic concern, via the brain's release of oxytocin, is a trigger for collective action. We discuss the implications from this model for our understanding why human beings engage in costly collective action.

  9. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis. This summary report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the operating reactors licensing actions program. Its content will change based on NRC management informational requirements

  10. American Samoa Energy Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Herdrich, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bodell, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Visser, Charles [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Describes the five near-term strategies selected by the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee (ASREC) during action planning workshops conducted in May 2013, and outlines the actions being taken to implement those strategies. Each option is tied to a priority identified in the earlier draft American Samoa Strategic Energy Plan as being an essential component of reducing American Samoa'spetroleum energy consumption. The actions described for each strategy provide a roadmap to facilitate the implementation of each strategy. This document is intended to evolve along with the advancement of the projects, and will be updated to reflect progress.

  11. Strengthening Collective Action to Improve Marketing Performance: Evidence from Farmer Groups in Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochieng, Justus; Knerr, Beatrice; Owuor, George; Ouma, Emily

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Several development organisations have implemented programs to enhance smallholder farmers' crop productivity and market access through collective action with mixed results. Therefore, this study examines the drivers of success of collective action initiatives as a pathway to improving farmers marketing performance using data from Rwanda…

  12. ICDF Complex Remedial Action Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. M. Heileson

    2007-09-26

    This Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Remedial Action Report has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of Section 6.2 of the INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility Remedial Action Work Plan. The agency prefinal inspection of the ICDF Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF) was completed in June of 2005. Accordingly, this report has been developed to describe the construction activities completed at the ICDF along with a description of any modifications to the design originally approved for the facility. In addition, this report provides a summary of the major documents prepared for the design and construction of the ICDF, a discussion of relevant requirements and remedial action objectives, the total costs associated with the development and operation of the facility to date, and identification of necessary changes to the Agency-approved INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility Remedial Action Work Plan and the ICDF Complex Operations and Maintenance Plan.

  13. Distracted shareholders and corporate actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempf, Elisabeth; Manconi, Alberto; Spalt, Oliver

    Investor attention matters for corporate actions. Our new identification approach constructs firm-level shareholder "distraction" measures, by exploiting exogenous shocks to unrelated parts of institutional shareholders' portfolios. Firms with "distracted" shareholders are more likely to announce

  14. Taking Action for Healthy Kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Jill E.

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes research on relationship between physical activity, good nutrition, and academic performance. Offers several recommendations for how schools can take action to improve the nutrition and fitness of students. (PKP)

  15. Duality constraints on effective actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garousi, Mohammad R.

    2017-08-01

    Superstring theories at low energy limit are described by the corresponding supergravities, and their non-perturbative D-brane/O-plane excitations are described by DBI and WZ actions. Higher derivative corrections to these effective actions are important for understanding the stringy behaviour of the fundamental objects. They may be extracted from the contact terms of the corresponding S-matrix elements. On the other hand, the superstring theories enjoy the T- and S-dualities which appear in the S-matrix elements as duality Ward identities. These Ward identities might be used as generating functions for constructing the S-matrix elements. The dualities may also be used directly to construct the effective actions. In this article, we review the duality Ward identities which can be used to generate S-matrix elements, and review the dualities which may be used directly to construct the higher derivative corrections to the effective actions.

  16. The centre of the action

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The CERN Control Centre (CCC) has all the ingredients of an action movie control room: hundreds of screens, technicians buzzing in and out, huge floor-to-ceiling windows revealing the looming vista of a mountain range, flashing lights, microphones… This is the place where not just the LHC, but the whole of CERN’s accelerator complex and technical support is based - truly the centre of the action at CERN.

  17. Sustainability Actions in Higher Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-13

    This brochure details common sustainability actions taken by universities to reduce their energy consumption. Some of the most common actions include energy efficiency (existing building commissioning; lighting; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning upgrades; plug loads) and renewable energy (RE) (on-site or off-site solar deployment, RE procurement). We focus on the costs and benefits of energy efficiency measures and RE through the brochure while highlighting resources where readers can find more information.

  18. Affirmative Action and Stereotype Threat

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Alma

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides experimental evidence on the effect of affirmative action (AA). In particular, we investigate whether affirmative action has a ”stereotype threat effect” – that is, whether AA cues a negative stereotype that leads individuals to conform to the stereotype and adversely affects their performance. Stereotype threat has been shown in the literature to be potentially significant for individuals who identify strongly with the domain of the stereotype and who engage in complex st...

  19. Joint Actions of Developmental Toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    applications in aquatic toxicology and experimental teratology [2-15]. A standard ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) guide for FETAX is nearing...in malformation rates). Incidences of each joint action type have been reported in experimental teratology [211. Recent advances in aquatic toxicology offer...action produced; as has been observed in aquatic toxicology studies. Several developmental toxicants were selected for mixture tests based on their

  20. Action representation: crosstalk between semantics and pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Marc Jeannerod pioneered a representational approach to movement and action. In his approach, motor representations provide both, declarative knowledge about action and procedural knowledge for action (action semantics and action pragmatics, respectively). Recent evidence from language comprehension and action simulation supports the claim that action pragmatics and action semantics draw on common representational resources, thus challenging the traditional divide between declarative and procedural action knowledge. To account for these observations, three kinds of theoretical frameworks are discussed: (i) semantics is grounded in pragmatics, (ii) pragmatics is anchored in semantics, and (iii) pragmatics is part and parcel of semantics. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Segmenting Dynamic Human Action via Statistical Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Dare; Andersson, Annika; Saffran, Jenny; Meyer, Meredith

    2008-01-01

    Human social, cognitive, and linguistic functioning depends on skills for rapidly processing action. Identifying distinct acts within the dynamic motion flow is one basic component of action processing; for example, skill at segmenting action is foundational to action categorization, verb learning, and comprehension of novel action sequences. Yet…

  2. Primitive Based Action Representation and Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baby, Sanmohan; Krüger, Volker

    2009-01-01

    There has been a recent interest in segmenting action sequences into   meaningful parts (action primitives) and to model actions on a   higher level based on these action primitives. Unlike previous works where action primitives are defined    a-priori and search is made for them later, we present...

  3. RCRA corrective action determination of no further action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    On July 27, 1990, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed a regulatory framework (55 FR 30798) for responding to releases of hazardous waste and hazardous constituents from solid waste management units (SWMUs) at facilities seeking permits or permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The proposed rule, 'Corrective Action for Solid Waste Management Units at Hazardous Waste Facilities', would create a new Subpart S under the 40 CFR 264 regulations, and outlines requirements for conducting RCRA Facility Investigations, evaluating potential remedies, and selecting and implementing remedies (i.e., corrective measures) at RCRA facilities. EPA anticipates instances where releases or suspected releases of hazardous wastes or constituents from SWMUs identified in a RCRA Facility Assessment, and subsequently addressed as part of required RCRA Facility Investigations, will be found to be non-existent or non-threatening to human health or the environment. Such releases may require no further action. For such situations, EPA proposed a mechanism for making a determination that no further corrective action is needed. This mechanism is known as a Determination of No Further Action (DNFA) (55 FR 30875). This information Brief describes what a DNFA is and discusses the mechanism for making a DNFA. This is one of a series of Information Briefs on RCRA corrective action

  4. EDITORIAL: Enhancing nanolithography Enhancing nanolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Lithography was invented in late 18th century Bavaria by an ambitious young playwright named Alois Senefelder. Senefelder experimented with stone, wax, water and ink in the hope of finding a way of reproducing text so that he might financially gain from a wider distribution of his already successful scripts. His discovery not only facilitated the profitability of his plays, but also provided the world with an affordable printing press that would ultimately democratize the dissemination of art, knowledge and literature. Since Senefelder, experiments in lithography have continued with a range of innovations including the use of electron beams and UV that allow increasingly higher-resolution features [1, 2]. Applications for this have now breached the limits of paper printing into the realms of semiconductor and microelectronic mechanical systems technology. In this issue, researchers demonstrate a technique for fabricating periodic features in poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) [3]. Their method combines field enhancements from silica nanospheres with laser-interference lithography to provide a means of patterning a polymer that has the potential to open the market of low-end, high-volume microelectronics. Laser-interference lithography has already been used successfully in patterning. Researchers in Korea used laser-interference lithography to generate stamps for imprinting a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure into green light emitting diodes (LEDs) [4]. The imprinted patterns comprised depressions 100 nm deep and 180 nm wide with a periodicity of 295 nm. In comparison with unpatterned LEDs, the intensity of photoluminescence was enhanced by a factor of seven in the LEDs that had the photonic crystal structures imprinted in them. The potential of exploiting field enhancements around nanostructures for new technologies has also attracted a great deal of attention. Researchers in the USA and Australia have used the field

  5. Creative Motor Actions As Emerging from Movement Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Dominic; van der Kamp, John; Memmert, Daniel; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2017-01-01

    In cognitive science, creative ideas are defined as original and feasible solutions in response to problems. A common proposal is that creative ideas are generated across dedicated cognitive pathways. Only after creative ideas have emerged, they can be enacted to solve the problem. We present an alternative viewpoint, based upon the dynamic systems approach to perception and action, that creative solutions emerge in the act rather than before . Creative actions, thus, are as much a product of individual constraints as they are of the task and environment constraints. Accordingly, we understand creative motor actions as functional movement patterns that are new to the individual and/or group and adapted to satisfy the constraints on the motor problem at hand. We argue that creative motor actions are promoted by practice interventions that promote exploration by manipulating constraints. Exploration enhances variability of functional movement patterns in terms of either coordination or control solutions. At both levels, creative motor actions can emerge from finding new and degenerate adaptive motor solutions. Generally speaking, we anticipate that in most cases, when exposed to variation in constraints, people are not looking for creative motor actions, but discover them while doing an effort to satisfy constraints. For future research, this paper achieves two important aspects: it delineates how adaptive (movement) variability is at the heart of (motor) creativity, and it sets out methodologies toward stimulating adaptive variability.

  6. Is action video gaming related to sustained attention of adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisolini, Daniela Carmen; Petilli, Marco Alessandro; Daini, Roberta

    2018-05-01

    Over the past few years, an increasing number of studies have shown that playing action video games can have positive effects on tasks that involve attention and visuo-spatial cognition (e.g., visual search, enumeration tasks, tracking multiple objects). Although playing action video games can improve several cognitive functions, the intensive interaction with the exciting, challenging, intrinsically stimulating and perceptually appealing game environments may adversely affect other functions, including the ability to maintain attention when the level of stimulation is not as intense. This study investigated whether a relationship existed between action video gaming and sustained attention performance in a sample of 45 Italian teenagers. After completing a questionnaire about their video game habits, participants were divided into Action Video Game Player (AVGP) and Non-Action Video Game Player (NAVGP) groups and underwent cognitive tests. The results confirm previous findings of studies of AVGPs as they had significantly enhanced performance for instantly enumerating a set of items. Nevertheless, we found that the drop in performance over time, typical of a sustained attention task, was significantly greater in the AVGP compared with the NAVGP group. This result is consistent with our hypothesis and demonstrates a negative effect of playing action video games.

  7. Creative Motor Actions As Emerging from Movement Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Orth

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In cognitive science, creative ideas are defined as original and feasible solutions in response to problems. A common proposal is that creative ideas are generated across dedicated cognitive pathways. Only after creative ideas have emerged, they can be enacted to solve the problem. We present an alternative viewpoint, based upon the dynamic systems approach to perception and action, that creative solutions emerge in the act rather than before. Creative actions, thus, are as much a product of individual constraints as they are of the task and environment constraints. Accordingly, we understand creative motor actions as functional movement patterns that are new to the individual and/or group and adapted to satisfy the constraints on the motor problem at hand. We argue that creative motor actions are promoted by practice interventions that promote exploration by manipulating constraints. Exploration enhances variability of functional movement patterns in terms of either coordination or control solutions. At both levels, creative motor actions can emerge from finding new and degenerate adaptive motor solutions. Generally speaking, we anticipate that in most cases, when exposed to variation in constraints, people are not looking for creative motor actions, but discover them while doing an effort to satisfy constraints. For future research, this paper achieves two important aspects: it delineates how adaptive (movement variability is at the heart of (motor creativity, and it sets out methodologies toward stimulating adaptive variability.

  8. Mechanisms of action of intrauterine devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, M E; Croxatto, H B; Bardin, C W

    1996-12-01

    The major effect of all intrauterine devices (IUD) is to induce a local inflammatory reaction in the endometrium whose cellular and humoral components are released into the uterine cavity. This inflammatory reaction has a variable effect on the reproductive strategy of the species studied. For example, this foreign body reaction can be localized within the uterus of rodents; and in farm animals it can have striking extrauterine effects. Thus, the action of IUDs in humans cannot be discerned from animals. In humans, copper ions released from Cu-IUDs enhance the inflammatory response and reach concentrations in the luminal fluids of the genital tract that are toxic for spermatozoa and embryos. In women using the IUD, the entire genital tract seems affected, at least in part, because of luminal transmission of the fluids that accumulates in the uterine lumen. This affects the function or viability of gametes, decreasing the rate of fertilization and lowering the chances of survival of any embryo that may be formed, even before it reaches the uterus. Studies on the recovery of eggs from women using IUDs and from women not using contraception show that embryos are formed in the tubes of IUD users at a much lower rate compared with nonusers. This is believed to be the major action of IUDs. Therefore, the common belief that the major mechanism of action of IUDs in women is through destruction of embryos in the uterus (i.e., abortion) is not supported by the available evidence. In Cu-IUD users, it is likely that few spermatozoa reach the distal segment of the fallopian tube, those that encounter an egg may be in poor condition. Thus, the few eggs that are fertilized have little chance for development and their possibility for survival in the altered tubal milieu become worse as they approach the uterine cavity.

  9. Albertans and climate change : taking action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    This paper establishes a final framework to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the province of Alberta. It is based on the draft plan released in May 2002 which presents actions to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 50 per cent below 1990 levels (a 60 million tonne reduction) by the year 2020. The plan also includes an interim reduction of 22 per cent (20 million tonnes) below a business-as-usual scenario, by 2010. The plan will be achieved through agreements negotiated with key industry sectors and will backed by regulations. The plan focuses on energy efficiency, and supports development of new technology to control industrial emissions and promotes increased use of renewable energy sources such as solar, wind and hydro power. The Alberta government will develop a definition for eligible greenhouse gas offsets, establish a registry for greenhouse gas offsets, and participate in initiatives to buy real emission reductions. The provincial government will also cut greenhouse gas emissions from its own operations by more than 20 per cent compared to 1990 levels. Royalty credits will be created for demonstration projects using carbon dioxide for enhanced oil recovery. This report presents the goals and timelines for each action that addresses climate change. It offers an alternative to the Kyoto Protocol and is focused on a technologically driven solution, instead of a politically driven one. Energy conservation and efficiency is a major part of the climate change response. In addition, the actions developed will be compatible with the United States in order to maintain competitiveness. 1 tab

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Semiannual progress report, January 1997--June 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (January - June 1997) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Semiannual progress report, January 1997--June 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (January - June 1997) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  12. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individuals actions. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July - December 1996) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to-these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  13. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individuals actions. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July - December 1996) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to-these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions

  14. Action and reaction in the theories of direct interparticle action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narlikar, J.V.

    1975-01-01

    Newton's third law of motion is examined in the context of the theories of direct interpaticle action. In such theories, interactions between particles travel backward and forward in time at speeds not exceeding the speed of light. It is shown that while in the flat spacetime the equality of action and reaction can be clearly demonstrated, the situation is considerably more complicated in the curved spacetime. The phenomenon of gravitational scattering intervenes to destroy the equality of action and reaction. Nevertheless, when gravitation is taken into account, there is no violation of the conservation law of energy and momentum. These results are discussed in the framework of general relativity for the case of the electromagnetic interaction

  15. The Social Basis of Intentional Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Emphasizes the social and interpersonal aspects of actions, especially as described in Soviet psychology. Argues that remembering is essential for intentional action. Intentional action is derived from the communication and cooperative relations between two people. (RH)

  16. Action priors for learning domain invariances

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available . Aggressive use of action priors performs context based pruning of the available actions, thus reducing the complexity of look ahead during search. We additionally define action priors over observation features, rather than states, which provides further...

  17. Global quality imaging: improvement actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Lawrence S; Pérez, Maria R; Applegate, Kimberly E; Rehani, Madan M; Ringertz, Hans G; George, Robert

    2011-05-01

    Workforce shortage, workload increase, workplace changes, and budget challenges are emerging issues around the world, which could place quality imaging at risk. It is important for imaging stakeholders to collaborate, ensure patient safety, improve the quality of care, and address these issues. There is no single panacea. A range of improvement measures, strategies, and actions are required. Examples of improvement actions supporting the 3 quality measures are described under 5 strategies: conducting research, promoting awareness, providing education and training, strengthening infrastructure, and implementing policies. The challenge is to develop long-term, cost-effective, system-based improvement actions that will bring better outcomes and underpin a sustainable future for quality imaging. In an imaging practice, these actions will result in selecting the right procedure (justification), using the right dose (optimization), and preventing errors along the patient journey. To realize this vision and implement these improvement actions, a range of expertise and adequate resources are required. Stakeholders should collaborate and work together. In today's globalized environment, collaboration is strength and provides synergy to achieve better outcomes and greater success. Copyright © 2011 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Action competence: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Jennie; Santo, LaTonya

    2018-01-23

    The aim of this article is to analyze the concept of action competence and comprise a definition of the concept suitable to apply to virtual simulation in nursing education. Virtual simulation has become an instructional method increasingly used in nursing education which creates a challenge for assessment of clinical competence. This concept analysis was performed using Walker and Avant's eight stages of concept analysis. A literature search was conducted using search engines and included peer-reviewed articles from various disciplines. The concept analysis resulted in an operational definition of action competence that is useful in nursing education. The use of action competence during virtual simulation sessions provides a means for knowledge transfer, accountability of actions on the part of the students, self-awareness, and reflection. Through this process, students gain critical problem-solving skills that, through sustainability, can be applied to varying future patient scenarios. Action competence contains concrete components applicable to sustainability of knowledge gained by nursing students during virtual simulation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Efficient computation of optimal actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Emanuel

    2009-07-14

    Optimal choice of actions is a fundamental problem relevant to fields as diverse as neuroscience, psychology, economics, computer science, and control engineering. Despite this broad relevance the abstract setting is similar: we have an agent choosing actions over time, an uncertain dynamical system whose state is affected by those actions, and a performance criterion that the agent seeks to optimize. Solving problems of this kind remains hard, in part, because of overly generic formulations. Here, we propose a more structured formulation that greatly simplifies the construction of optimal control laws in both discrete and continuous domains. An exhaustive search over actions is avoided and the problem becomes linear. This yields algorithms that outperform Dynamic Programming and Reinforcement Learning, and thereby solve traditional problems more efficiently. Our framework also enables computations that were not possible before: composing optimal control laws by mixing primitives, applying deterministic methods to stochastic systems, quantifying the benefits of error tolerance, and inferring goals from behavioral data via convex optimization. Development of a general class of easily solvable problems tends to accelerate progress--as linear systems theory has done, for example. Our framework may have similar impact in fields where optimal choice of actions is relevant.

  20. Potential-dependent surface denaturation of BSA in acid media

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paleček, Emil; Ostatná, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 134, č. 10 (2009), s. 2076-2080 ISSN 0003-2654 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA301/07/0490; GA ČR(CZ) GP202/07/P497; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB100040901; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : bovine serum albumin denaturation * chronopotentiometry of BSA Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.272, year: 2009

  1. 78 FR 79660 - Enhancing Agricultural Coexistence; Extension of Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ...] Enhancing Agricultural Coexistence; Extension of Comment Period ACTION: Notice; extension of comment period... order to further agricultural coexistence. This action will allow interested persons additional time to... among those involved in diverse agricultural systems on the topic of coexistence as well as how USDA can...

  2. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  3. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  4. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  5. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  6. Reconstructing a general inflationary action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean, Rachel; Chung, Daniel J. H.; Geshnizjani, Ghazal

    2008-01-01

    If inflation is to be considered in an unbiased way, as possibly originating from one of a wide range of underlying theories, then observations need not be simply applied to reconstructing the inflaton potential V(φ) or a specific kinetic term, as in Dirac-Born-Infeld inflation, but rather to reconstruct the inflationary action in its entirety. We discuss the constraints that can be placed on a general single field action from measurements of the primordial scalar and tensor fluctuation power spectra and non-Gaussianities. The analytic form of the action that is consistent with data turns out to be surprisingly simple and easy to categorize. We also present the flow equation formalism for reconstructing a general inflationary Lagrangian L(X,φ), with X=(1/2)∂ μ φ∂ μ φ, in a general gauge, that reduces to canonical and DBI inflation in the specific gauge L X =c s -1 .

  7. Modification of biomolecules and combined actions by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, J. W.; Kim, J. H.; Choi, J. I.; Song, B. S.; Kim, J. K.; Park, J. H.; Lee, Y. J.; Ryu, S. H.; Sung, N. Y.; Cha, M. K.; Nam, J. Y.; Park, J. Y.; Cho, E. R.; Ryu, T. H.

    2011-12-01

    Advanced Radiation Technology Institute is a government-supported institute for radiation research and application. It has focused on development of fundamentals for radiation applications based on the existing radiation technology, and on enhancement of biological effectiveness of radiation through theoretical approach to the combined actions of radiation with another factor. Application of radiation technology together with the existing technologies to enhance the physical, chemical, biological characteristics through modification of biomolecules resulted in creation of de novo materials of scientific and industrial values. A theoretical model for combined action of radiation with another physico-chemical factor has been established. Conclusively the results of this study can provide scientific bases for maximizing the efficacy of ionizing radiation in relation to industrial applications

  8. Penerapan Action RPG pada Perangkat Mobile Berbasiskan iOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Yulianto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile games develop along with technological developments. Gaming applications by applying special graphics technologies optimizes any mobile device. The purpose of this study is to design an Action RPG game application by applying Cocos2d technology to be implemented on mobile devices based on IOS operating system. This study performs data collecting and analyzing, interface designing, application implementation, and application evaluation using the Waterfall Model. Data collection is withdrawn from several surveys related to user needs and similar games. Progressing the study, gameplay design is performed using UML, the data storage structure, and interface design. The study results in an Action RPG game application that is implemented on mobile devices. The results showes that Action RPG games can be developed by incorporating elements of art, graphics, and stories that enhance user's interests. 

  9. The development of attention skills in action video game players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, M W G; Green, C S; Bavelier, D

    2009-07-01

    Previous research suggests that action video game play improves attentional resources, allowing gamers to better allocate their attention across both space and time. In order to further characterize the plastic changes resulting from playing these video games, we administered the Attentional Network Test (ANT) to action game players and non-playing controls aged between 7 and 22 years. By employing a mixture of cues and flankers, the ANT provides measures of how well attention is allocated to targets as a function of alerting and orienting cues, and to what extent observers are able to filter out the influence of task irrelevant information flanking those targets. The data suggest that action video game players of all ages have enhanced attentional skills that allow them to make faster correct responses to targets, and leaves additional processing resources that spill over to process distractors flanking the targets.

  10. Pythagorean quantization, action(s) and the arrow of time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Dieter

    2010-06-01

    Searching for the first well-documented attempts of introducing some kind of "quantization" into the description of nature inevitably leads to the ancient Greeks, in particular Plato and Pythagoras. The question of finding the so-called Pythagorean triples, i.e., right-angled triangles with integer length of all three sides, is, surprisingly, connected with complex nonlinear Riccati equations that occur in time-dependent quantum mechanics. The complex Riccati equation together with the usual Newtonian equation of the system, leads to a dynamical invariant with the dimension of an action. The relation between this invariant and a conserved "angular momentum" for the motion in the complex plane will be determined. The "Pythagorean quantization" shows similarities with the quantum Hall effect and leads to an interpretation of Sommerfeld's fine structure constant that involves another quantum of action, the "least Coulombic action" e2/c. Since natural evolution is characterized by irreversibility and dissipation, the question of how these aspects can be incorporated into a quantum mechanical description arises. Two effective approaches that also both possess a dynamical invariant (like the one mentioned above) will be discussed. One uses an explicitly time-dependent (linear) Hamiltonian, whereas the other leads to a nonlinear Schrödinger equation with complex logarithmic nonlinearity. Both approaches can be transformed into each other via a non-unitary transformation that involves Schrödinger's original definition of a (complex) action via the wave function.

  11. Action Simulation Plays a Critical Role in Deceptive Action Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tidoni, Emmanuele; Borgomaneri, Sara; Di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Avenanti, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    The ability to infer deceptive intents from nonverbal behavior is critical for social interactions. By combining single-pulse and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in healthy humans, we provide both correlational and causative evidence that action simulation is actively involved in

  12. Crossing the Boulevard: The Action of Genre as Social Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the author's first encounter with Carolyn Miller's "Genre as Social Action," and how the article opened the genre scholarship in rhetoric and communication, and led the author to integrate previous knowledge of linguistics and composition studies with communication studies and rhetoric more generally. Miller's…

  13. The flux database concerted action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, N.G.; Donnelly, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes the background to the UIR action on the development of a flux database for radionuclide transfer in soil-plant systems. The action is discussed in terms of the objectives, the deliverables and the progress achieved so far by the flux database working group. The paper describes the background to the current initiative and outlines specific features of the database and supporting documentation. Particular emphasis is placed on the proforma used for data entry, on the database help file and on the approach adopted to indicate data quality. Refs. 3 (author)

  14. Turbulent dynamo action in stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandenburg, A.; Nordlund, A.; Ruokolainen, J.; Stein, R.F.; Tuominen, I.

    1990-01-01

    The way in which dynamo action amplifies magnetic fields in the Sun, the Earth, and indeed galaxies is a classic problem of theoretical physics. Here we present the results of direct simulations of turbulent compressible hydromagnetic convection with a stable overshoot layer underneath (to model the Sun). We find spontaneous dynamo action followed by saturation, with most of the generated magnetic field appearing as coherent flux tubes in the vicinity of strong downdrafts. Here both the generation and destruction of magnetic field is at its most vigorous, and which process ultimately dominates depends on the sizes of the magnetic Reynolds and magnetic Prandtl numbers. (orig.)

  15. Identifying Botanical Mechanisms of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, May Fern

    2010-01-01

    The biological mechanism of action for any botanical extract is a necessary part of discovery to determine pharmacological use and safety. Interestingly, many activities that are governed by endogenous compounds are not fully understood making the characterization of mechanisms elusive. For example, phytoestrogens are being consumed for menopausal symptoms while the biological action of estradiol are still being investigated. Therefore, long term efficacy and safety issues are a challenge in the field. As new activities are associated with new biological pathways, an important component of therapeutic discovery will need to be the re-evaluation of negative or less active natural products to determine their relative use as medicines. PMID:20837111

  16. Lattice QCD with mixed actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowler, Ken C.; Joo, Balint; Kenway, Richard D.; Maynard, Chris M.; Tweedie, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss some of the implications of simulating QCD when the action used for the sea quarks is different from that used for the valence quarks. We present exploratory results for the hadron mass spectrum and pseudoscalar meson decay constants using improved staggered sea quarks and HYP-smeared overlap valence quarks. We propose a method for matching the valence quark mass to the sea quark mass and demonstrate it on UKQCD clover data in the simpler case where the sea and valence actions are the same

  17. Geometry, rigidity, and group actions

    CERN Document Server

    Farb, Benson; Zimmer, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    The study of group actions is more than a hundred years old but remains to this day a vibrant and widely studied topic in a variety of mathematic fields. A central development in the last fifty years is the phenomenon of rigidity, whereby one can classify actions of certain groups, such as lattices in semi-simple Lie groups. This provides a way to classify all possible symmetries of important spaces and all spaces admitting given symmetries. Paradigmatic results can be found in the seminal work of George Mostow, Gergory Margulis, and Robert J. Zimmer, among others.The p

  18. Students in Action: Engaging Students with Destination Stakeholders

    OpenAIRE

    Craggs, Ruth; Gorman, Catherine; Griffin, Kevin; mottiar, ziene; Quinn, Deirdre; Quinn, Bernadette; Ryan, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    The Students in Action Project in the School of Hospitality Management and Tourism was established in 2012 as a way of engaging students and working with stakeholders in a destination. The overall aim of the project was to immerse students in an active collaborative learning environment within the destination to identify ways in which tourism could be enhanced. In the 2014/2015 academic year the project involved over 300 students from a variety of programmes and modules working with local sta...

  19. Neural bases of selective attention in action video game players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavelier, D; Achtman, R L; Mani, M; Föcker, J

    2012-05-15

    Over the past few years, the very act of playing action video games has been shown to enhance several different aspects of visual selective attention, yet little is known about the neural mechanisms that mediate such attentional benefits. A review of the aspects of attention enhanced in action game players suggests there are changes in the mechanisms that control attention allocation and its efficiency (Hubert-Wallander, Green, & Bavelier, 2010). The present study used brain imaging to test this hypothesis by comparing attentional network recruitment and distractor processing in action gamers versus non-gamers as attentional demands increased. Moving distractors were found to elicit lesser activation of the visual motion-sensitive area (MT/MST) in gamers as compared to non-gamers, suggestive of a better early filtering of irrelevant information in gamers. As expected, a fronto-parietal network of areas showed greater recruitment as attentional demands increased in non-gamers. In contrast, gamers barely engaged this network as attentional demands increased. This reduced activity in the fronto-parietal network that is hypothesized to control the flexible allocation of top-down attention is compatible with the proposal that action game players may allocate attentional resources more automatically, possibly allowing more efficient early filtering of irrelevant information. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Progressivity Enhanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Hren

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rather than a scientific text, the author contributes a concise memorandum from the originator of the idea who has managed the campaign for the conversion of the military barracks into a creative cluster between 1988 and 2002, when he parted ways with Metelkova due to conflicting views on the center’s future. His views shed light on a distant period of time from a perspective of a participant–observer. The information is abundantly supported by primary sources, also available online. However, some of the presented hypotheses are heavily influenced by his personal experiences of xenophobia, elitism, and predatorial behavior, which were already then discernible on the so-called alternative scene as well – so much so that they obstructed the implementation of progressive programs. The author claims that, in spite of the substantially different reality today, the myths and prejudices concerning Metelkova must be done away with in order to enhance its progressive nature. Above all, the paper calls for an objective view on internal antagonisms, mainly originating in deep class divisions between the users. These make a clear distinction between truly marginal ndividuals and the overambitious beau-bourgeois, as the author labels the large part of users of Metelkova of »his« time. On these grounds, he argues for a robust approach to ban all forms of xenophobia and self-ghettoization.

  1. Algebras with actions and automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kühnel

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we want to give a common structure theory of left action, group operations, R-modules and automata of different types defined over various kinds of carrier objects: sets, graphs, presheaves, sheaves, topological spaces (in particular: compactly generated Hausdorff spaces. The first section gives an axiomatic approach to algebraic structures relative to a base category B, slightly more powerful than that of monadic (tripleable functors. In section 2 we generalize Lawveres functorial semantics to many-sorted algebras over cartesian closed categories. In section 3 we treat the structures mentioned in the beginning as many-sorted algebras with fixed “scalar” or “input” object and show that they still have an algebraic (or monadic forgetful functor (theorem 3.3 and hence the general theory of algebraic structures applies. These structures were usually treated as one-sorted in the Lawvere-setting, the action being expressed by a family of unary operations indexed over the scalars. But this approach cannot, as the one developed here, describe continuity of the action (more general: the action to be a B-morphism, which is essential for the structures mentioned above, e.g. modules for a sheaf of rings or topological automata. Finally we discuss consequences of theorem 3.3 for the structure theory of various types of automata. The particular case of algebras with fixed “natural numbers object” has been studied by the authors in [23].

  2. Action research in pharmacy practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sørensen, Ellen Westh

    2015-01-01

    -based study. Concepts related to AR are described; in addition, the multifaceted role of the action researcher is described, along with a set of data quality criteria for evaluating the quality of an AR-based study. Then follows a thorough description of a Danish AR-based pharmacy practice study. The chapter...

  3. The Myth of Affirmative Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roye, W.J.

    The principles of Affirmative Action policies and their implementation in American businesses and universities are examined in this paper. Issues such as discriminatory hiring practices, promotions and salaries, as well as the awarding of athletic scholarships, are discussed. Examples of relevant court cases are presented. Court decisions are…

  4. Action research and Care Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Bilfeldt, Anette

    The paper is a about planning and empowerment in care work at public nursing homes and the role of action research. It is based on ongoing work in the “Center for Demokratisk Samfundsudvikling og Aktionsforskning” at Roskilde University and the transnational research network KATARSIS, which works...

  5. [Ethical principles in psychiatric action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüther, Eckart

    2014-07-01

    There is no specific psychiatric ethic. The ethical principles for practical actions in psychiatry have to be adapted on the basis of the generally accepted ethical principles, which are based on psychobiologically developed ethic of love: honesty, discretion, empathy, patience, distance, consistency, accountability, tolerance, economic neutrality. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. The Principle of Least Action

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    THOLASI

    masterful survey of the Principles of Least Action in mechanics and evaluates the contributions of the pioneers from Maupertuis through Lagrange to Hamilton in a critical fashion. For interested students and teachers the following references are valuable: Cornelius Lanczos, The Variational Principles of Mechanics, ...

  7. Action Between Plot and Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Thor

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I argue that the representation of simple, bodily action has the function of endowing the narrative sequence with a visualizing power. It makes the narrated scenes or situations ready for visualization by the reader or listener. By virtue of this visualizing power or disposition,...

  8. Spatial dependency of action simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.C. ter; Lier, R.J. van; Steenbergen, B.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the spatial dependency of action simulation. From previous research in the field of single-cell recordings, grasping studies and from crossmodal extinction tasks, it is known that our surrounding space can be divided into a peripersonal space and extrapersonal space.

  9. Cyclic homology and group actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponge, Raphaël

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we present the construction of explicit quasi-isomorphisms that compute the cyclic homology and periodic cyclic homology of crossed-product algebras associated with (discrete) group actions. In the first part we deal with algebraic crossed-products associated with group actions on unital algebras over any ring k ⊃ Q. In the second part, we extend the results to actions on locally convex algebras. We then deal with crossed-products associated with group actions on manifolds and smooth varieties. For the finite order components, the results are expressed in terms of what we call "mixed equivariant cohomology". This "mixed" theory mediates between group homology and de Rham cohomology. It is naturally related to equivariant cohomology, and so we obtain explicit constructions of cyclic cycles out of equivariant characteristic classes. For the infinite order components, we simplify and correct the misidentification of Crainic (1999). An important new homological tool is the notion of "triangular S-module". This is a natural generalization of the cylindrical complexes of Getzler-Jones. It combines the mixed complexes of Burghelea-Kassel and parachain complexes of Getzler-Jones with the S-modules of Kassel-Jones. There are spectral sequences naturally associated with triangular S-modules. In particular, this allows us to recover spectral sequences of Feigin-Tsygan and Getzler-Jones and leads us to a new spectral sequence.

  10. Neural correlates of action perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suttrup, J.

    2017-01-01

    When observing others we usually do not require a verbal explanation to understand what they are doing and, in many cases, why they are doing it. Specific brain regions are involved in the processing of observed actions and some of them belong to the motor system, which is mainly involved in the

  11. Steroid and sterol hormone action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spelsberg, T.C.; Kumar, R.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 21 selections. Some of the titles are: Estrogen control of vitellogenin gene transcription and mRNA stability; Inhibition of glucocorticoid receptor conversion to the DNA-binding state and inhibition of subunit dissociation; Steroid regulation of rRNA synthesis; Messenger RNA-S14 as a model of thyroid hormone action at the hepatocellular level; and The oxysterol receptor.

  12. Action Research and Interactive Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    First part of the book is written by senior researchers on specific issues like validity, gender, new forms of organisations, methodologies and methods, earlier and new trends. - The second part of the book is written by doctoral students reporting experiences doing action research in their PhD-projects....

  13. The Action Researcher as Chameleon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Mark; Bennett, Steve

    1995-01-01

    Describes a project that trained institutional policymakers in action research regarding problems in developing training policies about young people's needs, examining attempts to collaborate and dialog with stakeholders and discussing how project members became enmeshed in complex sets of relationships calling for construction of dialog in…

  14. State Actions for Personnel Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol B. Furtwengler

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is an analysis four major policy issues associated with state actions for personnel evaluation from 1983 to 1992 and provides descriptive information about state policy actions taken during those years. Twenty states enacted their first requirements for performance evaluation, and states assumed new roles for program development, implementation, and staff development. Twenty-nine states passed legislation for performance pay programs, but only five programs remained viable by 1992. States generally avoided the issue of teacher tenure when enacting legislation for teacher evaluation. Thirty-eight states enacted 67 changes in legislation prescribing specific requirements for personnel evaluation. During the early part of the reform movement, state actions focused on accountability; toward the end of the reform movement states actions relinquished control and returned responsibility for evaluation to local school districts. Legislation varied across the states in the purpose for evaluation: improvement, continuing employment, and performance pay. The study found a positive relationship (0.48 between state control over personnel evaluation and state funding of education.

  15. Disaster: Prevention, Preparedness and Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Sally

    1981-01-01

    Discission of threat of disaster to library archival materials focuses on prevention (building maintenance, materials storage, fire prevention), preparedness (preplanning, procedures for handling emergencies, finances of recovery operation), and action (instructions for handling damaged materials). Current library activities in disaster planning…

  16. CORRECTIVE ACTION IN CAR MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rohne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In this paper the important .issues involved in successfully implementing corrective action systems in quality management are discussed. The work is based on experience in implementing and operating such a system in an automotive manufacturing enterprise in South Africa. The core of a corrective action system is good documentation, supported by a computerised information system. Secondly, a systematic problem solving methodology is essential to resolve the quality related problems identified by the system. In the following paragraphs the general corrective action process is discussed and the elements of a corrective action system are identified, followed by a more detailed discussion of each element. Finally specific results from the application are discussed.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Belangrike oorwegings by die suksesvolle implementering van korrektiewe aksie stelsels in gehaltebestuur word in hierdie artikel bespreek. Die werk is gebaseer op ondervinding in die implementering en bedryf van so 'n stelsel by 'n motorvervaardiger in Suid Afrika. Die kern van 'n korrektiewe aksie stelsel is goeie dokumentering, gesteun deur 'n gerekenariseerde inligtingstelsel. Tweedens is 'n sistematiese probleemoplossings rnetodologie nodig om die gehalte verwante probleme wat die stelsel identifiseer aan te spreek. In die volgende paragrawe word die algemene korrektiewe aksie proses bespreek en die elemente van die korrektiewe aksie stelsel geidentifiseer. Elke element word dan in meer besonderhede bespreek. Ten slotte word spesifieke resultate van die toepassing kortliks behandel.

  17. Motor Action and Emotional Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasanto, Daniel; Dijkstra, Katinka

    2010-01-01

    Can simple motor actions affect how efficiently people retrieve emotional memories, and influence what they choose to remember? In Experiment 1, participants were prompted to retell autobiographical memories with either positive or negative valence, while moving marbles either upward or downward. They retrieved memories faster when the direction…

  18. Talent Management: Emphasis on Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Recent discussions among HR practitioners in higher education have focused on talent management; specifically, the concept of developing a college or university talent management approach balanced between planning and action. Talent management as a planning tool looks very similar to workforce planning, but where HR will experience a real…

  19. Groundwater: A Community Action Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Susan, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to be a guide for community action, this booklet examines issues and trends related to groundwater contamination. Basic concepts about groundwater and information about problems affecting it are covered under the categories of (1) what is groundwater? (2) availability and depletion; (3) quality and contamination; (4) public health…

  20. Accidental actions in steel structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Gresnigt, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Part 1-7 of EN 1991 covers accidental actions and gives rules and values for impact loads due to road, train and ship traffic and loads due to internal explosions. In this paper, the application of Part 1-7 of EN 1991 for steel structures is explained. Background information and design strategies

  1. Naloxone : actions of an antagonist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, Eveline Louise Arianna van

    2009-01-01

    The opioid antagonist naloxone has a special place in pharmacology – it has no intrinsic action of its own, but it is able to save lives in the case of life threatening side-effects caused by other drugs. Naloxone is an antagonist for all opioid receptors, but most specifically for the μ-opioid

  2. The Galaxy in action space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binney, James

    It is generally better to think of galaxies as made of orbits rather than stars. Orbits in most axisymmetric potentials form a three-dimensional continuum. The natural coordinates for the description of this continuum are action integrals. Thus, one is led to the view that the Galaxy inhabits a three-dimensional Euclidean space called action space. In this space the density of stars belonging to each galactic component is given by the distribution function of that component. The structure and evolution of the disk within action space is described. The most natural disk distribution function turns out to violate the classical relation between Oort's constants and the ratio of principal velocity dispersions of disk stars. The Schwarzschild velocity ellipsoid is not a self-similar solution of the equation that governs the diffusion of disk stars through action space if scattering of stars by molecular clouds is the sole cause of the diffusion. A general procedure for choosing the distribution functions of hot components such as the classical populations II is described and illustrated by several worked examples.

  3. The DBI action, higher-derivative supergravity, and flattening inflaton potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielleman, Sjoerd; Ibáñez, Luis E.; Pedro, Francisco G.; Valenzuela, Irene; Wieck, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    In string theory compactifications it is common to find an effective Lagrangian for the scalar fields with a non-canonical kinetic term. We study the effective action of the scalar position moduli of Type II Dp-branes. In many instances the kinetic terms are in fact modified by a term proportional to the scalar potential itself. This can be linked to the appearance of higher-dimensional supersymmetric operators correcting the Kähler potential. We identify the supersymmetric dimension-eight operators describing the α ′ corrections captured by the D-brane Dirac-Born-Infeld action. Our analysis then allows an embedding of the D-brane moduli effective action into an N=1 supergravity formulation. The effects of the potential-dependent kinetic terms may be very important if one of the scalars is the inflaton, since they lead to a flattening of the scalar potential. We analyze this flattening effect in detail and compute its impact on the CMB observables for single-field inflation with monomial potentials.

  4. Spatial dependency of action simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Horst, Arjan C; van Lier, Rob; Steenbergen, Bert

    2011-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the spatial dependency of action simulation. From previous research in the field of single-cell recordings, grasping studies and from crossmodal extinction tasks, it is known that our surrounding space can be divided into a peripersonal space and extrapersonal space. These two spaces are functionally different at both the behavioral and neuronal level. The peripersonal space can be seen as an action space which is limited to the area in which we can grasp objects without moving the object or ourselves. The extrapersonal space is the space beyond the peripersonal space. Objects situated within peripersonal space are mapped onto an egocentric reference frame. This mapping is thought to be accomplished by action simulation. To provide direct evidence of the embodied nature of this simulated motor act, we performed two experiments, in which we used two mental rotation tasks, one with stimuli of hands and one with stimuli of graspable objects. Stimuli were presented in both peri- and extrapersonal space. The results showed increased reaction times for biomechanically difficult to adopt postures compared to more easy to adopt postures for both hand and graspable object stimuli. Importantly, this difference was only present for stimuli presented in peripersonal space but not for the stimuli presented in extrapersonal space. These results extend previous behavioral findings on the functional distinction between peripersonal- and extrapersonal space by providing direct evidence for the spatial dependency of the use of action simulation. Furthermore, these results strengthen the hypothesis that objects situated within the peripersonal space are mapped onto an egocentric reference frame by action simulation.

  5. Action Learning in Undergraduate Engineering Thesis Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappenbelt, Brad

    2017-01-01

    In the present action learning implementation, twelve action learning sets were conducted over eight years. The action learning sets consisted of students involved in undergraduate engineering research thesis work. The concurrent study accompanying this initiative investigated the influence of the action learning environment on student approaches…

  6. Statistical learning in social action contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monroy, C.D.; Meyer, M.; Gerson, S.A.; Hunnius, S.

    2017-01-01

    Sensitivity to the regularities and structure contained within sequential, goal-directed actions is an important building block for generating expectations about the actions we observe. Until now, research on statistical learning for actions has solely focused on individual action sequences, but

  7. Action and cognition: a phisical education from present action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Moreno Molina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting a reflection on the biological principles of perception and action in living beings in general and humans in particular. The development of this study has the intention to make new theoretical advances in the understanding of human beings and in the formulation of body education focused on co-determination of the action and cognition beyond the traditional mechanistic body thesis of modern physical education. In order to do this, different research authors are recognized with special emphasis on the work of Francisco Varela, identifying key concepts to guide an enactive approach from a criticism to the representationalist program. Finally, general principles that describe body Education from enactivism are suggested.

  8. Grounded action: Achieving optimal and sustainable change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odis E. Simmons, Ph.D.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Grounded action is the application and extension of grounded theory for the purpose of designing and implementing practical actions such as interventions, program designs, action models, social and organizational policies, and change initiatives. Grounded action is grounded theory with an added action component in which actions are systematically derived from a systematically derived explanatory grounded theory. Actions are grounded in the grounded theory in the same way that grounded theories are grounded in data. Grounded actionwas designed by the authors to address complex, multi-dimensionalorganizational and social problems and issues.

  9. Body actions change the appearance of facial expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Fantoni

    Full Text Available Perception, cognition, and emotion do not operate along segregated pathways; rather, their adaptive interaction is supported by various sources of evidence. For instance, the aesthetic appraisal of powerful mood inducers like music can bias the facial expression of emotions towards mood congruency. In four experiments we showed similar mood-congruency effects elicited by the comfort/discomfort of body actions. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure, we let participants perform comfortable/uncomfortable visually-guided reaches and tested them in a facial emotion identification task. Through the alleged mediation of motor action induced mood, action comfort enhanced the quality of the participant's global experience (a neutral face appeared happy and a slightly angry face neutral, while action discomfort made a neutral face appear angry and a slightly happy face neutral. Furthermore, uncomfortable (but not comfortable reaching improved the sensitivity for the identification of emotional faces and reduced the identification time of facial expressions, as a possible effect of hyper-arousal from an unpleasant bodily experience.

  10. ICT applications enhancing energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Matani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Computers, laptops and mobile devices – information technology (IT accounts for 2% of human greenhouse gas emissions worldwide, as evidenced in a study by Global Action Plan, a UK based environmental organization. This figure can be reduced if the green segment, or Green IT, continues to grow. Energy can also be saved through cloud computing, namely the principle of outsourcing the programs and functions of one’s own computer to service providers over the internet. This also means sharing storage capacity with others. This paper highlights the impact of information technology applications towards enhancing energy efficiency of the systems.

  11. Pythagorean quantization, action(s) and the arrow of time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuch, Dieter, E-mail: schuch@em.uni-frankfurt.d [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-06-01

    Searching for the first well-documented attempts of introducing some kind of 'quantization' into the description of nature inevitably leads to the ancient Greeks, in particular Plato and Pythagoras. The question of finding the so-called Pythagorean triples, i.e., right-angled triangles with integer length of all three sides, is, surprisingly, connected with complex nonlinear Riccati equations that occur in time-dependent quantum mechanics. The complex Riccati equation together with the usual Newtonian equation of the system, leads to a dynamical invariant with the dimension of an action. The relation between this invariant and a conserved 'angular momentum' for the motion in the complex plane will be determined. The 'Pythagorean quantization' shows similarities with the quantum Hall effect and leads to an interpretation of Sommerfeld's fine structure constant that involves another quantum of action, the 'least Coulombic action' e{sup 2}/c. Since natural evolution is characterized by irreversibility and dissipation, the question of how these aspects can be incorporated into a quantum mechanical description arises. Two effective approaches that also both possess a dynamical invariant (like the one mentioned above) will be discussed. One uses an explicitly time-dependent (linear) Hamiltonian, whereas the other leads to a nonlinear Schroedinger equation with complex logarithmic nonlinearity. Both approaches can be transformed into each other via a non-unitary transformation that involves Schroedinger's original definition of a (complex) action via the wave function.

  12. Action Video Games Improve Direction Discrimination of Parafoveal Translational Global Motion but Not Reaction Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Andrea; Boyce, Matthew; Ghin, Filippo

    2016-10-01

    Playing action video games enhances visual motion perception. However, there is psychophysical evidence that action video games do not improve motion sensitivity for translational global moving patterns presented in fovea. This study investigates global motion perception in action video game players and compares their performance to that of non-action video game players and non-video game players. Stimuli were random dot kinematograms presented in the parafovea. Observers discriminated the motion direction of a target random dot kinematogram presented in one of the four visual quadrants. Action video game players showed lower motion coherence thresholds than the other groups. However, when the task was performed at threshold, we did not find differences between groups in terms of distributions of reaction times. These results suggest that action video games improve visual motion sensitivity in the near periphery of the visual field, rather than speed response. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Knowledge Integration and Inter-Disciplinary Communication in Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hahn Heidi Ann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In a plenary talk at WMSCI 2012 entitled "Planning for Action Research: Looking at Practice through a Different Lens," this author asserted that behavioral science practitioners, often "back into" action research – they start out doing a process improvement or intervention and discover something along the way, i.e., generalizable knowledge, that seems worthwhile to share with their community of practice. It was further asserted that, had the efforts been conceived of as research from the outset, the contributions to the body of knowledge would be more robust and the utility of the projects would improve as well. This paper continues on that theme. Action research and process improvement methods are briefly described and compared. A comparison of two Los Alamos National Laboratory engineering ethics training projects – one developed using a process improvement framework, the other using an action research framework – is put forth to provide evidence that use of a research "lens" can enhance behavioral science interventions and the knowledge that may result from them. The linkage between the Specifying Learning and Diagnosing stages of the Action Research Cycle provides one mechanism for integrating the knowledge gained into the product or process being studied and should provide a reinforcing loop that leads to continual improvement. The collaborative relationships among researchers and the individual, group, or organization that is the subject of the imp rovement op p ortunity (the "client", who are likely from very different backgrounds, and the interpretive epistemology that are among the hallmarks of action research also contribute to the quality of the knowledge gained. This paper closes with a discussion of how Inter-Disciplinary Communication is embedded within the action research paradigm and how this likely also enriches the knowledge gained.

  14. Action simulation: time course and representational mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Anne; Parkinson, Jim; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The notion of action simulation refers to the ability to re-enact foreign actions (i.e., actions observed in other individuals). Simulating others' actions implies a mirroring of their activities, based on one's own sensorimotor competencies. Here, we discuss theoretical and experimental approaches to action simulation and the study of its representational underpinnings. One focus of our discussion is on the timing of internal simulation and its relation to the timing of external action, and a paradigm that requires participants to predict the future course of actions that are temporarily occluded from view. We address transitions between perceptual mechanisms (referring to action representation before and after occlusion) and simulation mechanisms (referring to action representation during occlusion). Findings suggest that action simulation runs in real-time; acting on newly created action representations rather than relying on continuous visual extrapolations. A further focus of our discussion pertains to the functional characteristics of the mechanisms involved in predicting other people's actions. We propose that two processes are engaged, dynamic updating and static matching, which may draw on both semantic and motor information. In a concluding section, we discuss these findings in the context of broader theoretical issues related to action and event representation, arguing that a detailed functional analysis of action simulation in cognitive, neural, and computational terms may help to further advance our understanding of action cognition and motor control. PMID:23847563

  15. Strike action by nurses in South Africa: A value clarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Muller

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The Labour Relations Act (South Africa, 1991 made provision for protected strike action by employees, subject to certain conditions, procedures and negotiated agreements. This led to the removal of the strike clause in the Nursing Act (South Africa, 1992. The labour rights of all citizens are entrenched in the Constitution of the country (South Africa, 1996. Participation in strike action by the nurse/ midwife, regardless of the legal requirements and specifications, does, however, pose an ethical question. It is therefore necessary to conduct a value clarification on strike action by nurses in South Africa. The purpose of this research is to explore and describe the perceived values of participants from an accessible population on this phenomenon. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive research design was deployed. The perceived values of nurses on strike action were collected by means of an openended questionnaire/sketch. Over a period of three years a purposive and convenient sampling method was used, involving all the enrolled post basic nursing/midwifery students/ learners at a particular Nursing Education Institution. The justification of the sample was further enhanced by also collecting data on the participants’ age and provincial distribution location. Although a 63% sample realisation (of the accessible population was achieved, this represents only 1,5% of the registered nursing/midwifery population in the country. A descriptive analysis of the participants’ age and provincial distribution was undertaken, as well as a content analysis of their perceived values on strike action. The mean age of the participants was 48 years, which could be attributed to the fact that most of them were enrolled for a post-basic Diploma in Community Nursing Science. Most of the responses (52,7% were against strike action and 32,5% supported strike action by nurses as a constitutional and legal right. A fairly substantial number of participants (14

  16. Risk, responsibility and political action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov Jensen, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    . It is argued that an application of the Toulmin model is useful for eliciting systematic overall repre-sentations of responsibility and agency in environmental crises such as the mad cow crisis as well as for revealing relationships between social domains such as moral, politics, economics and science......ABSTRACT. This paper presents an argumentative case study of the discursive representation of risk, responsibility and political action in the Spanish media. The study uses a critical discourse analytical approach combined with theories on risk, agency and political communication in the media...... action was transformed into a moral respon-sibility on the part of the national and European politicians, constrained by economic and technical-scientific reality and represented as taking place only in the public sphere. KEY WORDS: CDA, World Risk Society, argumentation, media discourse, argumentation...

  17. Hungarian climate change action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnar, S.; Takacs, T. [Systemexpert Consulting Ltd., Budapest (Hungary); Arpasi, M. [MOL, Budapest (Hungary); Farago, T.; Palvoelgyi, T. [Ministry for Environment and Regional Policy, Budapest (Hungary); Harnos, Z. [Univ. of Horticulture, Budapest (Hungary); Lontay, Z. [EGI-Contracting Engineering Co. Ltd., Budapest (Hungary); Somogyi, Z. [Forest Research Inst., Budapest (Hungary); Tajthy, T. [Univ. of Technology, Budapest (Hungary)

    1998-12-31

    In 1994--1996, within the framework of the US Country Studies Program, the Hungarian Country Study Team developed the national greenhouse gas emission inventory, and elaborated the mitigation options for the different sectors of the economy. In 1997, the development of a National Action Plan was begun as the continuation of this work. Results of the inventory study showed that greenhouse gas emissions decreased from the selected base level (i.e., from the yearly average emissions of 1985--1987) until 1994 by cca. 25%. However, this decrease was primarily caused by the deep economic recession. Therefore the policy makers have to face the problem of economic recovery without a relevant increase of greenhouse gas emissions in the near future. This is the main focus of the mitigation analysis and the National Action Plan.

  18. The principle of least action

    CERN Document Server

    Rojo, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    The principle of least action originates in the idea that, if nature has a purpose, it should follow a minimum or critical path. This simple principle, and its variants and generalizations, applies to optics, mechanics, electromagnetism, relativity, and quantum mechanics, and provides an essential guide to understanding the beauty of physics. This unique text provides an accessible introduction to the action principle across these various fields of physics, and examines its history and fundamental role in science. It includes - with varying levels of mathematical sophistication - explanations from historical sources, discussion of classic papers, and original worked examples. The result is a story that is understandable to those with a modest mathematical background, as well as to researchers and students in physics and the history of physics.

  19. Voice, Citizenship, and Civic Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the world has experienced a resurgence in practices of bottom-up communication for social change, a plethora of agency in which claims for voice and citizenship through massive civic action have conquered center stage in the public debate. This resurgence has sparked a series...... of questions about how these new calls for social change and their principles and communicative practices are influencing and informing the way participatory communication is conceptualized and practiced by governments, civil society, or other social actors. What underlying notions of participation, civic...... action, and social change inform the agents of change, be they the new generation of social movements on the one hand, or the established and institutionalized field of communication for social change on the other? These are the questions that drive this chapter....

  20. Comparing double string theory actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Angelis, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi “Federico II” di Napoli,Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo ed. 6, via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Gionti, S.J.G. [Specola Vaticana, Vatican City, V-00120, Vatican City State and Vatican Observatory Research Group, Steward Observatory, The University Of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Marotta, R.; Pezzella, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli,Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo ed. 6, via Cintia, 80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2014-04-28

    Aimed to a deeper comprehension of a manifestly T-dual invariant formulation of string theory, in this paper a detailed comparison between the non-covariant action proposed by Tseytlin and the covariant one proposed by Hull is done. These are obtained by making both the string coordinates and their duals explicitly appear, on the same footing, in the world-sheet action, so “doubling” the string coordinates along the compact dimensions. After a discussion on the nature of the constraints in both the models and the relative quantization, it results that the string coordinates and their duals behave like “non-commuting” phase space coordinates but their expressions in terms of Fourier modes generate the oscillator algebra of the standard bosonic string. A proof of the equivalence of the two formulations is given. Furthermore, open-string solutions are also discussed.

  1. Comparing double string theory actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Angelis, L.; Gionti, S.J.G.; Marotta, R.; Pezzella, F.

    2014-01-01

    Aimed to a deeper comprehension of a manifestly T-dual invariant formulation of string theory, in this paper a detailed comparison between the non-covariant action proposed by Tseytlin and the covariant one proposed by Hull is done. These are obtained by making both the string coordinates and their duals explicitly appear, on the same footing, in the world-sheet action, so “doubling” the string coordinates along the compact dimensions. After a discussion on the nature of the constraints in both the models and the relative quantization, it results that the string coordinates and their duals behave like “non-commuting” phase space coordinates but their expressions in terms of Fourier modes generate the oscillator algebra of the standard bosonic string. A proof of the equivalence of the two formulations is given. Furthermore, open-string solutions are also discussed

  2. Caffeine's Vascular Mechanisms of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Echeverri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is the most widely consumed stimulating substance in the world. It is found in coffee, tea, soft drinks, chocolate, and many medications. Caffeine is a xanthine with various effects and mechanisms of action in vascular tissue. In endothelial cells, it increases intracellular calcium stimulating the production of nitric oxide through the expression of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase enzyme. Nitric oxide is diffused to the vascular smooth muscle cell to produce vasodilation. In vascular smooth muscle cells its effect is predominantly a competitive inhibition of phosphodiesterase, producing an accumulation of cAMP and vasodilation. In addition, it blocks the adenosine receptors present in the vascular tissue to produce vasoconstriction. In this paper the main mechanisms of action of caffeine on the vascular tissue are described, in which it is shown that caffeine has some cardiovascular properties and effects which could be considered beneficial.

  3. User Involvement And Entrepreneurial Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Heiskanen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Involving users in the innovation process is a subject of much research, experimentation, and debate. Less attention has been given to the limits to user involvement that ensue from specific organizational characteristics. This article explores barriers to the utilization of users’ input in two small companies developing interactive digital applications. We contrast our findings to earlier research involving large companies to identify features of entrepreneurial sensemaking and action that influence the utilization of users’ input. We find that the small companies follow a distinct action rationality, leading to rapid implementation of some user inputs, and defensiveness toward others. Both sets of data also reveal common features that are often overlooked in the literature. We reconceptualize user involvement as a form of interaction between users and innovating companies that is facilitated and constrained by micro-sociological processes, on the one hand, and the nature of the competitive environment, on the other.

  4. Principle extremum of full action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon I. Khmelnik

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A new variational principle extremum of full action is proposed, which extends the Lagrange formalism on dissipative systems. It is shown that this principle is applicable in electrical engineering, electrodynamics, mechanics and hydrodynamics, taking into account the friction forces. The proposed variational principle may be considered as a new formalism used as an universal method of physical equations derivation, and also as a method for solving these equations.

  5. Affirmative action and team performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kölle, Felix

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally investigate spillover effects of affirmative action policies in tournaments on subsequent team performance and the willingness to work in teams. In three different team environments, we find that such policies in form of gender quotas do not harm performance and cooperation within teams, and do not weaken people's willingness to work in teams. Our results, thus, provide further evidence that gender quotas can have the desired effect of promoting women without harming efficie...

  6. Duality group actions on fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantev, Tony; Sharpe, Eric

    2016-01-01

    In this short paper we look at the action of T-duality and string duality groups on fermions, in maximally-supersymmetric theories and related theories. Briefly, we argue that typical duality groups such as SL(2,ℤ) have sign ambiguities in their actions on fermions, and propose that pertinent duality groups be extended by ℤ 2 , to groups such as the metaplectic group. Specifically, we look at duality groups arising from mapping class groups of tori in M theory compactifications, T-duality, ten-dimensional type IIB S-duality, and (briefly) four-dimensional N=4 super Yang-Mills, and in each case, propose that the full duality group is a nontrivial ℤ 2 extension of the duality group acting on bosonic degrees of freedom, to more accurately describe possible actions on fermions. We also walk through U-duality groups for toroidal compactifications to nine, eight, and seven dimensions, which enables us to perform cross-consistency tests of these proposals.

  7. Riverland expedited response action proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) recommended that the US Department of Energy (DOE) prepare an expedited response action (ERA) for the Riverland Railroad Car Wash Pit and the 600 Area Army Munitions Burial Site. A non-time-critical ERA proposal includes preparation of an engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) section. The EE/CA is a rapid, focused evaluation of available technologies using specific screening factors to assess feasibility, appropriateness, and cost. The ERA proposal will undergo reviews by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), DOE, EPA, Ecology, and the public. Ecology and EPA will issue an Action Agreement Memorandum after resolution of all review comments. The, memorandum will authorize remediation activities. The ERA goal is to reduce the potential for any contaminant migration to the soil column, groundwater, and Columbia River. The ERA may be the final remediation of the 100-IU-1 Operable Unit. A No Action Record of Decision may be issued after cleanup completion

  8. Political action committee for scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Spurred by budget proposals that could severely reduce science funding (Eos, March 24, March 3, February 10), seven scientists currently serving as Congressional Science or State Department Fellows recently founded a political action committee (PAC) for scientists. The Science and Technology Political Action Committee (SCITEC-PAC) aims to make scientists more politically aware and better informed about potential legislative actions that affect research. It will also serve to ‘establish a political presence’ with respect to science, said Donald Stein, SCITEC-PAC's chairman.The organization is not a lobbying group, explained Stein, professor of neurology and psychology at Clark University and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center. ‘Lobbyists seek to influence officials by presenting information to them,’ he said, ‘while a PAC tries to influence the outcome of elections through campaign contributions of money, time, and effort in behalf of candidates that share similar goals and aspirations.’ In other words, the PAC will be a vehicle for promoting candidates for federal office who advocate strong support for scientific research and training. In addition, the PAC will develop and study science policy and budget issues and will attempt to stimulate government and private sector interest in these issues.

  9. A minimal architecture for joint action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesper, Cordula; Butterfill, Stephen; Knoblich, Günther

    2010-01-01

    What kinds of processes and representations make joint action possible? In this paper we suggest a minimal architecture for joint action that focuses on representations, action monitoring and action prediction processes, as well as ways of simplifying coordination. The architecture spells out...... minimal requirements for an individual agent to engage in a joint action. We discuss existing evidence in support of the architecture as well as open questions that remain to be empirically addressed. In addition, we suggest possible interfaces between the minimal architecture and other approaches...... to joint action. The minimal architecture has implications for theorizing about the emergence of joint action, for human-machine interaction, and for understanding how coordination can be facilitated by exploiting relations between multiple agents’ actions and between actions and the environment....

  10. Any action? Reflections on the Australian Midwifery Action Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Joanne E; Smith, Rachel M

    2017-06-01

    In 1997 a group of midwifery academics, researchers and practitioners met to discuss issues of concern related to the midwifery profession in Australia. It became clear from this discussion that midwifery in Australia was lagging behind similarly developed countries and that urgent action was required. From this meeting, a plan was developed to seek funding for a major national study into midwifery education and practice standards and as such, the Australian Midwifery Action Project (AMAP) was born. This discussion paper presents an overview of a number of midwifery education and regulation changes within the framework of the recommendations from the Australian Midwifery Action Project. A key question arising from this discussion is whether our current midwifery education and regulation standards provide a fit-for-purpose workforce that ensures all women and their families receive best practice midwifery care. Over the past 20 years the Midwifery profession in Australia has undergone significant changes and developments and these changes have had, and continue to have, significant impact on midwifery education and therefore on the quality of midwifery practice in Australia. Many changes have been implemented in the nearly 20 years since AMAP was first conceived. However, many of the issues that provided the impetus for a project such as AMAP remain and are still to be resolved. The midwifery profession continues to be subsumed with nursing, it is not possible to gain accurate midwifery workforce data and, despite the development of national standards for midwifery education, wide variations in courses still exist across Australia. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mitigation action plan for 300-FF-1 remedial action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, S.G.

    1996-10-01

    A record of decision was issued (dated July 1996), for remediation of waste sites in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The selected remedies for the 300-FF-1 and 300-FF-5 waste sites include selective excavation and disposal of contaminated soil and debris from the process waste units, excavation and removal of the 618-4 Burial Ground, and institutional controls for groundwater. This mitigation action plan explains how cultural resources will be managed and how revegetation for these remedial activities will be planned

  12. Human action analysis with randomized trees

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Gang; Liu, Zicheng

    2014-01-01

    This book will provide a comprehensive overview on human action analysis with randomized trees. It will cover both the supervised random trees and the unsupervised random trees. When there are sufficient amount of labeled data available, supervised random trees provides a fast method for space-time interest point matching. When labeled data is minimal as in the case of example-based action search, unsupervised random trees is used to leverage the unlabelled data. We describe how the randomized trees can be used for action classification, action detection, action search, and action prediction.

  13. Smart Buildings: Business Case and Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrlich, Paul; Diamond, Rick

    2009-04-01

    General Services Administration (GSA) has been a pioneer in using Smart Building technologies but it has yet to achieve the full benefits of an integrated, enterprise-wide Smart Building strategy. In July 2008, GSA developed an initial briefing memorandum that identified five actions for a Smart Buildings feasibility study: (1) Identify and cluster the major building systems under consideration for a Smart Buildings initiative; (2) Identify GSA priorities for these clusters; (3) Plan for future adoption of Smart Building strategies by identifying compatible hardware; (4) Develop a framework for implementing and testing Smart Building strategies and converged networks; and (5) Document relevant GSA and industry initiatives in this arena. Based on this briefing memorandum, PBS and FAS retained consultants from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Noblis, and the Building Intelligence Group to evaluate the potential for Smart Buildings within GSA, and to develop this report. The project has included extensive interviews with GSA staff (See Appendix A), a review of existing GSA standards and documents, and an examination of relevant GSA and industry initiatives. Based on interviews with GSA staff and a review of GSA standards and documents, the project team focused on four goals for evaluating how Smart Building technology can benefit GSA: (1) Achieve Energy Efficiency Mandates--Use Smart Building technology as a tool to meet EISA 2007 and EO 13423 goals for energy efficiency. (2) Enhance Property Management--Deploy enterprise tools for improved Operations and Maintenance (O&M) performance and verification. (3) Implement Network as the Fourth Utility--Utilize a converged broadband network to support Smart Building systems and provide GSA clients with connectivity for voice, data and video. (4) Enhance Safety and Security--Harmonize Physical Access Control Systems (PACS) with Smart Building Systems.

  14. CORRECTIVE ACTION PLAN FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 543: LIQUID DISPOSAL UNITS, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan is to provide the detailed scope of work required to implement the recommended corrective actions as specified in the approved Corrective Action Decision Document.

  15. Science education and everyday action

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Wendy Renee Sherman

    2001-07-01

    This dissertation addresses three related tasks and issues in the larger field of science education. The first is to review of the several uses of "everydayness" at play in the science education literature, and in the education and social science literatures more generally. Four broad iterations of everydayness were found in science education, and these were traced and analyzed to develop their similarities, and contradictions. It was concluded that despite tendencies in science education research to suppose a fundamental demarcation either between professional science and everyday life, or between schools and everyday life, all social affairs, including professional science and activity in schools, are continuous with everyday life, and consist fundamentally in everyday, ordinary mundane actions which are ordered and organized by the participants to those social activities and occasions. The second task for this dissertation was to conduct a naturalistic, descriptive study of undergraduate-level physics laboratory activities from the analytic perspective of ethnomethodology. The study findings are presented as closely-detailed analysis of the students' methods of following their instructions and 'fitting' their observed results to a known scientific concept or principle during the enactment of their classroom laboratory activities. Based on the descriptions of students' practical work in following instructions and 'fitting'. The characterization of school science labs as an "experiment-demonstration hybrid" is developed. The third task of this dissertation was to synthesize the literature review and field study findings in order to clarify what science educators could productively mean by "everydayness", and to suggest what understandings of science education the study of everyday action recommends. It is argued that the significance of the 'experiment-demo hybrid' characterization must be seen in terms of an alternate program for science education research, which

  16. Communication (action with communicative content).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, M T

    2010-01-01

    The term Communication generally designate the transmission of a message of concepts, feelings or needs from a speaker to a receiver by means of verbal or no verbal language. The pragmatic approach to human communication has put in evidence a further implication of this concept: every behaviour therefore has a value even when it is not intentional. Recently, a more dynamic concept of communication has been elaborated where communication means communicative action. This interpretation is the starting point for the theory of the "communicative acting" and subsequently of the so called discourse ethic elaborated by J. Habermas.

  17. Praxis, Sittlichkeit and Communicative Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind

    2012-01-01

    this concept further with his concept of praxis as Sittlichkeit. Honneth and Habermas are both grounded in the young Hegel’s writings when they try to extrapolate what is essential in Hegel’s concept of praxis and generate a new concept, which may be valid for our time. Honneth is standing by Hegel’s concept......, effectively metaphysical concept, he is able to formulate a practical philosophy in which both praxis and Sittlichkeit are summarized in communicative action. Habermas’s practical philosophy follows Hegel's and extends its roots into the history of ideas, back to Aristotle’s foundation of the concept...

  18. Plan Generation and Evaluation Using Action Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peot, Mark

    2003-01-01

    ... from potential actions of the plan. Methods used to accomplish these results included the use of Action Networks, and development of a suite of analysis tools in support of the AFRL Campaign Assessment Tool...

  19. Action observation: Inferring intentions without mirror neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frith, Christopher; Kilner, James M

    2008-01-01

    A recent study has shown, using fMRI, that the mirror neuron system does not mediate action understanding when the observed action is novel or when it is hard to understand.......A recent study has shown, using fMRI, that the mirror neuron system does not mediate action understanding when the observed action is novel or when it is hard to understand....

  20. Information exposure, opportunity evaluation and entrepreneurial action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autio, E.; Dahlander, L.; Frederiksen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    information shaped opportunity evaluation, and social information about user needs drove individuals to entrepreneurial action. Our empirical findings suggest that reducing demand uncertainty is a central factor regulating of entrepreneurial action, an insight that received theories of entrepreneurial action......We study how an individual's exposure to external information regulates the evaluation of entrepreneurial opportunities and entrepreneurial action. Combining data from interviews, a survey, and a comprehensive web log of an online user community spanning eight years, we find that technical...