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Sample records for enhanced x-ray bragg

  1. Neptunium octupole and hexadecapole motif in NpO sub 2 directly from electric-dipole (E1) enhanced x-ray Bragg diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Lovesey, S W; Detlefs, C; Laan, G V D; Sivia, D S; Staub, U

    2003-01-01

    The phase transition in NpO sub 2 at T sub o approx 25.5K is accompanied by the onset of superlattice reflections in the x-ray Bragg diffraction pattern, with intensity enhanced by an electric-dipole (E1) event. Additional experiments using other techniques indicate no ordering at T sub o of Np magnetic moments. Absence of long-range magnetic order below T sub o fits with the outcome of a polarization analysis of superlattice intensities at 12K; signals are observed in both the unrotated (sigma'sigma) and rotated (pi'sigma) channels of scattering while magnetic (dipole) moments would contribute only in the rotated channel. We demonstrate that these empirical findings, together with a narrow energy profile of the Bragg intensity at the Np M sub 4 edge, are consistent with magnetic and charge contributions to the El Bragg amplitude described by Np 5f multipoles of ranks 3 (octupole) and 4 (hexadecapole). Key to our understanding of the x-ray diffraction data gathered in the vicinity of the Np M sub 4 edge is re...

  2. Development of variable-magnification X-ray Bragg optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Keiichi; Yamashita, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Yumiko; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    A novel X-ray Bragg optics is proposed for variable-magnification of an X-ray beam. This X-ray Bragg optics is composed of two magnifiers in a crossed arrangement, and the magnification factor, M, is controlled through the azimuth angle of each magnifier. The basic properties of the X-ray optics such as the magnification factor, image transformation matrix and intrinsic acceptance angle are described based on the dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction. The feasibility of the variable-magnification X-ray Bragg optics was verified at the vertical-wiggler beamline BL-14B of the Photon Factory. For X-ray Bragg magnifiers, Si(220) crystals with an asymmetric angle of 14° were used. The magnification factor was calculated to be tunable between 0.1 and 10.0 at a wavelength of 0.112 nm. At various magnification factors (M ≥ 1.0), X-ray images of a nylon mesh were observed with an air-cooled X-ray CCD camera. Image deformation caused by the optics could be corrected by using a 2 × 2 transformation matrix and bilinear interpolation method. Not only absorption-contrast but also edge-contrast due to Fresnel diffraction was observed in the magnified images.

  3. X-ray diffraction at Bragg angles around π/2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayolo, C.M.G. de.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray diffraction at Bragg angles around π/2 is studied from the theoretical and experimental points of view. The proposed corrections to the dynamical theory in the θ β ≅ π/2 cases, has been reviewed showing the equivalence between two formalisms leading to a corrected expression for the dependence of the angular parameter y with the angle of incidence. An expression for y valid in the conventional and θ β ≅ π/2 cases has been obtained. A general expression for Bragg law and for energy resolution after a Bragg diffraction was also deduced. (author)

  4. SECCOX, a novel x-ray characterization bench for Bragg crystals and x-rays optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caillaud, T.; Manson, M.; Desenne, D.; Goze, B.; Rivet, A.; Derouineau, Ph.

    2007-01-01

    Laser programs require the use of a large number of calibrated x-ray crystals implemented inside spectrometers and microscopes used in diagnostics. In this context, a new apparatus was designed in collaboration with CELIA laboratory, Saint-Gobain Crystals and Detectors and CEA to characterize x-ray Bragg crystals. Station d'Etude et de Caracterisation des Cristaux pour les Optiques X (SECCOX) is based on a micrometric x-ray source and an automated spectrometer equipped with a CCD camera. Properties such as homogeneity, resolution, radius of curvature and reflectivity are measured to guarantee diagnostic performance in laser-plasma physics experiments. We will present the experimental device, techniques and results of the calibration obtained. (authors)

  5. Parametric x-ray FEL operating with external Bragg reflectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baryshevsky, V.G.; Batrakov, K.G.; Dubovskaya, I.Ya.

    1995-01-01

    In the crystal X-ray FELs using channeling and parametric quasi-Cherenkov mechanisms of spontaneous radiation were considered as versions of FEL allowing, in principle, to obtain coherent X-ray source. In this case a crystal is both radiator and resonator for X-rays emitted by a particle beam passing through crystal. However, it is well-known that a beam current density required for lasing is extremely high in X-ray spectral range for any radiation mechanisms and it is very important to find a way to lower its magnitude. The application of three-dimensional distributed feedback formed by dynamical diffraction of emitted photons permitted to reduce starting beam current density 10 2 -10 4 times up to 10 9 . One of ways to lower the starting current is the formation of multi-wave distributed feedback the another one is the application of external reflectors. The thing is that lasing regime was shown to be produced at frequencies in the vicinity of degeneration point for roots of dispersion equation describing radiation modes excited in an active medium (crystal plus particle beam). Unfortunately, in case of parametric quasi-Cherenkov FEL this region coincides with the region of strong self-absorption of radiation inside a crystal. That fact, obviously, increases the starting beam current. In this report we have shown that the application of external Bragg reflectors gives the possibility to lower radiation self-absorption inside a crystal by modifying radiation modes excited in the active medium under consideration. The corresponding dispersion equation and the expression for excited modes are derived. The generation equation determining starting conditions for lasing is obtained. Using these expressions we have shown that the application of external Bragg reflectors permits to reduce starting beam current density more than 10 times

  6. Bragg concentrators for hard (> 10 keV) X-ray astronomy: Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareschi, G.; Pasqualini, G. [Ferrara, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Frontera, F. [CNR, Bologna (Italy). Istituto di TESRE]|[Ferrara, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica

    1997-09-01

    The use of focusing telescopes in hard X-ray (E > 10 keV) astronomy will provide better flux sensitivity and imaging performances with respect to the direct-viewing detectors, utilized until now. They present recent results obtained from their group regarding the possible use of Bragg-diffraction technique to design hard X-ray focusing telescopes.

  7. Bragg concentrators for hard (> 10 keV) X-ray astronomy: Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareschi, G.; Pasqualini, G.; Frontera, F.; Ferrara, Univ.

    1997-01-01

    The use of focusing telescopes in hard X-ray (E > 10 keV) astronomy will provide better flux sensitivity and imaging performances with respect to the direct-viewing detectors, utilized until now. They present recent results obtained from their group regarding the possible use of Bragg-diffraction technique to design hard X-ray focusing telescopes

  8. Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.; Zhong, Z.; Johnston, R.E.; Sayers, D.

    1997-09-01

    Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) is a new x-ray radiographic imaging modality using synchrotron x-rays which produces images of thick absorbing objects that are almost completely free of scatter. They show dramatically improved contrast over standard imaging applied to the same phantoms. The contrast is based not only on attenuation but also the refraction and diffraction properties of the sample. The diffraction component and the apparent absorption component (absorption plus extinction contrast) can each be determined independently. This imaging method may improve the image quality for medical applications such as mammography

  9. A versatile, highly-efficient, high-resolution von Hamos Bragg crystal x-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vane, C.R.; Smith, M.S.; Raman, S.

    1988-01-01

    An efficient, high-resolution, vertical-focusing, Bragg crystal x-ray spectrometer has been specifically designed and constructed for use in measurements of x rays produced in collisions of energetic heavy ions. In this report the design and resulting operational characteristics of the final instrument are fully described. A wide variety of sample data is also included to illustrate the utility of this device in several areas of research. 14 refs., 38 figs

  10. Bragg transmission phase plates for the production of circularly polarized x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, J.C.; Srajer, G.

    1994-01-01

    A thin-crystal Si (400) Bragg transmission x-ray phase plate has been constructed for the production of 5 to 12 keV circularly polarized x-rays. Using multiple beam diffraction from a GaAs crystal, a direct measurement of the degree of circular polarization as a function of off-Bragg position was made. These measurements indicated nearly complete circular polarization (|P c | ≥ 0.95) and full helicity reversal on opposite sides of the rocking curve

  11. Bragg concentrators for hard (> 10keV) x-ray astronomy: Status report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareschi, G.; Frontera, F.; Pasqualini, G.

    1997-01-01

    The use of focusing telescopes in hard X-ray (E > 10 keV) astronomy will provide better flux sensitivity and imaging performances with respect to the direct-viewing detectors, utilized until now. We present recent results obtained from our group regarding the possible use of Bragg-diffraction tec......The use of focusing telescopes in hard X-ray (E > 10 keV) astronomy will provide better flux sensitivity and imaging performances with respect to the direct-viewing detectors, utilized until now. We present recent results obtained from our group regarding the possible use of Bragg...

  12. Development and application of variable-magnification x-ray Bragg optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Keiichi, E-mail: keiichi.hirano@kek.jp; Takahashi, Yumiko; Sugiyama, Hiroshi [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Yamashita, Yoshiki [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    A novel x-ray Bragg optics was developed for variable-magnification of an x-ray beam, and was combined with a module of the PILATUS pixel detector. A feasibility test of this optical system was carried out at the vertical-wiggler beamline BL-14B of the Photon Factory. By tuning the magnification factor, we could successfully control the spatial resolution of the optical system between 28 μm and 280 μm. X-ray absorption-contrast images of a leaf were observed at various magnification factors.

  13. Diffuse X-ray scattering near the Bragg reflection of P-doped Czochralski silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojanoff, V.; Pimentel, C.A.F.

    1983-01-01

    Bragg line profile and high resolution diffuse X-ray scattering measurements around the (400) reciprocal lattice point of dislocation-free Czochralski Si single crystals P-doped have shown defects of interstitial nature with typical size about 1000 A. (Author) [pt

  14. Doubly curved imaging Bragg crystal spectrometer for X-ray astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrnak, B. P.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt

    1985-01-01

    An X-ray spectrometer which is sensitive in the 0.5-7-keV energy range and is intended for use onboard astronomical satellites has been studied. The Bragg reflected rays from a doubly bent crystal positioned downstream of the focal plane of a grazing-incidence concentrator are focused along the a...

  15. Enhanced brightness x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, A.S.; Cauble, R.C.; Da Silva, L.B.; Moreno, J.C.; Nilsen, J.

    1994-09-01

    We are developing short-pulsed, enhanced-brightness, and coherent x-ray lasers (XRLs) for applications in areas such as plasma imaging. In a traveling wave pump setup the optical laser creating the XRL plasma sweeps along the lasant axis at the same speed as the x-rays. This technique becomes increasingly important as the target length increases and the gain duration shortens. An order of magnitude increase in output energy was measured with vs without traveling wave pump. Using multiple pulse techniques and multilayer mirrors to inject the output of one pulse back into the plasma formed by a later pulse we have begun to develop the x-ray analog of a multi-pass amplifler. The use of multiple pulses separated by as much as 1.6 ns reduces multilayer mirror damage. This injection technique is demonstrated by imaging the near-field emission profiles of the XRL. The addition of multilayer beamsplitter will allow us to effectively produce a soft XRL cavity

  16. Revisiting Bragg's X-ray microscope: Scatter based optical transient grating detection of pulsed ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullagar, Wilfred K.; Paganin, David M.; Hall, Chris J.

    2011-01-01

    Transient optical gratings for detecting ultrafast signals are routine for temporally resolved photochemical investigations. Many processes can contribute to the formation of such gratings; we indicate use of optically scattering centres that can be formed with highly variable latencies in different materials and devices using ionising radiation. Coherent light scattered by these centres can form the short-wavelength-to-optical-wavelength, incoherent-to-coherent basis of a Bragg X-ray microscope, with inherent scope for optical phasing. Depending on the dynamics of the medium chosen, the way is open to both ultrafast pulsed and integrating measurements. For experiments employing brief pulses, we discuss high-dynamic-range short-wavelength diffraction measurements with real-time optical reconstructions. Applications to optical real-time X-ray phase-retrieval are considered. -- Research highlights: → It is timely that the concept of Bragg's X-ray microscope be revisited. → Transient gratings can be used for X-ray all-optical information processing. → Applications to optical real-time X-ray phase-retrieval are considered.

  17. Imaging Local Polarization in Ferroelectric Thin Films by Coherent X-Ray Bragg Projection Ptychography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruszkewycz, S. O.; Highland, M. J.; Holt, M. V.; Kim, Dongjin; Folkman, C. M.; Thompson, Carol; Tripathi, A.; Stephenson, G. B.; Hong, Seungbum; Fuoss, P. H.

    2013-04-01

    We used x-ray Bragg projection ptychography (BPP) to map spatial variations of ferroelectric polarization in thin film PbTiO3, which exhibited a striped nanoscale domain pattern on a high-miscut (001) SrTiO3 substrate. By converting the reconstructed BPP phase image to picometer-scale ionic displacements in the polar unit cell, a quantitative polarization map was made that was consistent with other characterization. The spatial resolution of 5.7 nm demonstrated here establishes BPP as an important tool for nanoscale ferroelectric domain imaging, especially in complex environments accessible with hard x rays.

  18. Chromatic X-ray magnifying method and apparatus by Bragg reflective planes on the surface of Abbe sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoe, Robert S.

    1991-01-01

    Method and apparatus for producing sharp, chromatic, magnified images of X-ray emitting objects, are provided. The apparatus, which constitutes an X-ray microscope or telescope, comprises a connected collection of Bragg reflecting planes, comprised of either a bent crystal or a synthetic multilayer structure, disposed on and adjacent to a locus determined by a spherical surface. The individual Bragg planes are spatially oriented to Bragg reflect radiation from the object location toward the image location. This is accomplished by making the Bragg planes spatially coincident with the surfaces of either a nested series of prolate ellipsoids of revolution, or a nested series of spheres. The spacing between the Bragg reflecting planes can be tailored to control the wavelengths and the amount of the X-radiation that is Bragg reflected to form the X-ray image.

  19. Measuring conditions for second order X-ray Bragg-spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellith, J; Scheffel, A; Wendt, M

    2014-01-01

    The KL 2,3 (α) 1,2 -lines of 19 K, the L 3 M 4,5 (α) 1,2 -lines of 48 Cd, and the M 5 N 6,7 (α) 1,2 -lines of 92 U are lines of comparable energy in the region of approximately 3 keV. In none of these cases were we able to resolve the three doublets when recording the spectra in first order Bragg spectrometry using a PET crystal as the dispersing element. For the purpose of enhancing the resolving power of the spectrometer, the three α spectra were recorded in second order reflection, thereby transferring the lines into another spectral region dominated by X-ray quanta of half the energy. In order to achieve high net peak intensities as well as a high peak-to-background ratio and, consequently, a high level of detection capability, the discriminator settings should be optimized quite carefully. In this manner, we were able to resolve the three α doublets and estimate α 2 /α 1 intensity ratios. Inexplicably, current monographs, e.g., by Goldstein et al, do not contain any indications about the rational use of high order spectrometry. Only a few rather old monographs contain some hints in this regard

  20. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis with Bragg polarized Mo radiation. Energiedispersive Roentgenfluoreszenzanalyse mit Bragg-polarisierter Mo Strahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloeckl, H

    1983-01-01

    The aim of introducing energy dispersive analysis into X-ray fluorescence analysis is to suppress background from the Bremsstrahlung spectrum and the characteristic radiation without an undue reduction of the signal. The variant under consideration uses linearly polarization radiation obtained after a Bragg reflection,under delta = 90/sup 0/. In an introductory part, Bragg reflection, fluorescence and strong radiation are considered quantitatively with respect to counting statistics and detection limits. In the experimental part two combinations are describe, of a Ta crystal with a Cr tube and of a Mo crystal with a Mo tube. Details of adjustment, sample preparation and calibration and detection limits are given. The pros and cons of the Ta/Cr and the Mo/Mo are contrasted and proposals for further improvements are given.

  1. Clear as Crystal: The Story of the Braggs--How X-Ray Crystallography Has Contributed to Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Robert; Patterson, John

    2014-01-01

    Here is a brief history of the work of two of Australia's most famous scientists, Sir William Bragg and his son Sir Lawrence Bragg. Jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in 1915 for their groundbreaking research into the use of X-rays to study the chemical structure and function of molecules, they have contributed to our heritage and to science at an…

  2. Observation of sagittal X-ray diffraction by surface acoustic waves in Bragg geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadilonga, Simone; Zizak, Ivo; Roshchupkin, Dmitry; Evgenii, Emelin; Petsiuk, Andrei; Leitenberger, Wolfram; Erko, Alexei

    2017-04-01

    X-ray Bragg diffraction in sagittal geometry on a Y-cut langasite crystal (La 3 Ga 5 SiO 14 ) modulated by Λ = 3 µm Rayleigh surface acoustic waves was studied at the BESSY II synchrotron radiation facility. Owing to the crystal lattice modulation by the surface acoustic wave diffraction, satellites appear. Their intensity and angular separation depend on the amplitude and wavelength of the ultrasonic superlattice. Experimental results are compared with the corresponding theoretical model that exploits the kinematical diffraction theory. This experiment shows that the propagation of the surface acoustic waves creates a dynamical diffraction grating on the crystal surface, and this can be used for space-time modulation of an X-ray beam.

  3. Revisiting Bragg's X-ray microscope: scatter based optical transient grating detection of pulsed ionising radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullagar, Wilfred K; Paganin, David M; Hall, Chris J

    2011-06-01

    Transient optical gratings for detecting ultrafast signals are routine for temporally resolved photochemical investigations. Many processes can contribute to the formation of such gratings; we indicate use of optically scattering centres that can be formed with highly variable latencies in different materials and devices using ionising radiation. Coherent light scattered by these centres can form the short-wavelength-to-optical-wavelength, incoherent-to-coherent basis of a Bragg X-ray microscope, with inherent scope for optical phasing. Depending on the dynamics of the medium chosen, the way is open to both ultrafast pulsed and integrating measurements. For experiments employing brief pulses, we discuss high-dynamic-range short-wavelength diffraction measurements with real-time optical reconstructions. Applications to optical real-time X-ray phase-retrieval are considered. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. X-ray therapy with enhanced effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberbauer, F.

    1989-01-01

    The introduction of iodine atoms into a malignant tumor by intravenous injection of a contrast medium that is excreted by way of the kidneys selectively increases the tumor's capacity for the absorption of X-ray photons. This effect is exploited in CCT, but in high-voltage X-ray therapy it leads to an elevated focal dose while the incident dose remains the same. (orig.) [de

  5. Dose enhancement effects of X ray radiation in bipolar transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Panxun

    1997-01-01

    The author has presented behaviour degradation and dose enhancement effects of bipolar transistors in X ray irradiation environment. The relative dose enhancement factors of X ray radiation were measured in bipolar transistors by the experiment methods. The mechanism of bipolar device dose enhancement was investigated

  6. Strain Imaging of Nanoscale Semiconductor Heterostructures with X-Ray Bragg Projection Ptychography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Martin V.; Hruszkewycz, Stephan O.; Murray, Conal E.; Holt, Judson R.; Paskiewicz, Deborah M.; Fuoss, Paul H.

    2014-04-01

    We report the imaging of nanoscale distributions of lattice strain and rotation in complementary components of lithographically engineered epitaxial thin film semiconductor heterostructures using synchrotron x-ray Bragg projection ptychography (BPP). We introduce a new analysis method that enables lattice rotation and out-of-plane strain to be determined independently from a single BPP phase reconstruction, and we apply it to two laterally adjacent, multiaxially stressed materials in a prototype channel device. These results quantitatively agree with mechanical modeling and demonstrate the ability of BPP to map out-of-plane lattice dilatation, a parameter critical to the performance of electronic materials.

  7. Streaked x-ray spectrometer having a discrete selection of Bragg geometries for Omega

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millecchia, M.; Regan, S. P.; Bahr, R. E.; Romanofsky, M.; Sorce, C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The streaked x-ray spectrometer (SXS) is used with streak cameras [D. H. Kalantar, P. M. Bell, R. L. Costa, B. A. Hammel, O. L. Landen, T. J. Orzechowski, J. D. Hares, and A. K. L. Dymoke-Bradshaw, in 22nd International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, edited by D. L. Paisley and A. M. Frank (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 1997), Vol. 2869, p. 680] positioned with a ten-inch manipulator on OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] and OMEGA EP [L. J. Waxer et al., Presented at CLEO/QELS 2008, San Jose, CA, 4-9 May 2008 (Paper JThB1)] for time-resolved, x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas in the 1.4- to 20-keV photon-energy range. These experiments require measuring a portion of this photon-energy range to monitor a particular emission or absorption feature of interest. The SXS relies on a pinned mechanical reference system to create a discrete set of Bragg reflection geometries for a variety of crystals. A wide selection of spectral windows is achieved accurately and efficiently using this technique. It replaces the previous spectrometer designs that had a continuous Bragg angle adjustment and required a tedious alignment calibration procedure. The number of spectral windows needed for the SXS was determined by studying the spectral ranges selected by OMEGA users over the last decade. These selections are easily configured in the SXS using one of the 25 discrete Bragg reflection geometries and one of the six types of Bragg crystals, including two curved crystals.

  8. Determination of Fe charge-state distributions in PLT by Bragg crystal x-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, K.W.; von Goeler, S.; Bitter, M.

    1978-08-01

    A curved-crystal Bragg x-ray spectrometer has been used to measure Kα or 1s-2p radiation from highly stripped Fe XVIII to Fe XXV impurity ions in the PLT tokamak. The spectrometer has sufficient energy resolution (approximately < 4 eV at 6400 eV) to distinguish between the different ionization states of iron by measuring the energy shift of the Kα x rays. The measured wavelengths agree well with theory and with spectra from solar flares and from laser-produced plasmas. The distribution of Fe charge states in the center of the discharge has been inferred from a comparison of the measured x-ray spectrum with theory. The shape of the spectrum depends strongly on electron temperature (T/sub e/) in the range T/sub e/ = 800 to 1500 eV. Within the factor of two uncertainty in L-shell ionization cross sections, measured intensities agree with theory, which is based on coronal equilibrium, indicating that the ion life-time in the center of the plasma is approximately equal to or greater than the equilibration time

  9. Silicon Σ13(5 0 1) grain boundary interface structure determined by bicrystal Bragg rod X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howes, P.B.; Rhead, S.; Roy, M.; Nicklin, C.L.; Rawle, J.L.; Norris, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    The atomic structure of the silicon Σ13(5 0 1) symmetric tilt grain boundary interface has been determined using Bragg rod X-ray scattering. In contrast to conventional structural studies of grain boundary structure using transmission electron microscopy, this approach allows the non-destructive measurement of macroscopic samples. The interface was found to have a single structure that is fully fourfold coordinated. X-ray diffraction data were measured at Beamline I07 at the Diamond Light Source

  10. Diffraction enhanced X-ray imaging of mammals crystalline lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, A.; Hoennicke, M.G.; Safatle, A.M.V.; Cusatis, C.; Moraes Barros, P.S.; Morelhao, S.L.

    2005-01-01

    Crystalline lenses are transparent biological materials where the organization of the lens fibers can also be affected by changes at molecular level, and therefore the structure and morphology of the tissue can be correlated to the loss of transparency of the lens. In this work, internal structure of mammal lenses regarding the long-range ordering of the fibers are investigated by diffraction enhanced X-ray imaging (DEI) radiography. Moreover, DEI and absorption X-ray synchrotron radiographs for healthy and cataractous crystalline lenses are compared. Significant differences in healthy and cataractous crystalline lenses are observed

  11. Magnetic hysteresis of an artificial square ice studied by in-plane Bragg x-ray resonant magnetic scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Morgan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We report X-ray resonant magnetic scattering studies of a Permalloy artificial square ice nanomagnet array, focussing on the field-driven evolution of the sum Σ and difference Δ signals of left and right handed circularly polarized synchrotron X-rays at different lateral positions in reciprocal space Qx. We used X-rays tuned to the Fe L3 resonance energy, with the scattering plane aligned along a principal symmetry axis of the array. Details of the specular Δ hysteresis curve are discussed, following the system magnetization from an initial demagnetized state. The periodic structure gives rise to distinct peaks at in-plane reciprocal Bragg positions, as shown by fitting Σ(Qx to a model based on a simple unit cell structure. Diffraction order-dependent hysteresis in Δ is observed, indicative of the reordering of magnetization on the system's two interpenetrating sublattices, which markedly deviates from an ideal Ising picture under strong applied fields.

  12. Enhancement of DNA-transfection frequency by X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Ryota; Fushimi, Kazuo; Hiraki, Yoshio; Namba, Masayoshi [Okayama University Medical School (Japan). Institute of Cellular and Molecular Biology

    1997-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the frequency of DNA transfection into human cells following X-ray irradiation. We transfected plasmid DNA (pSV2neo) into human cells, HeLa and PA-1, by either calcium phosphate precipitation or the lipofection method immediately after irradiating the cells with various doses of X-rays. The transfection frequency was evaluated by counting the number of G418-resistant colonies. When circular plasmid DNA was used, irradiation up to a dose of 2 Gy dose-dependently increased the transfection frequency, which reached a maximum of 5 to 10-fold that of the control unirradiated cells. When linear plasmid DNA was used, the transfection frequency was 2 times higher than that of circular DNA. All five of the clones that were randomly chosen expressed the transfected neo gene. In addition, the pSV2neo gene was randomly integrated into the genomic DNA of each clone. These findings indicate that X-ray treatment can facilitate foreign DNA transfer into human cells and that radiation-induced DNA breaks may promote the insertion of foreign DNA into host DNA. The enhancement of DNA transfection with X-rays may be instrumental in practicing gene therapy. (author)

  13. Enhancement of DNA-transfection frequency by X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Ryota; Fushimi, Kazuo; Hiraki, Yoshio; Namba, Masayoshi

    1997-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the frequency of DNA transfection into human cells following X-ray irradiation. We transfected plasmid DNA (pSV2neo) into human cells, HeLa and PA-1, by either calcium phosphate precipitation or the lipofection method immediately after irradiating the cells with various doses of X-rays. The transfection frequency was evaluated by counting the number of G418-resistant colonies. When circular plasmid DNA was used, irradiation up to a dose of 2 Gy dose-dependently increased the transfection frequency, which reached a maximum of 5 to 10-fold that of the control unirradiated cells. When linear plasmid DNA was used, the transfection frequency was 2 times higher than that of circular DNA. All five of the clones that were randomly chosen expressed the transfected neo gene. In addition, the pSV2neo gene was randomly integrated into the genomic DNA of each clone. These findings indicate that X-ray treatment can facilitate foreign DNA transfer into human cells and that radiation-induced DNA breaks may promote the insertion of foreign DNA into host DNA. The enhancement of DNA transfection with X-rays may be instrumental in practicing gene therapy. (author)

  14. Reconstruction of quasimonochromatic images for multispectral x-ray imaging with a pinhole array and a flat Bragg mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, N.; Barbee, T. W.; Koch, J. A.; Mancini, R. C.; Welser, L. A.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a software package for reconstruction of quasimonochromatic images from a multiple monochromatic x-ray imager for inertial confinement fusion implosions. The instrument consists of a pinhole array, a multilayer Bragg mirror, and an image detector. The pinhole array projects hundreds of images onto the detector after reflection off the multilayer Bragg mirror, which introduces spectral dispersion along the reflection axis. The quasimonochromatic images of line emissions and continuum emissions can be used for measurement of temperature and density maps of implosion plasmas. In this article, we describe a computer-aided processing technique for systematic reconstruction of quasimonochromatic images from raw data. This technique provides flexible spectral bandwidth selection and allows systematic subtraction of continuum emission from line emission images

  15. Wake monochromator in asymmetric and symmetric Bragg and Laue geometry for self-seeding the European X-ray FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar; Tolkiehn, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the use of self-seeding schemes with wake monochromators to produce TW power, fully coherent pulses for applications at the dedicated bio-imaging beamline at the European X-ray FEL, a concept for an upgrade of the facility beyond the baseline previously proposed by the authors. We exploit the asymmetric and symmetric Bragg and Laue reflections (sigma polarization) in diamond crystal. Optimization of the bio-imaging beamline is performed with extensive start-to-end simulations, which also take into account effects such as the spatio-temporal coupling caused by the wake monochromator. The spatial shift is maximal in the range for small Bragg angles. A geometry with Bragg angles close to π/2 would be a more advantageous option from this viewpoint, albeit with decrease of the spectral tunability. We show that it will be possible to cover the photon energy range from 3 keV to 13 keV by using four different planes of the same crystal with one rotational degree of freedom.

  16. Wake monochromator in asymmetric and symmetric Bragg and Laue geometry for self-seeding the European X-ray FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar; Tolkiehn, Martin [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    We discuss the use of self-seeding schemes with wake monochromators to produce TW power, fully coherent pulses for applications at the dedicated bio-imaging beamline at the European X-ray FEL, a concept for an upgrade of the facility beyond the baseline previously proposed by the authors. We exploit the asymmetric and symmetric Bragg and Laue reflections (sigma polarization) in diamond crystal. Optimization of the bio-imaging beamline is performed with extensive start-to-end simulations, which also take into account effects such as the spatio-temporal coupling caused by the wake monochromator. The spatial shift is maximal in the range for small Bragg angles. A geometry with Bragg angles close to {pi}/2 would be a more advantageous option from this viewpoint, albeit with decrease of the spectral tunability. We show that it will be possible to cover the photon energy range from 3 keV to 13 keV by using four different planes of the same crystal with one rotational degree of freedom.

  17. Influence of external actions on the Bragg-Laue diffraction of X-Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Gasparyan, L G; Grigoryan, A G

    2000-01-01

    The Bragg-Laue diffraction in finite size crystals under the influence of external actions (ultrasound, temperature gradient) is investigated experimentally. It is established that external actions ''charge for the worse'' the crystal quality, which leads to the broadening of the rocking curves and to the sharp decrease of intensity in the center of the reflection angular range.

  18. Beating Darwin-Bragg losses in lab-based ultrafast x-ray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfred K. Fullagar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of low temperature thermal detectors for avoiding Darwin-Bragg losses in lab-based ultrafast experiments has begun. An outline of the background of this new development is offered, showing the relevant history and initiative taken by this work.

  19. Hard X-ray diffraction enhanced imaging only using two crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gang; WANG Nan; WU Ziyu

    2004-01-01

    Different configurations for the monochromator crystals and the analyzer crystals have been used in hard X-ray diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) methods to overcome the complex task to adjust each of them to the ideal position. Here we present a very compact DEI configuration, and preliminary results of experiments performed at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) using only two crystals: the first one acting as monochromator and the second one as analyzer in the Bragg geometry. Refraction contrast images characterized by high contrast and spatial resolution are obtained and compared with absorption images. Differences among these images will be outlined and discussed emphasizing the potential capabilities of this very simple layout that guarantees a high transmission efficiency.

  20. A theoretical approach to dynamical diffraction of X-rays in the Bragg case with the Green's function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Hidenobu

    2015-01-01

    The dynamical diffraction theory of X-rays for a distorted crystal with the Green's function method is applied to the Bragg case. The transmitted and diffracted crystal waves are represented as the solutions of the integral equations using the Green's function. For a perfect crystal, the most exact form of the solution of the equations is given by the Green's function and its derivatives, and the waves are analytically expressed by using them. The results can be applied in a general case where the amplitude modulation of the incident wave is not negligibly small compared with the wave vector. If the amplitude modulation is small, those results are reduced essentially to the same as those given by Takagi's theory. (author)

  1. Structural sensitivity of x-ray Bragg projection ptychography to domain patterns in epitaxial thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hruszkewycz, S. O.; Zhang, Q.; Holt, M. V.; Highland, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Bragg projection ptychography (BPP) is a coherent diffraction imaging technique capable of mapping the spatial distribution of the Bragg structure factor in nanostructured thin films. Here, we show that, because these images are projections, the structural sensitivity of the resulting images depends on the film thickness and the aspect ratio and orientation of the features of interest and that image interpretation depends on these factors. Lastly, we model changes in contrast in the BPP reconstructions of simulated PbTiO_3 ferroelectric thin films with meandering 180° stripe domains as a function of film thickness, discuss their origin, and comment on the implication of these factors on the design of BPP experiments of general nanostructured films.

  2. Diffraction enhanced kinetic depth X-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicken, A.

    An increasing number of fields would benefit from a single analytical probe that can characterise bulk objects that vary in morphology and/or material composition. These fields include security screening, medicine and material science. In this study the X-ray region is shown to be an effective probe for the characterisation of materials. The most prominent analytical techniques that utilise X-radiation are reviewed. The study then focuses on methods of amalgamating the three dimensional power of kinetic depth X-ray (KDFX) imaging with the materials discrimination of angular dispersive X-ray diffraction (ADXRD), thus providing KDEX with a much needed material specific counterpart. A knowledge of the sample position is essential for the correct interpretation of diffraction signatures. Two different sensor geometries (i.e. circumferential and linear) that are able to collect end interpret multiple unknown material diffraction patterns and attribute them to their respective loci within an inspection volume are investigated. The circumferential and linear detector geometries are hypothesised, simulated and then tested in an experimental setting with the later demonstrating a greater ability at discerning between mixed diffraction patterns produced by differing materials. Factors known to confound the linear diffraction method such as sample thickness and radiation energy have been explored and quantified with a possible means of mitigation being identified (i.e. via increasing the sample to detector distance). A series of diffraction patterns (following the linear diffraction approach) were obtained from a single phantom object that was simultaneously interrogated via KDEX imaging. Areas containing diffraction signatures matched from a threat library have been highlighted in the KDEX imagery via colour encoding and match index is inferred by intensity. This union is the first example of its kind and is called diffraction enhanced KDEX imagery. Finally an additional

  3. UV-Visible Absorption Spectroscopy Enhanced X-ray Crystallography at Synchrotron and X-ray Free Electron Laser Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Aina E; Doukov, Tzanko; Soltis, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    This review describes the use of single crystal UV-Visible Absorption micro-Spectrophotometry (UV-Vis AS) to enhance the design and execution of X-ray crystallography experiments for structural investigations of reaction intermediates of redox active and photosensitive proteins. Considerations for UV-Vis AS measurements at the synchrotron and associated instrumentation are described. UV-Vis AS is useful to verify the intermediate state of an enzyme and to monitor the progression of reactions within crystals. Radiation induced redox changes within protein crystals may be monitored to devise effective diffraction data collection strategies. An overview of the specific effects of radiation damage on macromolecular crystals is presented along with data collection strategies that minimize these effects by combining data from multiple crystals used at the synchrotron and with the X-ray free electron laser.

  4. X-ray scatter signatures for enhanced breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidane, Ghirmay; Speller, Robert; Royle, Gary [Medical Physics and Bioengineering Department, University College Landon, 11-20 Capper Street, London WC1E 6JA (United Kingdom)

    1999-12-31

    Conventional mammographic imaging suffers from a low specificity. The main cause is the small difference in the x-ray attenuation properties of healthy and diseased tissue leading to poor contrast in the image. It has been observed that additional information on breast tissue type can be obtained from x-ray diffraction effects. A study of excised normal and neoplastic breast tissue samples using x-ray diffraction apparatus has been observed that significant differences exist in the measured spectra between carcinoma and healthy tissue adjacent to the carcinoma. Such a difference allows tissue type to be characterised according to is diseased state. Furthermore the information can be applied to improve diagnosis. It is proposed that collection and analysis of the scattered x-rays present during a mammographic procedure can supply the additional information and be used to improve the image contrast. The ultimate aim of the project is to improve the specificity of x-ray mammography. (authors) 10 refs., 3 figs.

  5. High-resolution high-efficiency X-ray imaging system based on the in-line Bragg magnifier and the Medipix detector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vagovič, P.; Korytár, D.; Cecilia, A.; Hamann, E.; Švéda, L.; Pelliccia, D.; Hartwig, J.; Zápražný, Z.; Oberta, Peter; Dolbnya, I.; Shawney, K.; Flechsig, U.; Fiederle, M.; Baumbach, T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2013), s. 153-159 ISSN 0909-0495. [International Workshop on X-Ray Damage to Biological Crystalline Samples /7./. Oxfordshire, 14.03.2012-16.03.2012] R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/412 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Bragg magnifie * germanium * holography * high resolution * in-line * X-ray imaging Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.022, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1107/S0909049512044366/pdf

  6. Operation manual for EDXRDDA - a software package for Bragg peak analysis of energy dispersive powder X-ray diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaswal, Balhans; Vijaykumar, V.; Momin, S.N.; Sikka, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    EDXRDDA is a software package for analysis of raw data for energy dispersive x-ray diffraction from powder samples. It resolves the spectra into individual peaks by a constrained non-linear least squares method (Hughes and Sexton, 1988). The profile function adopted is the Gaussian/Lorentzian product with the mixing ratio refinable in the program. The program is implemented on an IBM PC and is highly interactive with extensive plotting facilities. This report is a user's guide for running the program. In the first step after inputting the spectra, the full spectra is plotted on the screen. The user then chooses a portion of this for peak resolution. The initial guess for the peak intensity, peak position are input with the help of a cursor or a mouse. Upto twenty peaks can be fitted at a time in an interval of 500 channels. For overlapping peaks, various constraints can be applied. Bragg peaks and fluorescence peaks with different half widths can be handled simultaneously. The program on execution produces a look up table which contains the refined values of the peak position, half width, peak intensity, integrated intensity, and their error estimates of each peak. The program is very general and can also be used for curve fitting of data from many other experiments. (author). 2 refs., 7 figs., 2 appendices

  7. Enhanced Electron Efficiency in an X-ray Diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, K.; MacNeil, L.

    2010-01-01

    The goal for this research is to optimize the XRD structure and usage configurations and increase the efficiency of the XRD. This research was successful in optimizing the XRD structure and usage configurations, thus creating a high efficiency XRD. Best efficiency occurs when there is an angle between the photocathode and incident X-rays.

  8. Anisotropy enhanced X-ray scattering from solvated transition metal complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biasin, Elisa; van Driel, Tim B.; Levi, Gianluca

    2018-01-01

    Time-resolved X-ray scattering patterns from photoexcited molecules in solution are in many cases anisotropic at the ultrafast time scales accessible at X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). This anisotropy arises from the interaction of a linearly polarized UV-Vis pump laser pulse with the sample......, which induces anisotropic structural changes that can be captured by femtosecond X-ray pulses. In this work, a method for quantitative analysis of the anisotropic scattering signal arising from an ensemble of molecules is described, and it is demonstrated how its use can enhance the structural...... sensitivity of the time-resolved X-ray scattering experiment. This method is applied on time-resolved X-ray scattering patterns measured upon photoexcitation of a solvated di-platinum complex at an XFEL, and the key parameters involved are explored. It is shown that a combined analysis of the anisotropic...

  9. The model of illumination-transillumination for image enhancement of X-ray images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, Kwang Yeul [Shingu College, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Sang Min [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-01

    In digital image processing, the homomorphic filtering approach is derived from an illumination - reflectance model of the image. It can also be used with an illumination-transillumination model X-ray film. Several X-ray images were applied to enhancement with histogram equalization and homomorphic filter based on an illumination-transillumination model. The homomorphic filter has proven theoretical claim of image density range compression and balanced contrast enhancement, and also was found a valuable tool to process analog X-ray images to digital images.

  10. Experimental study on x-rays dose enhancement effects for floating gate ROMs

    CERN Document Server

    Guo Hong Xia; Chen Yu Sheng; Han Fu Bin; He Chao Hui; Zhao Hui

    2002-01-01

    Experimental results of x-ray dose enhancement effects are given for floating gate read-only memory (ROMs) irradiated in the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The wrong byte numbers vs. total irradiation dose have been tested and the equivalent relation of total dose damage is provided compared the response of devices irradiated with sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma-ray source. The x-ray dose enhancement factors for floating gate ROMs are obtained firstly in China. These results can be an effective evaluation data for x-rays radiation hardening technology

  11. Study of hard X-ray dose enhancement effects for some kinds of semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Guo Hong Xia; Chen Yu Sheng; Zhou Hui; He Chao Hui; Xie Ya Ning; Huang Yu Ying; He Wei; Hu Tian Dou

    2002-01-01

    Experimental results of X-ray dose enhancement effects are given for CMOS4069 and floating gate ROMs irradiated in Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility and in cobalt source. Shift of threshold voltage vs. total dose for CMOS4069 and the errors vs. total dose for 28f256 and 29c256 have been tested on line and the equivalent relation of total dose damage under the same accumulated dose is provided comparing the response of devices irradiated by X-ray and gamma-ray source. These results can be provided for X-ray radiation hardening technology as an effective evaluation data

  12. Edge enhancement algorithm for low-dose X-ray fluoroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Seok; Park, Chul Hee; Kang, Moon Gi

    2017-12-01

    Low-dose X-ray fluoroscopy has continually evolved to reduce radiation risk to patients during clinical diagnosis and surgery. However, the reduction in dose exposure causes quality degradation of the acquired images. In general, an X-ray device has a time-average pre-processor to remove the generated quantum noise. However, this pre-processor causes blurring and artifacts within the moving edge regions, and noise remains in the image. During high-pass filtering (HPF) to enhance edge detail, this noise in the image is amplified. In this study, a 2D edge enhancement algorithm comprising region adaptive HPF with the transient improvement (TI) method, as well as artifacts and noise reduction (ANR), was developed for degraded X-ray fluoroscopic images. The proposed method was applied in a static scene pre-processed by a low-dose X-ray fluoroscopy device. First, the sharpness of the X-ray image was improved using region adaptive HPF with the TI method, which facilitates sharpening of edge details without overshoot problems. Then, an ANR filter that uses an edge directional kernel was developed to remove the artifacts and noise that can occur during sharpening, while preserving edge details. The quantitative and qualitative results obtained by applying the developed method to low-dose X-ray fluoroscopic images and visually and numerically comparing the final images with images improved using conventional edge enhancement techniques indicate that the proposed method outperforms existing edge enhancement methods in terms of objective criteria and subjective visual perception of the actual X-ray fluoroscopic image. The developed edge enhancement algorithm performed well when applied to actual low-dose X-ray fluoroscopic images, not only by improving the sharpness, but also by removing artifacts and noise, including overshoot. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Computed tomography of x-ray index of refraction using the diffraction enhanced imaging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilmanian, F.A.; Ren, B.; Wu, X.Y.; Orion, I.; Zhong, Z.; Thomlinson, W.C.; Chapman, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) is a new, synchrotron-based, x-ray radiography method that uses monochromatic, fan-shaped beams, with an analyser crystal positioned between the subject and the detector. The analyser allows the detection of only those x-rays transmitted by the subject that fall into the acceptance angle (central part of the rocking curve) of the monochromator/analyser system. As shown by Chapman et al , in addition to the x-ray attenuation, the method provides information on the out-of-plane angular deviation of x-rays. New images result in which the image contrast depends on the x-ray index of refraction and on the yield of small-angle scattering, respectively. We implemented DEI in the tomography mode at the National Synchrotron Light Source using 22 keV x-rays, and imaged a cylindrical acrylic phantom that included oil-filled, slanted channels. The resulting 'refraction CT image' shows the pure image of the out-of-plane gradient of the x-ray index of refraction. No image artefacts were present, indicating that the CT projection data were a consistent set. The 'refraction CT image' signal is linear with the gradient of the refractive index, and its value is equal to that expected. The method, at the energy used or higher, has the potential for use in clinical radiography and in industry. (author)

  14. Information extracting and processing with diffraction enhanced imaging of X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bo; Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing; Chen Chunchong; Jiang Fan; Chen Jie; Ming Hai; Shu Hang; Zhu Peiping; Wang Junyue; Yuan Qingxi; Wu Ziyu

    2006-01-01

    X-ray imaging at high energies has been used for many years in many fields. Conventional X-ray imaging is based on the different absorption within a sample. It is difficult to distinguish different tissues of a biological sample because of their small difference in absorption. The authors use the diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) method. The authors took images of absorption, extinction, scattering and refractivity. In the end, the authors presented pictures of high resolution with all these information combined. (authors)

  15. Monte Carlo simulation of dose enhancement effect of X-ray at Au/Si interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhengxin; He Chengfa; Lu Wu; Guo Qi; Yu Xin; Zhang Lei; Deng Wei; Zheng Qiwen; ARKIN Abulim

    2013-01-01

    Background: The dose enhancement factor of X-ray was found in 1970s, because of its bad damage to electronic devices. Purpose: This paper is mainly to calculate the dose-enhancement factor at Au/Si interfaces. Methods: The gradient distribution of dose with X-rays has been studied at and near the interface of Au/Si by Monte-Carlo simulation of particle transportation. The mechanism of dose enhancement is discussed based on the principles of interaction of photon with matter. A 3D Au/Si model has been established by MCNP5 program and the dose-enhancement factors of different thicknesses Au/Si interfaces were calculated by Monte Carlo method. Results: The calculated results demonstrate that there exists a stronger dose-enhancement in the Si side near the interface when the energy of X-ray is 30-300 keV. Conclusions: When the thickness of Au is 0-10 μm, dose-enhancement factor of X-ray increases along with the increase of the thickness of Au, when the thickness of Au exceeds 10 μm, dose-enhancement factor of X-ray decreases along with the increase of the thickness of Au. (authors)

  16. Enhanced renal image contrast by ethanol fixation in phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Ryota; Kunii, Takuya; Yoneyama, Akio; Ooizumi, Takahito; Maruyama, Hiroko; Lwin, Thet Thet; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Takeda, Tohoru

    2014-07-01

    Phase-contrast X-ray imaging using a crystal X-ray interferometer can depict the fine structures of biological objects without the use of a contrast agent. To obtain higher image contrast, fixation techniques have been examined with 100% ethanol and the commonly used 10% formalin, since ethanol causes increased density differences against background due to its physical properties and greater dehydration of soft tissue. Histological comparison was also performed. A phase-contrast X-ray system was used, fitted with a two-crystal X-ray interferometer at 35 keV X-ray energy. Fine structures, including cortex, tubules in the medulla, and the vessels of ethanol-fixed kidney could be visualized more clearly than that of formalin-fixed tissues. In the optical microscopic images, shrinkage of soft tissue and decreased luminal space were observed in ethanol-fixed kidney; and this change was significantly shown in the cortex and outer stripe of the outer medulla. The ethanol fixation technique enhances image contrast by approximately 2.7-3.2 times in the cortex and the outer stripe of the outer medulla; the effect of shrinkage and the physical effect of ethanol cause an increment of approximately 78% and 22%, respectively. Thus, the ethanol-fixation technique enables the image contrast to be enhanced in phase-contrast X-ray imaging.

  17. Enhancement of dental x-ray images by two channel image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, S.; Yu, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the authors develop a new algorithm for the enhancement of low-contrast details of dental X-ray images using a two channel structure. The algorithm first decomposes an input image in the frequency domain into two parts by filtering: one containing the low frequency components and the other containing the high frequency components. Then these parts are enhanced separately using a transform magnitude modifier. Finally a contrast enhanced image is formed by combining these two processed pats. The performance of the proposed algorithm is illustrated through enhancement of dental X-ray images. The algorithm can be easily implemented on a personal computer

  18. 3D contrast-enhanced MR portography and direct X-ray portography: a correlation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jiang; Zhou Kangrong; Chen Zuang; Wang Jianhua; Yan Ziping; Wang Yixiang, J.

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to compare 3D contrast-enhanced MR portography (3D CE MRP) on a 1.5-T MR imager with direct X-ray portography. Twenty-six consecutive patients underwent 3D CE MRP with in-plane resolution of 1.4 or 1.8 mm, and direct X-ray portography. The findings of these two methods were evaluated and compared. The main portal vein (PV), right PV with its anterior and posterior segmental branches, and left PV including its sagittal segment were shown clearly without diagnostic problem in all cases on MRP. The main PV appearance was accordant with MRP and X-ray. For intrahepatic PVs, the results agreed in 21 patients but disagreed in 5 patients. In 1 patient with a huge tumor in right liver, the right posterior PV was classified as occluded at MRP, but diffusely narrowed at X-ray. The findings of left intrahepatic PV were discordant in 3 patients with hepatocelluar carcinoma in the left lobe. The MRP demonstrated complete occlusion of the left PVs, whereas X-ray showed proximal narrowing and distal occlusion. In another patient with hepatocelluar carcinoma, a small non-occlusive thrombus involving the sagittal segment of the left PV was seen on MRP but not on X-ray. With demonstration of varices and portosystemic shunts, MRP showed results similar to those of X-ray, except one recanalized para-umbilical vein was excluded from the field of view at MRP due to the patient's limited ability of breathholding. The 3D CE MRP correlated well with direct X-ray portography in most cases, it was limited in distinguishing narrowing of an intrahepatic PV from occlusion, but it showed advantage in demonstrating small thrombus within PV. (orig.)

  19. Phase contrast enhanced high resolution X-ray imaging and tomography of soft tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubek, Jan; Granja, Carlos; Dammer, Jiri; Hanus, Robert; Holy, Tomas; Pospisil, Stanislav; Tykva, Richard; Uher, Josef; Vykydal, Zdenek

    2007-01-01

    A tabletop system for digital high resolution and high sensitivity X-ray micro-radiography has been developed for small-animal and soft-tissue imaging. The system is based on a micro-focus X-ray tube and the semiconductor hybrid position sensitive Medipix2 pixel detector. Transmission radiography imaging, conventionally based only on absorption, is enhanced by exploiting phase-shift effects induced in the X-ray beam traversing the sample. Phase contrast imaging is realized by object edge enhancement. DAQ is done by a novel fully integrated USB-based readout with online image generation. Improved signal reconstruction techniques make use of advanced statistical data analysis, enhanced beam hardening correction and direct thickness calibration of individual pixels. 2D and 3D micro-tomography images of several biological samples demonstrate the applicability of the system for biological and medical purposes including in-vivo and time dependent physiological studies in the life sciences

  20. Image enhancement of x-ray microscope using frequency spectrum analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenjie; Chen Jie; Tian Jinping; Zhang Xiaobo; Liu Gang; Tian Yangchao; Liu Yijin; Wu Ziyu

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a new method for x-ray microscope image enhancement using frequency spectrum analysis. Fine sample characteristics are well enhanced with homogeneous visibility and better contrast from single image. This method is easy to implement and really helps to improve the quality of image taken by our imaging system.

  1. Image enhancement of x-ray microscope using frequency spectrum analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Wenjie; Chen Jie; Tian Jinping; Zhang Xiaobo; Liu Gang; Tian Yangchao [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China); Liu Yijin; Wu Ziyu, E-mail: wuzy@ihep.ac.c, E-mail: ychtian@ustc.edu.c [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2009-09-01

    We demonstrate a new method for x-ray microscope image enhancement using frequency spectrum analysis. Fine sample characteristics are well enhanced with homogeneous visibility and better contrast from single image. This method is easy to implement and really helps to improve the quality of image taken by our imaging system.

  2. Determination of three-dimensional interfacial strain - A novel method of probing interface structure with X-ray Bragg-surface diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, W.-C.; Chu, C.-H.; Chang, H.-C.; Wu, B.-K.; Chen, Y.-R.; Cheng, C.-W.; Chiu, M.-S.; Shen, Y.-C.; Wu, H.-H.; Hung, Y.-S.; Chang, S.-L.; Hong, M.-H.; Tang, M.-T.; Stetsko, Yu.P.

    2007-01-01

    A new X-ray diffraction technique is developed to probe structural variations at the interfaces between epitaxy thin films and single-crystal substrates. The technique utilizes three-wave Bragg-surface diffraction, where a symmetric Bragg reflection and an asymmetric surface reflection are involved. The propagation of the latter along the interfaces conveys structural information about the interfacial region between the substrate and epi-layers. The sample systems of Au/GaAs(001) are subject to the three-wave diffraction investigation using synchrotron radiation. The GaAs three-wave Bragg-surface diffractions (006)/(11-bar3) and (006)/(1-bar1-bar3), are employed. The images of the surface diffracted waves are recorded with an image plate. The obtained images show relative positions of diffraction spots near the image of the interfacial boundary, which give the variation of lattice constant along the surface normal and in-plane directions. With the aid of grazing-incidence diffraction, three-dimensional mapping of strain field at the interfaces is possible. Details about this diffraction technique and the analysis procedures are discussed

  3. Thermal enhancement of x-ray induced DNA crosslinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, G.T.; Kasunic, M.; Cress, A.E.

    1982-01-01

    Ionizing radiation appears to crosslink nuclear DNA with chromosomal proteins. Important cellular processes such as transcription and DNA replication are likely to be compromised as a result of the DNA crosslinking. Heat treatment (43/sup o/C) of mouse leukemia cells (L1210) before X irradiation (50 Gy) was found to cause a doubling of the radiation-induced DNA crosslinking as measured by alkaline elution technique. By using proteinase K, a very active protease, to eliminate DNA-protein crosslinking in the alkaline elution assay, it was shown that the thermally enhanced DNA crosslinking was attributed to an increase in DNA-protein crosslinking. However, utilizing a protein radiolabel technique under conditions of increased DNA-protein crosslinking, the amount of protein left on the filter in the elution assay was not increased. These data suggest that qualitative rather than large quantitative differences in the crosslinked chromosomal proteins exist between irradiated cells and cells treated with heat prior to irradiation

  4. Nuclear Enhanced X-ray Maximum Entropy Method Used to Analyze Local Distortions in Simple Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sebastian; Bindzus, Niels; Christensen, Mogens

    We introduce a novel method for reconstructing pseudo nuclear density distributions (NDDs): Nuclear Enhanced X-ray Maximum Entropy Method (NEXMEM). NEXMEM offers an alternative route to experimental NDDs, exploiting the superior quality of synchrotron X-ray data compared to neutron data. The method...... proposed to result from anharmonic phonon scattering or from local fluctuating dipoles on the Pb site.[1,2] No macroscopic symmetry change are associated with these effects, rendering them invisible to conventional crystallographic techniques. For this reason PbX was until recently believed to adopt...

  5. Caffeine enhancement of x-ray killing in cultured human and rodent cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldren, C.A.; Rasko, I.

    1978-01-01

    A 16 to 20 hr postirradiation incubation with caffeine enhances x-ray killing of rodent and human cells. Cells tested were Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1), lung (CHL), V79, mouse L, HeLa S3, human fibroblasts (AF288, TC171, FS9, CRL1166), and a human-hamster hybrid. The effect of caffeine on the x-ray survival curve of these cells was to remove the initial shoulder without significantly altering the mean lethal dose (D 0 ). This action can be achieved at caffeine concentrations which of themselves cause less than 15% killing. In randomly growing CHO-K1 cells the caffeine-sensitive process occurs with a half-time of 2 to 5 hr after irradiation. These experiments indicate the existence in human and rodent cells of caffeine-inhibited genome repair for x-ray damage

  6. Line x-ray source for diffraction enhanced imaging in clinical and industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqin

    Mammography is one type of imaging modalities that uses a low-dose x-ray or other radiation sources for examination of breasts. It plays a central role in early detection of breast cancers. The material similarity of tumor-cell and health cell, breast implants surgery and other factors, make the breast cancers hard to visualize and detect. Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI), first proposed and investigated by D. Chapman is a new x-ray radiographic imaging modality using monochromatic x-rays from a synchrotron source, which produced images of thick absorbing objects that are almost completely free of scatter. It shows dramatically improved contrast over standard imaging when applied to the same phantom. The contrast is based not only on attenuation but also on the refraction and diffraction properties of the sample. This imaging method may improve image quality of mammography, other medical applications, industrial radiography for non-destructive testing and x-ray computed tomography. However, the size, and cost, of a synchrotron source limits the application of the new modality to be applicable at clinical levels. This research investigates the feasibility of a designed line x-ray source to produce intensity compatible to synchrotron sources. It is composed of a 2-cm in length tungsten filament, installed on a carbon steel filament cup (backing plate), as the cathode and a stationary oxygen-free copper anode with molybdenum coating on the front surface serves as the target. Characteristic properties of the line x-ray source were computationally studied and the prototype was experimentally investigated. SIMIION code was used to computationally study the electron trajectories emanating from the filament towards the molybdenum target. A Faraday cup on the prototype device, proof-of-principle, was used to measure the distribution of electrons on the target, which compares favorably to computational results. The intensities of characteristic x-ray for molybdenum

  7. Enhanced winds and tidal streams in massive X-ray binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondin, J.M.; Stevens, I.R.; Kallman, T.R.

    1991-01-01

    The tidal effects created by the presence of a compact companion are expected to induce a stream of enhanced wind from the early-type primary star in massive X-ray binary systems. In this paper, two-dimensional gasdynamical simulations of such streams are presented. It is found that the wind enhancement is a sensitive function of the binary separation, and develops into a tidal stream as the primary approaches its critical surface. For typical system parameters, the Coriolis force deflects the stream sufficiently that it does not impact directly on the compact companion but passes behind it. The density in the stream can reach values of 20-30 times the ambient wind density, leading to strong attenuation of the X-ray flux that passes through the tidal stream, providing a possible explanation of the enhanced absorption events seen at later phases in the X-ray observations of massive X-ray binary systems such as Vela X-1. In contrast to the time-variable accretion wake, the tidal stream is relatively stationary, producing absorption features that should remain fixed from orbit to orbit. For systems with a strong tidal stream, the large asymmetry in the accreting wind results in the accretion of angular momentum of constant sign, as opposed to systems without streams, where the sign of the accreted angular momentum can change. 39 refs

  8. Polymer gel dosimeters with enhanced sensitivity for use in x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirasek, A; Hilts, M; McAuley, K B

    2010-01-01

    A primary limitation of current x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry is the low contrast, and hence poor dose resolution, of dose images produced by the system. The low contrast is largely due to the low-dose sensitivity of current formulations of polymer gel for x-ray CT imaging. This study reports on the investigation of new dosimeter formulations with improved dose sensitivity for x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry. We incorporate an isopropanol co-solvent into an N-isopropylacrylamide-based gel formulation in order to increase the total monomer/crosslinker concentration (%T) within the formulation. It is shown that gels of high %T exhibit enhanced dose sensitivity and dose resolutions over traditional formulations. The gels are shown to be temporally stable and reproducible. A single formulation (16%T) is used to demonstrate the capabilities of the x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry system in measuring known dose distributions. A 1 L gel volume is exposed to three separate irradiations: a single-field percent depth dose, a two-field 'cross' and a three-field 'test case'. The first two irradiations are used to generate a dose calibration curve by which images are calibrated. The calibrated images are compared with treatment planning predictions and it is shown that the x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry system is capable of capturing spatial and dose information accurately. The proposed new gel formulation is shown to be sensitive, stable and to improve the dose resolution over current formulations so as to provide a feasible gel for clinical applications of x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry.

  9. Polymer gel dosimeters with enhanced sensitivity for use in x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirasek, A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Hilts, M [Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency-Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria BC V6R 2B6 (Canada); McAuley, K B, E-mail: jirasek@uvic.c [Department of Chemical Engineering, Queens University, Kingston, ON K7 L 3N6 (Canada)

    2010-09-21

    A primary limitation of current x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry is the low contrast, and hence poor dose resolution, of dose images produced by the system. The low contrast is largely due to the low-dose sensitivity of current formulations of polymer gel for x-ray CT imaging. This study reports on the investigation of new dosimeter formulations with improved dose sensitivity for x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry. We incorporate an isopropanol co-solvent into an N-isopropylacrylamide-based gel formulation in order to increase the total monomer/crosslinker concentration (%T) within the formulation. It is shown that gels of high %T exhibit enhanced dose sensitivity and dose resolutions over traditional formulations. The gels are shown to be temporally stable and reproducible. A single formulation (16%T) is used to demonstrate the capabilities of the x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry system in measuring known dose distributions. A 1 L gel volume is exposed to three separate irradiations: a single-field percent depth dose, a two-field 'cross' and a three-field 'test case'. The first two irradiations are used to generate a dose calibration curve by which images are calibrated. The calibrated images are compared with treatment planning predictions and it is shown that the x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry system is capable of capturing spatial and dose information accurately. The proposed new gel formulation is shown to be sensitive, stable and to improve the dose resolution over current formulations so as to provide a feasible gel for clinical applications of x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry.

  10. X-ray enhancement of CsI:Eu{sup 2+} radioluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblans, P., E-mail: paul.leblans@agfa.com [Agfa-HealthCare NV, Septestraat 27, B-2640 Mortsel (Belgium); Struye, L.; Elen, S.; Mans, I. [Agfa-HealthCare NV, Septestraat 27, B-2640 Mortsel (Belgium); Vrielinck, H.; Callens, F. [Electron Magnetic Resonance Research Group, Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S1, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2015-09-15

    CsI:Eu{sup 2+} needle crystal layers were produced by Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD). The luminescence properties were studied before and after thermal anneal. It was shown by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) that annealing produces Eu{sup 2+} monomer centres, probably starting from Eu clusters in the needle crystalline layers. These centres seem structurally very similar to the Eu{sup 2+} monomer centres in annealed CsBr:Eu{sup 2+} needle layers. They give rise to a narrow luminescence band peaking at about 450 nm (2.76 eV) at room temperature, both under X-ray and UV excitation. The luminescence intensity of as-deposited layers is low. Annealing enhances photo- and radioluminescence on average by a factor of 1.5–3. Surprisingly, further sensitization of radioluminescence with a factor of up to 7 is possible by exposing the annealed needle layers to X-rays or UV, while in contrast, UV excited luminescence is slightly reduced. X-ray enhancement thus leads to a structured scintillator with a conversion efficiency of about 42,000 photons/MeV upon X-ray excitation. A similar radioluminescence enhancement is observed for annealed CsI:Eu{sup 2+} fine powder, but not for large single crystals or conglomerated polycrystals. The measurements and observations are consistent with Eu{sup 2+} monomer centres stabilized by water molecules. These molecules are incorporated via annealing, and that this happens when the morphology is such that water can diffuse throughout the volume of the crystals. The presence of stabilized Eu{sup 2+} monomers is necessary to enhance radioluminescence by X-ray exposure. A mechanism is proposed for the phenomenon.

  11. Mathematical modeling predicts enhanced growth of X-ray irradiated pigmented fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Shuryak

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation is known for its cytotoxic and mutagenic properties. However, recent evidence suggests that chronic sub-lethal irradiation stimulates the growth of melanin-pigmented (melanized fungi, supporting the hypothesis that interactions between melanin and ionizing photons generate energy useful for fungal growth, and/or regulate growth-promoting genes. There are no quantitative models of how fungal proliferation is affected by ionizing photon energy, dose rate, and presence versus absence of melanin on the same genetic background. Here we present such a model, which we test using experimental data on melanin-modulated radiation-induced proliferation enhancement in the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, exposed to two different peak energies (150 and 320 kVp over a wide range of X-ray dose rates. Our analysis demonstrates that radiation-induced proliferation enhancement in C. neoformans behaves as a binary "on/off" phenomenon, which is triggered by dose rates 5000 mGy/h. Proliferation enhancement of irradiated cells compared with unirradiated controls occurs at both X-ray peak energies, but its magnitude is modulated by X-ray peak energy and cell melanization. At dose rates <5000 mGy/h, both melanized and non-melanized cells exposed to 150 kVp X-rays, and non-melanized cells exposed to 320 kVp X-rays, all exhibit the same proliferation enhancement: on average, chronic irradiation stimulates each founder cell to produce 100 (95% CI: 83, 116 extra descendants over 48 hours. Interactions between melanin and 320 kVp X-rays result in a significant (2-tailed p-value = 4.8 × 10(-5 additional increase in the number of radiation-induced descendants per founder cell: by 55 (95% CI: 29, 81. These results show that both melanin-dependent and melanin-independent mechanisms are involved in radiation-induced fungal growth enhancement, and implicate direct and/or indirect interactions of melanin with high energy ionizing photons as an important pro

  12. Image combination enhancement method for X-ray compton back-scattering security inspection body scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huaiying; Zhang Yujin; Yang Lirui; Li Dong

    2011-01-01

    As for X-ray Compton Back-Scattering (CBS) body scanner, image clearness is very important for the performance of detecting the contraband hidden on the body. A new image combination enhancement method is provided based on characteristics of CBS body images and points of human vision. After processed by this method, the CBS image will be obviously improved with clear levels, distinct outline and uniform background. (authors)

  13. X-ray-enhanced cancer cell migration requires the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Hiromasa; Sato, Katsutoshi; Nishihara, Asuka; Minami, Kazumasa; Koizumi, Masahiko; Matsuura, Nariaki; Hieda, Miki

    2018-04-01

    The linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex is a multifunctional protein complex that is involved in various processes at the nuclear envelope, including nuclear migration, mechanotransduction, chromatin tethering and DNA damage response. We recently showed that a nuclear envelope protein, Sad1 and UNC84 domain protein 1 (SUN1), a component of the LINC complex, has a critical function in cell migration. Although ionizing radiation activates cell migration and invasion in vivo and in vitro, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. Here, we examined the involvement of the LINC complex in radiation-enhanced cell migration and invasion. A sublethal dose of X-ray radiation promoted human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell migration and invasion, whereas carbon ion beam radiation suppressed these processes in a dose-dependent manner. Depletion of SUN1 and SUN2 significantly suppressed X-ray-enhanced cell migration and invasion. Moreover, depletion or overexpression of each SUN1 splicing variant revealed that SUN1_888 containing 888 amino acids of SUN1 but not SUN1_916 was required for X-ray-enhanced migration and invasion. In addition, the results suggested that X-ray irradiation affected the expression level of SUN1 splicing variants and a SUN protein binding partner, nesprins. Taken together, our findings supported that the LINC complex contributed to photon-enhanced cell migration and invasion. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  14. Refraction angle and edge visibility in X-ray diffraction enhanced imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yu; Jia Quanjie; Li Gang; Wang Yuzhu; Xue Xianying; Jiang Xiaoming

    2007-01-01

    Diffraction-enhanced X-ray imaging could extract accurately the refraction angles of the sample, which is very important to increase the image contrast of low Z samples. In this paper, the DEI experiments with X-rays of different energies were performed both on wedge-shaped and rounded model samples. Refraction angles of the two samples were all obtained accurately, and the results agreed well with the calculations. Quantitative analyses based on Edge Visibility were performed for the wedge-shaped model sample. The results revealed that the calculated positions for the Best Edge Visibility of the slope with fixed refraction angle were calculable in good agreement with the experimental results. A quantitative research on the Edge Visibility of real tissues sample was carried out and the optimal condition for best contrast of DEI images were discussed. (authors)

  15. Experimental Demonstration of X-Ray Drive Enhancement with Rugby-Shaped Hohlraums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, F.; Casner, A.; Caillaud, T.; Landoas, O.; Monteil, M. C.; Liberatore, S.; Park, H. S.; Amendt, P.; Robey, H.; Sorce, C.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F.; Rosenberg, M.; Petrasso, R.; Glebov, V.; Stoeckl, C.

    2010-01-01

    Rugby-shaped hohlraums have been suggested as a way to enhance x-ray drive in the indirect drive approach to inertial confinement fusion. This Letter presents an experimental comparison of rugby-shaped and cylinder hohlraums used for D 2 and D 3 He-filled capsules implosions on the Omega laser facility, demonstrating an increase of x-ray flux by 18% in rugby-shaped hohlraums. The highest yields to date for deuterium gas implosions in indirect drive on Omega (1.5x10 10 neutrons) were obtained, allowing for the first time the measurement of a DD burn history. Proton spectra measurements provide additional validation of the higher drive in rugby-shaped hohlraums.

  16. Experimental Demonstration of X-Ray Drive Enhancement with Rugby-Shaped Hohlraums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, F.; Casner, A.; Caillaud, T.; Landoas, O.; Monteil, M. C.; Liberatore, S.; Park, H. S.; Amendt, P.; Robey, H.; Sorce, C.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F.; Rosenberg, M.; Petrasso, R.; Glebov, V.; Stoeckl, C.

    2010-01-01

    Rugby-shaped hohlraums have been suggested as a way to enhance x-ray drive in the indirect drive approach to inertial confinement fusion. This Letter presents an experimental comparison of rugby-shaped and cylinder hohlraums used for D2 and DHe3-filled capsules implosions on the Omega laser facility, demonstrating an increase of x-ray flux by 18% in rugby-shaped hohlraums. The highest yields to date for deuterium gas implosions in indirect drive on Omega (1.5×1010 neutrons) were obtained, allowing for the first time the measurement of a DD burn history. Proton spectra measurements provide additional validation of the higher drive in rugby-shaped hohlraums.

  17. Retracted-Enhanced X-Ray Absorption Property of Gold-Doped Single Wall Carbon Nanotube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimin Alimin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced X-ray absorption property of single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT through gold (Au doping (Au@SWCNT has been studied. Mass attenuation coefficient of SWCNT increased 5.2-fold after Au doping treatment. The use of ethanol in the liquid phase adsorption could produce Au nanoparticles as confirmed by the X-ray Diffraction (XRD patterns. The possibility of gold nanoparticles encapsulated in the internal tube space of SWCNT was observed by transmission electron microscope technique. A significant decrease of nitrogen uptakes and upshifts of Radial Breathing Mode (RBM of Au@SWCNT specimen suggest that the nanoparticles might be encapsulated in the internal tube spaces of the nanotube. In addition, a decrease intensity of XRD pattern of Au@SWCNT at around 2θ ≈ 2.6° supports the suggestion that Au nanoparticles are really encapsulated into SWCNT.

  18. Gold nanoparticles enhance the X-ray-induced degradation of human centrin 2 protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, Emilie [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, CNRS UMR 8000, Universite Paris-Sud 11, Bat. 350, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Duchambon, Patricia; Blouquit, Yves [INSERM U759, Imagerie Integrative, Campus Universitaire d' Orsay, Bat. 112, Institut Curie, Centre de Recherche, Laboratoire R. Latarjet, Campus Universitaire d' Orsay, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Keller, Gerard [UMR CNRS 8612, Physico-Chimie-Pharmacotechnie-Biopharmacie, Universite Paris 11, Faculte de Pharmacie, 5 rue Jean-Baptiste Clement, 92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France); Sanche, Leon [Groupe en Sciences des Radiations, Departement de Medecine Nucleaire et Radiobiologie, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada J1H 5N4 (Canada); Sicard-Roselli, Cecile [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, CNRS UMR 8000, Universite Paris-Sud 11, Bat. 350, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)], E-mail: cecile.sicard@u-psud.fr

    2009-03-15

    In the war against cancer, radiotherapy is a prominent tool but counterbalanced by the fact that it also induces damages in healthy tissues. Nanotechnologies could open a new possibility to decrease these side effects. In particular, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) could be used as radio-sensitizers. As the role of proteins in the processes leading to cell death cannot be neglected, their radio-sensitization by GNPs is of great interest. This is particularly true in the case of the human centrin 2 protein, which has been proposed to be involved in DNA repair processes. To investigate this effect, we quantified for the first time the degradation of this protein in a gold colloidal solution when submitted to X-rays. We showed that the X-ray-induced degradation of the human centrin 2 protein is enhanced 1.5-fold in the presence of GNPs, even though no covalent bond exists between protein and GNPs. Among the conditions tested, the maximum enhancement was found with the higher GNP:protein ratio of 2x10{sup -4} and with the higher X-ray energy of 49 keV.

  19. Gold nanoparticles enhance the X-ray-induced degradation of human centrin 2 protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, Emilie; Duchambon, Patricia; Blouquit, Yves; Keller, Gerard; Sanche, Leon; Sicard-Roselli, Cecile

    2009-01-01

    In the war against cancer, radiotherapy is a prominent tool but counterbalanced by the fact that it also induces damages in healthy tissues. Nanotechnologies could open a new possibility to decrease these side effects. In particular, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) could be used as radio-sensitizers. As the role of proteins in the processes leading to cell death cannot be neglected, their radio-sensitization by GNPs is of great interest. This is particularly true in the case of the human centrin 2 protein, which has been proposed to be involved in DNA repair processes. To investigate this effect, we quantified for the first time the degradation of this protein in a gold colloidal solution when submitted to X-rays. We showed that the X-ray-induced degradation of the human centrin 2 protein is enhanced 1.5-fold in the presence of GNPs, even though no covalent bond exists between protein and GNPs. Among the conditions tested, the maximum enhancement was found with the higher GNP:protein ratio of 2x10 -4 and with the higher X-ray energy of 49 keV

  20. Study of Cr/Sc-based multilayer reflecting mirrors using soft x-ray reflectivity and standing wave-enhanced x-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meiyi; Burcklen, Catherine; André, Jean-Michel; Guen, Karine Le; Giglia, Angelo; Koshmak, Konstantin; Nannarone, Stefano; Bridou, Françoise; Meltchakov, Evgueni; Rossi, Sébastien de; Delmotte, Franck; Jonnard, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    We study Cr/Sc-based multilayer mirrors designed to work in the water window range using hard and soft x-ray reflectivity as well as x-ray fluorescence enhanced by standing waves. Samples differ by the elemental composition of the stack, the thickness of each layer, and the order of deposition. This paper mainly consists of two parts. In the first part, the optical performances of different Cr/Sc-based multilayers are reported, and in the second part, we extend further the characterization of the structural parameters of the multilayers, which can be extracted by comparing the experimental data with simulations. The methodology is detailed in the case of Cr/B4C/Sc sample for which a three-layer model is used. Structural parameters determined by fitting reflectivity curve are then introduced as fixed parameters to plot the x-ray standing wave curve, to compare with the experiment, and confirm the determined structure of the stack.

  1. Rugby-like hohlraum experimental designs for demonstrating x-ray drive enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendt, Peter; Cerjan, C.; Hinkel, D. E.; Milovich, J. L.; Park, H.-S.; Robey, H. F.

    2008-01-01

    A suite of experimental designs for the Omega laser facility [Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] using rugby and cylindrical hohlraums is proposed to confirm the energetics benefits of rugby-shaped hohlraums over cylinders under optimal implosion symmetry conditions. Postprocessed Dante x-ray drive measurements predict a 12-17eV (23%-36%) peak hohlraum temperature (x-ray flux) enhancement for a 1ns flattop laser drive history. Simulated core self-emission x-ray histories also show earlier implosion times by 200-400ps, depending on the hohlraum case-to-capsule ratio and laser-entrance-hole size. Capsules filled with 10 or 50atm of deuterium (DD) are predicted to give in excess of 1010 neutrons in two-dimensional hohlraum simulations in the absence of mix, enabling DD burn history measurements for the first time in indirect-drive on Omega. Capsule designs with 50atm of DHe3 are also proposed to make use of proton slowing for independently verifying the drive benefits of rugby hohlraums. Scale-5/4 hohlraum designs are also introduced to provide further margin to potential laser-plasma-induced backscatter and hot-electron production.

  2. Rugby-like hohlraum experimental designs for demonstrating x-ray drive enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendt, Peter; Cerjan, C.; Hinkel, D. E.; Milovich, J. L.; Park, H.-S.; Robey, H. F.

    2008-01-01

    A suite of experimental designs for the Omega laser facility [Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] using rugby and cylindrical hohlraums is proposed to confirm the energetics benefits of rugby-shaped hohlraums over cylinders under optimal implosion symmetry conditions. Postprocessed Dante x-ray drive measurements predict a 12-17 eV (23%-36%) peak hohlraum temperature (x-ray flux) enhancement for a 1 ns flattop laser drive history. Simulated core self-emission x-ray histories also show earlier implosion times by 200-400 ps, depending on the hohlraum case-to-capsule ratio and laser-entrance-hole size. Capsules filled with 10 or 50 atm of deuterium (DD) are predicted to give in excess of 10 10 neutrons in two-dimensional hohlraum simulations in the absence of mix, enabling DD burn history measurements for the first time in indirect-drive on Omega. Capsule designs with 50 atm of D 3 He are also proposed to make use of proton slowing for independently verifying the drive benefits of rugby hohlraums. Scale-5/4 hohlraum designs are also introduced to provide further margin to potential laser-plasma-induced backscatter and hot-electron production

  3. In vitro X-ray irradiation of human peripheral blood T lymphocytes enhances suppressor function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, H.; Tsunematsu, T.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of in vitro X-ray irradiation on human peripheral blood T lymphocytes was studied with regard to their suppressor activity related to the concanavalin A (Con A)-induced suppressor system. To generate suppressor T lymphocytes, purified human T lymphocytes were incubated for 3 days in the first culture, with or without Con A. These lymphocytes were irradiated with various doses of X-ray before, mid or after the culture. After doing a second culture for 6 days, the suppressive influence of these cells on T lymphocyte proliferation rates stimulated with allogeneic mononuclear cells, and B lymphocyte proliferation rates stimulated with pokeweed mitogen was measured. Irradiation of cultures to which Con A had not been added induced much the same level of suppressor activity as seen in the cultures with Con A. The suppressor activity gradually increased with time from the irradiation to the suppressor cell assay. Suppressor T lymphocytes were resistant to X-ray irradiation and independent of DNA synthesis. However, irradiation-induced enhancement was minimal in cultures incubated with con A, regardless of the irradiation time. (author)

  4. Enhanced X-ray yields in PIXE analysis of some binary metal fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peisach, M.; Pineda, C.A.; Pillay, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    Enhanced X-ray yields from the metal components of homogeneous thick targets of binary metal fluorides were observed during PIXE irradiations with protons, deuterons and 3 He ions. The absence of these effects in the pure metals and in the corresponding metal oxides, nitrides and borides suggests that the fluoride component in such compounds plays a key role in producing the enhancement. Coulomb excitation of the extremely low-lying levels of the fluorine nucleus is discussed as a possible mechanism for the improved yields via secondary excitation. (orig.)

  5. The effect of dose enhancement near metal interfaces on synthetic diamond based X-ray dosimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamoudi, D.; Lohstroh, A.; Albarakaty, H.

    2017-11-01

    This study investigates the effects of dose enhancement on the photocurrent performance at metallic interfaces in synthetic diamond detectors based X-ray dosimeters as a function of bias voltages. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations with the BEAMnrc code were carried out to simulate the dose enhancement factor (DEF) and compared against the equivalent photocurrent ratio from experimental investigations. The MC simulation results show that the sensitive region for the absorbed dose distribution covers a few micrometers distances from the interface. Experimentally, two single crystals (SC) and one polycrystalline (PC) synthetic diamond samples were fabricated into detectors with carbon based electrodes by boron and carbon ion implantation. Subsequently; the samples were each mounted inside a tissue equivalent encapsulation to minimize unintended fluence perturbation. Dose enhancement was generated by placing copper, lead or gold near the active volume of the detectors using 50 kVp and 100 kVp X-rays relevant for medical dosimetry. The results show enhancement in the detectors' photocurrent performance when different metals are butted up to the diamond bulk as expected. The variation in the photocurrent measurement depends on the type of diamond samples, their electrodes' fabrication and the applied bias voltages indicating that the dose enhancement near the detector may modify their electronic performance.

  6. An unexpected caffeine-enhanced survival in x-ray-sensitive variant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsumi, Hiroshi

    1985-01-01

    The sensitivity of normal Chinese hamster cell lines, V79 and CHO, mouse cell lines, L5178Y and L, and human HeLa cells to the killing effect of x-ray is enhanced with addition of caffeine following x-ray irradiation in a dose-dependent fashion. However, the survival rate of variant cell (V79-AL162/S-10) increased with addition of low concentration of caffeine (caffeine-enhanced survival phenomenon). Therefore, the effects of protein synthesis-inhibiting agents, such as cycloheximide and puromycin, on caffeine-enhanced survival phenomenon were examined. This phenomenon was completely abolished by the inhibitory agents, but not abolished by DNA synthesis-damaging agents, such as excess thymidine and aphidicolin. DNA-damaging physiochemical factors, such as neutrons, U.V., methyl methanesulfonate and mitomycin C, were examined in relation to variant cells' sensitivity and caffeine-enhanced survival phenomenon. V79-AL162/S-10 cells showed high sensitivity to the killing effect of mitomycin C, but their survival rate returned to the rate of normal V79-B310H cells with addition of caffeine. (Namekawa, K.)

  7. Investigation of hepatic fibrosis in rats with x-ray diffraction enhanced imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hui; Zhang Lu; Wang Xueyan; Luo Shuqian; Wang Tailing; Wang Baoen; Zhao Xinyan

    2009-01-01

    X-ray diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) is a phase contrast technique that generates excellent contrast of biological soft tissues compared to conventional absorption radiography. We explore the application of DEI in the diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis. The produced refraction contrast images of fibrous rat liver samples show clearly abnormal liver architectures. Moreover, by comparing to histological pictures, different stages of fibrosis are discriminated, and the corresponding morphological features are analyzed. Besides, quantitative analyses of texture features are presented. The results reported herein show that DEI can be a potential noninvasive technique to diagnose and stage hepatic fibrosis

  8. Investigation of hepatic fibrosis with synchrotron X-ray diffraction enhanced imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hui; Beijing Univ., Health Science Center, Beijing; Wang Xueyan; Zhao Tao; Hu Chunhong; Lu Weiyuan; Luo Shuqian; Wang Tailing; Wang Baoen; Zhao Xinyan; Zhu Peiping; Huang Wanxia; Yuan Qingxi; Wang Junyue

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, imaging investigation of hepatic fibrosis in rats induced by human albumin with hard X-ray diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) is reported. The experiments were performed at 4W1A beamline of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). The results show that great differences can be observed in DEI images between the normal and diseased rats in different stages of liver fibrosis. The difference can also be revealed by the profile curve and texture measurements on regions of interest. The results show that DEI may be a potential way for diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis. (authors)

  9. Enhancement of soft X-ray lasing action with thin blade radiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckewer, Szymon; Skinner, Charles H.; Voorhees, David R.

    1988-01-01

    An enhancement of approximately 100 of stimulated emission over spontaneous emission of the CVI 182 Angstrom line was obtained in a recombining magnetically confined plasma column. The plasma was formed by focusing a CO.sub.2 laser beam on a carbon disc. A magnetic solenoid produced a strong magnetic field which confined the plasma to the shape of a column. A single thin carbon blade extended parallel to the plasma column and served to make the column axially more uniform and also acted as a heat sink. Axial and transverse measurements of the soft X-ray lasing action were made from locations off-set from the central axis of the plasma column. Multiple carbon blades located at equal intervals around the plasma column were also found to produce acceptable results. According to another embodiment 10 a thin coating of aluminum or magnesium was placed on the carbon disc and blade. The Z of the coating should preferably be at least 5 greater than the Z of the target. Measurements of the soft X-rays generated at 182 Angstroms showed a significant increase in intensity enhancement.

  10. Feasibility of kilovoltage x-ray energy modulation by gaseous media and its application in contrast-enhanced radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facundo-Flores, E. L.; Garnica-Garza, H. M. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Monterrey, Vía del Conocimiento 201 Parque PIIT, Apodaca, Nuevo León 66600 (Mexico)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: To present a method to modulate the energy contents of a kilovoltage x-ray beam that makes use of a gas as the modulating medium. The method is capable of producing arbitrary x-ray spectra by varying the pressure of the modulating gas and the peak kilovoltage (kVp) of the x-ray beams whose energy is being modulated.Methods: An aluminum chamber was machined with a 0.5 cm wall thickness, designed to withstand pressures of more than 80 atm. A pressure sensor and electrovalves were used to monitor and regulate the gas pressure. Argon was used as the modulating gas. A CdTe spectrometer was used to measure x-ray spectra for different combinations of kVp and gas pressure, thus obtaining a set of basis x-ray functions. An arbitrary x-ray spectrum can then be formed by the linear combination of such basis functions. In order to show one possible application of the modulation method, a contrast-enhanced radiotherapy prostate treatment was optimized with respect to the x-ray beam energy, without restrictions on the possible shape of the resultant x-ray spectra.Results: The x-ray spectra basis functions obtained display a smooth and gradual variation of their average energy as a function of the gas pressure for a given kVp, sometimes in the order of 1 or 2 keV. This gradual variation would be difficult to obtain with a conventional aluminum or copper filters, as the change in thickness necessary to reproduce the data presented would be in the order of micrometers, making necessary the use of a large number of such filters. Using the modulation method presented here, the authors were able to reconstruct the optimized x-ray spectra from the measured basis functions, for different optimization objectives.Conclusions: A method has been developed that allows for the controlled modulation of the energy contents of kilovoltage x-ray spectra. The method has been shown to be able to reproduce spectra of arbitrary shape, such as those obtained from the optimization of contrast-enhanced

  11. Non-thermal X-rays and interstellar gas toward the γ-ray supernova remnant RX J1713.7–3946: evidence for X-ray enhancement around CO and H I clumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, H.; Torii, K.; Fukuda, T.; Yoshiike, S.; Sato, J.; Horachi, H.; Kuwahara, T.; Hayakawa, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Inutsuka, S.; Kawamura, A.; Tachihara, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Okuda, T.; Mizuno, N.; Onishi, T. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Tanaka, T. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Inoue, T.; Yamazaki, R. [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, Fuchinobe, Chuou-ku, Sagamihara 252-5258 (Japan); Mizuno, A., E-mail: sano@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); and others

    2013-11-20

    RX J1713.7–3946 is the most remarkable very high energy γ-ray supernova remnant that emits synchrotron X-rays without thermal features. We made a comparative study of CO, H I, and X-rays in order to better understand the relationship between the X-rays, and the molecular and atomic gas. The results indicate that the X-rays are enhanced around the CO and H I clumps on a pc scale, but are decreased inside the clumps on a 0.1 pc scale. Magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations of the shock interaction with molecular and atomic gas indicate that the interaction between the shock waves and the clumps excite turbulence, which amplifies the magnetic field around the clumps. We suggest that the amplified magnetic field around the CO and H I clumps enhances the synchrotron X-rays and possibly the acceleration of cosmic-ray electrons.

  12. Method and apparatus for enhanced sensitivity filmless medical x-ray imaging, including three-dimensional imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Sherwood

    1995-01-01

    A filmless X-ray imaging system includes at least one X-ray source, upper and lower collimators, and a solid-state detector array, and can provide three-dimensional imaging capability. The X-ray source plane is distance z.sub.1 above upper collimator plane, distance z.sub.2 above the lower collimator plane, and distance z.sub.3 above the plane of the detector array. The object to be X-rayed is located between the upper and lower collimator planes. The upper and lower collimators and the detector array are moved horizontally with scanning velocities v.sub.1, v.sub.2, v.sub.3 proportional to z.sub.1, z.sub.2 and z.sub.3, respectively. The pattern and size of openings in the collimators, and between detector positions is proportional such that similar triangles are always defined relative to the location of the X-ray source. X-rays that pass through openings in the upper collimator will always pass through corresponding and similar openings in the lower collimator, and thence to a corresponding detector in the underlying detector array. Substantially 100% of the X-rays irradiating the object (and neither absorbed nor scattered) pass through the lower collimator openings and are detected, which promotes enhanced sensitivity. A computer system coordinates repositioning of the collimators and detector array, and X-ray source locations. The computer system can store detector array output, and can associate a known X-ray source location with detector array output data, to provide three-dimensional imaging. Detector output may be viewed instantly, stored digitally, and/or transmitted electronically for image viewing at a remote site.

  13. Simulation of enhanced characteristic x rays from a 40-MeV electron beam laser accelerated in plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Nikzad

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Simulation of x-ray generation from bombardment of various solid targets by quasimonoenergetic electrons is considered. The electron bunches are accelerated in a plasma produced by interaction of 500 mJ, 30 femtosecond laser pulses with a helium gas jet. These relativistic electrons propagate in the ion channel generated in the wake of the laser pulse. A beam of MeV electrons can interact with targets to generate x-ray radiation with keV energy. The MCNP-4C code based on Monte Carlo simulation is employed to compare the production of bremsstrahlung and characteristic x rays between 10 and 100 keV by using two quasi-Maxwellian and quasimonoenergetic energy distributions of electrons. For a specific electron spectrum and a definite sample, the maximum x-ray flux varies with the target thickness. Besides, by increasing the target atomic number, the maximum x-ray flux is increased and shifted towards a higher energy level. It is shown that by using the quasimonoenergetic electron profile, a more intense x ray can be produced relative to the quasi-Maxwellian profile (with the same total energy, representing up to 77% flux enhancement at K_{α} energy.

  14. Nanoscale radiation transport and clinical beam modeling for gold nanoparticle dose enhanced radiotherapy (GNPT) using X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygmanski, Piotr; Sajo, Erno

    2016-01-01

    We review radiation transport and clinical beam modelling for gold nanoparticle dose-enhanced radiotherapy using X-rays. We focus on the nanoscale radiation transport and its relation to macroscopic dosimetry for monoenergetic and clinical beams. Among other aspects, we discuss Monte Carlo and deterministic methods and their applications to predicting dose enhancement using various metrics.

  15. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic evidence for bacteria-enhanced dissolution of hornblende

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, B. E.; Liermann, L. J.; Brantley, S. L.; Barnes, A.; Pantano, C. G.

    2000-04-01

    An Arthrobacter species capable of extracting Fe from hornblende was isolated from a soil from the Adirondacks, NY (USA). This bacteria isolate, used in batch experiments with hornblende, accelerated the release of Fe from hornblende without measurably affecting Al release. The isolate produces both low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) and a catecholate siderophore. Polished hornblende (glass and crystal) discs were analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) before and after incubation with growing Arthrobacter sp. to investigate whether the bacteria caused a distinguishable chemical signature on the upper 100 Å of mineral surface. After removal of the arthrobacter grown on hornblende crystal or glass substrates using lysozyme, XPS revealed surface depletion of Fe for samples grown for several days in buffered (crystal) and unbuffered (crystal and glass) media. Fe/Si ratios of hornblende surfaces dissolved under biotic conditions are significantly lower than Fe/Si ratios on surfaces dissolved under abiotic conditions for similar amounts of time. Enhanced Fe release and the formation of Fe-depleted surfaces is inferred to be caused by catechol complexation at the mineral surface. Because natural siderophore was not isolated in sufficient quantities to run bacteria-free leaching experiments, parallel investigations were run with a commercially available siderophore (desferrioxamine B). Desferrioxamine B was observed to enhance release of Fe, Si, and Al from hornblende both with and without added bacteria. Formation of desferrioxamine-Fe surface complexes were probed by studying the multiple splitting and shift in intensities of the N 1s line analyzed by XPS on siderophore ± Fe on gold surfaces and siderophore + hornblende crystal surfaces. Based upon the observed formation of an hydroxamate (desferrioxamine) surface complex on hornblende, we infer that catecholate siderophores, such as those produced by the arthrobacter, also complex on the

  16. X-ray diffraction enhanced imaging study of intraocular tumors in human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Gao; Wang Huaqiao; Chen Yu; Yuan Qing; Li Gang; Zhu Peiping; Zhang Xiaodan; Zhong Xiufeng; Tang Jintian

    2010-01-01

    Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) with edge enhancement is suitable for the observation of weakly absorbing objects. The potential ability of the DEI was explored for displaying the microanatomy and pathology of human eyeball in this work. The images of surgical specimens from malignant intraocular tumor of hospitalized patients were taken using the hard X-rays from the topography station of Beamline 4W1A at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). The obtained radiographic images were analyzed in correlation with those of pathology. The results show that the anatomic and pathologic details of intraocular tumors in human beings can be observed clearly by DEI for the first time, with good visualization of the microscopic details of eyeball ring such as sclera, choroid and other details of intraocular organelles. And the best resolution of DEI images reaches up to the magnitude of several tens of μm. The results suggest that it is capable of exhibiting clearly the details of intraocular tumor using DEI method. (authors)

  17. eXTP: Enhanced X-Ray Timing and Polarimetry Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S. N.; Feroci, M.; Santangelo, A.; Dong, Y. W.; Feng, H.; Lu, F. J.; Nandra, K.; Wang, Z. S.; Zhang, S.; Bozzo, E.; hide

    2016-01-01

    eXTP is a science mission designed to study the state of matter under extreme conditions of density, gravity and magnetism. Primary goals are the determination of the equation of state of matter at supra-nuclear density, the measurement of QED effects in highly magnetized star, and the study of accretion in the strong-field regime of gravity. Primary targets include isolated and binary neutron stars, strong magnetic field systems like magnetars, and stellar-mass and supermassive black holes. The mission carries a unique and unprecedented suite of state-of-the-art scientific instruments enabling for the first time ever the simultaneous spectral-timing-polarimetry studies of cosmic sources in the energy range from 0.5-30 keV (and beyond). Key elements of the payload are: the Spectroscopic Focusing Array (SFA) - a set of 11 X-ray optics for a total effective area of approx. 0.9 m(exp. 2) and 0.6 m(exp. 2) at 2 keV and 6 keV respectively, equipped with Silicon Drift Detectors offering less than 180 eV spectral resolution; the Large Area Detector (LAD) - a deployable set of 640 Silicon Drift Detectors, for a total effective area of approx. 3.4 m(exp. 2), between 6 and 10 keV, and spectral resolution better than 250 eV; the Polarimetry Focusing Array (PFA) - a set of 2 X-ray telescope, for a total effective area of 250 cm(exp. 2) at 2 keV, equipped with imaging gas pixel photoelectric polarimeters; the Wide Field Monitor (WFM) - a set of 3 coded mask wide field units, equipped with position-sensitive Silicon Drift Detectors, each covering a 90 degrees x 90 degrees field of view. The eXTP international consortium includes major institutions of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Universities in China, as well as major institutions in several European countries and the United States. The predecessor of eXTP, the XTP mission concept, has been selected and funded as one of the so-called background missions in the Strategic Priority Space Science Program of the Chinese

  18. Refraction-enhanced tomosynthesis of a finger joint by X-ray dark-field imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimao, Daisuke; Kunisada, Toshiyuki; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Ando, Masami

    2007-01-01

    A finger joint tomogram based on X-ray dark-field imaging (XDFI) was demonstrated using the simplest shift-and-add tomosynthesis algorithm. Raw XDFI image data for tomosynthesis were acquired in a total of 11 views through 10deg, in increments of 1deg, by rotating the object and detector synchronously. Incident X-ray energy was monochromatic 36.0 keV, derived from synchrotron radiation. The total dosage in acquiring 11 views for raw image data was equivalent to that of one XDFI image. A clear tomogram was obtained of a finger joint (including articular cartilage, which is invisible by conventional tomosynthesis) without an increase in X-ray dosage. (author)

  19. Study of x-ray emission enhancement via high contrast femtosecond laser interacting with solid foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liming; Kando, Masaki; Bulanov, S.V.; Koga, James K.; Tajima, Toshiki; Xu M.H.; Yuan X.H.; Li Y.T.; Dong Q.L.; Zhang J.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the hard x-ray emission and the Kα x-ray conversion efficiency (η K ) produced by 60 fs high contrast frequency doubled Ti: sapphire laser pulse focused on Cu foil target. Cu Kα photon emission obtained with second harmonic laser pulse is more intense than the case of fundamental laser pulse. The Cu η K shows strong dependence on laser nonlinearly skewed pulse shape and reaches the maximum value 4x10 -4 with 100 fs negatively skewed pulse. It shows the electron spectrum shaping contribute to the increase of η K . (author)

  20. Enhanced photocatalysis, colloidal stability and cytotoxicity of synchrotron X-ray synthesized Au/TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chi-Jen; Yang, Tsung-Yeh; Wang, Chang-Hai; Chien, Chia-Chi; Chen, Shin-Tai; Wang, Cheng-Liang; Leng, Wei-Hua; Hwu, Y.; Lin, Hong-Ming; Lee, Yao-Chang; Cheng, Chia-Liang; Je, J.H.; Margaritondo, G.

    2009-01-01

    Au/TiO 2 nanocomposite particles were synthesized by a method based on intense X-ray irradiation without adding any reducing agent or stabilizer. The nanocomposite exhibits promising photocatalytic and biological properties at physiologically relevant concentration ([Au] = 0.028 mM, [TiO 2 ] = 0.5 mM). The structure and photocatalysis were examined by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy demonstrating that gold nanoparticles of 2-5 nm size were successfully deposited on TiO 2 nanoparticle surfaces. The nanocomposite exhibited good colloidal stability within a typical cellular environment and was nontoxic to cancer cell according to evaluations under controlled conditions. The Au/TiO 2 nanoparticles were also found to enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of UV radiation and even more that of X-ray radiation. In vitro studies indicated that the cell-killing effect under X-ray irradiation is more pronounced with the addition of Au/TiO 2 nanoparticles than of bare TiO 2 nanoparticles.

  1. Enhanced photocatalysis, colloidal stability and cytotoxicity of synchrotron X-ray synthesized Au/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chi-Jen; Yang, Tsung-Yeh; Wang, Chang-Hai [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Chien, Chia-Chi [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Department of Engineering Science and System, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shin-Tai; Wang, Cheng-Liang; Leng, Wei-Hua [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Hwu, Y., E-mail: phhwu@sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Department of Engineering Science and System, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Institute of Optoelectronic Sciences, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 202, Taiwan (China); National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Lin, Hong-Ming [Department of Materials Engineering, Tatung University, Taipei 10461, Taiwan (China); Lee, Yao-Chang [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Chia-Liang [Department of Physics, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 97401, Taiwan (China); Je, J.H. [X-ray Imaging Center, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Margaritondo, G. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-09-15

    Au/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite particles were synthesized by a method based on intense X-ray irradiation without adding any reducing agent or stabilizer. The nanocomposite exhibits promising photocatalytic and biological properties at physiologically relevant concentration ([Au] = 0.028 mM, [TiO{sub 2}] = 0.5 mM). The structure and photocatalysis were examined by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy demonstrating that gold nanoparticles of 2-5 nm size were successfully deposited on TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle surfaces. The nanocomposite exhibited good colloidal stability within a typical cellular environment and was nontoxic to cancer cell according to evaluations under controlled conditions. The Au/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were also found to enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of UV radiation and even more that of X-ray radiation. In vitro studies indicated that the cell-killing effect under X-ray irradiation is more pronounced with the addition of Au/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles than of bare TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles.

  2. ROS enhancement by silicon nanoparticles in X-ray irradiated aqueous suspensions and in glioma C6 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Gara, Pedro M.; Garabano, Natalia I.; Llansola Portoles, Manuel J.; Moreno, M. Sergio; Dodat, Diego; Casas, Oscar R.; Gonzalez, Mónica C.; Kotler, Mónica L.

    2012-01-01

    The capability of silicon nanoparticles to increase the yield of reactive species upon 4 MeV X-ray irradiation of aqueous suspensions and C6 glioma cell cultures was investigated. ROS generation was detected and quantified using several specific probes. The particles were characterized by FTIR, XPS, TEM, DLS, luminescence, and adsorption spectroscopy before and after irradiation to evaluate the effect of high energy radiation on their structure. The total concentration of O 2 •− /HO 2 • , HO • , and H 2 O 2 generated upon 4-MeV X-ray irradiation of 6.4 μM silicon nanoparticle aqueous suspensions were on the order of 10 μM per Gy, ten times higher than that obtained in similar experiments but in the absence of particles. Cytotoxic 1 O 2 was generated only in irradiation experiments containing the particles. The particle surface became oxidized to SiO 2 and the luminescence yield reduced with the irradiation dose. Changes in the surface morphology did not affect, within the experimental error, the yields of ROS generated per Gy. X-ray irradiation of glioma C6 cell cultures with incorporated silicon nanoparticles showed a marked production of ROS proportional to the radiation dose received. In the absence of nanoparticles, the cells showed no irradiation-enhanced ROS generation. The obtained results indicate that silicon nanoparticles of 1 O 2 upon X-ray irradiation opens novel approaches in the design of therapy strategies.

  3. A hyperspectral X-ray computed tomography system for enhanced material identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaomei; Wang, Qian; Ma, Jinlei; Zhang, Wei; Li, Po; Fang, Zheng

    2017-08-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) can distinguish different materials according to their absorption characteristics. The hyperspectral X-ray CT (HXCT) system proposed in the present work reconstructs each voxel according to its X-ray absorption spectral characteristics. In contrast to a dual-energy or multi-energy CT system, HXCT employs cadmium telluride (CdTe) as the x-ray detector, which provides higher spectral resolution and separate spectral lines according to the material's photon-counter working principle. In this paper, a specimen containing ten different polymer materials randomly arranged was adopted for material identification by HXCT. The filtered back-projection algorithm was applied for image and spectral reconstruction. The first step was to sort the individual material components of the specimen according to their cross-sectional image intensity. The second step was to classify materials with similar intensities according to their reconstructed spectral characteristics. The results demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed material identification process and indicated that the proposed HXCT system has good prospects for a wide range of biomedical and industrial nondestructive testing applications.

  4. Profile correction to electron temperature and enhancement factor in soft-x-ray pulse-height-analysis measurements in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesnic, S.; Diesso, M.; Hill, K.; Holland, A.; Pohl, F.

    1988-01-01

    Because soft-x-ray pulse-height-analysis spectra contain chordal information, the electron temperature and the radiation intensity (enhancement factor) measurements do not represent the local values. The correction factors for the electron temperature and the enhancement factor as a function of the temperature and density profile parameters and the energy are obtained. The spectrum distortion due to pulse pileup effects is also evaluated. A set of curves is given from which the distortion of the spectrum can be obtained if the electron temperature, the Be filter thickness, and the electronic parameters of the acquisition system are known. PG 1810,1812 ID 131801CON N X-ray diagnostics TT Profile correction to electron temperature and enhancement factor in soft-x-ray pulse-height-analysis measurements in tokamaks AU S. Sesnic, M. Diesso, K. Hill, and A. Holland LO Princeton University, Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 AU F. Pohl LO Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, 8046-Garching, Federal Republic of Germany SD (Presented on 16 March 1988) AB Because soft-x-ray pulse-height-analysis spectra contain chordal information, the electron temperature and the radiation intensity (enhancement factor) measurements do not represent the local values. The correction factors for the electron temperature and the enhancement factor as a function of the temperature and density profile parameters and the energy are obtained. The spectrum distortion due to pulse pileup effects is also evaluated. A set of curves is given from which the distortion of the spectrum can be obtained if the electron tempe

  5. On the enhanced X-ray emission from SGR 1900+14 after the August 27th giant flare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertan, Ue.; Alpar, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    We show that the giant flares of soft gamma ray repeaters (E∼10 44 erg) can push the inner regions of a fall-back disk out to larger radii by radiation pressure, while matter remains bound to the system for plausible parameters. The subsequent relaxation of this pushed-back matter can account for the observed enhanced X-ray emission after the August 27 th giant flare of SGR 1900+14

  6. Photoelectron and x-ray holography by contrast: enhancing image quality and dimensionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadley, C.S.; Zhao, L. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Hove, M.A. van [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Kaduwela, A.; Marchesini, S. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Omori, S. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Sony Corporation Semiconductor Network Company, Asahi-cho, Atsugi, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2001-11-26

    Three forms of electron or x-ray holography 'by contrast' are discussed: they all exploit small changes in diffraction conditions to improve image quality and/or extract additional information. Spin-polarized photoelectron holography subtracts spin-down from spin-up holograms so as to image the relative orientations of atomic magnetic moments around an emitter atom. Differential photoelectron holography subtracts holograms taken at slightly different energies so as to overcome the forward-scattering problem that normally degrades the three-dimensional imaging of atoms, particularly for emitter atoms that are part of a bulk substrate environment. Resonant x-ray fluorescence holography also subtracts holograms at slightly different energies, these being chosen above and below an absorption edge of a constituent atom, thus allowing the selective imaging of that type of atom, or what has been referred to as imaging 'in true colour'. (author)

  7. A laser driven pulsed X-ray backscatter technique for enhanced penetrative imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deas, R M; Wilson, L A; Rusby, D; Alejo, A; Allott, R; Black, P P; Black, S E; Borghesi, M; Brenner, C M; Bryant, J; Clarke, R J; Collier, J C; Edwards, B; Foster, P; Greenhalgh, J; Hernandez-Gomez, C; Kar, S; Lockley, D; Moss, R M; Najmudin, Z; Pattathil, R; Symes, D; Whittle, M D; Wood, J C; McKenna, P; Neely, D

    2015-01-01

    X-ray backscatter imaging can be used for a wide range of imaging applications, in particular for industrial inspection and portal security. Currently, the application of this imaging technique to the detection of landmines is limited due to the surrounding sand or soil strongly attenuating the 10s to 100s of keV X-rays required for backscatter imaging. Here, we introduce a new approach involving a 140 MeV short-pulse (< 100 fs) electron beam generated by laser wakefield acceleration to probe the sample, which produces Bremsstrahlung X-rays within the sample enabling greater depths to be imaged. A variety of detector and scintillator configurations are examined, with the best time response seen from an absorptive coated BaF2 scintillator with a bandpass filter to remove the slow scintillation emission components. An X-ray backscatter image of an array of different density and atomic number items is demonstrated. The use of a compact laser wakefield accelerator to generate the electron source, combined with the rapid development of more compact, efficient and higher repetition rate high power laser systems will make this system feasible for applications in the field. Content includes material subject to Dstl (c) Crown copyright (2014). Licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: psi@ nationalarchives.gsi.gov.uk.

  8. Thin film beam splitter multiple short pulse generation for enhanced Ni-like Ag x-ray laser emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojocaru, Gabriel V; Ungureanu, Razvan G; Banici, Romeo A; Ursescu, Daniel; Delmas, Olivier; Pittman, Moana; Guilbaud, Olivier; Kazamias, Sophie; Cassou, Kevin; Demailly, Julien; Neveu, Olivier; Baynard, Elsa; Ros, David

    2014-04-15

    An alternative, novel multiple pulse generation scheme was implemented directly after the optical compressor output of an x-ray pump laser. The new method uses a polarization sensitive thin film beam splitter and a half-wavelength wave plate for tuning the energy ratio in the multiple short pulses. Based on this method, an extensive study was made of the running parameters for a grazing incidence pumped silver x-ray laser (XRL) pumped with a long pulse of 145 mJ in 6 ns at 532 nm and up to 1.45 J in few picoseconds at 810 nm. Fivefold enhancement in the emission of the silver XRL was demonstrated using the new pump method.

  9. Sudden f/sub min/ enhancements and sudden cosmic noise absorptions associated with solar X-ray flares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T [Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Hyogo (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1975-01-01

    Sudden fsub(min) enhancements (SFsub(m)E's) and sudden cosmic noise absorptions (SCNA's) associated with increments of X-ray fluxes during solar flares are studied on the basis of X-ray flux data measured by SOLRAD 9 and 10 satellites. Some statistical analyses on SFsub(m)E's observed at five observatories in Japan, corresponding to increased X-ray fluxes in the 1-8 A band are made for 50 solar flare events during the period January 1972 to December 1973, and value of fsub(min) is expressed as functions of cos x(x; solar zenith angle) and 1-8 A band X-ray flux. Similar study is also made for SCNA's observed by 30 MHz riometer at Hiraiso for 15 great solar flare events during the same period, together with 27.6 MHz riometer data reported by Schwentek (1973) and 18 MHz data published by Deshpande and Mitra (1972b). It is found that fsub(min) value (MHz) and SCNA value (L, dB) of a radio wave with frequency f(MHz) are related to X-ray flux (F/sub 0/, erg cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/) in the 1-8 A band and to cos x, by following approximate expressions, fsub(min)(MHz)=10F/sub 0/sup(1/4) cossup(1/2) x, and L(dB)=4.37x10/sup 3/f/sup -2/F/sub 0/sup(1/2) cos x, respectively. Blackout seems to occur for F/sub 0/ values causing fsub(min)'s greater than about 5 MHz. It is shown that these expressions can be derived from a brief theoretical calculation of radio wave absorption in the lower ionosphere. Also it is suggested that threshold X-ray fluxes in the 1-8 A band which may produce a minimum SFsub(m)E (2 MHz), blackout and minimum SCNA (0.27-0.36 dB for 30 MHz noise) are 1.6x10/sup -3/, 6.2x10/sup -2/ and (3-8) x 10/sup -3/ erg cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/, respectively, for cos x=1.

  10. Skull x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - head; X-ray - skull; Skull radiography; Head x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  11. Neck x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - neck; Cervical spine x-ray; Lateral neck x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored so that the lowest amount of radiation is used to produce the image. Pregnant women and ...

  12. Low-Energy Microfocus X-Ray Source for Enhanced Testing Capability in the Stray Light Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica; O'Dell, Stephen; Kolodziejczak, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Research toward high-resolution, soft x-ray optics (mirrors and gratings) necessary for the next generation large x-ray observatories requires x-ray testing using a low-energy x-ray source with fine angular size (energy microfocus (approximately 0.1 mm spot) x-ray source from TruFocus Corporation that mates directly to the Stray Light Facility (SLF). MSFC X-ray Astronomy team members are internationally recognized for their expertise in the development, fabrication, and testing of grazing-incidence optics for x-ray telescopes. One of the key MSFC facilities for testing novel x-ray instrumentation is the SLF. This facility is an approximately 100-m-long beam line equipped with multiple x-ray sources and detectors. This new source adds to the already robust compliment of instrumentation, allowing MSFC to support additional internal and community x-ray testing needs.

  13. ROS enhancement by silicon nanoparticles in X-ray irradiated aqueous suspensions and in glioma C6 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Gara, Pedro M. [CITOMA, Fundacion Avanzar, Instituto de Terapia Radiante S.A., CIO La Plata (Argentina); Garabano, Natalia I. [University of Buenos Aires, Departamento de Quimica Biologica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UBA (Argentina); Llansola Portoles, Manuel J. [UNLP, INIFTA, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina); Moreno, M. Sergio [Centro Atomico Bariloche (Argentina); Dodat, Diego; Casas, Oscar R. [CITOMA, Fundacion Avanzar, Instituto de Terapia Radiante S.A., CIO La Plata (Argentina); Gonzalez, Monica C., E-mail: gonzalez@inifta.unlp.edu.ar [UNLP, INIFTA, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina); Kotler, Monica L., E-mail: kotler@qb.fcen.uba.ar [University of Buenos Aires, Departamento de Quimica Biologica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UBA (Argentina)

    2012-03-15

    The capability of silicon nanoparticles to increase the yield of reactive species upon 4 MeV X-ray irradiation of aqueous suspensions and C6 glioma cell cultures was investigated. ROS generation was detected and quantified using several specific probes. The particles were characterized by FTIR, XPS, TEM, DLS, luminescence, and adsorption spectroscopy before and after irradiation to evaluate the effect of high energy radiation on their structure. The total concentration of O{sub 2}{sup Bullet -}/HO{sub 2}{sup Bullet}, HO{sup Bullet}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generated upon 4-MeV X-ray irradiation of 6.4 {mu}M silicon nanoparticle aqueous suspensions were on the order of 10 {mu}M per Gy, ten times higher than that obtained in similar experiments but in the absence of particles. Cytotoxic {sup 1}O{sub 2} was generated only in irradiation experiments containing the particles. The particle surface became oxidized to SiO{sub 2} and the luminescence yield reduced with the irradiation dose. Changes in the surface morphology did not affect, within the experimental error, the yields of ROS generated per Gy. X-ray irradiation of glioma C6 cell cultures with incorporated silicon nanoparticles showed a marked production of ROS proportional to the radiation dose received. In the absence of nanoparticles, the cells showed no irradiation-enhanced ROS generation. The obtained results indicate that silicon nanoparticles of <5 nm size have the potential to be used as radiosensitizers for improving the outcomes of cancer radiotherapy. Their capability of producing {sup 1}O{sub 2} upon X-ray irradiation opens novel approaches in the design of therapy strategies.

  14. Resonant magnetic scattering of polarized soft x rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacchi, M. [Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Hague, C.F. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Gullikson, E.M.; Underwood, J. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Magnetic effects on X-ray scattering (Bragg diffraction, specular reflectivity or diffuse scattering) are a well known phenomenon, and they also represent a powerful tool for investigating magnetic materials since it was shown that they are strongly enhanced when the photon energy is tuned across an absorption edge (resonant process). The resonant enhancement of the magnetic scattering has mainly been investigated at high photon energies, in order to match the Bragg law for the typical lattice spacings of crystals. In the soft X-ray range, even larger effects are expected, working for instance at the 2p edges of transition metals of the first row or at the 3d edges of rare earths (300-1500 eV), but the corresponding long wavelengths prevent the use of single crystals. Two approaches have been recently adopted in this energy range: (i) the study of the Bragg diffraction from artificial structures of appropriate 2d spacing; (ii) the analysis of the specular reflectivity, which contains analogous information but has no constraints related to the lattice spacing. Both approaches have their own specific advantages: for instance, working under Bragg conditions provides information about the (magnetic) periodicity in ordered structures, while resonant reflectivity can easily be related to electronic properties and absorption spectra. An important aspect common to all the resonant X-ray scattering techniques is the element selectivity inherent to the fact of working at a specific absorption edge: under these conditions, X-ray scattering becomes in fact a spectroscopy. Results are presented for films of iron and cobalt.

  15. Water equivalence of NIPAM based polymer gel dosimeters with enhanced sensitivity for x-ray CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorjiara, Tina; Hill, Robin; Bosi, Stephen; Kuncic, Zdenka; Baldock, Clive

    2013-10-01

    Two new formulations of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) based three dimensional (3D) gel dosimeters have recently been developed with improved sensitivity to x-ray CT readout, one without any co-solvent and the other one with isopropanol co-solvent. The water equivalence of the NIPAM gel dosimeters was investigated using different methods to calculate their radiological properties including: density, electron density, number of electrons per grams, effective atomic number, photon interaction probabilities, mass attenuation and energy absorption coefficients, electron collisional, radiative and total mass stopping powers and electron mass scattering power. Monte Carlo modelling was also used to compare the dose response of these gel dosimeters with water for kilovoltage and megavoltage x-ray beams and for megavoltage electron beams. We found that the density and electron density of the co-solvent free gel dosimeter are more water equivalent with less than a 2.6% difference compared to a 5.7% difference for the isopropanol gel dosimeter. Both the co-solvent free and isopropanol solvent gel dosimeters have lower effective atomic numbers than water, differing by 2.2% and 6.5%, respectively. As a result, their photoelectric absorption interaction probabilities are up to 6% and 19% different from water, respectively. Compton scattering and pair production interaction probabilities of NIPAM gel with isopropanol differ by up to 10% from water while for the co-solvent free gel, the differences are 3%. Mass attenuation and energy absorption coefficients of the co-solvent free gel dosimeter and the isopropanol gel dosimeter are up to 7% and 19% lower than water, respectively. Collisional and total mass stopping powers of both gel dosimeters differ by less than 2% from those of water. The dose response of the co-solvent free gel dosimeter is water equivalent (with x-ray beams over the energy range 180 keV-18 MV, both gel dosimeters have less than 2% discrepancy with water. For

  16. Self-assembled gold coating enhances X-ray imaging of alginate microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qie, Fengxiang; Astolfo, Alberto; Wickramaratna, Malsha; Behe, Martin; Evans, Margaret D. M.; Hughes, Timothy C.; Hao, Xiaojuan; Tan, Tianwei

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic biomolecules produced from cells encapsulated within alginate microcapsules (MCs) offer a potential treatment for a number of diseases. However the fate of such MCs once implanted into the body is difficult to establish. Labelling the MCs with medical imaging contrast agents may aid their detection and give researchers the ability to track them over time thus aiding the development of such cellular therapies. Here we report the preparation of MCs with a self-assembled gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) coating which results in distinctive contrast and enables them to be readily identified using a conventional small animal X-ray micro-CT scanner. Cationic Reversible Addition-Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT) homopolymer modified AuNPs (PAuNPs) were coated onto the surface of negatively charged alginate MCs resulting in hybrids which possessed low cytotoxicity and high mechanical stability in vitro. As a result of their high localized Au concentration, the hybrid MCs exhibited a distinctive bright circular ring even with a low X-ray dose and rapid scanning in post-mortem imaging experiments facilitating their positive identification and potentially enabling them to be used for in vivo tracking experiments over multiple time-points.Therapeutic biomolecules produced from cells encapsulated within alginate microcapsules (MCs) offer a potential treatment for a number of diseases. However the fate of such MCs once implanted into the body is difficult to establish. Labelling the MCs with medical imaging contrast agents may aid their detection and give researchers the ability to track them over time thus aiding the development of such cellular therapies. Here we report the preparation of MCs with a self-assembled gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) coating which results in distinctive contrast and enables them to be readily identified using a conventional small animal X-ray micro-CT scanner. Cationic Reversible Addition-Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT) homopolymer modified Au

  17. New techniques for resolution enhancement of 3D x-ray tomographic imaging from incomplete data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vengrinovich, V.; Zolotarev, S.; Denkevich, Y.; Tillack, G.-R.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate evaluation of dimensions directly from tomographic images, restored from only few x-ray projections, made in a limited observation sector, is considered exploiting pipes wall thickness assessment like a typical example. Both experiments and simulations are used to extract main errors sources. It is taken from as known, that neglecting of the scattered radiation and beam hardening effects results in image blurring, strong artifacts and finally inaccurate sizing. The computerized technique is developed to simulate the contribution of scattered radiation and beam hardening for the purpose of their further extraction from projected data. After those accompanying effects extraction the iterative Bayesian techniques are applied to reconstruct images from the projections, using volumetric and/or shell representation of the objects like pipes. The achieved error of virtual pipe wall thickness assessment from 3D images can be as small as 300μk comparing to 1mm provided by modern techniques. Finally the conclusion was drawn that standard projection techniques using X- or Gamma rays in combination with X-ray film or imaging plates can be applied for the data acquisition to reconstruct finally wall thickness profiles in an in-field environment. (author)

  18. Development and Testing of X-Ray Imaging-Enhanced Poly-L-Lactide Bone Screws.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jen Chang

    Full Text Available Nanosized iron oxide particles exhibit osteogenic and radiopaque properties. Thus, iron oxide (Fe3O4 nanoparticles were incorporated into a biodegradable polymer (poly-L-lactic acid, PLLA to fabricate a composite bone screw. This multifunctional, 3D printable bone screw was detectable on X-ray examination. In this study, mechanical tests including three-point bending and ultimate tensile strength were conducted to evaluate the optimal ratio of iron oxide nanoparticles in the PLLA composite. Both injection molding and 3D printing techniques were used to fabricate the PLLA bone screws with and without the iron oxide nanoparticles. The fabricated screws were implanted into the femoral condyles of New Zealand White rabbits. Bone blocks containing the PLLA screws were resected 2 and 4 weeks after surgery. Histologic examination of the surrounding bone and the radiopacity of the iron-oxide-containing PLLA screws were evaluated. Our results indicated that addition of iron oxide nanoparticles at 30% significantly decreased the ultimate tensile stress properties of the PLLA screws. The screws with 20% iron oxide exhibited strong radiopacity compared to the screws fabricated without the iron oxide nanoparticles. Four weeks after surgery, the average bone volume of the iron oxide PLLA composite screws was significantly greater than that of PLLA screws without iron oxide. These findings suggested that biodegradable and X-ray detectable PLLA bone screws can be produced by incorporation of 20% iron oxide nanoparticles. Furthermore, these screws had significantly greater osteogenic capability than the PLLA screws without iron oxide.

  19. Identification of differentially expressed genes associated with the enhancement of X-ray susceptibility by RITA in a hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell line (FaDu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan Jinwei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing and bio-informatic analyses were conducted to investigate the mechanism of reactivation of p53 and induction of tumor cell apoptosis (RITA-enhancing X-ray susceptibility in FaDu cells.

  20. Traditional x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    Methods of imaging x-rays, with particular reference to medicine, are reviewed. The history and nature of x-rays, their production and spectra, contrast, shapes and fine structure, image transducers, including fluorescent screens, radiography, fluoroscopy, and image intensifiers, image detection, perception and enhancement and clinical applications are considered. (U.K.)

  1. Water equivalence of NIPAM based polymer gel dosimeters with enhanced sensitivity for x-ray CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorjiara, Tina; Hill, Robin; Bosi, Stephen; Kuncic, Zdenka; Baldock, Clive

    2013-01-01

    Two new formulations of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) based three dimensional (3D) gel dosimeters have recently been developed with improved sensitivity to x-ray CT readout, one without any co-solvent and the other one with isopropanol co-solvent. The water equivalence of the NIPAM gel dosimeters was investigated using different methods to calculate their radiological properties including: density, electron density, number of electrons per grams, effective atomic number, photon interaction probabilities, mass attenuation and energy absorption coefficients, electron collisional, radiative and total mass stopping powers and electron mass scattering power. Monte Carlo modelling was also used to compare the dose response of these gel dosimeters with water for kilovoltage and megavoltage x-ray beams and for megavoltage electron beams. We found that the density and electron density of the co-solvent free gel dosimeter are more water equivalent with less than a 2.6% difference compared to a 5.7% difference for the isopropanol gel dosimeter. Both the co-solvent free and isopropanol solvent gel dosimeters have lower effective atomic numbers than water, differing by 2.2% and 6.5%, respectively. As a result, their photoelectric absorption interaction probabilities are up to 6% and 19% different from water, respectively. Compton scattering and pair production interaction probabilities of NIPAM gel with isopropanol differ by up to 10% from water while for the co-solvent free gel, the differences are 3%. Mass attenuation and energy absorption coefficients of the co-solvent free gel dosimeter and the isopropanol gel dosimeter are up to 7% and 19% lower than water, respectively. Collisional and total mass stopping powers of both gel dosimeters differ by less than 2% from those of water. The dose response of the co-solvent free gel dosimeter is water equivalent (with 100 keV, correction factor is required for the gels. • For MV electron, correction factor needed for the gels to

  2. Wire array Z-pinch insights for enhanced x-ray production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T.W.; Mock, R.C.; Spielman, R.B. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1196 (United States); Haines, M.G.; Chittenden, J.P. [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Whitney, K.G.; Apruzese, J.P. [Naval Research Laboratory, Radiation Hydrodynamics Branch, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States); Peterson, D.L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Greenly, J.B.; Sinars, D.B. [Laboratory of Plasma Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Reisman, D.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Mosher, D. [Naval Research Laboratory, Pulsed Power Physics Branch, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Comparisons of measured total radiated x-ray power from annular wire-array {ital z}-pinches with a variety of models as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius are reviewed. The data, which are comprehensive, have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics that are critical for high x-ray power generation. Collectively, the comparisons of the data with the model calculations suggest that a number of underlying dynamical mechanisms involving cylindrical asymmetries and plasma instabilities contribute to the measured characteristics. For example, under the general assumption that the measured risetime of the total-radiated-power pulse is related to the thickness of the plasma shell formed on axis, the Heuristic Model [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. {bold 26}, 1275 (1998)] agrees with the measured risetime under a number of specific assumptions about the way the breakdown of the wires, the wire-plasma expansion, and the Rayleigh{endash}Taylor instability in the r{endash}z plane, develop. Likewise, in the high wire-number regime (where the wires are calculated to form a plasma shell prior to significant radial motion of the shell) the comparisons show that the variation in the power of the radiation generated as a function of load mass and array radius can be simulated by the two-dimensional Eulerian-radiation- magnetohydrodynamics code (E-RMHC) [Phys. Plasmas {bold 3}, 368 (1996)], using a single random-density perturbation that seeds the Rayleigh{endash}Taylor instability in the r{endash}z plane. For a given pulse-power generator, the comparisons suggest that (1) the smallest interwire gaps compatible with practical load construction and (2) the minimum implosion time consistent with the optimum required energy coupling of the generator to the load should produce the highest total-radiated-power levels. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Wire array Z-pinch insights for enhanced x-ray production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, T. W. L.; Mock, R. C.; Spielman, R. B.; Haines, M. G.; Chittenden, J. P.; Whitney, K. G.; Apruzese, J. P.; Peterson, D. L.; Greenly, J. B.; Sinars, D. B.; Reisman, D. B.; Mosher, D.

    1999-05-01

    Comparisons of measured total radiated x-ray power from annular wire-array z-pinches with a variety of models as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius are reviewed. The data, which are comprehensive, have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics that are critical for high x-ray power generation. Collectively, the comparisons of the data with the model calculations suggest that a number of underlying dynamical mechanisms involving cylindrical asymmetries and plasma instabilities contribute to the measured characteristics. For example, under the general assumption that the measured risetime of the total-radiated-power pulse is related to the thickness of the plasma shell formed on axis, the Heuristic Model [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 26, 1275 (1998)] agrees with the measured risetime under a number of specific assumptions about the way the breakdown of the wires, the wire-plasma expansion, and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane, develop. Likewise, in the high wire-number regime (where the wires are calculated to form a plasma shell prior to significant radial motion of the shell) the comparisons show that the variation in the power of the radiation generated as a function of load mass and array radius can be simulated by the two-dimensional Eulerian-radiation- magnetohydrodynamics code (E-RMHC) [Phys. Plasmas 3, 368 (1996)], using a single random-density perturbation that seeds the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane. For a given pulse-power generator, the comparisons suggest that (1) the smallest interwire gaps compatible with practical load construction and (2) the minimum implosion time consistent with the optimum required energy coupling of the generator to the load should produce the highest total-radiated-power levels.

  4. Wire Array Z-Pinch Insights for Enhanced X-Ray Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apruzese, J.P.; Chittenden, J.P.; Greenly, J.B.; Haines, M.G.; Mock, R.C.; Mosher, D.; Peterson, D.L.; Reisman, D.B.; Sanford, T.W.L.; Sinars, D.B.; Spielman, R.B.; Whitnery, K.G.

    1999-01-04

    Comparisons of measured total radiated x-ray power from annular wire-array z-pinches with a variety of models as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius are reviewed. The data, which are comprehensive, have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics that are critical for high x-ray power generation. Collectively, the comparisons of the data with the model calculations suggest that a number of underlying dynamical mechanisms involving cylindrical asymmetries and plasma instabilities contribute to the measured characteristics. For example, under the general assumption that the measured risetime of the total-radiated-power pulse is related to the thickness of the plasma shell formed on axis, the Heuristic Model [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 26, 1275 (1998)] agrees with the measured risetime under a number of specific assumptions about the way the breakdown of the wires, the wire-plasma expansion, and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane, interact. Likewise, in the high wire-number regime (where the wires are calculated to form a plasma shell prior to significant radial motion of the shell) the comparisons show that the variation in the power of the radiation generated as a function of load mass and array radius can be simulated by the 2-D Eulerian-radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code (E-RMHC) [Phys. Plasmas 3, 368 (1996)], using a single random-density perturbation that seeds the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane. For a given pulse-power generator, the comparisons suggest that (1) the smallest interwire gaps compatible with practical load construction and (2) the minimum implosion time consistent with the optimum required energy coupling of the generator to the load should produce the highest total-radiated-power levels.

  5. Wire array Z-pinch insights for enhanced x-ray production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.; Mock, R.C.; Spielman, R.B.; Haines, M.G.; Chittenden, J.P.; Whitney, K.G.; Apruzese, J.P.; Peterson, D.L.; Greenly, J.B.; Sinars, D.B.; Reisman, D.B.; Mosher, D.

    1999-01-01

    Comparisons of measured total radiated x-ray power from annular wire-array z-pinches with a variety of models as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius are reviewed. The data, which are comprehensive, have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics that are critical for high x-ray power generation. Collectively, the comparisons of the data with the model calculations suggest that a number of underlying dynamical mechanisms involving cylindrical asymmetries and plasma instabilities contribute to the measured characteristics. For example, under the general assumption that the measured risetime of the total-radiated-power pulse is related to the thickness of the plasma shell formed on axis, the Heuristic Model [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 26, 1275 (1998)] agrees with the measured risetime under a number of specific assumptions about the way the breakdown of the wires, the wire-plasma expansion, and the Rayleigh - Taylor instability in the r - z plane, develop. Likewise, in the high wire-number regime (where the wires are calculated to form a plasma shell prior to significant radial motion of the shell) the comparisons show that the variation in the power of the radiation generated as a function of load mass and array radius can be simulated by the two-dimensional Eulerian-radiation- magnetohydrodynamics code (E-RMHC) [Phys. Plasmas 3, 368 (1996)], using a single random-density perturbation that seeds the Rayleigh - Taylor instability in the r - z plane. For a given pulse-power generator, the comparisons suggest that (1) the smallest interwire gaps compatible with practical load construction and (2) the minimum implosion time consistent with the optimum required energy coupling of the generator to the load should produce the highest total-radiated-power levels. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  6. Wire Array Z-Pinch Insights for Enhanced X-Ray Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apruzese, J.P.; Chittenden, J.P.; Greenly, J.B.; Haines, M.G.; Mock, R.C.; Mosher, D.; Peterson, D.L.; Reisman, D.B.; Sanford, T.W.L.; Sinars, D.B.; Spielman, R.B.; Whitnery, K.G.

    1999-01-01

    Comparisons of measured total radiated x-ray power from annular wire-array z-pinches with a variety of models as a function of wire number, array mass, and load radius are reviewed. The data, which are comprehensive, have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics that are critical for high x-ray power generation. Collectively, the comparisons of the data with the model calculations suggest that a number of underlying dynamical mechanisms involving cylindrical asymmetries and plasma instabilities contribute to the measured characteristics. For example, under the general assumption that the measured risetime of the total-radiated-power pulse is related to the thickness of the plasma shell formed on axis, the Heuristic Model [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 26, 1275 (1998)] agrees with the measured risetime under a number of specific assumptions about the way the breakdown of the wires, the wire-plasma expansion, and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane, interact. Likewise, in the high wire-number regime (where the wires are calculated to form a plasma shell prior to significant radial motion of the shell) the comparisons show that the variation in the power of the radiation generated as a function of load mass and array radius can be simulated by the 2-D Eulerian-radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code (E-RMHC) [Phys. Plasmas 3, 368 (1996)], using a single random-density perturbation that seeds the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane. For a given pulse-power generator, the comparisons suggest that (1) the smallest interwire gaps compatible with practical load construction and (2) the minimum implosion time consistent with the optimum required energy coupling of the generator to the load should produce the highest total-radiated-power levels

  7. Identification of differentially expressed genes associated with the enhancement of X-ray susceptibility by RITA in a hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell line (FaDu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jinwei; Li, Xianglan; Guo, Rutao; Liu, Shanshan; Luo, Hongyu; You, Qingshan

    2016-06-01

    Next generation sequencing and bio-informatic analyses were conducted to investigate the mechanism of reactivation of p53 and induction of tumor cell apoptosis (RITA)-enhancing X-ray susceptibility in FaDu cells. The cDNA was isolated from FaDu cells treated with 0 X-ray, 8 Gy X-ray, or 8 Gy X-ray + RITA. Then, cDNA libraries were created and sequenced using next generation sequencing, and each assay was repeated twice. Subsequently, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using Cuffdiff in Cufflinks and their functions were predicted by pathway enrichment analyses. Genes that were constantly up- or down-regulated in 8 Gy X-ray-treated FaDu cells and 8 Gy X-ray + RITA-treated FaDu cells were obtained as RITA genes. Afterward, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) relationships were obtained from the STRING database and a PPI network was constructed using Cytoscape. Furthermore, ClueGO was used for pathway enrichment analysis of genes in the PPI network. Total 2,040 and 297 DEGs were identified in FaDu cells treated with 8 Gy X-ray or 8 Gy X-ray + RITA, respectively. PARP3 and NEIL1 were enriched in base excision repair, and CDK1 was enriched in p53 signaling pathway. RFC2 and EZH2 were identified as RITA genes. In the PPI network, many interaction relationships were identified (e.g., RFC2-CDK1, EZH2-CDK1 and PARP3-EZH2). ClueGO analysis showed that RFC2 and EZH2 were related to cell cycle. RFC2, EZH2, CDK1, PARP3 and NEIL1 may be associated, and together enhance the susceptibility of FaDu cells treated with RITA to the deleterious effects of X-ray.

  8. Identification of differentially expressed genes associated with the enhancement of X-ray susceptibility by RITA in a hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell line (FaDu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan, Jinwei; Li, Xianglan; Guo, Rutao; Liu, Shanshan; Luo, Hongyu; You, Qingshan

    2016-01-01

    Next generation sequencing and bio-informatic analyses were conducted to investigate the mechanism of reactivation of p53 and induction of tumor cell apoptosis (RITA)-enhancing X-ray susceptibility in FaDu cells. The cDNA was isolated from FaDu cells treated with 0 X-ray, 8 Gy X-ray, or 8 Gy X-ray + RITA. Then, cDNA libraries were created and sequenced using next generation sequencing, and each assay was repeated twice. Subsequently, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using Cuffdiff in Cufflinks and their functions were predicted by pathway enrichment analyses. Genes that were constantly up- or down-regulated in 8 Gy X-ray-treated FaDu cells and 8 Gy X-ray + RITA-treated FaDu cells were obtained as RITA genes. Afterward, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) relationships were obtained from the STRING database and a PPI network was constructed using Cytoscape. Furthermore, ClueGO was used for pathway enrichment analysis of genes in the PPI network. Total 2,040 and 297 DEGs were identified in FaDu cells treated with 8 Gy X-ray or 8 Gy X-ray + RITA, respectively. PARP3 and NEIL1 were enriched in base excision repair, and CDK1 was enriched in p53 signaling pathway. RFC2 and EZH2 were identified as RITA genes. In the PPI network, many interaction relationships were identified (e.g., RFC2-CDK1, EZH2-CDK1 and PARP3-EZH2). ClueGO analysis showed that RFC2 and EZH2 were related to cell cycle. RFC2, EZH2, CDK1, PARP3 and NEIL1 may be associated, and together enhance the susceptibility of FaDu cells treated with RITA to the deleterious effects of X-ray

  9. Vacuum Enhanced X-Ray Florescent Scanner Allows On-The-Spot Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center engineers have teamed with KeyMaster Technologies, Kennewick, Washington, to develop a portable vacuum analyzer that performs on-the-spot chemical analyses under field conditions, a task previously only possible in a chemical laboratory. The new capability is important not only to the aerospace industry, but holds potential for broad applications in any industry that depends on materials analysis, such as the automotive and pharmaceutical industries. Weighing in at a mere 4 pounds, the newly developed handheld vacuum X-ray fluorescent analyzer can identify and characterize a wide range of elements, and is capable of detecting chemical elements with low atomic numbers, such as sodium, aluminum and silicon. It is the only handheld product on the market with that capability. Aluminum alloy verification is of particular interest to NASA because vast amounts of high-strength aluminum alloys are used in the Space Shuttle propulsion system such as the External Tank, Main Engine, and Solid Rocket Boosters. This capability promises to be a boom to the aerospace community because of unique requirements, for instance, the need to analyze Space Shuttle propulsion systems on the launch pad. Those systems provide the awe-inspiring rocket power that propels the Space Shuttle from Earth into orbit in mere minutes. The scanner development also marks a major improvement in the quality assurance field, because screws, nuts, bolts, fasteners, and other items can now be evaluated upon receipt and rejected if found to be substandard. The same holds true for aluminum weld rods. The ability to validate the integrity of raw materials and partially finished products before adding value to them in the manufacturing process will be of benefit not only to businesses, but also to the consumer, who will have access to a higher value product at a cheaper price. Three vacuum X-ray scanners are already being used in the Space Shuttle Program. The External Tank Project

  10. X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enema. What you can expect During the X-ray X-rays are performed at doctors' offices, dentists' offices, ... as those using a contrast medium. Your child's X-ray Restraints or other techniques may be used to ...

  11. Abdominal x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  12. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the ... treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray ...

  13. Electrochemical X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for trace heavy metal analysis: enhancing X-ray fluorescence detection capabilities by four orders of magnitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Laura A; O'Neil, Glen D; Read, Tania L; Ayres, Zoë J; Newton, Mark E; Macpherson, Julie V

    2014-05-06

    The development of a novel analytical technique, electrochemical X-ray fluorescence (EC-XRF), is described and applied to the quantitative detection of heavy metals in solution, achieving sub-ppb limits of detection (LOD). In EC-XRF, electrochemical preconcentration of a species of interest onto the target electrode is achieved here by cathodic electrodeposition. Unambiguous elemental identification and quantification of metal concentration is then made using XRF. This simple electrochemical preconcentration step improves the LOD of energy dispersive XRF by over 4 orders of magnitude (for similar sample preparation time scales). Large area free-standing boron doped diamond grown using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition techniques is found to be ideal as the electrode material for both electrodeposition and XRF due to its wide solvent window, transparency to the XRF beam, and ability to be produced in mechanically robust freestanding thin film form. During electrodeposition it is possible to vary both the deposition potential (Edep) and deposition time (tdep). For the metals Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) the highest detection sensitivities were found for Edep = -1.75 V and tdep (=) 4000 s with LODs of 0.05 and 0.04 ppb achieved, respectively. In mixed Cu(2+)/Pb(2+) solutions, EC-XRF shows that Cu(2+) deposition is unimpeded by Pb(2+), across a broad concentration range, but this is only true for Pb(2+) when both metals are present at low concentrations (10 nM), boding well for trace level measurements. In a dual mixed metal solution, EC-XRF can also be employed to either selectively deposit the metal which has the most positive formal reduction potential, E(0), or exhaustively deplete it from solution, enabling uninhibited detection of the metal with the more negative E(0).

  14. APTES-Terminated ultrasmall and iron-doped silicon nanoparticles as X-Ray dose enhancer for radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Stefanie; Wegmann, Marc; Distel, Luitpold V R; Neuhuber, Winfried; Kryschi, Carola

    2018-04-15

    Silicon nanoparticles with sizes between were synthesized through wet-chemistry procedures using diverse phase transfer reagents. On the other hand, the preparation of iron-doped silicon nanoparticles was carried out using the precursor Na 4 Si 4 containing 5% Fe. Biocompatibility of all silicon nanoparticle samples was achieved by surface-stabilizing with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane. These surface structures provided positive surface charges which facilitated electrostatic binding to the negatively charged biological membranes. The mode of interaction with membranes, being either incorporation or just attachment, was found to depend on the nanoparticle size. The smallest silicon nanoparticles (ca. 1.5 nm) were embedded in the mitochondrial membrane in MCF-7 cells. When interacting with X-rays these silicon nanoparticles were observed to enhance the superoxide formation upon depolarizing the mitochondrial membrane. X-ray irradiation of MCF-7 cells loaded with the larger silicon nanoparticles was shown to increase the intracellular singlet oxygen generation. The doping of the silicon nanoparticles with iron led to additional production of hydroxyl radicals via the Fenton reaction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A new parameter enhancing breast cancer detection in computer-aided diagnosis of X-ray mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanki, Nobuyoshi; Murase, Kenya; Nagao, Michinobu

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce a new parameter which enhances breast cancer detection using X-ray mammography. We used the database of X-ray mammograms generated by the Japan Society of Radiological Technology. The new parameter called 'quasi-fractal dimension (Q-FD)' was calculated from the relationship between the cutoff values for the maximum image intensity in the lesion set at 21 levels from 20% to 100% at equal intervals and the number of pixels with an intensity exceeding the cutoff value. In addition to Q-FD, the image features such as curvature (C) and eccentricity (E) were extracted. The conventional fractal dimension (C-FD) was also calculated using the box-counting method. We used artificial neural networks (ANNs) as a classification method. When using C, E, C-FD and age as inputs in ANNs and taking the number of neurons in the hidden layer as 50, we found the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (A Z ) was 0.87±0.07 in the task differentiating between benign and malignant masses. When Q-FD was added to inputs in addition to the above parameters, the A Z value was significantly improved to become 0.93±0.09. These results suggested that Q-FD is effective for discriminating between benign and malignant masses. (author)

  16. A model for electric field enhancement in lightning leader tips to levels allowing X-ray and γ ray emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babich, L. P.; Bochkov, E. I.; Kutsyk, I. M.

    2015-01-01

    A model is proposed capable of accounting for the local electric field increase in front of the lightning stepped leader up to magnitudes allowing front electrons to overcome the runaway energy threshold and thus to initiate relativistic runaway electron avalanches capable of generating X......-ray and ray bursts observed in negative lightning leader. The model is based on an idea that an ionization wave, propagating in a preionized channel, is being focused, such that its front remains narrow and the front electric field is being enhanced. It is proposed that when a space leader segment, formed...... that the ionization channels of streamers limit the lateral expansion of the ionization wave, thereby enhancing the peak electric field to values allowing an acceleration of low-energy electrons into the runaway regime where electrons efficiently generate bremsstrahlung. The results suggest that the inhomogeneous...

  17. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacconi, R.; Gursky, H.

    1974-01-01

    This text contains ten chapters and three appendices. Following an introduction, chapters two through five deal with observational techniques, mechanisms for the production of x rays in a cosmic setting, the x-ray sky and solar x-ray emission. Chapters six through ten include compact x-ray sources, supernova remnants, the interstellar medium, extragalactic x-ray sources and the cosmic x-ray background. Interactions of x rays with matter, units and conversion factors and a catalog of x-ray sources comprise the three appendices. (U.S.)

  18. Stellar and solar X-ray polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novick, R [Columbia Univ., New York (USA)

    1975-12-01

    The scientific motivation for X-ray polarimetry is discussed with particular emphasis on the information that might be obtained on the binary X-ray pulsars in addition to a number of other classes of objects including solar flares. Detailed discussions are given for Thomson-scattering and Bragg-crystal polarimeters with numerical estimates for the sensitivity of various existing and proposed instruments.

  19. Boundary-enhancement in propagation-based x-ray phase-contrast tomosynthesis improves depth position characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Huifeng; Xu, Qiaofeng; Garson, Alfred B; Anastasio, Mark A

    2015-04-21

    Propagation-based x-ray phase-contrast (PB XPC) tomosynthesis combines the concepts of tomosynthesis and XPC imaging to realize the advantages of both for biological imaging applications. Tomosynthesis permits reductions in acquisition times compared with full-view tomography, while XPC imaging provides the opportunity to resolve weakly absorbing structures. In this note, an investigation of the depth resolving properties of PB XPC tomosynthesis is conducted. The results demonstrate that in-plane structures display strong boundary-enhancement while out-of-plane structures do not. This effect can facilitate the identification of in-plane structures in PB XPC tomosynthesis that could normally not be distinguished from out-of-plane structures in absorption-based tomosynthesis.

  20. Boundary-enhancement in propagation-based x-ray phase-contrast tomosynthesis improves depth position characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Huifeng; Xu, Qiaofeng; Garson, Alfred B III; Anastasio, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Propagation-based x-ray phase-contrast (PB XPC) tomosynthesis combines the concepts of tomosynthesis and XPC imaging to realize the advantages of both for biological imaging applications. Tomosynthesis permits reductions in acquisition times compared with full-view tomography, while XPC imaging provides the opportunity to resolve weakly absorbing structures. In this note, an investigation of the depth resolving properties of PB XPC tomosynthesis is conducted. The results demonstrate that in-plane structures display strong boundary-enhancement while out-of-plane structures do not. This effect can facilitate the identification of in-plane structures in PB XPC tomosynthesis that could normally not be distinguished from out-of-plane structures in absorption-based tomosynthesis. (note)

  1. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed x-ray exams and use a very small dose of ... of the inside of the chest. A chest x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and ...

  2. X-ray streak crystal spectography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, R.L.; Brown, T.; Medecki, H.

    1983-01-01

    We have built an x-ray streaked crystal spectrograph for making time-resolved x-ray spectral measurements. This instrument can access Bragg angles from 11 0 to 38 0 and x-ray spectra from 200 eV to greater than 10 keV. We have demonstrated resolving powers, E/δE > 200 at 1 keV and time resolution less than 20 psec. A description of the instrument and an example of the data is given

  3. 100 years of discovery of X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tao

    2012-01-01

    X-ray diffraction was discovered by Max von Laue a hundred years ago. Later, through the work of William H. Bragg and William L. Bragg, an experimental analysis method was developed to solve the structure of molecules at the atomic level. Over the past hundred years, science and technology has been dramatically changed by X-ray diffraction analysis, which has also undergone considerable development. The recent emergence of hard X-ray free electron lasers has provided a new dimension for X-ray diffraction analysis, promising even greater progress in the fields of physics, chemistry and biology. (author)

  4. X-ray sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruen, M.; Koubsky, P.

    1977-01-01

    The history is described of the discoveries of X-ray sources in the sky. The individual X-ray detectors are described in more detail, i.e., gas counters, scintillation detectors, semiconductor detectors, and the principles of X-ray spectrometry and of radiation collimation aimed at increased resolution are discussed. Currently, over 200 celestial X-ray sources are known. Some were identified as nebulae, in some pulsations were found or the source was identified as a binary star. X-ray bursts of novae were also observed. The X-ray radiation is briefly mentioned of spherical star clusters and of extragalactic X-ray sources. (Oy)

  5. Image enhancement by using IDL for a mammographic x-ray image in Medical Physics Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmaliza Hashim; Md Saion Salikin; Wan Hazlinda Ismail; Norriza Mohd Isa; Azuhar Ripin

    2004-01-01

    Digital image enhancement technique can have a significant impact on the diagnostic quality of a radiographic image. The main aim of image enhancement is to process the image so that the enhanced image is clearer and more useful for specific application. There are three types of image enhancement namely noise reduction, edge enhancement and contrast enhancement. The objective of this project is to enhance the mammographic image by using Interactive Data Language (IDL) software in spatial and frequency domain by using various methods. In spatial domain method, direct manipulation of pixel in an image is used whereas, in frequency domain method, modifying the spectral component or Fourier Transform of an image is used In order to obtain the good quality mammographic image, breast phantom Model 12A with 4.0 cm compressed thickness and Bennett Model DMF- 150 Mammography Machine with various kV and mA are employed. The results of enhanced image with selected technique by using IDL are presented in this paper. (Author)

  6. Experimental and theoretical study of bragg-Fresnel optics etched on multilayer structures. Application: lenses for X-Ray imaging; Etude experimentale et theorique d`optiques de bragg-Fresnel gravees sur miroirs interferentiels multicouches. Application: lentilles pour l`imagerie X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soullie, G.

    1996-10-01

    This work concerns the study of a new type of X-ray focusing optics known as Bragg-Fresnel lenses developed for imaging in the X and X-UV range. These optics, etched on multilayer structure, combine the focusing properties of zone plate with the Bragg reflection of multilayer used like support. Using synchrotron sources and a plasma source produced by a laser, we tested the efficiency and the spatial resolution of these lenses. With a monochromatic beam, we first obtained the image of a object by using the first order diffraction of an elliptical off-axis Bragg-Fresnel lens. By using only one part of a lens, the superposition of different diffraction orders in focal plane can be avoided, thus improving the image contrast. In order to evaluate the chromatic aberrations of these lenses, we have summed on the same image, three exposures at different energies in the band pass of the multilayer. To reduce these kind of aberrations, we used a system composed of two off-axis lenses. To simplify the alignment, we tested an elliptical off-axis lens associated with a lamellar grating. Thus we are able to validate the theoretical approximation of an off-axis Bragg-Fresnel lens to a variable spaced grating. Finally, to show the perturbation brought by the zeroth order, we successively imaged a laser plasma source with a centred and an off-axis elliptical lenses. As with the synchrotron source, a set of images of a test object enabled us to improve the spatial resolution. (author).

  7. Chromosome condensation may enhance X-ray-related cell lethality in a temperature-sensitive mutant (tsBN2) of baby hamster kidney cells (BHK21)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, H.; Nishimoto, T.

    1987-01-01

    In the tsBN2 cell line, which has a temperature-sensitive defect in the regulatory mechanism for chromosome condensation, the lethal effect of X rays was enhanced by incubating the cells at a nonpermissive temperature (40 degrees C) following X irradiation. This enhancement was suppressed in the presence of cycloheximide, which inhibits induction of premature chromosome condensation. The findings obtained in the case of delayed incubation at 40 degrees C and in synchronized cells indicate that X-ray-related potentially lethal damage, which can be expressed by chromosome condensation, is produced in the cells at any stage of the cell cycle, but it is repairable for all cells except those at around the late G2-M phase, where chromosome condensation occurs at a permissive temperature (33.5 degrees C). These observations suggest that the high sensitivity of late G2-M cells to X rays is caused by the events associated with chromosome condensation

  8. Feature-size dependent selective edge enhancement of x-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, S.

    1988-01-01

    Morphological filters are nonlinear signal transformations that operate on a picture directly in the space domain. Such filters are based on the theory of mathematical morphology previously formulated. The filt4er being presented here features a ''mask'' operator (called a ''structuring element'' in some of the literature) which is a function of the two spatial coordinates x and y. The two basic mathematical operations are called ''masked erosion'' and ''masked dilation''. In the case of masked erosion the mask is passed over the input image in a raster pattern. At each position of the mask, the pixel values under the mask are multiplied by the mask pixel values. Then the output pixel value, located at the center position of the mask,is set equal to the minimum of the product of the mask and input values. Similarity, for masked dilation, the output pixel value is the maximum of the product of the input and the mask pixel values. The two basic processes of dilation and erosion can be used to construct the next level of operations the ''positive sieve'' (also called ''opening'') and the ''negative sieve'' (''closing''). The positive sieve modifies the peaks in the image whereas the negative sieve works on image valleys. The positive sieve is implemented by passing the output of the masked erosion step through the masked dilation function. The negative sieve reverses this procedure, using a dilation followed by an erosion. Each such sifting operator is characterized by a ''hole size''. It will be shown that the choice of hole size will select the range of pixel detail sizes which are to be enhanced. The shape of the mask will govern the shape of the enhancement. Finally positive sifting is used to enhance positive-going (peak) features, whereas negative enhances the negative-going (valley) landmarks

  9. Protonium X-ray spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gotta, D

    1999-01-01

    The Lyman and Balmer transitions from antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium were studied extensively at the low-energy-antiproton ring LEAR at CERN in order to determine the strong interaction effects. A first series of experiments $9 was performed with semiconductor and gaseous X-ray detectors. In the last years of LEAR operation using a Bragg crystal spectrometer, strong interaction parameters in the 2p states of antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium were measured $9 directly. The results of the measurements support the meson-exchange models describing the medium and long range part of the nucleon-antinucleon interaction. (39 refs).

  10. High Energy Resolution Hyperspectral X-Ray Imaging for Low-Dose Contrast-Enhanced Digital Mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Silvia; Saifuddin, Sarene C; Ferreira, Filipa I M; Henthorn, Nicholas; Seller, Paul; Sellin, Paul J; Stratmann, Philipp; Veale, Matthew C; Wilson, Matthew D; Cernik, Robert J

    2017-09-01

    Contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) is an alternative to conventional X-ray mammography for imaging dense breasts. However, conventional approaches to CEDM require a double exposure of the patient, implying higher dose, and risk of incorrect image registration due to motion artifacts. A novel approach is presented, based on hyperspectral imaging, where a detector combining positional and high-resolution spectral information (in this case based on Cadmium Telluride) is used. This allows simultaneous acquisition of the two images required for CEDM. The approach was tested on a custom breast-equivalent phantom containing iodinated contrast agent (Niopam 150®). Two algorithms were used to obtain images of the contrast agent distribution: K-edge subtraction (KES), providing images of the distribution of the contrast agent with the background structures removed, and a dual-energy (DE) algorithm, providing an iodine-equivalent image and a water-equivalent image. The high energy resolution of the detector allowed the selection of two close-by energies, maximising the signal in KES images, and enhancing the visibility of details with the low surface concentration of contrast agent. DE performed consistently better than KES in terms of contrast-to-noise ratio of the details; moreover, it allowed a correct reconstruction of the surface concentration of the contrast agent in the iodine image. Comparison with CEDM with a conventional detector proved the superior performance of hyperspectral CEDM in terms of the image quality/dose tradeoff.

  11. MR image enhancement as a function of tissue gadolinium concentration, measured with polarized X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.C.; Morita, Y.; White, D.L.; Kaufman, L.; Brasch, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    MR imaging contrast agents alter intensities nonlinearly relative to their tissue concentrations. To extract Gd concentrations from image intensity data, a 13-tube phantom (Gd-DTPA dilutions, 0-10/sup -2/M) was imaged (2 T, 3 mm, spin echo, 300 = msec repetition time, 15 = msec echo time, 128 X 256, four excitations). Also, 18 rats were studied with Gd-DTPA or albumin-(Gd-DTPA)/sub 19/ (nine each, three doses). Liver and renal cortex were imaged before and 10 minutes after contrast material administration, with immediate killing and harvesting, and enhancement was calculated. These samples were assayed by x-ray fluorescent excitation analysis (150-kVp beam, B/sub 4/C ceramic polarizer, Mo-Cu-Ni filter, Si[Li] detector). Gd levels as low as 0.5 ppm (--3.18 x 10/sup -6/M) could be detected in liquid or solid samples. Enhancement increased with a nonlinear relationship to Gd in the range measured. This assay for Gd permits empiric assessment of the relationship between pulse variables, intensity, and paramagnet concentration, allowing Gd values to be estimated from image intensities

  12. Multi-layer thickness determination using differential-based enhanced Fourier transforms of X-ray reflectivity data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poust, Benjamin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Northrop Grumman Space Technology, Redondo Beach, CA (United States); Sandhu, Rajinder [Northrop Grumman Space Technology, Redondo Beach, CA (United States); Goorsky, Mark [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2009-08-15

    Layer thickness determination of single and multi-layer structures is achieved using a new method for generating Fourier transforms (FTs) of X-ray reflectivity data. This enhanced Fourier analysis is compared to other techniques in the determination of AlN layer thickness deposited on sapphire. In addition to demonstrably improved results, the results also agree with thicknesses determined using simulations and TEM measurements. The effectiveness of the technique is further demonstrated using the more complicated metamorphic epitaxial multi-layer AlSb/InAs structures deposited on GaAs. The approach reported here is based upon differentiating the specular intensity with respect to the vertical reciprocal space coordinate Q{sub Z}. In general, differentiation is far more effective at removing the sloping background present in reflectivity scans than logarithmic compression alone, average subtraction alone, or other methods. When combined with any of the other enhancement techniques, however, differentiation yields distinguishable discrete Fourier transform (DFT) power spectrum peaks for even the weakest and most truncated of sloping oscillations that are present in many reflectivity scans from multi-layer structures. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Reconstruction of the refractive index gradient by x-ray diffraction enhanced computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Junyue [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhu Peiping [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yuan Qingxi [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Huang Wanxia [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shu Hang [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen Bo [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Hu Tiandou [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu Ziyu [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2006-07-21

    The computed tomography technique cannot easily be extended to diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) because, while from DEI we may extract the refractive index gradient in one dimension, from the conventional CT reconstruction algorithm we may reconstruct only a scalar quantity. However, recently we showed that changing the direction of the scan axis, and collecting a set of data related to the three-dimensional distribution of the refractive index gradient of the sample, a CT image was obtained. The algorithm we used is based on the conventional CT algorithm but with a specific pre-processing of the projection data. The mathematical framework of the procedure and a simple CT experiment are presented and discussed.

  14. Reconstruction of the refractive index gradient by x-ray diffraction enhanced computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junyue; Zhu Peiping; Yuan Qingxi; Huang Wanxia; Shu Hang; Chen Bo; Hu Tiandou; Wu Ziyu

    2006-01-01

    The computed tomography technique cannot easily be extended to diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) because, while from DEI we may extract the refractive index gradient in one dimension, from the conventional CT reconstruction algorithm we may reconstruct only a scalar quantity. However, recently we showed that changing the direction of the scan axis, and collecting a set of data related to the three-dimensional distribution of the refractive index gradient of the sample, a CT image was obtained. The algorithm we used is based on the conventional CT algorithm but with a specific pre-processing of the projection data. The mathematical framework of the procedure and a simple CT experiment are presented and discussed

  15. Characterization by Raman scattering, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy of (AlAs)m(InAs)m short period superlattices grown by migration enhanced epitaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradshaw, J.; Song, X.J.; Shealy, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    We report growth of (InAs)1(AlAs)1 and (InAs)2(AlAs)2 strained layer superlattices by migration enhanced epitaxy. The samples were grown on InP (001) substrates and characterized by Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Satellite peaks in the x-ray data...... confirm the intended periodicity and indicate the presence of some disorder in the monolayer sample. The energies of the zone folded and quantum confined optic phonons are in reasonable agreement with calculations based on one-dimensional elastic continuum and linear chain models. Journal of Applied...

  16. Comment on ‘A new method for fusion, denoising and enhancement of x-ray images retrieved from Talbot–Lau grating interferometry’

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholkmann, Felix; Revol, Vincent; Kaufmann, Rolf; Kottler, Christian

    2015-01-01

    In a recent paper (Scholkamm et al 2014 Phys. Med. Biol. 59 1425–40) we presented a new image denoising, fusion and enhancement framework for combining and optimal visualization of x-ray attenuation contrast, differential phase contrast and dark-field contrast images retrieved from x-ray Talbot–Lau grating interferometry. In this comment we give additional information and report about the application of our framework to breast cancer tissue which we presented in our paper as an example. The applied procedure is suitable for a qualitative comparison of different algorithms. For a quantitative juxtaposition original data would however be needed as an input. (comment and reply)

  17. Enhanced Adsorption of p-Arsanilic Acid from Water by Amine-Modified UiO-67 as Examined Using Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and Density Functional Theory Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chen; Zhao, Jian; Ou, Xinwen; Wan, Jieting; Cai, Yuepeng; Lin, Zhang; Dang, Zhi; Xing, Baoshan

    2018-03-20

    p-Arsanilic acid ( p-ASA) is an emerging organoarsenic pollutant comprising both inorganic and organic moieties. For the efficient removal of p-ASA, adsorbents with high adsorption affinity are urgently needed. Herein, amine-modified UiO-67 (UiO-67-NH 2 ) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were synthesized, and their adsorption affinities toward p-ASA were 2 times higher than that of the pristine UiO-67. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and density functional theory (DFT) calculation results revealed adsorption through a combination of As-O-Zr coordination, hydrogen bonding, and π-π stacking, among which As-O-Zr coordination was the dominant force. Amine groups played a significant role in enhancing the adsorption affinity through strengthening the As-O-Zr coordination and π-π stacking, as well as forming new adsorption sites via hydrogen bonding. UiO-67-NH 2 s could remove p-ASA at low concentrations (<5 mg L -1 ) in simulated natural and wastewaters to an arsenic level lower than that of the drinking water standard of World Health Organization (WHO) and the surface water standard of China, respectively. This work provided an emerging and promising method to increase the adsorption affinity of MOFs toward pollutants containing both organic and inorganic moieties, via modifying functional groups based on the pollutant structure to achieve synergistic adsorption effect.

  18. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a ... posted: How to Obtain and Share ...

  19. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey Rubin, a radiologist ... about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot org. Thank you for your time! Spotlight Recently posted: ...

  20. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sell, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    A diagnostic x-ray device, readily convertible between conventional radiographic and tomographic operating modes, is described. An improved drive system interconnects and drives the x-ray source and the imaging device through coordinated movements for tomography

  1. X-ray - skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003381.htm X-ray - skeleton To use the sharing features on this ... Degenerative bone conditions Osteomyelitis Risks There is low radiation exposure. X-rays machines are set to provide the smallest ...

  2. Phase contrast imaging with coherent high energy X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snigireva, I. [ESRF, Grenoble (France)

    1997-02-01

    X-ray imaging concern high energy domain (>6 keV) like a contact radiography, projection microscopy and tomography is used for many years to discern the features of the internal structure non destructively in material science, medicine and biology. In so doing the main contrast formation is absorption that makes some limitations for imaging of the light density materials and what is more the resolution of these techniques is not better than 10-100 {mu}m. It was turned out that there is now way in which to overcome 1{mu}m or even sub-{mu}m resolution limit except phase contrast imaging. It is well known in optics that the phase contrast is realised when interference between reference wave front and transmitted through the sample take place. Examples of this imaging are: phase contrast microscopy suggested by Zernike and Gabor (in-line) holography. Both of this techniques: phase contrast x-ray microscopy and holography are successfully progressing now in soft x-ray region. For imaging in the hard X-rays to enhance the contrast and to be able to resolve phase variations across the beam the high degree of the time and more importantly spatial coherence is needed. Because of this it was reasonable that the perfect crystal optics was involved like Bonse-Hart interferometry, double-crystal and even triple-crystal set-up using Laue and Bragg geometry with asymmetrically cut crystals.

  3. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... I’d like to talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most ... far outweighs any risk. For more information about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot org. Thank you for your time! ...

  4. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed ...

  5. Purified SASE undulator configuration to enhance the performance of the soft x-ray beamline at the European XFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkez, Svitozar; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Zagorodnov, Igor; Geloni, Gianluca

    2013-08-01

    The purified SASE (pSASE) undulator configuration recently proposed at SLAC promises an increase in the output spectral density of XFELs. In this article we study a straightforward implementation of this configuration for the soft x-ray beamline at the European XFEL. A few undulator cells, resonant at a subharmonic of the FEL radiation, are used in the middle of the exponential regime to amplify the radiation, while simultaneously reducing the FEL bandwidth. Based on start-to-end simulations, we show that with the proposed configuration the spectral density in the photon energy range between 1.3 keV and 3 keV can be enhanced of an order of magnitude compared to the baseline mode of operation. This option can be implemented into the tunable-gap SASE3 baseline undulator without additional hardware, and it is complementary to the self-seeding option with grating monochromator proposed for the same undulator line, which can cover the photon energy range between about 0.26 keV and 1 keV.

  6. Enhanced sensitivity fibre Bragg grating (FBG) load sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, Ricardo; Chehura, Edmon; Li, Jin; James, Stephen W; Tatam, Ralph P

    2010-01-01

    The characterization of a load sensor based on the transverse loading of a subsection of a fibre Bragg grating (FBG) embedded within a cube of epoxy resin is presented. When the epoxy resin cube is loaded transverse to the axis of the fibre, its deformation transduces the load to a strain along the axis of the optical fibre, which changes the period of the embedded section of the FBG. This creates a spectral dropout within the bandwidth of the FBG, with an absolute wavelength that is linearly dependent on the applied load. This technique enhances the sensitivity of the FBG to transverse loading by a factor of 15, to 2.9 × 10 −2 ± 0.01 nm N −1 , when compared to the direct transverse loading of a bare fibre, and also protects the fibre from mechanical damage at the loading point

  7. Sources of linear polarized x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiginger, H.; Wobrauschek, P.

    1989-01-01

    Linear polarized X-rays are used in X-ray fluorescence analysis to decrease the background caused by scattered photons. Various experiments, calculations and constructions have demonstrated the possibility to produce polarized radiation in an analytical laboratory with an X-ray tube and polarizer-analyzer facilities as auxiliary equipment. The results obtained with Bragg-polarizers of flat and curved focussing geometry and of Barkla-polarizers are presented. The advantages and disadvantages of the method are discussed and compared with the respective quality of synchrotron radiation. Polarization by scattering reduces the intensity of the primary radiation. Recently much effort is devoted to the construction of integrated high power X-ray tube polarizer-analyzer arrangements. The detailed design, geometry and performance of such a facility is described. (author)

  8. Flash X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    Generation of quasi-monochromatic X-ray by production of weakly ionized line plasma (flash X-ray), high-speed imaging by the X-ray and high-contrast imaging by the characteristic X-ray absorption are described. The equipment for the X-ray is consisted from the high-voltage power supply and condenser, turbo molecular pump, and plasma X-ray tube. The tube has a long linear anticathode to produce the line plasma and flash X-ray at 20 kA current at maximum. X-ray spectrum is measured by the imaging plate equipped in the computed radiography system after diffracted by a LiF single crystal bender. Cu anticathode generates sharp peaks of K X-ray series. The tissue images are presented for vertebra, rabbit ear and heart, and dog heart by X-ray fluoroscopy with Ce anticathode. Generation of K-orbit characteristic X-ray with extremely low bremsstrahung is to be attempted for medical use. (N.I.)

  9. Enhancement of measurement accuracy of X-ray PIV in comparison with the micro-PIV technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanwook; Jung, Sung Yong; Park, Jun Hong; Kim, Jun Ho; Lee, Sang Joon

    2018-03-01

    The X-ray PIV (particle image velocimetry) technique has been used as a non-invasive measurement modality to investigate the haemodynamic features of blood flow. However, the extraction of two-dimensional velocity field data from the three-dimensional volumetric information contained in X-ray images is technically unclear. In this study, a new two-dimensional velocity field extraction technique is proposed to overcome technological limitations. To resolve the problem of finding a correction coefficient, the velocity field information obtained by X-ray PIV and micro-PIV techniques for disturbed flow in a concentric stenosis with 50% severity was quantitatively compared. Micro-PIV experiments were conducted for single-plane and summation images, which provide similar positional information of particles as X-ray images. The correction coefficient was obtained by establishing the relationship between velocity data obtained from summation images (V S ) and centre-plane images (V C ). The velocity differences between V S and V C along the vertical and horizontal directions were quantitatively analysed as a function of the geometric angle of the test model for applying the present two-dimensional velocity field extraction technique to a conduit of arbitrary geometry. Finally, the two-dimensional velocity field information at arbitrary positions could be successfully extracted from X-ray images by using the correction coefficient and several velocity parameters derived from V S .

  10. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culhane, J.L.; Sanford, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    X-ray astronomy has been established as a powerful means of observing matter in its most extreme form. The energy liberated by sources discovered in our Galaxy has confirmed that collapsed stars of great density, and with intense gravitational fields, can be studied by making observations in the X-ray part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The astronomical objects which emit detectable X-rays include our own Sun and extend to quasars at the edge of the Universe. This book describes the history, techniques and results obtained in the first twenty-five years of exploration. Space rockets and satellites are essential for carrying the instruments above the Earth's atmosphere where it becomes possible to view the X-rays from stars and nebulae. The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: the birth of X-ray astronomy; the nature of X-radiation; X-rays from the Sun; solar-flare X-rays; X-rays from beyond the solar system; supernovae and their remnants; X-rays from binary stars; white dwarfs and neutron stars; black holes; X-rays from galaxies and quasars; clusters of galaxies; the observatories of the future. (author)

  11. Enhanced neoplastic transformation by mammography X rays relative to 200 kVp X rays: indication for a strong dependence on photon energy of the RBE(M) for various end points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg, D; Kelnhofer, K; Bär, K; Frankenberg-Schwager, M

    2002-01-01

    The fundamental assumption implicit in the use of the atomic bomb survivor data to derive risk estimates is that the gamma rays of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are considered to have biological efficiencies equal to those of other low-LET radiations up to 10 keV/microm, including mammography X rays. Microdosimetric and radiobiological data contradict this assumption. It is therefore of scientific and public interest to evaluate the efficiency of mammography X rays (25-30 kVp) to induce cancer. In this study, the efficiency of mammography X rays relative to 200 kVp X rays to induce neoplastic cell transformation was evaluated using cells of a human hybrid cell line (CGL1). For both radiations, a linear-quadratic dose-effect relationship was observed for neoplastic transformation of CGL1 cells; there was a strong linear component for the 29 kVp X rays. The RBE(M) of mammography X rays relative to 200 kVp X rays was determined to be about 4 for doses energies of transformation of CGL1 cells. Both the data available in the literature and the results of the present study strongly suggest an increase of RBE(M) for carcinogenesis in animals, neoplastic cell transformation, and clastogenic effects with decreasing photon energy or increasing LET to an RBE(M) approximately 8 for mammography X rays relative to 60Co gamma rays.

  12. Enhanced lethal effect of combined ACNU with x-ray on cultured HeLaS3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Haruyuki; Miyamoto, Tadaaki

    1983-01-01

    The combined effects of ACNU and X-irradiation on cultured HeLaS 3 cells were investigated. Pretreatment with either ACNU or X-ray induced a substantial reduction in shoulder width the D 0 value of the dose-response curve for the other agent, given later was unchanged. ACNU did not inhibit the recovery of sublethal damage (SLD) induced by X-ray when this treatment preceded the spilit-dose experiment. Our results indicate that some cell damage induced by each agent is transmissible to the progeny of the surviving cells and that the interaction of ACNU and X-irradiation was lethal to the cells. (author)

  13. Performance evaluation of 3-D enhancement filters for detection of lung cancer from 3-D chest X-ray CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Akinobu; Hagai, Makoto; Toriwaki, Jun-ichiro; Hasegawa, Jun-ichi.

    1995-01-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of several three dimensional enhancement filters used in procedures for detecting lung cancer shadows from three dimensional (3D) chest X-ray CT images. Two dimensional enhancement filters such as Min-DD filter, Contrast filter and N-Quoit filter have been proposed for enhancing cancer shadows in conventional 2D X-ray images. In this paper, we extend each of these 2D filters to a 3D filter and evaluate its performance experimentally by using CT images with artificial and true lung cancer shadows. As a result, we find that these 3D filters are effective for determining the position of a lung cancer shadow in a 3D chest CT image, as compared with the simple procedure such as smoothing filter, and that the performance of these filters become lower in the hilar area due to the influence of the vessel shadows. (author)

  14. Effects of x-ray and CT image enhancements on the robustness and accuracy of a rigid 3D/2D image registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jinkoo; Yin Fangfang; Zhao Yang; Kim, Jae Ho

    2005-01-01

    A rigid body three-dimensional/two-dimensional (3D/2D) registration method has been implemented using mutual information, gradient ascent, and 3D texturemap-based digitally reconstructed radiographs. Nine combinations of commonly used x-ray and computed tomography (CT) image enhancement methods, including window leveling, histogram equalization, and adaptive histogram equalization, were examined to assess their effects on accuracy and robustness of the registration method. From a set of experiments using an anthropomorphic chest phantom, we were able to draw several conclusions. First, the CT and x-ray preprocessing combination with the widest attraction range was the one that linearly stretched the histograms onto the entire display range on both CT and x-ray images. The average attraction ranges of this combination were 71.3 mm and 61.3 deg in the translation and rotation dimensions, respectively, and the average errors were 0.12 deg and 0.47 mm. Second, the combination of the CT image with tissue and bone information and the x-ray images with adaptive histogram equalization also showed subvoxel accuracy, especially the best in the translation dimensions. However, its attraction ranges were the smallest among the examined combinations (on average 36 mm and 19 deg). Last the bone-only information on the CT image did not show convergency property to the correct registration

  15. A new theory for X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewster, Paul F

    2014-05-01

    This article proposes a new theory of X-ray scattering that has particular relevance to powder diffraction. The underlying concept of this theory is that the scattering from a crystal or crystallite is distributed throughout space: this leads to the effect that enhanced scatter can be observed at the `Bragg position' even if the `Bragg condition' is not satisfied. The scatter from a single crystal or crystallite, in any fixed orientation, has the fascinating property of contributing simultaneously to many `Bragg positions'. It also explains why diffraction peaks are obtained from samples with very few crystallites, which cannot be explained with the conventional theory. The intensity ratios for an Si powder sample are predicted with greater accuracy and the temperature factors are more realistic. Another consequence is that this new theory predicts a reliability in the intensity measurements which agrees much more closely with experimental observations compared to conventional theory that is based on `Bragg-type' scatter. The role of dynamical effects (extinction etc.) is discussed and how they are suppressed with diffuse scattering. An alternative explanation for the Lorentz factor is presented that is more general and based on the capture volume in diffraction space. This theory, when applied to the scattering from powders, will evaluate the full scattering profile, including peak widths and the `background'. The theory should provide an increased understanding of the reliability of powder diffraction measurements, and may also have wider implications for the analysis of powder diffraction data, by increasing the accuracy of intensities predicted from structural models.

  16. X-ray holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faigel, G.; Tegze, M.; Belakhovsky, M.; Marchesini, S.; Bortel, G.

    2003-01-01

    In the last decade holographic methods using hard X-rays were developed. They are able to resolve atomic distances, and can give the 3D arrangement of atoms around a selected element. Therefore, hard X-ray holography has potential applications in chemistry, biology and physics. In this article we give a general description of these methods and discuss the developments in the experimental technique. The capabilities of hard X-ray holography are demonstrated by examples

  17. Infrared LED Enhanced Spectroscopic CdZnTe Detector Working under High Fluxes of X-rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Pekárek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an application of infrared light-induced de-polarization applied on a polarized CdZnTe detector working under high radiation fluxes. We newly demonstrate the influence of a high flux of X-rays and simultaneous 1200-nm LED illumination on the spectroscopic properties of a CdZnTe detector. CdZnTe detectors operating under high radiation fluxes usually suffer from the polarization effect, which occurs due to a screening of the internal electric field by a positive space charge caused by photogenerated holes trapped at a deep level. Polarization results in the degradation of detector charge collection efficiency. We studied the spectroscopic behavior of CdZnTe under various X-ray fluxes ranging between 5 × 10 5 and 8 × 10 6 photons per mm 2 per second. It was observed that polarization occurs at an X-ray flux higher than 3 × 10 6 mm − 2 ·s − 1 . Using simultaneous illumination of the detector by a de-polarizing LED at 1200 nm, it was possible to recover X-ray spectra originally deformed by the polarization effect.

  18. Providing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides an apparatus for providing x-rays to an object that may be in an ordinary environment such as air at approximately atmospheric pressure. The apparatus comprises: means (typically a laser beam) for directing energy onto a target to produce x-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity at the target; a fluid-tight enclosure around the target; means for maintaining the pressure in the first enclosure substantially below atmospheric pressure; a fluid-tight second enclosure adjoining the first enclosure, the common wall portion having an opening large enough to permit x-rays to pass through but small enough to allow the pressure reducing means to evacuate gas from the first enclosure at least as fast as it enters through the opening; the second enclosure filled with a gas that is highly transparent to x-rays; the wall of the second enclosure to which the x-rays travel having a portion that is highly transparent to x-rays (usually a beryllium or plastic foil), so that the object to which the x-rays are to be provided may be located outside the second enclosure and adjacent thereto and thus receive the x-rays substantially unimpeded by air or other intervening matter. The apparatus is particularly suited to obtaining EXAFS (extended x-ray fine structure spectroscopy) data on a material

  19. Enhancing the x-ray output of a single-wire explosion with a gas-puff based plasma opening switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Joseph T.; Ouart, Nicholas D.; Qi, Niansheng; de Grouchy, Philip W.; Shelkovenko, Tatiana A.; Pikuz, Sergey A.; Banasek, Jacob T.; Potter, William M.; Rocco, Sophia V.; Hammer, David A.; Kusse, Bruce R.; Giuliani, John L.

    2018-02-01

    We present experiments performed on the 1 MA COBRA generator using a low density, annular, gas-puff z-pinch implosion as an opening switch to rapidly transfer a current pulse into a single metal wire on axis. This gas-puff on axial wire configuration was studied for its promise as an opening switch and as a means of enhancing the x-ray output of the wire. We demonstrate that current can be switched from the gas-puff plasma into the wire, and that the timing of the switch can be controlled by the gas-puff plenum backing pressure. X-ray detector measurements indicate that for low plenum pressure Kr or Xe shots with a copper wire, this configuration can offer a significant enhancement in the peak intensity and temporal distribution of radiation in the 1-10 keV range.

  20. Determination of dose enhancement caused by gold-nanoparticles irradiated with proton, X-rays (kV and MV) and electron beams, using alanine/EPR dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Clare L.; Ackerly, Trevor; Best, Stephen P.; Gagliardi, Frank; Kie, Katahira; Little, Peter J.; McCorkell, Giulia; Sale, Charlotte A.; Tsunei, Yusuke; Tominaga, Takahiro; Volaric, Sioe See; Geso, Moshi

    2015-01-01

    The main aims of this research was to employ alanine doped with gold-nanoparticles “AuNPs” to determine the levels of dose enhancement caused by these particles when irradiated with proton beams, low and high energy X-rays and electrons. DL-alanine was impregnated with 5 nm gold-nanoparticles (3% by weight) and added as a uniform layer within a wax pellet of dimensions 10 × 5 × 5 mm. Control pellets, containing DL-Alanine were also produced, and placed within a phantom, and exposed to various types of radiations: low energy (kV ranges) X-rays were obtained from a superficial machine, high energy (MV) X-rays and electrons derived from a linear accelerator, and protons were produced by the Hyogo Ion Beam Centre in Japan. Nominal doses received ranged from 2 to 20 Gy (within clinical range). The Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectra of the irradiated samples were recorded on a BRUKER Elexsys 9.5 MHz. The dose enhancement caused by gold nanoparticles for 80 kV x-rays was found to be more than 60% at about 5 Gy. Smaller dose enhancements (under the same measurement conditions) were observed for megavoltage x-ray beams (up to 10%). Dose enhancement caused by charged particles indicated minimal values for 6 MeV electrons (approximately 5%) whilst less than that is obtained with protons of 150 MeV. The proton results validate the latest simulation results based on Monte Carlo calculations but the dose enhancement is significantly less than that reported in cell and animal model systems, (about 20%). We attribute this difference to the fact that alanine only measures the levels of free radicals generated by the inclusion of nanoparticles and not the redox type radicals (such as reactive oxygen species) generated from aqueous media in cells. Dose enhancement caused by 5 nm gold-nanoparticles with radiotherapy type proton beams has been found to be less than 5% as determined when using alanine/wax as both a phantom and dosimeter. This agrees well

  1. Contrast-Enhanced Proton Radiography for Patient Set-up by Using X-Ray CT Prior Knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spadea, Maria Francesca, E-mail: mfspadea@unicz.it [Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Magna Graecia University, Catanzaro (Italy); Fassi, Aurora [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Zaffino, Paolo [Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Magna Graecia University, Catanzaro (Italy); Riboldi, Marco; Baroni, Guido [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Bioengineering Unit—CNAO Foundation, Pavia (Italy); Depauw, Nicolas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong (Australia); Seco, Joao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To obtain a contrasted image of the tumor region during the setup for proton therapy in lung patients, by using proton radiography and x-ray computed tomography (CT) prior knowledge. Methods and Materials: Six lung cancer patients' CT scans were preprocessed by masking out the gross tumor volume (GTV), and digitally reconstructed radiographs along the planned beam's eye view (BEV) were generated, for a total of 27 projections. Proton radiographies (PR) were also computed for the same BEV through Monte Carlo simulations. The digitally reconstructed radiograph was subtracted from the corresponding proton image, resulting in a contrast-enhanced proton radiography (CEPR). Michelson contrast analysis was performed both on PR and CEPR. The tumor region was then automatically segmented on CEPR and compared to the ground truth (GT) provided by physicians in terms of Dice coefficient, accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and specificity. Results: Contrast on CEPR was, on average, 4 times better than on PR. For 10 lateral projections (±45° off of 90° or 270°), although it was not possible to distinguish the tumor region in the PR, CEPR offers excellent GTV visibility. The median ± quartile values of Dice, precision, and accuracy indexes were 0.86 ± 0.03, 0.86 ± 0.06, and 0.88 ± 0.02, respectively, thus confirming the reliability of the method in highlighting tumor boundaries. Sensitivity and specificity analysis demonstrated that there is no systematic over- or underestimation of the tumor region. Identification of the tumor boundaries using CEPR resulted in a more accurate and precise definition of GTV compared to that obtained from pretreatment CT. Conclusions: In most proton centers, the current clinical protocol is to align the patient using kV imaging with bony anatomy as a reference. We demonstrated that CEPR can significantly improve tumor visualization, allowing better patient set-up and permitting image guided proton therapy (IGPT)

  2. X-ray interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, A.

    1980-01-01

    An improved type of amplitude-division x-ray interferometer is described. The wavelength at which the interferometer can operate is variable, allowing the instrument to be used to measure x-ray wavelength, and the angle of inclination is variable for sample investigation. (U.K.)

  3. Extremity x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003461.htm Extremity x-ray To use the sharing features on this page, ... in the body Risks There is low-level radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the ...

  4. X-rays utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebigan, F.

    1979-03-01

    The modality of X-ray utilization in different activities and economy is given. One presents firstly quantities and units used in radiation dosimetry and other fields. One gives the generation of X-rays, their properties as well as the elements of radiation protection. The utilization characteristics of these radiations in different fields are finally given. (author)

  5. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... d like to talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x- ...

  6. A model for electric field enhancement in lightning leader tips to levels allowing X-ray and γ ray emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Babich, L. P.; Bochkov, E. I.; Kutsyk, I. M.; Neubert, Torsten; Chanrion, Olivier Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    A model is proposed capable of accounting for the local electric field increase in front of the lightning stepped leader up to magnitudes allowing front electrons to overcome the runaway energy threshold and thus to initiate relativistic runaway electron avalanches capable of generating X-ray and ray bursts observed in negative lightning leader. The model is based on an idea that an ionization wave, propagating in a preionized channel, is being focused, such that its front remains narrow and ...

  7. X-ray crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    X-rays diffracted from a well-ordered protein crystal create sharp patterns of scattered light on film. A computer can use these patterns to generate a model of a protein molecule. To analyze the selected crystal, an X-ray crystallographer shines X-rays through the crystal. Unlike a single dental X-ray, which produces a shadow image of a tooth, these X-rays have to be taken many times from different angles to produce a pattern from the scattered light, a map of the intensity of the X-rays after they diffract through the crystal. The X-rays bounce off the electron clouds that form the outer structure of each atom. A flawed crystal will yield a blurry pattern; a well-ordered protein crystal yields a series of sharp diffraction patterns. From these patterns, researchers build an electron density map. With powerful computers and a lot of calculations, scientists can use the electron density patterns to determine the structure of the protein and make a computer-generated model of the structure. The models let researchers improve their understanding of how the protein functions. They also allow scientists to look for receptor sites and active areas that control a protein's function and role in the progress of diseases. From there, pharmaceutical researchers can design molecules that fit the active site, much like a key and lock, so that the protein is locked without affecting the rest of the body. This is called structure-based drug design.

  8. Phase-contrast X-ray CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Atsushi [Hitachi Ltd., Saitama (Japan). Advanced Research Laboratory; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji

    1995-12-01

    Phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography (CT) enabling the observation of biological soft tissues without contrast enhancement has been developed. The X-ray phase shift caused by an object is measured and input to a standard CT reconstruction algorithm. A thousand times increase in the image sensitivity to soft tissues is achieved compared with the conventional CT using absorption contrast. This is because the X-ray phase shift cross section of light elements is about a thousand times larger than the absorption cross section. The phase shift is detected using an X-ray interferometer and computer analyses of interference patterns. Experiments were performed using a synchrotron X-ray source. Excellent image sensitivity is demonstrated in the observation of cancerous rabbit liver. The CT images distinguish cancer lesion from normal liver tissue and, moreover, visualize the pathological condition in the lesion. Although the X-ray energy employed and the present observation area size are not suitable for medical applications as they are, phase-contrast X-ray CT is promising for investigating the internal structure of soft tissue which is almost transparent for X-rays. The high sensitivity also provides the advantage of reducing X-ray doses. (author).

  9. X-ray lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Elton, Raymond C

    2012-01-01

    The first in its field, this book is both an introduction to x-ray lasers and a how-to guide for specialists. It provides new entrants and others interested in the field with a comprehensive overview and describes useful examples of analysis and experiments as background and guidance for researchers undertaking new laser designs. In one succinct volume, X-Ray Lasers collects the knowledge and experience gained in two decades of x-ray laser development and conveys the exciting challenges and possibilities still to come._Add on for longer version of blurb_M>The reader is first introduced

  10. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, S.; Stagg, L.; Lambert, T.W.; Griswa, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    A patient support system for X-ray equipment in arteriographic studies of the heart is described in detail. The support system has been designed to overcome many of the practical problems encountered in using previous types of arteriographic X-ray equipment. The support system is capable of horizontal movement and, by a series of shafts attached to the main support system, the X-ray source and image intensifier or detector may be rotated through the same angle. The system is highly flexible and details are given of several possible operational modes. (U.K.)

  11. X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetten, N.R.; Houston, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    An ionization chamber for use in determining the spatial distribution of x-ray photons in tomography systems comprises a plurality of substantially parallel, planar anodes separated by parallel, planar cathodes and enclosed in a gas of high atomic weight at a pressure from approximately 10 atmospheres to approximately 50 atmospheres. The cathode and anode structures comprise metals which are substantially opaque to x-ray radiation and thereby tend to reduce the resolution limiting effects of x-ray fluoresence in the gas. In another embodiment of the invention the anodes comprise parallel conductive bars disposed between two planar cathodes. Guard rings eliminate surface leakage currents between adjacent electrodes. 8 figures

  12. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray apparatus is described which has a shutter between the X-ray source and the patient. The shutter controls the level of radiation to which the patient is exposed instead of merely discontinuing the electric power supplied to the source. When the shutter is opened a radiation sensor senses the level of X-radiation. When a preset quantity of X-radiation has been measured an exposure control closes the shutter. Instead of using the radiation sensor, the integrated power supplied to the anode of the X-ray source may be measured. (author)

  13. Therapeutic tests on methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma and transplanted fibrosarcoma of the mouse - clostridial oncolysis and its enhancement by high-frequency hyperthermia and X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirlet, T.

    1982-01-01

    Tests aimed at a conditioning of tumours by means of x-ray irradiation and high-frequency hyperthermia. Methyl cholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma (IMCM) and its transplant version (T-IMCM) produced at the neck of NMRI-mice at a critical localization immediately next to vital organs, served as a test system since it is almost resistant to simple oncolysis. Individual therapy components were compared for their mutual enhancement of efficacy in 16 test groups, and the triple combination (Cl + X-ray + HFH) was tested in relapse application as well. A 2000-R-x-ray irradiation was followed by almost simultaneous 4 min HF heating and i.v. spore administration at 12 h intervals. Assessment criteria were tumour growth, survival rates and times, absence of recidivity and healing, analysis of post-mortem findings and dimension or duration of lyses. In addition, the two tumour types of induction and transplant tumour were compared. The typical course of clostridial oncolysis can be confirmed in principle. Results show that it is possible by means of additional physical methods as were applied, to increase the systemically apathogenic and selective therapy principle of rather negligible oncolysis to over 80% (IMCM) or 97% (T-IMCM). Concerning the MCA fibrosarcoma which is very resistant to clostridial oncolysis in this mouse-tumour model, marked prolongations of survival or healing are possible even in extremely critical localization. In principle, this provides the preconditions for including oncolysis in clinical studies in human medicine. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  16. X-ray examination apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2000-01-01

    The invention relates to an X-ray apparatus which includes an adjustable X-ray filter. In order to adjust an intensity profile of the X-ray beam, an X-ray absorbing liquid is transported to filter elements of the X-ray filter. Such transport is susceptible to gravitational forces which lead to an

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  20. Abdomen X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Abdomen Abdominal x-ray uses a very small ... of an abdominal x-ray? What is abdominal x-ray? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  1. Thermo-enhanced field emission from ZnO nanowires: Role of defects and application in a diode flat panel X-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhipeng; Chen, Daokun; Chen, Wenqing; Chen, Yicong; Song, Xiaomeng; Zhan, Runze; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng; Chen, Jun, E-mail: stscjun@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • A thermo-enhanced field emission phenomenon was observed from dendritic ZnO nanowires under the temperature of 323–723 K. • Defect-assisted field emission mechanism was proposed and quantitative calculation fits well with the experiment results. • The mechanism was verified by the field emission from ZnO nanowires with different defect concentrations. • A diode X-ray source making use of thermo-enhanced field emission phenomenon was proposed for separate tuning of dose and energy. - Abstract: A thermo-enhanced field emission phenomenon was observed from ZnO nanowires. The field emission current increased by almost two orders of magnitude under a constant applied electric field, and the turn-on field decreased from 6.04 MV/m to 5.0 MV/m when the temperature increased from 323 to 723 K. The Poole–Frenkel electron excitation from the defect-induced trapping centers to the conduction band under high electric fields is believed to be the primary cause of the observed phenomenon. The experimental results fit well with the proposed physical model. The field emission from ZnO nanowires with different defect concentrations further confirmed the role of defects. Using the thermo-enhanced field emission phenomenon, a diode flat panel X-ray source was demonstrated, for which the energy and dose can be separately tuned. The thermo-enhanced field emission phenomenon observed from ZnO nanowires could be an effective way to realize a large area flat panel multi-energy X-ray source.

  2. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disorders Video: The Basketball Game: An MRI Story Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey ...

  3. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also be useful to help diagnose and monitor treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  4. X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    A form of x-ray tube is described which provides satisfactory focussing of the electron beam when the beam extends for several feet from gun to target. Such a tube can be used for computerised tomographic scanning. (UK)

  5. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breath, persistent cough, fever, chest pain or injury. It may also be useful to help diagnose and ... have some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to ...

  6. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... An MRI Story Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray ... posted: How to Obtain and Share Your Medical Images Movement Disorders Video: The Basketball Game: An MRI ...

  7. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. For more information about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot ... Inc. (RSNA). To help ensure current and accurate information, we do not permit copying but encourage linking ...

  8. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Spotlight Recently posted: Pancreatic Cancer The Limitations of Online Dose Calculators Video: The ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  9. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exams and use a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ... chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs ...

  10. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. ...

  11. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... June is Men's Health Month Recently posted: Pancreatic Cancer The Limitations of Online Dose Calculators Video: The ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  12. X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masswig, I.

    1986-01-01

    The tkb market survey comparatively evaluates the X-ray sources and replacement tubes for stationary equipment currently available on the German market. It lists the equipment parameters of 235 commercially available X-ray sources and their replacement tubes and gives the criteria for purchase decisions. The survey has been completed with December 1985, and offers good information concerning medical and technical aspects as well as those of safety and maintenance. (orig.) [de

  13. Action of caffeine on x-irradiated HeLa cells. III. enhancement of x-ray-induced killing during G2 arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busse, P.M.; Bose, S.K.; Jones, R.W.; Tolmach, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    The ability of caffeine to enhance the expression of potentially lethal x-ray damage in HeLa S3 cells was examined as a function of the age of the cells in the generation cycle. Synchronous populations were irradiated at different times after mitotic collection and treated for various intervals with 1 mM caffeiene, which causes negligible killing of unirradiated cells. The response was thereby determined as a function of cell age at both the time of irradiation and the time of exposure to caffeine. The amount of cell killing depends strongly on when in the cycle caffeine is present and only weakly on when the cells are irradiated. If cells are irradiated in early G 1 , caffeine treatment enhances killing for 2 to 3 hr. No additional enhancement is observed until 16 to 17 hr postcollection, corresponding to G 2 ; here they enter a second period of much greater sensitivity. Similarly, fluorodeoxyuridine resynchronized cells irradiated during S and treated with caffeine suffer no enhanced killing until they pass into this sensitive phase in G 2 , approximately 7 hr after release from the fluorodeoxyuridine block. The sensitive period appears to coincide with G 2 arrest. The rate and extent of killing during this period are dependent upon the x-ray dose and the caffeine concentration. In the absence of caffeine, cells irradiated in G 1 lose sensitivity to caffeine in about 9 hr; they do so faster in G 2 . It is concluded that the potentially lethal x-ray damage expressed on treatment with caffeine is retained for many hours in the presence of caffeine and is maximally manifested by G 2 -arrested cells

  14. Enhancement of cell death by TNF α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in human lung carcinoma A549 cells exposed to X rays under hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Momoko; Inanami, Osamu; Yasui, Hironobu; Ogura, Aki; Kuwabara, Mikinori; Kubota, Nobuo; Tsujitani, Michihiko

    2007-01-01

    Our previous study showed that ionizing radiation induced the expression of death receptor DR5 on the cell surface in tumor cell lines and that the death receptor of the TNF α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand TRAIL enhanced the apoptotic pathway (Hamasu et al., (2005) Journal of Radiation Research, 46:103-110). The present experiments were performed to examine whether treatment with TRAIL enhanced the cell killing in tumor cells exposed to ionizing radiation under hypoxia, since the presence of radioresistant cells in hypoxic regions of solid tumors is a serious problem in radiation therapy for tumors. When human lung carcinoma A549 cells were irradiated under normoxia and hypoxia, respectively, radiation-induced enhancement of expression of DR5 was observed under both conditions. Incubation in the presence of TRAIL enhanced the caspase-dependent and chymotrypsin-like-protease-dependent apoptotic cell death in A549 cells exposed to X rays. Furthermore, it was shown that treatment with TRAIL enhanced apoptotic cell death and loss of clonogenic ability in A549 cells exposed to X rays not only under normoxia but also under hypoxia, suggesting that combination treatment with TRAIL and X irradiation is effective for hypoxic tumor cells. (author)

  15. High-Speed Synchrotron X-ray Imaging Studies of the Ultrasound Shockwave and Enhanced Flow during Metal Solidification Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Dongyue; Lee, Tung Lik; Khong, Jia Chuan; Connolley, Thomas; Fezzaa, Kamel; Mi, Jiawei

    2015-07-01

    The highly dynamic behavior of ultrasonic bubble implosion in liquid metal, the multiphase liquid metal flow containing bubbles and particles, and the interaction between ultrasonic waves and semisolid phases during solidification of metal were studied in situ using the complementary ultrafast and high-speed synchrotron X-ray imaging facilities housed, respectively, at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, US, and Diamond Light Source, UK. Real-time ultrafast X-ray imaging of 135,780 frames per second revealed that ultrasonic bubble implosion in a liquid Bi-8 wt pctZn alloy can occur in a single wave period (30 kHz), and the effective region affected by the shockwave at implosion was 3.5 times the original bubble diameter. Furthermore, ultrasound bubbles in liquid metal move faster than the primary particles, and the velocity of bubbles is 70 ~ 100 pct higher than that of the primary particles present in the same locations close to the sonotrode. Ultrasound waves can very effectively create a strong swirling flow in a semisolid melt in less than one second. The energetic flow can detach solid particles from the liquid-solid interface and redistribute them back into the bulk liquid very effectively.

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of knee x-rays. A portable x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken ... of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. ... x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is taken during x-ray examinations to ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drawer under the table holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray ... extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray ( ... leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  2. Inhibitor production by normal rat tracheal epithelial cells influences the frequency of spontaneous and X-ray-induced enhanced growth variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzaghi-Howe, M.

    1989-01-01

    A cell culture model was used to assay for the induction of cell populations with enhanced growth capacity in culture in irradiated normal rat tracheal epithelial cells (NTEC). Some growth conditions appear to favor the proliferation of both normal and carcinogen-exposed populations, while others appear to select for populations previously exposed to carcinogen. In the present report we focus on what growth conditions are critical for controlling the emergence of spontaneous and X-ray induced proliferating epithelial foci (PEF) and what factor(s) directly influences the relative frequency of PEF in irradiated and control NTEC cultures. (author)

  3. Sodium lauryl sulfate enhances nickel penetration through guinea-pig skin. Studies with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, M.; Sagstroem, S.R.; Roomans, G.M.; Forslind, B.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), a common ingredient of detergents, on the penetration of nickel through the stratum corneum in the guinea-pig skin model was studied with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) to evaluate the barrier-damaging properties of this common detergent. The EDX technique allows a simultaneous determination of physiologically important elements, e.g., Na, Mg, P, Cl, K, Ca and S in addition to Ni at each point of measurement in epidermal cell strata. Our results show that SLS reduces the barrier function to Ni-ion penetration of the stratum corneum. In addition we have shown that EDX allows analysis of the influence of different factors involved in nickel penetration through the skin by giving data on the physiological effects on the epidermal cells caused by the applied substances

  4. Synthesis of PEG-Iodine-Capped Gold Nanoparticles and Their Contrast Enhancement in In Vitro and In Vivo for X-Ray/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun-Hee, K.; Eun-Mi, K.; Chang-Moon, L.; Dong, W.K.; Seok, T.L.; Myung-Hee, S.; Hwan-Jeong, J.

    2012-01-01

    We designed gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) capped with iodine and polyethylene glycol (PEG) to provide effective enhancement for X-ray CT imaging. The methoxy PEG-iodine-capped AuNPs were prepared through the chemisorption of iodine and substitution of methoxy PEG-SH onto the surface of gold nanoparticles, and severe aggregation in TEM was not observed. The binding energies of Au 4f 7/2 and I 3d 5/2 of the methoxy PEG-iodine-capped AuNPs were obtained as 84.1 eV and 619.3 eV, respectively. The binding energy shift of methoxy PEG-iodine-capped AuNPs would be resulted from the chemisorption between gold nanoparticles and iodine atoms. The methoxy PEG-iodine-capped AuNPs have higher enhancement compared to PEG-capped gold nanoparticles in the same amount of gold in vitro. After postinjection of methoxy PEG-iodine-capped AuNPs into the mice, dramatic contrast enhancement at the heart, aorta, liver, and kidney was observed, this was maintained up to 5 days, and there was no evidence of apparent toxicity. In conclusion, methoxy PEG-iodine-capped AuNPs might be a good candidate as a CT contrast agent for blood pool imaging, and this will also contribute to the prolongation of a blood circulation time for X-ray CT imaging.

  5. X-Ray Absorption with Transmission X-Ray Microscopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, F.M.F.

    2016-01-01

    In this section we focus on the use of transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) to measure the XAS spectra. In the last decade a range of soft X-ray and hard X-ray TXM microscopes have been developed, allowing the measurement of XAS spectra with 10–100 nm resolution. In the hard X-ray range the TXM

  6. Discovery and development of x-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yeuncheol; Yin, Ming; Datta, Timir

    2013-03-01

    In 1912 Max Laue at University of Munich reasoned x-rays to be short wavelength electromagnetic waves and figured interference would occur when scattered off crystals. Arnold Sommerfeld, W. Wien, Ewald and others, raised objections to Laue's idea, but soon Walter Friedrich succeeded in recording x-ray interference patterns off copper sulfate crystals. But the Laue-Ewald's 3-dimensional formula predicted excess spots. Fewer spots were observed. William Lawrence Bragg then 22 year old studying at Cambridge University heard the Munich results from father William Henry Brag, physics professor at Univ of Leeds. Lawrence figured the spots are 2-d interference of x-ray wavelets reflecting off successive atomic planes and derived a simple eponymous equation, the Bragg equation d*sin(theta) = n*lamda. 1913 onward the Braggs dominated the crystallography. Max Laue was awarded the physics Nobel in 1914 and the Braggs shared the same in 1915. Starting with Rontgen's first ever prize in 1901, the importance of x-ray techniques is evident from the four out of a total 16 physics Nobels between 1901-1917. We will outline the historical back ground and importance of x-ray diffraction giving rise to techniques that even in 2013, remain work horses in laboratories all over the globe.

  7. X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webley, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The object of the invention described is to provide an X-ray tube providing a scanned X-ray output which does not require a scanned electron beam. This is obtained by an X-ray tube including an anode which is rotatable about an axis, and a source of a beam of energy, for example an electron beam, arranged to impinge on a surface of the anode to generate X-radiation substantially at the region of incidence on the anode surface. The anode is rotatable about the axis to move the region of incidence over the surface. The anode is so shaped that the rotation causes the region of incidence to move in a predetermined manner relative to fixed parts of the tube so that the generated X-radiation is scanned in a predetermined manner relative to the tube. (UK)

  8. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacconi, R.; Setti, G.

    1980-01-01

    This book contains the lectures, and the most important seminars held at the NATO meeting on X-Ray astronomy in Erice, July 1979. The meeting was an opportune forum to discuss the results of the first 8-months of operation of the X-ray satellite, HEAO-2 (Einstein Observatory) which was launched at the end of 1978. Besides surveying these results, the meeting covered extragalactic astronomy, including the relevant observations obtained in other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum (ultra-violet, optical, infrared and radio). The discussion on galactic X-ray sources essentially covered classical binaries, globular clusters and bursters and its significance to extragalactic sources and to high energy astrophysics was borne in mind. (orig.)

  9. Flash x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Q.; Pellinen, D.

    1976-01-01

    The complementary techniques of flash x-ray radiography (FXR) and flash x-ray diffraction (FXD) provide access to a unique domain in nondestructive materials testing. FXR is useful in studies of macroscopic properties during extremely short time intervals, and FXD, the newer technique, is used in studies of microscopic properties. Although these techniques are similar in many respects, there are some substantial differences. FXD generally requires low-voltage, line-radiation sources and extremely accurate timing; FXR is usually less demanding. Phenomena which can be profitably studied by FXR often can also be studied by FXD to permit a complete materials characterization

  10. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    The deployment of detectors outside the deleterious effects of the atmosphere by sending them in space vehicles, has been explained. This has thrown open the entire spectrum of the electromagnetic and particle radiation to direct observations, thus enlarging the vistas of the field of astronomy and astrophysics. The discovery of strong emitters of X-rays such as SCO X-1, NorX-2, transient sources such as Cen X-2, Cen X-4, Cen X-1, Supernova remnants Tan X-1, etc., are reported. The background of the X-ray spectrum as measured during two rocket flights over Thumba, India is presented. (K.B.)

  11. X-ray masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, J.C.; Satchell, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    In semiconductor manufacture, where X-ray irradiation is used, a thin silicon membrane can be used as an X-ray mask. This membrane has areas on which are patterns to define the regions to be irradiated. These regions are of antireflection material. With the thin, in the order of 3 microns, membranes used, fragility is a problem. Hence a number of ribs of silicon are formed integral with the membrane, and which are relatively thick, 5 to 10 microns. The ribs may be formed by localised deeper boron deposition followed by a selective etch. (author)

  12. X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.; Whetten, N.R.

    1981-01-01

    An ionization chamber for use in determining the spatial distribution of x-ray photons in tomography systems comprises a plurality of substantially parallel, planar anodes separated by parallel, planar cathodes and enclosed in a gas of high atomic weight at a pressure from approximately 10 atmospheres to approximately 50 atmospheres. The cathode and anode structures comprise metals which are substantially opaque to x-ray radiation and thereby tend to reduce the resolution limiting effects of xray fluoresence in the gas. In another embodiment of the invention the anodes comprise parallel conductive bars disposed between two planar cathodes. Guard rings eliminate surface leakage currents between adjacent electrodes

  13. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Panoramic Dental X-ray Panoramic dental x-ray uses a very small dose of ... x-ray , is a two-dimensional (2-D) dental x-ray examination that captures the entire mouth ...

  14. Subluminous X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas Padilla, M.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of the first X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, by Giacconi et al. (1962), marked the birth of X-ray astronomy. Following that discovery, many additional X-ray sources where found with the first generation of X-ray rockets and observatories (e.g., UHURU and Einstein). The short-timescale

  15. X-Ray Exam: Pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Pelvis KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Ray Exam: Hip Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  16. X-Ray Exam: Forearm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Forearm KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  17. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Foot KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  18. X-Ray Exam: Wrist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Wrist KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  19. Thoracic spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  20. X-Ray Exam: Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Finger KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  1. Hundred years of X-ray discovery: a brief historical account. 1895-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santin Filho, Ourides

    1995-01-01

    This article gives a brief historical account of the discovery of X-rays, including early experiments of Roentgen, Barkla and Henry Bragg, followed by experiments leading to the discovery of X-ray diffraction by crystals, made by Max von Laue and Lawrence Bragg, which led to the discovery of ionic bonding in crystals. The steps in the study of X-ray spectroscopy by Moseley are also mentioned, and the correlation of his results with theories of Bohr and Rydberg, leading to the discovery of atomic number. Finally, the use of X-ray diffraction in structure determinations through Fourier transform is emphasized. (author). 35 refs., 7 figs

  2. CRL X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolchevsky, N.N.; Petrov, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    A novel types of X-ray tubes with refractive lenses are proposed. CRL-R X-ray tube consists of Compound Refractive Lens- CRL and Reflection X-ray tube. CRL acts as X-ray window. CRL-T X-ray consists of CRL and Transmission X-ray tube. CRL acts as target for electron beam. CRL refractive lens acts as filter, collimator, waveguide and focusing lens. Properties and construction of the CRL X-ray tube are discussed. (authors)

  3. X rays and condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daillant, J.

    1997-01-01

    After a historical review of the discovery and study of X rays, the various interaction processes between X rays and matter are described: Thomson scattering, Compton scattering, X-photon absorption through photoelectric effect, and magnetic scattering. X ray sources such as the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) are described. The various X-ray applications are presented: imagery such as X tomography, X microscopy, phase contrast; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy; X-ray scattering and diffraction techniques

  4. Scattering of x rays from low-Z materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, J.L.; Kissel, L.D.; Catron, H.C.; Hansen, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    X rays incident on thin beryllium, boron, carbon, and other low-Z materials undergo both elastic and inelastic scattering as well as diffraction from the crystalline or crystalline-like structure of the material. Unpolarized monoenergetic x rays in the 1.5 to 8.0-keV energy range were used to determine the absolute scattering efficiency of thin beryllium, carbon, and boron foils. These measurements are compared to calculated scattering efficiencies predicted by single-atom theories. In addition, the relative scattering efficiency versus x-ray energy was measured for other low-Z foils using unpolarized bremsstrahlung x rays. In all the low-Z foils examined, we observed Bragg-like x-ray diffraction due to the ordered structure of the materials

  5. The BESSY X-ray microfocus beamline project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erko, A.; Schaefers, F.; Firsov, A.; Peatman, W.B.; Eberhardt, W.; Signorato, R.

    2004-01-01

    The design and construction of a beamline dedicated to X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence analysis, X-ray diffraction and X-ray small-angle scattering measurements with micron and submicron spatial resolution in the photon energy range of 1.9-30 keV are reported here. The main feature of the beamline is a combination of all these methods in one experimental station. The source will be a BESSY 7-T wavelength shifter, which is already in operation. Such a wavelength shifter with its continuous spectrum is an optimum source for these experiments. Glass capillaries and the combination of a linear Bragg-Fresnel lens and bimorph mirror were chosen as the special optical components in the beamline. This beamline will open for BESSY users the possibility to perform experiments on the same sample applying a microfocused X-ray beam in combination with advanced experimental methods

  6. X-ray beam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koller, T.J.; Randmer, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A method of minimizing the preferential angular absorption of the divergent beam from an X-ray generator is described. The generator consists of an X-ray shielded housing with an X-ray transmissive window symmetrically placed in radial alignment with a focal spot area on a sloped target surface of an X-ray tube in the housing. The X-ray tube may be of the stationary anode type or of the rotating anode type. (U.K.)

  7. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos ... x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and chest wall and may be used to ...

  8. X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonse, U.

    1979-11-01

    The author describes several possibilities for the production of X-radiation. Especially he discusses the use of bremsstrahlung at electron impact on solid targets and the synchrotron radiation. He presents some equations for the calculation of X-ray intensities. Especially the X-radiation from the DORIS storage ring is discussed. (HSI)

  9. Medical x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Aziz Mhd Ramli; Gui Ah Auu; Husaini Salleh; Idris Besar; Mohd Ashhar Khalid; Muhammad Jamal Md Isa; Shaharuddin Mohd; Siti Najila Mohd Janib; Mohamed Ali Abdul Khader; Mahalatchimi Dave; Mohd Fazly Abdul Rahim; Ng Chee Moon; Ram Piari; Teoh Hoon Heng; Lee Peter

    2004-01-01

    This book describes the fundamental subject about medical radiography. It is a multidisciplinary field that requires cross professional input from scientists, engineers and medical doctors. However, it is presented in simple language to suit different levels of readers from x-ray operators and radiographers to physists, general practitioners and radiology specialists.The book is written in accordance to the requirements of the standard syllabus approved by the Ministry of Health Malaysia for the training of medical x-ray operator and general practitioners. In general, the content is not only designed to provide relevant and essential subject for related professionals in medical radiological services such as x-ray operator, radiographer and radiologists, but also to address those in associated radiological services including nurses, medical technologists and physicists.The book is organized and arranged sequentially into 3 parts for easy reference: Radiation safety; X-ray equipment and associated facilities; Radiography practices. With proper grasping of all these parts, the radiological services could be provided with confident and the highest professional standard. Thus, medical imaging with highest quality that can provide useful diagnostic information at minimum doses and at cost effective could be assured

  10. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... change into a gown. You may have some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to ... You Sponsored by About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2018 ...

  11. X-ray area monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nintrakit, N.

    1983-01-01

    The X-ray area monitor is a nuclear electronic device that is essential in radiation protection in high radiation laboratories, e.g. in medical diagnosis using X-rays and in industrial X-radiography. Accidentally the level of X-radiator may arise above the safe permissible level and in such a case the alarm system of the area monitor will work and disconnect the ac power supply form the X-ray unit. Principally the device is a radiation counter using G.M.tube as radiation detector with high voltage supply variable form 200 to 2,000 volts. The maximum count rate of the scaler is 1.5 MHz and the total count is displayed on 4 digit LED's. A time base is used to control the counting time, the frequency multiplier, radiation safety limit, comparator and the radiation hazard warning signal. The reliability of the instrument is further enhanced through the addition of the random correction circuit, and it is applicable both in X- and γ -radiation

  12. The Application of Contrast Media for In Vivo Feature Enhancement in X-Ray Computed Tomography of Soil-Grown Plant Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Samuel D; Gostling, Neil J; Cheung, Jessica H; Roose, Tiina; Sinclair, Ian; Marchant, Alan

    2017-06-01

    The use of in vivo X-ray microcomputed tomography (μCT) to study plant root systems has become routine, but is often hampered by poor contrast between roots, soil, soil water, and soil organic matter. In clinical radiology, imaging of poorly contrasting regions is frequently aided by the use of radio-opaque contrast media. In this study, we present evidence for the utility of iodinated contrast media (ICM) in the study of plant root systems using μCT. Different dilutions of an ionic and nonionic ICM (Gastrografin 370 and Niopam 300) were perfused into the aerial vasculature of juvenile pea plants via a leaf flap (Pisum sativum). The root systems were imaged via μCT, and a variety of image-processing approaches used to quantify and compare the magnitude of the contrast enhancement between different regions. Though the treatment did not appear to significantly aid extraction of full root system architectures from the surrounding soil, it did allow the xylem and phloem units of seminal roots and the vascular morphology within rhizobial nodules to be clearly visualized. The nonionic, low-osmolality contrast agent Niopam appeared to be well tolerated by the plant, whereas Gastrografin showed evidence of toxicity. In summary, the use of iodine-based contrast media allows usually poorly contrasting root structures to be visualized nondestructively using X-ray μCT. In particular, the vascular structures of roots and rhizobial nodules can be clearly visualized in situ.

  13. Influence of agents that enhance lethal effects of radiation on the damage to bacterial membranes by x rays and ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancelliere, G.; Giacchi, P.; Misiti-Dorello, P.; Quintiliani, M.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation damage to the cell membrane of E. coli B/r was evaluated by the release of intracellular K + ions as a function of radiation dose. It was found that x-ray-induced K + loss was (i) not affected by the presence of oxygen; (ii) enhanced by sodium iodide (NaI), iodoacetic acid (IAA), iodopropionic acid (IPA), and iodoacetamide (IAM) when cells were irradiated while in equilibrium with air; (iii) still enhanced by NaI, but not by IAM, when cell suspensions were bubbled with N 2 or O 2 before and during irradiation; (iv) decreased by N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) under any irradiation conditions. It was also found that both NEM and iodine-containing compounds protected cells from membrane damage caused by exposure to uv light. Parallel experiments carried out on cell survival confirmed the lack of correlation between the damage responsible for the loss of intracellular K + and that responsible for cell killing

  14. Thermal and chemical treatment of polymer optical fiber Bragg grating sensors for enhanced mechanical sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pospori, Andreas; Marques, C. A. F.; Saez-Rodriguez, D.

    2017-01-01

    An investigation of the thermal annealing effects on the strain, stress, and force sensitivities of polymer optical fiber Bragg grating sensors is performed. We demonstrate for the first time that the fiber annealing can enhance both stress and force sensitivities of Bragg grating sensors......, with the possible cause being the molecular relaxation of the polymer when fiber is raised above the β-transition temperature. A simple, cost-effective, but well controlled method for fiber annealing is also presented in this work. In addition, the effects of chemical etching on the strain, stress, and force...... sensitivities have been investigated. Results show that fiber etching too can increase the force sensitivity, and it can also affect the strain and stress sensitivities of the Bragg grating sensors....

  15. Thermal and chemical treatment of polymer optical fiber Bragg grating sensors for enhanced mechanical sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospori, A.; Marques, C. A. F.; Sáez-Rodríguez, D.; Nielsen, K.; Bang, O.; Webb, D. J.

    2017-07-01

    An investigation of the thermal annealing effects on the strain, stress, and force sensitivities of polymer optical fiber Bragg grating sensors is performed. We demonstrate for the first time that the fiber annealing can enhance both stress and force sensitivities of Bragg grating sensors, with the possible cause being the molecular relaxation of the polymer when fiber is raised above the β -transition temperature. A simple, cost-effective, but well controlled method for fiber annealing is also presented in this work. In addition, the effects of chemical etching on the strain, stress, and force sensitivities have been investigated. Results show that fiber etching too can increase the force sensitivity, and it can also affect the strain and stress sensitivities of the Bragg grating sensors.

  16. X ray Production. Chapter 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowotny, R. [Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    The differential absorption of X rays in tissues and organs, owing to their atomic composition, is the basis for the various imaging methods used in diagnostic radiology. The principles in the production of X rays have remained the same since their discovery. However, much refinement has gone into the design of X ray tubes to achieve the performance required for today’s radiological examinations. In this chapter, an outline of the principles of X ray production and a characterization of the radiation output of X ray tubes will be given. The basic processes producing X rays are dealt with in Section 1.4.

  17. X-ray filter for x-ray powder diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsheimer, John Jay; Conley, Raymond P.; Bouet, Nathalie C. D.; Dooryhee, Eric; Ghose, Sanjit

    2018-01-23

    Technologies are described for apparatus, methods and systems effective for filtering. The filters may comprise a first plate. The first plate may include an x-ray absorbing material and walls defining first slits. The first slits may include arc shaped openings through the first plate. The walls of the first plate may be configured to absorb at least some of first x-rays when the first x-rays are incident on the x-ray absorbing material, and to output second x-rays. The filters may comprise a second plate spaced from the first plate. The second plate may include the x-ray absorbing material and walls defining second slits. The second slits may include arc shaped openings through the second plate. The walls of the second plate may be configured to absorb at least some of second x-rays and to output third x-rays.

  18. X-ray refractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tur'yanskij, A.G.; Pirshin, I.V.

    2001-01-01

    Paper introduces a new circuit of X-ray refractometer to study angular and spectral features of refracted radiation within hard X-ray range. Refractometer incorporates two goniometers, two crystal-analyzers and three radiation detectors. The maximum distance between radiation source focal point and a receiving slit of the second goniometer is equal to 1.4 m. For the first time one obtained refraction patterns of fine-film specimens including C/Si stressed structure. Paper describes a new technique of refractometry via specimen oscillation at fixed position of a detecting device. Paper presents the measurement results of oscillation refraction patterns for specimens of melted quartz and ZnSe single crystal [ru

  19. X-ray radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronc, D.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: The most common form of radio therapy is X-ray therapy, where a beam of photons or their parent electrons break down hydrogen bonds within the body's cells and remove certain DNA information necessary for cell multiplication. This process can eradicate malignant cells leading to complete recovery, to the remission of some cancers, or at least to a degree of pain relief. The radiotherapy instrument is usually an electron linac, and the electrons are used either directly in 'electrotherapy' for some 10% of patients, or the electrons bombard a conversion target creating a broad beam of high energy photons or 'penetration X-rays'. The simplest machine consists of several accelerating sections at around 3 GHz, accelerating electrons to 6 MeV; a cooled tungsten target is used to produce a 4 Gray/min X-ray field which can be collimated into a rectangular shape at the patient position. This tiny linac is mounted inside a rotating isocentric gantry above the patient who must remain perfectly still. Several convergent beams can also be used to increase the delivered dose. More sophisticated accelerators operate at up to 18 MeV to increase penetration depths and decrease skin exposure. Alternatively, electrotherapy can be used with different energies for lower and variable penetration depths - approximately 0.5 cm per MeV. In this way surface tissue may be treated without affecting deeper and more critical anatomical regions. This type of linac, 1 to 2 metres long, is mounted parallel to the patient with a bending magnet to direct the beam to the radiotherapy system, which includes the target, thick movable collimator jaws, a beam field equalizer, dose rate and optical field simulation and energy controls. There are over 2000 acceleratorbased X-ray treatment units worldwide. Western countries have up to two units per million population, whereas in developing countries such as Bangladesh, the density is only one per 100 million. Several

  20. X-ray generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucarias, A; Shepherd, J W

    1982-09-08

    An X-ray tube has a tubular envelope with a cathode for directing an electron beam onto a focal spot area of a spaced anode target to generate X-rays. The target is mounted for axial rotation on one end of a rotor disposed in an end portion of the envelope and encircled by a stator of an alternating current induction motor. An annular shield of high permeability magnetic material extends transversely between the electron beam and the stator of the induction motor for shunting stray or fringe electromagnetic fields established by the stator away from the electron beam to avoid consequent lateral deflections of the electron and corresponding lateral movements of the focal spot area.

  1. X-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunsmuir, J.H.; Ferguson, S.R.; D'Amico, K.L.; Stokes, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe the application of a new high-resolution X-ray tomographic microscope to the study of porous media. The microscope was designed to exploit the properties of a synchrotron X-ray source to perform three dimensional tomography on millimeter sized objects with micron resolution and has been used in materials science studies with both synchrotron and conventional and synchrotron sources will be compared. In this work the authors have applied the microscope to measure the three dimensional structure of fused bead packs and berea sandstones with micron resolution and have performed preliminary studies of flow in these media with the microscope operated in a digital subtraction radiography mode. Computer graphics techniques have been applied to the data to visually display the structure of the pore body system. Tomographic imaging after flow experiments should detect the structure of the oil-water interface in the pore network and this work is ongoing

  2. Commercial Applications of X Ray Spectrometric Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegrzynek, D., E-mail: D.Wedgrznek@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency, The IAEA Laboratories, Seibersdorf, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-15

    In the 21st century, the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique is widely used in process control, industrial applications and for routine elemental analysis. The technique has a multielement capability capable of detecting elements with Z {>=} 10, with a few instruments capable of detecting also elements with Z {>=} 5. It is characterized by a non-destructive analysis process and relatively good detection limits, typically one part per million, for a wide range of elements. The first commercial XRF instruments were introduced to the market about 50 years ago. They were the wavelength dispersive X ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometers utilizing Bragg's law and reflection on crystal lattices for sequential elemental analysis of sample composition. The advances made in radiation detector technology, especially the introduction of semiconductor detectors, improvements in signal processing electronics, availability and exponential growth of personal computer market led to invention of energy dispersive X ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. The EDXRF is more cost effective as compared to WDXRF. It also allows for designing compact instruments. Such instruments can be easily tailored to the needs of different customers, integrated with industrial installations, and also miniaturized for the purpose of in-situ applications. The versatility of the technique has been confirmed in a spectacular way by using the XRF and X-ray spectrometric techniques, among few others, during the NASA and ESA missions in search for the evidence of life and presence of water on the surface of Mars. The XRF technique has achieved its strong position within the atomic spectroscopy group of analytical techniques not only due to its versatility but also due to relatively low running costs, as compared to the commonly used methods, e.g., atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission/mass spectrometry (ICP-AES/MS). Presently, the XRF technique together with X ray

  3. X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einstein, J.R.; Wei, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    We have been interested in structural elucidation by x-ray diffraction of compounds of biological interest. Understanding exactly how atoms are arranged in three-dimensional arrays as molecules can help explain the relationship between structure and functions. The species investigated may vary in size and shape; our recent studies included such diverse substances as antischistosomal drugs, a complex of cadmium with nucleic acid base, nitrate salts of adenine, and proteins

  4. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Chuji.

    1980-01-01

    A principal object of the present invention is to provide an X-ray apparatus which is such that the distance between the surface of the patient's table and the floor on which the apparatus is installed is sufficiently small in the horizontal position of the patient's table of the roentgenographical pedestal and that the rotation of the pedestal from the horizontal position to a tilted position and further to the vertical position of the table can be carried out smoothly. (auth)

  5. X-ray Ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, R.; Zerlett, G.

    1983-01-01

    This commentary, presented as volume 2 of the Deutsches Strahlenschutzrecht (German legislation on radiation protection) deals with the legal provisions of the ordinance on the protection against harmful effects of X-radiation (X-ray Ordinance - RoeV), of March 1, 1973 (announced in BGBl.I, page 173), as amended by the ordinance on the protection against harmful effects of ionizing radiation, of October 13, 1976 (announced in BGBl. I, page 2905). Thus volume 2 completes the task started with volume 1, namely to present a comprehensive view and account of the body of laws governing radiation protection, a task which was thought useful as developments in the FRG led to regulations being split up into the X-ray Ordinance, and the Radiation Protection Ordinance. In order to present a well-balanced commentary on the X-ray Ordinance, it was necessary to discuss the provisions both from the legal and the medical point of view. This edition takes into account the Fourth Public Notice of the BMA (Fed. Min. of Labour and Social Affairs) concerning the implementation of the X-ray Ordinance of January 4, 1982, as well as court decisions and literature published in this field, until September 1982. In addition, the judgment of the Federal Constitutional Court, dated October 19, 1982, concerning the voidness of the law on government liability, and two decisions by the Federal High Court, dated November 23, 1982, concerning the right to have insight into medical reports - of great significance in practice - have been considered. This commentary therefore is up to date with current developments. (orig.) [de

  6. Producing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.; Jung, R.G.; Applebaum, D.C.; Fairand, B.P.; Gallagher, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method of producing x-rays by directing radiant energy from a laser onto a target is described. Conversion efficiency of at least about 3 percent is obtained by providing the radiant energy in a low-power precursor pulse of approximately uniform effective intensity focused onto the surface of the target for about 1 to 30 nanoseconds so as to generate an expanding unconfined coronal plasma having less than normal solid density throughout and comprising a low-density (underdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is less than the laser radiation frequency and a higher-density (overdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is greater than the laser radiation frequency and, about 1 to 30 nanoseconds after the precursor pulse strikes the target, a higher-power main pulse focused onto the plasma for about 10 -3 to 30 nanoseconds and having such power density and total energy that the radiant energy is absorbed in the underdense region and conducted into the overdense region to heat it and thus to produce x-rays therefrom with the plasma remaining substantially below normal solid density and thus facilitating the substantial emission of x-rays in the form of spectral lines arising from nonequilibrium ionization states

  7. Superficial deformations determination in silicon monocrystals by X-ray difraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, C.A.M.

    1985-01-01

    We present a technique of determination of deformation distribution in monocrystal surfaces through the adjustement of Bragg reflection patterns obtained from the X-ray diffraction theory. (M.W.O.) [pt

  8. X-ray source array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperstein, G.; Lanza, R.C.; Sohval, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    A circular array of cold cathode diode X-ray sources, for radiation imaging applications, such as computed tomography includes electrically conductive cathode plates each of which cooperates with at least two anodes to form at least two diode sources. In one arrangement, two annular cathodes are separated by radially extending, rod-like anodes. Field enhancement blades may be provided on the cathodes. In an alternative arrangement, the cathode plates extend radially and each pair is separated by an anode plate also extending radially. (author)

  9. Irradiation of gold nanoparticles by x-rays: Monte Carlo simulation of dose enhancements and the spatial properties of the secondary electrons production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Michael K K; Chow, James C L; Chithrani, B Devika; Lee, Martin J G; Oms, Barbara; Jaffray, David A

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the characteristics of secondary electrons generated from the interaction of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with x-rays as a function of nanoparticle size and beam energy and thereby further the understanding of GNP-enhanced radiotherapy. The effective range, deflection angle, dose deposition, energy, and interaction processes of electrons produced from the interaction of x-rays with a GNP were calculated by Monte Carlo simulations. The GEANT4 code was used to simulate and track electrons generated from a 2, 50, and 100 nm diameter GNP when it is irradiated with a 50 kVp, 250 kVp, cobalt-60, and 6 MV photon beam in water. When a GNP was present, depending on the beam energies used, secondary electron production was increased by 10- to 2000-fold compared to an absence of a GNP. Low-energy photon beams were much more efficient at interacting with the GNP by two to three orders of magnitude compared to MV energies and increased the deflection angle. GNPs with larger diameters also contributed more dose. The majority of the energy deposition was outside the GNP, rather than self-absorbed by the nanoparticle. The mean effective range of electron tracks for the beams tested ranged from approximately 3 microm to 1 mm. These simulated results yield important insights concerning the spatial distributions and elevated dose in GNP-enhanced radiotherapy. The authors conclude that the irradiation of GNP at lower photon energies will be more efficient for cell killing. This conclusion is consistent with published studies.

  10. OH radicals from the indirect actions of X-rays induce cell lethality and mediate the majority of the oxygen enhancement effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Ryoichi; Ito, Atsushi; Noguchi, Miho; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Uzawa, Akiko; Kobashi, Gen; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Furusawa, Yoshiya

    2013-11-01

    We examined OH radical-mediated indirect actions from X irradiation on cell killing in wild-type Chinese hamster ovary cell lines (CHO and AA8) under oxic and hypoxic conditions, and compared the contribution of direct and indirect actions under both conditions. The contribution of indirect action on cell killing can be estimated from the maximum degree of protection by dimethylsulfoxide, which suppresses indirect action by quenching OH radicals without affecting the direct action of X rays on cell killing. The contributions of indirect action on cell killing of CHO cells were 76% and 50% under oxic and hypoxic conditions, respectively, and those for AA8 cells were 85% and 47%, respectively. Therefore, the indirect action on cell killing was enhanced by oxygen during X irradiation in both cell lines tested. Oxygen enhancement ratios (OERs) at the 10% survival level (D10 or LD90) for CHO and AA8 cells were 2.68 ± 0.15 and 2.76 ± 0.08, respectively. OERs were evaluated separately for indirect and direct actions, which gave the values of 3.75 and 2.01 for CHO, and 4.11 and 1.32 for AA8 cells, respectively. Thus the generally accepted OER value of ∼3 is best understood as the average of the OER values for both indirect and direct actions. These results imply that both indirect and direct actions on cell killing require oxygen for the majority of lethal DNA damage, however, oxygen plays a larger role in indirect than for direct effects. Conversely, the lethal damage induced by the direct action of X rays are less affected by oxygen concentration.

  11. Proceedings of the workshop on X-ray computed microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    This report consists of vugraphs from the nine presentations at the conference. Titles of the presentations are: CMT: Applications and Techniques; Computer Microtomography Using X-rays from Third Generation Synchrotron X-ray; Approaches to Soft-X-ray Nanotomography; Diffraction Enhanced Tomography; X-ray Computed Microtomography Applications at the NSLS; XCMT Applications in Forestry and Forest Products; 3DMA: Investigating Three Dimensional Pore Geometry from High Resolution Images; X-ray Computed Microtomography Studies of Volcanic Rock; and 3-D Visualization of Tomographic Volumes

  12. Proceedings of the workshop on X-ray computed microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report consists of vugraphs from the nine presentations at the conference. Titles of the presentations are: CMT: Applications and Techniques; Computer Microtomography Using X-rays from Third Generation Synchrotron X-ray; Approaches to Soft-X-ray Nanotomography; Diffraction Enhanced Tomography; X-ray Computed Microtomography Applications at the NSLS; XCMT Applications in Forestry and Forest Products; 3DMA: Investigating Three Dimensional Pore Geometry from High Resolution Images; X-ray Computed Microtomography Studies of Volcanic Rock; and 3-D Visualization of Tomographic Volumes.

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone ... bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special preparation. You ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can be taken to the patient in a hospital bed or the emergency room. The x-ray ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  17. X-ray detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The object of the invention (an ionization chamber X-ray detector array for use with high speed computerised tomographic imaging apparatus) is to reduce the time required to produce a tomographic image. The detector array described determines the distribution of X-ray intensities in one or more flat, coplanar X-ray beams. It comprises three flat anode sheets parallel to the X-ray beam, a plurality of rod-like cathodes between the anodes, a detector gas between the electrodes and a means for applying a potential between the electrodes. Each of the X-ray sources is collimated to give a narrow, planar section of X-ray photons. Sets of X-ray sources in the array are pulsed simultaneously to obtain X-ray transmission data for tomographic image reconstruction. (U.K.)

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissue shows up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... changes seen in metabolic conditions. assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were maintained on ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, spine, pelvis, hip, thigh, knee, leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page ... the patient standing upright, as in cases of knee x-rays. A portable x-ray machine is ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... conditions. Imaging with x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ... body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray ...

  5. Design studies for ITER x-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.; von Goeler, S.; Hsuan, H.

    1995-01-01

    Concepts for adapting conventional tokamak x-ray diagnostics to the harsh radiation environment of ITER include use of grazing-incidence (GI) x-ray mirrors or man-made Bragg multilayer (ML) elements to remove the x-ray beam from the neutron beam, or use of bundles of glass-capillary x-ray ''light pipes'' embedded in radiation shields to reduce the neutron/gamma-ray fluxes onto the detectors while maintaining usable x-ray throughput. The x-ray optical element with the broadest bandwidth and highest throughput, the GI mirror, can provide adequate lateral deflection (10 cm for a deflected-path length of 8 m) at x-ray energies up to 12, 22, or 30 keV for one, two, or three deflections, respectively. This element can be used with the broad band, high intensity x-ray imaging system (XIS), the pulseheight analysis (PHA) survey spectrometer, or the high resolution Johann x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS), which is used for ion-temperature measurement. The ML mirrors can isolate the detector from the neutron beam with a single deflection for energies up to 50 keV, but have much narrower bandwidth and lower x-ray power throughput than do the GI mirrors; they are unsuitable for use with the XIS or PHA, but they could be used with the XCS; in particular, these deflectors could be used between ITER and the biological shield to avoid direct plasma neutron streaming through the biological shield. Graded-d ML mirrors have good reflectivity from 20 to 70 keV, but still at grazing angles (<3 mrad). The efficiency at 70 keV for double reflection (10 percent), as required for adequate separation of the x-ray and neutron beams, is high enough for PHA requirements, but not for the XIS. Further optimization may be possible

  6. X-Ray Exam: Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Hip KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: Hip What's in this article? What It Is Why ... You Have Questions Print What It Is A hip X-ray is a safe and painless test ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... X-rays are a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including the body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for bone x-rays consists of ... and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely available in emergency ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The x-ray tube is connected to a flexible arm that is extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath the patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ...

  10. X-Ray Exam: Ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Ankle KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: Ankle What's in this article? What It Is Why ... You Have Questions Print What It Is An ankle X-ray is a safe and painless test ...

  11. X-Ray and Neutron Scattering Study of the Magnetic Structure of Neodymium Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Bente; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; McEwen, K. A.

    1979-01-01

    A combined x-ray and neutron diffraction study has shown that the so-called "triple-q⃗" structure is not the correct model of the magnetic structure of neodymium. The x-ray data showed only the Bragg reflections originating from the double-hcp lattice. Hence, all additional reflections observed...

  12. SMM x ray polychromator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, J. L. R.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the X-ray Polychromator (XRP) experiment was to study the physical properties of solar flare plasma and its relation to the parent active region to understand better the flare mechanism and related solar activity. Observations were made to determine the temperature, density, and dynamic structure of the pre-flare and flare plasma as a function of wavelength, space and time, the extent to which the flare plasma departs from thermal equilibrium, and the variation of this departure with time. The experiment also determines the temperature and density structure of active regions and flare-induced changes in the regions.

  13. Obstetric X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwachi, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Radiography of the pelvis should never be taken to diagnose early pregnancy, because of potential hazards of radiation damage to the growing foetus. the only indication occurs in the last week of pregnancy (37 weeks). Obstetric X-ray will help you answer like confirmation of malposition,multiple pregnancies; fetal abnormalities e.g. hydrocephalus, foetal disposition. The choice of radiographic projection will help give foetal presentation, disposition as well as foetal maturity. The search pattern helps you determine maternal and spine deformity, foetal spine and head , foetal presentation and any other anomalies

  14. X-ray film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, U.W.; Gilmore, D.J.; Wonacott, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    The performance of film as an X-ray detector is discussed and its behaviour is compared with that of a perfect Poissonian detector. The efficiency of microdensitometry as a method of extracting the information recorded on the film is discussed. More emphasis is placed in the precision of microdensitometric measurements than on the more obvious characteristic of film speed. The effects of chemical fog and background on the precision of the measurements is considered and it is concluded that the final limit to precision is set by the chemical fog. (B.D.)

  15. X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, J.L. de.

    1976-01-01

    The seventh edition of Philips' Review of literature on X-ray diffraction begins with a list of conference proceedings on the subject, organised by the Philips' organisation at regular intervals in various European countries. This is followed by a list of bulletins. The bibliography is divided according to the equipment (cameras, diffractometers, monochromators) and its applications. The applications are subdivided into sections for high/low temperature and pressure, effects due to the equipment, small angle scattering and a part for stress, texture and phase analyses of metals and quantitative analysis of minerals

  16. Temperature enhancement of Xe(L) x-ray amplifier ({lambda} {approx} 2.9 A) emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, Alex B [Laboratory for X-Ray Microimaging and Bioinformatics, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607-7059 (United States); Zhang Ping [Laboratory for X-Ray Microimaging and Bioinformatics, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607-7059 (United States); Racz, Ervin [Laboratory for X-Ray Microimaging and Bioinformatics, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607-7059 (United States); McCorkindale, John C [Laboratory for X-Ray Microimaging and Bioinformatics, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607-7059 (United States); Khan, Shahab F [Laboratory for X-Ray Microimaging and Bioinformatics, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607-7059 (United States); Poopalasingam, Sankar [Laboratory for X-Ray Microimaging and Bioinformatics, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607-7059 (United States); Zhao Ji [Laboratory for X-Ray Microimaging and Bioinformatics, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607-7059 (United States); Rhodes, Charles K [Laboratory for X-Ray Microimaging and Bioinformatics, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607-7059 (United States)

    2007-11-28

    Cooling of the xenon nozzle flow to T = 230 K produces three leading effects. They are (1) a {approx}2.5-fold enhancement of the Xe(L) hollow atom emission on the single-vacancy 3d {yields} 2p charge state arrays (2) the production of amplifying self-trapped plasma channels with significantly enhanced lengths and (3) very sharply augmented emission on (2s-bar2p-bar) Xe(L) double-vacancy transitions in the {lambda} {approx_equal} 2.80 A region. (fast track communication)

  17. Temperature enhancement of Xe(L) x-ray amplifier (λ ∼ 2.9 A) emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, Alex B; Zhang Ping; Racz, Ervin; McCorkindale, John C; Khan, Shahab F; Poopalasingam, Sankar; Zhao Ji; Rhodes, Charles K

    2007-01-01

    Cooling of the xenon nozzle flow to T = 230 K produces three leading effects. They are (1) a ∼2.5-fold enhancement of the Xe(L) hollow atom emission on the single-vacancy 3d → 2p charge state arrays (2) the production of amplifying self-trapped plasma channels with significantly enhanced lengths and (3) very sharply augmented emission on (2s-bar2p-bar) Xe(L) double-vacancy transitions in the λ ≅ 2.80 A region. (fast track communication)

  18. Soft x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, D.L.; Rosen, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    One of the elusive dreams of laser physicists has been the development of an x-ray laser. After 25 years of waiting, the x-ray laser has at last entered the scientific scene, although those now in operation are still laboratory prototypes. They produce soft x rays down to about five nanometers. X-ray lasers retain the usual characteristics of their optical counterparts: a very tight beam, spatial and temporal coherence, and extreme brightness. Present x-ray lasers are nearly 100 times brighter that the next most powerful x-ray source in the world: the electron synchrotron. Although Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is widely known for its hard-x-ray laser program which has potential applications in the Strategic Defense Initiative, the soft x-ray lasers have no direct military applications. These lasers, and the scientific tools that result from their development, may one day have a place in the design and diagnosis of both laser fusion and hard x-ray lasers. The soft x-ray lasers now in operation at the LLNL have shown great promise but are still in the primitive state. Once x-ray lasers become reliable, efficient, and economical, they will have several important applications. Chief among them might be the creation of holograms of microscopic biological structures too small to be investigated with visible light. 5 figs

  19. Bragg Curve, Biological Bragg Curve and Biological Issues in Space Radiation Protection with Shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honglu, Wu; Cucinotta, F.A.; Durante, M.; Lin, Z.; Rusek, A.

    2006-01-01

    The space environment consists of a varying field of radiation particles including high-energy ions, with spacecraft shielding material providing the major protection to astronauts from harmful exposure. Unlike low-LET gamma or X-rays, the presence of shielding does not always reduce the radiation risks for energetic charged particle exposure. Since the dose delivered by the charged particle increases sharply as the particle approaches the end of its range, a position known as the Bragg peak, the Bragg curve does not necessarily represent the biological damage along the particle traversal since biological effects are influenced by the track structure of both primary and secondary particles. Therefore, the biological Bragg curve is dependent on the energy and the type of the primary particle, and may vary for different biological endpoints. To achieve a Bragg curve distribution, we exposed cells to energetic heavy ions with the beam geometry parallel to a monolayer of fibroblasts. Qualitative analyses of gamma-H2AX fluorescence, a known marker of DSBs, indicated increased clustering of DNA damage before the Bragg peak, enhanced homogenous distribution at the peak, and provided visual evidence of high linear energy transfer (LET) particle traversal of cells beyond the Bragg peak. A quantitative biological response curve generated for micronuclei (MN) induction across the Bragg curve did not reveal an increased yield of MN at the location of the Bragg peak. However, the ratio of mono-to bi-nucleated cells, which indicates inhibition in cell progression, increased at the Bragg peak location. These results, along with other biological concerns, show that space radiation protection with shielding can be a complicated issue.

  20. X-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowicz, A.A.; Van Grieken, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    In the period under review, i.e, through 1984 and 1985, some 600 articles on XRS (X-ray spectrometry) were published; most of these have been scanned and the most fundamental ones are discussed. All references will refer to English-language articles, unless states otherwise. Also general books have appeared on quantitative EPXMA (electron-probe X-ray microanalysis) and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) as well as an extensive review on the application of XRS to trace analysis of environmental samples. In the period under review no radically new developments have been seen in XRS. However, significant improvements have been made. Gain in intensities has been achieved by more efficient excitation, higher reflectivity of dispersing media, and better geometry. Better understanding of the physical process of photon- and electron-specimen interactions led to complex but more accurate equations for correction of various interelement effects. Extensive use of micro- and minicomputers now enables fully automatic operation, including qualitative analysis. However, sample preparation and presentation still put a limit to further progress. Although some authors find XRS in the phase of stabilization or even stagnation, further gradual developments are expected, particularly toward more dedicated equipment, advanced automation, and image analysis systems. Ways are outlined in which XRS has been improved in the 2 last years by excitation, detection, instrumental, methodological, and theoretical advances. 340 references

  1. Inelastic X-ray scattering activities in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, B.

    1984-01-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering requires an energy determination before and after the scattering process together with a technique to vary at least one energy continuously in a controlled way. Sufficiently monochromatic beams can only be produced by Bragg reflection from single crystals. Stationary X-ray monochromators are standard equipment of conventional X-ray generators to select a particular characteristic line. Quite often they are curved to focus on the sample or the detector. Devices with variable Bragg angle have been and are used as analyzers in Compton scattering which is inelastic X-ray scattering with moderate resolution. With the rapidly increasing availability of synchrotron radiation (SR) monochromators and analyzers became more and more sophisticated improving momentum (Q) resolution and only somewhat the energy resolution ΔE which stays in the order of eV. Very high energy resolution can only be obtained with Bragg angles Theta near to 90 0 . This field is the topic of the present paper

  2. Transducer-based fiber Bragg grating high-temperature sensor with enhanced range and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamidi, Venkata Reddy; Kamineni, Srimannarayana; Ravinuthala, Lakshmi Narayana Sai Prasad; Tumu, Venkatappa Rao

    2017-09-01

    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based high-temperature sensor with enhanced-temperature range and stability has been developed and tested. The sensor consists of an FBG and a mechanical transducer, which furnishes a linear temperature-dependent tensile strain on FBG by means of differential linear thermal expansion of two different ceramic materials. The designed sensor is tested over a range: 20°C to 1160°C and is expected to measure up to 1500°C.

  3. Vitamin E analogue, D-alpha tocopherol succinate, enhances x-ray induced growth delay of human adenocarcinoma cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworska, A.; Ottesen, T.E.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of d-alpha Tocopherol succinate (alpha-TS) in modifying radiation-induced viability reduction and apoptosis occurrence in the model for normal and cancer cells. Our hypothesis was that alpha-TS enhances the growth-inhibitory effect of x-irradiation in cancer cells and that the effect is more pronounced in these cells than in normal cells. Murine NIH 3T3 Swiss albino embryonic cells and HT29 human Caucasian colon adenocarcinoma cells were used in the experiments. Alpha-TS was added to the cultures 1 h prior to irradiation with doses of 2 or 5Gy of x-ray. After irradiation cells were incubated for 73 h. Trypan blue exclusion viability test and estimation of apoptosis and necrosis were made. Apoptotic and necrotic cells were counted in fluorescence microscope using fluorescence dyes: propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342. For experiments with the dose of 5 Gy at least five series of experiments were performed. At lower doses (up to approximately 25μM/ml) treatment with alpha-TS alone enhanced growth of both cell lines. At higher doses treatment with alpha-TS alone delayed the growth of the cell cultures, accompanied by 20-25% necrosis. At the concentrations higher than 25μM/mL alpha-TS alone caused growth delay of both cell cultures, being much more pronounced for the cancer cell line HT29. At the concentrations of 50 μM/mL, responsible for about 30-60% of growth delay, there was observed a synergy effect for x-rays and alpha-TS for both cell lines. The effect was more pronounced for HT29 cells (DMF=0.48 for HT29 versus DMF=0.73 for NIH 3T3). These results may confirm the views of the literature reports suggesting that use of vitamin E together with radiation could be favorable for colon cancer treatment; however, more experiments using more advanced techniques are needed

  4. X-ray table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, J.R.; Otto, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    An X-ray radiographic or fluoroscopic table is described which includes a film holder with a frame attached to a cable running over end pulleys for positioning the holder longitudinally as desired under the table top. The holder has a front opening to receive a cassette-supporting tray which can be slid out on tracks to change the cassette. A reed switch on the frame is opened by a permanent magnet on the tray only when the tray is half-way out. When the switch is closed, an electromagnet locks the pulley and the holder in place. The holder is thus automatically locked in place not only during exposure (tray in) but when the tray is out for changing the cassette. To re-position the holder, the operator pulls the tray half-out and, using the tray itself, pushes the holder along the table, the holder being counterbalanced by a weight. (author)

  5. X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redmayne, I.G.B.

    1988-01-01

    The patent concerns a warning and protection system for mobile x-ray equipment used for 'on site' radiography, so that workers in the vicinity of such a working unit can be alerted to its presence. The invention is a local repeater warning system which gives a preliminary warning that energisation of the tubehead is imminent, as well as a switch near the tubehead to abort or inhibit energisation. The latter switch allows personnel caught in the vicinity of the tubehead to prevent energisation. The preliminary warning may be flashing lamps or by a klaxon. The control unit for the equipment may include a monitoring circuit to detect failure of the warning light or klaxon. (U.K.)

  6. X-ray equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmayne, I.G.B.

    1988-01-06

    The patent concerns a warning and protection system for mobile x-ray equipment used for 'on site' radiography, so that workers in the vicinity of such a working unit can be alerted to its presence. The invention is a local repeater warning system which gives a preliminary warning that energisation of the tubehead is imminent, as well as a switch near the tubehead to abort or inhibit energisation. The latter switch allows personnel caught in the vicinity of the tubehead to prevent energisation. The preliminary warning may be flashing lamps or by a klaxon. The control unit for the equipment may include a monitoring circuit to detect failure of the warning light or klaxon. (U.K.).

  7. Value of contrast enhancement with Gd-DTPA in MRI of brain tumors. A comparison with X-ray CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, Takehisa; Kishikawa, Takashi; Ikezaki, Kiyonobu; Fujii, Kiyotaka; Matsumoto, Shunichi; Koga, Toshihiko.

    1987-12-01

    Value of administration of Gadolinium-DTPA dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA), a magnetic resonance contrast agent, in MRI was evaluated in 17 patients of primary brain tumors and 3 metastatic tumors with known pathology, comparing with CT findings. MRI was performed with T/sub 1/-weighted spin echo pulse sequence (SE 50030) prior to and following the intravenous injection of 0.10 mmolkg Gd-DTPA. All, but one pituitary microadenoma, the tumors including meningiomas, pituitary adenomas, gliomas, intraventricular craniopharyngioma and acoustic neurinoma and metastatic lung adenocarcinomas, were enhanced by Gd-DTPA on T/sub 1/-weighted images. Good definition of the exact boundaries and extent of the mass to the surrounding structures were obtained in all these cases. Especially, the invasion of meningioma to the dura mater or to the venous sinus, and that of cerebellopontine angle tumor to the internal auditory meatus or to the jugular foramen, were better delineated on MRI as compared with CT. The anatomical relationship to the surrounding structures in the sellar or parasellar tumors were also clearly demonstrated on MRI. Thus, MRI with Gd-DTPA administration was useful for the preoperative assessment and Gd-DTPA appears to be a safe contrast agent for MRI since there were no significant untoward reactions in our series.

  8. Enhanced induction of apoptosis by combined treatment of human carcinoma cells with X rays and death receptor agonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamasu, Taku; Inanami, Osamu; Asanuma, Taketoshi; Kuwabara, Mikinori

    2005-01-01

    The death receptors Fas and DR5 are known to be expressed not only in immune cells but also in various tumor cells. The aim of the present study was to determine whether X irradiation enhanced induction of apoptosis in Tp53 wild type and Tp53-mutated tumor cell lines treated with agonists against these death receptors. We showed that 5 Gy of X irradiation significantly up-regulated the expression of death receptors Fas and DR5 on the plasma membrane in gastric cancer cell lines MKN45 and MKN28, lung cancer cell line A549, and prostate cancer cell line DU145, and that subsequent treatments with agonistic molecules for these death receptors, Fas antibody CHl1 and TRAIL, increased the formation of active fragment p20 of caspase 3 followed by the induction of apoptosis. This death-receptor-mediated apoptosis was independent of Tp53 status since MKN28 and DU145 were Tp53-mutated. The post-irradiation treatment of the cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) abolished the up-regulation of the expression of Fas and DR5 on the plasma membrane. NAC also attenuated the increase in the formation of p20 and the induction of apoptosis by agonistic molecules. These results suggested that the increase in the induction of apoptosis by combined treatment with X irradiation and CHl1 or TRAIL occurred through a change of the intracellular redox state independent of Tp53 status in human carcinoma cell lines. (author)

  9. Induced magnetism at the interfaces of a Fe/V superlattice investigated by resonant magnetic x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnuson, Martin, E-mail: Martin.Magnuson@ifm.liu.se

    2017-01-15

    The induced magnetic moments in the V 3d electronic states of interface atomic layers in a Fe(6ML)/V(7ML) superlattice was investigated by x-ray resonant magnetic scattering. The first V atomic layer next to Fe was found to be strongly antiferromagnetically polarized relatively to Fe and the magnetic moments of the next few atomic layers in the interior V region decay exponentially with increasing distance from the interface, while the magnetic moments of the Fe atomic layers largely remain bulk-like. The induced V moments decay more rapidly as observed by x-ray magnetic scattering than in standard x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. The theoretical description of the induced magnetic atomic layer profile in V was found to strongly rely on the interface roughness within the superlattice period. These results provide new insight into interface magnetism by taking advantage of the enhanced depth sensitivity to the magnetic profile over a certain resonant energy bandwidth in the vicinity of the Bragg angles. - Highlights: • Magnetic moments of buried layers are probed by XRMS in a Fe/V superlattice. • The induced V magnetic moments in XRMS are more rapidly decaying than previously observed by XMCD. • The magnetic depth profile sensitivity is enhanced at an energy bandwidth in the vicinity of the Bragg angles.

  10. Using dual-energy x-ray imaging to enhance automated lung tumor tracking during real-time adaptive radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menten, Martin J., E-mail: martin.menten@icr.ac.uk; Fast, Martin F.; Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe, E-mail: uwe.oelfke@icr.ac.uk [Joint Department of Physics at The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London SM2 5NG (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Real-time, markerless localization of lung tumors with kV imaging is often inhibited by ribs obscuring the tumor and poor soft-tissue contrast. This study investigates the use of dual-energy imaging, which can generate radiographs with reduced bone visibility, to enhance automated lung tumor tracking for real-time adaptive radiotherapy. Methods: kV images of an anthropomorphic breathing chest phantom were experimentally acquired and radiographs of actual lung cancer patients were Monte-Carlo-simulated at three imaging settings: low-energy (70 kVp, 1.5 mAs), high-energy (140 kVp, 2.5 mAs, 1 mm additional tin filtration), and clinical (120 kVp, 0.25 mAs). Regular dual-energy images were calculated by weighted logarithmic subtraction of high- and low-energy images and filter-free dual-energy images were generated from clinical and low-energy radiographs. The weighting factor to calculate the dual-energy images was determined by means of a novel objective score. The usefulness of dual-energy imaging for real-time tracking with an automated template matching algorithm was investigated. Results: Regular dual-energy imaging was able to increase tracking accuracy in left–right images of the anthropomorphic phantom as well as in 7 out of 24 investigated patient cases. Tracking accuracy remained comparable in three cases and decreased in five cases. Filter-free dual-energy imaging was only able to increase accuracy in 2 out of 24 cases. In four cases no change in accuracy was observed and tracking accuracy worsened in nine cases. In 9 out of 24 cases, it was not possible to define a tracking template due to poor soft-tissue contrast regardless of input images. The mean localization errors using clinical, regular dual-energy, and filter-free dual-energy radiographs were 3.85, 3.32, and 5.24 mm, respectively. Tracking success was dependent on tumor position, tumor size, imaging beam angle, and patient size. Conclusions: This study has highlighted the influence of

  11. Using dual-energy x-ray imaging to enhance automated lung tumor tracking during real-time adaptive radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menten, Martin J.; Fast, Martin F.; Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Real-time, markerless localization of lung tumors with kV imaging is often inhibited by ribs obscuring the tumor and poor soft-tissue contrast. This study investigates the use of dual-energy imaging, which can generate radiographs with reduced bone visibility, to enhance automated lung tumor tracking for real-time adaptive radiotherapy. Methods: kV images of an anthropomorphic breathing chest phantom were experimentally acquired and radiographs of actual lung cancer patients were Monte-Carlo-simulated at three imaging settings: low-energy (70 kVp, 1.5 mAs), high-energy (140 kVp, 2.5 mAs, 1 mm additional tin filtration), and clinical (120 kVp, 0.25 mAs). Regular dual-energy images were calculated by weighted logarithmic subtraction of high- and low-energy images and filter-free dual-energy images were generated from clinical and low-energy radiographs. The weighting factor to calculate the dual-energy images was determined by means of a novel objective score. The usefulness of dual-energy imaging for real-time tracking with an automated template matching algorithm was investigated. Results: Regular dual-energy imaging was able to increase tracking accuracy in left–right images of the anthropomorphic phantom as well as in 7 out of 24 investigated patient cases. Tracking accuracy remained comparable in three cases and decreased in five cases. Filter-free dual-energy imaging was only able to increase accuracy in 2 out of 24 cases. In four cases no change in accuracy was observed and tracking accuracy worsened in nine cases. In 9 out of 24 cases, it was not possible to define a tracking template due to poor soft-tissue contrast regardless of input images. The mean localization errors using clinical, regular dual-energy, and filter-free dual-energy radiographs were 3.85, 3.32, and 5.24 mm, respectively. Tracking success was dependent on tumor position, tumor size, imaging beam angle, and patient size. Conclusions: This study has highlighted the influence of

  12. Using dual-energy x-ray imaging to enhance automated lung tumor tracking during real-time adaptive radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menten, Martin J; Fast, Martin F; Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe

    2015-12-01

    Real-time, markerless localization of lung tumors with kV imaging is often inhibited by ribs obscuring the tumor and poor soft-tissue contrast. This study investigates the use of dual-energy imaging, which can generate radiographs with reduced bone visibility, to enhance automated lung tumor tracking for real-time adaptive radiotherapy. kV images of an anthropomorphic breathing chest phantom were experimentally acquired and radiographs of actual lung cancer patients were Monte-Carlo-simulated at three imaging settings: low-energy (70 kVp, 1.5 mAs), high-energy (140 kVp, 2.5 mAs, 1 mm additional tin filtration), and clinical (120 kVp, 0.25 mAs). Regular dual-energy images were calculated by weighted logarithmic subtraction of high- and low-energy images and filter-free dual-energy images were generated from clinical and low-energy radiographs. The weighting factor to calculate the dual-energy images was determined by means of a novel objective score. The usefulness of dual-energy imaging for real-time tracking with an automated template matching algorithm was investigated. Regular dual-energy imaging was able to increase tracking accuracy in left-right images of the anthropomorphic phantom as well as in 7 out of 24 investigated patient cases. Tracking accuracy remained comparable in three cases and decreased in five cases. Filter-free dual-energy imaging was only able to increase accuracy in 2 out of 24 cases. In four cases no change in accuracy was observed and tracking accuracy worsened in nine cases. In 9 out of 24 cases, it was not possible to define a tracking template due to poor soft-tissue contrast regardless of input images. The mean localization errors using clinical, regular dual-energy, and filter-free dual-energy radiographs were 3.85, 3.32, and 5.24 mm, respectively. Tracking success was dependent on tumor position, tumor size, imaging beam angle, and patient size. This study has highlighted the influence of patient anatomy on the success rate of real

  13. X-Ray Lasers 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, Sergei; Daido, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yoshiaki

    2018-01-01

    These proceedings comprise a selection of invited and contributed papers presented at the 15th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers (ICXRL 2016), held at the Nara Kasugano International Forum, Japan, from May 22 to 27, 2016. This conference was part of an ongoing series dedicated to recent developments in the science and technology of x-ray lasers and other coherent x-ray sources with additional focus on supporting technologies, instrumentation and applications.   The book showcases recent advances in the generation of intense, coherent x-rays, the development of practical devices and their applications across a wide variety of fields. It also discusses emerging topics such as plasma-based x-ray lasers, 4th generation accelerator-based sources and higher harmonic generations, as well as other x-ray generation schemes.

  14. X-ray instrumentation in astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuhlane, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a conference devoted to x-ray instrumentation in astronomy. Special sections are: AXAF X-Ray Optical Systems; Specialized X-Ray Systems; X-Ray Optical Systems I; X-Ray Optical Systems II; Gas Filled X-Ray Detectors II; The NASA Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility; X-Ray and EUV Spectrometers; Microchannel Plates; and Solid State Detectors

  15. European X-ray spectroscopy and polarimetry payload for Spacelab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, R D; Whitcomb, G [European Space Research and Technology Centre, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Brinkman, A C [Space Research Laboratory, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Beuermann, K [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Garching/Muenchen (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Extraterrestrische Physik; Culhane, J L [University Coll., London (UK). Mullard Space Science Lab.; Griffiths, R [Leicester Univ. (UK); Manno, V [ESA Headquarters, Paris, France; Rocchia, R [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1976-08-01

    A group of instruments for X-ray spectroscopy and polarimetry studies of a number of cosmic X-ray sources is being designed for possible use on Spacelab. Large area Bragg spectrometers and polarimeters for photon energies above 2 keV are described. For the energy range below 2 keV, both dispersive and non-dispersive spectrometers are employed at the common focus of a nested array of paraboloids. Following a brief outline of the scientific background to the mission, the properties of the individual instruments are discussed.

  16. Topological X-Rays Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We continue our study of topological X-rays begun in Lynch ["Topological X-rays and MRI's," iJMEST 33(3) (2002), pp. 389-392]. We modify our definition of a topological magnetic resonance imaging and give an affirmative answer to the question posed there: Can we identify a closed set in a box by defining X-rays to probe the interior and without…

  17. Heavy metal staining, a comparative assessment of gadolinium chloride and osmium tetroxide for inner ear labyrinthine contrast enhancement using X-ray microtomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christopher C; Curthoys, Ian S; O'Leary, Stephen J; Jones, Allan S

    2013-01-01

    The use of both gadolinium chloride (GdCl(3)) and osmium tetroxide (OsO(4)) allowed for the visualization of the membranous labyrinth and other intralabyrinthine structures, at different intensities, as compared with the control sample. This initial comparison shows the advantages of GdCl(3) in radiological assessments and OsO(4) in more detailed anatomical studies and pathways of labyrinthine pathogenesis using X-ray microtomography (microCT). To assess an improved OsO(4) staining protocol and compare the staining affinities against GdCl(3). Guinea pig temporal bones were stained with either GdCl(3) (2% w/v) for 7 days or OsO(4) (2% w/v) for 3 days, and scanned in a microCT system. The post-scanned datasets were then assessed in a 3D rendering program. The enhanced soft tissue contrast as presented in the temporal bones stained with either GdCl(3) or OsO(4) allowed for the membranous labyrinth to be visualized throughout the whole specimen. GdCl(3)-stained specimens presented more defined contours of the bone profile in the radiographs, while OsO(4)-stained specimens provided more anatomical detail of individual intralabyrinthine structures, hence allowing spatial relationships to be visualized with ease in a 3D rendering context and 2D axial slice images.

  18. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  19. X-ray filtration apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G.

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to an X-ray shielding support device. In spite of considerable development in X-ray taking techniques, a need still exists for effective shielding, inter alia, to compensate for variations in the thickness, density and the absorption properties of the object being studied. By appropriate shielding, the X-ray image produced is of sufficient detail, contrast and intensity over its entire area to constitute a useful diagnostic aid. It is also desirable to subject the patient to the smallest possible X-ray dosage. 4 figs

  20. X-ray phase contrast imaging at the Mainz Microtron MAMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazaly, M. el

    2005-10-15

    Experiments have been performed to explore the potential of the low emittance 855 MeV electron beam of the Mainz Microtron MAMI for imaging with coherent X-rays. Transition radiation from a micro-focused electron beam traversing a foil stack served as X-ray source with good transverse coherence. In a first series of experiments a polychromatic transition radiation X-ray source with typical photon energies in the range of 8-30 keV and a spot size of standard deviation {sigma}{sub h}=(8.6{+-}0.1) {mu}m in horizontal and {sigma}{sub v}=(7.5{+-}0.1) {mu}m in vertical direction was used to record refraction contrast radiographs of low absorbing materials, in particular polymer strings with diameters between 30 and 450 {mu}m. As detectors X-ray films were used. The source-to-detector distance amounted to 13 m. The edge enhancement contrast C{sub ref} = (I{sub max}-I{sub min})/(I{sub max}+I{sub min}) was investigated as a function of the distance between the object and the X-ray film which was varied between 0.5 and 5.5 m. In a second series of experiments holograms of strings were taken with a beam spot size {sigma}{sub v}=(0.50{+-}0.05) {mu}m and a monochromatic X-ray beam of 6 keV energy. The good longitudinal coherence has been obtained by the (111) reflection of a flat silicon single crystal in Bragg geometry. It has been demonstrated that a direct exposure CCD chip with a pixel size of 13 x 13 {mu}m{sup 2} provides a highly efficient on-line detector. The on-line capability allows a minimization of the beam spot size by observing the smallest visible interference fringe spacings or the number of visible fringes. In a third series of experiments it was demonstrated that X-ray films are very useful detectors for the micro-focused and monochromized transition radiation X-ray source at MAMI. The main advantage in comparison with the direct exposure CCD chip is the resolution. For the X-ray film Structurix D3 (Agfa) the standard deviation of the resolution was measured

  1. X-ray phase contrast imaging at the Mainz Microtron MAMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazaly, M. el

    2005-10-01

    Experiments have been performed to explore the potential of the low emittance 855 MeV electron beam of the Mainz Microtron MAMI for imaging with coherent X-rays. Transition radiation from a micro-focused electron beam traversing a foil stack served as X-ray source with good transverse coherence. In a first series of experiments a polychromatic transition radiation X-ray source with typical photon energies in the range of 8-30 keV and a spot size of standard deviation σ h =(8.6±0.1) μm in horizontal and σ v =(7.5±0.1) μm in vertical direction was used to record refraction contrast radiographs of low absorbing materials, in particular polymer strings with diameters between 30 and 450 μm. As detectors X-ray films were used. The source-to-detector distance amounted to 13 m. The edge enhancement contrast C ref = (I max -I min )/(I max +I min ) was investigated as a function of the distance between the object and the X-ray film which was varied between 0.5 and 5.5 m. In a second series of experiments holograms of strings were taken with a beam spot size σ v =(0.50±0.05) μm and a monochromatic X-ray beam of 6 keV energy. The good longitudinal coherence has been obtained by the (111) reflection of a flat silicon single crystal in Bragg geometry. It has been demonstrated that a direct exposure CCD chip with a pixel size of 13 x 13 μm 2 provides a highly efficient on-line detector. The on-line capability allows a minimization of the beam spot size by observing the smallest visible interference fringe spacings or the number of visible fringes. In a third series of experiments it was demonstrated that X-ray films are very useful detectors for the micro-focused and monochromized transition radiation X-ray source at MAMI. The main advantage in comparison with the direct exposure CCD chip is the resolution. For the X-ray film Structurix D3 (Agfa) the standard deviation of the resolution was measured to be σ f =(1.1±0.4) μm, which is about a factor of 6 better as for

  2. X-ray emission spectroscopy. X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despujols, J.

    1992-01-01

    Principles of X-ray emission spectrometry are first recalled, then wave-length dispersive and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer are described. They are essentially designed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of elements (Z>10). Sample preparation, calibration, corrections, interferences, accuracy are reviewed. Examples of use in different industries are given. (71 refs.)

  3. Report of workshop on X-ray and nonlinear optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasu, Keiichiro; Namikawa, Kazumichi [eds.

    1994-07-01

    As synchrotron radiation has advanced to high luminance, the possibility of realizing coherent light has heightened, and the nonlinear optical phenomena in soft and hard X-ray regions have become the object of the concern of X-ray researchers, and also the researchers in the fields of quantum electronics and optical properties. This workshop was held on September 21 and 22, 1993 at National Laboratory for High energy Physics. Lectures were given on the generation of second harmonic of X-ray by utilizing dynamic diffraction, X-ray parametric scattering induced by strong laser beam, the resonance enhancement of X-ray inelastic scattering induced by strong visible light, Raman scattering in soft X-ray region, the control of nonlinear optical processes by strong external field; the experiments, though they are fundamental, they have not been carried out; undulator radiation X-ray and X-ray free electron laser, the improvement of the coherence of X-ray laser, superradiance of Frenkel excitor system and the measurement of superhigh speed pulses in X-ray region. The comment from the standpoint of the research on nonlinear optics was given. In this document, the gists of these lectures are collected. (K.I.).

  4. Report of workshop on X-ray and nonlinear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasu, Keiichiro; Namikawa, Kazumichi

    1994-07-01

    As synchrotron radiation has advanced to high luminance, the possibility of realizing coherent light has heightened, and the nonlinear optical phenomena in soft and hard X-ray regions have become the object of the concern of X-ray researchers, and also the researchers in the fields of quantum electronics and optical properties. This workshop was held on September 21 and 22, 1993 at National Laboratory for High energy Physics. Lectures were given on the generation of second harmonic of X-ray by utilizing dynamic diffraction, X-ray parametric scattering induced by strong laser beam, the resonance enhancement of X-ray inelastic scattering induced by strong visible light, Raman scattering in soft X-ray region, the control of nonlinear optical processes by strong external field; the experiments, though they are fundamental, they have not been carried out; undulator radiation X-ray and X-ray free electron laser, the improvement of the coherence of X-ray laser, superradiance of Frenkel excitor system and the measurement of superhigh speed pulses in X-ray region. The comment from the standpoint of the research on nonlinear optics was given. In this document, the gists of these lectures are collected. (K.I.)

  5. Massive stars and X-ray pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrichs, H.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis is a collection of 7 separate articles entitled: long term changes in ultraviolet lines in γ CAS, UV observations of γ CAS: intermittent mass-loss enhancement, episodic mass loss in γ CAS and in other early-type stars, spin-up and spin-down of accreting neutron stars, an excentric close binary model for the X Persei system, has a 97 minute periodicity in 4U 1700-37/HD 153919 really been discovered, and, mass loss and stellar wind in massive X-ray binaries. (Articles 1, 2, 5, 6 and 7 have been previously published). The first three articles are concerned with the irregular mass loss in massive stars. The fourth critically reviews thoughts since 1972 on the origin of the changes in periodicity shown by X-ray pulsars. The last articles indicate the relation between massive stars and X-ray pulsars. (C.F.)

  6. X-radiation damage of hydrated lecithin membranes detected by real-time X-ray diffraction using wiggler-enhanced synchrotron radiation as the ionizing radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffrey, M.; Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY

    1984-01-01

    Radiation damage of hydrated lecithin membranes brought about by exposure to wiggler-derived synchrotron radiation at 8.3 keV (1.5 A) is reported. Considerable damage was observed with exposures under 1 h at an incident flux density of 3 x 10 10 photons s -1 mm -2 , corresponding to a cumulative radiation dose of <= 10 MRad. Damage was so dramatic as to be initially observed while making real-time X-ray diffraction measurements on the sample. The damaging effects of 8.3 keV X-rays on dispersions of dipalmitoyllecithin and lecithin derived from hen egg yolk are as follows: (1) marked changes were noted in the X-ray diffraction behaviour, indicating disruption of membrane stacking. (2) Chemical breakdown of lecithin was observed. (3) The X-ray beam visibly damaged the sample and changed the appearance of the lipid dispersion, when viewed under the light microscope. Considering the importance of X-ray diffraction as a structural probe and the anticipated use of synchrotron radiation in studies involving membranes, the problem of radiation damage must be duly recognized. Furthermore, since dipalmitoyllecithin, the major lipid used in the present study, is a relatively stable compound, it is not unreasonable to expect that X-ray damage may be a problem with other less stable biological and non-biological materials. These results serve to emphasize that whenever a high intensity X-ray source is used, radiation damage can be a problem and that the sensitivity of the sample must always be evaluated under the conditions of measurement. (orig.)

  7. Coherent hard x-ray focusing optics and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, W.B.; Viccaro, P.J.; Chrzas, J.; Lai, B.

    1991-01-01

    Coherent hard x-ray beams with a flux exceeding 10{sup 9} photons/second with a bandwidth of 0.1% will be provided by the undulator at the third generation synchrotron radiation sources such as APS, ESRF, and Spring-8. The availability of such high flux coherent x-ray beams offers excellent opportunities for extending the coherence-based techniques developed in the visible and soft x-ray part of the electromagnetic spectrum to the hard x-rays. These x-ray techniques (e.g., diffraction limited microfocusing, holography, interferometry, phase contrast imaging and signal enhancement), may offer substantial advantages over non-coherence-based x-ray techniques currently used. For example, the signal enhancement technique may be used to enhance an anomalous x-ray or magnetic x-ray scattering signal by several orders of magnitude. Coherent x-rays can be focused to a very small (diffraction-limited) spot size, thus allowing high spatial resolution microprobes to be constructed. The paper will discuss the feasibility of the extension of some coherence-based techniques to the hard x-ray range and the significant progress that has been made in the development of diffraction-limited focusing optics. Specific experimental results for a transmission Fresnel phase zone plate that can focus 8.2 keV x-rays to a spot size of about 2 microns will be briefly discussed. The comparison of measured focusing efficiency of the zone plate with that calculated will be made. Some specific applications of zone plates as coherent x-ray optics will be discussed. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  8. AN OSCILLATOR CONFIGURATION FOR FULL REALIZATION OF HARD X-RAY FREE ELECTRON LASER*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.-J.; Kolodziej, T.; Lindberg, R. R.; Shu, D.; Shvyd' ko, Y.; Stoupin, S.; Maxwell, T.J.; Ding, Y.; Fawley, W. M.; Hastings, J.; Huang, Z; Krzywinski, J.; Marcus, G.; Qin, Weilun; Medvedev, N.; Zemella, J.; Blank, V.; Terentyev, S.

    2017-06-01

    An x-ray free electron laser oscillator (XFELO) is feasible by employing an X-ray cavity with Bragg mirrors such as diamond crystals. An XFELO at the 5th harmonic frequency may be implemented at the LCLS II using its 4 GeV superconducting linac, producing stable, fully coherent, high-spectral-purity hard x-rays. In addition, its output can be a coherent seed to the LCLS amplifier for stable, high-power, femto-second x-ray pulses. We summarize the recent progress in various R&D efforts addressing critical issues for realizing an XFELO at LCLS II.

  9. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction using triple-axis spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Als-Nielsen, J.

    1980-12-01

    High resolution X-ray diffraction studies of (i) monolayers of the noble gases Kr and Ar physiosorbed on graphite (ii) smectic A fluctuations in the nematic and the smectic A phases of liquid crystals are described. The apparatus used is a triple axis spectrometer situated at the storage ring DORIS at Hasylab, DESY, Hamburg. A monochromatic, well collimated beam is extracted from the synchrotron radiation spectrum by Bragg reflection from perfect Si or Ge crystals. The direction of the beam scattered from the sample is determined by Bragg reflection from a perfect Si or Ge crystal. High intensities even with resolution extending beyond the wavelength of visible light can be obtained. (Auth.)

  10. Surface and interface strains studied by x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Koichi; Emoto, Takashi; Ichimiya, Ayahiko

    1998-01-01

    The authors have developed a technique of X-ray diffraction in order to measure strain fields near semiconductor surface and interface. The diffraction geometry is using the extremely asymmetric Bragg-case bulk reflection of a small incident angle to the surface and a large angle exiting from the surface. The incident angle of the X-rays is set near critical angle of total reflection by tuning X-ray energy of synchrotron radiation at the Photon Factory, Japan. For thermally grown-silicon oxide/Si(100) interface, the X-ray intensity of the silicon substrate 311 reflection has been measured. From comparison of the full width at half maxima (FWHM) of X-ray rocking curves of various thickness of silicon oxides, it has been revealed that silicon substrate lattice is highly strained in the thin (less than about 5 nm) silicon oxide/silicon system. In order to know the original silicon surface strain, the authors have also performed the same kind of measurements in the ultra-high vacuum chamber. A clean Si(111) 7x7 surface gives sharper X-ray diffraction peak than that of the native oxide/Si(111) system. From these measurements, it is concluded that the thin silicon oxide film itself gives strong strain fields to the silicon substrates, which may be the reason of the existence of the structural transition layer at the silicon oxide/Si interface

  11. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attekum, P.M.T.M. van.

    1979-01-01

    The methods and results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in the study of plasmons, alloys and gold compounds are discussed. After a comprehensive introduction, seven papers by the author, previously published elsewhere, are reprinted and these cover a wide range of the uses of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. (W.D.L.)

  12. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Intra-oral dental X-ray apparatus for panoramic radiography is described in detail. It comprises a tubular target carrier supporting at its distal end a target with an inclined forward face. Image definition is improved by positioning in the path of the X-rays a window of X-ray transmitting ceramic material, e.g. 90% oxide of Be, or Al, 7% Si0 2 . The target carrier forms a probe which can be positioned in the patient's mouth. X-rays are directed forwardly and laterally of the target to an X-ray film positioned externally. The probe is provided with a detachable sleeve having V-form arms of X-ray opaque material which serve to depress the tongue out of the radiation path and also shield the roof of the mouth and other regions of the head from the X-ray pattern. A cylindrical lead shield defines the X-ray beam angle. (author)

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. top of page What are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including the body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different parts of the body absorb the x-rays in ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... lowest radiation dose possible while producing the best images for ... organizations continually review and update the technique standards used ...

  20. X-ray imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A novel, high-speed apparatus for use in X-ray computerised tomography is described in detail. It consists of a semi-circular array of X-ray sources, collimators and an ion chamber array for detection of the X-rays. The X-ray sources may be pulsed in salvos such that the corresponding detectors in the array are only illuminated by one source. The use of computer controlled salvos speeds up the image processing by at least a factor of two. The ion chamber array is designed to have a constant detection efficiency for varying angles of X-ray incidence. A detailed description of the detector construction and suggested gaseous fillings are given. It is claimed that the present tomographic system allows fast and accurate imaging of internal body organs and is insensitive to the blurring effects which motion of these organs tends to produce. (UK)

  1. Defect properties from X-ray scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peisl, H.

    1976-01-01

    Lattice distortions due to defects in crystals can be studied most directly by elastic X-ray or neutron scattering experiments. The 'size' of the defects can be determined from the shift of the Bragg reflections. Defect induced diffuse scattering intensity close to and between Bragg reflections gives information on the strength and symmetry of the distortion fields and yields the atomic structure of point defects (interstitials, vacancies, small aggregates). Diffuse scattering is a very sensitive method to decide whether defects are present as isolated point defects or have formed aggregates. X-ray scattering has been used to study defects produced in various ionic crystals by γ- and neutron irradiation. After an introduction to the principles of the method the experimental results will be reviewed and discussed in some detail. (orig.) [de

  2. X-ray detectors in medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spahn, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare systems are subject to continuous adaptation, following trends such as the change of demographic structures, the rise of life-style related and chronic diseases, and the need for efficient and outcome-oriented procedures. This also influences the design of new imaging systems as well as their components. The applications of X-ray imaging in the medical field are manifold and have led to dedicated modalities supporting specific imaging requirements, for example in computed tomography (CT), radiography, angiography, surgery or mammography, delivering projection or volumetric imaging data. Depending on the clinical needs, some X-ray systems enable diagnostic imaging while others support interventional procedures. X-ray detector design requirements for the different medical applications can vary strongly with respect to size and shape, spatial resolution, frame rates and X-ray flux, among others. Today, integrating X-ray detectors are in common use. They are predominantly based on scintillators (e.g. CsI or Gd 2 O 2 S) and arrays of photodiodes made from crystalline silicon (Si) or amorphous silicon (a-Si) or they employ semiconductors (e.g. Se) with active a-Si readout matrices. Ongoing and future developments of X-ray detectors will include optimization of current state-of-the-art integrating detectors in terms of performance and cost, will enable the usage of large size CMOS-based detectors, and may facilitate photon counting techniques with the potential to further enhance performance characteristics and foster the prospect of new clinical applications

  3. X-ray diagnostics for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Goeler, S.; Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.

    1982-12-01

    A short description of the x-ray diagnostic preparation for the TFTR tokamak is given. The x-ray equipment consists of the limiter x-ray monitoring system, the soft x-ray pulse-height-analysis-system, the soft x-ray imaging system and the x-ray crystal spectrometer. Particular attention is given to the radiation protection of the x-ray systems from the neutron environment

  4. X-ray filter for chest X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferlic, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    A description is given of an X-ray filter comprised of a sheet of radiation absorbing material with an opening corresponding to the spine and central portion of the heart. The upper portion of the filter exhibits a relatively narrow opening which becomes gradually wider toward the lower portion of the filter. This filter will permit an acceptable density level of x-ray exposure for the lungs while allowing a higher level of x-ray exposure for the mediastinum areas of the body. (author)

  5. X-ray filter for chest x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferlic, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Filter for use in medical x-ray apparatus to permit higher intensity x-ray exposure in the heart and mediastinum area while maintaining a normal level of x-ray exposure in other areas of the body, particlarly in the lung area. The filter comprises a sheet of radiation absorbing material having an opening therein, said opening corresponding to the spine and central portion of the heart. Accordingly, the upper portion of the filter exhibits a relatively narrow opening which becomes gradually wider toward the lower portion of the filter

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the Pax9 paired domain bound to a DC5 enhancer DNA element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Kamesh; Hilbig, Antonia; Udayasuryan, Barath; Jayabal, Sriram; Kolatkar, Prasanna R; Jauch, Ralf

    2014-10-01

    Pax genes belong to a family of metazoan transcription factors that are known to play a critical role in eye, ear, kidney and neural development. The mammalian Pax family of transcription factors is characterized by a ∼128-amino-acid DNA-binding paired domain that makes sequence-specific contacts with DNA. The diversity in Pax gene activities emerges from complex modes of interaction with enhancer regions and heterodimerization with multiple interaction partners. Based on in vitro optimal binding-site selection studies and enhancer identification assays, it has been suggested that Pax proteins may recognize and bind their target DNA elements with different binding modes/topologies, however this hypothesis has not yet been structurally explored. One of the most extensively studied DNA target elements of the Pax6 paired domain is the eye-lens specific DC5 (δ-crystallin) enhancer element. In order to shed light on Pax6-DC5 DNA interactions, the related paired-domain prototype Pax9 was crystallized with the minimal δ-crystallin DC5 enhancer element and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis was attempted. A 3.0 Å resolution native data set was collected at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven from crystals grown in a solution consisting of 10%(w/v) PEG 20K, 20%(v/v) PEG 550 MME, 0.03 M NaNO3, 0.03 M Na2HPO4, 0.03 M NH2SO4, 0.1 M MES/imidazole pH 6.5. The data set was indexed and merged in space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 75.74, b = 165.59, c = 70.14 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The solvent content in the unit cell is consistent with the presence of one Pax9 paired domain bound to duplex DNA in the asymmetric unit.

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the Pax9 paired domain bound to a DC5 enhancer DNA element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Kamesh; Hilbig, Antonia; Udayasuryan, Barath; Jayabal, Sriram; Kolatkar, Prasanna R.; Jauch, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Pax genes belong to a family of metazoan transcription factors that are known to play a critical role in eye, ear, kidney and neural development. The mammalian Pax family of transcription factors is characterized by a ∼128-amino-acid DNA-binding paired domain that makes sequence-specific contacts with DNA. The diversity in Pax gene activities emerges from complex modes of interaction with enhancer regions and heterodimerization with multiple interaction partners. Based on in vitro optimal binding-site selection studies and enhancer identification assays, it has been suggested that Pax proteins may recognize and bind their target DNA elements with different binding modes/topologies, however this hypothesis has not yet been structurally explored. One of the most extensively studied DNA target elements of the Pax6 paired domain is the eye-lens specific DC5 (δ-crystallin) enhancer element. In order to shed light on Pax6–DC5 DNA interactions, the related paired-domain prototype Pax9 was crystallized with the minimal δ-crystallin DC5 enhancer element and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis was attempted. A 3.0 Å resolution native data set was collected at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven from crystals grown in a solution consisting of 10%(w/v) PEG 20K, 20%(v/v) PEG 550 MME, 0.03 M NaNO3, 0.03 M Na2HPO4, 0.03 M NH2SO4, 0.1 M MES/imidazole pH 6.5. The data set was indexed and merged in space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 75.74, b = 165.59, c = 70.14 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The solvent content in the unit cell is consistent with the presence of one Pax9 paired domain bound to duplex DNA in the asymmetric unit. PMID:25286939

  8. X-ray diffraction microtomography using synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Barroso, R C; Jesus, E F O; Oliveira, L F

    2001-01-01

    The X-ray diffraction computed tomography technique is based on the interference phenomena of the coherent scatter. For low-momentum transfer, it is most probable that the scattering interaction will be coherent. A selective discrimination of a given element in a scanned specimen can be realized by fixing the Bragg angle which produces an interference peak and then, to carry out the computed tomography in the standard mode. The image reconstructed exalts the presence of this element with respect to other ones in a sample. This work reports the feasibility of a non-destructive synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction imaging technique. This research was performed at the X-ray Diffraction beam line of the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS) in Brazil. The coherent scattering properties of different tissue and bone substitute materials were evaluated. Furthermore, diffraction patterns of some polycrystalline solids were studied due to industrial and environmental human exposure to these metals. The obtai...

  9. Soft x-ray measurements on the PLT Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Goeler, S.; Sauthoff, N.; Bitter, M.

    1977-10-01

    Four experiments are described that currently run on the PLT tokamak and which utilize the soft x-ray emission of the plasma as a diagnostic: the pulse height analysis system for temperature and impurity measurements; the curved crystal Bragg spectrometer for the determination of ionization states of impurities; ''windowless'' surface barrier detectors for the investigation of the ultra soft x-ray radiation in the energy range 0.1 keV < hν < 1 keV and a silicon diode array for x-ray fluctuation measurements. For each diagnostic a short technical description and some recent results obtained with it on PLT are given in order to demonstrate its use

  10. Coherent X-ray diffraction studies of mesoscopic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabalin, Anatoly

    2015-12-01

    This thesis is devoted to three separate projects, which can be considered as independent. First, the dynamical scattering effects in the Coherent X-ray Diffractive Imaging (CXDI) method are discussed. Based on the simulation results, a straightforward method for correction for the refraction and absorption artifacts in the Bragg CXDI reconstruction is suggested. The second part summarizes the results of an Coherent X-ray Diffractive Imaging experiment with a single colloidal crystal grain. A remarkable result is that positions of individual particles in the crystal lattice have been resolved in three dimensions. The third project is devoted to X-ray diffraction experimental studies of structural evolution of colloidal crystalline films upon incremental heating. Based on the results of the analysis a model of structural evolution of a colloidal crystal upon heating on nanoscopic and mesoscopic length scales is suggested.

  11. X-Ray Diffraction Project Final Report, Fiscal Year 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dane V. Morgan

    2006-01-01

    An x-ray diffraction diagnostic system was developed for determining real-time shock-driven lattice parameter shifts in single crystals at the gas gun at TA-IV at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The signal-to-noise ratio and resolution of the system were measured using imaging plates as the detector and by varying the slit width. This report includes tests of the x-ray diffraction system using a phosphor coupled to a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera by a coherent fiber-optic bundle. The system timing delay was measured with a newly installed transistor-transistor logic (TTL) bypass designed to reduce the x-ray delay time. The axial misalignment of the Bragg planes was determined with respect to the optical axis for a set of eight LiF [lithium fluoride] crystals provided by SNL to determine their suitability for gas gun experiments

  12. Semiconductor X-ray detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Barrie Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Identifying and measuring the elemental x-rays released when materials are examined with particles (electrons, protons, alpha particles, etc.) or photons (x-rays and gamma rays) is still considered to be the primary analytical technique for routine and non-destructive materials analysis. The Lithium Drifted Silicon (Si(Li)) X-Ray Detector, with its good resolution and peak to background, pioneered this type of analysis on electron microscopes, x-ray fluorescence instruments, and radioactive source- and accelerator-based excitation systems. Although rapid progress in Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs), Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs), and Compound Semiconductor Detectors, including renewed interest in alternative materials such as CdZnTe and diamond, has made the Si(Li) X-Ray Detector nearly obsolete, the device serves as a useful benchmark and still is used in special instances where its large, sensitive depth is essential. Semiconductor X-Ray Detectors focuses on the history and development of Si(Li) X-Ray Detect...

  13. Enhanced susceptibility of a transposable-element-bearing strain of Drosophila melanogaster to somatic eye-color mutations by ethyl nitrosourea, methyl nitrosourea, and X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryo, H.; Kondo, S.; Rasmuson, B.

    1983-01-01

    A strain of Drosophila with the genes z and w + plus a transposable element (TE) is about 3 times more sensitive than a strain without TE toward somatic eye-color mutations after larval exposure to ethyl nitrosourea, methyl nitrosourea and X-rays. The assay system with TE is simple, reliable, and sensitive for detecting somatic mutations induced in vivo by mutagens. (orig.)

  14. X-ray film calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, G.F.; Dittmore, C.H.; Henke, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of silver halide x-ray films for imaging and spectroscopy which is limited by the range of intensities that can be recorded and densitometered. Using the manufacturers processing techniques can result in 10 2-3 range in intensity recorded over 0-5 density range. By modifying the chemistry and processing times, ranges of 10 5-6 can be recorded in the same density range. The authors report on x-ray film calibration work and dynamic range improvements. Changes to the processing chemistry and the resulting changes in dynamic range and x-ray sensitivity are discussed

  15. Women and x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunkley, P A; Stewart, J H

    1976-01-01

    When a woman comes to an X-Ray Department it is usually necessary to know the present stage of her menstrual cycle. X-Rays may have an adverse effect on the embryo, especially in early pregnancy. However, exposure to X-Rays at any stage may be associated with a slightly increased incidence of malignant disease in childhood. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends that in women of child-bearing age (in some cases as young as 11 years), non-urgent diagnostic radiography be confined to the preovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle: that is, 14 days following the first day of the last menstrual period.

  16. Upsurge of X-ray astronomy 230-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    Instruments are described used for X-ray astronomy, namely X-ray detectors and X-ray telescopes. Unlike telescopes, the detectors do not comprise X-ray optics. A survey is given of the results obtained in solar and stellar X-ray astronomy and hypotheses are submitted on the origin of X radiation in the interstellar space. (J.B.)

  17. Nanoparticle-Assisted Scanning Focusing X-Ray Therapy with Needle Beam X Rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, R Andrew; Guo, Ting

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we show a new therapeutic approach using 40-120 keV X rays to deliver a radiation dose at the isocenter located many centimeters below the skin surface several hundred times greater than at the skin and how this dose enhancement can be augmented with nanomaterials to create several thousand-fold total dose enhancement effect. This novel approach employs a needle X-ray beam directed at the isocenter centimeters deep in the body while continuously scanning the beam to cover a large solid angle without overlapping at the skin. A Monte Carlo method was developed to simulate an X-ray dose delivered to the isocenter filled with X-ray absorbing and catalytic nanoparticles in a water phantom. An experimental apparatus consisting of a moving plastic phantom irradiated with a stationary 1 mm needle X-ray beam was built to test the theoretical predictions. X-ray films were used to characterize the dose profiles of the scanning X-ray apparatus. Through this work, it was determined that the X-ray dose delivered to the isocenter in a treatment voxel (t-voxel) underneath a 5 cm deep high-density polyethylene (HDPE) phantom was 295 ± 48 times greater than the surface dose. This measured value was in good agreement with the theoretical predicted value of 339-fold. Adding X-ray-absorbing nanoparticles, catalytic nanoparticles or both into the t-voxel can further augment the dose enhancement. For example, we predicted that adding 1 weight percentage (wp) of gold into water could increase the effective dose delivered to the target by onefold. Dose enhancement using 1 mm X-ray beam could reach about 1,600-fold in the t-voxel when 7.5 wp of 88 nm diameter silica-covered gold nanoparticles were added, which we showed in a previously published study can create a dose enhancement of 5.5 ± 0.46-fold without scanning focusing enhancement. Based on the experimental data from that study, mixing 0.02 wp 2.5 nm diameter small tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride (THPC

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more information about pregnancy and x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is taken ... and/or your insurance provider to get a better understanding of the possible charges you will incur. ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... is repeated. Two or three images (from different angles) will typically be taken. An x-ray may ... RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your physician with specific medical questions or for ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... no special preparation. Tell your doctor and the technologist if there is any possibility you are pregnant. ... should always inform their physician and x-ray technologist if there is any possibility that they are ...

  1. X-ray guided biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanova, R.; Lezana, A.H.; Pedrosa, C.S.

    1980-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is now a routine procedure in many X-ray Departments. This paper presents the authors' experience with this technique in chest, abdominal and skeletal lesions. (Auth.)

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of ... exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in ... injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely ...

  4. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Intra-oral dental X-ray apparatus for panoramic dental radiography is described in detail. It comprises an electron gun having an elongated tubular target carrier extending into the patient's mouth. The carrier supports an inclined target for direction of an X-ray pattern towards a film positioned externally of the patient's mouth. Image definition is improved by a focusing anode which focuses the electron beam into a sharp spot (0.05 to 0.10 mm diameter) on the target. The potential on the focusing anode is adjustable to vary the size of the spot. An X-ray transmitting ceramic (oxides of Be, Al and Si) window is positioned adjacent to the front face of the target. The electron beam can be magnetically deflected to change the X-ray beam direction. (author)

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... procedure varies. See the Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their ...

  6. X-Ray Assembler Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Federal regulations require that an assembler who installs one or more certified components of a diagnostic x-ray system submit a report of assembly. This database...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... technologist, an individual specially trained to perform radiology examinations, positions the patient on the x-ray table ... bone is forming), for comparison purposes. When the examination is complete, you may be asked to wait ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... in a known abnormality can be monitored over time. Follow-up examinations are sometimes the best way ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more of the x-rays ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more of the x-rays ... information you were looking for? Yes No Please type your comment or suggestion into the following text ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not to expose the fetus to ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page What does ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a large photographic negative). Today, most images are digital files that are stored electronically. These stored images ... and places the x-ray film holder or digital recording plate under the table in the area ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in metabolic conditions. assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft ... frequently compared to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of any bone in the body, including the hand, wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, spine, pelvis, hip, thigh, knee, leg ( ... Image Gallery Radiological technologist preparing to take an arm x-ray on a ... Images related ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care is taken during x-ray examinations to use the lowest radiation dose possible while producing the best images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that ... radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different parts of the body absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. Dense ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken to the patient in a hospital ... so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over time. Follow-up examinations are ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? A bone x-ray examination itself ... available in emergency rooms, physician offices, ambulatory care centers, nursing homes and other locations, making it convenient ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... will analyze the images and send a signed report to your primary care or referring physician , who ... Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report Images related to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams ... the web pages found at these links. About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to produce pictures of any bone in the body. It is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones ... x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the baby. See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page ... procedure varies. See the Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in metabolic ... to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... imaged. When necessary, sandbags, pillows or other positioning devices will be used to help you maintain the ... here Images × Image Gallery Radiological technologist preparing to take an arm x-ray on a patient. View ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A bone x-ray is ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ...

  9. Flash x-ray cinematography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, W.E.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments intended to provide an overview of the potential capabilities and limitations of flash x-ray cinematography as a diagnostic technique for a Fast Reactor Safety Test Facility are described. The results provide estimates of the x-ray pulse intensity required to obtain adequate radiographs of an array of fuel pins in a typical reactor configuration. An estimate of the upper limit on the pulse duration imposed by the reactor background radiation was also determined. X-ray cinematography has been demonstrated at a repetition rate limited only by the recording equipment on hand at the time of these measurements. These preliminary results indicate that flash x-ray cinematography of the motion of fuel in a Fast Reactor Test Facility is technically feasible

  10. X-ray screening materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardley, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to x-ray screening materials and especially to materials in sheet form for use in the production of, for example, protective clothing such as aprons and lower back shields, curtains, mobile screens and suspended shields. The invention is based on the observation that x-ray screening materials in sheet form having greater flexiblity than the hitherto known x-ray screening materials of the same x-ray absorber content can be produced if, instead of using a single sheet of filled sheet material of increased thickness, one uses a plurality of sheets of lesser thickness together forming a laminar material of the desired thickness and one bonds the individual sheets together at their edges and, optionally, at other spaced apart points away from the edges thereby allowing one sheet to move relative to another. (U.K.)

  11. X-ray luminescent glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T.; Yamada, O.

    1981-01-01

    X-ray luminescent glasses comprising a divalent cation such as an alkaline earth metal or other divalent cations such as pb, cd, or zn, and certain rare earth metaphosphates are suitable as vitreous, x-ray phosphors or x-ray luminescent glass fibers in an x-ray intensifying screen. The glasses have the composition n(Mo X p2o5)((1-y)tb2o3 X yce2o3 X 3p2o5) wherein N is greater than zero but less than or equal to 16, M is an alkaline earth metal or other divalent cation such as pb, cd, or zn, and Y is greater than or equal to zero but less than one

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of any bone in the ... of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... examination may also be necessary so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over ...

  14. Miniature x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebes, James E.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

  15. Duodenal X-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheppach, W.

    1982-01-01

    The publication provides an overview of duodenal X-ray diagnostics with the aid of barium meals in 1362 patients. The introducing paragraphs deal with the topographic anatomy of the region and the methodics of X-ray investigation. The chapter entitled ''processes at the duodenum itself'' describes mainly ulcers, diverticula, congenital anomalies, tumors and inflammations. The neighbourhood processes comprise in the first place diseases having their origin at the pancreas and bile ducts. As a conclusion, endoscopic rectograde cholangio-pancreaticography and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography are pointed out as advanced X-ray investigation methods. In the annex of X-ray images some of the described phenomena are shown in exemplary manner. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ... accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fracture. guide orthopedic surgery, such as spine repair/fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, ... CT Exams Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone x-ray makes images of any ... a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small ... the table in the area of the body being imaged. When necessary, sandbags, pillows or other positioning ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. ... minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. ... appliances, eye glasses and any metal objects or clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. ...

  3. Magnetic x-ray microdiffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Paul G [Computer-Aided Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Isaacs, Eric D [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2006-08-07

    Magnetic x-ray microdiffraction uses the structural specificity of x-ray diffraction to probe complex magnetic structures at the length scales relevant to physical phenomena including domain dynamics and phase transitions. Conventional magnetic crystallography techniques such as neutron or x-ray diffraction lack this spatial resolution. The combination of both reciprocal space and real space resolution with a rich magnetic cross section allows new microscopy techniques to be developed and applied to magnetism at the scale of single domains. Potential applications include a wide range of magnetic problems in nanomagnetism, the interaction of strain, polarization and magnetization in complex oxides and spatially resolved studies of magnetic phase transitions. We present the physical basis for x-ray microdiffraction and magnetic scattering processes, review microdiffraction domain imaging techniques in antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic materials and discuss potential directions for studies. (topical review)

  4. Electromechanical x-ray generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Scott A; Platts, David; Sorensen, Eric B

    2016-05-03

    An electro-mechanical x-ray generator configured to obtain high-energy operation with favorable energy-weight scaling. The electro-mechanical x-ray generator may include a pair of capacitor plates. The capacitor plates may be charged to a predefined voltage and may be separated to generate higher voltages on the order of hundreds of kV in the AK gap. The high voltage may be generated in a vacuum tube.

  5. Accelerator x-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Talman, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This first book to cover in-depth the generation of x-rays in particle accelerators focuses on electron beams produced by means of the novel Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) technology. The resulting highly brilliant x-rays are at the centre of this monograph, which continues where other books on the market stop. Written primarily for general, high energy and radiation physicists, the systematic treatment adopted by the work makes it equally suitable as an advanced textbook for young researchers.

  6. X-ray tube target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A target with an improved heat emissive surface for use in a rotating anode type x-ray tube is described. The target consists of a body having a first surface portion made of x-ray emissive material and a second surface portion made of a heat emissive material comprising at least one of hafnium boride, hafnium oxide, hafnium nitride, hafnium silicide, and hafnium aluminide. (U.K.)

  7. X-ray fluorescence holography

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, K; Takahashi, Y

    2003-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a new structural analysis method of determining a 3D atomic arrangement around fluorescing atoms. We developed an XFH apparatus using advanced X-ray techniques and succeeded in obtaining high-quality hologram data. Furthermore, we introduced applications to the structural analysis of a thin film and the environment around dopants and, discussed the quantitative analysis of local lattice distortion. (author)

  8. X-ray data processing

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Harold R.

    2017-01-01

    The method of molecular structure determination by X-ray crystallography is a little over a century old. The history is described briefly, along with developments in X-ray sources and detectors. The fundamental processes involved in measuring diffraction patterns on area detectors, i.e. autoindexing, refining crystal and detector parameters, integrating the reflections themselves and putting the resultant measurements on to a common scale are discussed, with particular reference to the most c...

  9. Low energy (soft) x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Masaharu; Antoku, Shigetoshi; Russell, W.J.; Miller, R.C.; Nakamura, Nori; Mizuno, Masayoshi; Nishio, Shoji.

    1987-05-01

    Dosimetry of low-energy (soft) X rays produced by the SOFTEX Model CMBW-2 was performed using Nuclear Associates Type 30 - 330 PTW, Exradin Type A2, and Shonka-Wyckoff ionization chambers with a Keithley Model 602 electrometer. Thermoluminescent (BeO chip) dosimeters were used with a Harshaw Detector 2000-A and Picoammeter-B readout system. Beam quality measurements were made using aluminum absorbers; exposure rates were assessed by the current of the X-ray tube and by exposure times. Dose distributions were established, and the average factors for non-uniformity were calculated. The means of obtaining accurate absorbed and exposed doses using these methods are discussed. Survival of V79 cells was assessed by irradiating them with soft X rays, 200 kVp X rays, and 60 Co gamma rays. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for soft X rays with 0, 0.2, 0.7 mm added thicknesses of aluminum were 1.6, which were compared to 60 Co. The RBE of 200 kVp X rays relative to 60 Co was 1.3. Results of this study are available for reference in future RERF studies of cell survival. (author)

  10. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Center for X-Ray Optics; Soft X-Ray Imaging wit Zone Plate Lenses; Biological X-Ray microscopy; Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography for Nanoelectronic Pattern Transfer; Multilayer Reflective Optics; EUV/Soft X-ray Reflectometer; Photoemission Microscopy with Reflective Optics; Spectroscopy with Soft X-Rays; Hard X-Ray Microprobe; Coronary Angiography; and Atomic Scattering Factors

  11. Coherent methods in X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorobtsov, Oleg

    2017-05-01

    X-ray radiation has been used to study structural properties of materials for more than a hundred years. Construction of extremely coherent and bright X-ray radiation sources such as free electron lasers (FELs) and latest generationstorage rings led to rapid development of experimental methods relying on high radiation coherence. These methods allow to perform revolutionary studies in a wide range of fields from solid state physics to biology. In this thesis I focus on several important problems connected with the coherent methods. The first part considers applications of dynamical diffraction theory on crystals to studies with coherent X-ray radiation. It presents the design of a high-resolution spectrometer for free electron lasers that should allow to resolve spectral structure of individual FEL pulses. The spectrometer is based on the principle of dynamical diffraction focusing. The knowledge of individual FEL pulse spectra is necessary for understanding FEL longitudinal coherence. In the same part I present quasi-kinematical approximation to dynamical theory which allows to treat analytically phase effects observed in X-ray coherent imaging on nanocrystals. These effects may play a big role when methods such as ptychography are used to study crystalline samples. The second part deals with measurements of FEL coherence properties using intensity - intensity interferometry. Results of several experiments performed at FELs FLASH and LCLS are revealed in this section. I have developed models and theories to explain the behavior observed in experiments on FLASH. These models allowed to extract information about external positional jitter of FEL pulses and secondary beams present in FEL radiation. In the LCLS experiment the Hanbury Brown and Twiss type interferometry was performed on Bragg peaks from colloidal crystal. This did not require additional measurements without the sample and information was extracted directly from diffraction patterns. Therefore intensity

  12. Coherent methods in X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorobtsov, Oleg

    2017-05-15

    X-ray radiation has been used to study structural properties of materials for more than a hundred years. Construction of extremely coherent and bright X-ray radiation sources such as free electron lasers (FELs) and latest generationstorage rings led to rapid development of experimental methods relying on high radiation coherence. These methods allow to perform revolutionary studies in a wide range of fields from solid state physics to biology. In this thesis I focus on several important problems connected with the coherent methods. The first part considers applications of dynamical diffraction theory on crystals to studies with coherent X-ray radiation. It presents the design of a high-resolution spectrometer for free electron lasers that should allow to resolve spectral structure of individual FEL pulses. The spectrometer is based on the principle of dynamical diffraction focusing. The knowledge of individual FEL pulse spectra is necessary for understanding FEL longitudinal coherence. In the same part I present quasi-kinematical approximation to dynamical theory which allows to treat analytically phase effects observed in X-ray coherent imaging on nanocrystals. These effects may play a big role when methods such as ptychography are used to study crystalline samples. The second part deals with measurements of FEL coherence properties using intensity - intensity interferometry. Results of several experiments performed at FELs FLASH and LCLS are revealed in this section. I have developed models and theories to explain the behavior observed in experiments on FLASH. These models allowed to extract information about external positional jitter of FEL pulses and secondary beams present in FEL radiation. In the LCLS experiment the Hanbury Brown and Twiss type interferometry was performed on Bragg peaks from colloidal crystal. This did not require additional measurements without the sample and information was extracted directly from diffraction patterns. Therefore intensity

  13. Cell-stage-specific enhancement by caffeine of the frequency of chromatid aberrations induced by X-rays in neutral ganglia of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marco, A.; Polani, S.

    1981-01-01

    Caffeine (10 -2 M) induced a high level of chromatid aberrations in neural ganglia of third-instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster only when it was added to cells in late G 2 and mitotic prophase. No aberrations were observed after treatment in late S-middle G 2 or C-mitosis. We observed that, in these stages, caffeine strongly increased X-ray-induced damage (500 R). This potentiation was quantitatively similar. But it involved all types of aberration after treatment in C-mitosis, and essentially isochromatid deletions and chromatid exhanges after treatment in S-G 2 . Some hypotheses are put forth to explain the possible mechanism of action of caffeine in the potentiation of X-ray-induced damage. (orig.)

  14. The discovery of X-ray diffraction by crystals and its great impact on science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai Zhenhong

    2012-01-01

    In April 1912, Friedrich, Knipping and Laue discovered X-ray diffraction in a CuSO 4 crystal. Later, Laue derived the famous Laue equations which explain the diffraction phenomenon. For this, Laue was awarded a Nobel Prize for Physics in 1914. In 1912 W. H. Bragg and W. L. Bragg received news of Laue 's discovery, and from X-ray diffraction experiments in a ZnS crystal they derived the famous Bragg equation. For this work, father and son were together awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1915, To commemorate the 100th anniversary of the discovery of X-ray diffraction, this article reviews the important contributions of the early pioneers and their historic impact on science and technology worldwide. (author)

  15. Crystallized solids characterization by X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broll, N.

    1996-01-01

    This work deals with the crystallized solids characterization by X-ray diffraction. The powders diffraction principle is described. Then are given the different powders diffraction experimental methods. An X-ray diffraction device is essentially constituted of three parts: the X-rays source, the sample and the detector. The source is usually constituted by an X-rays tube whereas the sample can be fixed on a photographic chamber or put on a goniometer. The different photographic chambers which can be used (Debye-Scherrer, Seeman-Bohlin and Guinier) are described. The powders diffractometer the most used is a Bragg-Brentano focusing diffractometer because it allows to obtain very sharp spectral lines and an important diffracted intensity. The detectors which are the mainly used are the scintillation counters. The most important use in powders diffractometry is the identification of the different phases of a sample. The phases identification consists to compare the unknown sample spectrum at those of standard materials indexed until now. Two methods exist at present. They are explained and their limits in the phases search are given. Another use of the X-ray diffraction is the quantitative analysis. It consists to determine the concentrations of each crystal phases of a sample. The principles of these quantitative methods are given. The lattice parameters of a polycrystal material can be determined from its X-ray pattern too with a very high precision. The way to index powders patterns is given. The residual stresses of materials can also be estimated. The principle of this measured method is explained. It is at last possible to study from an X-ray pattern, the material grain orientations during the different steps of preparation and working. (O.M.). 13 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  16. X-ray elastography: Modification of x-ray phase contrast images using ultrasonic radiation pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Theron J.; Bailat, Claude; Rose-Petruck, Christoph; Diebold, Gerald J.; Gehring, Stephan; Laperle, Christopher M.; Wands, Jack

    2009-01-01

    The high resolution characteristic of in-line x-ray phase contrast imaging can be used in conjunction with directed ultrasound to detect small displacements in soft tissue generated by differential acoustic radiation pressure. The imaging method is based on subtraction of two x-ray images, the first image taken with, and the second taken without the presence of ultrasound. The subtraction enhances phase contrast features and, to a large extent, removes absorption contrast so that differential movement of tissues with different acoustic impedances or relative ultrasonic absorption is highlighted in the image. Interfacial features of objects with differing densities are delineated in the image as a result of both the displacement introduced by the ultrasound and the inherent sensitivity of x-ray phase contrast imaging to density variations. Experiments with ex vivo murine tumors and human tumor phantoms point out a diagnostic capability of the method for identifying tumors.

  17. Mapping of auroral x-rays from rocket overflights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, R.A.; Barcus, J.R.; Treinish, L.A.; Vondrak, R.R.

    1982-01-01

    In March 1978, two Nike Tomahawk payloads were launched from Poker Flat, Alaska, to observe the structure of bremsstrhlung x rays and precipitating particles during both nighttime and daytime observe x rays in four spectral ranges (5--10 keV, 10--20 keV, 20--40 keV, and >40 keV). Particle contamination of the detectors was avoided with broom magnet shielding techniques. By virtue of the payloads' approximate 20 0 coning angle (about 10.5-s period), the detectors scanned wide regions on either side of the trajectory paths. This has permitted construction (using computer color graphics) of the time averaged (approx.4 min) x ray source regions near 100 km, a height consistent with Chatanika radar electron density maps obtained during each flight period. X ray image maps for both flights exhibit enhanced source regions well outside the rocket trajectory planes. For the nighttime overflight, Chatanika radar scan data and Fort Yukon riometer data were used to verify the presence of an x ray imaged enhancement of electron precipitation, approximately 30 km to the east of the rocket trajectory plane. The daytime x ray data also exhibited several regions of enhanced emission, but outside the region scanned by Chatanika radar. A comparison of the x ray emissions from the two events shows the daytime x ray spectral distributions to be significantly harder but less intense that the nighttime distributions. Furthermore, for both events, spectra compared within and nearby each enhanced emitting region exhibit characteristics of a two component spectrum, such that the bright regions show an increased flux primarily in the low-energy component. Electron fluxes measured on each of the two flights with Geiger tubes are mainly isotropic over the downward hemisphere at night but show anisotropic pitch angle characteristics by day, consistent with the concept that the enhancement of the low-energy x ray flux component is predominantly induced by electrons filling the loss cone

  18. Polarized X-ray excitation for scatter reduction in X-ray fluorescence computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernekohl, Don; Tzoumas, Stratis; Zhao, Wei; Xing, Lei

    2018-05-25

    reconstruction showed that for a scatter magnitude decrease by a factor of 2.4, the molecular sensitivity could almost be doubled. Scatter reduction lowers the amount of noise in the projection datasets and reconstructed images which enhances molecular sensitivity at equal dose. The results support the use of linear polarized X-rays to reduce scatter in XFCT imaging. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization and modeling of soft x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, A.S.; Cauble, R.; Celliers, P.; DaSilva, L.B.; Libby, S.B.; London, R.A.; Nilsen, J.; Moreno, J.C.; Weber, F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes our theoretical, numerical, and experimental development of short-pulse-duration, high brightness, and enhanced coherence x-ray lasers (XRLs) as sources suitable for applications as imaging diagnostics for laser plasmas

  20. Spatial distributions of dose enhancement around a gold nanoparticle at several depths of proton Bragg peak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jihun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University (Japan); Sutherland, Kenneth [Department of Medical Physics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University (Japan); Hashimoto, Takayuki [Department of Radiation Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Shirato, Hiroki [Department of Radiation Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine and Global Station for Quantum Medical Science and Engineering, Global Institution for Collaborative Research and Education (GI-CoRE), Hokkaido University (Japan); Date, Hiroyuki, E-mail: date@hs.hokudai.ac.jp [Faculty of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University (Japan)

    2016-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been recognized as a promising candidate for a radiation sensitizer. A proton beam incident on a GNP can produce secondary electrons, resulting in an enhancement of the dose around the GNP. However, little is known about the spatial distribution of dose enhancement around the GNP, especially in the direction along the incident proton. The purpose of this study is to determine the spatial distribution of dose enhancement by taking the incident direction into account. Two steps of calculation were conducted using the Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit. First, the energy spectra of 100 and 195 MeV protons colliding with a GNP were calculated at the Bragg peak and three other depths around the peak in liquid water. Second, the GNP was bombarded by protons with the obtained energy spectra. Radial dose distributions were computed along the incident beam direction. The spatial distributions of the dose enhancement factor (DEF) and subtracted dose (D{sub sub}) were then evaluated. The spatial DEF distributions showed hot spots in the distal radial region from the proton beam axis. The spatial D{sub sub} distribution isotropically spread out around the GNP. Low energy protons caused higher and wider dose enhancement. The macroscopic dose enhancement in clinical applications was also evaluated. The results suggest that the consideration of the spatial distribution of GNPs in treatment planning will maximize the potential of GNPs.

  1. Neutron and X-ray Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carini, Gabriella [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Denes, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gruener, Sol [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Lessner, Elianne [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science Office of Basic Energy Sciences

    2012-08-01

    : Improvements in the readout speed and energy resolution of X-ray detectors are essential to enable chemically sensitive microscopies. Advances would make it possible to take images with simultaneous spatial and chemical information. Very high-energy-resolution X-ray detectors: The energy resolution of semiconductor detectors, while suitable for a wide range of applications, is far less than what can be achieved with X-ray optics. A direct detector that could rival the energy resolution of optics could dramatically improve the efficiency of a multitude of experiments, as experiments are often repeated at a number of different energies. Very high-energy-resolution detectors could make these experiments parallel, rather than serial. Low-background, high-spatial-resolution neutron detectors: Low-background detectors would significantly improve experiments that probe excitations (phonons, spin excitations, rotation, and diffusion in polymers and molecular substances, etc.) in condensed matter. Improved spatial resolution would greatly benefit radiography, tomography, phase-contrast imaging, and holography. Improved acquisition and visualization tools: In the past, with the limited variety of slow detectors, it was straightforward to visualize data as it was being acquired (and adjust experimental conditions accordingly) to create a compact data set that the user could easily transport. As detector complexity and data rates explode, this becomes much more challenging. Three goals were identified as important for coping with the growing data volume from high-speed detectors: Facilitate better algorithm development. In particular, algorithms that can minimize the quantity of data stored. Improve community-driven mechanisms to reduce data protocols and enhance quantitative, interactive visualization tools. Develop and distribute community-developed, detector-specific simulation tools. Aim for parallelization to take advantage of high-performance analysis platforms. Improved analysis

  2. Transmission X-ray mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lairson, B.M.; Bilderback, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Transmission X-ray mirrors have been made from 400 A to 10 000 A thick soap films and have been shown to have novel properties. Using grazing angles of incidence, low energy X-rays were reflected from the front surface while more energetic X-rays were transmitted through the mirror largely unattenuated. A wide bandpass monochromator was made from a silicon carbide mirror followed by a soap film transmission mirror and operated in the white beam at the cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). Bandpasses of ΔE/E=12% to 18% were achieved at 13 keV with peak efficiencies estimated to be between 55% and 75%, respectively. Several wide angle scattering photographs of stretched polyethylene and a phospholipid were obtained in 10 s using an 18% bandpass. (orig.)

  3. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Intra-oral X-ray apparatus which reduces the number of exposures necessary to obtain panoramic dental radiographs is described in detail. It comprises an electron gun, a tubular target carrier projecting from the gun along the beam axis and carrying at its distal end a target surrounded by a shield of X-ray opaque material. This shield extends forward and laterally of the target and has surfaces which define a wedge or cone-shaped radiation pattern delimited vertically by the root tips of the patient's teeth. A film holder is located externally of the patient's mouth. A disposable member can fit on the target carrier to depress the patient's tongue out of the radiation pattern and to further shield the roof of the mouth. The electron beam can be magnetically deflected to change the X-ray beam direction. (author)

  4. Exponential x-ray transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazou, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    In emission computed tomography one wants to determine the location and intensity of radiation emitted by sources in the presence of an attenuating medium. If the attenuation is known everywhere and equals a constant α in a convex neighborhood of the support of f, then the problem reduces to that of inverting the exponential x-ray transform P/sub α/. The exponential x-ray transform P/sub μ/ with the attenuation μ variable, is of interest mathematically. For the exponential x-ray transform in two dimensions, it is shown that for a large class of approximate δ functions E, convolution kernels K exist for use in the convolution backprojection algorithm. For the case where the attenuation is constant, exact formulas are derived for calculating the convolution kernels from radial point spread functions. From these an exact inversion formula for the constantly attenuated transform is obtained

  5. X-ray of osteopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyschmidt, J.

    1980-01-01

    Osteoporosis, osteomalcia, fibro-osteoclasia and osteosclerosis are essential reactions to pathologicometabolic processes of the bone. The X-ray film shows precisely which changes have taken place in the bone structure, thus supplying the means for an analysis based on anatomic pathology. These phenomena are discussed in detail, special attention being paid to structural modifications. Attention is also focused on the problems connected with X-ray technology. The value of direct and indirect magnification of the skeleton of the hand for the identification and classification of esteopathies is explained. Phenomena observed in X-ray films, such as enosteal erosion, intracortical longitudinal stripes or tunnelisation, as well as subperiostal absorption, can be of pathognomonic importance for certain osteopathies. (orig.) [de

  6. Imaging X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elvis, M.

    1990-01-01

    The launch of the High Energy Astrophysical Observatory, more appealingly called the Einstein Observatory, marked one of the most revolutionary steps taken in astrophysics this century. Its greater sensitivity compared with earlier satellites and its ability to make high spacial and spectral resolution observations transformed X-ray astronomy. This book is based on a Symposium held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, to celebrate a decade of Einstein Observatory's achievements. It discusses the contributions that this satellite has made to each area of modern astrophysics and the diversity of the ongoing work based on Einstein data. There is a guide to each of the main data bases now coming on-line to increase the availability and to preserve this valuable archive for the future. A review of NASA's next big X-ray mission, AXAF, and a visionary program for novel X-ray astronomy satellites by Riccardo Giacconi conclude this wide-ranging volume. (author)

  7. Solar X-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urnov, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    In the popular form the consideration is given to the modern state tasks and results of X-ray spectrometry of solar bursts. The operation of X-ray spectroheliograph is described. Results of spectral and polarization measurings of X-ray radiation of one powerful solar burst are presented. The conclusion has been drawn that in the process of burst development three characteristic stages may be distingwished: 1) the initial phase; just in this period processes which lead to observed consequences-electromagnetic and corpuscular radiation are born; 2) the impulse phase, or the phase of maximum, is characterised by sharp increase of radiation flux. During this phase the main energy content emanates and some volumes of plasma warm up to high temperatures; 3) the phase of burst damping, during which plasma cools and reverts to the initial condition

  8. X-ray fluorescence holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kouichi; Happo, Naohisa; Hosokawa, Shinya; Hu, Wen; Matsushita, Tomohiro

    2012-03-07

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a method of atomic resolution holography which utilizes fluorescing atoms as a wave source or a monitor of the interference field within a crystal sample. It provides three-dimensional atomic images around a specified element and has a range of up to a few nm in real space. Because of this feature, XFH is expected to be used for medium-range local structural analysis, which cannot be performed by x-ray diffraction or x-ray absorption fine structure analysis. In this article, we explain the theory of XFH including solutions to the twin-image problem, an advanced measuring system, and data processing for the reconstruction of atomic images. Then, we briefly introduce our recent applications of this technique to the analysis of local lattice distortions in mixed crystals and nanometer-size clusters appearing in the low-temperature phase of a shape-memory alloy.

  9. X-ray fluorescence holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kouichi; Happo, Naohisa; Hosokawa, Shinya; Hu Wen; Matsushita, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a method of atomic resolution holography which utilizes fluorescing atoms as a wave source or a monitor of the interference field within a crystal sample. It provides three-dimensional atomic images around a specified element and has a range of up to a few nm in real space. Because of this feature, XFH is expected to be used for medium-range local structural analysis, which cannot be performed by x-ray diffraction or x-ray absorption fine structure analysis. In this article, we explain the theory of XFH including solutions to the twin-image problem, an advanced measuring system, and data processing for the reconstruction of atomic images. Then, we briefly introduce our recent applications of this technique to the analysis of local lattice distortions in mixed crystals and nanometer-size clusters appearing in the low-temperature phase of a shape-memory alloy. (topical review)

  10. TAILORING X-RAY BEAM ENERGY SPECTRUM TO ENHANCE IMAGE QUALITY OF NEW RADIOGRAPHY CONTRAST AGENTS BASED ON GD OR OTHER LANTHANIDES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DILMANIAN,F.A.; WEINMANN,H.J.; ZHONG,Z.; BACARIAN,T.; RIGON,L.; BUTTON,T.M.; REN,B.; WU,X.Y.; ZHONG,N.; ATKINS,H.L.

    2001-02-17

    Gadovist, a 1.0-molar Gd contrast agent from Schering AG, Berlin Germany, in use in clinical MPI in Europe, was evaluated as a radiography contrast agent. In a collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Schering AG is developing several such lanthanide-based contrast agents, while BNL evaluates them using different x-my beam energy spectra. These energy spectra include a ''truly'' monochromatic beam (0.2 keV energy bandwidth) from the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), BNL, tuned above the Gd K-edge, and x-ray-tube beams from different kVp settings and beam filtrations. Radiographs of rabbits' kidneys were obtained with Gadovist at the NSLS. Furthermore, a clinical radiography system was used for imaging rabbits' kidneys comparing Gadovist and Conray, an iodinated contrast agent. The study, using 74 kVp and standard Al beam filter for Conray and 66 kVp and an additional 1.5 mm Cu beam filter for Gadovist, produced comparable images for Gadovist and Conray; the injection volumes were the same, while the radiation absorbed dose for Gadovist was slightly smaller. A bent-crystal silicon monochromator operating in the Laue diffraction mode was developed and tested with a conventional x-ray tube beam; it narrows the energy spectrum to about 4 keV around the anode tungsten's Ku line. Preliminary beam-flux results indicate that the method could be implemented in clinical CT if x-ray tubes with {approximately} twice higher output become available.

  11. TAS-116, a novel Hsp90 inhibitor, selectively enhances radio-sensitivity of human cancer cells to X-rays and carbon ion radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Younghyun; Sunada, Shigeaki; Hirakawa, Hirokazu; Fujimori, Akira; Nickoloff, Jac A.; Okayasu, Ryuichi

    2016-01-01

    Hsp90 inhibitors have been investigated as cancer therapeutics in mono-therapy and to augment radiotherapy, however serious adverse effects of early generation Hsp90 inhibitors limited their development. TAS-116 is a novel Hsp90 inhibitor with lower adverse effects than other Hsp90 inhibitors, and here we investigated the radio-sensitizing effects of TAS-116 in low LET X-ray, and high LET carbon ion irradiated human cancer cells and mouse tumor xenografts. TAS-116 decreased cell survival of both X-ray and carbon ion-irradiated human cancer cell lines (HeLa and H1299 cells), and similar to other Hsp90 inhibitors, it did not affect radiosensitivity of non-cancerous human fibroblasts. TAS-116 increased the number of radiation-induced γ-H2AX foci, and delayed the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). TAS-116 reduced the expression of proteins that mediate repair of DSBs by homologous recombination (RAD51) and non-homologous end joining (Ku, DNA-PKcs), and suppressed formation of RAD51 foci and phosphorylation/activation of DNA-PKcs. TAS-116 also decreased expression of the cdc25 cell cycle progression marker, markedly increasing G2/M arrest. Combined treatment of mouse tumor xenografts with carbon ions and TAS-116 showed promising delay in tumor growth compared to either individual treatment. These results demonstrate that TAS-116 radio-sensitizes human cancer cells to both X rays and carbon ions by inhibiting the two major DSB repair pathways, and these effects were accompanied by marked cell cycle arrest. The promising results of combination TAS-116 + carbon ion radiation therapy of tumor xenografts justify further exploration of TAS-116 as an adjunct to radiotherapy using low or high LET radiation. PMID:28062703

  12. Overutilization of x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    In this article on the overutilization of x-rays the author defines the term overutilization as excessive irradiation per unit of diagnostic information, therapeutic impact, or health outcome. Three main factors are described which lead to overutilization of x-rays: excessive radiation per film; excessive films per examination; and excessive examinations per patient. Topics discussed which influence the excessive examinations per patient are: the physician's lack of knowledge; undue dependence; lack of screening by radiologists; the physician's need for action and certainty; patient demand; reimbursement policies; institutional requirements; preventive medicine; defensive medicine; and the practice of radiology by nonradiologists

  13. Multichannel X-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khabakhpashev, A

    1980-10-01

    A typical design is discussed of multiwire proportional counters and their characteristic feature is explained, ie., the possibility of showing one or two coordinates of the X-ray quantum absorption site. The advantages of such instruments are listed, such as increased sensitivity of determination, the possibility of recording radiations of a different intensity, the possibility of on-line data processing and of the digital display of results. The fields of application include X-ray structural analysis in solid state physics, crystallography, molecular biology, astronomy, materials testing, and medicine.

  14. Semiconductor X-ray spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggleton, A.H.F.

    1978-02-01

    An outline is given of recent developments in particle and photon induced x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. Following a brief description of the basic mechanism of semiconductor detector operation a comparison is made between semiconductor detectors, scintillators and gas filled proportional devices. Detector fabrication and cryostat design are described in more detail and the effects of various device parameters on system performance, such as energy resolution, count rate capability, efficiency, microphony, etc. are discussed. The main applications of these detectors in x-ray fluorescence analysis, electron microprobe analysis, medical and pollution studies are reviewed

  15. Portable X-Ray Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Portable x-ray instrument developed by NASA now being produced commercially as an industrial tool may soon find further utility as a medical system. The instrument is Lixiscope - Low Intensity X-Ray Imaging Scope -- a self-contained, battery-powered fluoroscope that produces an instant image through use of a small amount of radioactive isotope. Originally developed by Goddard Space Flight Center, Lixiscope is now being produced by Lixi, Inc. which has an exclusive NASA license for one version of the device.

  16. X-ray tube targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    In rotary targets for X-ray tubes warping is a problem which causes X-ray deficiency. A rotary target is described in which warping is reduced by using alloys of molybdenum with 0.05 to 10% iron, silicon, cobalt, tantalum, niobium, hafnium, stable metal oxide or mixture thereof. Suitable mixtures are 0.5 to 10% of tantalum, niobium or hafnium with from 0.5 to 5% yttrium oxide, or 0.05 to 0.3% of cobalt or silicon. Optionally 0.1 to 5% by weight of additional material may be alloyed with the molybdenum, such as tantalum or hafnium carbides. (author)

  17. X-ray data processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Harold R

    2017-10-31

    The method of molecular structure determination by X-ray crystallography is a little over a century old. The history is described briefly, along with developments in X-ray sources and detectors. The fundamental processes involved in measuring diffraction patterns on area detectors, i.e. autoindexing, refining crystal and detector parameters, integrating the reflections themselves and putting the resultant measurements on to a common scale are discussed, with particular reference to the most commonly used software in the field. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. X-ray Emission from Solar Flares

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Solar flares; X-ray detectors; X-ray line emission and continuum; break energy; microflares. Abstract. Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS), the first space-borne solar astronomy experiment of India was designed to improve our current understanding of X-ray emission from the Sun in general and solar flares in ...

  19. Chest X-Ray (Chest Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Chest Chest x-ray uses a very small dose ... Radiography? What is a Chest X-ray (Chest Radiography)? The chest x-ray is the most commonly performed diagnostic ...

  20. X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray ... MRI): Lumbar Spine Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  1. X-Ray Exam: Neck (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Neck KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Neck Enlarged Adenoids Croup Sinusitis Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  2. X-ray and CT findings of costal eosinophilic granuloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Zhanhai; Lin Zhengyu; Chen Yiguang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the X-ray and CT features of costal eosinophilic granuloma for a better understanding. Methods: Eight patients with costal eosinophilic granuloma proved by surgery or biopsy were analyzed retrospectively. All patients had X-ray plain film, 6 patients had CT examination, including a case of enhanced CT scan. Results: All 8 lesions were solitary. Six lesions were in the anterior rib and 2 in the posterior rib. On X-ray, all case showed single cavity and oval lesion with clear boundary. On CT images, 5 lesions demonstrated expansile destruction of bone with cortical bone thinning, and 3 were osteolystic destruction with soft tissue mass around. On the patient with enhanced CT scan, the lesions showed a moderate and uniform enhancement. Conclusion: The X-ray and CT findings of costal eosinophilic granuloma are characteristic. (authors)

  3. Total-reflection x-ray fluorescence with a brillant undulator x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, K.; Eba, H.; Numako, C.; Suzuki, M.; Inoue, K.; Yagi, N.

    2000-01-01

    Total-reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is a highly sensitive technique for analyzing trace elements, because of the very low background from the sample support. Use of third-generation synchrotron x-ray source could further enhance the detection power. However, while such high sensitivity permits the detection of signals from trace elements of interest, it also means that one can observe weak parasitic x-rays as well. If the sample surface becomes even slightly contaminated, owing to air particulates near the beamline, x-ray fluorescence lines of iron, zinc, copper, nickel, chromium, and titanium can be observed even for a blank sample. Another critical problem is the low-energy-side tail of the scattering x-rays, which ultimately restricts the detection capability of the technique using a TXRF spectrometer based on a Si(Li) detector. The present paper describes our experiments with brilliant undulator x-ray beams at BL39XU and BL40XU, at the SPring-8, Harima, Japan. The emphasis is on the development of instruments to analyze a droplet of 0.1 μl containing trace elements of ppb level. Although the beamline is not a clean room, we have employed equipment for preparing a clean sample and also for avoiding contamination during transferring the sample into the spectrometer. We will report on the successful detection of the peak from 0.8 ppb selenium in a droplet (absolute amount 80 fg). We will also present the results of recent experiments obtained from a Johansson spectrometer rather than a Si(Li) detector. (author)

  4. Cylindrical Crystal Imaging Spectrometer (CCIS) for cosmic X-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnopper, H. W.; Taylor, P. O.

    1981-01-01

    A "stigmatic" focusing, Bragg crystal spectrometer was developed and used for high spectral resolution X-ray emission line diagnostics on hot laboratory plasmas. The concept be applied at the focal plane of an orbiting X-ray telescope where it offers several advantages over conventional spectrometers, i.e., mechanical simplicity, high resolving power and sensitivity, simultaneous measurement of an extended segment of spectrum, and good imaging properties. The instrument features a simple, unambiguous, non-scanning spectrum readout that is not adversely affected by either spacecraft pointing error or source extent. The performance of the instrument is estimated in the context of the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysical Facility mission.

  5. Measurement of mass attenuation coefficients around the K absorption edge by parametric X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Masaya; Akimoto, Tadashi; Aoki, Yohei; Ikeda, Jiro; Sato, Koichi; Fujita, Fumiyuki; Homma, Akira; Sawamura, Teruko; Narita, Masakuni

    2002-01-01

    When electrons at relativistic velocities pass through a crystal plate, such as silicon, photons are emitted around the Bragg angle for X-ray diffraction. This phenomenon is called parametric X-ray radiation (PXR). The monochromaticity and directivity of PXR are adequate and the energy can be changed continuously by rotating the crystal. This study measured the mass attenuation coefficient around the K-shell absorption edge of Nb, Zr and Mo as a PXR application of monochromatic hard X-ray radiation sources

  6. Measurement of mass attenuation coefficients around the K absorption edge by parametric X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Tamura, M; Aoki, Y; Ikeda, J; Sato, K; Fujita, F; Homma, A; Sawamura, T; Narita, M

    2002-01-01

    When electrons at relativistic velocities pass through a crystal plate, such as silicon, photons are emitted around the Bragg angle for X-ray diffraction. This phenomenon is called parametric X-ray radiation (PXR). The monochromaticity and directivity of PXR are adequate and the energy can be changed continuously by rotating the crystal. This study measured the mass attenuation coefficient around the K-shell absorption edge of Nb, Zr and Mo as a PXR application of monochromatic hard X-ray radiation sources.

  7. Resonant X-ray Raman scattering for Al, Si and their oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szlachetko, J.; Berset, M.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Fennane, K.; Szlachetko, M.; Barrett, R.; Hoszowska, J.; Kubala-Kukus, A.; Pajek, M.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution measurements of the resonant X-ray Raman scattering (RRS) of Al and Si and their oxides were performed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France, using a von Hamos Bragg-type curved crystal spectrometer. To probe the influence of chemical effects on the RRS X-ray spectra, Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 samples were also investigated. The X-ray RRS spectra were measured at different photon beam energies tuned below the K-absorption edge. The measured spectra are compared to results of RRS calculations based on the second-order perturbation theory within the Kramers-Heisenberg approach

  8. Hundred years of X-ray discovery: a brief historical account. 1895-1995; Breve historico dos cem anos da descoberta dos raios-X: 1895-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santin Filho, Ourides [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    1995-11-01

    This article gives a brief historical account of the discovery of X-rays, including early experiments of Roentgen, Barkla and Henry Bragg, followed by experiments leading to the discovery of X-ray diffraction by crystals, made by Max von Laue and Lawrence Bragg, which led to the discovery of ionic bonding in crystals. The steps in the study of X-ray spectroscopy by Moseley are also mentioned, and the correlation of his results with theories of Bohr and Rydberg, leading to the discovery of atomic number. Finally, the use of X-ray diffraction in structure determinations through Fourier transform is emphasized. (author). 35 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Diamond Thermal Expansion Measurement Using Transmitted X-ray Back-diffraction.

    OpenAIRE

    Giles, Carlos; Adriano, Cris; Lubambo, Adriana Freire; Cusatis, Cesar; Mazzaro, Irineu; Hönnicke, Marcelo Goncalves

    2015-01-01

    The linear thermal expansion coefficient of diamond has been measured using forward-diffracted profiles in X-ray backscattering. This experimental technique is presented as an alternative way of measuring thermal expansion coefficients of solids in the high-resolution Bragg backscattering geometry without the intrinsic difficulty of detecting the reflected beam. The temperature dependence of the lattice parameter is obtained from the high sensitivity of the transmitted profiles to the Bragg a...

  10. Measurement and Interpretation of Diffuse Scattering in X-Ray Diffraction for Macromolecular Crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-16

    X-ray diffraction from macromolecular crystals includes both sharply peaked Bragg reflections and diffuse intensity between the peaks. The information in Bragg scattering reflects the mean electron density in the unit cells of the crystal. The diffuse scattering arises from correlations in the variations of electron density that may occur from one unit cell to another, and therefore contains information about collective motions in proteins.

  11. TFTR horizontal high-resolution Bragg x-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.; Tavernier, M.

    1984-11-01

    A bent quartz crystal spectrometer of the Johann type with a spectral resolution of lambda/Δlambda = 10,000 to 25,000 is used on TFTR to determine central plasma parameters from the spectra of heliumlike and lithiumlike metal impurity ions (Ti, Cr, Fe, and Ni). The spectra are observed along a central radial chord and are recorded by a position sensitive multiwire proportional counter with a spatial resolution of 250. Standard delay-line time-difference readout is employed. The data are histogrammed and stored in 64k of memory providing 128 time groups of 512-channel spectra. The central ion temperature and the toroidal plasma rotation are inferred from the Doppler broadening and Doppler shift of the K lines. The central electron temperature, the distribution of ionization states, and dielectronic recombination rates are obtained from satellite-to-resonance line ratios. The performance of the spectrometer is demonstrated by measurements of the Ti XXI K radiation

  12. Illumination system for X-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, W.D.

    1989-01-01

    An X-ray lithography system is described, comprising: a point source of X-Ray radiation; a wafer plane disposed in spaced relation to the point source of X-Ray radiation; a mask disposed between the point source of X-Ray radiation and the wafer plane whereby X-Ray radiation from the point source of X-ray radiation passes through the mask to the water plane; and X-Ray absorbent means mounted between the point source of X-Ray radiation and the wafer plane, the X-Ray absorbent means being of quadratically absorption from maximum absorption at the center to minimum absorption at the edge so as to have a radial absorption gradient profile to compensate for radial flux variation of the X-Ray radiation

  13. Fundamental parameters approach applied to focal construct geometry for X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, K.; Evans, P.; Prokopiou, D.; Dicken, A.; Godber, S.; Rogers, J.

    2012-01-01

    A novel geometry for the acquisition of powder X-ray diffraction data, referred to as focal construct geometry (FCG), is presented. Diffraction data obtained by FCG have been shown to possess significantly enhanced intensity due to the hollow tube beam arrangement utilized. In contrast to conventional diffraction, the detector is translated to collect images along a primary axis and record the location of Bragg maxima. These high intensity condensation foci are unique to FCG and appear due to the convergence of Debye cones at single points on the primary axis. This work focuses on a two dimensional, fundamental parameter's approach to simulate experimental data and subsequently aid with interpretation. This convolution method is shown to favorably reproduce the experimental diffractograms and can also accommodate preferred orientation effects in some circumstances.

  14. Characterization of nova plasmas using an x-ray spectrometer with temporal and spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, C.A.; Kauffman, R.L.; Bell, P.; Kilkenny, J.D.

    1994-05-01

    Spectroscopic diagnostics have great potential to obtain high temperature measurements of plasmas created in ICF targets. The plasmas may be over 1 mm in size and therefore, one of the first steps in making accurate spectroscopic measurements has been to improve the resolution of the instrument. A spectrograph is now available for Nova experiments which takes advantage of gated technology by coupling a Bragg crystal to a microchannel plate that can record data over a 250 ps time frame. The crystal disperses the x-rays, while slits add the ability to image the plasmas in the perpendicular direction. The characteristics of this diagnostic, TSPEC, will be evaluated for laser-produced plasmas. Recent data will be presented from colliding plasmas and large-scale hohlraums which indicate that imaging can greatly enhance the ability to diagnose these plasmas

  15. X-ray radiation damage of organic semiconductor thin films during grazing incidence diffraction experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhold, A., E-mail: alfred.neuhold@tugraz.at [Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Graz (Austria); Novak, J.; Flesch, H.-G.; Moser, A.; Djuric, T. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Graz (Austria); Grodd, L.; Grigorian, S.; Pietsch, U. [Institute of Physics, University Siegen (Germany); Resel, R. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Graz (Austria)

    2012-08-01

    Since modern synchrotrons with highly intense X-ray beams are in use to investigate organic materials, the stability of soft matter materials during beam exposure is a crucial issue. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and specular X-ray reflectivity measurements were performed on thin films of organic semiconducting materials, like poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), sexithiophene and pentacene. These films were irradiated with an average flux density between 10{sup 15} and 10{sup 16} photons/(s mm{sup 2}) and evidenced a different stability in synchrotron X-ray radiation. The semi-crystalline P3HT showed a clear intensity decrease of the 1 0 0 Bragg peak and 0 2 0 Bragg peak compared to the rather stable diffraction features of the molecular crystals sexithiophene and pentacene. The difference in synchrotron X-ray radiation stability is explained by the interaction of the X-ray beam with the individual chemical components in the molecules as well as by the different crystallinities of the materials. Furthermore, the semi-crystalline P3HT film exhibited an increase of film thickness after irradiation and the surface roughness slightly decreased. To summarize, this study shows a strong influence of synchrotron X-ray radiation to specific organic thin films like e.g. P3HT, while others like pentacene and sexithiophene are observed as quite stable.

  16. X-ray hot plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojocaru, E.

    1984-11-01

    X-ray plasma emission study is powerful diagnostic tool of hot plasmas. In this review article the main techniques of X-ray plasma emission measurement are shortly presented: X-ray spectrometry using absorbent filters, crystal and grating spectrometers, imaging techniques using pinhole cameras, X-ray microscopes and Fresnel zone plate cameras, X-ray plasma emission calorimetry. Advances in these techniques with examples for different hot plasma devices are also presentes. (author)

  17. The 100th Anniversary of X-Ray Crystallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojić-Prodić, B.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The important thing in science is not so much to obtain new facts as to discover new ways of thinking about them.W. L. BraggThe 100th anniversary of X-ray crystallography dates back to the first X-ray diffraction experiment on a crystal of copper sulphate pentahydrate. Max von Laue designed the theoretical background of the experiment, which was performed by German physicists W. Friedrich and P. Knipping in 1912. At that time, the mathematical formulation of the phenomenon and the fundamental concepts of crystallography were subjects of mineralogy. Altogether, they facilitated the development of methods for determination of the structure of matter at the atomic level. In 1913, father and son Bragg started to develop X-ray structure analysis for determination of crystal structures of simple molecules. Historic examples of structure determination starting from rock salt to complex, biologically important (macromolecules, such as globular proteins haemoglobin and myoglobin, DNA, vitamin B12 and the recent discovery of ribozyme, illustrate the development of X-ray structural analysis. The determination of 3D structures of these molecules by X-ray diffraction had opened new areas of scientific research, such as molecular biophysics, molecular genetics, structural molecular biology, bioinorganic chemistry, organometallic chemistry, and many others. The discovery and development of X-ray crystallography revolutionised our understanding of natural sciences – physics, chemistry, biology, and also science of materials. The scientific community recognised these fundamental achievements (including the discovery of X-rays by awarding twenty-eight Nobel prizes to thirty-nine men and two women. The explosive growth of science and technology in the 20th and 21st centuries had been founded on the detailed knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of molecules, which was the basis for explaining and predicting the physical, chemical, biological and

  18. X-ray phase contrast imaging at MAMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ghazaly, M.; Backe, H.; Lauth, W.; Kube, G.; Kunz, P.; Sharafutdinov, A.; Weber, T.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments have been performed to explore the potential of the low emittance 855 MeV electron beam of the Mainz Microtron MAMI for imaging with coherent X-rays. Transition radiation from a micro-focused electron beam traversing a foil stack served as X-ray source with good transverse coherence. Refraction contrast radiographs of low absorbing materials, in particular polymer strings with diameters between 30 and 450 μm, were taken with a polychromatic transition radiation X-ray source with a spectral distribution in the energy range between 8 and about 40 keV. The electron beam spot size had standard deviation σ h =(8.6±0.1) μm in the horizontal and σ v =(7.5±0.1) μm in the vertical direction. X-ray films were used as detectors. The source-to-detector distance amounted to 11.4 m. The objects were placed in a distance of up to 6m from the X-ray film. Holograms of strings were taken with a beam spot size σ v =(0.50±0.05) μm in vertical direction, and a monochromatic X-ray beam of 6keV energy. A good longitudinal coherence has been obtained by the (111) reflection of a flat silicon single crystal in Bragg geometry. It has been demonstrated that a direct exposure CCD chip with a pixel size of 13 x 13 μm 2 provides a highly efficient on-line detector. Contrast images can easily be generated with a complete elimination of all parasitic background. The on-line capability allows a minimization of the beam spot size by observing the smallest visible interference fringe spacings or the number of visible fringes. It has been demonstrated that X-ray films are also very useful detectors. The main advantage in comparison with the direct exposure CCD chip is the resolution. For the Structurix D3 (Agfa) X-ray film the standard deviation of the resolution was measured to be σ f =(1.2±0.4) μm, which is about a factor of 6 better than for the direct exposure CCD chip. With the small effective X-ray spot size in vertical direction of σ v =(1.2±0.3)μm and a

  19. X-ray phase contrast imaging at MAMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Ghazaly, M.; Backe, H.; Lauth, W.; Kube, G.; Kunz, P.; Sharafutdinov, A.; Weber, T. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    Experiments have been performed to explore the potential of the low emittance 855 MeV electron beam of the Mainz Microtron MAMI for imaging with coherent X-rays. Transition radiation from a micro-focused electron beam traversing a foil stack served as X-ray source with good transverse coherence. Refraction contrast radiographs of low absorbing materials, in particular polymer strings with diameters between 30 and 450 {mu}m, were taken with a polychromatic transition radiation X-ray source with a spectral distribution in the energy range between 8 and about 40 keV. The electron beam spot size had standard deviation {sigma}{sub h}=(8.6{+-}0.1) {mu}m in the horizontal and {sigma}{sub v}=(7.5{+-}0.1) {mu}m in the vertical direction. X-ray films were used as detectors. The source-to-detector distance amounted to 11.4 m. The objects were placed in a distance of up to 6m from the X-ray film. Holograms of strings were taken with a beam spot size {sigma}{sub v}=(0.50{+-}0.05) {mu}m in vertical direction, and a monochromatic X-ray beam of 6keV energy. A good longitudinal coherence has been obtained by the (111) reflection of a flat silicon single crystal in Bragg geometry. It has been demonstrated that a direct exposure CCD chip with a pixel size of 13 x 13 {mu}m{sup 2} provides a highly efficient on-line detector. Contrast images can easily be generated with a complete elimination of all parasitic background. The on-line capability allows a minimization of the beam spot size by observing the smallest visible interference fringe spacings or the number of visible fringes. It has been demonstrated that X-ray films are also very useful detectors. The main advantage in comparison with the direct exposure CCD chip is the resolution. For the Structurix D3 (Agfa) X-ray film the standard deviation of the resolution was measured to be {sigma}{sub f}=(1.2{+-}0.4) {mu}m, which is about a factor of 6 better than for the direct exposure CCD chip. With the small effective X-ray spot size

  20. X-ray phase contrast imaging at MAMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghazaly, M.; Backe, H.; Lauth, W.; Kube, G.; Kunz, P.; Sharafutdinov, A.; Weber, T.

    2006-05-01

    Experiments have been performed to explore the potential of the low emittance 855MeV electron beam of the Mainz Microtron MAMI for imaging with coherent X-rays. Transition radiation from a micro-focused electron beam traversing a foil stack served as X-ray source with good transverse coherence. Refraction contrast radiographs of low absorbing materials, in particular polymer strings with diameters between 30 and 450μm, were taken with a polychromatic transition radiation X-ray source with a spectral distribution in the energy range between 8 and about 40keV. The electron beam spot size had standard deviation σh = (8.6±0.1)μm in the horizontal and σv = (7.5±0.1)μm in the vertical direction. X-ray films were used as detectors. The source-to-detector distance amounted to 11.4m. The objects were placed in a distance of up to 6m from the X-ray film. Holograms of strings were taken with a beam spot size σv = (0.50±0.05)μm in vertical direction, and a monochromatic X-ray beam of 6keV energy. A good longitudinal coherence has been obtained by the (111) reflection of a flat silicon single crystal in Bragg geometry. It has been demonstrated that a direct exposure CCD chip with a pixel size of 13×13μm^2 provides a highly efficient on-line detector. Contrast images can easily be generated with a complete elimination of all parasitic background. The on-line capability allows a minimization of the beam spot size by observing the smallest visible interference fringe spacings or the number of visible fringes. It has been demonstrated that X-ray films are also very useful detectors. The main advantage in comparison with the direct exposure CCD chip is the resolution. For the Structurix D3 (Agfa) X-ray film the standard deviation of the resolution was measured to be σf = (1.2±0.4)μm, which is about a factor of 6 better than for the direct exposure CCD chip. With the small effective X-ray spot size in vertical direction of σv = (1.2±0.3)μm and a geometrical

  1. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, J.L. de.

    1976-01-01

    The seventh edition of Philips' Review of Literature on x-ray fluorescence spectrometry starts with a list of conference proceedings on the subject, organised by the Philips organisation at regular intervals in various European countries. It is followed by a list of bulletins. The bibliography is subdivided according to spectra, equipment, applications and absorption analysis

  2. Stellar X-Ray Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, J.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the stellar end-state black holes, pulsars, and white dwarfs that are X-ray sources should have polarized X-ray fluxes. The degree will depend on the relative contributions of the unresolved structures. Fluxes from accretion disks and accretion disk corona may be polarized by scattering. Beams and jets may have contributions of polarized emission in strong magnetic fields. The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) will study the effects on polarization of strong gravity of black holes and strong magnetism of neutron stars. Some part of the flux from compact stars accreting from companion stars has been reflected from the companion, its wind, or accretion streams. Polarization of this component is a potential tool for studying the structure of the gas in these binary systems. Polarization due to scattering can also be present in X-ray emission from white dwarf binaries and binary normal stars such as RS CVn stars and colliding wind sources like Eta Car. Normal late type stars may have polarized flux from coronal flares. But X-ray polarization sensitivity is not at the level needed for single early type stars.

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone ...

  4. X-ray Sensitive Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    TM 8772 5 Literature reports on BiI3/nylon composites used X-ray sources with a Mo target (Reference 18) or magnesium target (Reference 19). However...1981. Pp. D-155 to D-160. 22. G. Pretzsch, B. Dorschel, and T. Schonmuth. IEEE Transactions on Electrical Insulation, Vol. EI -21, No.3, June 1986

  5. X-ray system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    An X-ray system tester for measuring anode voltage, cathode voltage, anode current, filament current and line voltage in an X-ray system has a selector which couples one of these analog signals or one of a plurality of processing control signals entered by an operator from a control panel to a digitizing section selectively in accordance with control signals provided to the selector by a computing section. The digitizing section converts the selected signal into a train of pulses having a frequency proportional to the value of the selected signal. These pulses are counted, the counts being used by the computing section to determine the value of the selected signal. This computed value is stored in a computing memory section of the computing section. The computing section is adapted to store a plurality of the sets of signals produced during a corresponding sequence of operational intervals of the X-ray system and determines a measure of the deviation of any selected one of the stored electrical signals over the sequence of operating intervals. Each signal produced during the sequential operational intervals can be recalled to aid analysis of the operation of the X-ray system. (author)

  6. X-ray image coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The invention aims at decreasing the effect of stray radiation in X-ray images. This is achieved by putting a plate between source and object with parallel zones of alternating high and low absorption coefficients for X-radiation. The image is scanned with the help of electronic circuits which decode the signal space coded by the plate, thus removing the stray radiation

  7. X-ray simulation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posey, L.D.; Tollefsrud, P.B.; Woodall, H.W.; McDaniel, D.H.; Allred, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    Design modifications are discussed for an electron beam accelerator used as a Bremsstrahlung x-ray source. The primary goal of the program, to obtain a reliable 5 cal/gm exposure capability, can be accomplished with beam compression by an external magnetic guide field. Initial operating characteristics and performance improvements are presented

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate ...

  9. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, N.B.

    1977-01-01

    The principle, instrument and procedure of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry are described. It is a rapid, simple and sensitive method for the trace analysis of elements from sodium to uranium in powder, liquid or metal samples. (M.G.B.)

  10. X-rays from stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güdel, Manuel

    2004-07-01

    Spectroscopic studies available from Chandra and XMM-Newton play a pivotal part in the understanding of the physical processes in stellar (magnetic and non-magnetic) atmospheres. It is now routinely possible to derive densities and to study the influence of ultraviolet radiation fields, both of which can be used to infer the geometry of the radiating sources. Line profiles provide important information on bulk mass motions and attenuation by neutral matter, e.g. in stellar winds. The increased sensitivity has revealed new types of X-ray sources in systems that were thought to be unlikely places for X-rays: flaring brown dwarfs, including rather old, non-accreting objects, and terminal shocks in jets of young stars are important examples. New clues concerning the role of stellar high-energy processes in the modification of the stellar environment (ionization, spallation, etc.) contribute significantly to our understanding of the "astro-ecology" in forming planetary systems. Technological limitations are evident. The spectral resolution has not reached the level where bulk mass motions in cool stars become easily measurable. Higher resolution would also be important to perform X-ray "Doppler imaging" in order to reconstruct the 3-D distribution of the X-ray sources around a rotating star. Higher sensitivity will be required to perform high-resolution spectroscopy of weak sources such as brown dwarfs or embedded pre-main-sequence sources. A new generation of satellites such as Constellation-X or XEUS should pursue these goals.

  11. Chandra's X-ray Vision

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1999-07-23

    Jul 23, 1999 ... CXO is 13.8 metres long and its solar arrays have a wingspan of. 19.5 metres as shown in ... the Universe (for example, coronae of stars, matter ejected from .... The telescope system and the scientific instruments were put through ..... solve the puzzle about the origin of cosmic X-ray background- one of the ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  13. Stellar X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, J.I.; Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO

    1988-01-01

    I Review some of the salient accomplishments of X-rap studies of compact objects. Progress in this field has closely followed the improvement of observational methods, particularly in angular resolution and duration of exposure. Luminous compact X-ray sources are accreting neutron stars or black holes. Accreting neutron stars may have characteristic temporal signatures, but the only way to establish that an X-ray source is a black hole is to measure its mass. A rough phenomenological theory is succesful, but the transport of angular momentum in accretion flows is not onderstood. A number of interesting complications have been observed, including precessing accretion discs, X-ray bursts, and the acceleration of jets in SS433. Many puzzles remain unsolved, including the excitation of disc precession, the nature of the enigmatic A- and gamma-ray source Cyg X-3, the mechanism by which slowly spinning accreting neutron stars lose angular momentum, and the superabundance of X-ray sources in globular clusters. 41 refs.; 5 figs

  14. X-rays and magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Peter; Ohldag, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Magnetism is among the most active and attractive areas in modern solid state physics because of intriguing phenomena interesting to fundamental research and a manifold of technological applications. State-of-the-art synthesis of advanced magnetic materials, e.g. in hybrid structures paves the way to new functionalities. To characterize modern magnetic materials and the associated magnetic phenomena, polarized x-rays have emerged as unique probes due to their specific interaction with magnetic materials. A large variety of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques have been developed to quantify in an element, valence and site-sensitive way properties of ferro-, ferri-, and antiferromagnetic systems, such as spin and orbital moments, and to image nanoscale spin textures and their dynamics with sub-ns time and almost 10 nm spatial resolution. The enormous intensity of x-rays and their degree of coherence at next generation x-ray facilities will open the fsec time window to magnetic studies addressing fundamental time scales in magnetism with nanometer spatial resolution. This review will give an introduction into contemporary topics of nanoscale magnetic materials and provide an overview of analytical spectroscopy and microscopy tools based on x-ray dichroism effects. Selected examples of current research will demonstrate the potential and future directions of these techniques. (report on progress)

  15. X-ray examination apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, S.; Griswa, P.J.; Halter, P. Jr.; Kidd, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for x-ray cardiovascular examination and which can also be used for general purpose examination is described. An advantage of the system is that there is no mechanical connection between the image intensifier and source to interfere with the medical examiner or emergency procedures. (U.K.)

  16. X-ray tube transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An X-ray generator is described which comprises a transmission line transformer including an electrical conductor with a cavity and a second electrical conductor including helical windings disposed along a longitudinal axis within the cavity of the first conductor. The windings have a pitch which varies per unit length along the axis. There is dielectric material in the cavity for insulation and to couple electromagnetically the two conductors in response to an electric current flowing through the conductors, which have an impedance between them; this varies with distance along the axis of the helix of the second conductor. An X-ray tube is disposed along the longitudinal axis within the cavity, for radiating X-rays. The invention increases the voltage of applied voltage pulses at the remote tube-head with a transformer formed by using a spiral delay line geometry to give a tapered-impedance coaxial high voltage multiplier for pulse voltage operation. This transformer is smaller and lighter than previous designs for the same high peak voltage and power ratings. This is important because the penetration capabilities of Flash X-ray equipment increase with voltage, particularly in heavy materials such as steel. (U.K.)

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most ... absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... the equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure ... diagnose and treat medical conditions. Imaging with x-rays involves exposing a part ...

  19. Proton exciting X ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xinpei

    1986-04-01

    The analyzing capability of proton exciting X ray analysis for different elements in organisms was discussed, and dealing with examples of trace element analysis in the human body and animal organisms, such as blood serum, urine, and hair. The sensitivity, accuracy, and capability of multielement analysis were discussed. Its strong points for the trace element analysis in biomedicine were explained

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest ... cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray ( ...

  2. X-ray absorption holography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Miloš; Lausi, A.; Bussetto, E.; Kub, Jiří; Savoia, A.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 18 (2002), s. 185503-1 - 185503-3 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A100 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : x-ray holography Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 7.323, year: 2002

  3. Beryllium parabolic refractive x-ray lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengeler, B.; Schroer, C.G.; Kuhlmann, M.; Benner, B.; Guenzler, T.F.; Kurapova, O.; Somogyi, A.; Snigirev, A.; Snigireva, I.

    2004-01-01

    Parabolic refractive x-ray lenses are novel optical components for the hard x-ray range from about 5 keV to about 120 keV. They focus in both directions. They are compact, robust, and easy to align and to operate. They can be used like glass lenses are used for visible light, the main difference being that the numerical aperture N.A. is much smaller than 1 (of order 10-4 to 10-3). Their main applications are in micro- and nanofocusing, in imaging by absorption and phase contrast and in fluorescence mode. In combination with tomography they allow for 3-dimensional imaging of opaque media with submicrometer resolution. Finally, they can be used in speckle spectroscopy by means of coherent x-ray scattering. Beryllium as lens material strongly enhances the transmission and the field of view as compared to aluminium. With increased N.A. the lateral resolution is also considerably improved with Be lenses. References to a number of applications are given

  4. The X-ray signature of solar coronal mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R. A.; Waggett, P. W.; Bentley, R. D.; Phillips, K. J. H.; Bruner, M.

    1985-01-01

    The coronal response to six solar X-ray flares has been investigated. At a time coincident with the projected onset of the white-light coronal mass ejection associated with each flare, there is a small, discrete soft X-ray enhancement. These enhancements (precursors) precede by typically about 20 m the impulsive phase of the solar flare which is dominant by the time the coronal mass ejection has reached an altitude above 0.5 solar radii. Motions of hot X-ray emitting plasma, during the precursors, which may well be a signature of the mass ejection onsets, are identified. Further investigations have also revealed a second class of X-ray coronal transient, during the main phase of the flare. These appear to be associated with magnetic reconnection above post-flare loop systems.

  5. High-Resolution X-ray Emission and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, F.M.F. de

    2000-01-01

    In this review, high-resolution X-ray emission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy will be discussed. The focus is on the 3d transition-metal systems. To understand high-resolution X-ray emission and reso-nant X-ray emission, it is first necessary to spend some time discussing the X-ray absorption

  6. Tomographic image reconstruction using x-ray phase information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Atsushi; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji; Hirano, Keiichi

    1996-04-01

    We have been developing phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography (CT) to make possible the observation of biological soft tissues without contrast enhancement. Phase-contrast x-ray CT requires for its input data the x-ray phase-shift distributions or phase-mapping images caused by an object. These were measured with newly developed fringe-scanning x-ray interferometry. Phase-mapping images at different projection directions were obtained by rotating the object in an x-ray interferometer, and were processed with a standard CT algorithm. A phase-contrast x-ray CT image of a nonstained cancerous tissue was obtained using 17.7 keV synchrotron x rays with 12 micrometer voxel size, although the size of the observation area was at most 5 mm. The cancerous lesions were readily distinguishable from normal tissues. Moreover, fine structures corresponding to cancerous degeneration and fibrous tissues were clearly depicted. It is estimated that the present system is sensitive down to a density deviation of 4 mg/cm3.

  7. Structure in galactic soft X-ray features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davelaar, J.

    1979-01-01

    Observations are described of the soft X-ray background in a part of the northern hemisphere in the energy range 0.06 - 3.0 keV. The X-ray instruments, placed onboard a sounding rocket, are a one-dimensional focusing collector with multi-cell proportional counters in the focal plane and eight large area counters on deployable panels. A description of the instruments and their preflight calibration is given. Precautions were taken to prevent UV sensitivity of the X-ray instruments. The observation program, which consisted of a number of pre-programmed slow scans, is outlined. The spectral date on the soft X-ray background in these and previous observations showed that at least two components of different temperature are present. A low temperature component of approximately (3-10)x10 5 is found all over the sky. Components of higher temperature approximately 3x10 6 K are found in regions of soft X-ray enhancement; The North Polar Spur has been observed in two scans at the galactic latitude b=25 0 and b=75 0 . The X-ray ridge structure is found to be strongly energy dependent. The low energy data ( 0 reveals two separate emission features on the ridge, both probably of finite extensions (approximately equal to 0 0 .5). A wider X-ray ridge (approximately equal to 10 0 ) is observed above 0.4 keV. (Auth.)

  8. Development of X-ray protective clothes for medical treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, M.; Koike, K.; Fujinuma, T.; Aso, T.; Konba, T.

    1991-01-01

    As various medical treatments using X-ray irradiation are getting more important in modern medicine, effective, excellent X-ray protective clothes have been required. Elastomeric or PVC sheets containing powdery lead are usually employed as conventional X-ray protective clothes. In this case, enhancement of X-ray shielding efficiency increases the weight because the efficiency depends on the amount of lead incorporated. Such heavy clothes give significant fatigue and inconvenience during long term use. Consequently, lightweight and comfortable X-ray protective clothes have been eagerly desired in the medical field. The authors have improved these defects in the conventional clothes by means of elastomeric blending technologies and successfully developed new, lightweight and comfortable X-ray shielding clothes. The new clothes consist of lead-containing rubber sheet in which lead is homogeneously incorporated and lightweight PVC laminated with fabrics. They achieved favorable sense of touch, comfortable wearing and long-term durability. Furthermore, the clothes satisfy all requirements including X-ray shielding efficiency defined in JIS specifications. This article introduces the development of the new clothes and their properties in detail. (author)

  9. An experimental measurement of metal multilayer x-ray reflectivity degradation due to intense x-ray flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockaday, M.Y.P.

    1987-06-01

    The degradation of the x-ray reflection characteristics of metal multilayer Bragg diffractors due to intense x-ray flux was investigated. The Z-pinch plasma produced by PROTO II of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, was used as the source. The plasma generated total x-ray yields of as much as 40 kJ with up to 15 kJ in the neon hydrogen- and helium-like resonance lines in nominal 20-ns pulses. Molybdenum-carbon, palladium-carbon, and tungsten-carbon metal multilayers were placed at 15 and 150 cm from the plasma center. The multilayers were at nominal angles of 5 0 and 10 0 to diffract the neon resonance lines. The time-integrated x-ray reflection of the metal multilayers was monitored by x-ray film. A fluorescer-fiber optic-visible streak camera detector system was then used to monitor the time-resolved x-ray reflection characteristics of 135 A- 2d tungsten-carbon multilayers. A large specular component in the reflectivity prevented determination of the rocking curve of the multilayer. For a neon implosion onto a vanadium-doped polyacrylic acid foam target shot, detailed modeling was attempted. The spectral flux was determined with data from 5 XRD channels and deconvolved using the code SHAZAM. The observed decay in reflectivity was assumed to correspond to the melting of the first tungsten layer. A ''conduction factor'' of 82 was required to manipulate the heat loading of the first tungsten layer such that the time of melting corresponded to the observed decay. The power at destruction was 141 MW/cm 2 and the integrated energy at destruction was 2.0 J/cm 2 . 82 refs., 66 figs., 10 tabs

  10. An X-ray grazing incidence phase multilayer grating

    CERN Document Server

    Chernov, V A; Mytnichenko, S V

    2001-01-01

    An X-ray grazing incidence phase multilayer grating, representing a thin grating placed on a multilayer mirror, is proposed. A high efficiency of grating diffraction can be obtained by the possibility of changing the phase shift of the wave diffracted from the multilayer under the Bragg and total external reflection conditions. A grazing incidence phase multilayer grating consisting of Pt grating stripes on a Ni/C multilayer and optimized for the hard X-ray range was fabricated. Its diffraction properties were studied at photon energies of 7 and 8 keV. The obtained maximum value of the diffraction efficiency of the +1 grating order was 9% at 7 keV and 6.5% at 8 keV. The data obtained are in a rather good accordance with the theory.

  11. Serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction of enveloped virus microcrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Lawrence

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX using X-ray free-electron lasers has produced high-resolution, room temperature, time-resolved protein structures. We report preliminary SFX of Sindbis virus, an enveloped icosahedral RNA virus with ∼700 Å diameter. Microcrystals delivered in viscous agarose medium diffracted to ∼40 Å resolution. Small-angle diffuse X-ray scattering overlaid Bragg peaks and analysis suggests this results from molecular transforms of individual particles. Viral proteins undergo structural changes during entry and infection, which could, in principle, be studied with SFX. This is an important step toward determining room temperature structures from virus microcrystals that may enable time-resolved studies of enveloped viruses.

  12. Scattering of x-ray from crystal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, S.R.; Cowley, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray measurements performed on a variety of materials demonstrate that it is possible to observe diffuse scattering that originates in the abrupt change of density at a crystal surface. Such a discontinuity gives rise, in general, to rods of scattering in reciprocal space which are most intense close to the Bragg peaks tau and are well defined for sufficiently smooth surfaces. For wave-vector transfer Q=tau+q the q-dependence of the intensity of scattering gives information on the topographic structure of the crystal surface. Experimental results on crystals of GaAs and KTaO 3 , with surfaces prepared in various ways, were obtained using conventional x-ray techniques with a rotating anode source and can be described by a continuum model of the surface. There are discrepancies between the predictions of the models and the experimental results and the suggest that further experiments are needed to achieve a more complete understanding. (author)

  13. Observation of Significant Quantum Efficiency Enhancement from a Polarized Photocathode with Distributed Bragg Reflector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shukui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Poelker, Matthew [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Stutzman, Marcy L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Chen, Yiqiao [SVT Associates, Inc., Eden Prairie, MN (United States); Moy, Aaron [SVT Associates, Inc., Eden Prairie, MN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Polarized photocathodes with higher Quantum efficiency (QE) would help to reduce the technological challenge associated with producing polarized beams at milliampere levels, because less laser light would be required, which simplifies photocathode cooling requirements. And for a given amount of available laser power, higher QE would extend the photogun operating lifetime. The distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) concept was proposed to enhance the QE of strained-superlattice photocathodes by increasing the absorption of the incident photons using a Fabry-Perot cavity formed between the front surface of the photocathode and the substrate that includes a DBR, without compromising electron polarization. Here we present recent results showing QE enhancement of a GaAs/GaAsP strained-superlattice photocathode made with a DBR structure. Typically, a GaAs/GaAsP strained-superlattice photocathode without DBR provides a QE of 1%, at a laser wavelength corresponding to peak polarization. In comparison, the GaAs/GaAsP strained-superlattice photocathodes with DBR exhibited an enhancement of over 2 when the incident laser wavelength was tuned to meet the resonant condition for the Fabry-Perot resonator.

  14. A probabilistic model for x-ray PHA data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diesso, M.; Hill, K.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model of the data produced by a single-arm x-ray pulse height analyzer (PHA) system is developed. Given an assumption on the electron temperature and density profiles, a maximum likelihood technique is applied to calculate the peak electron temperature and enhancement factor of the plasma. This method is currently being used in the analysis of x-ray data from the tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR); sample results are presented

  15. Simple, compact, high brightness source for x-ray lithography and x-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawryluk, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    A simple, compact, high brightness x-ray source has recently been built. This source utilizes a commercially available, cylindrical geometry electron beam evaporator, which has been modified to enhance the thermal cooling to the anode. Cooling is accomplished by using standard, low-conductivity laboratory water, with an inlet pressure of less than 50 psi, and a flow rate of approx.0.3 gal/min. The anode is an inverted cone geometry for efficient cooling. The x-ray source has a measured sub-millimeter spot size (FWHM). The anode has been operated at 1 KW e-beam power (10 KV, 100 ma). Higher operating levels will be investigated. A variety of different x-ray lines can be obtained by the simple interchange of anodes of different materials. Typical anodes are made from easily machined metals, or materials which are vacuum deposited onto a copper anode. Typically, a few microns of material is sufficient to stop 10 KV electrons without significantly decreasing the thermal conductivity through the anode. The small size and high brightness of this source make it useful for step and repeat exposures over several square centimeter areas, especially in a research laboratory environment. For an aluminum anode, the estimated Al-K x-ray flux at 10 cms from the source is 70 μW/cm 2

  16. Extending the photon energy coverage of an x-ray self-seeding FEL via the reverse taper enhanced harmonic generation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kaiqing; Qi, Zheng [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Feng, Chao, E-mail: fengchao@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Deng, Haixiao [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Dong, E-mail: wangdong@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhao, Zhentang [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2017-05-11

    In this paper, a simple method is proposed to extend the photon energy range of a soft x-ray self-seeding free-electron laser (FEL). A normal monochromator is first applied to purify the FEL spectrum and provide a coherent seeding signal. This coherent signal then interacts with the electron beam in the following reverse tapered undulator section to generate strong coherent microbunchings while maintain the good quality of the electron beam. After that, the pre-bunched electron beam is sent into the third undulator section which resonates at a target high harmonic of the seed to amplify the coherent radiation at shorter wavelength. Three dimensional simulations have been performed and the results demonstrate that the photon energy gap between 1.5 keV and 4.5 keV of the self-seeding scheme can be fully covered and 100 GW-level peak power can be achieved by using the proposed technique.

  17. Characterization of a microfocused circularly polarized x-ray probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollmann, J.; Srajer, G.; Maser, J.; Lang, J. C.; Nelson, C. S.; Venkataraman, C. T.; Isaacs, E. D.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the development of a circularly polarized x-ray microprobe in the intermediate energy range from 5 to 10 keV. In this experiment linearly polarized synchrotron radiation was circularly polarized by means of a Bragg-diffracting diamond phase retarder and subsequently focused down to a spot size of about 4x2 μm 2 by a Fresnel zone plate. The properties of the microprobe were characterized, and the technique was applied to the two-dimensional mapping of magnetic domains in HoFe 2 . (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  18. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    The Center for X-Ray Optics has made substantial progress during the past year on the development of very high resolution x-ray technologies, the generation of coherent radiation at x-ray wavelengths, and, based on these new developments, had embarked on several scientific investigations that would not otherwise have been possible. The investigations covered in this report are topics on x-ray sources, x-ray imaging and applications, soft x-ray spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation, advanced light source and magnet structures for undulators and wigglers

  19. X-ray diagnostic in gas discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Suhe; Wang Dalun; Cui Gaoxian; Wang Mei; Fu Yibei; Zhang Xinwei; Zhang Wushou

    1995-01-01

    X rays were observed when the anomalous phenomenon in the metal loaded with deuterium studied by the gas-discharge method. Therefore the X-ray energy spectra were measured by the absorption method, the specific X-ray approach and the NaI scintillation counter, while X-ray intensity was estimated by using 7 Li thermoluminescent foils. The X-ray average energy measured by the absorption method is 27.6 +- 2.1 keV, which is fitted within the error extent to 26.0 +-2.4 keV monoenergetic X rays measured by the NaI scintillation counter

  20. X-ray cardiovascular examination apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    An X-ray source is mounted in an enclosure for angulating longitudinally about a horizontal axis. An X-ray-permeable, patient-supporting table is mounted on the top of the enclosure for executing lateral and longitudinal movements. An X-ray image-receiving device such as an X-ray image intensifier is mounted above the table on a vertically movable arm which is on a longitudinally movable carriage. Electric control means are provided for angulating the X-ray source and image intensifier synchronously as the image intensifier system is shifted longitudinally or vertically such that the central ray from the X-ray source is kept intensifier