Sample records for enhanced video-oculography system

  1. A low-cost video-oculography system for vestibular function testing. (United States)

    Jihwan Park; Youngsun Kong; Yunyoung Nam


    In order to remain in focus during head movements, vestibular-ocular reflex causes eyes to move in the opposite direction to head movement. Disorders of vestibular system decrease vision, causing abnormal nystagmus and dizziness. To diagnose abnormal nystagmus, various studies have been reported including the use of rotating chair tests and videonystagmography. However, these tests are unsuitable for home use due to their high costs. Thus, a low-cost video-oculography system is necessary to obtain clinical features at home. In this paper, we present a low-cost video-oculography system using an infrared camera and Raspberry Pi board for tracking the pupils and evaluating a vestibular system. Horizontal eye movement is derived from video data obtained from an infrared camera and infrared light-emitting diodes, and the velocity of head rotation is obtained from a gyroscope sensor. Each pupil was extracted using a morphology operation and a contour detection method. Rotatory chair tests were conducted with our developed device. To evaluate our system, gain, asymmetry, and phase were measured and compared with System 2000. The average IQR errors of gain, phase and asymmetry were 0.81, 2.74 and 17.35, respectively. We showed that our system is able to measure clinical features.

  2. Simultaneous recordings of ocular microtremor and microsaccades with a piezoelectric sensor and a video-oculography system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. McCamy


    Full Text Available Our eyes are in continuous motion. Even when we attempt to fix our gaze, we produce so called “fixational eye movements”, which include microsaccades, drift, and ocular microtremor (OMT. Microsaccades, the largest and fastest type of fixational eye movement, shift the retinal image from several dozen to several hundred photoreceptors and have equivalent physical characteristics to saccades, only on a smaller scale (Martinez-Conde, Otero-Millan & Macknik, 2013. OMT occurs simultaneously with drift and is the smallest of the fixational eye movements (∼1 photoreceptor width, >0.5 arcmin, with dominant frequencies ranging from 70 Hz to 103 Hz (Martinez-Conde, Macknik & Hubel, 2004. Due to OMT’s small amplitude and high frequency, the most accurate and stringent way to record it is the piezoelectric transduction method. Thus, OMT studies are far rarer than those focusing on microsaccades or drift. Here we conducted simultaneous recordings of OMT and microsaccades with a piezoelectric device and a commercial infrared video tracking system. We set out to determine whether OMT could help to restore perceptually faded targets during attempted fixation, and we also wondered whether the piezoelectric sensor could affect the characteristics of microsaccades. Our results showed that microsaccades, but not OMT, counteracted perceptual fading. We moreover found that the piezoelectric sensor affected microsaccades in a complex way, and that the oculomotor system adjusted to the stress brought on by the sensor by adjusting the magnitudes of microsaccades.

  3. Evaluation of Quantitative Head Impulse Testing Using Search Coils Versus Video-oculography in Older Individuals (United States)

    Agrawal, Yuri; Schubert, Michael C.; Migliaccio, Americo A.; Zee, David S.; Schneider, Erich; Lehnen, Nadine; Carey, John P.


    Objective To evaluate the validity of 2D video-oculography (VOG) compared with scleral search coils for horizontal AVOR gain estimation in older individuals. Study Design Cross-sectional validation study. Setting Tertiary care academic medical center. Patients Six individuals age 70 and older. Interventions Simultaneous eye movement recording with scleral search coil (over right eye) and EyeSeeCam VOG camera (over left eye) during horizontal head impulses. Main Outcome Measures Best estimate search coil and VOG horizontal AVOR gain, presence of compensatory saccades using both eye movement recording techniques. Results We observed a significant correlation between search coil and VOG best estimate horizontal AVOR gain (r = 0.86, p = 0.0002). We evaluated individual head impulses and found that the shapes of the head movement and eye movement traces from the coil and VOG systems were similar. Specific features of eye movements seen in older individuals, including overt and covert corrective saccades and anticompensatory eye movements, were captured by both the search coil and VOG systems. Conclusion These data suggest that VOG is a reasonable proxy for search coil eye movement recording in older subjects to estimate VOR gain and the approximate timing of corrective eye movements. VOG offers advantages over the conventional search coil method; it is portable and easy to use, allowing for quantitative VOR estimation in diverse settings such as a routine office-based practice, at the bedside, and potentially in larger scale population analyses. PMID:24080977

  4. Fast vergence eye movements are disrupted in Parkinson's disease: A video-oculography study. (United States)

    Hanuška, Jaromír; Bonnet, Cecilia; Rusz, Jan; Sieger, Tomáš; Jech, Robert; Rivaud-Péchoux, Sophie; Vidailhet, Marie; Gaymard, Bertrand; Růžička, Evžen


    Blurred near vision is a common non-motor symptom in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), however detailed characterization of vergence eye movements (VEM) is lacking. Convergence and divergence were examined in 18 patients with PD and 18 control subjects using infrared video-oculography. VEM metrics analyzed included latency, velocity and accuracy, in vertical and horizontal planes. The latency of convergence and divergence was significantly increased in PD subjects. Additionally, divergence was slow and hypometric, while other convergence metrics were similar to controls. We provide evidence in favor of disrupted VEM in PD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. High-Speed Video-Oculography for Measuring Three-Dimensional Rotation Vectors of Eye Movements in Mice. (United States)

    Imai, Takao; Takimoto, Yasumitsu; Takeda, Noriaki; Uno, Atsuhiko; Inohara, Hidenori; Shimada, Shoichi


    The mouse is the most commonly used animal model in biomedical research because of recent advances in molecular genetic techniques. Studies related to eye movement in mice are common in fields such as ophthalmology relating to vision, neuro-otology relating to the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), neurology relating to the cerebellum's role in movement, and psychology relating to attention. Recording eye movements in mice, however, is technically difficult. We developed a new algorithm for analyzing the three-dimensional (3D) rotation vector of eye movement in mice using high-speed video-oculography (VOG). The algorithm made it possible to analyze the gain and phase of VOR using the eye's angular velocity around the axis of eye rotation. When mice were rotated at 0.5 Hz and 2.5 Hz around the earth's vertical axis with their heads in a 30° nose-down position, the vertical components of their left eye movements were in phase with the horizontal components. The VOR gain was 0.42 at 0.5 Hz and 0.74 at 2.5 Hz, and the phase lead of the eye movement against the turntable was 16.1° at 0.5 Hz and 4.88° at 2.5 Hz. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this algorithm being used to calculate a 3D rotation vector of eye movement in mice using high-speed VOG. We developed a technique for analyzing the 3D rotation vector of eye movements in mice with a high-speed infrared CCD camera. We concluded that the technique is suitable for analyzing eye movements in mice. We also include a C++ source code that can calculate the 3D rotation vectors of the eye position from two-dimensional coordinates of the pupil and the iris freckle in the image to this article.

  6. Intersegmental eye-head-body interactions during complex whole body movements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    von Laßberg, Christoph; Beykirch, Karl A; Mohler, Betty J; Bülthoff, Heinrich H


    ...; wireless electromyography; and a specialized wireless sport-video-oculography system, which was able to capture and calculate precise oculomotor data under conditions of rapid multiaxial acceleration...

  7. Enhanced nurse call systems. (United States)


    This Evaluation focuses on high-end computerized nurse call systems--what we call enhanced systems. These are highly flexible systems that incorporate microprocessor and communications technologies to expand the capabilities of the nurse call function. Enhanced systems, which vary in configuration from one installation to the next, typically consist of a basic system that provides standard nurse call functionality and a combination of additional enhancements that provide the added functionality the facility desires. In this study, we examine the features that distinguish enhanced nurse call systems from nonenhanced systems, focusing on their application and benefit to healthcare facilities. We evaluated seven systems to determine how well they help (1) improve patient care, as well as increase satisfaction with the care provided, and (2) improve caregiver efficiency, as well as increase satisfaction with the work environment. We found that all systems meet these objectives, but not all systems perform equally well for all implementations. Our ratings will help facilities identify those systems that offer the most effective features for their intended use. The study also includes a Technology Management Guide to help readers (1) determine whether they'll benefit from the capabilities offered by enhanced systems and (2) target a system for purchase and equip the system for optimum performance and cost-effective operation.

  8. Digital TV image enhancement system (United States)

    Biernson, G. A.


    Efficient, digital image-enhancement process has been developed for high-resolution slow-scan TV images. Scan converter is no longer subject to registration errors, which become more serious as resolution increases. To implement feedback image enhancement system, digital processing is used; otherwise there is excessive loss of image information, particularly in video delay lines.

  9. Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanloz, R. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (United States); Stone, H. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (United States); et al.


    DOE, through the Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, requested this study, identifying a focus on: i) assessment of technologies and approaches for subsurface imaging and characterization so as to be able to validate EGS opportunities, and ii) assessment of approaches toward creating sites for EGS, including science and engineering to enhance permeability and increase the recovery factor. Two days of briefings provided in-depth discussion of a wide range of themes and challenges in EGS, and represented perspectives from industry, government laboratories and university researchers. JASON also contacted colleagues from universities, government labs and industry in further conversations to learn the state of the field and potential technologies relevant to EGS.

  10. Enhanced Brine Dewatering System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Enhanced Brine Dewatering System (EBDS) is to provide a scalable means of completely recovering usable water from byproducts created by reverse...

  11. Enhanced Brine Dewatering System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Enhanced Brine Dewatering System (EBDS) is to provide an easily scalable means of completely recovering usable water from byproducts created by...

  12. Evaluation of Binocular Vision Therapy Efficacy by 3D Video-Oculography Measurement of Binocular Alignment and Motility. (United States)

    Laria, Carlos; Pinero, David P


    To evaluate two cases of intermittent exotropia treated by vision therapy the efficacy of the treatment by complementing the clinical examination with a 3D videooculography to register and to evidence the potential applicability of this technology for such purpose. We report the binocular alignment changes occurring after vision therapy in a woman of 36 years with an intermittent exotropia of 25 prism diopters at far and 18 PD at near and a child of 10 years with 8 PD of intermittent exotropia in primary position associated to 6 PD of left eye hypotropia. Both patients presented good visual acuity with correction in both eyes. Instability of ocular deviation was evident by VOG analysis, revealing also the presence of vertical and torsional components. Binocular vision therapy was prescribed and performed including different types of vergence, accommodation, and consciousness of diplopia training. After therapy, excellent ranges of fusional vergence and a to-the-nose near point of convergence were obtained.The 3D VOG examination confirmed the compensation of the deviation with a high level of stability of binocular alignment. Significant improvement could be observed after therapy in the vertical and torsional components that were found to become more stable. Patients were very satisfied with the outcome obtained by vision therapy. 3D-VOG is a useful technique for providing an objective register of the compensation of the ocular deviation and the stability of the binocular alignment achieved after vision therapy in cases of intermittent exotropia, providing a detailed analysis of vertical and torsional improvements.

  13. Enhanced High Resolution RBS System (United States)

    Pollock, Thomas J.; Hass, James A.; Klody, George M.


    Improvements in full spectrum resolution with the second NEC high resolution RBS system are summarized. Results for 50 Å TiN/HfO films on Si yielding energy resolution on the order of 1 keV are also presented. Detector enhancements include improved pulse processing electronics, upgraded shielding for the MCP/RAE detector, and reduced noise generated from pumping. Energy resolution measurements on spectra front edge coupled with calculations using 0.4mStr solid angle show that beam energy spread at 400 KeV from the Pelletron® accelerator is less than 100 eV. To improve user throughput, magnet control has been added to the automatic data collection. Depth profiles derived from experimental data are discussed. For the thin films profiled, depth resolutions were on the Angstrom level with the non-linear energy/channel conversions ranging from 100 to 200 eV.

  14. Recommender Systems in Technology Enhanced Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manouselis, Nikos; Drachsler, Hendrik; Vuorikari, Riina; Hummel, Hans; Koper, Rob


    Manouselis, N., Drachsler, H., Vuorikari, R., Hummel, H. G. K., & Koper, R. (2011). Recommender Systems in Technology Enhanced Learning. In P. B. Kantor, F. Ricci, L. Rokach, & B. Shapira (Eds.), Recommender Systems Handbook (pp. 387-415). Berlin: Springer.

  15. Recommender Systems in Technology Enhanced Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manouselis, Nikos; Drachsler, Hendrik; Verbert, Katrien; Santos, Olga


    Manouselis, N., Drachsler, H., Verbert, K., & Santos, C. S. (Eds.) (2010). Recommender System in Technology Enhanced Learning. Elsevier Procedia Computer Science: Volume 1, Issue 2. Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Recommender Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning (RecSysTEL). September, 29-30,

  16. Systems and methods for enhancing optical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVore, Peter Thomas Setsuda; Chou, Jason T.


    An Optical Information Transfer Enhancer System includes a first system for producing an information bearing first optical wave that is impressed with a first information having a first information strength wherein the first optical wave has a first shape. A second system produces a second optical wave. An information strength enhancer module receives the first and said second optical waves and impresses the first optical wave upon the second optical wave via cross-phase modulation (XPM) to produce an information-strength-enhanced second optical wave having a second information strength that is greater than the first information strength of the first optical wave. Following a center-wavelength changer by an Optical Information Transfer Enhancer System improves its performance.

  17. An Evaluation of Enhanced Geothermal Systems Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelacic, Allan [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Fortuna, Raymond [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); LaSala, Raymond [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Nathwani, Jay [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Nix, Gerald [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Visser, Charles [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Green, Bruce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Renner, Joel [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Blankenship, Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kennedy, Mack [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bruton, Carol [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    This 2008 document presents the results of an eight-month study by the Department of Energy (DOE) and its support staff at the national laboratories concerning the technological requirements to commercialize a new geothermal technology, Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS).

  18. Fusion Enhanced Vehicle Level Diagnostic System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Technology Connection, Inc. in conjunction with its partner, Vanderbilt University, is proposing to build a Fusion-enhanced Vehicle Diagnostics System (FVDS)...

  19. Enhanced autocompensating quantum cryptography system. (United States)

    Bethune, Donald S; Navarro, Martha; Risk, William P


    We have improved the hardware and software of our autocompensating system for quantum key distribution by replacing bulk optical components at the end stations with fiber-optic equivalents and implementing software that synchronizes end-station activities, communicates basis choices, corrects errors, and performs privacy amplification over a local area network. The all-fiber-optic arrangement provides stable, efficient, and high-contrast routing of the photons. The low-bit error rate leads to high error-correction efficiency and minimizes data sacrifice during privacy amplification. Characterization measurements made on a number of commercial avalanche photodiodes are presented that highlight the need for improved devices tailored specifically for quantum information applications. A scheme for frequency shifting the photons returning from Alice's station to allow them to be distinguished from backscattered noise photons is also described.

  20. Enhanced integrated nonthermal treatment system study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagi, C.; Schwinkendorf, B.; Teheranian, B.


    The purpose of the Enhanced Nonthermal Treatment Systems (ENTS) study is to evaluate alternative configurations of one of the five systems evaluated in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) study. Five alternative configurations are evaluated. Each is designed to enhance the final waste form performance by replacing grout with improved stabilization technologies, or to improve system performance by improving the destruction efficiency for organic contaminants. AU enhanced systems are alternative configurations of System NT-5, which has the following characteristics: Nonthermal System NT-5: (1) catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) to treat organic material including organic liquids, sludges, and soft (or combustible) debris, (2) thermal desorption of inorganic sludge and process residue, (3) washing of soil and inorganic debris with treatment by CWO of removed organic material, (4) metal decontamination by abrasive blasting, (5) stabilization of treated sludge, soil, debris, and untreated debris with entrained contamination in grout, and (6) stabilization of inorganic sludge, salts and secondary waste in polymer. System NT-5 was chosen because it was designed to treat combustible debris thereby minimizing the final waste form volume, and because it uses grout for primary stabilization. The enhanced nonthermal systems were studied to determine the cost and performance impact of replacing grout (a commonly used stabilization agent in the DOE complex) with improved waste stabilization methods such as vitrification and polymer.

  1. Enhancing the Learning Process with Expert Systems. (United States)

    Karake, Zeinab A.


    Discusses the use of artificial intelligence and expert system shells to enhance the learning process of graduate or undergraduate statistics students. A student exercise is described using STAT-EXPERT, an expert system designed to help students select the appropriate statistical analysis technique. (25 references) (LRW)

  2. Enhanced Publications: Data Models and Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Bardi


    Full Text Available “Enhanced publications” are commonly intended as digital publications that consist of a mandatory narrative part (the description of the research conducted plus related “parts”, such as datasets, other publications, images, tables, workflows, devices. The state-of-the-art on information systems for enhanced publications has today reached the point where some kind of common understanding is required, in order to provide the methodology and language for scientists to compare, analyse, or simply discuss the multitude of solutions in the field. In this paper, we thoroughly examined the literature with a two-fold aim: firstly, introducing the terminology required to describe and compare structural and semantic features of existing enhanced publication data models; secondly, proposing a classification of enhanced publication information systems based on their main functional goals.

  3. Proniosomes for Penetration Enhancement in Transdermal System


    Samita Singla; S. L. HariKumar; Geeta Aggarwal


    Over the last few years an inclusive research has been done over provesicular approach for transdermal drug delivery. Skin has a very tough diffusion barrier inhibiting penetration of drug moiety which is rate limiting barrier for penetration of drugs. There are several approaches that deal with penetration enhancement across the skin. Vesicular and provesicular systems are promising amongst them. Vesicular systems including (niosomes, ethosomes, transfersomes and liposomes) are promising sys...

  4. Performance management system enhancement and maintenance (United States)

    Cleaver, T. G.; Ahour, R.; Johnson, B. R.


    The research described in this report concludes a two-year effort to develop a Performance Management System (PMS) for the NCC computers. PMS provides semi-automated monthly reports to NASA and contractor management on the status and performance of the NCC computers in the TDRSS program. Throughout 1984, PMS was tested, debugged, extended, and enhanced. Regular PMS monthly reports were produced and distributed. PMS continues to operate at the NCC under control of Bendix Corp. personnel.

  5. Enhancing an enterprise's innovation performance measurement system


    Stanković, Ljiljana; Novićević, Blagoje; Đukić, Suzana


    Business conditions under which modern enterprises operate are becoming more and more complex. The complexity of the business environment is caused not only by external but also by internal factors, which imposes the need for turnover in management focus. The turnover is reflected primarily in the change of business models. The changes are evident at all management stages. Development and enhancement of business performance measurement system is the area where the changes are most evident con...

  6. Construction and operation of a high-speed, high-precision eye tracker for tight stimulus synchronization and real-time gaze monitoring in human and animal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Farivar


    Full Text Available Measurements of the fast and precise movements of the eye—critical to many vision, oculomotor, and animal behaviour studies—can be made non-invasively by video oculography. The protocol here describes the construction and operation of a research-grade video oculography system with 0.1° precision over the full typical viewing range at over 450Hz with tight synchronization with stimulus onset. The protocol consists of three stages: (1 system assembly, (2 calibration for both cooperative and for minimally cooperative subjects (e.g., animals or infants, and (3 gaze monitoring and recording.

  7. Mixed surfactant systems for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llave, F.M.; Gall, B.L.; Noll, L.A.


    The results of an evaluation of mixed surfactant systems for enhanced oil recovery are described. Several surfactant combinations have been studied. These include alkyl aryl sulfonates as primary surfactants and carboxymethylated ethoxylated (CME) surfactants and ethoxylated sulfonates (ES) as secondary surfactants. The ethoxylated surfactants increase the salinity tolerance of the primary surfactants and, in theory, allow tailoring of the surfactant system to match selected reservoir conditions. The experiments conducted included interfacial tension (IFT) measurements, phase behavior measurements, adsorption and/or chromatographic separation of mixed surfactant systems, measurements of solution properties such as the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of surfactant mixtures, and crude oil displacement experiments. The effects of temperature, surfactant concentration, salinity, presence of divalent ions, hydrocarbon type, and component proportions in the mixed surfactant combinations, and injection strategies on the performance potential of the targeted surfactant/hydrocarbon systems were studied. 40 refs., 37 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Exoskeleton for Soldier Enhancement Systems Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, J.F.


    The development of a successful exoskeleton for human performance augmentation (EHPA) will require a multi-disciplinary systems approach based upon sound biomechanics, power generation and actuation systems, controls technology, and operator interfaces. The ability to integrate key components into a system that enhances performance without impeding operator mobility is essential. The purpose of this study and report are to address the issue of feasibility of building a fieldable EHPA. Previous efforts, while demonstrating progress and enhancing knowledge, have not approached the level required for a fully functional, fieldable system. It is doubtless that the technologies required for a successful exoskeleton have advanced, and some of them significantly. The question to be addressed in this report is have they advanced to the point of making a system feasible in the next three to five years? In this study, the key technologies required to successfully build an exoskeleton have been examined. The primary focus has been on the key technologies of power sources, actuators, and controls. Power sources, including internal combustion engines, fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, and hybrid sources have been investigated and compared with respect to the exoskeleton application. Both conventional and non-conventional actuator technologies that could impact EHPA have been assessed. In addition to the current state of the art of actuators, the potential for near-term improvements using non-conventional actuators has also been addressed. Controls strategies, and their implication to the design approach, and the exoskeleton to soldier interface have also been investigated. In addition to these key subsystems and technologies, this report addresses technical concepts and issues relating to an integrated design. A recommended approach, based on the results of the study is also presented.

  9. Interactive computer-enhanced remote viewing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tourtellott, J.A.; Wagner, J.F. [Mechanical Technology Incorporated, Latham, NY (United States)


    Remediation activities such as decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) typically involve materials and activities hazardous to humans. Robots are an attractive way to conduct such remediation, but for efficiency they need a good three-dimensional (3-D) computer model of the task space where they are to function. This model can be created from engineering plans and architectural drawings and from empirical data gathered by various sensors at the site. The model is used to plan robotic tasks and verify that selected paths are clear of obstacles. This report describes the development of an Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote Viewing System (ICERVS), a software system to provide a reliable geometric description of a robotic task space, and enable robotic remediation to be conducted more effectively and more economically.

  10. The Radiator-Enhanced Geothermal System (United States)

    Hilpert, M.; Marsh, B. D.; Geiser, P.


    Standard Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) have repeatedly been hobbled by the inability of rock to conductively transfer heat at rates sufficient to re-supply heat extracted convectively via artificially made fracture systems. At the root of this imbalance is the basic magnitude of thermal diffusivity for most rocks, which severely hampers heat flow once the cooled halos about fractures reach ~0.1 m or greater. This inefficiency is exacerbated by the standard EGS design of mainly horizontally constructed fracture systems with inflow and outflow access at the margins of the fracture network. We introduced an alternative system whereby the heat exchanger mimics a conventional radiator in an internal combustion engine, which we call a Radiator-EGS (i.e., RAD-EGS). The heat exchanger is built vertically with cool water entering the base and hot water extracted at the top. The RAD-EGS itself consists of a family of vertical vanes produced through sequential horizontal drilling and permeability stimulation through propellant fracking. The manufactured fracture zones share the orientation of the natural transmissive fracture system. As below about 700 m, S1 is vertical and the average strike of transmissive fractures parallels SHmax, creating vertical fractures that include S1 and SHmax requires drilling stacked laterals parallel to SHmax. The RAD-EGS is also based on the observation that the longevity of natural hydrothermal systems depends on thermal recharge through heat convection but not heat conduction. In this paper, we present numerical simulations that examine the effects of the depths of the injector and extraction wells, vane size, coolant flow rate, the natural crustal geothermal gradient, and natural regional background flow on geothermal energy extraction.

  11. Expert System for UNIX System Reliability and Availability Enhancement (United States)

    Xu, Catherine Q.


    Highly reliable and available systems are critical to the airline industry. However, most off-the-shelf computer operating systems and hardware do not have built-in fault tolerant mechanisms, the UNIX workstation is one example. In this research effort, we have developed a rule-based Expert System (ES) to monitor, command, and control a UNIX workstation system with hot-standby redundancy. The ES on each workstation acts as an on-line system administrator to diagnose, report, correct, and prevent certain types of hardware and software failures. If a primary station is approaching failure, the ES coordinates the switch-over to a hot-standby secondary workstation. The goal is to discover and solve certain fatal problems early enough to prevent complete system failure from occurring and therefore to enhance system reliability and availability. Test results show that the ES can diagnose all targeted faulty scenarios and take desired actions in a consistent manner regardless of the sequence of the faults. The ES can perform designated system administration tasks about ten times faster than an experienced human operator. Compared with a single workstation system, our hot-standby redundancy system downtime is predicted to be reduced by more than 50 percent by using the ES to command and control the system.

  12. Enhanced-Bivium Algorithm for RFID System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyong Zhang


    Full Text Available RFID (radio frequency identification is an emerging technology for automatic identification of physical objects using radio frequency. The security and privacy of the system is increasingly concerned and some light-weight encryption schemes such as Trivium and Bivium have been proposed. In this paper, the internal structure of Bivium is exploited and generalized to an algorithm called Bivium-Model. It is shown that the original Bivium has its inherent imperfections due to the improper parameter selection. A set of better parameters are given out to fix the security vulnerability of original Bivium. Emulation results also show that the Enhanced-Bivium algorithm achieves lower power consumption and lower die size.

  13. Interactive computer enhanced remote viewing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.A.; Tourtellott, J.A.


    The Interactive, Computer Enhanced, Remote Viewing System (ICERVSA) is a volumetric data system designed to help the Department of Energy (DOE) improve remote operations in hazardous sites by providing reliable and accurate maps of task spaces where robots will clean up nuclear wastes. The ICERVS mission is to acquire, store, integrate and manage all the sensor data for a site and to provide the necessary tools to facilitate its visualization and interpretation. Empirical sensor data enters through the Common Interface for Sensors and after initial processing, is stored in the Volumetric Database. The data can be analyzed and displayed via a Graphic User Interface with a variety of visualization tools. Other tools permit the construction of geometric objects, such as wire frame models, to represent objects which the operator may recognize in the live TV image. A computer image can be generated that matches the viewpoint of the live TV camera at the remote site, facilitating access to site data. Lastly, the data can be gathered, processed, and transmitted in acceptable form to a robotic controller. Descriptions are given of all these components. The final phase of the ICERVS project, which has just begun, will produce a full scale system and demonstrate it at a DOE site to be selected. A task added to this Phase will adapt the ICERVS to meet the needs of the Dismantlement and Decommissioning (D and D) work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  14. Induced seismicity associated with enhanced geothermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majer, Ernest; Majer, Ernest L.; Baria, Roy; Stark, Mitch; Oates, Stephen; Bommer, Julian; Smith, Bill; Asanuma, Hiroshi


    Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) offer the potential to significantly add to the world energy inventory. As with any development of new technology, some aspects of the technology has been accepted by the general public, but some have not yet been accepted and await further clarification before such acceptance is possible. One of the issues associated with EGS is the role of microseismicity during the creation of the underground reservoir and the subsequent extraction of the energy. The primary objectives of this white paper are to present an up-to-date review of the state of knowledge about induced seismicity during the creation and operation of enhanced geothermal systems, and to point out the gaps in knowledge that if addressed will allow an improved understanding of the mechanisms generating the events as well as serve as a basis to develop successful protocols for monitoring and addressing community issues associated with such induced seismicity. The information was collected though literature searches as well as convening three workshops to gather information from a wide audience. Although microseismicity has been associated with the development of production and injection operations in a variety of geothermal regions, there have been no or few adverse physical effects on the operations or on surrounding communities. Still, there is public concern over the possible amount and magnitude of the seismicity associated with current and future EGS operations. It is pointed out that microseismicity has been successfully dealt with in a variety of non-geothermal as well as geothermal environments. Several case histories are also presented to illustrate a variety of technical and public acceptance issues. It is concluded that EGS Induced seismicity need not pose any threat to the development of geothermal resources if community issues are properly handled. In fact, induced seismicity provides benefits because it can be used as a monitoring tool to understand the

  15. Projection image enhancement for explosive detection systems (United States)

    Yildiz, Yesna O.; Abraham, Douglas Q.; Agaian, Sos; Panetta, Karen


    Automated Explosive Detection Systems (EDS) utilizing Computed Tomography (CT) generate a series of 2-D projections from a series of X-ray scans OF luggage under inspection. 3-D volumetric images can also be generated from the collected data set. Extensive data manipulation of the 2-D and 3-D image sets for detecting the presence of explosives is done automatically by EDS. The results are then forwarded to human screeners for final review. The final determination as to whether the luggage contains an explosive and needs to be searched manually is performed by trained TSA (Transportation Security Administration) screeners following an approved TSA protocol. The TSA protocol has the screeners visually inspect the resulting images and the renderings from the EDS to determine if the luggage is suspicious and consequently should be searched manually. Enhancing those projection images delivers a higher quality screening, reduces screening time and also reduces the amount of luggage that needs to be manually searched otherwise. This paper presents a novel edge detection algorithm that is geared towards, though not exclusive to, automated explosive detection systems. The goal of these enhancements is to provide a higher quality screening process while reducing the overall screening time and luggage search rates. Accurately determining the location of edge pixels within 2-D signals, often the first step in segmentation and recognition systems indicates the boundary between overlapping objects in a luggage. Most of the edge detection algorithms such as Canny, Prewitt, Roberts, Sobel, and Laplacian methods are based on the first and second derivatives/difference operators. These operators detect the discontinuities in the differences of pixels. These approaches are sensitive to the presence of noise and could produce false edges in noisy images. Including large scale filters, may avoid errors generated by noise, but often simultaneously eliminating the finer edge details as

  16. Induced seismicity associated with Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majer, Ernest L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 90-R1116, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Baria, Roy [MIL-TECH UK Ltd., 62 Rosewood Way, West End, Woking, Surrey GU24 9PF (United Kingdom); Stark, Mitch [Calpine Corp., 10350 Socrates Mine Road, Middletown, CA 95461 (United States); Oates, Stephen [Shell International Exploration and Production, Kesslerpark 1, 2288-GS Rijswijk-ZH (Netherlands); Bommer, Julian [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Smith, Bill [Northern California Power Agency, Middletown, P.O. Box 663, Middletown, CA 95461 (United States); Asanuma, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, 980-8579 Sendai (Japan)


    Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) have the potential to make a significant contribution to the world energy inventory. One controversial issue associated with EGS, however, is the impact of induced seismicity or microseismicity, which has been the cause of delays and threatened cancellation of at least two EGS projects worldwide. Although microseismicity has in fact had few (or no) adverse physical effects on operations or on surrounding communities, there remains public concern over the amount and magnitude of the seismicity associated with current and future EGS operations. The primary objectives of this paper are to present an up-to-date review of what is already known about the seismicity induced during the creation and operation of EGS, and of the gaps in our knowledge that, once addressed, should lead to an improved understanding of the mechanisms generating the events. Several case histories also illustrate a number of technical and public acceptance issues. We conclude that EGS-induced seismicity need not pose a threat to the development of geothermal energy resources if site selection is carried out properly, community issues are handled adequately and operators understand the underlying mechanisms causing the events. Induced seismicity could indeed prove beneficial, in that it can be used to monitor the effectiveness of EGS operations and shed light on geothermal reservoir processes. (author)

  17. Tracers for Characterizing Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karen Wright; George Redden; Carl D. Palmer; Harry Rollins; Mark Stone; Mason Harrup; Laurence C. Hull


    Information about the times of thermal breakthrough and subsequent rates of thermal drawdown in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is necessary for reservoir management, designing fracture stimulation and well drilling programs, and forecasting economic return. Thermal breakthrough in heterogeneous porous media can be estimated using conservative tracers and assumptions about heat transfer rates; however, tracers that undergo temperature-dependent changes can provide more detailed information about the thermal profile along the flow path through the reservoir. To be effectively applied, the thermal reaction rates of such temperature sensitive traces must be well characterized for the range of conditions that exist in geothermal systems. Reactive tracers proposed in the literature include benzoic and carboxylic acids (Adams) and organic esters and amides (Robinson et al.); however, the practical temperature range over which these tracers can be applied (100-275°C) is somewhat limited. Further, for organic esters and amides, little is known about their sorption to the reservoir matrix and how such reactions impact data interpretation. Another approach involves tracers where the reference condition is internal to the tracer itself. Two examples are: 1) racemization of polymeric amino acids, and 2) mineral thermoluminescence. In these cases internal ratios of states are measured rather than extents of degradation and mass loss. Racemization of poly-L-lactic acid (for example) is temperature sensitive and therefore can be used as a temperature-recording tracer depending on the rates of racemization and stability of the amino acids. Heat-induced quenching of thermoluminescence of pre-irradiated LiF can also be used. To protect the tracers from alterations (extraneous reactions, dissolution) in geothermal environments we are encapsulating the tracers in core-shell colloidal structures that will subsequently be tested for their ability to be transported and to protect the

  18. Vehicle Safety Enhancement System: Sensing and Communication


    Huihuan Qian; Yongquan Chen; Yuandong Sun; Niansheng Liu; Ning Ding; Yangsheng Xu; Guoqing Xu; Yunjian Tang; Jingyu Yan


    With the substantial increase of vehicles on road, driving safety and transportation efficiency have become increasingly concerned focus from drivers, passengers, and governments. Wireless networks constructed by vehicles and infrastructures provide abundant information to share for the sake of both enhanced safety and network efficiency. This paper presents the systematic research to enhance the vehicle safety by wireless communication, in the aspects of information acquisition through vehic...

  19. Temporary Cementitious Sealers in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Butcher, T.; Brothers, L.; Bour, D.


    Unlike conventional hydrothennal geothermal technology that utilizes hot water as the energy conversion resources tapped from natural hydrothermal reservoir located at {approx}10 km below the ground surface, Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) must create a hydrothermal reservoir in a hot rock stratum at temperatures {ge}200 C, present in {approx}5 km deep underground by employing hydraulic fracturing. This is the process of initiating and propagating a fracture as well as opening pre-existing fractures in a rock layer. In this operation, a considerable attention is paid to the pre-existing fractures and pressure-generated ones made in the underground foundation during drilling and logging. These fractures in terms of lost circulation zones often cause the wastage of a substantial amount of the circulated water-based drilling fluid or mud. Thus, such lost circulation zones must be plugged by sealing materials, so that the drilling operation can resume and continue. Next, one important consideration is the fact that the sealers must be disintegrated by highly pressured water to reopen the plugged fractures and to promote the propagation of reopened fractures. In response to this need, the objective of this phase I project in FYs 2009-2011 was to develop temporary cementitious fracture sealing materials possessing self-degradable properties generating when {ge} 200 C-heated scalers came in contact with water. At BNL, we formulated two types of non-Portland cementitious systems using inexpensive industrial by-products with pozzolanic properties, such as granulated blast-furnace slag from the steel industries, and fly ashes from coal-combustion power plants. These byproducts were activated by sodium silicate to initiate their pozzolanic reactions, and to create a cemetitious structure. One developed system was sodium silicate alkali-activated slag/Class C fly ash (AASC); the other was sodium silicate alkali-activated slag/Class F fly ash (AASF) as the binder of temper

  20. Enhancing Systems-Thinking Skills with Modelling (United States)

    Hung, Woei


    Systems thinking is an essential cognitive skill that enables individuals to develop an integrative understanding of a given subject at the conceptual and systemic level. Yet, systems thinking is not usually an innate skill. Helping students develop systems-thinking skills warrants attention from educators. This paper describes a study examining…

  1. Multiparameter fiber optic sensing system for monitoring enhanced geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Challener, William A


    The goal of this project was to design, fabricate and test an optical fiber cable which supports multiple sensing modalities for measurements in the harsh environment of enhanced geothermal systems. To accomplish this task, optical fiber was tested at both high temperatures and strains for mechanical integrity, and in the presence of hydrogen for resistance to darkening. Both single mode (SM) and multimode (MM) commercially available optical fiber were identified and selected for the cable based on the results of these tests. The cable was designed and fabricated using a tube-within-tube construction containing two MM fibers and one SM fiber, and without supporting gel that is not suitable for high temperature environments. Commercial fiber optic sensing instruments using Raman DTS (distributed temperature sensing), Brillouin DTSS (distributed temperature and strain sensing), and Raleigh COTDR (coherent optical time domain reflectometry) were selected for field testing. A microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) pressure sensor was designed, fabricated, packaged, and calibrated for high pressure measurements at high temperatures and spliced to the cable. A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensor was also spliced to the cable. A geothermal well was selected and its temperature and pressure were logged. The cable was then deployed in the well in two separate field tests and measurements were made on these different sensing modalities. Raman DTS measurements were found to be accurate to ±5°C, even with some residual hydrogen darkening. Brillouin DTSS measurements were in good agreement with the Raman results. The Rayleigh COTDR instrument was able to detect some acoustic signatures, but was generally disappointing. The FBG sensor was used to determine the effects of hydrogen darkening, but drift over time made it unreliable as a temperature or pressure sensor. The MEMS sensor was found to be highly stable and accurate to better than its 0.1% calibration.

  2. Recommender Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning: Research Trends & Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manouselis, Nikos; Verbert, Katrien; Drachsler, Hendrik; Santos, Olga


    As an area, Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) aims to design, develop and test socio-technical innovations that will support and enhance learning practices of individuals and organizations. Information retrieval is a pivotal activity in TEL and the deployment of recommender systems has attracted

  3. Enhanced personal protection system for the PS

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Duc


    During the first long shutdown (LS1) a new safety system will be installed in the primary beam areas of the PS complex in order to bring the standard of personnel radiation protection at the PS into line with that of the LHC.   Pierre Ninin, deputy group leader of GS-ASE and responsible for the installation of the new PS complex safety system, in front of a new access control system. The LHC access control systems are state-of-the-art, whereas those of the injection chain accelerators were running the risk of becoming obsolete. For the past two years a project to upgrade the access and safety systems of the first links in the LHC accelerator chain has been underway to bring them into compliance with nuclear safety standards. These systems provide the personnel with automatic protection by limiting access to hazardous areas and by ensuring that nobody is present in the areas when the accelerator is in operation. By the end of 2013, the project teams will ha...

  4. Precise tillage systems for enhanced non-chemical weed management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurstjens, D.A.G.


    Soil and residue manipulation can assist weed management by killing weeds mechanically, interfering in weed lifecycles, facilitating operations and enhancing crop establishment and growth. Current tillage systems often compromise these functions, resulting in heavy reliance on herbicides,

  5. Evaluating Recommender Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning: A Quantitative Survey (United States)

    Erdt, Mojisola; Fernandez, Alejandro; Rensing, Christoph


    The increasing number of publications on recommender systems for Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) evidence a growing interest in their development and deployment. In order to support learning, recommender systems for TEL need to consider specific requirements, which differ from the requirements for recommender systems in other domains like…

  6. Automated-mud system enhances well control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.C.; Yeager, L.G.


    A new automated mud-mixing system, the Halliburton R/A Densometer, offers the industry a tool that can be used along with adjustable drilling chokes, degassers, and gas separators to form a package that will keep the operator in positive control of his well at all times. Its chief advantage lies in its ability to control impending blowouts by accurately and reliably measuring true mud density in continuous monitoring and automatic maintenance of the desired mud weight - unaffected by the material composition of normal mud systems. The system was used by Lone Star Producing Co. in drilling No. 1 Bertha Rogers to a record depth of 31,441 ft in Oklahoma's Anadarko basin.

  7. System Enhancements for Mechanical Inspection Processes (United States)

    Hawkins, Myers IV


    Quality inspection of parts is a major component to any project that requires hardware implementation. Keeping track of all of the inspection jobs is essential to having a smooth running process. By using HTML, the programming language ColdFusion, and the MySQL database, I created a web-based job management system for the 170 Mechanical Inspection Group that will replace the Microsoft Access based management system. This will improve the ways inspectors and the people awaiting inspection view and keep track of hardware as it is in the inspection process. In the end, the management system should be able to insert jobs into a queue, place jobs in and out of a bonded state, pre-release bonded jobs, and close out inspection jobs.

  8. Enhancing System Realisation in Formal Model Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran-Jørgensen, Peter Würtz Vinther

    – a formal methods tool that supports the Vienna Development Method. The development of the code generation infrastructure has involved the re-design of the software architecture of Overture. The new architecture brings forth the reuse and extensibility features of Overture to take into account the needs......Software for mission-critical systems is sometimes analysed using formal specification to increase the chances of the system behaving as intended. When sufficient insights into the system have been obtained from the formal analysis, the formal specification is realised in the form of a software...... implementation. One way to realise the system’s software is by automatically generating it from the formal specification – a technique referred to as code generation. However, in general it is difficult to make guarantees about the correctness of the generated code – especially while requiring automation...

  9. Microfluidic system for enhanced cardiac tissue formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busek Mathias


    Full Text Available Hereby a microfluidic system for cell cultivation is presented in which human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes were cultivated under perfusion. Besides micro-perfusion this system is also capable to produce well-defined oxygen contents, apply defined forces and has excellent imaging characteristics. Cardiomyocytes attach to the surface, start spontaneous beating and stay functional for up to 14 days under perfusion. The cell motion was subsequently analysed using an adapted video analysis script to calculate beating rate, beating direction and contraction or relaxation speed.

  10. Gain Enhanced LTCC System-on-Package for UMRR Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif


    An apparatus, system, and method for Gain Enhanced LTCC System-on-Package radar sensor. The sensor includes a substrate and an integrated circuit coupled to the substrate, where the integrated circuit is configured to transmit and receive radio frequency (RF) signals. An antenna may be coupled to the integrated circuit and a lens may be coupled to the antenna. The lens may be configured to enhance the gain of the sensor.

  11. Recommender systems for technology enhanced learning research trends and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Manouselis, Nikos; Verbert, Katrien


    Presents cutting edge research from leading experts in the growing field of Recommender Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning (RecSys TEL) International contributions are included to demonstrate the merging of various efforts and communities Topics include: Linked Data and the Social Web as Facilitators for TEL Recommender Systems in Research and Practice, Personalised Learning-Plan Recommendations in Game-Based Learning and Recommendations from Heterogeneous Sources in a Technology Enhanced Learning Ecosystem

  12. Deploying Content Management System to enhance State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E-governance offers a new way of helping to improve government processes, connect citizens, and build interactions with and within the civil society. The existing system is a semi-static government website with aesthetically attractive homepages, but very little content value. Most of these sites present only “public relations” ...

  13. Vision enhanced navigation for unmanned systems (United States)

    Wampler, Brandon Loy

    A vision based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithm is evaluated for use on unmanned systems. SLAM is a technique used by a vehicle to build a map of an environment while concurrently keeping track of its location within the map, without a priori knowledge. The work in this thesis is focused on using SLAM as a navigation solution when global positioning system (GPS) service is degraded or temporarily unavailable. Previous work on unmanned systems that lead up to the determination that a better navigation solution than GPS alone is first presented. This previous work includes control of unmanned systems, simulation, and unmanned vehicle hardware testing. The proposed SLAM algorithm follows the work originally developed by Davidson et al. in which they dub their algorithm MonoSLAM [1--4]. A new approach using the Pyramidal Lucas-Kanade feature tracking algorithm from Intel's OpenCV (open computer vision) library is presented as a means of keeping correct landmark correspondences as the vehicle moves through the scene. Though this landmark tracking method is unusable for long term SLAM due to its inability to recognize revisited landmarks, as opposed to the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF), its computational efficiency makes it a good candidate for short term navigation between GPS position updates. Additional sensor information is then considered by fusing INS and GPS information into the SLAM filter. The SLAM system, in its vision only and vision/IMU form, is tested on a table top, in an open room, and finally in an outdoor environment. For the outdoor environment, a form of the slam algorithm that fuses vision, IMU, and GPS information is tested. The proposed SLAM algorithm, and its several forms, are implemented in C++ using an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). Experiments utilizing a live video feed from a webcam are performed. The different forms of the filter are compared and conclusions are made on

  14. Course Evaluation Systems for Open-ended Quality Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piihl, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jens Smed


    Quality in higher education is widely controlled through surveys asking students to evaluate teaching. However, control of quality does not necessarily lead to enhancement of quality. Drawing on accounting research and a case study, a measurement-based and open-ended quality control system...... emphasising quality enhancement is suggested. The case shows how interactive use of performance measurement can lead to more engaged and enabling dialogue amongst involved actors concerning quality enhancement, however institutionalised beliefs regarding course evaluation systems makes a change challenging....... The chapter suggests that open-ended measurement systems enabling stakeholders to take responsibility for quality enhancement is not so much a matter of technical design as a matter of an enabling style of use....

  15. Designing an enhanced groundwater sample collection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalla, R.


    As part of an ongoing technical support mission to achieve excellence and efficiency in environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory for Energy and Health-Related Research (LEHR), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provided guidance on the design and construction of monitoring wells and identified the most suitable type of groundwater sampling pump and accessories for monitoring wells. The goal was to utilize a monitoring well design that would allow for hydrologic testing and reduce turbidity to minimize the impact of sampling. The sampling results of the newly designed monitoring wells were clearly superior to those of the previously installed monitoring wells. The new wells exhibited reduced turbidity, in addition to improved access for instrumentation and hydrologic testing. The variable frequency submersible pump was selected as the best choice for obtaining groundwater samples. The literature references are listed at the end of this report. Despite some initial difficulties, the actual performance of the variable frequency, submersible pump and its accessories was effective in reducing sampling time and labor costs, and its ease of use was preferred over the previously used bladder pumps. The surface seals system, called the Dedicator, proved to be useful accessory to prevent surface contamination while providing easy access for water-level measurements and for connecting the pump. Cost savings resulted from the use of the pre-production pumps (beta units) donated by the manufacturer for the demonstration. However, larger savings resulted from shortened field time due to the ease in using the submersible pumps and the surface seal access system. Proper deployment of the monitoring wells also resulted in cost savings and ensured representative samples.

  16. SOPROLIFE System: An Accurate Diagnostic Enhancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Zeitouny


    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate a light-emitting diode fluorescence tool, the SOPROLIFE light-induced fluorescence evaluator, and compare it to the international caries detection and assessment system-II (ICDAS-II in the detection of occlusal caries. Methods. A total of 219 permanent posterior teeth in 21 subjects, with age ranging from 15 to 65 years, were examined. An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was computed to assess the reliability between the two diagnostic methods. Results. The results showed a high reliability between the two methods (ICC = 0.92; IC = 0.901–0.940; P<0.001. The SOPROLIFE blue fluorescence mode had a high sensitivity (87% and a high specificity (99% when compared to ICDAS-II. Conclusion. Compared to the most used visual method in the diagnosis of occlusal caries lesions, the finding from this study suggests that SOPROLIFE can be used as a reproducible and reliable assessment tool. At a cut-off point, categorizing noncarious lesions and visual change in enamel, SOPROLIFE shows a high sensitivity and specificity. We can conclude that financially ICDAS is better than SOPROLIFE. However SOPROLIFE is easier for clinicians since it is a simple evaluation of images. Finally in terms of efficiency SOPROLIFE is not superior to ICDAS but tends to be equivalent with the same advantages.

  17. Enhancing SOEC system lifetime by controlling inlet gas composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    In a method for enhancing the lifetime of a solid oxide electrolysis cell system by counteracting nitridation of the threads of the in-line electrical heaters of the system, the start-up, shut-down and trip operations are done in a humidified nitrogen atmosphere on the fuel side to achieve a dew...

  18. Squeezing-enhanced measurement sensitivity in a cavity optomechanical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerdoncuff, Hugo; Hoff, Ulrich Busk; Harris, Glen I.


    We determine the theoretical limits to squeezing-enhanced measurement sensitivity of mechanical motion in a cavity optomechanical system. The motion of a mechanical resonator is transduced onto quadrature fluctuations of a cavity optical field and a measurement is performed on the optical field......-enhanced probing provides little to no improvement in motion sensing for resonators in the unresolved sideband regime but may significantly increase measurement sensitivities for resonators in the resolved sideband regime....

  19. Methodologies and Intelligent Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Gennari, Rosella; Vittorini, Pierpaolo; Prieta, Fernando


    This volume presents recent research on Methodologies and Intelligent Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning. It contains the contributions of MIS4TEL 2015, which took place in Salamanca, Spain,. On June 3rd to 5th 2015. Like the previous edition, this proceedings and the conference is an open forum for discussing intelligent systems for Technology Enhanced Learning and empirical methodologies for their design or evaluation MIS4TEL’15 conference has been organized by University of L’aquila, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano and the University of Salamanca.  .

  20. An iterative enhanced super-resolution system with edge-dominated interpolation and adaptive enhancements (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Kun; Wu, Yi-Hsien; Yang, Jar-Ferr; Liu, Bin-Da


    For super-resolution (4K × 2K) displays, super-resolution technologies, which can upsample videos to higher resolution and achieve better visual quality, become more and more important currently. In this paper, an iterative enhanced super-resolution (IESR) system which is based on two-pass edge-dominated interpolation, adaptive enhancement, and adaptive dithering techniques is proposed. The two-pass edge-dominated interpolation with a simple and regular kernel can sharpen visual quality while the adaptive enhancement can provide high-frequency perfection and the adaptive dithering conveys naturalization enhancement such that the proposed IESR system achieves better peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and exhibits better visual quality. Experimental results indicate that the proposed IESR system, which improves PSNR up to 28.748 dB and promotes structural similarity index measurement (SSIM) up to 0.917611 in averages, is better than the other existing methods. Simulations also exhibit that the proposed IESR system acquires lower computational complexity than the methods which achieve similar visual quality.

  1. Comparisons between PW Doppler system and enhanced FM Doppler system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Pedersen, P. C.


    This paper presents a new implementation of an echo-ranging FM Doppler system with improved performance, relative to the FM Doppler system reported previously. The use of long sweeps provides a significant reduction in peak to average power ratio compared to pulsed wave (PW) emission. A PW Doppler...... system exploits the direct relationship between arrival time of the received signal and range from the transducer. In the FM Doppler systems, a similar relationship exists in the spectral domain of the demodulated received signals, so that range is represented by frequency. Thus, a shift in location...... of moving scatterers between consecutive emissions corresponds to a frequency shift in the spectral signature. The improvement relative to the earlier version of the FM Doppler system is attained by utilizing cross-correlation of real spectra rather than of magnitude spectra for assessing flow velocity...

  2. Hortipastoral based land use systems for enhancing productivity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Hortipastoral based land use systems for enhancing productivity of degraded lands under rain fed and partially irrigated conditions. S. K. Sharma. Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi (India). Present postal address: Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Regional Station, Agricultural College Estate, ...

  3. The role of a pluralistic extension system in enhancing agriculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of a pluralistic extension system in enhancing agriculture productivity in Mozambique. ... This is unlike in the recent past when agricultural services were mainly delivered by the public sector. The 25 years ... The expansion of public extension services created new challenges for the delivering of extension services.

  4. enhanced digital library system that supports sustainable knowledge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Enhanced, Digital library, Sustainable knowledge. Introduction. It is rooted in the recent year׳s ... browser instantly with a nice pagination links for swapping in-between pages. 4. To restrict access from ... digital library is a type of information retrieval system (Candela, et al, 2011). The web based nature of digital ...

  5. Analysis of Privacy-Enhancing Identity Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, Joseph K.; Olesen, Henning

    is an attempt to understand the relationship between individuals’ intentions to disclose personal information, their actual personal information disclosure behaviours, and how these can be leveraged to develop privacy-enhancing identity management systems (IDMS) that users can trust. Legal, regulatory...

  6. Interactive Videos Enhance Learning about Socio-Ecological Systems (United States)

    Smithwick, Erica; Baxter, Emily; Kim, Kyung; Edel-Malizia, Stephanie; Rocco, Stevie; Blackstock, Dean


    Two forms of interactive video were assessed in an online course focused on conservation. The hypothesis was that interactive video enhances student perceptions about learning and improves mental models of social-ecological systems. Results showed that students reported greater learning and attitudes toward the subject following interactive video.…

  7. Curriculum Development for Enhancing Grade Nine Students' Systems Thinking (United States)

    Hernthaisong, Preeyanan; Sitti, Somsong; Sonsupap, Kanyarat


    The objectives of this research were to study the development of a curriculum for enhancing grade 9 students' cognitive skills using a curriculum based on Systems Thinking Process. There were 3 phases: 1) studying of the problem; 2) development of tentative curriculum; and 3) implementation of the curriculum in a pilot study. The samples were 32…

  8. Intelligent Architecture for Enhanced Observability for Active Distribution System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Nainar, Karthikeyan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte


    to utilize advanced solutions by observing the system state in real time. Existing distribution automation and control system have to be upgraded to meet this technological challenge. This necessitates the use of real time system states of the grid which is a crucial factor for system operation in higher...... for active distribution network which satisfies the need for higher observability reach with less field observation. Improved state estimation with composite load forecasting model is aimed for enhanced observability. This paper also summarizes the application of intelligent architecture in the operation...

  9. On enhanced time-varying distributed H systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Verlan


    Full Text Available An enhanced time-varying distributed H system (ETVDH system is a slightly different definition of the time-varying distributed H system (TVDH system [9] and it was proposed by M. Margenstern and Yu. Rogozhin in [4] under the name of "extended time-varying distributed H system''. The main difference is that the components of the ETVDH system are H systems and therefore splicing rules may be applied more than once as it is done in TVDH systems. This leads to difficulties in investigating the behavior of such systems because they have a higher level of parallelism. It is proved that ETVDH systems of degree 2 (i.e. with 2 components generate all recursively enumerable languages in a sequential way [7] and that ETVDH systems of degree 4 generate all recursively enumerable languages in a "parallel'' way, modelling a formal type-0 grammar [11]. In this paper we improve the last result and we present an ETVDH system of degree 3 which generates all recursively enumerable languages modelling type-0 formal grammars. The problem of the existence of ETVDH systems of degree 2 which generate all recursively enumerable languages in a "parallel'' way is left open.

  10. An Enhanced SAR-Based Tsunami Detection System


    Jean-Pierre Dubois; Jihad S. Daba; H. Karam; J. Abdallah


    Tsunami early detection and warning systems have proved to be of ultimate importance, especially after the destructive tsunami that hit Japan in March 2012. Such systems are crucial to inform the authorities of any risk of a tsunami and of the degree of its danger in order to make the right decision and notify the public of the actions they need to take to save their lives. The purpose of this research is to enhance existing tsunami detection and warning systems. We first propose an automated...

  11. Motor imagery enhancement paradigm using moving rubber hand illusion system. (United States)

    Minsu Song; Jonghyun Kim


    Motor imagery (MI) has been widely used in neurorehabilitation and brain computer interface. The size of event-related desynchronization (ERD) is a key parameter for successful motor imaginary rehabilitation and BCI adaptation. Many studies have used visual guidance for enhancement/ amplification of motor imagery ERD amplitude, but their enhancements were not significant. We propose a novel ERD enhancing paradigm using body-ownership illusion, or also known as rubber hand illusion (RHI). The system was made by motorized, moving rubber hand which can simulate wrist extension. The amplifying effects of the proposed RHI paradigm were evaluated by comparing ERD sizes of the proposed paradigm with motor imagery and actual motor execution paradigms. The comparison result shows that the improvement of ERD size due to the proposed paradigm was statistically significant (pparadigms.

  12. Enhanced interplanetary panspermia in the TRAPPIST-1 system (United States)

    Lingam, Manasvi; Loeb, Abraham


    We present a simple model for estimating the probability of interplanetary panspermia in the recently discovered system of seven planets orbiting the ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1 and find that panspermia is potentially orders of magnitude more likely to occur in the TRAPPIST-1 system compared with the Earth-to-Mars case. As a consequence, we argue that the probability of abiogenesis is enhanced on the TRAPPIST-1 planets compared with the solar system. By adopting models from theoretical ecology, we show that the number of species transferred and the number of life-bearing planets are also likely to be higher because of the increased rates of immigration. We propose observational metrics for evaluating whether life was initiated by panspermia on multiple planets in the TRAPPIST-1 system. These results are also applicable to habitable exoplanets and exomoons in other planetary systems.

  13. Enhanced interplanetary panspermia in the TRAPPIST-1 system. (United States)

    Lingam, Manasvi; Loeb, Abraham


    We present a simple model for estimating the probability of interplanetary panspermia in the recently discovered system of seven planets orbiting the ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1 and find that panspermia is potentially orders of magnitude more likely to occur in the TRAPPIST-1 system compared with the Earth-to-Mars case. As a consequence, we argue that the probability of abiogenesis is enhanced on the TRAPPIST-1 planets compared with the solar system. By adopting models from theoretical ecology, we show that the number of species transferred and the number of life-bearing planets are also likely to be higher because of the increased rates of immigration. We propose observational metrics for evaluating whether life was initiated by panspermia on multiple planets in the TRAPPIST-1 system. These results are also applicable to habitable exoplanets and exomoons in other planetary systems.

  14. Enhanced sampling techniques in molecular dynamics simulations of biological systems. (United States)

    Bernardi, Rafael C; Melo, Marcelo C R; Schulten, Klaus


    Molecular dynamics has emerged as an important research methodology covering systems to the level of millions of atoms. However, insufficient sampling often limits its application. The limitation is due to rough energy landscapes, with many local minima separated by high-energy barriers, which govern the biomolecular motion. In the past few decades methods have been developed that address the sampling problem, such as replica-exchange molecular dynamics, metadynamics and simulated annealing. Here we present an overview over theses sampling methods in an attempt to shed light on which should be selected depending on the type of system property studied. Enhanced sampling methods have been employed for a broad range of biological systems and the choice of a suitable method is connected to biological and physical characteristics of the system, in particular system size. While metadynamics and replica-exchange molecular dynamics are the most adopted sampling methods to study biomolecular dynamics, simulated annealing is well suited to characterize very flexible systems. The use of annealing methods for a long time was restricted to simulation of small proteins; however, a variant of the method, generalized simulated annealing, can be employed at a relatively low computational cost to large macromolecular complexes. Molecular dynamics trajectories frequently do not reach all relevant conformational substates, for example those connected with biological function, a problem that can be addressed by employing enhanced sampling algorithms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Recent developments of molecular dynamics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Stochastic resonance enhanced by dichotomic noise in a bistable system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozenfeld, Robert [Institute for Physics, Humboldt University at Berlin, D-10115, Berlin, (Germany); Neiman, Alexander [Center for Neurodynamics, University of Missouri at St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63121 (United States); Schimansky-Geier, Lutz [Institute for Physics, Humboldt University at Berlin, D-10115, Berlin, (Germany)


    We study linear responses of a stochastic bistable system driven by dichotomic noise to a weak periodic signal. We show that the effect of stochastic resonance can be greatly enhanced in comparison with the conventional case when dichotomic forcing is absent, that is, both the signal-to-noise ratio and the spectral power amplification reach much greater values than in the standard stochastic resonance setup. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  16. Enhancing and Customizing Laboratory Information Systems to Improve/Enhance Pathologist Workflow. (United States)

    Hartman, Douglas J


    Optimizing pathologist workflow can be difficult because it is affected by many variables. Surgical pathologists must complete many tasks that culminate in a final pathology report. Several software systems can be used to enhance/improve pathologist workflow. These include voice recognition software, pre-sign-out quality assurance, image utilization, and computerized provider order entry. Recent changes in the diagnostic coding and the more prominent role of centralized electronic health records represent potential areas for increased ways to enhance/improve the workflow for surgical pathologists. Additional unforeseen changes to the pathologist workflow may accompany the introduction of whole-slide imaging technology to the routine diagnostic work. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhancing communication by using the Coordinated Care Classification System. (United States)

    O'Neal, P V; Kozeny, D K; Garland, P P; Gaunt, S M; Gordon, S C


    Because of the changes in our healthcare system, some clinical nurse specialists (CNSs) are having to expand their traditional roles of clinician, educator, consultant, leader, and researcher to include case management activities. The CNSs at Promina Gwinnett Health System in Lawrenceville, Georgia, have combined CNS and case manager activities and have adopted the title "CNS/Outcomes Coordinator." The CNS/Outcomes Coordinator is responsible for coordinating patient care, promoting team collaboration, and facilitating communication. To inform the healthcare team of the CNS/Outcomes Coordinator's patient responsibilities, the CNS/Outcomes Coordinators developed a Coordinated Care Classification System. This article describes how coordinating patient care, promoting team collaboration, and facilitating communication can be enhanced by the use of a classification system.

  18. Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) Munition Classification System enhancements. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela, O.A.; Huggard, J.C.


    Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) is a non-destructive evaluation technology developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This technology has resulted in three generations of instrumentation, funded by the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA), specifically designed for field identification of chemical weapon (CW) munitions. Each generation of ARS instrumentation was developed with a specific user in mind. The ARS1OO was built for use by the U.N. Inspection Teams going into Iraq immediately after the Persian Gulf War. The ARS200 was built for use in the US-Russia Bilateral Chemical Weapons Treaty (the primary users for this system are the US Onsite Inspection Agency (OSIA) and their Russian counterparts). The ARS300 was built with the requirements of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in mind. Each successive system is an improved version of the previous system based on learning the weaknesses of each and, coincidentally, on the fact that more time was available to do a requirements analysis and the necessary engineering development. The ARS300 is at a level of development that warrants transferring the technology to a commercial vendor. Since LANL will supply the computer software to the selected vendor, it is possible for LANL to continue to improve the decision algorithms, add features where necessary, and adjust the user interface before the final transfer occurs. This paper describes the current system, ARS system enhancements, and software enhancements. Appendices contain the Operations Manual (software Version 3.01), and two earlier reports on enhancements.

  19. Enhanced/Synthetic Vision Systems - Human factors research and implications for future systems (United States)

    Foyle, David C.; Ahumada, Albert J.; Larimer, James; Sweet, Barbara T.


    This paper reviews recent human factors research studies conducted in the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division at NASA Ames Research Center related to the development and usage of Enhanced or Synthetic Vision Systems. Research discussed includes studies of field of view (FOV), representational differences of infrared (IR) imagery, head-up display (HUD) symbology, HUD advanced concept designs, sensor fusion, and sensor/database fusion and evaluation. Implications for the design and usage of Enhanced or Synthetic Vision Systems are discussed.

  20. Augmented Robotics Dialog System for Enhancing Human-Robot Interaction. (United States)

    Alonso-Martín, Fernando; Castro-González, Aĺvaro; Luengo, Francisco Javier Fernandez de Gorostiza; Salichs, Miguel Ángel


    Augmented reality, augmented television and second screen are cutting edge technologies that provide end users extra and enhanced information related to certain events in real time. This enriched information helps users better understand such events, at the same time providing a more satisfactory experience. In the present paper, we apply this main idea to human-robot interaction (HRI), to how users and robots interchange information. The ultimate goal of this paper is to improve the quality of HRI, developing a new dialog manager system that incorporates enriched information from the semantic web. This work presents the augmented robotic dialog system (ARDS), which uses natural language understanding mechanisms to provide two features: (i) a non-grammar multimodal input (verbal and/or written) text; and (ii) a contextualization of the information conveyed in the interaction. This contextualization is achieved by information enrichment techniques that link the extracted information from the dialog with extra information about the world available in semantic knowledge bases. This enriched or contextualized information (information enrichment, semantic enhancement or contextualized information are used interchangeably in the rest of this paper) offers many possibilities in terms of HRI. For instance, it can enhance the robot's pro-activeness during a human-robot dialog (the enriched information can be used to propose new topics during the dialog, while ensuring a coherent interaction). Another possibility is to display additional multimedia content related to the enriched information on a visual device. This paper describes the ARDS and shows a proof of concept of its applications.

  1. Robust algebraic image enhancement for intelligent control systems (United States)

    Lerner, Bao-Ting; Morrelli, Michael


    Robust vision capability for intelligent control systems has been an elusive goal in image processing. The computationally intensive techniques a necessary for conventional image processing make real-time applications, such as object tracking and collision avoidance difficult. In order to endow an intelligent control system with the needed vision robustness, an adequate image enhancement subsystem capable of compensating for the wide variety of real-world degradations, must exist between the image capturing and the object recognition subsystems. This enhancement stage must be adaptive and must operate with consistency in the presence of both statistical and shape-based noise. To deal with this problem, we have developed an innovative algebraic approach which provides a sound mathematical framework for image representation and manipulation. Our image model provides a natural platform from which to pursue dynamic scene analysis, and its incorporation into a vision system would serve as the front-end to an intelligent control system. We have developed a unique polynomial representation of gray level imagery and applied this representation to develop polynomial operators on complex gray level scenes. This approach is highly advantageous since polynomials can be manipulated very easily, and are readily understood, thus providing a very convenient environment for image processing. Our model presents a highly structured and compact algebraic representation of grey-level images which can be viewed as fuzzy sets.

  2. Coarse cluster enhancing collaborative recommendation for social network systems (United States)

    Zhao, Yao-Dong; Cai, Shi-Min; Tang, Ming; Shang, Min-Sheng


    Traditional collaborative filtering based recommender systems for social network systems bring very high demands on time complexity due to computing similarities of all pairs of users via resource usages and annotation actions, which thus strongly suppresses recommending speed. In this paper, to overcome this drawback, we propose a novel approach, namely coarse cluster that partitions similar users and associated items at a high speed to enhance user-based collaborative filtering, and then develop a fast collaborative user model for the social tagging systems. The experimental results based on Delicious dataset show that the proposed model is able to dramatically reduce the processing time cost greater than 90 % and relatively improve the accuracy in comparison with the ordinary user-based collaborative filtering, and is robust for the initial parameter. Most importantly, the proposed model can be conveniently extended by introducing more users' information (e.g., profiles) and practically applied for the large-scale social network systems to enhance the recommending speed without accuracy loss.

  3. Integrated computational imaging system for enhanced polarimetric measurements (United States)

    Haider, Shahid A.; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander


    Polarimetry is a common technique used in chemistry for solution characterization and analysis, giving insight into the molecular structure of a solution measured through the rotation of linearly polarized light. This rotation is characterized by the Boits law. Without large optical path lengths, or high concentrations of solution, these optical rotations are typically very small, requiring elaborate and costly apparatuses. To ensure that the rotation measurements are accurate, these devices usually perform complex optical procedures or time-averaged point measurements to ensure that any intensity variation seen is a product of optical rotation and not from inherent noise sources in the system, such as sensor or shot noise. Time averaging is a lengthy process and rarely utilizes all of the information available on the sensor. To this end, we have developed a novel integrated, miniature, computational imaging system that enhances polarimetric measurements by taking advantage of the full spot size observed on an array detector. This computational imaging system is capable of using a single acquisition at unity gain to enhance the polarimetric measurements using a probabilistic framework, which accounts for inherent noise and optical characteristics in the acquisition process, to take advantage of spatial intensity relations. This approach is faster than time-averaging methods and can better account for any measurement uncertainties. In preliminary experiments, this system has produced comparably consistent measurements across multiple trials with the same chemical solution than time averaging techniques.

  4. Do European agroforestry systems enhance biodiversity and ecosystem services?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torralba Viorreta, Mario; Fagerholm, Nora; Burgess, Paul J.


    Agroforestry has been proposed as a sustainable agricultural system over conventional agriculture and forestry, conserving biodiversity and enhancing ecosystem service provision while not compromising productivity. However, the available evidence for the societal benefits of agroforestry...... is fragmented and does often not integrate diverse ecosystem services into the assessment. To upscale existing case-study insights to the European level, we conducted a meta-analysis on the effects of agroforestry on ecosystem service provision and on biodiversity levels. From 53 publications we extracted...... and ecosystem services assessed. Erosion control, biodiversity, and soil fertility are enhanced by agroforestry while there is no clear effect on provisioning services. The effect of agroforestry on biomass production is negative. Comparisons between agroforestry types and reference land-uses showed that both...

  5. Rewiring food systems to enhance human health and biosphere stewardship (United States)

    Gordon, Line J.; Bignet, Victoria; Crona, Beatrice; Henriksson, Patrik J. G.; Van Holt, Tracy; Jonell, Malin; Lindahl, Therese; Troell, Max; Barthel, Stephan; Deutsch, Lisa; Folke, Carl; Jamila Haider, L.; Rockström, Johan; Queiroz, Cibele


    Food lies at the heart of both health and sustainability challenges. We use a social-ecological framework to illustrate how major changes to the volume, nutrition and safety of food systems between 1961 and today impact health and sustainability. These changes have almost halved undernutrition while doubling the proportion who are overweight. They have also resulted in reduced resilience of the biosphere, pushing four out of six analysed planetary boundaries across the safe operating space of the biosphere. Our analysis further illustrates that consumers and producers have become more distant from one another, with substantial power consolidated within a small group of key actors. Solutions include a shift from a volume-focused production system to focus on quality, nutrition, resource use efficiency, and reduced antimicrobial use. To achieve this, we need to rewire food systems in ways that enhance transparency between producers and consumers, mobilize key actors to become biosphere stewards, and re-connect people to the biosphere.

  6. Enhanced Sensitivity Beam Emission Spectroscopy System for Nonlinear Turbulence Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Deepak K; McKee, George R; Schlossberg, David J; Shafer, Morgan W


    An upgraded Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES) system has been deployed to access low amplitude turbulence regions near internal transport barriers on the DIII-D tokamak. Sixteen high sensitivity channels are being installed. A significant increase in total signal to noise is achieved by: 1.) Increased spatial volume sampling tailored to known turbulence characteristics; 2.) An increased throughput spectrometer assembly to isolate the local beam fluorescence, coupled to new large-area photoconductive photodiodes; 3.) A new sharp edge interference filter designed to optimize detection of the beam emission plus a significant fraction of the thermal deuterium charge exchange. A new data acquisition system has been installed, providing an 8 times increase in integration time or an increased sample rate. Preliminary results from the upgraded system show a signal enhancement of greater than an order of magnitude. A clear broadband density fluctuation signal is observed in H-mode discharges with the upgraded BES syste...

  7. Enhancing Systems Engineering Education Through Case Study Writing (United States)

    Stevens, Jennifer Stenger


    Developing and refining methods for teaching systems engineering is part of Systems Engineering grand challenges and agenda for research in the SE research community. Retention of systems engineering knowledge is a growing concern in the United States as the baby boom generation continues to retire and the faster pace of technology development does not allow for younger generations to gain experiential knowledge through years of practice. Government agencies, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), develop their own curricula and SE leadership development programs to "grow their own" systems engineers. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) conducts its own Center-focused Marshall Systems Engineering Leadership Development Program (MSELDP), a competitive program consisting of coursework, a guest lecture series, and a rotational assignment into an unfamiliar organization engaged in systems engineering. Independently, MSFC developed two courses to address knowledge retention and sharing concerns: Real World Marshall Mission Success course and its Case Study Writers Workshop and Writers Experience. Teaching case study writing and leading students through a hands-on experience at writing a case study on an SE topic can enhance SE training and has the potential to accelerate the transfer of experiential knowledge. This paper is an overview of the pilot experiences with teaching case study writing, its application in case study-based learning, and identifies potential areas of research and application for case study writing in systems engineering education.

  8. Towards the Understanding of Induced Seismicity in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritto, Roland [Array Information Technology, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Dreger, Douglas [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Heidbach, Oliver [Helmholtz Centre Potsdam (Germany, German Research Center for Geosciences; Hutchings, Lawrence [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    This DOE funded project was a collaborative effort between Array Information Technology (AIT), the University of California at Berkeley (UCB), the Helmholtz Centre Potsdam - German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ) and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). It was also part of the European research project “GEISER”, an international collaboration with 11 European partners from six countries including universities, research centers and industry, with the goal to address and mitigate the problems associated with induced seismicity in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). The goal of the current project was to develop a combination of techniques, which evaluate the relationship between enhanced geothermal operations and the induced stress changes and associated earthquakes throughout the reservoir and the surrounding country rock. The project addressed the following questions: how enhanced geothermal activity changes the local and regional stress field; whether these activities can induce medium sized seismicity M > 3; (if so) how these events are correlated to geothermal activity in space and time; what is the largest possible event and strongest ground motion, and hence the potential hazard associated with these activities. The development of appropriate technology to thoroughly investigate and address these questions required a number of datasets to provide the different physical measurements distributed in space and time. Because such a dataset did not yet exist for an EGS system in the United State, we used current and past data from The Geysers geothermal field in northern California, which has been in operation since the 1960s. The research addressed the need to understand the causal mechanisms of induced seismicity, and demonstrated the advantage of imaging the physical properties and temporal changes of the reservoir. The work helped to model the relationship between injection and production and medium sized magnitude events that have

  9. Simulation of an enhanced TCAS 2 system in operation (United States)

    Rojas, R. G.; Law, P.; Burnside, W. D.


    Described is a computer simulation of a Boeing 737 aircraft equipped with an enhanced Traffic and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS II). In particular, an algorithm is developed which permits the computer simulation of the tracking of a target airplane by a Boeing 373 which has a TCAS II array mounted on top of its fuselage. This algorithm has four main components: namely, the target path, the noise source, the alpha-beta filter, and threat detection. The implementation of each of these four components is described. Furthermore, the areas where the present algorithm needs to be improved are also mentioned.

  10. Augmented Robotics Dialog System for Enhancing Human–Robot Interaction (United States)

    Alonso-Martín, Fernando; Castro-González, Aívaro; de Gorostiza Luengo, Francisco Javier Fernandez; Salichs, Miguel Ángel


    Augmented reality, augmented television and second screen are cutting edge technologies that provide end users extra and enhanced information related to certain events in real time. This enriched information helps users better understand such events, at the same time providing a more satisfactory experience. In the present paper, we apply this main idea to human–robot interaction (HRI), to how users and robots interchange information. The ultimate goal of this paper is to improve the quality of HRI, developing a new dialog manager system that incorporates enriched information from the semantic web. This work presents the augmented robotic dialog system (ARDS), which uses natural language understanding mechanisms to provide two features: (i) a non-grammar multimodal input (verbal and/or written) text; and (ii) a contextualization of the information conveyed in the interaction. This contextualization is achieved by information enrichment techniques that link the extracted information from the dialog with extra information about the world available in semantic knowledge bases. This enriched or contextualized information (information enrichment, semantic enhancement or contextualized information are used interchangeably in the rest of this paper) offers many possibilities in terms of HRI. For instance, it can enhance the robot's pro-activeness during a human–robot dialog (the enriched information can be used to propose new topics during the dialog, while ensuring a coherent interaction). Another possibility is to display additional multimedia content related to the enriched information on a visual device. This paper describes the ARDS and shows a proof of concept of its applications. PMID:26151202

  11. Augmented Robotics Dialog System for Enhancing Human–Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alonso-Martín


    Full Text Available Augmented reality, augmented television and second screen are cutting edge technologies that provide end users extra and enhanced information related to certain events in real time. This enriched information helps users better understand such events, at the same time providing a more satisfactory experience. In the present paper, we apply this main idea to human–robot interaction (HRI, to how users and robots interchange information. The ultimate goal of this paper is to improve the quality of HRI, developing a new dialog manager system that incorporates enriched information from the semantic web. This work presents the augmented robotic dialog system (ARDS, which uses natural language understanding mechanisms to provide two features: (i a non-grammar multimodal input (verbal and/or written text; and (ii a contextualization of the information conveyed in the interaction. This contextualization is achieved by information enrichment techniques that link the extracted information from the dialog with extra information about the world available in semantic knowledge bases. This enriched or contextualized information (information enrichment, semantic enhancement or contextualized information are used interchangeably in the rest of this paper offers many possibilities in terms of HRI. For instance, it can enhance the robot’s pro-activeness during a human–robot dialog (the enriched information can be used to propose new topics during the dialog, while ensuring a coherent interaction. Another possibility is to display additional multimedia content related to the enriched information on a visual device. This paper describes the ARDS and shows a proof of concept of its applications.

  12. Wearable design issues for electronic vision enhancement systems (United States)

    Dvorak, Joe


    As the baby boomer generation ages, visual impairment will overtake a significant portion of the US population. At the same time, more and more of our world is becoming digital. These two trends, coupled with the continuing advances in digital electronics, argue for a rethinking in the design of aids for the visually impaired. This paper discusses design issues for electronic vision enhancement systems (EVES) [R.C. Peterson, J.S. Wolffsohn, M. Rubinstein, et al., Am. J. Ophthalmol. 136 1129 (2003)] that will facilitate their wearability and continuous use. We briefly discuss the factors affecting a person's acceptance of wearable devices. We define the concept of operational inertia which plays an important role in our design of wearable devices and systems. We then discuss how design principles based upon operational inertia can be applied to the design of EVES.

  13. Convection-enhanced delivery to the central nervous system. (United States)

    Lonser, Russell R; Sarntinoranont, Malisa; Morrison, Paul F; Oldfield, Edward H


    Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is a bulk flow-driven process. Its properties permit direct, homogeneous, targeted perfusion of CNS regions with putative therapeutics while bypassing the blood-brain barrier. Development of surrogate imaging tracers that are co-infused during drug delivery now permit accurate, noninvasive real-time tracking of convective infusate flow in nervous system tissues. The potential advantages of CED in the CNS over other currently available drug delivery techniques, including systemic delivery, intrathecal and/or intraventricular distribution, and polymer implantation, have led to its application in research studies and clinical trials. The authors review the biophysical principles of convective flow and the technology, properties, and clinical applications of convective delivery in the CNS.

  14. Surface-Enhanced Raman Optical Data Storage system (United States)

    Vo-Dinh, T.


    An improved Surface-Enhanced Raman Optical Data Storage System (SERODS) is disclosed. In the improved system, entities capable of existing in multiple reversible states are present on the storage device. Such entities result in changed Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) when localized state changes are effected in less than all of the entities. Therefore, by changing the state of entities in localized regions of a storage device, the SERS emissions in such regions will be changed. When a write-on device is controlled by a data signal, such a localized regions of changed SERS emissions will correspond to the data written on the device. The data may be read by illuminating the surface of the storage device with electromagnetic radiation of an appropriate frequency and detecting the corresponding SERS emissions. Data may be deleted by reversing the state changes of entities in regions where the data was initially written. In application, entities may be individual molecules which allows for the writing of data at the molecular level. A read/write/delete head utilizing near-field quantum techniques can provide for a write/read/delete device capable of effecting state changes in individual molecules, thus providing for the effective storage of data at the molecular level. 18 figures.

  15. Contrast enhanced imaging with a stationary digital breast tomosynthesis system (United States)

    Puett, Connor; Calliste, Jabari; Wu, Gongting; Inscoe, Christina R.; Lee, Yueh Z.; Zhou, Otto; Lu, Jianping


    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) captures some depth information and thereby improves the conspicuity of breast lesions, compared to standard mammography. Using contrast during DBT may also help distinguish malignant from benign sites. However, adequate visualization of the low iodine signal requires a subtraction step to remove background signal and increase lesion contrast. Additionally, attention to factors that limit contrast, including scatter, noise, and artifact, are important during the image acquisition and post-acquisition processing steps. Stationary DBT (sDBT) is an emerging technology that offers a higher spatial and temporal resolution than conventional DBT. This phantom-based study explored contrast-enhanced sDBT (CE sDBT) across a range of clinically-appropriate iodine concentrations, lesion sizes, and breast thicknesses. The protocol included an effective scatter correction method and an iterative reconstruction technique that is unique to the sDBT system. The study demonstrated the ability of this CE sDBT system to collect projection images adequate for both temporal subtraction (TS) and dual-energy subtraction (DES). Additionally, the reconstruction approach preserved the improved contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) achieved in the subtraction step. Finally, scatter correction increased the iodine signal and CNR of iodine-containing regions in projection views and reconstructed image slices during both TS and DES. These findings support the ongoing study of sDBT as a potentially useful tool for contrast-enhanced breast imaging and also highlight the significant effect that scatter has on image quality during DBT.

  16. High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnquist, Norman [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Qi, Xuele [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Raminosoa, Tsarafidy [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Salas, Ken [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Samudrala, Omprakash [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Shah, Manoj [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Van Dam, Jeremy [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Yin, Weijun [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Zia, Jalal [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany)


    This report summarizes the progress made during the April 01, 2010 – December 30, 2013 period under Cooperative Agreement DE-EE0002752 for the U.S. Department of Energy entitled “High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems.” The overall objective of this program is to advance the technology for well fluids lifting systems to meet the foreseeable pressure, temperature, and longevity needs of the Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) industry for the coming ten years. In this program, lifting system requirements for EGS wells were established via consultation with industry experts and site visits. A number of artificial lift technologies were evaluated with regard to their applicability to EGS applications; it was determined that a system based on electric submersible pump (ESP) technology was best suited to EGS. Technical barriers were identified and a component-level technology development program was undertaken to address each barrier, with the most challenging being the development of a power-dense, small diameter motor that can operate reliably in a 300°C environment for up to three years. Some of the targeted individual component technologies include permanent magnet motor construction, high-temperature insulation, dielectrics, bearings, seals, thrust washers, and pump impellers/diffusers. Advances were also made in thermal management of electric motors. In addition to the overall system design for a full-scale EGS application, a subscale prototype was designed and fabricated. Like the full-scale design, the subscale prototype features a novel “flow-through-the-bore” permanent magnet electric motor that combines the use of high temperature materials with an internal cooling scheme that limits peak internal temperatures to <330°C. While the full-scale high-volume multi-stage pump is designed to lift up to 80 kg/s of process water, the subscale prototype is based on a production design that can pump 20 kg/s and has been modified

  17. The enhancement of security in healthcare information systems. (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Hui; Chung, Yu-Fang; Chen, Tzer-Shyong; Wang, Sheng-De


    With the progress and the development of information technology, the internal data in medical organizations have become computerized and are further established the medical information system. Moreover, the use of the Internet enhances the information communication as well as affects the development of the medical information system that a lot of medical information is transmitted with the Internet. Since there is a network within another network, when all networks are connected together, they will form the "Internet". For this reason, the Internet is considered as a high-risk and public environment which is easily destroyed and invaded so that a relevant protection is acquired. Besides, the data in the medical network system are confidential that it is necessary to protect the personal privacy, such as electronic patient records, medical confidential information, and authorization-controlled data in the hospital. As a consequence, a medical network system is considered as a network requiring high security that excellent protections and managerial strategies are inevitable to prevent illegal events and external attacks from happening. This study proposes secure medical managerial strategies being applied to the network environment of the medical organization information system so as to avoid the external or internal information security events, allow the medical system to work smoothly and safely that not only benefits the patients, but also allows the doctors to use it more conveniently, and further promote the overall medical quality. The objectives could be achieved by preventing from illegal invasion or medical information being stolen, protecting the completeness and security of medical information, avoiding the managerial mistakes of the internal information system in medical organizations, and providing the highly-reliable medical information system.

  18. Maximizing Drilling Performance through Enhanced Solid Control System (United States)

    Irawan, S.; Kinif, B. I.; Bayuaji, R.


    High solid content in drilling mud may affect its properties and result in uncertainties at downhole condition. It eventually contributes to poor rig operation performance and operating cost. This research focus on developing solid control system that is suit for drilling 12.25-inch hole. The first part discussed the performance of Rate of Penetration (ROP), Equivalent Circulating Density (ECD) and drill string drag while the second part of the research discussed about the effect of solid control system performance to mud properties Plastic Viscosity (PV), Yield Point (YP) and Low-Gravity Solid (LGS). The input parameters were gathered from two different set up of solid control systems that were used in Well A and Well B. The result is mainly based on the performance of original solid control system new design versus old design. Installation of distributor tank and channel the mud to respective shale shakers significantly enhanced the system and operational performance. The ROP at 12.25-inch drilling were improved by 20%. New design improved average the ECD margin by reducing additional pressure exerted using original mud from 4.9% to 2.9%. High ECD margin is not recommended because it can break the weak formation. Mud properties while drilling the 12.25-inch hole section; PV, YP and LGS values were improved by 14 %, 17 % and 25 % respectively. Proper mud flow control and routing system at new develop design of solid control system effectively removed the solid in the drilling fluid. This improvement minimizes the tendency of frequent mud flow, screen mesh plugging and tool wear issue. Mud properties such PV, YP and LGS were maintained with an acceptable mud design envelope.

  19. Development and Enhancement of Web-based Nuclear Education System and It's Enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rho, Sipyo; Lee, K. B.; Nam, Y. M; Kim, H. K.; Hwang, I. A.; Yang, S. W.; Nam, J. S.; Yoo, H. W.


    To deliver rapidly changing technologies effectively and economically, E-learning in the field of nuclear technology is being done gradually. In the first year of this project, 'Development and Enhancement of Web-based Nuclear Education System; we had established a server system, fitting-up several home pages in NTC(Nuclear Training and Education Center in KAERI) and newly developed LMS(Learning Management System). We had selected a MOODLE for it is one of popular open source in LMS field, and connected to the ANENT(Asian Nuclear in Education for Nuclear Technology) web portal, which is co-operating with IAEA/NKM. We had produced e-learning content mainly composed of the video clip that was taken by making a film of the lecturing in the course of training and education in NTC. The running time of the content is 100 hours totally. This e-learning content is going to reinforce by adding quiz and Q and A. Another activity is web-conferencing between NWU in South Africa and KAERI, which executed 4 times successfully. We are going to make a pre-course for the foreigners who will take part in our training and education course.

  20. Optimal and Suboptimal Noises Enhancing Mutual Information in Threshold System (United States)

    Zhai, Qiqing; Wang, Youguo


    In this paper, we investigate the efficacy of noise enhancing information transmission in a threshold system. At first, in the frame of stochastic resonance (SR), optimal noise (Opt N) is derived to maximize mutual information (MI) of this nonlinear system. When input signal is discrete (binary), the optimal SR noise is found to have a finite distribution. In contrast, when input signal is continuous, the optimal SR noise is a constant one. In addition, suboptimal SR noises are explored as well with optimization methods when the types of noise added into the system are predetermined. We find that for small thresholds, suboptimal noises do not exist. Only when thresholds reach some level, do suboptimal noises come into effect. Meanwhile, we have discussed the impact of tails in noise distribution on SR effect. Finally, this paper extends the single-threshold system to an array of multi-threshold devices and presents the corresponding efficacy of information transmission produced by optimal and suboptimal SR noises. These results may be beneficial to quantization and coding.

  1. Conventional vs. unconventional enhanced (or engineered) geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzebisashvili, K.; Breede, K.; Liu, X.; Falcone, G. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). ITE


    Enhanced (or Engineered) Geothermal Systems (EGS) have evolved from the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept, implemented for the first time at Fenton Hill in 1977, and subsequently through the Stimulated Geothermal System, the Deep Heat Mining and finally the Deep Earth Geothermal. All of these systems usually imply petro-thermal processes. The term EGS has evolved to include conduction dominated, low permeability resources in sedimentary and basement formations, as well as geopressured, magma, and low-grade, unproductive hydrothermal resources. Co-produced hot water from hydrocarbon wells has also been included by some in the definition of EGS, which constitutes a considerable divergence from the original concept. Four decades on from the first EGS implementation, this paper highlights the lessons learned from 'conventional' systems and contrasts the 'unconventional' solutions that have been proposed. Examples of unconventional EGS include single-well solutions, downhole heat exchangers, engineered well profiles and using circulation fluids other than water. Perhaps some of the ideas proposed in the past, which would be considered unconventional, have remained dormant or never made it to a commercial stage for field implementation, but they may yet open doors to the future generations of EGS. (orig.)

  2. Nonequilibrium Enhances Adaptation Efficiency of Stochastic Biochemical Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jia

    Full Text Available Adaptation is a crucial biological function possessed by many sensory systems. Early work has shown that some influential equilibrium models can achieve accurate adaptation. However, recent studies indicate that there are close relationships between adaptation and nonequilibrium. In this paper, we provide an explanation of these two seemingly contradictory results based on Markov models with relatively simple networks. We show that as the nonequilibrium driving becomes stronger, the system under consideration will undergo a phase transition along a fixed direction: from non-adaptation to simple adaptation then to oscillatory adaptation, while the transition in the opposite direction is forbidden. This indicates that although adaptation may be observed in equilibrium systems, it tends to occur in systems far away from equilibrium. In addition, we find that nonequilibrium will improve the performance of adaptation by enhancing the adaptation efficiency. All these results provide a deeper insight into the connection between adaptation and nonequilibrium. Finally, we use a more complicated network model of bacterial chemotaxis to validate the main results of this paper.

  3. Multi-dimensional virtual system introduced to enhance canonical sampling (United States)

    Higo, Junichi; Kasahara, Kota; Nakamura, Haruki


    When an important process of a molecular system occurs via a combination of two or more rare events, which occur almost independently to one another, computational sampling for the important process is difficult. Here, to sample such a process effectively, we developed a new method, named the "multi-dimensional Virtual-system coupled Monte Carlo (multi-dimensional-VcMC)" method, where the system interacts with a virtual system expressed by two or more virtual coordinates. Each virtual coordinate controls sampling along a reaction coordinate. By setting multiple reaction coordinates to be related to the corresponding rare events, sampling of the important process can be enhanced. An advantage of multi-dimensional-VcMC is its simplicity: Namely, the conformation moves widely in the multi-dimensional reaction coordinate space without knowledge of canonical distribution functions of the system. To examine the effectiveness of the algorithm, we introduced a toy model where two molecules (receptor and its ligand) bind and unbind to each other. The receptor has a deep binding pocket, to which the ligand enters for binding. Furthermore, a gate is set at the entrance of the pocket, and the gate is usually closed. Thus, the molecular binding takes place via the two events: ligand approach to the pocket and gate opening. In two-dimensional (2D)-VcMC, the two molecules exhibited repeated binding and unbinding, and an equilibrated distribution was obtained as expected. A conventional canonical simulation, which was 200 times longer than 2D-VcMC, failed in sampling the binding/unbinding effectively. The current method is applicable to various biological systems.

  4. Enhancement of thermal contact conductance for electronic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartre, V.; Lallemand, M. [Centre de Thermique de Lyon, UMR CNRS 5008, INSA, Villeurbanne (France)


    Experimental investigations on thermal contact resistance have been performed. The results of this study will be useful in selecting interstitial materials to enhance the thermal conductance of an electronic component/heat sink assembly. The experimental assembly consists of two specimens: a thick copper plate, electrically heated, and an aluminium water-cooled plate. The two specimens are bolted together and the load is applied using a calibrated torque wrench. Various interstitial materials (seven commercial greases and 12 foils) suitable for the thermal enhancement in electronic systems have been investigated. The variables considered are the bolt torque, the heat transfer rate and the grease or foil thickness. Results show that the most influential parameter is the applied torque. The contact resistance decreases as the heat flux or the film thickness decreases. The highest dimensionless contact conductance factors (E) are achieved with greases (3 < E < 6). Phase change material-coated foils exhibit E-values ranging from 2.5 to 3.5. Graphite or metallic foils have E-values lower than 2 and for silicone foils E is significantly reduced (E < 1). Thus, phase change material-coated foils seem to be very promising materials, since they are efficient, easy to implement and do not migrate and vaporise out of the contact area. (author)

  5. Sensitivity enhancement for damage detection in linear systems using optimal feedback auxiliary signals and system augmentation (United States)

    D'Souza, Kiran; Epureanu, Bogdan I.


    Recently, a sensitivity enhancement technique for damage detection using eigenstructure assignment has been extended from linear to nonlinear systems. Nonlinearities have been accounted for by forming (higher dimensional) augmented systems, which are designed for each trajectory of the nonlinear system, and are characterized by a specific forcing that ensures that the augmented systems follow that trajectory (when projected onto the original, lower dimensional space). The use of system augmentation for damage detection has several benefits beyond its ability to handle nonlinearities. For example, sensitivity can be increased compared to existing linear techniques through nonlinear feedback auxiliary signals because the constraint that the system is stable during its interrogation has to be applied only to the linearized closed loop system, while the augmented linear system does not have that constraint. In this work, the various benefits of nonlinear feedback auxiliary signals are explored for damage detection in linear systems. System augmentation is used in a linear system because a nonlinear controller is employed to enhance sensitivity. In addition to the increased sensitivity, fewer controller actuator points and sensors are required compared to existing linear techniques due to the efficient use of added (augmented) equations. Numerical simulations for a linear mass-spring and a linear mass-spring-damper system are used to validate the approach and discuss the effects of noise.

  6. A Technology Roadmap for Strategic Development of Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziagos, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Phillips, Benjamin R. [SRA International, Inc. and Geothermal Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Boyd, Lauren [Geothermal Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Jelacic, Allan [SRA International, Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Stillman, Greg [Geothermal Technologies Office, Washington, DC (United States); Hass, Eric [U.S. DOE, Golden, CO (United States)


    Realization of EGS development would make geothermal a significant contender in the renewable energy portfolio, on the order of 100+ GWe in the United States alone. While up to 90% of the geothermal power resource in the United States is thought to reside in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), hurdles to commercial development still remain. The Geothermal Technologies Office, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), began in 2011 to outline opportunities for advancing EGS technologies on five- to 20-year timescales, with community input on the underlying technology needs that will guide research and ultimately determine commercial success for EGS. This report traces DOE's research investments, past and present, and ties them to these technology needs, forming the basis for an EGS Technology Roadmap to help guide future DOE research. This roadmap is currently open for public comment. Send your comments to

  7. Design on an enhanced interactive satellite communications system analysis program (United States)

    Andersen, Kevin Robert


    This thesis describes the design of a user-friendly interactive satellite communications analysis program for use on a personal computer. The user inputs the various parameters of a satellite orbit, ground station location and communications equipment. The output generated allows a user to view the satellite ground trace and footprint, calculate satellite rise and set times, and analyze the performance of the communications link. The link analysis allows the user to input various signal losses and jamming interference. Care was taken to ensure that the program is simple to operate and that it provides on-line help for each segment. A principle goal of this thesis effort is to provide an educational tool that familiarizes the user with the communications segment of a space system. The initial success of the program based upon student response validates the use of object-oriented like software tools that enhance user understanding of complex subjects.

  8. Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels for LWRS - A Preliminary Systems Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles Youinou; R. Sonat Sen


    The severe accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plants illustrates the need for continuous improvements through developing and implementing technologies that contribute to safe, reliable and cost-effective operation of the nuclear fleet. Development of enhanced accident tolerant fuel contributes to this effort. These fuels, in comparison with the standard zircaloy – UO2 system currently used by the LWR industry, should be designed such that they tolerate loss of active cooling in the core for a longer time period (depending on the LWR system and accident scenario) while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations, operational transients, and design-basis events. This report presents a preliminary systems analysis related to most of these concepts. The potential impacts of these innovative LWR fuels on the front-end of the fuel cycle, on the reactor operation and on the back-end of the fuel cycle are succinctly described without having the pretension of being exhaustive. Since the design of these various concepts is still a work in progress, this analysis can only be preliminary and could be updated as the designs converge on their respective final version.

  9. A solar still desalination system with enhanced productivity

    KAUST Repository

    Ayoub, George M.


    Abstract: Increasing the productivity of solar stills has been the focus of intensive research. Many introduced developments, however, require complex components and entail notable increases in cost and land requirements. Developing a compact, productive, and easy-to-operate system is a main challenge. This paper describes a sustainable modification of the solar still that significantly enhances its productivity without forsaking its basic features. A simple amendment in the form of a slowly rotating drum is introduced allowing the formation of thin water films that evaporate rapidly and are continually renewed. The performance of this system was compared against a control without the introduced drum. Throughout the experiment, the new system gave considerably higher yield than the control with an average increase in daily productivity of 200%. Moreover, during sunshine hours, the increase in yield could surpass 6–8 times that of the control. Important parameters such as ease of handling, material availability, efficacy, low cost, safe water quality, and space conservation are maintained. One side-benefit of this design is solving stagnation problems that usually develop in conventional stills. The new simple modification in this study presents a cost-effective and efficient design to solar stills especially in areas with abundant sunshine.

  10. The productivity measurement and enhancement system: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Pritchard, Robert D; Harrell, Melissa M; DiazGranados, Deborah; Guzman, Melissa J


    Meta-analytic procedures were used to examine data from 83 field studies of the Productivity Measurement and Enhancement System (ProMES). The article expands the evidence on effectiveness of the intervention, examines where it has been successful, and explores moderators related to its success. Four research questions were explored and results indicate that (a) ProMES results in large improvements in productivity; (b) these effects last over time, in some cases years; (c) the intervention results in productivity improvements in many different types of settings (i.e., type of organization, type of work, type of worker, country); and (d) moderator variables are related to the degree of productivity improvement. These moderator variables include how closely the study followed the original ProMES methodology, the quality of feedback given, whether changes were made in the feedback system, the degree of interdependence of the work group, and centralization of the organization. Implications based on these findings are discussed for future use of this intervention, and the system is discussed as an example for evidence-based management. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. COFFEE - Coherent Optical System Field Trial for Spectral Efficiency Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imran, Muhammad; Fresi, Francesco; Rommel, Simon


    The scope, aims, and contributions of the COFFEE project for spectral efficiency enhancement and market exposure are presented.......The scope, aims, and contributions of the COFFEE project for spectral efficiency enhancement and market exposure are presented....

  12. Developing a lean measurement system to enhance process improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis P.


    Full Text Available A key ingredient to underpin process improvement is a robust, reliable, repeatable measurement system. Process improvement activity needs to be supported by accurate and precise data because effective decision making, within process improvement activity, demands the use of “hard” data. One of the oldest and most established process improvement methods is Deming’s Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA cycle which is reliant on the check phase, a measurement activity where data is being gathered and evaluated. Recent expansions of the PDCA such as the Six-Sigma Define-Measure-Analyse-Improve-Control (DMAIC methodology place significant importance upon measurement. The DMAIC cycle incorporates the regimented requirement for the inclusion of measurement system analysis (MSA into the breakthrough strategy. The call for MSA within the DMAIC cycle is to provide the improvement activity with a robust measurement system that will ensure a pertinent level of data during any validation process. The Lean methodology is heavily centred on the removal of the seven Mudas (wastes from a manufacturing process: defects, overproduction, transportation, waiting, inventory, motion and processing. The application of lean, particularly within the manufacturing industry, has led to a perception that measurement is a waste within a manufacturing process because measurement processes identify defective products. The metrologists’ pursuit for measurement excellence could be construed as a hindrance by the “cost down” demands being perpetrated from the same organisation’s lean policy. So what possible benefits does enforcing the regimes of the lean and quality philosophies upon the measurement process have and how does this ultimately enhance the process improvement activity? The key fundamental to embed with any process improvement is the removal of waste. The process improvement techniques embedded within lean and quality concepts are extremely powerful practices in the

  13. Lighting System for Visual Perception Enhancement in Volume Rendering. (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Kaufman, Arie E


    We introduce a lighting system that enhances the visual cues in a rendered image for the perception of 3D volumetric objects. We divide the lighting effects into global and local effects, and deploy three types of directional lights: the key light and accessory lights (fill and detail lights). The key light provides both lighting effects and carries the visual cues for the perception of local and global shapes and depth. The cues for local shapes are conveyed by gradient; those for global shapes are carried by shadows; and those for depth are provided by shadows and translucent objects. Fill lights produce global effects to increase the perceptibility. Detail lights generate local effects to improve the cues for local shapes. Our method quantifies the perception and uses an exhaustive search to set the lights. It configures accessory lights with the consideration of preserving the global impression conveyed by the key light. It ensures the feeling of smooth light movements in animations. With simplification, it achieves interactive frame rates and produces results that are visually indistinguishable from results using the nonsimplified algorithm. The major contributions of this paper are our lighting system, perception measurement and lighting design algorithm with our indistinguishable simplification.

  14. Enhancing lean supply chain through traffic light quality management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mazharul Islam


    Full Text Available Lean is a continuous journey to grow and excel the company. Any company want to develop and cope with the world pace must adopt lean. However, in most of the organizations the management culture or people’s mentality is not so good to embrace change. They have predestined mind set where no change is normally allowed. Lean is a cooperative way of working that involves all departments and all personnel to work together in a team for the betterment of the entire company. Without providing fixed solution of any problem it suggests the best way that people willingly accept to do. Lean normally deals with highest quality, shorter lead time and lowest cost. In Bangladesh, most of the garment manufacturing companies are experiencing a massive quality problem. We describe a case where traffic light, a tool of lean quality system was adopted to a garment manufacturing company in Bangladesh. We also provide the charts to contrast the before and after scenario in detail, in order to illustrate the company benefits. After the traffic light system being implemented, the quality status was improved, production capacity was increased; significant days were saved that enhanced the lead time and thus strengthen the supply chain.

  15. Enhanced osteoconductivity of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite by system instability. (United States)

    Sang Cho, Jung; Um, Seung-Hoon; Su Yoo, Dong; Chung, Yong-Chae; Hye Chung, Shin; Lee, Jeong-Cheol; Rhee, Sang-Hoon


    The effect of substituting sodium for calcium on enhanced osteoconductivity of hydroxyapatite was newly investigated. Sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite was synthesized by reacting calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid with sodium nitrate followed by sintering. As a control, pure hydroxyapatite was prepared under identical conditions, but without the addition of sodium nitrate. Substitution of calcium with sodium in hydroxyapatite produced the structural vacancies for carbonate ion from phosphate site and hydrogen ion from hydroxide site of hydroxyapatite after sintering. The total system energy of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite with structural defects calculated by ab initio methods based on quantum mechanics was much higher than that of hydroxyapatite, suggesting that the sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite was energetically less stable compared with hydroxyapatite. Indeed, sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite exhibited higher dissolution behavior of constituent elements of hydroxyapatite in simulated body fluid (SBF) and Tris-buffered deionized water compared with hydroxyapatite, which directly affected low-crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite forming capacity by increasing the degree of apatite supersaturation in SBF. Actually, sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite exhibited markedly improved low-crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite forming capacity in SBF and noticeably higher osteoconductivity 4 weeks after implantation in calvarial defects of New Zealand white rabbits compared with hydroxyapatite. In addition, there were no statistically significant differences between hydroxyapatite and sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite on cytotoxicity as determined by BCA assay. Taken together, these results indicate that sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite with structural defects has promising potential for use as a bone grafting material due to its enhanced osteoconductivity compared with hydroxyapatite. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The enhanced mine communications and information systems. The development of the Nexsys realtime risk management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haustein, K.; Rowan, G. [CSIRO Exploration and Mining (Australia)


    The article describes two safety projects under way between JCOAL in Japan and CSIRO (Australia) which are concluding in March 2007. The first was to develop a real-time roof fall monitoring and warning system for underground coal mines. The system consisted of extensometers, stress meters and a seismic monitoring system. It was installed at the Ulan colliery in New South Wales. The output of the system is a set of probabilities of a roof fall happening within various periods of time. The three instruments have colour-coded warning lights. The second project, the enhanced mine communications and information systems for real-time risk analysis project, collects and analyses data from diverse sources with the Nexsys{trademark} hardware and software system. It is now installed in two mines in Australia and one in Japan. The system is described in detail in the article. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Permeability Enhancement in Enhanced Geothermal System as a result of Hydraulic Fracturing and Jacking (United States)

    Jalali, Mohammadreza; Klepikova, Maria; Fisch, Hansruedi; Amann, Florian; Loew, Simon


    A decameter-scale in-situ hydraulic stimulation and circulation (ISC) experiment has been initiated by the newly-founded Swiss Competence Centre for Energy Research - Supply of Electricity (SCCER-SoE) at Nagra's Grimsel Test Site (GTS) as a part of the work-package WP1 of the Deep Underground Laboratory (DUG-Lab) initiative. The experiment area is situated in the southern part of the GTS in a low fracture density volume of the Grimsel granodiorite. The hydraulic properties of the granitic rock mass are supposed to be similar to those expected in the crystalline basement of the alpine foreland where deep enhanced geothermal systems might be developed in future. The main objectives of the multi-disciplinary experiment are to provide a high resolution pre- and post-stimulation characterization of fracture permeability and connectivity, to investigate patterns of preferential flow paths, to describe the pressure propagation during the stimulation phases and to evaluate the efficiency of the fracture-matrix heat exchanger. A comprehensive test & monitoring layout including a fair number of boreholes instrumented with a variety of sensors (e.g. pressure, strain, displacement, temperature, and seismic sensors) is designed to collect detailed data during multiple hydraulic stimulation runs. The diffusion of fluid pressure is expected to be governed mainly by the properties and geometry of the existent fracture network. The hydraulic transmissivity of fractures are in the range of 10-7 to 10-9 m2/s whereas the matrix rock has a very low hydraulic conductivity (K ˜ 10-12 m/s). As part of the stress measurement campaign during the pre-stimulation phase of the ISC experiment, a series of hydraulic fracturing (HF) and hydraulic tests in pre-existing fractures (HTPF) were conducted. The tests were accompanied by micro-seismic monitoring within several observation boreholes to investigate the initiation and propagation of the induced fractures. Together with results from over

  18. Visual Information Presentation in Continuous Control Systems using Visual Enhancements


    Park, Jaekyu; Park, Sung Ha


    This chapter was intended to identify and quantify the effects of visual enhancement cues on the performance of continuous control tasks such as tracking tasks. Also, we investigated the types and utilities of visual enhancements as visual aids that improve a performance and offer spatial information. Especially, we have indentified that various visual enhancements improve not only a performance but also the possibility of an error through a case study. The findings of this chapter are applic...

  19. Enhanced cognitive Radio Resource Management for LTE systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail


    The explosive growth in mobile Internet and related services has increased the need for more bandwidth in cellular networks. The Long-Term Evolution (LTE) technology is an attractive solution for operators and subscribers to meet such need since it provides high data rates and scalable bandwidth. Radio Resource Management (RRM) is essential for LTE to provide better communication quality and meet the application QoS requirements. Cognitive resource management is a promising solution for LTE RRM as it improves network efficiency by exploiting radio environment information, intelligent optimization algorithms to configure transmission parameters, and mitigate interference. In this paper, we propose a cognitive resource management scheme to adapt LTE network parameters to the environment conditions. The scheme optimizes resource blocks assignment, modulation selection and bandwidth selection to maximize throughput and minimize interference. The scheme uses constrained optimization for throughput maximization and interference control. It is also enhanced by learning mechanism to reduce the optimization complexity and improve the decision-making quality. Our evaluation results show that our scheme achieved significant improvements in throughput and LTE system capacity. Results also show the improvement in the user satisfaction over other techniques in LTE RRM.

  20. Cloud-Enhanced Robotic System for Smart City Crowd Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhlaqur Rahman


    Full Text Available Cloud robotics in smart cities is an emerging paradigm that enables autonomous robotic agents to communicate and collaborate with a cloud computing infrastructure. It complements the Internet of Things (IoT by creating an expanded network where robots offload data-intensive computation to the ubiquitous cloud to ensure quality of service (QoS. However, offloading for robots is significantly complex due to their unique characteristics of mobility, skill-learning, data collection, and decision-making capabilities. In this paper, a generic cloud robotics framework is proposed to realize smart city vision while taking into consideration its various complexities. Specifically, we present an integrated framework for a crowd control system where cloud-enhanced robots are deployed to perform necessary tasks. The task offloading is formulated as a constrained optimization problem capable of handling any task flow that can be characterized by a Direct Acyclic Graph (DAG. We consider two scenarios of minimizing energy and time, respectively, and develop a genetic algorithm (GA-based approach to identify the optimal task offloading decisions. The performance comparison with two benchmarks shows that our GA scheme achieves desired energy and time performance. We also show the adaptability of our algorithm by varying the values for bandwidth and movement. The results suggest their impact on offloading. Finally, we present a multi-task flow optimal path sequence problem that highlights how the robot can plan its task completion via movements that expend the minimum energy. This integrates path planning with offloading for robotics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to evaluate cloud-based task offloading for a smart city crowd control system.

  1. Enhanced configuration of a water detritiation system; impact on ITER Isotope Separation System based cryogenic distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristescu, Ion, E-mail:


    Highlights: • An enhanced configuration of ITER WDS has been developed. • The proposed configuration allows minimization of hazards due to the reduction of tritium inventory. • The load on the tritium recovery system (ITER ISS) is minimized with benefits on mitigation of the explosion hazards. - Abstract: Tritiated water is generated in the ITER systems by various sources and may contain deuterium and tritium at various concentrations. The reference process for the ITER Water Detritiation System is based on Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) configuration. During long time operation of the CECE process, the accumulation of deuterium in the electrolysis unit and consequently along the Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange (LPCE) column is unavoidable with consequences on the overall detritiation factor of the system. Beside the deuterium issue in the process, the large amount of the tritiated water with tritium activity up to 500 Ci/kg in the electrolysis cells is a concern from the safety aspect of the plant. The enhanced configuration of a system for processing tritiated water allows mitigation of the effects due to deuterium accumulation and also reduction of tritium inventory within the electrolysis system. In addition the benefits concerning to the interface between the water detritiation system and tritium recovery based cryogenic distillation are also presented.

  2. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) well construction technology evaluation report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capuano, Louis, Jr. (Thermasource Inc.); Huh, Michael; Swanson, Robert (Thermasource Inc.); Raymond, David Wayne; Finger, John Travis; Mansure, Arthur James; Polsky, Yarom; Knudsen, Steven Dell


    Electricity production from geothermal resources is currently based on the exploitation of hydrothermal reservoirs. Hydrothermal reservoirs possess three ingredients critical to present day commercial extraction of subsurface heat: high temperature, in-situ fluid and high permeability. Relative to the total subsurface heat resource available, hydrothermal resources are geographically and quantitatively limited. A 2006 DOE sponsored study led by MIT entitled 'The Future of Geothermal Energy' estimates the thermal resource underlying the United States at depths between 3 km and 10 km to be on the order of 14 million EJ. For comparison purposes, total U.S. energy consumption in 2005 was 100 EJ. The overwhelming majority of this resource is present in geological formations which lack either in-situ fluid, permeability or both. Economical extraction of the heat in non-hydrothermal situations is termed Enhanced or Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS). The technologies and processes required for EGS are currently in a developmental stage. Accessing the vast thermal resource between 3 km and 10 km in particular requires a significant extension of current hydrothermal practice, where wells rarely reach 3 km in depth. This report provides an assessment of well construction technology for EGS with two primary objectives: (1) Determining the ability of existing technologies to develop EGS wells. (2) Identifying critical well construction research lines and development technologies that are likely to enhance prospects for EGS viability and improve overall economics. Towards these ends, a methodology is followed in which a case study is developed to systematically and quantitatively evaluate EGS well construction technology needs. A baseline EGS well specification is first formulated. The steps, tasks and tools involved in the construction of this prospective baseline EGS well are then explicitly defined by a geothermal drilling contractor in terms of sequence, time and

  3. Seismic Fracture Characterization Methodologies for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queen, John H. [Hi-Geophysical, Inc., Ponca, OK (United States)


    Executive Summary The overall objective of this work was the development of surface and borehole seismic methodologies using both compressional and shear waves for characterizing faults and fractures in Enhanced Geothermal Systems. We used both surface seismic and vertical seismic profile (VSP) methods. We adapted these methods to the unique conditions encountered in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) creation. These conditions include geological environments with volcanic cover, highly altered rocks, severe structure, extreme near surface velocity contrasts and lack of distinct velocity contrasts at depth. One of the objectives was the development of methods for identifying more appropriate seismic acquisition parameters for overcoming problems associated with these geological factors. Because temperatures up to 300º C are often encountered in these systems, another objective was the testing of VSP borehole tools capable of operating at depths in excess of 1,000 m and at temperatures in excess of 200º C. A final objective was the development of new processing and interpretation techniques based on scattering and time-frequency analysis, as well as the application of modern seismic migration imaging algorithms to seismic data acquired over geothermal areas. The use of surface seismic reflection data at Brady's Hot Springs was found useful in building a geological model, but only when combined with other extensive geological and geophysical data. The use of fine source and geophone spacing was critical in producing useful images. The surface seismic reflection data gave no information about the internal structure (extent, thickness and filling) of faults and fractures, and modeling suggests that they are unlikely to do so. Time-frequency analysis was applied to these data, but was not found to be significantly useful in their interpretation. Modeling does indicate that VSP and other seismic methods with sensors located at depth in wells will be the most

  4. Catalytic systems used for polymerization, biomass conversion, and enhancing diffusion (United States)

    Pong, Frances

    A significant amount of research has been dedicated towards the study and improvement of catalysts. A better understanding of how catalysts work can lead to developing more cost-efficient catalytic systems for a variety of applications. My research is focuses on catalytic systems used in three different fields, which are (i) organometallic polymerization catalysts, (ii) molecular motors and (iii) biomass conversion. Researchers have long studied and modified organometallic catalysts for use in the direct co- and homopolymerization of monomers with polar functional groups. The ability to add polar moieties to polymers, which can potentially yield materials with a wider range of physical properties, is highly desirable. In this study (i), a series of naphthoxyimine palladium(II) catalysts -- in which the naphthyl backbone had been functionalized with different moieties -- were synthesized and systematically studied to determine the ligand structure's impact on catalytic activity. The study showed that slight modifications of the naphthyl backbone led to significant changes in the polymer's molecular weight and polydispersity index. The catalysts were also displayed some ability to co-polymerize ethylene and functionalized norbornene. These positive results suggest that further exploration of naphthoxyimine palladium (II) catalysts may be fundamentally interesting. The effect of active, motile particles at the nanoscale has been vigorously researched during the past decade. By understanding how such active suspensions behave, researchers can gain new insights which can potentially provide new applications in many fields. Here (ii) the momentum transfer of active catalysts (Grubbs' 2nd generation catalyst with a hydrodynamic radius of 6A) to their immediate surroundings is observed in an organic suspension. This phenomenon, which has been coined "enhanced diffusion," has not been well studied at the angstrom scale until now. Diffusion-NMR spectroscopy surprisingly

  5. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) R&D Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entingh, Daniel J.


    The purpose of this workshop was to develop technical background facts necessary for planning continued research and development of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). EGS are geothermal reservoirs that require improvement of their permeability or fluid contents in order to achieve economic energy production. The initial focus of this R&D program is devising and testing means to extract additional economic energy from marginal volumes of hydrothermal reservoirs that are already producing commercial energy. By mid-1999, the evolution of the EGS R&D Program, begun in FY 1988 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), reached the stage where considerable expertise had to be brought to bear on what technical goals should be pursued. The main purpose of this Workshop was to do that. The Workshop was sponsored by the Office of Geothermal Technologies of the Department of Energy. Its purpose and timing were endorsed by the EGS National Coordinating Committee, through which the EGS R&D Program receives guidance from members of the U.S. geothermal industry. Section 1.0 of this report documents the EGS R&D Program Review Session. There, managers and researchers described the goals and activities of the program. Recent experience with injection at The Geysers and analysis of downhole conditions at Dixie Valley highlighted this session. Section 2.0 contains a number of technical presentations that were invited or volunteered to illuminate important technical and economic facts and opportunities for research. The emphasis here was on fi.acture creation, detection, and analysis. Section 3.0 documents the initial general discussions of the participants. Important topics that emerged were: Specificity of defined projects, Optimizing cost effectiveness, Main technical areas to work on, Overlaps between EGS and Reservoir Technology R&D areas, Relationship of microseismic events to hydraulic fractures, and Defining criteria for prioritizing research thrusts. Sections 4.0 and 5.0 report

  6. Enhanced Reliability of Photovoltaic Systems with Energy Storage and Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manz, D.; Schelenz, O.; Chandra, R.; Bose, S.; de Rooij, M.; Bebic, J.


    This report summarizes efforts to reconfigure loads during outages to allow individual customers the opportunity to enhance the reliability of their electric service through the management of their loads, photovoltaics, and energy storage devices.

  7. Probing the Drosophila Circadian System with Enhancer Detectors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cassone, Vincent


    The overall goals of this project are to: (1) identify candidate clock genes by analyzing the spatial expression patterns and circadian activity rhythm phenotypes of enhancer detector P-element insertion lines and (2...

  8. HyDE Enhancements for IVHM System Deployment Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Impact Technologies LLC, with support of the University of California Santa Cruz, proposes to develop and demonstrate a set of enhancements to NASA's Hybrid...

  9. Outstanding Issues in the Assessment of Enhanced Geothermal Systems Resources (United States)

    Williams, C.; Deangelo, J.


    The successful implementation of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) technology has the potential to dramatically expand both the magnitude and spatial extent of geothermal energy production, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been working to develop a comprehensive EGS resource assessment for the United States. However, a number of outstanding scientific and technical issues must be resolved in order to ensure the accuracy and reliability of this assessment. Among these are determining those conditions under which it is possible to replicate the high average permeability (approximately 10-15 to 10-13 m2) characteristic of natural hydrothermal reservoirs, evaluating the likely heterogeneity of fracture permeability within EGS reservoirs and its influence on the geothermal recovery factor, Rg, which is defined as the ratio of produced thermal energy to the thermal energy contained in the stimulated volume comprising the reservoir, and improving estimates of temperature in the upper crust to better quantify the thermal energy available at those depths viable for EGS reservoir creation. Models for the development of fracture permeability from the shear slip along pre-existing natural fractures induced by hydraulic stimulation indicate that production from EGS reservoirs will be sensitive to the influence of effective stress and rock properties on the processes of shear fracture formation and closure. Calibration of model parameters with results from EGS field experiments and demonstration projects suggests that sufficient permeability may be difficult to attain through shear stimulation at depths greater than approximately 6 km, particularly in regions characterized by high normal stress on pre-existing faults and fractures. In addition, the expected heterogeneity of fracture permeability within EGS reservoirs may limit Rg to values on the order of 0.05 to 0.1, which is at the lower end of the observed range for producing natural geothermal reservoirs. Although

  10. In situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroelectrochemical analysis system with a hemin modified nanostructured gold surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Tao; Le Thi Ngoc, Loan; van Nieuwkasteele, Jan; Odijk, Mathieu; van den Berg, Albert; Permentier, Hjalmar; Bischoff, Rainer; Carlen, Edwin T


    An integrated surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroelectrochemical (SEC) analysis system is presented that combines a small volume microfluidic sample chamber (<100 μL) with a compact three-electrode configuration for in situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroelectrochemistry. The SEC system

  11. Enhancing Image Retrieval System Using Content Based Search ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this work is to design and implement a software that enhances the retrieval of image using the image content base as the criteria. As the size of multimedia databases and other repositories continues to grow, the difficulty of finding multimedia information increases, it becomes practically impossible to depend ...

  12. Impact of enhanced flow on the flow system and wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    In this study, we estimated the impact of enhanced flow on shallow wetlands that receive major effluent discharge from an adjoining metropolitan city. The local people use the shallow wetlands for pisciculture. Beginning in 1998, the population of the city began to rise and the amount of effluent discharge increased.

  13. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Well Construction Technology Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polsky, Yarom [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Capuano, Louis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Finger, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huh, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Knudsen, Steve [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chip, A.J. Mansure [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Raymond, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swanson, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This report provides an assessment of well construction technology for EGS with two primary objectives: 1. Determining the ability of existing technologies to develop EGS wells. 2. Identifying critical well construction research lines and development technologies that are likely to enhance prospects for EGS viability and improve overall economics.

  14. Enhanced Oxidation and Solvolysis Reactions in Chemically Inert Microheterogeneous Systems. (United States)


    been worked out for concentrations ranging from 8 M to S10 - 7 M. The stability of microemulsions containing sodium laurate, sodium dodecyl sulfate...Microemulsions containing sodium laurate as a surfactant enhance hydrogen peroxide decomposition by more than a factor of 103 , and research usin...aggregation (high local concentration due to the microhe- terogeneous character of the reaction medium). Stability tests with perborate will be undertaken

  15. Enhanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin I. Bayala


    Full Text Available Land Surface Temperature (LST is a key parameter in the energy balance model. However, the spatial resolution of the retrieved LST from sensors with high temporal resolution is not accurate enough to be used in local-scale studies. To explore the LST–Normalised Difference Vegetation Index relationship potential and obtain thermal images with high spatial resolution, six enhanced image sharpening techniques were assessed: the disaggregation procedure for radiometric surface temperatures (TsHARP, the Dry Edge Quadratic Function, the Difference of Edges (Ts∗DL and three models supported by the relationship of surface temperature and water stress of vegetation (Normalised Difference Water Index, Normalised Difference Infrared Index and Soil wetness index. Energy Balance Station data and in situ measurements were used to validate the enhanced LST images over a mixed agricultural landscape in the sub-humid Pampean Region of Argentina (PRA, during 2006–2010. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (EOS-MODIS thermal datasets were assessed for different spatial resolutions (e.g., 960, 720 and 240 m and the performances were compared with global and local TsHARP procedures. Results suggest that the Ts∗DL technique is the most adequate for simulating LST to high spatial resolution over the heterogeneous landscape of a sub-humid region, showing an average root mean square error of less than 1 K.

  16. Smallholder tree farming systems for livelihood enhancement and carbon storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roshetko, James Michael

    Smallholder agroforestry (tree farming) systems are prominent components of ‘trees outside the forest’. The hypothesis of this thesis is that smallholder tree-farming systems are viable agricultural and natural resources management systems that contribute significantly to global environmental goals...... and local economic objectives. The thesis supports the hypothesis by reviewing global and Asian trends of deforestation, human population growth, and demand for forest and tree products. The potential of smallholders’ treebased systems to expand regional forest resources, produce forest products...

  17. A Novel RFID Sensing System Using Enhanced Surface Wave Technology for Battery Exchange Stations


    Yeong-Lin Lai; Li-Chih Chang; Tai-Hwa Liu; Yi-Chun Sung; Cheng-Lun Yin


    This paper presents a novel radio-frequency identification (RFID) sensing system using enhanced surface wave technology for battery exchange stations (BESs) of electric motorcycles. Ultrahigh-frequency (UHF) RFID technology is utilized to automatically track and manage battery and user information without manual operation. The system includes readers, enhanced surface wave leaky cable antennas (ESWLCAs), coupling cable lines (CCLs), and small radiation patches (SRPs). The RFID sensing system ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, C.; Huang, Z.


    Prony Analysis is a technique used to decompose a signal into a series consisting of weighted complex exponentials and promises to be an effi cient way of recognizing sensitive lines during faults in power systems such as the U.S. Power grid. Positive Sequence Load Flow (PSLF) was used to simulate the performance of a simple two-area-four-generator system and the reaction of the system during a line fault. The Dynamic System Identifi cation (DSI) Toolbox was used to perform Prony analysis and use modal information to identify key transmission lines for power fl ow adjustment to improve system damping. The success of the application of Prony analysis methods to the data obtained from PSLF is reported, and the key transmission line for adjustment is identifi ed. Future work will focus on larger systems and improving the current algorithms to deal with networks such as large portions of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) power grid.

  19. An enhanced healthcare system in mobile cloud computing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemal Hanen


    Full Text Available Abstract Mobile cloud computing (MCC is a new technology for mobile web services. Accordingly, we assume that MCC is likely to be of the heart of healthcare transformation. MCC offers new kinds of services and facilities for patients and caregivers. In this regard, we have tried to propose a new mobile medical web service system. To this end, we implement a medical cloud multi-agent system (MCMAS solution for polyclinic ESSALEMA Sfax—TUNISIA, using Google’s Android operating system. The developed system has been assessing using the CloudSim Simulator. This paper presents initial results of the system in practice. In fact the proposed solution shows that the MCMAS has a commanding capability to cope with the problem of traditional application. The performance of the MCMAS is compared with the traditional system in polyclinic ESSALEMA which showed that this prototype yields better recital than using usual application.

  20. Application of the Concept of Intrusion Tolerant System for Evaluating Cyber Security Enhancements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chanyoung; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    One of the major problems is that nuclear industry is in very early stage in dealing with cyber security issues. It is because that cyber security has received less attention compared to other safety problems. In addition, late adoption of digital I and C systems has resulted in lower level of cyber security advancements in nuclear industry than ones in other industries. For the cyber security of NPP I and C systems, many regulatory documents, guides and standards were already published. These documents include cyber security plans, methods for cyber security assessments and comprehensive set of security controls. However, methods which can help assess how much security is improved if a specific security control is applied are not included in these documents. Hence, NPP I and C system designers may encounter difficulties when trying to apply security controls with limited structure and cost. In order to provide useful information about cyber security issues including cyber security enhancements, this paper suggests a framework to evaluate how much cyber security is improved when a specific cyber security enhancement is applied in NPPs. In order to provide useful information about cyber security issues including cyber security enhancements, this paper suggests a framework to evaluate how much cyber security is improved when a specific cyber security enhancement is applied in NPPs. The extent of cyber security improvement caused by security enhancement was defined as reduction ratio of the failure probability to secure the system from cyber-attack as Eq.1. The concept of 'intrusion tolerant system' was applied to not only prevent cyber-attacks but also limit the extent of damage in this study. For applying the concept of intrusion tolerant system to NPP, the event tree was constructed with some assumptions. Cyber security improvement caused by cyber security enhancement can be estimated as Eq.3. By comparing current system to the enhanced system, it is

  1. Enhancing the thermal response of latent heat storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugaje, I.M. [Ahmadu Bello Univ., Zaria (Nigeria)


    This paper reports experiments carried out to investigate methods of enhancing the thermal response of paraffin wax heat storage tubes by incorporation of aluminium thermal conductivity promoters of various designs into the body of the wax. Heating and cooling runs were carried out and phase change times determined. It was found that the phase change time reduced significantly by orders of up to 2.2 in energy storage (heating) and 4.2 in energy recovery (cooling). Internal fins performed much better than the star matrices and expanded aluminium performed better than promoters made from aluminium sheet metal in both storage and recovery of heat. (author)

  2. Enhancing Health-Care Services with Mixed Reality Systems (United States)

    Stantchev, Vladimir

    This work presents a development approach for mixed reality systems in health care. Although health-care service costs account for 5-15% of GDP in developed countries the sector has been remarkably resistant to the introduction of technology-supported optimizations. Digitalization of data storing and processing in the form of electronic patient records (EPR) and hospital information systems (HIS) is a first necessary step. Contrary to typical business functions (e.g., accounting or CRM) a health-care service is characterized by a knowledge intensive decision process and usage of specialized devices ranging from stethoscopes to complex surgical systems. Mixed reality systems can help fill the gap between highly patient-specific health-care services that need a variety of technical resources on the one side and the streamlined process flow that typical process supporting information systems expect on the other side. To achieve this task, we present a development approach that includes an evaluation of existing tasks and processes within the health-care service and the information systems that currently support the service, as well as identification of decision paths and actions that can benefit from mixed reality systems. The result is a mixed reality system that allows a clinician to monitor the elements of the physical world and to blend them with virtual information provided by the systems. He or she can also plan and schedule treatments and operations in the digital world depending on status information from this mixed reality.

  3. Intelligent Architecture for Enhanced Observability for Active Distribution System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Nainar, Karthikeyan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte


    to utilize advanced solutions by observing the system state in real time. Existing distribution automation and control system have to be upgraded to meet this technological challenge. This necessitates the use of real time system states of the grid which is a crucial factor for system operation in higher...... accuracy. Therefore, in this paper observability scope and evaluation methodology for the future active distribution network with high penetration of renewable resources and flexible loads are analyzed and reviewed. Based on the state of the art a high level architecture has been formulated and presented...

  4. Enhanced functionality and reliability testing of laser-initiated systems (United States)

    Hand, Carter F.; Petrowski, Alane; Brunet, François


    Laser initiation of explosive material requires consistent achievement of specific optical power densities and extremely high reliability under a wide variety of harsh environmental conditions. Ensuring successful and timely detonation drives laser diode-based systems towards testing algorithms that far exceed the standard Telcordia GR-468 qualifications. As diode technology advances, options for increased power density and alternate system configurations expand. An understanding of the basis of diode laser reliability in this application will be provided, along with key optical system metrics for a variety of current and future LIO systems.

  5. IPSIM: Additional System Enhancements Utilized in a Chemistry Application. (United States)

    McClain, Donald H.; Wessels, Stephen W.

    The University of Iowa has been involved with the development, implementation, and operation of computer-based test-item pools and a test construction and course management system titled IPSIM (Iowa's Item Pool System for Instructional Management), originally devised for a freshman medical course in the Pathology Department of the College of…

  6. Performance enhancement study of mobile air conditioning system using microchannel heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Zhaogang; Zhao, Yu.; Chen, Jiangping [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 800, Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)


    In the present paper, two retrofitted compact and high efficient microchannel heat exchangers were proposed. The new microchannel heat exchangers have advantages in compactness (17.2% and 15.1% volume reduction for evaporator and condenser, respectively), weight (2.8% and 14.9% lighter for evaporator and condenser, respectively), heat transfer characteristics compared with the currently used heat exchangers in mobile air conditioning (MAC) industry. One enhanced and one baseline R134a MAC systems were established including the new microchannel heat exchangers and the traditional MAC heat exchangers, respectively. The system performances have been experimentally carried out under variable ambient conditions in psychrometric calorimeter test bench. The optimal system refrigerant charge amounts for both systems were tested and the results showed that the enhanced system with more compact heat exchangers could reduce system charge amount and the minimum effective charge amount was less than that of the baseline system. The enhanced system could supply more cooling capacity to car compartment under all test conditions because of higher performance heat exchangers. The coefficient of performance (COP) of the enhanced system was slightly lower than that of the baseline system under idle conditions but higher under all the other test conditions. Cooling capacity and COP of the enhanced system was increased by about 5% and 8% under high vehicle speed condition. (author)

  7. Integration of Bass Enhancement and Active Noise Control System in Automobile Cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang


    Full Text Available With the advancement of digital signal processing technologies, consumers are more concerned with the quality of multimedia entertainment in automobiles. In order to meet this demand, an audio enhancement system is needed to improve bass reproduction and cancel engine noise in the cabins. This paper presents an integrated active noise control system that is based on frequency-sampling filters to track and extract the bass information from the audio signal, and a multifrequency active noise equalizer to tune the low-frequency engine harmonics to enhance the bass reproduction. In the noise cancellation mode, a maximum of 3 dB bass enhancement can be achieved with significant noise suppression, while higher bass enhancement can be achieved in the bass enhance mode. The results show that the proposed system is effective for solving both the bass audio reproduction and the noise control problems in automobile cabins.

  8. Abu Dhabi's strategic tunnel enhancement programme: odour extraction system approaches. (United States)

    Cowden, Scott; Witherspoon, Jay; Orakzai, Shahzad; Krause, T


    The Emirate of Abu Dhabi has experienced tremendous growth since the mid-1970s resulting in significant overloading of its existing sewerage system. Master planning determined that the best long-term wastewater collection and conveyance solution was construction of a deep tunnel sewer system. Implementation of this massive project faced numerous challenges, including the goal of no odours and limited odour control facilities. To accomplish this, the consultant team examined a unique approach of a single odour control system installed at the proposed downstream tunnel pumping station. Rigorous analysis utilising computer-based models confirmed the viability of this approach. However, other approaches including multiple satellite (localised or regional) odour extraction systems were considered. To better understand entrained air forces at vortex drops, and to confirm the preferred odour extraction approach, physical modelling of drop structures and overall tunnel system was implemented. Results and findings concluded that a regional odour extraction system approach was preferred over a single (centralised) extraction approach. This paper focuses on the process of selecting the preferred odour extraction approach and preliminary capacity sizing of regional systems.

  9. In situ surface-enhanced raman spectroelectrochemical analysis system with a hemin modified nanostructured gold surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Tao; Le Thi Ngoc, Loan; van Nieuwkasteele, Jan William; Odijk, Mathieu; van den Berg, Albert; Permentier, Hjalmar; Bischoff, Rainer; Carlen, Edwin


    An integrated surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroelectrochemical (SEC) analysis system is presented that combines a small volume microfluidic sample chamber (<100 mu L) with a compact three-electrode configuration for in situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroelectrochemistry. The SEC

  10. The Human Terrain System: Achieving a Competitive Advantage Through Enhanced Population-Centric Knowledge Flows (United States)


    SYSTEM: ACHIEVING A COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE THROUGH ENHANCED “POPULATION-CENTRIC” KNOWLEDGE FLOWS by Eric X. Schaner September 2008 Thesis... Competitive Advantage Through Enhanced “Population-Centric” Knowledge Flows 6. AUTHOR(S) Eric X. Schaner 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...Terrain Team, Competitive Advantage , Counterinsurgency Warfare, Tacit Knowledge, Explicit Knowledge 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  11. MPEG-7 meta-data enhanced encoder system for embedded systems (United States)

    Asai, Kohtaro; Nishikawa, Hirofumi; Kudo, Daiki; Divakaran, Ajay


    We describe a MPEG-7 Meta-Data enhanced Audio-Visual Encoder system that targets DVD recorders. We extract features in the compressed domain with both video and audio, which allows us to add the meta-data extraction without altering the hardware architecture of the encoder core. Our feature extraction algorithms are simple, and thus implementable through a simple combination of software and hardware on the integrated DVD chip. The primary application of the meta-data is video summarization, which enables rapid browsing of stored video by the end user. The simplicity of our summarization and feature extraction algorithms enables incorporation of the powerful functionality of smart content navigation through content summarization, into the DVD recorder at a low cost.

  12. [Enhancement of economic efficiency of compulsory health insurance system]. (United States)

    Pivovarov, V A; Sechnoĭ, A I


    A complex of measures is suggested, which is intended to overcome difficulties in the system of obligatory medical insurance. Practical implementation of these measures will require active participation of public health administrators.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Imed Amamra; Nadir Derouiche


    .... The simulation results of the proposed stopping criterion show an interesting application in a hybrid automatic repeat request systems with turbo coding scheme, where the decoding complexity can be fairly reduced...

  14. Enhanced toxic cloud knockdown spray system for decontamination applications (United States)

    Betty, Rita G [Rio Rancho, NM; Tucker, Mark D [Albuquerque, NM; Brockmann, John E [Albuquerque, NM; Lucero, Daniel A [Albuquerque, NM; Levin, Bruce L [Tijeras, NM; Leonard, Jonathan [Albuquerque, NM


    Methods and systems for knockdown and neutralization of toxic clouds of aerosolized chemical or biological warfare (CBW) agents and toxic industrial chemicals using a non-toxic, non-corrosive aqueous decontamination formulation.

  15. Plasmonic Interrogation of Biomimetic Systems for Enhanced Toxicity Assays


    Hinman, Samuel S


    In light of their escalating exposure to possible environmental toxicants, there are many biological systems that need to be evaluated in a resource and time efficient manner. Understanding how toxicants behave in relation to their physicochemical properties and within complex biological media is especially important toward developing a stronger scientific foundation of these systems so that adequate regulatory decisions may be made. While there are many emerging methods available for the det...

  16. Sensors and Systems to Enhance Aviation Safety Against Weather Hazards


    Mahapatra, Pravas R; Zrnic, Dusan S


    Weather-related factors are among major causes of aviation hazards, passenger discomfort, poor airline schedule-keeping, and poor operating economy. A variety of new high-technology electronic sensors and systems for aviation weather are being developed and installed across the US. The aviation weather monitoring system of the future will be centered around Doppler weather radars which offer the best combination of coverage, resolution, and agility for this purpose, and are able to detect and...

  17. A Novel and High Performance System for Enhancing Speech in Helmet Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a highly innovative system for enhancing speech in helmet. First, we propose to apply a circular array with 8 microphones that are inside the helmet. In...

  18. A CRISPR-Cas system enhances envelope integrity mediating antibiotic resistance and inflammasome evasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.R. Sampson (Timothy); B.A. Napier (Brooke); M.R. Schroeder (Max); R.P.L. Louwen (Rogier); J. Zhao (Jinkou); C.-Y. Chin (Chui-Yoke); H.K. Ratner (Hannah); A.C. Llewellyn (Anna); C.L. Jones (Crystal); H. Laroui (Hamed); D. Merlin (Didier); P. Zhou (Pei); H.P. Endtz (Hubert); D.S. Weiss (David)


    textabstractClustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated (CRISPR-Cas) systems defend bacteria against foreign nucleic acids, such as during bacteriophage infection and transformation, processes which cause envelope stress. It is unclear if these machineries enhance

  19. Identification of potential human factors issues related to APTS introduction of enhanced information systems (United States)


    Introduction of enhanced information systems into an operational environment requires reallocation of functions among those responsible for providing service. This study describes an effort to develop and apply a methodology to identify the types of ...

  20. A conceptual approach to design livestock production systems for robustness to enhance sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napel, ten J.; Veen, van der A.A.; Oosting, S.J.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.


    Existing approaches to enhance sustainability of livestock production systems focus on the level of sustainability indicators. Maintaining the level of sustainability in the face of perturbations, which is robustness of sustainability, is relatively unexplored. Perturbations can be classed as noise

  1. Transferosomes - A vesicular transdermal delivery system for enhanced drug permeation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmy Rajan


    Full Text Available Transdermal administration of drugs is generally limited by the barrier function of the skin. Vesicular systems are one of the most controversial methods for transdermal delivery of active substances. The interest in designing transdermal delivery systems was relaunched after the discovery of elastic vesicles like transferosomes, ethosomes, cubosomes, phytosomes, etc. This paper presents the composition, mechanisms of penetration, manufacturing and characterization methods of transferosomes as transdermal delivery systems of active substances. For a drug to be absorbed and distributed into organs and tissues and eliminated from the body, it must pass through one or more biological membranes/barriers at various locations. Such a movement of drug across the membrane is called as drug transport. For the drugs to be delivered to the body, they should cross the membranous barrier. The concept of these delivery systems was designed in an attempt to concentrate the drug in the tissues of interest, while reducing the amount of drug in the remaining tissues. Hence, surrounding tissues are not affected by the drug. In addition, loss of drug does not happen due to localization of drug, leading to get maximum efficacy of the medication. Therefore, the phospholipid based carrier systems are of considerable interest in this era.

  2. Transferosomes - A vesicular transdermal delivery system for enhanced drug permeation (United States)

    Rajan, Reshmy; Jose, Shoma; Mukund, V. P. Biju; Vasudevan, Deepa T.


    Transdermal administration of drugs is generally limited by the barrier function of the skin. Vesicular systems are one of the most controversial methods for transdermal delivery of active substances. The interest in designing transdermal delivery systems was relaunched after the discovery of elastic vesicles like transferosomes, ethosomes, cubosomes, phytosomes, etc. This paper presents the composition, mechanisms of penetration, manufacturing and characterization methods of transferosomes as transdermal delivery systems of active substances. For a drug to be absorbed and distributed into organs and tissues and eliminated from the body, it must pass through one or more biological membranes/barriers at various locations. Such a movement of drug across the membrane is called as drug transport. For the drugs to be delivered to the body, they should cross the membranous barrier. The concept of these delivery systems was designed in an attempt to concentrate the drug in the tissues of interest, while reducing the amount of drug in the remaining tissues. Hence, surrounding tissues are not affected by the drug. In addition, loss of drug does not happen due to localization of drug, leading to get maximum efficacy of the medication. Therefore, the phospholipid based carrier systems are of considerable interest in this era. PMID:22171309

  3. Enhanced adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control for uncertain nonlinear systems (United States)

    Roopaei, Mehdi; Zolghadri, Mansoor; Meshksar, Sina


    In this article, a novel Adaptive Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control (AFSMC) methodology is proposed based on the integration of Sliding Mode Control (SMC) and Adaptive Fuzzy Control (AFC). Making use of the SMC design framework, we propose two fuzzy systems to be used as reaching and equivalent parts of the SMC. In this way, we make use of the fuzzy logic to handle uncertainty/disturbance in the design of the equivalent part and provide a chattering free control for the design of the reaching part. To construct the equivalent control law, an adaptive fuzzy inference engine is used to approximate the unknown parts of the system. To get rid of the chattering, a fuzzy logic model is assigned for reaching control law, which acting like the saturation function technique. The main advantage of our proposed methodology is that the structure of the system is unknown and no knowledge of the bounds of parameters, uncertainties and external disturbance are required in advance. Using Lyapunov stability theory and Barbalat's lemma, the closed-loop system is proved to be stable and convergence properties of the system is assured. Simulation examples are presented to verify the effectiveness of the method. Results are compared with some other methods proposed in the past research.

  4. Enhancing Tumor Detection in IR-UWB Breast Cancer System (United States)

    Ghoname, Reda; Elmahdy, Abd Elmonem; Zekry, Abd Elhalim


    An ultra-wideband (UWB) microwave system for breast cancer detection is presented. The proposed system includes monocycle pulse generator, antipodal Vivaldi antenna, breast model, and calibration algorithm for tumor detection. Firstly, our pulse generator employs transmission gate in glitch generator to achieve several advantages such as low power consumption and low ringing level. Secondly, the antipodal Vivaldi antenna is designed assuming FR4 dielectric substrate material, and developed antenna element (80 × 80 mm2) features a −10 dB return loss and bandwidth ranges from 2.3 GHz to more than 11 GHz. Thirdly, the phantom breast can be modeled as a layer of skin, fat, and then tumor is inserted in this layer. Finally, subtract and add algorithm (SAD) is used as a calibration algorithm in tumor detection system. The proposed system suggested that horizontal antenna position with 90° between transmitting and receiving antennas is localized as a suitable antenna position with different rotating location and a 0.5 cm near to phantom. The mean advantages of this localization and tracking position around breast is a high received power signal approximately around mv as a higher recognized signal in tumor detection. Using our proposed system we can detect tumor in 5 mm diameter. PMID:28421208

  5. Enhancing Tumor Detection in IR-UWB Breast Cancer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fouad


    Full Text Available An ultra-wideband (UWB microwave system for breast cancer detection is presented. The proposed system includes monocycle pulse generator, antipodal Vivaldi antenna, breast model, and calibration algorithm for tumor detection. Firstly, our pulse generator employs transmission gate in glitch generator to achieve several advantages such as low power consumption and low ringing level. Secondly, the antipodal Vivaldi antenna is designed assuming FR4 dielectric substrate material, and developed antenna element (80×80 mm2 features a −10 dB return loss and bandwidth ranges from 2.3 GHz to more than 11 GHz. Thirdly, the phantom breast can be modeled as a layer of skin, fat, and then tumor is inserted in this layer. Finally, subtract and add algorithm (SAD is used as a calibration algorithm in tumor detection system. The proposed system suggested that horizontal antenna position with 90° between transmitting and receiving antennas is localized as a suitable antenna position with different rotating location and a 0.5 cm near to phantom. The mean advantages of this localization and tracking position around breast is a high received power signal approximately around mv as a higher recognized signal in tumor detection. Using our proposed system we can detect tumor in 5 mm diameter.

  6. Using coherence to enhance function in chemical and biophysical systems (United States)

    Scholes, Gregory D.; Fleming, Graham R.; Chen, Lin X.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Buchleitner, Andreas; Coker, David F.; Engel, Gregory S.; van Grondelle, Rienk; Ishizaki, Akihito; Jonas, David M.; Lundeen, Jeff S.; McCusker, James K.; Mukamel, Shaul; Ogilvie, Jennifer P.; Olaya-Castro, Alexandra; Ratner, Mark A.; Spano, Frank C.; Whaley, K. Birgitta; Zhu, Xiaoyang


    Coherence phenomena arise from interference, or the addition, of wave-like amplitudes with fixed phase differences. Although coherence has been shown to yield transformative ways for improving function, advances have been confined to pristine matter and coherence was considered fragile. However, recent evidence of coherence in chemical and biological systems suggests that the phenomena are robust and can survive in the face of disorder and noise. Here we survey the state of recent discoveries, present viewpoints that suggest that coherence can be used in complex chemical systems, and discuss the role of coherence as a design element in realizing function.

  7. Equalization-enhanced phase noise for coherent-detection systems using electronic digital signal processing. (United States)

    Shieh, William; Ho, Keang-Po


    In coherent optical systems employing electronic digital signal processing, the fiber chromatic dispersion can be gracefully compensated in electronic domain without resorting to optical techniques. Unlike optical dispersion compensator, the electronic equalizer enhances the impairments from the laser phase noise. This equalization-enhanced phase noise (EEPN) imposes a tighter constraint on the receive laser phase noise for transmission systems with high symbol rate and large electronically-compensated chromatic dispersion.

  8. Enhanced early warning system impact on nursing practice: A phenomenological study. (United States)

    Burns, Kathleen A; Reber, Tracey; Theodore, Karen; Welch, Brenda; Roy, Debra; Siedlecki, Sandra L


    To determine how an enhanced early warning system has an impact on nursing practice. Early warning systems score physiologic measures and alert nurses to subtle changes in patient condition. Critics of early warning systems have expressed concern that nurses would rely on a score rather than assessment skills and critical thinking to determine the need for intervention. Enhancing early warning systems with innovative technology is still in its infancy, so the impact of an enhanced early warning system on nursing behaviours or practice has not yet been studied. Phenomenological design. Scripted, semistructured interviews were conducted in September 2015 with 25 medical/surgical nurses who used the enhanced early warning system. Data were analysed using thematic analysis techniques (coding and bracketing). Emerging themes were examined for relationships and a model describing the enhanced early warning system experience was developed. Nurses identified awareness leading to investigation and ease of prioritization as the enhanced early warning system's most important impact on their nursing practice. There was also an impact on organizational culture, with nurses reporting improved communication, increased collaboration, increased accountability and proactive responses to early changes in patient condition. Rather than hinder critical thinking, as many early warning systems' critics claim, nurses in this study found that the enhanced early warning system increased their awareness of changes in a patient's condition, resulting in earlier response and reassessment times. It also had an impact on the organization by improving communication and collaboration and supporting a culture of proactive rather than reactive response to early signs of deterioration. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Project-Based Learning to Enhance Teaching Embedded Systems (United States)

    Sababha, Belal H.; Alqudah, Yazan A.; Abualbasal, Abdelraheem; AlQaralleh, Esam A.


    Exposing engineering students during their education to real-world problems and giving them the chance to apply what they learn in the classroom is a vital element of engineering education. The Embedded Systems course at Princess Sumaya University for Technology (PSUT) is one of the main courses that bridge the gap between theoretical electrical…

  10. Development of cooling and cleaning systems for enhanced gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    Energy from biomass based gasifier-engine integrated systems are becoming more popular for power generation applications in rural and urban driven societies. The quality of producer gas from the down draft gasifiers plays a significant role in power generation aspects. During gasification, tar is produced and its ...

  11. Efficient privacy-enhanced familiarity-based recommender system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeckmans, Arjan; Peter, Andreas; Hartel, Pieter H.

    Recommender systems can help users to find interesting content, often based on similarity with other users. However, studies have shown that in some cases familiarity gives comparable results to similarity. Using familiarity has the added bonus of increasing privacy between users and utilizing a

  12. Enhanced attenuation of septic system phosphate in noncalcareous sediments. (United States)

    Robertson, W D


    Review of phosphate behavior in four mature septic system plumes on similar textured sand has revealed a strong correlation between carbonate mineral content and phosphate concentrations. A plume on calcareous sand (Cambridge site, 27 wt % CaCO3 equiv.) has proximal zone PO4 concentrations (4.8 mg/L P average) that are about 75% of the septic tank effluent value, whereas three plumes on noncalcareous sand (Muskoka, L. Joseph, and Nobel sites, effluent values. Phosphate attenuation at the noncalcareous sites appears to be an indirect result of the development of acidic conditions (site average pH 3.5 to 5.9) and elevated Al concentrations (up to 24 mg/L), which subsequently causes the precipitation of Al-P minerals such as variscite (AlPO4 x 2H2O). This is supported by scanning electron microscope analyses, which show the widespread occurrence of (Al+P)--rich secondary mineral coatings on sand grains below the infiltration beds. All of these septic systems are more than 10 years old, indicating that these attenuation reactions have substantial longevity. A field lysimeter experiment demonstrated that this reaction sequence can be readily incorporated into engineered waste water treatment systems. We feel this important P removal mechanism has not been adequately recognized, particularly for its potential significance in reducing P loading from septic systems in lakeshore environments.

  13. Leaky Wave Enhanced Feeds for Multi-Beam Reflector Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neto, A.; Gerini, G.; Llombart, N.; Ettorre, M.; Maagt, P. de


    Abstract—This paper discusses the use of dielectric superlayers to shape the radiation pattern of focal plane feeds of a multi-beam reflector system. The shaping of the pattern is obtained by exciting a pair (TE/TM) of leaky waves that radiate incrementally as they propagate between the ground plane

  14. Systemize Classroom Management to Enhance Teaching and Learning (United States)

    Delman, Douglas J.


    Good classroom management is one of the most important goals teachers strive to establish from the first day of class. The rules, procedures, activities, and behaviors set the classroom tone throughout the school year. By revising, updating, and systemizing classroom management activities, teachers can eliminate many problems created by students…

  15. The VISTA Speech Enhancement System for AM Radio Broadcasting (United States)


    system was subjected to listening tests using an extensive data base (; 10’s of minutes) and was found to be generally natural and free of artifacts...histogram method, Is computed and, it and the new processed spech file are transferred back to the host in non-real-time. The procedure is then repeated

  16. Development of cooling and cleaning systems for enhanced gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to address these tar related problems a cleaning and cooling system has been developed in house that facilitates tar removal to acceptable levels tolerated by the internal combustion (IC) engine and meets emission standards as well. The main objective of the present work is to reduce tar level and develop control ...

  17. Enhanced 3D face processing using an active vision system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Morten; Larsen, Rasmus; Kraft, Dirk


    We present an active face processing system based on 3D shape information extracted by means of stereo information. We use two sets of stereo cameras with different field of views (FOV): One with a wide FOV is used for face tracking, while the other with a narrow FOV is used for face identification...

  18. Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Collaborative Learning: Enhancements to Authoring Tools (United States)

    Olsen, Jennifer K.; Belenky, Daniel M.; Aleven, Vincent; Rummel, Nikol


    Collaborative and individual instruction may support different types of knowledge. Optimal instruction for a subject domain may therefore need to combine these two modes of instruction. There has not been much research, however, on combining individual and collaborative learning with Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs). A first step is to expand…

  19. 3D interactive augmented reality-enhanced digital learning systems for mobile devices (United States)

    Feng, Kai-Ten; Tseng, Po-Hsuan; Chiu, Pei-Shuan; Yang, Jia-Lin; Chiu, Chun-Jie


    With enhanced processing capability of mobile platforms, augmented reality (AR) has been considered a promising technology for achieving enhanced user experiences (UX). Augmented reality is to impose virtual information, e.g., videos and images, onto a live-view digital display. UX on real-world environment via the display can be e ectively enhanced with the adoption of interactive AR technology. Enhancement on UX can be bene cial for digital learning systems. There are existing research works based on AR targeting for the design of e-learning systems. However, none of these work focuses on providing three-dimensional (3-D) object modeling for en- hanced UX based on interactive AR techniques. In this paper, the 3-D interactive augmented reality-enhanced learning (IARL) systems will be proposed to provide enhanced UX for digital learning. The proposed IARL systems consist of two major components, including the markerless pattern recognition (MPR) for 3-D models and velocity-based object tracking (VOT) algorithms. Realistic implementation of proposed IARL system is conducted on Android-based mobile platforms. UX on digital learning can be greatly improved with the adoption of proposed IARL systems.

  20. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) - Where Are We Now (United States)

    Wyborn, D.


    There were seven major EGS projects in which reservoir circulation was achieved prior to the Geodynamics Limited project in the Innamincka granite in northern South Australia which commenced in 2002. Six other projects did not achieve significant circulation. Importantly all but one of these projects were located in granitic bodies in which it is assumed that families of existing natural fractures are present. Evidence from all these EGS projects indicated that: 1 Stimulation in granite rock resulting from water injection with no added chemicals enhanced rock fracture permeability by 2-3 orders of magnitude. 2 The increased permeability resulted from increased fracture porosity associated with slippage on existing natural fractures during the stimulation. 3The extent of the resulting reservoir could be accurately mapped by acoustic (micro-seismic) monitoring of the fracture slippages. 4 The orientation of the reservoir is strongly dependent on the relative directions of the three principle rock stress axes. 5 The stimulation pumping pressures required were 50-75% of the minimum principle stress for the depth of reservoir creation in accord with geomechanical theory, and are therefore lower than those required to open tensile fractures (fracking). 6 The size of the resulting stimulated reservoir is proportional to the volume of water injected. New space created by the increase in fracture porosity associated with the micro-seismic events is taken up by the injected water. 7 Most projects to 2002 were carried out in strike-slip and normal faulting stress regimes with minimum stress direction horizontal and the resulting reservoirs were oriented close to vertically. 8 Volcanic activity can only occur in strike-slip and normal faulting stress regimes so EGS reservoirs in volcanic areas will be oriented close to vertically. 9 The Fjallbacka project in Sweden was the only project carried out in an overthrust stress regime (minimum stress direction vertical) and the

  1. Enhancing e-health information systems with agent technology. (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Tuan; Fuhrer, Patrik; Pasquier-Rocha, Jacques


    Agent Technology is an emerging and promising research area in software technology, which increasingly contributes to the development of value-added information systems for large healthcare organizations. Through the MediMAS prototype, resulting from a case study conducted at a local Swiss hospital, this paper aims at presenting the advantages of reinforcing such a complex E-health man-machine information organization with software agents. The latter will work on behalf of human agents, taking care of routine tasks, and thus increasing the speed, the systematic, and ultimately the reliability of the information exchanges. We further claim that the modeling of the software agent layer can be methodically derived from the actual "classical" laboratory organization and practices, as well as seamlessly integrated with the existing information system.

  2. System-level techniques for analog performance enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Bang-Sup


    This book shows readers to avoid common mistakes in circuit design, and presents classic circuit concepts and design approaches from the transistor to the system levels. The discussion is geared to be accessible and optimized for practical designers who want to learn to create circuits without simulations. Topic by topic, the author guides designers to learn the classic analog design skills by understanding the basic electronics principles correctly, and further prepares them to feel confident in designing high-performance, state-of-the art CMOS analog systems. This book combines and presents all in-depth necessary information to perform various design tasks so that readers can grasp essential material, without reading through the entire book. This top-down approach helps readers to build practical design expertise quickly, starting from their understanding of electronics fundamentals. .

  3. Power system reliability enhancement by using PowerformerTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat-Allah Hooshmand


    Full Text Available A high-voltage generator PowerformerTM is a new generation of the AC generators. The most significant advantages of these PowerformerTM are their direct connection to high-voltage grid, higher availability, and more reactive power margin, short term overloading capacity and removing the power transformer from the structure of the power plant. In this paper, the installation effect of these generators on the power system reliability is investigated. The amount of the effects depends on the type and location of the power plant, location of the PowerformerTM, the size of load and network topology. For this purpose, in the 6-bus IEEE RBTS system, the conventional generators are replaced by these new PowerformerTM and then, the reliability indices are evaluated. The simulation results show that the reliability indices such as the expected duration of load curtailment (EDLC and the expected energy not served (EENS are improved. .

  4. Security Enhancement Using Mutual Authentication in Existing CDMA Systems


    L. Krishna Bharathi; Gnanou Florence Sudha


    Even though CDMA2000 wireless networks are being widely deployed as a cellular digital standard around the world, it has some hidden vulnerabilities concerned with security issues. The existing CDMA systems use authentication mechanism by CAVE (Cellular Authentication and Voice Encryption) algorithm. This authentication method has several disadvantages. Only one way authentication is provided, that is, only a base station authenticates a subscriber. And, CAVE algorithm is prone to cryptograph...

  5. Modeling and Enhancing Android’s Permission System (United States)


    design and implementation of Sorbet , an enforcement system that enables developers to use permissions to specify secrecy and integrity policies., which we can prove hold on Sorbet but not on Android. We implement Sorbet on top of Android 2.3.7, test it on a Nexus S phone, and demonstrate...first, it develops a formal framework for analyzing Android-style security mechanisms; and, second, it describes the design and implementation of Sorbet

  6. Smart Platforms Surveillance System to Enhance Communication in Disaster Environments


    Satea Hikmat Alnajjar; Fareq Malek; Zainab Nazar Khalil Wafi


    The modern communications technology is a positive case for disaster risk reduction, since they to it provides critical information to realize risk assessment. In this study, we present an innovativetechnique is characterized by an aerial platform as a robust method to monitor disaster area. Traffic Surveillance System (TSS), based on Detection and Early Warning (DEW) units, is used to monitor theroads in preventing accidents at the same time finding what causes the accidents. This is done by...

  7. Enhancing Combat Survivability of Existing Unmanned Aircraft Systems (United States)


    reaching the UA. Examples of expendables include chaff, Active Towed Decoy Systems, flares, and aerosols (e.g., smokes and fogs ). 2. Reducing...the tank is surrounded by one or more layers of sealant (such as uncured rubber). When the tank is punctured, exposure of the sealant to the fuel...will result in a swelling of the sealant and closure of the wound. Active damage suppression incorporates features that, upon sensing that damage has

  8. Enhancement of Iris Recognition System Based on Phase Only Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuriza Pramita


    Full Text Available Iris recognition system is one of biometric based recognition/identification systems. Numerous techniques have been implemented to achieve a good recognition rate, including the ones based on Phase Only Correlation (POC. Significant and higher correlation peaks suggest that the system recognizes iris images of the same subject (person, while lower and unsignificant peaks correspond to recognition of those of difference subjects. Current POC methods have not investigated minimum iris point that can be used to achieve higher correlation peaks. This paper proposed a method that used only one-fourth of full normalized iris size to achieve higher (or at least the same recognition rate. Simulation on CASIA version 1.0 iris image database showed that averaged recognition rate of the proposed method achieved 67%, higher than that of using one-half (56% and full (53% iris point. Furthermore, all (100% POC peak values of the proposed method was higher than that of the method with full iris points.

  9. Enhancements to the SHARP Build System and NEK5000 Coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaskey, Alex [ORNL; Bennett, Andrew R [ORNL; Billings, Jay Jay [ORNL


    The SHARP project for the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program provides a multiphysics framework for coupled simulations of advanced nuclear reactor designs. It provides an overall coupling environment that utilizes custom interfaces to couple existing physics codes through a common spatial decomposition and unique solution transfer component. As of this writing, SHARP couples neutronics, thermal hydraulics, and structural mechanics using PROTEUS, Nek5000, and Diablo respectively. This report details two primary SHARP improvements regarding the Nek5000 and Diablo individual physics codes: (1) an improved Nek5000 coupling interface that lets SHARP achieve a vast increase in overall solution accuracy by manipulating the structure of the internal Nek5000 spatial mesh, and (2) the capability to seamlessly couple structural mechanics calculations into the framework through improvements to the SHARP build system. The Nek5000 coupling interface now uses a barycentric Lagrange interpolation method that takes the vertex-based power and density computed from the PROTEUS neutronics solver and maps it to the user-specified, general-order Nek5000 spectral element mesh. Before this work, SHARP handled this vertex-based solution transfer in an averaging-based manner. SHARP users can now achieve higher levels of accuracy by specifying any arbitrary Nek5000 spectral mesh order. This improvement takes the average percentage error between the PROTEUS power solution and the Nek5000 interpolated result down drastically from over 23 % to just above 2 %, and maintains the correct power profile. We have integrated Diablo into the SHARP build system to facilitate the future coupling of structural mechanics calculations into SHARP. Previously, simulations involving Diablo were done in an iterative manner, requiring a large amount manual work, and left only as a task for advanced users. This report will detail a new Diablo build system

  10. Enhanced Flight Vision Systems and Synthetic Vision Systems for NextGen Approach and Landing Operations (United States)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Williams, Steven P.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.


    Synthetic Vision Systems and Enhanced Flight Vision System (SVS/EFVS) technologies have the potential to provide additional margins of safety for aircrew performance and enable operational improvements for low visibility operations in the terminal area environment with equivalent efficiency as visual operations. To meet this potential, research is needed for effective technology development and implementation of regulatory standards and design guidance to support introduction and use of SVS/EFVS advanced cockpit vision technologies in Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) operations. A fixed-base pilot-in-the-loop simulation test was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center that evaluated the use of SVS/EFVS in NextGen low visibility approach and landing operations. Twelve crews flew approach and landing operations in a simulated NextGen Chicago O'Hare environment. Various scenarios tested the potential for using EFVS to conduct approach, landing, and roll-out operations in visibility as low as 1000 feet runway visual range (RVR). Also, SVS was tested to evaluate the potential for lowering decision heights (DH) on certain instrument approach procedures below what can be flown today. Expanding the portion of the visual segment in which EFVS can be used in lieu of natural vision from 100 feet above the touchdown zone elevation to touchdown and rollout in visibilities as low as 1000 feet RVR appears to be viable as touchdown performance was acceptable without any apparent workload penalties. A lower DH of 150 feet and/or possibly reduced visibility minima using SVS appears to be viable when implemented on a Head-Up Display, but the landing data suggests further study for head-down implementations.

  11. Ring resonator systems to perform optical communication enhancement using soliton

    CERN Document Server

    Amiri, Iraj Sadegh


    The title explain new technique of secured and high capacity optical communication signals generation by using the micro and nano ring resonators. The pulses are known as soliton pulses which are more secured due to having the properties of chaotic and dark soliton signals with ultra short bandwidth. They have high capacity due to the fact that ring resonators are able to generate pulses in the form of solitons in multiples and train form. These pulses generated by ring resonators are suitable in optical communication due to use the compact and integrated rings system, easy to control, flexibi

  12. Performance benefits of telerobotics and teleoperation - enhancements for an arm-based tank waste retrieval system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horschel, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gibbons, P.W. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Draper, J.V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others


    This report evaluates telerobotic and teleoperational arm-based retrieval systems that require advanced robotic controls. These systems will be deployed in waste retrieval activities in Hanford`s Single Shell Tanks (SSTs). The report assumes that arm-based, retrieval systems will combine a teleoperational arm and control system enhanced by a number of advanced and telerobotic controls. The report describes many possible enhancements, spanning the full range of the control spectrum with the potential for technical maturation. The enhancements considered present a variety of choices and factors including: the enhancements to be included in the actual control system, safety, detailed task analyses, human factors, cost-benefit ratios, and availability and maturity of technology. Because the actual system will be designed by an offsite vendor, the procurement specifications must have the flexibility to allow bidders to propose a broad range of ideas, yet build in enough restrictions to filter out infeasible and undesirable approaches. At the same time they must allow selection of a technically promising proposal. Based on a preliminary analysis of the waste retrieval task, and considering factors such as operator limitations and the current state of robotics technology, the authors recommend a set of enhancements that will (1) allow the system to complete its waste retrieval mission, and (2) enable future upgrades in response to changing mission needs and technological advances.

  13. Multispectral uncooled infrared enhanced-vision system for flight test (United States)

    Tiana, Carlo L.; Kerr, Richard; Harrah, Steven D.


    The 1997 Final Report of the 'White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security' challenged industrial and government concerns to reduce aviation accident rates by a factor of five within 10 years. In the report, the commission encourages NASA, FAA and others 'to expand their cooperative efforts in aviation safety research and development'. As a result of this publication, NASA has since undertaken a number of initiatives aimed at meeting the stated goal. Among these, the NASA Aviation Safety Program was initiated to encourage and assist in the development of technologies for the improvement of aviation safety. Among the technologies being considered are certain sensor technologies that may enable commercial and general aviation pilots to 'see to land' at night or in poor visibility conditions. Infrared sensors have potential applicability in this field, and this paper describes a system, based on such sensors, that is being deployed on the NASA Langley Research Center B757 ARIES research aircraft. The system includes two infrared sensors operating in different spectral bands, and a visible-band color CCD camera for documentation purposes. The sensors are mounted in an aerodynamic package in a forward position on the underside of the aircraft. Support equipment in the aircraft cabin collects and processes all relevant sensor data. Display of sensor images is achieved in real time on the aircraft's Head Up Display (HUD), or other display devices.

  14. Human visual system-based image enhancement and logarithmic contrast measure. (United States)

    Panetta, Karen A; Wharton, Eric J; Agaian, Sos S


    Varying scene illumination poses many challenging problems for machine vision systems. One such issue is developing global enhancement methods that work effectively across the varying illumination. In this paper, we introduce two novel image enhancement algorithms: edge-preserving contrast enhancement, which is able to better preserve edge details while enhancing contrast in images with varying illumination, and a novel multihistogram equalization method which utilizes the human visual system (HVS) to segment the image, allowing a fast and efficient correction of nonuniform illumination. We then extend this HVS-based multihistogram equalization approach to create a general enhancement method that can utilize any combination of enhancement algorithms for an improved performance. Additionally, we propose new quantitative measures of image enhancement, called the logarithmic Michelson contrast measure (AME) and the logarithmic AME by entropy. Many image enhancement methods require selection of operating parameters, which are typically chosen using subjective methods, but these new measures allow for automated selection. We present experimental results for these methods and make a comparison against other leading algorithms.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISMAIL Azman


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between communication openness in performance appraisal systems and job satisfaction. A survey method was employed to gather data from employees who have worked in a privatized postal company in Sarawak, Malaysia. SmartPLS version 2.0 was used to determine the validity and reliability of instrument and test the research hypotheses. The outcomes of SmartPLS path model showed that explanation and feedback were positively and significantly related to job satisfaction. This result confirms that the ability of appraisers to clearly explain the performance appraisal practices and adequately provide feedback in determining performance scores have been important predictors of appraises’ job satisfaction in the studied organization. Further, this study provides discussion, implications and conclusion.

  16. Railplug Ignition System for Enhanced Engine Performance and Reduced Maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DK Ezekoye; Matt Hall; Ron Matthews


    This Final Technical Report discusses the progress that was made on the experimental and numerical tasks over the duration of this project. The primary objectives of the project were to (1) develop an improved understanding of the spark ignition process, and (2) develop the railplug as an improved ignitor for large bore stationary natural gas engines. We performed fundamental experiments on the physical processes occurring during spark ignition and used the results from these experiments to aid our development of the most complete model of the spark ignition process ever devised. The elements in this model include (1) the dynamic response of the ignition circuit, (2) a chemical kinetics mechanism that is suitable for the reactions that occur in the plasma, (3) conventional flame propagation kinetics, and (4) a multi-dimensional formulation so that bulk flow through the spark gap can be incorporated. This model (i.e., a Fortran code that can be used as a subroutine within an engine modeling code such as KIVA) can be obtained from Prof. Ron Matthews at rdmatt{at} or Prof. DK Ezekoye at dezekoye{at} Fundamental experiments, engine experiments, and modeling tasks were used to help develop the railplug as a new ignitor for large bore natural gas engines. As the result of these studies, we developed a railplug that could extend the Lean Stability Limit (LSL) of an engine operating at full load on natural gas from {phi} = 0.59 for operation on spark plugs down to {phi} = 0.53 using railplugs with the same delivered energy (0.7 J). However, this delivered energy would rapidly wear out the spark plug. For a conventional delivered energy (<0.05 J), the LSL is {phi} = 0.63 for a spark plug. Further, using a permanent magnet to aid the plasma movement, the LSL was extended to {phi} = 0.54 for a railplug with a delivered energy of only 0.15 J/shot, a typical discharge energy for commercial capacitive discharge ignition systems. Here, it should be

  17. Transient Stability Enhancement in Power System Using Static VAR Compensator (SVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef MOULOUDI


    Full Text Available In this paper, an indirect adaptive fuzzy excitation and static VAR (unit of reactive power, volt-ampere reactive compensator (SVC controller is proposed to enhance transient stability for the power system, which based on input-output linearization technique. A three-bus system, which contains a generator and static VAR compensator (SVC, is considered in this paper, the SVC is located at the midpoint of the transmission lines. Simulation results show that the proposed controller compared with a controller based on tradition linearization technique can enhance the transient stability of the power system under a large sudden fault, which may occur nearly at the generator bus terminal.

  18. Pythia: A Privacy-enhanced Personalized Contextual Suggestion System for Tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drosatos, G.; Efraimidis, P.S.; Arampatzis, A.; Stamatelatos, G.; Athanasiadis, I.N.


    We present Pythia, a privacy-enhanced non-invasive contextual suggestion system for tourists, with important architectural innovations. The system offers high quality personalized recommendations, non-invasive operation and protection of user privacy. A key feature of Pythia is the exploitation of

  19. Evaluation of Recommender Systems for Technology-Enhanced Learning: Challenges and Possible Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandy, Heleau; Drachsler, Hendrik; Gillet, Dennis


    Heleou, S., Drachsler, H., & Gillet, D. (2009). Evaluation of Recommender Systems for Technology-Enhanced Learning: Challenges and Possible Solutions. 1st workshop on Context-aware Recommender Systems for Learning at the Alpine Rendez-Vous. November, 30-December, 3, 2009, Garmisch-Patenkirchen,

  20. How Recommender Systems in Technology-Enhanced Learning depend on Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Manouselis, Nikos


    Drachsler, H., & Manouselis, N. (2009). How Recommender Systems in Technology-Enhanced Learning depend on Context. Presentation given at the 1st workshop on Context-aware Recommender Systems for Learning at the Alpine Rendez-Vous 2009. November, 30 - December, 3, 2009, Garmisch-Patenkirchen,

  1. Software Enhancement of SKN 3 and 4 Tagout Management System for MCR operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sungjin; Seong, Nokyu; Jung Yeonsub [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    One of the human performance tools for preventing human errors is tagging and operational barrier. Tagging is useful for checking correct equipment status during and after maintenance and test activities. A tag is systematically generated by related workflow procedure and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) in most nuclear power plant of KHNP. With the introduction of Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400) Man-Machine Interface System (MMIS), Main Control Room (MCR) operators' tagging is performed in specific software application such as 'Tagging Administration'. This paper suggests enhanced user interface and work flow of the tagout management system. Enhanced TMS for SKN 3 and 4 can be useful tools for operators' tagging activity. More end-users needs can be founded until the completion of enhancement. Enhanced TMS is independently working with IPS so that it can be applied into other nuclear power plant which is constructing or operating.

  2. Power system security enhancement with unified power flow controller under multi-event contingency conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ravindra


    Full Text Available Power system security analysis plays key role in enhancing the system security and to avoid the system collapse condition. In this paper, a novel severity function is formulated using transmission line loadings and bus voltage magnitude deviations. The proposed severity function and generation fuel cost objectives are analyzed under transmission line(s and/or generator(s contingency conditions. The system security under contingency conditions is analyzed using optimal power flow problem. An improved teaching learning based optimization (ITLBO algorithm has been presented. To enhance the system security under contingency conditions in the presence of unified power flow controller (UPFC, it is necessary to identify an optimal location to install this device. Voltage source based power injection model of UPFC, incorporation procedure and optimal location identification strategy based on line overload sensitivity indexes are proposed. The entire proposed methodology is tested on standard IEEE-30 bus test system with supporting numerical and graphical results.

  3. Phase behavior and oil recovery investigations using mixed and alkaline-enhanced surfactant systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llave, F.M.; Gall, B.L.; French, T.R.; Noll, L.A.; Munden, S.A.


    The results of an evaluation of different mixed surfactant and alkaline-enhanced surfactant systems for enhanced oil recovery are described. Several mixed surfactant systems have been studies to evaluate their oil recovery potential as well as improved adaptability to different ranges of salinity, divalent ion concentrations, and temperature. Several combinations of screening methods were used to help identify potential chemical formulations and determine conditions where particular chemical systems can be applied. The effects of different parameters on the behavior of the overall surfactant system were also studied. Several commercially available surfactants were tested as primary components in the mixtures used in the study. These surfactants were formulated with different secondary as well as tertiary components, including ethoxylated and non-ethoxylated sulfonates and sulfates. Improved salinity and hardness tolerance was achieved for some of these chemical systems. The salinity tolerance of these systems were found to be dependent on the molecular weight, surfactant type, and concentration of the surfactant components.

  4. Heat Recovery from Multiple-Fracture Enhanced Geothermal Systems: The Effect of Thermoelastic Fracture Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vik, Hedda Slatlem; Salimzadeh, Saeed; Nick, Hamid


    This study investigates the effect of thermoelastic interactions between multiple parallel fractures on energy production from a multiple-fracture enhanced geothermal system. A coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical finite element model has been developed that accounts for non-isothermal fluid flow within...... increased to maximise the net energy production from the system. Otherwise, the multiple-fracture system fails to improve the energy recovery from the geothermal reservoir, as initially intended....

  5. A novel security information and event management system for enhancing cyber security in a hydroelectric dam.


    Matteucci, Ilaria; Di Sarno, Cesario; Garofalo, Alessia; Vallini, Marco


    Security information and event management (SIEM) systems are increasingly used to cope with the security challenges involved in critical infrastructure protection. However, these systems have several limitations. This paper describes an enhanced security information and event management system that (i) resolves conflicts between security policies; (ii) discovers unauthorized network data paths and appropriately reconfigures network devices; and (iii) provides an intrusion- and fault-tolerant ...

  6. Prospect Theory for Enhanced Cyber-Physical Security of Drone Delivery Systems: A Network Interdiction Game


    Sanjab, Anibal; Saad, Walid; Başar, Tamer


    The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as delivery systems of online goods is rapidly becoming a global norm, as corroborated by Amazon's "Prime Air" and Google's "Project Wing" projects. However, the real-world deployment of such drone delivery systems faces many cyber-physical security challenges. In this paper, a novel mathematical framework for analyzing and enhancing the security of drone delivery systems is introduced. In this regard, a zero-sum network interdiction game is formulat...

  7. Biological optimization systems for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency and methods of use (United States)

    Hunt, Ryan W.; Chinnasamy, Senthil; Das, Keshav C.; de Mattos, Erico Rolim


    Biological optimization systems for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency and methods of use. Specifically, methods for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency including applying pulsed light to a photosynthetic organism, using a chlorophyll fluorescence feedback control system to determine one or more photosynthetic efficiency parameters, and adjusting one or more of the photosynthetic efficiency parameters to drive the photosynthesis by the delivery of an amount of light to optimize light absorption of the photosynthetic organism while providing enough dark time between light pulses to prevent oversaturation of the chlorophyll reaction centers are disclosed.

  8. Early experiences of endoscopic procedures in general surgery assisted by a computer-enhanced surgical system. (United States)

    Hashizume, M; Shimada, M; Tomikawa, M; Ikeda, Y; Takahashi, I; Abe, R; Koga, F; Gotoh, N; Konishi, K; Maehara, S; Sugimachi, K


    We performed a variety of complete total endoscopic general surgical procedures, including colon resection, distal gastrectomy, and splenectomy, successfully with the assistance of the da Vinci computer-enhanced surgical system. The robotic system allowed us to manipulate the endoscopic instruments as effectively as during open surgery. It enhanced visualization of both the operative field and precision of the necessary techniques, as well as being less stressful for the endoscopic operating team. This technological innovation can therefore help surgeons overcome many of the difficulties associated with the endoscopic approach and thus has the potential to enable more precise, safer, and more minimally invasive surgery in the future.

  9. Trustworthy reconfigurable systems enhancing the security capabilities of reconfigurable hardware architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Feller, Thomas


    ?Thomas Feller sheds some light on trust anchor architectures fortrustworthy reconfigurable systems. He is presenting novel concepts enhancing the security capabilities of reconfigurable hardware.Almost invisible to the user, many computer systems are embedded into everyday artifacts, such as cars, ATMs, and pacemakers. The significant growth of this market segment within the recent years enforced a rethinking with respect to the security properties and the trustworthiness of these systems. The trustworthiness of a system in general equates to the integrity of its system components. Hardware-b

  10. Reduced-Complexity Radio Architectures for Enhanced Receive Selection Combining in Multiuser Diversity Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elpiniki P. Tsakalaki


    Full Text Available Although antenna selection is a simple and efficient technique for enhancing the downlink performance of multiuser diversity systems, the large antenna interelement spacing required for achieving spatial diversity is prohibitive for user terminals due to size restrictions. In order to allay this problem, we propose miniaturized switched beam receiver designs assisted by low-cost passive reflectors. Unlike conventional spatial receive diversity systems, the proposed angular diversity architectures occupy a small volume whereas the antenna system properties are optimized by controlling the strong reactive fields present at small dimensions. The systems are designed for maximum antenna efficiency and low interbeam correlation, thus yielding N practically uncorrelated receive diversity branches. The simulation results show that the proposed enhanced diversity combining systems improve the average throughput of a multiuser network outperforming classical antenna selection especially for small user populations and compact user terminal size.

  11. Reduced-complexity radio architectures for enhanced receive selection combining in multiuser diversity systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakalaki, Elpiniki; Alrabadi, Osama; Papadias, Constantinos B.


    Although antenna selection is a simple and efficient technique for enhancing the downlink performance of multiuser diversity systems, the large antenna interelement spacing required for achieving spatial diversity is prohibitive for user terminals due to size restrictions. In order to allay...... this problem, we propose miniaturized switched beam receiver designs assisted by low-cost passive reflectors. Unlike conventional spatial receive diversity systems, the proposed angular diversity architectures occupy a small volume whereas the antenna system properties are optimized by controlling the strong...... reactive fields present at small dimensions. The systems are designed for maximum antenna efficiency and low interbeam correlation, thus yielding N practically uncorrelated receive diversity branches. The simulation results show that the proposed enhanced diversity combining systems improve the average...

  12. Underestimated effects of sediments on enhanced startup performance of biofilm systems for polluted source water pretreatment. (United States)

    Lv, Zheng-Hui; Wang, Jing; Yang, Guang-Feng; Feng, Li-Juan; Mu, Jun; Zhu, Liang; Xu, Xiang-Yang


    In order to evaluate the enhancement mechanisms of enhanced startup performance in biofilm systems for polluted source water pretreatment, three lab-scale reactors with elastic stereo media (ESM) were operated under different enhanced sediment and hydraulic agitation conditions. It is interesting to found the previously underestimated or overlooked effects of sediment on the enhancement of pollutants removal performance and enrichment of functional bacteria in biofilm systems. The maximum NH 4 + -N removal rate of 0.35 mg L -1 h -1 in sediment enhanced condition was 2.19 times of that in control reactor. Sediment contributed to 42.0-56.5% of NH 4 + -N removal and 15.4-41.2% of total nitrogen removal in different reactors under different operation conditions. The enhanced hydraulic agitation with sediment further improved the operation performance and accumulation of functional bacteria. Generally, Proteobacteria (48.9-52.1%), Bacteroidetes (18.9-20.8%) and Actinobacteria (15.7-18.5%) were dominant in both sediment and ESM bioiflm at  phylum level. The potentially functional bacteria found in sediment and ESM biofilm samples with some functional bacteria mainly presented in sediment samples only (e.g., Genera Bacillus and Lactococcus of Firmicutes phylum) may commonly contribute to the removal of nitrogen and organics.

  13. Development of Gas Turbine Output Enhancement System Using Thermal Ice Storage (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byun Youn; Joo, Yong Jin; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Jae Bong; Kang, Myung Soo [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Soon [Korea Electric Power Corp. (Korea, Republic of)


    The objective of this study is to develop a system which enhances gas turbine output using ice storage in summer peak days for power supply stability in domestic power system. This study represents conceptual design, system optimization, basic design and economic analysis of system. General equations which represents capacity of chiller and storage tank were drive. Pyungtaek power plant was selected as one suitable for system application due to its space availability. The system was optimized on the basis of economic analysis and power supply situation by determination of optimal inlet cooling hour. TRNSYS simulation program was used for optimal operating factor of ice harvester under partial load operating conditions. Basic design includes capacity calculation of component, cost survey, system flow diagram, plot plan, and system guide. The system has been evaluated on the basis of economic analysis which calculates NPV, payback period and levelized generation cost. (author). 34 refs., figs., tabs.

  14. [Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy trace gas detection system based on the Fabry-Perot demodulation]. (United States)

    Lin, Cheng; Zhu, Yong; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Tian, Li; Xu, Zu-Wen


    An all-optical quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy system, based on the F-P demodulation, for trace gas detection in the open environment was proposed. In quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS), an optical fiber Fabry-Perot method was used to replace the conventional electronic demodulation method. The photoacoustic signal was obtained by demodulating the variation of the Fabry-Perot cavity between the quartz tuning fork side and the fiber face. An experimental system was setup. The experiment for detection of water vapour in the open environment was carried on. A normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient of 2.80 x 10(-7) cm(-1) x W x Hz(-1/2) was achieved. The result demonstrated that the sensitivity of the all-optical quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy system is about 2.6 times higher than that of the conventional QEPAS system. The all-optical quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy system is immune to electromagnetic interference, safe in flammable and explosive gas detection, suitable for high temperature and high humidity environments and realizable for long distance, multi-point and network sensing.

  15. A Novel RFID Sensing System Using Enhanced Surface Wave Technology for Battery Exchange Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-Lin Lai


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel radio-frequency identification (RFID sensing system using enhanced surface wave technology for battery exchange stations (BESs of electric motorcycles. Ultrahigh-frequency (UHF RFID technology is utilized to automatically track and manage battery and user information without manual operation. The system includes readers, enhanced surface wave leaky cable antennas (ESWLCAs, coupling cable lines (CCLs, and small radiation patches (SRPs. The RFID sensing system overcomes the electromagnetic interference in the metallic environment of a BES cabinet. The developed RFID sensing system can effectively increase the efficiency of BES operation and promote the development of electric vehicles which solve the problem of air pollution as well as protect the environment of the Earth.

  16. Numerical modeling of injection, stress and permeability enhancement during shear stimulation at the Desert Peak Enhanced Geothermal System (United States)

    Dempsey, David; Kelkar, Sharad; Davatzes, Nick; Hickman, Stephen H.; Moos, Daniel


    Creation of an Enhanced Geothermal System relies on stimulation of fracture permeability through self-propping shear failure that creates a complex fracture network with high surface area for efficient heat transfer. In 2010, shear stimulation was carried out in well 27-15 at Desert Peak geothermal field, Nevada, by injecting cold water at pressure less than the minimum principal stress. An order-of-magnitude improvement in well injectivity was recorded. Here, we describe a numerical model that accounts for injection-induced stress changes and permeability enhancement during this stimulation. In a two-part study, we use the coupled thermo-hydrological-mechanical simulator FEHM to: (i) construct a wellbore model for non-steady bottom-hole temperature and pressure conditions during the injection, and (ii) apply these pressures and temperatures as a source term in a numerical model of the stimulation. In this model, a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion and empirical fracture permeability is developed to describe permeability evolution of the fractured rock. The numerical model is calibrated using laboratory measurements of material properties on representative core samples and wellhead records of injection pressure and mass flow during the shear stimulation. The model captures both the absence of stimulation at low wellhead pressure (WHP ≤1.7 and ≤2.4 MPa) as well as the timing and magnitude of injectivity rise at medium WHP (3.1 MPa). Results indicate that thermoelastic effects near the wellbore and the associated non-local stresses further from the well combine to propagate a failure front away from the injection well. Elevated WHP promotes failure, increases the injection rate, and cools the wellbore; however, as the overpressure drops off with distance, thermal and non-local stresses play an ongoing role in promoting shear failure at increasing distance from the well.

  17. Final Report for Enhancing the MPI Programming Model for PetaScale Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gropp, William Douglas [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign


    This project performed research into enhancing the MPI programming model in two ways: developing improved algorithms and implementation strategies, tested and realized in the MPICH implementation, and exploring extensions to the MPI standard to better support PetaScale and ExaScale systems.

  18. Enhancing resilience of farmer seed system to climate-induced stresses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kansiime, Monica K.; Mastenbroek, Astrid


    Given the challenges facing African agriculture resulting from climate-induced stresses, building resilience is a priority. Seed systems are important for enhancing such resilience as seed security has direct links to food security, and resilient livelihoods in general. Using data from a case

  19. Image enhancement on the INVIS integrated night vision surveillance and observation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, J.; Schutte, K.; Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.


    We present the design and first field trial results of the INVIS integrated night vision surveillance and observation system, in particular for the image enhancement techniques implemented. The INVIS is an all-day-andnight all-weather navigation and surveillance tool, combining three-band cameras.

  20. Evaluation of a reverberation enhancement system installed in a small multi purpose hall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Anders Christian


    After design and installation of a reverberation enhancement system in new 400 seat multi purpose hall in Vejle, Denmark. room acoustic measurements and listening tests were performed in order to reveal the objective and subjective performance and limits of such a powerful tool for altering ''roo...

  1. 45 CFR 1355.55 - Review and assessment of the system developed with enhanced funds. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review and assessment of the system developed with enhanced funds. 1355.55 Section 1355.55 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued... CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY...

  2. Enhancing Lifelong Competence Development and Management Systems with Social Network-based Concepts and Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheak, Alicia; Angehrn, Albert; Sloep, Peter


    This paper addresses the challenge of enhancing the social dimension of lifelong Competence Development and Management Systems with social network-based concepts and tools. Our premise is that through a combination of social network visualization tools, simulations, stimulus agents and management

  3. Theoretical investigation on the magnetization enhancement of Fe3O4-reduced graphene oxide nanoparticle system (United States)

    Majidi, M. A.; Wicaksono, Y.; Fauzi, A. D.; Taufik, A.; Saleh, R.; Rusydi, A.


    We present a theoretical study on the enhancement of magnetization of Fe3O4 nanoparticle system upon addition of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). Experimental data have shown that the magnetization of Fe3O4-rGO nanoparticle system increases with increasing rGO content up to about 5 wt%, but decreases back as the rGO content increases further. We propose that the enhancement is due to spin-flipping of Fe ions at the tetrahedral sites assisted by oxygen vacancies at the Fe3O4 particle boundaries. These oxygen vacancies are induced by the presence of rGO flakes that adsorb oxygen atoms from Fe3O4 particles around them. To understand the enhancement of the magnetization, we construct a tight-binding based model Hamiltonian for the Fe3O4 nanoparticle system with the concentration of oxygen vacancies being controlled by the rGO content. We calculate the magnetization as a function of the applied magnetic field for various values of rGO wt%. We use the method of dynamical mean-field theory and perform the calculations for a room temperature. Our result for rGO wt% dependence of the saturated magnetization shows a very good agreement with the existing experimental data of the Fe3O4-rGO nanoparticle system. This result may confirm that our model already carries the most essential idea needed to explain the above phenomenon of magnetization enhancement.

  4. Stakeholder Attitudes Toward and Values Embedded in a Sensor-Enhanced Personal Emergency Response System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Yngve; Farshchian, Babak; Vilarinho, Thomas


    This paper provides an empirical understanding of concerns that the application of a sensor-enhanced medical alert system, or personal emergency response (PER) system, raises from the perspective of care receivers (users) and care providers. Data were gathered in the context of a field trial...... of a PER system supporting both user-initiated alerts and automatic fall detection alerts. The system was tested at two residential care facilities for 3 weeks. Drawing on data primarily from post-trial group and pair interviews, we describe and compare care receivers' and providers' views on the following...

  5. A Collaborative Location Based Travel Recommendation System through Enhanced Rating Prediction for the Group of Users. (United States)

    Ravi, Logesh; Vairavasundaram, Subramaniyaswamy


    Rapid growth of web and its applications has created a colossal importance for recommender systems. Being applied in various domains, recommender systems were designed to generate suggestions such as items or services based on user interests. Basically, recommender systems experience many issues which reflects dwindled effectiveness. Integrating powerful data management techniques to recommender systems can address such issues and the recommendations quality can be increased significantly. Recent research on recommender systems reveals an idea of utilizing social network data to enhance traditional recommender system with better prediction and improved accuracy. This paper expresses views on social network data based recommender systems by considering usage of various recommendation algorithms, functionalities of systems, different types of interfaces, filtering techniques, and artificial intelligence techniques. After examining the depths of objectives, methodologies, and data sources of the existing models, the paper helps anyone interested in the development of travel recommendation systems and facilitates future research direction. We have also proposed a location recommendation system based on social pertinent trust walker (SPTW) and compared the results with the existing baseline random walk models. Later, we have enhanced the SPTW model for group of users recommendations. The results obtained from the experiments have been presented.

  6. A Collaborative Location Based Travel Recommendation System through Enhanced Rating Prediction for the Group of Users (United States)

    Ravi, Logesh; Vairavasundaram, Subramaniyaswamy


    Rapid growth of web and its applications has created a colossal importance for recommender systems. Being applied in various domains, recommender systems were designed to generate suggestions such as items or services based on user interests. Basically, recommender systems experience many issues which reflects dwindled effectiveness. Integrating powerful data management techniques to recommender systems can address such issues and the recommendations quality can be increased significantly. Recent research on recommender systems reveals an idea of utilizing social network data to enhance traditional recommender system with better prediction and improved accuracy. This paper expresses views on social network data based recommender systems by considering usage of various recommendation algorithms, functionalities of systems, different types of interfaces, filtering techniques, and artificial intelligence techniques. After examining the depths of objectives, methodologies, and data sources of the existing models, the paper helps anyone interested in the development of travel recommendation systems and facilitates future research direction. We have also proposed a location recommendation system based on social pertinent trust walker (SPTW) and compared the results with the existing baseline random walk models. Later, we have enhanced the SPTW model for group of users recommendations. The results obtained from the experiments have been presented. PMID:27069468

  7. A Collaborative Location Based Travel Recommendation System through Enhanced Rating Prediction for the Group of Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logesh Ravi


    Full Text Available Rapid growth of web and its applications has created a colossal importance for recommender systems. Being applied in various domains, recommender systems were designed to generate suggestions such as items or services based on user interests. Basically, recommender systems experience many issues which reflects dwindled effectiveness. Integrating powerful data management techniques to recommender systems can address such issues and the recommendations quality can be increased significantly. Recent research on recommender systems reveals an idea of utilizing social network data to enhance traditional recommender system with better prediction and improved accuracy. This paper expresses views on social network data based recommender systems by considering usage of various recommendation algorithms, functionalities of systems, different types of interfaces, filtering techniques, and artificial intelligence techniques. After examining the depths of objectives, methodologies, and data sources of the existing models, the paper helps anyone interested in the development of travel recommendation systems and facilitates future research direction. We have also proposed a location recommendation system based on social pertinent trust walker (SPTW and compared the results with the existing baseline random walk models. Later, we have enhanced the SPTW model for group of users recommendations. The results obtained from the experiments have been presented.

  8. Integration of Bass Enhancement and Active Noise Control System in Automobile Cabin


    Wang, Liang; Gan, Woon Seng; Kuo, Sen M.


    With the advancement of digital signal processing technologies, consumers are more concerned with the quality of multimedia entertainment in automobiles. In order to meet this demand, an audio enhancement system is needed to improve bass reproduction and cancel engine noise in the cabins. This paper presents an integrated active noise control system that is based on frequency-sampling filters to track and extract the bass information from the audio signal, and a multifrequency active noise eq...

  9. Distributed Multi-Agent-Based Protection Scheme for Transient Stability Enhancement in Power Systems (United States)

    Rahman, M. S.; Mahmud, M. A.; Pota, H. R.; Hossain, M. J.; Orchi, T. F.


    This paper presents a new distributed agent-based scheme to enhance the transient stability of power systems by maintaining phase angle cohesiveness of interconnected generators through proper relay coordination with critical clearing time (CCT) information. In this distributed multi-agent infrastructure, intelligent agents represent various physical device models to provide dynamic information and energy flow among different physical processes of power systems. The agents can communicate with each other in a distributed manner with a final aim to control circuit breakers (CBs) with CCT information as this is the key issue for maintaining and enhancing the transient stability of power systems. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated on a standard IEEE 39-bus New England benchmark system under different large disturbances such as three-phase short-circuit faults and changes in loads within the systems. From the simulation results, it is found that the proposed scheme significantly enhances the transient stability of power systems as compared to a conventional scheme of static CB operation.

  10. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) R&D Program: Monitoring EGS-Related Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLarty, Lynn; Entingh, Daniel; Carwile, Clifton


    This report reviews technologies that could be applicable to Enhanced Geothermal Systems development. EGS covers the spectrum of geothermal resources from hydrothermal to hot dry rock. We monitored recent and ongoing research, as reported in the technical literature, that would be useful in expanding current and future geothermal fields. The literature review was supplemented by input obtained through contacts with researchers throughout the United States. Technologies are emerging that have exceptional promise for finding fractures in nonhomogeneous rock, especially during and after episodes of stimulation to enhance natural permeability.

  11. Enhancement of conductance fluctuations in a mesoscopic system of strong scatterers (United States)

    Marinyuk, V. V.; Rogozkin, D. B.


    We study how the conductance fluctuations change in a disordered ensemble of strongly scattering (non-Born) centers. Diagrammatic calculations of the conductance variance are carried out beyond the standard Born definition for the Hikami vertex. For a system of strong pointlike scatterers, the enhancement of the conductance fluctuations is found in the crossover between ballistic and diffusive regimes. The incoherent contribution arising from random spatial variations in the scatterer concentration is primarily responsible for the enhancement of fluctuations. In the limit of resonant scatterers, the coherent contribution to the conductance variance also peaks in the crossover regime and its maximum exceeds the UCF value.



    Fadhilah Ahmad; M Yazid M Saman; Fatma Susilawati Mohamad; Zarina Mohamad; Wan Suryani Wan Awang


    Application of model base in group decision making that makes up a Group Decision Support System (GDSS) is of paramount importance. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is the multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) that has been applied in GDSS. In order to be effectively used in GDSS, AHP needs to be customized so that it is more user friendly with ease of used features. In this paper, we propose an enhanced AHP model for GDSS tendering. The enhanced AHP method used is the Guided Ranked AHP (GRAH...

  13. Transient NOE enhancement in solid-state MAS NMR of mobile systems. (United States)

    Cui, Jiangyu; Li, Jun; Peng, Xinhua; Fu, Riqiang


    It has been known that the heteronuclear cross-relaxation affects the dilute S spin magnetization along the longitudinal direction, causing an overshoot phenomenon for those mobile systems in spin-lattice relaxation rate measurements. Here, we analyze the Solomon equations for an I-S system and derive the transient cross relaxation effect as to when an overshoot phenomenon would take place and what the maximum enhancement could be at the time of the overshoot. In order to utilize such a transient nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE), we first time apply it to dynamic solid samples by inverting the (1)H magnetization prior to the excitation of the S spin. It is found that the overshoot depends on the ratio of the I and S spin-lattice relaxation rates, i.e. RSS/RII. When RSS/RII≫1, the maximum enhancement factor for transient NOE could be larger than that obtained in steady-state NOE experiments. Furthermore, transient NOE appears to be more efficient in terms of sensitivity enhancement of dilute spins in solid-state NMR of mobile systems than the traditional cross polarization scheme whose efficiency is greatly compromised by molecular mobility. A sample of natural abundance l-isoleucine amino acid, in which the spin-lattice relaxation rates for the four methyl carbons are different, has been used to demonstrate sensitivity enhancement factors under various experimental schemes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. In situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroelectrochemical analysis system with a hemin modified nanostructured gold surface. (United States)

    Yuan, Tao; Le Thi Ngoc, Loan; van Nieuwkasteele, Jan; Odijk, Mathieu; van den Berg, Albert; Permentier, Hjalmar; Bischoff, Rainer; Carlen, Edwin T


    An integrated surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroelectrochemical (SEC) analysis system is presented that combines a small volume microfluidic sample chamber (Raman spectroelectrochemistry. The SEC system includes a nanostructured Au surface that serves dual roles as the electrochemical working electrode (WE) and SERS substrate, a microfabricated Pt counter electrode (CE), and an external Ag/AgCl reference electrode (RE). The nanostructured Au WE enables highly sensitive in situ SERS spectroscopy through large and reproducible SERS enhancements, which eliminates the need for resonant wavelength matching of the laser excitation source with the electronic absorption of the target molecule. The new SEC analysis system has the merits of wide applicability to target molecules, small sample volume, and a low detection limit. We demonstrate in situ SERS spectroelectrochemistry measurements of the metalloporphyrin hemin showing shifts of the iron oxidation marker band ν4 with the nanostructured Au working electrode under precise potential control.

  15. Security enhanced optical encryption system by random phase key and permutation key. (United States)

    He, Mingzhao; Tan, Qiaofeng; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan


    Conventional double random phase encoding (DRPE) encrypts plaintext to white noise-like ciphertext which may attract attention of eavesdroppers, and recent research reported that DRPE is vulnerable to various attacks. Here we propose a security enhanced optical encryption system that can hide the existence of secret information by watermarking. The plaintext is encrypted using iterative fractional Fourier transform with random phase key, and ciphertext is randomly permuted with permutation key before watermarking. Cryptanalysis shows that linearity of the security system has been broken and the permutation key prevent the attacker from accessing the ciphertext in various attacks. A series of simulations have shown the effectiveness of this system and the security strength is enhanced for invisibility, nonlinearity and resistance against attacks.

  16. Applied information system-based in enhancing students' understanding towards higher order thinking (HOTS) (United States)

    Hua, Ang Kean; Ping, Owi Wei


    The application of information and communications technology (ICT) had become more important in our daily life, especially in educational field. Teachers are encouraged to use information system-based in teaching Mathematical courses. Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) approach is unable to explain using chalk and talk methods. It needs students to analyze, evaluate, and create by their own natural abilities. The aim of this research study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the application information system-based in enhance the students understanding about HOTS question. Mixed-methods or quantitative and qualitative approach was applied in collecting data, which involve only the standard five students and the teachers in Sabak Bernam, Selangor. Pra-postests was held before and after using information system-based in teaching to evaluate the students' understanding. The result from post-test indicates significant improvement which proves that the use of information system based able to enhance students' understanding about HOTS question and solve it. There were several factor influenced the students such as students' attitude, teachers attraction, school facilities, and computer approach. Teachers play an important role in attracting students to learn. Therefore, the school should provide a conducive learning environment and good facilities for students to learn so that they are able to access more information and always exposed to new knowledge. As conclusion, information system-based are able to enhance students understanding the need of HOTS questions and solve it.

  17. Wearable sensors in healthcare and sensor-enhanced health information systems: all our tomorrows? (United States)

    Marschollek, Michael; Gietzelt, Matthias; Schulze, Mareike; Kohlmann, Martin; Song, Bianying; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik


    Wearable sensor systems which allow for remote or self-monitoring of health-related parameters are regarded as one means to alleviate the consequences of demographic change. This paper aims to summarize current research in wearable sensors as well as in sensor-enhanced health information systems. Wearable sensor technologies are already advanced in terms of their technical capabilities and are frequently used for cardio-vascular monitoring. Epidemiologic predictions suggest that neuropsychiatric diseases will have a growing impact on our health systems and thus should be addressed more intensively. Two current project examples demonstrate the benefit of wearable sensor technologies: long-term, objective measurement under daily-life, unsupervised conditions. Finally, up-to-date approaches for the implementation of sensor-enhanced health information systems are outlined. Wearable sensors are an integral part of future pervasive, ubiquitous and person-centered health care delivery. Future challenges include their integration into sensor-enhanced health information systems and sound evaluation studies involving measures of workload reduction and costs.

  18. [Review on the main microorganisms and their metabolic mechanisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems]. (United States)

    Sun, Xue; Zhu, Wei-Jing; Wang, Liang; Wu, Wei-Xiang


    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process is applied widely for removing phosphorus from wastewater. Studies on functional microorganisms and their metabolic mechanisms are fundamental to effective regulation for stable operation and performance improvement of EBPR process. Two main types of microorganisms in EBPR systems, polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) were selected to summarize their metabolic mechanisms such as substrate uptake mechanisms, glycogen degradation pathways, extent of TCA cycle involvement and metabolic similarity between PAOs and GAOs. Application of molecular biology techniques in microbiology and metabolic mechanisms involved in the EBPR system was evaluated. Potential future research areas for the EBPR system and process optimization were also proposed.

  19. Available transfer capability evaluation and enhancement using various FACTS controllers: Special focus on system security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkateswara Rao


    Full Text Available Nowadays, because of the deregulation of the power industry the continuous increase of the load increases the necessity of calculation of available transfer capability (ATC of a system to analyze the system security. With this calculation, the scheduling of generator can be decided to decrease the system severity. Further, constructing new transmission lines, new substations are very cost effective to meet the increasing load and to increase the transfer capability. Hence, an alternative way to increase the transfer capability is use of flexible ac transmission system (FACTS controllers. In this paper, SSSC, STACOM and UPFC are considered to show the effect of these controllers in enhancing system ATC. For this, a novel current based modeling and optimal location strategy of these controllers are presented. The proposed methodology is tested on standard IEEE-30 bus and IEEE-57 bus test systems with supporting numerical and graphical results.

  20. Stability Enhancement of a Power System Containing High-Penetration Intermittent Renewable Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Morel


    Full Text Available This paper considers the transient stability enhancement of a power system containing large amounts of solar and wind generation in Japan. Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster there has been an increasing awareness on the importance of a distributed architecture, based mainly on renewable generation, for the Japanese power system. Also, the targets of CO2 emissions can now be approached without heavily depending on nuclear generation. Large amounts of renewable generation leads to a reduction in the total inertia of the system because renewable generators are connected to the grid by power converters, and transient stability becomes a significant issue. Simulation results show that sodium-sulfur batteries can keep the system in operation and stable after strong transient disturbances, especially for an isolated system. The results also show how the reduction of the inertia in the system can be mitigated by exploiting the kinetic energy of wind turbines.

  1. Enhancement of spatial resolution of terahertz imaging systems based on terajet generation by dielectric cube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Huy Nguyen Pham


    Full Text Available The terahertz (THz, 0.1–10 THz region has been attracting tremendous research interest owing to its potential in practical applications such as biomedical, material inspection, and nondestructive imaging. Those applications require enhancing the spatial resolution at a specific frequency of interest. A variety of resolution-enhancement techniques have been proposed, such as near-field scanning probes, surface plasmons, and aspheric lenses. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that a mesoscale dielectric cube can be exploited as a novel resolution enhancer by simply placing it at the focused imaging point of a continuous wave THz imaging system. The operating principle of this enhancer is based on the generation—by the dielectric cuboid—of the so-called terajet, a photonic jet in the THz region. A subwavelength hotspot is obtained by placing a Teflon cube, with a 1.46 refractive index, at the imaging point of the imaging system, regardless of the numerical aperture (NA. The generated terajet at 125 GHz is experimentally characterized, using our unique THz-wave visualization system. The full width at half maximum (FWHM of the hotspot obtained by placing the enhancer at the focal point of a mirror with a measured NA of 0.55 is approximately 0.55λ, which is even better than the FWHM obtained by a conventional focusing device with the ideal maximum numerical aperture (NA = 1 in air. Nondestructive subwavelength-resolution imaging demonstrations of a Suica integrated circuit card, which is used as a common fare card for trains in Japan, and an aluminum plate with 0.63λ trenches are presented. The amplitude and phase images obtained with the enhancer at 125 GHz can clearly resolve both the air-trenches on the aluminum plate and the card’s inner electronic circuitry, whereas the images obtained without the enhancer are blurred because of insufficient resolution. An increase of the image contrast by a factor of 4.4 was also obtained using

  2. Assessment of a Conceptual Flap System Intended for Enhanced General Aviation Safety (United States)

    Campbell, Bryan A.; Carter, Melissa B.


    A novel multielement trailing-edge flap system for light general aviation airplanes was conceived for enhanced safety during normal and emergency landings. The system is designed to significantly reduce stall speed, and thus approach speed, with the goal of reducing maneuveringflight accidents and enhancing pilot survivability in the event of an accident. The research objectives were to assess the aerodynamic performance characteristics of the system and to evaluate the extent to which it provided both increased lift and increased drag required for the low-speed landing goal. The flap system was applied to a model of a light general aviation, high-wing trainer and tested in the Langley 12- Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. Data were obtained for several device deflection angles, and component combinations at a dynamic pressure of 4 pounds per square foot. The force and moment data supports the achievement of the desired increase in lift with substantially increased drag, all at relatively shallow angles of attack. The levels of lift and drag can be varied through device deflection angles and inboard/outboard differential deflections. As such, it appears that this flap system may provide an enabling technology to allow steep, controllable glide slopes for safe rapid descent to landing with reduced stall speed. However, a simple flat-plate lower surface spoiler (LSS) provided either similar or superior lift with little impact on pitch or drag as compared to the proposed system. Higher-fidelity studies are suggested prior to use of the proposed system.

  3. Innovative design tool for the optimization of blast-enhanced facade systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Lori


    Full Text Available In current blast enhancement design strategies, to resist the effects of an accidental explosion, a facade system is commonly designed to behave in-elastically and undergo large deformations. The large deformation of the facade system leads to high blast energy dissipation, subsequently reducing the blast energy transferred to the main structure. In addition to the blast resistance of the facade system, human injuries due to glass fragmentation within the vicinity of the facade system should also be minimized in order to meet the required safety levels. Overall building safety can be optimized by balancing blast energy dissipation and glass fragmentation. Recently, Permasteelisa Group has developed an innovative design tool to optimize blast-enhanced facades using an equivalent MDOF approach. A novel fragmentation tool has been proposed to assist this design procedure. This paper presents various critical parameters considered in blast-enhanced facade analysis, the experimental validation of these parameters and their influence in the design optimization process.  

  4. Optimal Forgery and Suppression of Ratings for Privacy Enhancement in Recommendation Systems (United States)

    Parra-Arnau, Javier; Rebollo-Monedero, David; Forné, Jordi


    Recommendation systems are information-filtering systems that tailor information to users on the basis of knowledge about their preferences. The ability of these systems to profile users is what enables such intelligent functionality, but at the same time, it is the source of serious privacy concerns. In this paper we investigate a privacy-enhancing technology that aims at hindering an attacker in its efforts to accurately profile users based on the items they rate. Our approach capitalizes on the combination of two perturbative mechanisms---the forgery and the suppression of ratings. While this technique enhances user privacy to a certain extent, it inevitably comes at the cost of a loss in data utility, namely a degradation of the recommendation's accuracy. In short, it poses a trade-off between privacy and utility. The theoretical analysis of said trade-off is the object of this work. We measure privacy as the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the user's and the population's item distributions, and quantify utility as the proportion of ratings users consent to forge and eliminate. Equipped with these quantitative measures, we find a closed-form solution to the problem of optimal forgery and suppression of ratings, and characterize the trade-off among privacy, forgery rate and suppression rate. Experimental results on a popular recommendation system show how our approach may contribute to privacy enhancement.

  5. A Selection Method for Power Generation Plants Used for Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyong Hu


    Full Text Available As a promising and advanced technology, enhanced geothermal systems (EGS can be used to generate electricity using deep geothermal energy. In order to better utilize the EGS to produce electricity, power cycles’ selection maps are generated for people to choose the best system based on the geofluids’ temperature and dryness conditions. Optimizations on double-flash system (DF, flash-organic Rankine cycle system (FORC, and double-flash-organic Rankine cycle system (DFORC are carried out, and the single-flash (SF system is set as a reference system. The results indicate that each upgraded system (DF, FORC, and DFORC can produce more net power output compared with the SF system and can reach a maximum net power output under a given geofluid condition. For an organic Rankine cycle (ORC using R245fa as working fluid, the generated selection maps indicate that using the FORC system can produce more power than using other power cycles when the heat source temperature is below 170 °C. Either DF or DFORC systems could be an option if the heat source temperature is above 170 °C, but the DF system is more attractive under a relatively lower geofluid’s dryness and a higher temperature condition.

  6. Innovative Imagery System for Enhanced Habitability Onboard ISS: Desired Features and Possible Hardware Applications (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Baggerman, Susan; Byrne, Vicky


    With the advent of the ISS and the experience of Russian, European, and US crewmembers on Mir, the importance of the psychological element in long duration missions is increasingly recognized. An integrated imagery system or Magic Window System could enhance the habitability, performance, and productivity for long term stays in space. Because this is type of system is a new concept for space, functional and technical requirements need to be determined. As part of a three-year project, the functional and technical requirements for an Imagery System onboard the International Space Station (ISS) have been explored. Valuable information was gathered from a survey completed by participants that had been in analog environments (remote/isolated) such as Antarctica, Aquarius, ISS crewmember debriefs, and crew support meetings to identify key functions desired for an integrated Magic Window System. Exercise and medical care activities were identified as areas that could benefit from such a system. It was determined that for exercise, it was worth exploring the concept of displaying a dynamic screen that changes as the crewmember's speed changes while showing physiological measures in a combined display. In terms of enhancing the interfaces for medical care activities, the Magic Window System could show video clips along side procedures for just-in-time training scenarios through a heads-up display. In addition, the portability, usability, and reliability were stressed as important considerations for an integrated system of technologies or Magic Window System. In addition, a review of state-of-the-art screens and other existing technologies such as tablet PCs and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) was conducted and contributed to defining technical requirements and feasibility of systems. Some heuristic evaluations of large displays and PDAs were conducted. Finally, feasibility for implementation onboard ISS has been considered. Currently, specific headset units are

  7. Enhancing Patient Safety Event Reporting. A Systematic Review of System Design Features. (United States)

    Gong, Yang; Kang, Hong; Wu, Xinshuo; Hua, Lei


    Electronic patient safety event reporting (e-reporting) is an effective mechanism to learn from errors and enhance patient safety. Unfortunately, the value of e-reporting system (a software or web server based platform) in patient safety research is greatly overshadowed by low quality reporting. This paper aims at revealing the current status of system features, detecting potential gaps in system design, and accordingly proposing suggestions for future design and implementation of the system. Three literature databases were searched for publications that contain informative descriptions of e-reporting systems. In addition, both online publicly accessible reporting forms and systems were investigated. 48 systems were identified and reviewed. 11 system design features and their frequencies of occurrence (Top 5: widgets (41), anonymity or confidentiality (29), hierarchy (20), validator (17), review notification (15)) were identified and summarized into a system hierarchical model. The model indicated the current e-reporting systems are at an immature stage in their development, and discussed their future development direction toward efficient and effective systems to improve patient safety.

  8. A Novel Approach for Enhancing Lifelong Learning Systems by Using Hybrid Recommender System (United States)

    Kardan, Ahmad A.; Speily, Omid R. B.; Modaberi, Somayyeh


    The majority of current web-based learning systems are closed learning environments where courses and learning materials are fixed, and the only dynamic aspect is the organization of the material that can be adapted to allow a relatively individualized learning environment. In this paper, we propose an evolving web-based learning system which can…

  9. 7th International Conference in Methodologies and Intelligent Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Gennari, Rosella; Mascio, Tania; Rodríguez, Sara; Prieta, Fernando; Ramos, Carlos; Silveira, Ricardo


    This book presents the outcomes of the 7th International Conference in Methodologies and Intelligent Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning (MIS4TEL'17), hosted by the Polytechnic of Porto, Portugal from 21 to 23 June 2017. Expanding on the topics of the previous conferences, it provided an open forum for discussing intelligent systems for technology enhanced learning (TEL) and their roots in novel learning theories, empirical methodologies for their design or evaluation, stand-alone and web-based solutions, and makerspaces. It also fostered entrepreneurship and business startup ideas, bringing together researchers and developers from industry, education and the academic world to report on the latest scientific research, technical advances and methodologies.

  10. Optimal placement of FACTS controller scheme for enhancement of power system security in Indian scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Khan


    Full Text Available This paper presents a FACTS operation scheme to enhance the power system security. Three main generic types of FACTS devices are introduced. Line overloads are solved by controlling active power of series compensators and low voltages are solved by controlling reactive power of shunt compensators, respectively. Especially, the combined series-shunt compensators such as UPFC are applied to solve both line congestions and low voltages simultaneously. Two kinds of indices that indicate the security level related to line flow and bus voltage is utilized in this paper. They are iteratively minimized to determine operating points of the devices for security enhancement. The sensitivity vectors of the indices are derived to determine the direction of minimum. The proposed algorithm is verified on the IEEE 14-bus system with FACTS devices in a normal condition and in a line-faulted contingency.

  11. Nanoparticle-Enabled Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems for Enhanced Dose Control and Tissue Targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Palmer


    Full Text Available Transdermal drug delivery systems have been around for decades, and current technologies (e.g., patches, ointments, and creams enhance the skin permeation of low molecular weight, lipophilic drugs that are efficacious at low doses. The objective of current transdermal drug delivery research is to discover ways to enhance skin penetration of larger, hydrophilic drugs and macromolecules for disease treatment and vaccination. Nanocarriers made of lipids, metals, or polymers have been successfully used to increase penetration of drugs or vaccines, control drug release, and target drugs to specific areas of skin in vivo. While more research is needed to identify the safety of nanocarriers, this technology has the potential to expand the use of transdermal routes of administration to a wide array of therapeutics. Here, we review the current state of nanoparticle skin delivery systems with special emphasis on targeting skin diseases.

  12. Driver's drowsiness detection using an enhanced image processing technique inspired by the human visual system (United States)

    Kholerdi, Hedyeh A.; TaheriNejad, Nima; Ghaderi, Reza; Baleghi, Yaser


    Unfit drivers are the cause of tens of thousands of incidents on the roads which lead to injuries and deaths. Therefore, it is very important to take preventive measures against such incidents. One of the unfit driving conditions is driving while being drowsy. Using image processing techniques, drowsiness of the driver could be detected and hence such incidents could be prevented. In this work, inspired by how images are processed by the human visual system, an enhancement for driver's drowsiness detection is suggested. Furthermore, to improve the robustness of the drowsiness detection system, the mechanism for using energy levels in frames is changed. Lastly, a better decision making process is proposed. To measure the merit of the system, it is applied to a set of drivers' data. Test results show that using the proposed system, success rate of the drowsiness detection system is 90%.

  13. Enhancing Evacuation Plans with a Situation Awareness System Based on End-User Knowledge Provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Morales


    Full Text Available Recent disasters have shown that having clearly defined preventive procedures and decisions is a critical component that minimizes evacuation hazards and ensures a rapid and successful evolution of evacuation plans. In this context, we present our Situation-Aware System for enhancing Evacuation Plans (SASEP system, which allows creating end-user business rules that technically support the specific events, conditions and actions related to evacuation plans. An experimental validation was carried out where 32 people faced a simulated emergency situation, 16 of them using SASEP and the other 16 using a legacy system based on static signs. From the results obtained, we compare both techniques and discuss in which situations SASEP offers a better evacuation route option, confirming that it is highly valuable when there is a threat in the evacuation route. In addition, a study about user satisfaction using both systems is presented showing in which cases the systems are assessed as satisfactory, relevant and not frustrating.

  14. Performance enhancement of a heat pump system with ice storage subcooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, Ming-Jer [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nan-Kai University of Technology, No.568 Chung Cheng Road, Tsao Tun, Nan Tou, Taiwan 54243 (China); Kuo, Yu-Fu; Cheng, Chiao-Hung; Chen, Sih-Li [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, No.1, Sec.4 Roosevelt Road, Taipei, Taiwan 10617 (China); Shen, Chih-Chiu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, No.250, Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung, Taiwan 40227 (China)


    This article experimentally investigates the thermal performance of a heat pump system with an ice storage subcooler. The system supplies heating and cooling demands to two greenhouses with temperature ranging 308{proportional_to}323 K and 273{proportional_to}291 K respectively and utilizes an ice storage tank to subcool the condensed refrigerant, which can enhance the system coefficient of performance (COP). The ice storage tank charges for storing ice, when the cooling load is less than the nominal cooling capacity. While the cooling load is larger than the nominal cooling capacity, the ice storage tank discharges for subcooling. The results show that in the charge mode the heat pump COP of ice storage system is 12% higher than that without ice storage tank. Under the discharge mode, the ice storage system provides the refrigerator COP 15% higher than that without ice storage tank. (author)

  15. Quorums Systems as a Method to Enhance Collaboration for Achieving Fault Tolerance in Distributed System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan PETRI


    Full Text Available A system that implements the byzantine agreement algorithm is supposed to be very reliable and robust because of its fault tolerating feature. For very realistic environments, byzantine agreement protocols becomes inadequate, because they are based on the assumption that failures are controlled and they have unlimited severity. The byzantine agreement model works with a number of bounded failures that have to be tolerated. It is never concerned to identify these failures or to exclude them from the system. In this paper, we tackle quorum systems, which is a particular sort of distributed systems where some storage or computations are replicated on various machines in the idea that some of them work correctly to produce a reliable output at some given moment of time. Thus, by majority voting collaboration with quorums, one can achieve fault tolerance in distributed systems. Further, we argue that an algorithm to identify faulty-behaving machines is useful to identify purposeful malicious behaviors.

  16. A novel and practical approach to distribution system performance enhancement using a fuzzy capacitor allocation method (United States)

    Ng, Hok-Nin

    As the electrical utility business enters into a deregulated environment, distribution companies will strive to operate at the utmost economic efficiency. Loss reduction through the use of capacitor placement is an effective means of decreasing the operating costs of a utility. This thesis details a practical and flexible approach for distribution system loss reduction and performance enhancement using a fuzzy capacitor allocation technique. The proposed method takes advantage of the concepts of fuzzy set theory to model uncertain parameters of the distribution system, and to represent knowledge and heuristics that can be used to optimize the operation of the distribution system. A fuzzy expert system is used to determine suitable locations for capacitor installations and a multi-objective fuzzy optimization approach is used to determine the proper sizes of the capacitors. Effective control of capacitors is performed by another fuzzy expert system. Computer simulations performed, have clearly demonstrated the advantages and the significant contributions of the methods in this thesis for distribution system loss reduction and performance enhancement.

  17. Enhanced Geothermal Systems: Modelling Heat and Mass Transfer in Fractured Crystalline Rock


    Piipponen, Katerina


    Geothermal energy is a growing industry and with Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) technology it is possible to utilize geothermal energy in low heat flow areas. The ongoing EGS project in Southern Finland provides a great opportunity to learn and explore EGS technologies in a complex environment: hard crystalline rock, high pressure and low hydraulic permeability. This work describes physics behind an EGS plant, as well as basic concept of EGS, give examples of some existing plants and make c...

  18. Issues and Considerations regarding Sharable Data Sets for Recommender Systems in Technology Enhanced Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Bogers, Toine; Vuorikari, Riina


    This paper raises the issue of missing standardised data sets for recommender systems in Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) that can be used as benchmarks to compare different recommendation approaches. It discusses how suitable data sets could be created according to some initial suggestions...... elaboration of a representation and exchange format for sharable TEL data sets is carried out. The paper concludes with future research needs....

  19. Elaboration and Discussion of Simplified Parameterized Models for Carbon Footprint of Enhanced Geothermal Systems


    Lacirignola, Martino; Hage Meany, Bechara; Blanc, Isabelle


    International audience; The development of "enhanced geothermal systems" (EGS), aiming at extracting energy from deep low-enthalpy reservoirs, is attracting attention as a promising solution for the development of the geothermal sector in new areas. For the promotion of such renewable energy (RE) based technology, it is important to assess its environmental performances accounting for all phases of the life of the plant, from its construction to its dismantling. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is...

  20. The Ex Hoc Infrastructure - Enhancing Traffic Safety through LIfe WArning Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Kristensen, Lars Michael; Eskildsen, Toke


    New pervasive computing technologies for sensing and communication open up novel possibilities for enhancing traffic safety. We are currently designing and implementing the Ex Hoc infrastructure framework for communication among mobile and stationary units including vehicles. The infrastructure...... will connect sensing devices on vehicles with sensing devices on other vehicles and with stationary communication units placed alongside roads. The current application of Ex Hoc is to enable the collection and dissemination of information on road condition through LIfe Warning Systems (LIWAS) units....

  1. Enhancing the Quality of E-learning Systems via Multimedia Learning Tools


    Haroon Tarawneh; Mohammad Tarawneh; Farid Alzboun


    This paper discusses how the multimedia learning tools can enhance the quality of e-learning systems. The construction and use of multimedia learning tools is a relatively new pedagogy, where multimedia learning tools are a learning style. Keefe defined learning style as being characteristic of the cognitive, affective, and physiological behaviors that serve as relatively stable indicators of how learners perceive, interact with, and respond to the learning environment. Learning style also re...

  2. Enhancement and assessment of students’ systems thinking skills by application of systemic synthesis questions in the organic chemistry course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrin Tamara N.


    Full Text Available Many studies in the field of science education have emphasized the fact that systems thinking is a very important higher-order thinking skill which should be fostered during classes. However, more attention has been dedicated to the different ways of systems thinking skills assessment, and less to their enhancement. Taking this into consideration, the goal of our study was not only to validate secondary school students’ systems thinking skills, but also to help students in the complex process of their development. With this goal, new instructional and assessment tools - systemic synthesis questions [SSynQs], were constructed, and an experiment with one experimental (E and one control (C group was conducted during organic chemistry classes. Namely, the instructional teaching/learning method for both E and C groups was the same in processing the new contents, but different on classes for the revision of the selected organic chemistry contents. The results showed that students exposed to the new instructional method (E group achieved higher performance scores on three different types of systems thinking than students from the C group, who were taught by the traditional method. The greatest difference between the groups was found in the most complex dimension of systems thinking construct - in the II level of procedural systems thinking. Along with this dimension, structural systems thinking and I level of procedural systems thinking were also observed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179010

  3. A Distribution-class Locational Marginal Price (DLMP) Index for Enhanced Distribution Systems (United States)

    Akinbode, Oluwaseyi Wemimo

    The smart grid initiative is the impetus behind changes that are expected to culminate into an enhanced distribution system with the communication and control infrastructure to support advanced distribution system applications and resources such as distributed generation, energy storage systems, and price responsive loads. This research proposes a distribution-class analog of the transmission LMP (DLMP) as an enabler of the advanced applications of the enhanced distribution system. The DLMP is envisioned as a control signal that can incentivize distribution system resources to behave optimally in a manner that benefits economic efficiency and system reliability and that can optimally couple the transmission and the distribution systems. The DLMP is calculated from a two-stage optimization problem; a transmission system OPF and a distribution system OPF. An iterative framework that ensures accurate representation of the distribution system's price sensitive resources for the transmission system problem and vice versa is developed and its convergence problem is discussed. As part of the DLMP calculation framework, a DCOPF formulation that endogenously captures the effect of real power losses is discussed. The formulation uses piecewise linear functions to approximate losses. This thesis explores, with theoretical proofs, the breakdown of the loss approximation technique when non-positive DLMPs/LMPs occur and discusses a mixed integer linear programming formulation that corrects the breakdown. The DLMP is numerically illustrated in traditional and enhanced distribution systems and its superiority to contemporary pricing mechanisms is demonstrated using price responsive loads. Results show that the impact of the inaccuracy of contemporary pricing schemes becomes significant as flexible resources increase. At high elasticity, aggregate load consumption deviated from the optimal consumption by up to about 45 percent when using a flat or time-of-use rate. Individual load

  4. Enhancing an adaptive e-learning system with didactic test assessment using an expert system (United States)

    Bradáč, Vladimír; Kostolányová, Kateřina


    The paper deals with a follow-up research on intelligent tutoring systems that were studied in authors' previous papers from the point of view of describing their advantages. In this paper, the authors make use of the fuzzy logic expert system, which assesses student's knowledge, and integrate it into the intelligent tutoring system called Barborka. The goal is to create an even more personal student's study plan, which is tailored both to student's sensory/learning preferences and the level of knowledge of the given subject.

  5. Focused Ultrasound Enhances Central Nervous System Delivery of Bevacizumab for Malignant Glioma Treatment. (United States)

    Liu, Hao-Li; Hsu, Po-Hung; Lin, Chung-Yin; Huang, Chiun-Wei; Chai, Wen-Yen; Chu, Po-Chun; Huang, Chiung-Yin; Chen, Pin-Yuan; Yang, Liang-Yo; Kuo, John S; Wei, Kuo-Chen


    Purpose To demonstrate that magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-monitored transcranial focused ultrasound can enhance the delivery of the antiangiogenic monoclonal antibody bevacizumab into the central nervous system (CNS) for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) treatment. Materials and Methods All animal experiments were approved by the animal committee and adhered to experimental animal care guidelines. Transcranial focused ultrasound exposure in the presence of microbubbles was used to open the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to enhance bevacizumab penetration into the CNS in healthy and glioma-bearing mice. Bevacizumab concentration was quantitated with high-performance liquid chromatography, and Western blot testing was performed to confirm the specific biologic form in the CNS. Penetration of bevacizumab into brain tissue was estimated in vivo by means of contrast material-enhanced MR imaging and quantitative gallium 68 ((68)Ga)-bevacizumab micro-positron emission tomography, and glioma progression was longitudinally followed with T2-weighted MR imaging. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and cluster of differentiation 31 immunostaining were used to assess morphologic changes and vascular inhibition at histologic examination. The two-tailed Student t test and the Mantel-Cox log-rank test were used for statistical analyses, with a significance level of .05. Results Focused ultrasound significantly enhanced bevacizumab penetration into the CNS by 5.7- to 56.7-fold compared with that in nonexposed brain (both P Focused ultrasound-enhanced bevacizumab delivery significantly retarded glioma progression, with a significantly increased median survival (median increase in survival time = 135% in the group treated with bevacizumab and focused ultrasound, P Focused ultrasound-enhanced bevacizumab delivery can provide an antivascularization normalization effect to suppress glioma. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  6. A System on Chip approach to enhanced learning in interdisciplinary robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders Stengaard; Falsig, Simon


    p, li { white-space: pre-wrap; } To sustain interdisciplinary teaching and learning in the rapidly growing and diversifying field of robotics, we have successfully employed FPGA based System on Chip (SoC) technology to provide abstraction between high level software and low level IO/ and control...... the framework in an embedded systems course and various student projects, and have found that it greatly enhance the students abilities to control hardware from software, and dramatically reduce the time spent on software $\\leftrightarrow$ hardware interfacing. As the framework is also scalable, it can support...

  7. Enhanced Discrete-Time Scheduler Engine for MBMS E-UMTS System Level Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Rodrigues, António


    In this paper the design of an E-UMTS system level simulator developed for the study of optimization methods for the MBMS is presented. The simulator uses a discrete event based philosophy, which captures the dynamic behavior of the Radio Network System. This dynamic behavior includes the user...... mobility, radio interfaces and the Radio Access Network. Its given emphasis on the enhancements developed for the simulator core, the Event Scheduler Engine. Two implementations for the Event Scheduler Engine are proposed, one optimized for single core processors and other for multi-core ones....

  8. Sensorimotor enhancement with a mixed reality system for balance and mobility rehabilitation. (United States)

    Fung, Joyce; Perez, Claire F


    We have developed a mixed reality system incorporating virtual reality (VR), surface perturbations and light touch for gait rehabilitation. Haptic touch has emerged as a novel and efficient technique to improve postural control and dynamic stability. Our system combines visual display with the manipulation of physical environments and addition of haptic feedback to enhance balance and mobility post stroke. A research study involving 9 participants with stroke and 9 age-matched healthy individuals show that the haptic cue provided while walking is an effective means of improving gait stability in people post stroke, especially during challenging environmental conditions such as downslope walking.

  9. In situ monitoring of biomolecular processes in living systems using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (United States)

    Altunbek, Mine; Kelestemur, Seda; Culha, Mustafa


    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) continues to strive to gather molecular level information from dynamic biological systems. It is our ongoing effort to utilize the technique for understanding of the biomolecular processes in living systems such as eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. In this study, the technique is investigated to identify cell death mechanisms in 2D and 3D in vitro cell culture models, which is a very important process in tissue engineering and pharmaceutical applications. Second, in situ biofilm formation monitoring is investigated to understand how microorganisms respond to the environmental stimuli, which inferred information can be used to interfere with biofilm formation and fight against their pathogenic activity.

  10. Fiber-optic surface-enhanced Raman system for field screening of hazardous compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, T.L.; Goudonnet, J.P.; Arakawa, E.T.; Reddick, R.C.; Gammage, R.B.; Haas, J.W.; James, D.R.; Wachter, E.A.


    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering permits identification of compounds adsorbed onto a metal microbase that is microlithographically produced with submicron resolution. Less than one percent of a monolayer of a Raman Active target compound offers a high signal-to-noise ratio. By depositing the microbase on the exterior of a fiber optic cable, convenient field screening or monitoring is permitted. By using highly effective microbases, it is possible to reduce laser power requirements sufficiently to allow an economical, but complete, system to be housed in a suitcase. We shall present details of SERS system of this type and shall show data on samples of interest in the screening of hazardous compounds.

  11. BOCDA system enhanced by concurrent interrogation of multiple correlation peaks with a 10-km sensing range (United States)

    Ryu, Gukbeen; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Song, Kwang Yong; Lee, Sang Bae; Lee, Kwanil


    A Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis (BOCDA) system using time-domain data processing for concurrently interrogating a plurality of sensing positions is proposed, where the time-domain data processing combined with differential measurement effectively enhances the measurement range and measurement time as much as the spatial resolution of the BOCDA system. In the experiment, the distribution of the Brillouin gain spectra (BGS) along a 10.15 km test fiber is successfully obtained with a spatial resolution less than 5 cm by concurrently interrogating 980 correlation peaks.

  12. Implementation and Validation of Engagement Monitoring in an Engagement Enhancing Rehabilitation System. (United States)

    Li, Chong; Rusak, Zoltan; Horvath, Imre; Kooijman, Adrie; Ji, Linhong


    Enhancing engagement of patients during stroke rehabilitation exercises are in the focus of current research. Various methods and computer supported tools have been developed for this purpose, which try to avoid mundane exercising that is prone to become a routine or even boring for the patients and leads to ineffective training. This paper introduces an engagement enhancing cyber-physical stroke rehabilitation system (CP-SRS) aiming at enhancing the patient's engagement during rehabilitation training exercises. This paper focuses on introducing the implementation and validation of the engagement monitoring subsystem (EMS) in the CP-SRS. The EMS is expected to evaluate the patient's actual engagement levels in motor, perceptive, cognitive and emotional aspects. Experiments in these four aspects were conducted separately, in order to characterize the range and accuracy of the engagement indicators by influencing the subjects into different engaged states. During the experiments, different setups were created to mimic the situations in which the subject was engaged or not engaged. The subjects involved in the experiments were healthy subjects. Results showed that the measurement in motor, perceptive, cognitive, and emotional aspects can represent the corresponding engagement level. More experiments will be conducted in the future to validate the efficiency of the CP-SRS in enhancing the engagement with stroke patients.

  13. Fast-Valving of Large Steam Turbine Units as a Means of Power System Security Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Sobczak


    Full Text Available Fast-valving assists in maintaining system stability following a severe transmission system fault by reducing the turbine mechanical power. Fast-valving consists in rapid closing and opening of steam valves in an adequate manner to reduce the generator accelerating power following the recognition of a severe fault. FV can be an effective and economical method of meeting the performance requirements of a power system in the presence of an increase in wind and solar generation in the power system, newly connected large thermal units and delaying of building new transmission lines. The principle of fast-valving and advantages of applying this technique in large steam turbine units was presented in the paper. Effectiveness of fast-valving in enhancing the stability of the Polish Power Grid was analyzed. The feasibility study of fast-valving application in the 560 MW unit in Kozienice Power Station (EW SA was discussed.

  14. AntStar: Enhancing Optimization Problems by Integrating an Ant System and A⁎ Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Faisal


    Full Text Available Recently, nature-inspired techniques have become valuable to many intelligent systems in different fields of technology and science. Among these techniques, Ant Systems (AS have become a valuable technique for intelligent systems in different fields. AS is a computational system inspired by the foraging behavior of ants and intended to solve practical optimization problems. In this paper, we introduce the AntStar algorithm, which is swarm intelligence based. AntStar enhances the optimization and performance of an AS by integrating the AS and A⁎ algorithm. Applying the AntStar algorithm to the single-source shortest-path problem has been done to ensure the efficiency of the proposed AntStar algorithm. The experimental result of the proposed algorithm illustrated the robustness and accuracy of the AntStar algorithm.

  15. Connecting diverse knowledge systems for enhanced ecosystem governance: the multiple evidence base approach. (United States)

    Tengö, Maria; Brondizio, Eduardo S; Elmqvist, Thomas; Malmer, Pernilla; Spierenburg, Marja


    Indigenous and local knowledge systems as well as practitioners' knowledge can provide valid and useful knowledge to enhance our understanding of governance of biodiversity and ecosystems for human well-being. There is, therefore, a great need within emerging global assessment programs, such as the IPBES and other international efforts, to develop functioning mechanisms for legitimate, transparent, and constructive ways of creating synergies across knowledge systems. We present the multiple evidence base (MEB) as an approach that proposes parallels whereby indigenous, local and scientific knowledge systems are viewed to generate different manifestations of knowledge, which can generate new insights and innovations through complementarities. MEB emphasizes that evaluation of knowledge occurs primarily within rather than across knowledge systems. MEB on a particular issue creates an enriched picture of understanding, for triangulation and joint assessment of knowledge, and a starting point for further knowledge generation.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. McDonald; G.T. Amrhein; G.A. Kudlac; D. Madden Yurchison


    Wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD) systems are currently installed on about 25% of the coal-fired utility generating capacity in the U.S., representing about 15% of the number of coal-fired units. Depending on the effect of operating parameters such as mercury content of the coal, form of mercury (elemental or oxidized) in the flue gas, scrubber spray tower configuration, liquid-to-gas ratio, and slurry chemistry, FGD systems can provide cost-effective, near-term mercury emissions control options with a proven history of commercial operation. For boilers already equipped with FGD systems, the incremental cost of any vapor phase mercury removal achieved is minimal. To be widely accepted and implemented, technical approaches that improve mercury removal performance for wet FGD systems should also have low incremental costs and have little or no impact on operation and SO{sub 2} removal performance. The ultimate goal of the Full-scale Testing of Enhanced Mercury Control for Wet FGD Systems Program was to commercialize methods for the control of mercury in coal-fired electric utility systems equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD). The program was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development, and Babcock & Wilcox. Host sites and associated support were provided by Michigan South Central Power Agency (MSCPA) and Cinergy. Field-testing was completed at two commercial coal-fired utilities with wet FGD systems: (1) MSCPA's 55 MW{sub e} Endicott Station and (2) Cinergy's 1300 MW{sub e} Zimmer Station. Testing was conducted at these two locations because of the large differences in size and wet scrubber chemistry. Endicott employs a limestone, forced oxidation (LSFO) wet FGD system, whereas Zimmer uses Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime (magnesium enhanced lime) and ex situ oxidation. Both locations burn Ohio bituminous coal.

  17. From Mobile to Wearable System: A Wearable RFID System to Enhance Teaching and Learning Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Larabi Marie-Sainte


    Full Text Available Over the last decade, wearable technology has seen significant developments, making it possible to enhance our lives. One of the areas in which wearable technology can cause large changes is education, where it can be used to make educational experiences intrinsically motivating and more relevant to youth culture. In this paper, we focus on the use of wearable technology to improve the educational environment. The quantity of electronic assets used in the learning environment is rising, which presents a managerial problem when these devices are nonfunctioning. Therefore, we present a mobile application to solve this problem. The suggested approach consists of creating a mobile application named classroom clinic (CRC to help faculty members and students locate the closest maintenance technician via wearable radio frequency identification (RFID technology and to provide fast responses to the problems alerted to in the classroom, thereby avoiding any disturbances or delays during the lecture. Moreover, this application allows the maintenance service to efficiently manage any malfunctions of classroom electronic devices. To evaluate the CRC application, a pilot study was conducted at the College of Computer and Information Sciences, female campus of King Saud University, with 15 faculty members and students and 5 clinic members. The results showed high usability rates and generally positive attitudes towards using the app.

  18. 28-Homobrassinolide mitigates boron induced toxicity through enhanced antioxidant system in Vigna radiata plants. (United States)

    Yusuf, Mohammad; Fariduddin, Qazi; Ahmad, Aqil


    The objective of this study was to establish relationship between boron induced oxidative stress and antioxidant system in Vigna radiata plants and also to investigate whether brassinosteroids will enhance the level of antioxidant system that could confer tolerance to the plants from the boron induced oxidative stress. The mung bean (V. radiata cv. T-44) plants were administered with 0.50, 1.0 and 2.0 mM boron at 6 d stage for 7 d along with nutrient solution. At 13 d stage, the seedlings were sprayed with deionized water (control) or 10(-8) M of 28-homobrassinolide and plants were harvested at 21 d stage to assess growth, leaf gas-exchange traits and biochemical parameters. The boron treatments diminished growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes along with nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase activity in the concentration dependent manner whereas, it enhanced lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, accumulation of H(2)O(2) as well as proline, and various antioxidant enzymes in the leaves of mung bean which were more pronounced at higher concentrations of boron. However, the follow-up application of 28-homobrassinolide to the boron stressed plants improved growth, water relations and photosynthesis and further enhanced the various antioxidant enzymes viz. catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and content of proline. The elevated level of antioxidant enzymes as well as proline could have conferred tolerance to the B-stressed plants resulting in improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Restraint stress enhances arterial thrombosis in vivo--role of the sympathetic nervous system. (United States)

    Stämpfli, Simon F; Camici, Giovanni G; Keller, Stephan; Rozenberg, Izabela; Arras, Margarete; Schuler, Beat; Gassmann, Max; Garcia, Irene; Lüscher, Thomas F; Tanner, Felix C


    Stress is known to correlate with the incidence of acute myocardial infarction. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this correlation are not known. This study was designed to assess the effect of experimental stress on arterial thrombus formation, the key event in acute myocardial infarction. Mice exposed to 20 h of restraint stress displayed an increased arterial prothrombotic potential as assessed by photochemical injury-induced time to thrombotic occlusion. This increase was prevented by chemical sympathectomy performed through 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Blood-born tissue factor (TF) activity was enhanced by stress and this increase could be prevented by 6-OHDA treatment. Vessel wall TF, platelet count, platelet aggregation, coagulation times (PT, aPTT), fibrinolytic system (t-PA and PAI-1) and tail bleeding time remained unaltered. Telemetric analysis revealed only minor hemodynamic changes throughout the stress protocol. Plasma catecholamines remained unaffected after restraint stress. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) plasma levels were unchanged and inhibition of TNF-α had no effect on stress-enhanced thrombosis. These results indicate that restraint stress enhances arterial thrombosis via the sympathetic nervous system. Blood-borne TF contributes, at least in part, to the observed effect whereas vessel wall TF, platelets, circulating coagulation factors, fibrinolysis and inflammation do not appear to play a role. These findings shed new light on the understanding of stress-induced cardiovascular events.

  20. Nonlinear predictive control for durability enhancement and efficiency improvement in a fuel cell power system (United States)

    Luna, Julio; Jemei, Samir; Yousfi-Steiner, Nadia; Husar, Attila; Serra, Maria; Hissel, Daniel


    In this work, a nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) strategy is proposed to improve the efficiency and enhance the durability of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) power system. The PEMFC controller is based on a distributed parameters model that describes the nonlinear dynamics of the system, considering spatial variations along the gas channels. Parasitic power from different system auxiliaries is considered, including the main parasitic losses which are those of the compressor. A nonlinear observer is implemented, based on the discretised model of the PEMFC, to estimate the internal states. This information is included in the cost function of the controller to enhance the durability of the system by means of avoiding local starvation and inappropriate water vapour concentrations. Simulation results are presented to show the performance of the proposed controller over a given case study in an automotive application (New European Driving Cycle). With the aim of representing the most relevant phenomena that affects the PEMFC voltage, the simulation model includes a two-phase water model and the effects of liquid water on the catalyst active area. The control model is a simplified version that does not consider two-phase water dynamics.

  1. Application of an enhanced spill management information system to inland waterways. (United States)

    Camp, Janey S; LeBoeuf, Eugene J; Abkowitz, Mark D


    Spill response managers on inland waterways have indicated the need for an improved decision-support system, one that provides advanced modeling technology within a visual framework. Efforts to address these considerations led the authors to develop an enhanced version of the Spill Management Information System (SMIS 2.0). SMIS 2.0 represents a state-of-the-art 3D hydrodynamic and chemical spill modeling system tool that provides for improved predictive spill fate and transport capability, combined with a geographic information systems (GIS) spatial environment in which to communicate propagation risks and locate response resources. This paper focuses on the application of SMIS 2.0 in a case study of several spill scenarios involving the release of diesel fuel and trichloroethylene (TCE) that were simulated on the Kentucky Lake portion of the Tennessee River, each analyzed at low, average, and high flow conditions. A discussion of the decision-support implications of the model results is also included, as are suggestions for future enhancements to this evolving platform. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Stability Enhancement Method for Centrifugal Compressors using Active Control Casing Treatment System (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanyang; Xiao, Jun; Li, Liansheng; Yang, Qichao; Liu, Guangbin; Wang, Le


    The centrifugal compressors are widely used in many fields. When the centrifugal compressors operate at the edge of the surge line, the compressor will be unstable. In addition, if the centrifugal compressor runs at this situation long time, the damage will be occurred on compressor. There are some kinds of method to improve and enlarge the range of the centrifugal compressors, such as inlet guide vane, and casing treatment. For casing treatment method, some structures have been researched, such as holed recirculation, basic slot casing treatment and groove casing treatment. All these researches are the passive methods. This paper present a new stability enhancement method based Active Control Casing Treatment (ACCT). All parts of this new method are introduced in detail. The control strategy of the system is mentioned in the paper. As a research sample, a centrifugal compressor having this system is researched using CFD method. The study focuses on the effect of the active control system on the impeller flow. The vortex in impeller is changed by the active control system. And this leads to the suppression of the extension of vortex blockage in impeller and to contribute to the enhancement of the compressor operating range.

  3. A CRISPR-Cas system enhances envelope integrity mediating antibiotic resistance and inflammasome evasion (United States)

    Sampson, Timothy R.; Napier, Brooke A.; Schroeder, Max R.; Louwen, Rogier; Zhao, Jinshi; Chin, Chui-Yoke; Ratner, Hannah K.; Llewellyn, Anna C.; Jones, Crystal L.; Laroui, Hamed; Merlin, Didier; Zhou, Pei; Endtz, Hubert P.; Weiss, David S.


    Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats–CRISPR associated (CRISPR-Cas) systems defend bacteria against foreign nucleic acids, such as during bacteriophage infection and transformation, processes which cause envelope stress. It is unclear if these machineries enhance membrane integrity to combat this stress. Here, we show that the Cas9-dependent CRISPR-Cas system of the intracellular bacterial pathogen Francisella novicida is involved in enhancing envelope integrity through the regulation of a bacterial lipoprotein. This action ultimately provides increased resistance to numerous membrane stressors, including antibiotics. We further find that this previously unappreciated function of Cas9 is critical during infection, as it promotes evasion of the host innate immune absent in melanoma 2/apoptosis associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (AIM2/ASC) inflammasome. Interestingly, the attenuation of the cas9 mutant is complemented only in mice lacking both the AIM2/ASC inflammasome and the bacterial lipoprotein sensor Toll-like receptor 2, but not in single knockout mice, demonstrating that Cas9 is essential for evasion of both pathways. These data represent a paradigm shift in our understanding of the function of CRISPR-Cas systems as regulators of bacterial physiology and provide a framework with which to investigate the roles of these systems in myriad bacteria, including pathogens and commensals. PMID:25024199

  4. Physical Layer Built-In Security Analysis and Enhancement Algorithms for CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tongtong


    Full Text Available Historically developed for secure communication and military use, CDMA has been identified as a major modulation and multiple-access technique for 3G systems and beyond. In addition to the wide bandwidth and low power-spectrum density which make CDMA signals robust to narrowband jamming and easy to be concealed within the noise floor, the physical layer built-in information privacy of CDMA system is provided by pseudorandom scrambling. In this paper, first, security weakness of the operational and proposed CDMA airlink interfaces is analyzed. Second, based on the advanced encryption standard (AES, we propose to enhance the physical layer built-in security of CDMA systems through secure scrambling. Performance analysis demonstrates that while providing significantly improved information privacy, CDMA systems with secure scrambling have comparable computational complexity and overall system performance with that of conventionally scrambled systems. Moreover, it is shown that by scrambling the training sequence and the message sequence separately with two independent scrambling sequences, both information privacy and system performance can be further improved. The proposed scheme can readily be applied to 3G systems and beyond.

  5. Power System State Estimation Accuracy Enhancement Using Temperature Measurements of Overhead Line Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wydra Michał


    Full Text Available Power system state estimation is a process of real-time online modeling of an electric power system. The estimation is performed with the application of a static model of the system and current measurements of electrical quantities that are encumbered with an error. Usually, a model of the estimated system is also encumbered with an uncertainty, especially power line resistances that depend on the temperature of conductors. At present, a considerable development of technologies for dynamic power line rating can be observed. Typically, devices for dynamic line rating are installed directly on the conductors and measure basic electric parameters such as the current and voltage as well as non-electric ones as the surface temperature of conductors, their expansion, stress or the conductor sag angle relative to the plumb line. The objective of this paper is to present a method for power system state estimation that uses temperature measurements of overhead line conductors as supplementary measurements that enhance the model quality and thereby the estimation accuracy. Power system state estimation is presented together with a method of using the temperature measurements of power line conductors for updating the static power system model in the state estimation process. The results obtained with that method have been analyzed based on the estimation calculations performed for an example system - with and without taking into account the conductor temperature measurements. The final part of the article includes conclusions and suggestions for the further research.

  6. Security Enhancement Mechanism Based on Contextual Authentication and Role Analysis for 2G-RFID Systems (United States)

    Tang, Wan; Chen, Min; Ni, Jin; Yang, Ximin


    The traditional Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system, in which the information maintained in tags is passive and static, has no intelligent decision-making ability to suit application and environment dynamics. The Second-Generation RFID (2G-RFID) system, referred as 2G-RFID-sys, is an evolution of the traditional RFID system to ensure better quality of service in future networks. Due to the openness of the active mobile codes in the 2G-RFID system, the realization of conveying intelligence brings a critical issue: how can we make sure the backend system will interpret and execute mobile codes in the right way without misuse so as to avoid malicious attacks? To address this issue, this paper expands the concept of Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) by introducing context-aware computing, and then designs a secure middleware for backend systems, named Two-Level Security Enhancement Mechanism or 2L-SEM, in order to ensure the usability and validity of the mobile code through contextual authentication and role analysis. According to the given contextual restrictions, 2L-SEM can filtrate the illegal and invalid mobile codes contained in tags. Finally, a reference architecture and its typical application are given to illustrate the implementation of 2L-SEM in a 2G-RFID system, along with the simulation results to evaluate how the proposed mechanism can guarantee secure execution of mobile codes for the system. PMID:22163983

  7. Security Enhancement Mechanism Based on Contextual Authentication and Role Analysis for 2G-RFID Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximin Yang


    Full Text Available The traditional Radio Frequency Identification (RFID system, in which the information maintained in tags is passive and static, has no intelligent decision-making ability to suit application and environment dynamics. The Second-Generation RFID (2G-RFID system, referred as 2G-RFID-sys, is an evolution of the traditional RFID system to ensure better quality of service in future networks. Due to the openness of the active mobile codes in the 2G-RFID system, the realization of conveying intelligence brings a critical issue: how can we make sure the backend system will interpret and execute mobile codes in the right way without misuse so as to avoid malicious attacks? To address this issue, this paper expands the concept of Role-Based Access Control (RBAC by introducing context-aware computing, and then designs a secure middleware for backend systems, named Two-Level Security Enhancement Mechanism or 2L-SEM, in order to ensure the usability and validity of the mobile code through contextual authentication and role analysis. According to the given contextual restrictions, 2L-SEM can filtrate the illegal and invalid mobile codes contained in tags. Finally, a reference architecture and its typical application are given to illustrate the implementation of 2L-SEM in a 2G-RFID system, along with the simulation results to evaluate how the proposed mechanism can guarantee secure execution of mobile codes for the system.

  8. Security enhancement mechanism based on contextual authentication and role analysis for 2G-RFID systems. (United States)

    Tang, Wan; Chen, Min; Ni, Jin; Yang, Ximin


    The traditional Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system, in which the information maintained in tags is passive and static, has no intelligent decision-making ability to suit application and environment dynamics. The Second-Generation RFID (2G-RFID) system, referred as 2G-RFID-sys, is an evolution of the traditional RFID system to ensure better quality of service in future networks. Due to the openness of the active mobile codes in the 2G-RFID system, the realization of conveying intelligence brings a critical issue: how can we make sure the backend system will interpret and execute mobile codes in the right way without misuse so as to avoid malicious attacks? To address this issue, this paper expands the concept of Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) by introducing context-aware computing, and then designs a secure middleware for backend systems, named Two-Level Security Enhancement Mechanism or 2L-SEM, in order to ensure the usability and validity of the mobile code through contextual authentication and role analysis. According to the given contextual restrictions, 2L-SEM can filtrate the illegal and invalid mobile codes contained in tags. Finally, a reference architecture and its typical application are given to illustrate the implementation of 2L-SEM in a 2G-RFID system, along with the simulation results to evaluate how the proposed mechanism can guarantee secure execution of mobile codes for the system.

  9. Enhanced (hydrodynamic) transport induced by population growth in reaction–diffusion systems with application to population genetics


    Vlad, Marcel Ovidiu; Cavalli-Sforza, L. Luca; Ross, John


    We consider a system made up of different physical, chemical, or biological species undergoing replication, transformation, and disappearance processes, as well as slow diffusive motion. We show that for systems with net growth the balance between kinetics and the diffusion process may lead to fast, enhanced hydrodynamic transport. Solitary waves in the system, if they exist, stabilize the enhanced transport, leading to constant transport speeds. We apply our theory to the problem of determin...

  10. Enhancement and sign change of magnetic correlations in a driven quantum many-body system. (United States)

    Görg, Frederik; Messer, Michael; Sandholzer, Kilian; Jotzu, Gregor; Desbuquois, Rémi; Esslinger, Tilman


    Periodic driving can be used to control the properties of a many-body state coherently and to realize phases that are not accessible in static systems. For example, exposing materials to intense laser pulses makes it possible to induce metal-insulator transitions, to control magnetic order and to generate transient superconducting behaviour well above the static transition temperature. However, pinning down the mechanisms underlying these phenomena is often difficult because the response of a material to irradiation is governed by complex, many-body dynamics. For static systems, extensive calculations have been performed to explain phenomena such as high-temperature superconductivity. Theoretical analyses of driven many-body Hamiltonians are more challenging, but approaches have now been developed, motivated by recent observations. Here we report an experimental quantum simulation in a periodically modulated hexagonal lattice and show that antiferromagnetic correlations in a fermionic many-body system can be reduced, enhanced or even switched to ferromagnetic correlations (sign reversal). We demonstrate that the description of the many-body system using an effective Floquet-Hamiltonian with a renormalized tunnelling energy remains valid in the high-frequency regime by comparing the results to measurements in an equivalent static lattice. For near-resonant driving, the enhancement and sign reversal of correlations is explained by a microscopic model of the system in which the particle tunnelling and magnetic exchange energies can be controlled independently. In combination with the observed sufficiently long lifetimes of the correlations in this system, periodic driving thus provides an alternative way of investigating unconventional pairing in strongly correlated systems experimentally.

  11. Prediction of intracellular storage polymers using quantitative image analysis in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems. (United States)

    Mesquita, Daniela P; Leal, Cristiano; Cunha, Jorge R; Oehmen, Adrian; Amaral, A Luís; Reis, Maria A M; Ferreira, Eugénio C


    The present study focuses on predicting the concentration of intracellular storage polymers in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems. For that purpose, quantitative image analysis techniques were developed for determining the intracellular concentrations of PHA (PHB and PHV) with Nile blue and glycogen with aniline blue staining. Partial least squares (PLS) were used to predict the standard analytical values of these polymers by the proposed methodology. Identification of the aerobic and anaerobic stages proved to be crucial for improving the assessment of PHA, PHB and PHV intracellular concentrations. Current Nile blue based methodology can be seen as a feasible starting point for further enhancement. Glycogen detection based on the developed aniline blue staining methodology combined with the image analysis data proved to be a promising technique, toward the elimination of the need for analytical off-line measurements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhanced microglial clearance of myelin debris in T cell-infiltrated central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helle Hvilsted; Ladeby, Rune; Fenger, Christina


    Acute multiple sclerosis lesions are characterized by accumulation of T cells and macrophages, destruction of myelin and oligodendrocytes, and axonal damage. There is, however, limited information on neuroimmune interactions distal to sites of axonal damage in the T cell-infiltrated central nervous...... system. We investigated T-cell infiltration, myelin clearance, microglial activation, and phagocytic activity distal to sites of axonal transection through analysis of the perforant pathway deafferented dentate gyrus in SJL mice that had received T cells specific for myelin basic protein (TMBP...... with TMBP but not TOVA enhanced the microglial response to axonal transection and microglial phagocytosis of myelin debris associated with the degenerating axons. Because myelin antigen-specific immune responses may provoke protective immunity, increased phagocytosis of myelin debris might enhance...

  13. Selenium delays tomato fruit ripening by inhibiting ethylene biosynthesis and enhancing the antioxidant defense system. (United States)

    Zhu, Zhu; Chen, Yanli; Shi, Guoqing; Zhang, Xueji


    The antioxidant activity of selenium (Se) detoxifies reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants and animals. In the present study, we elucidated the mechanism underlying Se induced fruit development and ripening. Our study showed that foliar pretreatment with 1mgL-1 sodium selenate effectively delayed fruit ripening and maintained fruit quality. Gene expression studies revealed that the repression of ethylene biosynthetic genes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase decreased ethylene production and respiration rate. Moreover, Se treatment probably boosted the antioxidant defense system to reduce ROS generation and membrane damage. The enhanced antioxidative effect was attributed to higher glutathione content and increased activity of enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. The upregulation of respiratory burst oxidase homologue genes in tomato fruit may also contribute to the enhanced antioxidative effect. Selenium treatment represents a promising strategy for delaying ripening and extending the shelf life of tomato fruit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Spanish language generation engine to enhance the syntactic quality of AAC systems (United States)

    Narváez A., Cristian; Sastoque H., Sebastián.; Iregui G., Marcela


    People with Complex Communication Needs (CCN) face difficulties to communicate their ideas, feelings and needs. Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) approaches aim to provide support to enhance socialization of these individuals. However, there are many limitations in current applications related with systems operation, target scenarios and language consistency. This work presents an AAC approach to enhance produced messages by applying elements of Natural Language Generation. Specifically, a Spanish language engine, composed of a grammar ontology and a set of linguistic rules, is proposed to improve the naturalness in the communication process, when persons with CCN tell stories about their daily activities to non-disabled receivers. The assessment of the proposed method confirms the validity of the model to improve messages quality.

  15. Cavity-enhanced eigenmode and angular hybrid multiplexing in holographic data storage systems. (United States)

    Miller, Bo E; Takashima, Yuzuru


    Resonant optical cavities have been demonstrated to improve energy efficiencies in Holographic Data Storage Systems (HDSS). The orthogonal reference beams supported as cavity eigenmodes can provide another multiplexing degree of freedom to push storage densities toward the limit of 3D optical data storage. While keeping the increased energy efficiency of a cavity enhanced reference arm, image bearing holograms are multiplexed by orthogonal phase code multiplexing via Hermite-Gaussian eigenmodes in a Fe:LiNbO3 medium with a 532 nm laser at two Bragg angles. We experimentally confirmed write rates are enhanced by an average factor of 1.1, and page crosstalk is about 2.5%. This hybrid multiplexing opens up a pathway to increase storage density while minimizing modification of current angular multiplexing HDSS.

  16. Quorums Systems as a Method to Enhance Collaboration for Achieving Fault Tolerance in Distributed System


    Ioan PETRI


    A system that implements the byzantine agreement algorithm is supposed to be very reliable and robust because of its fault tolerating feature. For very realistic environments, byzantine agreement protocols becomes inadequate, because they are based on the assumption that failures are controlled and they have unlimited severity. The byzantine agreement model works with a number of bounded failures that have to be tolerated. It is never concerned to identify these failures or to exclude them fr...

  17. Constellation Ground Systems Launch Availability Analysis: Enhancing Highly Reliable Launch Systems Design (United States)

    Gernand, Jeffrey L.; Gillespie, Amanda M.; Monaghan, Mark W.; Cummings, Nicholas H.


    Success of the Constellation Program's lunar architecture requires successfully launching two vehicles, Ares I/Orion and Ares V/Altair, in a very limited time period. The reliability and maintainability of flight vehicles and ground systems must deliver a high probability of successfully launching the second vehicle in order to avoid wasting the on-orbit asset launched by the first vehicle. The Ground Operations Project determined which ground subsystems had the potential to affect the probability of the second launch and allocated quantitative availability requirements to these subsystems. The Ground Operations Project also developed a methodology to estimate subsystem reliability, availability and maintainability to ensure that ground subsystems complied with allocated launch availability and maintainability requirements. The verification analysis developed quantitative estimates of subsystem availability based on design documentation; testing results, and other information. Where appropriate, actual performance history was used for legacy subsystems or comparative components that will support Constellation. The results of the verification analysis will be used to verify compliance with requirements and to highlight design or performance shortcomings for further decision-making. This case study will discuss the subsystem requirements allocation process, describe the ground systems methodology for completing quantitative reliability, availability and maintainability analysis, and present findings and observation based on analysis leading to the Ground Systems Preliminary Design Review milestone.

  18. Switching system for image enhancement and analysis of fused thermal and RGBD data (United States)

    Agaian, Sos S.; Sridharan, Vijay; Blanton, Michael, Jr.


    A number of methods have been developed in the past for color image enhancement, including retinex and color constancy algorithms. Retinex theory is based on psychophysical experiments using mondrian patterns. Recently, multi-scale retinex algorithms have been developed. They combine several "Retinex" outputs to produce a single output image which has both good dynamic range compression and color constancy, as well as good tonal rendition. Unfortunately, multi-scale retinex processing time is consuming. In this paper we present a new algorithm for color and thermal image enhancement. Additionally, an experimental prototype system for fusing the two data types with depth data to create a three-dimensional map of the datasets is presented. The image processing algorithm utilizes a combination of fourier domain and retinex algorithms. Different types of thermal and natural scene NASA images have been tested, along with other imagery. The primary advantages of the image processing algorithm are the reduced computational complexity and the contrast enhancement performance. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithm works well with underexposed images. The algorithm also gives better contrast enhancement in most cases, thus bringing out the true colors in the image. It thus helps in achieving both color constancy and local contrast enhancement. We compare the presented method with enhancement based on NASA's Multi-scale Retinex. Statistically and quantitatively, we have shown that our technique indeed results in enhanced images, with our argument validated by conducting experiments on human observers. Additionally, the fusion of 2-dimensional (2D) thermal, 2D RGB, and 3-dimensional (3D) depth data (TRGBD) can be analyzed and researched for the purpose of extrapolating thermal conductance and other thermal properties within a scanned environment. This will allow for the determination of energy assessments regarding structural boundaries, the effectiveness of

  19. Awareness and Detection of Traffic and Obstacles Using Synthetic and Enhanced Vision Systems (United States)

    Bailey, Randall E.


    Research literature are reviewed and summarized to evaluate the awareness and detection of traffic and obstacles when using Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) and Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS). The study identifies the critical issues influencing the time required, accuracy, and pilot workload associated with recognizing and reacting to potential collisions or conflicts with other aircraft, vehicles and obstructions during approach, landing, and surface operations. This work considers the effect of head-down display and head-up display implementations of SVS and EVS as well as the influence of single and dual pilot operations. The influences and strategies of adding traffic information and cockpit alerting with SVS and EVS were also included. Based on this review, a knowledge gap assessment was made with recommendations for ground and flight testing to fill these gaps and hence, promote the safe and effective implementation of SVS/EVS technologies for the Next Generation Air Transportation System

  20. Evaluation of a gaze-controlled vision enhancement system for reading in visually impaired people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Aguilar

    Full Text Available People with low vision, especially those with Central Field Loss (CFL, need magnification to read. The flexibility of Electronic Vision Enhancement Systems (EVES offers several ways of magnifying text. Due to the restricted field of view of EVES, the need for magnification is conflicting with the need to navigate through text (panning. We have developed and implemented a real-time gaze-controlled system whose goal is to optimize the possibility of magnifying a portion of text while maintaining global viewing of the other portions of the text (condition 1. Two other conditions were implemented that mimicked commercially available advanced systems known as CCTV (closed-circuit television systems-conditions 2 and 3. In these two conditions, magnification was uniformly applied to the whole text without any possibility to specifically select a region of interest. The three conditions were implemented on the same computer to remove differences that might have been induced by dissimilar equipment. A gaze-contingent artificial 10° scotoma (a mask continuously displayed in real time on the screen at the gaze location was used in the three conditions in order to simulate macular degeneration. Ten healthy subjects with a gaze-contingent scotoma read aloud sentences from a French newspaper in nine experimental one-hour sessions. Reading speed was measured and constituted the main dependent variable to compare the three conditions. All subjects were able to use condition 1 and they found it slightly more comfortable to use than condition 2 (and similar to condition 3. Importantly, reading speed results did not show any significant difference between the three systems. In addition, learning curves were similar in the three conditions. This proof of concept study suggests that the principles underlying the gaze-controlled enhanced system might be further developed and fruitfully incorporated in different kinds of EVES for low vision reading.

  1. Evaluation of a gaze-controlled vision enhancement system for reading in visually impaired people. (United States)

    Aguilar, Carlos; Castet, Eric


    People with low vision, especially those with Central Field Loss (CFL), need magnification to read. The flexibility of Electronic Vision Enhancement Systems (EVES) offers several ways of magnifying text. Due to the restricted field of view of EVES, the need for magnification is conflicting with the need to navigate through text (panning). We have developed and implemented a real-time gaze-controlled system whose goal is to optimize the possibility of magnifying a portion of text while maintaining global viewing of the other portions of the text (condition 1). Two other conditions were implemented that mimicked commercially available advanced systems known as CCTV (closed-circuit television systems)-conditions 2 and 3. In these two conditions, magnification was uniformly applied to the whole text without any possibility to specifically select a region of interest. The three conditions were implemented on the same computer to remove differences that might have been induced by dissimilar equipment. A gaze-contingent artificial 10° scotoma (a mask continuously displayed in real time on the screen at the gaze location) was used in the three conditions in order to simulate macular degeneration. Ten healthy subjects with a gaze-contingent scotoma read aloud sentences from a French newspaper in nine experimental one-hour sessions. Reading speed was measured and constituted the main dependent variable to compare the three conditions. All subjects were able to use condition 1 and they found it slightly more comfortable to use than condition 2 (and similar to condition 3). Importantly, reading speed results did not show any significant difference between the three systems. In addition, learning curves were similar in the three conditions. This proof of concept study suggests that the principles underlying the gaze-controlled enhanced system might be further developed and fruitfully incorporated in different kinds of EVES for low vision reading.

  2. A high-accuracy surgical augmented reality system using enhanced integral videography image overlay. (United States)

    Zhang, Xinran; Chen, Guowen; Liao, Hongen


    Image guided surgery has been used in clinic to improve the surgery safety and accuracy. Augmented reality (AR) technique, which can provide intuitive image guidance, has been greatly evolved these years. As one promising approach of surgical AR systems, integral videography (IV) autostereoscopic image overlay has achieved accurate fusion of full parallax guidance into surgical scene. This paper describes an image enhanced high-accuracy IV overlay system. A flexible optical image enhancement system (IES) is designed to increase the resolution and quality of IV image. Furthermore, we introduce a novel IV rendering algorithm to promote the spatial accuracy with the consideration of distortion introduced by micro lens array. Preliminary experiments validated that the image accuracy and resolution are improved with the proposed methods. The resolution of the IV image could be promoted to 1 mm for a micro lens array with pitch of 2.32 mm and IES magnification value of 0.5. The relative deviation of accuracy in depth and lateral directions are -4.68 ± 0.83% and -9.01 ± 0.42%.

  3. Performance Evaluation of an Enhanced Uplink 3.5G System for Mobile Healthcare Applications. (United States)

    Komnakos, Dimitris; Vouyioukas, Demosthenes; Maglogiannis, Ilias; Constantinou, Philip


    The present paper studies the prospective and the performance of a forthcoming high-speed third generation (3.5G) networking technology, called enhanced uplink, for delivering mobile health (m-health) applications. The performance of 3.5G networks is a critical factor for successful development of m-health services perceived by end users. In this paper, we propose a methodology for performance assessment based on the joint uplink transmission of voice, real-time video, biological data (such as electrocardiogram, vital signals, and heart sounds), and healthcare records file transfer. Various scenarios were concerned in terms of real-time, nonreal-time, and emergency applications in random locations, where no other system but 3.5G is available. The accomplishment of quality of service (QoS) was explored through a step-by-step improvement of enhanced uplink system's parameters, attributing the network system for the best performance in the context of the desired m-health services.

  4. Warming enhances nitrogen uptake by winter wheat under two tillage systems (United States)

    Hou, Ruixing


    Despite the perceived importance of N to wheat growth and production, few studies have attempted to examine the effects of warming on wheat N uptake patter or its preference for NO3-N, NH4+-N, especially under different tillage systems. In the North China Plain, an in situ 15N labelling study was conducted on winter wheat in which effects of experimental warming during the jointing stage under till and no-till tillage systems on uptake of total N and three forms of N (NO3-N, NH4+-N and glycine-N) was studied. Warming strongly enhanced wheat biomass and N content in both roots and shoots. Total N uptake rates increased by 40% and 47% under till and no-till treatments, respectively. Warming changed the uptake pattern of the three forms of N by significantly increasing the contributions of NO3-N and glycine-derived N, while decreasing the contribution of NH4+-N. Between the two tillage systems, wheat under no-till without warming obtained more N than till. However, warming was found to suppress N uptake under no-till relative to till. Collectively, high temperatures accelerate N sequestration in winter wheat and improve the preferential contribution of NO3-N due to high soil N availability and enhanced microbial activity.

  5. Pre-compensation combined with TS-aided and ISFA-enhanced scheme for UWB system (United States)

    He, Jing; Xiang, Changqing; Long, Fengting; Wu, Kaiquan; Chen, Lin


    In this paper, a pre-compensation combined with training sequence (TS)-aided and intra-symbol frequency-domain averaging (ISFA)-enhanced scheme is proposed to improve the transmission performance in 64-quadrature amplitude modulation multiband orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing ultra-wide band over fiber (64QAM MB-OFDM UWBoF) system. We theoretically analyze and experimentally demonstrate that the proposed scheme is suitable for the 64QAM MB-OFDM UWBoF system in contrast with two other cases: (I) only pilot-aided channel estimation and (II) pilot-aided and pre-compensation combined with ISFA-enhanced channel estimation. The experimental results demonstrate that the performance of system with the proposed scheme can be improved by about 1.25 dB and 0.37 dB compared with the case I and the case II, respectively, at the BER of 3.8×10-3 after 70 km transmission in standard single mode fiber (SSMF).

  6. Intelligent Agent-Based Intrusion Detection System Using Enhanced Multiclass SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ganapathy


    Full Text Available Intrusion detection systems were used in the past along with various techniques to detect intrusions in networks effectively. However, most of these systems are able to detect the intruders only with high false alarm rate. In this paper, we propose a new intelligent agent-based intrusion detection model for mobile ad hoc networks using a combination of attribute selection, outlier detection, and enhanced multiclass SVM classification methods. For this purpose, an effective preprocessing technique is proposed that improves the detection accuracy and reduces the processing time. Moreover, two new algorithms, namely, an Intelligent Agent Weighted Distance Outlier Detection algorithm and an Intelligent Agent-based Enhanced Multiclass Support Vector Machine algorithm are proposed for detecting the intruders in a distributed database environment that uses intelligent agents for trust management and coordination in transaction processing. The experimental results of the proposed model show that this system detects anomalies with low false alarm rate and high-detection rate when tested with KDD Cup 99 data set.

  7. Intelligent agent-based intrusion detection system using enhanced multiclass SVM. (United States)

    Ganapathy, S; Yogesh, P; Kannan, A


    Intrusion detection systems were used in the past along with various techniques to detect intrusions in networks effectively. However, most of these systems are able to detect the intruders only with high false alarm rate. In this paper, we propose a new intelligent agent-based intrusion detection model for mobile ad hoc networks using a combination of attribute selection, outlier detection, and enhanced multiclass SVM classification methods. For this purpose, an effective preprocessing technique is proposed that improves the detection accuracy and reduces the processing time. Moreover, two new algorithms, namely, an Intelligent Agent Weighted Distance Outlier Detection algorithm and an Intelligent Agent-based Enhanced Multiclass Support Vector Machine algorithm are proposed for detecting the intruders in a distributed database environment that uses intelligent agents for trust management and coordination in transaction processing. The experimental results of the proposed model show that this system detects anomalies with low false alarm rate and high-detection rate when tested with KDD Cup 99 data set.

  8. Intelligent Agent-Based Intrusion Detection System Using Enhanced Multiclass SVM (United States)

    Ganapathy, S.; Yogesh, P.; Kannan, A.


    Intrusion detection systems were used in the past along with various techniques to detect intrusions in networks effectively. However, most of these systems are able to detect the intruders only with high false alarm rate. In this paper, we propose a new intelligent agent-based intrusion detection model for mobile ad hoc networks using a combination of attribute selection, outlier detection, and enhanced multiclass SVM classification methods. For this purpose, an effective preprocessing technique is proposed that improves the detection accuracy and reduces the processing time. Moreover, two new algorithms, namely, an Intelligent Agent Weighted Distance Outlier Detection algorithm and an Intelligent Agent-based Enhanced Multiclass Support Vector Machine algorithm are proposed for detecting the intruders in a distributed database environment that uses intelligent agents for trust management and coordination in transaction processing. The experimental results of the proposed model show that this system detects anomalies with low false alarm rate and high-detection rate when tested with KDD Cup 99 data set. PMID:23056036

  9. Performance Evaluation of an Enhanced Uplink 3.5G System for Mobile Healthcare Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Komnakos


    Full Text Available The present paper studies the prospective and the performance of a forthcoming high-speed third generation (3.5G networking technology, called enhanced uplink, for delivering mobile health (m-health applications. The performance of 3.5G networks is a critical factor for successful development of m-health services perceived by end users. In this paper, we propose a methodology for performance assessment based on the joint uplink transmission of voice, real-time video, biological data (such as electrocardiogram, vital signals, and heart sounds, and healthcare records file transfer. Various scenarios were concerned in terms of real-time, nonreal-time, and emergency applications in random locations, where no other system but 3.5G is available. The accomplishment of quality of service (QoS was explored through a step-by-step improvement of enhanced uplink system's parameters, attributing the network system for the best performance in the context of the desired m-health services.

  10. A self-paced oral feeding system that enhances preterm infants' oral feeding skills. (United States)

    Lau, C; Fucile, S; Schanler, R J


    Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants have difficulty transitioning to independent oral feeding, be they breast- or bottle-feeding. We developed a 'self-paced' feeding system that eliminates the natural presence of the positive hydrostatic pressure and internal vacuum build-up within a bottle during feeding. Such system enhanced these infants' oral feeding performance as monitored by overall transfer (OT; % ml taken/ml prescribed), rate of transfer (RT; ml/min over an entire feeding). This study hypothesizes that the improvements observed in these infants resulted from their ability to use more mature oral feeding skills (OFS). 'Feeders and growers' born between 26-29 weeks gestation were assigned to a control or experimental group fed with a standard or self-paced bottle, respectively. They were monitored when taking 1-2 and 6-8 oral feedings/day. OFS was monitored using our recently published non-invasive assessment scale that identifies 4 maturity levels based on infants' RT and proficiency (PRO; % ml taken during the first 5 min of a feeding/total ml prescribed) during bottle feeding. Infants oral feeding outcomes, i.e., OT, RT, PRO, and OFS maturity levels were enhanced in infants fed with the self-paced vs. standard bottle (p ≤ 0.007). The improved oral feeding performance of VLBW infants correlated with enhanced OFS. This study is a first to recognize that VLBW infants' true OFS are more mature than recognized. We speculate that the physical properties inherent to standard bottles that are eliminated with the self-paced system interfere with the display of their true oral feeding potential thereby hindering their overall oral feeding performance.

  11. A self-paced oral feeding system that enhances preterm infants’ oral feeding skills (United States)

    Lau, C; Fucile, S; Schanler, RJ


    Aim Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants have difficulty transitioning to independent oral feeding, be they breast- or bottle-feeding. We developed a ‘self-paced’ feeding system that eliminates the natural presence of the positive hydrostatic pressure and internal vacuum build-up within a bottle during feeding. Such system enhanced these infants’ oral feeding performance as monitored by overall transfer (OT; % ml taken/ml prescribed), rate of transfer (RT; ml/min over an entire feeding). This study hypothesizes that the improvements observed in these infants resulted from their ability to use more mature oral feeding skills (OFS). Methods ‘Feeders and growers’ born between 26–29 weeks gestation were assigned to a control or experimental group fed with a standard or self-paced bottle, respectively. They were monitored when taking 1–2 and 6–8 oral feedings/day. OFS was monitored using our recently published non-invasive assessment scale that identifies 4 maturity levels based on infants’ RT and proficiency (PRO; % ml taken during the first 5 min of a feeding/total ml prescribed) during bottle feeding. Results Infants oral feeding outcomes, i.e., OT, RT, PRO, and OFS maturity levels were enhanced in infants fed with the self-paced vs. standard bottle (p ≤ 0.007). Conclusion The improved oral feeding performance of VLBW infants correlated with enhanced OFS. This study is a first to recognize that VLBW infants’ true OFS are more mature than recognized. We speculate that the physical properties inherent to standard bottles that are eliminated with the self-paced system interfere with the display of their true oral feeding potential thereby hindering their overall oral feeding performance. PMID:25999776

  12. Enhancement of the automatic ultrasonic signal processing system using digital technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, In Soo; Park, H. Y.; Suh, Y. S.; Kim, D. Hoon; Huh, S.; Sung, S. H.; Jang, G. S.; Ryoo, S. G.; Choi, J. H.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, J. C.; Kim, D. Hyun; Park, H. J.; Kim, Y. C.; Lee, J. P.; Park, C. H.; Kim, M. S


    The objective of this study is to develop the automatic ultrasonic signal processing system which can be used in the inspection equipment to assess the integrity of the reactor vessel by enhancing the performance of the ultrasonic signal processing system. Main activities of this study divided into three categories such as the development of the circuits for generating ultrasonic signal and receiving the signal from the inspection equipment, the development of signal processing algorithm and H/W of the data processing system, and the development of the specification for application programs and system S/W for the analysis and evaluation computer. The results of main activities are as follows 1) the design of the ultrasonic detector and the automatic ultrasonic signal processing system by using the investigation of the state-of-the-art technology in the inside and outside of the country. 2) the development of H/W and S/W of the data processing system based on the results. Especially, the H/W of the data processing system, which have both advantages of digital and analog controls through the real-time digital signal processing, was developed using the DSP which can process the digital signal in the real-time, and was developed not only firmware of the data processing system in order for the peripherals but also the test algorithm of specimen for the calibration. The application programs and the system S/W of the analysis/evaluation computer were developed. Developed equipment was verified by the performance test. Based on developed prototype for the automatic ultrasonic signal processing system, the localization of the overall ultrasonic inspection equipment for nuclear industries would be expected through the further studies of the H/W establishment of real applications, developing the S/W specification of the analysis computer. (author)

  13. Introduction of Enhanced Vision System and its Application for General Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Matyáš


    Full Text Available Enhanced Vision System (EVS technology has been developing since 1980s. The research itself has been mainly focused on controlling Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs. In this area, some methods were successfully tested, from take-off to landing. This paper is meant to be an introduction for further research and testing within general aviation area for use of EVS technology by high experienced as well as low experienced pilots in order to increase the level of safety during critical stages of flight.

  14. Enhanced fault-tolerant quantum computing in d-level systems. (United States)

    Campbell, Earl T


    Error-correcting codes protect quantum information and form the basis of fault-tolerant quantum computing. Leading proposals for fault-tolerant quantum computation require codes with an exceedingly rare property, a transversal non-Clifford gate. Codes with the desired property are presented for d-level qudit systems with prime d. The codes use n=d-1 qudits and can detect up to ∼d/3 errors. We quantify the performance of these codes for one approach to quantum computation known as magic-state distillation. Unlike prior work, we find performance is always enhanced by increasing d.

  15. Temporary Bridging Agents for use in Drilling and Completion of Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watters, Larry; Watters, Jeff; Sutton, Joy; Combs, Kyle; Bour, Daniel; Petty, Susan; Rose, Peter; Mella, Michael


    CSI Technologies, in conjunction with Alta Rock Energy and the University of Utah have undergone a study investigating materials and mechanisms with potential for use in Enhanced Geothermal Systems wells as temporary diverters or lost circulation materials. Studies were also conducted with regards to particle size distribution and sealing effectiveness using a lab-scale slot testing apparatus to simulate fractures. From the slot testing a numerical correlation was developed to determine the optimal PSD for a given fracture size. Field trials conducted using materials from this study were also successful.

  16. Low-Temperature Enhanced Geothermal System using Carbon Dioxide as the Heat-Transfer Fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastman, Alan D. [GreenFire Energy, Emeryville, CA (United States)


    This report describes work toward a supercritical CO2-based EGS system at the St. Johns Dome in Eastern Arizona, including a comprehensive literature search on CO2-based geothermal technologies, background seismic study, geological information, and a study of the possible use of metal oxide heat carriers to enhance the heat capacity of sCO2. It also includes cost estimates for the project, and the reasons why the project would probably not be cost effective at the proposed location.

  17. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal from activated sludge system; Eliminacion biologica del fosfor en aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pidre Bocardo, J. R.; Toja Santillana, J.; Alonso Alvarez, E. [Sevilla (Spain)


    A literature review of enhanced biological phosphorus removal was performed. This biological removal is based on the selective enrichment of bacteria accumulating inorganic polyphosphate, obtained at a cyclic regime of alternating anaerobic and aerobic conditions; or anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic zones for combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal. Some bacterial groups may to be implicate in this process, the gen Acinetobacter has been the most studied. In this paper a study of phosphorate forms from wastewater for a conventional activated sludge system is presented. (Author) 40 refs.

  18. Method and apparatus for enhancing reactor air-cooling system performance (United States)

    Hunsbedt, A.


    An enhanced decay heat removal system is disclosed for removing heat from the inert gas-filled gap space between the reactor vessel and the containment vessel of a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor. Multiple cooling ducts in flow communication with the inert gas-filled gap space are incorporated to provide multiple flow paths for the inert gas to circulate to heat exchangers which remove heat from the inert gas, thereby introducing natural convection flows in the inert gas. The inert gas in turn absorbs heat directly from the reactor vessel by natural convection heat transfer. 6 figs.

  19. Induced seismicity hazard and risk by enhanced geothermal systems: an expert elicitation approach


    Trutnevyte, Evelina; Azevedo, Ines L


    Induced seismicity is a concern for multiple geoenergy applications, including low-carbon Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). We present results of an international expert elicitation (N=14) on EGS induced seismicity hazard and risk. Using a hypothetical scenario of an EGS plant and its geological context, we show that expert best-guess estimates of annualized exceedance probabilities of a M≥3 event range from 0.2% to 95% during reservoir stimulation and 0.2% to 100% during operation. Best-gue...

  20. Enhanced single-particle brightness and photostability of semiconductor polymer dots by enzymatic oxygen scavenging system (United States)

    Liu, Zhihe; Yang, Yingkun; Sun, Zezhou; Wu, Changfeng


    Semiconductor polymer dots (Pdots) are emerging as an excellent fluorescent probe in biology and medicine. However, the photostability of Pdots can't meet the requirements of long term single-particle imaging and tracking applications. Here we describe the enhanced single-particle brightness and photostability of Pdots by using an efficient enzymatic oxygen scavenging system (OSS). Pdots with particle diameters of 21 nm and 43 nm (PFBT21 and PFBT43) were prepared by a nanoprecipitation method. Single-particle imaging and photobleaching were performed to investigate the effect of OSS on the per-particle brightness and photostability of Pdots. Our results indicate that the single-particle brightness of the PFBT21 Pdots in OSS was enhanced nearly two times as compare to the PFBT21 Pdots in water. The photobleaching percentages of PFBT21 and PFBT43 in OSS were determined to be 29% and 33%, respectively. These values are decreased by 2-3 times as compared to those of the same Pdots in water, indicating the significantly improved photostability of Pdots by OSS. This study provides a promising approach for enhancing photostability of Pdots in long term single-particle tracking.

  1. Enhancing future resilience in urban drainage system: Green versus grey infrastructure. (United States)

    Dong, Xin; Guo, Hao; Zeng, Siyu


    In recent years, the concept transition from fail-safe to safe-to-fail makes the application of resilience analysis popular in urban drainage systems (UDSs) with various implications and quantifications. However, most existing definitions of UDSs resilience are confined to the severity of flooding, while uncertainties from climate change and urbanization are not considered. In this research, we take into account the functional variety, topological complexity, and disturbance randomness of UDSs and define a new formula of resilience based on three parts of system severity, i.e. social severity affected by urban flooding, environmental severity caused by sewer overflow, and technological severity considering the safe operation of downstream facilities. A case study in Kunming, China is designed to compare the effect of green and grey infrastructure strategies on the enhancement of system resilience together with their costs. Different system configurations with green roofs, permeable pavement and storage tanks are compared by scenario analysis with full consideration of future uncertainties induced by urbanization and climate change. The research contributes to the development of sustainability assessment of urban drainage system with consideration of the resilience of green and grey infrastructure under future change. Finding the response measures with high adaptation across a variety of future scenarios is crucial to establish sustainable urban drainage system in a long term. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Flexible Grouping for Enhanced Energy Utilization Efficiency in Battery Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Diao


    Full Text Available As a critical subsystem in electric vehicles and smart grids, a battery energy storage system plays an essential role in enhancement of reliable operation and system performance. In such applications, a battery energy storage system is required to provide high energy utilization efficiency, as well as reliability. However, capacity inconsistency of batteries affects energy utilization efficiency dramatically; and the situation becomes more severe after hundreds of cycles because battery capacities change randomly due to non-uniform aging. Capacity mismatch can be solved by decomposing a cluster of batteries in series into several low voltage battery packs. This paper introduces a new analysis method to optimize energy utilization efficiency by finding the best number of batteries in a pack, based on capacity distribution, order statistics, central limit theorem, and converter efficiency. Considering both battery energy utilization and power electronics efficiency, it establishes that there is a maximum energy utilization efficiency under a given capacity distribution among a certain number of batteries, which provides a basic analysis for system-level optimization of a battery system throughout its life cycle. Quantitative analysis results based on aging data are illustrated, and a prototype of flexible energy storage systems is built to verify this analysis.

  3. Implementation of Hybrid Speech Dereverberation Systems and Proposing Dual Microphone Farsi Database in Order to Evaluating Enhancement Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Faghani


    Full Text Available In various applications, such as speech recognition and automatic teleconferencing, the recorded speech signals may be corrupted by both noise and reverberation. Reverberation causes a noticeable change in speech intelligibility and quality. In this research, firstly reverberation is described. There are some de-reverberation enhancement algorithms that use only one microphone. They mostly use inverse filtering and spectral subtraction as their sub-systems. On the other hand, there are many multi-microphone speech enhancement systems; Delay-and-sum beam former is the most famous amongst them. Moreover, several efficient approaches have been also reported that use linear prediction (LP residual signal, inverse filtering, and phase error. Despite the improvements and benefits gained by the use of several input microphones, considering the tradeoff between these gains and the complexity and computational cost forced by the use of more microphones, many researchers have focused on dual-microphones systems. So, a review on Microphone array signal processing is explained and then an arrangement for two microphones systems is proposed. As we want to evaluate these algorithms for Farsi speech signals, the problem of speech intelligibility assessment has been explained and a Farsi word list for Diagnostic Rhyme Test (DRT is presented.The structure of presented word list is similar to that of English DRT words. In this research, after a brief study of above-mentioned methods, we propose and implement some hybrid techniques to benefit from the advantages of several methods and achieve significant improvement in output signals. It will be shown that the proposed method performs superior to the state-of-the-art dereverberation algorithms.

  4. Website as Co-Created Decision Support System Towards Enhanced Experience of Solo City Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utomo Sarjono Putro


    Full Text Available Abstract. The linkage among information-intensive era, technology, and tourism industry build inseparable genetic relationship which is supposed to be realized in practice. Let alone in this digital era, the urgency to exploit information to the next level resulted in the need to bring a higher game on the technology in order to manage information effectively and efficiently. Tourism industry is categorized as complex system regarding the components substituted it. The diverse elements which interact with dynamics pace give birth to complex tasks to manage by the responsible parties and consequently enhance experience in tourism industry. Competing with complex situation, computerized decision system is urgently needed to collect and also distribute accurate knowledge of tourism industry, collaborate with both supporting public and private sectors, and gain rationality for all stakeholders in the system. Solo city, known also as Surakarta and located in Central Java (Indonesia, is obliged to do its tourism industry justice as it is an important vehicle for regional development of the city. Tourism industry of Solo city represents the major and significant contributor to the local economy to the point where tourism is the brand of Solo city. Taking the prior research finding, value orchestration platform to promote tourism in batik Solo industrial cluster into the reference, this study improves the model by highlighting the duality function the tourism website supposed to have using hashtag (# minings principle as the latest user interface technology. This study proposes a collaborative website platform as a co-created decision support system to enhance tourism experience for tourist as consumer and optimize management process for Department of Culture and Tourism of Solo city as provider. Keywords: Decision support system, hashtag mining, service-dominant logic, solo city, tourism experience

  5. Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Recommender Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning (RecSysTEL 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manouselis, Nikos; Drachsler, Hendrik; Verbert, Katrien; Santos, Olga


    Manouselis, N., Drachsler, H., Verbert, K., & Santos, O. C. (Eds.) (2012). Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Recommender Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning (RecSysTEL 2012). Published by CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 2012, Vol. 896.

  6. Mixing in a three‐phase system: Enhanced production of oil‐wet reservoirs by CO2 injection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jiménez‐Martínez, Joaquín; Porter, Mark L; Hyman, Jeffrey D; Carey, J. William; Viswanathan, Hari S


    We recreate three‐phase reservoir conditions (high‐pressure/temperature) using a microfluidics system and show that the use of scCO 2 for restimulation operations, such as hydraulic fracturing, can enhance mixing and production...

  7. Enhanced chlorine dioxide decay in the presence of metal oxides: Relevance to drinking water distribution systems

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Chao


    Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) decay in the presence of typical metal oxides occurring in distribution systems was investigated. Metal oxides generally enhanced ClO2 decay in a second-order process via three pathways: (1) catalytic disproportionation with equimolar formation of chlorite and chlorate, (2) reaction to chlorite and oxygen, and (3) oxidation of a metal in a reduced form (e.g., cuprous oxide) to a higher oxidation state. Cupric oxide (CuO) and nickel oxide (NiO) showed significantly stronger abilities than goethite (α-FeOOH) to catalyze the ClO2 disproportionation (pathway 1), which predominated at higher initial ClO2 concentrations (56-81 μM). At lower initial ClO2 concentrations (13-31 μM), pathway 2 also contributed. The CuO-enhanced ClO2 decay is a base-assisted reaction with a third-order rate constant of 1.5 × 10 6 M-2 s-1 in the presence of 0.1 g L -1 CuO at 21 ± 1 C, which is 4-5 orders of magnitude higher than in the absence of CuO. The presence of natural organic matter (NOM) significantly enhanced the formation of chlorite and decreased the ClO 2 disproportionation in the CuO-ClO2 system, probably because of a higher reactivity of CuO-activated ClO2 with NOM. Furthermore, a kinetic model was developed to simulate CuO-enhanced ClO 2 decay at various pH values. Model simulations that agree well with the experimental data include a pre-equilibrium step with the rapid formation of a complex, namely, CuO-activated Cl2O4. The reaction of this complex with OH- is the rate-limiting and pH-dependent step for the overall reaction, producing chlorite and an intermediate that further forms chlorate and oxygen in parallel. These novel findings suggest that the possible ClO2 loss and the formation of chlorite/chlorate should be carefully considered in drinking water distribution systems containing copper pipes. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  8. 6th International Conference in Methodologies and intelligent Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Prieta, Fernando; Mascio, Tania; Gennari, Rosella; Rodríguez, Javier; Vittorini, Pierpaolo


    The 6th International Conference in Methodologies and intelligent Systems for Technology Enhanced Learning held in Seville (Spain) is host by the University of Seville from 1st to 3rd June, 2016. The 6th edition of this conference expands the topics of the evidence-based TEL workshops series in order to provide an open forum for discussing intelligent systems for TEL, their roots in novel learning theories, empirical methodologies for their design or evaluation, stand-alone solutions or web-based ones. It intends to bring together researchers and developers from industry, the education field and the academic world to report on the latest scientific research, technical advances and methodologies.

  9. Spectroscopically Enhanced Method and System for Multi-Factor Biometric Authentication (United States)

    Pishva, Davar

    This paper proposes a spectroscopic method and system for preventing spoofing of biometric authentication. One of its focus is to enhance biometrics authentication with a spectroscopic method in a multifactor manner such that a person's unique ‘spectral signatures’ or ‘spectral factors’ are recorded and compared in addition to a non-spectroscopic biometric signature to reduce the likelihood of imposter getting authenticated. By using the ‘spectral factors’ extracted from reflectance spectra of real fingers and employing cluster analysis, it shows how the authentic fingerprint image presented by a real finger can be distinguished from an authentic fingerprint image embossed on an artificial finger, or molded on a fingertip cover worn by an imposter. This paper also shows how to augment two widely used biometrics systems (fingerprint and iris recognition devices) with spectral biometrics capabilities in a practical manner and without creating much overhead or inconveniencing their users.

  10. Controlled biomass removal - the key parameter to achieve enhanced biological phosphorus removal in biofilm systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgenroth, E.


    In contrast to enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) in activated sludge systems mass transfer processes have a major influence on overall phosphorus removal in biofilm reactors. Based on results from a laboratory scale sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) and from a mathematical model...... the influence of the following processes on EBPR in biofilms was evaluated: (1) mass transfer limitation for oxygen (2) mass transfer limitation for organic substrate, (3) lack of controlled removal of biomass from the system. It was shown that mass transfer of soluble components (oxygen and organic substrate......) had only a minor effect on overall phosphorus removal. Soluble components fully penetrate the biofilm at certain times during the SBBR cycle as a consequence of SBBR operation with large concentration variations over the cycle time. The limiting processes for EBPR is the efficient removal...

  11. Development of Models to Simulate Tracer Behavior in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Mark D.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Reimus, P. W.; Newell, D.; Watson, Tom B.


    A recent report found that power and heat produced from engineered (or enhanced) geothermal systems (EGSs) could have a major impact on the United States while incurring minimal environmental impacts. EGS resources differ from high-grade hydrothermal resources in that they lack sufficient temperature distributions, permeability/porosity, fluid saturation, or recharge of reservoir fluids. Therefore, quantitative characterization of temperature distributions and the surface area available for heat transfer in EGS is necessary for commercial development of geothermal energy. The goal of this project is to provide integrated tracer and tracer interpretation tools to facilitate this characterization. Modeling capabilities are being developed as part of this project to support laboratory and field testing to characterize engineered geothermal systems in single- and multi-well tests using tracers. The objective of this report is to describe the simulation plan and the status of model development for simulating tracer tests for characterizing EGS.

  12. Assessment of the State-Of-The-Art of Numerical Simulation of Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The reservoir features of importance in the operation of enhanced geothermal systems are described first (Section 2). The report then reviews existing reservoir simulators developed for application to HDR reservoirs (Section 3), hydrothermal systems (Section 4), and nuclear waste isolation (Section 5), highlighting capabilities relevant to the evaluation and assessment of EGS. The report focuses on simulators that include some representation of flow in fractures, only mentioning other simulators, such as general-purpose programs or groundwater models (Section 6). Following these detailed descriptions, the report summarizes and comments on the simulators (Section 7), and recommends a course of action for further development (Section 8). The references are included in Section 9. Appendix A contains contractual information, including a description of the original and revised scope of work for this study. Appendix B presents comments on the draft report from DOE reviewer(s) and the replies of the authors to those comments. [DJE-2005

  13. Functionality enhancement of industrialized optical fiber sensors and system developed for full-scale pavement monitoring. (United States)

    Wang, Huaping; Liu, Wanqiu; He, Jianping; Xing, Xiaoying; Cao, Dandan; Gao, Xipeng; Hao, Xiaowei; Cheng, Hongwei; Zhou, Zhi


    Pavements always play a predominant role in transportation. Health monitoring of pavements is becoming more and more significant, as frequently suffering from cracks, rutting, and slippage renders them prematurely out of service. Effective and reliable sensing elements are thus in high demand to make prognosis on the mechanical properties and occurrence of damage to pavements. Therefore, in this paper, various types of functionality enhancement of industrialized optical fiber sensors for pavement monitoring are developed, with the corresponding operational principles clarified in theory and the performance double checked by basic experiments. Furthermore, a self-healing optical fiber sensing network system is adopted to accomplish full-scale monitoring of pavements. The application of optical fiber sensors assembly and self-healing network system in pavement has been carried out to validate the feasibility. It has been proved that the research in this article provides a valuable method and meaningful guidance for the integrity monitoring of civil structures, especially pavements.

  14. Functionality Enhancement of Industrialized Optical Fiber Sensors and System Developed for Full-Scale Pavement Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaping Wang


    Full Text Available Pavements always play a predominant role in transportation. Health monitoring of pavements is becoming more and more significant, as frequently suffering from cracks, rutting, and slippage renders them prematurely out of service. Effective and reliable sensing elements are thus in high demand to make prognosis on the mechanical properties and occurrence of damage to pavements. Therefore, in this paper, various types of functionality enhancement of industrialized optical fiber sensors for pavement monitoring are developed, with the corresponding operational principles clarified in theory and the performance double checked by basic experiments. Furthermore, a self-healing optical fiber sensing network system is adopted to accomplish full-scale monitoring of pavements. The application of optical fiber sensors assembly and self-healing network system in pavement has been carried out to validate the feasibility. It has been proved that the research in this article provides a valuable method and meaningful guidance for the integrity monitoring of civil structures, especially pavements.

  15. Could non-destructive methodologies enhance the microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in pipeline systems? (United States)

    Al-Abbas, F.; Kakpovbia, A.; Mishra, B.; Olson, D.; Spear, J.


    Stringent corrosion management programs are being deployed by oil and gas industry to ensure the integrity of pipeline systems. Parts of this program are the corrosion protection systems and inspection detection methods included non-destructive techniques. Those measures induce remnant magnetic field (RMF) in the pipeline steel. Potentially the RMF could affect the corrosion process in the pipeline including microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Microorganisms in pipelines have surface charges and produce a wide variety of metabolic products. Consequently, when they are exposed to RMF generated at the linepipe steel surface by the aforementioned sources there will be potential effects. This sequentially will increase the likelihood of biofilm formation and hence enhance/promote MIC. This study investigates the potential effects of RFM on the MIC by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB).

  16. Enhancing improved heuristic drift elimination for step-and-heading based pedestrian dead-reckoning systems. (United States)

    Diez, Luis E; Bahillo, Alfonso; Bataineh, Safaa; Masegosa, Antonio D; Perallos, Asier


    Location based services can improve the quality of patient care and increase the efficiency of the healthcare systems. Among the different technologies that provide indoor positioning, inertial sensors based pedestrian dead-reckoning (PDR) is one of the more cost-effective solutions, but its performance is limited by drift problems. Regarding the heading drift, some heuristics make use of the building's dominant directions in order to reduce this problem. In this paper, we enhance the method known as improved heuristic drift elimination (iHDE) to be implemented in a Step-and-Heading (SHS) based PDR system, that allows to place the inertial sensors in almost any location of the user's body. Particularly, wrist-worn sensors will be used. Tests on synthetically generated and real data show that the iHDE method can be used in a SHS-based PDR without losing its heading drift reduction capability.

  17. Enhanced Geothermal Systems Project Development Solicitation - Final Report - 09/30/2000 - 02/01/2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Dennis L.


    The Enhanced Geothermal System concept is to develop the technology required to extract energy from the reduced permeability zones that underlie all high-temperature geothermal systems. Our concept is that injection wells will be drilled into the high temperature zone. The wells will identify fractures that are only poorly connected to the overlying reservoir. Water injected into these fractures will cause them to propagate through thermal contraction, increase in hydrostatic pressure, and reduction of effective stress. The fractures will connect with the overlying normal temperature reservoir, and steam will be produced from existing production wells. The injection water will generate high thermal quality steam while mitigating problems relating to high gas and chloride.

  18. Enhanced dibenzothiophene biodesulfurization by immobilized cells of Brevibacterium lutescens in n-octane-water biphasic system. (United States)

    Dai, Yong; Shao, Rong; Qi, Gang; Ding, Bin-Bin


    In this study, it was the first report that the Brevibacterium lutescens CCZU12-1 was employed as a sulfur removing bacteria. Using dibenzothiophene (DBT) as the sole sulfur source, B. lutescens could selectively degrade DBT into 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP) via the "4S" pathway. In the basal salt medium (BSM) supplemented with 0.25 mM DBT and 0.5 g/L Tween-80, high desulfurization rate (100 %) was obtained by growth cells after 60 h. Furthermore, the n-octane-water (10:90, v/v) biphasic system was built for the biodesulfurization by resting cells. Moreover, a combination of magnetic nano Fe3O4 particles with calcium alginate immobilization was used for enhancing biodesulfurization. In this n-octane-water biphasic system, immobilized B. lutescens cells could be reused for not less than four times. Therefore, B. lutescens CCZU12-1 shows high potential in the biodesulfurization.

  19. Michrohole Arrays Drilled with Advanced Abrasive Slurry Jet Technology to Efficiently Exploit Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oglesby, Kenneth [Impact Technologies, Tulsa, OK (United States); Finsterle, Stefan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhang, Yingqi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pan, Lehua [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dobson, Parick [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mohan, Ram [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States); Shoham, Ovadia [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States); Felber, Betty [Impact Technologies, Tulsa, OK (United States); Rychel, Dwight [Impact Technologies, Tulsa, OK (United States)


    This project had two major areas of research for Engineered/ Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) development - 1) study the potential benefits from using microholes (i.e., bores with diameters less than 10.16 centimeters/ 4 inches) and 2) study FLASH ASJ to drill/ install those microbores between a well and a fracture system. This included the methods and benefits of drilling vertical microholes for exploring the EGS reservoir and for installing multiple (forming an array of) laterals/ directional microholes for creating the in-reservoir heat exchange flow paths. Significant benefit was found in utilizing small microbore sized connecting bores for EGS efficiency and project life. FLASH ASJ was deemed too complicated to optimally work in such deep reservoirs at this time.

  20. A Targeted Attack For Enhancing Resiliency of Intelligent Intrusion Detection Modules in Energy Cyber Physical Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youssef, Tarek [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States); El Hariri, Mohammad [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Habib, Hani [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Mohammed, Osama [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Harmon, E [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States)


    Abstract— Secure high-speed communication is required to ensure proper operation of complex power grid systems and prevent malicious tampering activities. In this paper, artificial neural networks with temporal dependency are introduced for false data identification and mitigation for broadcasted IEC 61850 SMV messages. The fast responses of such intelligent modules in intrusion detection make them suitable for time- critical applications, such as protection. However, care must be taken in selecting the appropriate intelligence model and decision criteria. As such, this paper presents a customizable malware script to sniff and manipulate SMV messages and demonstrates the ability of the malware to trigger false positives in the neural network’s response. The malware developed is intended to be as a vaccine to harden the intrusion detection system against data manipulation attacks by enhancing the neural network’s ability to learn and adapt to these attacks.

  1. A Novel Feature Selection Strategy for Enhanced Biomedical Event Extraction Using the Turku System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbo Xia


    Full Text Available Feature selection is of paramount importance for text-mining classifiers with high-dimensional features. The Turku Event Extraction System (TEES is the best performing tool in the GENIA BioNLP 2009/2011 shared tasks, which relies heavily on high-dimensional features. This paper describes research which, based on an implementation of an accumulated effect evaluation (AEE algorithm applying the greedy search strategy, analyses the contribution of every single feature class in TEES with a view to identify important features and modify the feature set accordingly. With an updated feature set, a new system is acquired with enhanced performance which achieves an increased F-score of 53.27% up from 51.21% for Task 1 under strict evaluation criteria and 57.24% according to the approximate span and recursive criterion.

  2. Fibronectin and avidin-biotin as a heterogeneous ligand system for enhanced endothelial cell adhesion. (United States)

    Bhat, V D; Truskey, G A; Reichert, W M


    A preadsorbed layer of "heterogeneous" integrin-dependent and -independent protein was used to enhance initial integrin-mediated endothelial cell attachment and spreading. Glass substrates were treated with fibronectin (Fn) and avidin coupled through adsorbed biotinylated bovine serum albumin (b-BSA). The slides then were seeded with biotinylated BAEC. Control "homogeneous" surfaces were slides adsorbed with either Fn or avidin coupled to b-BSA. The cells were incubated for 0.5 h in serum-containing media and exposed to a range of shear stresses in a laminar flow variable-height flow chamber. The critical shear stress to detach 50% of the seeded cells on the heterogeneous ligand surface was significantly greater than for either of the control homogeneous ligand systems (p < 0.001). Cellular spreading during the initial period of 0-2 h also was higher (p < 0.05) on the heterogeneous ligand-treated surface than on the surface of either of the homogeneous controls. The close contact area of the cell membrane with the substrate 1 h after seeding in serum-containing media was measured using TIRFM. Cells attached onto the heterogeneous ligand-treated surfaces had a significantly (p < 0.01) higher area of close contact with the substrate, which is consistent with a greater degree of attachment and spreading. The results indicate that the combination of integrin-dependent and -independent adhesion systems using heterogeneous ligands further enhances initial endothelial cell attachment and spreading.

  3. Calcium effect on the metabolic pathway of phosphorus accumulating organisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems. (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Ling; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Fang, Wei; Wang, Yong-Peng; Fang, Cai-Yun; Shao, Li-Min; Yu, Han-Qing


    Phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) have been found to act as glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) under certain conditions, thus, the deterioration in the performance of enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems is not always attributed to the proliferation of GAOs. In this work, the effects of calcium on the metabolic pathway of PAOs were explored. It was found that when the influent Ca(2+) concentration was elevated, the tendency and extent of extracellular calcium phosphate precipitation increased, and the intracellular inert Ca-bound polyphosphate was synthesized, while the microbial population remained almost unchanged. The changes in the ratios of phosphorus released/acetate uptaken, the glycogen degraded/acetate uptaken and the poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates synthesized/acetate uptaken during the anaerobic period confirm that, as the influent Ca(2+) concentration was increased, the polyphosphate-accumulating metabolism was partially shifted to the glycogen-accumulating metabolism. At an influent Ca(2+) around 50 mg/L, in addition to the extracellular calcium phosphate precipitation, the intracellular inert Ca-bound polyphosphate synthesis might also be involved in the metabolic change of PAOs. The results of the present work would be beneficial to better understand the biochemical metabolism of PAOs in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Genistein attenuates hypoxic pulmonary hypertension via enhanced nitric oxide signaling and the erythropoietin system. (United States)

    Kuriyama, Sachiko; Morio, Yoshiteru; Toba, Michie; Nagaoka, Tetsutaro; Takahashi, Fumiyuki; Iwakami, Shin-Ichiro; Seyama, Kuniaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa


    Upregulation of the erythropoietin (EPO)/EPO receptor (EPOR) system plays a protective role against chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (hypoxic PH) through enhancement of endothelial nitric oxide (NO)-mediated signaling. Genistein (Gen), a phytoestrogen, is considered to ameliorate NO-mediated signaling. We hypothesized that Gen attenuates and prevents hypoxic PH. In vivo, Sprague-Dawley rats raised in a hypobaric chamber were treated with Gen (60 mkg/kg) for 21 days. Pulmonary hemodynamics and vascular remodeling were ameliorated in Gen-treated hypoxic PH rats. Gen also restored cGMP levels and phosphorylated endothelial NO synthase (p-eNOS) at Ser(1177) and p-Akt at Ser(473) expression in the lungs. Additionally, Gen potentiated plasma EPO concentration and EPOR-positive endothelial cell counts. In experiments with hypoxic PH rats' isolated perfused lungs, Gen caused NO- and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt-dependent vasodilation that reversed abnormal vasoconstriction. In vitro, a combination of EPO and Gen increased the p-eNOS and the EPOR expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells under a hypoxic environment. Moreover, Gen potentiated the hypoxic increase in EPO production from human hepatoma cells. We conclude that Gen may be effective for the prevention of hypoxic PH through the improvement of PI3K/Akt-dependent, NO-mediated signaling in association with enhancement of the EPO/EPOR system. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Enhancing Targeted Genomic DNA Editing in Chicken Cells Using the CRISPR/Cas9 System (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Yang, Likai; Guo, Yijie; Du, Weili; Yin, Yajun; Zhang, Tao; Lu, Hongzhao


    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has enabled highly efficient genome targeted editing for various organisms. However, few studies have focused on CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease-mediated chicken genome editing compared with mammalian genomes. The current study combined CRISPR with yeast Rad52 (yRad52) to enhance targeted genomic DNA editing in chicken DF-1 cells. The efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease-induced targeted mutations in the chicken genome was increased to 41.9% via the enrichment of the dual-reporter surrogate system. In addition, the combined effect of CRISPR nuclease and yRad52 dramatically increased the efficiency of the targeted substitution in the myostatin gene using 50-mer oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODN) as the donor DNA, resulting in a 36.7% editing efficiency after puromycin selection. Furthermore, based on the effect of yRad52, the frequency of exogenous gene integration in the chicken genome was more than 3-fold higher than that without yRad52. Collectively, these results suggest that ssODN is an ideal donor DNA for targeted substitution and that CRISPR/Cas9 combined with yRad52 significantly enhances chicken genome editing. These findings could be extensively applied in other organisms. PMID:28068387

  6. Sensitivity analysis of coupled processes and parameters on the performance of enhanced geothermal systems. (United States)

    Pandey, S N; Vishal, Vikram


    3-D modeling of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes in enhanced geothermal systems using the control volume finite element code was done. In a first, a comparative analysis on the effects of coupled processes, operational parameters and reservoir parameters on heat extraction was conducted. We found that significant temperature drop and fluid overpressure occurred inside the reservoirs/fracture that affected the transport behavior of the fracture. The spatio-temporal variations of fracture aperture greatly impacted the thermal drawdown and consequently the net energy output. The results showed that maximum aperture evolution occurred near the injection zone instead of the production zone. Opening of the fracture reduced the injection pressure required to circulate a fixed mass of water. The thermal breakthrough and heat extraction strongly depend on the injection mass flow rate, well distances, reservoir permeability and geothermal gradients. High permeability caused higher water loss, leading to reduced heat extraction. From the results of TH vs THM process simulations, we conclude that appropriate coupling is vital and can impact the estimates of net heat extraction. This study can help in identifying the critical operational parameters, and process optimization for enhanced energy extraction from a geothermal system.

  7. Development of a single vector system that enhances trans-splicing of SMN2 transcripts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan H Coady

    Full Text Available RNA modalities are developing as a powerful means to re-direct pathogenic pre-mRNA splicing events. Improving the efficiency of these molecules in vivo is critical as they move towards clinical applications. Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is caused by loss of SMN1. A nearly identical copy gene called SMN2 produces low levels of functional protein due to alternative splicing. We previously reported a trans-splicing RNA (tsRNA that re-directed SMN2 splicing. Now we show that reducing the competition between endogenous splices sites enhanced the efficiency of trans-splicing. A single vector system was developed that expressed the SMN tsRNA and a splice-site blocking antisense (ASO-tsRNA. The ASO-tsRNA vector significantly elevated SMN levels in primary SMA patient fibroblasts, within the central nervous system of SMA mice and increased SMN-dependent in vitro snRNP assembly. These results demonstrate that the ASO-tsRNA strategy provides insight into the trans-splicing mechanism and a means of significantly enhancing trans-splicing activity in vivo.

  8. Optimization of SBR system for enhanced biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Arbabi


    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was the optimization of the SBR system for enhanced biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal. Materials And Methods: A lab-scale SBR consisting filling, pre-anoxic, anerobic, anoxic, aerobic, settling, decanting, and idle phases was proposed for simultaneous enhanced biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal (SEBPNR from wastewater. Synthetic wastewater was used in this research. Glucose was used as a carbon source. The SBR was seeded with sludge from a local municipal wastewater treatment plant. Results: The results indicates that the lab-scale SBR was capable to remove soluble phosphorus (SP, SCOD, TCOD, and ammonia, with efficiencies of around 92%, 95%, 80%, and 85%, respectively. Optimized lab-scale SBR operational condition for SEBPNR consists of a fill (15 min, pre-anoxic (30 min, anerobic (90 min, 1st aerobic (210 min, 2nd anoxic (55 min, 2nd aerobic (10 min, settling (90 min, decant (10 min, and idle (10 min phases. Conclusion: This study concludes that effective biological removal of phosphorus and nitrogen from wastewater using SBR occurs in sufficient HRT in the anaerobic and aerobic stages, adequate COD/TP ratios (up to 35. This system is suitable for high removal of P and N in both municipal and industrial wastewater.

  9. AtlantOS - Optimizing and Enhancing the Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System (United States)

    Reitz, Anja; Visbeck, Martin; AtlantOS Consortium, the


    Ocean Cooperation. The EU Horizon 2020 AtlantOS project pools the efforts of 57 European and 5 non-European partners (research institutes, universities, marine service providers, multi-institutional organisations, and the private sector) from 18 countries to collaborate on optimizing and enhancing Atlantic Ocean observing. The project has a budget of € 21M for 4 years (April 2015 - June 2019) and is coordinated by GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Germany (Prof. Dr. Martin Visbeck). The project is organized along work packages on: i) observing system requirements and design studies, ii) enhancement of ship-based and autonomous observing networks, iii) interfaces with coastal ocean observing systems, iv) integration of regional observing systems, v) cross-cutting issues and emerging networks, vi) data flow and data integration, vii) societal benefits from observing /information systems, viii) system evaluation and resource sustainability. Engagement with wider stakeholders including end-users of Atlantic Ocean observation products and services will also be key throughout the project. The AtlantOS initiative contributes to achieving the aims of the Galway Statement on Atlantic Ocean Cooperation that was signed in 2013 by the EU, Canada and the US, launching a Transatlantic Ocean Research Alliance to enhance collaboration to better understand the Atlantic Ocean and sustainably manage and use its resources.

  10. [A web information system for enhancing management and improving special care services provided to dependent persons]. (United States)

    Alvarez-Bermejo, J A; Hernández-Capel, D M; Belmonte-Ureña, L J; Roca-Piera, J


    Ensuring the quality of services provided in centres where dependent persons are seen by specialist services, by improving and enhancing how information -salary, control of tasks, patients' records, etc.- is shared between staff and carers. A web information system has been developed and experimentally deployed to accomplish this. The accuracy of the system was evaluated by assessing how confident the employees were with it rather than relying on statistical data. It was experimentally deployed since January 2009 in Asociación de Personas con Discapacidad "El Saliente" that manages several day centres in Almeria, for dependent persons over 65 years old, particularly those affected by Alzheimer' disease. Incidence data was collected during the experimental period. A total of 84% of the employees thought that the system helped to manage documents, administrative duties, etc., and 92.4% said they could attend to really important tasks because the system was responsible for alerting them of every task, such as medication timetables, checking all patients were present (to prevent an Alzheimer affected person leaving the centre) etc. During this period the incidences reported were reduced by about a 30%, although data is still partially representative. As the life expectancy of the population gets longer, these centres will increase. Providing systems such as the one presented here would be of great help for administrative duties (sensitive data protection...) as well as ensuring high quality care and attention.

  11. Flight test comparison between enhanced vision (FLIR) and synthetic vision systems (United States)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.


    Limited visibility and reduced situational awareness have been cited as predominant causal factors for both Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) and runway incursion accidents. NASA"s Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing practical application technologies with the goal of eliminating low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. A major thrust of the SVS project involves the development/demonstration of affordable, certifiable display configurations that provide intuitive out-the-window terrain and obstacle information with advanced pathway guidance. A flight test evaluation was conducted in the summer of 2004 by NASA Langley Research Center under NASA's Aviation Safety and Security, Synthetic Vision System - Commercial and Business program. A Gulfstream G-V aircraft, modified and operated under NASA contract by the Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, was flown over a 3-week period at the Reno/Tahoe International Airport and an additional 3-week period at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility to evaluate integrated Synthetic Vision System concepts. Flight testing was conducted to evaluate the performance, usability, and acceptance of an integrated synthetic vision concept which included advanced Synthetic Vision display concepts for a transport aircraft flight deck, a Runway Incursion Prevention System, an Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS), and real-time Database Integrity Monitoring Equipment. This paper focuses on comparing qualitative and subjective results between EVS and SVS display concepts.

  12. Enhanced Central System of the Traversing Rod for High-Performance Rotor Spinning Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valtera Jan


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the improvement of central traversing system on rotor spinning machines, where rectilinear motion with variable stroke is used. A new system of traversing rod with implemented set of magnetic-mechanical energy accumulators is described. Mathematical model of this system is analysed in the MSC. Software Adams/View and verified by an experimental measurement on a real-length testing rig. Analysis results prove the enhancement of devised traversing system, where the overall dynamic force is reduced considerably. At the same time, the precision of the traversing movement over the machine length is increased. This enables to increase machine operating speed while satisfying both the maximal tensile strength of the traversing rod and also output bobbin size standards. The usage of the developed mathematical model for determination of the optimal number and distribution of accumulators over the traversing rod of optional parameters is proved. The potential of the devised system for high-performance rotor spinning machines with longer traversing rod is also discussed.

  13. Intelligent Control of UPFC for Enhancing Transient Stability on Multi-Machine Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Barati


    Full Text Available One of the benefit of FACTS devices is increase of stability in power systems with control active and reactive power at during the fault in power system. Although, the power system stabilizers (PSSs have been one of the most common controls used to damp out oscillations, this device may not produce enough damping especially to inter-area mode and therefore, there is an increasing interest in using FACTS devices to aid in damping of these oscillations. In This paper, UPFC is used for damping oscillations and to enhance the transient stability performance of power systems. The controller parameters are designed using an efficient version of the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy control scheme. The function based Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK fuzzy controller uses. For optimization parameters of fuzzy PI controller, the GA, PSO and HGAPSO algorithms are used. The computer simulation results, the effect of UPFC with conventional PI controller, fuzzy PI controller and intelligent controllers (GA, PSO and HGAPSO for damping the local-mode and inter-area mode of under large and small disturbances in the four-machine two-area power system evaluated and compared.

  14. Dose and image quality measurements for contrast-enhanced dual energy mammography systems (United States)

    Oduko, J. M.; Homolka, P.; Jones, V.; Whitwam, D.


    The results of patient dose surveys of two contrast-enhanced dual energy mammography systems are presented, showing mean glandular doses for both low and high energy components of the exposures. For one system the distribution of doses is of an unusual pattern, very different from that normally measured in patient dose surveys. The contribution of the high energy component of the exposure to the total is shown to be about 20% of that of the low energy component for this system. It is about 33% for the other system, for which the distribution of doses is similar to previously published surveys . A phantom containing disks with a range of different iodine content was used, with tissue-equivalent materials, to investigate the properties of one dual energy system. The iodine signal difference to noise ratio is suggested as a measure of image quality. It was found to remain practically constant as phantom thickness was varied, and increased only slowly (with a power relationship) as air kerma increased. Other measurements showed good reproducibility of the iodine signal difference, and that it was proportional to iodine concentration in the phantom. The iodine signal difference was found to be practically the same for a wide range of phantom thickness and glandularity.

  15. A Simple, Reliable, and Inexpensive Intraoperative External Expansion System for Enhanced Autologous Structural Fat Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo M. Oranges


    Full Text Available External volume expansion of the recipient site by suction has been proposed as a way of improving fat graft survival. The objective of this study was to present an innovative and simple intraoperative external expansion system to enhance small-volume autologous fat grafting (40–80 mL and to discuss its background and its mechanism of action. In this system, expansion is performed using a complete vacuum delivery system known as the Kiwi VAC-6000M with a PalmPump (Clinical Innovations. The recipient site is rapidly expanded intraoperatively 10 times for 30 seconds each with a negative pressure of up to 550 mm Hg before autologous fat injection. During this repetitive stimulation, the tissues become grossly expanded, developing macroscopic swelling that regresses slowly over the course of hours following the cessation of the stimulus. The system sets various mechanisms in motion, including scar release, mechanical stimulation, edema, ischemia, and inflammation, which provide an environment conducive for cell proliferation and angiogenesis. In order to maintain the graft construct in its expansive state, all patients are encouraged postoperatively to use the Kiwi three times daily for one minute per session over the course of three days. The handling of this system is simple for both the patients and the surgeon. Satisfactory clinical outcomes have been achieved without significant complications.

  16. Improving vaccine registries through mobile technologies: a vision for mobile enhanced Immunization information systems. (United States)

    Wilson, Kumanan; Atkinson, Katherine M; Deeks, Shelley L; Crowcroft, Natasha S


    Immunization registries or information systems are critical to improving the quality and evaluating the ongoing success of immunization programs. However, the completeness of these systems is challenged by a myriad of factors including the fragmentation of vaccine administration, increasing mobility of individuals, new vaccine development, use of multiple products, and increasingly frequent changes in recommendations. Mobile technologies could offer a solution, which mitigates some of these challenges. Engaging individuals to have more control of their own immunization information using their mobile devices could improve the timeliness and accuracy of data in central immunization information systems. Other opportunities presented by mobile technologies that could be exploited to improve immunization information systems include mobile reporting of adverse events following immunization, the capacity to scan 2D barcodes, and enabling bidirectional communication between individuals and public health officials. Challenges to utilizing mobile solutions include ensuring privacy of data, access, and equity concerns, obtaining consent and ensuring adoption of technology at sufficiently high rates. By empowering individuals with their own health information, mobile technologies can also serve as a mechanism to transfer immunization information as individuals cross local, regional, and national borders. Ultimately, mobile enhanced immunization information systems can help realize the goal of the individual, the healthcare provider, and public health officials always having access to the same immunization information. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  17. Integrated Computer-Enhanced Remote Viewing System. Quarterly report number 4, July--October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Interactive, Computer-Enhanced, Remote Viewing System (ICERVS) is a system designed to provide a reliable geometric description of a robotic task space in a fashion that enables robotic remediation to be carried out more efficiently and economically than with present systems. The key elements are a faithful way to store empirical data and a friendly user interface that provides an operator with timely access to all that is known about a scene. The development of ICERVS is to occur in three phases. Phase 1 will focus on the development of the Data Library, which contains the geometric data about the task space and the objects in it, and the Toolkit, which includes the mechanisms for manipulating and displaying both empirical and model data. Phase 2 will concentrate on integrating these subsystems with a sensor subsystem into one working system. Some additional functionality will be incorporated in the Data Library and Toolkit subsystems. Phase 3 will expand the configuration to meet the needs of a full scale demonstration of the interactive mapping of some waste site to be identified. The second Phase of the ICERVS project consists of nine tasks. Significant efforts were devoted to the completion of Task 1: Intermediate System Design, and Task 3: Computer Upgrade. This report describes progress in these two tasks.

  18. Spectral resolution enhancement of hyperspectral imagery by a multiple-aperture compressive optical imaging system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoover Fabian Rueda Chacon


    Full Text Available The Coded Aperture Snapshot Spectral Imaging (CASSI system captures the three-dimensional (3D spatio-spectral information of a scene using a set of two-dimensional (2D random-coded Focal Plane Array (FPA measurements. A compressive sensing reconstruc-tion algorithm is then used to recover the underlying spatio-spectral 3D data cube. The quality of the reconstructed spectral images depends exclusively on the CASSI sensing matrix, which is determined by the structure of a set of random coded apertures. In this paper, the CASSI system is generalized by developing a multiple-aperture optical imaging system such that spectral resolution en-hancement is attainable. In the proposed system, a pair of high-resolution coded apertures is introduced into the CASSI system, allow-ing it to encode both spatial and spectral characteristics of the hyperspectral image. This approach allows the reconstruction of super-resolved hyperspectral data cubes, where the number of spectral bands is significantly increased and the quality in the spatial domain is greatly improved. Extensively simulated experiments show a gain in the peak-signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR, along with a better fit of the reconstructed spectral signatures to the original spectral data.

  19. Optimal Forgery and Suppression of Ratings for Privacy Enhancement in Recommendation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Parra-Arnau


    Full Text Available Recommendation systems are information-filtering systems that tailor information to users on the basis of knowledge about their preferences. The ability of these systems to profile users is what enables such intelligent functionality, but at the same time, it is the source of serious privacy concerns. In this paper we investigate a privacy-enhancing technology that aims at hindering an attacker in its efforts to accurately profile users based on the items they rate. Our approach capitalizes on the combination of two perturbative mechanisms—the forgery and the suppression of ratings. While this technique enhances user privacy to a certain extent, it inevitably comes at the cost of a loss in data utility, namely a degradation of the recommendation’s accuracy. In short, it poses a trade-off between privacy and utility. The theoretical analysis of such trade-off is the object of this work. We measure privacy as the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the user’s and the population’s item distributions, and quantify utility as the proportion of ratings users consent to forge and eliminate. Equipped with these quantitative measures, we find a closed-form solution to the problem of optimal forgery and suppression of ratings, an optimization problem that includes, as a particular case, the maximization of the entropy of the perturbed profile. We characterize the optimal trade-off surface among privacy, forgery rate and suppression rate,and experimentally evaluate how our approach could contribute to privacy protection in a real-world recommendation system.

  20. Automation of a remote plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system using LabVIEW (United States)

    Sharma, Rajan; Fretwell, John L.; Vaihinger, Jochen; Banerjee, Sanjay K.


    The remote plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RPCVD) system is an experimental low temperature Si/Si-Ge epitaxy system. This paper describes an integrated hardware/software automation package developed for the RPCVD system. Aspects of the system controlled by the package include pneumatic gas valves, mass flow controllers (MFCs), and a temperature controller. The package was developed on an Apple Quadra 950 platform using LabVIEWTM 3.1 and associated data acquisition and control hardware supplied by National Instruments and other vendors. The software interface allows the user to operate the system through a virtual control panel which displays critical system parameters such as chamber pressure, chamber temperature and gas flow rates, along with the states of the gas valves and the MFCs. The system can also be run in the recipe mode, in which a sequence of steps are read in from an ExcelTM file. A simulation routine scans each recipe for possible errors such as violation of valve interlocks while the recipe is being loaded. All actions, whether in the manual mode or the recipe mode, are recorded in a log file. Finally, since many of the gases used in the RPCVD process are toxic and/or flammable, there is an emphasis on safety in the entire control scheme. A safety monitor routine constantly checks for valve interlocks and pressure-valve interlocks. Upon detecting an illegal state, it automatically takes necessary action to bring the system into a safe state. In addition to these software safety features, there are also hardware interlocks to deal with such situations as power outages.

  1. Hydrogels as scaffolds and delivery systems to enhance axonal regeneration after injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A. Carballo-Molina


    Full Text Available Damage caused to neural tissue by disease or injury frequently produces a discontinuity in the nervous system. Such damage generates diverse alterations that are commonly permanent, due to the limited regeneration capacity of the adult nervous system, particularly the Central Nervous System (CNS. The cellular reaction to noxious stimulus leads to several events such as the formation of glial and fibrous scars, which inhibit axonal regeneration in both the CNS and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS. Although in the PNS there is some degree of nerve regeneration, it is common that the growing axons reinnervate incorrect areas, causing mismatches. Providing a permissive substrate for axonal regeneration in combination with delivery systems for the release of molecules, which enhances axonal growth, could increase regeneration and the recovery of functions in the CNS or the PNS. Currently, there are no effective vehicles to supply growth factors or cells to the damaged/diseased nervous system. Hydrogels are polymers that are biodegradable, biocompatible and have the capacity to deliver a large range of molecules in situ. The inclusion of cultured neural cells into hydrogels forming three-dimensional structures allows the formation of synapses and neuronal survival. There is also evidence showing that hydrogels constitute an amenable substrate for axonal growth of endogenous or grafted cells, overcoming the presence of axonal regeneration inhibitory molecules, in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Recent experiments suggest that hydrogels can carry and deliver several proteins relevant for improving neuronal survival and axonal growth. Although the use of hydrogels is appealing, its effectiveness is still a matter of discussion, and more results are needed to achieve consistent recovery using different parameters. This review also discusses areas of opportunity where hydrogels can be applied, in order to promote axonal regeneration of


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Faizulaieva


    Full Text Available The reasonability for the usage of computer systems user voice in the authentication process is proved. The scientific task for improving the signal/noise ratio of the user voice signal in the authentication system is considered. The object of study is the process of input and output of the voice signal of authentication system user in computer systems and networks. Methods and means for input and extraction of voice signal against external interference signals are researched. Methods for quality enhancement of user voice signal in voice authentication systems are suggested. As modern computer facilities, including mobile ones, have two-channel audio card, the usage of two microphones is proposed in the voice signal input system of authentication system. Meanwhile, the task of forming a lobe of microphone array in a desired area of voice signal registration (100 Hz to 8 kHz is solved. The usage of directional properties of the proposed microphone array gives the possibility to have the influence of external interference signals two or three times less in the frequency range from 4 to 8 kHz. The possibilities for implementation of space-time processing of the recorded signals using constant and adaptive weighting factors are investigated. The simulation results of the proposed system for input and extraction of signals during digital processing of narrowband signals are presented. The proposed solutions make it possible to improve the value of the signal/noise ratio of the useful signals recorded up to 10, ..., 20 dB under the influence of external interference signals in the frequency range from 4 to 8 kHz. The results may be useful to specialists working in the field of voice recognition and speaker’s discrimination.

  3. Enhancing Understanding Of Coupled Human-Natural Systems Through Collaborative Learning (United States)

    Santelmann, M. V.; Chan, S.; Morzillo, A.; Stebbins, A.; Wright, M.


    identify water related policies and actions they would like to see modeled. Participants assisted in compiling an interactive table of potential policies and actions organized by water use sector and policy type (e.g., regulatory vs. incentive based). Involvement of K-12 educators and development of innovative interdisciplinary courses has enhanced the broader impacts of the project and helped us achieve multiple project objectives. We present plans to build on initial collaborative learning experiences to promote project outcomes that will advance coupled human-natural systems research and enhance the utility of model outcomes in water management.

  4. Security enhancement of a biometric based authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems with nonce. (United States)

    Mishra, Dheerendra; Mukhopadhyay, Sourav; Kumari, Saru; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Chaturvedi, Ankita


    Telecare medicine information systems (TMIS) present the platform to deliver clinical service door to door. The technological advances in mobile computing are enhancing the quality of healthcare and a user can access these services using its mobile device. However, user and Telecare system communicate via public channels in these online services which increase the security risk. Therefore, it is required to ensure that only authorized user is accessing the system and user is interacting with the correct system. The mutual authentication provides the way to achieve this. Although existing schemes are either vulnerable to attacks or they have higher computational cost while an scalable authentication scheme for mobile devices should be secure and efficient. Recently, Awasthi and Srivastava presented a biometric based authentication scheme for TMIS with nonce. Their scheme only requires the computation of the hash and XOR functions.pagebreak Thus, this scheme fits for TMIS. However, we observe that Awasthi and Srivastava's scheme does not achieve efficient password change phase. Moreover, their scheme does not resist off-line password guessing attack. Further, we propose an improvement of Awasthi and Srivastava's scheme with the aim to remove the drawbacks of their scheme.

  5. Enhancing role-based trust management with a reputation system for MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbani Rehan


    Full Text Available Abstract We start with role-based trust management (RBTM and address some of the challenges associated with using RBTM in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. We then enhance RBTM with reputation systems (RSs, and propose a new hybrid trust management system (HTMS. In HTMS, the privilege level of an entity is determined not only by its role in the system, but also by its reputation score, which in turn is based on its behavior. If a privileged node becomes compromised and conducts several malicious or risky transactions, then its privilege level is quickly reduced to limit its access to resources and minimize the damage it can inflict further. The system uses a global, network-wide perspective to thwart global attacks. Such fine-grained variations of access control and dynamically assigning privilege levels would be very difficult to accomplish manually. We evaluated HTMS by comparing an implementation of it against an ideal response. We show that HTMS performs very close to the ideal if we can accurately estimate the proportion of malicious nodes in the network. We suggest using sampling to estimate this proportion. However, even if this estimate is not accurate, the results are still much better than using RBTM by itself. EDICS: SYS-ARCH; SYS-PROT; FOR-DETE; SYS-INTR.

  6. Investigation of an enhanced mask data preparation system using unified mask data formats (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshio; Kuriyama, Koki; Hirumi, Junji; Yoshioka, Nobuyuki; Kawase, Hidemichi; Kamimoto, Tomoko


    Mask data preparation is a complicated process because many kinds of EB data files and jobdeck data files are used in mask manufacturers and EB data files continue to become bigger. Therefore we have started to develop new mask data format with efficient data compaction and unification among Variable-Shaped-Beam (VSB) EB mask writers. We have proposed the unified mask pattern data format for EB writers named "NEO"1 in the 22nd annual BACUS symposium. We have proposed the unified mask layout format named "MALY" 2 and the high-compression data processing system3 for NEO in Photomask Japan 2003, too. Then we have decided to develop an enhanced mask data preparation system using NEO4 and MALY5. This system has common MDP functions not to be related to each EB writer. That would be effective in reducing mask data handling cost. In this paper we introduce the abstract of NEO and MALY and new mask data preparation system using NEO and MALY.

  7. A System to Generate SignWriting for Video Tracks Enhancing Accessibility of Deaf People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Verdú


    Full Text Available Video content has increased much on the Internet during last years. In spite of the efforts of different organizations and governments to increase the accessibility of websites, most multimedia content on the Internet is not accessible. This paper describes a system that contributes to make multimedia content more accessible on the Web, by automatically translating subtitles in oral language to SignWriting, a way of writing Sign Language. This system extends the functionality of a general web platform that can provide accessible web content for different needs. This platform has a core component that automatically converts any web page to a web page compliant with level AA of WAI guidelines. Around this core component, different adapters complete the conversion according to the needs of specific users. One adapter is the Deaf People Accessibility Adapter, which provides accessible web content for the Deaf, based on SignWritting. Functionality of this adapter has been extended with the video subtitle translator system. A first prototype of this system has been tested through different methods including usability and accessibility tests and results show that this tool can enhance the accessibility of video content available on the Web for Deaf people.

  8. High sensitivity automated multiplexed immunoassays using photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence microfluidic system. (United States)

    Tan, Yafang; Tang, Tiantian; Xu, Haisheng; Zhu, Chenqi; Cunningham, Brian T


    We demonstrate a platform that integrates photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence (PCEF) detection of a surface-based microspot fluorescent assay with a microfluidic cartridge to achieve simultaneous goals of high analytic sensitivity (single digit pg/mL), high selectivity, low sample volume, and assay automation. The PC surface, designed to provide optical resonances for the excitation wavelength and emission wavelength of Cyanines 5 (Cy5), was used to amplify the fluorescence signal intensity measured from a multiplexed biomarker microarray. The assay system is comprised of a plastic microfluidic cartridge for holding the PC and an assay automation system that provides a leak-free fluid interface during introduction of a sequence of fluids under computer control. Through the use of the assay automation system and the PC embedded within the microfluidic cartridge, we demonstrate pg/mL-level limits of detection by performing representative biomarker assays for interleukin 3 (IL3) and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α). The results are consistent with limits of detection achieved without the use of the microfluidic device with the exception that coefficients of variability from spot-to-spot are substantially lower than those obtained by performing assays with manual manipulation of assay liquids. The system's capabilities are compatible with the goal of diagnostic instruments for point-of-care settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. RNA-guided complex from a bacterial immune system enhances target recognition through seed sequence interactions (United States)

    Wiedenheft, Blake; van Duijn, Esther; Bultema, Jelle B.; Waghmare, Sakharam P.; Zhou, Kaihong; Barendregt, Arjan; Westphal, Wiebke; Heck, Albert J. R.; Boekema, Egbert J.; Dickman, Mark J.; Doudna, Jennifer A.


    Prokaryotes have evolved multiple versions of an RNA-guided adaptive immune system that targets foreign nucleic acids. In each case, transcripts derived from clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) are thought to selectively target invading phage and plasmids in a sequence-specific process involving a variable cassette of CRISPR-associated (cas) genes. The CRISPR locus in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA14) includes four cas genes that are unique to and conserved in microorganisms harboring the Csy-type (CRISPR system yersinia) immune system. Here we show that the Csy proteins (Csy1–4) assemble into a 350 kDa ribonucleoprotein complex that facilitates target recognition by enhancing sequence-specific hybridization between the CRISPR RNA and complementary target sequences. Target recognition is enthalpically driven and localized to a “seed sequence” at the 5′ end of the CRISPR RNA spacer. Structural analysis of the complex by small-angle X-ray scattering and single particle electron microscopy reveals a crescent-shaped particle that bears striking resemblance to the architecture of a large CRISPR-associated complex from Escherichia coli, termed Cascade. Although similarity between these two complexes is not evident at the sequence level, their unequal subunit stoichiometry and quaternary architecture reveal conserved structural features that may be common among diverse CRISPR-mediated defense systems. PMID:21536913

  10. Translation system engineering in Escherichia coli enhances non-canonical amino acid incorporation into proteins. (United States)

    Gan, Rui; Perez, Jessica G; Carlson, Erik D; Ntai, Ioanna; Isaacs, Farren J; Kelleher, Neil L; Jewett, Michael C


    The ability to site-specifically incorporate non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) into proteins has made possible the study of protein structure and function in fundamentally new ways, as well as the bio synthesis of unnatural polymers. However, the task of site-specifically incorporating multiple ncAAs into proteins with high purity and yield continues to present a challenge. At the heart of this challenge lies the lower efficiency of engineered orthogonal translation system components compared to their natural counterparts (e.g., translation elements that specifically use a ncAA and do not interact with the cell's natural translation apparatus). Here, we show that evolving and tuning expression levels of multiple components of an engineered translation system together as a whole enhances ncAA incorporation efficiency. Specifically, we increase protein yield when incorporating multiple p-azido-phenylalanine(pAzF) residues into proteins by (i) evolving the Methanocaldococcus jannaschii p-azido-phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase anti-codon binding domain, (ii) evolving the elongation factor Tu amino acid-binding pocket, and (iii) tuning the expression of evolved translation machinery components in a single vector. Use of the evolved translation machinery in a genomically recoded organism lacking release factor one enabled enhanced multi-site ncAA incorporation into proteins. We anticipate that our approach to orthogonal translation system development will accelerate and expand our ability to site-specifically incorporate multiple ncAAs into proteins and biopolymers, advancing new horizons for synthetic and chemical biotechnology. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1074-1086. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Numerical analysis of global ionospheric current system including the effect of equatorial enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tsunomura


    Full Text Available A modeling method is proposed to derive a two-dimensional ionospheric layer conductivity, which is appropriate to obtain a realistic solution of the polar-originating ionospheric current system including equatorial enhancement. The model can be obtained by modifying the conventional, thin shell conductivity model. It is shown that the modification for one of the non-diagonal terms (Σθφ in the conductivity tensor near the equatorial region is very important; the term influences the profile of the ionospheric electric field around the equator drastically. The proposed model can reproduce well the results representing the observed electric and magnetic field signatures of geomagnetic sudden commencement. The new model is applied to two factors concerning polar-originating ionospheric current systems. First, the latitudinal profile of the DP2 amplitude in the daytime is examined, changing the canceling rate for the dawn-to-dusk electric field by the region 2 field-aligned current. It is shown that the equatorial enhancement would not appear when the ratio of the total amount of the region 2 field-aligned current to that of region 1 exceeds 0.5. Second, the north-south asymmetry of the magnetic fields in the summer solstice condition of the ionospheric conductivity is examined by calculating the global ionospheric current system covering both hemispheres simultaneously. It is shown that the positive relationship between the magnitudes of high latitude magnetic fields and the conductivity is clearly seen if a voltage generator is given as the source, while the relationship is vague or even reversed for a current generator. The new model, based on the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI model, can be applied to further investigations in the quantitative analysis of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling problems.Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; equatorial ionosphere; ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions

  12. Numerical analysis of global ionospheric current system including the effect of equatorial enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tsunomura

    Full Text Available A modeling method is proposed to derive a two-dimensional ionospheric layer conductivity, which is appropriate to obtain a realistic solution of the polar-originating ionospheric current system including equatorial enhancement. The model can be obtained by modifying the conventional, thin shell conductivity model. It is shown that the modification for one of the non-diagonal terms (Σθφ in the conductivity tensor near the equatorial region is very important; the term influences the profile of the ionospheric electric field around the equator drastically. The proposed model can reproduce well the results representing the observed electric and magnetic field signatures of geomagnetic sudden commencement. The new model is applied to two factors concerning polar-originating ionospheric current systems. First, the latitudinal profile of the DP2 amplitude in the daytime is examined, changing the canceling rate for the dawn-to-dusk electric field by the region 2 field-aligned current. It is shown that the equatorial enhancement would not appear when the ratio of the total amount of the region 2 field-aligned current to that of region 1 exceeds 0.5. Second, the north-south asymmetry of the magnetic fields in the summer solstice condition of the ionospheric conductivity is examined by calculating the global ionospheric current system covering both hemispheres simultaneously. It is shown that the positive relationship between the magnitudes of high latitude magnetic fields and the conductivity is clearly seen if a voltage generator is given as the source, while the relationship is vague or even reversed for a current generator. The new model, based on the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI model, can be applied to further investigations in the quantitative analysis of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling problems.

    Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; equatorial ionosphere; ionosphere

  13. Internal Flow Simulation of Enhanced Performance Solid Rocket Booster for the Space Transportation System (United States)

    Ahmad, Rashid A.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)


    An enhanced performance solid rocket booster concept for the space shuttle system has been proposed. The concept booster will have strong commonality with the existing, proven, reliable four-segment Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM) with individual component design (nozzle, insulator, etc.) optimized for a five-segment configuration. Increased performance is desirable to further enhance safety/reliability and/or increase payload capability. Performance increase will be achieved by adding a fifth propellant segment to the current four-segment booster and opening the throat to accommodate the increased mass flow while maintaining current pressure levels. One development concept under consideration is the static test of a "standard" RSRM with a fifth propellant segment inserted and appropriate minimum motor modifications. Feasibility studies are being conducted to assess the potential for any significant departure in component performance/loading from the well-characterized RSRM. An area of concern is the aft motor (submerged nozzle inlet, aft dome, etc.) where the altered internal flow resulting from the performance enhancing features (25% increase in mass flow rate, higher Mach numbers, modified subsonic nozzle contour) may result in increased component erosion and char. To assess this issue and to define the minimum design changes required to successfully static test a fifth segment RSRM engineering test motor, internal flow studies have been initiated. Internal aero-thermal environments were quantified in terms of conventional convective heating and discrete phase alumina particle impact/concentration and accretion calculations via Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. Two sets of comparative CFD simulations of the RSRM and the five-segment (IBM) concept motor were conducted with CFD commercial code FLUENT. The first simulation involved a two-dimensional axi-symmetric model of the full motor, initial grain RSRM. The second set of analyses

  14. Environmentally Friendly, Rheoreversible, Hydraulic-fracturing Fluids for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Hongbo; Kabilan, Senthil; Stephens, Sean A.; Suresh, Niraj; Beck, Anthon NR; Varga, Tamas; Martin, Paul F.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Jung, Hun Bok; Um, Wooyong; Bonneville, Alain; Heldebrant, David J.; Carroll, KC; Moore, Joseph; Fernandez, Carlos A.


    Cost-effective creation of high-permeability reservoirs inside deep crystalline bedrock is the primary challenge for the feasibility of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). Current reservoir stimulation entails adverse environmental impacts and substantial economic costs due to the utilization of large volumes of water “doped” with chemicals including rheology modifiers, scale and corrosion inhibitors, biocides, friction reducers among others where, typically, little or no information of composition and toxicity is disclosed. An environmentally benign, CO2-activated, rheoreversible fracturing fluid has recently been developed that significantly enhances rock permeability at effective stress significantly lower than current technology. We evaluate the potential of this novel fracturing fluid for application on geothermal sites under different chemical and geomechanical conditions, by performing laboratory-scale fracturing experiments with different rock sources under different confining pressures, temperatures, and pH environments. The results demonstrate that CO2-reactive aqueous solutions of environmentally amenable Polyallylamine (PAA) represent a highly versatile fracturing fluid technology. This fracturing fluid creates/propagates fracture networks through highly impermeable crystalline rock at significantly lower effective stress as compared to control experiments where no PAA was present, and permeability enhancement was significantly increased for PAA compared to conventional hydraulic fracturing controls. This was evident in all experiments, including variable rock source/type, operation pressure and temperature (over the entire range for EGS applications), as well as over a wide range of formation-water pH values. This versatile novel fracturing fluid technology represents a great alternative to industrially available fracturing fluids for cost-effective and competitive geothermal energy production.

  15. Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote Viewing System (ICERVS): Subsystem design report - Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.A.


    This ICERVS Phase II Subsystem Design Report describes the detailed software design of the Phase II Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote Viewing System (ICERVS). ICERVS is a computer-based system that provides data acquisition, data visualization, data analysis, and model synthesis to support robotic remediation of hazardous environments. Due to the risks associated with hazardous environments, remediation must be conducted remotely using robotic systems, which, in turn, must rely on 3D models of their workspace to support both task and path planning with collision avoidance. Tools such as ICERVS are vital to accomplish remediation tasks in a safe, efficient manner. The 3D models used by robotic systems are based on solid modeling methods, in which objects are represented by enclosing surfaces (polygons, quadric surfaces, patches, etc.) or collections of primitive solids (cubes, cylinders, etc.). In general, these 3D models must be created and/or verified by actual measurements made in the robotics workspace. However, measurement data is empirical in nature, with typical output being a collection of xyz triplets that represent sample points on some surface(s) in the workspace. As such, empirical data cannot be readily analyzed in terms of geometric representations used in robotic workspace models. The primary objective of ICERVS is to provide a reliable description of a workspace based on dimensional measurement data and to convert that description into 3D models that can be used by robotic systems. ICERVS will thus serve as a critical factor to allow robotic remediation tasks to be performed more effectively (faster, safer) and economically than with present systems.

  16. Resolution enhancement for an OCT system applied to multiple-layer information extraction (United States)

    Cai, Xianyang; Chang, Shoude; Murdock, Erroll; Flueraru, Costel


    Optical coherent tomography (OCT) is a newly developed optical imaging technology that permits high-resolution cross-sectional imaging of an object. Most of the OCT imaging systems is developed for the biomedical applications, such as diagnostics of ophthalmology, dermatology, dentistry and cardiology. The technique behind these applications is the point scanning of laser beam penetrating into an object to obtain the internal features of the object. In this paper, we study a full-field OCT imaging system for acquiring information from a multi-layer information chip. This new system can be used in document security, identification and industrial inspection. Differing from the biology related samples, the information chip consists of a number of thin layers with information coded on their surfaces. The surfaces of the layers are flat and specular with moderate reflectance. The information on one layer is retrieved through demodulating interference image of that layer. To obtain the tomography image of all the layers, the images in each layer are acquired and separated. The axial resolution of the system, usually defined by coherent length of light source, determines how close the separation of the two vicinal layers can be resolved. In this paper we explore a new approach to enhance the axial resolution of the OCT system. The method is based on a three-step phase shift algorithm to solve the tomography images from fused interference patterns. Theoretic study and simulation indicate that the method improves the system resolution and quality of retrieved tomography images for the multilayer information chip. Experiment results are also given in support of the proposed method.

  17. Enhanced bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using pilot-scale bioelectrochemical systems. (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Yazdi, Hadi; Jin, Song; Zuo, Yi; Fallgren, Paul H; Ren, Zhiyong Jason


    Two column-type bioelectrochemical system (BES) modules were installed into a 50-L pilot scale reactor packed with diesel-contaminated soils to investigate the enhancement of passive biodegradation of petroleum compounds. By using low cost electrodes such as biochar and graphite granule as non-exhaustible solid-state electron acceptors, the results show that 82.1-89.7% of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was degraded after 120 days across 1-34 cm radius of influence (ROI) from the modules. This represents a maximum of 241% increase of biodegradation compared to a baseline control reactor. The current production in the BESs correlated with the TPH removal, reaching the maximum output of 70.4 ± 0.2 mA/m(2). The maximum ROI of the BES, deducting influence from the baseline natural attenuation, was estimated to be more than 90 cm beyond the edge of the reactor (34 cm), and exceed 300 cm should a non-degradation baseline be used. The ratio of the projected ROI to the radius of BES (ROB) module was 11-12. The results suggest that this BES can serve as an innovative and sustainable technology for enhanced in situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in large field scale, with additional benefits of electricity production and being integrated into existing field infrastructures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Group psychosocial program for enhancing psychological well-being of people with systemic lupus erythematosus. (United States)

    Ng, Petrus; Chan, Winky


    Emotional ups and downs are common among people with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) as they live with fears about treatment, pain from the illness and unexpected "flare-ups." The side effects of medications have a severe impact on their self-esteem and lead to psychological distress. This paper reports a study on the impact of a psychosocial group program on the self-esteem and psychosocial functioning of people with SLE. A total of 56 people with SLE were recruited to participate in a 6-week, 2.5-hour weekly session psychosocial group. The group served to equip members with knowledge and skills to cope with SLE and stress arising from the illness, to enhance their self-confidence and develop a positive attitude toward the illness, and to enhance their social support network. The members were assessed before the commencement and during the last session of the groups with Rosenberg's Self-esteem Inventory and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30). Results showed that members obtained better scores in self-esteem (p self-esteem and psychosocial functioning of people with SLE after the psychosocial group program. The implications for psychosocial programs for people with SLE are discussed.

  19. Fault Diagnosis Of A Water For Injection System Using Enhanced Structural Isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Morten; Blanke, Mogens; Düstegör, Dilek


    of the production. Early diagnosis of faults is hence of considerable interest for this process. This study investigates the properties of multiple matchings with respect to isolability and it suggests to explore the topologies of multiple use-modes for the process and to employ active techniques for fault......A water for injection system supplies chilled sterile water as solvent to pharmaceutical products. There are ultimate requirements to the quality of the sterile water, and the consequence of a fault in temperature or in flow control within the process may cause loss of one or more batches...... isolation to enhance structural isolability of faults. The suggested methods are validated on a high-fidelity simulation of the process....

  20. The effect of free nitrous acid on key anaerobic processes in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems. (United States)

    Ye, Liu; Pijuan, Maite; Yuan, Zhiguo


    In this study, the effect of nitrite/FNA on the anaerobic metabolism of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) is investigated. The results clearly show that FNA has a detrimental effect on the acetate uptake rate by both PAOs and GAOs, but this adverse effect is much stronger on PAOs than on GAOs. Also, when FNA was increased, phosphate release to acetate uptake ratio by PAOs increased substantially (250-300% compared to control), which was accompanied by decreases (40-60%) in glycogen degradation and PHA production to VFA uptake. In contrast, these ratios for GAOs remained constant or increased slightly towards the highest FNA concentration applied. These results indicate that the anaerobic metabolism of PAOs is more adversely affected than that of GAOs when FNA is present. This might provide a competitive advantage to GAOs over PAOs in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems when nitrite is present. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Polymeric micelles as a drug delivery system enhance cytotoxicity of vinorelbine through more intercellular accumulation. (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Fayun; Qin, Lei; Xiao, Fengying; Liang, Wei


    Polymeric micelles had been used as an efficacious carrier system for anti-cancer drug delivery. However, it is not clear whether the molecular mechanism of drug encapsulated in micelles is same as free drug. In this study, the mechanism of vinorelbine loaded in glycol-phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE) micelles (M-Vino) on tumor cells was investigated. Compared with free vinorelbine (Free Vino), M-Vino was more effective in inhibiting the growth of tumor cells in vitro, inducing G(2)/M phase arrest and apoptosis of tumor cells. M-Vino showed a faster entry and higher accumulation in 4T1 cells than free vinorelbine. Therefore, M-Vino destabilized microtubules, induced cell death, and enhanced its cytotoxicity through more intercellular accumulation of vinorelbine.

  2. Synchronization enhancement of indirectly coupled oscillators via periodic modulation in an optomechanical system. (United States)

    Du, Lei; Fan, Chu-Hui; Zhang, Han-Xiao; Wu, Jin-Hui


    We study the synchronization behaviors of two indirectly coupled mechanical oscillators of different frequencies in a doublecavity optomechanical system. It is found that quantum synchronization is roughly vanishing though classical synchronization seems rather good when each cavity mode is driven by an external field in the absence of temporal modulations. By periodically modulating cavity detunings or driving amplitudes, however, it is possible to observe greatly enhanced quantum synchronization accompanied with nearly perfect classical synchronization. The level of quantum synchronization observed here is, in particular, much higher than that for two directly coupled mechanical oscillators. Note also that the modulation on cavity detunings is more appealing than that on driving amplitudes when the robustness of quantum synchronization is examined against the bath's mean temperature or the oscillators' frequency difference.

  3. Using a Geographical-Information-System-Based Decision Support to Enhance Malaria Vector Control in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Chanda


    Full Text Available Geographic information systems (GISs with emerging technologies are being harnessed for studying spatial patterns in vector-borne diseases to reduce transmission. To implement effective vector control, increased knowledge on interactions of epidemiological and entomological malaria transmission determinants in the assessment of impact of interventions is critical. This requires availability of relevant spatial and attribute data to support malaria surveillance, monitoring, and evaluation. Monitoring the impact of vector control through a GIS-based decision support (DSS has revealed spatial relative change in prevalence of infection and vector susceptibility to insecticides and has enabled measurement of spatial heterogeneity of trend or impact. The revealed trends and interrelationships have allowed the identification of areas with reduced parasitaemia and increased insecticide resistance thus demonstrating the impact of resistance on vector control. The GIS-based DSS provides opportunity for rational policy formulation and cost-effective utilization of limited resources for enhanced malaria vector control.

  4. Controller Parameter Optimization for Nonlinear Systems Using Enhanced Bacteria Foraging Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rajinikanth


    Full Text Available An enhanced bacteria foraging optimization (EBFO algorithm-based Proportional + integral + derivative (PID controller tuning is proposed for a class of nonlinear process models. The EBFO algorithm is a modified form of standard BFO algorithm. A multiobjective performance index is considered to guide the EBFO algorithm for discovering the best possible value of controller parameters. The efficiency of the proposed scheme has been validated through a comparative study with classical BFO, adaptive BFO, PSO, and GA based controller tuning methods proposed in the literature. The proposed algorithm is tested in real time on a nonlinear spherical tank system. The real-time results show that, EBFO tuned PID controller gives a smooth response for setpoint tracking performance.

  5. Motorized adaptive compression system for enhancing venous return: A feasibility study on healthy individuals. (United States)

    Rahimi, Mahan; Blaber, Andrew P; Menon, Carlo


    Notwithstanding the extensive use of conventional compression devices in managing venous disorders, these modalities have shortages that diminish their treatment efficacy and lessen patient adherence to therapy. The purpose of this study was to develop an improved compression system that eliminates the flaws of the existing devices. A motorized bandage was designed that takes advantage of continuous feedback from force-sensing resistors to apply reproducible, controlled pressure on the lower extremities. The performance of the device in enhancing venous return was explored in a pilot test on 11 healthy participants, wherein graded lower body negative pressure was employed as a surrogate of passive standing. Each subject underwent two experiments; with and without pressure application over the calves. A two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a significant difference in the mean hemodynamic responses when the compression bandage was in action (p < .05). Specifically, a meaningful increase was observed in mean arterial pressure by 5%, diastolic blood pressure by 8% and left ventricular ejection time by 4%; and a significant decrease of 5% and 6% was noticed in heart rate and pulse pressure, respectively. These results demonstrate the capability of the designed system in attenuating the imposed orthostatic stress on cardiovascular system. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Energy Conservation in an Office Building Using an Enhanced Blind System Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edorta Carrascal-Lekunberri


    Full Text Available The two spaces office module is usually considered as a representative case-study to analyse the energetic improvement in office buildings. In this kind of buildings, the use of a model predictive control (MPC scheme for the climate system control provides energy savings over 15% in comparison to classic control policies. This paper focuses on the influence of solar radiation on the climate control of the office module under Belgian weather conditions. Considering MPC as main climate control, it proposes a novel distributed enhanced control for the blind system (BS that takes into account part of the predictive information of the MPC. In addition to the savings that are usually achieved by MPC, it adds a potential 15% improvement in global energy use with respect to the usually proposed BS hysteresis control. Moreover, from the simulation results it can be concluded that the thermal comfort is also improved. The proposed BS scheme increases the energy use ratio between the thermally activated building system (TABS and air-handling unit (AHU; therefore increasing the use of TABS and allowing economic savings, due to the use of more cost-effective thermal equipment.

  7. A MultiAir®/MultiFuel Approach to Enhancing Engine System Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Ronald [Chrysler Group LLC., Auburn Hills, MI (United States)


    FCA US LLC (formally known as Chrysler Group LLC, and hereinafter “Chrysler”) was awarded an American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funded project by the Department of Energy (DOE) titled “A MultiAir®/MultiFuel Approach to Enhancing Engine System Efficiency” (hereinafter “project”). This award was issued after Chrysler submitted a proposal for Funding Opportunity Announcement DE-FOA- 0000079, “Systems Level Technology Development, Integration, and Demonstration for Efficient Class 8 Trucks (SuperTruck) and Advanced Technology Powertrains for Light-Duty Vehicles (ATP-LD).” Chrysler started work on this project on June 01, 2010 and completed testing activities on August 30, 2014. Overall objectives of this project were; Demonstrate a 25% improvement in combined Federal Test Procedure (FTP) City and Highway fuel economy over a 2009 Chrysler minivan; Accelerate the development of highly efficient engine and powertrain systems for light-duty vehicles, while meeting future emissions standards; and Create and retain jobs in accordance with the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

  8. Synthetic and Enhanced Vision Systems for NextGen (SEVS) Simulation and Flight Test Performance Evaluation (United States)

    Shelton, Kevin J.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Ellis,Kyle K.; Rehfeld, Sherri A.


    The Synthetic and Enhanced Vision Systems for NextGen (SEVS) simulation and flight tests are jointly sponsored by NASA's Aviation Safety Program, Vehicle Systems Safety Technology project and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The flight tests were conducted by a team of Honeywell, Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation and NASA personnel with the goal of obtaining pilot-in-the-loop test data for flight validation, verification, and demonstration of selected SEVS operational and system-level performance capabilities. Nine test flights (38 flight hours) were conducted over the summer and fall of 2011. The evaluations were flown in Gulfstream.s G450 flight test aircraft outfitted with the SEVS technology under very low visibility instrument meteorological conditions. Evaluation pilots flew 108 approaches in low visibility weather conditions (600 ft to 2400 ft visibility) into various airports from Louisiana to Maine. In-situ flight performance and subjective workload and acceptability data were collected in collaboration with ground simulation studies at LaRC.s Research Flight Deck simulator.

  9. A New Concept for Geothermal Energy Extraction: The Radiator - Enhanced Geothermal System (United States)

    Hilpert, M.; Geiser, P.; Marsh, B. D.; Malin, P. E.; Moore, S.


    Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) in hot dry rock frequently underperform or fail due to insufficient reservoir characterization and poorly controlled permeability stimulation. Our new EGS design is based on the concept of a cooling radiator of an internal combustion engine, which we call the Radiator EGS (RAD-EGS). Within a hot sedimentary aquifer, we propose to construct vertically extensive heat exchanger vanes, which consist of rubblized zones of high permeability and which emulate a hydrothermal system. A "crows-foot" lateral drilling pattern at multiple levels is used to form a vertical array that includes S1 and Shmax. To create the radiator, we propose to use propellant fracing. System cool-down is delayed by regional background flow and induced upward flow of the coolant which initially heats the rock. Tomographic Fracture Imaging is used to image and control the permeability field changes. Preliminary heat transfer calculations suggest that the RAD-EGS will allow for commercial electricity production for at least several tens of years.

  10. Microbial selection on enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems fed exclusively with glucose. (United States)

    Begum, Shamim A; Batista, Jacimaria R


    The microbial selection on an enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) system was investigated in a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor fed exclusively with glucose as the carbon source. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization analysis was performed to target two polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) (i.e., Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis and Microlunatus phosphovorus) and two glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) (i.e., Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis and Micropruina glycogenica). The results show that glucose might not select for Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis. However, Microlunatus phosphovorus, Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis, and Micropruina glycogenica might be selected. The highest percent relative abundance (% RA) of Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis was about 42%; this occurred at the beginning of the experimental period when phosphorus removal was efficient. However, the % RA of these bacteria decreased, reaching below 4% at the end of the run. The maximum % RA of Microlunatus phosphovorus, Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis, and Micropruina glycogenica was about 21, 37, 17%, respectively. It appears that a higher glucose concentration might be detrimental for Microlunatus phosphovorus and Micropruina glycogenica. Results also indicate a dominance of GAOs over PAOs when EBPR systems are fed with glucose. It is possible that the GAOs outcompete the PAOs at low pH values; it has been reported that at low pH, GAOs use glycogen as the energy source to uptake glucose. As a result, P-removal deteriorated. Therefore, glucose is not a strong candidate as a carbon source to supplement EBPR systems that do not contain sufficient volatile fatty acids.

  11. Enhanced extended state observer-based control for systems with mismatched uncertainties and disturbances. (United States)

    Castillo, A; García, P; Sanz, R; Albertos, P


    This paper presents an enhanced Extended State Observer (ESO)-based control strategy to deal with the disturbance attenuation problem for a class of non integral-chain systems subject to non-linear mismatched uncertainties and external disturbances. The proposed control strategy does not assume the integral-chain form and it is formed by a state-feedback plus a dynamic disturbance compensation term, which is designed to reject the disturbance effect in the system output. From a theoretical point of view, the proposed strategy is reduced to the conventional ESO when the integral chain form and the matched condition hold. In this sense, this paper is presented as an extension of the ESO principles to cover a wider class of systems. The theoretical results show that the internal zero-dynamics plays an important role in ESO-based control design. Also, the closed-loop stability is analyzed and some numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposal in comparison with previous ESO-based techniques. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote Viewing System (ICERVS): Final report, November 1994--September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote Viewing System (ICERVS) is a software tool for complex three-dimensional (3-D) visualization and modeling. Its primary purpose is to facilitate the use of robotic and telerobotic systems in remote and/or hazardous environments, where spatial information is provided by 3-D mapping sensors. ICERVS provides a robust, interactive system for viewing sensor data in 3-D and combines this with interactive geometric modeling capabilities that allow an operator to construct CAD models to match the remote environment. Part I of this report traces the development of ICERVS through three evolutionary phases: (1) development of first-generation software to render orthogonal view displays and wireframe models; (2) expansion of this software to include interactive viewpoint control, surface-shaded graphics, material (scalar and nonscalar) property data, cut/slice planes, color and visibility mapping, and generalized object models; (3) demonstration of ICERVS as a tool for the remediation of underground storage tanks (USTs) and the dismantlement of contaminated processing facilities. Part II of this report details the software design of ICERVS, with particular emphasis on its object-oriented architecture and user interface.

  13. A partition enhanced mining algorithm for distributed association rule mining systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Ogunde


    Full Text Available The extraction of patterns and rules from large distributed databases through existing Distributed Association Rule Mining (DARM systems is still faced with enormous challenges such as high response times, high communication costs and inability to adapt to the constantly changing databases. In this work, a Partition Enhanced Mining Algorithm (PEMA is presented to address these problems. In PEMA, the Association Rule Mining Coordinating Agent receives a request and decides the appropriate data sites, partitioning strategy and mining agents to use. The mining process is divided into two stages. In the first stage, the data agents horizontally segment the databases with small average transaction length into relatively smaller partitions based on the number of available sites and the available memory. On the other hand, databases with relatively large average transaction length were vertically partitioned. After this, Mobile Agent-Based Association Rule Mining-Agents, which are the mining agents, carry out the discovery of the local frequent itemsets. At the second stage, the local frequent itemsets were incrementally integrated by the from one data site to another to get the global frequent itemsets. This reduced the response time and communication cost in the system. Results from experiments conducted on real datasets showed that the average response time of PEMA showed an improvement over existing algorithms. Similarly, PEMA incurred lower communication costs with average size of messages exchanged lower when compared with benchmark DARM systems. This result showed that PEMA could be efficiently deployed for efficient discovery of valuable knowledge in distributed databases.

  14. Enhanced power generation and wastewater treatment in sustainable biochar electrodes based bioelectrochemical system. (United States)

    Wang, Binwei; Wang, Zhifen; Jiang, Yong; Tan, Guangcai; Xu, Nan; Xu, Yang


    Corn-straw biochar (BC500 and BC900) and KOH modified biochar (BAC) were used as the electrode materials of bioelectrochemical system (BES). Compared to carbon felt (CF) electrodes BES, the maximum power density of BC500, BC900 and BAC anodes BES increased by 10.7%, 56.0% and 92.0%, and that of BC500, BC900 and BAC cathodes BES increased by 3.1, 5.2 and 4.8 times, respectively. The CF electrodes BES was optimized to decolor the AO7 simulated wastewater and 97% of AO7 was quickly degraded within 2h. When using biochar anodes, the decoloration rates were enhanced. The apparent rate constant (kapp) increased from 2.93h(-1) for CF anode BES to 3.58, 4.35 and 5.33h(-1) for BC500, BC900 and BAC anode system, respectively. AO7 could also be effectively decolored in biochar cathode systems, which was mainly due to adsorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancement of Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity in Spiking Neural Systems with Noise. (United States)

    Nobukawa, Sou; Nishimura, Haruhiko


    Synaptic plasticity is widely recognized to support adaptable information processing in the brain. Spike-timing-dependent plasticity, one subtype of plasticity, can lead to synchronous spike propagation with temporal spiking coding information. Recently, it was reported that in a noisy environment, like the actual brain, the spike-timing-dependent plasticity may be made efficient by the effect of stochastic resonance. In the stochastic resonance, the presence of noise helps a nonlinear system in amplifying a weak (under barrier) signal. However, previous studies have ignored the full variety of spiking patterns and many relevant factors in neural dynamics. Thus, in order to prove the physiological possibility for the enhancement of spike-timing-dependent plasticity by stochastic resonance, it is necessary to demonstrate that this stochastic resonance arises in realistic cortical neural systems. In this study, we evaluate this stochastic resonance phenomenon in the realistic cortical neural system described by the Izhikevich neuron model and compare the characteristics of typical spiking patterns of regular spiking, intrinsically bursting and chattering experimentally observed in the cortex.

  16. Cardinality enhancement utilizing Sequential Algorithm (SeQ) code in OCDMA system (United States)

    Fazlina, C. A. S.; Rashidi, C. B. M.; Rahman, A. K.; Aljunid, S. A.


    Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) has been important with increasing demand for high capacity and speed for communication in optical networks because of OCDMA technique high efficiency that can be achieved, hence fibre bandwidth is fully used. In this paper we will focus on Sequential Algorithm (SeQ) code with AND detection technique using Optisystem design tool. The result revealed SeQ code capable to eliminate Multiple Access Interference (MAI) and improve Bit Error Rate (BER), Phase Induced Intensity Noise (PIIN) and orthogonally between users in the system. From the results, SeQ shows good performance of BER and capable to accommodate 190 numbers of simultaneous users contrast with existing code. Thus, SeQ code have enhanced the system about 36% and 111% of FCC and DCS code. In addition, SeQ have good BER performance 10-25 at 155 Mbps in comparison with 622 Mbps, 1 Gbps and 2 Gbps bit rate. From the plot graph, 155 Mbps bit rate is suitable enough speed for FTTH and LAN networks. Resolution can be made based on the superior performance of SeQ code. Thus, these codes will give an opportunity in OCDMA system for better quality of service in an optical access network for future generation's usage

  17. Helical Face Gear Development Under the Enhanced Rotorcraft Drive System Program (United States)

    Heath, Gregory F.; Slaughter, Stephen C.; Fisher, David J.; Lewicki, David G.; Fetty, Jason


    U.S. Army goals for the Enhanced Rotorcraft Drive System Program are to achieve a 40 percent increase in horsepower to weight ratio, a 15 dB reduction in drive system generated noise, 30 percent reduction in drive system operating, support, and acquisition cost, and 75 percent automatic detection of critical mechanical component failures. Boeing s technology transition goals are that the operational endurance level of the helical face gearing and related split-torque designs be validated to a TRL 6, and that analytical and manufacturing tools be validated. Helical face gear technology is being developed in this project to augment, and transition into, a Boeing AH-64 Block III split-torque face gear main transmission stage, to yield increased power density and reduced noise. To date, helical face gear grinding development on Northstar s new face gear grinding machine and pattern-development tests at the NASA Glenn/U.S. Army Research Laboratory have been completed and are described.

  18. A suite of benchmark and challenge problems for enhanced geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Mark; Fu, Pengcheng; McClure, Mark; Danko, George; Elsworth, Derek; Sonnenthal, Eric; Kelkar, Sharad; Podgorney, Robert


    A diverse suite of numerical simulators is currently being applied to predict or understand the performance of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). To build confidence and identify critical development needs for these analytical tools, the United States Department of Energy, Geothermal Technologies Office sponsored a Code Comparison Study (GTO-CCS), with participants from universities, industry, and national laboratories. A principal objective for the study was to create a community forum for improvement and verification of numerical simulators for EGS modeling. Teams participating in the study were those representing U.S. national laboratories, universities, and industries, and each team brought unique numerical simulation capabilities to bear on the problems. Two classes of problems were developed during the study, benchmark problems and challenge problems. The benchmark problems were structured to test the ability of the collection of numerical simulators to solve various combinations of coupled thermal, hydrologic, geomechanical, and geochemical processes. This class of problems was strictly defined in terms of properties, driving forces, initial conditions, and boundary conditions. The challenge problems were based on the enhanced geothermal systems research conducted at Fenton Hill, near Los Alamos, New Mexico, between 1974 and 1995. The problems involved two phases of research, stimulation, development, and circulation in two separate reservoirs. The challenge problems had specific questions to be answered via numerical simulation in three topical areas: 1) reservoir creation/stimulation, 2) reactive and passive transport, and 3) thermal recovery. Whereas the benchmark class of problems were designed to test capabilities for modeling coupled processes under strictly specified conditions, the stated objective for the challenge class of problems was to demonstrate what new understanding of the Fenton Hill experiments could be realized via the application of

  19. A Code Intercomparison Study for THMC Simulators Applied to Enhanced Geothermal Systems (United States)

    Scheibe, T. D.; White, M. D.; Wurstner White, S.; Sivaramakrishnan, C.; Purohit, S.; Black, G.; Podgorney, R. K.; Phillips, B. R.; Boyd, L.


    Numerical simulation codes have become critical tools for understanding complex geologic processes, as applied to technology assessment, system design, monitoring, and operational guidance. Recently the need for quantitatively evaluating coupled Thermodynamic, Hydrologic, geoMechanical, and geoChemical (THMC) processes has grown, driven by new applications such as geologic sequestration of greenhouse gases and development of unconventional energy sources. Here we focus on Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), which are man-made geothermal reservoirs created where hot rock exists but there is insufficient natural permeability and/or pore fluids to allow efficient energy extraction. In an EGS, carefully controlled subsurface fluid injection is performed to enhance the permeability of pre-existing fractures, which facilitates fluid circulation and heat transport. EGS technologies are relatively new, and pose significant simulation challenges. To become a trusted analytical tool for EGS, numerical simulation codes must be tested to demonstrate that they adequately represent the coupled THMC processes of concern. This presentation describes the approach and status of a benchmarking and code intercomparison effort currently underway, supported by the U. S. Department of Energy's Geothermal Technologies Program. This study is being closely coordinated with a parallel international effort sponsored by the International Partnership for Geothermal Technology (IPGT). We have defined an extensive suite of benchmark problems, test cases, and challenge problems, ranging in complexity and difficulty, and a number of modeling teams are applying various simulation tools to these problems. The descriptions of the problems and modeling results are being compiled using the Velo framework, a scientific workflow and data management environment accessible through a simple web-based interface.

  20. Hanford Site ground-water model: Geographic information system linkages and model enhancements, FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurstner, S.K.; Devary, J.L.


    Models of the unconfined aquifer are important tools that are used to (1) identify and quantify existing, emerging, or potential ground-water quality problems, (2) predict changes in ground-water flow and contaminant transport as waste-water discharge operations change, and (3) assess the potential for contaminants to migrate from the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site through the ground water. Formerly, most of the numerical models developed at the Hanford Site were two-dimensional. However, contaminant concentrations cannot be accurately predicted with a two-dimensional model, which assumes a constant vertical distribution of contaminants in the aquifer. Development of two- and three-dimensional models of ground-water flow based on the Coupled Fluid, Energy, and Solute Transport (CFEST) code began in the mid- 1980s. The CFEST code was selected because of its ability to simulate both ground-water flow and contaminant transport. Physical processes that can be modeled by CFEST include aquifer geometry, heterogeneity, boundary conditions, and initial conditions. The CFEST ground-water modeling library has been integrated with the commercially available geographic information system (GIS) ARC/INFO. The display and analysis capabilities of a GIS are well suited to the size and diversity of databases being generated at the Hanford Site. The ability to visually inspect large databases through a graphical analysis tool provides a stable foundation for site assessments and ground-water modeling studies. Any ground-water flow model being used by an ongoing project should be continually updated and refined to reflect the most current knowledge of the system. The two-dimensional ground-water flow model being used in support of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project has recently been updated and enhanced. One major enhancement was the extension of the model area to include North Richland.

  1. Visual Advantage of Enhanced Flight Vision System During NextGen Flight Test Evaluation (United States)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Harrison, Stephanie J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Ellis, Kyle K.


    Synthetic Vision Systems and Enhanced Flight Vision System (SVS/EFVS) technologies have the potential to provide additional margins of safety for aircrew performance and enable operational improvements for low visibility operations in the terminal area environment. Simulation and flight tests were jointly sponsored by NASA's Aviation Safety Program, Vehicle Systems Safety Technology project and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to evaluate potential safety and operational benefits of SVS/EFVS technologies in low visibility Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) operations. The flight tests were conducted by a team of Honeywell, Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation and NASA personnel with the goal of obtaining pilot-in-the-loop test data for flight validation, verification, and demonstration of selected SVS/EFVS operational and system-level performance capabilities. Nine test flights were flown in Gulfstream's G450 flight test aircraft outfitted with the SVS/EFVS technologies under low visibility instrument meteorological conditions. Evaluation pilots flew 108 approaches in low visibility weather conditions (600 feet to 3600 feet reported visibility) under different obscurants (mist, fog, drizzle fog, frozen fog) and sky cover (broken, overcast). Flight test videos were evaluated at three different altitudes (decision altitude, 100 feet radar altitude, and touchdown) to determine the visual advantage afforded to the pilot using the EFVS/Forward-Looking InfraRed (FLIR) imagery compared to natural vision. Results indicate the EFVS provided a visual advantage of two to three times over that of the out-the-window (OTW) view. The EFVS allowed pilots to view the runway environment, specifically runway lights, before they would be able to OTW with natural vision.

  2. An enhanced mobile-healthcare emergency system based on extended chaotic maps. (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Chi; Hsu, Che-Wei; Lai, Yan-Ming; Vasilakos, Athanasios


    Mobile Healthcare (m-Healthcare) systems, namely smartphone applications of pervasive computing that utilize wireless body sensor networks (BSNs), have recently been proposed to provide smartphone users with health monitoring services and received great attentions. An m-Healthcare system with flaws, however, may leak out the smartphone user's personal information and cause security, privacy preservation, or user anonymity problems. In 2012, Lu et al. proposed a secure and privacy-preserving opportunistic computing (SPOC) framework for mobile-Healthcare emergency. The brilliant SPOC framework can opportunistically gather resources on the smartphone such as computing power and energy to process the computing-intensive personal health information (PHI) in case of an m-Healthcare emergency with minimal privacy disclosure. To balance between the hazard of PHI privacy disclosure and the necessity of PHI processing and transmission in m-Healthcare emergency, in their SPOC framework, Lu et al. introduced an efficient user-centric privacy access control system which they built on the basis of an attribute-based access control mechanism and a new privacy-preserving scalar product computation (PPSPC) technique. However, we found out that Lu et al.'s protocol still has some secure flaws such as user anonymity and mutual authentication. To fix those problems and further enhance the computation efficiency of Lu et al.'s protocol, in this article, the authors will present an improved mobile-Healthcare emergency system based on extended chaotic maps. The new system is capable of not only providing flawless user anonymity and mutual authentication but also reducing the computation cost.

  3. The Effects of Using the Kinect Motion-Sensing Interactive System to Enhance English Learning for Elementary Students (United States)

    Pan, Wen Fu


    The objective of this study was to test whether the Kinect motion-sensing interactive system (KMIS) enhanced students' English vocabulary learning, while also comparing the system's effectiveness against a traditional computer-mouse interface. Both interfaces utilized an interactive game with a questioning strategy. One-hundred and twenty…

  4. Effectiveness of computerized risk assessment system on enhancing workers' occupational health and attitudes towards occupational health. (United States)

    Ho, Wan-Yi; Sung, Connie Y Y; Yu, Qiu-Hua; Chan, Chetwyn C H


    Efforts have been paid to lower the health risks associated with use of computers at the workplace. Computerized risk assessment systems are available in the market for adoption by companies. The Display Screen Equipment Risk Assessment and Management System was designed for conducting risk assessment and providing intelligent-driven solutions for DSE-related occupational health problems. This report summarizes two consecutive research work conducted on evaluating its effect in reducing body discomfort and mental fatigue, and enhancing sedentary workers' occupational health. Convenience sampling was adopted to recruit participants (111 participants for Study 1 and 75 participants for Study 2 who were randomly assigned to an immediate or a delayed intervention group. The intervention was using DSE RAM System to perform a risk assessment followed by an immediate modification of participant's workstation based on the recommendations generated by the System. Face to face interview was conducted and participants completed three sets of questionnaires right before the assessment and two weeks after the intervention. The results of Study 1 revealed that the DSE RAM System was effective for alleviating the discomfort and fatigue levels by rectifying the workstation-worker match. These mismatches were identified to be the heights of monitor, keyboard and chair with the workers. The results of Study 2 indicate that the System was specific for promoting participants to take more frequent rest breaks (OR: 3.65) and pay more attention to occupational safety and health information (OR: 3.90). In particular, the take frequent rest breaks behavior was found to predict decrease in discomfort in the eyes and mental fatigue (lack of energy). Nevertheless, there was no strong evidence on the use of the System can lead to immediate attitudinal changes towards occupational health and safety. The findings support the notion that workers' participation and integration of ergonomics into

  5. Permeability enhancement during gold mineralization: Evidences from Kestanelik epithermal vein system, NW Turkey (United States)

    Gulyuz, Nilay; Shipton, Zoe; Kuscu, Ilkay; Lord, Richard A.; Gladwell, David R.; Kaymakci, Nuretdin


    The most favourable and principal mineral deposition mechanism in low sulphidation epithermal systems is boiling. Mineralization in these systems occurs dominantly as veins and stockworks; therefore, structures play major role in the localization of epithermal fluid flow. Epithermal fluids rise from depth along structural conduits at high temperatures under enough pressure to prevent boiling. When the pressure drops suddenly (for instance, through faulting or any fracturing), boiling occurs, and CO2 and H2S are released to the vapour phase. Change in fluid chemistry due to the boiling causes first the base metals, and then the ore and gangue minerals to deposit in a well-recognized temporal and vertical sequence until all open spaces are filled. Vein infill in epithermal deposits indicate that mineralization is multiphase and associated with repeated and episodic fluid flow rather than a steady-state process. How can permeability enhancement be achieved after deposition of minerals in fractures and faults chokes permeable pathways and restrict fluid flow? Although geochemical aspects of LS epithermal systems are well known, limited studies exist on the permeability enhancement mechanisms in LS epithermal veins. The main aim of the study is to understand the permeability enhancement mechanisms in epithermal gold deposits by focussing on the structures and quartz textures of a well-preserved low sulphidation epithermal quartz vein/breccia system in Lapseki, NW Turkey. We revealed the kinematics of the structure-vein network by mapping the geometries of epithermal quartz veins and associated structures and collecting detailed structural data from them. In addition, we determined the different phases of fluid flow and mineralization with the cross-cutting and structural relationships among them by examining the quartz textures and breccias and mapping their spatial distribution on vein outcrops and in drill cores with the help of thin section analyses. On-going work

  6. An Enhanced Access Reservation Protocol with a Partial Preamble Transmission Mechanism in NB-IoT Systems


    Kim, Taehoon; Kim, Dong Min; Pratas, Nuno; Popovski, Petar; Sung, Dan Keun


    In this letter, we propose an enhanced Access Reservation Protocol (ARP) with a partial preamble transmission (PPT) mechanism for the narrow band Internet of Things (NB-IoT) systems. The proposed ARP can enhance the ARP performance by mitigating the occurrence of preamble collisions, while being compatible with the conventional NB-IoT ARP. We provide an analytical model that captures the performance of the proposed ARP in terms of false alarm, mis-detection and collision probabilities. Moreov...

  7. The PIRATA Observing System in the Tropical Atlantic: Enhancements and perspectives (United States)

    Hernandez, Fabrice; Araujo, Moacyr; Bourlès, Bernard; Brandt, Peter; Campos, Edmo; Giordani, Hervé; Lumpkin, Rick; McPhaden, Michael J.; Nobre, Paulo; Saravanan, Ramalingam


    PIRATA (Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic) is a multinational program established to improve our knowledge and understanding of ocean-atmosphere variability in the tropical Atlantic, a region that strongly influences the regional hydro-climates and, consequently, the economies of the regions bordering the Atlantic Ocean (e.g. West Africa, North-Eastern Brazil, the West Indies and the United States). PIRATA is motivated not only by fundamental scientific questions but also by societal needs for improved prediction of climatic variability and its impacts. PIRATA, initiated in 1997, is based around an array of moored buoys providing meteorological and oceanographic measurements transmitted in real-time, disseminated via GTS and Global Data Servers. Then, through yearly mooring maintenance, recorded high frequency data are collected and calibrated. The dedicated cruises of yearly maintenance allow complementary acquisition of a large number of measurements along repeated ship track lines and also provide platforms for deployments of other components of the observing system. Several kinds of operations are carried out in collaboration with other international programs. PIRATA provides invaluable data for numerous and varied applications, among which are analyses of climate variability on intraseasonal-to-decadal timescales, equatorial dynamics, mixed-layer temperature and salinity budgets, air-sea fluxes, data assimilation, and weather and climate forecasts. PIRATA is now 20 years old, well established and recognized as the backbone of the tropical Atlantic sustained observing system. Several enhancements have been achieved during recent years, including progressive updating of mooring systems and sensors, also in collaborations with and as a contribution to other programs (such as EU PREFACE and AtlantOS). Recent major accomplishments in terms of air-sea exchanges and climate predictability will be highlighted in this presentation. Future

  8. Optimizing and Enhancing the Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System to enhance the societal, scientific and economic benefit (United States)

    Reitz, Anja; Karstensen, Johannes; Visbeck, Martin; AtlantOS Consortium, the


    Atlantic Ocean observation is currently undertaken through loosely-coordinated, in-situ observing networks, satellite observations and data management arrangements of heterogeneous international, national and regional design to support science and a wide range of information products. Thus there is tremendous opportunity to develop the systems towards a fully integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System consistent with the recently developed 'Framework of Ocean Observing'. The vision of AtlantOS is to improve and innovate Atlantic Ocean observing by establishing an international, more sustainable, more efficient, more integrated, and fit-for-purpose system. Hence, the EU Horizon 2020 project AtlantOS with its 62 partners from 18 countries (European and international) and several members will have a long-lasting and sustainable contribution to the societal, economic and scientific benefit by supporting the full cycle of the integrated ocean observation value chain from requirements via data gathering and observation, product generation, information, prediction, dissemination and stakeholder dialogue towards information and product provision. The benefits will be delivered by improving the value for money, extent, completeness, quality and ease of access to Atlantic Ocean data required by industries, product supplying agencies, scientist and citizens. The overarching target of the AtlantOS initiative is to deliver an advanced framework for the development of an integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System that goes beyond the state-of -the-art, and leaves a legacy of sustainability after the life of the project. The legacy will derive from the following aims: i) to improve international collaboration in the design, implementation and benefit sharing of ocean observing, ii) to promote engagement and innovation in all aspects of ocean observing, iii) to facilitate free and open access to ocean data and information, iv) to enable and disseminate methods of achieving quality

  9. Development of a novel oral delivery system of edaravone for enhancing bioavailability. (United States)

    Parikh, Ankit; Kathawala, Krishna; Tan, Chun Chuan; Garg, Sanjay; Zhou, Xin-Fu


    Edaravone (EDR), a strong free radical scavenger, is known for its promising therapeutic potential in oxidative stress (OS) associated diseases, however poor oral bioavailability is the major obstacle in its potential use. Oral liquid dosage form is the most preferred delivery method in paediatric, geriatric and specialised therapies. The present research discusses the development of a Novel Oral Delivery System (NODS) of EDR to enhance oral bioavailability. From preformulation study, solubility, and stability were identified as key challenges and the requirement of an acidic environment and protection against oxidation were found to be critical. The NODS made up of a mixture of Labrasol (LBS) and an acidic aqueous system, was optimized on the basis of solubility and stability study. It can be stored ≤40°C for at least one month. Drug release from NODS was slow, sustained and significantly better as compared to suspension. The significant reduction in metabolism and improvement in permeability across the small intestine were observed with NODS compared to free EDR. The oral pharmacokinetic study showed 571% relative bioavailability with NODS compared to EDR suspension. From the results obtained, NODS is a promising candidate for use in OS associated diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Progress toward understanding the distribution of Accumulibacter among full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems. (United States)

    He, Shaomei; Gu, April Z; McMahon, Katherine D


    This study investigated the role of Accumulibacter-related bacterial populations and factors influencing their distribution in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems in the USA. For this purpose, five full-scale wastewater treatment facilities performing EBPR were surveyed. The facilities had different configurations but were all treating primarily domestic wastewater. Two facilities had history of poor EBPR performance. Batch-scale acetate uptake and inorganic phosphate (P(i)) release and uptake experiments were conducted to evaluate the EBPR activity of each sludge. Typical P(i) and acetate profiles were observed, and EBPR activity was found to be positively correlated to polyphosphate (polyP)-accumulating organism (PAO) abundance, as determined by staining intracellular polyP. The abundance of Accumulibacter-related organisms was investigated using fluorescent in situ hybridization. Accumulibacter-related organisms were present in all full-scale EBPR facilities, at levels ranging from 9 to 24% of total cells. More than 80% of Accumulibacter-related organisms were estimated to have high polyP content, confirming their involvement in EBPR in these five facilities. However, Accumulibacter-related PAOs were only a fraction (40-69%) of the total PAO population. The variation of Accumulibacter-related PAO abundance among these EBPR systems suggests that multiple interacting factors such as wastewater characteristics and operational conditions are structuring PAO communities.

  11. Enhanced methods for determining operational capabilities and support costs of proposed space systems (United States)

    Ebeling, Charles


    This report documents the work accomplished during the first two years of research to provide support to NASA in predicting operational and support parameters and costs of proposed space systems. The first year's research developed a methodology for deriving reliability and maintainability (R & M) parameters based upon the use of regression analysis to establish empirical relationships between performance and design specifications and corresponding mean times of failure and repair. The second year focused on enhancements to the methodology, increased scope of the model, and software improvements. This follow-on effort expands the prediction of R & M parameters and their effect on the operations and support of space transportation vehicles to include other system components such as booster rockets and external fuel tanks. It also increases the scope of the methodology and the capabilities of the model as implemented by the software. The focus is on the failure and repair of major subsystems and their impact on vehicle reliability, turn times, maintenance manpower, and repairable spares requirements. The report documents the data utilized in this study, outlines the general methodology for estimating and relating R&M parameters, presents the analyses and results of application to the initial data base, and describes the implementation of the methodology through the use of a computer model. The report concludes with a discussion on validation and a summary of the research findings and results.

  12. Quantum-enhanced multi-parameter estimation for unitary photonic systems (United States)

    Liu, Nana; Cable, Hugo


    Precise device characterisation is a fundamental requirement for a large range of applications using photonic hardware, and constitutes a multi-parameter estimation problem. Estimates based on measurements using single photons or classical light have precision which is limited by shot noise, while quantum resources can be used to achieve sub-shot-noise precision. However, there are many open questions with regard to the best quantum protocols for multi-parameter estimation, including the ultimate limits to achievable precision, as well as optimal choices for probe states and measurements. In this paper, we develop a formalism based on Fisher information to tackle these questions for setups based on linear-optical components and photon-counting measurements. A key ingredient of our analysis is a mapping for equivalent protocols defined for photonic and spin systems, which allows us to draw upon results in the literature for general finite-dimensional systems. Motivated by the protocol in Zhou, et al Optica 2, 510 (2015), we present new results for quantum-enhanced tomography of unitary processes, including a comparison of Holland-Burnett and NOON probe states.

  13. Cooperation enhanced by indirect reciprocity in spatial prisoner's dilemma games for social P2P systems (United States)

    Tian, Lin-Lin; Li, Ming-Chu; Wang, Zhen


    With the growing interest in social Peer-to-Peer (P2P) applications, relationships of individuals are further exploited to improve the performances of reputation systems. It is an on-going challenge to investigate how spatial reciprocity aids indirect reciprocity in sustaining cooperation in practical P2P environments. This paper describes the construction of an extended prisoner's dilemma game on square lattice networks with three strategies, i.e., defection, unconditional cooperation, and reciprocal cooperation. Reciprocators discriminate partners according to their reputations based on image scoring, where mistakes in judgment of reputations may occur. The independent structures of interaction and learning neighborhood are discussed, with respect to the situation in which learning environments differ from interaction networks. The simulation results have indicated that the incentive mechanism enhances cooperation better in structured peers than among a well-mixed population. Given the realistic condition of inaccurate reputation scores, defection is still successfully held down when the players interact and learn within the unified neighborhoods. Extensive simulations have further confirmed the positive impact of spatial structure on cooperation with different sizes of lattice neighborhoods. And similar conclusions can also be drawn on regular random networks and scale-free networks. Moreover, for the separated structures of the neighborhoods, the interaction network has a critical effect on the evolution dynamics of cooperation and learning environments only have weaker impacts on the process. Our findings further provide some insights concerning the evolution of collective behaviors in social systems.

  14. Monitoring intracellular polyphosphate accumulation in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems by quantitative image analysis. (United States)

    Mesquita, Daniela P; Amaral, A Luís; Leal, Cristiano; Carvalheira, Mónica; Cunha, Jorge R; Oehmen, Adrian; Reis, Maria A M; Ferreira, Eugénio C


    A rapid methodology for intracellular storage polyphosphate (poly-P) identification and monitoring in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems is proposed based on quantitative image analysis (QIA). In EBPR systems, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) is usually combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization to evaluate the microbial community. The proposed monitoring technique is based on a QIA procedure specifically developed for determining poly-P inclusions within a biomass suspension using solely DAPI by epifluorescence microscopy. Due to contradictory literature regarding DAPI concentrations used for poly-P detection, the present work assessed the optimal DAPI concentration for samples acquired at the end of the EBPR aerobic stage when the accumulation occurred. Digital images were then acquired and processed by means of image processing and analysis. A correlation was found between average poly-P intensity values and the analytical determination. The proposed methodology can be seen as a promising alternative procedure for quantifying intracellular poly-P accumulation in a faster and less labour-intensive way.

  15. The binary eutectic of NSAIDS and two-phase liquid system for enhanced membrane permeation. (United States)

    Yuan, Xudong; Capomacchia, A C


    The eutectic properties of binary mixtures of some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with ibuprofen were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and phase equilibrium diagrams. The melting points of selected NSAIDs were significantly depressed due to binary eutectic formation with ibuprofen. Ketoprofen and ibuprofen were selected to study the effect of eutectic formation on membrane permeation using Franz diffusion cells and snake skin as the model membrane. The presence of aqueous isopropyl alcohol (IPA) was necessary to completely transform the solid drugs into an oily state at ambient temperature. As much as the 99.6% of ibuprofen and the 88.8% of ketoprofen added were found in the oily phase of the two-phase liquid system formed when aqueous IPA was added to the eutectic mixture. Due to the high drug concentration in the oily phase, and maximum thermodynamic activity, the two-phase liquid system showed enhanced membrane permeation rates of ibuprofen (37.5 microg/cm2/hr) and ketoprofen (33.4 microg/cm2/hr) compared to other reference preparations used.

  16. Enhancement of beam pulse controllability for a single-pulse formation system of a cyclotron. (United States)

    Kurashima, Satoshi; Miyawaki, Nobumasa; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okumura, Susumu; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro


    The single-pulse formation technique using a beam chopping system consisting of two types of high-voltage beam kickers was improved to enhance the quality and intensity of the single-pulse beam with a pulse interval over 1 μs at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency cyclotron facility. A contamination rate of neighboring beam bunches in the single-pulse beam was reduced to less than 0.1%. Long-term purification of the single pulse beam was guaranteed by the well-controlled magnetic field stabilization system for the cyclotron magnet. Reduction of the multi-turn extraction number for suppressing the neighboring beam bunch contamination was achieved by restriction of a beam phase width and precise optimization of a particle acceleration phase. In addition, the single-pulse beam intensity was increased by a factor of two or more by a combination of two types of beam bunchers using sinusoidal and saw-tooth voltage waveforms. Provision of the high quality intense single-pulse beam contributed to improve the accuracy of experiments for investigation of scintillation light time-profile and for neutron energy measurement by a time-of-flight method.

  17. Development of Models to Simulate Tracer Tests for Characterization of Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Mark D.; Reimus, Paul; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Rose, Peter; Dean, Cynthia A.; Watson, Tom B.; Newell, D.; Leecaster, Kevin; Brauser, Eric


    A recent report found that power and heat produced from enhanced (or engineered) geothermal systems (EGSs) could have a major impact on the U.S energy production capability while having a minimal impact on the environment. EGS resources differ from high-grade hydrothermal resources in that they lack sufficient temperature distribution, permeability/porosity, fluid saturation, or recharge of reservoir fluids. Therefore, quantitative characterization of temperature distributions and the surface area available for heat transfer in EGS is necessary for the design and commercial development of the geothermal energy of a potential EGS site. The goal of this project is to provide integrated tracer and tracer interpretation tools to facilitate this characterization. This project was initially focused on tracer development with the application of perfluorinated tracer (PFT) compounds, non-reactive tracers used in numerous applications from atmospheric transport to underground leak detection, to geothermal systems, and evaluation of encapsulated PFTs that would release tracers at targeted reservoir temperatures. After the 2011 midyear review and subsequent discussions with the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technology Program (GTP), emphasis was shifted to interpretive tool development, testing, and validation. Subsurface modeling capabilities are an important component of this project for both the design of suitable tracers and the interpretation of data from in situ tracer tests, be they single- or multi-well tests. The purpose of this report is to describe the results of the tracer and model development for simulating and conducting tracer tests for characterizing EGS parameters.

  18. Impact of enhanced geothermal systems on US energy supply in the twenty-first century. (United States)

    Tester, Jefferson W; Anderson, Brian J; Batchelor, Anthony S; Blackwell, David D; DiPippo, Ronald; Drake, Elisabeth M; Garnish, John; Livesay, Bill; Moore, Michal C; Nichols, Kenneth; Petty, Susan; Toksoz, M Nafi; Veatch, Ralph W; Baria, Roy; Augustine, Chad; Murphy, Enda; Negraru, Petru; Richards, Maria


    Recent national focus on the value of increasing US supplies of indigenous renewable energy underscores the need for re-evaluating all alternatives, particularly those that are large and well distributed nationally. A panel was assembled in September 2005 to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of geothermal becoming a major supplier of primary energy for US base-load generation capacity by 2050. Primary energy produced from both conventional hydrothermal and enhanced (or engineered) geothermal systems (EGS) was considered on a national scale. This paper summarizes the work of the panel which appears in complete form in a 2006 MIT report, 'The future of geothermal energy' parts 1 and 2. In the analysis, a comprehensive national assessment of US geothermal resources, evaluation of drilling and reservoir technologies and economic modelling was carried out. The methodologies employed to estimate geologic heat flow for a range of geothermal resources were utilized to provide detailed quantitative projections of the EGS resource base for the USA. Thirty years of field testing worldwide was evaluated to identify the remaining technology needs with respect to drilling and completing wells, stimulating EGS reservoirs and converting geothermal heat to electricity in surface power and energy recovery systems. Economic modelling was used to develop long-term projections of EGS in the USA for supplying electricity and thermal energy. Sensitivities to capital costs for drilling, stimulation and power plant construction, and financial factors, learning curve estimates, and uncertainties and risks were considered.

  19. Enhancing Hydrologic Modelling in the Coupled Weather Research and Forecasting-Urban Modelling System (United States)

    Yang, Jiachuan; Wang, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Fei; Miao, Shiguang; Tewari, Mukul; Voogt, James A.; Myint, Soe


    Urbanization modifies surface energy and water budgets, and has significant impacts on local and regional hydroclimate. In recent decades, a number of urban canopy models have been developed and implemented into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to capture urban land-surface processes. Most of these models are inadequate due to the lack of realistic representation of urban hydrological processes. Here, we implement physically-based parametrizations of urban hydrological processes into the single layer urban canopy model in the WRF model. The new single-layer urban canopy model features the integration of, (1) anthropogenic latent heat, (2) urban irrigation, (3) evaporation from paved surfaces, and (4) the urban oasis effect. The new WRF-urban modelling system is evaluated against field measurements for four different cities; results show that the model performance is substantially improved as compared to the current schemes, especially for latent heat flux. In particular, to evaluate the performance of green roofs as an urban heat island mitigation strategy, we integrate in the urban canopy model a multilayer green roof system, enabled by the physical urban hydrological schemes. Simulations show that green roofs are capable of reducing surface temperature and sensible heat flux as well as enhancing building energy efficiency.

  20. Colon preneoplasia after carcinogen exposure is enhanced and colonic serotonergic system is suppressed by food deprivation. (United States)

    Kannen, Vinicius; Fernandes, Cleverson R; Stopper, Helga; Zanette, Dalila L; Ferreira, Frederico R; Frajacomo, Fernando T; Carvalho, Milene C; Brandão, Marcus L; Elias Junior, Jorge; Jordão Junior, Alceu Afonso; Uyemura, Sérgio Akira; Waaga-Gasser, Ana Maria; Garcia, Sérgio B


    Calorie restriction regimens usually promote health and extend life-span in mammals. This is partially related to their preventive effects against malignancies. However, certain types of nutritional restriction failed to induce beneficial effects. The American Institute of Nutrition defines calorie restriction as diets which have only 40% fewer calories, but provide normal amounts of necessary food components such as protein, vitamins and minerals; whereas, food restriction means 40% less of all dietary ingredients plus 40% less calories. Our study aimed to test the hypothesis that the latter type of food deprivation (40% less food than consumed by standard fed rats) might increase cancer risk instead of reducing it, as is generally assumed for all dietary restrictive regimens. Since the endogenous modulation of the colon serotonergic system has been observed to play a role during the early steps of carcinogenesis we also investigated whether the serotoninergic system could be involved in the food intake modulation of cancer risk. For this, rats were exposed to a carcinogen and subjected to food deprivation for 56 days. Triglyceride levels and visceral adipose tissue were reduced while hepatic and colonic lipid peroxidation was increased. This dietary restriction also decreased serotonin levels in colon, and gene expression of its intestinal transporter and receptors. Finally, the numbers of preneoplastic lesions in the colon tissue of carcinogen-exposed rats were increased. Our data suggest that food deprivation enhances formation of early tumorigenic lesions by suppressing serotonergic activity in colon tissue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Poorva Devi


    Full Text Available So far, in cloud computing distinct customer is accessed and consumed enormous amount of services through web, offered by cloud service provider (CSP. However cloud is providing one of the services is, security-as-a-service to its clients, still people are terrified to use the service from cloud vendor. Number of solutions, security components and measurements are coming with the new scope for the cloud security issue, but 79.2% security outcome only obtained from the different scientists, researchers and other cloud based academy community. To overcome the problem of cloud security the proposed model that is, “Quality based Enhancing the user data protection via fuzzy rule based systems in cloud environment”, will helps to the cloud clients by the way of accessing the cloud resources through remote monitoring management (RMMM and what are all the services are currently requesting and consuming by the cloud users that can be well analyzed with Managed service provider (MSP rather than a traditional CSP. Normally, people are trying to secure their own private data by applying some key management and cryptographic based computations again it will direct to the security problem. In order to provide good quality of security target result by making use of fuzzy rule based systems (Constraint & Conclusion segments in cloud environment. By using this technique, users may obtain an efficient security outcome through the cloud simulation tool of Apache cloud stack simulator.

  2. Performance of an enhanced pervious pavement system loaded with large volumes of hydrocarbons. (United States)

    Newman, Alan P; Puehmeier, Tim; Shuttleworth, Andy; Pratt, Christopher J


    Five litres of lubricating oil and two 8.5 litre batches of diesel were deposited on each of two hydraulically isolated experimental enhanced pervious pavement parking bays. The 50 mm aggregate subbases of the two bays were of either recycled concrete or crushed limestone. The bays were constructed in such a way that a near-surface gravity separator was created by the arranging of the outlet pipes such that a permanent pool of water was maintained in the system and water could only enter from below the level of any floating oil. Dissolved/dispersed hydrocarbons were measured at acceptable concentrations when monitoring was carried out over a period of approximately 5 months. The maximum concentration was 7.2 mg/l and of all the samples collected only 3% exceeded the 5 mg/l limit applied in the UK for a class 1 interceptor, and the majority of samples had hydrocarbon concentrations of less than 2 mg/l. Much more significant is the fact that no free product was discharged from either system up to the time the experiment was dismantled 2 years from the first oil application despite the fact that sufficient hydrocarbon had been added to each pavement to produce a film on a water surface of over 500 hectares.

  3. Substrate Effect on Plasma Clean Efficiency in Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Ko JangJian


    Full Text Available The plasma clean in a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD system plays an important role to ensure the same chamber condition after numerous film depositions. The periodic and applicable plasma clean in deposition chamber also increases wafer yield due to less defect produced during the deposition process. In this study, the plasma clean rate (PCR of silicon oxide is investigated after the silicon nitride deposited on Cu and silicon oxide substrates by remote plasma system (RPS, respectively. The experimental results show that the PCR drastically decreases with Cu substrate compared to that with silicon oxide substrate after numerous silicon nitride depositions. To understand the substrate effect on PCR, the surface element analysis and bonding configuration are executed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR-ICP-MS is used to analyze microelement of metal ions on the surface of shower head in the PECVD chamber. According to Cu substrate, the results show that micro Cu ion and the CuOx bonding can be detected on the surface of shower head. The Cu ion contamination might grab the fluorine radicals produced by NF3 ddissociation in the RPS and that induces the drastic decrease on PCR.

  4. Opinion-enhanced collaborative filtering for recommender systems through sentiment analysis (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Hongwei


    The motivation of collaborative filtering (CF) comes from the idea that people often get the best recommendations from someone with similar tastes. With the growing popularity of opinion-rich resources such as online reviews, new opportunities arise as we can identify the preferences from user opinions. The main idea of our approach is to elicit user opinions from online reviews, and map such opinions into preferences that can be understood by CF-based recommender systems. We divide recommender systems into two types depending on the number of product category recommended: the multiple-category recommendation and the single-category recommendation. For the former, sentiment polarity in coarse-grained manner is identified while for the latter fine-grained sentiment analysis is conducted for each product aspect. If the evaluation frequency for an aspect by a user is greater than the average frequency by all users, it indicates that the user is more concerned with that aspect. If a user's rating for an aspect is lower than the average rating by all users, he or she is much pickier than others on that aspect. Through sentiment analysis, we then build an opinion-enhanced user preference model, where the higher the similarity between user opinions the more consistent preferences between users are. Experiment results show that the proposed CF algorithm outperforms baseline methods for product recommendation in terms of accuracy and recall.

  5. Enhancement of a high efficient autoinducible expression system in Bacillus subtilis by promoter engineering. (United States)

    Cheng, Jintao; Guan, Chengran; Cui, Wenjing; Zhou, Li; Liu, Zhongmei; Li, Weijiang; Zhou, Zhemin


    Quorum-sensing related promoter srfA (PsrfA) was used to construct autoinducible expression system for production of recombinant proteins in Bacillus subtilis. PsrfA was prominent in the unique property of inducer-free activity that is closely correlated with cell density. Here, using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as the reporter protein, PsrfA was optimized by shortening its sequences and changing the nucleotides at the conserved regions of -35 -15 and -10 regions, obtaining a library of PsrfA derivatives varied in the strength of GFP production. Among all the promoter mutants, the strongest promoter P10 was selected and the strength in GFP expression was 150% higher than that of PsrfA. Heterologous protein of aminopeptidase and nattokinase could be overexpressed by P10, the activities of which were 360% and 50% higher than that of PsrfA, respectively. These results suggested that the enhanced promoter P10 could be used to develop autoinducible expression system for overexpression of heterologous proteins in B. subtilis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Self-microemulsifying drug delivery system and nanoemulsion for enhancing aqueous miscibility of Alpinia galanga oil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattakanwadee Khumpirapang

    Full Text Available Alpinia galanga oil (AGO possesses various activities but low aqueous solubility limits its application particularly in aquatic animals. AGO has powerful activity on fish anesthesia. Ethanol used for enhancing water miscible of AGO always shows severe side effects on fish. The present study explores the development of self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS and nanoemulsions (NE to deliver AGO for fish anesthesia with less or no alcohol. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the best SMEDDS-AGO formulation, whereas NE-AGO were developed by means of high-energy emulsification. The mean droplet size of the best SMEDDS-AGO was 82 ± 0.5 nm whereas that of NE-AGO was 48 ± 1.6 nm. The anesthetic effect of the developed SMEDDS-AGO and NE-AGO in koi (Cyprinus carpio was evaluated and compared with AGO ethanolic solution (EtOH-AGO. It was found that the time of induction the fish to reach the surgical stage of anesthesia was dose dependent. NE-AGO showed significantly higher activity than SMEDDS-AGO and EtOH-AGO, respectively. EtOH-AGO caused unwanted hyperactivity in the fish. This side effect did not occur in the fish anesthetized with SMEDDS-AGO and NE-AGO. In conclusion, SMEDDS and NE are promising delivery systems for AGO.

  7. A Small-Molecule Screen for Enhanced Homing of Systemically Infused Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Levy


    Full Text Available Poor homing of systemically infused cells to disease sites may limit the success of exogenous cell-based therapy. In this study, we screened 9,000 signal-transduction modulators to identify hits that increase mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC surface expression of homing ligands that bind to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1, such as CD11a. Pretreatment of MSCs with Ro-31-8425, an identified hit from this screen, increased MSC firm adhesion to an ICAM-1-coated substrate in vitro and enabled targeted delivery of systemically administered MSCs to inflamed sites in vivo in a CD11a- (and other ICAM-1-binding domains-dependent manner. This resulted in a heightened anti-inflammatory response. This represents a new strategy for engineering cell homing to enhance therapeutic efficacy and validates CD11a and ICAM-1 as potential targets. Altogether, this multi-step screening process may significantly improve clinical outcomes of cell-based therapies.

  8. Development of phyllanthin-loaded self-microemulsifying drug delivery system for oral bioavailability enhancement. (United States)

    Duc Hanh, Nguyen; Mitrevej, Ampol; Sathirakul, Korbtham; Peungvicha, Penchom; Sinchaipanid, Nuttanan


    Phyllanthin, a poorly water-soluble herbal active component from Phyllanthus amarus, exhibited a low oral bioavailability. This study aims at formulating self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) containing phyllanthin and evaluating their in-vitro and in-vivo performances. Excipient screening was carried out to select oil, surfactant and co-surfactant. Formulation development was based on pseudo-ternary phase diagrams and characteristics of resultant microemulsions. Influences of dilution, pH of media and phyllanthin content on droplet size of the resultant emulsions were studied. The optimized phyllanthin-loaded SMEDDS formulation (phy-SMEDDS) and the resultant microemulsions were characterized by viscosity, self-emulsification performance, stability, morphology, droplet size, polydispersity index and zeta potential. In-vitro dissolution and oral bioavailability in rats of phy-SMEDDS were studied and compared with those of plain phyllanthin. Phy-SMEDDS consisted of phyllanthin/Capryol 90/Cremophor RH 40/Transcutol P (1.38:39.45:44.38:14.79) in % w/w. Phy-SMEDDS could be emulsified completely within 6 min and formed fine microemulsions, with average droplet range of 27-42 nm. Phy-SMEDDS was robust to dilution and pH of dilution media while the resultant emulsion showed no phase separation or drug precipitation after 8 h dilution. The release of phyllanthin from phy-SMEDDS capsule was significantly faster than that of plain phyllanthin capsule irrespective of pH of dissolution media. Phy-SMEDDS was found to be stable for at least 6 months under accelerated condition. Oral absorption of phyllanthin in rats was significantly enhanced by SMEDDS as compared with plain phyllanthin. Our study indicated that SMEDDS for oral delivery of phyllanthin could be an option to enhance its bioavailability.

  9. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) R&D Program: US Geothermal Resources Review and Needs Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entingh, Dan; McLarty, Lynn


    The purpose of this report is to lay the groundwork for an emerging process to assess U.S. geothermal resources that might be suitable for development as Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). Interviews of leading geothermists indicate that doing that will be intertwined with updating assessments of U.S. higher-quality hydrothermal resources and reviewing methods for discovering ''hidden'' hydrothermal and EGS resources. The report reviews the history and status of assessment of high-temperature geothermal resources in the United States. Hydrothermal, Enhanced, and Hot Dry Rock resources are addressed. Geopressured geothermal resources are not. There are three main uses of geothermal resource assessments: (1) They inform industry and other interest parties of reasonable estimates of the amounts and likely locations of known and prospective geothermal resources. This provides a basis for private-sector decisions whether or not to enter the geothermal energy business at all, and for where to look for useful resources. (2) They inform government agencies (Federal, State, local) of the same kinds of information. This can inform strategic decisions, such as whether to continue to invest in creating and stimulating a geothermal industry--e.g., through research or financial incentives. And it informs certain agencies, e.g., Department of Interior, about what kinds of tactical operations might be required to support such activities as exploration and leasing. (3) They help the experts who are performing the assessment(s) to clarify their procedures and data, and in turn, provide the other two kinds of users with a more accurate interpretation of what the resulting estimates mean. The process of conducting this assessment brings a spotlight to bear on what has been accomplished in the domain of detecting and understanding reservoirs, in the period since the last major assessment was conducted.

  10. Enhanced Multi-Service Markets: An Evolution in Military Health System Governance. (United States)

    Hudak, Ronald P; Russell, Rebecca; Toland, P Paul


    The evolution of governance models for the Military Health System's (MHS) large hospitals, called medical treatment facilities (MTFs), has culminated with the effort to implement Enhanced Multi-Service Markets (eMSM). The term eMSM refers to two separate concepts. First, MSM refers to those geographic areas, that is, markets, which have the following characteristics: they have MTFs that are operated by two or more Department of Defense (DoD) Services, that is, Army, Navy, or Air Force; there is a large beneficiary population; there is a substantial amount of direct care (i.e., beneficiaries are treated at MTFs instead of TRICARE's purchased care from civilian providers); and there is a substantial readiness and training platform. Second, the term "enhanced" refers to an increase in management authority over clinical and business operations, readiness, and MTF workload. A retrospective review was conducted to study the evolution of military and civilian health care delivery models for the purpose of understanding how governance models have changed since the 1980s to design and manage MTFs with overlapping catchments areas. Primary and secondary data sources were analyzed through a comprehensive literature review. Since the 1980s, the MHS governance models have evolved from testing various managed care models to a regionally focused TRICARE model and culminating with an overlapping catchment area model entitled eMSMs. The eMSM model partially fulfills the original vision because the eMSM leaders have limited budgetary and resource allocation authority. The various models sought to improve governance of overlapping catchment areas with the intent to enhance medical readiness, community health, and individual health care while reducing costs. However, the success of the current model, that is, eMSMs, cannot be fully assessed because the eMSM model was not fully implemented as originally envisioned. Instead, the current eMSM model partially implements the eMSM model. As

  11. Microemulsion-based synergistic dual-drug codelivery system for enhanced apoptosis of tumor cells. (United States)

    Qu, Ding; Ma, Yihua; Sun, Wenjie; Chen, Yan; Zhou, Jing; Liu, Congyan; Huang, Mengmeng


    A microemulsion-based synergistic dual-drug codelivery system was developed for enhanced cell apoptosis by transporting coix seed oil and etoposide into A549 (human lung carcinoma) cells simultaneously. Results obtained by dynamic light scattering showed that an etoposide (VP16)-loaded coix seed oil microemulsion (EC-ME) delivery system had a small size around 35 nm, a narrow polydispersity index, and a slightly negative surface charge. The encapsulating efficiency and total drug loading rate were 97.01% and 45.48%, respectively, by high-performance liquid chromatography. The release profiles at various pH values showed an obvious pH-responsive difference, with the accumulated amount of VP16 released at pH 4.5 (and pH 5.5) being 2.7-fold higher relative to that at pH 7.4. Morphologic alteration (particle swelling) associated with a mildly acidic pH environment was found on transmission electron microscopy. In the cell study, the EC-ME system showed a significantly greater antiproliferative effect toward A549 cells in comparison with free VP16 and the mixture of VP16 and coix seed oil. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of the EC-ME system was 3.9-fold and 10.4-fold lower relative to that of free VP16 and a mixture of VP16 and coix seed oil, respectively. Moreover, fluorescein isothiocyanate and VP16 (the green fluorescent probe and entrapped drug, respectively) were efficiently internalized into the cells by means of coix seed oil microemulsion through intuitive observation and quantitative measurement. Importantly, an EC-ME system containing 20 μg/mL of VP16 showed a 3.3-fold and 3.5-fold improvement in induction of cell apoptosis compared with the VP-16-loaded microemulsion and free VP16, respectively. The EC-ME combination strategy holds promise as an efficient drug delivery system for induction of apoptosis and treatment of lung cancer.

  12. Detection of thrombosis in the portal venous system: comparison of contrast-enhanced MR angiography with intraarterial digital subtraction angiography. (United States)

    Kreft, B; Strunk, H; Flacke, S; Wolff, M; Conrad, R; Gieseke, J; Pauleit, D; Bachmann, R; Hirner, A; Schild, H H


    To determine whether intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) can be replaced by contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography in the assessment of patency or thrombosis of the portal venous system in patients with portal hypertension. Thirty-six patients with portal hypertension underwent contrast-enhanced MR angiography and intraarterial DSA for assessment of the portal venous system. The images were evaluated for vessel patency or thrombosis of the portal, splenic, or superior mesenteric vein. Of the 101 vessels evaluated, 42 were thrombosed. Overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the detection of thrombosis were 100%, 98%, and 99%, respectively, for MR angiography and 91%, 100%, and 96%, respectively, for DSA; differences between the imaging methods were not statistically significant. Only in four patients with six vessels (6%) were there discordant findings between MR angiography and DSA. Noninvasive contrast-enhanced MR angiography has the potential to replace intraarterial DSA as the standard method to assess the whole portal venous system.

  13. Numerical simulation based on core analysis of a single fracture in an Enhanced Geothermal System (United States)

    Jarrahi, Miad; Holländer, Hartmut


    The permeability of reservoirs is widely affected by the presence of fractures dispersed within them, as they form superior paths for fluid flow. Core analysis studies the fractures characteristics and explains the fluid-rock interactions to provide the information of permeability and saturation of a hydraulic fracturing reservoir or an enhanced geothermal system (EGS). This study conducted numerical simulations of a single fracture in a Granite core obtained from a depth of 1890 m in borehole EPS1 from Soultz-sous-Forêts, France. Blaisonneau et al. (2016) designed the apparatus to investigate the complex physical phenomena on this cylindrical sample. The method of the tests was to percolate a fluid through a natural fracture contained in a rock sample, under controlled thermo-hydro-mechanical conditions. A divergent radial flow within the fracture occurred due to the injection of fluid into the center of the fracture. The tests were performed within a containment cell with a normal stress of 2.6, 4.9, 7.2 and 9.4 MPa loading on the sample perpendicular to the fracture plane. This experiment was numerically performed to provide an efficient numerical method by modeling single phase flow in between the fracture walls. Detailed morphological features of the fracture such as tortuosity and roughness, were obtained by image processing. The results included injection pressure plots with respect to injection flow rate. Consequently, by utilizing Hagen-Poiseuille's cubic law, the equivalent hydraulic aperture size, of the fracture was derived. Then, as the sample is cylindrical, to modify the Hagen-Poiseuille's cubic law for circular parallel plates, the geometric relation was applied to obtain modified hydraulic aperture size. Finally, intrinsic permeability of the fracture under each mechanical normal stress was evaluated based on modified hydraulic aperture size. The results were presented in two different scenarios, before and after reactive percolation test, to

  14. A participatory approach to designing and enhancing integrated health information technology systems for veterans: protocol. (United States)

    Haun, Jolie N; Nazi, Kim M; Chavez, Margeaux; Lind, Jason D; Antinori, Nicole; Gosline, Robert M; Martin, Tracey L


    direct veteran feedback that depict patient preferences for enhancing the synchronization, integration, and standardization of VA patient-facing platforms. Focus group topics include current uses, preferences, facilitators, and barriers to using electronic health resources; recommendations for synchronizing, integrating, and standardizing VA HIT; and preferences on data sharing and delegation within the VA system. This work highlights the practical, technological, and personal factors that facilitate and inhibit use of current VA HIT, and informs an integrated system redesign. The Digital Health Matrix Model and visual modeling simulations use knowledge of veteran preferences and experiences to directly inform enhancements to VA HIT and provide a more holistic and integrated user experience. These efforts are designed to support the adoption and sustained use of VA HIT to support patient self-management and clinical care coordination in ways that are directly aligned with veteran preferences.

  15. Enhanced Performance Controller Design for Stochastic Systems by Adding Extra State Estimation onto the Existing Closed Loop Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yuyang; Zhang, Qichun; Wang, Hong


    To enhance the performance of the tracking property , this paper presents a novel control algorithm for a class of linear dynamic stochastic systems with unmeasurable states, where the performance enhancement loop is established based on Kalman filter. Without changing the existing closed loop with the PI controller, the compensative controller is designed to minimize the variances of the tracking errors using the estimated states and the propagation of state variances. Moreover, the stability of the closed-loop systems has been analyzed in the mean-square sense. A simulated example is included to show the effectiveness of the presented control algorithm, where encouraging results have been obtained.

  16. Depth-enhanced integral imaging display system with electrically variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal layers. (United States)

    Kim, Yunhee; Choi, Heejin; Kim, Joohwan; Cho, Seong-Woo; Kim, Youngmin; Park, Gilbae; Lee, Byoungho


    A depth-enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging system with electrically variable image planes is proposed. For implementing the variable image planes, polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal (PDLC) films and a projector are adopted as a new display system in the integral imaging. Since the transparencies of PDLC films are electrically controllable, we can make each film diffuse the projected light successively with a different depth from the lens array. As a result, the proposed method enables control of the location of image planes electrically and enhances the depth. The principle of the proposed method is described, and experimental results are also presented.

  17. Enhancement and performance evaluation for heat transfer of air cooling zone for reduction system of sponge titanium (United States)

    Wang, Wenhao; Wu, Fuzhong; Jin, Huixin


    Since the magnesiothermic reduction employed in current sponge titanium is a highly exothermic reaction, the TiCl4 feed rate is carried out slowly to keep a suitable temperature in reduction reactor, which accounts for an extremely low level of productivity and energy efficiency. In order to shorten the production cycle and improve the energy efficiency, an enhancing scheme is proposed to enhance the heat transfer of air cooling zone for reduction system. The air cooling zone and enhancing scheme are firstly introduced. And then, the heat transfer characteristics of cooling zone are obtained by theoretical analysis and experimental date without enhancing scheme. Finally, the enhancement is analyzed and evaluated. The results show that the fitting results of heat transfer coefficients can be used to evaluate the heat transfer enhancement of cooling zone. Heat sources temperatures have a limited decreasing, heat transfer rate increases obviously with the enhanced cooling, and the TiCl4 feed rate can be increased significantly by 9.61 %. And the measured and calculated results are good enough to meet the design requirements.

  18. Socio-technical analysis of Indonesian government e-procurement system implementation: barriers to enhance information transparency and accountability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Fitri


    Full Text Available E-governance has become increasingly important to deliver better public services, and increase public trust. With a specific focus on e-procurement and the issues of transparency and accountability this research investigates the role and barriers of information technology in enhancing information transparency and accountability to the public, using the actor-network theory and notion of delegation approach. This research concludes that information technology was delegated to automate the procurement process to increase transparency, accountability and prevent fraud. However, barriers of e-literacy, lack of leadership, reluctance of implementation, and lack of infrastructure created obstacles to attain the goals. This infers that social and technical aspects are interrelated and empower each other to support the technology in enhancing information transparency and accountability. Enhanced collaborative approach between the developers and users in the application development and implementation should be taken on board to enhance e-procurement system implementation quality.

  19. Numerical analysis of melting of nano-enhanced phase change material in latent heat thermal energy storage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashani Sina


    Full Text Available The heat transfer enhancement in the latent heat thermal energy storage system through dispersion of nanoparticle is reported. The resulting nanoparticle-enhanced phase change materials exhibit enhanced thermal conductivity in comparison to the base material. Calculation is performed for nanoparticle volume fraction from 0 to 0.08. In this study rectangular and cylindrical containers are modeled numerically and the effect of containers dimensions and nano particle volume fraction are studied. It has been found that the rectangular container requires half of the melting time as for the cylindrical container of the same volume and the same heat transfer area and also, higher nano particle volume fraction result in a larger solid fraction. The increase of the heat release rate of the nanoparticle-enhanced phase change materials shows its great potential for diverse thermal energy storage application.

  20. Aircraft Engine On-Line Diagnostics Through Dual-Channel Sensor Measurements: Development of an Enhanced System (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.


    In this paper, an enhanced on-line diagnostic system which utilizes dual-channel sensor measurements is developed for the aircraft engine application. The enhanced system is composed of a nonlinear on-board engine model (NOBEM), the hybrid Kalman filter (HKF) algorithm, and fault detection and isolation (FDI) logic. The NOBEM provides the analytical third channel against which the dual-channel measurements are compared. The NOBEM is further utilized as part of the HKF algorithm which estimates measured engine parameters. Engine parameters obtained from the dual-channel measurements, the NOBEM, and the HKF are compared against each other. When the discrepancy among the signals exceeds a tolerance level, the FDI logic determines the cause of discrepancy. Through this approach, the enhanced system achieves the following objectives: 1) anomaly detection, 2) component fault detection, and 3) sensor fault detection and isolation. The performance of the enhanced system is evaluated in a simulation environment using faults in sensors and components, and it is compared to an existing baseline system.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B; Michael Heitkamp, M; Gary Wein (NOEMAIL), G; Karen Vangelas, K; Karen-M Adams, K; Tom Early; Bob Borden; David Major; W. Jody Waugh; Todd Wiedemeier; Claire H. Sink


    The objective of this document is to explore the realm of enhancements to natural attenuation processes for cVOCs and review examples that have been proposed, modeled, and implemented. We will identify lessons learned from these case studies to confirm that enhancements are technically feasible and have the potential to achieve a favorable, cost-effective contaminant mass balance. Furthermore, we hope to determine if opportunities for further improvement of the enhancements exist and suggest areas where new and innovative types of enhancements might be possible.

  2. Enhanced heat transport in environmental systems using microencapsulated phase change materials (United States)

    Colvin, D. P.; Mulligan, J. C.; Bryant, Y. G.


    A methodology for enhanced heat transport and storage that uses a new two-component fluid mixture consisting of a microencapsulated phase change material (microPCM) for enhanced latent heat transport is outlined. SBIR investigations for NASA, USAF, SDIO, and NSF since 1983 have demonstrated the ability of the two-component microPCM coolants to provide enhancements in heat transport up to 40 times over that of the carrier fluid alone, enhancements of 50 to 100 percent in the heat transfer coefficient, practically isothermal operation when the coolant flow is circulated in an optimal manner, and significant reductions in pump work.

  3. Enhanced Attenuation: A Reference Guide On Approaches To Increase The Natural Treatment Capacity Of A System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, K


    The objective of this document is to explore the realm of enhancements to natural attenuation processes for cVOCs and review examples that have been proposed, modeled, and implemented. We will identify lessons learned from these case studies to confirm that enhancements are technically feasible and have the potential to achieve a favorable, cost-effective contaminant mass balance. Furthermore, we hope to determine if opportunities for further improvement of the enhancements exist and suggest areas where new and innovative types of enhancements might be possible.

  4. STEM-based workbook: Enhancing students' STEM competencies on lever system (United States)

    Sejati, Binar Kasih; Firman, Harry; Kaniawati, Ida


    Twenty-first century is a century of technology, a rapid development of scientific studies and technology make them relied heavily on each other. This research investigated about the effect of STEM-based workbook in enhancing students' STEM competencies in terms of knowledge understanding, problem solving skill, innovative abilities, and responsibility. The workbook was tried on 24 students that applied engineering design processes together with mathematics and science knowledge to design and create an egg cracker. The result showed that the implementation of STEM-based workbook on lever system in human body is effective to improve students' STEM competencies, it can be proven by students' result on their knowledge understanding improvement which can be seen from normalized gain () score is 0.41 and categorized as medium improvement, students' problem solving skill is also improving where it obtained a medium improvement with normalized gain as much as 0.45. Innovative abilities also encountered an the improvement, the workbook analysis obtained a higher score which means students can be more innovative after finishing their workbook. Last, students' responsibility is keep improving day by day, students' effort gain the highest score it means that the students become more responsible after implementation of STEM-based workbook. All of the results are supported with the response of students towards STEM-based workbook implementation which showed positive response in all indicators.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Danovska


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The role of inflammation in the complex pathophysiology of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH was studied by assessing the relationship between serum C-reactive protein (CRP levels and some clinical and neuroradiological parameters. We also aimed to identify the effects of modifiable vascular risk factors on serum CRP levels.PATIENTS: Forty six patients with sICH admitted to the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery of the Pleven University Hospital, Bulgaria were examined. Serum CRP levels were measured within the first 48 hours of disease onset and analyzed in relation to neurological deficit severity and clinical outcome after sICH. The impact of some vascular risk factors on the inflammatory marker levels was also studied.RESULTS: We found enhanced CRP levels in patients with severe neurological deficit as assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS score. Significantly higher CRP levels were measured in patients with progressive clinical deterioration and worse outcome. Serum CRP levels were also higher in patients with a history of alcohol abuse.CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that inflammation plays a crucial role in the development of brain injury after sICH. They show that CRP, a nonspecific inflammatory marker, can serve as an additional diagnostic and prognostic test indicator in the acute stage of sICH thus providing an excellent opportunity for therapeutic interventions while the patient is still in clinic. Patients with a history of systemic alcohol abuse demonstrate stronger inflammatory response indicative for worse prognosis.

  6. Impact of butyrate on microbial selection in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems. (United States)

    Begum, Shamim A; Batista, Jacimaria R


    Microbial selection in an enhanced biological phosphorus removal system was investigated in a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor fed exclusively with butyrate as a carbon source. As reported in the few previous studies, butyrate uptake was slow and phosphorus (P) release occurred during the entire anaerobic period. Polyphosphate-accumulating organism (PAO), i.e. Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis (named as Accumulibacter), glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs), i.e. Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis (named as Competibacter) and Defluviicoccus-related, tetrad-forming alphaproteobacteria (named as Defluviicoccus) were identified using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. The results show that Accumulibacter and Defluviicoccus were selected in the butyrate-fed reactor, whereas Competibacter was not selected. P removal was efficient at the beginning of the experiment with an increasing percentage relative abundance (% RA) of PAOs. The % RA of Accumulibacter and Defluviicoccus increased from 13% to 50% and 8% to 16%, respectively, and the % RA of Competibacter decreased from 8% to 2% during the experiment. After 6 weeks, P removal deteriorated with the poor correlation between the percentage of P removal and % RA of GAOs.

  7. Understanding the role of extracellular polymeric substances in an enhanced biological phosphorus removal granular sludge system. (United States)

    Wang, Randeng; Peng, Yongzhen; Cheng, Zhanli; Ren, Nanqi


    The role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process was investigated in a P-accumulating granular sludge system by analyzing the distribution and transfer of P, K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) in the sludge phase, EPS, and the bulk liquid. In the sludge phase, about 30% P, 44.7% K(+), 27.7% Mg(2+), 28% Ca(2+) accumulated in the EPS at the end of aeration. The rate of P, K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) released from the EPS matrix into the bulk liquid in the anaerobic phase was faster than the rate they were adsorbed from the bulk liquid into the EPS in the aerobic phase. P, K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) were retained in EPS before transferring into the phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs). These results suggest that EPS play a critical role in facilitating the accumulation and transfer of P, K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) between PAO cells and bulk liquid. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Food macromolecule based nanodelivery systems for enhancing the bioavailability of polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Hu


    Full Text Available Diet polyphenols—primarily categorized into flavonoids (e.g., flavonols, flavones, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanidins, flavanones, and isoflavones and nonflavonoids (with major subclasses of stilbenes and phenolic acids—are reported to have health-promoting effects, such as antioxidant, antiinflammatory, anticarcinoma, antimicrobial, antiviral, and cardioprotective properties. However, their applications in functional foods or medicine are limited because of their inefficient systemic delivery and poor oral bioavailability. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, curcumin, and resveratrol are the well-known representatives of the bioactive diet polyphenols but with poor bioavailability. Food macromolecule based nanoparticles have been fabricated using reassembled proteins, crosslinked polysaccharides, protein–polysaccharide conjugates (complexes, as well as emulsified lipid via safe procedures that could be applied in food. The human gastrointestinal digestion tract is the first place where the food grade macromolecule nanoparticles exert their effects on improving the bioavailability of diet polyphenols, via enhancing their solubility, preventing their degradation in the intestinal environment, elevating the permeation in small intestine, and even increasing their contents in the bloodstream. We contend that the stability and structure behaviors of nanocarriers in the gastrointestinal tract environment and the effects of nanoencapsulation on the metabolism of polyphenols warrant more focused attention in further studies.

  9. Enhancement of Quantum Correlations in Qubit-Qutrit Systems under the non-Markovian Environment (United States)

    Basit, Abdul; Ali, Hamad; Badshah, Fazal; Ge, Guo-Qin


    We investigate the time evolution of quantum correlations of a hybrid qubit-qutrit system under the classical Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) noise. Here we consider two different one-parameter families of qubit-qutrit states which independently interact with the non-Markovian reservoirs. A comparison with the Markovian dynamics reveals that for the same set of initial condition parameters, the non-Markovian behavior of the environment plays an important role in the enhancement of the survival time of quantum correlations. In addition, it is observed that the non-Markovian strength (γ /{{Γ }}) has a positive impact on the correlations time. For the initial separable states it is found that there is a finite time interval in which the geometric quantum discord is frozen despite the presence of a noisy environment and that interval can be further prolonged by using the non-Markovian property. Moreover, its decay can be significantly delayed. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11274132 and 11550110180

  10. Comparative Analysis of Power Plant Options for Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengying Li


    Full Text Available Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS extract heat from underground hot dry rock (HDR by first fracturing the HDR and then circulating a geofluid (typically water into it and bringing the heated geofluid to a power plant to generate electricity. This study focuses on analysis, examination, and comparison of leading geothermal power plant configurations with a geofluid temperature from 200 to 800 °C, and also analyzes the embodied energy of EGS surface power plants. The power generation analysis is focused on flash type cycles for using subcritical geofluid (<374 °C and expansion type cycles for using supercritical geofluid (>374 °C. Key findings of this study include: (i double-flash plants have 24.3%–29.0% higher geofluid effectiveness than single-flash ones, and 3%–10% lower specific embodied energy; (ii the expansion type plants have geofluid effectiveness > 750 kJ/kg, significantly higher than flash type plants (geofluid effectiveness < 300 kJ/kg and the specific embodied energy is lower; (iii to increase the turbine outlet vapor fraction from 0.75 to 0.90, we include superheating by geofluid but that reduces the geofluid effectiveness by 28.3%; (iv for geofluid temperatures above 650 °C, double-expansion plants have a 2% higher geofluid effectiveness and 5%–8% lower specific embodied energy than single-expansion ones.

  11. Interactions between "what" and "when" in the auditory system: temporal predictability enhances repetition suppression. (United States)

    Costa-Faidella, Jordi; Baldeweg, Torsten; Grimm, Sabine; Escera, Carles


    Neural activity in the auditory system decreases with repeated stimulation, matching stimulus probability in multiple timescales. This phenomenon, known as stimulus-specific adaptation, is interpreted as a neural mechanism of regularity encoding aiding auditory object formation. However, despite the overwhelming literature covering recordings from single-cell to scalp auditory-evoked potential (AEP), stimulation timing has received little interest. Here we investigated whether timing predictability enhances the experience-dependent modulation of neural activity associated with stimulus probability encoding. We used human electrophysiological recordings in healthy participants who were exposed to passive listening of sound sequences. Pure tones of different frequencies were delivered in successive trains of a variable number of repetitions, enabling the study of sequential repetition effects in the AEP. In the predictable timing condition, tones were delivered with isochronous interstimulus intervals; in the unpredictable timing condition, interstimulus intervals varied randomly. Our results show that unpredictable stimulus timing abolishes the early part of the repetition positivity, an AEP indexing auditory sensory memory trace formation, while leaving the later part (≈ >200 ms) unaffected. This suggests that timing predictability aids the propagation of repetition effects upstream the auditory pathway, most likely from association auditory cortex (including the planum temporale) toward primary auditory cortex (Heschl's gyrus) and beyond, as judged by the timing of AEP latencies. This outcome calls for attention to stimulation timing in future experiments regarding sensory memory trace formation in AEP measures and stimulus probability encoding in animal models.

  12. Seeking a potential system in managing organizational knowledge flow towards enhancing individual learning and intellectual capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Soraya Rosdi


    Full Text Available The knowledge-based economy of today heralds an era where the business environment is characterized by complex and ever-changing conditions, driven by rapid technological advancements. With knowledge regarded as the main competitive resource, continuous learning becomes critical to firms as they try to keep up with the latest technology and business practices. Moreover, knowledge resides within individual employees, and the challenge is to ensure that knowledge is acquired, applied, and shared to benefit the firm. The situation becomes more complex when it is established that there exists different human capital in firms at any one time, differentiated based on the types of knowledge they contribute to the firm. Further, scant literature exists on the relationship dynamics between the different human capital groups and their influences on individual learning. This paper aims to propose a potential system to manage interaction between the different human capital groups within firms, and its link to enhancing different types of individual learning and intellectual capital.

  13. An enhanced biometric authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems with nonce using chaotic hash function. (United States)

    Das, Ashok Kumar; Goswami, Adrijit


    Recently, Awasthi and Srivastava proposed a novel biometric remote user authentication scheme for the telecare medicine information system (TMIS) with nonce. Their scheme is very efficient as it is based on efficient chaotic one-way hash function and bitwise XOR operations. In this paper, we first analyze Awasthi-Srivastava's scheme and then show that their scheme has several drawbacks: (1) incorrect password change phase, (2) fails to preserve user anonymity property, (3) fails to establish a secret session key beween a legal user and the server, (4) fails to protect strong replay attack, and (5) lacks rigorous formal security analysis. We then a propose a novel and secure biometric-based remote user authentication scheme in order to withstand the security flaw found in Awasthi-Srivastava's scheme and enhance the features required for an idle user authentication scheme. Through the rigorous informal and formal security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against possible known attacks. In addition, we simulate our scheme for the formal security verification using the widely-accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool and show that our scheme is secure against passive and active attacks, including the replay and man-in-the-middle attacks. Our scheme is also efficient as compared to Awasthi-Srivastava's scheme.

  14. The role of Coulomb stress changes for injection-induced seismicity: The Basel enhanced geothermal system (United States)

    Catalli, Flaminia; Meier, Men-Andrin; Wiemer, Stefan


    We estimate Coulomb stress variations (ΔCFS) by considering interactions among 163 earthquakes (ML ≤ 3.4) that occurred during the hydraulic stimulation of the enhanced geothermal system in Basel, Switzerland, in 2006. We observe that overall 75% of event locations are consistent with positive ΔCFS. The performance of the model increases with time and distance from injection, accordingly with the presumed less dominant role of the pore pressure further from the injection well and after shut-in. We analyze the sensitivity of results to location and focal mechanism uncertainties, the fault-plane ambiguity, and the friction coefficient. We find that ΔCFS are highly sensitive to location accuracy but robust with regard to uncertainties of the other parameters. Our results suggest that (i) the Coulomb model may complement conventional pore-pressure triggering models and (ii) implementing it for time-dependent seismic hazard assessment during fluid injection may improve the forecasting ability but will require highly accurate hypocenter estimates.

  15. Thermal stability enhanced ZDSF proposal for ultra high-speed long haul communication systems (United States)

    Makouei, S.; Makouei, F.


    In this article, thermal stability enhanced triangular graded-index single-mode zero-dispersion shifted fiber (ZDSF) is designed and the effect of temperature variation on its characteristics is investigated. The zero-dispersion wavelength (λZD) adjustment is accomplished through minimization of the broadening factor at the wavelength of 1.55 μm. The simulation results admit that the dispersion and its slope at 1.55 μm are 0.0051 ps/km/nm and 0.038 ps/km/nm2, respectively. This small slope of the structure results in the bit rate of 133 Gb/s in the 100 km distance. In addition, compared to the bell-shaped electrical mode distribution structures, the proposed structure holds an extended effective area (Aeff), which leads to elimination of the nonlinear effects. The λZD in the designed fiber exhibits a lower thermal coefficient compared to the reports previously presented which provides a better stability. This satisfactory feature is the direct result of small dispersion slope in the introduced structure. Furthermore, a temperature compensation system based on tensile strain induction, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, is proposed that preserves the effective refractive index (neff) profile versus wavelength not only in λZD but also in all communication bands of S+C+L. This accomplishment compensates the temperature impact on parameters such as dispersion and zero-dispersion wavelength.

  16. Nanoemulsion delivery system of tea polyphenols enhanced the bioavailability of catechins in rats. (United States)

    Peng, Yunru; Meng, Qilu; Zhou, Jie; Chen, Bo; Xi, Junjun; Long, Piaopiao; Zhang, Liang; Hou, Ruyan


    Tea polyphenols (TP) were emulsified with corn oil and polysorbate 80 by high-pressure homogenization. The oil in water (O/W) TP nanoemulsion had droplet sizes of 99.42±1.25nm after preparation. The TP nanoemulsion was stable during storage at 4, 25 or 40°C for 20days. An in vitro simulated digestion assay showed that the bioaccessibility of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) was increased in the nanoemulsion compared to that in aqueous solution, but that the bioaccessibilities of (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin (EC) and (-)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG) were greatly decreased. Compared with rats fed an aqueous TP solution, rats fed the TP nanoemulsion had significantly lower maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) of EGCG and EGC, but the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-t) was increased. The data show that use of a nanoemulsion system to deliver tea polyphenols may enhance the absorption of EGCG through controlled release. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Can More Nanoparticles Induce Larger Viscosities of Nanoparticle-Enhanced Wormlike Micellar System (NEWMS)? (United States)

    Zhao, Mingwei; Zhang, Yue; Zou, Chenwei; Dai, Caili; Gao, Mingwei; Li, Yuyang; Lv, Wenjiao; Jiang, Jianfeng; Wu, Yining


    There have been many reports about the thickening ability of nanoparticles on the wormlike micelles in the recent years. Through the addition of nanoparticles, the viscosity of wormlike micelles can be increased. There still exists a doubt: can viscosity be increased further by adding more nanoparticles? To answer this issue, in this work, the effects of silica nanoparticles and temperature on the nanoparticles-enhanced wormlike micellar system (NEWMS) were studied. The typical wormlike micelles (wormlike micelles) are prepared by 50 mM cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and 60 mM sodium salicylate (NaSal). The rheological results show the increase of viscoelasticity in NEWMS by adding nanoparticles, with the increase of zero-shear viscosity and relaxation time. However, with the further increase of nanoparticles, an interesting phenomenon appears. The zero-shear viscosity and relaxation time reach the maximum and begin to decrease. The results show a slight increasing trend for the contour length of wormlike micelles by adding nanoparticles, while no obvious effect on the entanglement and mesh size. In addition, with the increase of temperature, remarkable reduction of contour length and relaxation time can be observed from the calculation. NEWMS constantly retain better viscoelasticity compared with conventional wormlike micelles without silica nanoparticles. According to the Arrhenius equation, the activation energy Ea shows the same increase trend of NEWMS. Finally, a mechanism is proposed to explain this interesting phenomenon.

  18. Tuberculosis genotyping information management system: enhancing tuberculosis surveillance in the United States. (United States)

    Ghosh, Smita; Moonan, Patrick K; Cowan, Lauren; Grant, Juliana; Kammerer, Steve; Navin, Thomas R


    Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates (genotyping) can be used by public health programs to more readily identify tuberculosis (TB) transmission. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Tuberculosis Genotyping Service has offered M. tuberculosis genotyping for every culture-confirmed case in the United States since 2004. The TB Genotyping Information Management System (TB GIMS), launched in March 2010, is a secure online database containing genotype results linked with case characteristics from the national TB registry for state and local TB programs to access, manage and analyze these data. As of September 2011, TB GIMS contains genotype results for 89% of all culture-positive TB cases for 2010. Over 400 users can generate local and national reports and maps using TB GIMS. Automated alerts on geospatially concentrated cases with matching genotypes that may represent outbreaks are also generated by TB GIMS. TB genotyping results are available to enhance national TB surveillance and apply genotyping results to conduct TB control activities in the United States. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. HMGB1 Promotes Systemic Lupus Erythematosus by Enhancing Macrophage Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudan Lu


    Full Text Available Background/Purpose. HMGB1, which may act as a proinflammatory mediator, has been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; however, the precise mechanism of HMGB1 in the pathogenic process of SLE remains obscure. Method. The expression of HMGB1 was measured by ELISA and western blot. The ELISA was also applied to detect proinflammatory cytokines levels. Furthermore, nephritic pathology was evaluated by H&E staining of renal tissues. Results. In this study, we found that HMGB1 levels were significantly increased and correlated with SLE disease activity in both clinical patients and murine model. Furthermore, gain- and loss-of-function analysis showed that HMGB1 exacerbated the severity of SLE. Of note, the HMGB1 levels were found to be associated with the levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6 in SLE patients. Further study demonstrated that increased HMGB1 expression deteriorated the severity of SLE via enhancing macrophage inflammatory response. Moreover, we found that receptor of advanced glycation end products played a critical role in HMGB1-mediated macrophage inflammatory response. Conclusion. These findings suggested that HMGB1 might be a risk factor for SLE, and manipulation of HMGB1 signaling might provide a therapeutic strategy for SLE.

  20. Electromagnetically induced 2D grating via refractive index enhancement in a far-off resonant system (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Liu, Zhuan-Zhuan; Wan, Ren-Gang


    We propose a scheme for electromagnetically induced 2D grating in a mixture of two three-level Λ systems driven by two pairs of far-detuned coherent standing-wave fields. The key idea, which has been used to achieve the refractive index enhancement with vanishing absorption, is to induce two Raman resonances for the probe field, and their strength can be tuned via the two-photon detunings and the intensity of coupling field. By manipulating the absorption and gain properties of these two Raman resonances, absorption-phase grating, phase grating and gain-phase grating which effectively diffract a probe field into high-order directions can be formed in the atoms with the help of standing-wave pattern coherent fields. The diffracting power of the presented gratings strongly depends on the two-photon resonance condition and amplitude of coherent fields, hence the gratings can be used as all-optical multi-channel splitters or all-optical router in optical networking and communication.

  1. SecMAS: Security Enhanced Monitoring and Analysis Systems for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Chao


    Full Text Available The monitoring, control, and security guarantee for the communication in the wireless sensor networks (WSNs are currently treated as three independent issues and addressed separately through specialized tools. However, most cases of WSNs applications requires the network administrator change the network configuration in a very short time to response to the change of observed phenomenon with security guarantee. To meet this requirement, we propose a security enhanced monitoring and control platform named SecMAS for WSNs, which provides the real-time visualization about network states and online reconfiguration of the network properties and behaviours in a resource-efficient way. Besides, basic cryptographic primitives and part of the anomaly detection functionalities are implemented in SecMAS to enabling the secure communication in WSNs. Furthermore, we conduct experiments to evaluate the performance of SecMAS in terms of the latency, throughput, communication overhead, and the security capacity. The experimental results demonstrate that the SecMAS system achieves stable, efficient and secure data collection with lightweight quick-response network control.

  2. Cryptanalysis and improvement of 'A privacy enhanced scheme for telecare medical information systems'. (United States)

    Kumari, Saru; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Kumar, Rahul


    To ensure reliable telecare services some user authentication schemes for telecare medical information system (TMIS) have been presented in literature. These schemes are proposed with intent to regulate only authorized access to medical services so that medical information can be protected from misuse. Very recently Jiang et al. proposed a user authentication scheme for TMIS which they claimed to provide enhanced privacy. They made use of symmetric encryption/decryption with cipher block chaining mode (CBC) to achieve the claimed user privacy. Their scheme provides features like user anonymity and user un-traceability unlike its preceding schemes on which it is built. Unluckily, authors overlook some important aspects in designing their scheme due to which it falls short to resist user impersonation attack, guessing attacks and denial of service attack. Besides, its password change phase is not secure; air message confidentiality is at risk and also has some other drawbacks. Therefore, we propose an improved scheme free from problems observed in Jiang et al.'s scheme and more suitable for TMIS.

  3. Enhancement Experiment on Cementitious Activity of Copper-Mine Tailings in a Geopolymer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yu


    Full Text Available Copper-mine tailings are the residual products after the extraction of precious copper metal from copper ores, and their storage can create numerous environmental problems. Many researchers have used copper-mine tailings for the preparation of geopolymers. This paper studies the enhancement of the cementitious activity of copper-mine tailings in geopolymer systems. First, copper-mine tailings are activated through mechanical grinding activation. Then, the mechanically activated copper-mine tailings are further processed through thermal activation and alkaline-roasting activation. The cementitious activity index of copper-mine tailings is characterized through the degree of leaching concentration of Si and Al. It was observed that the Si and Al leaching concentration of mechanically activated tailings was increased by 26.03% and 93.33%, respectively. The concentration of Si and Al was increased by 54.19% and 119.92%, respectively. For alkaline-roasting activation, roasting time, temperature and the mass ratio of copper-mine tailings to NaOH (C/N ratio were evaluated through orthogonal tests, and the best condition for activation was 120 min at 600 °C with a C/N ratio of 5:1. In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and infra-red (IR analysis show that mechanical, thermal and alkaline-roasting activation could be used to improve the cementitious activity index of copper-mine tailings.

  4. Flame oxidation of stainless steel felt enhances anodic biofilm formation and current output in bioelectrochemical systems. (United States)

    Guo, Kun; Donose, Bogdan C; Soeriyadi, Alexander H; Prévoteau, Antonin; Patil, Sunil A; Freguia, Stefano; Gooding, J Justin; Rabaey, Korneel


    Stainless steel (SS) can be an attractive material to create large electrodes for microbial bioelectrochemical systems (BESs), due to its low cost and high conductivity. However, poor biocompatibility limits its successful application today. Here we report a simple and effective method to make SS electrodes biocompatible by means of flame oxidation. Physicochemical characterization of electrode surface indicated that iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) were generated in situ on an SS felt surface by flame oxidation. IONPs-coating dramatically enhanced the biocompatibility of SS felt and consequently resulted in a robust electroactive biofilm formation at its surface in BESs. The maximum current densities reached at IONPs-coated SS felt electrodes were 16.5 times and 4.8 times higher than the untreated SS felts and carbon felts, respectively. Furthermore, the maximum current density achieved with the IONPs-coated SS felt (1.92 mA/cm(2), 27.42 mA/cm(3)) is one of the highest current densities reported thus far. These results demonstrate for the first time that flame oxidized SS felts could be a good alternative to carbon-based electrodes for achieving high current densities in BESs. Most importantly, high conductivity, excellent mechanical strength, strong chemical stability, large specific surface area, and comparatively low cost of flame oxidized SS felts offer exciting opportunities for scaling-up of the anodes for BESs.

  5. Geochemical exploration of a promissory Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS): the Acoculco caldera, Mexico. (United States)

    Peiffer, Loic; Romero, Ruben Bernard; Pérez-Zarate, Daniel; Guevara, Mirna; Santoyo Gutiérrez, Edgar


    The Acoculco caldera (Puebla, Mexico) has been identified by the Mexican Federal Electricity Company (in Spanish 'Comisión Federal de Electricidad', CFE) as a potential Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) candidate. Two exploration wells were drilled and promising temperatures of ~300° C have been measured at a depth of 2000 m with a geothermal gradient of 11oC/100m, which is three times higher than the baseline gradient measured within the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. As usually observed in Hot Dry Rock systems, thermal manifestations in surface are scarce and consist in low-temperature bubbling springs and soil degassing. The goals of this study were to identify the origin of these fluids, to estimate the soil degassing rate and to explore new areas for a future detailed exploration and drilling activities. Water and gas samples were collected for chemical and isotopic analysis (δ18O, δD, 3He/4He, 13C, 15N) and a multi-gas (CO2, CH4, H2S) soil survey was carried out using the accumulation chamber method. Springs' compositions indicate a meteoric origin and the dissolution of CO2 and H2S-rich gases, while gas compositions reveal a MORB-type origin mixed with some arc-type contribution. Gas geothermometry results are similar to temperatures measured during well drilling (260° C-300° C). Amongst all measured CO2 fluxes, only 5% (mean: 5543 g m-2 day-1) show typical geothermal values, while the remaining fluxes are low and correspond to biogenic degassing (mean: 18 g m-2 day-1). The low degassing rate of the geothermal system is a consequence of the intense hydrothermal alteration observed in the upper 800 m of the system which acts as an impermeable caprock. Highest measured CO2 fluxes (above > 600 g m-2 day-1) have corresponding CH4/CO2 flux ratios similar to mass ratios of sampled gases, which suggest an advective fluid transport. To represent field conditions, a numerical model was also applied to simulate the migration of CO2 towards the surface through a

  6. Modeling Self-Potential Effects During Reservoir Stimulation in Enhanced Geothermal Systems. (United States)

    Troiano, Antonio; Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Monetti, Alessio; Patella, Domenico; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe


    Geothermal systems represent a large resource that can provide, with a reasonable investment, a very high and cost-effective power generating capacity. Considering also the very low environmental impact, their development represents, in the next decades, an enormous perspective. Despite its unquestionable potential, geothermal exploitation has long been perceived as limited, mainly because of the dependence from strict site-related conditions, mainly related to the reservoir rock's permeability and to the high thermal gradient, implying the presence of large amounts of hot fluids at reasonable depth. Many of such limitations can be overcome using Enhanced Geothermal Systems technology (EGS), where massive fluid injection is performed to increase the rock permeability by fracturing. This is a powerful method to exploit hot rocks with low natural permeability, otherwise not exploitable. Numerical procedures have already been presented in literature reproducing thermodynamic evolution and stress changes of systems where fluids are injected. However, stimulated fluid flow in geothermal reservoirs can produce also surface Self-Potential (SP) anomalies of several mV. A commonly accepted interpretation involves the activation of electrokinetic processes. Since the induced seismicity risk is generally correlated to fluid circulation stimulated in an area exceeding the well of several hundreds of meters, the wellbore pressure values can be totally uncorrelated to seismic hazard. However, SP anomalies, being generated from pressure gradients in the whole area where fluids flow, has an interesting potential as induced earthquake precursor. In this work, SP anomalies observed above the Soultz-sous-Forets (Alsace, France) geothermal reservoir while injecting cold water have been modeled, considering a source related to the fluid flow induced by the well stimulation process. In particular, the retrieved changes of pressure due to well stimulation in the EGS system have been used

  7. Wild pollinators enhance oilseed rape yield in small-holder farming systems in China. (United States)

    Zou, Yi; Xiao, Haijun; Bianchi, Felix J J A; Jauker, Frank; Luo, Shudong; van der Werf, Wopke


    Insect pollinators play an important role in crop pollination, but the relative contribution of wild pollinators and honey bees to pollination is currently under debate. There is virtually no information available on the strength of pollination services and the identity of pollination service providers from Asian smallholder farming systems, where fields are small, and variation among fields is high. We established 18 winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) fields along a large geographical gradient in Jiangxi province in China. In each field, oilseed rape plants were grown in closed cages that excluded pollinators and open cages that allowed pollinator access. The pollinator community was sampled by pan traps for the entire oilseed rape blooming period. Oilseed rape plants from which insect pollinators were excluded had on average 38% lower seed set, 17% lower fruit set and 12% lower yield per plant, but the seeds were 17% heavier, and the caged plants had 28% more flowers and 18% higher aboveground vegetative biomass than plants with pollinator access. Oilseed rape plants thus compensate for pollination deficit by producing heavier seeds and more flowers. Regression analysis indicated that local abundance and diversity of wild pollinators were positively associated with seed set and yield/straw ratio, while honey bee abundance was not related to yield parameters. Wild pollinator abundance and diversity contribute to oilseed rape yield by enhancing plant resource allocation to seeds rather than to above-ground biomass. This study highlights the importance of the conservation of wild pollinators to support oilseed rape production in small-holder farming systems in China.

  8. Metal oxide-based nanoparticles: revealing their potential to enhance oil recovery in different wettability systems (United States)

    Hendraningrat, Luky; Torsæter, Ole


    This paper presents systematic studies of hydrophilic metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) dispersed in brine intended to reveal their potential to enhance oil recovery (EOR) in various rock wettability systems. The stability in suspension (nanofluid) of the NPs has been identified as a key factor related to their use as an EOR agent. Experimental techniques have been developed for nanofluid stability using three coupled methods: direct visual observation, surface conductivity and particle size measurements. The use of a dispersant has been investigated and has been shown to successfully improve metal oxide nanofluid stability as a function of its concentration. The dispersant alters the nanofluid properties, i.e. surface conductivity, pH and particle size distribution. A two-phase coreflood experiment was conducted by injecting the stable nanofluids as a tertiary process (nano-EOR) through core plugs with various wettabilities ranging from water-wet to oil-wet. The combination of metal oxide nanofluid and dispersant improved the oil recovery to a greater extent than either silica-based nanofluid or dispersant alone in all wettability systems. The contact angle, interfacial tension (IFT) and effluent were also measured. It was observed that metal oxide-based nanofluids altered the quartz plates to become more water-wet, and the results are consistent with those of the coreflood experiment. The particle adsorption during the transport process was identified from effluent analysis. The presence of NPs and dispersant reduced the IFT, but its reduction is sufficient to yield significant additional oil recovery. Hence, wettability alteration plays a dominant role in the oil displacement mechanism using nano-EOR.

  9. Maternal immunity enhances systemic recall immune responses upon oral immunization of piglets with F4 fimbriae. (United States)

    Nguyen, Ut V; Melkebeek, Vesna; Devriendt, Bert; Goetstouwers, Tiphanie; Van Poucke, Mario; Peelman, Luc; Goddeeris, Bruno M; Cox, Eric


    F4 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) cause diarrhoea and mortality in piglets leading to severe economic losses. Oral immunization of piglets with F4 fimbriae induces a protective intestinal immune response evidenced by an F4-specific serum and intestinal IgA response. However, successful oral immunization of pigs with F4 fimbriae in the presence of maternal immunity has not been demonstrated yet. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the effect of maternal immunity on the induction of a systemic immune response upon oral immunization of piglets. Whereas F4-specific IgG and IgA could be induced by oral immunization of pigs without maternal antibodies and by intramuscular immunization of pigs with maternal antibodies, no such response was seen in the orally immunized animals with maternal antibodies. Since maternal antibodies can mask an antibody response, we also looked by ELIspot assays for circulating F4-specific antibody secreting cells (ASCs). Enumerating the F4-specific ASCs within the circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the number of F4-specific IgA ASCs within the circulating IgA(+) B-cells revealed an F4-specific immune response in the orally immunized animals with maternal antibodies. Interestingly, results suggest a more robust IgA booster response by oral immunization of pigs with than without maternal antibodies. These results demonstrate that oral immunization of piglets with F4-specific maternal antibodies is feasible and that these maternal antibodies seem to enhance the secondary systemic immune response. Furthermore, our ELIspot assay on enriched IgA(+) B-cells could be used as a screening procedure to optimize mucosal immunization protocols in pigs with maternal immunity.

  10. Sugar-based novel niosomal nanocarrier system for enhanced oral bioavailability of levofloxacin. (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Shah, Muhammad Raza; Ullah, Farhat; Ullah, Shafi; Elhissi, Abdelbary M A; Nawaz, Waqas; Ahmad, Farid; Sadiq, Abdul; Ali, Imdad


    Vesicular systems have attracted great attention in drug delivery because of their amphiphilicity, biodegradability, non-toxicity and potential for increasing drug bioavailability. A novel sugar-based double-tailed surfactant containing renewable block was synthesized for preparing niosomal vesicles that could be exploited for Levofloxacin encapsulation, aiming to increase its oral bioavailability. The surfactant was characterized by 1H NMR, mass spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Its biocompatibility was studied against cell cultures and human blood hemolysis. In vivo acute toxicity was evaluated in mice. The vesicle morphology, size, drug-excipients interaction and entrapment efficiency (EE) were examined using atomic force microscope (AFM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), FT-IR and HPLC. Oral bioavailability studies of Levofloxacin in surfactant-based niosomal formulation were carried out using rabbits and plasma samples were analyzed using HPLC. Vesicles were spherical in shape and the size was 190.31 ± 4.51 nm with a polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.29 ± 0.03. The drug EE in niosomes was 68.28 ± 3.45%. When applied on cell lines, high cell viability was observed even after prolonged exposure at high concentrations. It caused 5.77 ± 1.34% hemolysis at 1000 μg/mL and was found to be safe up to 2000 mg/kg. Elevated Levofloxacin plasma concentration was achieved when delivered with novel vesicles. The surfactant was demonstrated to be safe and effective as carrier of Levofloxacin. The study suggests that this sugar-based double-tailed nonionic surfactant could be promising nano-vesicular system for delivery and enhancing oral bioavailability of the hydrophobic Levofloxacin.

  11. Slow-light enhanced sensing with an on-chip Fano system (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Bera, Arijit; Kuittinen, Markku; Honkanen, Seppo; Roussey, Matthieu


    Integrated silicon photonics promises efficient on-chip solutions for chemical and bio-molecule sensing for faster and reliable disease diagnostics. By integrating a sensor with a light source and a detector, a compact lab-on-chip sensing device is possible to realize. To increase the sensing efficiency, slot waveguide geometry is preferable due to the high confinement of the mode within the cover material. When two different light-paths in a structure interfere with each other, causing the superposition of a Lorenzian response with the background radiation continuum, a Fano lineshape occurs. This sharp resonance leads to a superior refractive index sensing capability. To develop a compact on-chip Fano-resonant platform for chemical sensing, we used a merged photonic crystal - slot waveguide (MPCSW) structure as the basic building block. It contains slot waveguides merged with Bragg gratings, formed by periodic patterning of the rails. A defect between the two Bragg grating sections forms a resonant cavity. In addition to the enhancement due to the confinement of light in the slot waveguide, the highly dispersive nature of the Bragg grating leads to slow light effect at the resonance. Three MPCSW structures are parallel-coupled to form an on-chip Fano system. By changing the refractive index of the cover material, we found a sensitivity as high as 775 nm/RIU. Moreover, the group index at the resonance of our Fano system is as high as ng = 500, due to the effect of slow light. We obtain vast increase in the refractive index sensitivity of the device.

  12. Partial nitrification enhances natural attenuation of nitrogen in a septic system plume. (United States)

    Caschetto, M; Robertson, W; Petitta, M; Aravena, R


    Natural attenuation of nitrogen (N) was investigated in a well characterized septic system plume at a campground in Ontario, Canada. Total inorganic N (TIN) concentrations in deeper portions of the plume were about one third of the septic tank value of 40.7mgL-1. NH4+ and NO3- isotopic characterization were used to provide insight into potential attenuation processes. Concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- were highly variable in the plume, but approached the septic tank TIN value in some shallow zones and exhibited δ15N values like the tank value of +6‰. However, isotopic enrichment (up to +24‰ for NH4+ and +45‰ for NO3-) and declining TIN concentrations in the deeper zones indicated that anaerobic ammonium oxidation contributed to the TIN attenuation. The degree of isotopic enrichment increased at lower NH4+ concentrations and was consistent with Rayleigh-type distillation with an enrichment factor (Ɛ) of -5.1‰. Additionally, decreasing DOC values with depth and the concomitant enrichment of δ15NNO3 and δ18ONO3, suggested that denitrification was also active. The N attenuation observed in the Killarney plume was partly due to incomplete nitrification that occurred because of the shallow water table, which varied from only 0.2-0.7m below the tile bed infiltration pipes. Moreover, some of the monitoring locations with the shallowest water table distances from the infiltration pipes, had the highest degree of TIN attenuation (70-90%) in the plume. This behavior suggests that controlling water table distance from the infiltration pipes could be a useful mechanism for enhancing N attenuation in septic system plumes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Study on Enhancement Principle and Stabilization for the Luminol-H2O2-HRP Chemiluminescence System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Yang

    Full Text Available A luminol-H2O2-HRP chemiluminescence system with high relative luminescent intensity (RLU and long stabilization time was investigated. First, the comparative study on the enhancement effect of ten compounds as enhancers to the luminol-H2O2-HRP chemiluminescence system was carried out, and the results showed that 4-(imidazol-1-ylphenol (4-IMP, 4-iodophenol (4-IOP, 4-bromophenol (4-BOP and 4-hydroxy-4'-iodobiphenyl (HIOP had the best performance. Based on the experiment, the four enhancers were dissolved in acetone, acetonitrile, methanol, and dimethylformamide (DMF with various concentrations, the results indicated that 4-IMP, 4-IOP, 4-BOP and HIOP dissolved in DMF with the concentrations of 0.2%, 3.2%, 1.6% and 3.2% could get the highest RLU values. Subsequently, the influences of pH, ionic strength, HRP, 4-IMP, 4-IOP, 4-BOP, HIOP, H2O2 and luminol on the stabilization of the luminol-H2O2-HRP chemiluminescence system were studied, and we found that pH value, ionic strength, 4-IMP, 4-IOP, 4-BOP, HIOP, H2O2 and luminol have little influence on luminescent stabilization, while HRP has a great influence. In different ranges of HRP concentration, different enhancers should be selected. When the concentration is within the range of 0~6 ng/mL, 4-IMP should be selected. When the concentration of HRP ranges from 6 to 25 ng/mL, 4-IOP was the best choice. And when the concentration is within the range of 25~80 ng/mL, HIOP should be selected as the enhancer. Finally, the three well-performing chemiluminescent enhanced solutions (CESs have been further optimized according to the three enhancers (4-IMP, 4-IOP and HIOP in their utilized HRP concentration ranges.

  14. NASA Tech Briefs, August 2009 (United States)


    Topics covered include: Aligning a Receiving Antenna Array to Reduce Interference; Collecting Ground Samples for Balloon-Borne Instruments; Tethered Pyrotechnic Apparatus for Acquiring a Ground Sample; Enhanced Video-Oculography System; Joint Carrier-Phase Synchronization and LDPC Decoding; Dual-Polarization, Sideband-Separating, Balanced Receiver for 1.5 THz Modular Battery Charge Controller; Efficient Multiplexer FPGA Block Structures Based on G4FETs; VLSI Microsystem for Rapid Bioinformatic Pattern Recognition; Low-Noise Amplifier for 100 to 180 GHz; Improved Fabrication of Ceramic Matrix Composite/Foam Core Integrated Structures; Inert Welding/Brazing Gas Filters and Dryers; Fabricating Copper Nanotubes by Electrodeposition; Reducing Aerodynamic Drag on Empty Open Cargo Vehicles; Rotary Percussive Auto-Gopher for Deep Drilling and Sampling; More About Reconfigurable Exploratory Robotic Vehicles; Thermostatic Valves Containing Silicone-Oil Actuators; Improving Heat Flux Performance of Flat Surface in Spray-Cooling Systems; Treating Fibrous Insulation to Reduce Thermal Conductivity; Silica-Aerogel Composites Opacified with La(sub0.7)Sr(sub0.3)MnO3; Cyclic Oxidation Behavior of CuCrAl Cold-Sprayed Coatings for Reusable Launch Vehicles; Ceramic Fiber Structures for Cryogenic Load-Bearing Applications; Elastomer Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes; Biologically Inspired Purification and Dispersion of SWCNTs; A Technique for Adjusting Eigenfrequencies of WGM Resonators; Low-Pressure, Field-Ionizing Mass Spectrometer; Modifying Operating Cycles to Increase Stability in a LITS; Chamber for Simulating Martian and Terrestrial Environments; Algorithm for Detecting a Bright Spot in an Image; Extreme Programming: Maestro Style; Adaptive Behavior for Mobile Robots; Protocol for Communication Networking for Formation Flying; Planning Complex Sequences Using Compressed Representations; and Self-Supervised Learning of Terrain Traversability from Proprioceptive Sensors.

  15. Enhanced exchange anisotropy in IrMn/CoFeB systems and its correlation with uncompensated interfacial spins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yuqing; Pan, Genhua; Moate, Roy


    Bottom pinned exchange bias systems of IrMn/CoFe and IrMn/CoFeB on CoFe seed layers were studied. Enhanced exchange anisotropy has been observed for IrMn/CoFeB samples annealed at 350 °C. The ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic layers of both samples are polycrystalline and textured {110......} for the CoFe and CoFeB, and {111} for IrMn. Results demonstrated that the enhanced exchange anisotropy in the IrMn/CoFeB system is closely associated with the increased uncompensated interfacial spins as evidenced by the enhanced Mn x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) signal strength. A quantitative...... correlation between the Mn XMCD signal and the exchange anisotropy constant Jk was observed....

  16. Baseline System Costs for 50.0 MW Enhanced Geothermal System -- A Function of: Working Fluid, Technology, and Location, Location, Location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Paul [Gas Equipment Engineering Corp., Milford, CT (United States); Selman, Nancy [Gas Equipment Engineering Corp., Milford, CT (United States); Volpe, Anthony Della [Gas Equipment Engineering Corp., Milford, CT (United States); Moss, Deborah [Gas Equipment Engineering Corp., Milford, CT (United States); Mobley, Rick [Plasma Energy Services, LLC, Putnam, CT (United States); Dickey, Halley [Turbine Air Systems, Houston, TX (United States); Unruh, Jeffery [Fugro NV/Wm. Lettis & Associates, Houston, TX (United States); Hitchcock, Chris [Fugro NV/Wm. Lettis & Associates, Houston, TX (United States); Tanguay, Jasmine [Conservation Law Foundation/CLF Ventures, Boston, MA (United States); Larsen, Walker [Conservation Law Foundation/CLF Ventures, Boston, MA (United States); Sanyal, Sabir [GeothermEx, Inc., San Pablo, CA (United States); Butler, Steven [GeothermEx, Inc., San Pablo, CA (United States); Stacey, Robert [GeothermEx, Inc., San Pablo, CA (United States); Robertson-Tait, Ann [GeothermEx, Inc., San Pablo, CA (United States); Pruess, Karsten [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gutoski, Greg [Fairbanks Morse Engines (FME), Beloit, WI (United States); Fay, Jamie M. [Fort Point Associates, Boston, MA (United States); Stitzer, John T. [Fort Point Associates, Boston, MA (United States); Oglesby, Ken [Impact Technologies LLC, Tulsa, OK (United States)


    Substantial unexploited opportunity exists for the US, and the world, in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). As a result of US DOE investment, new drilling technology, new power generation equipment and cycles enable meaningful power production, in a compact and modular fashion; at lower and lower top side EGS working fluid temperatures and in a broader range of geologies and geographies. This cost analysis effort supports the expansion of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), furthering DOE strategic themes of energy security and sub goal of energy diversity; reducing the Nation's dependence on foreign oil while improving the environment.

  17. Geomechanics of Hydraulic Stimulation in Geothermal Systems: Designing and Implementing a Successful Enhanced Geothermal System at Desert Peak, Nevada (United States)

    Hickman, S. H.; Davatzes, N. C.; Zemach, E.; Chabora, E.; Lutz, S.; Rose, P.; Majer, E. L.; Robertson-Tait, A.


    Creation of an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) in hot but low-permeability rocks involves hydraulic stimulation of fracture permeability to develop a complex heat exchange system with low hydraulic impedance. An integrated study of stress, fractures and rock mechanical properties was conducted to develop the geomechanical framework for a multi-stage EGS stimulation in Desert Peak well 27-15, located at the low-permeability margins of an active geothermal field. The stimulation targeted silicified tuffs and metamorphosed mudstones at depths of 0.9 to 1.8 km and temperatures ~180 to 210° C. Drilling-induced tensile fractures in image logs from well 27-15 show that the least horizontal principal stress (Shmin) is consistent with normal faulting on ESE- and WNW-dipping fractures mapped at the surface and seen in the image logs. A hydraulic fracturing stress measurement indicates that the magnitude of Shmin at ~0.93 km depth is 0.61 of the calculated vertical stress. Coulomb failure calculations using these stresses together with measurements of friction and permeability on core predict that dilatant shear failure should be induced on pre-existing conjugate normal faults once pore pressures are increased ~2.5 MPa or more above ambient values, generating a zone of enhanced permeability elongated in the direction toward active geothermal wells ~0.5 km to the SSW. Hydraulic stimulation of well 27-15 began in September 2010 by injecting water into the open-hole interval between the casing shoe at 0.9 km depth and a temporary cement plug at 1.1 km. Stimulation was monitored by combined surface and down-hole seismic monitoring, inter-well tracer testing and periodic pressure-temperature-flowmeter logging. An initial stage of low-pressure (shear) stimulation was conducted for ~100 days at a series of pressure steps Shmin and injection rates up to 2800 l/min, resulting in an additional 6-fold increase in injectivity. Numerous microearthquakes induced during this high

  18. A Model for Enhancing Education for Sustainable Development with Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Tove; Sammalisto, Kaisu; Vuorisalo, Timo


    Enhancing education for sustainable development in higher education is a global challenge. National quality assurance demands for higher education were studied in the context of ESD......Enhancing education for sustainable development in higher education is a global challenge. National quality assurance demands for higher education were studied in the context of ESD...

  19. Lithosphere tectonics and thermo-mechanical properties: An integrated modeling approach for enhanced geothermal systems exploration in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.D. van; Cloetingh, S.; Ziegler, P.A.; Lenkey, L.; Beekman, F.; Tesauro, M.; Förster, A.; Norden, B.; Kaban, M.; Hardebol, N.; Voorde, M.T.; Willingshofer, E.; Cornu, T.; Bonté, D.


    For geothermal exploration and the development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) knowlegde of temperature at drillable depth is a prerequisite for site selection. Equally important is the thermo-mechanical signature of the lithosphere and crust which allow to obtain critical constraints for the

  20. Enhancing the Social Network Dimension of Lifelong Competence Development and Management Systems: A proposal of methods and tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheak, Alicia; Angehrn, Albert; Sloep, Peter


    Cheak, A. M., Angehrn, A. A., & Sloep, P. B. (2006). Enhancing the social network dimension of lifelong competence development and management systems: A proposal of methods and tools. In E. J. R. Koper & K. Stefanov (Eds.), Proceedings of International Workshop on Learning Networks for Lifelong

  1. Enhancing the Social Network Dimension of Lifelong Competence Development and Management Systems: A Proposal of Methods and Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheak, Alicia; Angehrn, Albert; Sloep, Peter


    Cheak, A. M., Angehrn, A. A., & Sloep, P. (2006). Enhancing the social network dimension of lifelong competence development and management systems: A proposal of methods and tools. In R. Koper & K. Stefanov (Eds.). Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence

  2. Development and Characterization of a Hybrid Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Electrospinning System for Nanofiber Enhancement (United States)

    Nowak, Joshua Michael

    A hybrid atmospheric pressure-electrospinning plasma system was developed to be used for the production of nanofibers and enhance their performance for various applications. Electrospun nanofibers are excellent candidates for protective clothing in the field of chemical and biological warfare defense; however, nanofibers are structurally weak and easily abrade and tear. They can be strengthened through the support of a substrate fabric, but they do not adhere well to substrates. Through the use of the developed hybrid system with either pure He or He/O2 (99/1) feed gas, adherence to the substrate along with abrasion and flex resistance were improved. The plasma source was diagnosed electrically, thermally, and optically. An equivalent circuit model was developed for non-thermal, highly collisional plasmas that can solve for average electron temperature and electron number density. The obtained temperatures (~ 3eV) correlate very well with the results of a neutral Bremsstrahlung continuum matching technique that was also employed. Using the temperatures and number densities obtained from the circuit model and the optical spectroscopy, a global chemical kinetics code was written in order to solve for radical and ion concentrations. This code shows that there are significant concentrations of oxygen radicals present. The XPS analysis confirmed that there was an increase of surface oxygen from 11.1% up to 16.6% for the He/O2 plasma and that the C-O bonding, which was not present in the control samples, has increased to 45.4%. The adhesive strength to the substrate has a significant increase of 81% for helium plasma and 144% for He/O2 plasma; however, these values remain below the desired values for protective clothing applications. The hybrid system displayed the ability to oxygenate nanofibers as they are being electrospun and shows the feasibility of making other surface modifications. The developed circuit model and chemical kinetics code both show promise as tools

  3. Team reflection on weak resilience signals: resilience enhancement of a rail sociotechnical system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, A.W.


    Sociotechnical systems, interrelating people and technology, are becoming more complex while safety expectations grow. Examples of such complex sociotechnical system are civil aviation, process industry, nuclear industry, and rail systems. Existing methods of system development, system maintenance,

  4. A novel bioreactor system for biaxial mechanical loading enhances the properties of tissue-engineered human cartilage


    Meinert, Christoph; Schrobback, Karsten; Hutmacher, Dietmar W.; Klein, Travis J.


    The ex vivo engineering of autologous cartilage tissues has the potential to revolutionize the clinical management of joint disorders. Yet, high manufacturing costs and variable outcomes associated with tissue-engineered implants are still limiting their application. To improve clinical outcomes and facilitate a wider use of engineered tissues, automated bioreactor systems capable of enhancing and monitoring neotissues are required. Here, we developed an innovative system capable of applying ...

  5. Trees enhance soil carbon sequestration and nutrient cycling in a silvopastoral system in south-western Nicaragua


    Hoosbeek, Marcel R.; Remme, Roy P.; Rusch, Graciela


    Tree occurrence in silvopastoral systems of Central America has been under pressure for various reasons including attempts to improve grassland productivity and the need for wood. However, scattered isolated trees are also recognized to provide ecosystem services like shade, fodder and fruits that are important to cattle in the dry season. In addition, trees may enhance the climate change mitigation potential of silvopastoral systems through increased carbon (C) upt...

  6. Trees enhance soil carbon sequestration and nutrient cycling in a silvopastoral system in south-western Nicaragua


    Hoosbeek, Marcel R.; Remme, Roy P.; Graciela M Rusch


    Tree occurrence in silvopastoral systems of Central America has been under pressure for various reasons including attempts to improve grassland productivity and the need for wood. However, scattered isolated trees are also recognized to provide ecosystem services like shade, fodder and fruits that are important to cattle in the dry season. In addition, trees may enhance the climate change mitigation potential of silvopastoral systems through increased carbon (C) uptake and subsequent soil car...



    Benjamin D, Tiongzon; Adora A. Villaganas; Victor D. Villaganas


    This study assessed the practices of the records management system in the public schools in the Division of Mandaue City on the school year 2012-2013 towards the adoption of an Enhanced School Records Management System. The study further considered the profile of the respondent groups as vital variables which significantly affected the performance of the school records officers or custodians. Specifically, this study was conceived to look into the level of implementation of the different ...

  8. Spread spectrum time-resolved diffuse optical measurement system for enhanced sensitivity in detecting human brain activity (United States)

    Mehta, Kalpesh; Hasnain, Ali; Zhou, Xiaowei; Luo, Jianwen; Penney, Trevor B.; Chen, Nanguang


    Diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and imaging methods have been widely applied to noninvasive detection of brain activity. We have designed and implemented a low cost, portable, real-time one-channel time-resolved DOS system for neuroscience studies. Phantom experiments were carried out to test the performance of the system. We further conducted preliminary human experiments and demonstrated that enhanced sensitivity in detecting neural activity in the cortex could be achieved by the use of late arriving photons.

  9. Enhancing methane production in a farm-scale biogas production system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaparaju, P.


    Biogas technology with utilisation of biogas is increasingly applied in the agricultural sector to produce renewable energy and to minimise environmental emissions both resulting in reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The main objective of this thesis was to evaluate methods to enhance the methane production in a farm-scale biogas production system. Semi-continuous digestion of pig and dairy cow manures produced methane yields (m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} volatile solids (VS)) of about 0.31 and 0.14 respectively at 2 kgVS m{sup -3} d{sup -1} loading rate, 30 d hydraulic retention time (HRT) and 6.0% feed VS while in batches yields were 0.14, and 0.36 m3 kg{sup -1} VS for dairy cow and pig and manures respectively. These yields were lower than the theoretical yield of 0.4 m3 kg{sup -1} VS reported for cow manure. Possible co-substrates to enhance the methane production were investigated. Methane yields (m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} VS) in batch assays were 0.14 to 0.35 for three different energy crops and 0.32-0.39 for confectionery by-products. On full-scale application, cow manure alone and co-digestion with energy crops produced 0.22 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} kg{sup -1} VS and co-digestion with confectionery by-products (20% of feed biomass) about 0.28 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} VS. Laboratory co-digestion of pig manure with potato tuber or its industrial by- products (potato peel or potato stillage) at loading rate of 2 kg VS m-3 d-1 produced methane yields (m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} VS) of about 0.22 at 85:15 and 0.31 at 80:20 feed VS ratio (VS% pig manure to potato co-substrate) compared to 0.14 for pig manure alone. The batch incubation of digested materials from a farm biogas digester (35 deg C) and its associated post-storage tank indicated that both materials could still produce up to 0.20 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} VS. The amount and rate was highly dependent on temperature. These results suggest that the untapped methane potential in the digested manure cannot effectively be recovered at

  10. Enhancing Community Based Early Warning Systems in Nepal with Flood Forecasting Using Local and Global Models (United States)

    Dugar, Sumit; Smith, Paul; Parajuli, Binod; Khanal, Sonu; Brown, Sarah; Gautam, Dilip; Bhandari, Dinanath; Gurung, Gehendra; Shakya, Puja; Kharbuja, RamGopal; Uprety, Madhab


    % probability of exceeding the Medium Level Alert in two days. Rainfall stations upstream of the West Rapti catchment recorded heavy rainfall on 26 July, and localized forecasts from the probabilistic model at 8 am suggested that the water level would cross a pre-determined warning level in the next 3 hours. The Flood Forecasting Section at DHM issued a flood advisory, and disseminated SMS flood alerts to more than 13,000 at-risk people residing along the floodplains. Water levels crossed the danger threshold (5.4 meters) at 11 am, peaking at 8.15 meters at 10 pm. Extension of the warning lead time from probabilistic forecasts was significant in minimising the risk to lives and livelihoods as communities gained extra time to prepare, evacuate and respond. Likewise, longer timescale forecasts from GLoFAS could be potentially linked with no-regret early actions leading to improved preparedness and emergency response. These forecasting tools have contributed to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of existing community based systems, increasing the lead time for response. Nevertheless, extensive work is required on appropriate ways to interpret and disseminate probabilistic forecasts having longer (2-14 days) and shorter (3-5 hours) time horizon for operational deployment as there are numerous uncertainties associated with predictions.

  11. Design, demonstration and evaluation of a thermal enhanced vapor extraction system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelan, J.; Reavis, B.; Swanson, J. [and others


    The Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES), which combines powerline frequency heating (PLF) and radio frequency (RF) heating with vacuum soil vapor extraction, was used to effectively remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) from a pit in the chemical waste landfill (CWL) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) within a two month heating period. Volume average temperatures of 83{degrees}C and 112{degrees}C were reached for the PLF and RF heating periods, respectively, within the 15 ft x 45 ft x 18.5 ft deep treated volume. This resulted in the removal of 243 lb of measured toxic organic compounds (VOCs and SVOCs), 55 gallons of oil, and 11,000 gallons of water from the site. Reductions of up to 99% in total chromatographic organics (TCO) was achieved in the heated zone. Energy balance calculations for the PLF heating period showed that 36.4% of the heat added went to heating the soil, 38.5% went to evaporating water and organics, 4.2% went to sensible heat in the water, 7.1% went to heating the extracted air, and 6.6% was lost. For the RF heating period went to heating the soil, 23.5% went to evaporating water and organics, 2.4% went to sensible heat in the water, 7.5% went to heating extracted air, and 9.7% went to losses. Energy balance closure was 92.8% for the PLF heating and 98% for the RF heating. The energy input requirement per unit soil volume heated per unit temperature increase was 1.63 kWH/yd{sup 3}-{degrees}C for PLF heating and 0.73 kWH/yd{sup 3}{degrees}C for RF heating.

  12. Enhancement of absorption and hepatoprotective potential through soya-phosphatidylcholine-andrographolide vesicular system. (United States)

    Jain, Pushpendra Kumar; Khurana, Navneet; Pounikar, Yogesh; Gajbhiye, Asmita; Kharya, Murli Dhar


    Andrographis paniculata is a medicinal herb used extensively for various ailments and contains therapeutically active phytoconstituent, andrographolide (AN). Although hepatoprotective activity of AN is established, but their bioavailability is restricted due to its rapid clearance. The aim of this study, therefore, was to formulate AN herbosomes (ANH) through complexation with naturally occurring soya-phosphatidylcholine (SPC), in order to enhance absorption. Prepared andrographolide-soy phosphatidylcholine (AN-SPC) complex prepared was subjected for characterisation of complex and formation of vesicular system known as ANH using rotary evaporation techniques. This complex was subjected to in vitro study using everted small intestine sac technique which showed significantly increased absorption of AN from the ANH as compared to the plain AN. The hepatoprotective potential of ANH and plain AN was evaluated using carbon tetrachloride inducing hepatotoxicity rat model and compared, in which ANH equivalent to 50 mg/kg of plain AN significantly restore serum glutamate oxalacetate transaminase (112.4 ± 9.67 for AN whereas 90.2 ± 4.23 for ANH) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (109.3 ± 7.89 for AN whereas 90.6 ± 4.34 for ANH) level as compared to control group. The ANH showed significantly better absorption than plain AN and this effect of ANH was also comparable to the standard drug (Silymarin). The findings of present study reveal that ANH has better bioavailability as shown by in vitro absorption study and hence improved hepatoprotection as compared to plain AN at equivalent dose.

  13. Coherence between Rat Sensorimotor System and Hippocampus Is Enhanced during Tactile Discrimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Grion


    Full Text Available Rhythms with time scales of multiple cycles per second permeate the mammalian brain, yet neuroscientists are not certain of their functional roles. One leading idea is that coherent oscillation between two brain regions facilitates the exchange of information between them. In rats, the hippocampus and the vibrissal sensorimotor system both are characterized by rhythmic oscillation in the theta range, 5-12 Hz. Previous work has been divided as to whether the two rhythms are independent or coherent. To resolve this question, we acquired three measures from rats--whisker motion, hippocampal local field potential (LFP, and barrel cortex unit firing--during a whisker-mediated texture discrimination task and during control conditions (not engaged in a whisker-mediated memory task. Compared to control conditions, the theta band of hippocampal LFP showed a marked increase in power as the rats approached and then palpated the texture. Phase synchronization between whisking and hippocampal LFP increased by almost 50% during approach and texture palpation. In addition, a greater proportion of barrel cortex neurons showed firing that was phase-locked to hippocampal theta while rats were engaged in the discrimination task. Consistent with a behavioral consequence of phase synchronization, the rats identified the texture more rapidly and with lower error likelihood on trials in which there was an increase in theta-whisking coherence at the moment of texture palpation. These results suggest that coherence between the whisking rhythm, barrel cortex firing, and hippocampal LFP is augmented selectively during epochs in which the rat collects sensory information and that such coherence enhances the efficiency of integration of stimulus information into memory and decision-making centers.

  14. Enhanced removal of petroleum hydrocarbons using a bioelectrochemical remediation system with pre-cultured anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkidusamy, Krishnaveni [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), University of South (Australia); CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRCCARE), Mawson Lakes, SA5095 (Australia); Megharaj, Mallavarapu, E-mail: [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), University of South (Australia); CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRCCARE), Mawson Lakes, SA5095 (Australia); Global Centre for Environmental Remediation, Faculty of Science and Information Technology, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Marzorati, Massimo [Laboratory for Microbial Ecology and Technology (LabMET), Gent University, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Lockington, Robin [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), University of South (Australia); CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRCCARE), Mawson Lakes, SA5095 (Australia); Naidu, Ravi [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), University of South (Australia); CRC for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRCCARE), Mawson Lakes, SA5095 (Australia); Global Centre for Environmental Remediation, Faculty of Science and Information Technology, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)


    Bioelectrochemical remediation (BER) systems such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have recently emerged as a green technology for the effective remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants (PH) coupled with simultaneous energy recovery. Recent research has shown that biofilms previously enriched for substrate degrading bacteria resulted in excellent performance in terms of substrate removal and electricity generation but the effects on hydrocarbon contaminant degradation were not examined. Here we investigate the differences between enriched biofilm anodes and freshly inoculated new anodes in diesel fed single chamber mediatorless microbial fuel cells (DMFC) using various techniques for the enhancement of PH contaminant remediation with concomitant electricity generation. An anodophilic microbial consortium previously selected for over a year through continuous culturing with a diesel concentration of about 800 mg l{sup −1} and which now showed complete removal of this concentration of diesel within 30 days was compared to that of a freshly inoculated new anode MFC (showing 83.4% removal of diesel) with a simultaneous power generation of 90.81 mW/m{sup 2} and 15.04 mW/m{sup 2} respectively. The behaviour of pre-cultured anodes at a higher concentration of PH (8000 mg l{sup −1}) was also investigated. Scanning electron microscopy observation revealed a thick biofilm covering the pre-cultured anodic electrode but not the anode from the freshly inoculated MFC. High resolution imaging showed the presence of thin 60 nm diametre pilus-like projections emanating from the cells. Anodic microbial community profiling confirmed that the selection for diesel degrading exoelectrogenic bacteria had occurred. Identification of a biodegradative gene (alkB) provided strong evidence of the catabolic pathway used for diesel degradation in the DMFCs.

  15. Probabilistic 3-D time-lapse inversion of magnetotelluric data: Application to an enhanced geothermal system (United States)

    Rosas-Carbajal, Marina; Linde, Nicolas; Peacock, Jared R.; Zyserman, F. I.; Kalscheuer, Thomas; Thiel, Stephan


    Surface-based monitoring of mass transfer caused by injections and extractions in deep boreholes is crucial to maximize oil, gas and geothermal production. Inductive electromagnetic methods, such as magnetotellurics, are appealing for these applications due to their large penetration depths and sensitivity to changes in fluid conductivity and fracture connectivity. In this work, we propose a 3-D Markov chain Monte Carlo inversion of time-lapse magnetotelluric data to image mass transfer following a saline fluid injection. The inversion estimates the posterior probability density function of the resulting plume, and thereby quantifies model uncertainty. To decrease computation times, we base the parametrization on a reduced Legendre moment decomposition of the plume. A synthetic test shows that our methodology is effective when the electrical resistivity structure prior to the injection is well known. The centre of mass and spread of the plume are well retrieved.We then apply our inversion strategy to an injection experiment in an enhanced geothermal system at Paralana, South Australia, and compare it to a 3-D deterministic time-lapse inversion. The latter retrieves resistivity changes that are more shallow than the actual injection interval, whereas the probabilistic inversion retrieves plumes that are located at the correct depths and oriented in a preferential north-south direction. To explain the time-lapse data, the inversion requires unrealistically large resistivity changes with respect to the base model. We suggest that this is partly explained by unaccounted subsurface heterogeneities in the base model from which time-lapse changes are inferred.

  16. Interaction of processes may explain induced seismicity after shut-in in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (United States)

    De Simone, Silvia; Carrera, Jesus; Vilarrasa, Victor


    Deep fluid injection is a necessary operation in several engineering sectors, like geothermal energy production, natural gas storage, CO2 storage, etc. The seismicity associated to these activities has, in some occasions, reached unexpected magnitude, raising public concern. Moreover, the occurrence of such seismicity after the injection shut-in pointed out the incompleteness of the knowledge and the inability of fully managing these processes. On the other hand, the growing attention toward clean energy makes it clear that we cannot abandon these procedures, which have a huge potential. Therefore, deeply understanding the mechanisms that induce seismicity is crucial. In this study we consider hydraulic stimulation of deep geothermal systems and analyze the mechanisms that may induce or trigger seismicity. Given that the basic mechanism is fluid pressure increase, secondary triggering processes have been studied. In detail, we attempt to identify the potential mechanisms that may trigger seismicity in the post-injection phase, when the overpressure decreases. These mechanisms have been investigated with a coupled and uncoupled approach, in order to understand the individual effects of each one and the effects of the interactions between them on the reservoir stability. Besides fluid overpressure, another relevant process is the temperature variation. Indeed, in the case of enhanced geothermal systems, the temperature contrast between the injected cold fluid and the deep hot reservoir is great and induces thermal stress, which sensibly affects the in-situ stress field. Therefore, we have studied overpressure and temperature effects by means of analytic solutions and by means of hydro-mechanical and thermo-hydro-mechanical numerical simulations. Results show that in fractured rocks the spatial variability of hydraulic and mechanic parameters provokes no isotropic variation of the tensional field, in response to pressure and temperature perturbations. Another

  17. Rapid Enhancement in General Relativistic Precession Rates due to Kozai Mechanism in Solar System Bodies (United States)

    Sekhar, Aswin; Asher, David; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Werner, Stephanie; Vaubaillon, Jeremie; Li, Gongjie


    Two well known phenomena in orbital dynamics associated with low perihelion distance bodies are general relativistic (GR) precession and Lidov-Kozai (LK) oscillations.In this work, we are interested to identify bodies evolving in the near future (i.e. thousands of years in this case) into rapid sungrazing and sun colliding phases and undergoing inclination flips, due to LK like oscillations and being GR active at the same time. We find that LK mechanism leads to secular lowering of perihelion distance which in turn leads to a huge increase in GR precession of the argument of pericentre depending on the initial orbital elements. This in turn gives feedback to the LK mechanism as the eccentricity, inclination and argument of pericentre in Kozai cycles are closely correlated. In this work, we find real examples of solar system bodies which show rapid enhancement in GR precession rates due to LK like oscillations and there are cases where GR precession rate peaks to about 60 times that of the GR precession of Mercury thus showing the strength and complementary nature between these two dynamical phenomena.An analytical treatment is done on few bodies to understand the difference in their orbital evolution in the context of LK mechanism with and without GR precession term by incorporating suitable Hamiltonian dynamics. This result is subsequently matched using numerical integrations to find direct correlations. Real solar system bodies showing both GR precession and LK like oscillations are identified using compiled observational records from IAU-Minor Planet Center, Cometary Catalogue, IAU-Meteor Data Center and performing analytical plus numerical tests on them. This intermediate state (where GR and LK effects are comparable and co-exist) brings up the interesting possibility of drastic changes in GR precession rates during orbital evolution due to sungrazing and sun colliding phases induced by the LK like mechanism, thus combining both these important effects in a

  18. Micro and nanoscale electrochemical systems for reagent generation, coupled electrokinetic transport and enhanced detection (United States)

    Contento, Nicholas M.

    Chemical analysis is being performed in devices operated at ever decreasing length scales in order to harness the fundamental benefits of micro and nanoscale phenomena while minimizing operating footprint and sample size. The advantages of moving traditional sample or chemical processing steps (e.g. separation, detection, and reaction) into micro- and nanofluidic devices have been demonstrated, and they arise from the relatively rapid rates of heat and mass transport at small length scales. The use of electrochemical methods in micro/nanoscale systems to control and improve these processes holds great promise. Unfortunately, much is still not understood about the coupling of multiple electrode driven processes in a confined environment nor about the fundamental changes in device performance that occur as geometries approach the nanoscale regime. At the nanoscale a significant fraction of the sample volume is in close contact with the device surface, i.e. most of the sample is contained within electronic or diffusion layers associated with surface charge or surface reactions, respectively. The work presented in this thesis aims to understand some fundamental different behaviors observed in micro/nanofluidic structures, particularly those containing one or more embedded, metallic electrode structures. First, a quantitative method is devised to describe the impact of electric fields on electrochemistry in multi-electrode micro/nanofluidic systems. Next the chemical manipulation of small volumes (≤ 10-13 L) in micro/nanofluidic structures is explored by creating regions of high pH and high dissolved gas (H 2) concentration through the electrolysis of H2O. Massively parallel arrays of nanochannel electrodes, or embedded annular nanoband electrodes (EANEs), are then studied with a focus on achieving enhanced signals due to coupled electrokinetic and electrochemical effects. In EANE devices, electroosmotic flow results from the electric field generated between the

  19. Investigation of Vapor Cooling Enhancements for Applications on Large Cryogenic Systems (United States)

    Ameen, Lauren; Zoeckler, Joseph


    The need to demonstrate and evaluate the effectiveness of heat interception methods for use on a relevant cryogenic propulsion stage at a system level has been identified. Evolvable Cryogenics (eCryo) Structural Heat Intercept, Insulation and Vibration Evaluation Rig (SHIIVER) will be designed with vehicle specific geometries (SLS Exploration Upper Stage (EUS) as guidance) and will be subjected to simulated space environments. One method of reducing structure-born heat leak being investigated utilizes vapor-based heat interception. Vapor-based heat interception could potentially reduce heat leak into liquid hydrogen propulsion tanks, increasing potential mission length or payload capability. Due to the high number of unknowns associated with the heat transfer mechanism and integration of vapor-based heat interception on a realistic large-scale skirt design, a sub-scale investigation was developed. The sub-project effort is known as the Small-scale Laboratory Investigation of Cooling Enhancements (SLICE). The SLICE aims to study, design, and test sub-scale multiple attachments and flow configuration concepts for vapor-based heat interception of structural skirts. SLICE will focus on understanding the efficiency of the heat transfer mechanism to the boil-off hydrogen vapor by varying the fluid network designs and configurations. Various analyses were completed in MATLAB, Excel VBA, and COMSOL Multiphysics to understand the optimum flow pattern for heat transfer and fluid dynamics. Results from these analyses were used to design and fabricate test article subsections of a large forward skirt with vapor cooling applied. The SLICE testing is currently being performed to collect thermal mechanical performance data on multiple skirt heat removal designs while varying inlet vapor conditions necessary to intercept a specified amount of heat for a given system. Initial results suggest that applying vapor-cooling provides a 50 heat reduction in conductive heat transmission

  20. Changes in ultrastructure and responses of antioxidant systems of algae (Dunaliella salina) during acclimation to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation. (United States)

    Tian, Jiyuan; Yu, Juan


    Because of depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, levels of solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (280-315 nm), which penetrates the water column to an ecologically-significant depth, are increasing. In order to assess changes in ultrastructure and responses of antioxidant systems of algae during acclimation to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation, Dunaliella salina was treated with higher dose of UV-B radiation (13.2 kJm(-2) d(-1) dose) in this study. As compared to the control panel (8.8 kJm(-2) d(-1)), the treatment D. salina had many changes in ultrastructures: (1) thylakoids became swelled, and some of them penetrated into the pyrenoid; (2) lipid globules accumulated; (3) the amounts of starch grains increased; (4) cristae of mitochondria disintegrated; (5) inclusions in vacuoles reduced; and (6) cisternae of Golgi dictyosomes became loose and swollen. Enhanced UV-B irradiation also induced different responses of the antioxidant systems in D. salina: (1) contents of TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reacting substance) and H(2)O(2) increased significantly (p0.05). In addition, growth curve displayed that enhanced UV-B radiation prominently inhibited increase of cell concentration when compared with control panel (p<0.05). Our results indicated that enhanced UV-B radiation caused ultrastructural changes of D. salina and induced different responses of antioxidant systems in D. salina.