WorldWideScience

Sample records for enhanced shortwave experiment

  1. Consistency Study of Enhanced Shortwave Cloud Absorption Using GEBA Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Hua; Chou, Ming-Dah (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Under the support of this project, we have obtained the following results:(1) Shortwave radiative fluxes in current atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) cannot simultaneously match Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) at the surface. This inconsistency of model results with observation is a result of insufficient absorption of solar radiation in the model atmosphere; (2) Current state-of-the art global datasets describing the energy balance of the atmosphere cannot close the atmospheric energy budget if algorithm-derived surface shortwave radiative fluxes are used. The deficient amount of 20 W/sq m is similar to the recently reported enhanced absorption of solar radiation in the atmosphere; (3) We have clarified several sampling problems in the analysis of the collocated monthly GEBA/ERBE data sets which are germane to the interpretation of the clear-sky absorption of shortwave radiation in the atmosphere. As a result, the collocated monthly ERBE/GEBA data can be effectively used to infer enhanced absorption of atmospheric radiation in measurements relative to models, but it cannot be unambiguously used to answer whether the enhanced absorption is in clouds or in clear sky. Other field data are needed to resolve this issue; and (4) Analysis of aircraft measurements during Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) field campaign supports the enhanced absorption of solar radiation in clouds.

  2. GeSn/Ge quantum well photodetectors for short-wave infrared photodetection: experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Ho; Chang, Guo-En

    2017-05-01

    Group-IV GeSn material systems have recently considered as a new material for sensitive photodetection in the short-wave infrared (SWIR) region. The introduction of Sn into Ge can effectively narrow the bandgap energies, thereby extending the absorption edges toward the longer wavelengths and enabling effective photodetection in SWIR region. Here we present an experimental and modeling study of GeSn/Ge quantum well (QW) photodetectors on silicon substrates for effective SRIW photodetection. Epitaxial growth of pseudomorphic GeSn/Ge QW structures was realized on Ge-buffered silicon substrates using low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy. Normal incident GeSn/Ge QW photodetectors were then fabricated and characterized. The optical responsivity experiments demonstrate that the photodetection cutoff wavelengths is extended to beyond 1800 nm, enabling effective photodetection in SWIR spectral region. We then develop theoretical models to calculate the composition-dependent strained electron band structures, oscillation strengths, and optical absorption spectra for the pseudomorphic GeSn/Ge QW structures. The results show that Ge1-xSnx well sandwiched by Ge barriers can achieve a critical type-I alignment at Γ point to provide necessary quantum confinement of carriers. With an increase in the Sn content, the band offsets between the GeSn well and Ge barreirs increases, thus enhancing the oscillation strengths of direct interband transitions. In addition, despite stronger quantum confinement with increasing Sn content, the absorption edge can be effectively shifted to longer wavelengths due to the direct bandgap reduction caused by Sn-alloying. These results suggest that GeSn/Ge QW photodetectors are promising for low-cost, high-performance SWIR photodetection applications.

  3. CLARREO shortwave observing system simulation experiments of the twenty-first century: Simulator design and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, D.R.; Algieri, C.A.; Ong, J.R.; Collins, W.D.

    2011-04-01

    Projected changes in the Earth system will likely be manifested in changes in reflected solar radiation. This paper introduces an operational Observational System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) to calculate the signals of future climate forcings and feedbacks in top-of-atmosphere reflectance spectra. The OSSE combines simulations from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report for the NCAR Community Climate System Model (CCSM) with the MODTRAN radiative transfer code to calculate reflectance spectra for simulations of current and future climatic conditions over the 21st century. The OSSE produces narrowband reflectances and broadband fluxes, the latter of which have been extensively validated against archived CCSM results. The shortwave reflectance spectra contain atmospheric features including signals from water vapor, liquid and ice clouds, and aerosols. The spectra are also strongly influenced by the surface bidirectional reflectance properties of predicted snow and sea ice and the climatological seasonal cycles of vegetation. By comparing and contrasting simulated reflectance spectra based on emissions scenarios with increasing projected and fixed present-day greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations, we find that prescribed forcings from increases in anthropogenic sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols are detectable and are spatially confined to lower latitudes. Also, changes in the intertropical convergence zone and poleward shifts in the subsidence zones and the storm tracks are all detectable along with large changes in snow cover and sea ice fraction. These findings suggest that the proposed NASA Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission to measure shortwave reflectance spectra may help elucidate climate forcings, responses, and feedbacks.

  4. Sensitivity of MENA Tropical Rainbelt to Dust Shortwave Absorption: A High Resolution AGCM Experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Bangalath, Hamza Kunhu

    2016-06-13

    Shortwave absorption is one of the most important, but the most uncertain, components of direct radiative effect by mineral dust. It has a broad range of estimates from different observational and modeling studies and there is no consensus on the strength of absorption. To elucidate the sensitivity of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) tropical summer rainbelt to a plausible range of uncertainty in dust shortwave absorption, AMIP-style global high resolution (25 km) simulations are conducted with and without dust, using the High-Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM). Simulations with dust comprise three different cases by assuming dust as a very efficient, standard and inefficient absorber. Inter-comparison of these simulations shows that the response of the MENA tropical rainbelt is extremely sensitive to the strength of shortwave absorption. Further analyses reveal that the sensitivity of the rainbelt stems from the sensitivity of the multi-scale circulations that define the rainbelt. The maximum response and sensitivity are predicted over the northern edge of the rainbelt, geographically over Sahel. The sensitivity of the responses over the Sahel, especially that of precipitation, is comparable to the mean state. Locally, the response in precipitation reaches up to 50% of the mean, while dust is assumed to be a very efficient absorber. Taking into account that Sahel has a very high climate variability and is extremely vulnerable to changes in precipitation, the present study suggests the importance of reducing uncertainty in dust shortwave absorption for a better simulation and interpretation of the Sahel climate.

  5. Downward shortwave surface irradiance from 17 sites for the FIRE/SRB Wisconsin experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Charles H.; Hay, John E.; Robinson, David A.; Cox, Stephen K.; Wardle, David I.; Lecroy, Stuart R.

    1990-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted in Wisconsin during Oct. to Nov. 1986 for purposes of both intensive cirrus cloud measurments and SRB algorithm validation activities. The cirrus cloud measurements were part of the FIRE. Tables are presented which show data from 17 sites in the First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment/Surface Radiation Budget (FIRE/SRB) Wisconsin experiment region. A discussion of intercomparison results and calibration inconsistencies is also included.

  6. Sensitivity of tropical rainbelt over Africa and Middle East to dust shortwave absorption: Experiments using a high resolution AGCM

    KAUST Repository

    Bangalath, Hamza Kunhu

    2015-04-01

    Response of the rainbelt over Africa to dust direct radiative forcing has been an area of lively debate and is a subject of ongoing research. Previous modeling studies have contrasting results producing different amplitudes or even signs of responses. Uncertainties in the dust radiative forcing are thought to be the major cause of discrepancies in the simulated responses among various studies. The imaginary part of mineral dust shortwave refractive index, which defines the dust absorptivity, has a wide range of values estimated from various observational and modeling studies, as it depends on dust chemical composition and mineralogy. Balkanski et al. (2007) estimated dust shortwave refractive indices by assuming 3 different hematite contents, 0.9%, 1.5% and 2.7% by volume, which corresponds to inefficient, standard, and very efficient dust shortwave absorption, respectively. To investigate the sensitivity of the position and intensity of the tropical rainbelt over Africa and its extension to the Arabian Peninsula to dust shortwave absorption, we have conducted ensembles of numerical simulations for each of the three dust absorptivity scenarios using a high resolution Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM), GFDL\\'s High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM), at a spatial resolution of 25 km. We found that the strength and the latitudinal extent of the rainbelt are very sensitive to dust shortwave absorption, as well as circulations at various spatiotemporal scales that drive the climate of the region. Reference: Balkanski, Y., M. Schulz, T. Claquin, and S. Guibert (2007), Reevaluation of mineral aerosol radiative forcings suggests a better agreement with satellite and AERONET data, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 81 - 95.

  7. Enhance Your Twitter Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shannon McClintock

    2010-01-01

    The author has been encouraging teachers, students, and others to join Twitter and build their personal learning networks (PLNs) ever since she delved into this great social networking site. In this article, she offers a few other tools and tips that can improve the Twitter experience of those who have opened up an account and dabbled a bit but…

  8. 21 CFR 890.5290 - Shortwave diathermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shortwave diathermy. 890.5290 Section 890.5290... diathermy. (a) Shortwave diathermy for use in applying therapeutic deep heat for selected medical conditions—(1) Identification. A shortwave diathermy for use in applying therapeutic deep heat for selected...

  9. Physical experience enhances science learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontra, Carly; Lyons, Daniel J; Fischer, Susan M; Beilock, Sian L

    2015-06-01

    Three laboratory experiments involving students' behavior and brain imaging and one randomized field experiment in a college physics class explored the importance of physical experience in science learning. We reasoned that students' understanding of science concepts such as torque and angular momentum is aided by activation of sensorimotor brain systems that add kinetic detail and meaning to students' thinking. We tested whether physical experience with angular momentum increases involvement of sensorimotor brain systems during students' subsequent reasoning and whether this involvement aids their understanding. The physical experience, a brief exposure to forces associated with angular momentum, significantly improved quiz scores. Moreover, improved performance was explained by activation of sensorimotor brain regions when students later reasoned about angular momentum. This finding specifies a mechanism underlying the value of physical experience in science education and leads the way for classroom practices in which experience with the physical world is an integral part of learning. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Wireless shortwave: A new coagulation procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khuwaitir, S A; El-Hazmi, M A; Al-Mofleh, I; Al-Tuwaijri, A

    1986-01-01

    Wireless shortwave (27.12 MHz) was tested in controlling bleeding of surgical cuts on the ears of experimental rabbits and found to be effective and less traumatic in comparison with infrared and high-frequency diathermy, more common methods of coagulation. Twenty-eight rabbits were traumatized with small surgical incisions on their ears and were divided into groups of seven for surgical control, wireless shortwave, infrared and HF diathermy. Comparison was based on measurement of the area of divitalization, scar size and depth of necrosis. Results indicate that shortwave coagulation can be used effectively with less trauma and risk of sepsis than the other methods.

  11. Diversifying experiences enhance cognitive flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritter, S.M.; Damian, R.I.; Simonton, D.K.; Baaren, R.B. van; Strick, M.A.; Derks, J.G.; Dijksterhuis, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Past research has linked creativity to unusual and unexpected experiences, such as early parental loss or living abroad. However, few studies have investigated the underlying cognitive processes. We propose that these experiences have in common a "diversifying" aspect and an active involvement,

  12. ARM Shortwave and Longwave Radiometer Calibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooraghi, Mike; Kutchenreiter, Mark; Reda, Ibrahim; Habte, Aron; Sengupta, Manajit; Andreas, Afshin; Newman, Martina; Webb, Craig

    2017-03-23

    This presentation provides a high-level overview of shortwave and longwave calibrations performed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program Southern Great Plains site.

  13. Enhanced Experience Replay for Deep Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    ARL-TR-7538 ● NOV 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Enhanced Experience Replay for Deep Reinforcement Learning by David Doria...Experience Replay for Deep Reinforcement Learning by David Doria, Bryan Dawson, and Manuel Vindiola Computational and Information Sciences Directorate...

  14. Biological effects and mechanisms of shortwave radiation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chao; Peng, Rui-Yun

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing knowledge of shortwave radiation, it is widely used in wireless communications, radar observations, industrial manufacturing, and medical treatments. Despite of the benefits from shortwave, these wide applications expose humans to the risk of shortwave electromagnetic radiation, which is alleged to cause potential damage to biological systems. This review focused on the exposure to shortwave electromagnetic radiation, considering in vitro, in vivo and epidemiological results that have provided insight into the biological effects and mechanisms of shortwave. Additionally, some protective measures and suggestions are discussed here in the hope of obtaining more benefits from shortwave with fewer health risks.

  15. Factors affecting projected Arctic surface shortwave heating and albedo change in coupled climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Marika M.; Landrum, Laura

    2015-01-01

    We use a large ensemble of simulations from the Community Earth System Model to quantify simulated changes in the twentieth and twenty-first century Arctic surface shortwave heating associated with changing incoming solar radiation and changing ice conditions. For increases in shortwave absorption associated with albedo reductions, the relative influence of changing sea ice surface properties and changing sea ice areal coverage is assessed. Changes in the surface sea ice properties are associated with an earlier melt season onset, a longer snow-free season and enhanced surface ponding. Because many of these changes occur during peak solar insolation, they have a considerable influence on Arctic surface shortwave heating that is comparable to the influence of ice area loss in the early twenty-first century. As ice area loss continues through the twenty-first century, it overwhelms the influence of changes in the sea ice surface state, and is responsible for a majority of the net shortwave increases by the mid-twenty-first century. A comparison with the Arctic surface albedo and shortwave heating in CMIP5 models indicates a large spread in projected twenty-first century change. This is in part related to different ice loss rates among the models and different representations of the late twentieth century ice albedo and associated sea ice surface state. PMID:26032318

  16. Factors affecting projected Arctic surface shortwave heating and albedo change in coupled climate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Marika M; Landrum, Laura

    2015-07-13

    We use a large ensemble of simulations from the Community Earth System Model to quantify simulated changes in the twentieth and twenty-first century Arctic surface shortwave heating associated with changing incoming solar radiation and changing ice conditions. For increases in shortwave absorption associated with albedo reductions, the relative influence of changing sea ice surface properties and changing sea ice areal coverage is assessed. Changes in the surface sea ice properties are associated with an earlier melt season onset, a longer snow-free season and enhanced surface ponding. Because many of these changes occur during peak solar insolation, they have a considerable influence on Arctic surface shortwave heating that is comparable to the influence of ice area loss in the early twenty-first century. As ice area loss continues through the twenty-first century, it overwhelms the influence of changes in the sea ice surface state, and is responsible for a majority of the net shortwave increases by the mid-twenty-first century. A comparison with the Arctic surface albedo and shortwave heating in CMIP5 models indicates a large spread in projected twenty-first century change. This is in part related to different ice loss rates among the models and different representations of the late twentieth century ice albedo and associated sea ice surface state. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of the shortwave cloud radiative effect over the ocean by use of ship and satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hanschmann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the shortwave cloud radiative effect (SWCRE over ocean calculated by the ECHAM 5 climate model is evaluated for the cloud property input derived from ship based measurements and satellite based estimates and compared to ship based radiation measurements. The ship observations yield cloud fraction, liquid water path from a microwave radiometer, cloud bottom height as well as temperature and humidity profiles from radiosonde ascents. Level-2 products of the Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM~SAF from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI have been used to characterize clouds. Within a closure study six different experiments have been defined to find the optimal set of measurements to calculate downward shortwave radiation (DSR and the SWCRE from the model, and their results have been evaluated under seven different synoptic situations. Four of these experiments are defined to investigate the advantage of including the satellite-based cloud droplet effective radius as additional cloud property. The modeled SWCRE based on satellite retrieved cloud properties has a comparable accuracy to the modeled SWCRE based on ship data. For several cases, an improvement through introducing the satellite-based estimate of effective radius as additional information to the ship based data was found. Due to their different measuring characteristics, however, each dataset shows best results for different atmospheric conditions.

  18. First Global Estimates of Anthropogenic Shortwave Forcing by Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, William; Feldman, Daniel; Kuo, Chaincy

    2017-04-01

    Although the primary well-mixed greenhouse gases (WMGHGs) absorb both shortwave and longwave radiation, to date assessments of the effects from human-induced increases in atmospheric concentrations of WMGHGs have focused almost exclusively on quantifying the longwave radiative forcing of these gases. However, earlier studies have shown that the shortwave effects of WMGHGs are comparable to many less important longwave forcing agents routinely in these assessments, for example the effects of aircraft contrails, stratospheric anthropogenic methane, and stratospheric water vapor from the oxidation of this methane. These earlier studies include the Radiative Transfer Model Intercomparison Project (RTMIP; Collins et al. 2006) conducted using line-by-line radiative transfer codes as well as the radiative parameterizations from most of the global climate models (GCMs) assembled for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP-3). In this talk, we discuss the first global estimates of the shortwave radiative forcing by methane due to the anthropogenic increase in CH4 between pre-industrial and present-day conditions. This forcing is a balance between reduced heating due to absorption of downwelling sunlight in the stratosphere and increased heating due to absorption of upwelling sunlight reflected from the surface as well clouds and aerosols in the troposphere. These estimates are produced using the Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) framework we have developed for NASA's upcoming Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission. The OSSE is designed to compute the monthly mean shortwave radiative forcing based upon global gridded atmospheric and surface conditions extracted from either the meteorological reanalyses collected for the Analysis for MIPs (Ana4MIPs) or the CMIP-5 multi-GCM archive analyzed in the Fifth Assessment Report (AR-5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The OSSE combines these atmospheric

  19. Continuous short-wave (radio-frequency) diathermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goats, G C

    1989-06-01

    Continuous shortwave diathermy is the technique of choice when uniform marked elevation of temperature is required in the deep tissues. This heating can be targeted accurately by using an appropriate applicator positioned correctly. SWD also allows superficial structures to be heated selectively, although for this the various methods of surface heating are usually preferable. Sub-acute or chronic conditions respond best to continuous shortwave diathermy which, when used properly, can be as effective as ultrasound. Acute lesions are better treated with pulsed shortwave diathermy. Continuous shortwave diathermy can help to relieve pain and muscle spasm, resolve inflammatory states and reduce swelling, promote vasodilation, increase the compliance of connective tissue, increase joint range and decrease joint stiffness.

  20. Changes in Intramuscular Blood Volume Induced by Continuous Shortwave Diathermy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karasuno, Hiroshi; Morozumi, Kazunori; Fujiwara, Takayuki; Goh, Ah Cheng; Yamamoto, Iwao; Senga, Fujitoshi

    2005-01-01

    ...) under continuous shortwave diathermy (CSWD) and compare them with the electric hot pack (EHP). The subjects consisted of 41 healthy adults, who received one of three interventions: CSWD (n=17), EHP (n=12...

  1. Continuous short-wave (radio-frequency) diathermy.

    OpenAIRE

    Goats, G C

    1989-01-01

    Continuous shortwave diathermy is the technique of choice when uniform marked elevation of temperature is required in the deep tissues. This heating can be targeted accurately by using an appropriate applicator positioned correctly. SWD also allows superficial structures to be heated selectively, although for this the various methods of surface heating are usually preferable. Sub-acute or chronic conditions respond best to continuous shortwave diathermy which, when used properly, can be as ef...

  2. Didactic Experiments Suggest Enhanced Learning Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pals Svendsen, Lisbet

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses a didactic experiment carried out at an MA programme at The Copenhagen Business School. The experiment aimed at encouraging students to take charge of their learning processes via a course programme design that would motivate students to take an active part in choosing...

  3. Enhancing Students' Entrepreneurial Mindset: A Swedish Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Erik; Bohman, Håkan; Hulten, Peter; Wilson, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the test of a pedagogical intervention to enhance students' entrepreneurial mindset on a university course. Design/methodology/approach: The course where the authors tested the new course design is a mandatory one in the business school's undergraduate business program. Pre- and post-evaluations…

  4. Comparison of three temperature control systems applications for a special homemade shortwave infrared spatial remote sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhipeng; Wei, Jun; Li, Jianwei; Zhou, Qianting

    2010-11-01

    An image spectrometer of a spatial remote sensing satellite requires shortwave band ranging from 2.1μm to 3μm which is one of the most important bands in remote sensing. We designed an infrared sub-system of the image spectrometer using a homemade 640x1 InGaAs shortwave infrared sensor working on FPA system which requires high uniformity and low level of dark current. The working temperature should be -15+/-0.2 Degree Celsius. This paper compares three different kinds of methods to control temperature of the sensor. First design uses a temperature control chip Max1978 from Maxim Company. Second design uses ADN8830 from ANALOG Company. Third design is based on FPGA device APA300. Experiment shows that MAX1978 has driving mosfet inside its chip which makes the stability is not appropriate for this homemade shortwave sensor. While the ADN8830 the supply power is limited to 5V, which also limits the driving power of the chip, experiments show that ADN8830 works very well when the voltage is below 5V, but the result is not acceptable when sensor demand more driving current. The FPGA design covers all the disadvantages above, but it introduced a new problem, the electrical circuit takes much more board resources than MAX1978 and ADN8830.

  5. Reported Experiences Enhance Favourable Attitudes toward Toads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazic, Iztok

    2011-01-01

    There are many factors that influence the formation of attitudes, one of the most crucial ones being education. Positive attitudes toward animals can be effectively accomplished principally by enabling students to directly experience organisms and their environments. The following study presents the development of a Toad Attitude Questionnaire…

  6. Eye Tracking System for Enhanced Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungkur, R. K.; Antoaroo, M. A.; Beeharry, A.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, we are living in a world where information is readily available and being able to provide the learner with the best suited situations and environment for his/her learning experiences is of utmost importance. In most learning environments, information is basically available in the form of written text. According to the eye-tracking…

  7. Story Telling With Storyboards: Enhancements and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, T. A.; Grayzeck, E. J.; Galica, C.; Erickson, K. J.

    2016-12-01

    A year ago a tool to help tell stories, called the Planetary Data Storyboard, was introduced. This tool is designed to use today's technologies to tell stories that are rich multi-media experiences, blending text, animations, movies and infographics. The Storyboard tool presents a set of panels that contain representative images of an event with associated notes or instructions. The panels are arranged in a timeline that allow a user to experience a discovery or event in the same way it occurred. Each panel can link to a more detailed source such as a publication, the data that was collected or items derived from the research (like movies or animations). A storyboard can be used to make science discovery more accessible to people by presenting events in an easy to follow layout. A storyboard can also help to teach the scientific method, by following the experiences of a researcher as they investigate a phenomenon or try to understand a new set of observations. We present the new features of Storyboard tool and show example stories for scientific discoveries.

  8. Personal librarian enhancing the student experience

    CERN Document Server

    Moniz, Richard; Matthews, Joseph R

    2014-01-01

    The incredible shift in the provision of library services resulting from innovations such as online resources, mobile technologies, tablet computers, and MOOCs and hybrid courses makes it more challenging than ever for academic librarians to connect students with the information they need. Enter the Personal Librarian, a flexible concept that focuses on customizing information literacy by establishing a one-on-one relationship between librarian and student from enrollment through graduation. In this book the editors, with decades of library instruction and academic library experience between t

  9. Enhancing the Undergraduate Computing Experience in Chemical Engineering CACHE Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Thomas F.

    2006-01-01

    This white paper focuses on the integration and enhancement of the computing experience for undergraduates throughout the chemical engineering curriculum. The computing experience for undergraduates in chemical engineering should have continuity and be coordinated from course to course, because a single software solution is difficult to achieve in…

  10. Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer–Hemispheric (SASHe) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Connor J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer–Hemispheric (SASHe) provides measurements of direct solar, hemispheric diffuse, and total hemispheric shortwave irradiance over a continuous spectral range from approximately 300 nm to 1700 nm at a rate of about 30 seconds. The SASHe design connects an optical collector located outdoors to a pair of spectrometers and data collections systems located indoors within a climate-controlled building via an umbilical cable of fiber optic and electrical cables. The light collector uses a small Spectralon button as a hemispheric diffuser with a shadowband to distinguish signal from diffuse sky and direct sun.

  11. Effect of pulse repetition rate on the perception of thermal sensation with pulsed shortwave diathermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C C; Kitchen, S

    2000-01-01

    Pulsed shortwave diathermy (PSWD) is a form of therapy commonly used to enhance tissue repair and reduce pain. It is normally considered to be an athermal form of treatment; however, there is some evidence to suggest that thermal effects can arise with adequate dosage. The purpose of this study was to determine the pulse repetition rate (PRR) required to generate a 'possible' and 'definite' thermal sensation when PSWD was applied to the thigh. Thirty healthy subjects were randomly assigned to placebo or treatment groups. The treatment group was exposed to PSWD at a constant setting of pulse duration (400 microseconds) and pulse power (190 W) while the PRR was increased from 26 Hz to 400 Hz in 10 increments. Each dose was applied for a period of two minutes. At the end of each application, subjects were asked if they felt a (1) 'possible' or (2) 'definite' thermal sensation. Skin temperature was measured immediately after each application. Placebo subjects were exposed to PSWD at its lowest settings throughout the experiment (pulse power = 5 W; pulse duration = 65 microseconds and PRR = 26 Hz). The results showed a significant correlation (p < 0.048) between PRR at 'definite' thermal sensation and skin temperature post-treatment and PRR at 'possible' thermal sensation (p < 0.001). Mean skin temperature increased significantly as PRR was increased, from 28.69 (+/- 0.75) degrees C pre-treatment to 31.14 (+/- 1.04) degrees C post-treatment, a mean difference of 2.34 degrees C. These results suggest that PSWD at adequate dosages can generate thermal effects, and that there is a relationship between these thermal effects and the PRR used. These results may have significant implications for the safe use of PSWD in the clinical arena.

  12. Efficacy of ice and shortwave diathermy in the management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to compare the effects of shortwave diathermy (SWD) and ice on pain, range of motion and function in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Subjects were fourteen patients (4 males and 10 females) aged 40-70years diagnosed as having OA of the knee. Subjects were assigned into either the SWD or ice ...

  13. Wheel-rail interaction at short-wave irregularities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, M.J.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Short-wave irregularities in the wheel-rail interface are at the basis of track and vehicle damage and deterioration. On the short term, they result into high dynamic train-track interaction forces and a high energy input into the system that must be dissipated in the different system components or

  14. Enhancing Children's Outdoor Learning Experiences with a Mobile Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikala, Jenni

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how a mobile learning application can enhance children's outdoor learning experiences. The study draws upon empirical evidence gathered in one case study conducted in a Finnish primary school setting in the fall of 2012. The data were collected with student and teacher surveys. The case study indicated that the mobile…

  15. Enhancing Sustainable Food Cultures by Experience Based Learning in Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jesper

    The paper describes the results and niche forming methodology used in the commercial and in the R&D parts along the product-service chain of regional tourism. Obstacles and window of opportunities for further sustaining the tourism trade by enhancing the experience part of the business....

  16. Enhancing critical thinking in the preceptorship experience in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrick, Florence; Yonge, Olive

    2004-02-01

    To date no research has been conducted to examine the process used in the preceptorship experience to enhance critical thinking at the graduate level. This study provides data that could revitalize the preceptor/learner relationship and in turn influence future preceptorship programmes in graduate nursing education. The purpose of this study was to examine the preceptorship experience and its role in the enhancement of critical thinking in graduate nursing education. A grounded theory approach was employed, through semi-structured, tape-recorded interviews. Overall, 45 interviews were completed with graduate nursing students ranging in age from 26 to 53 years, and master's and doctorally prepared preceptors who ranged in age from 47 to 58 years. In addition, a journal of personal reflections was kept by each of the researchers. Analysis of data included the process of open coding, theoretical coding, selective coding, reduction and comparison. Data revealed that a process, designated The Relational Process, occurred in the preceptorship experience to enhance the critical thinking ability of graduate nursing students. This process was found to be a complex, ongoing interpersonal dynamic between the graduate student and assigned preceptor. The relational process that emerged from this study indicates that specific preceptor behaviours are pivotal to the enhancement of critical thinking of graduate nursing students and ultimately impact on the success or failure of the preceptorship experience.

  17. Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy: Enhancing a Traditional Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Russell L.; Seal, Erin L.; Lorts, Aimee R.; Stewart, Amanda L.

    2017-01-01

    The undergraduate biochemistry laboratory curriculum is designed to provide students with experience in protein isolation and purification protocols as well as various data analysis techniques, which enhance the biochemistry lecture course and give students a broad range of tools upon which to build in graduate level laboratories or once they…

  18. The case for over-the-counter shortwave therapy: safe and effective devices for pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawe, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    Pulsed shortwave diathermy, an electromagnetic therapy, has been in clinical use for acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain for many decades. Innovation, miniaturization and advances in technology have allowed for the development of a new generation of shortwave devices that deliver a localized, low fixed dose of shortwave therapy. Clinical research has shown that these novel shortwave devices can be used safely in order to reduce acute and chronic pain, as well as the need for pain medications. Their ease of use and safety profile make low-dose shortwave devices an attractive alternative, or adjunct therapy, to pharmacological-based pain therapies.

  19. Rotating shadowband radiometer development and analysis of spectral shortwave data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalsky, J.; Harrison, L.; Min, Q. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Our goals in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program are improved measurements of spectral shortwave radiation and improved techniques for the retrieval of climatologically sensitive parameters. The multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) that was developed during the first years of the ARM program has become a workhorse at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site, and it is widely deployed in other climate programs. We have spent most of our effort this year developing techniques to retrieve column aerosol, water vapor, and ozone from direct beam spectral measurements of the MFRSR. Additionally, we have had some success in calculating shortwave surface diffuse spectral irradiance. Using the surface albedo and the global irradiance, we have calculated cloud optical depths. From cloud optical depth and liquid water measured with the microwave radiometer, we have calculated effective liquid cloud particle radii. The rest of the text will provide some detail regarding each of these efforts.

  20. The Spectral Signature of Cloud Spatial Structure in Shortwave Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shi

    In this thesis, we aim to systematically understand the relationship between cloud spatial structure and its radiation imprints, i.e., three-dimensional (3D) cloud effects, with the ultimate goal of deriving accurate radiative energy budget estimates from space, aircraft, or ground-based observations under spatially inhomogeneous conditions. By studying the full spectral information in the measured and modeled shortwave radiation fields of heterogeneous cloud scenes sampled during aircraft field experiments, we find evidence that cloud spatial structure reveals itself through spectral signatures in the associated irradiance and radiance fields in the near-ultraviolet and visible spectral range. The spectral signature of 3D cloud effects in irradiances is apparent as a domain- wide, consistent correlation between the magnitude and spectral dependence of net horizontal photon transport. The physical mechanism of this phenomenon is molecular scattering in conjunction with cloud heterogeneity. A simple parameterization with a single parameter epsilon is developed, which holds for individual pixels and the domain as a whole. We then investigate the impact of scene parameters on the discovered correlation and find that it is upheld for a wide range of scene conditions, although the value of epsilon varies from scene to scene. The spectral signature of 3D cloud effects in radiances manifests itself as a distinct relationship between the magnitude and spectral dependence of reflectance, which cannot be reproduced in the one-dimensional (1D) radiative transfer framework. Using the spectral signature in radiances and irradiances, it is possible to infer information on net horizontal photon transport from spectral radiance perturbations on the basis of pixel populations in sub-domains of a cloud scene. We show that two different biases need to be considered when attempting radiative closure between measured and modeled irradiance fields below inhomogeneous cloud fields: the

  1. Measurements of emission levels during microwave and shortwave diathermy treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggera, P.S.

    1980-05-01

    Shortwave and microwave diathermy treatments are used to relieve pain through the noninvasive application of electromagnetic energy to body tissues. In administering these treatments, not all of the energy is confined to the treatment area. This stray radiation exposes unintended tissue of the patient and also can expose the operator (physical therapist, coach, and so forth). This study was conducted to quantify the exposure levels experienced by the operator during diathermy treatments. For the three microwave units surveyed, with the operator standing at the controls of the diathermy console, the maximum measured power density was 1.3 mW/cm/sup 2/ (equivalent to 70 V/m and 0.19 A/m in free space). For the six shortwave units surveyed, with the operator standing at the controls of the diathermy console, the maximum measured field strengths were 0.47 A/m and 250 V/m (equivalent to free-space power densities of 8.3 mw/cm/sup 2/ and 16.6 mW/cm/sup 2/). If the operator moved closer to the applicator during the treatment, the exposures would be much higher. This survey indicates a need for suppression of unnecessary radiation from the applicators of microwave diathermy units, and from the applicators and cables of shortwave diathermy units.

  2. Enhancing player experience in MMORPGs with mobile features

    OpenAIRE

    Koivisto, Elina M.I.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we explore how current MMORPGs (Massively Multi-player Online Role-Playing Games) can use mobile phones in order to enhance player experience. We identify five different categories of how this can be done, and review our findings with MMORPG developers. This is continuing research, and we are working in IPERG [1] (Integrated Project of Pervasive Games) project with our partners on creating prototypes that will demonstrate some of these issues. There are several signs that in th...

  3. Physical Medicine Devices; Reclassification of Shortwave Diathermy for All Other Uses, Henceforth To Be Known as Nonthermal Shortwave Therapy. Final order; technical correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-13

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final order to reclassify shortwave diathermy (SWD) for all other uses, a preamendments class III device, into class II (special controls), and to rename the device "nonthermal shortwave therapy'' (SWT). FDA is also making a technical correction in the regulation for the carrier frequency for SWD and SWT devices.

  4. Enhancing the blended learning experience of Calculus I students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Al-Ghassani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Blended Learning showed in the last two decades to be one of the effective ways in education and training. We illustrate our initiative experience with blended learning in the course Calculus I. The main goals we want to achieve are improving students understanding of the course concepts, increasing the level of uniformity in this multi-sections course and enhancing students blended learning experience online and offline. Consequently, this affects positively students' academic performance. We describe and discuss the results that we achieved and the challenges we encountered in view of the initiative aims and goals. The blended learning delivery methods were through Learning Management System (LMS as the online medium and through new offline activities inside and outside the classroom. The LMS we used is Moodle. We designed the resources and activities to cater for the learners different needs. The offline activities were chosen and designed to strengthen the weakness in students study skills based in our experience.

  5. Enhancing the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, A.; Mosby, S.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Jandel, M.; Macon, K.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Ullmann, J. L.; Walker, C. L.

    2015-05-01

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) has been used for extensive studies of neutron capture, gamma decay, photon strength functions, and prompt and delayed fission-gamma emission. Despite these successes, the potential measurements have been limited by the data acquisition hardware. We report on a major upgrade of the DANCE data acquisition that simultaneously enables strait-forward coupling to auxiliary detectors, including high-resolution high-purity germanium detectors and neutron tagging array. The upgrade will enhance the time domain accessible for time-of-flight neutron measurements as well as improve the resolution in the DANCE barium fluoride crystals for photons.

  6. Enhancing the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couture A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE has been used for extensive studies of neutron capture, gamma decay, photon strength functions, and prompt and delayed fission-gamma emission. Despite these successes, the potential measurements have been limited by the data acquisition hardware. We report on a major upgrade of the DANCE data acquisition that simultaneously enables strait-forward coupling to auxiliary detectors, including high-resolution high-purity germanium detectors and neutron tagging array. The upgrade will enhance the time domain accessible for time-of-flight neutron measurements as well as improve the resolution in the DANCE barium fluoride crystals for photons.

  7. On the safe use of microwave and shortwave diathermy units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpizzo, V; Joyner, K H

    1987-01-01

    Diathermy is a common treatment modality used to relieve pain through localized heating. This paper briefly discusses the mechanisms through which heat is generated in tissue and the absorption characteristics of the applied electromagnetic radiation. The adverse effects of this radiation are reviewed with particular emphasis on the current exposure limits for operators and non-patients in the vicinity of diathermy devices. The newly introduced codes of practice for the 'Safe Use of Shortwave (Radiofrequency) and Microwave Diathermy' are also discussed. Copyright © 1987 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by . All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of the effects of shortwave diathermy in patients with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Md Shaik; Shakoor, Md Abdus; Khan, Aminuddin A

    2009-04-01

    A prospective experimental study on 97 patients of chronic low back pain was conducted to find out the effects of shortwave diathermy. They were divided randomly into two groups and treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, exercises, activities of daily living instructions and with or without shortwave diathermy. After six weeks of treatment, improvements were observed in both the groups. But significant difference in improvement was found in shortwave diathermy group than in placebo group. The present study suggests that shortwave diathermy is effective for the treatment of patients with chronic low back pain.

  9. Federating heterogeneous datasets to enhance data sharing and experiment reproducibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Juan C.; Paniagua, Beatriz; Yatabe, Marilia S.; Ruellas, Antonio C. O.; Fattori, Liana; Muniz, Luciana; Styner, Martin; Cevidanes, Lucia

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the difficulties to replicate scientific findings and/or experiments published in past.1 The effects seen in the replicated experiments were smaller than previously reported. Some of the explanations for these findings include the complexity of the experimental design and the pressure on researches to report positive findings. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) suggests that every study considered for publication must submit a plan to share the de-identified patient data no later than 6 months after publication. There is a growing demand to enhance the management of clinical data, facilitate data sharing across institutions and also to keep track of the data from previous experiments. The ultimate goal is to assure the reproducibility of experiments in the future. This paper describes Shiny-tooth, a web based application created to improve clinical data acquisition during the clinical trial; data federation of such data as well as morphological data derived from medical images; Currently, this application is being used to store clinical data from an osteoarthritis (OA) study. This work is submitted to the SPIE Biomedical Applications in Molecular, Structural, and Functional Imaging conference.

  10. Sexual experience enhances Drosophila melanogaster male mating behavior and success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehresh Saleem

    Full Text Available Competition for mates is a wide-spread phenomenon affecting individual reproductive success. The ability of animals to adjust their behaviors in response to changing social environment is important and well documented. Drosophila melanogaster males compete with one another for matings with females and modify their reproductive behaviors based on prior social interactions. However, it remains to be determined how male social experience that culminates in mating with a female impacts subsequent male reproductive behaviors and mating success. Here we show that sexual experience enhances future mating success. Previously mated D. melanogaster males adjust their courtship behaviors and out-compete sexually inexperienced males for copulations. Interestingly, courtship experience alone is not sufficient in providing this competitive advantage, indicating that copulation plays a role in reinforcing this social learning. We also show that females use their sense of hearing to preferentially mate with experienced males when given a choice. Our results demonstrate the ability of previously mated males to learn from their positive sexual experiences and adjust their behaviors to gain a mating advantage. These experienced-based changes in behavior reveal strategies that animals likely use to increase their fecundity in natural competitive environments.

  11. Sexual experience enhances Drosophila melanogaster male mating behavior and success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Sehresh; Ruggles, Patrick H; Abbott, Wiley K; Carney, Ginger E

    2014-01-01

    Competition for mates is a wide-spread phenomenon affecting individual reproductive success. The ability of animals to adjust their behaviors in response to changing social environment is important and well documented. Drosophila melanogaster males compete with one another for matings with females and modify their reproductive behaviors based on prior social interactions. However, it remains to be determined how male social experience that culminates in mating with a female impacts subsequent male reproductive behaviors and mating success. Here we show that sexual experience enhances future mating success. Previously mated D. melanogaster males adjust their courtship behaviors and out-compete sexually inexperienced males for copulations. Interestingly, courtship experience alone is not sufficient in providing this competitive advantage, indicating that copulation plays a role in reinforcing this social learning. We also show that females use their sense of hearing to preferentially mate with experienced males when given a choice. Our results demonstrate the ability of previously mated males to learn from their positive sexual experiences and adjust their behaviors to gain a mating advantage. These experienced-based changes in behavior reveal strategies that animals likely use to increase their fecundity in natural competitive environments.

  12. Enhancing the Therapy Experience Using Principles of Video Game Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkins, John Wm; Brackenbury, Tim; Krause, Miriam; Haviland, Allison

    2016-02-01

    This article considers the potential benefits that applying design principles from contemporary video games may have on enhancing therapy experiences. Six principles of video game design are presented, and their relevance for enriching clinical experiences is discussed. The motivational and learning benefits of each design principle have been discussed in the education literature as having positive impacts on student motivation and learning and are related here to aspects of clinical practice. The essential experience principle suggests connecting all aspects of the experience around a central emotion or cognitive connection. The discovery principle promotes indirect learning in focused environments. The risk-taking principle addresses the uncertainties clients face when attempting newly learned skills in novel situations. The generalization principle encourages multiple opportunities for skill transfer. The reward system principle directly relates to the scaffolding of frequent and varied feedback in treatment. Last, the identity principle can assist clients in using their newly learned communication skills to redefine self-perceptions. These principles highlight areas for research and interventions that may be used to reinforce or advance current practice.

  13. Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer–Zenith (SASZe) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Connor J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer – Zenith (SASZe) provides measurements of zenith spectral shortwave radiance at 1Hz over a continuous spectral range from approximately 300 nm to 1700 nm. The SASZe design connects an optical collector located outdoors to a pair of spectrometers and data collections system located indoors within a climate-controlled building via an umbilical cable of fiber optic and electrical cables. The light collector incorporates a collimator yielding a 1-degree Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) field of view. The data-acquisition electronics and spectrometers include an in-line fiber optic shutter and two Avantes fiber-coupled grating spectroradiometers within a temperature-controlled container. The Avantes Avaspec ULS 2048 charge-coupled device (CCD) spectrometer covers the wavelength range from about 300-1100 nm with a pixel spacing of less than 0.6 nm and a spectral resolution of about 2.4 nm FWHM. The Avantes Avaspec NIR256-1.7 spectrometer covers the wavelength range from about 950 nm to 1700 nm with a pixel spacing of less than 4 nm and a spectral resolution of about 6 nm FWHM.

  14. Results from the first ARM diffuse horizontal shortwave irradiance comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalsky, J J.(New York, State Univ Of); Dolce, R (Zipp and Zonen, Inc.); Dutton, E. G.(NOAA/CMDL); Haeffelin, Martial (VISITORS); Major, G (Budabest University of Economic Sciences); Schlemmer, J A.; Slater, Donald W.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Hickey, J R.(The Eppley Laboratory, Inc.); Jeffries, W Q.(Yankee Environmental Systems); Los, A (Kipp and Zonen, Inc.); Mathias, D (Carter-Scott Design); McArthur, LJ B.(Meteorlogical Service of Canada); Philipona, R (Physikalish - Meteorologiisches Observatorium and World); Reda, I (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Stoffel, T (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    2003-02-07

    The first intensive observation period (IOP) dedicated exclusively to the measurement of diffuse horizontal shortwave irradiance was held in the Fall 2001 at the central facility of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site with the cooperation of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) community. Fourteen simultaneous measurements were obtained over a two-week period under mostly clear skies with low to moderate aerosol loading. Overcast data were obtained during the morning of one day. The purpose of the comparison was to assess the level of agreement in diffuse irradiance measurements among most commercial pyranometers and a few prototypes calibrated independently using current practices. The hope was to achieve a consensus for this measurement with the goal of improving the uncertainty of shortwave diffuse irradiance measurements. All diffuse broadband measurements were made using the same type of two-axis tracker with the direct beam blocked by shading balls. Tracking was very good during the IOP with no outages associated with tracker problems. Five of the measurements are reproducible to about 2 W/m2 at the 95% confidence level. Four more agree with the most consistent group to about 4 W/m2 at the 95% confidence level after correction for thermal offsets. The prototypes agree less well with the most consistent group.

  15. [Circulatory changes in local and segmental use of shortwave diathermy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pages, I H

    1993-01-01

    6 healthy volunteers were examined for dose-effect relations, with a view to obtaining substantiated information for dosage in medical short-wave therapy. Venous occlusion plethysmography was used to measure total blood flow in the legs. So-called segmental treatment was checked, in addition to locally delimited high-frequency action. Low, medium, and high amounts of energy were therapeutically applied to the probands for 5, 10 and 20 minutes. Close correlations were found to exist between magnitude of blood flow, length of treatment and therapeutic intensity. The 20-minute variant proved to be the most effective application which differed from the literature according to which maximum intensification of blood flow was recorded at 10 minutes. The medium level of energy application was considered to be a highly favorable approach in terms of intensity. While higher doses usually provide the highest increase in blood flow, they may well cause discomfort. Blood flow remained increased after termination of therapy, usually for up to 60 minutes, in response to 20-minute medium-intensity short-wave treatment. Segmental high-frequency application likewise resulted in increased blood flow in both legs, though intensity values thus achieved were below results of locally delimited calf treatment.

  16. Using my ARMADA Research Experience to Enhance Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M.

    2006-12-01

    I am a high school Biology teacher living in Layton, Utah. I was chosen to participate in the 2006 ARMADA Project. This project is funded by the National Science Foundation and administered by the University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography. The project focuses on a mentoring experience coupled with a summer scientific research for teachers. I wish to present how I am incorporating the University of Rhode Island training experience and my scientific research field experience into my classroom teaching. My research experience was in the Eastern Tropical Pacific estimating current dolphin populations. Other projects I worked on were sea turtle tagging, squid sampling, fish sampling, whale biopsy, and CTD deployment. The knowledge I gleaned from the University of Rhode Island to incorporate into my classroom came from Roger Williams University aquaculture program. I am presently doing two ongoing projects with my students. We are aquaculturing zebra fish, by using this tool I am able to teach each state directed objective with the hands on experience of raising zebra fish. The second project I am involved with is the Great Salt Lake project. The high school environmental club owns a 26 foot sailboat on the Great Salt Lake. Every Saturday we take 6 students out on the lake and record position, visibility, water temperature, and salinity. We are also sampling brine shrimp and bottom bacteria for wet lab work. This is a new and innovative approach for me to teach Biology. The information and experience I was able to receive over the summer of 2006 has greatly enhanced the way I teach. I would like the opportunity to share my experiences and how I have incorporated them into my classroom. I will use power point to share my strategies and will answer questions on the practical application of these projects in the classroom. My students have grasped these 2 projects and inquiry questions have risen. Global warming and lake temperature are now being paralleled

  17. Energy and carbon balances in cheatgrass, an essay in autecology. [Shortwave radiation, radiowave radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinds, W.T.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment to determine the fates of energy and carbon in cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) was carried out on steep (40/sup 0/) north- and south-facing slopes on a small earth mound, using many small lysimeters to emulate swards of cheatgrass. Meteorological conditions and energy fluxes that were measured included air and soil temperatures, relative humidity, wind speed, incoming shortwave radiation, net all-wave radiation, heat flux to the soil, and evaporation and transpiration separately. The fate of photosynthetically fixed carbon during spring growth was determined by analysis of the plant tissues into mineral nutrients, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) for roots, shoots, and seeds separately. (auth)

  18. Multicultural experience enhances creativity: the when and how.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angela Ka-Yee; Maddux, William W; Galinsky, Adam D; Chiu, Chi-yue

    2008-04-01

    Many practices aimed at cultivating multicultural competence in educational and organizational settings (e.g., exchange programs, diversity education in college, diversity management at work) assume that multicultural experience fosters creativity. In line with this assumption, the research reported in this article is the first to empirically demonstrate that exposure to multiple cultures in and of itself can enhance creativity. Overall, the authors found that extensiveness of multicultural experiences was positively related to both creative performance (insight learning, remote association, and idea generation) and creativity-supporting cognitive processes (retrieval of unconventional knowledge, recruitment of ideas from unfamiliar cultures for creative idea expansion). Furthermore, their studies showed that the serendipitous creative benefits resulting from multicultural experiences may depend on the extent to which individuals open themselves to foreign cultures, and that creativity is facilitated in contexts that deemphasize the need for firm answers or existential concerns. The authors discuss the implications of their findings for promoting creativity in increasingly global learning and work environments.

  19. Psychodynamic experience enhances recognition of hidden childhood trauma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cohen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Experimental psychology has only recently provided supporting evidence for Freud's and Janet's description of unconscious phenomena. Here, we aimed to assess whether specific abilities, such as personal psychodynamic experience, enhance the ability to recognize unconscious phenomena in peers - in other words, to better detect implicit knowledge related to individual self-experience. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: First, we collected 14 videos from seven healthy adults who had experienced a sibling's cancer during childhood and seven matched controls. Subjects and controls were asked to give a 5-minute spontaneous free-associating speech following specific instructions created in order to activate a buffer zone between fantasy and reality. Then, 18 raters (three psychoanalysts, six medical students, three oncologists, three cognitive behavioral therapists and three individuals with the same experience of trauma were randomly shown the videos and asked to blindly classify them according to whether the speaker had a sibling with cancer using a Likert scale. Using a permutation test, we found a significant association between group and recognition score (ANOVA: p = .0006. Psychoanalysts were able to recognize, above chance levels, healthy adults who had experienced sibling cancer during childhood without explicit knowledge of this history (Power = 88%; p = .002. In contrast, medical students, oncologists, cognitive behavioral therapists and individuals who had the same history of a sibling's cancer were unable to do so. CONCLUSION: This experiment supports the view that implicit recognition of a subject's history depends on the rater's specific abilities. In the case of subjects who did have a sibling with cancer during childhood, psychoanalysts appear better able to recognize this particular history.

  20. Field experiment with liquid manure and enhanced biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Gerald

    2017-04-01

    Field experiments with low amounts of various liquid manure enhanced biochars. In 2016 a new machine was developed to inject liquid biochar based fertilizer directly into the crop root zone. A large-scale field experiment with corn and oil seed pumpkin was set-up on 42 hectares on 15 different fields in the south East of Austria. Three treatments were compared: (1) surface spreading of liquid manure as control (common practice), (2) 20 cm deep root zone injection with same amount of liquid manure, and (3) 20 cm deep root zone injection with same amount of liquid manure mixed with 1 to 2 tons of various nutrient enhanced biochars. The biochar were quenched with the liquid phase from a separated digestate from a biogas plant (feedstock: cow manure). From May to October nitrate and ammonium content was analyzed monthly from 0-30cm and 30-60cm soil horizons. At the end of the growing season the yield was determined. The root zone injection of the liquid manure reduced the nitrate content during the first two months at 13-16% compared to the control. When the liquid manure was blended with biochar, Nitrate soil content was lowest (reduction 40-47%). On average the root zone injection of manure-biochar increased the yield by 7% compared to the surface applied control and 3% compared to the root zone injected manure without biochar. The results shows, that biochar is able to reduce the Nitrate load in soils and increase the yield of corn at the same time. The nutrient efficiency of organic liquid fertilizers can be increased.

  1. Shortwave radiative forcing, rapid adjustment, and feedback to the surface by sulfate geoengineering: analysis of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project G4 scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashimura, Hiroki; Abe, Manabu; Watanabe, Shingo; Sekiya, Takashi; Ji, Duoying; Moore, John C.; Cole, Jason N. S.; Kravitz, Ben

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluates the forcing, rapid adjustment, and feedback of net shortwave radiation at the surface in the G4 experiment of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project by analysing outputs from six participating models. G4 involves injection of 5 Tg yr-1 of SO2, a sulfate aerosol precursor, into the lower stratosphere from year 2020 to 2069 against a background scenario of RCP4.5. A single-layer atmospheric model for shortwave radiative transfer is used to estimate the direct forcing of solar radiation management (SRM), and rapid adjustment and feedbacks from changes in the water vapour amount, cloud amount, and surface albedo (compared with RCP4.5). The analysis shows that the globally and temporally averaged SRM forcing ranges from -3.6 to -1.6 W m-2, depending on the model. The sum of the rapid adjustments and feedback effects due to changes in the water vapour and cloud amounts increase the downwelling shortwave radiation at the surface by approximately 0.4 to 1.5 W m-2 and hence weaken the effect of SRM by around 50 %. The surface albedo changes decrease the net shortwave radiation at the surface; it is locally strong (˜ -4 W m-2) in snow and sea ice melting regions, but minor for the global average. The analyses show that the results of the G4 experiment, which simulates sulfate geoengineering, include large inter-model variability both in the direct SRM forcing and the shortwave rapid adjustment from change in the cloud amount, and imply a high uncertainty in modelled processes of sulfate aerosols and clouds.

  2. Enhancing outpatient nephrology experience for internal medicine residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhaveri, Kenar D.; Shah, Hitesh H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Interest in nephrology careers continues to remain low in the USA. Educational innovations that enhance interest in nephrology among medical trainees are being actively studied. While internal medicine (IM) residency programs commonly offer the inpatient nephrology elective to the resident, outpatient nephrology experience is lacking. Understanding the provision of care in outpatient and home dialysis and management of patients with glomerular diseases, chronic kidney disease and kidney transplantation are vital components of an outpatient nephrology rotation. In this review article, we share our experiences in incorporating outpatient nephrology to the IM resident’s elective time. We also present the structure of the nephrology rotations at our programs and suggest several learning opportunities in outpatient nephrology that the training community can provide to medical residents. Strategies to effectively set up an outpatient nephrology rotation are also described. While more educational research on the impact of outpatient nephrology on resident learning and career choices are needed, we encourage a collaborative effort between faculty members in nephrology and the medicine residency programs to provide this unique learning opportunity to IM residents. PMID:29479427

  3. Pulsed Shortwave Diathermy and Prolonged Long-Duration Stretching Increase Dorsiflexion Range of Motion More Than Identical Stretching Without Diathermy

    OpenAIRE

    Peres, Steven E.; Draper, David O.; Knight, Kenneth L.; Ricard, Mark D.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of 3 treatments on ankle dorsiflexion range of motion: prolonged long-duration stretching, pulsed shortwave diathermy followed by stretching, and pulsed shortwave diathermy, stretching, and ice combined.

  4. Enhancing Oceanography Classrooms with "Captive and Cultured" Ocean Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macko, S. A.; Tuite, M.; O'Connell, M.

    2012-04-01

    Students in oceanography classes often request more direct exposure to actual ocean situations or field trips. During regular session (13 week) or shorter term (4 week) summer classes such long trips are logistically difficult owing to large numbers of students involved or timing. This new approach to such a course supplement addresses the requests by utilizing local resources and short field trips for a limited number of students (20) to locations in which Ocean experiences are available, and are often supported through education and outreach components. The vision of the class was a mixture of classroom time, readings, along with paper and actual laboratories. In addition short day-long trips to locations where the ocean was "captured" were also used to supplement the experience as well as speakers involved with aquaculture ("cultivated") . Central Virginia is a fortunate location for such a class, with close access for "day travel" to the Chesapeake Bay and numerous field stations, museums with ocean-based exhibits (the Smithsonian and National Zoo) that address both extant and extinct Earth history, as well as national/state aquaria in Baltimore, Washington and Virginia Beach. Furthermore, visits to local seafood markets at local grocery stores, or larger city markets) enhance the exposure to productivity in the ocean, and viability of the fisheries sustainability. The course could then address not only the particulars of the marine science, but also aspects of ethics, including keeping animals in captivity or overfishing of particular species and the special difficulties that arise from captive or culturing ocean populations. In addition, the class was encouraged to post web-based journals of experiences in order to share opinions of observations in each of the settings.

  5. Short-wave diathermy: current clinical and safety practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Nora; Gormley, John; O'Hare, Neil

    2002-01-01

    Short-wave diathermy (SWD) is widely available, yet a comprehensive examination of current clinical practice remains absent from the literature. The present paper aims to assess clinical and safety issues in continuous (CSWD) and pulsed (PSWD) short-wave diathermy application and subsequently indicate areas for future research. A postal survey was carried out among 116 senior physiotherapists in 41 Irish hospital-based physiotherapy departments. The response rate to the study was 75%. Analysis found that PSWD was the preferred mode of treatment with 27% of respondents using it more than once daily. Respondents considered both modes of treatment indicated for a variety of conditions. CSWD was rated as an effective treatment for chronic osteoarthritis, polyarthritis, non-specific arthrosis and haematomas. PSWD was reported an effective modality for acute soft tissue injury, haematomas, acute osteoarthritis, sinusitis and rheumatoid arthritis. Dose selection varied greatly but tended to be based on the type, nature and duration of the condition. Analysis of safety practices uncovered concerning findings. Although a high level of agreement was found on measures for patient safety, 30% of respondents reported that no measures for operator safety were taken and only five respondents stated they remained a specified distance from SWD equipment. Measures to ensure the safety of other personnel in the physiotherapy department were also lacking. Given the availability of SWD equipment and its apparent efficacy in certain conditions, future research should aim to establish this by means of controlled clinical trials. The findings on safety practices underline the urgent need for comprehensive guidelines to ensure the safety of operators, patients and the general public during SWD application.

  6. Evaluation of reproductive function of female rats exposed to radiofrequency fields (27. 12 MHz) near a shortwave diathermy device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-Woodman, P.D.; Hadley, J.A.; Richardson, L.; Bright, D.; Porter, D.

    1989-04-01

    In recent years, there has been increased concern regarding effects of operator exposure to the electromagnetic (EM) field associated with shortwave diathermy devices. The present study was designed to investigate the effects, on rats, of repeated exposure to such an EM field. Following repeated exposure for 5 wk, a reduction in fertility occurred as indicated by a reduced number of matings in exposed rats compared to sham-irradiated rats and a reduction in the number of rats that conceived after mating. The data suggest that female operators could experience reduced fertility, if they remained close to the console for prolonged periods. This has particular significant for the physiotherapy profession.

  7. Evaluation of reproductive function of female rats exposed to radiofrequency fields (27.12 MHz) near a shortwave diathermy device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Woodman, P D; Hadley, J A; Richardson, L; Bright, D; Porter, D

    1989-04-01

    In recent years, there has been increased concern regarding effects of operator exposure to the electromagnetic (EM) field associated with shortwave diathermy devices. The present study was designed to investigate the effects, on rats, of repeated exposure to such an EM field. Following repeated exposure for 5 wk, a reduction in fertility occurred as indicated by a reduced number of matings in exposed rats compared to sham-irradiated rats and a reduction in the number of rats that conceived after mating. The data suggest that female operators could experience reduced fertility, if they remained close to the console for prolonged periods. This has particular significant for the physiotherapy profession.

  8. Shortwave and longwave radiative contributions to global warming under increasing CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, Aaron; Armour, Kyle C; Pendergrass, Angeline G; Battisti, David S

    2014-11-25

    In response to increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2, high-end general circulation models (GCMs) simulate an accumulation of energy at the top of the atmosphere not through a reduction in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR)—as one might expect from greenhouse gas forcing—but through an enhancement of net absorbed solar radiation (ASR). A simple linear radiative feedback framework is used to explain this counterintuitive behavior. It is found that the timescale over which OLR returns to its initial value after a CO2 perturbation depends sensitively on the magnitude of shortwave (SW) feedbacks. If SW feedbacks are sufficiently positive, OLR recovers within merely several decades, and any subsequent global energy accumulation is because of enhanced ASR only. In the GCM mean, this OLR recovery timescale is only 20 y because of robust SW water vapor and surface albedo feedbacks. However, a large spread in the net SW feedback across models (because of clouds) produces a range of OLR responses; in those few models with a weak SW feedback, OLR takes centuries to recover, and energy accumulation is dominated by reduced OLR. Observational constraints of radiative feedbacks—from satellite radiation and surface temperature data—suggest an OLR recovery timescale of decades or less, consistent with the majority of GCMs. Altogether, these results suggest that, although greenhouse gas forcing predominantly acts to reduce OLR, the resulting global warming is likely caused by enhanced ASR.

  9. Automatic Tools for Enhancing the Collaborative Experience in Large Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourilkov, D.; Rodriquez, J. L.

    2014-06-01

    With the explosion of big data in many fields, the efficient management of knowledge about all aspects of the data analysis gains in importance. A key feature of collaboration in large scale projects is keeping a log of what is being done and how - for private use, reuse, and for sharing selected parts with collaborators and peers, often distributed geographically on an increasingly global scale. Even better if the log is automatically created on the fly while the scientist or software developer is working in a habitual way, without the need for extra efforts. This saves time and enables a team to do more with the same resources. The CODESH - COllaborative DEvelopment SHell - and CAVES - Collaborative Analysis Versioning Environment System projects address this problem in a novel way. They build on the concepts of virtual states and transitions to enhance the collaborative experience by providing automatic persistent virtual logbooks. CAVES is designed for sessions of distributed data analysis using the popular ROOT framework, while CODESH generalizes the approach for any type of work on the command line in typical UNIX shells like bash or tcsh. Repositories of sessions can be configured dynamically to record and make available the knowledge accumulated in the course of a scientific or software endeavor. Access can be controlled to define logbooks of private sessions or sessions shared within or between collaborating groups. A typical use case is building working scalable systems for analysis of Petascale volumes of data as encountered in the LHC experiments. Our approach is general enough to find applications in many fields.

  10. Enhanced oil recovery & carbon sequestration building on successful experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, Fred [BEPC (United States)

    2008-07-15

    In this paper it is spoken of the experiences in the capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2} in the companies Basin Electric Power Cooperative (BEPC) and Dakota Gasification Company (DGC); their by-products are mentioned and what these companies are making to control the CO{sub 2} emissions. Their challenges to compress CO{sub 2} are presented and how they have reduced the CO{sub 2} emissions in the DGC of the 2000 to the 2008; how they use CO{sub 2} to enhance the oil recovery and which are their challenges in the CO{sub 2} transport. [Spanish] En esta ponencia se habla de las experiencias en la captura y secuestro de CO{sub 2} en las empresas Basin Electic Power Cooperative (BEPC) y Dakota Gasification Campany (DGC); se mencionan sus subproductos y que estan haciendo estas empresas para controlar las emisiones de CO{sub 2}. Se presentan sus retos para comprimir CO{sub 2} y como han reducido las emisiones de CO{sub 2} en la DGC del 2000 al 2008; como utilizan el CO{sub 2} para mejorar la recuperacion de petroleo y sus cuales son retos en el transporte de CO{sub 2}.

  11. Enhanced Capabilities for Subcritical Experiments (ECSE) Risk Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Mary Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Process Modeling and Analysis Group

    2016-05-02

    Risk is a factor, element, constraint, or course of action that introduces an uncertainty of outcome that could impact project objectives. Risk is an inherent part of all activities, whether the activity is simple and small, or large and complex. Risk management is a process that identifies, evaluates, handles, and monitors risks that have the potential to affect project success. The risk management process spans the entire project, from its initiation to its successful completion and closeout, including both technical and programmatic (non-technical) risks. This Risk Management Plan (RMP) defines the process to be used for identifying, evaluating, handling, and monitoring risks as part of the overall management of the Enhanced Capabilities for Subcritical Experiments (ECSE) ‘Project’. Given the changing nature of the project environment, risk management is essentially an ongoing and iterative process, which applies the best efforts of a knowledgeable project staff to a suite of focused and prioritized concerns. The risk management process itself must be continually applied throughout the project life cycle. This document was prepared in accordance with DOE O 413.3B, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets, its associated guide for risk management DOE G 413.3-7, Risk Management Guide, and LANL ADPM AP-350-204, Risk and Opportunity Management.

  12. Gigapixel panoramas of Glacier National Park create enhanced education experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagre, D. B.; McKeon, L. A.

    2010-12-01

    Repeat photography has proven to be an effective means to communicate the pace and scope of climate change impacts to Glacier National Park, Montana for broad audiences. The repeat photographs of glaciers vividly document their rate of disappearance and have been used in books, magazines, TV documentaries, on websites, and in several art museum exhibits. In our ongoing efforts to enhance information transfer about climate change to audiences, we have capitalized on an emerging technology by partnering with GigaPan Systems to test the effectiveness of a Gigapan camera system. A Gigapan camera system is a robotically controlled DSLR camera mount that is programmed to take multiple high-resolution digital photographs of objects or entire landscapes in sequence and with overlap between adjoining photographs. The multiple (e.g. 800) photographs are digitally stitched with post production software into one large merged image and served online as a gigapixel panorama. Key objects or parts of the image can be zoomed into at great detail and highlighted as “snapshots”. The snapshot images retain high image resolution and can then be annotated and information such as datasets, maps, or additional images can be linked to that part of the image. GigaPan images can be georeferenced in Google Earth and embedded in websites. We have used this visually compelling technology to photograph alpine glaciers in Glacier Park and create interactive experiences for online users. Results are available at: http://gigapan.org/ Gigapan system with robotically controlled camera

  13. Shortwave diathermy effects on 35S-sulfate uptake and glycosaminoglycan concentration in rabbit knee tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanharanta, H; Eronen, I; Videman, T

    1982-01-01

    The effect of shortwave diathermy on glycosaminoglycan metabolism in different connective tissues of rabbit knee was studied by both autoradiography and radioactivity measurements and quantification of the separated glycosaminoglycans. Of 30 rabbits used, 12 received 100W shortwave diathermy to the right knee 10 minutes a day for 5 days. Autoradiography clearly showed a higher uptake of 35S-sulfate by the capsular tissues of the knee treated with shortwave diathermy than in the contralateral knee. The most prominent feature of the biochemical analysis was the increase in the galactosamine (43%) and glucosamine (26%) concentrations of the collateral ligament glycosaminoglycans of the treated knee.

  14. Contrast-enhanced Dedicated Breast CT: Initial Clinical Experience1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prionas, Nicolas D.; Ray, Shonket; Huang, Shih-Ying; Beckett, Laurel A.; Monsky, Wayne L.; Boone, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify contrast material enhancement of breast lesions scanned with dedicated breast computed tomography (CT) and to compare their conspicuity with that at unenhanced breast CT and mammography. Materials and Methods: Approval of the institutional review board and the Radiation Use Committee and written informed consent were obtained for this HIPAA-compliant study. Between September 2006 and April 2009, 46 women (mean age, 53.2 years; age range, 35–72 years) with Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category 4 or 5 lesions underwent unenhanced breast CT and contrast material–enhanced breast CT before biopsy. Two radiologists independently scored lesion conspicuity for contrast-enhanced breast CT versus mammography and for contrast-enhanced breast CT versus unenhanced breast CT. Mean lesion voxel intensity was measured in Hounsfield units and normalized to adipose tissue intensity on manually segmented images obtained before and after administration of contrast material. Regression models focused on conspicuity and quantified enhancement were used to estimate the effect of pathologic diagnosis (benign vs malignant), lesion type (mass vs calcifications), breast density, and interradiologist variability. Results: Fifty-four lesions (25 benign, 29 malignant) in 46 subjects were analyzed. Malignant lesions were seen significantly better at contrast-enhanced breast CT than at unenhanced breast CT (P mammography (P contrast-enhanced breast CT than at unenhanced breast CT (P contrast-enhanced breast CT and mammography. Malignant lesions enhanced 55.9 HU ± 4.0 (standard error), whereas benign lesions enhanced 17.6 HU ± 6.1 (P contrast-enhanced breast CT. Quantifying lesion enhancement may aid in the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. © RSNA, 2010 PMID:20720067

  15. Shortwave infrared for night vision applications at Fraunhofer IOSB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adomeit, Uwe; Krieg, Jürgen

    2017-09-01

    "Nightglow" is an illumination phenomenon created by luminance processes in the higher earth atmosphere. It covers the spectral range from the ultraviolet up to the thermal infrared, but its maximum is found in the shortwave infrared (SWIR). Although known for a long time the advent of high sensitive SWIR detectors in the last decade enables today's use for night vision applications. In 2013 Fraunhofer IOSB started its assessment of SWIR for night vision applications. The approach was twofold. Continuous measurements were started to get an understanding of the highly variable illumination levels created by the nightglow under different environmental conditions. Future goal here is the standardization of the SWIR illumination levels corresponding to the defined visual full moon, quarter moon, starlight and overcast starlight ones. Additionally, performance assessment of SWIR detectors in comparison to the visual image intensifiers respectively low light focal plane array detectors were conducted in the laboratory as well as in the field. The paper gives history and status of IOSBs assessment of SWIR for night vision applications. It explains the ideas behind the illumination characterization, the conducted measurements and the inherent problem of artificial stray light. For sensor assessment it presents recent work on the influence of the spectral coverage (e. g. broadband versus atmospheric window only) on system performance for different environmental conditions.

  16. Pulsed short-wave diathermy effects on human fibroblast proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jonathan; Lewis, Martyn; Mills, Pauline; Kielty, Cay

    2002-06-01

    To investigate the influence of pulsed short-wave diathermy (PSWD) on fibroblast and chondrocyte cell proliferation rates and to establish the influences of different dosages applied. Four single-blind trials. Laboratory, in vitro study. Human adult dermal fibroblast and chondrocyte cells were plated at known concentrations and incubated for 5 days. Exposure to PSWD, twice daily, on days 2, 3, and 4. After crystal violet staining (day 5), optical density (cell number) was determined spectrophotometrically. PSWD, given at mean power of 48W for 10 minutes, increased fibroblast proliferation compared with control groups (P<.001). There was a relationship between cell proliferation and the amount of energy given (P<0.001). The optimal mean power for proliferation was estimated to be 13.8W. While keeping mean power constant at 6W, altering pulse duration and pulse repetition rate dosage parameters did not have a significant effect on proliferation (P=.519). Chondrocyte proliferation also increased with PSWD exposure of 6W at 10 minutes duration (P=.015). In addition, treatment time was significantly associated with chondrocyte proliferation (P<.001). PSWD is associated with increased rates of fibroblast and chondrocyte proliferation in vitro, which is dose dependent. These results contribute to an understanding of the physiologic mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of PSWD. Copyright 2002 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  17. Shortwave Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy for Analysis of Ancient Paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Taixia; Li, Guanghua; Yang, Zehua; Zhang, Hongming; Lei, Yong; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Lifu

    2017-05-01

    Spectral analysis is one of the main non-destructive techniques used to examine cultural relics. Hyperspectral imaging technology, especially on the shortwave infrared (SWIR) band, can clearly extract information from paintings, such as color, pigment composition, damage characteristics, and painting techniques. All of these characteristics have significant scientific and practical value in the study of ancient paintings and other relics and in their protection and restoration. In this study, an ancient painting, numbered Gu-6541, which had been found in the Forbidden City, served as a sample. A ground-based SWIR imaging spectrometer was used to produce hyperspectral images with high spatial and spectral resolution. Results indicated that SWIR imaging spectral data greatly facilitates the extraction of line features used in drafting, even using a single band image. It can be used to identify and classify mineral pigments used in paintings. These images can detect alterations and traces of daub used in painting corrections and, combined with hyperspectral data analysis methods such as band combination or principal component analysis, such information can be extracted to highlight outcomes of interest. In brief, the SWIR imaging spectral technique was found to have a highly favorable effect on the extraction of line features from drawings and on the identification of colors, classification of paintings, and extraction of hidden information.

  18. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, Downgoing Shortwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Downgoing Shortwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  19. Window model. Part 1. Short-wave solar radiation; Fenstermodell. Teil 1. Kurzwellige Solarstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, J. [Georg-Simon-Ohm-Fachhochschule Nuernberg (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    Modern external walls and window sizes require detailed calculations. The first part of the contribution discusses short-wave solar radiation while the second part will go into thermal exchange processes. (orig.)

  20. Muscle heating with Megapulse II shortwave diathermy and ReBound diathermy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Draper, David O; Hawkes, Amanda R; Johnson, A Wayne; Diede, Mike T; Rigby, Justin H

    2013-01-01

    .... To compare the effects of the ReBound diathermy with an established deep-heating diathermy, the Megapulse II pulsed shortwave diathermy, on tissue temperature in the human triceps surae muscle. Crossover study...

  1. Shortwave diathermy and prolonged stretching increase hamstring flexibility more than prolonged stretching alone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Draper, David O; Castro, Jennifer L; Feland, Brent; Schulthies, Shane; Eggett, Dennis

    2004-01-01

    A randomized, counterbalanced 2x3x5 repeated-measures design. To compare changes in hamstring flexibility after treatments of pulsed shortwave diathermy and prolonged stretch, sham diathermy and prolonged stretch, and control...

  2. Enhancing Student Success in Online Learning Experiences through the Use of Self-Regulation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Laurie A.; Sharp, Jason H.

    2016-01-01

    Online learning experiences have greatly changed the landscape of instruction. Many courses in postsecondary environments incorporate some type of technological enhancement, which holds benefits for both postsecondary institutions and learners. However, online learning experiences require different pedagogical characteristics than traditional…

  3. Comparison of patients' expectations and experiences at traditional pharmacies and pharmacies offering enhanced advanced pharmacy practice experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam, Rosemin; Collins, John B; Berkowitz, Jonathan

    2010-06-15

    To compare patients' expectations and experiences at pharmacies offering traditional APPE learning opportunities with those offering enhanced APPEs that incorporate pharmaceutical care activities. A survey of anchored measures of patient satisfaction was conducted in 2 groups of APPE- affiliated community pharmacies: those participating in an enhanced APPE model versus those participating in the traditional model. The enhanced intervention included preceptor training, a comprehensive student orientation, and an extended experience at a single pharmacy rather than the traditional 2 x 4-week experience at different pharmacies. While patient expectations were similar in both traditional and enhanced APPE pharmacies, patients in enhanced pharmacies reported significantly higher in-store satisfaction and fewer service gaps. Additionally, satisfaction was significantly higher for patients who had received any form of consultation, from either pharmacist or students, than those reporting no consultations. Including provision of pharmaceutical care services as part of APPEs resulted in direct and measurable improvements in patient satisfaction.

  4. Bias of atmospheric shortwave absorption in the NCAR Community Climate Models 2 and 3: Comparison with monthly ERBE/GEBA measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M. H.; Lin, W. Y.; Kiehl, J. T.

    1998-04-01

    A direct comparison is made of collocated shortwave reflection at the top of the atmosphere and insolation at the surface between the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Models 2 and 3 (CCM2 and CCM3) and monthly Earth Radiation Budget Experiment/Global Energy Balance Archive (ERBE/GEBA) measurements. It is shown that atmospheres in the models are brighter at the top of the atmosphere than ERBE measurements and meanwhile transmit more solar radiation to the surface than GEBA measurements. As a consequence, the models underestimate atmospheric shortwave absorption. The amount of this underestimation is about 20 W m-2 in CCM2 and 17 W m-2 in CCM3. It is emphasized that regardless of whether the bias is in clear sky or in clouds, this underestimation has important implications for the intensity of the hydrological cycle and thus circulation in the models.

  5. Multiyear Statistics of 2-D Shortwave Radiative Effects at Three ARM Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnai, Tamas

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the importance of horizontal photon transport effects, which are not considered in the 1-D calculations of solar radiative heating used by most atmospheric dynamical models. In particular, the paper analyzes the difference between 2-D and 1-D radiative calculations for 2-D vertical cross-sections of clouds that were observed at three sites over 2- to 3-year periods. The results show that 2-D effects increase multiyear 24-hour average total solar absorption by about 4.1 W/sq m, 1.2 W/sq m, and 0.3 W/sq m at a tropical, mid-latitude, and arctic site, respectively. However, 2-D effects are often much larger than these average values, especially for high sun and for convective clouds. The results also reveal a somewhat unexpected behavior, that horizontal photon transport often enhances solar heating even for oblique sun. These findings underscore the need for fast radiation calculation methods that can allow atmospheric dynamical simulations to consider the inherently multidimensional nature of shortwave radiative processes.

  6. Short-Wave Near-Infrared Spectrometer for Alcohol Determination and Temperature Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingbo Fu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A multichannel short-wave near-infrared (SW-NIR spectrometer module based on charge-coupled device (CCD detection was designed. The design relied on a tungsten lamp enhanced by light emitting diodes, a fixed grating monochromator and a linear CCD array. The main advantages were high optical resolution and an optimized signal-to-noise ratio (0.24 nm and 500, resp. in the whole wavelength range of 650 to 1100 nm. An application to alcohol determination using partial least squares calibration and the temperature correction was presented. It was found that the direct transfer method had significant systematic prediction errors due to temperature effect. Generalized least squares weighting (GLSW method was utilized for temperature correction. After recalibration, the RMSEP found for the 25°C model was 0.53% v/v and errors of the same order of magnitude were obtained at other temperatures (15, 35 and 40°C. And an 2 better than 0.99 was achieved for each validation set. The possibility and accuracy of using the miniature SW-NIR spectrometer and GLSW transfer calibration method for alcohol determination at different temperatures were proven. And the analysis procedure was simple and fast, allowing a strict control of alcohol content in the wine industry.

  7. A Flexible Parameterization for Shortwave Optical Properties of Ice Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDiedenhoven, Bastiaan; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Cairns, Brian; Fridlind, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    A parameterization is presented that provides extinction cross section sigma (sub e), single-scattering albedo omega, and asymmetry parameter (g) of ice crystals for any combination of volume, projected area, aspect ratio, and crystal distortion at any wavelength in the shortwave. Similar to previous parameterizations, the scheme makes use of geometric optics approximations and the observation that optical properties of complex, aggregated ice crystals can be well approximated by those of single hexagonal crystals with varying size, aspect ratio, and distortion levels. In the standard geometric optics implementation used here, sigma (sub e) is always twice the particle projected area. It is shown that omega is largely determined by the newly defined absorption size parameter and the particle aspect ratio. These dependences are parameterized using a combination of exponential, lognormal, and polynomial functions. The variation of (g) with aspect ratio and crystal distortion is parameterized for one reference wavelength using a combination of several polynomials. The dependences of g on refractive index and omega are investigated and factors are determined to scale the parameterized (g) to provide values appropriate for other wavelengths. The parameterization scheme consists of only 88 coefficients. The scheme is tested for a large variety of hexagonal crystals in several wavelength bands from 0.2 to 4 micron, revealing absolute differences with reference calculations of omega and (g) that are both generally below 0.015. Over a large variety of cloud conditions, the resulting root-mean-squared differences with reference calculations of cloud reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance are 1.4%, 1.1%, and 3.4%, respectively. Some practical applications of the parameterization in atmospheric models are highlighted.

  8. Cryogenic optical mounting for short-wave infrared spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J.; Wood, T.; Bhatti, I.; Cañas, A.; Reddick, P.; van Wyk, P.; Bharadia, S.; Storey, T.; Potterton, T.; Rits, W.; Meijer, H.

    2014-07-01

    In order to measure atmospheric concentrations of carbon monoxide, methane, water and carbon dioxide from spaceborne platforms, Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) immersed grating spectrometers are employed. Due to the need to minimise detector dark current and internal black body radiation from the spectrometer's own structure, these instruments are operated at cryogenic temperatures. ESA's Sentinel 5-Precursor is a small satellite science mission; the platform comprises the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI), which includes a SWIR module. Optical mounts have been developed for the SWIR module which meet the requirements to cope with the differences in thermal expansion between the optical elements and their structural mounts over cryogenic temperature ranges, be robust against the mechanical environment during launch, and maintain optical alignment stability with a tight volume constraint. Throughout the design of the SWIR spectrometer, flexures were deployed to control deformations due to thermal expansion, the design of interfaces between materials of differing coefficient of thermal expansion was carefully managed, and the geometry of adhesive pads was tightly controlled. Optical mounting concepts were evaluated using finite element analysis (FEA). A breadboard programme was undertaken to verify these concepts. FEA and breadboard results were correlated to provide confidence in the design. The breadboard programme consisted of thermal cycling and pull-testing of adhesive joints, as well as environmental and optical testing of representative subsystems. Analysis and breadboarding demonstrated that the optical mounting design will survive the mechanical and thermal environments, and verified the stability of the optical alignment requirements. Novel optical mounting structures have been designed, analysed, assembled, tested and integrated into the optical assemblies of the TROPOMI SWIR spectrometer, creating a compact and robust state of the art instrument

  9. Understanding enhanced tourist experiences through technology: a brief approach to the Vilnius case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Beliatskaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present research investigates the notion of enhanced tourist experiences through technology shedding light on co-creation practices and empowerment of customers. Neuhofer and Buhalis (2013 introduced a novel concept of technology-enhanced tourist experiences by generating a joint comprehension of new era of experiences which conjoin the elements of experiences, co-creation and technology. Being one of rather promoting cities in online environment Vilnius represents an interesting case of successive adoption of smart technologies in order to enhance tourist experiences and facilitate customer empowerment in Vilnius tourism domain. This study aims to determine technology-enhanced tourist experiences in order to measure factors of customer empowerment on the example of international incoming tourists to Vilnius (Lithuania. The mix-methods approach (qualitative online content and functionality analysis and quantitative survey was justified as being the most appropriate for the purpose of this research with intention to find a basis for applying of technology-enhanced tourist experiences in Vilnius tourism marketplace. The paper concludes with the definition of current level of ICTs application to enhance tourist experience co-creation and a discussion of practical implications of technology-enhanced tourist experiences development.

  10. Pilot absorption experiments with carbonic anhydrase enhanced MDEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gladis, Arne; F. Lomholdt, Niels; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup

    2017-01-01

    -methyl-diethanolamine (MDEA) solvent, with and without the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA). The absorption experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure and agas phase carbon dioxide mole fraction of 0.13. During experiments liquid samples were withdrawn at each meter of column height and the solvent loading...

  11. Computer image processing - The Viking experience. [digital enhancement techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Computer processing of digital imagery from the Viking mission to Mars is discussed, with attention given to subjective enhancement and quantitative processing. Contrast stretching and high-pass filtering techniques of subjective enhancement are described; algorithms developed to determine optimal stretch and filtering parameters are also mentioned. In addition, geometric transformations to rectify the distortion of shapes in the field of view and to alter the apparent viewpoint of the image are considered. Perhaps the most difficult problem in quantitative processing of Viking imagery was the production of accurate color representations of Orbiter and Lander camera images.

  12. Medical Education to Enhance Critical Consciousness: Facilitators' Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Zareen; Vyas, Rashmi; Verstegen, Danielle; Morahan, Page; Dornan, Tim

    2017-11-01

    To analyze educators' experiences of facilitating cultural discussions in two global health professions education programs and what these experiences had taught them about critical consciousness. A multicultural research team conducted in-depth interviews with 16 faculty who had extensive experience facilitating cultural discussions. They analyzed transcripts of the interviews thematically, drawing sensitizing insights from Gramsci's theory of cultural hegemony. Collaboration and conversation helped the team self-consciously examine their positions toward the data set and be critically reflexive. Participant faculty used their prior experience facilitating cultural discussions to create a "safe space" in which learners could develop critical consciousness. During multicultural interactions they recognized and explicitly addressed issues related to power differentials, racism, implicit bias, and gender bias. They noted the need to be "facile in attending to pain" as learners brought up traumatic experiences and other sensitive issues including racism and the impact of power dynamics. They built relationships with learners by juxtaposing and exploring the sometimes-conflicting norms of different cultures. Participants were reflective about their own understanding and tendency to be biased. They aimed to break free of such biases while role modeling how to have the courage to speak up. Experience had given facilitators in multicultural programs an understanding of their responsibility to promote critical consciousness and social justice. How faculty without prior experience or expertise could develop those values and skills is a topic for future research.

  13. Co-Teaching: Enhancing the Student Teaching Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Thomas J., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Co-teaching is a common practice in many P-12 schools today. An emerging trend, however, is the use of this practice in teacher preparation as one way of enhancing the development of student teachers. With the increase in teacher accountability and the heightened scrutiny of teacher evaluation, co-teaching is a strategy that can be incorporated…

  14. Effects of repetitive shortwave diathermy for reducing synovitis in patients with knee osteoarthritis: an ultrasonographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Mei-Hwa; Chai, Huei-Ming; Wang, Chung-Li; Lin, Yeong-Fwu; Tsai, Li-Ying

    2006-02-01

    Shortwave (SW) diathermy can be used to improve vascular circulation and reduce inflammation and pain for patients with osteoarthritis. However, reduction in synovial inflammation has never been explored. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether repetitive SW diathermy, using ultrasonographic examination, could reduce synovitis in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Thirty subjects with 44 osteoarthritic knees participated in this study. Eleven subjects received SW, and 10 subjects received SW and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Nine subjects received no treatment and served as a control group. Synovial sac thickness superior, medial, and lateral to the patella was measured using ultrasonography. The sum of these 3 measurements was taken as the total synovial sac thickness. Subjects in the treatment groups underwent ultrasonographic examination before and after 10, 20, and 30 treatments, whereas control subjects underwent ultrasonographic examination before the experiment and then once every 2 or 3 weeks for a total of 3 follow-up measurements. After 10 SW diathermy treatments, the total synovial sac thickness in both treatment groups was significantly less than the initial thickness, and the synovial sac continued to become significantly thinner with 20 sessions of treatment. These observations were not made in the control subjects. The results indicate that SW diathermy in patients with knee osteoarthritis can significantly reduce both synovial thickness and knee pain. Such reductions of synovial sac thickness and pain index continue over treatment sessions.

  15. Noise suppression algorithm of short-wave infrared star image for daytime star sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjie; Wei, Xinguo; Li, Jian; Wang, Gangyi

    2017-09-01

    As an important development trend of star sensor technology, research on daytime star sensor technology can expand the applications of star sensor from spacecrafts to airborne vehicles. The biggest problem for daytime star sensor is the detection of dim stars from strong atmospheric background radiation. The use of short-wave infrared (SWIR) technology has been proven to be an effective approach to solve this problem. However, the SWIR star images inevitably contain stripe nonuniformity noise and defective pixels, which degrade the quality of the acquired images and affect the subsequent star spot extraction and star centroiding accuracy seriously. Because the characteristics of stripe nonuniformity and defective pixels in the SWIR star images change with time during a long term continuous operation, the method of one-time off-line calibration is not applicable. To solve this problem, an algorithm of noise suppression for SWIR star image is proposed. It firstly extracts non-background pixels by one-dimensional mean filtering. Then through one-dimensional feature point descriptor, which is used to distinguish the bright star spots pixels from defective pixels, various types of defective pixels are accurately detected. Finally, the method of moment matching is adopted to remove the stripe nonuniformity and the defective pixels are compensated effectively. The simulation experiments results indicates that the proposed algorithm can adaptively and effectively suppress the influence of stripe nonuniformity and defective pixels in SWIR star images and it is beneficial to obtain higher star centroiding accuracy.

  16. Research on the shortwave infrared hyperspectral imaging technology based on Integrated Stepwise filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liqing; Xiao, Xizhong; Wang, Yueming; Zhuang, Xiaoqiong; Wang, Jianyu

    2017-11-01

    Space-borne hyperspectral imagery is an important tool for earth sciences and industrial applications. Higher spatial and spectral resolutions have been sought persistently, although this results in more power, larger volume and weight during a space-borne spectral imager design. For miniaturization of hyperspectral imager and optimization of spectral splitting methods, several methods are compared in this paper. Spectral time delay integration (TDI) method with high transmittance Integrated Stepwise Filter (ISF) is proposed.With the method, an ISF imaging spectrometer with TDI could achieve higher system sensitivity than the traditional prism/grating imaging spectrometer. In addition, the ISF imaging spectrometer performs well in suppressing infrared background radiation produced by instrument. A compact shortwave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imager prototype based on HgCdTe covering the spectral range of 2.0-2.5 μm with 6 TDI stages was designed and integrated. To investigate the performance of ISF spectrometer, a method to derive the optimal blocking band curve of the ISF is introduced, along with known error characteristics. To assess spectral performance of the ISF system, a new spectral calibration based on blackbody radiation with temperature scanning is proposed. The results of the imaging experiment showed the merits of ISF. ISF has great application prospects in the field of high sensitivity and high resolution space-borne hyperspectral imagery.

  17. Thermal and Field Enhanced Photoemission Comparison of Theory to Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lynn-Jensen, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Photocathodes are a critical component of high-gain FEL’s and the analysis of their emission is complex. Relating their performance under laboratory conditions to conditions of an rf photoinjector is difficult. Useful models must account for cathode surface conditions and material properties, as well as drive laser parameters. We have developed a time-dependent model accounting for the effects of laser heating and thermal propagation on photoemission. It accounts for surface conditions (coating, field enhancement, reflectivity), laser parameters (duration, intensity, wavelength), and material characteristics (reflectivity, laser penetration depth, scattering rates) to predict current distribution and quantum efficiency. The applicatIon will focus on photoemission from metals and, in particular, dispenser photocathodes: the later introduces complications such as coverage non-uniformity and field enhancement. The performance of experimentally characterized photocathodes will be extrapolated to 0.1 - 1 nC bunch...

  18. Global distribution of Earth's surface shortwave radiation budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hatzianastassiou

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The monthly mean shortwave (SW radiation budget at the Earth's surface (SRB was computed on 2.5-degree longitude-latitude resolution for the 17-year period from 1984 to 2000, using a radiative transfer model accounting for the key physical parameters that determine the surface SRB, and long-term climatological data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP-D2. The model input data were supplemented by data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction - National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP-NCAR and European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF Global Reanalysis projects, and other global data bases such as TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS and Global Aerosol Data Set (GADS. The model surface radiative fluxes were validated against surface measurements from 22 stations of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN covering the years 1992-2000, and from 700 stations of the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA, covering the period 1984-2000. The model is in good agreement with BSRN and GEBA, with a negative bias of 14 and 6.5 Wm-2, respectively. The model is able to reproduce interesting features of the seasonal and geographical variation of the surface SW fluxes at global scale. Based on the 17-year average model results, the global mean SW downward surface radiation (DSR is equal to 171.6 Wm-2, whereas the net downward (or absorbed surface SW radiation is equal to 149.4 Wm-2, values that correspond to 50.2 and 43.7% of the incoming SW radiation at the top of the Earth's atmosphere. These values involve a long-term surface albedo equal to 12.9%. Significant increasing trends in DSR and net DSR fluxes were found, equal to 4.1 and 3.7 Wm-2, respectively, over the 1984-2000 period (equivalent to 2.4 and 2.2 Wm-2 per decade, indicating an increasing surface solar radiative heating. This surface SW radiative heating is primarily attributed to clouds, especially low-level, and secondarily to

  19. Enhancing the Student Learning Experience in Software Engineering Project Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Maira; Ochoa, Sergio F.; Bastarrica, Maria Cecilia; Gutierrez, Francisco J.

    2018-01-01

    Carrying out real-world software projects in their academic studies helps students to understand what they will face in industry, and to experience first-hand the challenges involved when working collaboratively. Most of the instructional strategies used to help students take advantage of these activities focus on supporting agile programming,…

  20. Enhancing Correctional Education through Community Theatre: The Benin Prison Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okhakhu, Marcel; Evawoma-Enuku, Usiwoma

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to establish the relationship between Popular Theatre and Correctional Education. The Benin Prison experiment is the springboard for this laudable and valuable link. The paper strives stridently to show the value of Popular Theatre as a vehicle for achieving correctional values in a Correction centre. More than anything else, it…

  1. Recent Experiences and Advances in Contrast-Enhanced Subharmonic Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Eisenbrey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging schemes strive to suppress tissue signals in order to better visualize nonlinear signals from blood-pooling ultrasound contrast agents. Because tissue does not generate a subharmonic response (i.e., signal at half the transmit frequency, subharmonic imaging has been proposed as a method for isolating ultrasound microbubble signals while suppressing surrounding tissue signals. In this paper, we summarize recent advances in the use of subharmonic imaging in vivo. These advances include the implementation of subharmonic imaging on linear and curvilinear arrays, intravascular probes, and three-dimensional probes for breast, renal, liver, plaque, and tumor imaging.

  2. Recent Experiences and Advances in Contrast-Enhanced Subharmonic Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbrey, John R; Sridharan, Anush; Liu, Ji-Bin; Forsberg, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging schemes strive to suppress tissue signals in order to better visualize nonlinear signals from blood-pooling ultrasound contrast agents. Because tissue does not generate a subharmonic response (i.e., signal at half the transmit frequency), subharmonic imaging has been proposed as a method for isolating ultrasound microbubble signals while suppressing surrounding tissue signals. In this paper, we summarize recent advances in the use of subharmonic imaging in vivo. These advances include the implementation of subharmonic imaging on linear and curvilinear arrays, intravascular probes, and three-dimensional probes for breast, renal, liver, plaque, and tumor imaging.

  3. Sexual Experience Enhances Drosophila melanogaster Male Mating Behavior and Success

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem, Sehresh; Ruggles, Patrick H.; Abbott, Wiley K.; Carney, Ginger E.

    2014-01-01

    Competition for mates is a wide-spread phenomenon affecting individual reproductive success. The ability of animals to adjust their behaviors in response to changing social environment is important and well documented. Drosophila melanogaster males compete with one another for matings with females and modify their reproductive behaviors based on prior social interactions. However, it remains to be determined how male social experience that culminates in mating with a female impacts subsequent...

  4. Using augmented reality to enhance the shopping mall experience

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Filipe Lampreia Anes Estevens da

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to understand if consumers would use an Augmented Reality application on their smartphones while visiting a shopping mall. This application would have several features that would boost the shopping mall experience. In order to access the acceptance of this technological hypothesis an online survey was conducted to extract empirical data from a reliable sample. This empirical data is analysed and characterized with some descriptive statistics, as ...

  5. Does Competition Enhance Performance or Cheating? A Laboratory Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Schwieren, Christiane; Weichselbaumer, Doris

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we experimentally test whether competing for a desired reward does not only affect individuals’ performance, but also their tendency to cheat. Recent doping scandals in sports as well as forgery and plagiarism scandals in academia have been partially explained by „competitive pressures“, which suggests a link between competition and cheating. In our experiment subjects conduct a task where they have the possibility to make use of illegitimate tools to better their results. We fi...

  6. The Influence of Nature Stimulus in Enhancing the Birth Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburas, Rehab; Pati, Debajyoti; Casanova, Robert; Adams, Nicole Gilinsky

    2017-01-01

    The physical environment is one of the factors that affect women's experience of labor. The basics of the childbirth process have not changed since the beginning of human existence; however, the environment in which women today give birth has changed significantly. Incorporating design elements and strategies that calm and reduce negative emotions may create positive experiences for women in labor. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of one such strategy, namely, the presentation of images of nature, on the labor and delivery experience. The study findings showed that the experimental condition has a higher score on the Quality of Care From the Patient's Perspective (QPP) subscale. In addition, there was an increase in the QPP scores associated with the increase in Nature TV watching time, QPP mean of watching time (less than 1 hr) group, m = 4.5 and QPP mean of watching time (more than 3 hs), m = 4.8. The mean score for the heart rate was lower in the experimental condition, m = 84.60, than in the control one, m = 90.49. For Apgar, the mean score was higher for Group A, m = 8.65, and Group B, m = 8.92. These findings support the study hypothesis which states that the nature images would influence the labor experience positively. In addition, the findings emphasize the importance of incorporating nonpharmacological techniques in the labor and delivery room (LDR) units to sooth the pain. Adding nature imagery to the LDR environment can be one of these techniques.

  7. Microfluidic device for single-molecule experiments with enhanced photostability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Edward A; Gambin, Yann; Vandelinder, Virginia; Brustad, Eric M; Liu, Hsiao-Wei; Schultz, Peter G; Groisman, Alex; Deniz, Ashok A

    2009-09-30

    A microfluidic device made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) addresses key limitations in single-molecule fluorescence experiments by providing high dye photostability and low sample sticking. Photobleaching is dramatically reduced by deoxygenation via gas diffusion through porous channel walls. Rapid buffer exchange in a laminar sheath flow followed by optical interrogation minimizes surface-sample contacts and allows the in situ addition and combination of other reagents.

  8. Autologous Immune Enhancement Therapy for Cancer - Our experience since 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Terunuma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer, the major killer disease of the century requires a multi-pronged approach and among the latest modalities of treatments, Immunotherapy occupies a promising role. Immunotherapy for cancer was first started to be practised in the NIH and cell based immunotherapy for cancer is in practice for the past three decades. [1, 2] There are several literatures from various countries on the successful application of cell based Immunotherapies for various solid tumours and haematological malignancies. [3-8] Our team’s association with immune cells started when I was working on RNA transcriptome analysis to understand the immune system in HIV carriers which in turn required in vitro expansion of human Natural Killer (NK cells. [9] This led to the customization of protocols which has resulted in successful in vitro expansion, activation of NK cells and T cells for Immunotherapy. The purpose of Biotherapy institute of Japan (BIJ is to support research and clinical application of immune cells like NK cells, γδT cells, αβT cells, Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL and Dendritic cells (DC for application as Autologous Immune Enhancement Therapy (AIET to fight against cancer. AIET using NK cells, CTLs, DCs etc have been administered for more than 5000 patients since 2004 till date by BIJ. Principle of AIET: For AIET using NK cells, the process involves separation of lymphocytes from the peripheral blood of the patient followed by selective NK cell expansion using the expansion kit (BINKIT, BIJ, JAPAN without feeder layers and then infusion of the expanded-activated NK cells. [10,11] As reports suggest that the activity of peripheral blood NK cells are lower in cancer patients compared to normal individuals [12] and as in vitro expansion of NK cells increases the cytotoxic ability 5 to 10 fold, [13] the NK cells are expanded in vivo and then infused to the patient in AIET. We are also working on combination immunotherapy using NK cells and CTLs and also NK

  9. Enhancing Experiment Central Service Reliability: from delivery to security and virtualization

    CERN Document Server

    Donno, Flavia; Buzykaev, Alexey; Saiz Santos, Maria Dolores

    2011-01-01

    The four LHC experiments rely on experiment specific services running on machines mainly located at CERN. Some of these services have been rated by the experiments as very critical: any loss or degradation of performance has a major impact on the experiment's production and analysis activities. It is therefore important to provide a reliable and robust operational environment. In this work we describe the strategy based on service deployment, security and virtualization adopted to enhance the reliability of ATLAS and CMS central services.

  10. Enhancing patient experience through personalization of health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, Anne W; Alessi, Charles; Bassi, Harpreet; DeForge, Ryan T; Schnarr, Karin

    2015-09-01

    Patient engagement is a challenge many leaders are facing, as consumer expectations of health services demand a more personalized approach to care. This article examines consumer trends that are influencing patient engagement and empowerment relative to the use of digital technologies. Informed by consumer and population health trends that can personalize health services, three strategies leaders can engage to strengthen patient experience include placing greater focus on personal health and wellness, shifting towards personalized rather than standardized healthcare, and facilitating the democratization of healthcare information. © 2015 The Canadian College of Health Leaders.

  11. Enhancing the learning experience of student radiographers with dyslexia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Irene [Cranfield University, Centre for Radiographic and Medical Studies, RMCS, Shrivenham, Swindon, SN6 8LA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: irene.foster@uwe.ac.uk

    2008-02-15

    Widening participation policies and increased awareness of dyslexia has resulted in a marked increase in the numbers of students with dyslexia being identified in higher education in recent years. This study was conducted to not only gain a greater understanding of teaching and learning strategies, but also provide opportunities for improved learning experiences and achievement of students who do not respond well to written forms of assessment. Although a small scale study, the outcomes demonstrate a useful pilot for future scrutiny and basis for further study.

  12. Identifying different learning styles to enhance the learning experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Irene

    2016-10-12

    Identifying your preferred learning style can be a useful way to optimise learning opportunities, and can help learners to recognise their strengths and areas for development in the way that learning takes place. It can also help teachers (educators) to recognise where additional activities are required to ensure the learning experience is robust and effective. There are several models available that may be used to identify learning styles. This article discusses these models and considers their usefulness in healthcare education. Models of teaching styles are also considered.

  13. Surface enhanced SHG from macrocycle, catenane and rotaxane thin films : experiments and theory.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arfaoui, I.; Bermudez, V.; De Nadai, C.; Jalkanen, J.-P.; Kajzar, F.; Leigh, D.A.; Lubomska, M.; Mendoza, S.M.; Niziol, J.; Rudolf, Petra; Zerbetto, F.; Grote, JG; Kaino, T; Kajzar, F

    2005-01-01

    Surface enhanced second harmonic generation experiments on supramolecules: macrocycles, catenanes and rotaxanes, monolayers and multilayers deposited by vacuum evaporation on silver layers are reported and described. The measurements show that the molecules are ordered in thin films. The highest

  14. Sensorimotor experience enhances automatic imitation of robotic action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Clare; Gillmeister, Helge; Heyes, Cecilia

    2007-10-22

    Recent research in cognitive neuroscience has found that observation of human actions activates the 'mirror system' and provokes automatic imitation to a greater extent than observation of non-biological movements. The present study investigated whether this human bias depends primarily on phylogenetic or ontogenetic factors by examining the effects of sensorimotor experience on automatic imitation of non-biological robotic, stimuli. Automatic imitation of human and robotic action stimuli was assessed before and after training. During these test sessions, participants were required to execute a pre-specified response (e.g. to open their hand) while observing a human or robotic hand making a compatible (opening) or incompatible (closing) movement. During training, participants executed opening and closing hand actions while observing compatible (group CT) or incompatible movements (group IT) of a robotic hand. Compatible, but not incompatible, training increased automatic imitation of robotic stimuli (speed of responding on compatible trials, compared with incompatible trials) and abolished the human bias observed at pre-test. These findings suggest that the development of the mirror system depends on sensorimotor experience, and that, in our species, it is biased in favour of human action stimuli because these are more abundant than non-biological action stimuli in typical developmental environments.

  15. Enhancing Schistosomiasis Control Strategy for Zimbabwe: Building on Past Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses J. Chimbari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni are prevalent in Zimbabwe to levels that make schistosomiasis a public health problem. Following three national surveys to map the disease prevalence, a national policy on control of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths is being developed. This paper reviews the experiences that Zimbabwe has in the area of schistosomiasis control with a view to influence policy. A case study approach to highlight key experiences and outcomes was adopted. The benefits derived from intersectoral collaboration that led to the development of a model irrigation scheme that incorporates schistosomiasis control measures are highlighted. Similarly, the benefits of using plant molluscicides and fish and duck biological agents (Sargochromis codringtonii and Cairina moschata are highlighted. Emphasis was also placed on the importance of utilizing locally developed water and sanitation technologies and the critical human resource base in the area of schistosomiasis developed over years. After synthesis of the case studies presented, it was concluded that while there is a need to follow the WHO recommended guidelines for schistosomiasis control it is important to develop a control strategy that is informed by work already done in the country. The importance of having a policy and local guidelines for schistosomiasis control is emphasized.

  16. Effect of short-wave diathermy on mobility and radiological stage of the knee in the development of experimental osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanharanta, H

    1982-04-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of short-wave diathermy on joint mobility and radiographic changes during the development of osteoarthritis. An experimental model for osteoarthritis was developed by periodic immobilization of rabbit knees. Nine rabbits was given short wave diathermy in the same knee 55 times for 5 minutes with a power of 50 W for 11 weeks. An identically immobilized group of 17 rabbits was used as control. The most significant effect on the mobility of the treated knee was the development of extension deficiency. This limitation developed within a week and was permanent. A smaller effect was found on flexion mobility. Flexion deficiency decreased at the end of the immobilization period and increased during remobilization, though at the end of the experiment there were no differences compared with the control. Radiographic changes were similar during the development of osteoarthritis in treated and non-treated groups.

  17. Some observations on stray magnetic fields and power outputs from short-wave diathermy equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, R.W.M.; Dunscombe, P.B.

    1984-04-01

    Recent years have seen increasing interest in the possible hazards arising from the use of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation. Relatively large and potentially hazardous fields are to be found in the vicinity of short-wave and microwave equipment used in physiotherapy departments to produce therapeutic temperature rises. This note reports the results of measurements of the stray magnetic field and power output of a conventional short-wave diathermy unit when applied to tissue-equivalent phantoms. The dependence of these quantities on the variables, i.e. power setting of the unit, capacitor plate size, phantom size and phantom-capacitor plate separation, are discussed.

  18. Heating patterns produced by shortwave diathermy applicators in tissue substitute models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, J F; McDougall, J A; Guy, A W; Warren, C G; Esselman, P C

    1983-12-01

    To be a deep-heating modality, shortwave diathermy applicators have to heat the musculature more than the subcutaneous fat. In this study, commercially available and prototype shortwave diathermy applicators were tested using tissue substitute models which allow rapid thermographic scanning of the initial linear transient temperature rise in the subcutaneous fat and muscle. The specific absorption rates (SAR) of the electromagnetic radiation were calculated throughout the tissues. Great differences were found in the deep-heating capability of these applicators. Some of the applicators heated the subcutaneous fat more than the muscle, while others were more efficient in heating the musculature.

  19. Means and Trends of Shortwave Irradiance at the Surface Estimated From GEBA and WRDC Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilgen, H.; Roesch, A.; Wild, M.; Ohmura, A.; Tsvetkov, A.

    2004-05-01

    On most continents, shortwave irradiance decreases on the order of 2% per decade. This result was obtained from an analysis of the observed time series of shortwave irradiances stored in the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA). These time series covered the period from 1950 through to 1990. For the reevaluation of the irradiance means and trends up to the present the pyranometer data stored in the GEBA are currently extended with data from the World Radiation Data Center (WRDC). The combination of these databases provides a comprehensive source of worldwide monthly irradiance values. Preliminary results of the analysis of the extended dataset will be presented.

  20. Long-term oxytocin administration enhances the experience of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaerts, Sylvie; Prinsen, Jellina; Berra, Emmely; Bosmans, Guy; Steyaert, Jean; Alaerts, Kaat

    2017-04-01

    The neuropeptide 'oxytocin' (OT) is known to play a pivotal role in a variety of complex social behaviors by promoting a prosocial attitude and interpersonal bonding. Previous studies showed that a single-dose of exogenously administered OT can affect trust and feelings of attachment insecurity. With the present study, we explored the effects of two weeks of daily OT administration on measures of state and trait attachment using a double-blind between-subjects randomized placebo-controlled design. In 40 healthy young adult men state and trait attachment were assessed before and after two weeks of daily intranasal OT (24 IU) or placebo using the State Adult Attachment Scale and the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment. Mood, social responsiveness and quality of life were additionally assessed as secondary outcome measures. Reductions in attachment avoidance and increases in reports of attachment toward peers were reported after two weeks of OT treatment. Further, treatment-induced changes were most pronounced for participants with less secure attachment towards their peers. indicating that normal variance at baseline modulated treatment response. OT treatment was additionally associated with changes in mood, indicating decreases in feelings of tension and (tentatively) anger in the OT group, not in the placebo group. Further, at the end of the two-week trial, both treatment groups (OT, placebo) reported to experience an increase in social responsiveness and quality of life, but the effects were only specific to the OT-treatment in terms of reports on 'social motivation'. In summary, the observed improvements on state and trait dimensions of attachment after a multiple-dose treatment with OT provide further evidence in support of a pivotal role of OT in promoting the experience of attachment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. High-performance shortwave-infrared light-emitting devices using core-shell (PbS-CdS) colloidal quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supran, Geoffrey J; Song, Katherine W; Hwang, Gyu Weon; Correa, Raoul E; Scherer, Jennifer; Dauler, Eric A; Shirasaki, Yasuhiro; Bawendi, Moungi G; Bulović, Vladimir

    2015-02-25

    Core-shell PbS-CdS quantum dots enhance the peak external quantum efficiency of shortwave-infrared light-emitting devices by up to 50-100-fold (compared with core-only PbS devices). This is more than double the efficiency of previous quantum-dot light-emitting devices operating at wavelengths beyond 1 μm, and results from the passivation of the PbS cores by the CdS shells against in situ photoluminescence quenching. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Research Experience for Undergraduates: an International Program Enhancing Interdisciplinary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfiffner, S. M.; Davis, K. L.; Phelps, T. J.; Kieft, T. L.; Gihring, T. M.; Onstott, T. C.; Nthangeni, B.; Piater, L.; van Heerden, E.

    2004-12-01

    This NSF-funded research experience for undergraduates (REU) took place in South Africa, where gold mines provided outstanding field sites to investigate biogeochemical processes in deep subsurface environments. Underrepresented minorities were encouraged to participate. Cross-disciplinary training was a major ambition for this REU Site: Biogeochemical Educational Experiences - South Africa. Students were selected from diverse academic disciplines (biology, chemistry, and geology) to participate in this interdisciplinary research program. Research projects included characterizing microbial communities with molecular and biochemical techniques, cultivating microorganisms, utilizing geochemical and isotopic parameters to constrain nutrient cycling in groundwater, investigating extreme enzymes and examining functional genes. During the REU, students collected biofilms and fissure water emanating from gas-rich boreholes in 2-3 km deep mines and performed laboratory research in teams under joint mentorship of U.S. and South African scientists. Research teams consisted of three to five students with at least one student from each country and at least two of the disciplines represented. Team membership reflected students' ranking of their choices among mentor-proposed projects. The REU encouraged students to increase scientific knowledge across disciplines, improve oral and written communication skills, and explore cultural and international challenges for scientific research in the global community. Each research team presented oral progress reports to the other research teams to provide communication skill development and to provide a forum for data exchange and interpretation among the various disciplines. Oral communication training culminated in a public presentation by each team at a university/industry science symposium. Mentors reviewed students' writing skills as they prepared text on experimental design, research findings, data interpretation, and literature

  3. Enhanced apparatus for AC Zeeman experiments with ultracold potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotunno, Andrew; Du, Shuangli; Fancher, Charles; Pyle, Andrew; Aubin, Seth

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold atomic potassium is an excellent candidate for studies of the AC Zeeman force, due to small hyperfine splittings. These experiments require a sufficient sample of potassium near an atom chip supporting RF currents, and an RF source which can make rapid phase-continuous frequency sweeps for fast manipulation of spin states. We present progress on the construction of laser amplifier system for improved laser cooling and trapping of potassium, development of a frequency-agile RF source, and research on RF-capable atom chips. The laser amplifier system consists of two tapered amplifiers for producing 0.4 W of 767 nm light, with a goal of collecting 107 potassium atoms at 100 μK, which will then be cooled sympathetically with ultracold rubidium. We have constructed a direct digital synthesizer (DDS) to produce 1-400 MHz with Hz-level linewidth and noise level below -60dBc, and the ability to produce fast 100 μs frequency sweeps. We are investigating atom chip designs for supporting large RF currents. Immediate applications include AC Zeeman potentials and traps for atom interferometry, and quantum many-body physics. Work supported by AFOSR, W&M, and in part by AFRL.

  4. Laboratory Experiments on Enhanced Oil Recovery with Nitrogen Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Siregar

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on previous studies, nitrogen injection could recover oil up to 45-90% of initial reserves. Although this method has a very good ability to produce oil, sometimes the operation pressure is higher than leak off formation pressure. In this study, operation pressure used a low pressure to solve this problem under immiscible process. Objective of this study is to determine the effect of injection pressure and displacement rate on oil recovery performance of continuous one dimensional nitrogen gas injection with a slim tube apparatus. The effect of nitrogen gas-oil contact on the gas composition was investigated using Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer apparatus. In the experiments, nitrogen gas was injected into an oil sample of 38.5 oAPI gravity at various rates: 20 cc/hr, 30 cc/hr and 36.66/hr under 1500 psi pressure, and then at 20 cc/hr undr 2500 psi pressure. The results showed that an increase in injection rate increased oil recovery factor. The recovery factor lies between 40-54% of original oil in place. Gas analysis before injection and at the injection outlet showed a change of composition. when oil was contacted by nitrogen, indicating that some molecular mass transfer had taken place.

  5. Experience in Design and Learning Approaches – Enhancing the Framework for Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merja L.M. Bauters

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In design and learning studies, an increasing amount of attention has been paid to experience. Many design approaches relate experience to embodiment and phenomenology. The growth in the number of applications that use the Internet of Things (IoT has shifted human interactions from mobile devices and computers to tangible, material things. In education, the pressure to learn and update skills and knowledge, especially in work environments, has underlined the challenge of understanding how workers learn from reflection while working. These directions have been fuelled by research findings in the neurosciences, embodied cognition, the extended phenomenological–cognitive system and the role of emotions in decision-making and meaning making. The perspective on experience in different disciplines varies, and the aim is often to categorise experience. These approaches provide a worthwhile view of the importance of experience in learning and design, such as the recent emphasis on conceptual and epistemological knowledge creation. In pragmatism, experience plays a considerable role in research, art, communication and reflection. Therefore, I rely on Peirce’s communicative theory of signs and Dewey’s philosophy of experience to examine how experience is connected to reflection and therefore how it is necessarily tangible.

  6. Quantitative Comparison of the Variability in Observed and Simulated Shortwave Reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Yolanda, L.; Pilewskie, P.; Kindel, B. C.; Feldman, D. R.; Collins, W. D.

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) is a climate observation system that has been designed to monitor the Earth's climate with unprecedented absolute radiometric accuracy and SI traceability. Climate Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) have been generated to simulate CLARREO hyperspectral shortwave imager measurements to help define the measurement characteristics needed for CLARREO to achieve its objectives. To evaluate how well the OSSE-simulated reflectance spectra reproduce the Earth s climate variability at the beginning of the 21st century, we compared the variability of the OSSE reflectance spectra to that of the reflectance spectra measured by the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY). Principal component analysis (PCA) is a multivariate decomposition technique used to represent and study the variability of hyperspectral radiation measurements. Using PCA, between 99.7%and 99.9%of the total variance the OSSE and SCIAMACHY data sets can be explained by subspaces defined by six principal components (PCs). To quantify how much information is shared between the simulated and observed data sets, we spectrally decomposed the intersection of the two data set subspaces. The results from four cases in 2004 showed that the two data sets share eight (January and October) and seven (April and July) dimensions, which correspond to about 99.9% of the total SCIAMACHY variance for each month. The spectral nature of these shared spaces, understood by examining the transformed eigenvectors calculated from the subspace intersections, exhibit similar physical characteristics to the original PCs calculated from each data set, such as water vapor absorption, vegetation reflectance, and cloud reflectance.

  7. ON THE USE OF SHORTWAVE INFRARED FOR TREE SPECIES DISCRIMINATION IN TROPICAL SEMIDECIDUOUS FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Ferreira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tree species mapping in tropical forests provides valuable insights for forest managers. Keystone species can be located for collection of seeds for forest restoration, reducing fieldwork costs. However, mapping of tree species in tropical forests using remote sensing data is a challenge due to high floristic and spectral diversity. Little is known about the use of different spectral regions as most of studies performed so far used visible/near-infrared (390-1000 nm features. In this paper we show the contribution of shortwave infrared (SWIR, 1045-2395 nm for tree species discrimination in a tropical semideciduous forest. Using high-resolution hyperspectral data we also simulated WorldView-3 (WV-3 multispectral bands for classification purposes. Three machine learning methods were tested to discriminate species at the pixel-level: Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA, Support Vector Machines with Linear (L-SVM and Radial Basis Function (RBF-SVM kernels, and Random Forest (RF. Experiments were performed using all and selected features from the VNIR individually and combined with SWIR. Feature selection was applied to evaluate the effects of dimensionality reduction and identify potential wavelengths that may optimize species discrimination. Using VNIR hyperspectral bands, RBF-SVM achieved the highest average accuracy (77.4%. Inclusion of the SWIR increased accuracy to 85% with LDA. The same pattern was also observed when WV-3 simulated channels were used to classify the species. The VNIR bands provided and accuracy of 64.2% for LDA, which was increased to 79.8 % using the new SWIR bands that are operationally available in this platform. Results show that incorporating SWIR bands increased significantly average accuracy for both the hyperspectral data and WorldView-3 simulated bands.

  8. Pregnancy outcome following exposure to shortwaves among female physiotherapists in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Y; Jacubovich, R; Green, M S

    2001-05-01

    The findings of the few epidemiological studies on the possible association between shortwave diathermy use by pregnant physiotherapists and adverse pregnancy outcome are inconsistent. We investigated such an association among physiotherapists in Israel. Individualized data on exposure to shortwaves, ultrasound, and heavy lifting were collected by questionnaires and telephone interviews. The 434 studied women included 930 pregnancies: 175 ended in spontaneous abortions, 45 had fetal malformations, 47 were delivered prematurely, and 33 infants had low birth weight. The remaining 630 normal pregnancies comprised the control group. Univariate analysis showed that exposure to shortwaves was associated with a significantly increased odds ratio (O.R.) for congenital malformations (O.R. 2.24, CI 1.27-4.83, P =.006) and low birth weight (O.R. 2.99, CI 1.32-6,79, P =.006). This effect increased in a dose-related manner. After controlling for potential confounding variables, only low birth weight reached statistical significance (O.R. 2.75, CI 1.07-7.04, P =.03). From the potentially confounding variables tested, febrile disease during pregnancy was found to be significantly associated with low birth weight (O.R. 3.37, CI 1.38-8.25, P =.01). The findings of our study suggest that shortwaves have potentially harmful effects on pregnancy outcome, specifically low birth weight. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. A database on downward shortwave radiation for Africa and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, M.; Cros, S.; Albuisson, M.; Wald, L.

    2003-04-01

    Shortwave (SW) radiation is an element of the radiation budget, an essential component in climate studies. The network of stations measuring radiation is very scarce in the ocean and coastal areas.[1] and [2] demonstrate that a proper processing of satellite data provides better results than interpolation techniques. Several methods are available for the conversion of spaceborne observations made in the visible range by geostationnary satellites into SW radiation available at ocean level. Our concern is the series of Meteosat satellites that observe Africa, Europe and the Eastern Atlantic Ocean for several years. When operated on a routine basis, many of these methods exhibit several drawbacks, one of them being the poor accuracy in irradiance [3]. We designed a new method that is capable of processing long time-series of images acquired by the series of sensors aboard the Meteosat satellites. The method is using the same principle than several methods of proven quality: [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]. With respect to these methods, the new one, called Heliosat-II, offers several improvements in operation and accuracy. These improvements are due to several causes: (i) the Meteosat data are calibrated and converted into radiances [12]; (ii) we use a new database of monthly values of the atmospheric optical turbidity for clear skies available on cells of 5’ of arc angle in size (SoDa Web site: http://www.soda-is.com); (iii) we use terrain elevation TerrainBase database using the same cell size (useful for land / ocean separation); (iv) a better modelling of the irradiation under clear-skies and overcast skies was performed [13]; (v) more physical description of the optical processes was made possible by the calibration step; known proven models are implemented in the method; (vi) observations of [14] were used to model the spatial distribution of radiances of the very thick clouds; (vii) changes in ocean albedo due to sun glitter are taken into account. We made

  10. Enhancing Visitor Experiences Using Thematic Interpretation in Park Guiding Service in Sarawak National Parks

    OpenAIRE

    Amin Victor Luna; Chan Margaret Kit Yok; Omar Mohd Shukri

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing visitor experiences is arguably the primary and most important goal for interpretation by many protected area managers and tourism business. However, little research has been conducted in Sarawak, Malaysia to directly quantify the effects of thematic interpretation has on tourist experiences. Drawing on the TORE-model of interpretation and through the inception of Park Guiding Training and Licensing System in Sarawak since 2007, this quantitative study examines the effectiveness of ...

  11. Sexual experience enhances cognitive flexibility and dendritic spine density in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasper, Erica R; LaMarca, Elizabeth A; Bocarsly, Miriam E; Fasolino, Maria; Opendak, Maya; Gould, Elizabeth

    2015-11-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex is important for cognitive flexibility, a capability that is affected by environmental conditions and specific experiences. Aversive experience, such as chronic restraint stress, is known to impair performance on a task of cognitive flexibility, specifically attentional set-shifting, in rats. Concomitant with this performance decrement, chronic stress reduces the number of dendritic spines on pyramidal neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex. No previous studies have examined whether a rewarding experience, namely mating, affects cognitive flexibility and dendritic spines in the medial prefrontal cortex of male rats. To test this possibility, we exposed adult male rats to sexual receptive females once daily for one week, assessed attentional set-shifting performance, and then analyzed their brains for changes in dendritic spines. We found that sexual experience improved performance on extradimensional set-shifting, which is known to require the medial prefrontal cortex. Additionally, we observed increased dendritic spine density on apical and basal dendrites of pyramidal neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex, but not the orbitofrontal cortex, after sexual experience. We also found that sexual experience enhanced dendritic spine density on granule neurons of the dentate gyrus. The ventral hippocampus sends a direct projection to the medial prefrontal cortex, raising the possibility that experience-dependent changes in the hippocampus are necessary for alterations in medial prefrontal cortex structure and function. As a first attempt at investigating this, we inactivated the ventral hippocampus with the GABA agonist muscimol, after each daily bout of sexual experience to observe whether the beneficial effects on cognitive flexibility were abolished. Contrary to our hypothesis, blocking hippocampal activity after sexual experience had no impact on enhanced cognitive flexibility. Taken together, these findings indicate that sexual

  12. Detector with internal gain for short-wave infrared ranging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathipour, Vala; Mohseni, Hooman

    2017-09-01

    Abstarct.Highly sensitive photon detectors are regarded as the key enabling elements in many applications. Due to the low photon energy at the short-wave infrared (SWIR), photon detection and imaging at this band are very challenging. As such, many efforts in photon detector research are directed toward improving the performance of the photon detectors operating in this wavelength range. To solve these problems, we have developed an electron-injection (EI) technique. The significance of this detection mechanism is that it can provide both high efficiency and high sensitivity at room temperature, a condition that is very difficult to achieve in conventional SWIR detectors. An EI detector offers an overall system-level sensitivity enhancement due to a feedback stabilized internal avalanche-free gain. Devices exhibit an excess noise of unity, operate in linear mode, require bias voltage of a few volts, and have a cutoff wavelength of 1700 nm. We review the material system, operating principle, and development of EI detectors. The shortcomings of the first-generation devices were addressed in the second-generation detectors. Measurement on second-generation devices showed a high-speed response of ˜6 ns rise time, low jitter of less than 20 ps, high amplification of more than 2000 (at optical power levels larger than a few nW), unity excess noise factor, and low leakage current (amplified dark current ˜10 nA at a bias voltage of -3 V and at room temperature. These characteristics make EI detectors a good candidate for high-resolution flash light detection and ranging (LiDAR) applications with millimeter scale depth resolution at longer ranges compared with conventional p-i-n diodes. Based on our experimentally measured device characteristics, we compare the performance of the EI detector with commercially available linear mode InGaAs avalanche photodiode (APD) as well as a p-i-n diode using a theoretical model. Flash LiDAR images obtained by our model show that the EI

  13. Using Social Networks to Enhance Teaching and Learning Experiences in Higher Learning Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Vimala

    2014-01-01

    The paper first explores the factors that affect the use of social networks to enhance teaching and learning experiences among students and lecturers, using structured questionnaires prepared based on the Push-Pull-Mooring framework. A total of 455 students and lecturers from higher learning institutions in Malaysia participated in this study.…

  14. Hot for Teacher: Using Digital Music to Enhance Students' Experience in Online Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Joanna C.; Lowenthal, Patrick R.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a review of the instructional potential of digital music to enhance postsecondary students' experience in online courses by involving them in music-driven instructional activities. The authors describe how music-driven instructional activities, when used appropriately, can (a) humanize, personalize, and energize online…

  15. Blended Learning Environments: Using Social Networking Sites to Enhance the First Year Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    This study explores blending virtual and physical learning environments to enhance the experience of first year by immersing students into university culture through social and academic interaction between peers. It reports on the progress made from 2008 to 2009 using an existing academic platform, the first year design elective course…

  16. HAPPYNESS: An Emotion-aware QoS Assurance Framework for Enhancing User Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Condori Fernandez, O.N.

    In this paper, we introduce the idea of exploiting the emotional information as a key element in providing personalized context-aware software services and consequently enhancing quality of User Experience(UX). We argue that emotional measurements can be integrated in Quality of Service (QoS)

  17. Museum Learning via Social and Mobile Technologies: (How) Can Online Interactions Enhance the Visitor Experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charitonos, Koula; Blake, Canan; Scanlon, Eileen; Jones, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Key to introducing information and communication technologies in museums is to support meaning-making activity in encounters with artefacts. The study presented in this paper is exploratory in nature and investigates the use of social and mobile technologies in school field trips as a means of enhancing the visitor experience. It is anchored in…

  18. Pain relief at trigger points: a comparison of moist heat and shortwave diathermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCray, R E; Patton, N J

    1984-01-01

    This study compared the pain-relieving effects of shortwave diathermy and moist heat on trigger points. Patients with trigger points on the neck or back were randomly assigned one of these treatments. The sensitivity of each trigger point was measured with a pressure algometer before treatment, 5 minutes after treatment, and 30 minutes after treatment. Sensitive trigger points, at which 2000 grams of force or less caused pain, were more responsive to treatment than moderate trigger points (painful only at 2000 grams or greater force). Both treatments were effective in relieving the pain of sensitive trigger points but shortwave diathermy was more effective at decreasing the sensitivity of both sensitive and moderate trigger points (P > 0.0581). The pressure algometer was shown to be a useful device for objectively measuring pain and may be useful in selecting the most effective type of treatment for trigger points.J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1984;5(4):175-178.

  19. 730-nm optical parametric conversion from near- to short-wave infrared band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boggio, J.M.C.; Windmiller, J.R.; Knutzen, M.

    2008-01-01

    A record 730 nm parametric conversion in silica fiber from the near-infrared to the short-wave infrared band is reported and analyzed. A parametric gain in excess of 30 dB was measured for a signal at 1300 nm (with corresponding idler at 2030 nm). This conversion was performed in a travelling sin...... single-pass one-pump parametric architecture and high efficiency is achieved by a combination of high peak power and a nonlinear fiber with a reduced fourth-order dispersion coefficient.......A record 730 nm parametric conversion in silica fiber from the near-infrared to the short-wave infrared band is reported and analyzed. A parametric gain in excess of 30 dB was measured for a signal at 1300 nm (with corresponding idler at 2030 nm). This conversion was performed in a travelling...

  20. Global analysis of radiative forcing from fire-induced shortwave albedo change

    OpenAIRE

    G. López-Saldaña; Bistinas, I.; Pereira, J.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Land surface albedo, a key parameter to derive Earth's surface energy balance, is used in the parameterization of numerical weather prediction, climate monitoring and climate change impact assessments. Changes in albedo due to fire have not been fully investigated at continental and global scale. The main goal of this study therefore, is to quantify the changes in albedo produced by biomass burning activities and their associated shortwave radiative forcing....

  1. Spatial variability of shortwave radiative fluxes in the context of snowmelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, Rachel T.; Ma, Yingtao; Hinkelman, Laura; Lundquist, Jessica

    2014-05-01

    Snow-covered mountain ranges are a major source of water supply for run-off and groundwater recharge. Snowmelt supplies as much as 75% of surface water in basins of the western United States. Factors that affect the rate of snow melt include incoming shortwave and longwave radiation, surface albedo, snow emissivity, snow surface temperature, sensible and latent heat fluxes, ground heat flux, and energy transferred to the snowpack from deposited snow or rain. The net radiation generally makes up about 80% of the energy balance and is dominated by the shortwave radiation. Complex terrain poses a great challenge for obtaining the needed information on radiative fluxes from satellites due to elevation issues, spatially-variable cloud cover, rapidly changing surface conditions during snow fall and snow melt, lack of high quality ground truth for evaluation of the satellite based estimates, as well as scale issues between the ground observations and the satellite footprint. In this study we utilize observations of high spatial resolution (5-km) as available from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) to derive surface shortwave radiative fluxes in complex terrain, with attention to the impact of slopes on the amount of radiation received. The methodology developed has been applied to several water years (January to July during 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2009) over the western part of the United States, and the available information was used to derive metrics on spatial and temporal variability in the shortwave fluxes. It is planned to apply the findings from this study for testing improvements in Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) estimates.

  2. Accounting for the effects of Sastrugi in the CERES Clear-Sky Antarctic shortwave ADMs

    OpenAIRE

    Corbett, J.; Su, W.

    2015-01-01

    The Cloud and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Instruments on NASA's Terra, Aqua and Soumi-NPP satellites are used to provide a long-term measurement of the Earth's energy budget. To accomplish this, the radiances measured by the instruments must be inverted to fluxes by the use of a scene-type dependent angular distribution model (ADM). For permanent snow scenes over Antarctica, shortwave ADMs are created by compositing radiance measurements over the full viewing zenith and azimuth...

  3. Myocardial delayed-enhancement CT: initial experience in children and young adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    Clinical utility of myocardial delayed enhancement CT has not been reported in children and young adults. To describe initial experience of myocardial delayed enhancement CT regarding image quality, radiation dose and identification of myocardial lesions in children and young adults. Between August 2013 and November 2016, 29 consecutive children and young adults (median age 16 months) with suspected coronary artery or myocardial abnormality underwent arterial- and delayed-phase cardiac CT at our institution. We measured CT densities in normal myocardium, left ventricular cavity, and arterial and delayed hypo-enhancing and delayed hyperenhancing myocardial lesions. We then compared the extent of delayed hyperenhancing lesions with delayed-enhancement MRI or thallium single-photon emission CT. Normal myocardium and left ventricular cavity showed significantly higher CT numbers on arterial-phase CT than on delayed-phase CT (t-test, P<0.0001). Contrast-to-noise ratios of the arterial and delayed hypo-enhancing and delayed hyperenhancing lesions on CT were 26.7, 17.6 and 18.7, respectively. Delayed-phase CT findings were equivalent to those of delayed-enhancement MRI in all cases (7/7) and to those of thallium single-photon emission CT in 70% (7/10). Myocardial delayed-enhancement CT can be added to evaluate myocardial lesions in select children and young adults with suspected coronary artery or myocardial abnormality. (orig.)

  4. Using sound-taste correspondences to enhance the subjective value of tasting experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso Carvalho, Felipe; Van Ee, Raymond; Rychtarikova, Monika; Touhafi, Abdellah; Steenhaut, Kris; Persoone, Dominique; Spence, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The soundscapes of those places where we eat and drink can influence our perception of taste. Here, we investigated whether contextual sound would enhance the subjective value of a tasting experience. The customers in a chocolate shop were invited to take part in an experiment in which they had to evaluate a chocolate's taste while listening to an auditory stimulus. Four different conditions were presented in a between-participants design. Envisioning a more ecological approach, a pre-recorded piece of popular music and the shop's own soundscape were used as the sonic stimuli. The results revealed that not only did the customers report having a significantly better tasting experience when the sounds were presented as part of the food's identity, but they were also willing to pay significantly more for the experience. The method outlined here paves a new approach to dealing with the design of multisensory tasting experiences, and gastronomic situations.

  5. The short-wave broadband communication device for transmission the analog narrowband signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreyev O.V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of information via the radio channel always involves the selection of radio waves modulation and the frequency band occupied by the radio signal. For the narrowband analog signals, the transmission via the radio channels in areas with difficult terrain the short-wave range is widely used. The majority of radio stations use frequency modulation of the transmitter without any message encryption. This gives the opportunity to detect and intercept messages that are transmitted. The use of the voice scramblers allows to hide information that is transmitted via the communication channel, but it is impossible to hide the radiation of the transmitter. The article suggests the use of a broadband signal with a modulation which is not associated with the change of the frequency of the transmitter in accordance with information, which is transmitted. The calculations showed that the proposed communication system can operate in a common frequency band with existing narrowband means of the short-wave range not creating them the substantial interference. The calculated signal/noise ratio on the input of the radio signals monitoring receiver is almost two orders less than for existing narrowband means of the short-wave range.

  6. Technical progress report: Completion of spectral rotating shadowband radiometers and analysis of atmospheric radiation measurement spectral shortwave data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalsky, J.; Harrison, L. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Our goal in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the improvement of radiation models used in general circulation models (GCMs), especially in the shortwave, (1) by providing improved shortwave radiometric measurements for the testing of models and (2) by developing methods for retrieving climatologically sensitive parameters that serve as input to shortwave and longwave models. At the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center (ASRC) in Albany, New York, we are acquiring downwelling direct and diffuse spectral irradiance, at six wavelengths, plus downwelling broadband longwave, and upwelling and downwelling broadband shortwave irradiances that we combine with National Weather Service surface and upper air data from the Albany airport as a test data set for ARM modelers. We have also developed algorithms to improve shortwave measurements made at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) ARM site by standard thermopile instruments and by the multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) based on these Albany data sets. Much time has been spent developing techniques to retrieve column aerosol, water vapor, and ozone from the direct beam spectral measurements of the MFRSR. Additionally, we have had success in calculating shortwave surface albedo and aerosol optical depth from the ratio of direct to diffuse spectral reflectance.

  7. Contrast-enhanced Digital Mammography: A Single-Institution Experience of the First 208 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tiffany C; Pizzitola, Victor J; Giurescu, Marina E; Eversman, William G; Lorans, Roxanne; Robinson, Kristin A; Patel, Bhavika K

    2017-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) is the only imaging modality that provides both (a) a high-resolution, low-energy image comparable to that of digital mammography and (b) a contrast-enhanced image similar to that of magnetic resonance imaging. We report the initial 208 CEDM examinations performed for various clinical indications and provide illustrative case examples. Given its success in recent studies and our experience of CEDM primarily as a diagnostic adjunct, CEDM can potentially improve breast cancer detection by combining the low-cost conclusions of screening mammography with the high sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Empathy and spiritual care in midwifery practice: Contributing to women's enhanced birth experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Sharon; Gair, Susan

    2015-12-01

    Research has identified empathy as a crucial ingredient in effective practice for health professionals, including midwifery. Equally, the role of spirituality has been recognised as enhancing the quality of the birth experience through the care, compassion and presence of the midwife. Yet literature discussing birthing women's lived experiences of caregiver empathy and spiritual care appears uncommon. The aim of this article is to highlight women's stories about midwives' empathy and spiritual care or lack thereof during birth, in order to contribute to the promotion of more empathic, spiritually aware midwifery practice. Ten interviews and seven focus groups were conducted with forty-eight women, including mothers, midwives and staff from a women's service. A secondary analysis of the data was conducted examining women's descriptions and reflections on midwives' levels of empathy and spiritual care. When midwives' empathy and spiritual care were evident, women's birth experiences appeared enhanced, providing a solid foundation for confident mothering. Conversely, participants appeared to link a lack of caregiver empathy, compassion or spiritual care with more enduring consequences, birth trauma and difficulty bonding with their babies. Midwives' empathy and spiritual care can play a key role in creating positive birth and mothering experiences. More research into the role of empathy and spiritual care in enhancing midwifery practice in all birth settings is recommended, as is the increased embeddedness of empathic regard and the notion of 'birth as sacred' into midwifery curricula. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of an improved shortwave radiation scheme in the MAECHAM5 General Circulation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Morcrette

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the representation of ozone absorption in the stratosphere of the MAECHAM5 general circulation model, the spectral resolution of the shortwave radiation parameterization used in the model has been increased from 4 to 6 bands. Two 20-years simulations with the general circulation model have been performed, one with the standard and the other with the newly introduced parameterization respectively, to evaluate the temperature and dynamical changes arising from the two different representations of the shortwave radiative transfer. In the simulation with the increased spectral resolution in the radiation parameterization, a significant warming of almost the entire model domain is reported. At the summer stratopause the temperature increase is about 6 K and alleviates the cold bias present in the model when the standard radiation scheme is used. These general circulation model results are consistent both with previous validation of the radiation scheme and with the offline clear-sky comparison performed in the current work with a discrete ordinate 4 stream scattering line by line radiative transfer model. The offline validation shows a substantial reduction of the daily averaged shortwave heating rate bias (1–2 K/day cooling that occurs for the standard radiation parameterization in the upper stratosphere, present under a range of atmospheric conditions. Therefore, the 6 band shortwave radiation parameterization is considered to be better suited for the representation of the ozone absorption in the stratosphere than the 4 band parameterization. Concerning the dynamical response in the general circulation model, it is found that the reported warming at the summer stratopause induces stronger zonal mean zonal winds in the middle atmosphere. These stronger zonal mean zonal winds thereafter appear to produce a dynamical feedback that results in a dynamical warming (cooling of the polar winter (summer mesosphere, caused by an

  10. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery-Laboratory Experiments with a Strain of Clostridium tyrobutyricum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimoh, Ismaila Adetunji

    the desired metabolic products needed for enhanced oil recovery. In this study, experiments have been performed with a strain of Clostridium tyrobutyricum. The experiments focused on salinity adaptation, gas production and the ability of microbes to modify rock properties. The result of the experiments showed...... that the strain of Clostridium tyrobutyricum adapted to 10, 30, 50, and 90 g/l before the start of the experiments produce more gas with an increase factor of between 0.39-6.9 for the same salinity condition than the pure culture. The adaptation process also led to the production of a strain 90F which can grow...... and produce metabolites at salinity range of over 90g/l. Strain 90F which is the adapted strain, frozen over a long period of time when activated were also able to attach to the oil water interface when grown inside test tubes at high salinity range. This can change the interfacial or wetting properties...

  11. Enhancing Visitor Experiences Using Thematic Interpretation in Park Guiding Service in Sarawak National Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Victor Luna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing visitor experiences is arguably the primary and most important goal for interpretation by many protected area managers and tourism business. However, little research has been conducted in Sarawak, Malaysia to directly quantify the effects of thematic interpretation has on tourist experiences. Drawing on the TORE-model of interpretation and through the inception of Park Guiding Training and Licensing System in Sarawak since 2007, this quantitative study examines the effectiveness of thematic interpretive guided tours delivered by park guides at Bako National Park, Sarawak, with the assumption that it will further enhance visitor experiences. A descriptive analysis and Pearson's product-moment correlation analysis of sub-indicators of the global evaluation of interpretation of site, and sub-indicators of elaboration surveyed from visitors of purposively sampled park guides revealed a strong measurement and correlation coefficients of visitors’ overall quality of thematic intepretive guided tours effecting visitor satisfaction and experiences. These findings provide empirical evidence that good thematic interpretive guided tour makes a positive impacts on visitor experiences, thus making training of tourism businesses' employees as park guides as a good investment. The suggestions for further research in influencing visitor attitude and shaping visitor behaviour are offered.

  12. An educational intervention to enhance clinical skills learning: Experiences of nursing students and teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wighus, Marianne; Bjørk, Ida Torunn

    2018-01-05

    The simulation centre is a key setting for the acquisition of practical skills. However, pedagogical underpinnings of skills instruction in this setting are not always well founded. This study aimed to explore student and teacher experiences with an educational intervention to enhance clinical skills learning in the first semester of nursing education. The study had an exploratory design, where qualitative data were collected in focus group interviews involving 18 students and four teachers. The participants had generally positive experiences of the intervention. The findings showed that organisation, time usage, an observer role, re-training and structured reflection enhanced systematic feedback by students. We conclude that an educational intervention based on theoretically sound learning tools and pedagogical principles improved students' skills acquisition and gave the teachers a common educational platform. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Enhancing user experience by using multi-sensor data fusion to predict phone's luminance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhoubi, Asmaa H.

    2017-09-01

    The movement of a phone in an environment with different brightness, makes the luminance prediction challenging. The ambient light sensor takes time to modify the brightness of the screen based on the environment it is placed in. This causes an unsatisfactory user experience and delays in adjustment of the screen brightness. In this research, a method is proposed for enhancing the prediction of luminance using accelerometer, gyroscope and speed measurement technique. The speed of the phone is identified using Sum-of-Sine parameters. The lux values are then fused with the accelerometer and gyroscope data to present more accurate luminance values for the ALS based on the movement of the phone. An investigation is made during the movement of the user in a standard lighting environment. This enhances the user experience and improves the screen brightness precision. The accuracy has given an R-Square value of up to 0.97.

  14. Creating Centralized Reporting for Microsoft Host Protection Technologies:The Enhanced Mitigation Experience Toolkit (EMET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-11

    copyright and “No Warranty” statements are included with all reproductions and derivative works. External use:* This material may be reproduced in its...endpoints from compromise. Microsoft offers a tool to assist in this area and is pro- vided at no cost. The Enhanced Mitigation Experience Toolkit (EMET...AppLocker can still be exploited. EMET provides an additional layer of protection by restricting techniques commonly used by malicious actors. EMET can help

  15. HAPPYNESS: An Emotion-aware QoS Assurance Framework for Enhancing User Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Condori Fernandez, O.N.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the idea of exploiting the emotional information as a key element in providing personalized context-aware software services and consequently enhancing quality of User Experience(UX). We argue that emotional measurements can be integrated in Quality of Service (QoS) assurance frameworks. The idea builds on the strength of technological advances in emotion measurement tools, non-obtrusive and ubiquitous monitoring technology.

  16. An enhanced fire hazard assessment model and validation experiments for vertical cable trays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lu [Sate Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China); Huang, Xianjia, E-mail: huangxianjia@gziit.ac.cn [Joint Laboratory of Fire Safety in Nuclear Power Plants, Institute of Industry Technology Guangzhou & Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 511458 (China); Bi, Kun; Liu, Xiaoshuang [China Nuclear Power Design Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518045 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • An enhanced model was developed for vertical cable fire hazard assessment in NPP. • The validated experiments on vertical cable tray fires were conducted. • The capability of the model for cable tray with different cable spacing were tested. - Abstract: The model, referred to as FLASH-CAT (Flame Spread over Horizontal Cable Trays), was developed to estimate the heat release rate for vertical cable tray fire. The focus of this work is to investigate the application of an enhanced model to the single vertical cable tray fires with different cable spacing. The experiments on vertical cable tray fires with three typical cable spacing were conducted. The histories of mass loss rate and flame length were recorded during the cable fire. From the experimental results, it is found that the space between cable lines intensifies the cable combustion and accelerates the flame spread. The predictions by the enhanced model show good agreements with the experimental data. At the same time, it is shown that the enhanced model is capable of predicting the different behaviors of cable fires with different cable spacing by adjusting the flame spread speed only.

  17. Resonance-Enhanced Excited-State Raman Spectroscopy of Conjugated Thiophene Derivatives: Combining Experiment with Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Matthew S.; Quincy, Timothy J.; Caricato, Marco; Elles, Christopher G.

    2017-06-01

    Resonance-enhanced Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy (FSRS) is an ultrafast experimental method that allows for the study of excited-state structural behaviors, as well as the characterization of higher electronically excited states accessible through the resonant conditions of the observed vibrations. However, interpretation of the experiment is difficult without an accurate vibrational assignment of the resonance-enhanced spectra. We therefore utilize simulations of off-resonant excited-state Raman spectra, in which we employ a numerical derivative of the analytical excited-state polarizabilities along the normal mode displacements, in order to identify and interpret the resonance-enhanced vibrations observed in experiment. We present results for a benchmark series of conjugated organic thiophene derivatives, wherein we have computed the off-resonant excited-state Raman spectra for each molecule and matched it with its resonance-enhanced experimental spectrum. This comparison allows us to successfully identify the vibrational displacements of the observed FSRS bands, as well as validate the accuracy of the theoretical results through an experimental benchmark. The agreement between the experimental and computed results demonstrates that we are able to predict qualitatively accurate excited-state Raman spectra for these conjugated thiophenes, allowing for a more thorough interpretation of excited-state Raman signals at relatively low computational cost.

  18. Enhanced independence: experiences after regaining grip function in people with tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangdell, Johanna; Carlsson, Gunnel; Fridén, Jan

    2013-01-01

    To explore how surgical reconstruction of grip affects everyday life for patients with tetraplegia, with special emphasis on patients perspective of their perceived changes. Qualitative method. Eleven people (aged 22-73) with tetraplegia who had undergone surgical reconstruction to restore grip function. Qualitative interviews were conducted 7-17 months after surgery and analysed using Grounded theory. The core concept describing the participants experienced gains after grip reconstructive surgery was "enhanced independence". It was associated with changes in both practical and psychological aspects of independence. Practical aspects identified were: "perform more activities", "smoother everyday life", "renewed ability to participate in social activities", "less dependence on assistance" and "less restricted by physical environment". Psychological aspects of independence included "regained privacy", "increased manageability", "regained identity", "recapture a part of the body" and "share positive experiences with relatives and friends". Encompassing all categories was the concept "self-efficacy in hand control". It was seen as a result included in the enhanced independency core but also as an important factor for the development of all the other categories. Participants in this study experienced enhanced independence after grip reconstructive surgery and rehabilitation. The enhanced independence included both practical and physical aspects and it influenced all domains using the International Classification of Function, Disability and Health model; body function and structure, activities, participation, personal factors and environmental factors. Implications for Rehabilitation Patients with tetraplegia experience grip reconstruction as a useful intervention, an enhanced independence, related to their improved hand control. The increased hand control impacted not only physical aspects but also practical and psychological aspects. It also influenced social and

  19. Daytime Variation of Shortwave Direct Radiative Forcing of Biomass Burning Aerosols from GOES-8 Imager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Sundar A.; Zhang, Jianglong

    2002-02-01

    Hourly Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-8 (GOES-8) imager data (1344-1944 UTC) from 20 July-31 August 1998 were used to study the daytime variation of shortwave direct radiative forcing (SWARF) of smoke aerosols over biomass burning regions in South America (4°-16°S, 51°-65°W). Vicarious calibration procedures were used to adjust the GOES visible channel reflectance values for the degradation in signal response. Using Mie theory and discrete ordinate radiative transfer (DISORT) calculations, smoke aerosol optical thickness (AOT) was estimated at 0.67 m. The GOES-retrieved AOT was then compared against ground-based AOT retrieved values. Using the retrieved GOES-8 AOT, a four-stream broadband radiative transfer model was used to compute shortwave fluxes for smoke aerosols at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). The daytime variation of smoke AOT and SWARF was examined for the study area. For selected days, the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) TOA shortwave (SW) fluxes are compared against the model-derived SW fluxes.Results of this study show that the GOES-derived AOT is in excellent agreement with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET)-derived AOT values with linear correlation coefficient of 0.97. The TOA CERES-estimated SW fluxes compare well with the model-calculated SW fluxes with linear correlation coefficient of 0.94. For August 1998 the daytime diurnally averaged AOT and SWARF for the study area is 0.63 ± 0.39 and 45.8 ± 18.8 W m2, respectively. This is among the first studies to estimate the daytime diurnal variation of SWARF of smoke aerosols using satellite data.

  20. Top-of-the-Atmosphere Shortwave Flux Estimation from UV Observations: An Empirical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, P.; Joiner, Joanna; Vasilkov, A.; Bhartia, P. K.; da Silva, Arlindo

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiation are essential to the understanding of Earth's climate. Clouds, aerosols, and ozone (0,) are among the most important agents impacting the Earth's short-wave (SW) radiation budget. There are several sensors in orbit that provide independent information related to the Earth's SW radiation budget. Having coincident information from these sensors is important for understanding their potential contributions. The A-train constellation of satellites provides a unique opportunity to analyze near-simultaneous data from several of these sensors. They include the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), on the NASA Aura satellite, that makes TOA hyper-spectral measurements from ultraviolet (UV) to visible wavelengths, and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument, on the NASA Aqua satellite, that makes broadband measurements in both the long- and short-wave. OMI measurements have been successfully utilized to derive the information on trace gases (e.g., 0 1, NO" and SO,), clouds, and absorbing aerosols. TOA SW fluxes are estimated using a combination of data from CERES and the Aqua MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). In this paper, OMI retrievals of cloud/aerosol parameters and 0 1 have been collocated with CERES TOA SW flux retrievals. We use this collocated data to develop a neural network that estimates TOA shortwave flux globally over ocean using data from OMI and meteorological analyses. This input data include the effective cloud fraction, cloud optical centroid pressure (OCP), total-column 0" and sun-satellite viewing geometry from OMI as well as wind speed and water vapor from the Goddard Earth Observing System 5 Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (GEOS-5 MERRA) along with a climatology of chlorophyll content. We train the neural network using a subset of CERES retrievals of TOA SW flux as the target output (truth) and withhold a different subset of

  1. Characterising cloud regimes associated with the Southern Ocean shortwave radiation bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, S.; Jakob, C.; Protat, A.

    2013-12-01

    The high-latitude Southern Ocean is the site of persistent cloud biases in GCMs. A deficit of shortwave cloud radiative effect especially between 50-65S causes an excess of absorbed shortwave radiation, which has been associated with other biases in the global circulation. Recent model evaluation studies have found that the shortwave radiation bias is potentially associated with low- and mid-level clouds in the cold-air part of extratropical cyclones and ahead of transient ridges. However a coherent description of the cloud properties and cloud processes most associated with the bias has not yet emerged. This study focuses on three cloud regimes that are most frequent in the area of the shortwave radiation bias during the austral summer. They are selected from the cloud regimes derived for the Southern Ocean from International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) cloud observations. We characterise the selected cloud regimes in terms of their meteorological conditions using the ECMWF Interim reanalysis. We also study their vertical macrophysical structure and microphysical properties based on active satellite observations using the DARDAR (raDAR/liDAR) combined CloudSat and CALIPSO data product. We find that two cloud regimes identified as mid-topped in the ISCCP based data set are associated with distinct meteorological processes. An optically thin mid-level top cloud regime is related to cold mid-levels, cold-air advection and moderate subsidence, while an optically thicker cloud regime is associated with a broader range of conditions resembling weak to moderate frontal events, with warm and moist mid-levels, moderate ascent and warm-air advection. The vertical cloud structure derived from DARDAR profiles show that both these regimes contain mostly low clouds, but both also include frequent occurrences of mid-level cloud. We use a clustering method to quantify the differences in microphysical properties between the regimes. We find that the optically

  2. X-ray-induced shortwave infrared biomedical imaging using rare-earth nanoprobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naczynski, Dominik Jan; Sun, Conroy; Türkcan, Silvan; Jenkins, Cesare; Koh, Ai Leen; Ikeda, Debra; Pratx, Guillem; Xing, Lei

    2015-01-14

    Shortwave infrared (SWIR or NIR-II) light provides significant advantages for imaging biological structures due to reduced autofluorescence and photon scattering. Here, we report on the development of rare-earth nanoprobes that exhibit SWIR luminescence following X-ray irradiation. We demonstrate the ability of X-ray-induced SWIR luminescence (X-IR) to monitor biodistribution and map lymphatic drainage. Our results indicate X-IR imaging is a promising new modality for preclinical applications and has potential for dual-modality molecular disease imaging.

  3. High-power parametric conversion from near-infrared to short-wave infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billat, Adrien; Cordette, Steevy; Tseng, Yu-Pei; Kharitonov, Svyatoslav; Brès, Camille-Sophie

    2014-06-16

    We report the design of an all-fiber continuous wave Short-Wave Infrared source capable to output up to 700 mW of power at 1940 nm. The source is tunable over wavelength intervals comprised between 1850 nm and 2070 nm depending on its configuration. The output can be single or multimode while the optical signal to noise ratio ranges from 25 and 40 dB. The architecture is based on the integrated association of a fiber optical parametric amplifier and a Thulium doped fiber amplifier.

  4. Comparative study of shortwave heating patterns in phantoms with polyethylene and silk partitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, C Y; Kantor, G; Athey, T W; Ho, H S

    1988-01-01

    Specific absorption rate (SAR) and effective depths of heating patterns induced by a shortwave, pancake diathermy applicator in fat-muscle phantom are measured. Midplane partitions of polyethylene and silk screen with and without contact chemicals are used. Thermographically obtained SAR data show nearly the same value for silk-screen partitions with and without contact chemicals and slightly lower values with polyethylene partitions, provided that the partition midplanes are tightly pressed against each other. Thermometry data indicate that for low-power exposures the major error in thermographic measurements obtained after termination of heating is due to thermal diffusion and not evaporative cooling in the opened midplane of the phantom.

  5. 730-nm optical parametric conversion from near- to short-wave infrared band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez Boggio, J M; Windmiller, J R; Knutzen, M; Jiang, R; Bres, C; Alic, N; Stossel, B; Rottwitt, K; Radic, S

    2008-04-14

    A record 730 nm parametric conversion in silica fiber from the near-infrared to the short-wave infrared band is reported and analyzed. A parametric gain in excess of 30 dB was measured for a signal at 1300 nm (with corresponding idler at 2030 nm). This conversion was performed in a travelling single-pass one-pump parametric architecture and high efficiency is achieved by a combination of high peak power and a nonlinear fiber with a reduced fourth-order dispersion coefficient.

  6. Enhanced Radar Imaging in Uncertain Environment: A Descriptive Experiment Design Regularization Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Shkvarko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A new robust technique for high-resolution reconstructive imaging is developed as required for enhanced remote sensing (RS with imaging array radar or/and synthetic aperture radar (SAR operating in an uncertain RS environment. The operational scenario uncertainties are associated with the unknown statistics of perturbations of the signal formation operator (SFO in turbulent medium, imperfect array calibration, finite dimensionality of measurements, uncontrolled antenna vibrations, and random carrier trajectory deviations in the case of SAR. We propose new descriptive experiment design regularization (DEDR approach to treat the uncertain radar image enhancement/reconstruction problems. The proposed DEDR incorporates into the minimum risk (MR nonparametric estimation strategy the experiment design-motivated operational constraints algorithmically coupled with the worst-case statistical performance (WCSP optimization-based regularization. The MR objective functional is constrained by the WCSP information, and the robust DEDR image reconstruction operator applicable to the scenarios with the low-rank uncertain estimated data correlation matrices is found. We report and discuss some simulation results related to enhancement of the uncertain SAR imagery indicative of the significantly increased performance efficiency gained with the developed approach.

  7. Enhanced ergonomics approaches for product design: a user experience ecosystem perspective and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper first discusses the major inefficiencies faced in current human factors and ergonomics (HFE) approaches: (1) delivering an optimal end-to-end user experience (UX) to users of a solution across its solution lifecycle stages; (2) strategically influencing the product business and technology capability roadmaps from a UX perspective and (3) proactively identifying new market opportunities and influencing the platform architecture capabilities on which the UX of end products relies. In response to these challenges, three case studies are presented to demonstrate how enhanced ergonomics design approaches have effectively addressed the challenges faced in current HFE approaches. Then, the enhanced ergonomics design approaches are conceptualised by a user-experience ecosystem (UXE) framework, from a UX ecosystem perspective. Finally, evidence supporting the UXE, the advantage and the formalised process for executing UXE and methodological considerations are discussed. Practitioner Summary: This paper presents enhanced ergonomics approaches to product design via three case studies to effectively address current HFE challenges by leveraging a systematic end-to-end UX approach, UX roadmaps and emerging UX associated with prioritised user needs and usages. Thus, HFE professionals can be more strategic, creative and influential.

  8. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in ovarian tumors – diagnostic parameters: method presentation and initial experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAXIM, ANITA-ROXANA; BADEA, RADU; TAMAS, ATILLA; TRAILA, ALEXANDRU

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss and illustrate the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in evaluating ovarian tumors compared to conventional ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound and the histopathological analysis and suggest how this technique may best be used to distinguish benign from malignant ovarian masses. We present the method and initial experience of our center by analyzing the parameters used in contrast-enhanced ultrasound in 6 patients with ovarian tumors of uncertain etiology. For examination we used a Siemens ultrasound machine with dedicated contrast software and the contrast agent SonoVue, Bracco. The patients underwent conventional ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound and i.v. administration of the contrast agent. The parameters studied were: inflow of contrast (rise time), time to peak enhancement, mean transit time. The series of patients is part of an extensive prospective PhD study aimed at elaborating a differential diagnosis protocol for benign versus malignant ovarian tumors, by validating specific parameters for contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Although the method is currently used with great success in gastroenterology, urology and senology, its validation in gynecology is still in the early phases. Taking into consideration that the method is minimally invasive and much less costly that CT/MRI imaging, demonstrating its utility in oncologic gynecology would be a big step in preoperative evaluation of these cases. PMID:26527912

  9. Preliminary Study on CHF Enhancement of Cellulose Nano Fiber (CNF) Fluid with Wire Pool Boiling Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Won Ki; Lee, Yun Seok; Lim, Dong Young; Song, Sub Lee; Lee, Jae Young; Lee, Kwon Yeong [Hanyang Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Dong Soo [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Critical heat flux (CHF) is enhancement of a boiling system will make more compact and effective cooling systems, for examples, nuclear reactors, and air conditioning units. For decades, researchers have been trying to develop more efficient working fluid for heat transfer. This is where nano-fluid could play a key role. There have been a lot of researches for CHF enhancements in nucleate boiling by using nano-fluid which are composed of metal such as copper, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ceramic. And a critical factor of the enhancement is deposition of nano-particles on heating surface, although some results of recent studies are contrary. Also, previous nano-fluid are expensive and have a problem in mass production, so they are difficult to apply to practical industries. Therefore we chose a new material, cellulose nano fiber (CNF) as a solution. CNF can be applied to real situation because it has some advantages which are cost-effectiveness, easiness to get and to make it in nano scale. CHF performance of CNF fluid was different from that of distilled water. Compared to CHF of distilled water, CHF of the CNF fluid which had 0.001V%, 0.01V%, and 0.1V% volumetric concentrations were enhanced to 1%, 104%, and 13% respectively. Likewise other nano-fluid, deposition phenomena was observed in this CNF fluid boiling experiment.

  10. Introduction of enhanced recovery for elective caesarean section enabling next day discharge: a tertiary centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrench, I J; Allison, A; Galimberti, A; Radley, S; Wilson, M J

    2015-05-01

    The widespread adoption of enhanced recovery programmes in various surgical specialties has resulted in patient benefits including reduced morbidity, reduced length of stay and an earlier return to normal activities. This evidence, along with the increased financial pressures in the UK National Health Service, has led many units to consider introducing such a programme for obstetric surgery. We report our experience in setting up an enhanced recovery programme for women undergoing elective caesarean section and a prospective analysis of factors that influence length of stay. An enhanced recovery pathway was designed by a multidisciplinary team and introduced in March 2012. Factors influencing length of stay were determined using a log normal model. The proportion of women discharged on Day 1 increased from 1.6% in the first quarter of 2012 to 25.2% in the first quarter of 2014. The 30-day readmission rate was 4.4% for those discharged on Day 1 and 5.6% for Day 2. Earlier gestation, multiple birth, intention to breast feed, longer surgery and more time in the post-anaesthesia recovery unit were all independently associated with a longer postoperative stay. Women presenting for obstetric surgery with the indication "one previous caesarean section" were more likely to leave hospital earlier compared to most other indications. An enhanced recovery programme was successfully introduced into our unit. Many of the interventions were straightforward and could be adopted easily elsewhere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhanced functional connectivity properties of human brains during in-situ nature experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the impacts of in-situ nature and urban exposure on human brain activities and their dynamics. We randomly assigned 32 healthy right-handed college students (mean age = 20.6 years, SD = 1.6; 16 males to a 20 min in-situ sitting exposure in either a nature (n = 16 or urban environment (n = 16 and measured their Electroencephalography (EEG signals. Analyses revealed that a brief in-situ restorative nature experience may induce more efficient and stronger brain connectivity with enhanced small-world properties compared with a stressful urban experience. The enhanced small-world properties were found to be correlated with “coherent” experience measured by Perceived Restorativeness Scale (PRS. Exposure to nature also induces stronger long-term correlated activity across different brain regions with a right lateralization. These findings may advance our understanding of the functional activities during in-situ environmental exposures and imply that a nature or nature-like environment may potentially benefit cognitive processes and mental well-being.

  12. Enhancing cultural competence: trans-atlantic experiences of European and Canadian nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Liisa; Campbell, Barbara; Aarts, Clara; Chassé, France; Hemingway, Ann; Juhansoo, Tiina; Mitchell, Maureen P; Marquis, France L; Critchley, Kim A; Nordstrom, Pamela M

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes the enhancement of cultural competence through trans-Atlantic rural community experiences of European and Canadian nursing students using critical incident technique (CIT) as the students' reflective writing method. The data generated from 48 students' recordings about 134 critical incidents over a 2-year project were analysed by qualitative content analysis. Five main learning categories were identified as: cross-cultural ethical issues; cultural and social differences; health-care inequalities; population health concerns; and personal and professional awareness. Four emergent cultural perspectives for the health sector that became apparent from the reflections were: health promotion realm; sensitivity to social and cultural aspects of people's lives; channels between the health sector and society; cultural language and stories of local people. CIT was successfully used to foster European and Canadian undergraduate students' cultural reflections resulting in considerations and suggestions for future endeavours to enhance cultural competence in nursing education.

  13. Using Sound-Taste Correspondences to Enhance the Subjective Value of Tasting Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe eReinoso Carvalho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The soundscapes of those places where we eat and drink can influence our perception of taste. Here, we investigated whether contextual sound would enhance the subjective value of a tasting experience. The customers in a chocolate shop were invited to take part in an experiment in which they had to evaluate a chocolate’s taste while listening to an auditory stimulus. Four different conditions were presented to four different groups in a between-participants design. Envisioning a more ecological approach, a pre-recorded piece of popular music and the shop’s own soundscape were used as the sonic stimuli. The results revealed that not only did the customers report having a significantly better tasting experience when the sounds were presented as part of the food’s identity, but they were also willing to pay significantly more for the experience. The method outlined here paves a new approach to dealing with the design of multisensory tasting experiences, and gastronomic situations.

  14. Transforming Experience: The Potential of Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality for Enhancing Personal and Clinical Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Riva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During our life we undergo many personal changes: we change our house, our school, our work and even our friends and partners. However, our daily experience shows clearly that in some situations subjects are unable to change even if they want to. The recent advances in psychology and neuroscience are now providing a better view of personal change, the change affecting our assumptive world: a the focus of personal change is reducing the distance between self and reality (conflict; b this reduction is achieved through (1 an intense focus on the particular experience creating the conflict or (2 an internal or external reorganization of this experience; c personal change requires a progression through a series of different stages; d clinical psychology is often used to facilitate personal change when subjects are unable to move forward. Starting from these premises, the aim of this paper is to review the potential of virtuality for enhancing the processes of personal and clinical change. First, the paper will focus on the two leading virtual technologies – Augmented Reality (AR and Virtual Reality (VR – exploring their current uses in behavioral health and the outcomes of the 28 available systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Then the paper discusses the added value provided by VR and AR in transforming our external experience, by focusing on the high level of self-reflectiveness and personal efficacy induced by their emotional engagement and sense of presence. Finally, it outlines the potential future use of virtuality for transforming our inner experience by structuring, altering and/or replacing our bodily self-consciousness. The final outcome may be a new generation of transformative experiences that provide knowledge that is epistemically inaccessible to the individual until he or she has that experience, while at the same time transforming the individual’s worldview.

  15. Transforming Experience: The Potential of Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality for Enhancing Personal and Clinical Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe; Baños, Rosa M.; Botella, Cristina; Mantovani, Fabrizia; Gaggioli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    During life, many personal changes occur. These include changing house, school, work, and even friends and partners. However, the daily experience shows clearly that, in some situations, subjects are unable to change even if they want to. The recent advances in psychology and neuroscience are now providing a better view of personal change, the change affecting our assumptive world: (a) the focus of personal change is reducing the distance between self and reality (conflict); (b) this reduction is achieved through (1) an intense focus on the particular experience creating the conflict or (2) an internal or external reorganization of this experience; (c) personal change requires a progression through a series of different stages that however happen in discontinuous and non-linear ways; and (d) clinical psychology is often used to facilitate personal change when subjects are unable to move forward. Starting from these premises, the aim of this paper is to review the potential of virtuality for enhancing the processes of personal and clinical change. First, the paper focuses on the two leading virtual technologies – augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) – exploring their current uses in behavioral health and the outcomes of the 28 available systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Then the paper discusses the added value provided by VR and AR in transforming our external experience by focusing on the high level of personal efficacy and self-reflectiveness generated by their sense of presence and emotional engagement. Finally, it outlines the potential future use of virtuality for transforming our inner experience by structuring, altering, and/or replacing our bodily self-consciousness. The final outcome may be a new generation of transformative experiences that provide knowledge that is epistemically inaccessible to the individual until he or she has that experience, while at the same time transforming the individual’s worldview. PMID:27746747

  16. Transforming Experience: The Potential of Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality for Enhancing Personal and Clinical Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe; Baños, Rosa M; Botella, Cristina; Mantovani, Fabrizia; Gaggioli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    During life, many personal changes occur. These include changing house, school, work, and even friends and partners. However, the daily experience shows clearly that, in some situations, subjects are unable to change even if they want to. The recent advances in psychology and neuroscience are now providing a better view of personal change, the change affecting our assumptive world: (a) the focus of personal change is reducing the distance between self and reality (conflict); (b) this reduction is achieved through (1) an intense focus on the particular experience creating the conflict or (2) an internal or external reorganization of this experience; (c) personal change requires a progression through a series of different stages that however happen in discontinuous and non-linear ways; and (d) clinical psychology is often used to facilitate personal change when subjects are unable to move forward. Starting from these premises, the aim of this paper is to review the potential of virtuality for enhancing the processes of personal and clinical change. First, the paper focuses on the two leading virtual technologies - augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) - exploring their current uses in behavioral health and the outcomes of the 28 available systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Then the paper discusses the added value provided by VR and AR in transforming our external experience by focusing on the high level of personal efficacy and self-reflectiveness generated by their sense of presence and emotional engagement. Finally, it outlines the potential future use of virtuality for transforming our inner experience by structuring, altering, and/or replacing our bodily self-consciousness. The final outcome may be a new generation of transformative experiences that provide knowledge that is epistemically inaccessible to the individual until he or she has that experience, while at the same time transforming the individual's worldview.

  17. Shortwave radiative heating rate profiles in hazy and clear atmosphere: a sensitivity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doppler, Lionel; Fischer, Jürgen; Ravetta, François; Pelon, Jacques; Preusker, René

    2010-05-01

    Aerosols have an impact on shortwave heating rate profiles (additional heating or cooling). In this survey, we quantify the impact of several key-parameters on the heating rate profiles of the atmosphere with and without aerosols. These key-parameters are: (1) the atmospheric model (tropical, midlatitude summer or winter, US Standard), (2) the integrated water vapor amount (IWV ), (3) the ground surface (flat and rough ocean, isotropic surface albedo for land), (4) the aerosol composition (dusts, soots or maritimes mixtures with respect to the OPAC-database classification), (5) the aerosol optical depth and (6) vertical postion, and (7) the single-scattering albedo (?o) of the aerosol mixture. This study enables us to evaluate which parameters are most important to take into account in a radiative energy budget of the atmosphere and will be useful for a future study: the retrieval of heating rates profiles from satellite data (CALIPSO, MODIS, MERIS) over the Mediterranean Sea. All the heating rates are computed by using the vector irradiances computed at each pressure level in the spectral interval 0.2 - 3.6μm (shortwave) by the 1D radiative transfer model for atmosphere and ocean: MOMO (Matrix-Operator MOdel) of the Institute for Space Science, FU Berlin 1

  18. Variety identification of brown sugar using short-wave near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiqing; Wu, Di; He, Yong

    2007-11-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with the characteristics of high speed, non-destructiveness, high precision and reliable detection data, etc. is a pollution-free, rapid, quantitative and qualitative analysis method. A new approach for variety discrimination of brown sugars using short-wave NIR spectroscopy (800-1050nm) was developed in this work. The relationship between the absorbance spectra and brown sugar varieties was established. The spectral data were compressed by the principal component analysis (PCA). The resulting features can be visualized in principal component (PC) space, which can lead to discovery of structures correlative with the different class of spectral samples. It appears to provide a reasonable variety clustering of brown sugars. The 2-D PCs plot obtained using the first two PCs can be used for the pattern recognition. Least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) was applied to solve the multivariate calibration problems in a relatively fast way. The work has shown that short-wave NIR spectroscopy technique is available for the brand identification of brown sugar, and LS-SVM has the better identification ability than PLS when the calibration set is small.

  19. Analog Physical Experiments to Investigate Mechanisms Controlling Enhanced Ice Flow by Basal Sliding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Records, M. K.; Rajaram, H.; Anderson, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    Numerous observations document enhanced ice flow of terrestrial glaciers during brief periods of increased delivery of water to the bed. The displacements that occur during these periods make up a significant portion of the total displacements of these glaciers. Contemporary understanding of the effect of basal water fails to consistently predict the duration and magnitude of these speedup events. To improve understanding of the fundamental mechanisms causing increased ice velocities due to basal sliding, we carried out laboratory experiments using PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) as an analog for glacier ice. PDMS has a large viscosity contrast with water, a similar density to ice, and is clear and transparent. PDMS flow experiments were conducted in a tilted rectangular flow channel. Basal water was injected between the PDMS and the bed through a distributed water supply system complete with pressure measurement. Water discharge rates were measured gravimetrically. A thin lubricant film was used to prevent the PDMS from sticking to the bed. The lubricant film is analogous to water films in temperate bed regions under a glacier. A rough checkerboard bed topography constrains the flow of water at the bed and provides basal resistance against the PDMS sliding over it. High resolution cameras were used to track beads placed on the bed, surface and within the PDMS layer and calculate displacement and velocity fields. The cameras also quantified the geometry of the basal water system. Various configurations of basal water systems were tested, including linked cavity and conduit systems. The influence of spatial variations in bed lubrication was also tested. Transient and steady-state experiments were conducted with pressure variations. The pressure conditions needed for sustaining basal water systems and sliding were also investigated. Extensive basal lubrication was necessary to produce a sustainable linked-cavity system with widespread sliding. Even with a constant water

  20. The Effects of Topography on Shortwave solar radiation modelling: The JGrass-NewAge System way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Wuletawu; Formetta, Giuseppe; Rigon, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    The NewAGE-SwRB and NewAGE-DEC-MOD's are the two components of JGrass-NewAge hydrological modeling system to estimate the shortwave incident radiation. Shortwave solar radiation at the land surface is influenced by topographic parameters such as slope, aspect, altitude, and skyview factor, hence, detail analyses and discussions on their effect is the way to improve the modeling approach. The NewAGE-SwRB accounts for slope, aspect, shadow and the topographical information of the sites to estimate the cloudless irradiance. The first part of the paper is on the topographic parameter analysis using Udig GIS spatial toolbox, which is integrated in JGrass-NewAge system, and indicates the effect of each topographic parameters on the shortwave radiation. A statistical study on station topographic geometry (slope, aspect, altitude and Sky-view factor) and correlation of pairs of measurements of station analyzed to get closer look at the impact of rugged topography. The jackknife correlation coefficients has been used to analyze the estimate bias between shortwave radiations in different topographic geometric position, thereby helping to develop generalized linear models to explain the impacts of those topographic features. In addition to the NewAGE-SwRB accounts for the topographical parameters, there are three (an estimation of the visibility extent(V), the single-scattering albedo fraction of incident energy scattered to total attenuation by aerosols (Wo), and fraction of forward scattering to total scattering (Fs )) parameter needed to run the NewAGE-DEC-MOD's component. Sufficient knowledge regarding the magnitude and spatial distribution of the these parameters are very crucial. In this paper, the particle swarm NewAge component of the NewAge System used for automatic calibration of NewAGE-DEC-MOD's parameters for each stations based on different optimization and objective functions. Finally, the estimated parameters for all measurements station are interpolated in

  1. Musicians have enhanced audiovisual multisensory binding: experience-dependent effects in the double-flash illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M

    2016-10-01

    Musical training is associated with behavioral and neurophysiological enhancements in auditory processing for both musical and nonmusical sounds (e.g., speech). Yet, whether the benefits of musicianship extend beyond enhancements to auditory-specific skills and impact multisensory (e.g., audiovisual) processing has yet to be fully validated. Here, we investigated multisensory integration of auditory and visual information in musicians and nonmusicians using a double-flash illusion, whereby the presentation of multiple auditory stimuli (beeps) concurrent with a single visual object (flash) induces an illusory perception of multiple flashes. We parametrically varied the onset asynchrony between auditory and visual events (leads and lags of ±300 ms) to quantify participants' "temporal window" of integration, i.e., stimuli in which auditory and visual cues were fused into a single percept. Results show that musically trained individuals were both faster and more accurate at processing concurrent audiovisual cues than their nonmusician peers; nonmusicians had a higher susceptibility for responding to audiovisual illusions and perceived double flashes over an extended range of onset asynchronies compared to trained musicians. Moreover, temporal window estimates indicated that musicians' windows (multisensory integration and audiovisual binding. Collectively, findings indicate a more refined binding of auditory and visual cues in musically trained individuals. We conclude that experience-dependent plasticity of intensive musical experience extends beyond simple listening skills, improving multimodal processing and the integration of multiple sensory systems in a domain-general manner.

  2. Gradient-Enhanced Triple-Resonance Three-Dimensional NMR Experiments with Improved Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhandiram, D. R.; Kay, L. E.

    1994-03-01

    The sensitivities of a number of gradient and nongradient versions of triple-resonance experiments are compared by quantitating the signal-to-noise ratios in spectra recorded on Cellulomonas fimi cellulose binding domain (110 amino acids), Xenopus laevis calmodulin (148 amino acids), Mycococcus xanthus protein S (173 amino acids), and a 93-amino acid fragment of protein S. It is shown that it is possible to construct sensitivity-enhanced gradient experiments, with 15N selection achieved via pulsed field gradients, that are as sensitive as their sensitivity-enhanced nongradient counterparts and significantly more sensitive than other gradient approaches. These sequences are very closely related to the family of improved-sensitivity sequences proposed by Rance and co-workers (A. G. Palmer, J. Cavanagh, P. E. Wright, and M. Rance, J. Magn. Reson.93, 151, 1991). The use of gradients greatly improves the quality of water suppression and reduces both the number of artifacts and the phase-cycling requirements at no cost in sensitivity for the proteins considered in this study.

  3. Experiment of Enzyme Kinetics Using Guided Inquiry Model for Enhancing Generic Science Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amida, N.; Supriyanti, F. M. T.; Liliasari

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to enhance generic science skills of students using guided inquiry model through experiments of enzyme kinetics. This study used quasi-experimental methods, with pretest-posttestnonequivalent control group design. Subjects of this study were chemistry students enrolled in biochemistry lab course, consisted of 18 students in experimental class and 19 students in control class. Instrument in this study were essay test that involves 5 indicators of generic science skills (i.e. direct observation, causality, symbolic language, mathematical modeling, and concepts formation) and also student worksheets. The results showed that the experiments of kinetics enzyme using guided inquiry model have been enhance generic science skills in high category with a value of average of 0.77. Four indicators classified in the high category are direct observation, causality, symbolic language, and mathematical modeling with the value of 0,73 0,70; 0,96; dan 0,85. Meanwhile, indicator of concepts formation in the medium category with a value of 0.62

  4. Do performance and image enhancing drug users in regional Queensland experience difficulty accessing health services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Matthew; Henshaw, Richard; McKay, Fiona H

    2016-07-01

    To understand health service access and needs of people who use performance and image enhancing drugs (PIED) in regional Queensland. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 people (n = 19 men) who reported the use of a range of PIEDs, including anabolic-androgenic steroids, human chorionic gonadotropin, growth hormone, clenbuterol, tamoxifen, insulin and peptides. Participants reported accessing a range of services, including needle and syringe programs and pharmacies, for sterile injecting equipment. While PIEDs users attributed some stigma to needle and syringe programs, they were seen as an important service for injecting equipment. Participants reported receiving either positive care from health-care providers, such as general practitioners (GP), or having negative experiences due to the stigma attached with PIED use. Few participants reported disclosing their PIED use to their GP not only because of the concerns that their GP would no longer see them but also because they felt their GP was not knowledgeable about these substances. Participants in the study reported no difficulty in accessing health services based on living in a regional area, with their concern focused more upon how they were viewed and treated by service staff. [Dunn M, Henshaw R, Mckay F. H. Do performance and image enhancing drug users in regional Queensland experience difficulty accessing health services? Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:377-382]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  5. Enhancing active learning in microbiology through case based learning: experiences from an Indian medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciraj, A M; Vinod, P; Ramnarayan, K

    2010-01-01

    Case-based learning (CBL) is an interactive student-centered exploration of real life situations. This paper describes the use of CBL as an educational strategy for promoting active learning in microbiology. CBL was introduced in the microbiology curriculum for the second year medical students after an orientation program for faculty and students. After intervention, the average student scores in CBL topics were compared with scores obtained in lecture topics. An attempt was also made to find the effect of CBL on the academic performance. Student and faculty perception on CBL were also recorded. In a cross sectional survey conducted to assess the effectiveness of CBL, students responded that, apart from helping them acquire substantive knowledge in microbiology, CBL sessions enhanced their analytic, collaborative, and communication skills. The block examination scores in CBL topics were significantly higher than those obtained for lecture topics. Faculty rated the process to be highly effective in stimulating student interest and long term retention of microbiology knowledge. The student scores were significantly higher in the group that used CBL, compared to the group that had not used CBL as a learning strategy. Our experience indicated that CBL sessions enhanced active learning in microbiology. More frequent use of CBL sessions would not only help the student gain requisite knowledge in microbiology but also enhance their analytic and communication skills.

  6. Faraday rotation enhancement of gold coated Fe2O3 nanoparticles: Comparison of experiment and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Raj Kumar; Wang, Hongwang; Bossmann, Stefan H.; Wysin, Gary; Chikan, Viktor

    2011-12-01

    Understanding plasmonic enhancement of nanoscale magnetic materials is important to evaluate their potential for application. In this study, the Faraday rotation (FR) enhancement of gold coated Fe2O3 nanoparticles (NP) is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The experiment shows that the Faraday rotation of a Fe2O3 NP solution changes from approximately 3 rad/Tm to 10 rad/Tm as 5 nm gold shell is coated on a 9.7 nm Fe2O3 core at 632 nm. The results also show how the volume fraction normalized Faraday rotation varies with the gold shell thickness. From the comparison of experiment and calculated Faraday rotation based on the Maxwell-Garnett theory, it is concluded that the enhancement and shell dependence of Faraday rotation of Fe2O3 NPs is a result of the shifting plasmon resonance of the composite NP. In addition, the clustering of the NPs induces a different phase lag on the Faraday signal, which suggests that the collective response of the magnetic NP aggregates needs to be considered even in solution. From the Faraday phase lag, the estimated time of the full alignment of the magnetic spins of bare (cluster size 160 nm) and gold coated NPs (cluster size 90 nm) are found to be 0.65 and 0.17 μs. The calculation includes a simple theoretical approach based on the Bruggeman theory to account for the aggregation and its effect on the Faraday rotation. The Bruggeman model provides a qualitatively better agreement with the experimentally observed Faraday rotation and points out the importance of making a connection between component properties and the average "effective" optical behavior of the Faraday medium containing magnetic nanoparticles.

  7. Faraday rotation enhancement of gold coated Fe2O3 nanoparticles: comparison of experiment and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Raj Kumar; Wang, Hongwang; Bossmann, Stefan H; Wysin, Gary; Chikan, Viktor

    2011-12-14

    Understanding plasmonic enhancement of nanoscale magnetic materials is important to evaluate their potential for application. In this study, the Faraday rotation (FR) enhancement of gold coated Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles (NP) is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The experiment shows that the Faraday rotation of a Fe(2)O(3) NP solution changes from approximately 3 rad/Tm to 10 rad/Tm as 5 nm gold shell is coated on a 9.7 nm Fe(2)O(3) core at 632 nm. The results also show how the volume fraction normalized Faraday rotation varies with the gold shell thickness. From the comparison of experiment and calculated Faraday rotation based on the Maxwell-Garnett theory, it is concluded that the enhancement and shell dependence of Faraday rotation of Fe(2)O(3) NPs is a result of the shifting plasmon resonance of the composite NP. In addition, the clustering of the NPs induces a different phase lag on the Faraday signal, which suggests that the collective response of the magnetic NP aggregates needs to be considered even in solution. From the Faraday phase lag, the estimated time of the full alignment of the magnetic spins of bare (cluster size 160 nm) and gold coated NPs (cluster size 90 nm) are found to be 0.65 and 0.17 μs. The calculation includes a simple theoretical approach based on the Bruggeman theory to account for the aggregation and its effect on the Faraday rotation. The Bruggeman model provides a qualitatively better agreement with the experimentally observed Faraday rotation and points out the importance of making a connection between component properties and the average "effective" optical behavior of the Faraday medium containing magnetic nanoparticles. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  8. Martian Soil Plant Growth Experiment: The Effects of Adding Nitrogen, Bacteria, and Fungi to Enhance Plant Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliman, D. M.; Cooper, J. B.; Anderson, R. C.

    2000-01-01

    Plant growth is enhanced by the presence of symbiotic soil microbes. In order to better understand how plants might prosper on Mars, we set up an experiment to test whether symbiotic microbes function to enhance plant growth in a Martian soil simulant.

  9. Parents' preferences for enhanced access in the pediatric medical home: a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickafoose, Joseph S; DeCamp, Lisa R; Prosser, Lisa A

    2015-04-01

    Efforts to transform primary care through the medical home model may have limited effectiveness if they do not incorporate families' preferences for different primary care services. To assess parents' relative preferences for different categories of enhanced access services in primary care. Internet-based survey that took place with a national online panel from December 8, 2011, to December 22, 2011. Participants included 820 parents of children aged 0 to 17 years. Hispanic and black non-Hispanic parents were each oversampled to 20% of the sample. The survey included a discrete choice experiment with questions that asked parents to choose between hypothetical primary care practices with different levels of enhanced access and other primary care services. We estimated parents' relative preferences for different enhanced access services using travel time to the practice as a trade-off and parents' marginal willingness to travel in minutes for practices with different levels of services. The response rate of parents who participated in the study was 41.2%. Parents were most likely to choose primary care offices that guaranteed same-day sick visits (coefficient, 0.57 [SE, 0.05]; P preferences among parents with different sociodemographic characteristics. Parents' marginal willingness to travel was 14 minutes (95% CI, 11-16 minutes) for guaranteed same-day sick visits and 44 minutes (95% CI, 37-51 minutes) for an office with idealized levels of all services. As primary care practices for children implement aspects of the medical home model, those that emphasize same-day sick care and professional continuity are more likely to meet parents' preferences for enhanced access. Practices should seek to engage families in prioritizing changes in practice services as part of medical home implementation.

  10. Website as Co-Created Decision Support System Towards Enhanced Experience of Solo City Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utomo Sarjono Putro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The linkage among information-intensive era, technology, and tourism industry build inseparable genetic relationship which is supposed to be realized in practice. Let alone in this digital era, the urgency to exploit information to the next level resulted in the need to bring a higher game on the technology in order to manage information effectively and efficiently. Tourism industry is categorized as complex system regarding the components substituted it. The diverse elements which interact with dynamics pace give birth to complex tasks to manage by the responsible parties and consequently enhance experience in tourism industry. Competing with complex situation, computerized decision system is urgently needed to collect and also distribute accurate knowledge of tourism industry, collaborate with both supporting public and private sectors, and gain rationality for all stakeholders in the system. Solo city, known also as Surakarta and located in Central Java (Indonesia, is obliged to do its tourism industry justice as it is an important vehicle for regional development of the city. Tourism industry of Solo city represents the major and significant contributor to the local economy to the point where tourism is the brand of Solo city. Taking the prior research finding, value orchestration platform to promote tourism in batik Solo industrial cluster into the reference, this study improves the model by highlighting the duality function the tourism website supposed to have using hashtag (# minings principle as the latest user interface technology. This study proposes a collaborative website platform as a co-created decision support system to enhance tourism experience for tourist as consumer and optimize management process for Department of Culture and Tourism of Solo city as provider. Keywords: Decision support system, hashtag mining, service-dominant logic, solo city, tourism experience

  11. Evaluating the Use of Twitter to Enhance the Educational Experience of a Medical School Surgery Clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reames, Bradley N; Sheetz, Kyle H; Englesbe, Michael J; Waits, Seth A

    2016-01-01

    Although it has been suggested that social-networking services such as Twitter could be used as a tool for medical education, few studies have evaluated its use in this setting. We sought to evaluate the use of Twitter as a novel educational tool in a medical school surgery clerkship. We hypothesized that Twitter can enhance the educational experience of clerkship students. We performed a prospective observational study. We created a new Twitter account, and delivered approximately 3 tweets per day consisting of succinct, objective surgical facts. Students were administered pre- and postclerkship surveys, and aggregate test scores were obtained for participating students and historical controls. Required third-year medical school surgery clerkship at the University of Michigan large tertiary-care academic hospital. Third-year medical students. The survey response rate was 94%. Preclerkship surveys revealed that most (87%) students have smartphones, and are familiar with Twitter (80% have used before). Following completion of the clerkship, most students (73%) reported using the Twitter tool, and 20% used it frequently. Overall, 59% believed it positively influenced their educational experience and very few believed it had a negative influence (2%). However, many (53%) did not believe it influenced their clerkship engagement. Aggregate mean National Board of Medical Examiners Shelf Examination scores were not significantly different in an analysis of medical student classes completing the clerkship before or after the Twitter tool (p = 0.37). Most of today's learners are familiar with social media, and own the technology necessary to implement novel educational tools in this platform. Applications such as Twitter can be facile educational tools to supplement and enhance the experience of students on a medical school clerkship. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship between downwelling surface shortwave radiative fluxes and sea surface temperature over the tropical Pacific: AMIP II models versus satellite estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rodriguez-Puebla

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Incident shortwave radiation at the Earth's surface is the driving force of the climate system. Understanding the relationship between this forcing and the sea surface temperature, in particular, over the tropical Pacific Ocean is a topic of great interest because of possible climatic implications. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between downwelling shortwave radiative fluxes and sea surface temperature by using available data on radiative fluxes. We assess first the shortwave radiation from three General Circulation Models that participated in the second phase of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP II against estimates of such fluxes from satellites. The shortwave radiation estimated from the satellite is based on observations from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project D1 data and the University of Maryland Shortwave Radiation Budget model (UMD/SRB. Model and satellite estimates of surface radiative fluxes are found to be in best agreement in the central equatorial Pacific, according to mean climatology and spatial correlations. We apply a Canonical Correlation Analysis to determine the interrelated areas where shortwave fluxes and sea surface temperature are most sensitive to climate forcing. Model simulations and satellite estimates of shortwave fluxes both capture well the interannual signal of El Niño-like variability. The tendency for an increase in shortwave radiation from the UMD/SRB model is not captured by the AMIP II models.

  13. The experience of dentists who gained enhanced skills in endodontics within a novel pilot training programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyas, S; Briggs, P; Gallagher, J E

    2017-02-24

    Objective To explore the experiences of primary care dentists following training to enhance endodontic skills and their views on the implications for the NHS.Design Qualitative study using anonymised free text questionnaires.Setting Primary care general dental services within the National Health Service (NHS) in London, United Kingdom.Subjects and methods Eight primary care dentists who completed this training were asked about factors affecting participant experience of the course, perceived impact on themselves, their organisation, their patients and barriers/facilitators to providing endodontic treatment in NHS primary care. Data were transferred verbatim to a spreadsheet and thematically analysed.Intervention 24-month part-time educational and service initiative to provide endodontics within the NHS, using a combination of training in simulation lab and treatment of patients in primary care.Results Positive impacts were identified at individual (gains in knowledge, skills, confidence, personal development), patient (more teeth saved, quality of care improved) and system levels (access, value for money). Suggested developments for future courses included more case discussions, teaching of practical skills earlier in the course and refinement of the triaging processes. Barriers to using the acquired skills in providing endodontic treatment in primary care within the NHS were perceived to be resources (remuneration, time, skills) and accountability. Facilitators included appropriately remunerated contracts, necessary equipment and time.Conclusion This novel pilot training programme in endodontics combining general practice experience with education/training, hands-on experience and a portfolio was perceived by participants as beneficial for extending skills and service innovation in primary dental care. The findings provide insight into primary dental care practitioners' experience with education/training and have implications for future educational initiatives in

  14. Heat distribution in the lower leg from pulsed short-wave diathermy and ultrasound treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, C L; Draper, D O; Knight, K L

    2000-01-01

    To compare tissue temperature rise and decay after 20-minute diathermy and ultrasound treatments. We inserted 3 26-gauge thermistor microprobes into the medial aspect of the anesthetized triceps surae muscle at a depth of 3 cm and spaced 5 cm apart. Eight subjects received the diathermy treatment first, followed by the ultrasound treatment. This sequence was reversed for the remaining 8 subjects. The diathermy was applied at a frequency of 27.12 MHz at the following settings: 800 bursts per second, 400-microsecond burst duration, 850-microsecond interburst interval, peak root mean square amplitude of 150 W per burst, and an average root mean square output of 48 W per burst. The ultrasound was delivered at a frequency of 1 MHz and an intensity of 1.5 W/cm(2) in the continuous mode for 20 minutes over an area of 40 times the effective radiating area. The study was performed in a ventilated research laboratory. Sixteen (11 men, 5 women) healthy subjects (mean age = 23.56 +/- 4.73 years) volunteered to participate in this study. We recorded baseline, final, and decay temperatures for each of the 3 sites. The average temperature increases over baseline temperature after pulsed short-wave diathermy were 3.02 degrees C +/- 1.02 degrees C in site 1, 4.58 degrees C +/- 0.87 degrees C in site 2, and 3.28 degrees C +/- 1.64 degrees C in site 3. The average temperature increases over baseline temperature after ultrasound were only 0.17 degrees C +/- 0.40 degrees C, 0.09 degrees C +/- 0.56 degrees C, and -0.43 degrees C +/- 0.41 degrees C in sites 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The temperature dropped only 1 degrees C in 7.65 +/- 4.96 minutes after pulsed short-wave diathermy. We conclude that pulsed short-wave diathermy was more effective than 1-MHz ultrasound in heating a large muscle mass and resulted in the muscles' retaining heat longer.

  15. Shortwave diathermy and prolonged stretching increase hamstring flexibility more than prolonged stretching alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, David O; Castro, Jennifer L; Feland, Brent; Schulthies, Shane; Eggett, Dennis

    2004-01-01

    A randomized, counterbalanced 2x3x5 repeated-measures design. To compare changes in hamstring flexibility after treatments of pulsed shortwave diathermy and prolonged stretch, sham diathermy and prolonged stretch, and control. Heat and stretch techniques have been touted for years. To date, the effect of shortwave diathermy and hamstring stretching has not been studied. Because diathermy heats a large area and penetrates deep into the muscle, use of this device prior to or during hamstring stretching may increase flexibility. Thirty college-age students (mean age, 21.5 years) with tight hamstrings (inability to achieve greater than 160 degrees knee extension at 90 degrees hip flexion) participated. Subjects were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: diathermy and stretch, sham diathermy and stretch, and control). Range of motion was recorded before and after each treatment for 5 days and on day 8. A straight leg-raise stretch was performed using a mechanical apparatus. Subjects in the diathermy-and-stretch group received 10 minutes of diathermy (distal hamstrings) followed by 5 minutes of simultaneous diathermy and stretch, followed by 5 minutes of stretching only. Subjects in the sham-diathermy-and-stretch group followed the same protocol, but with the diathermy unit turned off. Subjects in the control group lay on the table for 20 minutes. Data were analyzed using an ANOVA and post hoc t tests. Mean (+/- pooled SE) increases in knee extension after 5 days were 15.8 degrees 2.2 degrees for the diathermy-and-stretch group, 5.2 degrees +/- 2.2 degrees for the sham-diathermy-and-stretch group, and -0.3 degrees +/- 2.2 degrees for the control group. Seventy-two hours after the last treatment, the diathermy-and-stretch group lost 1.9 degrees +/- 2.2 degrees, the sham-diathermy-and-stretch group lost 3.0 degrees +/- 2.2 degrees, and the control group changed -0.4 degrees +/- 2.2 degrees. These results suggest that hamstring flexibility can be greatly improved when shortwave

  16. Improved Correction of IR Loss in Diffuse Shortwave Measurements: An ARM Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younkin, K; Long, CN

    2003-11-01

    Simple single black detector pyranometers, such as the Eppley Precision Spectral Pyranometer (PSP) used by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, are known to lose energy via infrared (IR) emission to the sky. This is especially a problem when making clear-sky diffuse shortwave (SW) measurements, which are inherently of low magnitude and suffer the greatest IR loss. Dutton et al. (2001) proposed a technique using information from collocated pyrgeometers to help compensate for this IR loss. The technique uses an empirically derived relationship between the pyrgeometer detector data (and alternatively the detector data plus the difference between the pyrgeometer case and dome temperatures) and the nighttime pyranometer IR loss data. This relationship is then used to apply a correction to the diffuse SW data during daylight hours. We developed an ARM value-added product (VAP) called the SW DIFF CORR 1DUTT VAP to apply the Dutton et al. correction technique to ARM PSP diffuse SW measurements.

  17. Apparent Multi-Decadal Trend in Shortwave Cloud Forcing Over the Tropical Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somerville, R C J; Potter, G L; Kanamitsu, M; Hnilo, J J; Woolen, J

    2000-10-03

    The NCEP/NCAR reanalysis (Kalnay et al. 1996) of atmospheric data beginning in 1948 has provided an opportunity to study a consistent half-century record of assimilated weather observations. Through the examination of several fields, we find an apparent long-term decrease in relative humidity, and hence a decrease in inferred cloud amount, in a large region in the central tropical Pacific. As a result, the apparent short-wave cloud radiative forcing in that region decreased by nearly 15 Wm{sup -2} Over the duration of the period. Two major questions arise from these preliminary results. The first question involves the extent to which the apparent trend over the 50-year period is a real phenomenon rather than an artifact, either of the reanalysis methodology or of observing system evolution. The second question is, if the phenomenon is not entirely an artifact, but is at least partially real, what is its cause?

  18. Video rate nine-band multispectral short-wave infrared sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutteruf, Mary R; Yetzbacher, Michael K; DePrenger, Michael J; Novak, Kyle M; Miller, Corey A; Downes, Trijntje Valerie; Kanaev, Andrey V

    2014-05-01

    Short-wave infrared (SWIR) imaging sensors are increasingly being used in surveillance and reconnaissance systems due to the reduced scatter in haze and the spectral response of materials over this wavelength range. Typically SWIR images have been provided either as full motion video from framing panchromatic systems or as spectral data cubes from line-scanning hyperspectral or multispectral systems. Here, we describe and characterize a system that bridges this divide, providing nine-band spectral images at 30 Hz. The system integrates a custom array of filters onto a commercial SWIR InGaAs array. We measure the filter placement and spectral response. We demonstrate a simple simulation technique to facilitate optimization of band selection for future sensors.

  19. Pulsating shortwave diathermy: value in treatment of recent ankle and foot sprains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasila, M; Visuri, T; Sundholm, A

    1978-08-01

    The effects of 2 pulsating shortwave diathermy treatments (Diapulse and Curapuls) were compared with placebo treatment in recent ligamentous injuries of ankle and foot in 300 outpatients. The areas of comparison were reduction in swelling, recovery of strength and range of motion of the injured ankle, improvement of walking ability, and duration of disability. There were only slight differences between Diapulse and Curapuls treatment groups. No statistically significant differences could be observed in the recovery of strength and range of motion or in the duration of disability among the 3 groups, although walking ability in the Diapulse group recovered better than in the placebos (p less than 0.01) and reduction of swelling was significantly better for Curapuls (p less than 0.001 than for placebos.

  20. Management of chronic pelvic inflammatory disease with shortwave diathermy. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, J A; Okonofua, F E

    1988-10-01

    Patients with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) are not routinely referred for physical therapy until the condition is found to be resistant to antibiotic therapy. A 39-year-old black woman with an eight-year history of PID was treated with shortwave diathermy (SWD) using a modified "cross-fire" technique. A thermal dosage treatment lasting between 20 and 30 minutes (for each half of the cross-fire technique treatment) was administered. At the beginning of every treatment session, the patient rated her pain perception on a 10-point ratio scale. The patient received a total of nine treatments, after which she was completely pain free. The results of this case study suggest that SWD may be effective in the management of pelvic infections that are unresponsive to chemotherapy. Further studies using larger sample sizes and a control group, however, are needed before conclusive statements can be made on the relative efficacy of SWD in the management of chronic PID.

  1. [Research on shortwave NIR spectroscopy and its application to in situ flammable liquid detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Du, Zhen-hui; Liu, Jin; Xu, Ke-zin

    2008-09-01

    Fast, accurate and highly effective detection in situ was important to the control of illegal transportation and the use of liquid state dangerous goods. The present article used the strong penetrability of the shortwave near-infrared ray to the packing material and liquid and measured the absorption spectra of some flammable liquids such as the absolute ethyl alcohol, absolute methanol, ammonia, turpentine, gasoline, diesel oil, petroleum etc and the partial liquors in the short wavelength region of NIR (667-1000 nm). The primitive spectral data were standardized and compressed, and then, the characteristic wavelength of the absorption spectra was analyzed using the SPSS statistics software. A math model for flammable liquid distinction was established based on the designated characteristic wavelength and can correctly detect flammable liquid using the absorbency of 3 wavelengths (881, 935 and 981 nm). According to the above the authors may construct the inexpensive spectrum instrument to check the flammable liquid non-destructively in situ.

  2. Orography-Induced Gravity Wave Drag Parameterization in the Global WRF: Implementation and Sensitivity to Shortwave Radiation Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE...simulated clima - tology to shortwave radiation schemes is also investigated in order to re-evaluate present physics options in the WRF model in global

  3. The multispectral reflectance of shortwave radiation by agricultural crops in relation with their morphological and optical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunnik, N.J.J.

    1978-01-01

    Relations between morphological properties of uniform canopies. optical properties of the leaves and reflection of shortwave radiation, in the visible light region and the near infrared, by crops are the subject of this thesis.

    The aim of the study was a further investigation of

  4. Direct shortwave forcing of climate by anthropogenic sulfate aerosol: Sensitivity to particle size, composition, and relative humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemesure, S.; Wagener, R.; Schwartz, S.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, New York (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Recent estimates of global or hemispheric average forcing of climate by anthropogenic sulfate aerosol due to scattering of shortwave radiation are uncertain by more than a factor of 2. This paper examines the sensitivity of forcing to these microphysical properties for the purposes of obtaining a better understanding of the properties required to reduce the uncertainty in the forcing.

  5. MOOCs as disruptive technologies: strategies for enhancing the learner experience and quality of MOOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gráinne Conole

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This chapter considers the pedagogies associated with different types of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs. It argues that the current discourse around the concept of xMOOCs (primarily based around interaction with content and essentially adopting a behaviourist learning approach, and cMOOCs (which focus on harnessing the power of social media and interaction with peers, adopting a connectivist learning approach, is an inadequate way of describing the variety of MOOCs and the ways in which learners engage with them. It will provide a brief history of the emergence of MOOCs and the key stakeholders. It will introduce an alternative means of categorising MOOCs, based on their key characteristics. It will then describe the 7Cs of Learning Design framework, which can be used to design more pedagogically informed MOOCs, which enhances the learner experience and ensure quality assurance.

  6. Surface enhanced SHG from macrocycle, catenane and rotaxane thin films: experiments and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfaoui, Imad; Bermudez, Veronika; De Nadai, Celine; Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka; Kajzar, Francois; Leigh, David; Lubomska, Monika; Mendoza, Sandra M.; Niziol, Jacek; Rudolf, Petra; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2005-04-01

    Surface enhanced second harmonic generation experiments on supramolecules: macrocycles, catenanes and rotaxanes, monolayers and multilayers deposited by vacuum evaporation on silver layers are reported and described. The measurements show that the molecules are ordered in thin films. The highest order is observed in the case of macrocycles and the lowest in thin films of fumaramide [2] rotaxanes. Also a better ordering is observed in the case of monolayers. The observed second harmonic generation activity is interpreted in terms of electric field induced second harmonic generation. The electric field contributing to SHG signal is created by silver atoms on the surface of silver layers. The measured second order NLO susceptibilities for a fumaramide [2] rotaxane is compared with that obtained by considering only EFISH contribution to SHG intensities. The electric filed on the surface of silver layer is calculated using TINKER molecular mechanics/dynamics software and the Embedded Atom model. An excellent agreement is observed between the calculated and the measured SHG susceptibilities.

  7. Lack of maintenance of shortwave diathermy equipment has a negative impact on power output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto de Jesus; Guirro, Elaine Caldeira de Oliveira; Alves de Sousa, Natanael Teixeira

    2014-04-01

    Although shortwave diathermy has been widely used by physiotherapists, there are a few studies assessing the performance of the equipment in use. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the procedures adopted by physiotherapists as users of shortwave diathermy continuous (CSWD), as well as to measure the power output and frequency of CSWD equipment. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three physical therapists were interviewed and 23 CSWD equipment were evaluated. Admeasurement was carried out by using a standard phantom to simulate the electrode-skin distance, which ranged from 0.5 to 3.0 cm. Data analysis was performed by using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and a post-hoc Tukey's test or Pearson's correlation coefficient. [Results] The questionnaires showed that 48% of the interviewees use the correct electrode-skin distance, 70% use a single electrical outlet, and 35% use a grounded electrical outlet, and that 48% of the physiotherapy tables and 61% of the plinths were made of wood. However, only 13% of the interviewees perform yearly preventive maintenance. The highest power (95.56 W) was achieved at electrode-skin distances ranging from 1.0 to 1.5 cm, with distances of 2.5 cm and 3.0 cm being null in four and eight equipment, respectively. There was a negative correlation between power output and electrode-skin distance as well as between power output and purchase date. [Conclusion] The physiotherapists involved in this study had inadequate knowledge about the correct use of CSWD equipment, which may adversely affect its performance and patient safety.

  8. Recent Visual Experience Shapes Visual Processing in Rats through Stimulus-Specific Adaptation and Response Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinken, Kasper; Vogels, Rufin; Op de Beeck, Hans

    2017-03-20

    From an ecological point of view, it is generally suggested that the main goal of vision in rats and mice is navigation and (aerial) predator evasion [1-3]. The latter requires fast and accurate detection of a change in the visual environment. An outstanding question is whether there are mechanisms in the rodent visual system that would support and facilitate visual change detection. An experimental protocol frequently used to investigate change detection in humans is the oddball paradigm, in which a rare, unexpected stimulus is presented in a train of stimulus repetitions [4]. A popular "predictive coding" theory of cortical responses states that neural responses should decrease for expected sensory input and increase for unexpected input [5, 6]. Despite evidence for response suppression and enhancement in noninvasive scalp recordings in humans with this paradigm [7, 8], it has proven challenging to observe both phenomena in invasive action potential recordings in other animals [9-11]. During a visual oddball experiment, we recorded multi-unit spiking activity in rat primary visual cortex (V1) and latero-intermediate area (LI), which is a higher area of the rodent ventral visual stream. In rat V1, there was only evidence for response suppression related to stimulus-specific adaptation, and not for response enhancement. However, higher up in area LI, spiking activity showed clear surprise-based response enhancement in addition to stimulus-specific adaptation. These results show that neural responses along the rat ventral visual stream become increasingly sensitive to changes in the visual environment, suggesting a system specialized in the detection of unexpected events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Negative emotional experiences during navigation enhance parahippocampal activity during recall of place information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Edgar; Baumann, Oliver; Bellgrove, Mark A; Mattingley, Jason B

    2014-01-01

    It is known that the parahippocampal cortex is involved in object-place associations in spatial learning, but it remains unknown whether activity within this region is modulated by affective signals during navigation. Here we used fMRI to measure the neural consequences of emotional experiences on place memory during navigation. A day before scanning, participants undertook an active object location memory task within a virtual house in which each room was associated with a different schedule of task-irrelevant emotional events. The events varied in valence (positive, negative, or neutral) and in their rate of occurrence (intermittent vs. constant). On a subsequent day, we measured neural activity while participants were shown static images of the previously learned virtual environment, now in the absence of any affective stimuli. Our results showed that parahippocampal activity was significantly enhanced bilaterally when participants viewed images of a room in which they had previously encountered negatively arousing events. We conclude that such automatic enhancement of place representations by aversive emotional events serves as an important adaptive mechanism for avoiding future threats.

  10. Bilayer Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings with Enhanced Thermal Cyclic Lifetime: Experiments and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mohit; Kumara, Chamara; Nylén, Per

    2017-08-01

    Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) has been shown as a promising process to produce porous columnar strain tolerant coatings for thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) in gas turbine engines. However, the highly porous structure is vulnerable to crack propagation, especially near the topcoat-bondcoat interface where high stresses are generated due to thermal cycling. A topcoat layer with high toughness near the topcoat-bondcoat interface could be beneficial to enhance thermal cyclic lifetime of SPS TBCs. In this work, a bilayer coating system consisting of first a dense layer near the topcoat-bondcoat interface followed by a porous columnar layer was fabricated by SPS using Yttria-stabilised zirconia suspension. The objective of this work was to investigate if the bilayer topcoat architecture could enhance the thermal cyclic lifetime of SPS TBCs through experiments and to understand the effect of the column gaps/vertical cracks and the dense layer on the generated stresses in the TBC during thermal cyclic loading through finite element modeling. The experimental results show that the bilayer TBC had significantly higher lifetime than the single-layer TBC. The modeling results show that the dense layer and vertical cracks are beneficial as they reduce the thermally induced stresses which thus increase the lifetime.

  11. Final Report – Study of Shortwave Spectra in Fully 3D Environment. Synergy Between Scanning Radars and Spectral Radiation Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Jui-Yuan [University of Reading (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-14

    ARM set out 20 years ago to “close” the radiation problem, that is, to improve radiation models to the point where they could routinely predict the observed spectral radiation fluxes knowing the optical properties of the surface and of gases, clouds and aerosols in the atmosphere. Only then could such radiation models form a proper springboard for global climate model (GCM) parameterizations of spectral radiation. Sustained efforts have more or less achieved that goal with regard to longwave radiation; ASR models now routinely predict ARM spectral longwave radiances to 1–2%. Similar efforts in the shortwave have achieved far less; the successes are mainly for carefully selected 1D stratiform cloud cases. Such cases amount, even with the most optimistic interpretation, to no more than 30% of all cases at SGP. The problem has not been lack of effort but lack of appropriate instruments.The new ARM stimulus-funded instruments, with their new capabilities, will dramatically improve this situation and once again make progress possible on the shortwave problem. The new shortwave spectrometers will provide a reliable, calibrated record including the near infrared – and for other climatic regimes than SGP. The new scanning radars will provide the 3D cloud view, making it possible to tackle fully 3D situations. Thus, our main theme for the project is the understanding and closure of the surface spectral shortwave radiation problem in fully 3D cloud situations by combining the new ARM scanning radars and shortwave spectrometers with the arsenal of radiative transfer tools.

  12. Enhanced Synthesis of Alkyl Amino Acids in Miller's 1958 H2S Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Eric T.; Cleaves, H. James; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, James P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    Stanley Miller's 1958 H2S-containing experiment, which included a simulated prebiotic atmosphere of methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) produced several alkyl amino acids, including the alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers of aminobutyric acid (ABA) in greater relative yields than had previously been reported from his spark discharge experiments. In the presence of H2S, aspariic and glutamic acids could yield alkyl amino acids via the formation of thioimide intermediates. Radical chemistry initiated by passing H2S through a spark discharge could have also enhanced alkyl amino acid synthesis by generating alkyl radicals that can help form the aldehyde and ketone precursors to these amino acids. We propose mechanisms that may have influenced the synthesis of certain amino acids in localized environments rich in H2S and lightning discharges, similar to conditions near volcanic systems on the early Earth, thus contributing to the prebiotic chemical inventory of the primordial Earth.

  13. Enhanced carbon overconsumption in response to increasing temperatures during a mesocosm experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Taucher

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide are projected to lead to an increase in sea surface temperatures, potentially impacting marine ecosystems and biogeochemical cycling. Here we conducted an indoor mesocosm experiment with a natural plankton community taken from the Baltic Sea in summer. We induced a plankton bloom via nutrient addition and followed the dynamics of the different carbon and nitrogen pools for a period of one month at temperatures ranging from 9.5 °C to 17.5 °C, representing a range of ±4 °C relative to ambient temperature. The uptake of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and the net build-up of both particulate (POC and dissolved organic carbon (DOC were all enhanced at higher temperatures and almost doubled over a temperature gradient of 8 °C. Furthermore, elemental ratios of carbon and nitrogen (C : N in both particulate and dissolved organic matter increased in response to higher temperatures, both reaching very high C : N ratios of > 30 at +4 °C. Altogether, these observations suggest a pronounced increase in excess carbon fixation in response to elevated temperatures. Most of these findings are contrary to results from similar experiments conducted with plankton populations sampled in spring, revealing large uncertainties in our knowledge of temperature sensitivities of key processes in marine carbon cycling. Since a major difference to previous mesocosm experiments was the dominant phytoplankton species, we hypothesize that species composition might play an important role in the response of biogeochemical cycling to increasing temperatures.

  14. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the kidney: a single-institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oon, Sheng F; Foley, Robert W; Quinn, Deirdre; Quinlan, David M; Gibney, Robert G

    2017-12-07

    Focal renal masses are typically evaluated by means of triphasic contrast-enhanced CT or MRI scan but use of iodinated contrast or gadolinium is unsuitable for some patients. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is an imaging alternative in this scenario but has limited availability in Ireland. The aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate experience with selective use of CEUS for non-invasive characterization of focal renal masses in a tertiary referral institution in Ireland, with a particular focus on cystic renal lesions and the influence of CEUS on final Bosniak classification and treatment outcomes. All cases of renal CEUS between 2009 and 2017 were identified. Imaging history, patient records, histopathology reports, urology conference notes, clinical follow-up details, details of lesion progression or stability on surveillance, biopsy and/or resection details and pre- and post-CEUS Bosniak scores were recorded. Thirty-one patients underwent renal CEUS (7 solid renal lesions, 21 cystic renal lesions and 3 'indeterminate' renal lesions). After CEUS, the CEUS-modified Bosniak score was upgraded in nine patients and downgraded in two patients. All three lesions upgraded from Bosniak III to IV were renal cell carcinomas. One of two lesions downgraded from Bosniak IV to III was resected (cystic nephroma) and the other showed no progression after 19 months of surveillance. CEUS is a valuable alternative to CT in assessing complex cystic or solid renal lesions where iodinated CT contrast or gadolinium is inappropriate. CEUS can also refine the Bosniak category of atypical cystic renal lesions and help facilitate treatment decisions.

  15. Spatial autocorrelation of radiation measured by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment: Scene inhomogeneity and reciprocity violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Roger

    1994-01-01

    The spatial autocorrelation functions of broad-band longwave and shortwave radiances measured by the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) are analyzed as a function of view angle in an investigation of the general effects of scene inhomogeneity on radiation. For nadir views, the correlation distance of the autocorrelation function is about 900 km for longwave radiance and about 500 km for shortwave radiance, consistent with higher degrees of freedom in shortwave reflection. Both functions rise monotonically with view angle, but there is a substantial difference in the relative angular dependence of the shortwave and longwave functions, especially for view angles less than 50 deg. In this range, the increase with angle of the longwave functions is found to depend only on the expansion of pixel area with angle, whereas the shortwave functions show an additional dependence on angle that is attributed to the occlusion of inhomogeneities by cloud height variations. Beyond a view angle of about 50 deg, both longwave and shortwave functions appear to be affected by cloud sides. The shortwave autocorrelation functions do not satisfy the principle of directional reciprocity, thereby proving that the average scene is horizontally inhomogeneous over the scale of an ERBE pixel (1500 sq km). Coarse stratification of the measurements by cloud amount, however, indicates that the average cloud-free scene does satisfy directional reciprocity on this scale.

  16. A novel method for surface defect inspection of optic cable with short-wave infrared illuminance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaohong; Liu, Ning; You, Bo; Xiao, Bin

    2016-07-01

    Intelligent on-line detection of cable quality is a crucial issue in optic cable factory, and defects on the surface of optic cable can dramatically depress cable grade. Manual inspection in optic cable quality cannot catch up with the development of optic cable industry due to its low detection efficiency and huge human cost. Therefore, real-time is highly demanded by industry in order to replace the subjective and repetitive process of manual inspection. For this reason, automatic cable defect inspection has been a trend. In this paper, a novel method for surface defect inspection of optic cable with short-wave infrared illuminance is presented. The special condition of short-wave infrared cannot only provide illumination compensation for the weak illumination environment, but also can avoid the problem of exposure when using visible light illuminance, which affects the accuracy of inspection algorithm. A series of image processing algorithms are set up to analyze cable image for the verification of real-time and veracity of the detection method. Unlike some existing detection algorithms which concentrate on the characteristics of defects with an active search way, the proposed method removes the non-defective areas of the image passively at the same time of image processing, which reduces a large amount of computation. OTSU algorithm is used to convert the gray image to the binary image. Furthermore, a threshold window is designed to eliminate the fake defects, and the threshold represents the considered minimum size of defects ε . Besides, a new regional suppression method is proposed to deal with the edge burrs of the cable, which shows the superior performance compared with that of Open-Close operation of mathematical morphological in the boundary processing. Experimental results of 10,000 samples show that the rates of miss detection and false detection are 2.35% and 0.78% respectively when ε equals to 0.5 mm, and the average processing period of one frame

  17. Immediate dissemination of student discoveries to a model organism database enhances classroom-based research experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Emily A; Stover, Nicholas A

    2014-01-01

    Use of inquiry-based research modules in the classroom has soared over recent years, largely in response to national calls for teaching that provides experience with scientific processes and methodologies. To increase the visibility of in-class studies among interested researchers and to strengthen their impact on student learning, we have extended the typical model of inquiry-based labs to include a means for targeted dissemination of student-generated discoveries. This initiative required: 1) creating a set of research-based lab activities with the potential to yield results that a particular scientific community would find useful and 2) developing a means for immediate sharing of student-generated results. Working toward these goals, we designed guides for course-based research aimed to fulfill the need for functional annotation of the Tetrahymena thermophila genome, and developed an interactive Web database that links directly to the official Tetrahymena Genome Database for immediate, targeted dissemination of student discoveries. This combination of research via the course modules and the opportunity for students to immediately "publish" their novel results on a Web database actively used by outside scientists culminated in a motivational tool that enhanced students' efforts to engage the scientific process and pursue additional research opportunities beyond the course.

  18. Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Micron-Size Polyacrylamide Elastic Microspheres (MPEMs): Underlying Mechanisms and Displacement Experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Chuanjin

    2015-10-12

    Micron-size polyacrylamide elastic microsphere (MPEM) is a newly developed profile control and oil displacement agent for enhanced oil recovery in heterogeneous reservoirs. In this study, laboratory experiments were performed to characterize the viscoelastic properties of MPEMs in brine water. A transparent sandpack micromodel was used to observe the microscopic flow and displacement mechanisms, and parallel-sandpack models were used to investigate the profile control and oil displacement performance using MPEMs in heterogeneous reservoirs. The results indicate that MPEMs almost do not increase the viscosity of injection water and can be conveniently injected using the original water injection pipelines. The microscopic profile control and oil displacement mechanisms of MPEMs in porous media mainly behave as selective-plugging in large pores, fluid diversion after MPEMs plugging, oil drainage caused by MPEMs breakthrough, and the mechanism of oil droplets converging into oil flow. MPEMs have a high plugging strength, which can tolerate a long-term water flushing. MPEMs can selectively enter and plug the large pores and pore-throats in high permeability sandpack, but almost do not damage the low permeability sandpack. MPEMs can effectively divert the water flow from the high permeability sandpack to the low permeability sandpack and improve the sweep efficiency of low permeability sandpack and low permeability area in the high permeability sandpack. The results also confirm the dynamic process of profile control and oil displacement using MPEMs in heterogeneous reservoirs.

  19. Australian women's use of complementary and alternative medicines to enhance fertility: exploring the experiences of women and practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forster Della A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies exploring the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM to enhance fertility are limited. While Australian trends indicate that women are using CAM during pregnancy, little is known about women's use of CAM for fertility enhancement. With the rising age of women at first birth, couples are increasingly seeking assisted reproductive technologies (ART to achieve parenthood. It is likely that CAM use for fertility enhancement will also increase, however this is not known. This paper reports on an exploratory study of women's use of CAM for fertility enhancement. Methods Three focus groups were conducted in Melbourne, Australia in 2007; two with women who used CAM to enhance their fertility and one with CAM practitioners. Participants were recruited from five metropolitan Melbourne CAM practices that specialise in women's health. Women were asked to discuss their views and experiences of both CAM and ART, and practitioners were asked about their perceptions of why women consult them for fertility enhancement. Groups were digitally recorded (audio and transcribed verbatim. The data were analysed thematically. Results Focus groups included eight CAM practitioners and seven women. Practitioners reported increasing numbers of women consulting them for fertility enhancement whilst also using ART. Women combined CAM with ART to maintain wellbeing and assist with fertility enhancement. Global themes emerging from the women's focus groups were: women being willing to 'try anything' to achieve a pregnancy; women's negative experiences of ART and a reluctance to inform their medical specialist of their CAM use; and conversely, women's experiences with CAM being affirming and empowering. Conclusions The women in our study used CAM to optimise their chances of achieving a pregnancy. Emerging themes suggest the positive relationships achieved with CAM practitioners are not always attained with orthodox medical providers

  20. Enhanced signal dispersion in saturation transfer difference experiments by conversion to a 1D-STD-homodecoupled spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Pastor, Manuel; Vega-Vazquez, Marino [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Laboratorio Integral de Dinamica e Estructura de Biomoleculas Jose R. Carracido, Unidade de Resonancia Magnetica, Edificio CACTUS, RIAIDT (Spain); Capua, Antonia De [Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali (Italy); Canales, Angeles [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, CSIC, Departamento de Estructura y funcion de proteinas (Spain); Andre, Sabine; Gabius, Hans-Joachim [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Institut fuer Physiologische Chemie, Tieraerztliche Fakultaet (Germany); Jimenez-Barbero, Jesus [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, CSIC, Departamento de Estructura y funcion de proteinas (Spain)], E-mail: JJbarbero@cib.csic.es

    2006-10-15

    The saturation transfer difference (STD) experiment is a rich source of information on topological aspects of ligand binding to a receptor. The epitope mapping is based on a magnetization transfer after signal saturation from the receptor to the ligand, where interproton distances permit this process. Signal overlap in the STD spectrum can cause difficulties to correctly assign and/or quantitate the measured enhancements. To address this issue we report here a modified version of the routine experiment and a processing scheme that provides a 1D-STD homodecoupled spectrum (i.e. an experiment in which all STD signals appear as singlets) with line widths similar to those in original STD spectrum. These refinements contribute to alleviate problems of signal overlap. The experiment is based on 2D-J-resolved spectroscopy, one of the fastest 2D experiments under conventional data sampling in the indirect dimension, and provides excellent sensitivity, a key factor for the difference experiments.

  1. Measurement of thermal radiation using regular glass optics and short-wave infrared detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, H W; Eppeldauer, G P

    2008-01-21

    The measurement of thermal radiation from ambient-temperature objects using short-wave infrared detectors and regular glass optics is described. The detectors are chosen to operate in the 2.0 microm to 2.5 microm atmospheric window. Selection of detectors with high shunt resistance along with the 4-stage thermo-electric cooling of the detectors to -85 degrees C results in detectivity, D*, of 4 x 10(13) cm Hz(1/2)/W which is near the background limited performance at 295 K. Furthermore, the use of regular-glass commercial optics to collect the thermal radiation results in diffraction-limited imaging. The use of a radiation thermometer constructed with these elements for the measurement of a blackbody from 20 degrees C to 50 degrees C results in noise-equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of thermal sensors also leads to lower sensitivity to the emissivity of the object in determining the temperature of the object. These elements are used to construct a calibrator for an infrared collimator, and such a system demonstrates noise-equivalent irradiances of thermal infrared detectors.

  2. Inherent Fluorescence Detection of Latent Fingermarks by Homemade Shortwave Ultraviolet Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Nengbin; Zou, Yun; Almog, Joseph; Wang, Guiqiang; Mi, Zhongliang

    2017-01-01

    Detection of latent fingermarks on various substrates is critical in crime investigations. Conventional chemical methods using reagents could contaminate or even destruct biological information of samples. Here, an optical method and successful case application of detecting latent fingermarks through long-wave ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence (300-400 nm) by shortwave UV laser excitation is reported. Experimental results indicate that the recovery rate of the latent fingermarks on various paper items is in the range of 70-80% without chemical treatments. Moreover, the optical method allows for the preservation of samples for further examination, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. The technique has also been successfully applied to a criminal case in identifying the suspect, which, to the best of our knowledge, has never been reported in real crime investigations. Therefore, such a method as UV-excited UV fluorescence in detecting latent fingermarks may be better for examination in cases where biological information of samples is needed for consequent testing. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. BOREAS RSS-14 Level-2 GOES-7 Shortwave and Longwave Radiation Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Gu, Jiujing; Smith, Eric A.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-14 team collected and processed several GOES-7 and GOES-8 image data sets that covered the BOREAS study region. This data set contains images of shortwave and longwave radiation at the surface and top of the atmosphere derived from collected GOES-7 data. The data cover the time period of 05-Feb-1994 to 20-Sep-1994. The images missing from the temporal series were zero-filled to create a consistent sequence of files. The data are stored in binary image format files. Due to the large size of the images, the level-1a GOES-7 data are not contained on the BOREAS CD-ROM set. An inventory listing file is supplied on the CD-ROM to inform users of what data were collected. The level-1a GOES-7 image data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). See sections 15 and 16 for more information. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  4. "Toward the development of a diffuse horizontal shortwave irradiance working standard"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Michalsky; R. Dolce; E.G. Dutton; M. Haeffelin; W. Jeffries; T. Stoffel; J. Hickey; A. Los; D. Mathias; L.J.B. McArthur; D. Nelson; R. Philipona; I. Reda; K. Rutledge; G. Zerlaut; B. Forgan; P. Kiedron; C. Long; and C. Gueymard

    2005-04-01

    The first intensive observation period (IOP) to simultaneously measure diffuse horizontal shortwave irradiance (scattered solar radiation that falls on a horizontal surface) with a wide array of shaded pyranometers suggested that a consensus might be reached that would permit the establishment of a standard with a smaller uncertainty than previously achieved. A second IOP has been held to refine the first IOP measurements using a uniform calibration protocol, offset corrections for all instruments and validation of those corrections, improvements in some of the instruments, and better data acquisition. The venue for both IOPs was the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) central facility in northern Oklahoma. The nine days of measurements in October 2003 included a better mixture of clear and overcast conditions than during the first IOP and revealed considerable differences among the instruments responses for different cloud conditions. Four of the 15 instruments were eliminated as candidates to be included in the standard because of noisy signals, inadequate offset correction, or instability with respect to the majority of the measurements. Eight pyranometers agreed to within {+-}2% for clear-sky conditions. Three others have a high bias on clear days relative to these eight, but all eleven agree within {+-}2% on overcast days. The differences and causes of this behavior under clear and cloudy skies are examined.

  5. Shortwave-infrared (SWIR emitters for biological imaging: a review of challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thimsen Elijah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Shortwave infrared radiation (SWIR is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from approximately 900 nm to 2500 nm. Recent advances in imaging systems have expanded the application of SWIR emitters from traditional fields in materials science to biomedical imaging, and the new detectors in SWIR opened an opportunity of deep tissue imaging. Achieving deep photon penetration while maintaining high resolution is one of the main objectives and challenges in bioimaging used for the investigation of diverse processes in living organisms. The application of SWIR emitters in biological settings is, however, hampered by low quantum efficiency. So far, photoluminescent properties in the SWIR region have not been improved by extending concepts that have been developed for the visible (400–650 nm and near-infrared (NIR, 700–900 nm wavelengths, which indicates that the governing behavior is fundamentally different in the SWIR. The focus of this minireview is to examine the mechanisms behind the low efficiency of SWIR emitters as well as to highlight the progress in their design for biological applications. Several common mechanisms will be considered in this review: (a the effect of the energy gap between the excited and ground state on the quantum efficiency, (b the coupling of the excited electronic states in SWIR emitters to vibrational states in the surrounding matrix, and (c the role of environment in quenching the excited states. General strategies to improve the quantum yields for a diverse type of SWIR emitters will be also presented.

  6. Shortwave-infrared (SWIR) emitters for biological imaging: a review of challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimsen, Elijah; Sadtler, Bryce; Berezin, Mikhail Y.

    2017-06-01

    Shortwave infrared radiation (SWIR) is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from approximately 900 nm to 2500 nm. Recent advances in imaging systems have expanded the application of SWIR emitters from traditional fields in materials science to biomedical imaging, and the new detectors in SWIR opened an opportunity of deep tissue imaging. Achieving deep photon penetration while maintaining high resolution is one of the main objectives and challenges in bioimaging used for the investigation of diverse processes in living organisms. The application of SWIR emitters in biological settings is, however, hampered by low quantum efficiency. So far, photoluminescent properties in the SWIR region have not been improved by extending concepts that have been developed for the visible (400-650 nm) and near-infrared (NIR, 700-900 nm) wavelengths, which indicates that the governing behavior is fundamentally different in the SWIR. The focus of this minireview is to examine the mechanisms behind the low efficiency of SWIR emitters as well as to highlight the progress in their design for biological applications. Several common mechanisms will be considered in this review: (a) the effect of the energy gap between the excited and ground state on the quantum efficiency, (b) the coupling of the excited electronic states in SWIR emitters to vibrational states in the surrounding matrix, and (c) the role of environment in quenching the excited states. General strategies to improve the quantum yields for a diverse type of SWIR emitters will be also presented.

  7. Development and application of a quality control procedure for short-wave diathermy units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, N; O'Hare, N; Boyle, G; Gormley, J

    2003-01-01

    Short-wave diathermy (SWD) is a form of radiofrequency (RF) radiation, operating at 27.12 MHz, that is used therapeutically by physiotherapists. Although this form of therapy is widely available, the management of the equipment is not often addressed by either physiotherapists or by medical physics/clinical engineering. A quality control protocol for SWD units, examining power output and electrical and mechanical condition, was developed and applied to 20 units used in clinical practice. In addition, an environmental assessment of where the units were used was also included. Results showed that the power output was generally stable (coefficient of variation range 0-8.8%) and reproducible (coefficient of variation range 0-6.8%). When the outputs from 12 similar units were compared, it was found that the relationship between the units' intensity settings and power output measurements was non-linear. Two units with mechanical timers were found to have inaccuracies that could contribute, under a 'worst-case' scenario, to a dosage error of up to 45%. Environmental analysis found that all treatment plinths in use contained metal parts, which could constitute a fire hazard, and no department examined was equipped with an RF screened room, a facility that would ensure that other persons in the vicinity were not exposed to excessive stray radiation.

  8. Muscle heating with Megapulse II shortwave diathermy and ReBound diathermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, David O; Hawkes, Amanda R; Johnson, A Wayne; Diede, Mike T; Rigby, Justin H

    2013-01-01

    A new continuous diathermy called ReBound recently has been introduced. Its effectiveness as a heating modality is unknown. To compare the effects of the ReBound diathermy with an established deep-heating diathermy, the Megapulse II pulsed shortwave diathermy, on tissue temperature in the human triceps surae muscle. Crossover study. University research laboratory. Participants included 12 healthy, college-aged volunteers (4 men, 8 women; age = 22.2 ± 2.25 years, calf subcutaneous fat thickness = 7.2 ± 1.9 mm). Each modality treatment was applied to the triceps surae muscle group of each participant for 30 minutes. After 30 minutes, we removed the modality and recorded temperature decay for 20 minutes. We horizontally inserted an implantable thermocouple into the medial triceps surae muscle to measure intramuscular tissue temperature at 3 cm deep. We measured temperature every 5 minutes during the 30-minute treatment and each minute during the 20-minute temperature decay. Tissue temperature at a depth of 3 cm increased more with Megapulse II than with ReBound diathermy over the course of the treatment (F₆,₆₆ = 10.78, P diathermy did not produce as much intramuscular heating, leading to a slower heat dissipation rate than the Megapulse II (F₂₀,₂₂₀ = 28.84, P diathermy at increasing deep, intramuscular tissue temperature of the triceps surae muscle group.

  9. Histomorphochemical effects of shortwave diathermy on healing of experimental muscular injury in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, P S; Sobti, V K; Roy, K S

    1990-08-01

    The biceps femoris muscle was surgically incised and sutured in 10 clinically healthy mongrel dogs, aged 1-2 yr and weighing 10-15 kg. The surgical wounds of 5 dogs were exposed to shortwave diathermy for 5 min daily for 7 days, starting a day after the creation of trauma. The remaining 5 dogs served as control. After 15 days of healing, the tissues from biceps femoris muscle were collected and subjected to histomorphological and histochemical examination. Mature collagen bundles were seen at healing site in diathermy treated animals while there were immature collagen fibres and more number of fibroblasts in control animals. Normal muscle fibres could be seen on either side of the healing tissue in treated animals whereas in control animals, atrophied and necrosed muscle fibres were encountered. The neutral and acid mucopolysaccharides, lipid droplets in the intermyofibrillar area and the activity of alkaline phosphatase, adenosine triphosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase at the healing site was better in treated as compared to controls.

  10. New Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric (SAS-He): Hyperspectral Design and Initial Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Flynn, Connor J M.; Barnard, James C.; Ermold, Brian D.; Berg, Larry K.

    2016-10-31

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) derived from hyperspectral measurements can serve as an invaluable input for simultaneous retrievals of particle size distributions and major trace gases. The required hyperspectral measurements are provided by a new ground-based radiometer, the so-called Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric (SAS-He), recently developed with support from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The SAS-He has wide spectral coverage (350-1700nm) and high spectral resolution: about 2.4 nm and 6 nm within 350-1000 nm and 970-1700 nm spectral ranges, respectively. To illustrate an initial performance of the SAS-He, we take advantage of integrated dataset collected during the ARM-supported Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) over the US coastal region (Cape Cod, Massachusetts). This dataset includes AODs derived using data from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sunphotometer and Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). We demonstrate that, on average, the SAS-He AODs closely match the MFRSR and AERONET AODs in the ultraviolet and visible spectral ranges for this area with highly variable AOD. Also, we discuss corrections of SAS-He total optical depth for gas absorption in the near-infrared spectral range and their operational implementation.

  11. Accounting for the effects of Sastrugi in the CERES Clear-Sky Antarctic shortwave ADMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, J.; Su, W.

    2015-01-01

    The Cloud and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Instruments on NASA's Terra, Aqua and Soumi-NPP satellites are used to provide a long-term measurement of the Earth's energy budget. To accomplish this, the radiances measured by the instruments must be inverted to fluxes by the use of a scene-type dependent angular distribution model (ADM). For permanent snow scenes over Antarctica, shortwave ADMs are created by compositing radiance measurements over the full viewing zenith and azimuth range. However, the presence of small-scale wind blown roughness features called sastrugi cause the BRDF of the snow to vary significantly based upon the solar azimuth angle and location. This can result in monthly regional biases as large as ±15 Wm-2 in the inverted TOA SW flux. In this paper we created a set of ADMs that account for the sastrugi effect by using measurements from the Multi-Angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) instrument to derive statistical relationships between radiance from different viewing angles. These ADMs reduce the monthly regional biases to ±5 Wm-2 and the monthly-mean biases are reduced by up to 50%. These improved ADMs are used as part of the next edition of the CERES data.

  12. The Effect of Surface Striations on the Absorption of Shortwave Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, John J.

    1982-11-01

    Most natural surfaces have shortwave albedos that are directly dependent on solar zenith angle. Strong dependences are well known for liquid water and have recently been reiterated for snow surfaces [Carroll and Fitch, 1981]. Many surfaces (e.g., water and dry snow) develop systematic macroscale ripple structures due to wind action (i.e., waves and sastrugi). This paper reports calculations of the effects of such structures on the solar radiation absorbed as a function of latitude, season, ripple amplitude, and ripple orientation. The ripples are represented as having triangular cross sections with the two upper faces tilted at angle B from the horizontal. The absorption of diffuse radiation is equal on all surfaces and computed by using the minimum surface albedo. Direct radiation absorbed is calculated by using the appropriate albedo for the solar zenith angle measured from each surface normal. Shadowing and interfacial reflections are included. The net solar radiation is normalized to a unit horizontal area (QNR) and compared to that calculated for a flat horizontal surface (QNH). Generally the ratio R ≡ QNH/QNR is slightly greater than one at high sun elevations and decreases with increasing tilt angle and increasing latitude. Minimum values of R (<0.5) are found for water at higher latitudes in winter. Model calculations indicate that surfaces with no albedo dependence on solar elevation also exhibit sensitivity to the presence of ripple structures.

  13. Lunar calibration improvements for the short-wave infrared bands in Aqua and Terra MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Truman; Angal, Amit; Shrestha, Ashish; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2017-09-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the key sensors among a suite of remote sensing instruments on board the Terra and Aqua spacecrafts. Since the beginning of each mission, regularly scheduled lunar observations have been used in order to track the on-orbit gain changes of the reflective solar bands. However, for the short-wave infrared bands, 5-7 and 26, the measured signal is contaminated by both electronic crosstalk and an out-of-band response due to transmission through the MODIS filters at undesired wavelengths. These contaminating signals cause significant oscillations in the derived gain from lunar observations for these bands, which limits their use in determining the scan mirror response versus scan angle at these wavelengths. In this paper, we show a strategy for correcting the electronic crosstalk contamination using lunar observations, where the magnitude and the source of the contaminating signal is clear. For Aqua MODIS, we find that the magnitude of the electronic crosstalk contamination is small, and the lunar calibration remains relatively unaffected. For Terra MODIS, the contamination is more significant, and the electronic crosstalk correction shows a significant reduction in the oscillations of the lunar calibration results.

  14. Construction of a shortwave near-infrared spectrofluorometer with diode laser source and CCD detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silzel, John W.; Obremski, Robert J.

    1993-05-01

    Spectrofluorometers employing xenon arc lamp excitation and photomultiplier tube detectors afford sensitivity over the UV/VIS spectral region for which these instruments were designed, but suffer sensitivity limitations in the short-wave near infrared (NIR) region (800 - 1000 nm) because of their limited source energy and low detector quantum efficiency. To achieve high sensitivity in the NIR region, a 30 mW diode laser source, an imaging spectrograph, and a cryogenically cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) have been combined in a spectrofluorometer specifically designed for use in the NIR region. The diode laser source incorporates integral source filters, optics, and a beam trap, and utilizes a vertical beam geometry which provides an illuminated volume oriented conveniently for the imaging of fluorescence emissions on the entrance slit of the spectrograph. Data is presented which demonstrates that the temporal and spectral stability of the source is equal or superior to that of an arc lamp for solution-phase fluorometry. In addition to spectral information, the CCD detector provides spatial resolution of fluorescence emissions along the vertical path of the excitation beam. An absolute photometric calibration of the CCD detector, and measurement of its read noise, fixed pattern noise, and linear dynamic range is performed using the photon transfer technique of Janesick, et al. Improvement in the instrument performance by more than six decades is demonstrated by measured LOD of NIR dyes using a commercial SLM 4800 instrument and the new diode laser/CCD arrangement. Origin of the present detection limits is discussed.

  15. Comparison of spectral irradiance standards used to calibrate shortwave radiometers and spectroradiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiedron, P W; Michalsky, J J; Berndt, J L; Harrison, L C

    1999-04-20

    Absolute calibration of spectral shortwave radiometers is usually performed with National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) or NIST-traceable incandescent lamps. We compare 18 irradiance standards from NIST and three commercial vendors using the same spectrometer to assess their agreement with our working standard. The NIST procedure is followed for the 1000-W FEL lamps from NIST, Optronics, and EG&G. A modified calibration procedure developed by Li-Cor is followed for their 200-W tungsten-halogen lamps. Results are reproducible from one day to the next to approximately 0.1% using the same spectrometer. Measurements taken four months apart using two similar but different spectrometers were reproducible to 0.5%. The comparisons suggest that even NIST standards may disagree with each other beyond their stated accuracy. Some of the 1000-W commercial lamps agreed with the NIST lamps to within their stated accuracy, but not all. Surprisingly, the lowest-cost lamps from Li-Cor agreed much better with the NIST lamps than their stated accuracy of 4%, typically within 2%. An analysis of errors leads us to conclude that we can transfer the calibration from a standard lamp to a secondary standard lamp with approximately 1% added uncertainty. A field spectrometer was calibrated with a secondary standard, producing a responsivity for the spectrometer that was within 5% of the responsivity obtained by Langley calibration using routine field measurements.

  16. Reduction of radiofrequency exposure to the operator during short-wave diathermy treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotte, J

    1986-01-01

    Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields near short-wave diathermy equipment operating at a frequency of 27.12 MHz can expose the physical therapist to levels above those recommended in standards for radiofrequency exposure in Western countries. Electric and magnetic fields around air-gap, diplode, monode and circuplode applicators were mapped by the author. Large differences in stray field intensities were found for the various applicators. The air-gap electrodes caused the highest levels of unwanted radiation, and the circuplode caused the lowest levels. The use of the circuplode would normally ensure an operator exposure far below the levels in recommended standards. In order to reduce the exposure during the first few minutes of a treatment, when air-gap electrodes or diplode are used, the operator should stand at the end of the diathermy console opposite to the applicator and cables and not, as is often the case, at one side. It is recommended that manufacturers change the design of the diathermy console (a minor modification) in order to ensure this operating position.

  17. Method to Calculate Uncertainty Estimate of Measuring Shortwave Solar Irradiance using Thermopile and Semiconductor Solar Radiometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reda, I.

    2011-07-01

    The uncertainty of measuring solar irradiance is fundamentally important for solar energy and atmospheric science applications. Without an uncertainty statement, the quality of a result, model, or testing method cannot be quantified, the chain of traceability is broken, and confidence cannot be maintained in the measurement. Measurement results are incomplete and meaningless without a statement of the estimated uncertainty with traceability to the International System of Units (SI) or to another internationally recognized standard. This report explains how to use International Guidelines of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) to calculate such uncertainty. The report also shows that without appropriate corrections to solar measuring instruments (solar radiometers), the uncertainty of measuring shortwave solar irradiance can exceed 4% using present state-of-the-art pyranometers and 2.7% using present state-of-the-art pyrheliometers. Finally, the report demonstrates that by applying the appropriate corrections, uncertainties may be reduced by at least 50%. The uncertainties, with or without the appropriate corrections might not be compatible with the needs of solar energy and atmospheric science applications; yet, this report may shed some light on the sources of uncertainties and the means to reduce overall uncertainty in measuring solar irradiance.

  18. Net Surface Shortwave Radiation from GOES Imagery—Product Evaluation Using Ground-Based Measurements from SURFRAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand K. Inamdar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Earth’s surface net radiation controls the energy and water exchanges between the Earth’s surface and the atmosphere, and can be derived from satellite observations. The ability to monitor the net surface radiation over large areas at high spatial and temporal resolution is essential for many applications, such as weather forecasting, short-term climate prediction or water resources management. The objective of this paper is to derive the net surface radiation in the shortwave domain at high temporal (half-hourly and spatial resolution (~1 km using visible imagery from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES. The retrieval algorithm represents an adaptation to GOES data of a standard algorithm initially developed for the NASA-operated Clouds and Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES scanner. The methodology relies on: (1 the estimation of top of atmosphere shortwave radiation from GOES spectral measurements; and (2 the calculation of net surface shortwave (SW radiation accounting for atmospheric effects. Comparison of GOES-retrieved net surface shortwave radiation with ground-measurements at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA Surface Radiation (SURFRAD stations yields very good agreement with average bias lower than 5 W·m−2 and root mean square difference around 70 W·m−2. The algorithm performance is usually higher over areas characterized by low spatial variability in term of land cover type and surface biophysical properties. The technique does not involve retrieval and assessment of cloud properties and can be easily adapted to other meteorological satellites around the globe.

  19. INFLUENCE OF THE SHORT-WAVE DIATHERMY UPON GLYCEMIA IN THE PATIENTS WITH THE INSULIN-INDEPENDENT DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaviša Djurdjevic

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In 18 patients with NIDDM diabetes on the oral hypoglycemic therapy there has been a short-wave diathermy (KTD applied upon the Head pancreas zones for 10 minutes and in 10 days series. The values of glycemia before KTD were X+SD=9,72+0,25 mmol/1 while on the tenth day they amounted to X+SD=7,28+0,32 mmol/1 thus recording a significant drop

  20. INFLUENCE OF THE SHORT-WAVE DIATHERMY UPON GLYCEMIA IN THE PATIENTS WITH THE INSULIN-INDEPENDENT DIABETES

    OpenAIRE

    Slaviša Djurdjevic

    2002-01-01

    In 18 patients with NIDDM diabetes on the oral hypoglycemic therapy there has been a short-wave diathermy (KTD) applied upon the Head pancreas zones for 10 minutes and in 10 days series. The values of glycemia before KTD were X+SD=9,72+0,25 mmol/1 while on the tenth day they amounted to X+SD=7,28+0,32 mmol/1 thus recording a significant drop

  1. Pulsed Shortwave Diathermy and Prolonged Long-Duration Stretching Increase Dorsiflexion Range of Motion More Than Identical Stretching Without Diathermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Steven E; Draper, David O; Knight, Kenneth L; Ricard, Mark D

    2002-03-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of 3 treatments on ankle dorsiflexion range of motion: prolonged long-duration stretching, pulsed shortwave diathermy followed by stretching, and pulsed shortwave diathermy, stretching, and ice combined. DESIGN AND SETTING: A 2 x 5 x 15 repeated-measures (on 2 factors) design guided this study. Range-of-motion change in triceps surae flexibility was the dependent variable. The 3 independent variables were treatment group, pretest and posttest measurements, and day. Treatment group had 4 levels: control, stretching (10 minutes of stretching via the weight and pulley), diathermy and stretching (20 minutes of diathermy and 10 minutes of stretching), and diathermy, stretching, and ice (20 minutes of diathermy, 10 minutes of stretching applied after 15 minutes of diathermy, and 5 minutes of ice applied during the last 5 minutes of stretching). Each subject received 14 treatments throughout 3 weeks, with a follow-up measurement taken 6 days after the last treatment. SUBJECTS: Forty-four healthy college-student volunteers not involved in any flexibility program. MEASUREMENTS: We measured ankle dorsiflexion using a digital inclinometer before and after treatment. RESULTS: After 14 days of treatment, the range-of-motion increase was greater after heat and stretching than after stretching alone. After 6 additional days of rest, the heat and stretching range-of-motion increase was greater than that for stretching alone. CONCLUSION: Pulsed shortwave diathermy application before prolonged long-duration static stretching was more effective than stretching alone in increasing flexibility throughout 3 weeks. After 14 treatments, prolonged long-duration stretching combined with pulsed shortwave diathermy followed by ice application caused greater immediate and net range-of-motion increases than prolonged long-duration stretching alone.

  2. Effects of short-wave therapy in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiming; Zhang, Chi; Gao, Chengfei; Zhu, Siyi; Yang, Lijie; Wei, Quan; He, Chengqi

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of short-wave therapy with sham or no intervention for the management of patients with knee osteoarthritis. We searched the following databases from their inception up to 26 October 2016: MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, CINAHL and OpenGrey. Studies included randomized controlled trials compared with a sham or no intervention in patients with knee osteoarthritis. The results were calculated via standardized mean difference (SMD) and risk ratio for continuous variables outcomes as well as dichotomous variables, respectively. Heterogeneity was explored by the I2 test and inverse-variance random effects analysis was applied to all studies. Eight trials (542 patients) met the inclusion criteria. The effect of short-wave therapy on pain was found positive (SMD, -0.53; 95% CI, -0.84 to -0.21). The pain subgroup showed that patients received pulse modality achieved clinical improvement (SMD, -0.83; 95% CI, -1.14 to -0.52) and the pain scale in female patients decreased (SMD, -0.53; 95% CI, -0.98 to -0.08). In terms of extensor strength, short-wave therapy was superior to the control group ( p physical function (SMD, -0.16; 95% CI, -0.36 to 0.05). For adverse effects, there was no significant difference between the treatment and control group. Short-wave therapy is beneficial for relieving pain caused by knee osteoarthritis (the pulse modality seems superior to the continuous modality), and knee extensor muscle combining with isokinetic strength. Function is not improved.

  3. Pulsed Shortwave Diathermy and Prolonged Long-Duration Stretching Increase Dorsiflexion Range of Motion More Than Identical Stretching Without Diathermy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Steven E.; Draper, David O.; Knight, Kenneth L.; Ricard, Mark D.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of 3 treatments on ankle dorsiflexion range of motion: prolonged long-duration stretching, pulsed shortwave diathermy followed by stretching, and pulsed shortwave diathermy, stretching, and ice combined. Design and Setting: A 2 × 5 × 15 repeated-measures (on 2 factors) design guided this study. Range-of-motion change in triceps surae flexibility was the dependent variable. The 3 independent variables were treatment group, pretest and posttest measurements, and day. Treatment group had 4 levels: control, stretching (10 minutes of stretching via the weight and pulley), diathermy and stretching (20 minutes of diathermy and 10 minutes of stretching), and diathermy, stretching, and ice (20 minutes of diathermy, 10 minutes of stretching applied after 15 minutes of diathermy, and 5 minutes of ice applied during the last 5 minutes of stretching). Each subject received 14 treatments throughout 3 weeks, with a follow-up measurement taken 6 days after the last treatment. Subjects: Forty-four healthy college-student volunteers not involved in any flexibility program. Measurements: We measured ankle dorsiflexion using a digital inclinometer before and after treatment. Results: After 14 days of treatment, the range-of-motion increase was greater after heat and stretching than after stretching alone. After 6 additional days of rest, the heat and stretching range-of-motion increase was greater than that for stretching alone. Conclusion: Pulsed shortwave diathermy application before prolonged long-duration static stretching was more effective than stretching alone in increasing flexibility throughout 3 weeks. After 14 treatments, prolonged long-duration stretching combined with pulsed shortwave diathermy followed by ice application caused greater immediate and net range-of-motion increases than prolonged long-duration stretching alone. PMID:12937443

  4. Accounting for the effects of sastrugi in the CERES clear-sky Antarctic shortwave angular distribution models

    OpenAIRE

    Corbett, J.; Su, W.

    2015-01-01

    The Cloud and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments on NASA's Terra, Aqua and Soumi NPP satellites are used to provide a long-term measurement of Earth's energy budget. To accomplish this, the radiances measured by the instruments must be inverted to fluxes by the use of a scene-type-dependent angular distribution model (ADM). For permanent snow scenes over Antarctica, shortwave (SW) ADMs are created by compositing radiance measurements over the full viewin...

  5. Staff Experience and Attitudes towards Technology-Enhanced Learning Initiatives in One Faculty of Health and Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Further to earlier work carried out by the student union (SU) along with strategic discussions regarding technology-enhanced learning (TEL), this research aimed to identify the attitudes and experience of teaching staff in relation to specific uses of technology in learning and teaching. Data obtained through an online questionnaire (n = 100)…

  6. Designing a personal music assistant that enhances the social, cognitive, and affective experiences of people with dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.M.M.; Harbers, M.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that music with a strong personal meaning can enhance the social, cognitive, and affective experiences of both people with dementia (PwD) and their social environment. We applied a human-centred design method, called situated Cognitive Engineering, to develop the conceptual design and

  7. MODIS/Terra+Aqua BRDF/Albedo Black Sky Albedo Shortwave Daily L3 Global 30ArcSec CMG V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MCD43D51 Version 6 Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function and Albedo (BRDF/Albedo) Black Sky Albedo near shortwave broadband data set is a daily 16-day...

  8. Estimation of daily average downward shortwave radiation from MODIS data using principal components regression method: Fars province case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzin, Razieh; Shirvani, Amin; Lotfi, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Downward shortwave radiation is a key quantity in the land-atmosphere interaction. Since the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer data has a coarse temporal resolution, which is not suitable for estimating daily average radiation, many efforts have been undertaken to estimate instantaneous solar radiation using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer data. In this study, the principal components analysis technique was applied to capture the information of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer bands, extraterrestrial radiation, aerosol optical depth, and atmospheric water vapour. A regression model based on the principal components was used to estimate daily average shortwave radiation for ten synoptic stations in the Fars province, Iran, for the period 2009-2012. The Durbin-Watson statistic and autocorrelation function of the residuals of the fitted principal components regression model indicated that the residuals were serially independent. The results indicated that the fitted principal components regression models accounted for about 86-96% of total variance of the observed shortwave radiation values and the root mean square error was about 0.9-2.04 MJ m-2 d-1. Also, the results indicated that the model accuracy decreased as the aerosol optical depth increased and extraterrestrial radiation was the most important predictor variable among all.

  9. Characterizing the information content of cloud thermodynamic phase retrievals from the notional PACE OCI shortwave reflectance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coddington, O. M.; Vukicevic, T.; Schmidt, K. S.; Platnick, S.

    2017-08-01

    We rigorously quantify the probability of liquid or ice thermodynamic phase using only shortwave spectral channels specific to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite, and the notional future Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud, ocean Ecosystem imager. The results show that two shortwave-infrared channels (2135 and 2250 nm) provide more information on cloud thermodynamic phase than either channel alone; in one case, the probability of ice phase retrieval increases from 65 to 82% by combining 2135 and 2250 nm channels. The analysis is performed with a nonlinear statistical estimation approach, the GEneralized Nonlinear Retrieval Analysis (GENRA). The GENRA technique has previously been used to quantify the retrieval of cloud optical properties from passive shortwave observations, for an assumed thermodynamic phase. Here we present the methodology needed to extend the utility of GENRA to a binary thermodynamic phase space (i.e., liquid or ice). We apply formal information content metrics to quantify our results; two of these (mutual and conditional information) have not previously been used in the field of cloud studies.

  10. On the Relative Stability of CERES Reflected Shortwave and MISR and MODIS Visible Radiance Measurements During the Terra Satellite Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, J. G.; Loeb, N. G.

    2015-01-01

    Fifteen years of visible, near-infrared, and broadband shortwave radiance measurements from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on board NASA's Terra satellite are analyzed in order to assess their long-term relative stability for climate purposes. A regression-based approach between CERES, MODIS, and MISR (An camera only) reflectances is used to calculate the bias between the different reflectances relative to a reference year. When compared to the CERES shortwave broadband reflectance, relative drift between the MISR narrowbands is within 1%/decade. Compared to the CERES shortwave reflectance, the MODIS narrowband reflectances show a relative drift of less than -1.33%/decade. When compared to MISR, the MODIS reflectances show a relative drift of between -0.36%/decade and -2.66%/decade. We show that the CERES Terra SW measurements are stable over the time period relative to CERES Aqua. Using this as evidence that CERES Terra may be absolutely stable, we suggest that the CERES, MISR, and MODIS instruments meet the radiometric stability goals for climate applications set out in Ohring et al. (2005).

  11. Using standardized patients in enhancing undergraduate students' learning experience in mental health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yong-Shian; Selvarajan, Sunil; Chng, Mui-Lee; Tan, Chee-Shiong; Yobas, Piyanee

    2016-10-01

    Conducting mental status examination and suicide risk assessment is an important skill required of nurses when they are in the clinical setting. With nursing students often expressing the anxiety and lack of confidence in doing so, the use of standardized patients provide an excellent opportunity to practice and become proficient with this skill in a simulated environment. To explore the learning experience of undergraduate nursing students using standardized patients while practising their mental status examination and suicide risk assessment skills in mental health nursing module. A pre- and post-test, single group quasi experimental design was used in this study. A standard didactic tutorial session and a standardized patient session was conducted to evaluate the learning experience of undergraduate nursing students learning mental status examination and suicide risk assessment. Outcome measures for this study include Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in learning scale. Qualitative comments in the form of open-ended questions were also collected in this study. A University offering nursing program from undergraduate to postgraduate level. A convenience sample of Year 2 undergraduate nursing students undertaking the mental health nursing module was included in this study. The use of standardized patient session had significantly increased students' satisfaction and confidence level before they are posted to a mental health setting for their clinical attachment. There was a significant difference on students' self-confidence level for those who have taken care of a patient with mental illness after adjusting for pre-test on score in learning. Qualitative feedback obtained from students showed a positive outlook towards the use of standardized patient as an effective tool in augmenting didactic learning into practical skills. Using standardized patient in mental health nursing education enhanced the integration of didactic content into clinical setting

  12. Enhanced understanding of the MHD dynamics and ELM control experiments in KSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeon K.

    2013-10-01

    In KSTAR, H-mode discharges have been achieved reliably at toroidal fields from 1.4 to 3.5 T with a heating power of ~ 5 MW. Using real-time plasma shape control the flattop time in H-mode has been extended to over ~ 16 s at 600 kA in the 2012 campaign and the extended plasma operation boundary has surpassed the n = 1 no-wall limit with βN /li up to 4.1. In order to achieve a high beta steady state operation in KSTAR, establishment of predictive MHD simulation and first-principle-based control of the harmful MHD are the first steps. Visualization of MHD dynamics via a 2-D Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) has significantly enhanced the level of understanding of the MHD dynamics. Following the first 2-D ELM measurements in H-mode plasmas in KSTAR the measured 2-D ELM images were compared with synthetic images from the BOUT + + code. The physics of ELMs is characterized based on a wide range of measured mode numbers (n, m) local magnetic shear and pressure gradients. The observed ELM dynamics during control experiments have been enlightening and consistent with the stability models. Near the q ~ 2 surface, the island width and Δ' of the m = 2 tearing mode have been verified through the modified Rutherford model based on the 2-D images. With the aid of a second (toroidally separated) ECEI system installed in the 2012 KSTAR campaign, a 3-D reconstruction of the MHD instabilities has allowed further validation of the computed magnetic field pitch angles, rotation speeds, and toroidal asymmetries of the MHDs Work supported by NRF of Korea under contract No. 20120005920 and the U.S. DoE under contract No. DE-FG-02-99ER54531.

  13. Validation of OMI NO2 Data to Enhance EPA Ground Network Data: An RPC Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleb, M. M.; Pippin, M. R.; Parker, P. A.; Rhew, R. D.; Szykman, J. J.; Neil, D. O.

    2007-12-01

    We present an RPC validation study to determine the potential use of OMI tropospheric NO2 column data to enhance spatial surface predictions of NO2 as an augmentation to the continuous NO2 ground network data collected by the State and Local Air Monitoring Stations (SLAMS) and National Air Monitoring Stations (NAMS) for the continental United States. Using one year of OMI and SLAMS/NAMS ground based data from the EPA's Air Quality System (AQS), NO2 values are compared using a variety of statistical techniques including a time series analysis at each EPA ground station in the continental United States, a site-by- site correlation analysis, site-by-site comparison of mean and standard deviation values, and regional (defined by the ten EPA regions) spatial statistics. In addition, a multivariate statistical prediction model with significance testing is developed to determine within a 95% confidence level the impact of concentration, latitude, region, season, environment (urban vs. rural), and pixel size on the correlation of OMI to EPA NO2 data. The robustness of the statistical model is evaluated using statistical methods. Results of this experiment quantify the ability to use OMI-derived NO2 observations to provide predicted surface concentrations to augment the coverage of the existing NO2 ground networks in regions of sparse or non-existent ground monitors. This predictive capability could facilitate a more capable and integrated observing network for NO2 and lead to more informed air quality management decisions at the local, state, and national level.

  14. Differential responses of lichen symbionts to enhanced nitrogen and phosphorus availability: an experiment with Cladina stellaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkonen, Sari; Hurri, Riikka S K; Hyvärinen, Marko

    2007-05-01

    Lichens can be both nitrogen- (N) and phosphorous- (P) limited and thus may be susceptible to nutrient enrichment. Nutrient enrichment with N and P may have differing impacts on the lichen structure because of different physiological responses of fungal and algal partners to these nutrients. The hypothesis was tested that the differential responses of lichen symbionts to enhanced availability of N and P is reflected in the lichen thallus structure and the wall-to-wall interface between the algal and fungal cells. Lichen cushions of Cladonia stellaris were treated with one P and two N concentrations alone and in combination that yielded total depositions of approx. 300 (moderate) and 1000 (high) mg N m(-2) and 100 (high) mg P m(-2) over an experiment lasting 14 weeks. The effects of N and P inputs on the relative volumes of fungal and algal cell in the medullary tissue and on the thallus structure were studied using light microscopy. The interface between algal and fungal cell walls was examined using transmission electron microscopy. The influence of excess P on the lichen thallus structure was stronger than that of additional N. Addition of P reduced the N : P ratio in podetia, the proportion of the medullary layer volume occupied by the algal cells, the thallus volume occupied by the internal lumen, and the algal cell-wall area covered by fungal hyphae. Ecologically realistic changes in the availability of key macronutrients can alter the growth of symbionts. Reduction in the proportion of photobiont cells indicates that the application of P either stimulates fungal hyphal growth in the medullary tissue or impairs the cell division of the algal cells. The results suggest that both the N and P availability and thallus N : P ratio affect the growth rates of lichen symbionts.

  15. Enhancing the Programming Experience for First-Year Engineering Students through Hands-On Integrated Computer Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Stephen L.; Ghafoor, Sheikh; Abdelrahman, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the redesign and implementation of the course, "Introduction to Programming for Engineers" using microcontroller (MCU) hardware as the programming target. The objective of this effort is to improve the programming competency for engineering students by more closely relating the initial programming experience to the student's…

  16. Digital mammography using iodine-based contrast media: initial clinical experience with dynamic contrast medium enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, Felix; Diekmann, Susanne; Jeunehomme, Fanny; Muller, Serge; Hamm, Bernd; Bick, Ulrich

    2005-07-01

    We sought to evaluate the potential of dynamic contrast enhancement after the intravenous administration of an iodine-based contrast medium in full-field digital mammography. A protocol for image acquisition was established for contrast-enhanced mammography and the mammography unit (Senographe 2000D, GE Healthcare, Buc, France) changed as required. The effect of the protocol parameters on imaging was investigated. Subsequently, 21 patients with 25 suspicious lesions of the breast (10 benign, 1 borderline, and 14 malignant) underwent mammography with administration of an iodine-based contrast medium (Ultravist 370, Schering AG, Berlin, Germany), after approval of ethical committee as well as permission of German federal office for Radiation protection, and informed consent from each patient was obtained. Three sequential digital mammographic images of the respective breast were acquired after administration of the contrast medium at a dose of 1 mL/kg body weight and a flow of 4 mL/s. The postcontrast images were acquired 60, 120, and 180 seconds after administration. Subsequently, the precontrast image was logarithmically subtracted from the postcontrast images. Enhancement of the lesions was measured in absolute terms as well as relative to the enhancement of the glandular tissue. The subtracted images were evaluated for lesion depiction and dynamic contrast enhancement. Lesion-enhancement kinetics were compared with the histologic findings. All malignant lesions were identified on the contrast-enhanced images of digital mammography. Three of the tumors (2 malignant, 1 benign) were detected only by contrast-enhanced mammography and not by standard mammography. Dynamic enhancement curves of benign and malignant tumors in contrast-enhanced mammography look similar to the curves known from gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Nevertheless differentiation between malignant and benign tumors based on the enhancement patterns cannot be directly taken over from

  17. Evaluation of multiple forcing data sets for precipitation and shortwave radiation over major land areas of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Lu, Hui; Yang, Kun; He, Jie; Wang, Wei; Wright, Jonathon S.; Li, Chengwei; Han, Menglei; Li, Yishan

    2017-11-01

    Precipitation and shortwave radiation play important roles in climatic, hydrological and biogeochemical cycles. Several global and regional forcing data sets currently provide historical estimates of these two variables over China, including the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS), the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) Land Data Assimilation System (CLDAS) and the China Meteorological Forcing Dataset (CMFD). The CN05.1 precipitation data set, a gridded analysis based on CMA gauge observations, also provides high-resolution historical precipitation data for China. In this study, we present an intercomparison of precipitation and shortwave radiation data from CN05.1, CMFD, CLDAS and GLDAS during 2008-2014. We also validate all four data sets against independent ground station observations. All four forcing data sets capture the spatial distribution of precipitation over major land areas of China, although CLDAS indicates smaller annual-mean precipitation amounts than CN05.1, CMFD or GLDAS. Time series of precipitation anomalies are largely consistent among the data sets, except for a sudden decrease in CMFD after August 2014. All forcing data indicate greater temporal variations relative to the mean in dry regions than in wet regions. Validation against independent precipitation observations provided by the Ministry of Water Resources (MWR) in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River indicates that CLDAS provides the most realistic estimates of spatiotemporal variability in precipitation in this region. CMFD also performs well with respect to annual mean precipitation, while GLDAS fails to accurately capture much of the spatiotemporal variability and CN05.1 contains significant high biases relative to the MWR observations. Estimates of shortwave radiation from CMFD are largely consistent with station observations, while CLDAS and GLDAS greatly overestimate shortwave radiation. All three forcing data sets capture the key features of the

  18. Enhanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin I. Bayala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land Surface Temperature (LST is a key parameter in the energy balance model. However, the spatial resolution of the retrieved LST from sensors with high temporal resolution is not accurate enough to be used in local-scale studies. To explore the LST–Normalised Difference Vegetation Index relationship potential and obtain thermal images with high spatial resolution, six enhanced image sharpening techniques were assessed: the disaggregation procedure for radiometric surface temperatures (TsHARP, the Dry Edge Quadratic Function, the Difference of Edges (Ts∗DL and three models supported by the relationship of surface temperature and water stress of vegetation (Normalised Difference Water Index, Normalised Difference Infrared Index and Soil wetness index. Energy Balance Station data and in situ measurements were used to validate the enhanced LST images over a mixed agricultural landscape in the sub-humid Pampean Region of Argentina (PRA, during 2006–2010. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (EOS-MODIS thermal datasets were assessed for different spatial resolutions (e.g., 960, 720 and 240 m and the performances were compared with global and local TsHARP procedures. Results suggest that the Ts∗DL technique is the most adequate for simulating LST to high spatial resolution over the heterogeneous landscape of a sub-humid region, showing an average root mean square error of less than 1 K.

  19. Compositional variations in sands of the Bagnold Dunes, Gale Crater, Mars, from visible-shortwave infrared spectroscopy and comparison with ground truth from the Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapotre, Mathieu G. A.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Minson, Sarah E.; Arvidson, R. E.; Ayoub, F.; Fraeman, A. A.; Ewing, R. C.; Bridges, N. T.

    2017-01-01

    During its ascent up Mount Sharp, the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover traversed the Bagnold Dune Field. We model sand modal mineralogy and grain size at four locations near the rover traverse, using orbital shortwave infrared single scattering albedo spectra and a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo implementation of Hapke's radiative transfer theory to fully constrain uncertainties and permitted solutions. These predictions, evaluated against in situ measurements at one site from the Curiosity rover, show that XRD-measured mineralogy of the basaltic sands is within the 95% confidence interval of model predictions. However, predictions are relatively insensitive to grain size and are non-unique, especially when modeling the composition of minerals with solid solutions. We find an overall basaltic mineralogy and show subtle spatial variations in composition in and around the Bagnold dunes, consistent with a mafic enrichment of sands with cumulative transport distance by sorting of olivine, pyroxene, and plagioclase grains during aeolian saltation. Furthermore, the large variations in Fe and Mg abundances (~20 wt%) at the Bagnold Dunes suggest that compositional variability induced by wind sorting may be enhanced by local mixing with proximal sand sources. Our estimates demonstrate a method for orbital quantification of composition with rigorous uncertainty determination and provide key constraints for interpreting in situ measurements of compositional variability within martian aeolian sandstones.

  20. Compositional variations in sands of the Bagnold Dunes, Gale crater, Mars, from visible-shortwave infrared spectroscopy and comparison with ground truth from the Curiosity rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapotre, M. G. A.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Minson, S. E.; Arvidson, R. E.; Ayoub, F.; Fraeman, A. A.; Ewing, R. C.; Bridges, N. T.

    2017-12-01

    During its ascent up Mount Sharp, the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover traversed the Bagnold Dune Field. We model sand modal mineralogy and grain size at four locations near the rover traverse, using orbital shortwave infrared single-scattering albedo spectra and a Markov chain Monte Carlo implementation of Hapke's radiative transfer theory to fully constrain uncertainties and permitted solutions. These predictions, evaluated against in situ measurements at one site from the Curiosity rover, show that X-ray diffraction-measured mineralogy of the basaltic sands is within the 95% confidence interval of model predictions. However, predictions are relatively insensitive to grain size and are nonunique, especially when modeling the composition of minerals with solid solutions. We find an overall basaltic mineralogy and show subtle spatial variations in composition in and around the Bagnold Dunes, consistent with a mafic enrichment of sands with cumulative aeolian-transport distance by sorting of olivine, pyroxene, and plagioclase grains. Furthermore, the large variations in Fe and Mg abundances ( 20 wt %) at the Bagnold Dunes suggest that compositional variability may be enhanced by local mixing of well-sorted sand with proximal sand sources. Our estimates demonstrate a method for orbital quantification of composition with rigorous uncertainty determination and provide key constraints for interpreting in situ measurements of compositional variability within Martian aeolian sandstones.

  1. Contest experience enhances aggressive behaviour in a fly: when losers learn to win

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benelli, Giovanni; Desneux, Nicolas; Romano, Donato; Conte, Giuseppe; Messing, Russell H; Canale, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    .... Further, we conducted experiments to test if winning and losing probabilities are affected only by the outcome of the previous contests, or whether the fighting experience itself is sufficient to induce an effect...

  2. Advanced shortwave infrared and Raman hyperspectral sensors for homeland security and law enforcement operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klueva, Oksana; Nelson, Matthew P.; Gardner, Charles W.; Gomer, Nathaniel R.

    2015-05-01

    Proliferation of chemical and explosive threats as well as illicit drugs continues to be an escalating danger to civilian and military personnel. Conventional means of detecting and identifying hazardous materials often require the use of reagents and/or physical sampling, which is a time-consuming, costly and often dangerous process. Stand-off detection allows the operator to detect threat residues from a safer distance minimizing danger to people and equipment. Current fielded technologies for standoff detection of chemical and explosive threats are challenged by low area search rates, poor targeting efficiency, lack of sensitivity and specificity or use of costly and potentially unsafe equipment such as lasers. A demand exists for stand-off systems that are fast, safe, reliable and user-friendly. To address this need, ChemImage Sensor Systems™ (CISS) has developed reagent-less, non-contact, non-destructive sensors for the real-time detection of hazardous materials based on widefield shortwave infrared (SWIR) and Raman hyperspectral imaging (HSI). Hyperspectral imaging enables automated target detection displayed in the form of image making result analysis intuitive and user-friendly. Application of the CISS' SWIR-HSI and Raman sensing technologies to Homeland Security and Law Enforcement for standoff detection of homemade explosives and illicit drugs and their precursors in vehicle and personnel checkpoints is discussed. Sensing technologies include a portable, robot-mounted and standalone variants of the technology. Test data is shown that supports the use of SWIR and Raman HSI for explosive and drug screening at checkpoints as well as screening for explosives and drugs at suspected clandestine manufacturing facilities.

  3. Spatiotemporal variation of surface shortwave forcing from fire-induced albedo change in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengli; Dahal, Devendra; Liu, Heping; Jin, Suming; Young, Claudia J.; Liu, Shuang; Liu, Shu-Guang

    2015-01-01

    The albedo change caused by both fires and subsequent succession is spatially heterogeneous, leading to the need to assess the spatiotemporal variation of surface shortwave forcing (SSF) as a component to quantify the climate impacts of high-latitude fires. We used an image reconstruction approach to compare postfire albedo with the albedo assuming fires had not occurred. Combining the fire-caused albedo change from the 2001-2010 fires in interior Alaska and the monthly surface incoming solar radiation, we examined the spatiotemporal variation of SSF in the early successional stage of around 10 years. Our results showed that while postfire albedo generally increased in fall, winter, and spring, some burned areas could show an albedo decrease during these seasons. In summer, the albedo increased for several years and then declined again. The spring SSF distribution did not show a latitudinal decrease from south to north as previously reported. The results also indicated that although the SSF is usually largely negative in the early successional years, it may not be significant during the first postfire year. The annual 2005-2010 SSF for the 2004 fire scars was -1.30, -4.40, -3.31, -4.00, -3.42, and -2.47 Wm-2. The integrated annual SSF map showed significant spatial variation with a mean of -3.15 Wm-2 and a standard deviation of 3.26 Wm-2, 16% of burned areas having positive SSF. Our results suggest that boreal deciduous fires would be less positive for climate change than boreal evergreen fires. Future research is needed to comprehensively investigate the spatiotemporal radiative and non-radiative forcings to determine the effect of boreal fires on climate.

  4. Temperature change in human muscle during and after pulsed short-wave diathermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, D O; Knight, K; Fujiwara, T; Castel, J C

    1999-01-01

    A time series design was used, with the dependent variable being gastrocnemius muscle temperature at a depth of 3 cm. To determine the rate of temperature rise and the rate of post-treatment temperature decline in skeletal muscle following the application of pulsed short-wave diathermy (PSWD). Data on PSWD rate and longevity of heating are 20 years old and outdated. With the recent introduction of advanced diathermy equipment, results of our study would provide clinicians with much needed information regarding treatment duration. A 23-gauge thermistor was inserted into the center of the medial head of the anesthetized gastrocnemius muscle, 3 cm below the skin's surface of 20 subjects. The PSWD (27.12 MHz frequency) was applied using the following parameters: 800 bursts per second; 400 microseconds burst duration; 850 microseconds interburst interval; with a peak root mean square (RMS) amplitude of 150 W per burst and an average RMS output of 48 W. Temperature changes were documented every 5 minutes during the treatment and additionally at 5 and 10 minutes following treatment. The average baseline and peak temperatures were 35.84 +/- 0.93 degrees C and 39.80 +/- 0.83 degrees C, respectively. Mean temperature increases were: 1.36 +/- 0.90 degrees C (5 min); 2.87 +/- 1.44 degrees C (10 min); 3.78 +/- 1.19 degrees C (15 min); 3.49 +/- 1.13 degrees C (20 min). After the treatment terminated, intramuscular temperature dropped 0.97 +/- 0.68 degree C in 5 minutes and 1.78 +/- 0.69 degrees C in 10 minutes. PSWD is an effective modality if temperature elevation of deep tissue over a large area is the clinical objective.

  5. Comparison of the efficacy of ketoprofen phonophoresis, ultrasound, and short-wave diathermy in knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyaci, Ahmet; Tutoglu, Ahmet; Boyaci, Nurefsan; Aridici, Rifat; Koca, Irfan

    2013-11-01

    The present study aimed to compare the efficacy of three different deep heating modalities: phonophoresis (PH), short-wave diathermy (SWD), and ultrasound (US), in knee osteoarthritis. Patients who consented to participate in the study were randomly divided into the following three groups. Group 1 (n = 33) received PH, Group 2 (n = 33) received US, and Group 3 (n = 35) received SWD. These deep heating therapies were applied by the same therapist. Each therapy began with 20-min hot pack application. Each of the three physical therapy modalities was applied 5 days a week for 2 weeks (a total of 10 sessions). The patients were evaluated using visual analogue scale (VAS) at rest, 15-m walking time, and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) both before and after the treatment. Moreover, at the end of the treatment, both the physician and the patient made an overall evaluation, by rating the treatment efficacy. The results of the study showed that VAS, 15-m walking time, and WOMAC parameters were improved with all three deep heating modalities, and all the three modalities were effective. However, there was no significant difference between the three modalities in terms of efficacy. There was also no significant difference between the three groups in terms of post-treatment general evaluation of the physician and the patient. The present study is the first to suggest that choosing one of PH/US/SWD therapy options would provide effective results and none of them are superior to the others, and we believe that these findings will be a basis for further studies.

  6. The shortwave radiative forcing bias of liquid and ice clouds from MODIS observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Oreopoulos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We present an assessment of the plane-parallel bias of the shortwave cloud radiative forcing (SWCRF of liquid and ice clouds at 1 deg scales using global MODIS (Terra and Aqua cloud optical property retrievals for four months of the year 2005 representative of the meteorological seasons. The (negative bias is estimated as the difference of SWCRF calculated using the Plane-Parallel Homogeneous (PPH approximation and the Independent Column Approximation (ICA. PPH calculations use MODIS-derived gridpoint means while ICA calculations use distributions of cloud optical thickness and effective radius. Assisted by a broadband solar radiative transfer algorithm, we find that the absolute value of global SWCRF bias of liquid clouds at the top of the atmosphere is about 6 W m−2 for MODIS overpass times while the SWCRF bias for ice clouds is smaller in absolute terms by about 0.7 W m−2, but with stronger spatial variability. If effective radius variability is neglected and only optical thickness horizontal variations are accounted for, the absolute SWCRF biases increase by about 0.3–0.4 W m−2 on average. Marine clouds of both phases exhibit greater (more negative SWCRF biases than continental clouds. Finally, morning (Terra–afternoon (Aqua differences in SWCRF bias are much more pronounced for ice clouds, up to about 15% (Aqua producing stronger negative bias on global scales, with virtually all contribution to the difference coming from land areas. The substantial magnitude of the global SWCRF bias, which for clouds of both phases is collectively about 4 W m−2 for diurnal averages, should be considered a strong motivation for global climate modelers to accelerate efforts linking cloud schemes capable of subgrid condensate variability with appropriate radiative transfer schemes.

  7. Pennsylvania's technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material experiences and studies of the oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, David J

    2015-02-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's experiences and ongoing studies related to technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) in the oil and gas industry. It has been known for many years that Pennsylvania's geology is unique, with several areas having relatively high levels of natural uranium and thorium. In the 1950s, a few areas of the state were evaluated for commercial uranium production. In the late 1970s, scoping studies of radon in homes prompted the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) Bureau of Radiation Protection (BRP) to begin planning for a larger state-wide radon study. The BRP and Oil and Gas Bureau also performed a TENORM study of produced water in the early 1990s for a number of conventional oil and gas wells. More recently, BRP and the Bureau of Solid Waste developed radiation monitoring regulations for all Pennsylvania solid waste disposal facilities. These were implemented in 2001, prompting another evaluation of oil and gas operations and sludge generated from the treatment of conventionally produced water and brine but mainly focused on the disposal of TENORM solid waste in the state's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle D landfills. However, since 2008, the increase in volumes of gas well wastewater and levels of Ra observed in the unconventional shale gas well flow-back fracking water has compelled DEP to fully re-examine these oil and gas operations. Specifically, with BRP in the lead, a new TENORM study of oil and gas operations and related wastewater treatment operations has been initiated (), supported by an American National Standards Institute standard on TENORM () and a U.S. Government Accountability Office report on shale resource development and risks (). This study began in early 2013 and will examine the potential public and worker radiation exposure and environmental impact as well as re-evaluate TENORM waste disposal. This

  8. Introducing an enhanced recovery after surgery program in colorectal surgery: A single center experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bona, Stefano; Molteni, Mattia; Rosati, Riccardo; Elmore, Ugo; Bagnoli, Pietro; Monzani, Roberta; Caravaca, Monica; Montorsi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To study the implementation of an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) program at a large University Hospital from “pilot study” to “standard of care”. METHODS: The study was designed as a prospective single centre cohort study. A prospective evaluation of compliance to a protocol based on full application of all ERAS principles, through the progressive steps of its implementation, was performed. Results achieved in the initial pilot study conducted by a dedicated team (n = 47) were compared to those achieved in the shared protocol phase (n = 143) three years later. Outcomes were length of postoperative hospital stay, readmission rate, compliance to the protocol and morbidity. Primary endpoint was the description of the results and the identification of critical issues of large scale implementation of an ERAS program in colorectal surgery emerged in the experience of a single center. Secondary endpoint was the identification of interventions that have been proven to be effective for facilitating the transition from traditional care pathways to a multimodal management protocol according to ERAS principles in colorectal surgery at a single center. RESULTS: During the initial pilot study (March 2009 to December 2010; 47 patients) conducted by a dedicated multidisciplinary team, compliance to the items of ERAS protocol was 93%, with a median length of hospital stay (LOS) of 3 d. Early anastomotic fistulas were observed in 2 cases (4.2%), which required reoperation (Clavien-Dindo grade IIIb). None of the patients had been discharged before the onset of the complication, which could therefore receive prompt treatment. There were also four (8.5%) minor complications (Clavien-Dindo grade II). Thirty days readmission rate was 4%. Perioperative mortality was nil. After implementation of the protocol throughout the Hospital in unselected patients (May 2012 to December 2012; 147 patients) compliance was 74%, with a median LOS of 6 d. Early anastomotic fistulas

  9. Gadoxetic acid enhanced MRI for differentiation of FNH and HCA: a single centre experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieser, Christian; Steffen, Ingo G.; Perez Fernandez, Carmen Maria; Hamm, Bernd; Denecke, Timm [Klinik fuer Radiologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Kramme, Incken-Birthe; Blaeker, Hendrik; Kilic, Ergin [Institut fuer Pathologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Seehofer, Daniel [Klinik fuer Allgemein, Viszeral- und Transplantationschirurgie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Schott, Eckart [Medizinische Klinik m.S. Hepatologie und Gastroenterologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    Evaluation of enhancement characteristics of histopathologically confirmed focal nodular hyperplasias (FNHs) and hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) with gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. Sixty-eight patients with 115 histopathologically proven lesions (FNHs, n = 44; HCAs, n = 71) examined with gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI were retrospectively enrolled (standard of reference: surgical resection, n = 53 patients (lesions: FNHs, n = 37; HCAs, n = 53); biopsy, n = 15 (lesions: FNHs, n = 7; HCAs, n = 18)). Two radiologists evaluated all MR images regarding morphological features as well as the vascular and hepatocyte-specific enhancement in consensus. For the hepatobiliary phase, relative enhancement of the lesions and lesion to liver enhancement were significantly lower for HCAs (mean, 48.7 (±48.4) % and 49.4 (±33.9) %) compared to FNHs (159.3 (±92.5) %; and 151.7 (±79) %; accuracy of 89 % and 90 %, respectively; P < 0.001). Visual strong uptake of FNHs vs. hypointensity of HCAs in the hepatobiliary phase resulted in an accuracy of 92 %. This parameter was superior to all other morphological and dynamic vascular criteria alone and in combination (accuracy, 54-85 %). For differentiation of FNHs and HCAs by means of MRI, gadoxetic acid uptake in the hepatobiliary phase was found to be superior to all other criteria alone and in combination. (orig.)

  10. ENHANCING BRAND EXPERIENCE ALONG WITH EMOTIONAL ATTACHMENT TOWARDS TRUST AND BRAND LOYALTY

    OpenAIRE

    Elia Ardyan; Heny Kurnianingsih; Ginanjar Rahmawan; Utomo Wibisono; Winata Winata

    2016-01-01

    Research on Samsung’s smartphone consumers in Surakarta, have aimed to (1) Test the influence of brand experience on brand trust; (2) Test brand beliefs on brand loyalty; (3) Test on emotional attachment brand experience; (4) Test emotional attachment on brand trust; (5) Test brand experience on brand loyalty. The sample of this research was obtained from 100 respondents who have purchased a Samsung smartphone with the number of the purchase more than once. Methods of analysis used in this s...

  11. Steam-Enhanced Extraction Experiments, Simulations and Field Studies for Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid Removal: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizan Nor Asni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments, simulations and field studies for dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL removal have demonstrated successful recovery through steam-enhanced extraction. Steam-enhanced extraction is an innovative technology for soil and groundwater remediation to remove as much contamination as possible. Most of researchers study the main DNAPL recovery mechanisms such as physical displacement by vaporization, evaporation and condensation, reduction in interfacial tension and DNAPL viscosity influenced by temperature. Other removal mechanism such as steam distillation and steam stripping also has been studied. The removal of DNAPL using steam-enhanced extraction shall be investigated to identify, acquire, analyze, visualize, and evaluate the effectiveness of the remediation. Several parameters can be controlled to justify the successful of the remediation. A comprehensive understanding of the subsurface environment, multiphase fluid flow and the physical processes is required to prevent remediation failure. Thus, it will avoid continuous contamination of the subsurface environment. The researcher can quantify the reduction in contamination remediation and acquire high quality data sets to validate future numerical model. Aim of this paper is to review and to summarize the existing laboratory experiment, simulations and field studies from other researchers regarding steam-enhanced extraction for dense non-aqueous phase liquid removal.

  12. Tailoring nanorod alignment in a polymer matrix by elongational flow under confinement: simulation, experiments, and surface enhanced Raman scattering application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jay Hoon; Joo, Yong Lak

    2014-05-21

    Mesoscale simulation, electrospinning and Raman scattering experiments have been carried out to demonstrate that examination and control of nanorod configuration in a polymer matrix under elongational flow and confinement can lead to enhanced sensing. First, coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) was employed to probe the diffusivity, orientation, and dispersion of nanorods in a model polymer melt under planar elongational flow. Compared to shear flow, elongational flow gives rise to enhanced dispersion and orientation of nanorods, which are predicted to be improved with increasing the aspect ratio of nanorods and polymer chain length. As comparative experiments, we have electrospun gold (Au) nanorods with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and the resulting Au nanorod configuration in PVA nanofibers is in good agreement with the predicted simulation. Furthermore, coaxial electrospinning of Au nanorod/PVA-PVA (shell-core) was applied to selectively place Au nanorods in the cylindrical sheath layer, and the alignment of Au nanorods near the fiber surface was confirmed by TEM analysis and CGMD simulation under uniaxial elongation. Finally, the Au nanorod-PVA fibers were tested for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for sensing applications. The coaxially electrospun fibers have demonstrated much greater signal peak strength when compared with monoaxially electrospun fibers with the same Au nanorod loading. This comprehensive study demonstrates how extensional flow and multi-layered fluids can direct the orientation and dispersion of nanorod in a polymer matrix, leading to enhanced sensing performance.

  13. Flip, feedback and fly: Using LOOP to enhance the professional experience of initial teacher education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillipson, Shane N; Phillipson, Sivanes; Cooper, David G

    2015-01-01

    .... Problems can arise, however, when the evaluation of their professional experience against the Standards shifts from the providers of teacher education programmes to school-based supervising teachers...

  14. How a Mobile Social Media Game Can Enhance the Educational Experience

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salvatore Parise; Eliana Crosina

    2012-01-01

    .... The education environment through social media gaming, in particular, changes from passive to active as learning activities require active engagement and tend to leverage one's personal experiences...

  15. Mobile Augmented Reality: A Tool for Effective Tourism Interpretation in Enhancing Tourist Experience at Urban Tourism Destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Shuhadah Mohd

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The formation of tourism experience frequently subjected to complexity of individual tourist psycho-graphical factor, which leads to vast difference in the end experience formed among the respective tourist. However, the fact that travelling is highly subjected to environmental fuzziness and the issue of geographical consciousness may interfere the emotion of tourist and influence the formation of this experience. The evolution and advancement of mobile technologies had been optimized in improving the way human interact with the surrounding environment. Within this context, mobile augmented reality (AR technology is perceived as capable in narrowing the gap between the formation of pleasant experience and the issue of geographical consciousness, thus transform the way tourist interact with the destination. Pertaining to this situation, this conceptual paper is attempted to understand the effectiveness of mobile augmented reality in enhancing tourist travel experience on the tourism destination. In relation to this aim, this study is directed to clarify the mechanism and usability of mobile augmented reality in relation to its capability in improving tourism interpretation and to discover the influence of utilization of this technology towards tourism experience. Critical review of existing literature that relevant to the research area was done in understanding on the extensiveness of impact of mobile AR on tourist and experience formation. Findings revealed the capability of AR in merging virtual information with the real world environment through the platform of mobile device able to create a more dynamic interaction between tourist and surrounding environment.

  16. Experiences gained from implementing mandatory buffer strips in Denmark: how can we enhance their ecosystem services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronvang, Brian; Hoffmann, Carl Christian; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Hille, Sandra; Rubæk, Gitte; Heckrath, Goswin; Gertz, Flemming; Jensen, Henning; Feuerback, Peter; Strand, John; Stutter, Marc

    2015-04-01

    along watercourses from ca. 50,000 ha to ca. 25,000 ha and at the same time they reduced the width of the mandatory BSs from 10 m to 9 m. The aim of this presentation is to share the experience gained in Denmark on establishing mandatory BSs. Furthermore, we will show some preliminary results from two newly initiated research projects (BUFFERTECH and BALTICSEA2020) that studies how to enhance the ecosystem services provided by buffer strips. We will show how intelligently to guide managers when establishing BSs along watercourses at catchment scale utilizing a combined P-index model for soil erosion and a statistical model for P retention in BSs as well as results obtained from new 'Engineered' or 'Constructed' BSs that delays tile drainage flow from field to streams thereby increasing nutrient retention. Acknowledgement The work is supported by the Strategic Research Foundation/Innovation Fund Denmark project 'BUFFERTECH - Optimization of Ecosystem Services Provided by Buffer Strips Using Novel Technological Methods' (Grant No. 1305-00017B) and the BalticSea2020 project 'Integrerade skyddszoner (IBZ)'.

  17. Experience-Dependent Regulation of Presynaptic NMDARs Enhances Neurotransmitter Release at Neocortical Synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban-Ciecko, Joanna; Wen, Jing A.; Parekh, Puja K.; Barth, Alison L.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory experience can selectively alter excitatory synaptic strength at neocortical synapses. The rapid increase in synaptic strength induced by selective whisker stimulation (single-row experience/SRE, where all but one row of whiskers has been removed from the mouse face) is due, at least in part, to the trafficking of AMPA receptors (AMPARs)…

  18. Experiment Design Regularization-Based Hardware/Software Codesign for Real-Time Enhanced Imaging in Uncertain Remote Sensing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Atoche A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new aggregated Hardware/Software (HW/SW codesign approach to optimization of the digital signal processing techniques for enhanced imaging with real-world uncertain remote sensing (RS data based on the concept of descriptive experiment design regularization (DEDR is addressed. We consider the applications of the developed approach to typical single-look synthetic aperture radar (SAR imaging systems operating in the real-world uncertain RS scenarios. The software design is aimed at the algorithmic-level decrease of the computational load of the large-scale SAR image enhancement tasks. The innovative algorithmic idea is to incorporate into the DEDR-optimized fixed-point iterative reconstruction/enhancement procedure the convex convergence enforcement regularization via constructing the proper multilevel projections onto convex sets (POCS in the solution domain. The hardware design is performed via systolic array computing based on a Xilinx Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA XC4VSX35-10ff668 and is aimed at implementing the unified DEDR-POCS image enhancement/reconstruction procedures in a computationally efficient multi-level parallel fashion that meets the (near real-time image processing requirements. Finally, we comment on the simulation results indicative of the significantly increased performance efficiency both in resolution enhancement and in computational complexity reduction metrics gained with the proposed aggregated HW/SW co-design approach.

  19. Early experiences of endoscopic procedures in general surgery assisted by a computer-enhanced surgical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, M; Shimada, M; Tomikawa, M; Ikeda, Y; Takahashi, I; Abe, R; Koga, F; Gotoh, N; Konishi, K; Maehara, S; Sugimachi, K

    2002-08-01

    We performed a variety of complete total endoscopic general surgical procedures, including colon resection, distal gastrectomy, and splenectomy, successfully with the assistance of the da Vinci computer-enhanced surgical system. The robotic system allowed us to manipulate the endoscopic instruments as effectively as during open surgery. It enhanced visualization of both the operative field and precision of the necessary techniques, as well as being less stressful for the endoscopic operating team. This technological innovation can therefore help surgeons overcome many of the difficulties associated with the endoscopic approach and thus has the potential to enable more precise, safer, and more minimally invasive surgery in the future.

  20. Shortwave radiative forcing and efficiency of key aerosol types using AERONET data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. García

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The shortwave radiative forcing (ΔF and the radiative forcing efficiency (ΔFeff of natural and anthropogenic aerosols have been analyzed using estimates of radiation both at the Top (TOA and at the Bottom Of Atmosphere (BOA modeled based on AERONET aerosol retrievals. Six main types of atmospheric aerosols have been compared (desert mineral dust, biomass burning, urban-industrial, continental background, oceanic and free troposphere in similar observational conditions (i.e., for solar zenith angles between 55° and 65° in order to compare the nearly same solar geometry. The instantaneous ΔF averages obtained vary from −122 ± 37 Wm−2 (aerosol optical depth, AOD, at 0.55 μm, 0.85 ± 0.45 at the BOA for the mixture of desert mineral dust and biomass burning aerosols in West Africa and −42 ± 22 Wm−2 (AOD = 0.9 ± 0.5 at the TOA for the pure mineral dust also in this region up to −6 ± 3 Wm−2 and −4 ± 2 Wm−2 (AOD = 0.03 ± 0.02 at the BOA and the TOA, respectively, for free troposphere conditions. This last result may be taken as reference on a global scale. Furthermore, we observe that the more absorbing aerosols are overall more efficient at the BOA in contrast to at the TOA, where they backscatter less solar energy into the space. The analysis of the radiative balance at the TOA shows that, together with the amount of aerosols and their absorptive capacity, it is essential to consider the surface albedo of the region on which they are. Thus, we document that in regions with high surface reflectivity (deserts and snow conditions atmospheric aerosols lead to a warming of the Earth-atmosphere system.

  1. Short-Wave Diathermy Pretreatment and Inflammatory Myokine Response After High-Intensity Eccentric Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardiman, John P; Moodie, Nicole; Siedlik, Jacob A; Kudrna, Rebecca A; Graham, Zachary; Gallagher, Philip

    2015-06-01

    Various modalities have been used to pretreat skeletal muscle to attenuate inflammation. To determine the effects of short-wave diathermy (SWD) preheating treatment on inflammation and stress markers after eccentric exercise. Controlled laboratory study. University laboratory setting. Fifteen male (age = 22 ± 4.9 years, height = 179.75 ± 9.56 cm, mass = 82.22 ± 12.67 kg) college-aged students. Seven participants were selected randomly to receive 40 minutes of SWD heat treatment (HT), and 8 participants served as the control (CON) group and rested without SWD. Both groups completed 7 sets of 10 repetitions of a high-intensity eccentric exercise protocol (EEP) at 120% of the 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) leg extension. We biopsied muscles on days 1, 3 (24 hours post-EEP), and 4 (48 hours post-EEP) and collected blood samples on days 1, 2 (4 hours post-EEP), 3, and 4. We determined 1-RM on day 2 (24 hours post-SWD) and measured 1-RM on days 3 and 4. We analyzed the muscle samples for interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α, and heat shock protein 70 and the blood for serum creatine kinase. We found a group × time interaction for intramuscular IL-6 levels after SWD (F2,26 = 7.13, P = .003). The IL-6 decreased in HT (F1,6 = 17.8, P = .006), whereas CON showed no change (P > .05). We found a group × time interaction for tumor necrosis factor α levels (F2,26 = 3.71, P = .04), which increased in CON (F2,14 = 7.16, P = .007), but saw no changes for HT (P > .05). No group × time interactions were noted for 1-RM, heat shock protein 70, or creatine kinase (P > .05). The SWD preheating treatment provided a treatment effect for intramuscular inflammatory myokines induced through high-intensity eccentric exercise but did not affect other factors associated with intense exercise and inflammation.

  2. Relation between seasonally detrended shortwave infrared reflectance data and land surface moisture in semi-arid Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørgen Lundegaard; Ceccato, Pietro; Proud, Simon Richard

    2013-01-01

    . In this study we explored the potential of using reflectance data in the Red, Near Infrared (NIR), and Shortwave Infrared (SWIR) spectral regions for detecting short term variations in land surface moisture in the Sahel, by analyzing data from three test sites and observations from the geostationary Meteosat......In the Sudano-Sahelian areas of Africa droughts can have serious impacts on natural resources, and therefore land surface moisture is an important factor. Insufficient conventional sites for monitoring land surface moisture make the use of Earth Observation data for this purpose a key issue...

  3. An information theory approach for evaluating earth radiation budget (ERB) measurements - Nonuniform sampling of reflected shortwave radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Direskeneli, Haldun; Halyo, Nesim

    1992-01-01

    An information theory approach to examine the temporal nonuniform sampling characteristics of shortwave (SW) flux for earth radiation budget (ERB) measurements is suggested. The information gain is computed by computing the information content before and after the measurements. A stochastic diurnal model for the SW flux is developed, and measurements for different orbital parameters are examined. The methodology is applied to specific NASA Polar platform and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) orbital parameters. The information theory approach, coupled with the developed SW diurnal model, is found to be promising for measurements involving nonuniform orbital sampling characteristics.

  4. From the Editor-in-Chief: Changes to Enhance the Author Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Elliott

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available JMBE Editor-in-Chief, Dr. Samantha Elliott, thanks past volunteers for their efforts and discusses several new author enhancements related to the recently expanded scope, including video tutorials, a self-assessment tool, and a thematic issue.

  5. Wireless Sensor Networks--A Hands-On Modular Experiments Platform for Enhanced Pedagogical Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taslidere, E.; Cohen, F. S.; Reisman, F. K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in educational research as a platform for enhanced pedagogical learning. The aim here with the use of a WSN platform was to go beyond the implementation stage to the real-life application stage, i.e., linking the implementation to real-life applications, where abstract theory and…

  6. Enhancing the Gaming Experience Using 3D Spatial User Interface Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshth, Arun; Pfeil, Kevin; LaViola, Joseph J

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) spatial user interface technologies have the potential to make games more immersive and engaging and thus provide a better user experience. Although technologies such as stereoscopic 3D display, head tracking, and gesture-based control are available for games, it is still unclear how their use affects gameplay and if there are any user performance benefits. The authors have conducted several experiments on these technologies in game environments to understand how they affect gameplay and how we can use them to optimize the gameplay experience.

  7. Using voice input and audio feedback to enhance the reality of a virtual experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miner, N.E.

    1994-04-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) is a rapidly emerging technology which allows participants to experience a virtual environment through stimulation of the participant`s senses. Intuitive and natural interactions with the virtual world help to create a realistic experience. Typically, a participant is immersed in a virtual environment through the use of a 3-D viewer. Realistic, computer-generated environment models and accurate tracking of a participant`s view are important factors for adding realism to a virtual experience. Stimulating a participant`s sense of sound and providing a natural form of communication for interacting with the virtual world are equally important. This paper discusses the advantages and importance of incorporating voice recognition and audio feedback capabilities into a virtual world experience. Various approaches and levels of complexity are discussed. Examples of the use of voice and sound are presented through the description of a research application developed in the VR laboratory at Sandia National Laboratories.

  8. Effectiveness of manual therapy or pulsed shortwave diathermy in addition to advice and exercise for neck disorders: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial in physical therapy clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzic, Krysia; Hill, Jonathan; Lewis, Martyn; Sim, Julius; Daniels, Jane; Hay, Elaine M

    2005-04-15

    To determine whether manual therapy or pulsed shortwave diathermy, in addition to advice and exercise, provide better clinical outcome at 6 months than advice and exercise alone in primary care patients with nonspecific neck disorders. This was a multicenter, 3-arm randomized controlled trial in 15 physical therapy departments. Of the 735 screened patients, 350 were recruited to the study (mean age 51 years) from July 2000 to June 2002. Participants were randomized to advice and exercise plus manual therapy, advice and exercise plus pulsed shortwave, or advice and exercise alone. Assessments were undertaken at baseline, 6 weeks, and 6 months. The primary outcome was the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire. Analysis was by intention to treat. Of the participants, 115 were allocated to advice and exercise, 114 to advice and exercise plus manual therapy, and 121 to advice and exercise plus pulsed shortwave; 98% received the allocated treatment. There was 93% followup at 6 months. The mean +/- SD fall in Northwick Park score at 6 months was 11.5 +/- 15.7 for advice and exercise alone, 10.2 +/- 14.1 for advice and exercise plus manual therapy, and 10.3 +/- 15.0 for advice and exercise plus pulsed shortwave. There were no statistically significant differences in mean changes between groups. The addition of pulsed shortwave or manual therapy to advice and exercise did not provide any additional benefits in the physical therapy treatment of neck disorders.

  9. Enhancers and tools to improve luxury customer experience: hotel managers’ perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Veríssimo, M; Loureiro, S. M. C.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore how luxury hotels create hospitality experiences in order to examine consistency of manager’s statements. To this end, the study included a literature review to understand the major approaches used in creating customer experiences. Following this, thirty in-depth interviews were prepared and carried out with thirty international luxury hotel managers in both Brazil and Portugal. The findings reveal that personalized service, brand image, service quality, client cont...

  10. Integrated Quantum Optics: Experiments towards integrated quantum-light sources and quantum-enhanced sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Ulrich Busk

    The work presented in this thesis is focused on experimental application and generation of continuous variable quantum correlated states of light in integrated dielectric structures. Squeezed states are among the most exploited continuous variable optical states for free-space quantum-enhanced se......The work presented in this thesis is focused on experimental application and generation of continuous variable quantum correlated states of light in integrated dielectric structures. Squeezed states are among the most exploited continuous variable optical states for free-space quantum...... in this thesis: Firstly, we present proof-of-principle demonstration of interfacing squeezed light with an on-chip optomechanical resonator, demonstrating a quantum-enhanced sensitivity to the vibrations of the micromechanical object. Secondly, work on developing an integrated source of squeezed light...

  11. Contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM): phantom experiment and first clinical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Christiane; Facius, Mirijam; Muller, Serge L.; Benali, Karim; Malich, Ansgar; Kaiser, Werner

    2002-05-01

    The introduction of the Full Field Digital Mammography (FFDM) opens the way to a large range of future advanced applications. Among them, Contrast Enhanced Digital Mammography (CEDM) could be a fast and less expensive alternative to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for breast lesion characterization. In this work, we have investigated, first on phantom then on patients, the capability of a modified FFDM system to show the contrast enhancement of lesions after intra-venous injection of iodine. The uptake has been estimated from the difference between pre- and post-contrast images. Phantom results showed that 1) detectability thresholds of the contrast media were compatible with clinical conditions; 2) breast radiological thickness has a low impact on uptake detectability; 3) spatial and temporal analysis showed delayed margin contrast uptake of the simulated lesion and slow increase of contrast in the background. Preliminary results on patients have confirmed the phantom results and have shown a contrast uptake in all malignant lesions despite the observed patient motion artifacts, and some moderate signal variability. This study demonstrated the feasibility of the Contrast Enhanced Digital Mammography technique. Further investigations and clinical validations will have to be completed before it can be widely used in a daily routine practice.

  12. Proton detection for signal enhancement in solid-state NMR experiments on mobile species in membrane proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Meaghan E.; Ritz, Emily [University of Guelph, Department of Physics (Canada); Ahmed, Mumdooh A. M. [Suez University, The Department of Physics, Faculty of Science (Egypt); Bamm, Vladimir V.; Harauz, George [University of Guelph, Biophysics Interdepartmental Group (Canada); Brown, Leonid S.; Ladizhansky, Vladimir, E-mail: vladizha@uoguelph.ca [University of Guelph, Department of Physics (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    Direct proton detection is becoming an increasingly popular method for enhancing sensitivity in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Generally, these experiments require extensive deuteration of the protein, fast magic angle spinning (MAS), or a combination of both. Here, we implement direct proton detection to selectively observe the mobile entities in fully-protonated membrane proteins at moderate MAS frequencies. We demonstrate this method on two proteins that exhibit different motional regimes. Myelin basic protein is an intrinsically-disordered, peripherally membrane-associated protein that is highly flexible, whereas Anabaena sensory rhodopsin is composed of seven rigid transmembrane α-helices connected by mobile loop regions. In both cases, we observe narrow proton linewidths and, on average, a 10× increase in sensitivity in 2D insensitive nuclear enhancement of polarization transfer-based HSQC experiments when proton detection is compared to carbon detection. We further show that our proton-detected experiments can be easily extended to three dimensions and used to build complete amino acid systems, including sidechain protons, and obtain inter-residue correlations. Additionally, we detect signals which do not correspond to amino acids, but rather to lipids and/or carbohydrates which interact strongly with membrane proteins.

  13. Assessment of physiotherapists' occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from shortwave and microwave diathermy devices: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syed Ghulam Sarwar; Farrow, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed studies reporting the strength of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) in physiotherapists' occupational environment. Studies from academic journals published from January 1990 to June 2010 were identified in nine online bibliographic databases. EMF strength was compared with occupational exposure limits (OELs) recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). In the reviewed studies, EMFs were measured at different distances (range 0.2 m to 6 m) from the console of diathermy devices, electrodes, and cables. For continuous shortwave diathermy (CSWD) (27.12 megahertz, MHz), measurements of EMFs at shortwave diathermy (PSWD) (27.12 MHz), EMF measurements at diathermy (MWD) (2.45 gigahertz, GHz), the maximum power density measured at diathermy devices may well be higher than OELs at specific distances, i.e., at 1 m, which is currently designated to be a safe distance for physiotherapists. The minimum safe distance for physiotherapists should be revised to at least 2 m for CSWD and 1.5 m for PSWD. The reviewed studies did not provide evidence of exceeding the ICNIRP's reference levels for occupational exposure at 1 m from MWD devices.

  14. Enhancing the Entertainment Experience of Blind and Low-Vision Theatregoers through Touch Tours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, J. P.; Fels, D. I.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate how universal design theory and the research available on museum-based touch tours can be used to develop a touch tour for blind and low-vision theatregoers. We discuss these theoretical and practical approaches with reference to data collected and experience gained from the creation and execution of a touch tour for…

  15. Enhanced benthic activity in sandy sublittoral sediments: Evidence from 13C tracer experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühring, Solveig I.; Ehrenhauss, Sandra; Kamp, Anja

    2006-01-01

    investigated the pathway of settling particulate organic carbon through the benthic food web. The diatom Ditylum brightwellii was labelled with the stable carbon isotope 13C and injected into incubation chambers. On-board incubations lasted 12, 30 and 132 h, while the in situ experiment was incubated for 32 h...

  16. Enhancements to the Image Analysis Tool for Core Punch Experiments and Simulations (vs. 2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogden, John Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-06

    A previous paper (Hogden & Unal, 2012, Image Analysis Tool for Core Punch Experiments and Simulations) described an image processing computer program developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This program has proven useful so developement has been continued. In this paper we describe enhacements to the program as of 2014.

  17. Application of Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) Writing Assignments to Enhance Experiments with an Environmental Chemistry Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerum, Lawrence D.; Gulsrud, Maren; Manlapez, Ronald; Rebong, Rachelle; Love, Austin

    2007-01-01

    The browser-based software program, Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) developed by the Molecular Science Project enables instructors to create structured writing assignments in which students learn by writing and reading for content. Though the CPR project covers only one experiment in general chemistry, it might provide lab instructors with a method…

  18. Interactive Online Tools for Enhancing Student Learning Experiences in Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Karen E.; Boitshwarelo, Bopelo; Phinn, Stuart R.; Hill, Greg J. E.; Kelly, Gail D.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid growth in Information and Communications Technologies usage in higher education has provided immense opportunities to foster effective student learning experiences in geography. In particular, remote sensing lends itself to the creative utilization of multimedia technologies. This paper presents a case study of a remote sensing computer…

  19. Physical Pendulum Experiments to Enhance the Understanding of Moments of Inertia and Simple Harmonic Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Tim H.; Brittle, Stuart A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a set of experiments aimed at overcoming some of the difficulties experienced by students learning about the topics of moments of inertia and simple harmonic motion, both of which are often perceived to be complex topics amongst students during their first-year university courses. By combining both subjects in a discussion…

  20. Adult-age inflammatory pain experience enhances long-term pain vigilance in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Guang Li

    Full Text Available Previous animal studies have illustrated a modulatory effect of neonatal pain experience on subsequent pain-related behaviors. However, the relationship between chronic pain status in adulthood and future pain perception remains unclear.In the current study, we investigated the effects of inflammatory pain experience on subsequent formalin-evoked pain behaviors and fear conditioning induced by noxious stimulation in adult rats. Our results demonstrated an increase of the second but not the first phase of formalin-induced pain behaviors in animals with a history of inflammatory pain that have recovered. Similarly, rats with persistent pain experience displayed facilitated acquisition and prolonged retention of pain-related conditioning. These effects of prior pain experience on subsequent behavior were prevented by repeated morphine administration at an early stage of inflammatory pain.These results suggest that chronic pain diseases, if not properly and promptly treated, may have a long-lasting impact on processing and perception of environmental threats. This may increase the susceptibility of patients to subsequent pain-related disorders, even when chronic pain develops in adulthood. These data highlight the importance of treatment of chronic pain at an early stage.

  1. Narrowing the Distance: Using E-Learner Support to Enhance the Student Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick; Stevens, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    The United Kingdom Open University has experimented with a range of information and communication technologies (ICT) to support learners and foster the development of learning communities, including online resources, email, e-messages, SMS messaging, and Second Life. The initial creation of information and resources to support study has been…

  2. Enhancing Children's Language Learning and Cognition Experience through Interactive Kinetic Typography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Newman M. L.; Chu, Veni H. T.

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed at investigating the method of using kinetic typography and interactive approach to conduct a design experiment for children to learn vocabularies. Typography is the unique art and technique of arranging type in order to make language visible. By adding animated movement to characters, kinetic typography expresses language…

  3. Enhancing the Student Experience through Service Design: The University of Derby Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranova, Polina; Morrison, Sue; Mutton, Jean

    2011-01-01

    The student experience in higher education is firmly placed at the top of the strategic agenda for the majority of higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK at present. In the current climate of public cuts, universities increasingly have to strike a delicate balance between cost efficiencies and delivery of the high-quality university…

  4. Lived-experience participation in nurse education: reducing stigma and enhancing popularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda; Byrne, Louise; Platania-Phung, Chris; Harris, Scott; Bradshaw, Julie; Davies, Jonathan

    2014-10-01

    Mental health nursing consistently emerges as less popular than other specialties, and both service users and mental health practitioners are affected by negative attitudes. Education is fundamental to attracting students to the field of mental health nursing. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of undergraduate mental health curricula on student attitudes to people with mental illness, and career interest in mental health nursing. A traditional mental health course was compared to a course delivered by a person with lived experience of mental illness (and mental health service use) for its impact on student attitudes and career intentions in mental health nursing (cohort 1: n = 70, cohort 2: n = 131, respectively). In both cohorts, attitudes were measured via self-report, before and after the course, and changes were investigated through within-subjects t-tests. The lived experience-led course demonstrated statistically-significant positive changes in intentions to pursue mental health nursing and a decrease in negative stereotypes, which were not observed in the traditional course. The valuable contribution of mental health nursing emerged in the traditional, but not lived-experience-led, programmes. These findings support the value of an academic with lived experience of mental health challenges in promoting attraction to mental health nursing as a career option. © 2014 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  5. Developing multimodal conversational agents for an enhanced e-learning experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David GRIOL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Conversational agents have become a strong alternative to enhance educational systems with intelligent communicative capabilities, provide motivation and engagement, and increment significant learning and helping in the acquisition of meta-cognitive skills. In this paper, we present Geranium, a multimodal conversational agent that helps children to appreciate and protect their environment. The system, which integrates an interactive chatbot, has been developed by means of a modular and scalable framework that eases building pedagogic conversational agents that can interact with the students using speech and natural language.

  6. Magnetovolume effect in the exchange-enhanced itinerant paramagnet YCo2: Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravleva, I. P.; Grechnev, G. E.; Panfilov, A. S.; Lyogenkaya, A. A.

    2017-05-01

    A detailed theoretical study of the anomalous magnetovolume effect in the exchange-enhanced itinerant paramagnet YCo2 was carried out based on DFT calculations of the electronic structure in an external magnetic field and further complemented with the experimental data on the behavior of the magnetic susceptibility χ under high hydrostatic pressure. The calculations of the magnetic susceptibility and magnetovolume effect dlnχ/dlnV are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data, indicating the proximity of YCo2 to the ferromagnetic instability.

  7. A pedagogical design pattern framework for sharing experiences and enhancing communities of practice within online and blended learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Michael; Neutszky-Wulff, Chresteria; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    for teachers at the University of Copenhagen a new and simpler pedagogical design pattern framework was developed for interfaculty sharing of experiences and enhancing communities of practice in relation to online and blended learning across the university. The framework of pedagogical design patterns were...... applied to describe the learning design in four online and blended learning courses within different academic disciplines: Classical Greek, Biostatistics, Environmental Management in Europe, and Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Mitigation. Future perspectives for using the framework for developing...... new E-learning patterns for online and blended learning courses are discussed....

  8. Uncertainties of parameterized surface downward clear-sky shortwave and all-sky longwave radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gubler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As many environmental models rely on simulating the energy balance at the Earth's surface based on parameterized radiative fluxes, knowledge of the inherent model uncertainties is important. In this study we evaluate one parameterization of clear-sky direct, diffuse and global shortwave downward radiation (SDR and diverse parameterizations of clear-sky and all-sky longwave downward radiation (LDR. In a first step, SDR is estimated based on measured input variables and estimated atmospheric parameters for hourly time steps during the years 1996 to 2008. Model behaviour is validated using the high quality measurements of six Alpine Surface Radiation Budget (ASRB stations in Switzerland covering different elevations, and measurements of the Swiss Alpine Climate Radiation Monitoring network (SACRaM in Payerne. In a next step, twelve clear-sky LDR parameterizations are calibrated using the ASRB measurements. One of the best performing parameterizations is elected to estimate all-sky LDR, where cloud transmissivity is estimated using measured and modeled global SDR during daytime. In a last step, the performance of several interpolation methods is evaluated to determine the cloud transmissivity in the night.

    We show that clear-sky direct, diffuse and global SDR is adequately represented by the model when using measurements of the atmospheric parameters precipitable water and aerosol content at Payerne. If the atmospheric parameters are estimated and used as a fix value, the relative mean bias deviance (MBD and the relative root mean squared deviance (RMSD of the clear-sky global SDR scatter between between −2 and 5%, and 7 and 13% within the six locations. The small errors in clear-sky global SDR can be attributed to compensating effects of modeled direct and diffuse SDR since an overestimation of aerosol content in the atmosphere results in underestimating the direct, but overestimating the diffuse SDR. Calibration of LDR parameterizations

  9. Enhancing Local Community’s Involvement and Empowerment through Practicing Cittaslow: Experiences from Goolwa, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Eerang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to investigate how and the extent to which Cittaslow philosophy and practice enhanced local community’s involvement and empowerment in relation to tourism development from the sustainability’s perspective. As an empirical study, a series of in-depth interviews with key stakeholders including local government, local business, and local community’s members were conducted in Goolwa, the first Australian accredited Cittaslow town since 2007, located in South Australia. The results indicated that to a greater extent the accreditation and practice of Cittaslow philosophy in Goolwa increased a stronger and more effective collaboration amongst local community, business and residents as an essential element for achieving sustainability in tourism development. Not only did it encourage the local community’s participation in decision making process from the beginning of tourism development, but also revitalised the locality and sense of place of Goolwa through promoting local specialities and produces, in particular food and wine products. The results also suggested that psychological and social aspects of local community’s empowerment have been significantly enhanced after the establishment of Cittaslow. Yet, the economic empowerment of the local community was less experienced.

  10. Dual Phase Change Thermal Diodes for Enhanced Rectification Ratios: Theory and Experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Cottrill, Anton L.

    2018-01-15

    Thermal diodes are materials that allow for the preferential directional transport of heat and are highly promising devices for energy conservation, energy harvesting, and information processing applications. One form of a thermal diode consists of the junction between a phase change and phase invariant material, with rectification ratios that scale with the square root of the ratio of thermal conductivities of the two phases. In this work, the authors introduce and analyse the concept of a Dual Phase Change Thermal Diode (DPCTD) as the junction of two phase change materials with similar phase boundary temperatures but opposite temperature coefficients of thermal conductivity. Such systems possess a significantly enhanced optimal scaling of the rectification ratio as the square root of the product of the thermal conductivity ratios. Furthermore, the authors experimentally design and fabricate an ambient DPCTD enabled by the junction of an octadecane-impregnated polystyrene foam, polymerized using a high internal phase emulsion template (PFH-O) and a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) aqueous solution. The DPCTD shows a significantly enhanced thermal rectification ratio both experimentally (2.6) and theoretically (2.6) as compared with ideal thermal diodes composed only of the constituent materials.

  11. Experiments in evaluation capacity building: Enhancing brain disorders research impact in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylen, Kirk; Sridharan, Sanjeev

    2017-05-08

    This paper is the introductory paper on a forum on evaluation capacity building for enhancing impacts of research on brain disorders. It describes challenges and opportunities of building evaluation capacity among community-based organizations in Ontario involved in enhancing brain health and supporting people living with a brain disorder. Using an example of a capacity building program called the "Evaluation Support Program", which is run by the Ontario Brain Institute, this forum discusses multiple themes including evaluation capacity building, evaluation culture and evaluation methodologies appropriate for evaluating complex community interventions. The goal of the Evaluation Support Program is to help community-based organizations build the capacity to demonstrate the value that they offer in order to improve, sustain, and spread their programs and activities. One of the features of this forum is that perspectives on the Evaluation Support Program are provided by multiple stakeholders, including the community-based organizations, evaluation team members involved in capacity building, thought leaders in the fields of evaluation capacity building and evaluation culture, and the funders. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Staff experience and attitudes towards technology-enhanced learning initiatives in one Faculty of Health and Life Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Reed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Further to earlier work carried out by the student union (SU along with strategic discussions regarding technology-enhanced learning (TEL, this research aimed to identify the attitudes and experience of teaching staff in relation to specific uses of technology in learning and teaching. Data obtained through an online questionnaire (n=100 suggest that teaching staff are generally agreeable to the need for consistency in the virtual learning environment and identify specific criteria to be included within ‘minimum standards’; have some experience and interest in solutions to enable online submission, marking and feedback; and whilst there is more resistance, there was still interest in the provision of recorded lectures. Respondents overwhelmingly identified lack of time as a significant barrier to engaging with TEL, as well as other factors such as lack of skills and support.

  13. Investigation of mixing enhancement in porous media under helical flow conditions: 3-D bench-scale experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiogna, Gabriele; Ye, Yu; Cirpka, Olaf A.

    2017-01-01

    Lateral mass exchange at the fringe of solute plumes is a fundamental process leading to plume dilution and reactive mixing. Mass transfer between the plume and ambient water can be considerably enhanced by helical flow occurring in three-dimensional heterogeneous anisotropic porous media [1-3]. We...... performed steady-state conservative tracer experiments in a fully three-dimensional flow-through chamber to investigate the effects of helical flow on plume spiraling and deformation, as well as on its dilution [4]. Helical flow was created by packing the porous medium in angled stripes of materials...... with different grain sizes to create blocks with macroscopically anisotropic hydraulic conductivity. The hydraulic conductivity of the blocks was varied in different experiments. Solute concentrations and flow rates were measured at high spatial resolution for samples collected at 49 outlet ports. This allowed...

  14. Enhancing Listener Strategies Using a Payoff Matrix in Speech-on-speech Masking Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-03

    quite similar at first glance, especially for color responses, except that while one listener is reporting the tar- get words ( circles ), the other... circles ), masker (M, squares), and other (O, diamonds) responses for the same-talker condition for the listener who reported the fewest (S1, open symbols... listener strategies using a payoff matrix in speech-on-speech masking experiments 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  15. Enhancing Client-centeredness in Parkinson's Disease Care: Attending to the Psychosocial Implications of Lived Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey D. Holmes PhD, OT Reg. (Ont..

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Evidence-based practice requires that clinicians interpret the best research evidence in the context of their clinical experience, while at the same time considering client knowledge and experiences. Although clinicians are becoming increasingly skilled at the evaluation of research evidence, the evidence-based practice process often neglects client values and self-identified health issues. Ignoring these key aspects of client-centered practice may lead to interventions that fail to target the implications of a client’s disease that are important to occupational participation and quality of life (QOL. A focus on client-centeredness is particularly important in progressive neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, where there are no known curative treatments, and interventions must instead focus on symptom management. In this paper, we explore the published literature on the psychosocial aspects of the lived experience among individuals with Parkinson’s disease, arguing that such literature provides insight into the implications of the disease and into potential treatment priorities. As such, this literature provides an additional form of evidence that raises awareness of the lived implications of this disease for clients’ occupations and QOL that, in turn, may lead clinicians to be more cognizant of client values and self-identified issues.

  16. Measuring noise equivalent irradiance of a digital short-wave infrared imaging system using a broadband source to simulate the night spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, John R.; Robinson, Timothy

    2015-05-01

    There is a growing interest in developing helmet-mounted digital imaging systems (HMDIS) for integration into military aircraft cockpits. This interest stems from the multiple advantages of digital vs. analog imaging such as image fusion from multiple sensors, data processing to enhance the image contrast, superposition of non-imaging data over the image, and sending images to remote location for analysis. There are several properties an HMDIS must have in order to aid the pilot during night operations. In addition to the resolution, image refresh rate, dynamic range, and sensor uniformity over the entire Focal Plane Array (FPA); the imaging system must have the sensitivity to detect the limited night light available filtered through cockpit transparencies. Digital sensor sensitivity is generally measured monochromatically using a laser with a wavelength near the peak detector quantum efficiency, and is generally reported as either the Noise Equivalent Power (NEP) or Noise Equivalent Irradiance (NEI). This paper proposes a test system that measures NEI of Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) digital imaging systems using a broadband source that simulates the night spectrum. This method has a few advantages over a monochromatic method. Namely, the test conditions provide spectrum closer to what is experienced by the end-user, and the resulting NEI may be compared directly to modeled night glow irradiance calculation. This comparison may be used to assess the Technology Readiness Level of the imaging system for the application. The test system is being developed under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the Air Force Research Laboratory.

  17. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the diagnosis of gallbladder diseases: a multi-center experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Na Liu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the usefulness of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS in differentiating malignant from benign gallbladder (GB diseases. METHODS: This study had institutional review board approval. 192 patients with GB diseases from 9 university hospitals were studied. After intravenous bonus injection of a phospholipid-stabilized shell microbubble contrast agent, lesions were scanned with low acoustic power CEUS. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify diagnostic clues from 17 independent variables that enabled differentiation between malignant and benign GB diseases. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis was performed. RESULTS: Among the 17 independent variables, multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the following 4 independent variables were associated with the benign nature of the GB diseases, including the patient age, intralesional blood vessel depicted on CEUS, contrast washout time, and wall intactness depicted on CEUS (all P53.5 yrs is also a clue for GB malignancy.

  18. Feature enhancement from electrical resistivity data in an archaeological survey: the Sapelos hillfort experiment (Boticas, Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Mafalda; Bernardes, Paulo; Fontes, Luís.; Martins, Manuela; Madeira, Joaquim

    2015-06-01

    The PoPaTERVA project is developing applied research regarding the comprehension of the multi-layered cultural background of the Terva Valley Archaeological Park, in Boticas, Portugal. One of the main aspects focused on the project is the appliance of remote sensing techniques to enhance non visible archaeological features. An earth resistance tomography (ERT) survey was carried out at the Sapelos hillfort, by the specialized SINERGEO geophysicist's team, using a Wenner-Schlumberger array. The resulting data was analyzed by the authors in order to extract and verify valid archaeological features regarding the settlement's structures. There are several adequate systems that can be used to visualize the surveyed data (x, y, z, Ω). However, the authors preferred the open source Visualization Toolkit (VTK) from Kitware Inc., since it supports several visualization and modelling techniques that are useful for interpretation purposes in archaeological contexts: for instance, it is possible to represent the archaeological site as a virtual scale model, which can be freely manipulated. For the Sapelos hillfort, two distinct visualizations were developed to represent the acquired electrical resistivity data. The first one is used to create a comprehensive volume from the surveyed data, which is imported as structured 3D points and mapped into a 3D volume. However, this representation does not provide the necessary insight for analysis purposes, so a second visualization is needed to cluster the relevant data for archaeological research. This visualization is based on contouring algorithms that generate isosurfaces from scalar resistivity values (Ω), therefore enhancing the features with potential archaeological interest.

  19. Gd-DTPA-enhanced 3D MR imaging of cervical degenerative disk disease: initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J S; Ruggieri, P M; Tkach, J A; Masaryk, T J; Paranandi, L; Dillinger, J J; Modic, M T

    1992-01-01

    To assess whether a single enhanced T1-weighted gradient echo volume sequence, with the appropriate reformatted images, could be equivalent to a more conventional 2D set of MR sequences for the evaluation of cervical extradural degenerative disk disease (bony canal and foraminal stenosis; disk herniation). Sixty-one patients evaluated for extradural degenerative disease by MR were imaged with a "standard" MR examination (Sagittal T1-weighted spin echo, axial low flip angle gradient echo), were then given 0.1 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA intravenously, and reimaged with either a 3D FLASH (fast low angle shot), TR 40/TE 7/1 excitation), 40 degree flip angle, acquired as 64, 2-mm sagittal partitions, or a 3D turbo FLASH (MP RAGE-magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo) (10/4/1), 10 degree flip angle acquired as 128, 2-mm coronal partitions. The volume sequences were reconstructed in the axial plane, and right and left 45 degree oblique coronal planes. The two sets of examinations (standard vs volume) were prospectively interpreted by two neuroradiologists for quality of examination, and location, type, and severity of extradural degenerative disease in a random, blinded, independent fashion. There was no significant difference between the standard examination and the 3D MP RAGE for central extradural disease. The 3D FLASH examination was significantly worse than the standard examination in identification of central extradural disease, with an average of 21 herniations not identified, or underestimated in size. Neither the 3D FLASH, nor the 3D MP RAGE examinations showed any significant improvement compared to the routine 2D examination for the location and severity of foraminal disease. If extradural degenerative disk disease is being evaluated, then a single enhanced 3D T1-weighted imaging sequence taking 6 minutes can be equivalent to a routine set of mixed 2D spin echo and low flip angle gradient echo sequences.

  20. Intercomparison of shortwave radiative transfer schemes in global aerosol modeling: results from the AeroCom Radiative Transfer Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Randles

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examine the performance of 31 global model radiative transfer schemes in cloud-free conditions with prescribed gaseous absorbers and no aerosols (Rayleigh atmosphere, with prescribed scattering-only aerosols, and with more absorbing aerosols. Results are compared to benchmark results from high-resolution, multi-angular line-by-line radiation models. For purely scattering aerosols, model bias relative to the line-by-line models in the top-of-the atmosphere aerosol radiative forcing ranges from roughly −10 to 20%, with over- and underestimates of radiative cooling at lower and higher solar zenith angle, respectively. Inter-model diversity (relative standard deviation increases from ~10 to 15% as solar zenith angle decreases. Inter-model diversity in atmospheric and surface forcing decreases with increased aerosol absorption, indicating that the treatment of multiple-scattering is more variable than aerosol absorption in the models considered. Aerosol radiative forcing results from multi-stream models are generally in better agreement with the line-by-line results than the simpler two-stream schemes. Considering radiative fluxes, model performance is generally the same or slightly better than results from previous radiation scheme intercomparisons. However, the inter-model diversity in aerosol radiative forcing remains large, primarily as a result of the treatment of multiple-scattering. Results indicate that global models that estimate aerosol radiative forcing with two-stream radiation schemes may be subject to persistent biases introduced by these schemes, particularly for regional aerosol forcing.

  1. Enhancement of User Quality of Experience (QoE) for Service Migration in Context Aware Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, Aamir

    Context awareness equips systems with intelligence and enables them to adapt according the environment. Accurateness of adaption depends on the quality of context. The context aware migration process enables an application to move between devices without user intervention. Contexts such as network...... individual user responsiveness. In summary, the thesis identified core elements of migration process. The mapping of loss of user experience as QoE loss score value, provides a performance metric for measuring performance of migratory application. Furthermore, the impact of out dated information in dynamic...... environment was reduced, by improving the quality of context through a prediction algorithm....

  2. Tritium Plasma Experiment Upgrade and Improvement of Surface Diagnostic Capabilities at STAR Facility for Enhancing Tritium and Nuclear PMI Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, M.; Taylor, C. N.; Pawelko, R. J.; Cadwallader, L. C.; Merrill, B. J.

    2016-04-01

    The Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) is a unique high-flux linear plasma device that can handle beryllium, tritium, and neutron-irradiated plasma facing materials, and is the only existing device dedicated to directly study tritium retention and permeation in neutron-irradiated materials with tritium [M. Shimada et.al., Rev. Sci. Instru. 82 (2011) 083503 and and M. Shimada, et.al., Nucl. Fusion 55 (2015) 013008]. The plasma-material-interaction (PMI) determines a boundary condition for diffusing tritium into bulk PFCs, and the tritium PMI is crucial for enhancing fundamental sciences that dictate tritium fuel cycles and safety and are high importance to an FNSF and DEMO. Recently the TPE has undergone major upgrades in its electrical and control systems. New DC power supplies and a new control center enable remote plasma operations from outside of the contamination area for tritium, minimizing the possible exposure risk with tritium and beryllium. We discuss the electrical upgrade, enhanced operational safety, improved plasma performance, and development of optical spectrometer system. This upgrade not only improves operational safety of the worker, but also enhances plasma performance to better simulate extreme plasma-material conditions expected in ITER, Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF), and Demonstration reactor (DEMO). This work was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, under the DOE Idaho Field Office contract number DE-AC07-05ID14517.

  3. An Internship May Not Be Enough: Enhancing Bioscience Industry Job Readiness through Practicum Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Jason M; Hamilton, Paul T

    2017-04-01

    In contrast to the narrowing of options in academic careers, the bioscience industry offers robust employment opportunities for STEM-trained workers, especially those who display both scientific and business talent. Unfortunately, traditional science programs typically lack curricular features that develop this type of worker. The North Carolina State University Master of Microbial Biotechnology (MMB) program facilitates industry-specific experiential learning to fill this training gap. Similar programs often rely on a single industry internship to provide students relevant work experience, but completion of one internship might not suffice to position students for employment in a highly competitive job market. The MMB program requires students to complete an internship and three practicum projects in an industry setting, to promote development of key skills in a variety of areas, to build confidence in the ability to perform initial job duties, and to establish a more extensive work history in industry. In this Perspective we discuss an unmet need in undergraduate and graduate STEM education that can be filled by incorporating a similar set of industry-specific work experiences for students who desire to transition from academe into the life science industry.

  4. Enhancing the shopping experience through QR codes: the perspective of the Romanian users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Albăstroiu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The progress registered in the field of information and communication technologies has induced significant changes in the purchasing behaviour of the consumers who nowadays want simultaneous use of online and offline channels within the same shopping experience. QR Code (Quick Response is among the emerging technologies that retailers can implement for adapting to these changes. Through reviewing the literature, the article firstly clarifies the characteristics and applicability of the QR codes, especially in retail, and then presents the results of an exploratory research conducted among Romanian users regarding their attitude and interest in QR codes. The objective of the research was to identify the degree of usage, the willingness of the Romanian people to use codes in the buying process and also their perception about the functionality and usefulness of the codes. This is a pioneering work for the Romanian literature, because there aren`t other studies that explore issues concerning the use of QR codes in the buying process. Results of the study indicated that respondents know the applicability of QR codes and have used codes for accessing information about products and for online purchases and they consider that QR codes contribute to the improving of the shopping experience.

  5. An Internship May Not Be Enough: Enhancing Bioscience Industry Job Readiness through Practicum Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M. Cramer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the narrowing of options in academic careers, the bioscience industry offers robust employment opportunities for STEM-trained workers, especially those who display both scientific and business talent. Unfortunately, traditional science programs typically lack curricular features that develop this type of worker. The North Carolina State University Master of Microbial Biotechnology (MMB program facilitates industry-specific experiential learning to fill this training gap. Similar programs often rely on a single industry internship to provide students relevant work experience, but completion of one internship might not suffice to position students for employment in a highly competitive job market. The MMB program requires students to complete an internship and three practicum projects in an industry setting, to promote development of key skills in a variety of areas, to build confidence in the ability to perform initial job duties, and to establish a more extensive work history in industry. In this Perspective we discuss an unmet need in undergraduate and graduate STEM education that can be filled by incorporating a similar set of industry-specific work experiences for students who desire to transition from academe into the life science industry.

  6. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) may enhance implementation of clinical practice guidelines: An experience from the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiker, Amir; Amer, Yasser S; Osman, Mohamed E; Al-Eyadhy, Ayman; Fatani, Solafa; Mohamed, Sarar; Alnemri, Abdulrahman; Titi, Maher A; Shaikh, Farheen; Alswat, Khalid A; Wahabi, Hayfaa A; Al-Ansary, Lubna A

    2017-12-29

    Implementation of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) has been shown to reduce variation in practice and improve health care quality and patients' safety. There is a limited experience of CPG implementation (CPGI) in the Middle East. The CPG program in our institution was launched in 2009. The Quality Management department conducted a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) for further improvement of CPGI. This is a prospective study of a qualitative/quantitative design. Our FMEA included (1) process review and recording of the steps and activities of CPGI; (2) hazard analysis by recording activity-related failure modes and their effects, identification of actions required, assigned severity, occurrence, and detection scores for each failure mode and calculated the risk priority number (RPN) by using an online interactive FMEA tool; (3) planning: RPNs were prioritized, recommendations, and further planning for new interventions were identified; and (4) monitoring: after reduction or elimination of the failure mode. The calculated RPN will be compared with subsequent analysis in post-implementation phase. The data were scrutinized from a feedback of quality team members using a FMEA framework to enhance the implementation of 29 adapted CPGs. The identified potential common failure modes with the highest RPN (≥ 80) included awareness/training activities, accessibility of CPGs, fewer advocates from clinical champions, and CPGs auditing. Actions included (1) organizing regular awareness activities, (2) making CPGs printed and electronic copies accessible, (3) encouraging senior practitioners to get involved in CPGI, and (4) enhancing CPGs auditing as part of the quality sustainability plan. In our experience, FMEA could be a useful tool to enhance CPGI. It helped us to identify potential barriers and prepare relevant solutions. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Dynamic oxygen-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the lung in asthma—Initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei-Juan, E-mail: weijuan.zhang@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk [Centre for Imaging Sciences, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom); Biomedical Imaging Institute, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom); Niven, Robert M., E-mail: robert.niven@uhsm.nhs.uk [North West Lung Research Centre, University Hospital of South Manchester, Southmoor Road, Manchester M23 9LT (United Kingdom); Young, Simon S., E-mail: Simon.Young1@astrazeneca.com [Personalised Healthcare and Biomarkers, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Macclesfield SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Liu, Yu-Zhen, E-mail: yu-zhen.liu@astrazeneca.com [Personalised Healthcare and Biomarkers, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Macclesfield SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Parker, Geoffrey J.M., E-mail: Geoff.parker@manchester.ac.uk [Centre for Imaging Sciences, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom); Biomedical Imaging Institute, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom); Bioxydyn Limited, Rutherford House, Pencroft Way, Manchester M15 6SZ (United Kingdom); Naish, Josephine H., E-mail: Josephine.naish@manchester.ac.uk [Centre for Imaging Sciences, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom); Biomedical Imaging Institute, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Oxygen-enhanced MRI may have a role in the estimation of disease severity in asthma. • Heterogeneity of parameter maps reflects localized functional impairment in asthma. • OE-MRI provides non-ionising, spatial and temporal information on oxygen delivery. - Abstract: Objectives: To prospectively estimate the feasibility and reproducibility of dynamic oxygen-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (OE-MRI) in the assessment of regional oxygen delivery, uptake and washout in asthmatic lungs. Materials and methods: The study was approved by the National Research Ethics Committee and written informed consent was obtained. Dynamic OE-MRI was performed twice at one month apart on four mild asthmatic patients (23 ± 5 years old, FEV{sub 1} = 96 ± 3% of predicted value) and six severe asthmatic patients (41 ± 12 years old, FEV{sub 1} = 60 ± 14% of predicted value) on a 1.5 T MR scanner using a two-dimensional T{sub 1}-weighted inversion-recovery turbo spin echo sequence. The enhancing fraction (EF), the maximal change in the partial pressure of oxygen in lung tissue (ΔPO{sub 2max{sub l}}) and arterial blood of the aorta (ΔPO{sub 2max{sub a}}), and the oxygen wash-in (τ{sub up{sub l}}, τ{sub up{sub a}}) and wash-out (τ{sub down{sub l}}, τ{sub down{sub a}}) time constants were extracted and compared between groups using the independent-samples t-test (two-tailed). Correlations between imaging readouts and clinical measurements were assessed by Pearson's correlation analysis. Bland–Altman analysis was used to estimate the levels of agreement between the repeat scans and the intra-observer agreement in the MR imaging readouts. Results: The severe asthmatic group had significantly smaller EF (70 ± 16%) and median ΔPO{sub 2max{sub l}} (156 ± 52 mmHg) and significantly larger interquartile range of τ{sub up{sub l}} (0.84 ± 0.26 min) than the mild asthmatic group (95 ± 3%, P = 0.014; 281 ± 40 mmHg, P = 0.004; 0.20 ± 0.07 min, P = 0

  8. Enhanced recovery after surgery protocol in patients undergoing esophagectomy for cancer: a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacopuzzi, S; Weindelmayer, J; Treppiedi, E; Bencivenga, M; Ceola, M; Priolo, S; Carlini, M; de Manzoni, G

    2017-04-01

    This article is about an emerging issue in esophageal surgery: enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) Few data are published in literature and its safety and feasibility is still debated. The focus of our paper is on the feasibility of an ERAS protocol for esophagectomy (including both the Ivor-Lewis and McKeown procedure) in a high volume center comparing to a standard perioperative protocol. We introduced a novelty item on this type of surgery: resume of oral feeding in the first postoperative day. We analyzed the dropout rate for each item and the postoperative morbidity. We studied 39 patients operated in the Upper GI division of Verona University Hospital between January 2013 and August 2014; 22 patients (ERAS group) were studied in a perspective way while 17 patients (standard group) were studied retrospectively. The enhanced recovery protocol included intraoperative fluid management, time of extubation after surgery, intensive care unit discharge, drains and nasogastric tube management, mobilization of the patient, oral food intake. We compared the results between the two groups in term of hospital stay, postoperative morbidity and mortality. We also calculated the percentage completion of the protocol, evaluating patient drop-out rates for each of the items. Patients showed an improvement in the ERAS group in terms of earlier extubation, earlier intensive care unit discharge (p < 0.01), earlier thoracic drain, urinary catheter (p < 0.01) and nasogastric tube removal (p = 0.02), earlier mobilization (p < 0.01), and resume of oral feeding (p < 0.01). Median length of hospital stays in the ERAS group was 9 days while in the standard group was 10 days (p = 0.23). Postoperative morbidity and mortality were comparable between the two groups. This study shows the feasibility and safety of an ERAS protocol for esophageal surgery in a high-volume center. These data strengthen the literature results on this argument calling for larger sample size studies.

  9. Upscaling instantaneous to daily evapotranspiration using modelled daily shortwave radiation for remote sensing applications: an artificial neural network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandera, Loise; Mallick, Kaniska; Kiely, Gerard; Roupsard, Olivier; Peichl, Mathias; Magliulo, Vincenzo

    2017-04-01

    Upscaling instantaneous evapotranspiration retrieved at any specific time-of-day (ETi) to daily evapotranspiration (ETd) is a key challenge in mapping regional ET using polar orbiting sensors. Various studies have unanimously cited the shortwave incoming radiation (RS) to be the most robust reference variable explaining the ratio between ETd and ETi . This study aims to contribute in ETi upscaling for global studies using the ratio between daily and instantaneous incoming shortwave radiation (RSd / RSi) as a factor for converting ETi to ETd. This paper proposes an artificial neural network (ANN) machine-learning algorithm first to predict RSd from RSi followed by using the RSd / RSi ratio to convert ETi to ETd across different terrestrial ecosystems. Using RSi and RSd observations from multiple sub-networks of the FLUXNET database spread across different climates and biomes (to represent inputs that would typically be obtainable from remote sensors during the overpass time) in conjunction with some astronomical variables (e.g. solar zenith angle, day length, exoatmospheric shortwave radiation), we developed the ANN model for reproducing RSd and further used it to upscale ETi to ETd. The efficiency of the ANN is evaluated for different morning and afternoon times of day, under varying sky conditions, and also at different geographic locations. RS-based upscaled ETd produced a significant linear relation (R 2 = 0.65 to 0.69), low bias (-0.31 to -0.56 MJ m-2 d -1 ; approx. 4 %), and good agreement (RMSE 1.55 to 1.86 MJ m-2 d -1 ; approx. 10 %) with the observed ETd, although a systematic overestimation of ETd was also noted under persistent cloudy sky conditions. Inclusion of soil moisture and rainfall information in ANN training reduced the systematic overestimation tendency in predominantly overcast days. An intercomparison with existing upscaling method at daily, 8-day, monthly, and yearly temporal resolution revealed a robust performance of the ANNdriven RS

  10. Effect of surface albedo, water vapour, and atmospheric aerosols on the cloud-free shortwave radiative budget in the Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Biagio, C. [ENEA, Laboratory for Earth Observations and Analyses, Rome (Italy); University of Siena, Department of Earth Science, Siena (Italy); Di Sarra, A. [ENEA, Laboratory for Earth Observations and Analyses, Rome (Italy); Eriksen, P. [Danish Climate Centre, DMI, Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ascanius, S.E. [DMI, Danish Meteorological Institute, Qaanaaq (Greenland); Muscari, G. [INGV, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Rome (Italy); Holben, B. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2012-08-15

    This study is based on ground-based measurements of downward surface shortwave irradiance (SW), columnar water vapour (wv), and aerosol optical depth ({tau}) obtained at Thule Air Base (Greenland) in 2007-2010, together with MODIS observations of the surface shortwave albedo (A). Radiative transfer model calculations are used in combination with measurements to separate the radiative effect of A ({Delta}SW{sub A}), wv ({Delta}SW{sub wv}), and aerosols ({Delta}SW{sub {tau}}) in modulating SW in cloud-free conditions. The shortwave radiation at the surface is mainly affected by water vapour absorption, which produces a reduction of SW as low as -100 Wm{sup -2} (-18%). The seasonal change of A produces an increase of SW by up to +25 Wm{sup -2} (+4.5%). The annual mean radiative effect is estimated to be -(21-22) Wm{sup -2} for wv, and +(2-3) Wm{sup -2} for A. An increase by +0.065 cm in the annual mean wv, to which corresponds an absolute increase in {Delta}SW{sub wv} by 0.93 Wm{sup -2} (4.3%), has been observed to occur between 2007 and 2010. In the same period, the annual mean A has decreased by -0.027, with a corresponding decrease in {Delta}SW{sub A} by 0.41 Wm{sup -2} (-14.9%). Atmospheric aerosols produce a reduction of SW as low as -32 Wm{sup -2} (-6.7%). The instantaneous aerosol radiative forcing (RF{sub {tau}}) reaches values of -28 Wm{sup -2} and shows a strong dependency on surface albedo. The derived radiative forcing efficiency (FE{sub {tau}}) for solar zenith angles between 55 and 70 is estimated to be (-120.6 {+-} 4.3) for 0.1 < A < 0.2, and (-41.2 {+-} 1.6) Wm{sup -2} for 0.5 < A < 0.6. (orig.)

  11. Is pollen morphology of Salix polaris affected by enhanced UV-B irradiation? Results from a field experiment in high arctic tundra.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeloff, D.; Blokker, P.; Boelen, P.; Rozema, J.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the thickness of the pollen wall will increase in response to enhanced UV-B irradiation, by examining the effect of enhanced UV-B irradiance on the pollen morphology of Salix polaris Wahlem. grown in a field experiment on the Arctic tundra of Svalbard.

  12. Is pollen morphology of Salix polaris affected by enhanced UV-B irradiation? Results from a field experiment in High Arctic tundra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeloff, D.; Blokker, P.; Boelen, P.; Rozema, J.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the thickness of the pollen wall will increase in response to enhanced UV-B irradiation, by examining the effect of enhanced UV-B irradiance on the pollen morphology of Salix polaris Wahlem. grown in a field experiment on the Arctic tundra of Svalbard.

  13. Incentives for healthy behaviors: experience from Florida Medicaid's Enhanced Benefit Rewards program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Allyson G; Lemak, Christy Harris; Landry, Amy Yarbrough; Duncan, R Paul

    2013-04-01

    Engaging individuals in their own health care proves challenging for policy makers, health plans, and providers. Florida Medicaid introduced the Enhanced Benefits Rewards (EBR) program in 2006, providing financial incentives as rewards to beneficiaries who engage in health care seeking and healthy behaviors. This study analyzed beneficiary survey data from 2009 to determine predictors associated with awareness of and participation in the EBR program. Non-English speakers, those in a racial and ethnic minority group, those with less than a high school education, and those with limited or no connection to a health care provider were associated with lower awareness of the program. Among those aware of the program, these factors were also associated with reduced likelihood of engaging in the program. Individuals in fair or poor health were also less likely to engage in an approved behavior. Individuals who speak Spanish at home and those without a high school diploma were more likely than other groups to spend their earned program credits. Findings underscore the fact that initial engagement in such a program can prove challenging as different groups are not equally likely to be aware of or participate in an approved activity or redeem a credit. Physicians may play important roles in encouraging participation in programs to incentivize healthy behaviors.

  14. Enhancement Experiment on Cementitious Activity of Copper-Mine Tailings in a Geopolymer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Copper-mine tailings are the residual products after the extraction of precious copper metal from copper ores, and their storage can create numerous environmental problems. Many researchers have used copper-mine tailings for the preparation of geopolymers. This paper studies the enhancement of the cementitious activity of copper-mine tailings in geopolymer systems. First, copper-mine tailings are activated through mechanical grinding activation. Then, the mechanically activated copper-mine tailings are further processed through thermal activation and alkaline-roasting activation. The cementitious activity index of copper-mine tailings is characterized through the degree of leaching concentration of Si and Al. It was observed that the Si and Al leaching concentration of mechanically activated tailings was increased by 26.03% and 93.33%, respectively. The concentration of Si and Al was increased by 54.19% and 119.92%, respectively. For alkaline-roasting activation, roasting time, temperature and the mass ratio of copper-mine tailings to NaOH (C/N ratio were evaluated through orthogonal tests, and the best condition for activation was 120 min at 600 °C with a C/N ratio of 5:1. In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and infra-red (IR analysis show that mechanical, thermal and alkaline-roasting activation could be used to improve the cementitious activity index of copper-mine tailings.

  15. Partnerships for success: A collaborative support model to enhance the first year student experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Einfalt

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent discourse about engaging first year students calls for more collaboration in terms of adopting a holistic approach to course delivery and support. This paper discusses a collaborative support model operating at a regional Australian university since 2008. In particular, it describes a collaborative support initiative emerging from this model that is based on providing an informal consultative space where students can drop-in and gain assessment support for research, writing and content. A focus group, online surveys and interviews with co-ordinators were conducted to evaluate the impact of this initiative. Findings suggest that this collaborative support model impacts on the first year student experience by: raising awareness about academic skills and the processes for researching and writing; promoting peer learning opportunities; building confidence and providing suitable support for a diverse range of students.

  16. Experience Playing a Musical Instrument and Overnight Sleep Enhance Performance on a Sequential Typing Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Matthew A; Nguyen, Nam; Stickgold, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The smooth, coordinated fine motor movements required to play a musical instrument are not only highly valued in our society; they also predict academic success in areas that generalize beyond the motor domain, including reading and math readiness, and verbal abilities. Interestingly, motor skills that overlap with those required to play a musical instrument (e.g., sequential finger tapping) markedly improve (get faster) over a night of sleep, but not after a day spent awake. Here we studied whether individuals who play musical instruments that require fine finger motor skill are better able to learn and consolidate a simple motor skill task compared to those who do not play an instrument, and whether sleep-specific motor skill benefits interact with those imparted by musical experience. We used the motor sequence task (MST), which taps into a core skill learned and used by musicians, namely, the repetition of learned sequences of key presses. Not surprisingly, we found that musicians were faster than non-musicians throughout the learning session, typing more correct sequences per 30-sec trial. In the 12hrs that followed learning we found that sleep and musical experience both led to greater improvement in performance. Surprisingly, musicians retested after a day of wake performed slightly better than non-musicians who had slept between training and retest, suggesting that musicians have the capacity to consolidate a motor skill across waking hours, while non-musicians appear to lack this capacity. These findings suggest that the musically trained brain is optimized for motor skill consolidation across both wake and sleep, and that sleep may simply promote a more effective use of this machinery. In sum, there may be something special about musicians, perhaps a neurophysiological advantage, that leads to both the expected-greater motor speed at learning-and the surprising-greater motor skill improvement over time.

  17. Experience Playing a Musical Instrument and Overnight Sleep Enhance Performance on a Sequential Typing Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Tucker

    Full Text Available The smooth, coordinated fine motor movements required to play a musical instrument are not only highly valued in our society; they also predict academic success in areas that generalize beyond the motor domain, including reading and math readiness, and verbal abilities. Interestingly, motor skills that overlap with those required to play a musical instrument (e.g., sequential finger tapping markedly improve (get faster over a night of sleep, but not after a day spent awake. Here we studied whether individuals who play musical instruments that require fine finger motor skill are better able to learn and consolidate a simple motor skill task compared to those who do not play an instrument, and whether sleep-specific motor skill benefits interact with those imparted by musical experience. We used the motor sequence task (MST, which taps into a core skill learned and used by musicians, namely, the repetition of learned sequences of key presses. Not surprisingly, we found that musicians were faster than non-musicians throughout the learning session, typing more correct sequences per 30-sec trial. In the 12hrs that followed learning we found that sleep and musical experience both led to greater improvement in performance. Surprisingly, musicians retested after a day of wake performed slightly better than non-musicians who had slept between training and retest, suggesting that musicians have the capacity to consolidate a motor skill across waking hours, while non-musicians appear to lack this capacity. These findings suggest that the musically trained brain is optimized for motor skill consolidation across both wake and sleep, and that sleep may simply promote a more effective use of this machinery. In sum, there may be something special about musicians, perhaps a neurophysiological advantage, that leads to both the expected-greater motor speed at learning-and the surprising-greater motor skill improvement over time.

  18. Intravenous contrast-enhanced sonography in children and adolescents – a single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stenzel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Compared to adult patients, ultrasonography in children and adolescents is much more common, due to lack of ionizing radiation, and its wide availability. With the introduction of contrast-media for use in ultrasonography, one major drawback of the method could be overcome. In Europe, SonoVue® is the only widely available agent, which due to improved stability makes it possible to image normal and diseased tissue perfusion and vascularization with high accuracy. Inability to hold the breath and voluntary body movement of the patient is less of an obstacle compared to color Doppler techniques and makes the method very attractive for use in children, which, depending on age, may not be very cooperative. Use of intravenous contrast-medium in minors is currently very limited for several reasons: availability, lack of recommendation in national and international guidelines, and lack of official licensing. The article will touch medical indications, technique, safety considerations, and perspective of intravenous use of contrast-media in children and adolescents, including data from a 6-year period in 37 patients. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to collect data on ultrasonographic examinations, expanded by intravenous administration of the contrast agent SonoVue® in children and adolescents. Besides assessing diagnostic yield, data on adverse medication effects was collected. Materials and methods: The study includes contrast-enhanced ultrasound examinations in 37 children at a single institution. Indications for the examinations were tumor lesions, infections, traumatic organ injuries, and parenchymal organ ischemia. Parents of the patients and adolescent patients were informed about the off-label use of the contrast agent. Thirty-nine examinations were performed, the average age of the patient was 11.1 years (range 1 7/ 12 to 17 11/ 12 years. Results: All of the examinations yielded additional diagnostic value, always expanding results

  19. Oral cancer/endothelial cell fusion experiences nuclear fusion and acquisition of enhanced survival potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kai [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong Province (China); The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Song, Yong [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Department of Stomatology, Liu Zhou People' s Hospital, Guangxi (China); Zhao, Xiao-Ping; Shen, Hui; Wang, Meng; Yan, Ting-lin [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Liu, Ke, E-mail: liuke.1999@aliyun.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial-Head and Neck oncology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China); The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Shang, Zheng-jun, E-mail: shangzhengjun@hotmail.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial-Head and Neck oncology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China); The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China)

    2014-10-15

    Most previous studies have linked cancer–macrophage fusion with tumor progression and metastasis. However, the characteristics of hybrid cells derived from oral cancer and endothelial cells and their involvement in cancer remained unknown. Double-immunofluorescent staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed to confirm spontaneous cell fusion between eGFP-labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and RFP-labeled SCC9, and to detect the expression of vementin and cytokeratin 18 in the hybrids. The property of chemo-resistance of such hybrids was examined by TUNEL assay. The hybrid cells in xenografted tumor were identified by FISH and GFP/RFP dual-immunofluoresence staining. We showed that SCC9 cells spontaneously fused with cocultured endothelial cells, and the resultant hybrid cells maintained the division and proliferation activity after re-plating and thawing. Such hybrids expressed markers of both parental cells and became more resistant to chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin as compared to the parental SCC9 cells. Our in vivo data indicated that the hybrid cells contributed to tumor composition by using of immunostaining and FISH analysis, even though the hybrid cells and SCC9 cells were mixed with 1:10,000, according to the FACS data. Our study suggested that the fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion and acquire a new property of drug resistance and consequently enhanced survival potential. These experimental findings provide further supportive evidence for the theory that cell fusion is involved in cancer progression. - Highlights: • The fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion. • The resulting hybrid cells acquire a new property of drug resistance. • The resulting hybrid cells express the markers of both parental cells (i.e. vimentin and cytokeratin 18). • The hybrid cells contribute to tumor repopulation in vivo.

  20. Oral cancer/endothelial cell fusion experiences nuclear fusion and acquisition of enhanced survival potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kai; Song, Yong; Zhao, Xiao-Ping; Shen, Hui; Wang, Meng; Yan, Ting-Lin; Liu, Ke; Shang, Zheng-Jun

    2014-10-15

    Most previous studies have linked cancer-macrophage fusion with tumor progression and metastasis. However, the characteristics of hybrid cells derived from oral cancer and endothelial cells and their involvement in cancer remained unknown. Double-immunofluorescent staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were performed to confirm spontaneous cell fusion between eGFP-labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and RFP-labeled SCC9, and to detect the expression of vementin and cytokeratin 18 in the hybrids. The property of chemo-resistance of such hybrids was examined by TUNEL assay. The hybrid cells in xenografted tumor were identified by FISH and GFP/RFP dual-immunofluoresence staining. We showed that SCC9 cells spontaneously fused with cocultured endothelial cells, and the resultant hybrid cells maintained the division and proliferation activity after re-plating and thawing. Such hybrids expressed markers of both parental cells and became more resistant to chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin as compared to the parental SCC9 cells. Our in vivo data indicated that the hybrid cells contributed to tumor composition by using of immunostaining and FISH analysis, even though the hybrid cells and SCC9 cells were mixed with 1:10,000, according to the FACS data. Our study suggested that the fusion events between oral cancer and endothelial cells undergo nuclear fusion and acquire a new property of drug resistance and consequently enhanced survival potential. These experimental findings provide further supportive evidence for the theory that cell fusion is involved in cancer progression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Laparoscopic Gastrectomy with Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Protocol: Single-Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarska, Magdalena; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Major, Piotr; Kisielewski, Michał; Migaczewski, Marcin; Rubinkiewicz, Mateusz; Budzyński, Piotr; Przęczek, Krzysztof; Zub-Pokrowiecka, Anna; Budzyński, Andrzej

    2017-03-23

    BACKGROUND Surgery remains the mainstay of gastric cancer treatment. It is, however, associated with a relatively high risk of perioperative complications. The use of laparoscopy and the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocol allows clinicians to limit surgically induced trauma, thus improving recovery and reducing the number of complications. The aim of the study is to present clinical outcomes of patients with gastric cancer undergoing laparoscopic gastrectomy combined with the ERAS protocol. MATERIAL AND METHODS Fifty-three (21 female/32 male) patients who underwent elective laparoscopic total gastrectomy due to cancer were prospectively analyzed. Demographic and surgical parameters were assessed, as well as the compliance with ERAS protocol elements, length of hospital stay, number of complications, and readmissions. RESULTS Mean operative time was 296.4±98.9 min, and mean blood loss was 293.3±213.8 mL. In 3 (5.7%) cases, conversion was required. Median length of hospital stay was 5 days. Compliance with ERAS protocol was 79.6±14.5%. Thirty (56.6%) patients tolerated an early oral diet well within 24 h postoperatively; in 48 (90.6%) patients, mobilization in the first 24 hours was successful. In 17 (32.1%) patients, postoperative complications occurred, with 7 of them (13.2%) being serious (Clavien-Dindo 3-5). The 30-day readmission rate was 9.4%. CONCLUSIONS The combination of laparoscopy and the ERAS protocol in patients with gastric cancer is feasible and allows achieving good clinical outcomes.

  2. Short-wave infrared barriode detectors using InGaAsSb absorption material lattice matched to GaSb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, A. P.; Percy, B.; Marshall, A. R. J. [Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Jain, M. [Amethyst Research Ltd., Kelvin Campus, West of Scotland Science Park, Glasgow G20 0SP (United Kingdom); Wicks, G.; Hossain, K. [Amethyst Research, Inc., 123 Case Circle, Ardmore, Oklahoma 73401 (United States); Golding, T. [Amethyst Research Ltd., Kelvin Campus, West of Scotland Science Park, Glasgow G20 0SP (United Kingdom); Amethyst Research, Inc., 123 Case Circle, Ardmore, Oklahoma 73401 (United States); McEwan, K.; Howle, C. [Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP4 0JQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-18

    Short-wave infrared barriode detectors were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. An absorption layer composition of In{sub 0.28}Ga{sub 0.72}As{sub 0.25}Sb{sub 0.75} allowed for lattice matching to GaSb and cut-off wavelengths of 2.9 μm at 250 K and 3.0 μm at room temperature. Arrhenius plots of the dark current density showed diffusion limited dark currents approaching those expected for optimized HgCdTe-based detectors. Specific detectivity figures of around 7×10{sup 10} Jones and 1×10{sup 10} Jones were calculated, for 240 K and room temperature, respectively. Significantly, these devices could support focal plane arrays working at higher operating temperatures.

  3. Retrieval of ice cloud properties with visible/near-/shortwave-infrared (VNIR/SWIR) and thermal-infrared (TIR) obaservations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Platnick, S. E.; Meyer, K.; Zhang, Z.; Yang, P.; Ding, J.

    2016-12-01

    An optical-estimation (OE) based ice cloud retrieval algorithm is developed with visible/near-/shortwave-infrared (VNIR/SWIR) and thermal-infrared (TIR) observations. It is known that VNIR/SWIR observations are more sensitive to optically thick clouds, while TIR observations are more sensitive to optically thin clouds. The combination of both VNIR/SWIR and TIR observations is expected to improve the overall ice cloud retrieval performance. In this study, we develop an optimal method to select different bands for retrieving different types of ice clouds (e.g., thin cirrus or deep convective cloud). With the optimally selected bands, retrieval uncertainties are minimized and information content are maximized. The retrieval algorithm is based on a clear-sky transmittance module and a radiative transfer model that cover the VNIR/SWIR and TIR regions. The forward model is computational efficiency and therefore can be used to a wide variaty of remote sensing applications.

  4. Native experience with a tone language enhances pitch discrimination and the timing of neural responses to pitch change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Ryan J; Pfordresher, Peter Q; Stanley, Emily M; Narayana, Shalini; Wicha, Nicole Y Y

    2011-01-01

    Native tone language experience has been linked with alterations in the production and perception of pitch in language, as well as with the brain response to linguistic and non-linguistic tones. Here we use two experiments to address whether these changes apply to the discrimination of simple pitch changes and pitch intervals. Event related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from native Mandarin speakers and a control group during a same/different task with pairs of pure tones differing only in pitch height, and with pure tone pairs differing only in interval distance. Behaviorally, Mandarin speakers were more accurate than controls at detecting both pitch and interval changes, showing a sensitivity to small pitch changes and interval distances that was absent in the control group. Converging evidence from ERPs obtained during the same tasks revealed an earlier response to change relative to no-change trials in Mandarin speakers, as well as earlier differentiation of trials by change direction relative to controls. These findings illustrate the cross-domain influence of language experience on the perception of pitch, suggesting that the native use of tonal pitch contours in language leads to a general enhancement in the acuity of pitch representations.

  5. High spatial resolution burn severity mapping of the New Jersey Pine Barrens with WorldView-3 near-infrared and shortwave infrared imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy A. Warner; Nicholas S. Skowronski; Michael R. Gallagher

    2017-01-01

    The WorldView-3 (WV-3) sensor, launched in 2014, is the first highspatial resolution scanner to acquire imagery in the shortwave infrared (SWIR). A spectral ratio of the SWIR combined with the nearinfrared (NIR) can potentially provide an effective differentiation of wildfire burn severity. Previous high spatial resolution sensors were limited to data fromthe visible...

  6. Successful partnerships with third sector organisations to enhance the healthcare student experience: a partnership evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Katie; Tanner, Judith; Rutty, Jane; Astley-Pepper, Maxine; Hall, Richard

    2015-03-01

    There is limited research surrounding academic partnerships and more research is needed to educate universities, and the private, public and third sectors about the benefits and limitations of such partnerships. The aim of this study was to outline the unique partnership between Macmillan Cancer Support and De Montfort University and to evaluate the progress of this partnership. A qualitative approach was employed which involved interviews with nine members of the partnership's steering group. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. The results showed that a partnership between a university and a third sector charity can have mutual benefits for all those involved, particularly for students and those affected by cancer. Furthermore, the module to develop volunteering among families affected cancer, created through this partnership is now being considered by other universities as a way of providing holistic and non-traditional lecture based learning experiences. Recommendations are made for future partnerships between third sector charities and universities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. MusA: using indoor positioning and navigation to enhance cultural experiences in a museum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, Irene; Xhembulla, Jetmir; Martina, Andrea; Bottino, Andrea; Malnati, Giovanni

    2013-12-17

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the use of multimedia mobile guides in museum environments. Mobile devices have the capabilities to detect the user context and to provide pieces of information suitable to help visitors discover and follow the logical and emotional connections that develop during the visit. In this scenario, location based services (LBS) currently represent an asset, and the choice of the technology to determine users' position, combined with the definition of methods that can effectively convey information, become key issues in the design process. In this work, we present Museum Assistant (MusA), a general framework for the development of multimedia interactive guides for mobile devices. Its main feature is a vision-based indoor positioning system that allows the provision of several LBS, from way-finding to the contextualized communication of cultural contents, aimed at providing a meaningful exploration of exhibits according to visitors' personal interest and curiosity. Starting from the thorough description of the system architecture, the article presents the implementation of two mobile guides, developed to respectively address adults and children, and discusses the evaluation of the user experience and the visitors' appreciation of these applications.

  8. Water Information as a Tool to Enhance Sustainable Water Management—The Australian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Horne

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many countries and regions have struggled to put in place adequate water information systems to assist with sustainable water management. This article describes and assesses the key components of Australia’s water information and data systems, with particular reference to rural and regional Australia, focusing on progress with strengthening these systems at a national level since 2007. Through the early part of the period, much of Australia was experiencing a crisis in water availability. The article concludes with ongoing challenges for Australia and lessons from the Australian experience for other countries embarking on upgrading their water information and data systems. Upgrading a nation’s water information systems is a long-term task, but an important one in a world of climate change and increased climate variability. Substantial progress is likely to take five to 10 years to materialize. From the outset, upgrading information systems needs to be focused on data series that will facilitate answering key policy questions, assist water users in making significant decisions more effectively, and allow businesses and government to better address risks from water-related events. As always, political support matters. To sustain investments in information, its coverage must facilitate illuminating key questions and issues. Custodians of information systems must ensure that the value proposition is clear to all.

  9. MusA: Using Indoor Positioning and Navigation to Enhance Cultural Experiences in a Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Rubino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a growing interest in the use of multimedia mobile guides in museum environments. Mobile devices have the capabilities to detect the user context and to provide pieces of information suitable to help visitors discover and follow the logical and emotional connections that develop during the visit. In this scenario, location based services (LBS currently represent an asset, and the choice of the technology to determine users’ position, combined with the definition of methods that can effectively convey information, become key issues in the design process. In this work, we present Museum Assistant (MusA, a general framework for the development of multimedia interactive guides for mobile devices. Its main feature is a vision-based indoor positioning system that allows the provision of several LBS, from way-finding to the contextualized communication of cultural contents, aimed at providing a meaningful exploration of exhibits according to visitors’ personal interest and curiosity. Starting from the thorough description of the system architecture, the article presents the implementation of two mobile guides, developed to respectively address adults and children, and discusses the evaluation of the user experience and the visitors’ appreciation of these applications.

  10. Detection of supercooled liquid water-topped mixed-phase clouds >from shortwave-infrared satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOH, Y. J.; Miller, S. D.; Heidinger, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the utility of multispectral information from satellite passive radiometers for detecting and retrieving the properties of cloud globally, which conventionally utilizes shortwave- and thermal-infrared bands. However, the satellite-derived cloud information comes mainly from cloud top or represents a vertically integrated property. This can produce a large bias in determining cloud phase characteristics, in particular for mixed-phase clouds which are often observed to have supercooled liquid water at cloud top but a predominantly ice phase residing below. The current satellite retrieval algorithms may report these clouds simply as supercooled liquid without any further information regarding the presence of a sub-cloud-top ice phase. More accurate characterization of these clouds is very important for climate models and aviation applications. In this study, we present a physical basis and preliminary results for the algorithm development of supercooled liquid-topped mixed-phase cloud detection using satellite radiometer observations. The detection algorithm is based on differential absorption properties between liquid and ice particles in the shortwave-infrared bands. Solar reflectance data in narrow bands at 1.6 μm and 2.25 μm are used to optically probe below clouds for distinction between supercooled liquid-topped clouds with and without an underlying mixed phase component. Varying solar/sensor geometry and cloud optical properties are also considered. The spectral band combination utilized for the algorithm is currently available on Suomi NPP Visible/Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), Himawari-8 Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI), and the future GOES-R Advance Baseline Imager (ABI). When tested on simulated cloud fields from WRF model and synthetic ABI data, favorable results were shown with reasonable threat scores (0.6-0.8) and false alarm rates (0.1-0.2). An ARM/NSA case study applied to VIIRS data also indicated promising

  11. An 18-day stretching regimen, with or without pulsed, shortwave diathermy, and ankle dorsiflexion after 3 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, Jody B; Knight, Kenneth L; Rubley, Mack D; Draper, David O

    2005-01-01

    The amount of retained ankle flexibility gains and the effects of diathermy on those gains are unclear. To determine the retention of flexibility 3 weeks after an 18-day stretching regime and the effect of pulsed, shortwave diathermy on that retention. We used a 2x4 factorial with repeated measures on day (1, 19, 24, and 39). The other independent variable was treatment (stretch only versus diathermy and stretch). The dependent variable was ankle-dorsiflexion angular displacement as measured on a digital inclinometer. Therapeutic Modality Research Laboratory. 23 healthy college-aged volunteers (8 males, 15 females; age = 22.7 +/- 2.1 years, height = 171.1 +/- 8.8 cm, mass = 70.4 +/- 13.5 kg). All subjects performed 3 weeks (not including weekends) of low-load, prolonged, long-duration stretching. One group performed stretching only; the other group also received diathermy. After an 18-day stretching regime and 7-day retention study, subjects returned 14 days later for the 3-week retention measure. The angle of inclination from the posterior Achilles tendon to the sole of the shoe near the heel was measured on each treatment and test day. Regardless of group (F(1,21) = 0.74, P = 0.40), the flexibility gained between days 1 (99.7 +/- 4.0 degrees), 19 (102.9 +/- 5.8 degrees), and 24 (105.0 +/- 6.2 degrees) were maintained at day 39 (104.8+/- 7.2 degrees) (P shortwave diathermy during stretching did not appear to influence the chronic retention of flexibility gains in normal subjects.

  12. Accounting for the effects of sastrugi in the CERES clear-sky Antarctic shortwave angular distribution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, J.; Su, W.

    2015-08-01

    The Cloud and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments on NASA's Terra, Aqua and Soumi NPP satellites are used to provide a long-term measurement of Earth's energy budget. To accomplish this, the radiances measured by the instruments must be inverted to fluxes by the use of a scene-type-dependent angular distribution model (ADM). For permanent snow scenes over Antarctica, shortwave (SW) ADMs are created by compositing radiance measurements over the full viewing zenith and azimuth range. However, the presence of small-scale wind blown roughness features called sastrugi cause the BRDF (bidirectional reflectance distribution function) of the snow to vary significantly based upon the solar azimuth angle and location. This can result in monthly regional biases between -12 and 7.5 Wm-2 in the inverted TOA (top-of-atmosphere) SW flux. The bias is assessed by comparing the CERES shortwave fluxes derived from nadir observations with those from all viewing zenith angles, as the sastrugi affect fluxes inverted from the oblique viewing angles more than for the nadir viewing angles. In this paper we further describe the clear-sky Antarctic ADMs from Su et al. (2015). These ADMs account for the sastrugi effect by using measurements from the Multi-Angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) instrument to derive statistical relationships between radiance from different viewing angles. We show here that these ADMs reduce the bias and artifacts in the CERES SW flux caused by sastrugi, both locally and Antarctic-wide. The regional monthly biases from sastrugi are reduced to between -5 and 7 Wm-2, and the monthly-mean biases over Antarctica are reduced by up to 0.64 Wm-2, a decrease of 74 %. These improved ADMs are used as part of the Edition 4 CERES SSF (Single Scanner Footprint) data.

  13. Enhanced removal of VOCs from aquifers during air sparging using thickeners and surfactants: Bench-scale experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heonki; Ahn, Dayoung; Annable, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    The effects of controlled air flow paths during air sparging on the removal of volatile organic compounds were examined in this study using a two-dimensional bench-scale physical model. An aqueous solution of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC), which is a thickener, was used to increase the resistance of water to displacement by injected air in a region around the targeted zone. At the same time, an aqueous solution of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), which is a surfactant, was used to reduce the air entry pressure to enhance the air flow through the targeted region. Trichloroethene (TCE), dissolved in water, was used to represent an aqueous phase volatile organic compound (VOC). A binary mixture of perchloroethene (PCE) and n-hexane was also used as a nonaqeous phase liquid (NAPL). Controlled air flow through the source zone, achieved by emplacing a high viscosity aqueous solution into a region surrounding the TCE-impacted zone, resulted in increased TCE removal from 23.0% (control) to 38.2% during a 2.5h period. When the air flow was focused on the targeted source zone of aqueous phase TCE (by decreasing the surface tension within the source zone and its vicinity by 28 dyn/cm, no SCMC applied), the mass removal of TCE was enhanced to 41.3% during the same time period. With SCMC and SDBS applied simultaneously around and beneath a NAPL source zone, respectively, the NAPL components were found to be removed more effectively over a period of 8.2h than the sparging experiment with no additives applied; 84.6% of PCE and 94.0% of n-hexane were removed for the controlled air flow path experiments (with both SCMC and SDBS applied) compared to 52.7% (PCE) and 74.0% (n-hexane) removal for the control experiment (no additives applied). Based on the experimental observations made in this study, applying a viscous aqueous solution around the source zone and a surfactant solution in and near the source zone, the air flow was focused through the targeted contaminant

  14. Social media and anatomy education: Using twitter to enhance the student learning experience in anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Catherine M; Kirkpatrick, Emma; Smith, Claire F; Border, Scott

    2016-11-01

    Neuroanatomy is a difficult subject in medical education, with students often feeling worried and anxious before they have even started, potentially decreasing their engagement with the subject. At the University of Southampton, we incorporated the use of Twitter as a way of supporting students' learning on a neuroanatomy module to evaluate how it impacted upon their engagement and learning experience. The #nlm2soton hashtag was created and displayed (via a widget) on the university's virtual learning environment (VLE) for a cohort of 197 Year 2 medical students studying neuroanatomy. Student usage was tracked to measure levels of engagement throughout the course and frequency of hashtag use was compared to examination results. Student opinions on the use of Twitter were obtained during a focus group with eleven students and from qualitative questionnaires. The hashtag was used by 91% of the student cohort and, within this, more students chose to simply view the hashtag rather than make contributions. The completed questionnaire responses (n = 150) as well as focus group outcomes revealed the value of using Twitter. A negligible correlation was found between student examination scores and their viewing frequency of the hashtag however, no correlation was found between examination scores and contribution frequency. Despite this, Twitter facilitated communication, relieved anxieties and raised morale, which was valued highly by students and aided engagement with neuroanatomy. Twitter was successful in creating and providing a support network for students during a difficult module. Anat Sci Educ 9: 505-515. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  15. Host selection by the pine processionary moth enhances larval performance: An experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Contreras, Tomás; Soler, Juan J.; Soler, Manuel

    2014-02-01

    The development of a phytophagous insect depends on the nutritional characteristics of plants on which it feeds. Offspring from different females, however, may vary in their ability to develop in different host species and therefore females should place their eggs on host plants that result in the highest performance for the insect offspring. Causes underlying the predicted relationships between host selection and offspring performance may be: (1) a genetic association between larval ability to exploit particular hosts and the female insect's host preference; and (2) phenotypic plasticity of larvae that may be due to (a) maternal effects (e.g. differential investment in eggs) or (b) diet. In this work, we analyse the performance (i.e. hatching success and larval size and mortality) of the pine processionary (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) caterpillar developing in Aleppo (Pinus halepensis) or maritime (Pinus pinaster) pines. Larvae of this moth species do not move from the individual pine selected by the mother for oviposition. By means of cross-fostering experiments of eggs batches and silk nests of larvae between these two pine species, we explored whether phenotypic plasticity of offspring traits or genetic correlations between mother and offspring traits account for variation in developmental characteristics of caterpillars. Our results showed that females preferentially selected Aleppo pine for oviposition. Moreover, the offspring had the highest probability of survival and reached a larger body size in this pine species independently of whether or not batches were experimentally cross-fostered. Notably, the interaction between identity of donor and receiver pine species of larvae nests explained a significant proportion of variance of larval size and mortality, suggesting a role of diet-induced phenotypic plasticity of the hatchlings. These results suggest that both female selection of the more appropriate pine species and phenotypic plasticity of larva explain the

  16. Internet-based virtual classroom and educational management software enhance students' didactic and clinical experiences in perfusion education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Jeffrey B; Austin, Jon W; Holt, David W; Searles, Bruce E; Darling, Edward M

    2004-09-01

    A challenge faced by many university-based perfusion education (PE) programs is the need for student clinical rotations at hospital locations that are geographically disparate from the main educational campus. The problem has been addressed through the employment of distance-learning environments. The purpose of this educational study is to evaluate the effectiveness of this teaching model as it is applied to PE. Web-based virtual classroom (VC) environments and educational management system (EMS) software were implemented independently and as adjuncts to live, interactive Internet-based audio/video transmission from classroom to classroom in multiple university-based PE programs. These Internet environments have been used in a variety of ways including: 1) forum for communication between the university faculty, students, and preceptors at clinical sites, 2) didactic lectures from expert clinicians to students assigned to distant clinical sites, 3) small group problem-based-learning modules designed to enhance students analytical skills, and 4) conversion of traditional face-to-face lectures to asynchronous learning modules. Hypotheses and measures of student and faculty satisfaction, clinical experience, and learning outcomes are proposed, and some early student feedback was collected. For curricula that emphasize both didactic and clinical education, the use of Internet-based VC and EMS software provides significant advancements over traditional models. Recognized advantages include: 1) improved communications between the college faculty and the students and clinical preceptors, 2) enhanced access to a national network of clinical experts in specialized techniques, 3) expanded opportunity for student distant clinical rotations with continued didactic course work, and 4) improved continuity and consistency of clinical experiences between students through implementation of asynchronous learning modules. Students recognize the learning efficiency of on

  17. Creating Learning Objects to Enhance the Educational Experiences of American Sign Language Learners: An Instructional Development Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Conceição

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Little attention has been given to involving the deaf community in distance teaching and learning or in designing courses that relate to their language and culture. This article reports on the design and development of video-based learning objects created to enhance the educational experiences of American Sign Language (ASL hearing participants in a distance learning course and, following the course, the creation of several new applications for use of the learning objects. The learning objects were initially created for the web, as a course component for review and rehearsal. The value of the web application, as reported by course participants, led us to consider ways in which the learning objects could be used in a variety of delivery formats: CD-ROM, web-based knowledge repository, and handheld device. The process to create the learning objects, the new applications, and lessons learned are described.

  18. The development and evaluation of online stories to enhance clinical learning experiences across health professions in rural Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paliadelis, Penny Susan; Stupans, Ieva; Parker, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    placements with experienced supervisors who are skilled at maximising learning opportunities for students. This paper reports on the development and evaluation of an innovative online learning program aimed at enhancing student and clinical supervisors' preparedness for effective workplace-based learning......Clinical placement learning experiences are integral to all health and medical curricula as a means of integrating theory into practice and preparing graduates to deliver safe, high-quality care to health consumers. A growing challenge for education providers is to access sufficient clinical....... The evidence-based learning program used 'story-telling' as the learning framework. The stories, which were supported by a range of resources, aimed to engage the learners in understanding student and supervisor responsibilities, as well as the expectations and competencies needed to support effective learning...

  19. Natural and synthetic vocalizations of brown rat pups, Rattus norvegicus, enhance attractiveness of bait boxes in laboratory and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Stephen; Kowalski, Pawel; Gries, Gerhard

    2016-10-01

    Rats are often neophobic and thus do not readily enter trap boxes which are mandated in rodent management to help reduce the risk of accidental poisoning or capture of non-target animals. Working with brown rats, Rattus norvegicus, as a model species, our overall objective was to test whether sound cues from pups could be developed as a means to enhance captures of rats in trap boxes. Recording vocalizations from three-day-old pups after removal from their natal nest with both sonic and ultrasonic microphones revealed frequency components in the sonic range (1.8-7.5 kHz) and ultrasonic range (18-24 kHz, 33-55 kHz, 60-96 kHz). In two-choice laboratory bioassays, playback recordings of these vocalizations induced significant phonotactic and arrestment responses by juvenile, subadult and adult female and male rats. The effectiveness of engineered 'synthetic' rat pup sounds was dependent upon their frequency components, sound durations and the sound delivery system. Unlike other speakers, a piezoelectric transducer emitting sound bursts of 21 kHz with a 63-KHz harmonic, and persisting for 20-300 ms, proved highly effective in attracting and arresting adult female rats. In a field experiment, a battery-powered electronic device fitted with a piezoelectric transducer and driven by an algorithm that randomly generated sound cues resembling those recorded from rat pups and varying in fundamental frequency (19-23 kHz), duration (20-300 ms) and intermittent silence (300-5000 ms) significantly enhanced captures of rats in trap boxes baited with a food lure and soiled bedding material of adult female rats. Our study provides proof of concept that rat-specific sound cues or signals can be effectively reproduced and deployed as a means to enhance capture of wild rats. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. A Field Experiment on Enhancement of Crop Yield by Rice Straw and Corn Stalk-Derived Biochar in Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biochar, a green way to deal with burning and burying biomass, has attracted more attention in recent years. To fill the gap of the effects of different biochar on crop yield in Northern China, the first field experiment was conducted in farmland located in Hebei Province. Biochars derived from two kinds of feedstocks (rice straw and corn stalk were added into an Inceptisols area with different dosages (1 ton/ha, 2 ton/ha or 4 ton/ha in April 2014. The crop yields were collected for corn, peanut, and sweet potato during one crop season from spring to autumn 2014, and the wheat from winter 2014 to summer 2015, respectively. The results showed biochar amendment could enhance yields, and biochar from rice straw showed a more positive effect on the yield of corn, peanut, and winter wheat than corn stalk biochar. The dosage of biochar of 2 ton/ha or 1 ton/ha could enhance the yield by 5%–15% and biochar of 4 ton/ha could increase the yield by about 20%. The properties of N/P/K, CEC, and pH of soils amended with biochar were not changed, while biochar effects could be related to improvement of soil water content.

  1. A Strategy to Enhance Student Experiences in Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response: Medical Reserve Corps Nursing Student Summer Externship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Loren Nell Melton

    Development of the public health nursing workforce is crucial to advancing our nation's health. Many organizations, including the American Association of Colleges of Nursing, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the US Department of Health and Human Services, have identified the need for strengthening academia's connection to public health and tailoring experiences to enhance workforce competency. The Oklahoma Medical Reserve Corps (OKMRC) Nursing Student Summer Externship was developed as a strategy to provide nursing students with strengthened knowledge and skills in disaster response through a structured summer volunteer experience with nurse educators within the OKMRC. The Medical Reserve Corps is a national organization with more than 200 000 volunteers dedicated to strengthening public health, improving emergency response capabilities, and building community resiliency. In the summer of 2015, the OKMRC offered a 10-week public health emergency preparedness and response externship pilot program to 8 nursing students. In the summer of 2016, the program expanded to include 3 Oklahoma baccalaureate nursing programs. Students completed trainings and participated in activities designed to provide a broad base of knowledge, an awareness of the local disaster plans, and leadership skills to assist their communities with preparedness and disaster response.

  2. Towards unambiguous assignment of methyl-containing residues by double and triple sensitivity-enhanced HCCmHm-TOCSY experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuertz, Peter; Hellman, Maarit; Tossavainen, Helena; Permi, Perttu [University of Helsinki, Program in Structural Biology and Biophysics, Institute of Biotechnology/NMR Laboratory (Finland)], E-mail: Perttu.Permi@helsinki.fi

    2006-09-15

    Chemical shift assignment of methyl-containing residues is essential in protein NMR spectroscopy, as these residues are abundant in protein interiors and provide the vast majority of long-range NOE connectivities for structure determination. These residues also constitute an integral part of hydrophobic cavities, the surroundings for many enzymatic reactions. Here we present a powerful strategy for the assignment of methyl-containing residues in a uniformly {sup 13}C/{sup 15}N double labeled protein sample. The approach is based on novel four-dimensional HCCmHm-TOCSY experiments, two of them utilizing gradient selection and sensitivity enhancement in all three indirectly detected dimensions. Regardless of the number of dimensions, the proposed experiments can be executed using only one transient per FID, providing outstanding resolution and sensitivity. A complete assignment of the 51 methyl-containing residues in the 16 kDa Mus musculus coactosin was accomplished using a four-dimensional HCCmHm-TOCSY spectrum recorded in 16 hours.

  3. An Insecticide Further Enhances Experience-Dependent Increased Behavioural Responses to Sex Pheromone in a Pest Insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Abrieux

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used to protect plants against pest insects, and insecticide residues remaining in the environment affect both target and non-target organisms. Whereas low doses of neonicotinoids have been shown to disturb the behaviour of pollinating insects, recent studies have revealed that a low dose of the neonicotinoid clothianidin can improve behavioural and neuronal sex pheromone responses in a pest insect, the male moth Agrotis ipsilon, and thus potentially improve reproduction. As male moth behaviour depends also on its physiological state and previous experience with sensory signals, we wondered if insecticide effects would be dependent on plasticity of olfactory-guided behaviour. We investigated, using wind tunnel experiments, whether a brief pre-exposure to the sex pheromone could enhance the behavioural response to this important signal in the moth A. ipsilon at different ages (sexually immature and mature males and after different delays (2 h and 24 h, and if the insecticide clothianidin would interfere with age effects or the potential pre-exposure-effects. Brief pre-exposure to the pheromone induced an age-independent significant increase of sex pheromone responses 24 h later, whereas sex pheromone responses did not increase significantly 2 h after exposure. However, response delays were significantly shorter compared to naïve males already two hours after exposure. Oral treatment with clothianidin increased sex pheromone responses in sexually mature males, confirming previous results, but did not influence responses in young immature males. Males treated with clothianidin after pre-exposure at day 4 responded significantly more to the sex pheromone at day 5 than males treated with clothianidin only and than males pre-exposed only, revealing an additive effect of experience and the insecticide. Plasticity of sensory systems has thus to be taken into account when investigating the effects of sublethal doses

  4. Top-of-the-atmosphere shortwave flux estimation from UV observations: An empirical approach using A-Train Satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, P.; Joiner, J.; Vasilkov, A. P.; Bhartia, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    Measurements of top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiation are essential for the understanding of Earth's energy budget and climate system. Clouds, aerosols, water vapor, and ozone (O3) are among the most important agents impacting the Earth's short-wave (SW) radiation budget. There are several sensors in the orbit that provide independent information related to the Earth's SW radiation budget. Having coincident information from these sensors is important for understanding their potential contributions. The A-train constellation of satellites provides a unique opportunity to analyze near-simultaneous data from several of these sensors. They include the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument, on the NASA Aqua satellite, that makes broadband measurements in both the long-wave and short-wave region of electromagnetic spectrum, and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), on the NASA Aura satellite, that makes TOA hyper-spectral measurements from ultraviolet (UV) to visible wavelengths. Top of the atmosphere SW fluxes are estimated using a combination of data from CERES and the Aqua MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). OMI measurements have been successfully utilized to derive the information on trace gases (e.g., O3, NO2, and SO2), clouds, and absorbing aerosols. In this paper, OMI retrievals of cloud/aerosol parameters and O3 have been collocated with CERES TOA SW flux retrievals. We use this collocated data to develop a neural network that estimates TOA shortwave flux globally over ocean using data from OMI and meteorological analyses. These input data include the effective cloud fraction, cloud optical centroid pressure (OCP), total-column O3, and sun-satellite viewing geometry from OMI as well as wind speed and total column water vapor from the Goddard Earth Observing System 5 Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (GEOS-5 MERRA) along with a climatology of chlorophyll content from SeaWiFs satellite. We

  5. Impacts of Aerosol Shortwave Radiation Absorption on the Dynamics of an Idealized Convective Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde Barbaro, E.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Krol, M.C.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the impact of aerosol heat absorption on convective atmospheric boundary-layer (CBL) dynamics. Numerical experiments using a large-eddy simulation model enabled us to study the changes in the structure of a dry and shearless CBL in depthequilibrium for different vertical profiles of

  6. Detecting Canopy Water Status Using Shortwave Infrared Reflectance Data From Polar Orbiting and Geostationary Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fensholt, Rasmus; Huber Gharib, Silvia; Proud, Simon Richard

    2010-01-01

    -based canopy water status detection from geostationary Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) data as compared to polar orbiting environmental satellite (POES)-based moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. The EO-based SWIR water stress index...... observations from SEVIRI are furthermore sensitive to short-term variations of in situ measured plant water content indicators when aboveground biomass increases from 500 to 900 gm-2 (LAI ˜ 1-2). MODIS SIWSI observations in contrast do not covary with in situ measured moisture indicators. Spatio-temporal trend...... for SWIR-based canopy water status and stress monitoring in a semi-arid environment....

  7. Discrete Serotonin Systems Mediate Memory Enhancement and Escape Latencies after Unpredicted Aversive Experience in Drosophila Place Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Sitaraman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Feedback mechanisms in operant learning are critical for animals to increase reward or reduce punishment. However, not all conditions have a behavior that can readily resolve an event. Animals must then try out different behaviors to better their situation through outcome learning. This form of learning allows for novel solutions and with positive experience can lead to unexpected behavioral routines. Learned helplessness, as a type of outcome learning, manifests in part as increases in escape latency in the face of repeated unpredicted shocks. Little is known about the mechanisms of outcome learning. When fruit fly Drosophilamelanogaster are exposed to unpredicted high temperatures in a place learning paradigm, flies both increase escape latencies and have a higher memory when given control of a place/temperature contingency. Here we describe discrete serotonin neuronal circuits that mediate aversive reinforcement, escape latencies, and memory levels after place learning in the presence and absence of unexpected aversive events. The results show that two features of learned helplessness depend on the same modulatory system as aversive reinforcement. Moreover, changes in aversive reinforcement and escape latency depend on local neural circuit modulation, while memory enhancement requires larger modulation of multiple behavioral control circuits.

  8. The development and evaluation of online stories to enhance clinical learning experiences across health professions in rural Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliadelis, Penny Susan; Stupans, Leva; Parker, Vicki; Piper, Donella; Gillan, Pauline; Lea, Jackie; Jarrott, Helen Mary; Wilson, Rhonda; Hudson, Judith N; Fagan, Anthea

    2015-01-01

    Clinical placement learning experiences are integral to all health and medical curricula as a means of integrating theory into practice and preparing graduates to deliver safe, high-quality care to health consumers. A growing challenge for education providers is to access sufficient clinical placements with experienced supervisors who are skilled at maximising learning opportunities for students. This paper reports on the development and evaluation of an innovative online learning program aimed at enhancing student and clinical supervisors' preparedness for effective workplace-based learning. The evidence-based learning program used 'story-telling' as the learning framework. The stories, which were supported by a range of resources, aimed to engage the learners in understanding student and supervisor responsibilities, as well as the expectations and competencies needed to support effective learning in the clinical environment. Evaluation of this program by the learners and stakeholders clearly indicated that they felt authentically 'connected' with the characters in the stories and developed insights that suggested effective learning had occurred.

  9. A Non-Destructive Distinctive Method for Discrimination of Automobile Lubricant Variety by Visible and Short-Wave Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong He

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel method which is a combination of wavelet packet transform (WPT, uninformative variable elimination by partial least squares (UVE-PLS and simulated annealing (SA to extract best variance information among different varieties of lubricants is presented. A total of 180 samples (60 for each variety were characterized on the basis of visible and short-wave infrared spectroscopy (VIS-SWNIR, and 90 samples (30 for each variety were randomly selected for the calibration set, whereas, the remaining 90 samples (30 for each variety were used for the validation set. The spectral data was split into different frequency bands by WPT, and different frequency bands were obtained. SA was employed to look for the best variance band (BVB among different varieties of lubricants. In order to improve prediction precision further, BVB was processed by UVE-PLS and the optimal cutoff threshold of UVE was found by SA. Finally, five variables were mined, and were set as inputs for a least square-support vector machine (LS-SVM to build the recognition model. An optimal model with a correlation coefficient (R of 0.9850 and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP of 0.0827 was obtained. The overall results indicated that the method of combining WPT, UVE-PLS and SA was a powerful way to select diagnostic information for discrimination among different varieties of lubricating oil, furthermore, a more parsimonious and efficient LS-SVM model could be obtained.

  10. Impact of shortwave ultraviolet (UV-C) radiation on the antioxidant activity of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogu-Baykut, Esra; Gunes, Gurbuz; Decker, Eric Andrew

    2014-08-15

    Thyme is a good source of antioxidant compounds but it can be contaminated by microorganisms. An experimental fluid bed ultraviolet (UV) reactor was designed for microbial decontamination of thyme samples and the effect of shortwave ultraviolet light (UV-C) radiation on antioxidant properties of thyme was studied. Samples were exposed to UV-C radiation for 16 or 64 min. UV-C treatment led to 1.04 and 1.38 log CFU/g reduction of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) counts. Hunter a(∗) value was the most sensitive colour parameter during UV-C treatment. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity of extracts was not significantly affected by UV-C. Addition of thyme extracts at 0.15 and 0.3 μmol GAE/ml emulsion delayed the formation of lipid hydroperoxides and headspace hexanal in the 5.0%(wt) corn oil-in-water emulsion from 4 to 9 and 14 days, respectively. No significant changes in oxidation rates were observed between UV-C treated and untreated samples at same concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Satellite-based forest monitoring: spatial and temporal forecast of growing index and short-wave infrared band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Bayr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For detecting anomalies or interventions in the field of forest monitoring we propose an approach based on the spatial and temporal forecast of satellite time series data. For each pixel of the satellite image three different types of forecasts are provided, namely spatial, temporal and combined spatio-temporal forecast. Spatial forecast means that a clustering algorithm is used to group the time series data based on the features normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI and the short-wave infrared band (SWIR. For estimation of the typical temporal trajectory of the NDVI and SWIR during the vegetation period of each spatial cluster, we apply several methods of functional data analysis including functional principal component analysis, and a novel form of random regression forests with online learning (streaming capability. The temporal forecast is carried out by means of functional time series analysis and an autoregressive integrated moving average model. The combination of the temporal forecasts, which is based on the past of the considered pixel, and spatial forecasts, which is based on highly correlated pixels within one cluster and their past, is performed by functional data analysis, and a variant of random regression forests adapted to online learning capabilities. For evaluation of the methods, the approaches are applied to a study area in Germany for monitoring forest damages caused by wind-storm, and to a study area in Spain for monitoring forest fires.

  12. Satellite-based forest monitoring: spatial and temporal forecast of growing index and short-wave infrared band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayr, Caroline; Gallaun, Heinz; Kleb, Ulrike; Kornberger, Birgit; Steinegger, Martin; Winter, Martin

    2016-04-18

    For detecting anomalies or interventions in the field of forest monitoring we propose an approach based on the spatial and temporal forecast of satellite time series data. For each pixel of the satellite image three different types of forecasts are provided, namely spatial, temporal and combined spatio-temporal forecast. Spatial forecast means that a clustering algorithm is used to group the time series data based on the features normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the short-wave infrared band (SWIR). For estimation of the typical temporal trajectory of the NDVI and SWIR during the vegetation period of each spatial cluster, we apply several methods of functional data analysis including functional principal component analysis, and a novel form of random regression forests with online learning (streaming) capability. The temporal forecast is carried out by means of functional time series analysis and an autoregressive integrated moving average model. The combination of the temporal forecasts, which is based on the past of the considered pixel, and spatial forecasts, which is based on highly correlated pixels within one cluster and their past, is performed by functional data analysis, and a variant of random regression forests adapted to online learning capabilities. For evaluation of the methods, the approaches are applied to a study area in Germany for monitoring forest damages caused by wind-storm, and to a study area in Spain for monitoring forest fires.

  13. Detection of Short-Waved Spin Waves in Individual Microscopic Spin-Wave Waveguides Using the Inverse Spin Hall Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brächer, T; Fabre, M; Meyer, T; Fischer, T; Auffret, S; Boulle, O; Ebels, U; Pirro, P; Gaudin, G

    2017-12-13

    The miniaturization of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices becomes increasingly difficult due to fundamental limitations and the increase of leakage currents. Large research efforts are devoted to find alternative concepts that allow for a larger data-density and lower power consumption than conventional semiconductor approaches. Spin waves have been identified as a potential technology that can complement and outperform CMOS in complex logic applications, profiting from the fact that these waves enable wave computing on the nanoscale. The practical application of spin waves, however, requires the demonstration of scalable, CMOS compatible spin-wave detection schemes in material systems compatible with standard spintronics as well as semiconductor circuitry. Here, we report on the wave-vector independent detection of short-waved spin waves with wavelengths down to 150 nm by the inverse spin Hall effect in spin-wave waveguides made from ultrathin Ta/Co 8 Fe 72 B 20 /MgO. These findings open up the path for miniaturized scalable interconnects between spin waves and CMOS and the use of ultrathin films made from standard spintronic materials in magnonics.

  14. Individual differences provide psychophysical evidence for separate on- and off-pathways deriving from short-wave cones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosten, Jenny M; Bargary, Gary; Goodbourn, Patrick T; Hogg, Ruth E; Lawrance-Owen, Adam J; Mollon, J D

    2014-04-01

    Distinct neural populations carry signals from short-wave (S) cones. We used individual differences to test whether two types of pathways, those that receive excitatory input (S+) and those that receive inhibitory input (S-), contribute independently to psychophysical performance. We also conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to look for genetic correlates of the individual differences. Our psychophysical test was based on the Cambridge Color Test, but detection thresholds were measured separately for S-cone spatial increments and decrements. Our participants were 1060 healthy adults aged 16-40. Test-retest reliabilities for thresholds were good (ρ=0.64 for S-cone increments, 0.67 for decrements and 0.73 for the average of the two). "Regression scores," isolating variability unique to incremental or decremental sensitivity, were also reliable (ρ=0.53 for increments and ρ=0.51 for decrements). The correlation between incremental and decremental thresholds was ρ=0.65. No genetic markers reached genome-wide significance (pindividual differences in S-cone sensitivity in a normal adult population. Though a portion of the variance in sensitivity is shared between incremental and decremental sensitivity, over 26% of the variance is stable across individuals, but unique to increments or decrements, suggesting distinct neural substrates. Some of the variability in sensitivity is likely to be genetic. We note that four of the suggestive associations found in the GWAS are with genes that are involved in glucose metabolism or have been associated with diabetes.

  15. Heat input into a room due to short-wave solar radiation. Pt. 1; Waermeeintrag in den Raum aufgrund kurzwelliger Einstrahlung. T. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, C. [Institut fuer Luft- und Kaeltetechnik gemeinnuetzige Gesellschaft mbH Dresden (Germany); Rouvel, L.

    2007-07-15

    The calculation of short-wave solar radiation onto components of any orientation or inclination as well as the transmittance of transparent components is quantified. An evaluation factor permits the calculation of diffuse and direct insolation depending on the degree of cloudiness and the position of the sun. The energy input via transparent components is evaluated by the total energy transmittance - separate for direct and diffuse radiation with the sunscreen drawn. (orig.)

  16. Heat input into a room due to short-wave solar radiation. Pt. 2; Waermeeintrag in den Raum aufgrund kurzwelliger Einstrahlung. T. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, C. [Institut fuer Luft- und Kaeltetechnik gGmbH, Dresden (Germany); Rouvel, L.

    2007-09-15

    The calculation of short-wave solar radiation onto components of any orientation or inclination as well as the transmittance of transparent components is quantified. An evaluation factor permits the calculation of diffuse and direct insolation depending on the degree of cloudiness and the position of the sun. The energy input via transparent components is evaluated by the total energy transmittance - separate for direct and diffuse radiation with the sunscreen drawn. (orig.)

  17. Decadal changes in shortwave irradiance at the surface in the period from 1960 to 2000 estimated from Global Energy Balance Archive Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilgen, H.; Roesch, A.; Wild, M.; Ohmura, A.

    2009-05-01

    Decadal changes in shortwave irradiance at the Earth's surface are estimated for the period from approximately 1960 through to 2000 from pyranometer records stored in the Global Energy Balance Archive. For this observational period, estimates could be calculated for a total of 140 cells of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project grid (an equal area 2.5° × 2.5° grid at the equator) using regression models allowing for station effects. In large regions worldwide, shortwave irradiance decreases in the first half of the observational period, recovers from the decrease in the 1980s, and thereafter increases, in line with previous reports. Years of trend reversals are determined for the grid cells which are best described with a second-order polynomial model. This reversal of the trend is observed in the majority of the grid cells in the interior of Europe and in Japan. In China, shortwave irradiance recovers during the 1990s in the majority of the grid cells in the southeast and northeast from the decrease observed in the period from 1960 through to 1990. A reversal of the trend in the 1980s or early 1990s is also observed for two grid cells in North America, and for the grid cells containing the Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia), Singapore, Casablanca (Morocco), Valparaiso (Chile) sites, and, noticeably, the remote South Pole and American Samoa sites. Negative trends persist, i.e., shortwave radiation decreases, for the observational period 1960 through to 2000 at the European coasts, in central and northwest China, and for three grid cells in India and two in Africa.

  18. Effect of pulsed short-wave diathermy on pain and function of subjects with osteoarthritis of the knee: a placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Y; Zilberman, R; Porat, R; Nahir, A M

    2005-05-01

    To examine the effects of pulsed short-wave diathermy (PSWD), delivered at an intensity sufficient to induce a thermal sensation and at an athermal intensity, in comparison with a placebo short-wave diathermy treatment, on reported pain, stiffness and functional ability and on mobility performance of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. A placebo-controlled double-blind trial with sequential allocation of patients to different treatment groups. Outpatient physiotherapy department. One hundred and three consecutive patients, mean age 73.7 (+/-6.6) years with osteoarthritis of one or both knees for at least three months. All participants received three 20-min-long treatments per week for three weeks. One group received PSWD with mean power of 18 W (thermal effect), one group received PSWD with mean power of 1.8 W (athermal effect), and one group received sham short-wave diathermy treatment. Patients were assessed before the initial treatment, immediately following the last treatment, and at a three-month follow-up. Outcome measures included the WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index, which assessed reported pain, stiffness, and functional ability, and four measures of mobility performance: Timed Get Up and Go test (TGUG), stair-climbing, stair, descending and a 3-min walk. A difference across time was observed for the pain and stiffness categories of the WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index (p = 0.033 and p = 0.008, respectively), with no differences between groups. No other significant differences across time or between groups were observed in any of the other measures. The findings do not demonstrate pulsed short-wave diathermy, as it is utilized in clinical settings, to be effective in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee.

  19. The Validation of the GEWEX SRB Surface Shortwave Flux Data Products Using BSRN Measurements: A Systematic Quality Control, Production and Application Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Taiping; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Gupta, Shashi K.; Cox, Stephen J.; Mikovitz, J. Colleen; Hinkelman, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project has produced a 24.5-year continuous record of global shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at TOA and the Earth's surface from satellite measurements. The time span of the data is from July 1983 to December 2007, and the spatial resolution is 11 latitude11 longitude. The inputs of the latest version (Release 3.0) include the GEOS Version 4.0.3 meteorological information and cloud properties derived from ISCCP DX data. The SRB products are available on 3-hourly, 3-hourly-monthly, daily and monthly time scales. To assess the quality of the product, we extensively validated the SRB data against 5969 site-months of groundbased measurements from 52 Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) stations. This paper describes first the characteristics of the BSRN data and the GEWEX SRB data, the methodology for quality control and processing of the shortwave BSRN data, and then the systematic SRB-BSRN comparisons. It is found that, except for occasional extreme outliers as seen in scatter plots, the satellite-based surface radiation data generally agree very well with BSRN measurements. Specifically, the bias/RMS for the daily and monthly mean shortwave fluxes are, respectively, -3.6/35.5 and -5.2/23.3W1 m2 under all-sky conditions.

  20. ERBE and GEBA Short-Wave monthly mean surface radiance comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, J. R.; Kato, S.; Bedka, K. M.; Minnis, P.; Rose, F. G.; Rutan, D. A.; Shrestha, A. K.; Miller, W. F.; Fillmore, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    Using the NASA Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), downward short wave surface radiance measurements were processed for the year 1986. In this process, a new table lookup method was used for aerosols retrievals as well as MOA product based on MERRA database. New SSF product based on Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) was used for cloud property retrievals. In addition, a climatology dataset for surface albedo map retrievals was incorporated in this processing. ERBE surface radiances were produced for months April, July, October, and December of 1986. To validate this product, we use the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) dataset for the same months. GEBA database stores energy flux monthly means that have been measured at 1500 stations at the earth's surface. In this work, comparisons of monthly short wave radiance averages at the surface between ERBE and GEBA datasets are presented. Preliminary results show a good agreement between both datasets.

  1. 48{sup th} Annual meeting on nuclear technology (AMNT 2017). Key topic / Enhanced safety and operation excellence. Focus session: International operational experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohrbach, Ludger [VGB PowerTech e.V., Essen (Germany). Abteilung ' ' N' ' ; Gottschling, Helge

    2017-11-15

    Summary report on the Key Topic Enhanced Safety and Operation Excellence: Focus Session: International Operational Experience and the Nuclear Energy Campus of the 48{sup th} Annual Meeting on Nuclear Technology (AMNT 2017) held in Berlin, 16 to 17 May 2017.

  2. Diagnosis of cirrhosis with intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion MRI and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI alone and in combination: preliminary experience.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, J.; Sigmund, E.E.; Rusinek, H.; Oei, M.T.H.; Babb, J.S.; Taouli, B.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report our preliminary experience with the use of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI alone and in combination for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty subjects (16

  3. Enhancing Daily Well-Being at Work Through Lunchtime Park Walks and Relaxation Exercises: Recovery Experiences as Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sianoja, Marjaana; Syrek, Christine J; de Bloom, Jessica; Korpela, Kalevi; Kinnunen, Ulla

    2017-03-30

    Only few studies so far have examined recovery from work during workday breaks. In this intervention study, based on the effort-recovery model and the conservation of resources theory, we examined how to enhance recovery during lunch breaks. More specifically, we examined the within-person effects of lunchtime park walks and relaxation exercises on employees' levels of concentration, strain, and fatigue experienced at the end of a working day. We moreover tested whether detachment from work and enjoyment experienced during lunch breaks transmitted the effects of these activities to well-being outcomes. Participants in the park walk (n = 51) and relaxation (n = 46) groups were asked to complete a 15-min exercise during their lunch break on 10 consecutive working days. Afternoon well-being, lunchtime detachment, and lunchtime enjoyment were assessed twice a week before, during, and after the intervention, altogether for 5 weeks. Multilevel analysis results showed that park walks at lunchtime were related to better concentration and less fatigue in the afternoon through enjoyment. Relaxation exercises were related to better concentration in the afternoon via detachment. In addition, relaxation exercises were directly linked to lower levels of strain and fatigue in the afternoon. Our study suggests that on days on which employees engage in recovering activities during lunch breaks, they experience higher levels of well-being at the end of a working day. These results add to the theory-based knowledge on recovery during workday breaks and highlight the importance of breaks for organizational practices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Sensitivity simulations with direct shortwave radiative forcing by aeolian dust during glacial cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bauer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Possible feedback effects between aeolian dust, climate and ice sheets are studied for the first time with an Earth system model of intermediate complexity over the late Pleistocene period. Correlations between climate and dust deposition records suggest that aeolian dust potentially plays an important role for the evolution of glacial cycles. Here climatic effects from the dust direct radiative forcing (DRF caused by absorption and scattering of solar radiation are investigated. Key elements controlling the dust DRF are the atmospheric dust distribution and the absorption-scattering efficiency of dust aerosols. Effective physical parameters in the description of these elements are varied within uncertainty ranges known from available data and detailed model studies. Although the parameters can be reasonably constrained, the simulated dust DRF spans a~wide uncertainty range related to the strong nonlinearity of the Earth system. In our simulations, the dust DRF is highly localized. Medium-range parameters result in negative DRF of several watts per square metre in regions close to major dust sources and negligible values elsewhere. In the case of high absorption efficiency, the local dust DRF can reach positive values and the global mean DRF can be insignificantly small. In the case of low absorption efficiency, the dust DRF can produce a significant global cooling in glacial periods, which leads to a doubling of the maximum glacial ice volume relative to the case with small dust DRF. DRF-induced temperature and precipitation changes can either be attenuated or amplified through a feedback loop involving the dust cycle. The sensitivity experiments suggest that depending on dust optical parameters, dust DRF has the potential to either damp or reinforce glacial–interglacial climate changes.

  5. Bromine Explosions In Smog Chamber Experiments: A comparison of Cavity-Enhanced (CE) and White-cell DOAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxmann, J.; Hoch, D. J.; Sihler, H.; Pöhler, D.; Platt, U.; Bleicher, S.; Balzer, N.; Zetzsch, C.

    2011-12-01

    Reactive halogen species (RHS), such as Cl, Br or BrO, can significantly influence chemical processes in the troposphere, including the destruction of ozone, change in the chemical balance of hydrogen radicals (OH, HO2), increased deposition of toxic compounds (like mercury) with potential consequences for the global climate. Previous studies have shown that salt lakes can be significant sources for gaseous RHS. Environmental conditions such as salt composition, relative humidity (RH), pH, and temperature (T) can strongly influence reactive bromine levels, but are difficult to quantify in the field. Therefore, we conducted laboratory experiments by exposing NaCl salt containing 0.33% (by weight) NaBr to simulated sunlight in a Teflon smog-chamber under various conditions of RH and ozone concentrations. BrO levels were observed by a Differential-Optical-Absorption-Spectrometer (DOAS) in combination with a multi-reflection cell (White-cell). The concentrations of OH- and Cl- radicals were quantified by the radical clock method. We present the first direct observation of BrO from the "Bromine Explosion" (auto catalytic release of reactive bromine from salt surfaces - key to ozone destruction) in the laboratory above a simulated salt pan. The maximum BrO mixing ratio of 6419±71 ppt at 60% RH was observed to be one order of magnitude higher than at 37% RH and 2% RH. The release of RHS from the salt pan is possibly controlled by the thickness of the quasi liquid layer, covering the reactive surface of the halide crystals, as the layer thickness strongly depends on RH. Furthermore, a new cavity enhanced DOAS (CE-DOAS) instrument was designed and successfully used in chamber experiments. For the first time, such an instrument uses a spectral interval in the UV - wavelength range (325-365 nm) to identify BrO. We show a comparison of the CE-DOAS and White-cell DOAS instrument in a series of experiments, where e.g. a peak BrO mixing ratio up to 380 ppt within the first

  6. Development, Evaluation and Use of a Student Experience Survey in Undergraduate Science Laboratories: The Advancing Science by Enhancing Learning in the Laboratory Student Laboratory Learning Experience Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrie, Simon C.; Bucat, Robert B.; Buntine, Mark A.; Burke da Silva, Karen; Crisp, Geoffrey T.; George, Adrian V.; Jamie, Ian M.; Kable, Scott H.; Lim, Kieran F.; Pyke, Simon M.; Read, Justin R.; Sharma, Manjula D.; Yeung, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Student experience surveys have become increasingly popular to probe various aspects of processes and outcomes in higher education, such as measuring student perceptions of the learning environment and identifying aspects that could be improved. This paper reports on a particular survey for evaluating individual experiments that has been developed…

  7. Short-wave contributions in the storm surge associated with Xynthia, February 2010, western France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, X.; Li, K.; Roland, A.; Breilf, J. F.; Chaumillon, E.

    2012-04-01

    This study aims to hindcast and analyze the storm surge caused by Xynthia, a mid-latitude storm that severely hit the central part of the Bay of Biscay on the 27-28th of February 2010. This storm surge locally exceeded 1.5 m and peaked at the same time as a high spring tide (Bertin et al., 2012). A new storm surge modeling system was applied, based on the unstructured-grid circulation model SELFE (Zhang and Batista, 2008) and the spectral wave model WWM II (Roland et al., 2008). These two models are fully coupled and parallelized and share the same grid and domain decomposition. The modelling system was implemented over the North-East Atlantic Ocean and the space was discretized using an unstructured grid with a resolution ranging from 30 km in Deep Ocean to 25 m in near shore zones. Such a fine resolution was required to properly represent the surf zone. The modelling system resulted in tidal and wave predictions with errors of the order of 2 and 15%, respectively. The storm surge associated with Xynthia was also well predicted along the Bay of Biscay, with root mean square errors of the order of 0.10 m. Numerical experiments were then performed to analyze the physical processes controlling the development of the storm surge and revealed firstly that the wind caused most of the water level anomaly through an Ekman setup process. The comparison between a wave-dependant and a quadratic parameterization to compute wind stress showed that the storm surge was strongly amplified by the presence of steep and young wind-waves, related to their rapid development in the restricted fetch of the Bay of Biscay. The gradient of wave radiation stress contributed to the whole storm surge by about 0.05 to 0.10 m at the available tide gages. Nevertheless, these gages were located in sheltered harbors and modeling results showed that wave-induced setup locally exceeded 0.5 m in areas more exposed to ocean waves. The unstructured grid is currently being extended inland to simulate

  8. An evaluation of safety guidelines to restrict exposure to stray radiofrequency radiation from short-wave diathermy units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, Nora [School of Physiotherapy, La Trobe University, Victoria 3086 (Australia); O' Hare, Neil [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, St James' s Hospital, Dublin 8 (Ireland); Gormley, John [School of Physiotherapy, Trinity College Dublin, Trinity Centre for Health Sciences, St James' s Hospital, Dublin 8 (Ireland)

    2004-07-07

    Short-wave diathermy (SWD), a form of radiofrequency radiation used therapeutically by physiotherapists, may be applied in continuous (CSWD) or pulsed (PSWD) mode using either capacitive or inductive methods. Stray radiation emitted by these units may exceed exposure guidelines close to the equipment. Discrepant guidelines exist on a safe distance from an operating unit for operators and other personnel. Stray electric (E-field) and magnetic (H-field) field strengths from 10 SWD units in six departments were examined using a PMM 8053 meter and two isotropic probes (EP-330, HP-032). A 5 l saline phantom completed the patient circuit. Measurements were recorded in eight directions between 0.5 m and 2 m at hip and eye levels while the units operated at maximum output and data compared to current guidelines. Results found stray fields from capacitive CSWD fell below operator limits at 2 m (E-field 4.8-39.8 V/m; H-field 0.015-0.072 A/m) and at 1 m for inductive CSWD (E-field 0-36 V/m; H-field 0.01-0.065 A/m). Capacitive PSWD fields fell below the limits at 1.5 m (E-field 1.2-19.9 V/m; H-field 0.002-0.045 A/m) and at 1m for inductive PSWD (E-field 0.7-4.0 V/m; H-field 0.009-0.03 A/m). An extra 0.5 m was required before fields fell below the guidelines for other personnel. These results demonstrate, under a worst case scenario, emissions from SWD exceed the guidelines for operators at distances currently recommended as safe. Future guidelines should include recommendations for personnel other than physiotherapists.

  9. Effect of the Aerosol Type Selection for the Retrieval of Shortwave Ground Net Radiation: Case Study Using Landsat 8 Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Bassani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the aerosol radiative effects involved in the accuracy of shortwave net radiation, R n . s w , with s w ∈ (400–900 nm, retrieved by the Operational Land Imager (OLI, the new generation sensor of the Landsat mission. Net radiation is a key parameter for the energy exchange between the land and atmosphere; thus, R n . s w retrieval from space is under investigation by exploiting the increased spatial resolution of the visible and near-infrared OLI data. We adopted the latest version of the Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6SV atmospheric radiative transfer model implemented in the atmospheric correction algorithm (OLI Atmospherically-Corrected Reflectance Imagery (OLI@CRI developed specifically for OLI data. The values of R n . s w were obtained by varying the microphysical properties of the aerosol during the OLI@CRI retrieval of both the OLI surface reflectance, ρ p x l o l i , and the incoming solar irradiance at the surface. The analysis of the aerosol effects on the R n . s w was carried out on a spectrally-homogeneous desert area located in the southwestern Nile Delta. The results reveal that the R n . s w available for energy exchange between the land and atmosphere reduces the accuracy (NRMSE ≃ 14% when the local aerosol microphysical properties are not considered during the processing of space data. Consequently, these findings suggest that the aerosol type should be considered for variables retrieved by satellite observations concerning the energy exchange in the natural ecosystems, such as Photosynthetically-Active Radiation (PAR. This will also improve the accuracy of land monitoring and of solar energy for power generation when space data are used.

  10. Measurements and modelling of snow particle size and shortwave infrared albedo over a melting Antarctic ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirazzini, R.; Räisänen, P.; Vihma, T.; Johansson, M.; Tastula, E.-M.

    2015-12-01

    The albedo of a snowpack depends on the single-scattering properties of individual snow crystals, which have a variety of shapes and sizes, and are often bounded in clusters. From the point of view of optical modelling, it is essential to identify the geometric dimensions of the population of snow particles that synthesize the scattering properties of the snowpack surface. This involves challenges related to the complexity of modelling the radiative transfer in such an irregular medium, and to the difficulty of measuring microphysical snow properties. In this paper, we illustrate a method to measure the size distribution of a snow particle parameter, which roughly corresponds to the smallest snow particle dimension, from two-dimensional macro photos of snow particles taken in Antarctica at the surface layer of a melting ice sheet. We demonstrate that this snow particle metric corresponds well to the optically equivalent effective radius utilized in radiative transfer modelling, in particular when snow particles are modelled with the droxtal shape. The surface albedo modelled on the basis of the measured snow particle metric showed an excellent match with the observed albedo when there was fresh or drifted snow at the surface. In the other cases, a good match was present only for wavelengths longer than 1.4 μm. For shorter wavelengths, our modelled albedo generally overestimated the observations, in particular when surface hoar and faceted polycrystals were present at the surface and surface roughness was increased by millimetre-scale cavities generated during melting. Our results indicate that more than just one particle metric distribution is needed to characterize the snow scattering properties at all optical wavelengths, and suggest an impact of millimetre-scale surface roughness on the shortwave infrared albedo.

  11. An evaluation of safety guidelines to restrict exposure to stray radiofrequency radiation from short-wave diathermy units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Nora; O'Hare, Neil; Gormley, John

    2004-07-01

    Short-wave diathermy (SWD), a form of radiofrequency radiation used therapeutically by physiotherapists, may be applied in continuous (CSWD) or pulsed (PSWD) mode using either capacitive or inductive methods. Stray radiation emitted by these units may exceed exposure guidelines close to the equipment. Discrepant guidelines exist on a safe distance from an operating unit for operators and other personnel. Stray electric (E-field) and magnetic (H-field) field strengths from 10 SWD units in six departments were examined using a PMM 8053 meter and two isotropic probes (EP-330, HP-032). A 5 l saline phantom completed the patient circuit. Measurements were recorded in eight directions between 0.5 m and 2 m at hip and eye levels while the units operated at maximum output and data compared to current guidelines. Results found stray fields from capacitive CSWD fell below operator limits at 2 m (E-field 4.8-39.8 V/m; H-field 0.015-0.072 A/m) and at 1 m for inductive CSWD (E-field 0-36 V/m; H-field 0.01-0.065 A/m). Capacitive PSWD fields fell below the limits at 1.5 m (E-field 1.2-19.9 V/m; H-field 0.002-0.045 A/m) and at 1m for inductive PSWD (E-field 0.7-4.0 V/m; H-field 0.009-0.03 A/m). An extra 0.5 m was required before fields fell below the guidelines for other personnel. These results demonstrate, under a worst case scenario, emissions from SWD exceed the guidelines for operators at distances currently recommended as safe. Future guidelines should include recommendations for personnel other than physiotherapists.

  12. Land adjacency effects on MODIS Aqua top-of-atmosphere radiance in the shortwave infrared: Statistical assessment and correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lian; Hu, Chuanmin

    2017-06-01

    Satellite measurements of coastal or inland waters near land/water interfaces suffer from land adjacency effects (LAEs), particularly in the short-wave infrared (SWIR) wavelengths. Here a statistical method was developed to quantify the LAEs as the ratio of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) total radiance (Lt, W m-2 µm-1 sr-1) between near-shore pixels and LAE-free offshore pixels (>12 pixels away from land). The calculations were conducted using MODIS Aqua images between 2003 and 2012 over the Madagascar Island, with results showing the dependency of LAEs on different environmental and observational factors. The LAEs decrease dramatically with increasing distance from shoreline, and increase with decreasing aerosol optical thickness at 869 nm (τ869). The nearby land surface albedo also plays a role in modulating the LAEs, but the impact is only prominent under low-aerosol conditions. Based on these observations, a look-up-table (LUT) to formulate a correction scheme was established. Tests of the correction scheme using satellite observations over the Hawaii Islands and using in situ measurements in the Chesapeake Bay show significant improvements in Lt (LAEs much closer to 1 than uncorrected data) and retrieved surface chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a, mg m-3), respectively. Furthermore, the number of Chl-a retrievals within the range of 0-64 mg m-3 also increases by >60%. While the ultimate solution of correcting the LAEs for coastal/inland water applications still requires further work, these preliminary results suggest that the method proposed here deserves further tests for other estuaries and lakes.

  13. The use of internet-based social media as a tool in enhancing student’s learning experiences in biological sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Beltran Cruz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the use of social media as a tool in enhancing student’s learning experiences, by using online instruction as a supplement to a face-to-face general education course, such as biological sciences. Survey data were collected from 186 students who were enrolled in a Biological Sciences course. The course was taught in a blended format using Facebook and Edmodo online social networks. A four point Likert scale was used to interpret the data collected. Findings indicated that, when traditional face-to-face instruction was combined with online components, students’ learning was enhanced. Findings from this study indicate that students had better experience, better engagement, and appreciated both the social learning experience gave by the online social network. Results revealed that students through student-student interaction and student-teacher interaction enhance their own experiences and improved their learning ability. The findings were used as bases in developing new practices and methodologies involving social networking tools for learning. Moreover, findings were used to design a blended format syllabus and blended learning guidelines.   DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v3i4.170

  14. Potential roles of research in enhancing the performance of management in securing high quality visitor experiences in wilderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen F. McCool

    2012-01-01

    Does research help managers provide opportunities for visitors to have high quality experiences in wilderness? Difficulties in applying visitor experience research result from several factors: the nature of wilderness itself, the character of the wilderness visitor experience challenge as a research and management topic, and the paradigm of research applications...

  15. Living the Poet's Life: Using an Aesthetic Approach to Poetry to Enhance Preservice Teachers' Poetry Experiences and Dispositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certo, Janine L.; Apol, Laura; Wibbens, Erin; Hawkins, Lisa K.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we argue that preservice teachers have limited experience reading and writing poetry, and that if they are to teach poetry in meaningful ways to their future students, they need to have compelling experiences with poetry in teacher education--ones that take into account their former experiences and incoming dispositions and that…

  16. Evaluation of the microcirculatory disturbance of biliary ischemia after liver transplantation with contrast-enhanced ultrasound: preliminary experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie; Lu, Ming-De; Zheng, Rong-Qin; Lu, Min-Qiang; Liao, Mei; Mao, Yong-Jiang; Zheng, Zhi-Juan; Lu, Yan

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound for depicting the perfusion of hilar bile ducts in ischemic-type biliary lesions after orthotopic liver transplantation. Thirteen transplant recipients with ischemic-type biliary lesions and 12 patients without ischemic-type biliary lesions underwent ultrasound examinations after the injection of 1.5 mL of an intravenous contrast agent. The enhancement of the hilar bile duct wall in the arterial, portal venous, and late phases was qualitatively graded as higher, equal, lower, or none with respect to that of the adjacent liver parenchyma. No or low contrast enhancement was seen in 10 of 13 patients (76.90%) with biliary ischemia, whereas increased contrast enhancement with respect to the normal liver parenchyma was found in all 12 patients without biliary ischemia. The difference in the enhancement patterns between the 2 groups was significant (P = 0.0001). In conclusion, contrast-enhanced ultrasound is a new imaging modality to depict perfusion of the hilar bile duct. No or low contrast enhancement of the bile duct wall in the arterial phase may reflect the microcirculatory disturbance of biliary ischemia and may contribute to its early diagnosis.

  17. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal - results of experiences in three large waste water treatment plants. Biologische Phosphatelimination - Betriebserfahrungen an drei Grossanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, P. (Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen, FG Siedlungswasserwirtschaft, Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany)); Telgmann, U. (Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen, FG Siedlungswasserwirtschaft, Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany)); Memmen, K. (Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen, FG Siedlungswasserwirtschaft, Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany))

    1994-09-01

    Within a scientific project especially the operation of four real-size sewage treatment plants with different processes of enhanced biological phosphorus removal is investigated under the aspect of efficiency, stability, practicability and costs of the enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Three plants and first results are explained and compared as well with one another as with data, which are generally regarded as favourable conditions for the enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Between the plants there are significant differences in the degree of P-elimination mainly due to different characteristics of the wastewater. An important influence on P-effluent concentrations may be exacted by P-resolution in the final clarifier. (orig.)

  18. Evaluation of the microcirculatory disturbance of biliary ischemia after liver transplantation with contrast-enhanced ultrasound: preliminary experience

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ren, Jie; Lu, Ming-De; Zheng, Rong-Qin; Lu, Min-Qiang; Liao, Mei; Mao, Yong-Jiang; Zheng, Zhi-Juan; Lu, Yan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound for depicting the perfusion of hilar bile ducts in ischemic-type biliary lesions after orthotopic liver transplantation...

  19. Does a single session of reading literary fiction prime enhanced mentalising performance? Four replication experiments of Kidd and Castano (2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samur, Dalya; Tops, Mattie; Koole, Sander L

    2018-02-01

    Prior experiments indicated that reading literary fiction improves mentalising performance relative to reading popular fiction, non-fiction, or not reading. However, the experiments had relatively small sample sizes and hence low statistical power. To address this limitation, the present authors conducted four high-powered replication experiments (combined N = 1006) testing the causal impact of reading literary fiction on mentalising. Relative to the original research, the present experiments used the same literary texts in the reading manipulation; the same mentalising task; and the same kind of participant samples. Moreover, one experiment was pre-registered as a direct replication. In none of the experiments did reading literary fiction have any effect on mentalising relative to control conditions. The results replicate earlier findings that familiarity with fiction is positively correlated with mentalising. Taken together, the present findings call into question whether a single session of reading fiction leads to immediate improvements in mentalising.

  20. 47{sup th} Annual meeting on nuclear technology (AMNT 2016). Key Topics / Enhanced safety and operation excellence and decommissioning experience and Waste management solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salnikova, Tatiana [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Schaffrath, Andreas [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Garching (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Summary report on the Key Topics ''Enhanced Safety and Operation Excellence'' and ''Decommissioning Experience and Waste Management Solutions'' of the 47{sup th} Annual Conference on Nuclear Technology (AMNT 2016) held in Hamburg, 10 to 12 May 2016. Other Sessions of AMNT 2016 have been and will be covered in further issues of atw.

  1. Pulsed shortwave diathermy and joint mobilizations for achieving normal elbow range of motion after injury or surgery with implanted metal: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, David O

    2014-01-01

    Regaining full, active range of motion (ROM) after trauma to the elbow is difficult. To report the cases of 6 patients who lacked full ROM in the elbow because of trauma. The treatment regimen was thermal pulsed shortwave diathermy and joint mobilizations. Case series. University therapeutic modalities laboratory. Six patients (5 women [83%], 1 man [17%]) lacked a mean active ROM of 24.5° of extension approximately 4.8 years after trauma or surgery. Treatment consisted of 20 minutes of pulsed shortwave diathermy at 800 pulses per second for 400 microseconds (40-48 W average power, 150 W peak power) applied to the cubital fossa, immediately followed by 7 to 8 minutes of joint mobilizations. After posttreatment ROM was recorded, ice was applied to the area for about 30 minutes. Changes in extension active ROM were assessed before and after each treatment. Once the patient achieved full, active ROM or failed to improve on 2 consecutive visits, he or she was discharged from the study. By the fifth treatment, 4 participants (67%) achieved normal extension active ROM, and 2 of the 4 (50%) exceeded the norm. Five participants (83%) returned to normal activities and full use of their elbows. One month later, the 5 participants had maintained, on average, (mean ± SD) 92% ± 6% of their final measurements. A combination of thermal pulsed shortwave diathermy and joint mobilizations was effective in restoring active ROM of elbow extension in 5 of the 6 patients (83%) who lacked full ROM after injury or surgery.

  2. Latest results from the GreenHouse gas Observations of the Stratosphere and Troposphere (GHOST) airborne shortwave infrared spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpage, Neil; Boesch, Hartmut; Palmer, Paul; Vick, Andy

    2017-04-01

    GHOST is a novel, compact shortwave infrared grating spectrometer, designed for remote sensing of tropospheric columns of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from an airborne platform. GHOST observes solar radiation at medium to high spectral resolution which has been reflected by the surface, using similar methods to those used by polar orbiting satellites such as the JAXA GOSAT mission, the NASA OCO-2 mission and the forthcoming Copernicus Sentinel 5-Precursor. By using an original design comprising optical fibre inputs along with a single diffraction grating and detector array, GHOST is able to observe CO2 absorption bands centred around 1.61 μm and 2.06 μm (the same wavelength regions used by OCO-2 and GOSAT) whilst simultaneously measuring CH4 absorption at 1.65 μm (also observed by GOSAT), and both CH4 and CO at 2.30 μm (to be observed by Sentinel 5-P once launched later in 2017). The overlapping spectral ranges and comparable spectral resolutions mean that GHOST has unique potential for providing validation opportunities for these platforms, particularly over the ocean where ground-based validation measurements are not available. Here we present the latest results from the spectral analysis, using an optimal estimation based retrieval method, of CO2 and CH4 from GHOST flight spectra for the 1.6 μm band which utilise recently updated laboratory calibration measurements. GHOST took part in two science flights on board the NASA Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle based at the Armstrong Flight Research Centre in Edwards, California, in March 2015. These flights involved long approximately north-south transects over the eastern Pacific Ocean. In addition to observing spatial trends in GHG column concentrations over a regional scale, the second of these flights (on 10th March) allows inter-comparisons of GHOST retrievals with observations from OCO-2 and GOSAT, which both passed directly over the Global Hawk during clear sky conditions. We will show results from these

  3. A two-stage photonic crystal fiber / silicon photonic wire short-wave infrared wavelength converter/amplifier based on a 1064 nm pump source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyken, B; Leo, F; Mussot, A; Kudlinski, A; Roelkens, G

    2015-05-18

    We demonstrate a two-stage wavelength converter that uses compact near-infrared sources to amplify and convert short-wave infrared signals. The first stage consists of a photonic crystal fiber wavelength converter pumped by a Q-switched 1064 nm pump source, while the second stage consists of a silicon photonic wire waveguide wavelength converter. The system enables on-chip amplification and conversion of up to 30 dB . We demonstrate amplification in a broad wavelength range around 2344 nm using temporally long pulses (>300ps).

  4. Trauma and Triggers: Students' Perspectives on Enhancing the Classroom Experiences at an Alternative Residential Treatment-Based School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Angelique Gabrielle; Baroni, Beverly; Somers, Cheryl; Shier, Jenna; Zammit, Meredith; Crosby, Shantel; Yoon, Jina; Pennefather, Megan; Hong, Jun Sung

    2017-01-01

    Youths in residential treatment (RT) are often burdened with histories of trauma exposure and experience a multitude of unique challenges for both daily functioning and developmental trajectories. Youths spend a large portion of their day in school; these educational experiences affect long-term well-being. This study uses qualitative focus group…

  5. Late gadolinium-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance identifies patients with standardized definition of ischemic cardiomyopathy: a single centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Carlos J; Ridocci, Francisco; Estornell, Jordi; Pérez-Boscá, José L; Pomar, Francisco; Trigo, Alberto; Planas, Ana; Nadal, Mercedes; Jacas, Victoria; Martinez, Vicente; Paya, Rafael

    2007-03-20

    Definition of ischemic cardiomyopathy (IC) is not always obvious, which is why new criteria based on prognosis and the extent of the coronary artery disease (CAD) have been proposed. In the present study, we assess the capability of late gadolinium-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) for predicting IC as determined by standardized criteria previously reported. 123 patients with heart failure (HF) and left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction, underwent both late gadolinium-enhanced CMR and coronary angiography 37/123 (30%) of patients were assigned to the IC group and 86/123 (70%) to the non-IC group. Subendocardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was found in 35/37 (94%) of patients in the IC group, whereas only 12/86 (14%) had this distribution in the non-IC group (p or = 50% (r=0.76, pdisease. It is therefore appealing as a method for diagnosing IC.

  6. Experiences from a Touch-Based Interaction and Digitally Enhanced Meal-Delivery Service for the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Ailisto

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a field experiment where home-dwelling elderly people used a mobile technology-based service to interact with a home care service to order meals to be delivered to their homes. The primary research focus was on examining the suitability of touch-based interaction in the everyday life activities of elderly users. The eight-week experiment took place in the autumn of 2006. The findings are based primarily on user experience and on the socioeconomic analysis done from the data collected before, during, and after the experiment. The results show that touch-based interaction was easy to learn and adopt, and that the users were able to successfully use it regardless of their physical or cognitive weaknesses. However, the socioeconomic value of the service was questionable. The paper also summarises methodological issues and findings related to user experience evaluation in an experimental setting.

  7. Localized fast neutron flux enhancement for damage experiments in a research reactor; Accroissement local du flux rapide pour des experiences de dommages dans un reacteur de recherche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malouch, F

    2003-06-01

    In irradiation experiments on materials in the core of the Osiris reactor (CEA-Saclay) we seek to increase damage in irradiated samples and to reduce the duration of their stay in the core. Damage is essentially caused by fast neutrons (E {>=} 1 MeV); we have therefore pursued the possibility of a localized increase of their level in an irradiation experiment by using a flux converter device made up of fissile material arranged according to a suitable geometry that allows the converter to receive experiments. We have studied several parameters that are influential in the increase of fast neutron flux within the converter. We have also considered the problem of the converter's cooling in the core and its effect on the operation of the reactor. We have carried out a specific neutron calculation scheme based on the modular 2D-transport code APOLLO2 using a two-level transport method. Experimental validation of the flux calculation scheme was carried out in the ISIS reactor, the mock-up of OSIRIS, by optimizing the loading of fuel elements in the core. The experimental results show that the neutron calculation scheme computes the fluxes in close agreement with the measurements especially the fast flux. This study allows us to master the essential physical parameters needed for the design of a flux converter in an MTR reactor. (author)

  8. Surface-Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering and Visible Extinction Spectroscopy of Copper Chlorophyllin: An Upper Level Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Cheryl S.; Reim, Candace Lawson; Sirois, John J.; House, Paul G.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced chemistry students are introduced to surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) by studying how sodium copper chlorophyllin (CuChl) adsorbs onto silver colloids (CuChl/Ag) as a function of pH. Using both SERRS and visible extinction spectroscopy, the extent of CuChl adsorption and colloidal aggregation are monitored. Initially at…

  9. Iron fertilization enhanced net community production but not downward particle flux during the Southern Ocean iron fertilization experiment LOHAFEX

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Martin, P.; Loeff, M.M.R. van der.; Cassar, N.; Vandromme, P.; d'Ovidio, F.; Stemmann, L.; Rengarajan, R.; Soares, M.A.; Gonzalez, H.E.; Ebersbach, F.; Lampitt, R.S.; Sanders, R.; Barnett, B.A.; Smetacek, V.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    A closed eddy core in the Subantarctic Atlantic Ocean was fertilized twice with two tons of iron (as FeSO4), and the 300 km2 fertilized patch was studied for 39 days to test whether fertilization enhances downward particle flux...

  10. Improving Mathematics Teaching and Learning Experiences for Hard of Hearing Students with Wireless Technology-Enhanced Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen-Chung; Chou, Chien-Chia; Liu, Baw-Jhiune; Yang, Jui-Wen

    2006-01-01

    Hard of hearing students usually face more difficulties at school than other students. A classroom environment with wireless technology was implemented to explore whether wireless technology could enhance mathematics learning and teaching activities for a hearing teacher and her 7 hard of hearing students in a Taiwan junior high school.…

  11. Exogenous testosterone in women enhances and inhibits competitive decision-making depending on victory-defeat experience and trait dominanc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehta, P.H.; Son, V. van; Welker, K.M.; Prasad, S.; Sanfey, A.G.; Smidts, A.; Roelofs, K.

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment tested the causal impact of testosterone on human competitive decision-making. According to prevailing theories about testosterone's role in social behavior, testosterone should directly boost competitive decisions. But recent correlational evidence suggests that

  12. Efficient assignment of methyl resonances: Enhanced sensitivity by gradient selection in a DE-MQ-(H)CC{sup m}Ht {sup m}-TOCSY experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Permi, Perttu, E-mail: perttu.permi@helsinki.fi; Tossavainen, Helena; Hellman, Maarit [University of Helsinki, NMR Laboratory, Structural Biology and Biophysics Program, Institute of Biotechnology (Finland)

    2004-11-15

    We present a gradient selected and doubly sensitivity-enhanced DE-MQ-(H)CC{sup m}H{sup m}-TOCSY experiment for the sequence-specific assignment of methyl resonances in {sup 13}C,{sup 15}N labeled proteins. The proposed experiment provides improved sensitivity and artifact suppression relative to the phase-cycled experiments. One part of the {sup 13}Cchemical shift evolution takes place under heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence, whereas the other part occurs under {sup 13}C single quantum coherence in a semi-constant time fashion. The feasibility of the experiment was assessed using {sup 15}N,{sup 13}C labeled Mus musculus coactosin (16 kDa), having a rotational correlation time of 14.5 ns at 15 deg. D{sub 2}O. A 16-h experiment on 600 MHz {sup 1}H yielded good quality data and enabled the assignment of 70 out of 72 methyl groups in coactosin. As well as being an improved approach for methyl resonance assignment, this experiment can also be highly valuable for the rapid assignment of methyl resonances in SAR by NMR studies.

  13. Long-Term Validation and Variability of the Shortwave and Longwave Radiation Data of the GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Taiping; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Gupta, Shashi K.; Cox, Stephan J.; Mikovitz, Colleen; Hinkelman, Laura M.

    2006-01-01

    In this investigation, we make systematic Surface Radiation Budget-Baseline Surface Radiation Network (SRB-BSRN), Surface Radiation Data Centre (SRB-WRDC) and Surface Radiation Budget-Global Energy Balance Archive (SRB-GEBA) comparisons for both shortwave and longwave daily and monthly mean radiation fluxes at the Earth's surface. We first have an overview of all the comparable pairs of data in scatter or scatter density plots. Then we show the time series of the SRB data at grids in which there are ground sites where longterm records of data are available for comparison. An overall very good agreement between the SRB data and ground observations is found. To see the variability of the SRB data during the 21.5 years, we computed the global mean and its linear trend. No appreciable trend is detected at the 5% level. The empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) of the SRB deseasonalized shortwave downward flux are computed over the Pacific region, and the first EOF coefficient is found to be correlated with the ENSO Index at a high value of coefficient of 0.7083.

  14. Time-Resolved Study of the Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Effect of Silver Nanoparticles Generated in Voltammetry Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Ibáñez, David; Fernández Blanco, Ana Cristina; Heras, Aránzazu; Colina, Álvaro

    2014-01-01

    UV–vis absorption and Raman spectroelectrochemistry have been used to study silver nanoparticle (AgNP) electrodeposition, allowing a better understanding about the metal nanoparticle (NP) formation process and its influence on the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect. These techniques have provided in situ information related to the synthesis of AgNPs by cyclic voltammetry. With a marker, such as cyanide anion (CN–), Raman spectroscopy has allowed us to study all changes that take ...

  15. Enhanced hydrogen evolution performance of ultra thin nanoslice/nanopetal structured XS2 (X = W, Mo): From experiment to theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Honglin; Yu, Ke; Tang, Zheng; Zhu, Ziqiang

    2016-07-01

    The production of H2 through water splitting to make the reaction process economical and friendly has attracted a lot attention. In this work, we synthesized the novel well-defined nanostructured WS2/MoS2 composite for using as the electrocatalyst of hydrogen evolution. The final obtained nanoslice/nanopetal nanostructured WS2/MoS2 composite possessed massive active sites that originated from its well-defined hierarchical structure with densely stacked MoS2 nanopetals. The synthesized composite exhibited significantly enhanced hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) activity and clearly superior to the pristine MoS2/WS2. With the purpose to give a theoretical explanation of the corresponding enhancement mechanism, the first-principles investigation based on the density functional theory was further employed to survey the electronic properties of different structures. Charge density difference and Bader charge analyses revealed that electrons could directional transfer from WS2 to MoS2 and provided an "electron-rich" environment, which was beneficial to the improvement of HER efficiency. These analytical methods will necessarily offer new angles to explain the enhancement mechanism of HER processes regarding the interaction between WS2 and MoS2, which can accurately elucidate the reason why composite structure exhibits a better HER performance based on the experimental results.

  16. Top-down and bottom-up aerosol–cloud closure: towards understanding sources of uncertainty in deriving cloud shortwave radiative flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Sanchez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Top-down and bottom-up aerosol–cloud shortwave radiative flux closures were conducted at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station in Galway, Ireland, in August 2015. This study is part of the BACCHUS (Impact of Biogenic versus Anthropogenic emissions on Clouds and Climate: towards a Holistic UnderStanding European collaborative project, with the goal of understanding key processes affecting aerosol–cloud shortwave radiative flux closures to improve future climate predictions and develop sustainable policies for Europe. Instrument platforms include ground-based unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs1 and satellite measurements of aerosols, clouds and meteorological variables. The ground-based and airborne measurements of aerosol size distributions and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentration were used to initiate a 1-D microphysical aerosol–cloud parcel model (ACPM. UAVs were equipped for a specific science mission, with an optical particle counter for aerosol distribution profiles, a cloud sensor to measure cloud extinction or a five-hole probe for 3-D wind vectors. UAV cloud measurements are rare and have only become possible in recent years through the miniaturization of instrumentation. These are the first UAV measurements at Mace Head. ACPM simulations are compared to in situ cloud extinction measurements from UAVs to quantify closure in terms of cloud shortwave radiative flux. Two out of seven cases exhibit sub-adiabatic vertical temperature profiles within the cloud, which suggests that entrainment processes affect cloud microphysical properties and lead to an overestimate of simulated cloud shortwave radiative flux. Including an entrainment parameterization and explicitly calculating the entrainment fraction in the ACPM simulations both improved cloud-top radiative closure. Entrainment reduced the difference between simulated and observation-derived cloud-top shortwave radiative flux (δRF by between 25 and 60 W m−2. After

  17. Global Characterization of CO2 Column Retrievals from Shortwave-Infrared Satellite Observations of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Miller

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The global characteristics of retrievals of the column-averaged CO2 dry air mole fraction, XCO2, from shortwave infrared observations has been studied using the expected measurement performance of the NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2 mission. This study focuses on XCO2 retrieval precision and averaging kernels and their sensitivity to key parameters such as solar zenith angle (SZA, surface pressure, surface type and aerosol optical depth (AOD, for both nadir and sunglint observing modes. Realistic simulations have been carried out and the single sounding retrieval errors for XCO2 have been derived from the formal retrieval error covariance matrix under the assumption that the retrieval has converged to the correct answer and that the forward model can adequately describe the measurement. Thus, the retrieval errors presented in this study represent an estimate of the retrieval precision. For nadir observations, we find single-sounding retrieval errors with values typically less than 1 part per million (ppm over most land surfaces for SZAs less than 70° and up to 2.5 ppm for larger SZAs. Larger errors are found over snow/ice and ocean surfaces due to their low albedo in the spectral regions of the CO2 absorption bands and, for ocean, also in the O2 A band. For sunglint observations, errors over the ocean are significantly smaller than in nadir mode with values in the range of 0.3 to 0.6 ppm for small SZAs which can decrease to values as small as 0.15 for the largest SZAs. The vertical sensitivity of the retrieval that is represented by the column averaging kernel peaks near the surface and exhibits values near unity throughout most of the troposphere for most anticipated scenes. Nadir observations over dark ocean or snow/ice surfaces and observations with large AOD and large SZA show a decreased sensitivity to near-surface CO2. All simulations are carried out for a mid-latitude summer atmospheric profile, a given aerosol type and

  18. Students as Collaborators in Creating Meaningful Learning Experiences in Technology-Enhanced Classrooms: An Engaged Scholarship Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Liezel

    2017-01-01

    In dealing with numerous challenges, higher education instructors need to adapt their pedagogical practices to present students with meaningful, engaged learning experiences that are likely to promote student success and adequately prepare students for the world we live in. As part of this pedagogical transformation instructors also need to…

  19. How Clinical Instructors Can Enhance the Learning Experience of Physical Therapy Students in an Introductory Clinical Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Beverley; Wessel, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: There is little understanding of how physical therapy students are influenced by clinical instructors (CIs) particularly at the outset of their clinical learning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate physical therapy students' perceptions of their learning experiences during an introductory clinical placement. Methods: Subjects were…

  20. Enhancing Hispanic Minority Undergraduates' Botany Laboratory Experiences: Implementation of an Inquiry-Based Plant Tissue Culture Module Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siritunga, Dimuth; Navas, Vivian; Diffoot, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Early involvement of students in hands-on research experiences are known to demystify research and promote the pursuit of careers in science. But in large enrollment departments such opportunities for undergraduates to participate in research are rare. To counteract such lack of opportunities, inquiry-based laboratory module in plant tissue…

  1. Large-scale Experiments As A Tool For The Development of An Enhanced Remediation Technology With Thermal Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiester, U.; Theurer, T.; Winkler, A.; Koschitzky, H.-P.; Färber, A.

    The "cold"soil vapour extraction (SVE) is a state-of-the-art technology to remove volatile non- aqueous phase liquids from the unsaturated zone. This technology is most efficient for contaminants with low boiling points and soils with high to medium permeability. To increase phase transition from liquid to gas, thermal enhancement has been developed. Temperatures greater than 100oC are required to vaporize contami- nants with low vapour pressures in low permeable soils. This means, such that steam injection is inadequate. Thermal wells are the alternative remediation option.

  2. Iron fertilization enhanced net community production but not downward particle flux during the Southern Ocean iron fertilization experiment LOHAFEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Patrick; van der Loeff, Michiel Rutgers; Cassar, Nicolas; Vandromme, Pieter; d'Ovidio, Francesco; Stemmann, Lars; Rengarajan, R.; Soares, Melena; González, Humberto E.; Ebersbach, Friederike; Lampitt, Richard S.; Sanders, Richard; Barnett, Bruce A.; Smetacek, Victor; Naqvi, S. Wajih A.

    2013-09-01

    closed eddy core in the Subantarctic Atlantic Ocean was fertilized twice with two tons of iron (as FeSO4), and the 300 km2 fertilized patch was studied for 39 days to test whether fertilization enhances downward particle flux into the deep ocean. Chlorophyll a and primary productivity doubled after fertilization, and photosynthetic quantum yield (FV/FM) increased from 0.33 to ≥0.40. Silicic acid (artificially fertilized bloom with very low diatom biomass. Net community production (NCP) inside the patch, estimated from O2:Ar ratios, averaged 21 mmol POC m-2 d-1, probably ±20%. 234Th profiles implied constant export of 6.3 mmol POC m-2 d-1 in the patch, similar to unfertilized waters. The difference between NCP and 234Th-derived export partly accumulated in the mixed layer and was partly remineralized between the mixed layer and 100 m. Neutrally buoyant sediment traps at 200 and 450 m inside and outside the patch caught mostly fertilization. Our data thus indicate intense flux attenuation between 100 and 200 m, and probably between the mixed layer and 100 m. We attribute the lack of fertilization-induced export to silicon limitation of diatoms and reprocessing of sinking particles by detritus feeders. Our data are consistent with the view that nitrate-rich but silicate-deficient waters are not poised for enhanced particle export upon iron addition.

  3. Caring Behaviors of Clinical Instructors during Nursing Students’ Related Learning Experience: A Basis for Enhancing StudentMentor Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eladio Martin S. Gumabay

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research study aims at exploring the perceptions of the student – nurses on the caring behaviors portrayed by their nursing faculty and to what extent do they affect the nursing education. The researcher utilized a modified Collaizi method to organizely go through with the entire systematic process of data collection and analysis. Individual interview sessions and observations with second year to fourth year students were utilized by the research as methods of data gathering. Results of the study presented three central themes of nursing faculty caring behaviors, namely: (1 clinical supervision; (2 professional role; and, (3 personal attributes. Participants revealed that the caring behaviors of nursing faculty contribute to student – nurses’ development of competent knowledge, enhanced skills, and appropriate attitude. A nursing faculty also referred to as clinical instructor has his or her own unique approach towards student – nurses, either professionally or personally, and that these responsibilities and characteristics could enhance or hinder the progress of student – mentor relationship.

  4. Large multitouch screens to enhance collaboration in the classroom of the 21st century: an Italian experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Agostini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to technology-pervaded learning environments, digital natives can experiment new engaging ways of learning together at school. In particular, large displays with multi-touch technology hold new opportunities for the learning process, through the dialogic interaction between students and the simultaneous physical interaction with the screen. Our research suggests the use of a context-aware platform with multi-touch displays to support digital storytelling, in order to increase students’ involvement, motivation, and participation. We start our work by designing an application to create fairytales using multi-touch screens, to stimulate new collaboration opportunities during everyday classroom activities. The paper presents the results of an experiment with Interactive WhiteBoards (IWBs, carried out in an Italian primary school.

  5. Enhancing user acceptance of mandated mobile health information systems: the ePOC (electronic point-of-care project) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Lois; Sargent, Jason

    2007-01-01

    From a clinical perspective, the use of mobile technologies, such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) within hospital environments is not new. A paradigm shift however is underway towards the acceptance and utility of these systems within mobile-based healthcare environments. Introducing new technologies and associated work practices has intrinsic risks which must be addressed. This paper contends that intervening to address user concerns as they arise throughout the system development lifecycle will lead to greater levels of user acceptance, while ultimately enhancing the deliverability of a system that provides a best fit with end user needs. It is envisaged this research will lead to the development of a formalised user acceptance framework based on an agile approach to user acceptance measurement. The results of an ongoing study of user perceptions towards a mandated electronic point-of-care information system in the Northern Illawarra Ambulatory Care Team (TACT) are presented.

  6. Arts as an ecological method to enhance quality of work experience of healthcare staff: a phenomenological-hermeneutic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojner Horwitz, Eva; Grape Viding, Christina; Rydwik, Elisabeth; Huss, Ephrat

    2017-12-01

    This paper explores the impact of self-chosen arts-based recreational activities, as opposed to the traditional arts therapy activities, on the well-being of healthcare providers. Three qualitative case studies of programs in which arts-based activities were used to work with healthcare providers, lasting for 10 weeks each, are phenomenological-hermeneutically evaluated using interviews and focus groups. The findings show what we refer to as an "ecological" ripple of effects: (1) the arts-based activities helped to reduce individual stress and to enhance mood over time, (2) the activities helped to transform workplace relationships within wards, and (3) the arts humanized the overall work climate in the healthcare setting. These effects go beyond those of using the art production as a strategy for stress reduction and imply potential for a more encompassing role for the arts within healthcare.

  7. Limitless as a neuro-pharmaceutical experiment and as a Daseinsanalyse: on the use of fiction in preparatory debates on cognitive enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Hub

    2014-02-01

    Limitless is a movie (released in 2011) as well as a novel (published in 2001) about a tormented author who (plagued by a writer's block) becomes an early user of an experimental designer drug. The wonder drug makes him highly productive overnight and even allows him to make a fortune on the stock market. At the height of his career, however, the detrimental side-effects become increasingly noticeable. In this article, Limitless is analysed from two perspectives. First of all, building on the views of the French novelist Emile Zola, the novel is seen as the report of a closely monitored experiment. Subsequently, building on the phenomenology of Ludwig Binswanger, I will show how the cognitive enhancement drug not only boosts the protagonist's information processing capacities, but also modifies his experience of space and time, his sense of spatiality, his way of being-in-the-world. On the basis of these (complementary) analyses I will indicate how genres of the imagination (such as movies and novels) may play a significant role in assessing the societal implications of emerging technological developments such as neuro-enhancement, especially during the preparatory or anticipatory stage.

  8. Enhancing Baccalaureate Nursing Students' Perception of Competence and Confidence During an Alternative Dedicated Education Unit Experience: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecter, Rose; Gallagher, Joan; Ryan, Marybeth

    This quasiexperimental pilot study explored the effect three consecutive adult health Dedicated Education Unit (DEU) clinical placements would have on baccalaureate nursing students' self-perception of growth in competence and confidence. A Likert-type Competence/Confidence Self-Assessment Scale was constructed as a pretest/posttest measure; competence and confidence posttest means increased in each course. The study provides nursing professional development practitioners with information about the alternative DEU concept, its effect on student outcomes, and benefits nursing staff can gain by participating in a DEU experience.

  9. Utility of multimaterial 3D printers in creating models with pathological entities to enhance the training experience of neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waran, Vicknes; Narayanan, Vairavan; Karuppiah, Ravindran; Owen, Sarah L F; Aziz, Tipu

    2014-02-01

    The advent of multimaterial 3D printers allows the creation of neurosurgical models of a more realistic nature, mimicking real tissues. The authors used the latest generation of 3D printer to create a model, with an inbuilt pathological entity, of varying consistency and density. Using this model the authors were able to take trainees through the basic steps, from navigation and planning of skin flap to performing initial steps in a craniotomy and simple tumor excision. As the technology advances, models of this nature may be able to supplement the training of neurosurgeons in a simulated operating theater environment, thus improving the training experience.

  10. The effect of dielectric constants on noble metal/semiconductor SERS enhancement: FDTD simulation and experiment validation of Ag/Ge and Ag/Si substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Zhang, Zhaoshun; Liao, Fan; Cai, Qian; Li, Yanqing; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Shao, Mingwang

    2014-02-11

    The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method was employed to simulate the electric field distribution for noble metal (Au or Ag)/semiconductor (Ge or Si) substrates. The simulation showed that noble metal/Ge had stronger SERS enhancement than noble metal/Si, which was mainly attributed to the different dielectric constants of semiconductors. In order to verify the simulation, Ag nanoparticles with the diameter of ca. 40 nm were grown on Ge or Si wafer (Ag/Ge or Ag/Si) and employed as surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates to detect analytes in solution. The experiment demonstrated that both the two substrates exhibited excellent performance in the low concentration detection of Rhodamine 6G. Besides, the enhancement factor (1.3 × 10(9)) and relative standard deviation values (less than 11%) of Ag/Ge substrate were both better than those of Ag/Si (2.9 × 10(7) and less than 15%, respectively), which was consistent with the FDTD simulation. Moreover, Ag nanoparticles were grown in-situ on Ge substrate, which kept the nanoparticles from aggregation in the detection. To data, Ag/Ge substrates showed the best performance for their sensitivity and uniformity among the noble metal/semiconductor ones.

  11. First experiences with contrast-enhanced first-pass MR perfusion imaging in patients with primary, benign cardiac masses and tumour-like lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohrs, Oliver K. [Darmstadt Radiology, Department of Cardiovascular Imaging at Alice-Hospital, Darmstadt (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Voigtlaender, Thomas [Cardiovascular Center Bethanien (CCB), Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Petersen, Steffen E. [John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, OCMR, Oxford (United Kingdom); Zander, Matthias [Darmstadt Center of Cardiology, Darmstadt (Germany); Schulze, Thomas [Siemens Medical Solutions, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Pottmeyer, Anselm [Darmstadt Radiology, Department of Cardiovascular Imaging at Alice-Hospital, Darmstadt (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2008-08-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced first-pass perfusion MRI in patients with suspected cardiac masses and tumour-like lesions. Twenty patients underwent contrast-enhanced first-pass saturation-recovery steady-state-free-precession perfusion MRI in addition to clinical MRI. Eleven diagnostic parameters were analysed blinded in consensus by three observers: localisation (paracardiac/mural/intracavitary), malignancy (benign/malignant) and first-pass enhancement pattern (homogeneous/heterogeneous as well as non-perfused/hypoperfused/iso-perfused/ hyperperfused). The results were compared to combined references comprising histology, cytology, medical and surgical reports, echocardiography, chest X-ray, coronary angiography and regular MRI. Also, we analysed if additional first-pass perfusion confirmed, changed or reduced the number of differential diagnoses compared to clinical MRI. All cardiac masses or tumour-like lesions were correctly localised and scored as benign lesions. For homogeneous perfused lesions the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value was 94/100/100/67%, 100/94/67/100% for heterogeneous perfused lesions, 92/100/100/88% for non-perfused, 100/94/75/100 for hypoperfused, 100/100/100/100% for hyperperfused and for isoperfused lesions. In 17/2/1 cases perfusion MRI confirmed, reduced or increased the number of potential differentials. First-pass perfusion MRI provides valuable information in patients with benign cardiac masses or tumour-like lesions. Further experience is needed to underline these preliminary observations. (orig.)

  12. Enhancing the Math and Science Experiences of Latinas and Latinos: A Study of the Joaquin Bustoz Math-Science Honors Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escontrias, Gabriel, Jr.

    Latinas and Latinos are currently underrepresented in terms of our 21 st century student academic attainment and workforce, compared to the total U.S. Hispanic population. In a field such as mathematical sciences, Hispanic or Latino U.S. citizenship doctoral recipients only accounted for 3.04% in 2009--2010. While there are various initiatives to engage underrepresented STEM populations through education, there is a need to give a voice to the experiences of Latinas and Latinos engaged in such programs. This study explored the experiences of seven Arizona State University undergraduate Latina and Latino Joaquin Bustoz Math-Science Honors Program (JBMSHP) participants as well as examined how the program enhanced their math and science learning experiences. Participants attended either a five-week or eight-week program and ranged in attendance from 2006 to 2011. Students were provided an opportunity to begin university mathematics and science studies before graduating high school. Through a demographic survey and one-on-one guided interview, participants shared their personal journey, their experience in the JBMSHP, and their goals. Using grounded theory, a qualitative research approach, this study focuses on the unique experiences of Latina and Latino participants. Four major themes emerged from the analysis of the data. Each participant applied to the program with a foundation in which they sought to challenge themselves academically through mathematics and/or science. Through their involvement it the JBMSHP, participants recognized benefits during and after the program. All participants recognized the value of these benefits and their participation and praised the program. Overall, the JBMSHP provided the students the resources to grow their academic capital and if they chose seek a STEM related bachelor degree. The results of this study emphasize the need to expand the JBMSHP both within Arizona and nationally. In addition, there is a need to explore the other

  13. Enhancing emotional experiences to dance through music: the role of valence and arousal in the cross-modal bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Julia F; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Gomila, Antoni; Oke, Peter; Calvo-Merino, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that emotional responses to stimuli presented to one perceptive modality (e.g., visual) are modulated by the concurrent presentation of affective information to another modality (e.g., auditory)-an effect known as the cross-modal bias. However, the affective mechanisms mediating this effect are still not fully understood. It remains unclear what role different dimensions of stimulus valence and arousal play in mediating the effect, and to what extent cross-modal influences impact not only our perception and conscious affective experiences, but also our psychophysiological emotional response. We addressed these issues by measuring participants' subjective emotion ratings and their Galvanic Skin Responses (GSR) in a cross-modal affect perception paradigm employing videos of ballet dance movements and instrumental classical music as the stimuli. We chose these stimuli to explore the cross-modal bias in a context of stimuli (ballet dance movements) that most participants would have relatively little prior experience with. Results showed (i) that the cross-modal bias was more pronounced for sad than for happy movements, whereas it was equivalent when contrasting high vs. low arousal movements; and (ii) that movement valence did not modulate participants' GSR, while movement arousal did, such that GSR was potentiated in the case of low arousal movements with sad music and when high arousal movements were paired with happy music. Results are discussed in the context of the affective dimension of neuroentrainment and with regards to implications for the art community.

  14. Enhancing emotional experiences to dance through music: the role of valence and arousal in the cross-modal bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia F. Christensen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that emotional responses to stimuli presented to one perceptive modality (e.g. visual are modulated by the concurrent presentation of affective information to another modality (e.g. auditory – an effect known as the cross-modal bias. However, the affective mechanisms mediating this effect are still not fully understood. It remains unclear what role different dimensions of stimulus valence and arousal play in mediating the effect, and to what extent cross-modal influences impact not only our perception and conscious affective experiences, but also our psychophysiological emotional response. We addressed these issues by measuring participants’ subjective emotion ratings and their Galvanic Skin Responses in a cross-modal affect perception paradigm employing videos of ballet dance movements and instrumental classical music as the stimuli. We chose these stimuli to explore the cross-modal bias in a context of stimuli (ballet dance movements that most participants would have relatively little prior experience with. Results showed (i that the cross-modal bias was more pronounced for sad than for happy movements, whereas it was equivalent when contrasting high vs. low arousal movements, and (ii that movement valence did not modulate participants’ GSR, while movement arousal did such that GSR was potentiated in the case of low arousal movements with sad music and when high arousal movements were paired with happy music. Results are discussed in the context of the cross-modal affect perception literature and with regards to implications for the art community.

  15. Enhancing emotional experiences to dance through music: the role of valence and arousal in the cross-modal bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Julia F.; Gaigg, Sebastian B.; Gomila, Antoni; Oke, Peter; Calvo-Merino, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that emotional responses to stimuli presented to one perceptive modality (e.g., visual) are modulated by the concurrent presentation of affective information to another modality (e.g., auditory)—an effect known as the cross-modal bias. However, the affective mechanisms mediating this effect are still not fully understood. It remains unclear what role different dimensions of stimulus valence and arousal play in mediating the effect, and to what extent cross-modal influences impact not only our perception and conscious affective experiences, but also our psychophysiological emotional response. We addressed these issues by measuring participants’ subjective emotion ratings and their Galvanic Skin Responses (GSR) in a cross-modal affect perception paradigm employing videos of ballet dance movements and instrumental classical music as the stimuli. We chose these stimuli to explore the cross-modal bias in a context of stimuli (ballet dance movements) that most participants would have relatively little prior experience with. Results showed (i) that the cross-modal bias was more pronounced for sad than for happy movements, whereas it was equivalent when contrasting high vs. low arousal movements; and (ii) that movement valence did not modulate participants’ GSR, while movement arousal did, such that GSR was potentiated in the case of low arousal movements with sad music and when high arousal movements were paired with happy music. Results are discussed in the context of the affective dimension of neuroentrainment and with regards to implications for the art community. PMID:25339880

  16. Immersive simulated reality scenarios for enhancing students' experience of people with learning disabilities across all fields of nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunder, Lorna; Berridge, Emma-Jane

    2015-11-01

    Poor preparation of nurses, regarding learning disabilities can have devastating consequences. High-profile reports and the Nursing and Midwifery Council requirements led this University to introduce Shareville into the undergraduate and postgraduate nursing curriculum. Shareville is a virtual environment developed at Birmingham City University, in which student nurses learn from realistic, problem-based scenarios featuring people with learning disabilities. Following the implementation of the resource an evaluation of both staff and student experience was undertaken. Students reported that problem-based scenarios were sufficiently real and immersive. Scenarios presented previously unanticipated considerations, offering new insights, and giving students the opportunity to practise decision-making in challenging scenarios before encountering them in practice. The interface and the quality of the graphics were criticised, but, this did not interfere with learning. Nine lecturers were interviewed, they generally felt positively towards the resource and identified strengths in terms of blended learning and collaborative teaching. The evaluation contributes to understandings of learning via simulated reality, and identifies process issues that will inform the development of further resources and their roll-out locally, and may guide other education providers in developing and implementing resources of this nature. There was significant parity between lecturers' expectations of students' experience of Shareville. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. What supervisors and universities can do to enhance doctoral student experience (and how they can help themselves).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Dawn C; Denicolo, Pam M

    2017-05-01

    Over the past two decades, there has been a flurry of government papers and policy reports worldwide calling for increased number and diversity of doctoral researchers and a broadening of the curriculum to meet the developing needs of respective national 'knowledge-driven' economies. This has been followed by position papers and best practice examples of employability skills development in boundary-crossing doctoral programmes, especially in response to these initiatives. However, there is a disassociation between this ample literature expounding the new doctorate with its broader remit, inclusivity and production of 'industry-ready' graduates and the comparatively sparse literature on the doctoral candidates' experiences of their programmes and career readiness. Within this review, we briefly outline international government initiatives and examples of the responses by Life Science and Biomedical doctoral programmes to address these various challenges. Furthermore, we explore the recent literature on the lived experience of doctoral researchers by examining their perception of the recent changes to the research context to make recommendations for universities and supervisors on how to better support an ever more diverse doctoral population for a wide range of career opportunities. Examples of how doctoral researchers themselves can make the best of currently available opportunities are also provided. © FEMS 2017.

  18. How human resource organization can enhance space information acquisition and processing: the experience of the VENESAT-1 ground segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Romina; Orihuela, Nuris; Blanco, Rafael; Varela, Francisco; Camacho, Enrique; Urbina, Marianela; Aponte, Luis Gabriel; Vallenilla, Leopoldo; Acuña, Liana; Becerra, Roberto; Tabare, Terepaima; Recaredo, Erica

    2009-12-01

    Built in cooperation with the P.R of China, in October 29th of 2008, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela launched its first Telecommunication Satellite, the so called VENESAT-1 (Simón Bolívar Satellite), which operates in C (covering Center America, The Caribbean Region and most of South America), Ku (Bolivia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Paraguay, Uruguay, Venezuela) and Ka bands (Venezuela). The launch of VENESAT-1 represents the starting point for Venezuela as an active player in the field of space science and technology. In order to fulfill mission requirements and to guarantee the satellite's health, local professionals must provide continuous monitoring, orbit calculation, maneuvers preparation and execution, data preparation and processing, as well as data base management at the VENESAT-1 Ground Segment, which includes both a primary and backup site. In summary, data processing and real time data management are part of the daily activities performed by the personnel at the ground segment. Using published and unpublished information, this paper presents how human resource organization can enhance space information acquisition and processing, by analyzing the proposed organizational structure for the VENESAT-1 Ground Segment. We have found that the proposed units within the organizational structure reflect 3 key issues for mission management: Satellite Operations, Ground Operations, and Site Maintenance. The proposed organization is simple (3 hierarchical levels and 7 units), and communication channels seem efficient in terms of facilitating information acquisition, processing, storage, flow and exchange. Furthermore, the proposal includes a manual containing the full description of personnel responsibilities and profile, which efficiently allocates the management and operation of key software for satellite operation such as the Real-time Data Transaction Software (RDTS), Data Management Software (DMS), and Carrier Spectrum Monitoring Software (CSM

  19. NASA/GEWEX shortwave surface radiation budget: Integrated data product with reprocessed radiance, cloud, and meteorology inputs, and new surface albedo treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Stephen J.; Stackhouse, Paul W.; Gupta, Shashi K.; Mikovitz, J. Colleen; Zhang, Taiping

    2017-02-01

    The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) project produces shortwave and longwave surface and top of atmosphere radiative fluxes for the 1983-near present time period. Spatial resolution is 1 degree. The current Release 3.0 (available at gewex-srb.larc.nasa.gov) uses the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) DX product for pixel level radiance and cloud information. This product is subsampled to 30 km. ISCCP is currently recalibrating and recomputing their entire data series, to be released as the H product, at 10km resolution. The ninefold increase in pixel number will allow SRB a higher resolution gridded product (e.g. 0.5 degree), as well as the production of pixel-level fluxes. Other key input improvements include a detailed aerosol history using the Max Planck Institute Aerosol Climatology (MAC), and temperature and moisture profiles from nnHIRS.

  20. Rational Hydrogenation for Enhanced Mobility and High Reliability on ZnO-based Thin Film Transistors: From Simulation to Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Chen, Qian; Liao, Lei; Liu, Xingqiang; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Jiang, Changzhong; Wang, Jinlan; Li, Jinchai

    2016-03-02

    Hydrogenation is one of the effective methods for improving the performance of ZnO thin film transistors (TFTs), which originate from the fact that hydrogen (H) acts as a defect passivator and a shallow n-type dopant in ZnO materials. However, passivation accompanied by an excessive H doping of the channel region of a ZnO TFT is undesirable because high carrier density leads to negative threshold voltages. Herein, we report that Mg/H codoping could overcome the trade-off between performance and reliability in the ZnO TFTs. The theoretical calculation suggests that the incorporation of Mg in hydrogenated ZnO decrease the formation energy of interstitial H and increase formation energy of O-vacancy (VO). The experimental results demonstrate that the existence of the diluted Mg in hydrogenated ZnO TFTs could be sufficient to boost up mobility from 10 to 32.2 cm(2)/(V s) at a low carrier density (∼2.0 × 10(18) cm(-3)), which can be attributed to the decreased electron effective mass by surface band bending. The all results verified that the Mg/H codoping can significantly passivate the VO to improve device reliability and enhance mobility. Thus, this finding clearly points the way to realize high-performance metal oxide TFTs for low-cost, large-volume, flexible electronics.

  1. The New Face of FLUXNET: Redesigning the Web Site and Data Organization to Enhance the User Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanafield, Harold; Shamblin, Stephanie; Devarakonda, Ranjeet; McMurry, Ben; Walker Beaty, Tammy; Wilson, Bruce; Cook, Robert B.

    2011-02-01

    The FLUXNET global network of regional flux tower networks serves to coordinate the regional and global analysis of eddy covariance based CO2, water vapor and energy flux measurements taken at more than 500 sites in continuous long-term operation. The FLUXNET database presently contains information about the location, characteristics, and data availability of each of these sites. To facilitate the coordination and distribution of this information, we redesigned the underlying database and associated web site. We chose the PostgreSQL database as a platform based on its performance, stability and GIS extensions. PostreSQL allows us to enhance our search and presentation capabilities, which will in turn provide increased functionality for users seeking to understand the FLUXNET data. The redesigned database will also significantly decrease the burden of managing such highly varied data. The website is being developed using the Drupal content management system, which provides many community-developed modules and a robust framework for custom feature development. In parallel, we are working with the regional networks to ensure that the information in the FLUXNET database is identical to that in the regional networks. Going forward, we also plan to develop an automated way to synchronize information with the regional networks.

  2. The longitudinal study of rat hippocampus influenced by stress: early adverse experience enhances hippocampal vulnerability and working memory deficit in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Fengkui; Li, Lei; Shi, Mei; Li, Zhenzi; Zhou, Jinghua; Chen, Li

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that early adverse experience is related to learning disabilities in adults, but the neurobiological mechanisms have not yet been identified. We used longitudinal animal experiments to test the hypothesis that early life stress enhances hippocampal vulnerability and working memory deficit in adult rats. The expression of Synaptophysin (SYN) and apoptosis (Apo) in hippocampal CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) regions were examined to evaluate the effects of environmental factors on the hippocampus. The working memory errors via radial 8-arm maze were studied to evaluate the long-term effect of early stress on rats' spatial learning ability. Our results indicated that chronic restraint stress in early life and forced cold water swimming stress in adulthood reduced SYN expression and increased Apo levels in rat hippocampus, but the hippocampal damage tended to recover when rats returned to a non-stress environment. In addition, when the rats were exposed to forced cold water swimming stress during adulthood, SYN expression (CA3 and DG regions) and Apo levels (CA3 region) in rat hippocampus showed statistical difference between early restraint stress group and non-early restraint stress group (rats exposed to stress in adulthood only). One month after the two groups of rats returned to non-stress environment, this difference of SYN expression (CA3 and DG regions) and working memory deficit between the two groups was still statistically significant. Our study findings suggested that early adverse experience enhances hippocampal vulnerability and working memory deficit in adult rats, and reduces structural plasticity of hippocampus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Estimation of shortwave direct aerosol radiative forcing at four locations on the Indo-Gangetic plains: Model results and ground measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Humera; Alam, Khan; Bibi, Samina

    2017-08-01

    This study provides observational results of aerosol optical and radiative characteristics over four locations in IGP. Spectral variation of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD), Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) and Asymmetry Parameter (AP) were analysed using AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) data. The analysis revealed that coarse particles were dominant in summer and pre-monsoon, while fine particles were more pronounced in winter and post-monsoon. Furthermore, the spatio-temporal variations of Shortwave Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing (SDARF) and Shortwave Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing Efficiency (SDARFE) at the Top Of Atmosphere (TOA), SURface (SUR) and within ATMosphere (ATM) were calculated using SBDART model. The atmospheric Heating Rate (HR) associated with SDARFATM were also computed. It was observed that the monthly averaged SDARFTOA and SDARFSUR were found to be negative leading to positive SDARFATM during all the months over all sites. The increments in net atmospheric forcing lead to maximum HR in November-December and May. The seasonal analysis of SDARF revealed that SDARFTOA and SDARFSUR were negative during all seasons. The SW atmospheric absorption translates to highest atmospheric HR during summer over Karachi and during pre-monsoon over Lahore, Jaipur and Kanpur. Like SDARF, the monthly and seasonal variations of SDARFETOA and SDARFESUR were found to be negative, resulting in positive atmospheric forcing. Additionally, to compare the model estimated forcing against AERONET derived forcing, the regression analysis of AERONET-SBDART forcing were carried out. It was observed that SDARF at SUR and TOA showed relatively higher correlation over Lahore, moderate over Jaipur and Kanpur and lower over Karachi. Finally, the analysis of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model revealed that air masses were arriving from multiple source locations.

  4. Using innovative group-work activities to enhance the problem-based learning experience for dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, R; Gouldsborough, I; Sheader, E; Speake, T

    2009-11-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) in medical and dental curricula is now well established, as such courses are seen to equip students with valuable transferable skills (e.g. problem-solving or team-working abilities), in addition to knowledge acquisition. However, it is often assumed that students improve in such skills without actually providing direct opportunity for practice, and without giving students feedback on their performance. 'The Manchester Dental Programme' (TMDP) was developed at The University of Manchester, UK as a 5-year, integrated enquiry-led curriculum. The existing PBL course was redesigned to include a unique, additional PBL session ('Session 4') that incorporated an activity for the group to complete, based on the subject material covered during student self-study. A summative mark was awarded for each activity that reflected the teamwork, organisational and overall capabilities of the groups. This paper describes the different types of activities developed for the Session 4 and presents an analysis of the perceptions of the students and staff involved. The student response to the Session 4 activities, obtained via questionnaires, was extremely positive, with the majority finding them fun, yet challenging, and 'worthwhile'. The activities were perceived to enhance subject understanding; develop students' problem-solving skills; allow the application of knowledge to new situations, and helped to identify gaps in knowledge to direct further study. Staff found the activities innovative and exciting learning tools for the students. The Session 4 activities described here are useful educational resources that could be adapted for other PBL courses in a wide variety of subject areas.

  5. Quantification of urban atmospheric boundary layer greenhouse gas dry mole fraction enhancements in the dormant season: Results from the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha L. Miles

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We assess the detectability of city emissions via a tower-based greenhouse gas (GHG network, as part of the Indianapolis Flux (INFLUX experiment. By examining afternoon-averaged results from a network of carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, and carbon monoxide (CO mole fraction measurements in Indianapolis, Indiana for 2011–2013, we quantify spatial and temporal patterns in urban atmospheric GHG dry mole fractions. The platform for these measurements is twelve communications towers spread across the metropolitan region, ranging in height from 39 to 136 m above ground level, and instrumented with cavity ring-down spectrometers. Nine of the sites were deployed as of January 2013 and data from these sites are the focus of this paper. A background site, chosen such that it is on the predominantly upwind side of the city, is utilized to quantify enhancements caused by urban emissions. Afternoon averaged mole fractions are studied because this is the time of day during which the height of the boundary layer is most steady in time and the area that influences the tower measurements is likely to be largest. Additionally, atmospheric transport models have better performance in simulating the daytime convective boundary layer compared to the nighttime boundary layer. Averaged from January through April of 2013, the mean urban dormant-season enhancements range from 0.3 ppm CO2 at the site 24 km typically downwind of the edge of the city (Site 09 to 1.4 ppm at the site at the downwind edge of the city (Site 02 to 2.9 ppm at the downtown site (Site 03. When the wind is aligned such that the sites are downwind of the urban area, the enhancements are increased, to 1.6 ppm at Site 09, and 3.3 ppm at Site 02. Differences in sampling height affect the reported urban enhancement by up to 50%, but the overall spatial pattern remains similar. The time interval over which the afternoon data are averaged alters the calculated urban enhancement by an average of 0.4 ppm

  6. Combining long term field experiments and nanoscale analysis to enhance process understanding of root litter stabilization by mineral interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabbi, Abad; Baumann, Karen; Remusat, Laurent; Barre, Pierre; Dignac, Marie-France; Rumpel, Cornelia

    2015-04-01

    Mineral interaction may affect the stabilisation of root litter directly or indirectly after microbial decomposition and transformation. The importance of both processes may vary within the soil profile. In this study we studied C stabilisation of isotopically labelled root litter (13C and 15N), which was incubated during 3 year in the field at different soil depth. Samples from this field experiment were recovered and subjected to nanoscale analyses in order to elucidate mineral interactions occurring in different parts of the soil profile. Our results showed enrichment of mineral associated organic matter in subsoil horizons. However, material derived from new plant litter may be stabilised at similar rates in top- and subsoil horizons. N-containing compounds are enriched in the mineral associated fraction of subsoil horizons, indicating enrichment of microbial derived material with depth. Nano scale analyses showed that indeed plant-derived material may be associated with metal oxides in topsoil horizons, whereas the mineral associated organic matter in subsoil horizons may consist of microbial cells. Interestingly, in contrast to short term laboratory analysis, decoupling of C and N through stabilisation with soil minerals was observed during this long term field experiment. Our results indicate that the nature of OM stabilised by mineral interactions is depth specific. Therefore, we suggest, that plant derived lignocellulosic material may be preserved by mineral interactions in topsoil given its incomplete degradation, thereby leading to the formation of functional groups and favouring adsorption to soil minerals. This is consistent with the higher state of lignin-degradation observed in topsoil horizons as compared to subsoil. At depth, where microorganisms are most likely energy limited, degradation of fresh plant litter may be complete, thereby diminishing the formation of lignocellulosic compounds capable of sorption onto metal oxides. As a result

  7. Enhancing sexual desire and experience: an investigation of the sexual correlates of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitány-Fövény, Máté; Mervó, Barbara; Corazza, Ornella; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Farkas, Judit; Urbán, Róbert; Zacher, Gábor; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2015-07-01

    Various studies have dealt with gamma-hydroxybutyrate's (GHB) potential role in sexual assaults, while the sexual correlates of intentional recreational GHB use have not well been highlighted. Our study aims to explore GHB's sexual effects, the patterns of choice of sexual partners, the frequency of experienced blackouts, and endured sexual or acquisitory crimes as a result of GHB use. Sixty recreational GHB users filled out a questionnaire on experienced subjective, somatic, and sexual effects of GHB, the frequency of blackouts due to their GHB use, and items on their sexual experiences in relation to GHB use. Of the sample, 25.9% reported increased sexual arousal as well as more intense attraction towards their sexual partners and increased sexual openness when using GHB; 34.8% had sexual intercourse with strangers, or with others, but not with their partners when using GHB; and 8.6% were victims of acquisitory crimes, whereas 3.4% were victims of a sexual assault. Furthermore, 24.6% typically experienced blackouts when using GHB. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate seems to be a potential substitute for both stimulant and depressant substances. Increased sexual desire and disinhibition may lead to a more frequent and potentially more riskful sexual activity. Experienced blackouts need to be considered as risk factors for suffering sexual or acquisitory crimes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Strategies to enhance resilience post-natural disaster: a qualitative study of experiences with Australian floods and fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kessel, Gisela; Gibbs, Lisa; MacDougall, Colin

    2015-06-01

    Disasters have a significant impact on mental health that may be mitigated by promoting resilience. This study explores the lay perspective on public health interventions that have the potential to facilitate resilience of adults who experience a natural disaster. Semi-structured interviews were conducted 6 months post-disaster between June 2011 and January 2012 with 19 people who experienced the 2010/11 Victorian floods. Twenty lay witness statements from people who presented to the 2009 Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission were also selected for analysis. Transcripts were analysed using an interpretive and comparative content analysis to develop an understanding of disaster resilience interventions in an ecological framework. The participants identified resilience focused interventions such as information that help individuals manage emotions and make effective decisions and plans, or enable access to resources; face-to-face communication strategies such as public events that restore or create new social connections; rebuilding of community capacity through coordination of volunteers and donations and policies that manage disaster risk. Disaster recovery interventions designed within an ecological model can promote a comprehensive integrated systems approach to support resilience in affected populations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Enhancing health service delivery through a university-local governemnt partnership model, issues and experiences from Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gad Razaaza Ndaruhutse

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of approaches have been adopted in medical education geared towards training health professionals that can improve access to health care by communities most vulnerable to inequalities and injustices in health systems. Relevant health professions education is vital for improvements in health and health care access. A symbiotic medical education can improve the quality of health care and impact on career choice, yet the challenge to sustain equitable access to improved health and healthcare particularly for those most in need remains a major global challenge ( Ssewankambo, 2012. Within a decentralized system, such as in Uganda, Local Governments are mandated to ensure health promotion and equitable healthcare for the population under their jurisdiction. Whereas public service reforms have mainly focused on decentralization and good governance (Mamdani, 2012, Stiglitz, 2012, the role of curriculum reforms in addressing health and health care challenges through needs-based education of health professionals has been largely ignored. Through an analysis of the challenges of health care within a decentralized Local Government setting, this paper, by presenting experiences from one public university in Uganda, reveals how a partnership between Universities and Local Government can go a long way in addressing health disparities and reduction of morbidity and mortality.

  10. UN Women’s experience with strengthening evaluation systems in Africa: Enhancing quantity, quality and use of evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caspar Merkle

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Following the adoption of the Women Evaluation Policy in 2012, a series of systems and mechanisms were introduced in the organisation to strengthen the evaluation function at both central and decentralised levels. They were based on a systemic approach and a Theory of Change for building an enabling environment for evaluation in UN Women. Objectives: The purpose of this article was to analyse progress made and challenges with respect to establishing evaluation systems and institutionalising an evaluation culture in the UN Women Africa region. Method: The article draws on UN Women evaluation performance data collected over the past five years, discussions and practical experience by the author of working on evaluation with UN Women since 2009. It also analyses UN Women documents and the broader literature on the topic. Results: The findings illustrate that the different mechanisms to strengthen the evaluation function in UN Women show progress in the Africa region on four out of the five selected evaluation performance indicators. The Theory of Change to strengthen the UN Women evaluation function is largely validated by the wider literature on evaluation use. External assessments confirm that the UN Women evaluation function is sound overall. Conclusion: The article concludes that evaluation performance indicators only provide a partial snapshot of the many different factors that help or undermine evaluative thinking and a learning culture within an organisation. Institutional systems and mechanisms are necessary but not sufficient for nurturing an evaluation culture and ensuring utilisation of evaluation for better development effectiveness.

  11. Improving family carers' experiences of support at the end of life by enhancing communication: an action research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosser, Isabel; Kennedy, Catriona

    2014-12-01

    This paper builds on findings from phase one of a participatory action research study, which investigated support for family carers at the end of life in an acute hospital setting in Scotland, UK ( Dosser and Kennedy, 2012 ). The research presented here is the second phase of the participatory action research study, in which nursing staff from an acute hospital ward are involved in ongoing analysis of data and ideas guided by action cycles and reflection. Two key change initiatives are reported; improving nurses' communication skills and improving the environment for family carers of loved ones at the end of life within the acute hospital setting. To address these points, nurses were enrolled on a communications skills course, and a new room for family carers was integrated into the hospital. Data were analysed from interviews and questionnaires with the nurses, and from insights gathered in a reflective diary taken by the researcher. The changes implemented improved the confidence of participants in communicating with carers as well as patients and colleagues. The findings highlight practical strategies and communication issues that can potentially impact on the grief experience of family carers, such as having a safe space nearby to rest in private, away from the bedside.

  12. Model experiments on improving nitrogen removal in laboratory scale subsurface constructed wetlands by enhancing the anaerobic ammonia oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, D; Kuschk, P; Stange, F; Müller, R A; Köser, H

    2007-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonia oxidation (Anammox) has been identified as a new general process-strategy for nitrogen removal in wastewater treatment. In order to evaluate the role and effects of the Anammox process in wetlands, laboratory-scale model experiments were performed with planted fixed bed reactors. A reactor (planted with Juncus effusus) was fed with synthetic wastewater containing 150-200 mg L(-1) NH4+ and 75-480 mg L(-1) NO2(-). Under these operating conditions, the plants were affected by the high ammonia and nitrite concentrations and the nitrogen removal rate fell within the same range of 45-49 mg N d(-1) (equivalent to 0.64-0.70 g Nm(-2)d(-1)) as already reported by other authors. In order to stimulate the rate of nitrogen conversion, the planted reactor was inoculated with Anammox biomass. As a result, the rate of nitrogen removal was increased 4-5-fold and the toxic effects on the plants also disappeared. The results show that, in principle, subsurface flow wetlands can also function as an "Anammox bioreactor". However, the design of a complete process for the treatment of waters with a high ammonia load and, in particular, the realisation of simple technical solutions for partial nitrification have still to be developed.

  13. Enhancing communication about paediatric medicines: lessons from a qualitative study of parents' experiences of their child's suspected adverse drug reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Janine; Hesselgreaves, Hannah; Nunn, Anthony J; Peak, Matthew; Pirmohamed, Munir; Smyth, Rosalind L; Turner, Mark A; Young, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    There is little research on parents' experiences of suspected adverse drug reactions in their children and hence little evidence to guide clinicians when communicating with families about problems associated with medicines. To identify any unmet information and communication needs described by parents whose child had a suspected adverse drug reaction. Semi-structured qualitative interviews with parents of 44 children who had a suspected adverse drug reaction identified on hospital admission, during in-patient treatment or reported by parents using the Yellow Card Scheme (the UK system for collecting spontaneous reports of adverse drug reactions). Interviews were conducted face-to-face or by telephone; most interviews were audiorecorded and transcribed. Analysis was informed by the principles of the constant comparative method. Many parents described being dissatisfied with how clinicians communicated about adverse drug reactions and unclear about the implications for their child's future use of medicines. A few parents felt that clinicians had abandoned their child and reported refusing the use of further medicines because they feared a repeated adverse drug reaction. The accounts of parents of children with cancer were different. They emphasised their confidence in clinicians' management of adverse drug reactions and described how clinicians prospectively explained the risks associated with medicines. Parents linked symptoms to medicines in ways that resembled the established reasoning that clinicians use to evaluate the possibility that a medicine has caused an adverse drug reaction. Clinicians' communication about adverse drug reactions was poor from the perspective of parents, indicating that improvements are needed. The accounts of parents of children with cancer indicate that prospective explanation about adverse drug reactions at the time of prescription can be effective. Convergence between parents and clinicians in their reasoning for linking children

  14. Enhancing communication about paediatric medicines: lessons from a qualitative study of parents' experiences of their child's suspected adverse drug reaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Arnott

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is little research on parents' experiences of suspected adverse drug reactions in their children and hence little evidence to guide clinicians when communicating with families about problems associated with medicines. OBJECTIVE: To identify any unmet information and communication needs described by parents whose child had a suspected adverse drug reaction. METHODS: Semi-structured qualitative interviews with parents of 44 children who had a suspected adverse drug reaction identified on hospital admission, during in-patient treatment or reported by parents using the Yellow Card Scheme (the UK system for collecting spontaneous reports of adverse drug reactions. Interviews were conducted face-to-face or by telephone; most interviews were audiorecorded and transcribed. Analysis was informed by the principles of the constant comparative method. RESULTS: Many parents described being dissatisfied with how clinicians communicated about adverse drug reactions and unclear about the implications for their child's future use of medicines. A few parents felt that clinicians had abandoned their child and reported refusing the use of further medicines because they feared a repeated adverse drug reaction. The accounts of parents of children with cancer were different. They emphasised their confidence in clinicians' management of adverse drug reactions and described how clinicians prospectively explained the risks associated with medicines. Parents linked symptoms to medicines in ways that resembled the established reasoning that clinicians use to evaluate the possibility that a medicine has caused an adverse drug reaction. CONCLUSION: Clinicians' communication about adverse drug reactions was poor from the perspective of parents, indicating that improvements are needed. The accounts of parents of children with cancer indicate that prospective explanation about adverse drug reactions at the time of prescription can be effective. Convergence

  15. A View from the Inside: An In-Depth Look at a Female University Student's Experience with a Feel-Based Intervention to Enhance Self-Confidence and Self-Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Eva; Arcand, Isabelle; Durand-Bush, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    The primary goal of this investigation was to document, using the participatory paradigm, a female university student's experience with a feel-based intervention intended to enhance the quality of her academic experiences including her self-confidence and self-talk. In this unique qualitative case study, the student participated in a 15-week…

  16. Enhancing the resilience of local communities threated by natural disaster: the experience of the Project "Shkoder", (Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzi, Veronica; Morelli, Stefano; Fidolini, Francesco; Fanti, Riccardo; Vannocci, Pietro; Krymbi, Ervis; Centoducati, Carlo; Ghini, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    The vulnerability of Albanian population to natural disasters is due to poverty, inadequate infrastructures (e.g. communication network, basic public facilities and works of soil protection), an uncontrollable building boom and a range of environmental factors, both geomorphological and geological. The greatest disaster threats in Albania are those related to severe earthquakes and large-scale riverine floods. Geohazards assessment is a crucial point for Albania, which has been subject to a rapid development after the recent political changes, resulting in a general land degradation. Also the rate of migration from rural areas to the most urbanized areas currently represents a major problem for the National Civil Protection, since the urban sprawl in the suburbs are often located in high-risk areas, particularly vulnerable to natural hazards. The National Civil Protection system, in terms of subsidiary institutional and volunteer components, is relatively young in Albania. The progressive decentralization of the administrative competences triggered by the recent political changes is accompanied by the acquisition of new territorial information and the development of specific protocols for the emergency management, as well as the risk reduction. The management of natural disasters demands not only an early response to the criticalities, but also a correct mapping of the damage and the development of emergency plans for future events in order to protect lives, properties and the environment and moreover to spread the risk awareness in the population and to prepare it for such circumstances. The main purposes of the Pilot Project "Shkoder" is to enhance the resilience of a little community, located 9 kilometers south-west of Shkodra (Northern Albania), to flooding and earthquakes and to promote the subsidiarity principle by means of: a) demonstrating how basic information for the disaster planning (collected with a real demonstrative field survey) and the risk

  17. Wildfire Prevention and Suppression plans enhancing: a first overview on strength and weakness in Italian stakeholders experiences and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonora, Laura; Conese, Claudio; Barbati, Anna

    2014-05-01

    stakeholder is the future challenge to enhance the plans efficacy.

  18. Experience-dependent enhancement of pitch-specific responses in the auditory cortex is limited to acceleration rates in normal voice range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, A; Gandour, J T; Suresh, C H

    2015-09-10

    The aim of this study is to determine how pitch acceleration rates within and outside the normal pitch range may influence latency and amplitude of cortical pitch-specific responses (CPR) as a function of language experience (Chinese, English). Responses were elicited from a set of four pitch stimuli chosen to represent a range of acceleration rates (two each inside and outside the normal voice range) imposed on the high rising Mandarin Tone 2. Pitch-relevant neural activity, as reflected in the latency and amplitude of scalp-recorded CPR components, varied depending on language-experience and pitch acceleration of dynamic, time-varying pitch contours. Peak latencies of CPR components were shorter in the Chinese than the English group across stimuli. Chinese participants showed greater amplitude than English for CPR components at both frontocentral and temporal electrode sites in response to pitch contours with acceleration rates inside the normal voice pitch range as compared to pitch contours with acceleration rates that exceed the normal range. As indexed by CPR amplitude at the temporal sites, a rightward asymmetry was observed for the Chinese group only. Only over the right temporal site was amplitude greater in the Chinese group relative to the English. These findings may suggest that the neural mechanism(s) underlying processing of pitch in the right auditory cortex reflect experience-dependent modulation of sensitivity to acceleration in just those rising pitch contours that fall within the bounds of one's native language. More broadly, enhancement of native pitch stimuli and stronger rightward asymmetry of CPR components in the Chinese group is consistent with the notion that long-term experience shapes adaptive, distributed hierarchical pitch processing in the auditory cortex, and reflects an interaction with higher order, extrasensory processes beyond the sensory memory trace. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Menu-engineering in restaurants - adapting portion sizes on plates to enhance vegetable consumption: a real-life experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinders, Machiel J; Huitink, Marlijn; Dijkstra, S Coosje; Maaskant, Anna J; Heijnen, Joris

    2017-12-25

    The aim of this research was to investigate whether increased portion sizes of vegetables and decreased portion sizes of meat on main dishes increased the amount of vegetables consumed in a real-life restaurant setting without affecting customer satisfaction. The participants were unaware of the experiment. A cross-over design was used in which three restaurants were randomly assigned to a sequence of an intervention and control condition. In the intervention period, the vegetable portion sizes on the plates of main dishes were doubled (150 g of vegetables instead of 75 g) and the portion sizes of meat on the plates were reduced by an average of 12.5%. In the control period, the portion sizes of the main dishes were maintained as usual. In total, 1006 observations and questionnaires were included. Vegetable consumption from plates was significantly higher during the intervention period (M = 115.5 g) than during the control period (M = 61.7 g). Similarly, total vegetable consumption (including side dishes) was significantly higher during the intervention period (M = 178.0 g) than during the control period (M = 137.0 g). Conversely, meat consumption was significantly lower during the intervention period (M = 183.1 g) than during the control period (M = 211.1 g). Satisfaction with the restaurant visit did not differ between the intervention period (M = 1.27) and control period (M = 1.35). Satisfaction with the main dish was significantly lower during the intervention period (M = 1.25) than during the control period (M = 1.38), although in both cases, the scores indicated that participants remained (very) satisfied with their main dish. This study showed that increasing vegetable portions in combination with decreasing meat portions (unknowingly to the consumer) increased the amount of vegetables consumed and decreased the amount of meat consumed. Furthermore, despite the changes in portion sizes, participants remained satisfied

  20. Microbial electrohydrogenesis linked to dark fermentation as integrated application for enhanced biohydrogen production: A review on process characteristics, experiences and lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakonyi, Péter; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Koók, László; Tóth, Gábor; Rózsenberszki, Tamás; Bélafi-Bakó, Katalin; Nemestóthy, Nándor

    2017-12-21

    Microbial electrohydrogenesis cells (MECs) are devices that have attracted significant attention from the scientific community to generate hydrogen gas electrochemically with the aid of exoelectrogen microorganisms. It has been demonstrated that MECs are capable to deal with the residual organic materials present in effluents generated along with dark fermentative hydrogen bioproduction (DF). Consequently, MECs stand as attractive post-treatment units to enhance the global H2 yield as a part of a two-stage, integrated application (DF-MEC). In this review article, it is aimed (i) to assess results communicated in the relevant literature on cascade DF-MEC systems, (ii) describe the characteristics of each steps involved and (iii) discuss the experiences as well as the lessons in order to facilitate knowledge transfer and help the interested readers with the construction of more efficient coupled set-ups, leading eventually to the improvement of overall biohydrogen evolution performances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Young people with depression and their experience accessing an enhanced primary care service for youth with emerging mental health problems: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCann Terence V

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the emergence of mental health problems during adolescence and early adulthood, many young people encounter difficulties accessing appropriate services. In response to this gap, the Australian Government recently established new enhanced primary care services (headspace that target young people with emerging mental health problems. In this study, we examine the experience of young people with depression accessing one of these services, with a focus on understanding how they access the service and the difficulties they encounter in the process. Method Individual, in-depth, audio-recorded interviews were used to collect data. Twenty-six young people with depression were recruited from a headspace site in Melbourne, Australia. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyse the data. Results Four overlapping themes were identified in the data. First, school counsellors as access mediators, highlights the prominent role school counsellors have in facilitating student access to the service. Second, location as an access facilitator and inhibitor. Although the service is accessible by public transport, it is less so to those who do not live near public transport. Third, encountering barriers accessing the service initially. Two main service access barriers were experienced: unfamiliarity with the service, and delays in obtaining initial appointments for ongoing therapy. Finally, the service’s funding model acts as an access facilitator and barrier. While the model provides a low or no cost services initially, it limits the number of funded sessions, and this can be problematic. Conclusions Young people have contrasting experiences accessing the service. School counsellors have an influential role in facilitating access, and its close proximity to public transport enhances access. The service needs to become more prominent in young people’s consciousness, while the appointment system would benefit from

  2. Is dignity therapy feasible to enhance the end of life experience for people with motor neurone disease and their family carers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentley Brenda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of interventions that address psychosocial and existential distress in people with motor neurone disease (MND or that alleviate caregiver burden in MND family carers have often been suggested in the research literature. Dignity therapy, which was developed to reduce psychosocial and existential distress at the end of life, has been shown to benefit people dying of cancer and their families. These results may not be transferable to people with MND. The objectives of this study are to assess the feasibility, acceptability and potential effectiveness of dignity therapy to enhance the end of life experience for people with motor neurone disease and their family carers. Methods/design This is a cross-sectional study utilizing a single treatment group and a pre/post test design. The study population will comprise fifty people diagnosed with MND and their nominated family carers. Primarily quantitative outcomes will be gathered through measures assessed at baseline and at approximately one week after the intervention. Outcomes for participants include hopefulness, spirituality and dignity. Outcomes for family carers include perceived caregiver burden, hopefulness and anxiety/depression. Feedback and satisfaction with the intervention will be gathered through a questionnaire. Discussion This detailed research will explore if dignity therapy has the potential to enhance the end of life experience for people with MND and their family carers, and fill a gap for professionals who are called on to address the spiritual, existential and psychosocial needs of their MND patients and families. Trial registration ACTRN Trial Number: ACTRN12611000410954

  3. Implementation Costs of an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Program in the United States: A Financial Model and Sensitivity Analysis Based on Experiences at a Quaternary Academic Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Alexander B; Grant, Michael C; Pio Roda, Claro; Hobson, Deborah; Pawlik, Timothy; Wu, Christopher L; Wick, Elizabeth C

    2016-03-01

    Despite positive results from several international Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocols, the United States has been slow to adopt ERAS protocols, in part due to concern regarding the expenses of such a program. We sought to evaluate the potential annual net cost savings of implementing a US-based ERAS program. Using data from existing publications and experience with an ERAS program, a model of net financial costs was developed for surgical groups of escalating numbers of annual cases. Our example scenario provided a financial analysis of the implementation of an ERAS program at a United States academic institution based on data from the ERAS Program for Colorectal Surgery at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. Based on available data from the United States, ERAS programs lead to reductions in lengths of hospital stay that range from 0.7 to 2.7 days and substantial direct cost savings. Using example data from a quaternary hospital, the considerable cost of $552,783 associated with implementation of an ERAS program was offset by even greater savings in the first year of nearly $948,500, yielding a net savings of $395,717. Sensitivity analysis across several caseload and direct cost scenarios yielded similar savings in 20 of the 27 projections. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery protocols have repeatedly led to reduction in length of hospital stay and improved surgical outcomes. A financial model, based on published data and experience, projects that investment in an ERAS program can also lead to net financial savings for US hospitals. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental enrichment and brain repair: harnessing the therapeutic effects of cognitive stimulation and physical activity to enhance experience-dependent plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, A J

    2014-02-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) increases levels of novelty and complexity, inducing enhanced sensory, cognitive and motor stimulation. In wild-type rodents, EE has been found to have a range of effects, such as enhancing experience-dependent cellular plasticity and cognitive performance, relative to standard-housed controls. Whilst environmental enrichment is of course a relative term, dependent on the nature of control environmental conditions, epidemiological studies suggest that EE has direct clinical relevance to a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders. EE has been demonstrated to induce beneficial effects in animal models of a wide variety of brain disorders. The first evidence of beneficial effects of EE in a genetically targeted animal model was generated using Huntington's disease transgenic mice. Subsequent studies found that EE was also therapeutic in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, consistent with epidemiological studies of relevant environmental modifiers. EE has also been found to ameliorate behavioural, cellular and molecular deficits in animal models of various neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease, stroke, traumatic brain injury, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, depression, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. This review will focus on the effects of EE observed in animal models of neurodegenerative brain diseases, at molecular, cellular and behavioural levels. The proposal that EE may act synergistically with other approaches, such as drug and cell therapies, to facilitate brain repair will be discussed. I will also discuss the therapeutic potential of 'enviromimetics', drugs which mimic or enhance the therapeutic effects of cognitive activity and physical exercise, for both neuroprotection and brain repair. © 2013 British Neuropathological Society.

  5. Enhanced near-infrared shielding ability of (Li,K)-codoped WO3 for smart windows: DFT prediction validated by experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chenxi; Chen, Jian-Feng; Zeng, Xiaofei; Cheng, Daojian; Huang, Haifeng; Cao, Dapeng

    2016-02-01

    By means of hybrid density functional theory (DFT) computations, we found that (Li,K)-codoped WO3 shows a significantly enhanced near-infrared (NIR) absorption ability for smart windows, and investigated the influence of doping through the analysis of the electronic structures of pure and doped hexagonal WO3. Furthermore, this codoped material, with a hexagonal tungsten bronze nanostructure, was successfully prepared via a simple one-step hydrothermal reaction for the first time. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that the as-prepared products possessed a nanorod-like morphology with diameters of about 5-10 nm. It was demonstrated that (Li,K)-codoped WO3 presents a better NIR absorption ability than pure, Li-monodoped or K-monodoped WO3, which is in good agreement with our theoretical predictions. The experiment and simulation results reveal that this enhanced optical property in NIR can be explained by the existence of high free electrons existing in (Li,K)-codoped WO3.

  6. Contextually tailored interventions can increase evidence-informed policy-making on health-enhancing physical activity: the experiences of two Danish municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Maja; Loncarevic, Natasa; Radl-Karimi, Christina; Thøgersen, Malene; Skovgaard, Thomas; Aro, Arja R

    2018-02-21

    The present study aims to test out contextually tailored interventions to increase evidence-informed health-enhancing physical activity policy-making in two Danish municipalities. The study was performed as experiments in natural settings. Based on results from a pre-intervention study defining the needs and contexts of the two settings, the interventions were developed based on logical models. The interventions aimed at increasing the use of knowledge in policy-making, primarily via strengthening intersectoral collaboration. The interventions were evaluated via pre-, post- and 12-month follow-up questionnaires and qualitative interviews were carried out prior to the intervention start. The use of knowledge changed in several ways. In one municipality, the use of stakeholder and target group knowledge increased whereas, in the other municipality, the use of research knowledge increased. In both municipalities, the ability to translate knowledge to local context, the political request and the organisational procedures for use of knowledge increased during the interventions. There was some variation between the two settings, which shows the importance of tailoring to context. Most of the changes were diminished at the 12-month follow-up. Contextually tailored interventions have the potential to increase evidence-informed policy-making on health-enhancing physical activity. However, this finding needs to be tested in larger samples and its sustainability must be strengthened.

  7. A Designed Experiments Approach to Optimizing MALDI-TOF MS Spectrum Processing Parameters Enhances Detection of Antibiotic Resistance in Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian ePenny

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available MALDI-TOF MS has been utilized as a reliable and rapid tool for microbial fingerprinting at the genus and species levels. Recently, there has been keen interest in using MALDI-TOF MS beyond the genus and species levels to rapidly identify antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria. The purpose of this study was to enhance strain level resolution for Campylobacter jejuni through the optimization of spectrum processing parameters using a series of designed experiments. A collection of 172 strains of C. jejuni were collected from Luxembourg, New Zealand, North America, and South Africa, consisting of four groups of antibiotic resistant isolates. The groups included: 1 65 strains resistant to cefoperazone 2 26 resistant to cefoperazone and beta-lactams 3 5 strains resistant to cefoperazone, beta-lactams, and tetracycline, and 4 76 strains resistant to cefoperazone, teicoplanin, amphotericin B and cephalothin. Initially, a model set of 16 strains (three biological replicates and three technical replicates per isolate, yielding a total of 144 spectra of C. jejuni was subjected to each designed experiment to enhance detection of antibiotic resistance. The most optimal parameters were applied to the larger collection of 172 isolates (two biological replicates and three technical replicates per isolate, yielding a total of 1,031 spectra. We observed an increase in antibiotic resistance detection whenever either a curve based similarity coefficient (Pearson or ranked Pearson was applied rather than a peak based (Dice and/or the optimized preprocessing parameters were applied. Increases in antimicrobial resistance detection were scored using the jackknife maximum similarity technique following cluster analysis. From the first four groups of antibiotic resistant isolates, the optimized preprocessing parameters increased detection respective to the aforementioned groups by: 1 five percent 2 nine percent 3 ten percent, and 4 two percent. An additional second

  8. To Twitter to Woo: Harnessing the power of social media (SoMe) in nurse education to enhance the student's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Wendy; McLoughlin, Moira; Warne, Tony

    2015-11-01

    This paper explores some of the difficulties, challenges and rewards for student nurses and nurse academics when harnessing social media (SoMe) as part of the overall learning experience. The paper draws upon data in the form of student voices, captured through an online planned Twitter chat. This data analysis provides the basis of a case study on the student experience in practice placements. A planned 1 h Twitter chat took place in June 2013, specifically aimed at student nurses. What transpired was an illuminating debate, eliciting responses from around the globe about learning in practice, mentors, and student support that lasted over 3 h. More importantly, the Twitter chat also included qualified nurses and mentors, listening and responding in real time, offering thoughts and solutions to how support and mentoring could be improved. This was in contrast to how students, locally, currently use a paper based questionnaire to give feedback in isolation. The authenticity of this feedback is often compromised by university link lecturers' who often provide a more sanitised version of this feedback to clinical placement. This paper explores whether it is possible to facilitate a realignment and capture the zeitgeist in order to provide the opportunity for enhancing learning in practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Study on effects of E-glass fiber hybrid composites enhanced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes under tensile load using full factorial design of experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musthak, Md.; Madhavi, M.; Ahsanullah, F. M.

    2017-08-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT's) are attracting scientific and industrial interest by virtue of their outstanding characteristics. The present research problem deals with the fabrication and characterization of E-glass fiber composites enhanced by carbon nanotubes. In the present study, three factors with two levels are considered. Hence, the design is called 23 full factorial design of experiment. The process parameters considered for the present problem are weight of multi-walled carbon nanotubes, process to disperse nano-particles in resin, and orientation of woven fabric. In addition, their levels considered for the experiment are higher level (+1) and lower level (-1). Fabrication of E-glass fiber composites was carried out according to design, and the specimens were prepared with respect to the ASTM standards D3039-76 and tensile testing was performed. The results show that the nano-particulated composite plate can be manufactured by considering lower level nano-particles stirred with probe sonicator and plied-up with hybrid orientation.

  10. Microbial Consortia Development and Microcosm and Column Experiments for Enhanced Bioremediation of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds, West Branch Canal Creek Wetland Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Majcher, Emily H.; Jones, Elizabeth J.; Voytek, Mary A.

    2008-01-01

    Chlorinated solvents, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform, are reaching land surface in localized areas of focused ground-water discharge (seeps) in a wetland and tidal creek in the West Branch Canal Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. In cooperation with the U.S. Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, the U.S. Geological Survey is developing enhanced bioremediation methods that simulate the natural anaerobic degradation that occurs without intervention in non-seep areas of the wetland. A combination of natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation could provide a remedy for the discharging ground-water plumes that would minimize disturbance to the sensitive wetland ecosystem. Biostimulation (addition of organic substrate or nutrients) and bioaugmentation (addition of microbial consortium), applied either by direct injection at depth in the wetland sediments or by construction of a permeable reactive mat at the seep surface, were tested as possible methods to enhance anaerobic degradation in the seep areas. For the first phase of developing enhanced bioremediation methods for the contaminant mixtures in the seeps, laboratory studies were conducted to develop a microbial consortium to degrade 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and its chlorinated daughter products under anaerobic conditions, and to test biostimulation and bioaugmentation of wetland sediment and reactive mat matrices in microcosms. The individual components required for the direct injection and reactive mat methods were then combined in column experiments to test them under groundwater- flow rates and contaminant concentrations observed in the field. Results showed that both direct injection and the reactive mat are promising remediation methods, although the success of direct injection likely would depend on adequately distributing and maintaining organic substrate throughout the wetland sediment in the seep

  11. Band-offsets at BaTiO3/Cu2O heterojunction and enhanced photoelectrochemical response: theory and experiment(Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dipika; Satsangi, Vibha R.; Dass Kaura, Sahab; Shrivastav, Rohit; Waghmare, Umesh V.

    2016-10-01

    Band-offsets at BaTiO3/Cu2O heterojunction and enhanced photoelectrochemical response: theory and experiment Dipika Sharmaa, Vibha R. Satsangib, Rohit Shrivastava, Umesh V. Waghmarec, Sahab Dassa aDepartment of Chemistry, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra-282 110 (India) bDepartment of Physics and Computer Sciences, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra-282 110 (India) cTheoretical Sciences Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur, Bangalore-560 064 (India) * Phone: +91-9219695960. Fax: +91-562-2801226. E-mail: drsahabdas@gmail.com. Study on photoelectrochemical activity of pristine BaTiO3, Cu2O and BaTiO3/Cu2O heterojunction has been carried out using DFT based band offsets and charge carriers effective mass calculations and their experimental verification. The results of DFT calculations show that BaTiO3 and Cu2O have staggered type band alignment after the heterojunction formation and high mobility of electrons in Cu2O as compared to the electrons in BaTiO3. Staggered type band edges alignment and high mobility of electrons and holes improved the separation of photo-generated charge carriers in BaTiO3/Cu2O heterojunction. To validate the theoretical results experiments were carried out on pristine BaTiO3, Cu2O and BaTiO3/Cu2O heterojunction with varying thickness of Cu2O. All samples were characterized by X- Ray Diffractometer, SEM and UV-Vis spectrometry. Nanostructured thin films of pristine BaTiO3, Cu2O and BaTiO3/Cu2O heterojunction were used as photoelectrode in the photoelectrochemical cell for water splitting reaction. Maximum photocurrent density of 1.44 mA/cm2 at 0.90 V/SCE was exhibited by 442 nm thick BaTiO3/Cu2O heterojunction photoelectrode Increased photocurrent density and enhanced photoconversion efficiency, exhibited by the heterojunction may be attributed to improved conductivity and enhanced separation of the photogenerated carriers at the BaTiO3/Cu2O interface. The experimental results and first

  12. Towards tailored teaching: using participatory action research to enhance the learning experience of Longitudinal Integrated Clerkship students in a South African rural district hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Pressentin, Klaus B; Waggie, Firdouza; Conradie, Hoffie

    2016-03-08

    The introduction of Stellenbosch University's Longitudinal Integrated Clerkship (LIC) model as part of the undergraduate medical curriculum offers a unique and exciting training model to develop generalist doctors for the changing South African health landscape. At one of these LIC sites, the need for an improvement of the local learning experience became evident. This paper explores how to identify and implement a tailored teaching and learning intervention to improve workplace-based learning for LIC students. A participatory action research approach was used in a co-operative inquiry group (ten participants), consisting of the students, clinician educators and researchers, who met over a period of 5 months. Through a cyclical process of action and reflection this group identified a teaching intervention. The results demonstrate the gaps and challenges identified when implementing a LIC model of medical education. A structured learning programme for the final 6 weeks of the students' placement at the district hospital was designed by the co-operative inquiry group as an agreed intervention. The post-intervention group reflection highlighted a need to create a structured programme in the spirit of local collaboration and learning across disciplines. The results also enhance our understanding of both students and clinician educators' perceptions of this new model of workplace-based training. This paper provides practical strategies to enhance teaching and learning in a new educational context. These strategies illuminate three paradigm shifts: (1) from the traditional medical education approach towards a transformative learning approach advocated for the 21(st) century health professional; (2) from the teaching hospital context to the district hospital context; and (3) from block-based teaching towards a longitudinal integrated learning model. A programme based on balancing structured and tailored learning activities is recommended in order to address the local

  13. Correcting transmission losses in short-wave infrared spatially offset Raman spectroscopy measurements to enable reduced fluorescence through-barrier detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, R J; Lee, L; Shand, N C

    2017-09-25

    Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) is a proven technique for sub-surface detection. SORS is able to separate Raman signals from a container and its contents, thereby demonstrating application to through-barrier detection for defence and security. Whilst SORS has been demonstrated to reduce fluorescence from the barrier (or surface), fluorescence from the sample (or sub-surface) can still be problematic for some materials when using Raman excitation wavelengths typical in commercially available instrumentation (e.g. 785 nm). Previous work has demonstrated that short-wave infrared (SWIR) excited SORS (e.g. 1064 nm) can reduce fluorescence from the sample and barrier, thereby providing the potential to detect a wider range of materials through a wider range of barriers. In this paper we highlight an additional challenge for detection through some plastic container materials (e.g. high density polyethylene (HDPE) and other opaque plastics) that absorb and scatter both incident and Raman scattered photons in the SWIR band, leading to distortion of the resultant SORS spectrum. The existence of this effect and its impact is explored, along with a potential solution to overcome this challenge that uses multi-wavelength Raman excitation to avoid the detrimental HDPE absorption region.

  14. An Alternative Quality Control Technique for Mineral Chemistry Analysis of Portland Cement-Grade Limestone Using Shortwave Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrullah Zaini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Shortwave infrared (SWIR spectroscopy can be applied directly to analyze the mineral chemistry of raw or geologic materials. It provides diagnostic spectral characteristics of the chemical composition of minerals, information that is invaluable for the identification and quality control of such materials. The present study aims to investigate the potential of SWIR spectroscopy as an alternative quality control technique for the mineral chemistry analysis of Portland cement-grade limestone. We used the spectroscopic (wavelength position and depth of absorption feature and geochemical characteristics of limestone samples to estimate the abundance and composition of carbonate and clay minerals on rock surfaces. The depth of the carbonate (CO3 and Al-OH absorption features are linearly correlated with the contents of CaO and Al2O3 in the samples, respectively, as determined by portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF measurements. Variations in the wavelength position of CO3 and Al-OH absorption features are related to changes in the chemical compositions of the samples. The results showed that the dark gray and light gray limestone samples are better suited for manufacturing Portland cement clinker than the dolomitic limestone samples. This finding is based on the CaO, MgO, Al2O3, and SiO2 concentrations and compositions. The results indicate that SWIR spectroscopy is an appropriate approach for the chemical quality control of cement raw materials.

  15. A Polarized Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Model for Calculations of Spectra of the Stokes Parameters of Shortwave Radiation Based on the Line-by-Line and Monte Carlo Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Fomin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new version of radiative transfer model called the Fast Line-by-Line Model (FLBLM, which is based on the Line-by-Line (LbL and Monte Carlo (MC methods and rigorously treats particulate and molecular scattering alongside absorption. The advantage of this model consists in the use of the line-by-line model that allows for the computing of high-resolution spectra quite quickly. We have developed the model by taking into account the polarization state of light and carried out some validations by comparison against benchmark results. FLBLM calculates the Stokes parameters spectra of shortwave radiation in vertically inhomogeneous atmospheres. This update makes the model applicable for the assessment of cloud and aerosol influence on radiances as measured by the SW high-resolution polarization spectrometers. In sample results we demonstrate that the high-resolution spectra of the Stokes parameters contain more detailed information about clouds and aerosols than the medium- and low-resolution spectra wherein lines are not resolved. The presented model is rapid enough for many practical applications (e.g., validations and might be useful especially for the remote sensing. FLBLM is suitable for development of the reliable technique for retrieval of optical and microphysical properties of clouds and aerosols from high-resolution satellites data.

  16. Short-term effectiveness of short-wave diathermy treatment on pain, clinical symptoms, and hand function in patients with mild or moderate idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incebiyik, Serap; Boyaci, Ahmet; Tutoglu, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    We determined the effects of short-wave diathermy (SWD) treatment on mild and moderate idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). This was a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial. The study involved 58 wrists in 31 patients diagnosed clinically and electrophysiologically with mild and moderate CTS. They were assigned randomly to one of two groups. Group 1 received a hot pack, SWD, and nerve and tendon gliding exercises and Group 2 received a hot pack, placebo SWD, and nerve and tendon gliding exercises. The treatment was applied five times weekly for a total of 15 sessions. Patients were evaluated using the Tinel test, Phalen test, carpal compression test, reverse Phalen test, carpal tunnel compression test, Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ) Symptom Severity Scale (SSS), Functional Status Scale (FSS), and a visual analog scale (VAS). Clinical tests and scales were evaluated at the beginning and end of therapy. In the SWD group, in the Tinel test, Phalen test, reverse Phalen test, carpal compression test, VAS, BCTQ-FSS, and BCTQ-SSS, statistically significant improvements were detected (p 0.05) from baseline. All parameters improved significantly in the SWD group versus the controls (p < 0.05). SWD provided short-term improvements in pain, clinical symptoms, and hand function in patients with mild and moderate CTS.

  17. No additional benefit of shortwave diathermy over exercise program for knee osteoarthritis in peri-/post-menopausal women: an equivalence trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanachaiyanont, M; Kuptniratsaikul, V

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate the benefit of shortwave diathermy (SWD) supplemented to an exercise program for knee osteoarthritis (OA) in peri-/post-menopausal women. A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled equivalence trial was conducted in a university hospital. Participants including 113 women aged 50-85 years with primary knee OA were instructed to do regular quadriceps exercise, and randomized to control (n=60) and treatment (n=53) groups receiving sham SWD and therapeutic SWD, respectively. The treatment being evaluated was continuous SWD, 20 min/session, 3 sessions/week for 3 weeks. The outcomes including Thai Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA (WOMAC) index, 100-m walking speed, stair ascent-and-descent time, global assessment, patient's satisfaction, and adverse events were assessed at baseline and end of treatment. At the end of treatment, both groups had trivial but statistical improvement in all outcomes. Intention-to-treat analysis showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups in all outcomes. Per protocol analysis demonstrated the equivalence in Thai WOMAC total score, as the 95% confidence interval of difference (-0.62, 0.92) was within confidence limits of +/-1cm. The addition of SWD to an exercise program for knee OA in peri-/post-menopausal women is not superior to the exercise program alone.

  18. Computation of Domain-Averaged Shortwave Irradiance by a One-Dimensional Algorithm Incorporating Correlations between Optical Thickness and Direct Incident Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, S.

    2003-01-01

    A one-dimensional radiative transfer algorithm that accounts for correlations between the optical thickness and the incident direct solar radiation is developed to compute the domain-averaged shortwave irradiance profile. It divides the direct irradiance into four components and treats the direct irradiance in two separate, clear and cloudy columns to account for the fact that clouds attenuate the direct irradiance more than clear-sky. The horizontal inhomogeneity of clouds in the cloudy column is treated by the gamma weighted two-stream approximation, which assumes that the optical thickness of clouds follows a gamma distribution. The algorithm inputs the cloud fraction, cumulative cloud fraction as a function of height, and a parameter expressing the shape of the probability density function of the cloud optical thickness distribution in addition to inputs required for a two-stream radiative transfer model. These cloud property inputs can be obtained using ground- and satellite-based instruments. Therefore, the algorithm can treat realistic cloud overlap features and horizontal inhomogeneity of clouds in a framework of one- dimensional radiative transfer. Heating rates computed by the algorithm using cloud fields generated by cloud resolving models agree with those computed with a Monte Carlo model. If optical properties in computational layers that divide a vertically extensive cloud are correlated, the irradiance profile computed by the algorithm further improves.

  19. Prediction and measurement of the electromagnetic environment of high-power medium-wave and short-wave broadcast antennas in far field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhanghong; Wang, Qun; Ji, Zhijiang; Shi, Meiwu; Hou, Guoyan; Tan, Danjun; Wang, Pengqi; Qiu, Xianbo

    2014-12-01

    With the increasing city size, high-power electromagnetic radiation devices such as high-power medium-wave (MW) and short-wave (SW) antennas have been inevitably getting closer and closer to buildings, which resulted in the pollution of indoor electromagnetic radiation becoming worsened. To avoid such radiation exceeding the exposure limits by national standards, it is necessary to predict and survey the electromagnetic radiation by MW and SW antennas before constructing the buildings. In this paper, a modified prediction method for the far-field electromagnetic radiation is proposed and successfully applied to predict the electromagnetic environment of an area close to a group of typical high-power MW and SW wave antennas. Different from currently used simplified prediction method defined in the Radiation Protection Management Guidelines (H J/T 10. 3-1996), the new method in this article makes use of more information such as antennas' patterns to predict the electromagnetic environment. Therefore, it improves the prediction accuracy significantly by the new feature of resolution at different directions. At the end of this article, a comparison between the prediction data and the measured results is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed new method. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Effect of Ge-doping on the short-wave, mid- and far-infrared intersubband transitions in GaN/AlGaN heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Caroline B.; Ajay, Akhil; Lähnemann, Jonas; Bougerol, Catherine; Monroy, Eva

    2017-12-01

    This paper assesses the effects of Ge-doping on the structural and optical (band-to-band and intersubband (ISB)) properties of GaN/AlGaN multi-quantum wells (QWs) designed to display ISB absorption in the short-wave, mid- and far-infrared ranges (SWIR, MIR, and FIR, respectively). The standard c-plane crystallographic orientation is considered for wells absorbing in the SWIR and MIR spectral regions, whereas the FIR structures are grown along the nonpolar m-axis. In all cases, we compare the characteristics of Ge-doped and Si-doped samples with the same design and various doping levels. The use of Ge appears to improve the mosaicity of the highly lattice-mismatched GaN/AlN heterostructures. However, when reducing the lattice mismatch, the mosaicity is rather determined by the substrate and does not show any dependence on the dopant nature or concentration. From the optical point of view, by increasing the dopant density, we observe a blueshift of the photoluminescence in polar samples due to the screening of the internal electric field by free carriers. In the ISB absorption, on the other hand, there is a systematic improvement of the linewidth when using Ge as a dopant for high doping levels, whatever the spectral region under consideration (i.e. different QW size, barrier composition and crystallographic orientation).

  1. Revising shortwave and longwave radiation archives in view of possible revisions of the WSG and WISG reference scales: methods and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nyeki

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A large number of radiometers are traceable to the World Standard Group (WSG for shortwave radiation and the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG for longwave radiation, hosted by the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos/World Radiation Centre (PMOD/WRC, Davos, Switzerland. The WSG and WISG have recently been found to over- and underestimate radiation values, respectively (Fehlmann et al., 2012; Gröbner et al., 2014, although research is still ongoing. In view of a possible revision of the reference scales of both standard groups, this study discusses the methods involved and the implications on existing archives of radiation time series, such as the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN. Based on PMOD/WRC calibration archives and BSRN data archives, the downward longwave radiation (DLR time series over the 2006–2015 period were analysed at four stations (polar and mid-latitude locations. DLR was found to increase by up to 3.5 and 5.4 W m−2 for all-sky and clear-sky conditions, respectively, after applying a WISG reference scale correction and a minor correction for the dependence of pyrgeometer sensitivity on atmospheric integrated water vapour content. Similar increases in DLR may be expected at other BSRN stations. Based on our analysis, a number of recommendations are made for future studies.

  2. Designing and Using Virtual Field Environments to Enhance and Extend Field Experience in Professional Development Programs in Geology for K-12 Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granshaw, Frank Douglas

    2011-12-01

    Virtual reality (VR) is increasingly used to acquaint geoscience novices with some of the observation, data gathering, and problem solving done in actual field situations by geoscientists. VR environments in a variety of forms are used to prepare students for doing geologic fieldwork, as well as to provide proxies for such experience when venturing into the field is not possible. However, despite increased use of VR for these purposes, there is little research on how students learn using these environments, how using them impacts student field experience, or what constitutes effective design in light of emerging theories of geocognition. To address these questions, I investigated the design and use of a virtual reality environment in a professional development program for middle school Earth science teachers called Teachers on the Leading Edge (TOTLE). This environment, called a virtual field environment, or VFE, was based largely on the field sites visited by the participants during summer workshops. It was designed as a tool to prepare the participants for workshop field activities and as a vehicle for taking elements of that experience back to their students. I assessed how effectively the VFE accomplished these goals using a quasi-experimental, mixed method study that involved a series of teaching experiments, interviews, participant surveys, and focus groups. The principle conclusions reached in this study are as follows: 1. In a field trip orientation experiment involving 35 middle school teachers, 90.6% of the participants stated a preference for VFE enhanced orientation over an alternative orientation that used photographs and static maps to complete a practice field activity. When asked about how the VFE prepared them for their field experience, the participants ranked it as most helpful for visualize the location and geography of the field sites. They ranked it lower for helping them visualize structural and geomorphic patterns, and ranked it as least

  3. GP Surgeons’ Experiences of Training in British Columbia and Alberta: A Case Study of Enhanced Skills for Rural Primary Care Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Kornelsen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been a steady erosion of family physicians with enhanced surgical skills providing care for rural residents. This has been largely due to the lack of formal training avenues and continuing medical education (CME opportunities afforded to those interested and attrition of those currently practicing.. Methods: A qualitative study was undertaken using an exploratory policy framework to guide the collection of in-depth interview data on GP surgeons’ training experiences. A purposive sample of GP surgeons currently practicing in rural BC and Alberta communities yielded interviews with 62 participants in person and an additional 8 by telephone. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed then subjected to a process analysis. Results: Participants thematically identified motivations for acquiring advanced skills training, resources required (primarily in the area of solid mentorship, the most efficacious context for a training program (structured and differences in mentorship between obstetricians and general surgeons. Conclusions: Mentors and role models were the most salient influencing factor in the trajectory of training for the participants in this study. Mentorship between specialists and generalists was constrained at times by inter-professional tensions and was accomplished more successfully within a cirriculum-based, structured environment as opposed to a learner-responsive training environment.

  4. Participant experiences and perceptions of physical activity-enhancing interventions for people with physical impairments and mobility limitations: a meta-synthesis of qualitative research evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Toni L; Ma, Jasmin K; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A

    2017-06-01

    Disabled people face multiple personal, environmental and social barriers that interfere with leading a physically active lifestyle. Thus, there is an urgent need for behaviour change interventions to increase physical activity (PA) by specifically addressing the situations of disabled people, and barriers to participation. This original meta-synthesis of qualitative research was undertaken to explore participants' experiences and perceptions of PA-enhancing interventions for adults with physical impairments resulting in mobility limitations. Published articles were identified through a rigorous systematic search. Based on the inclusion/exclusion criteria, 10 articles were included for review. Following a critical appraisal of the articles, methods of thematic synthesis were drawn upon to generate overarching concepts through interpretation and conceptual synthesis. Seven interrelated concepts were constructed representing both components and outcomes of the interventions. These were (i) Diversity of interventions; (ii) Importance of communication; (iii) Need for social support; (iv) Behavioural strategies; (v) Gaining knowledge; (vi) Re-framing thoughts about exercise and the self and (vii) Health and well-being. The results revealed that a combination of informational, social and behavioural interventions is perceived as crucial for PA initiation and maintenance. Furthermore, key elements of effective intervention design and implications for policies and practices to increase PA participation are proposed.

  5. Trial participants' experiences of early enhanced speech and language therapy after stroke compared with employed visitor support: a qualitative study nested within a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alys; Gomersall, Timothy; Bowen, Audrey

    2013-02-01

    To explore trial participants' experiences of the process and outcomes of early, enhanced speech and language therapy after stroke with support from an employed visitor. Qualitative study nested within a randomized controlled trial. Twney-two people who, after stroke, had a diagnosis of aphasia (12), dysarthria (5) or both (5) and who participated in the ACT NoW study. Eight English NHS usual care settings. Individual interviews. Thematic content analysis assisted by a bespoke data transformation protocol for incorporating non-verbal and semantically ambiguous data. Participants highly regarded regular and sustained contact with someone outside of immediate family/friends who engaged them in deliberate activities/communication in the early months after stroke. Participants identified differences in the process of intervention between speech and language therapists and employed visitors. But no major discriminations were made between the impact or value of this contact according to whether provided by a speech and language therapist or employed visitor. Participant-defined criteria for effectiveness of contact included: impact on mood and confidence, self-recognition of progress and the meeting of individual needs. As in the randomized controlled trial, participants reported no evidence of added benefit of early communication therapy beyond that from attention control. The findings do not imply that regular contact with any non-professional can have beneficial effects for someone with aphasia or dysarthria in the early weeks following a stroke. The study points to specific conditions that would have to be met for contact to have a positive effect.

  6. Free Range, Organic? Polish Consumers Preferences Regarding Information on Farming System and Nutritional Enhancement of Eggs: A Discrete Choice Based Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Żakowska-Biemans

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine the structure of consumer preferences regarding information on farming system and nutritional enhancement of eggs to verify if consumers are willing to accept products combing sustainability and nutrition related claims. The data was collected within a CAPI (Computer Assisted Personal Interviews survey on a representative sample of 935 consumers responsible for food shopping. A discrete choice-based conjoint method was selected in eliciting consumer preferences among different product profiles with varying levels of attributes. A hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify four distinct clusters that differed significantly in terms of importance attached to production system attributes and socio-demographic profiles. The results of the experiment showed that price and farming system had the most significant mean relative importance in shaping consumers’ preferences, while other attributes such as nutrition and health claims, egg size, package size and hen breed were far less important. Free range eggs had the highest relative importance for consumers despite the fact that organic egg production systems are governed by much stricter animal welfare standards. Our segmentation revealed that two of our four clusters may be more easily reached by information on animal welfare related attributes in egg production than the others. The results of our study provide the policy makers and marketing practitioners with insights applicable for communication and pricing strategies for eggs with sustainability claims.

  7. Impacts of spectral nudging on the simulated surface air temperature in summer compared with the selection of shortwave radiation and land surface model physics parameterization in a high-resolution regional atmospheric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun; Hwang, Seung-On

    2017-11-01

    The impact of a spectral nudging technique for the dynamical downscaling of the summer surface air temperature in a high-resolution regional atmospheric model is assessed. The performance of this technique is measured by comparing 16 analysis-driven simulation sets of physical parameterization combinations of two shortwave radiation and four land surface model schemes of the model, which are known to be crucial for the simulation of the surface air temperature. It is found that the application of spectral nudging to the outermost domain has a greater impact on the regional climate than any combination of shortwave radiation and land surface model physics schemes. The optimal choice of two model physics parameterizations is helpful for obtaining more realistic spatiotemporal distributions of land surface variables such as the surface air temperature, precipitation, and surface fluxes. However, employing spectral nudging adds more value to the results; the improvement is greater than using sophisticated shortwave radiation and land surface model physical parameterizations. This result indicates that spectral nudging applied to the outermost domain provides a more accurate lateral boundary condition to the innermost domain when forced by analysis data by securing the consistency with large-scale forcing over a regional domain. This consequently indirectly helps two physical parameterizations to produce small-scale features closer to the observed values, leading to a better representation of the surface air temperature in a high-resolution downscaled climate.

  8. A Human-Centered Design Methodology to Enhance the Usability, Human Factors, and User Experience of Connected Health Systems: A Three-Phase Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Richard; Glynn, Liam; Rodríguez-Molinero, Alejandro; Baker, Paul MA; Scharf, Thomas; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2017-01-01

    Background Design processes such as human-centered design, which involve the end user throughout the product development and testing process, can be crucial in ensuring that the product meets the needs and capabilities of the user, particularly in terms of safety and user experience. The structured and iterative nature of human-centered design can often present a challenge when design teams are faced with the necessary, rapid, product development life cycles associated with the competitive connected health industry. Objective We wanted to derive a structured methodology that followed the principles of human-centered design that would allow designers and developers to ensure that the needs of the user are taken into account throughout the design process, while maintaining a rapid pace of development. In this paper, we present the methodology and its rationale before outlining how it was applied to assess and enhance the usability, human factors, and user experience of a connected health system known as the Wireless Insole for Independent and Safe Elderly Living (WIISEL) system, a system designed to continuously assess fall risk by measuring gait and balance parameters associated with fall risk. Methods We derived a three-phase methodology. In Phase 1 we emphasized the construction of a use case document. This document can be used to detail the context of use of the system by utilizing storyboarding, paper prototypes, and mock-ups in conjunction with user interviews to gather insightful user feedback on different proposed concepts. In Phase 2 we emphasized the use of expert usability inspections such as heuristic evaluations and cognitive walkthroughs with small multidisciplinary groups to review the prototypes born out of the Phase 1 feedback. Finally, in Phase 3 we emphasized classical user testing with target end users, using various metrics to measure the user experience and improve the final prototypes. Results We report a successful implementation of the

  9. A Human-Centered Design Methodology to Enhance the Usability, Human Factors, and User Experience of Connected Health Systems: A Three-Phase Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Richard; Glynn, Liam; Rodríguez-Molinero, Alejandro; Baker, Paul Ma; Scharf, Thomas; Quinlan, Leo R; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2017-03-16

    Design processes such as human-centered design, which involve the end user throughout the product development and testing process, can be crucial in ensuring that the product meets the needs and capabilities of the user, particularly in terms of safety and user experience. The structured and iterative nature of human-centered design can often present a challenge when design teams are faced with the necessary, rapid, product development life cycles associated with the competitive connected health industry. We wanted to derive a structured methodology that followed the principles of human-centered design that would allow designers and developers to ensure that the needs of the user are taken into account throughout the design process, while maintaining a rapid pace of development. In this paper, we present the methodology and its rationale before outlining how it was applied to assess and enhance the usability, human factors, and user experience of a connected health system known as the Wireless Insole for Independent and Safe Elderly Living (WIISEL) system, a system designed to continuously assess fall risk by measuring gait and balance parameters associated with fall risk. We derived a three-phase methodology. In Phase 1 we emphasized the construction of a use case document. This document can be used to detail the context of use of the system by utilizing storyboarding, paper prototypes, and mock-ups in conjunction with user interviews to gather insightful user feedback on different proposed concepts. In Phase 2 we emphasized the use of expert usability inspections such as heuristic evaluations and cognitive walkthroughs with small multidisciplinary groups to review the prototypes born out of the Phase 1 feedback. Finally, in Phase 3 we emphasized classical user testing with target end users, using various metrics to measure the user experience and improve the final prototypes. We report a successful implementation of the methodology for the design and development

  10. The disease management program for type 2 diabetes in Germany enhances process quality of diabetes care - a follow-up survey of patient's experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Ingmar; Küver, Claudia; Gedrose, Benjamin; Hoffmann, Falk; Russ-Thiel, Barbara; Brose, Hans-Peter; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Kaduszkiewicz, Hanna

    2010-03-03

    In summer 2003 a disease management program (DMP) for type 2 diabetes was introduced on a nationwide basis in Germany. Patient participation and continuity of care within the DMP are important factors to achieve long-term improvements in clinical endpoints. Therefore it is of interest, if patients experience any positive or negative effects of the DMP on their treatment that would support or hamper further participation. The main objective of the study was to find out if the German Disease Management Program (DMP) for type 2 diabetes improves process and outcome quality of medical care for patients in the light of their subjective experiences over a period of one year. Cohort study with a baseline interview and a follow-up after 10.4 +/- 0.64 months. Data on process and outcome measures were collected by telephone interviews with 444 patients enrolled and 494 patients not enrolled in the German DMP for type 2 diabetes. Data were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analyses. DMP enrolment was significantly associated with a higher process quality of care. At baseline enrolled patients more often reported that they had attended a diabetes education course (OR = 3.4), have > or = 4 contacts/year with the attending physician (OR = 3.3), have at least one annual foot examination (OR = 3.1) and one referral to an ophthalmologist (OR = 3.4) and possess a diabetes passport (OR = 2.4). Except for the annual referral to an ophthalmologist these parameters were also statistically significant at follow-up. In contrast, no differences between enrolled and not enrolled patients were found concerning outcome quality indicators, e.g. self-rated health, Glycated hemoglobin (GHb) and blood pressure. However, 16-36% of the DMP participants reported improvements of body weight and/or GHb and/or blood pressure values due to enrolment - unchanged within one year of follow-up. In the light of patient's experiences the DMP enhances the process quality of medical care for type 2

  11. Enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins: experiences from the Lower Mekong River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douven, W.; Mul, M. L.; Fernández-Álvarez, B.; Hung, S. Lam; Bakker, N.; Radosevich, G.; van der Zaag, P.

    2012-09-01

    This paper analyses the design and impact of capacity building programmes aimed at enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins. The case study is a programme developed by the Mekong River Commission (MRC). A post-training evaluation was applied to assess its impact in terms of individual capacity enhancement and change (use and application of knowledge, factors hampering application, and change in function and opportunities within the organisation). The design of the Capacity Building Programme of the MRC Flood Management and Mitigation Programme required a well balanced range of subjects (such as IWRM (integrated water resources management), model and decision support systems, and international water law). The post-training evaluation, 6 months after the last training workshop, showed an increase in familiarity with the topics for all 37 respondents, with the highest increase for the respondents with few years of working experience and from training and education institutions. The relevance of the subjects taught was highlighted by 95% of the respondents, and 78% of the participants had already used some of the acquired knowledge in their job. The respondents indicated that they did not have sufficient opportunities to apply all knowledge. The phased implementation and training of lecturers during the training workshops had a good impact, directly through increasing involvement in facilitation and delivery of the capacity building programme and through the use of the knowledge gained in short courses and development of curricula at their institute. For these types of capacity building programmes, a few recommendations can be made. The selection of participants is crucial for the application of the learned knowledge in their work. The integrative nature of transboundary water issues calls for a capacity building programme addressing a wide range of subjects, which can be understood by a

  12. Effect of Spectrally Varying Albedo of Vegetation Surfaces on Shortwave Radiation Fluxes and Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L.; Martins, J. V.; Yu, H.

    2012-01-01

    This study develops an algorithm for representing detailed spectral features of vegetation albedo based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) observations at 7 discrete channels, referred to as the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Albedo (MEVA) algorithm. The MEVA algorithm empirically fills spectral gaps around the vegetation red edge near 0.7 micrometers and vegetation water absorption features at 1.48 and 1.92 micrometers which cannot be adequately captured by the MODIS 7 channels. We then assess the effects of applying MEVA in comparison to four other traditional approaches to calculate solar fluxes and aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) at the top of atmosphere (TOA) based on the MODIS discrete reflectance bands. By comparing the DRF results obtained through the MEVA method with the results obtained through the other four traditional approaches, we show that filling the spectral gap of the MODIS measurements around 0.7 micrometers based on the general spectral behavior of healthy green vegetation leads to significant improvement in the instantaneous aerosol DRF at TOA (up to 3.02Wm(exp -2) difference or 48% fraction of the aerosol DRF, .6.28Wm(exp -2), calculated for high spectral resolution surface reflectance from 0.3 to 2.5 micrometers for deciduous vegetation surface). The corrections of the spectral gaps in the vegetation spectrum in the near infrared, again missed by the MODIS reflectances, also contributes to improving TOA DRF calculations but to a much lower extent (less than 0.27Wm(exp -2), or about 4% of the instantaneous DRF). Compared to traditional approaches, MEVA also improves the accuracy of the outgoing solar flux between 0.3 to 2.5 micrometers at TOA by over 60Wm(exp -2) (for aspen 3 surface) and aerosol DRF by over 10Wm(exp -2) (for dry grass). Specifically, for Amazon vegetation types, MEVA can improve the accuracy of daily averaged aerosol radiative forcing in the spectral range of 0.3 to 2.5 micrometers at equator at the

  13. Enhanced Surface Warming and Accelerated Snow Melt in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau Induced by Absorbing Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K.; Kim, Maeng-Ki; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Lee, Woo-Seop

    2010-01-01

    Numerical experiments with the NASA finite-volume general circulation model show that heating of the atmosphere by dust and black carbon can lead to widespread enhanced warming over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and accelerated snow melt in the western TP and Himalayas. During the boreal spring, a thick aerosol layer, composed mainly of dust transported from adjacent deserts and black carbon from local emissions, builds up over the Indo-Gangetic Plain, against the foothills of the Himalaya and the TP. The aerosol layer, which extends from the surface to high elevation (approx.5 km), heats the mid-troposphere by absorbing solar radiation. The heating produces an atmospheric dynamical feedback the so-called elevated-heat-pump (EHP) effect, which increases moisture, cloudiness, and deep convection over northern India, as well as enhancing the rate of snow melt in the Himalayas and TP. The accelerated melting of snow is mostly confined to the western TP, first slowly in early April and then rapidly from early to mid-May. The snow cover remains reduced from mid-May through early June. The accelerated snow melt is accompanied by similar phases of enhanced warming of the atmosphere-land system of the TP, with the atmospheric warming leading the surface warming by several days. Surface energy balance analysis shows that the short-wave and long-wave surface radiative fluxes strongly offset each other, and are largely regulated by the changes in cloudiness and moisture over the TP. The slow melting phase in April is initiated by an effective transfer of sensible heat from a warmer atmosphere to land. The rapid melting phase in May is due to an evaporation-snow-land feedback coupled to an increase in atmospheric moisture over the TP induced by the EHP effect.

  14. Feeding strategies for groundwater enhanced biodenitrification in an alluvial aquifer: Chemical, microbial and isotope assessment of a 1D flow-through experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal-Gavilan, G., E-mail: georginavidal@biorem.cat [D D' ENGINY BIOREM S.L., Madrazo 68, bxs., 08006 Barcelona (Spain); Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Departament de Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits MInerals, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Carrey, R., E-mail: rcarrey@ub.edu [Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Departament de Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits MInerals, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Solanas, A., E-mail: asolanas@ub.edu [Departament de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avgda. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Soler, A., E-mail: albertsolergil@ub.edu [Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Departament de Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits MInerals, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-10-01

    Nitrate-removal through enhanced in situ biodenitrification (EISB) is an existing alternative for the recovery of groundwater quality, and is often suggested for use in exploitation wells pumping at small flow-rates. Innovative approaches focus on wider-scale applications, coupling EISB with water-management practices and new monitoring tools. However, before this approach can be used, some water-quality issues such as the accumulation of denitrification intermediates and/or of reduced compounds from other anaerobic processes must be addressed. With such a goal, a flow-through experiment using 100 mg-nitrate/L groundwater was built to simulate an EISB for an alluvial aquifer. Heterotrophic denitrification was induced through the periodic addition of a C source (ethanol), with four different C addition strategies being evaluated to improve the quality of the denitrified water. Chemical, microbial and isotope analyses of the water were performed. Biodenitrification was successfully stimulated by the daily addition of ethanol, easily achieving drinking water standards for both nitrate and nitrite, and showing an expected linear trend for nitrogen and oxygen isotope fractionation, with a εN/εO value of 1.1. Nitrate reduction to ammonium was never detected. Water quality in terms of remaining C, microbial counts, and denitrification intermediates was found to vary with the experimental time, and some secondary microbial respiration processes, mainly manganese reduction, were suspected to occur. Carbon isotope composition from the remaining ethanol also changed, from an initial enrichment in {sup 13}C-ethanol compared to the value of the injected ethanol (− 30.6‰), to a later depletion, achieving δ{sup 13}C values well below the initial isotope composition (to a minimum of − 46.7‰). This depletion in the heavy C isotope follows the trend of an inverse fractionation. Overall, our results indicated that most undesired effects on water quality may be controlled

  15. Trial participants’ experiences of early enhanced speech and language therapy after stroke compared with employed visitor support: a qualitative study nested within a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomersall, Timothy; Bowen, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To explore trial participants’ experiences of the process and outcomes of early, enhanced speech and language therapy after stroke with support from an employed visitor. Design: Qualitative study nested within a randomized controlled trial. Participants: Twney-two people who, after stroke, had a diagnosis of aphasia (12), dysarthria (5) or both (5) and who participated in the ACT NoW study. Setting: Eight English NHS usual care settings. Method: Individual interviews. Thematic content analysis assisted by a bespoke data transformation protocol for incorporating non-verbal and semantically ambiguous data. Results: Participants highly regarded regular and sustained contact with someone outside of immediate family/friends who engaged them in deliberate activities/communication in the early months after stroke. Participants identified differences in the process of intervention between speech and language therapists and employed visitors. But no major discriminations were made between the impact or value of this contact according to whether provided by a speech and language therapist or employed visitor. Participant-defined criteria for effectiveness of contact included: impact on mood and confidence, self-recognition of progress and the meeting of individual needs. Conclusions: As in the randomized controlled trial, participants reported no evidence of added benefit of early communication therapy beyond that from attention control. The findings do not imply that regular contact with any non-professional can have beneficial effects for someone with aphasia or dysarthria in the early weeks following a stroke. The study points to specific conditions that would have to be met for contact to have a positive effect. PMID:22837542

  16. The enhancement of beneficial effects following audio feedback by cognitive preparation in the treatment of social anxiety: a single-session experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Jan-Erik; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Faghihi, Shahriar; Roth-Andersson, Gun

    2011-12-01

    According to cognitive models, negatively biased processing of the publicly observable self is an important aspect of social phobia; if this is true, effective methods for producing corrective feedback concerning the public self should be strived for. Video feedback is proven effective, but since one's voice represents another aspect of the self, audio feedback should produce equivalent results. This is the first study to assess the enhancement of audio feedback by cognitive preparation in a single-session randomized controlled experiment. Forty socially anxious participants were asked to give a speech, then to listen to and evaluate a taped recording of their performance. Half of the sample was given cognitive preparation prior to the audio feedback and the remainder received audio feedback only. Cognitive preparation involved asking participants to (1) predict in detail what they would hear on the audiotape, (2) form an image of themselves giving the speech and (3) listen to the audio recording as though they were listening to a stranger. To assess generalization effects all participants were asked to give a second speech. Audio feedback with cognitive prepa