WorldWideScience

Sample records for enhanced recovery pathways

  1. Implementing enhanced recovery pathways: a literature review with realist synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxon, Astrid; Nielsen, Karina; Cross, Jane; Fox, Chris

    2017-10-01

    Enhanced Recovery Pathways (ERPs) are an increasingly popular, evidenced-based approach to surgery, designed to improve patient outcomes and reduce costs. Despite evidence demonstrating the benefits of these pathways, implementation and adherence have been inconsistent. Using realist synthesis, this review explored the current literature surrounding the implementation of ERPs in the UK. Knowledge consolidation between authors and consulting with field experts helped to guide the search strategy. Relevant medical and social science databases were searched from 2000 to 2016, as well as a general web search. A total of 17 papers were identified, including original research, reviews, case studies and guideline documents. Full texts were analysed, cross-examined, and data extracted and synthesised. Several implementation strategies were identified, including the contexts in which these operated, the subsequent mechanisms of action that were triggered, and the outcome patterns they produced. Context-Mechanism-Outcome (CMO) configurations were generated, tested, and refined. These were grouped to develop two programme theories concerning ERP implementation, one related to the strategy of consulting with staff, the other with appointing a change agent to coordinate and drive the implementation process. These theories highlight instances in which implementation could be improved. Current literature in ERP research is primarily focussed on measuring patient outcomes and cost effectiveness, and as a result, important detail regarding the implementation process is often not reported or described robustly. This review not only provides recommendations for future improvements in ERP implementation, but also highlights specific areas of focus for furthering ERP implementation research.

  2. Enhanced Recovery Pathways for Improving Outcomes After Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Oncology Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Jocelyn S; Roddy, Erika; Ueda, Stefanie; Brooks, Rebecca; Chen, Lee-Lynn; Chen, Lee-May

    2016-07-01

    To estimate whether an enhanced recovery after surgery pathway facilitates early recovery and discharge in gynecologic oncology patients undergoing minimally invasive surgery. This was a retrospective case-control study. Consecutive gynecologic oncology patients undergoing laparoscopic or robotic surgery between July 1 and November 5, 2014, were treated on an enhanced recovery pathway. Enhanced recovery pathway components included patient education, multimodal analgesia, opioid minimization, nausea prophylaxis as well as early catheter removal, ambulation, and feeding. Cases were matched in a one-to-two ratio with historical control patients on the basis of surgery type and age. Primary endpoints were length of hospital stay, rates of discharge by noon, 30-day hospital readmission rates, and hospital costs. There were 165 patients included in the final cohort, 55 of whom were enhanced recovery pathway patients. Enhanced recovery patients were more likely to be discharged on postoperative day 1 compared with patients in the control group (91% compared with 60%, Pcontrol patients (P=.03). Postoperative pain scores decreased (2.6 compared with 3.12, P=.03) despite a 30% reduction in opioid use. Average total hospital costs were decreased by 12% in the enhanced recovery group ($13,771 compared with $15,649, P=.01). Readmission rates, mortality, and reoperation rates did not differ between the two groups. An enhanced recovery pathway in patients undergoing gynecologic oncology minimally invasive surgery is associated with significant improvements in recovery time, decreased pain despite reduced opioid use, and overall lower hospital costs.

  3. Regional uptake an variations in orthopaedic enhanced recovery pathways in knee and hip total arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawdsley, M J; Baker, P N; Desai, A; Green, R N; Jevons, L

    2016-05-01

    The use of enhanced recovery (ER) pathways for hip and knee arthroplasty has increased over the last decade, and the adoption within orthopaedics is becoming more common. We have demonstrated a regional variation and institutional inconsistency of uptake and delivery of ER pathways in our region. Units that have a unified pathway were more likely to have consistency in treatment and early analgesia for patients. We would advocate that units use an agreed enhanced recovery pathway to optimise patient recovery from hip and knee arthroplasties.

  4. Hypospadias surgery in children: improved service model of enhanced recovery pathway and dedicated surgical team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y S; Pang, K K; Tam, Y H

    2018-05-21

    Children in Hong Kong are generally hospitalised for 1 to 2 weeks after hypospadias repairs. In July 2013, we introduced a new service model that featured an enhanced recovery pathway and a dedicated surgical team responsible for all perioperative services. In this study, we investigated the outcomes of hypospadias repair after the introduction of the new service model. We conducted a retrospective study on consecutive children who underwent primary hypospadias repair from January 2006 to August 2016, comparing patients under the old service with those under the new service. Outcome measures included early morbidity, operative success, and completion of enhanced recovery pathway. The old service and new service cohorts comprised 176 and 126 cases, respectively. There was no difference between the two cohorts in types of hypospadias and surgical procedures performed. The median hospital stay was 2 days in the new service cohort compared with 10 days in the old service cohort (Pservice than the old service. Multivariable analysis revealed that the new service significantly reduced the odds of early morbidity (odds ratio=0.35, 95% confidence interval=0.15-0.85; P=0.02) and operative failure (odds ratio=0.32, 95% confidence interval=0.17-0.59; Pservice. Of the new service cohort, 111(88.1%) patients successfully completed the enhanced recovery pathway. The enhanced recovery pathway can be implemented safely and effectively to primary hypospadias repair. A dedicated surgical team may play an important role in successful implementation of the enhanced recovery pathway and optimisation of surgical outcomes.

  5. Racial and Socioeconomic Differences Manifest in Process Measure Adherence for Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeds, Ira L; Alimi, Yewande; Hobson, Deborah R; Efron, Jonathan E; Wick, Elizabeth C; Haut, Elliott R; Johnston, Fabian M

    2017-10-01

    Adherence to care processes and surgical outcomes varies by population subgroups for the same procedure. Enhanced recovery after surgery pathways are intended to standardize care, but their effect on process adherence and outcomes for population subgroups is unknown. This study aims to demonstrate the association between recovery pathway implementation, process measures, and short-term surgical outcomes by population subgroup. This study is a pre- and post-quality improvement implementation cohort study. This study was conducted at a tertiary academic medical center. A modified colorectal enhanced recovery after surgery pathway was implemented. Patients were included who had elective colon and rectal resections before (2013) and following (2014-2016) recovery pathway implementation. Thirty-day outcomes by race and socioeconomic status were analyzed using a difference-in-difference approach with correlation to process adherence. We identified 639 cases (199 preimplementation, 440 postimplementation). In these cases, 75.2% of the patients were white, and 91.7% had a high socioeconomic status. Groups were similar in terms of other preoperative characteristics. Following pathway implementation, median lengths of stay improved in all subgroups (-1.0 days overall, p ≤ 0.001), but with no statistical difference by race or socioeconomic status (p = 0.89 and p = 0.29). Complication rates in both racial and socioeconomic groups were no different (26.4% vs 28.8%, p = 0.73; 27.3% vs 25.0%, p = 0.86) and remained unchanged with implementation (p = 0.93, p = 0.84). By race, overall adherence was 31.7% in white patients and 26.5% in nonwhite patients (p = 0.32). Although stratification by socioeconomic status demonstrated decreased overall adherence in the low-status group (31.8% vs 17.1%, p = 0.05), white patients were more likely to have regional pain therapy (57.1% vs 44.1%, p = 0.02) with a similar trend seen with socioeconomic status. Data were collected primarily for

  6. Enhanced recovery pathways in thoracic surgery from Italian VATS Group: perioperative analgesia protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccioni, Federico; Segat, Matteo; Falini, Stefano; Umari, Marzia; Putina, Olga; Cavaliere, Lucio; Ragazzi, Riccardo; Massullo, Domenico; Taurchini, Marco; Del Naja, Carlo; Droghetti, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is a minimally invasive technique that allows a faster recovery after thoracic surgery. Although enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) principles seem reasonably applicable to thoracic surgery, there is little literature on the application of such a strategy in this context. In regard to pain management, ERAS pathways promote the adoption of a multimodal strategy, tailored to the patients. This approach is based on combining systemic and loco-regional analgesia to favour opioid-sparing strategies. Thoracic paravertebral block is considered the first-line loco-regional technique for VATS. Other techniques include intercostal nerve block and serratus anterior plane block. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and paracetamol are essential part of the multimodal treatment of pain. Also, adjuvant drugs can be useful as opioid-sparing agents. Nevertheless, the treatment of postoperative pain must take into account opioid agents too, if necessary. All above is useful for careful planning and execution of a multimodal analgesic treatment to enhance the recovery of patients. This article summarizes the most recent evidences from literature and authors' experiences on perioperative multimodal analgesia principles for implementing an ERAS program after VATS lobectomy.

  7. Enhanced recovery pathways optimize health outcomes and resource utilization: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamina, Michel; Kehlet, Henrik; Tomlinson, George A

    2011-01-01

    in costs that threatens the stability of health care systems. Enhanced recovery pathways (ERP) have been proposed as a means to reduce morbidity and improve effectiveness of care. We have reviewed the evidence supporting the implementation of ERP in clinical practice. Methods Medline, Embase...... of health care processes. Thus, while accelerating recovery and safely reducing hospital stay, ERPs optimize utilization of health care resources. ERPs can and should be routinely used in care after colorectal and other major gastrointestinal procedures....

  8. American Society for Enhanced Recovery and Perioperative Quality Initiative Joint Consensus Statement on Patient-Reported Outcomes in an Enhanced Recovery Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abola, Ramon E; Bennett-Guerrero, Elliott; Kent, Michael L; Feldman, Liane S; Fiore, Julio F; Shaw, Andrew D; Thacker, Julie K M; Gan, Tong J; Miller, Timothy E; Hedrick, Traci L; McEvoy, Matthew D; Mythen, Michael G; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Gupta, Ruchir; Holubar, Stefan D; Senagore, Anthony J; Wischmeyer, Paul E; Carli, Franco; Evans, David C; Guilbert, Sarah; Kozar, Rosemary; Pryor, Aurora; Thiele, Robert H; Everett, Sotiria; Grocott, Mike

    2017-12-29

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are measures of health status that come directly from the patient. PROs are an underutilized tool in the perioperative setting. Enhanced recovery pathways (ERPs) have primarily focused on traditional measures of health care quality such as complications and hospital length of stay. These measures do not capture postdischarge outcomes that are meaningful to patients such as function or freedom from disability. PROs can be used to facilitate shared decisions between patients and providers before surgery and establish benchmark recovery goals after surgery. PROs can also be utilized in quality improvement initiatives and clinical research studies. An expert panel, the Perioperative Quality Initiative (POQI) workgroup, conducted an extensive literature review to determine best practices for the incorporation of PROs in an ERP. This international group of experienced clinicians from North America and Europe met at Stony Brook, NY, on December 2-3, 2016, to review the evidence supporting the use of PROs in the context of surgical recovery. A modified Delphi method was used to capture the collective expertise of a diverse group to answer clinical questions. During 3 plenary sessions, the POQI PRO subgroup presented clinical questions based on a literature review, presented evidenced-based answers to those questions, and developed recommendations which represented a consensus opinion regarding the use of PROs in the context of an ERP. The POQI workgroup identified key criteria to evaluate patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) for their incorporation in an ERP. The POQI workgroup agreed on the following recommendations: (1) PROMs in the perioperative setting should be collected in the framework of physical, mental, and social domains. (2) These data should be collected preoperatively at baseline, during the immediate postoperative time period, and after hospital discharge. (3) In the immediate postoperative setting, we recommend using

  9. American Society for Enhanced Recovery and Perioperative Quality Initiative Joint Consensus Statement on Postoperative Gastrointestinal Dysfunction Within an Enhanced Recovery Pathway for Elective Colorectal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Traci L; McEvoy, Matthew D; Mythen, Michael Monty G; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Gupta, Ruchir; Holubar, Stefan D; Senagore, Anthony J; Gan, Tong Joo; Shaw, Andrew D; Thacker, Julie K M; Miller, Timothy E; Wischmeyer, Paul E; Carli, Franco; Evans, David C; Guilbert, Sarah; Kozar, Rosemary; Pryor, Aurora; Thiele, Robert H; Everett, Sotiria; Grocott, Mike; Abola, Ramon E; Bennett-Guerrero, Elliott; Kent, Michael L; Feldman, Liane S; Fiore, Julio F

    2018-06-01

    The primary driver of length of stay after bowel surgery, particularly colorectal surgery, is the time to return of gastrointestinal (GI) function. Traditionally, delayed GI recovery was thought to be a routine and unavoidable consequence of surgery, but this has been shown to be false in the modern era owing to the proliferation of enhanced recovery protocols. However, impaired GI function is still common after colorectal surgery, and the current literature is ambiguous with regard to the definition of postoperative GI dysfunction (POGD), or what is typically referred to as ileus. This persistent ambiguity has impeded the ability to ascertain the true incidence of the condition and study it properly within a research setting. Furthermore, a rational and standardized approach to prevention and treatment of POGD is needed. The second Perioperative Quality Initiative brought together a group of international experts to review the published literature and provide consensus recommendations on this important topic with the goal to (1) develop a rational definition for POGD that can serve as a framework for clinical and research efforts; (2) critically review the evidence behind current prevention strategies and provide consensus recommendations; and (3) develop rational treatment strategies that take into account the wide spectrum of impaired GI function in the postoperative period.

  10. Dedicated Operating Room Teams and Clinical Outcomes in an Enhanced Recovery after Surgery Pathway for Colorectal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Michael C; Hanna, Andrew; Benson, Andrew; Hobson, Deborah; Wu, Christopher L; Yuan, Christina T; Rosen, Michael; Wick, Elizabeth C

    2018-03-01

    Our aim was to determine whether the establishment of a dedicated operating room team leads to improved process measure compliance and clinical outcomes in an Enhanced Recovery after Surgery (ERAS) program. Enhanced Recovery after Surgery programs involve the application of bundled best practices to improve the value of perioperative care. Successful implementation and sustainment of ERAS programs has been linked to compliance with protocol elements. Development of dedicated teams of anesthesia providers was a component of ERAS implementation. Intraoperative provider team networks (surgeons, anesthesiologists, and certified registered nurse anesthetists) were developed for all cases before and after implementation of colorectal ERAS. Four measures of centrality were analyzed in each network based on case assignments, and these measures were correlated with both rates of process measure compliance and clinical outcomes. Enhanced Recovery after Surgery provider teams led to a decrease in the closeness of anesthesiologists (p = 0.04) and significant increase in the clustering coefficient of certified registered nurse anesthetists (p = 0.005) compared with the pre-ERAS network. There was no significant change in centrality among surgeons (p = NS for all measures). Enhanced Recovery after Surgery designation among anesthesiologists and nurse anesthetists-whereby individual providers received an in-service on protocol elements and received compliance data was strongly associated with high compliance (>0.6 of measures; p < 0.001 for each group). In addition, high compliance was associated with a significant reduction in length of stay (p < 0.01), surgical site infection (p < 0.002), and morbidity (p < 0.009). Dedicated operating room teams led to increased centrality among anesthesia providers, which in turn not only increased compliance, but also improved several clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  11. American Society for Enhanced Recovery and Perioperative Quality Initiative Joint Consensus Statement on Nutrition Screening and Therapy Within a Surgical Enhanced Recovery Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischmeyer, Paul E; Carli, Franco; Evans, David C; Guilbert, Sarah; Kozar, Rosemary; Pryor, Aurora; Thiele, Robert H; Everett, Sotiria; Grocott, Mike; Gan, Tong J; Shaw, Andrew D; Thacker, Julie K M; Miller, Timothy E; Hedrick, Traci L; McEvoy, Matthew D; Mythen, Michael G; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Gupta, Ruchir; Holubar, Stefan D; Senagore, Anthony J; Abola, Ramon E; Bennett-Guerrero, Elliott; Kent, Michael L; Feldman, Liane S; Fiore, Julio F

    2018-06-01

    Perioperative malnutrition has proven to be challenging to define, diagnose, and treat. Despite these challenges, it is well known that suboptimal nutritional status is a strong independent predictor of poor postoperative outcomes. Although perioperative caregivers consistently express recognition of the importance of nutrition screening and optimization in the perioperative period, implementation of evidence-based perioperative nutrition guidelines and pathways in the United States has been quite limited and needs to be addressed in surgery-focused recommendations. The second Perioperative Quality Initiative brought together a group of international experts with the objective of providing consensus recommendations on this important topic with the goal of (1) developing guidelines for screening of nutritional status to identify patients at risk for adverse outcomes due to malnutrition; (2) address optimal methods of providing nutritional support and optimizing nutrition status preoperatively; and (3) identifying when and how to optimize nutrition delivery in the postoperative period. Discussion led to strong recommendations for implementation of routine preoperative nutrition screening to identify patients in need of preoperative nutrition optimization. Postoperatively, nutrition delivery should be restarted immediately after surgery. The key role of oral nutrition supplements, enteral nutrition, and parenteral nutrition (implemented in that order) in most perioperative patients was advocated for with protein delivery being more important than total calorie delivery. Finally, the role of often-inadequate nutrition intake in the posthospital setting was discussed, and the role of postdischarge oral nutrition supplements was emphasized.

  12. Enhanced oil recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsberry, Fred L.

    1989-01-01

    All energy resources available from a geopressured geothermal reservoir are used for the production of pipeline quality gas using a high pressure separator/heat exchanger and a membrane separator, and recovering waste gas from both the membrane separator and a low pressure separator in tandem with the high pressure separator for use in enhanced oil recovery, or in powering a gas engine and turbine set. Liquid hydrocarbons are skimmed off the top of geothermal brine in the low pressure separator. High pressure brine from the geothermal well is used to drive a turbine/generator set before recovering waste gas in the first separator. Another turbine/generator set is provided in a supercritical binary power plant that uses propane as a working fluid in a closed cycle, and uses exhaust heat from the combustion engine and geothermal energy of the brine in the separator/heat exchanger to heat the propane.

  13. SUPRA - Enhanced upset recovery simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, E.; Ledegang, W.; Field, J.; Smaili, H.; Roza, M.; Fucke, L.; Nooij, S.; Goman, M.; Mayrhofer, M.; Zaichik, L.E.; Grigoryev, M.; Biryukov, V.

    2012-01-01

    The SUPRA research project - Simulation of Upset Recovery in Aviation - has been funded by the European Union 7th Framework Program to enhance the flight simulation envelope for upset recovery simulation. Within the project an extended aerodynamic model, capturing the key aerodynamics during and

  14. Brain Pathways to Recovery from Alcohol Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Changhai; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth; Koob, George F.; Sinha, Rajita; Thakkar, Mahesh; Matochik, John; Crews, Fulton T.; Chandler, L. Judson; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Becker, Howard C.; Lovinger, David; Everitt, Barry; Egli, Mark; Mandyam, Chitra; Fein, George; Potenza, Marc N.; Harris, R. Adron; Grant, Kathleen A.; Roberto, Marisa; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights the research presentations at the satellite symposium on “Brain Pathways to Recovery from Alcohol Dependence” held at the 2013 Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting. The purpose of this symposium was to provide an up to date overview of research efforts focusing on understanding brain mechanisms that contribute to recovery from alcohol dependence. A panel of scientists from the alcohol and addiction research field presented their insights and perspectives on brain mechanisms that may underlie both recovery and lack of recovery from alcohol dependence. The four sessions of the symposium encompassed multilevel studies exploring mechanisms underlying relapse and craving associated with sustained alcohol abstinence, cognitive function deficit and recovery, and translational studies on preventing relapse and promoting recovery. Gaps in our knowledge and research opportunities were also discussed. PMID:26074423

  15. Biosurfactant and enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Michael J.; Jenneman, Gary E.; Knapp, Roy M.; Menzie, Donald E.

    1985-06-11

    A pure culture of Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 (ATCC No. 39307) and a process for using said culture and the surfactant lichenysin produced thereby for the enhancement of oil recovery from subterranean formations. Lichenysin is an effective surfactant over a wide range of temperatures, pH's, salt and calcium concentrations.

  16. Method for enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comberiati, Joseph R.; Locke, Charles D.; Kamath, Krishna I.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved method for enhanced recovery of oil from relatively "cold" reservoirs by carbon dioxide flooding. In oil reservoirs at a temperature less than the critical temperature of 87.7.degree. F. and at a pore pressure greater than the saturation pressure of carbon dioxide at the temperature of the reservoir, the carbon dioxide remains in the liquid state which does not satisfactorily mix with the oil. However, applicants have found that carbon dioxide can be vaporized in situ in the reservoir by selectively reducing the pore pressure in the reservoir to a value less than the particular saturated vapor pressure so as to greatly enhance the mixing of the carbon dioxide with the oil.

  17. Enhanced oil recovery program review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    Canada accounts for 40% of the global resources in heavy oils and oil sands bitumen, however, more than 90% of these resources need new and innovative technologies if they are to be made available at a competitive price. CANMET's Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) program was created in the late 1970s in response to the drive for energy self-sufficiency. Funding of the project is highly leveraged; industry funding towards projects supported under the CANMET Energy Conversion Program averaged over 300% annually since the previous review in 1990. Multi-client EOR technology projects include horizontal well technology, development of the vapour extraction process, and field testing of oil sands extraction technology. Direction and priorities of the program are established in consultation with the Minister's Advisory Council to CANMET (MNACC), industry and other performers and sponsors of enhanced oil recovery R and D. This review, including client feedback from interviews with several industry spokespersons, concluded that the program was well managed, and of high priority. Various options capable of meeting future needs were examined. Continuation of the current program, incorporating a number of significant changes, was recommended

  18. Enhanced Recovery after Vascular Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena D. Stojanovic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The beginnings of the enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS program were first developed for patients in colorectal surgery, and after it was established as the standard of care in this surgical field, it began to be applied in many others surgical areas. This is multimodal, evidence-based approach program and includes simultaneous optimization of preoperative status of patients, adequate selection of surgical procedure and postoperative management. The aim of this program is to reduce complications, the length of hospital stay and to improve the patients outcome. Over the past decades, special attention was directed to the postoperative management in vascular surgery, especially after major vascular surgery because of the great risk of multiorgan failure, such as: respiratory failure, myocardial infarction, hemodynamic instability, coagulopathy, renal failure, neurological disorders, and intra-abdominal complications. Although a lot of effort was put into it, there is no unique acceptable program for ERAS in this surgical field, and there is still a need to point out the factors responsible for postoperative outcomes of these patients. So far, it is known that special attention should be paid to already existing diseases, type and the duration of the surgical intervention, hemodynamic and fluid management, nutrition, pain management, and early mobilization of patients.

  19. Enhanced Recovery in Thoracic Surgery: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna D. Dinic

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of enhanced recovery program after thoracic surgery is to minimize stress response, reduce postoperative pulmonary complications, and improve patient outcome, which will in addition decrease hospital stay and reduce hospital costs. As minimally invasive technique, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery represents an important element of enhanced recovery program in thoracic surgery. Anesthetic management during preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative period is essential for the enhanced recovery. In the era of enhanced recovery protocols, non-intubated thoracoscopic procedures present a step forward. This article focuses on the key elements of the enhanced recovery program in thoracic surgery. Having reviewed recent literature, the authors highlight potential procedures and techniques that might be incorporated into the program.

  20. Enhanced recovery from surgery in the UK: an audit of the enhanced recovery partnership programme 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J C; Moonesinghe, S R; Grocott, M P W; Kuper, M; McMeeking, A; Oliver, C M; Galsworthy, M J; Mythen, M G

    2015-10-01

    The UK Department of Health Enhanced Recovery Partnership Programme collected data on 24 513 surgical patients in the UK from 2009-2012. Enhanced Recovery is an approach to major elective surgery aimed at minimizing perioperative stress for the patient. Previous studies have shown Enhanced Recovery to be associated with reduced hospital length of stay and perioperative morbidity. In this national clinical audit, National Health Service hospitals in the UK were invited to submit patient-level data. The data regarding length of stay and compliance with each element of Enhanced Recovery protocols for colorectal, orthopaedic, urological and gynaecological surgery patients were analysed. The relationship between Enhanced Recovery protocol compliance and length of stay was measured. From 16 267 patients from 61 hospital trusts, three out of four surgical specialties showed Enhanced Recovery, compliance being weakly associated with shorter length of stay (correlation coefficients -0.18, -0.14, -0.25 in colorectal, orthopaedics and gynaecology respectively). At a cut-off of 80% compliance, good compliance was associated with two, one and three day reductions in median length of stay respectively in colorectal, orthopaedic and urological surgeries, with no saving in gynaecology. This study is the largest assessment of the relationship between Enhanced Recovery protocol compliance and outcome in four surgical specialties. The data suggest that higher compliance with an Enhanced Recovery protocol has a weak association with shorter length of stay. This suggests that changes in process, resulting from highly protocolised pathways, may be as important in reducing perioperative length of stay as any individual element of Enhanced Recovery protocols in isolation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Starting up microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Michael; Sitte, Jana; Galushko, Alexander; Krüger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives the reader a practical introduction into microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) including the microbial production of natural gas from oil. Decision makers who consider the use of one of these technologies are provided with the required scientific background as well as with practical advice for upgrading an existing laboratory in order to conduct microbiological experiments. We believe that the conversion of residual oil into natural gas (methane) and the in situ production of biosurfactants are the most promising approaches for MEOR and therefore focus on these topics. Moreover, we give an introduction to the microbiology of oilfields and demonstrate that in situ microorganisms as well as injected cultures can help displace unrecoverable oil in place (OIP). After an initial research phase, the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) manager must decide whether MEOR would be economical. MEOR generally improves oil production but the increment may not justify the investment. Therefore, we provide a brief economical assessment at the end of this chapter. We describe the necessary state-of-the-art scientific equipment to guide EOR managers towards an appropriate MEOR strategy. Because it is inevitable to characterize the microbial community of an oilfield that should be treated using MEOR techniques, we describe three complementary start-up approaches. These are: (i) culturing methods, (ii) the characterization of microbial communities and possible bio-geochemical pathways by using molecular biology methods, and (iii) interfacial tension measurements. In conclusion, we hope that this chapter will facilitate a decision on whether to launch MEOR activities. We also provide an update on relevant literature for experienced MEOR researchers and oilfield operators. Microbiologists will learn about basic principles of interface physics needed to study the impact of microorganisms living on oil droplets. Last but not least, students and technicians trying to understand

  2. Viability of Biopolymers for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sveistrup, Marte; van Mastrigt, Frank; Norrman, Jens; Picchioni, Francesco; Paso, Kristofer

    2016-01-01

    Xanthan gum and scleroglucan are assessed as environmentally friendly enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents. Viscometric and interfacial tension measurements show that the polysaccharides exhibit favorable viscosifying performance, robust shear tolerance, electrolyte tolerance, and moderate

  3. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

  4. Enhanced recovery after esophageal resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorwald, Peter; Bruna Esteban, Marcos; Ortega Lucea, Sonia; Ramírez Rodríguez, Jose Manuel

    2018-03-21

    ERAS is a multimodal perioperative care program which replaces traditional practices concerning analgesia, intravenous fluids, nutrition, mobilization as well as a number of other perioperative items, whose implementation is supported by evidence-based best practices. According to the RICA guidelines published in 2015, a review of the literature and the consensus established at a multidisciplinary meeting in 2015, we present a protocol that contains the basic procedures of an ERAS pathway for resective esophageal surgery. The measures involved in this ERAS pathway are structured into 3areas: preoperative, perioperative and postoperative. The consensus document integrates all the analyzed items in a unique time chart. ERAS programs in esophageal resection surgery can reduce postoperative morbidity, mortality, hospitalization and hospital costs. Copyright © 2018 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsvik, T. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway); Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  6. Tax incentives and enhanced oil recovery techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stathis, J.S.

    1991-05-01

    Tax expenditures-reductions in income tax liability resulting from a special tax provision-are often used to achieve economic and social objectives. The arguments for petroleum production tax incentives usually encompass some combination of enhancing energy security, rewarding risk, or generating additional investment in new technologies. Generally, however, some portion of any tax expenditure is spend on activities that would have occurred anyway. This paper is a review of tax incentives for petroleum production found two to be of questionable merit. Others, including tax preferences for enhanced oil recovery methods, which offered the potential for better returns on the tax dollar. Increased use of enhanced oil recovery techniques could lead to additional environmental costs, however, and these need to be factored into any cost-benefit calculation

  7. Recovery rates, enhanced oil recovery and technological limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggeridge, Ann; Cockin, Andrew; Webb, Kevin; Frampton, Harry; Collins, Ian; Moulds, Tim; Salino, Peter

    2014-01-13

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques can significantly extend global oil reserves once oil prices are high enough to make these techniques economic. Given a broad consensus that we have entered a period of supply constraints, operators can at last plan on the assumption that the oil price is likely to remain relatively high. This, coupled with the realization that new giant fields are becoming increasingly difficult to find, is creating the conditions for extensive deployment of EOR. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the nature, status and prospects for EOR technologies. It explains why the average oil recovery factor worldwide is only between 20% and 40%, describes the factors that contribute to these low recoveries and indicates which of those factors EOR techniques can affect. The paper then summarizes the breadth of EOR processes, the history of their application and their current status. It introduces two new EOR technologies that are beginning to be deployed and which look set to enter mainstream application. Examples of existing EOR projects in the mature oil province of the North Sea are discussed. It concludes by summarizing the future opportunities for the development and deployment of EOR.

  8. Enhanced recovery after surgery in gastric resections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruna Esteban, Marcos; Vorwald, Peter; Ortega Lucea, Sonia; Ramírez Rodríguez, Jose Manuel

    2017-02-01

    Enhanced recovery after surgery is a modality of perioperative management with the purpose of improving results and providing a faster recovery of patients. This kind of protocol has been applied frequently in colorectal surgery, presenting less available experience and evidence in gastric surgery. According to the RICA guidelines published in 2015, a review of the bibliography and the consensus established in a multidisciplinary meeting in Zaragoza on the 9th of October 2015, we present a protocol that contains the basic procedures of fast-track for resective gastric surgery. The measures to be applied are divided in a preoperative, perioperative and postoperative stage. This document provides recommendations concerning the appropriate information, limited fasting and administration of carbohydrate drinks 2hours before surgery, specialized anesthetic strategies, minimal invasive surgery, no routine use of drainages and tubes, mobilization and early oral tolerance during the immediate postoperative period, as well as criteria for discharge. The application of a protocol of enhanced recovery after surgery in resective gastric surgery can improve and accelerate the functional recovery of our patients, requiring an appropriate multidisciplinary coordination, the evaluation of obtained results with the application of these measures and the investigation of controversial topics about which we currently have limited evidence. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhanced Oil Recovery with Application of Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khusainova, Alsu

    Enzymes have recently been reported as effective enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents. Both laboratory and field tests demonstrated significant increase in the ultimate oil production. Up to16% of additional oil was produced in the laboratory conditions and up to 269 barrels of additional oil per day...... were recovered in the field applications. The following mechanisms were claimed to be responsible for the enhancement of the oil production due to enzymes: wettability improvement of the rock surface; formation of the emulsions; reduction of oil viscosity; and removal of high molecular weight paraffins....... However, the positive effect of enzymes on oil recovery is not that obvious. In most of the studies commercial enzyme products composed of enzymes, surfactants and stabilisers were used. Application of such samples makes it difficult to assign a positive EOR effect to a certain compound, as several...

  10. Enhanced oil recovery: an update review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, V.; Manrique, E.

    2010-01-01

    With the decline in oil discoveries during the last decades it is believed that Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) technologies will play a key role to meet the energy demand in years to come. This paper presents a comprehensive review of EOR status and opportunities to increase final recovery factors in reservoirs ranging from extra heavy oil to gas condensate. Specifically, the paper discusses EOR status and opportunities organized by reservoir lithology (sandstone and carbonates formations and turbiditic reservoirs to a lesser extent) and offshore and onshore fields. Risk and rewards of EOR methods including growing trends in recent years such as CO 2 injection, high pressure air injection (HPAI) and chemical flooding are addressed including a brief overview of CO 2 -EOR project economics. (authors)

  11. Microbial enhanced oil recovery and compositions therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Rebecca S.

    1990-01-01

    A method is provided for microbial enhanced oil recovery, wherein a combination of microorganisms is empirically formulated based on survivability under reservoir conditions and oil recovery efficiency, such that injection of the microbial combination may be made, in the presence of essentially only nutrient solution, directly into an injection well of an oil bearing reservoir having oil present at waterflood residual oil saturation concentration. The microbial combination is capable of displacing residual oil from reservoir rock, which oil may be recovered by waterflooding without causing plugging of the reservoir rock. Further, the microorganisms are capable of being transported through the pores of the reservoir rock between said injection well and associated production wells, during waterflooding, which results in a larger area of the reservoir being covered by the oil-mobilizing microorganisms.

  12. Environmental regulations handbook for enhanced oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, M.P.; Blatchford, R.P.; Spears, R.B.

    1991-12-01

    This handbook is intended to assist owners and operators of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations in acquiring some introductory knowledge of the various state agencies, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the many environmental laws, rules and regulations which can have jurisdiction over their permitting and compliance activities. It is a compendium of summarizations of environmental rules. It is not intended to give readers specific working details of what is required from them, nor can it be used in that manner. Readers of this handbook are encouraged to contact environmental control offices nearest to locations of interest for current regulations affecting them

  13. Environmental regulations handbook for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madden, M.P. [National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States); Blatchford, R.P.; Spears, R.B. [Spears and Associates, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1991-12-01

    This handbook is intended to assist owners and operators of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations in acquiring some introductory knowledge of the various state agencies, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the many environmental laws, rules and regulations which can have jurisdiction over their permitting and compliance activities. It is a compendium of summarizations of environmental rules. It is not intended to give readers specific working details of what is required from them, nor can it be used in that manner. Readers of this handbook are encouraged to contact environmental control offices nearest to locations of interest for current regulations affecting them.

  14. Enhanced oil recovery projects data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pautz, J.F.; Sellers, C.A.; Nautiyal, C.; Allison, E.

    1992-04-01

    A comprehensive enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project data base is maintained and updated at the Bartlesville Project Office of the Department of Energy. This data base provides an information resource that is used to analyze the advancement and application of EOR technology. The data base has extensive information on 1,388 EOR projects in 569 different oil fields from 1949 until the present, and over 90% of that information is contained in tables and graphs of this report. The projects are presented by EOR process, and an index by location is provided.

  15. Technologies for the future : conventional recovery enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, E. [Alberta Energy Research Inst., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This conference presentation examined Alberta's oil production and water use; global finding and development costs across continents; and current trends for conventional oil. The presentation examined opportunities for testing new technologies for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and provided several tables of data on EOR production in the United States. The evolution of United States EOR production, and the number of EOR projects in Canada were also addressed. The presentation also discussed where EOR goes from here as well as the different EOR mechanisms to alter phase behaviour and to alter relative flow. It also discussed chemical methods and major challenges for chemical EOR and examined EOR technologies needing a major push in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Lessons learned from the Joffre site regarding carbon dioxide miscible flood were revealed along with how coal gasification produces substitute natural gas and carbon dioxide for EOR. Suggestions for research and technology and enhanced water management were included. tabs., figs.

  16. Enzymes for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasiri, Hamidreza

    2011-04-15

    Primary oil recovery by reservoir pressure depletion and secondary oil recovery by waterflooding usually result in poor displacement efficiency. As a consequence there is always some trapped oil remaining in oil reservoirs. Oil entrapment is a result of complex interactions between viscous, gravity and capillary forces. Improving recovery from hydrocarbon fields typically involves altering the relative importance of the viscous and capillary forces. The potential of many EOR methods depends on their influence on fluid/rock interactions related to wettability and fluid/fluid interactions reflected in IFT. If the method has the potential to change the interactions favorably, it may be considered for further investigation, i.e. core flooding experiment, pilot and reservoir implementation. Enzyme-proteins can be introduced as an enhanced oil recovery method to improve waterflood performance by affecting interactions at the oil-water-rock interfaces. An important part of this thesis was to investigate how selected enzymes may influence wettability and capillary forces in a crude oil-brine-rock system, and thus possibly contribute to enhanced oil recovery. To investigate further by which mechanisms selected enzyme-proteins may contribute to enhance oil recovery, groups of enzymes with different properties and catalytic functions, known to be interfacially active, were chosen to cover a wide range of possible effects. These groups include (1) Greenzyme (GZ) which is a commercial EOR enzyme and consists of enzymes and stabilizers (surfactants), (2) The Zonase group consists of two types of pure enzyme, Zonase1 and Zonase2 which are protease enzymes and whose catalytic functions are to hydrolyze (breakdown) peptide bonds, (3) The Novozyme (NZ) group consists of three types of pure enzyme, NZ2, NZ3 and NZ6 which are esterase enzymes and whose catalytic functions are to hydrolyze ester bonds, and (4) Alpha-Lactalbumin ( -La) which is an important whey protein. The effect of

  17. Microbial enhancement of oil recovery: Recent advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premuzic, E.T.; Woodhead, A.D.; Vivirito, K.J. (eds.)

    1992-01-01

    During recent years, systematic, scientific, and engineering effort by researchers in the United States and abroad, has established the scientific basis for Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) technology. The successful application of MEOR technology as an oil recovery process is a goal of the Department of Energy (DOE). Research efforts involving aspects of MEOR in the microbiological, biochemical, and engineering fields led DOE to sponsor an International Conference at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1992, to facilitate the exchange of information and a discussion of ideas for the future research emphasis. At this, the Fourth International MEOR Conference, where international attendees from 12 countries presented a total of 35 papers, participants saw an equal distribution between research'' and field applications.'' In addition, several modeling and state-of-the-art'' presentations summed up the present status of MEOR science and engineering. Individual papers in this proceedings have been process separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. Enhanced Oil Recovery: Aqueous Flow Tracer Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Rovani; John Schabron

    2009-02-01

    A low detection limit analytical method was developed to measure a suite of benzoic acid and fluorinated benzoic acid compounds intended for use as tracers for enhanced oil recovery operations. Although the new high performance liquid chromatography separation successfully measured the tracers in an aqueous matrix at low part per billion levels, the low detection limits could not be achieved in oil field water due to interference problems with the hydrocarbon-saturated water using the system's UV detector. Commercial instrument vendors were contacted in an effort to determine if mass spectrometry could be used as an alternate detection technique. The results of their work demonstrate that low part per billion analysis of the tracer compounds in oil field water could be achieved using ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

  19. Sonochemical approaches to enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Vladimir O; Abramova, Anna V; Bayazitov, Vadim M; Altunina, Lyubov K; Gerasin, Artyom S; Pashin, Dmitriy M; Mason, Timothy J

    2015-07-01

    Oil production from wells reduces with time and the well becomes uneconomic unless enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods are applied. There are a number of methods currently available and each has specific advantages and disadvantages depending on conditions. Currently there is a big demand for new or improved technologies in this field, the hope is that these might also be applicable to wells which have already been the subject of EOR. The sonochemical method of EOR is one of the most promising methods and is important in that it can also be applied for the treatment of horizontal wells. The present article reports the theoretical background of the developed sonochemical technology for EOR in horizontal wells; describes the requirements to the equipment needed to embody the technology. The results of the first field tests of the technology are reported. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Combustion for Enhanced Recovery of Light Oil at Medium Pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoshnevis Gargar, N.

    2014-01-01

    Using conventional production methods, recovery percentages from oil reservoirs range from 5% for difficult oil to 50% for light oil in highly permeable homogeneous reservoirs. To increase the oil recovery factor, enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods are used. We distinguish EOR that uses chemical

  1. Tracer monitoring of enhanced oil recovery projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleven R.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In enhanced oil recovery (EOR, chemicals are injected into the oil reservoir, either to increase macroscopic sweep efficiency, or to reduce remaining oil saturation in swept zones. Tracers can be used to identify reservoirs that are specifically suited for EOR operations. Injection of a selection of partitioning tracers, combined with frequent sample analysis of produced fluids, provides information suited for estimation of residual oil saturation. Tracers can also be used to evaluate and optimize the application of EOR chemicals in the reservoir. Suitable tracers will follow the EOR chemicals and assist in evaluation of retention, degradation or trapping. In addition to field applications, tracers also have a large potential as a tool to perform mechanistic studies of EOR chemicals in laboratory experiments. By labelling EOR chemicals with radioactive isotopes of elements such as H, C and S, detailed studies of transport mechanisms can be carried out. Co-injection of labelled compounds in dynamic flooding experiments in porous media will give information about retention or separation of the unique compounds constituting the chemical formulation. Separation of such compounds may be detrimental to obtaining the EOR effect expected. The paper gives new information of specific methods, and discusses current status for use of tracers in EOR operations.

  2. A clinical pathway to accelerate recovery after colonic resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, L; Hjort Jakobsen, D; Billesbølle, P

    2000-01-01

    -induced organ dysfunction, paralytic ileus, pain, and fatigue. It has been hypothesized that an accelerated multimodal rehabilitation program with optimal pain relief, stress reduction with regional anesthesia, early enteral nutrition, and early mobilization may enhance recovery and reduce the complication rate......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of a 48-hour postoperative stay program after colonic resection. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Postoperative hospital stay after colonic resection is usually 6 to 12 days, with a complication rate of 10% to 20%. Limiting factors for early recovery include stress....... METHODS: Sixty consecutive patients undergoing elective colonic resection were prospectively studied using a well-defined postoperative care program including continuous thoracic epidural analgesia and enforced early mobilization and enteral nutrition, and a planned 48-hour postoperative hospital stay...

  3. Blast fracturing of bedrock to enhance recovery of contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzman, L.R.; Harvey, E.M.; McKee, R.C.E.; Katsabanis, T.

    1992-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons releasd from a pipeline at a site in southern Ontario had contaminated a fractured dolostone bedrock aquifer. To remediate the site, contaminated groundwater was pumped from the downgradient edge of the hydrocarbon plume and injected into an upgradient area after treatment. Contaminant flow pathways in the fractured bedrock aquifer were found to be complex and erratic. It was anticipated that contaminated groundwater could escape the influence of a line of closely spaced recovery wells. In order to capture the migrating contaminants effectively, improve communication between recovery wells, and optimize pumping efficiencies, a rubble zone was created by drilling and blasting the rock. Using 140 blastholes, the bedrock was fractured to a depth of 4 m over a distance of 200 m. Similarly, an additional 80 blastholes were used to blast fracture 100 m of bedrock to a depth of 4 m in the recharge area to enhance injection of treated water to the aquifer. Various blasthole spacings and explosive loadings and patterns were tested to fracture the rock effectively while minimizing the impact on the nearby pipeline and neighboring residences. Vibrations were carefully monitored using several seismographs. Pump tests conducted before and after the blast indicated the hydraulic connection between the naturally occurring fractures had greatly improved. Monitoring conducted after startup of the pump-treat-and-inject system has confirmed the fracturing provides effective capture and injection of the groundwater. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  4. Technology strategy for enhanced recovery; Technology Target Areas; TTA3 - enhanced recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) is facing new challenges in reserve replacement and improved recovery in order to maintain the overall oil production rate from the area. A new target for an increase in oil reserves of 800 million Sm3 of oil (5 billion barrels) by year 2015 has been set by NPD. This is an ambitious goal considering several of the large fields are on a steep decline, and most of the recent discoveries are relatively small. A significant part of these increased reserves will have to come from fields currently on production, from reservoir areas that have been partly or fully swept, and it is therefore evident that Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) methods have to play a key role in achieving this target. EOR methods can be divided into gas based EOR methods and water based EOR methods. Thermal methods are not considered applicable on the NCS due to the relatively light oils present, and the depth of the reservoirs. Gas Based EOR; Water Based EOR; CO{sub 2} injection; Surfactants; Air injection; Polymer; Nitrogen injection; Alkaline; Flue gas injection; Polymer gels; WAG; MEOR; FAWAG. The former OG21 strategy document gave high priority to Water Alternating Gas (WAG) methods and CO{sub 2} injection for enhanced recovery. A lot of research and development and evaluation projects on CO{sub 2} injection were launched and are on-going, most of these are being CO{sub 2} WAG studies. The main challenge now in order to realize CO{sub 2} injection on the NCS is on CO{sub 2} availability and transport. It is also believed that increasing gas prices will limit the availability of hydrocarbon gas for injection purposes in the future. There is, however, a clear need for developing alternative cost efficient EOR methods that can improve the sweep efficiency significantly. Since a majority of the fields on the NCS are being produced under water flooding (or WAG), methods that can improve the water flooding efficiency by chemical additives are of special interest and

  5. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Protocols in Major Urologic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Vukovic

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the reviewThe analysis of the components of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS protocols in urologic surgery.Recent findingsERAS protocols has been studied for over 20 years in different surgical procedures, mostly in colorectal surgery. The concept of improving patient care and reducing postoperative complications was also applied to major urologic surgery and especially procedure of radical cystectomy. This procedure is technically challenging, due to a major surgical resection and high postoperative complication rate that may reach 65%. Several clinical pathways were introduced to improve perioperative course and reduce the length of hospital stay. These protocols differ from ERAS modalities in other surgeries. The reasons for this are longer operative time, increased risk of perioperative transfusion and infection, and urinary diversion achieved using transposed intestinal segments. Previous studies in this area analyzed the need for mechanical bowel preparation, postoperative nasogastric tube decompression, as well as the duration of urinary drainage. Furthermore, the attention has also been drawn to perioperative fluid optimization, pain management, and bowel function.SummaryNotwithstanding partial resemblance between the pathways in major urologic surgery and other pelvic surgeries, there are still scarce guidelines for ERAS protocols in urology, which is why further studies should assess the importance of preoperative medical optimization, implementation of thoracic epidural anesthesia and analgesia, and perioperative nutritional management.

  6. Enhanced Recovery after Emergency Surgery: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduraru, Mihai; Ponchietti, Luca; Casas, Isidro Martinez; Svenningsen, Peter; Zago, Mauro

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the current scientific evidence for the applicability, safety and effectiveness of pathways of enhanced recovery after emergency surgery (ERAS). We undertook a search using PubMed and Cochrane databases for ERAS protocols in emergency cases. The search generated 65 titles; after eliminating the papers not meeting search criteria, we selected 4 cohort studies and 1 randomized clinical trial (RCT). Data extracted for analysis consisted of: patient age, type of surgery performed, ERAS elements implemented, surgical outcomes in terms of postoperative complications, mortality, length of stay (LOS) and readmission rate. The number of ERAS items applied was good, ranging from 11 to 18 of the 20 recommended by the ERAS Society. The implementation resulted in fewer postoperative complications. LOS for ES patients was shorter when compared to conventional care. Mortality, specifically reported in three studies, was equal or lower with ERAS. Readmission rates varied widely and were generally higher for the intervention group but without statistical significance. The studies reviewed agreed that ERAS in emergency surgery (ES) was feasible and safe with generally better outcomes. Lower compliance with some of the ERAS items shows the need for the protocol to be adapted to ES patients. More evidence is clearly required as to what can improve outcomes and how this can be formulated into an effective care pathway for the heterogeneous ES patient.

  7. Noble Gas signatures of Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, P. H.; Kulongoski, J. T.; Tyne, R. L.; Hillegonds, D.; Byrne, D. J.; Landon, M. K.; Ballentine, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Noble gases are powerful tracers of fluids from various oil and gas production activities in hydrocarbon reservoirs and nearby groundwater. Non-radiogenic noble gases are introduced into undisturbed oil and natural gas reservoirs through exchange with formation waters [1-3]. Reservoirs with extensive hydraulic fracturing, injection for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and/or waste disposal also show evidence for a component of noble gases introduced from air [4]. Isotopic and elemental ratios of noble gases can be used to 1) assess the migration history of the injected and formation fluids, and 2) determine the extent of exchange between multiphase fluids in different reservoirs. We present noble gas isotope and abundance data from casing, separator and injectate gases of the Lost Hills and Fruitvale oil fields in the San Joaquin basin, California. Samples were collected as part of the California State Water Resource Control Board's Oil and Gas Regional Groundwater Monitoring Program. Lost Hills (n=7) and Fruitvale (n=2) gases are geochemically distinct and duplicate samples are highly reproducible. Lost Hills casing gas samples were collected from areas where EOR and hydraulic fracturing has occurred in the past several years, and from areas where EOR is absent. The Fruitvale samples were collected from a re-injection port. All samples are radiogenic in their He isotopes, typical of a crustal environment, and show enrichments in heavy noble gases, resulting from preferential adsorption on sediments. Fruitvale samples reflect air-like surface conditions, with higher air-derived noble gas concentrations. Lost Hills gases show a gradation from pristine crustal signatures - indicative of closed-system exchange with formation fluids - to strongly air-contaminated signatures in the EOR region. Pristine samples can be used to determine the extent of hydrocarbon exchange with fluids, whereas samples with excess air can be used to quantify the extent of EOR. Determining noble

  8. High-order simulation of foam enhanced oil recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meer, J.M.; Van Odyck, D.E.A.; Wirnsberger, P.; Jansen, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    If secondary hydrocarbon recovery methods fail because of the occurrence of gravity override or viscous fingering one can turn to an enhanced oil recovery method like the injection of foam. The generation of foam can be described by a set of partial differential equations with strongly nonlinear

  9. Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) to enhance EDC ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening and testing for endocrine active chemicals was mandated under 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act and Food Quality Protection Act. Efficiencies can be gained in the endocrine disruptor screening program by using available biological and toxicological knowledge to facilitate greater use of high throughput screening data and other data sources to inform endocrine disruptor assessments. Likewise, existing knowledge, when properly organized, can help aid interpretation of test results. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework, which organizes information concerning measureable changes that link initial biological interactions with a chemical to adverse effects that are meaningful to risk assessment and management, can aid this process. This presentation outlines the ways in which the AOP framework has already been employed to support EDSP and how it may further enhance endocrine disruptor assessments in the future. Screening and testing for endocrine active chemicals was mandated under 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act and Food Quality Protection Act. Efficiencies can be gained in the endocrine disruptor screening program by using available biological and toxicological knowledge to facilitate greater use of high throughput screening data and other data sources to inform endocrine disruptor assessments. Likewise, existing knowledge, when properly organized, can help aid interpretation of test results. The adverse outcome pathway

  10. Enhanced oil recovery by CO{sub 2} injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moctezuma Berthier, Andres E. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-15

    Firstly are presented some basic concepts on the enhanced oil recovery; then a description is made of where the oil deposits in Mexico are located; comments are made over what has been done in Mexico in terms of enhanced oil recovery, the projects of the Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo that have dealt with the subject of enhanced oil recovery, and finally an approach is presented towards the problem of oil recovery using CO{sub 2}. [Spanish] Primeramente se presentan unos conceptos basicos sobre la recuperacion mejorada de petroleo; luego se hace una descripcion de donde se encuentran los yacimientos de petroleo en Mexico; se comenta sobre que se ha hecho en Mexico en terminos de recuperacion mejorada de petroleo; se mencionan los proyectos del Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo que han abordado el tema de la recuperacion mejorada del petroleo y por ultimo se presenta un enfoque hacia el problema de la recuperacion del petroleo usando CO{sub 2}.

  11. Microbial enhanced oil recovery: Entering the log phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) technology has advanced internationally since 1980 from a laboratory-based evaluation of microbial processes to field applications. In order to adequately support the decline in oil production in certain areas, research on cost-effective technologies such as microbial enhanced oil recovery processes must focus on both near-term and long-term applications. Many marginal wells are desperately in need of an inexpensive improved oil recovery technology today that can assist producers in order to prevent their abandonment. Microbial enhanced waterflooding technology has also been shown to be an economically feasible technology in the United States. Complementary environmental research and development will also be required to address any potential environmental impacts of microbial processes. In 1995 at this conference, the goal is to further document and promote microbial processes for improved oil recovery and related technology for solving environmental problems.

  12. Caffeine accelerates recovery from general anesthesia via multiple pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Robert; Khokhar, Suhail; Chowdhury, Atif N; Xie, Kelvin G; Wong, Josiah Hiu-Yuen; Fox, Aaron P; Xie, Zheng

    2017-09-01

    Various studies have explored different ways to speed emergence from anesthesia. Previously, we have shown that three drugs that elevate intracellular cAMP (forskolin, theophylline, and caffeine) accelerate emergence from anesthesia in rats. However, our earlier studies left two main questions unanswered. First, were cAMP-elevating drugs effective at all anesthetic concentrations? Second, given that caffeine was the most effective of the drugs tested, why was caffeine more effective than forskolin since both drugs elevate cAMP? In our current study, emergence time from anesthesia was measured in adult rats exposed to 3% isoflurane for 60 min. Caffeine dramatically accelerated emergence from anesthesia, even at the high level of anesthetic employed. Caffeine has multiple actions including blockade of adenosine receptors. We show that the selective A 2a adenosine receptor antagonist preladenant or the intracellular cAMP ([cAMP] i )-elevating drug forskolin, accelerated recovery from anesthesia. When preladenant and forskolin were tested together, the effect on anesthesia recovery time was additive indicating that these drugs operate via different pathways. Furthermore, the combination of preladenant and forskolin was about as effective as caffeine suggesting that both A 2A receptor blockade and [cAMP] i elevation play a role in caffeine's ability to accelerate emergence from anesthesia. Because anesthesia in rodents is thought to be similar to that in humans, these results suggest that caffeine might allow for rapid and uniform emergence from general anesthesia in humans at all anesthetic concentrations and that both the elevation of [cAMP] i and adenosine receptor blockade play a role in this response. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Currently, there is no method to accelerate emergence from anesthesia. Patients "wake" when they clear the anesthetic from their systems. Previously, we have shown that caffeine can accelerate emergence from anesthesia. In this study, we show that

  13. [Multidisciplinary team building in enhanced recovery after surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, W D

    2018-01-01

    There has been 10 years to explore the road in line with China's actual enhanced recovery after surgery(ERAS) since Academician Li Jieshou introduced the view of ERAS into China. ERAS has been widely carried out in the field of surgery, and gradually formed with Chinese characteristics of ERAS clinical pathway.The clinical implementation of ERAS relies on the effective integration of a series of perioperative methods, and any single technique or method can't completely reduce the perioperative physiological and psychological traumatic stress of the patient, so as to achieve the patient's rapid rehabilitation patient-centered multidisciplinary team(MDT)collaboration is an inevitable trend in ERAS development. On the basis of drawing lessons from foreign experience, the establishment of ERAS-MDT model in line with China's national conditions is a new subject that needs to be studied at present. The construction of ERAS-MDT might promote the development of new ERAS services, new technologies, and ultimately promote the improvement of surgical treatment, and bring the greatest clinical benefit to the society and patients.

  14. The PTRC : a world leader in enhanced heavy oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristoff, B.; Knudsen, R.; Asghari, K. [Petroleum Technology Research Centre, Regina, SK (Canada); Pappas, E.S. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The Petroleum Technology Research Centre (PTRC) fosters knowledge and progressive technologies to enhance the recovery of petroleum. This paper discussed the PTRC's leadership in enhanced heavy oil recovery, with particular reference to core research program such as heavy oil (post) cold flow; enhanced waterflooding; miscible/immiscible solvent injection; and near-wellbore conformance control. Other projects that were presented included a joint implementation of vapour extraction project (JIVE); and the IEA greenhouse gas (GHG) Weyburn-Midale carbon dioxide monitoring and storage project. The JIVE project will develop, demonstrate and evaluate solvent vapour extraction processes for enhanced oil recovery in heavy oil reservoirs. The GHG Weyburn-Midale project, launched in 2000, studies carbon dioxide injection and storage in partially depleted oil reservoirs. It was concluded that the PTRC continues to develop technologies to meet the world's energy requirements while mitigating both immediate and long-term environmental impacts. 4 figs.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of enhanced recovery in hip and knee replacement: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jacqueline; Pritchard, Mark G; Cheng, Lok Yin; Janarthanan, Roshni; Leal, José

    2018-03-14

    Hip and knee replacement represents a significant burden to the UK healthcare system. 'Enhanced recovery' pathways have been introduced in the National Health Service (NHS) for patients undergoing hip and knee replacement, with the aim of improving outcomes and timely recovery after surgery. To support policymaking, there is a need to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of enhanced recovery pathways across jurisdictions. Our aim is to systematically summarise the published cost-effectiveness evidence on enhanced recovery in hip and knee replacement, both as a whole and for each of the various components of enhanced recovery pathways. A systematic review will be conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Econlit and the National Health Service Economic Evaluations Database. Separate search strategies were developed for each database including terms relating to hip and knee replacement/arthroplasty, economic evaluations, decision modelling and quality of life measures.We will extract peer-reviewed studies published between 2000 and 2017 reporting economic evaluations of preoperative, perioperative or postoperative enhanced recovery interventions within hip or knee replacement. Economic evaluations alongside cohort studies or based on decision models will be included. Only studies with patients undergoing elective replacement surgery of the hip or knee will be included. Data will be extracted using a predefined pro forma following best practice guidelines for economic evaluation, decision modelling and model validation.Our primary outcome will be the cost-effectiveness of enhanced recovery (entire pathway and individual components) in terms of incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year. A narrative synthesis of all studies will be presented, focussing on cost-effectiveness results, study design, quality and validation status. This systematic review is exempted from ethics approval because the work is carried out on published documents. The results of the review will be

  16. Enhanced Oil Recovery with Surfactant Flooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandersen, Sara Bülow

    , thus reducing the interfacial tension (IFT) to ultra low (0.001 mN/m), which consequently will mobilize the residual oil and result in improved oil recovery. This EOR technology is, however, made challenging by a number of factors, such as the adsorption of surfactant and co-surfactant to the rock...... be resistant to and remain active at reservoir conditions such as high temperatures, pressures and salinities. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of systems that exhibit liquid-liquid equilibrium (e.g. oil-brine systems) at reservoir conditions is an area of increasing interest within EOR. This is true...... studied. The effect of increased pressure became more significant when combined with increasing temperature. The experiments performed on the oil/ seawater systems were similar to the high pressure experiments for the surfactant system discussed above. Oil was contacted with different brine solutions...

  17. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery - Advanced Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sidsel Marie

    the water phase. The biofilm formation implies that the concentration of bacteria near the inlet increases. In combination with surfactant production, the biofilm results in a higher surfactant concentration in the initial part of the reservoir. The oil that is initially bypassed in connection...... simulator. In the streamline simulator, the effect of gravity is introduced using an operator splitting technique. The gravity effect stabilizes oil displacement causing markedly improvement of the oil recovery, when the oil density becomes relatively low. The general characteristics found for MEOR in one......-dimensional simulations are also demonstrated both in two and three dimensions. Overall, this MEOR process conducted in a heterogeneous reservoir also produces more oil compared to waterflooding, when the simulations are run in multiple dimensions. The work presented in this thesis has resulted in two publications so far....

  18. Study on Dynamic Characteristics of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Shi, Fang; Qin, Wuying; Yan, Jing

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development of economy, the demand for oil is increasing day by day. MEOR has the advantages of low cost and no pollution to the environment, attracted widespread attention. In this paper, the dynamic characteristics of microbial enhanced oil recovery were studied by laboratory experiments. The result showed that all the microbial flooding recovery rate could reach more than 5%, and the total recovery could reach more than 35% and if the injection period of microbial composite system was advanced, the whole oil displacement process could be shortened and the workload would be reduced.

  19. Enzyme Enhanced Protein Recovery from Green Biomass Pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dotsenko, Gleb; Lange, Lene

    2017-01-01

    of local protein resources based on upgrade from e.g. green plant biomass. In present work we consider different strategies for protein recovery from white clover and ryegrass screw press pulps, using aqueous extraction, as well as carbohydrases and proteases enhanced extraction. Protein recovery...... in these studies was determined as a yield of solubilized protein with regard to the total protein in a screw press pulp. Aqueous extraction at pH 8.0 resulted in approx. 40 % protein recovery, while proteases application (Savinase 16.0L, Novozymes) enabled twice higher protein yield. Application of plant cell...... pulp proteolyzates, generated by Savinase 16.0L protease....

  20. Preoperative methylprednisolone enhances recovery after endovascular aortic repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Motte, Louise; Kehlet, Henrik; Vogt, Katja

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate effects of preoperative high-dose glucocorticoid on the inflammatory response and recovery after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). BACKGROUND: The postimplantation syndrome after EVAR may delay recovery due to the release of proinflammatory mediators....... Glucocorticoids may reduce postoperative inflammatory responses and enhance recovery, but with limited information on EVAR. METHODS: A single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 153 patients undergoing elective EVAR between November 2009 and January 2013. Patients received 30 mg.......001) and fulfillment of discharge criteria was shorter [2 days (IQR = 2-4 days) vs 3 days (IQR = 3-4 days)] (P factor receptor were also reduced (P

  1. Enhanced recovery after bariatric surgery – a modern approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekkhan Bayalovich Khatsiev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS are widely used and their efficiency was clearly demonstrated by numerous studies. Number of publications on this topic in bariatric surgery is significantly lower compared with other fields of surgery. However, the data accumulated allow to compose recommendations based on studies with high level of evidence. Authors review existing methods of enhanced recovery in their implementation into bariatric surgery. Enhanced recovery methods can be used to optimize all stages of perioperative care and include data on preoperative preparation, maintenance of electrolyte balance, prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting, sufficient analgesia and safe discharge form hospital. Suggested guidelines for bariatric surgery are implied to be used by a multidisciplinary team.

  2. Involvement of plasma membrane peroxidases and oxylipin pathway in the recovery from phytoplasma disease in apple (Malus domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patui, Sonia; Bertolini, Alberto; Clincon, Luisa; Ermacora, Paolo; Braidot, Enrico; Vianello, Angelo; Zancani, Marco

    2013-06-01

    Apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) may be affected by apple proliferation (AP), caused by 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali'. Some plants can spontaneously recover from the disease, which implies the disappearance of symptoms through a phenomenon known as recovery. In this article it is shown that NAD(P)H peroxidases of leaf plasma membrane-enriched fractions exhibited a higher activity in samples from both AP-diseased and recovered plants. In addition, an increase in endogenous SA was characteristic of the symptomatic plants, since its content increased in samples obtained from diseased apple trees. In agreement, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, a key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, was increased too. Jasmonic acid (JA) increased only during recovery, in a phase subsequent to the pathological state, and in concomitance to a decline of salicylic acid (SA). Oxylipin pathway, responsible for JA synthesis, was not induced during the development of AP-disease, but it appeared to be stimulated when the recovery occurred. Accordingly, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, detected in plasma membrane-enriched fractions, showed an increase in apple leaves obtained from recovered plants. This enhancement was paralleled by an increase of hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) activity, detected in leaf microsomes, albeit the latter enzyme was activated in either the disease or recovery conditions. Hence, a reciprocal antagonism between SA- and JA-pathways could be suggested as an effective mechanism by which apple plants react to phytoplasma invasions, thereby providing a suitable defense response leading to the establishment of the recovery phenomenon. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  3. Water control for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, R.C.; Mody, B.; Pace, J.

    1981-11-01

    Gains in recovery efficiency in W. Texas oil and gas fields have been realized as a result of applying 4 different chemical processes, either singly or in combination. Each of the 4 chemical processes has been tailored to meet specific reservoir requirements. Complete plugging of high flow capacity channels can be accomplished, and the high water production portion of a producing zone can be sealed by injection of gel-forming chemicals into the matrix. Both floodwater diversion and water-oil mobility ratio improvement can be attained by in situ polymerization of a one-stage polymer bank in the reservoir. In producing wells, the water-oil production ratio can be favorably changed by treating certain formulations with a nonplugging polymer which tends to restrict water flow but not oil. One feature which each of the 4 processes has in common is the ability to invade deeply into matrix which may produce long lasting results. A description of each process is presented with various placement techniques used to obtain optimum results. Data from fields which have benefited from these treatments are presented. The work describes what may be expected with each of these proven processes based on field results.

  4. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery: 3D Simulation with Gravity Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Jessen, K.; Shapiro, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) utilizes the activity of microorganisms, where microorganisms simultaneously grow in a reservoir and convert substrate into recovery enhancing products (usually, surfactants). In order to predict the performance of a MEOR process, a simulation tool is required...... using an operator splitting technique. To the best of our knowledge, this has resulted in the first full 3D MEOR streamline simulator. For verification purposes, we compare results from our streamline MEOR simulator to those of a conventional finite difference approach for 1D and 2D displacement...

  5. Simulations of Microbial-Enhanced Oil Recovery: Adsorption and Filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Nesterov, Igor; Shapiro, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In the context of microbial-enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) with injection of surfactant-producing bacteria into the reservoir, different types of bacteria attachment and growth scenarios are studied using a 1D simulator. The irreversible bacteria attachment due to filtration similar to the deep bed...... applied to filtration model provides formation of two oil banks during recovery. This feature is not reproduced by application of REA model or DBF with growth in attached phase. This makes it possible to select a right model based on the qualitative analysis of the experimental data. A criterion...... is introduced to study the process efficiency: the dimensionless time at which average recovery between pure water injection and maximum surfactant effect is reached. This characteristic recovery period (CRP) was studied as a function of the different MEOR parameters such as bacterial activity, filtration...

  6. Enhanced recovery after vascular surgery: protocol for a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotlib Conn Lesley

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS programme is a multimodal evidence-based approach to surgical care which begins in the preoperative setting and extends through to patient discharge in the postoperative period. The primary components of ERAS include the introduction of preoperative patient education; reduction in perioperative use of nasogastric tubes and drains; the use of multimodal analgesia; goal-directed fluid management; early removal of Foley catheter; early mobilization, and early oral nutrition. The ERAS approach has gradually evolved to become the standard of care in colorectal surgery and is presently being used in other specialty areas such as vascular surgery. Currently there is little evidence available for the implementation of ERAS in this field. We plan to conduct a systematic review of this literature with a view to incorporating ERAS principles into the management of major elective vascular surgery procedures. Methods We will search EMBASE (OVID, 1947 to June 2012, Medline (OVID, 1948 to June 2012, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Wiley, Issue 1, 2012. Searches will be performed with no year or language restrictions. For inclusion, studies must look at adult patients over 18 years. Major elective vascular surgery includes carotid, bypass, aneurysm and amputation procedures. Studies must have evaluated usual care against an ERAS intervention in the preoperative, perioperative or postoperative period of care. Primary outcome measures are length of stay, decreased complication rate, and patient satisfaction or expectations. Only randomized controlled trials will be included. Discussion Most ERAS approaches have been considered in the context of colorectal surgery. Given the increasing use of multiple yet different aspects of this pathway in vascular surgery, it is timely to systematically review the evidence for their independent or combined outcomes, with a view to implementing

  7. Axial diffusivity changes in the motor pathway above stroke foci and functional recovery after subcortical infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Peng, Kangqiang; Dang, Chao; Tan, Shuangquan; Chen, Hongbing; Xie, Chuanmiao; Xing, Shihui; Zeng, Jinsheng

    2018-01-01

    Secondary degeneration of the fiber tract of the motor pathway below infarct foci and functional recovery after stroke have been well demonstrated, but the role of the fiber tract above stroke foci remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate diffusion changes in motor fibers above the lesion and identify predictors of motor improvement within 12 weeks after subcortical infarction. Diffusion tensor imaging and the Fugl-Meyer (FM) scale were conducted 1, 4, and 12 weeks (W) after a subcortical infarct. Proportional recovery model residuals were used to assign patients to proportional recovery and poor recovery groups. Region of interest analysis was used to assess diffusion changes in the motor pathway above and below a stroke lesion. Multivariable linear regression was employed to identify predictors of motor improvement within 12 weeks after stroke. Axial diffusivity (AD) in the underlying white matter of the ipsilesional primary motor area (PMA) and cerebral peduncle (CP) in both proportional and poor recovery groups was lower at W1 compared to the controls and values in the contralesional PMA and CP (all P motor improvement within 12 weeks after stroke in patients with proportional or poor recovery. Increases of AD in the motor pathway above stroke foci may be associated with motor recovery after subcortical infarction. Early measurement of diffusion metrics in the ipsilesional non-ischemic motor pathway has limited value in predicting future motor improvement patterns (proportional or poor recovery).

  8. Enhanced oil recovery with surfactant flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buelow Sandersen, S.

    2012-05-15

    Understanding the underlying mechanisms of systems that exhibit liquid-liquid equilibrium (e.g. oil-brine systems) at reservoir conditions is an area of increasing interest within EOR. This is true both for complex surfactant systems as well as for oil and brine systems. It is widely accepted that an increase in oil recovery can be obtained through flooding, whether it is simple waterflooding, waterflooding where the salinity has been modified by the addition or removal of specific ions (socalled ''smart'' waterflooding) or surfactant flooding. High pressure experiments have been carried out in this work on a surfactant system (surfactant/ oil/ brine) and on oil/ seawater systems (oil/ brine). The high pressure experiments were carried out on a DBR JEFRI PVT cell, where a glass window allows observation of the phase behavior of the different systems at various temperatures and pressures inside the high pressure cell. Phase volumes can also be measured visually through the glass window using precision equipment. The surfactant system for which an experimental study was carried out consisted of the mixture heptane, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/ 1-butanol/ NaCl/ water. This system has previously been examined at ambient pressures and temperatures but this has been extended here to pressures up to 400 bar and to slightly higher temperatures (40 deg. C, 45 deg. C and 50 deg. C). Experiments were performed at constant salinity (6.56 %), constant surfactant-alcohol ratio (SAR) but with varying water-oil ratios (WOR). At all temperatures it was very clear that the effect of pressure was significant. The system changed from the two phase region, Winsor II, to the three phase region, Winsor III, as pressure increased. Increasing pressures also caused a shift from the three phase region (Winsor III), to a different two phase region, (Winsor I). These changes in equilibrium phase behavior were also dependent on the composition of the system. A number of

  9. Silviculture enhances the recovery of overexploited mahogany Swietenia macrophylla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, C.C.; Peña-Claros, M.; Staak, van der D.; Ohlson-kiehn, K.; Sterck, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Big leaf mahogany Swietenia macrophylla is the most valuable timber species in the tropics but its future as a commercial timber species is at risk. This study evaluates whether recovery of overexploited mahogany populations is enhanced by actively managing the species and its surrounding forest. We

  10. Outcomes From an Enhanced Recovery Program for Laparoscopic Gastric Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong-Chong, Nathalie; Kehlet, Henrik; Grantcharov, Teodor P

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the outcomes from an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) program for laparoscopic gastric surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study of patients undergoing elective laparoscopic gastric resection in an ERAS protocol at a single institution between 2008 and...

  11. Foam for Enhanced Oil Recovery : Modeling and Analytical Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashoori, E.

    2012-01-01

    Foam increases sweep in miscible- and immiscible-gas enhanced oil recovery by decreasing the mobility of gas enormously. This thesis is concerned with the simulations and analytical solutions for foam flow for the purpose of modeling foam EOR in a reservoir. For the ultimate goal of upscaling our

  12. Polymeric surfactants for enhanced oil recovery : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raffa, Patrizio; Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Picchioni, Francesco

    Chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is surely a topic of interest, as conventional oil resources become more scarce and the necessity of exploiting heavy and unconventional oils increases. EOR methods based on polymer flooding, surfactant-polymer flooding and alkali-surfactant-polymer flooding are

  13. Novel approaches to microbial enhancement of oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryachko, Yuriy

    2018-01-20

    Microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) was shown to be feasible in a number of laboratory experiments and field trials. However, it has not been widely used in the oil industry because necessary conditions cannot always be easily established in an oil reservoir. Novel approaches to MEOR, which are based on newly discovered biosurfactant-mediated MEOR-mechanisms, are discussed in this review. Particularly, the possibility of combining MEOR with chemical enhancement of oil recovery in heterogeneous oil reservoirs, which involves rock surface wettability shifts and emulsion inversions, is discussed. In wider (centimeter/millimeter-scale) rock pores, the activity of (bio)surfactants and microbial cells attached to oil may allow releasing trapped oil blobs through oil-in-water emulsification. After no more oil can be emulsified, the addition of alkali or surfactants, which turn rock surface oil-wet, may help release oil droplets trapped in narrow (micrometer-scale) pores through coalescence of the droplets and water-in-oil emulsification. Experiments demonstrating the possibility of (bio)surfactant-mediated enhancement of immiscible gas-driven oil recovery are also reviewed. Interestingly, very low (bio)surfactant concentrations were shown to be needed for enhancement of immiscible gas-driven oil recovery. Some possible side effects of MEOR, such as unintended bioplugging and microbially influenced corrosion (MIC), are discussed as well. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Laparoscopic gastric surgery in an enhanced recovery programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grantcharov, T P; Kehlet, H

    2010-01-01

    Laparoscopy is associated with less pain and organ dysfunction than open surgery. Improved perioperative care (enhanced recovery programmes, fast-track methodology) has also led to reduced morbidity and a shorter hospital stay. The effects of a combination of laparoscopic resection and accelerated...

  15. Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) in penetrating abdominal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programmes employed in elective surgery have provided strong evidence for decreased lengths of hospital stay without increase in postoperative complications. The aim of this study was to explore the role and benefits of ERAS implemented in patients undergoing ...

  16. Mechanics of vacuum-enhanced recovery of hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D.L.; McWhorter, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    A growing body of field data demonstrates the enhancement of product recovery that can be achieved by applying a partial vacuum to recovery wells. Typical explanations for the observed improvement in performance invoke an increased slope of the cone of depression created in the water-table surface. Explanations related to water-table slope do not consider the gradient induced in the hydrocarbon by virtue of the airflow. Also, the airflow may induce a gradient in the aqueous phase that is not reflected in a water-table drawdown. The equations for steady-state flow of three immiscible fluids elucidate the fundamental mechanics of vacuum-enhanced recovery or bioslurping. Airflow to the recovery well causes hydrocarbon to migrate toward the well, independent of any gravity effects that may be created. Also, the relative permeability to hydrocarbon is affected by both water and airflow in the vicinity of the recovery well. Two critical airflow rates delineate the conditions for which only air is recovered, air and hydrocarbon are recovered, and all three phases are recovered

  17. The mTORC1-Signaling Pathway and Hepatic Polyribosome Profile Are Enhanced after the Recovery of a Protein Restricted Diet by a Combination of Soy or Black Bean with Corn Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Mota, Claudia C; Rodriguez-Gaytan, Cinthya; Adjibade, Pauline; Mazroui, Rachid; Gálvez, Amanda; Granados, Omar; Tovar, Armando R; Torres, Nimbe

    2016-09-20

    Between 6% and 11% of the world's population suffers from malnutrition or undernutrition associated with poverty, aging or long-term hospitalization. The present work examined the effect of different types of proteins on the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTORC1)-signaling pathway in: (1) healthy; and (2) protein restricted rats. (1) In total, 200 rats were divided into eight groups and fed one of the following diets: 20% casein (C), soy (S), black bean (B), B + Corn (BCr), Pea (P), spirulina (Sp), sesame (Se) or Corn (Cr). Rats fed C or BCr had the highest body weight gain; rats fed BCr had the highest pS6K1/S6K1 ratio; rats fed B, BCr or P had the highest eIF4G expression; (2) In total, 84 rats were fed 0.5% C for 21 day and protein rehabilitated with different proteins. The S, soy + Corn (SCr) and BCr groups had the highest body weight gain. Rats fed SCr and BCr had the highest eIF4G expression and liver polysome formation. These findings suggest that the quality of the dietary proteins modulate the mTORC1-signaling pathway. In conclusion, the combination of BCr or SCr are the best proteins for dietary protein rehabilitation due to the significant increase in body weight, activation of the mTORC1-signaling pathway in liver and muscle, and liver polysome formation.

  18. Foam rheology in porous media and enhanced oil recovery potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burley, R.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies using foam as a mobility control agent in partially depleted oil wells have shown that foam has a potential for enhancing oil recovery after primary water flooding. The characteristics of foam as indicated by the results of several studies point to three potential applications of foam in oil recovery processes. These are: Improving the displacement efficiency of gas-drive processes (mobility control). Improving the sweep efficiency of other fluid injection processes (mobility control and flow impediment). Restricting the flow of undesired fluids and plugging of high permeable oil 'thief' zones (partial or total pore blockage). (author)

  19. High job control enhances vagal recovery in media work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Harri; Sinisalo, Juha; Ahlberg, Jari; Jahkola, Antti; Partinen, Markku; Hublin, Christer; Savolainen, Aslak

    2009-12-01

    Job strain has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. In modern media work, time pressures, rapidly changing situations, computer work and irregular working hours are common. Heart rate variability (HRV) has been widely used to monitor sympathovagal balance. Autonomic imbalance may play an additive role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. To study the effects of work demands and job control on the autonomic nervous system recovery among the media personnel. From the cross-sectional postal survey of the employees in Finnish Broadcasting Company (n = 874), three age cohorts (n = 132) were randomly selected for an analysis of HRV in 24 h electrocardiography recordings. In the middle-aged group, those who experienced high job control had significantly better vagal recovery than those with low or moderate control (P work rather than low demands seemed to enhance autonomic recovery in middle-aged media workers. This was independent of poor health habits such as smoking, physical inactivity or alcohol consumption.

  20. Gamblers Anonymous as a Recovery Pathway: A Scoping Review

    OpenAIRE

    Schuler, Andr?e; Ferentzy, Peter; Turner, Nigel E.; Skinner, Wayne; McIsaac, Kathryn E.; Ziegler, Carolyn P.; Matheson, Flora I.

    2016-01-01

    Given the preponderance of Gamblers Anonymous (GA), there has been relatively little effort to explore the existing evidence base on its effectiveness as a recovery approach for problem gambling. To remedy this gap in the literature we conducted a scoping review of the literature on mutual aid for individuals experiencing problem gambling published between 2002 and 2015. We searched 13 databases and reviewed reference lists and websites of relevant organizations. We reviewed records for eligi...

  1. Gamblers Anonymous as a Recovery Pathway: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Andrée; Ferentzy, Peter; Turner, Nigel E; Skinner, Wayne; McIsaac, Kathryn E; Ziegler, Carolyn P; Matheson, Flora I

    2016-12-01

    Given the preponderance of Gamblers Anonymous (GA), there has been relatively little effort to explore the existing evidence base on its effectiveness as a recovery approach for problem gambling. To remedy this gap in the literature we conducted a scoping review of the literature on mutual aid for individuals experiencing problem gambling published between 2002 and 2015. We searched 13 databases and reviewed reference lists and websites of relevant organizations. We reviewed records for eligibility and extracted relevant data from eligible articles. Three reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of the included studies using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. We identified 17 studies in 25 publications that were eligible for inclusion. Most studies were conducted in the United States, were cross-sectional in design, and involved both male and female adult participants. Results indicate that the evidence for the effectiveness of GA either as a control condition or in conjunction with formal treatment or medication is inconsistent. An emphasis on patience, using the Serenity Prayer as a way to gain acceptance of financial matters and reality, and absolute assertion of identity as a "compulsive gambler" were identified as important aspects of GA's recovery culture. There is a need for large-scale randomized controlled trials to determine GA's effectiveness, as well as research exploring the mechanisms through which GA works, barriers to GA as a recovery approach, and the status of women in the fellowship.

  2. Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery, (STEOR) Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzinga, E.; Arnold, C.; Allen, D.; Garman, R.; Joy, P.; Mitchell, P.; Shaw, H.

    1980-11-01

    Thermal enhanced oil recovery is widely used in California to aid in the production of heavy oils. Steam injection either to stimulate individual wells or to drive oil to the producing wells, is by far the major thermal process today and has been in use for over 20 years. Since steam generation at the necessary pressures (generally below 4000 kPa (580 psia)) is within the capabilities of present day solar technology, it is logical to consider the possibilities of solar thermal enhanced oil recovery (STEOR). The present project consisted of an evaluation of STEOR. Program objectives, system selection, trade-off studies, preliminary design, cost estimate, development plan, and market and economic analysis are summarized.

  3. Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery performance according to the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, Ricardo A.

    2017-07-17

    IntroductionThe need to increase the efficiency of oil recovery and environmental concerns are bringing to prominence the use of carbon dioxide (CO2) as a tertiary recovery agent. Assessment of the impact of flooding with CO2 all eligible reservoirs in the United States not yet undergoing enhanced oil recovery (EOR) requires making the best possible use of the experience gained in 40 years of applications. Review of the publicly available literature has located relevant CO2-EOR information for 53 units (fields, reservoirs, pilot areas) in the United States and 17 abroad.As the world simultaneously faces an increasing concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere and a higher demand for fossil fuels, the CO2-EOR process continues to gain popularity for its efficiency as a tertiary recovery agent and for the potential for having some CO2 trapped in the subsurface as an unintended consequence of the enhanced production (Advanced Resources International and Melzer Consulting, 2009). More extensive application of CO2-EOR worldwide, however, is not making it significantly easier to predict the exact outcome of the CO2 flooding in new reservoirs. The standard approach to examine and manage risks is to analyze the intended target by conducting laboratory work, running simulation models, and, finally, gaining field experience with a pilot test. This approach, though, is not always possible. For example, assessment of the potential of CO2-EOR at the national level in a vast country such as the United States requires making forecasts based on information already available.Although many studies are proprietary, the published literature has provided reviews of CO2-EOR projects. Yet, there is always interest in updating reports and analyzing the information under new perspectives. Brock and Bryan (1989) described results obtained during the earlier days of CO2-EOR from 1972 to 1987. Most of the recovery predictions, however, were based on intended injections of 30 percent the size of

  4. Research Progress in Carbon Dioxide Storage and Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Keliang; Wang, Gang; Lu, Chunjing

    2018-02-01

    With the rapid development of global economy, human beings have become highly dependent upon fossil fuel such as coal and petroleum. Much fossil fuel is consumed in industrial production and human life. As a result, carbon dioxide emissions have been increasing, and the greenhouse effects thereby generated are posing serious threats to environment of the earth. These years, increasing average global temperature, frequent extreme weather events and climatic changes cause material disasters to the world. After scientists’ long-term research, ample evidences have proven that emissions of greenhouse gas like carbon dioxide have brought about tremendous changes to global climate. To really reduce carbon dioxide emissions, governments of different countries and international organizations have invested much money and human resources in performing research related to carbon dioxide emissions. Manual underground carbon dioxide storage and carbon dioxide-enhanced oil recovery are schemes with great potential and prospect for reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Compared with other schemes for reducing carbon dioxide emissions, aforementioned two schemes exhibit high storage capacity and yield considerable economic benefits, so they have become research focuses for reducing carbon dioxide emissions. This paper introduces the research progress in underground carbon dioxide storage and enhanced oil recovery, pointing out the significance and necessity of carbon dioxide-driven enhanced oil recovery.

  5. Application of nanotechnology for enhancing oil recovery – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chegenizadeh Negin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has attracted a great attention in enhancing oil recovery (EOR due to the cost-effective and environmental friendly manner. The size of nanoparticles for EOR usually is in a range of 1–100 nm, which may slightly differ from various international organisations. Nanoparticles exhibit significantly different properties compared to the same fine or bulk molecules because of much higher concentration of atoms at their surface as a result of ultra-small size. In particular, one of the most useful and fascinating properties of these particles is to creating a massive diffusion driving force due to the large surface area, especially at high temperatures. Previous studies have shown that nanoparticles can enhance oil recovery by shifting reservoir wettability towards more water-wet and reducing interfacial tension, yet this area is still open for discussion. It is worth noting that the potential of nanoparticles to reduce the oil viscosity, increase the mobility ratio, and to alter the reservoir permeability has not been investigated to date. Depending on the operational conditions of the EOR process, some nanoparticles perform more effectively than others, thus leading to different levels of enhanced recovery. In this study, we aim to provide a summary on each of the popular and available nanoparticles in the market and list their optimum operational conditions. We classified nanoparticles into the three categories of metal oxide, organic and inorganic particles in this article.

  6. Enhanced volatile fatty acids production from anaerobic fermentation of food waste: A mini-review focusing on acidogenic metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Miaomiao; Yan, Binghua; Wong, Jonathan W C; Zhang, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Recently, efficient disposal of food waste (FW) with potential resource recovery has attracted great attentions. Due to its easily biodegradable nature, rich nutrient availability and high moisture content, FW is regarded as favorable substrate for anaerobic digestion (AD). Both waste disposal and energy recovery can be fulfilled during AD of FW. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) which are the products of the first-two stages of AD, are widely applied in chemical industry as platform chemicals recently. Concentration and distribution of VFAs is the result of acidogenic metabolic pathways, which can be affected by the micro-environment (e.g. pH) in the digester. Hence, the clear elucidation of the acidogenic metabolic pathways is essential for optimization of acidogenic process for efficient product recovery. This review summarizes major acidogenic metabolic pathways and regulating strategies for enhancing VFAs recovery during acidogenic fermentation of FW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cost analysis of enhanced recovery after surgery in microvascular breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Christine; Moriarty, James; Borah, Bijan J; Mara, Kristin C; Harmsen, William S; Saint-Cyr, Michel; Lemaine, Valerie

    2018-06-01

    Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) pathways have been shown in multiple surgical specialties to decrease hospital length of stay (LOS) after surgery. ERAS in breast reconstruction has been found to decrease hospital LOS and inpatient opioid use. ERAS protocols can facilitate a patient's recovery and can potentially increase the quality of care while decreasing costs. A standardized ERAS pathway was developed through multidisciplinary collaboration. It addressed all phases of surgical care for patients undergoing free-flap breast reconstruction utilizing an abdominal donor site. In this retrospective cohort study, clinical variables associated with hospitalization costs for patients who underwent free-flap breast reconstruction with the ERAS pathway were compared with those of historical controls, termed traditional recovery after surgery (TRAS). All patients included in the study underwent surgery between September 2010 and September 2014. Predicted costs of the study groups were compared using generalized linear modeling. A total of 200 patients were analyzed: 82 in the ERAS cohort and 118 in the TRAS cohort. Clinical variables that were identified to potentially affect costs were found to have a statistically significant difference between groups and included unilateral versus bilateral procedures (p = 0.04) and the need for postoperative blood transfusion (p = 0.03). The cost regression analysis on the two cohorts was adjusted for these significant variables. Adjusted mean costs of patients with ERAS were found to be $4,576 lesser than those of the TRAS control group ($38,688 versus $43,264). Implementation of the ERAS pathway was associated with significantly decreased costs when compared to historical controls. There has been a healthcare focus toward prudent resource allocation, which dictates the need for plastic surgeons to recognize economic evaluation of clinical practice. The ERAS pathway can increase healthcare accountability by improving

  8. Thermal enhanced oil recovery in Indonesia. Prospect of HTGR application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.; Sumardiono; Lasman, A.N.; Sudarto; Prihardany, D.

    1997-01-01

    In the next future, Indonesia will face oil scarcity. The present reserves are estimated to be depleted in 20 years. However, after primary and secondary recovery processes, there are still more than 50% of original oil in place remaining in the reservoir, and this could be recovered by using tertiary recovery method or which is known as enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes. Among the three major methods of EOR, steam flooding is a thermal recovery method into which High Temperature Reactor (HTR) module can be integrated for producing steam. However, the feasibility of application of HTR as an alternative to conventional oil-fired steam generator will depend strongly on the price of oil. This paper discusses EOR screening for Indonesian oil fields to identify the appropriate oil reservoirs for steam flooding application as well as the possibility of steam supply by HTR module. Also reviewed is the previous study on HTR application for Duri Steam Flood Project. (author). 8 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  9. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery: The Plastic Surgery Paradigm Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Erica L; Zavlin, Dmitry; Friedman, Jeffrey D; Abdollahi, Aariane; Rappaport, Norman H

    2017-12-14

    With a focus on providing high quality care and reducing facility based expenses there has been an evolution in perioperative care by way of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS). ERAS allows for a multidisciplinary and multimodal approach to perioperative care which not only expedites recovery but maximizes patient outcomes. This paradigm shift has been generally accepted by most surgical specialties, including plastic surgery. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of ERAS on outcomes in cosmetic plastic surgery. A prospective study consisting of phone call questionnaires was designed where patients from two senior plastic surgeons (N.H.R. and J.D.F.) were followed. The treatment group (n = 10) followed an ERAS protocol while the control group (n = 12) followed the traditional recovery after surgery which included narcotic usage. Patients were contacted on postoperative days (POD) 0 through 7+ and surveyed about a number of outcomes measures. The ERAS group demonstrated a significant reduction in postoperative pain on POD 0, 1, 2, and 3 (all P plastic surgery. The utility lies in the ability to expedite patient's recovery while still providing quality care. This study showed a reduction in postoperative complaints by avoiding narcotics without an increase in complications. Our findings signify the importance of ERAS protocols within cosmetic plastic surgery. 4. © 2017 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. 26 CFR 1.43-4 - Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs. 1.43-4... TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.43-4 Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs. (a) Qualifying costs—(1) In... “qualified enhanced oil recovery costs” if the amounts are paid or incurred with respect to an asset which is...

  11. 26 CFR 1.43-1 - The enhanced oil recovery credit-general rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true The enhanced oil recovery credit-general rules. 1... INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.43-1 The enhanced oil recovery credit—general rules. (a) Claiming the credit—(1) In general. The enhanced oil recovery credit (the “credit”) is a component of the...

  12. Environmental Development Plan (EDP). Enhanced gas recovery, FY 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-01

    This Enhanced Gcs Recovery EDP addresses the environmental impacts of enhanced gas recovery processes in shale and sandstone, methane drainage from coalbeds, and methane recovery from geopressured aquifers. The EDP addresses planning in two basic areas: environmental research and environmental assessment. Environmental research can be categorized as follows: characterization of pollutants from EGR processes; selective application of monitoring and measuring techniques; evaluation of control/mitigation techniques; and evaluation of the synergistic impacts of the development of EGR techniques. Environmental assessment activities scheduled by EDP include: assessment of ecological impacts; assessment of socioeconomic effects; EIA/EIS preparation; evaluation of control technology needs; and analysis of applicable and proposed emission, effluent, and health and safety standards. The EGR EDP includes an EGR technology overview (Section 2), a discussion of EGR environmental issues and requirements (Section 3), an environmental action plan (Section 4), an environmental management strategy for the EGR program (Section 5), and supporting appendices which present information on Federal legislation applicable to EGR technology, a summary of ongoing and completed research, and future research and assessment projects.

  13. Carbon dioxide for enhanced oil recovery in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, S.; Manbybura, F.; Sparks, N.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the potential for carbon dioxide as a major miscible solvent in Canada and describes Shell Canada's carbon dioxide exploration efforts over the last few years. Enhanced oil recovery, specifically miscible flooding, has been recognized as a technically and economically feasible method for adding reserves and productive capacity to Canada's light and medium oil. The fiscal regime has been altered by both the federal and provincial governments to encourage miscible flooding development. As a result many projects have been initiated with others being evaluated and designed. This paper analyzes the history and the direction of miscible flooding in the United States, where carbon dioxide is becoming the predominant miscible solvent. The potential for future use of carbon dioxide in Canada is specifically addressed: potential oil recovery solvent supply, and economics. Shell's carbon dioxide exploration play currently underway is also discussed.

  14. Microbial enhancement of oil recovery: Recent advances. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premuzic, E.T.; Woodhead, A.D.; Vivirito, K.J. [eds.

    1992-12-31

    During recent years, systematic, scientific, and engineering effort by researchers in the United States and abroad, has established the scientific basis for Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) technology. The successful application of MEOR technology as an oil recovery process is a goal of the Department of Energy (DOE). Research efforts involving aspects of MEOR in the microbiological, biochemical, and engineering fields led DOE to sponsor an International Conference at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1992, to facilitate the exchange of information and a discussion of ideas for the future research emphasis. At this, the Fourth International MEOR Conference, where international attendees from 12 countries presented a total of 35 papers, participants saw an equal distribution between ``research`` and ``field applications.`` In addition, several modeling and ``state-of-the-art`` presentations summed up the present status of MEOR science and engineering. Individual papers in this proceedings have been process separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. Environmental regulations handbook for enhanced oil recovery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, T.D.

    1980-08-01

    A guide to environmental laws and regulations which have special significance for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is presented. The Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, federal regulations, and state regulations are discussed. This handbook has been designed as a planning tool and a convenient reference source. The 16 states included comprise the major oil-producing states in various regions of the state. The major topics covered are: general guidelines for complying with environmental laws and regulations; air pollution control; water pollution control; protecting drinking water: underground injection control; hazardous waste management; and federal laws affecting siting or operation of EOR facilities. (DMC)

  16. Digital innovations and emerging technologies for enhanced recovery programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michard, F; Gan, T J; Kehlet, H

    2017-01-01

    Enhanced recovery programmes (ERPs) are increasingly used to improve post-surgical recovery. However, compliance to various components of ERPs-a key determinant of success-remains sub-optimal. Emerging technologies have the potential to help patients and caregivers to improve compliance with ERPs...... of the above-mentioned ERP elements is omitted during the surgical journey.By optimizing compliance to the multiple components of ERPs, digital innovations, non-invasive techniques and wearable sensors have the potential to magnify the clinical and economic benefits of ERPs. Among the growing number...... of technical innovations, studies are needed to clarify which tools and solutions have real clinical value and are cost-effective....

  17. Relevance of Linear Stability Results to Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xueru; Daripa, Prabir

    2012-11-01

    How relevant can the results based on linear stability theory for any problem for that matter be to full scale simulation results? Put it differently, is the optimal design of a system based on linear stability results is optimal or even near optimal for the complex nonlinear system with certain objectives of interest in mind? We will address these issues in the context of enhanced oil recovery by chemical flooding. This will be based on an ongoing work. Supported by Qatar National Research Fund (a member of the Qatar Foundation).

  18. Viscous fingering and channeling in chemical enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daripa, Prabir; Dutta, Sourav

    2017-11-01

    We have developed a hybrid numerical method based on discontinuous finite element method and modified method of characteristics to compute the multiphase multicomponent fluid flow in porous media in the context of chemical enhanced oil recovery. We use this method to study the effect of various chemical components on the viscous fingering and channeling in rectilinear and radial flow configurations. We will also discuss about the efficiency of various flooding schemes based on these understandings. Time permitting, we will discuss about the effect of variable injection rates in these practical setting. U.S. National Science Foundation Grant DMS-1522782.

  19. 4-D tomographic monitoring of enhanced oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzostowski, M.A.; McMechan, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    One application of tomography that has recently received considerable attention is reservoir monitoring for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). Tomographic monitoring of a moving steam front uses the significant decrease in compressional wave velocity that occurs as hydrocarbon temperature increases. The purposes of this paper are to present a working algorithm for 3-D tomography, to demonstrate the feasibility of 3-D imaging of a simulated reservoir in which the position of a steam front changes with time, and to illustrate the relations between survey geometry and the resolution of the target

  20. Enhanced oil recovery by nanoparticles injection: Modeling and simulation

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed; Sun, Shuyu; Salama, Amgad

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, a mathematical model and numerical simulation to describe the nanoparticles-water suspension imbibes into a water-oil two-phase flow in a porous medium is introduced. We extend the model to include the negative capillary pressure and mixed relative permeabilities correlations to fit with the mixed-wet system. Also, buoyancy and capillary forces as well as Brownian diffusion are considered. Throughout this investigation, we monitor the changing of the fluids and solid properties due to addition of the nanoparticles and check for possible enhancement of the oil recovery process using numerical experiments.

  1. Image enhancement software for underwater recovery operations: User's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, William J.; Therrien, Charles W.

    1989-06-01

    This report describes software for performing image enhancement on live or recorded video images. The software was developed for operational use during underwater recovery operations at the Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station. The image processing is performed on an IBM-PC/AT compatible computer equipped with hardware to digitize and display video images. The software provides the capability to provide contrast enhancement and other similar functions in real time through hardware lookup tables, to automatically perform histogram equalization, to capture one or more frames and average them or apply one of several different processing algorithms to a captured frame. The report is in the form of a user manual for the software and includes guided tutorial and reference sections. A Digital Image Processing Primer in the appendix serves to explain the principle concepts that are used in the image processing.

  2. Numerical approach for enhanced oil recovery with surfactant flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Keshtkar

    2016-03-01

    concentration and performance variable (cumulative oil recovery are studied. Finally, the comparison of oil recovery between water-flooding and surfactant-flooding was done. The results showed higher oil recovery with changes in capillary number when the partition coefficient is greater than unity. Increasing oil viscosity resulted in decreasing the oil recovery by changing in fractional flow. Moreover, it was concluded that the oil recovery was enhanced by increasing surfactant injection concentration. The oil recovery was increased when surfactant was injected to the system and this result was obtained by comparing water-flooding and surfactant-flooding.

  3. Three approaches for estimating recovery factors in carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.

    2017-07-17

    PrefaceThe Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 authorized the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2) and requested the USGS to estimate the “potential volumes of oil and gas recoverable by injection and sequestration of industrial carbon dioxide in potential sequestration formations” (42 U.S.C. 17271(b)(4)). Geologic CO2 sequestration associated with enhanced oil recovery (EOR) using CO2 in existing hydrocarbon reservoirs has the potential to increase the U.S. hydrocarbon recoverable resource. The objective of this report is to provide detailed information on three approaches that can be used to calculate the incremental recovery factors for CO2-EOR. Therefore, the contents of this report could form an integral part of an assessment methodology that can be used to assess the sedimentary basins of the United States for the hydrocarbon recovery potential using CO2-EOR methods in conventional oil reservoirs.

  4. Enhancing microbial production of biofuels by expanding microbial metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ping; Chen, Xingge; Li, Peng

    2017-09-01

    Fatty acid, isoprenoid, and alcohol pathways have been successfully engineered to produce biofuels. By introducing three genes, atfA, adhE, and pdc, into Escherichia coli to expand fatty acid pathway, up to 1.28 g/L of fatty acid ethyl esters can be achieved. The isoprenoid pathway can be expanded to produce bisabolene with a high titer of 900 mg/L in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Short- and long-chain alcohols can also be effectively biosynthesized by extending the carbon chain of ketoacids with an engineered "+1" alcohol pathway. Thus, it can be concluded that expanding microbial metabolic pathways has enormous potential for enhancing microbial production of biofuels for future industrial applications. However, some major challenges for microbial production of biofuels should be overcome to compete with traditional fossil fuels: lowering production costs, reducing the time required to construct genetic elements and to increase their predictability and reliability, and creating reusable parts with useful and predictable behavior. To address these challenges, several aspects should be further considered in future: mining and transformation of genetic elements related to metabolic pathways, assembling biofuel elements and coordinating their functions, enhancing the tolerance of host cells to biofuels, and creating modular subpathways that can be easily interconnected. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Digital innovations and emerging technologies for enhanced recovery programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michard, F; Gan, T J; Kehlet, H

    2017-07-01

    Enhanced recovery programmes (ERPs) are increasingly used to improve post-surgical recovery. However, compliance to various components of ERPs-a key determinant of success-remains sub-optimal. Emerging technologies have the potential to help patients and caregivers to improve compliance with ERPs.Preoperative physical condition, a major determinant of postoperative outcome, could be optimized with the use of text messages (SMS) or digital applications (Apps) designed to facilitate smoking cessation, modify physical activity, and better manage hypertension and diabetes. Several non-invasive haemodynamic monitoring techniques and decision support tools are now available to individualize perioperative fluid management, a key component of ERPs. Objective nociceptive assessment may help to rationalize the use of pain medications, including opioids. Wearable sensors designed to monitor cardio-respiratory function may help in the early detection of clinical deterioration during the postoperative recovery and to address 'failure to rescue'. Activity trackers may be useful to monitor early mobilization, another major element of ERPs. Finally, electronic checklists have been developed to ensure that none of the above-mentioned ERP elements is omitted during the surgical journey.By optimizing compliance to the multiple components of ERPs, digital innovations, non-invasive techniques and wearable sensors have the potential to magnify the clinical and economic benefits of ERPs. Among the growing number of technical innovations, studies are needed to clarify which tools and solutions have real clinical value and are cost-effective. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Electrical stimulation enhances sensory recovery: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Joshua N; Olson, Jaret L; Morhart, Michael J; Chan, K Ming

    2015-06-01

    Brief postsurgical electrical stimulation (ES) has been shown to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration in animal models following axotomy and crush injury. However, whether this treatment is beneficial in humans with sensory nerve injury has not been tested. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that ES would enhance sensory nerve regeneration following digital nerve transection compared to surgery alone. Patients with complete digital nerve transection underwent epineurial nerve repair. After coaptation of the severed nerve ends, fine wire electrodes were implanted before skin closure. Postoperatively, patients were randomized to receiving either 1 hour of 20Hz continuous ES or sham stimulation in a double-blinded manner. Patients were followed monthly for 6 months by a blinded evaluator to monitor physiological recovery of spatial discrimination, pressure threshold, and quantitative small fiber sensory testing. Functional disability was measured using the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire. A total of 36 patients were recruited, with 18 in each group. Those in the ES group showed consistently greater improvements in all sensory modalities by 5 to 6 months postoperatively compared to the controls. Although there was a trend of greater functional improvements in the ES group, it was not statistically significant (p > 0.01). Postsurgical ES enhanced sensory reinnervation in patients who sustained complete digital nerve transection. The conferred benefits apply to a wide range of sensory functions. © 2015 American Neurological Association.

  7. Screening of microorganisms for microbial enhanced oil recovery processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonebayashi, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Yoshida, S. [Japan Food Research Laboratiories, Tokyo (Japan). Div. of Microbiology; Ono, K. [Japan National Oil Corp., Chiba (Japan). Tech. Research Center; Enomoto, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Geoscience and Tech.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to screen effective microorganisms for the Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery process (or simply as MEOR). Samples of drilling cuttings, formation water, and soil were collected from domestic drilling sites and oil fields. Moreover, samples of activated-sludge and compost were collected from domestic sewage treatment facility and food treatment facility. At first, microorganisms in samples were investigated by incubation with different media; then they were isolated. By two stage-screening based on metabolizing ability, 4 strains (Bacillus licheniformis TRC-18-2-a, Enterobacter cloacae TRC-322, Bacillus subtilis TRC-4118, and Bacillus subtilis TRC-4126) were isolated as effective microorganisms for oil recovery. B. licheniformis TRC-18-2-a is a multifunctional microorganism possessing excellent surfactant productivity, and in addition it has gas, acid and polymer productivities. E. cloacae TRC-332 has gas and acid producing abilities. B. subtilis TRC-4118 and TRC-4126 are effective biosurfactant producers, and they reduce the interfacial tension to 0.04 and 0.12 dyne/cm, respectively. (author)

  8. Electroacupuncture promotes post-stroke functional recovery via enhancing endogenous neurogenesis in mouse focal cerebral ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ri Kim

    Full Text Available To investigate the question of whether electroacupuncture (EA promotes functional recovery via enhancement of proliferation and differentiation of neuronal stem cells (NSCs in ischemic stroke, EA stimulation with 2 Hz was applied at bilateral acupoints to Baihui (GV20 and Dazhui (GV14 in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO mice. EA stimulation improved neuromotor function and cognitive ability after ischemic stroke. EA stimulation resulted in an increase in the number of proliferated cells, especially in the subventricular zone (SVZ of the ipsilateral hemisphere. Although a very limited number of NSCs survived and differentiated into neurons or astrocytes, EA treatment resulted in a significant increase in the number of proliferative cells and differentiated cells in the hippocampus and SVZ of the ipsilateral hemisphere compared to MCAO mice. EA stimulation resulted in significantly increased mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Protein levels of these factors were confirmed in the ipsilateral hippocampus and SVZ by immunohistochemical and Western blotting analyses. Expression of phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, BDNF, and VEGF-mediated down-stream were enhanced by EA stimulation in newly formed neuroblasts. These results indicate that EA treatment after ischemic stroke may promote post-stroke functional recovery by enhancement of proliferation and differentiation of NSCs via the BDNF and VEGF signaling pathway.

  9. Enhanced recovery programmes: do these have a role in gynaecology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, A; Relph, S; Sivashanmugarajan, V; Yoong, W

    2013-08-01

    Enhanced recovery (ER) has become increasingly ubiquitous in most surgical specialities and its use is gathering pace. It has been proven to be a safe and effective means of managing patients perioperatively, while also improving patient outcomes, and its use in gynaecology has recently been supported by the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG). ER is gaining popularity, despite being a diversion from the traditional surgical approach, demanding an orchestration of primary, secondary, social and auxillary care teams to work effectively. ER has been heralded as improving clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction, while simultaneously allowing increased patient turnover. This has potentially massive impacts on service provision within the NHS and is likely to become a proof of concept that the NHS can adapt. ER can be championed as a flexible and contemporary healthcare model, which can be improved as patients' needs and NHS resources change.

  10. [Enhanced recovery after surgery based on medical ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qingchuan

    2016-03-01

    Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS), a new model of perioperative management developed in recent years, can shorten hospital stay, reduce medical cost and postoperative discomfort. However, some of these measures under the strategy are negation of the traditional recommendation and many surgeons are concerned about the medical tangle by the complications coming with the ERAS strategy. In this paper, ERAS strategy is evaluated from an ethical standpoint and the assessment factors of medical behavior are introduced based on medical virtues and medical ethnics. It is also analyzed that how to deal with the conflicts between the textbooks and the ERAS strategy, and elaborated that the medical ethics should be observed if the ERAS strategy is implemented. The scientific principles must be followed, the rights and interests of the patients need to be protected, and the informed consent should be guaranteed.

  11. On the use of sodium lignosulphonate for enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azis, M. M.; Rachmadi, H.; Wintoko, J.; Yuliansyah, A. T.; Hasokowati, W.; Purwono, S.; Rochmadi, W.; Murachman, B.

    2017-05-01

    There has been large interest to utilize oil reservoirs in Indonesia by using Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes. Injection of surfactant as a part of chemical injection technique in EOR is known to aid the mobility and reduction in surface tension. One potential surfactant for EOR application is Sodium Lignosulphonate (SLS) which can be made from various sources particularly empty fruit bunch of oil palm and black liquor from kraft pulp production. Here, we will discuss a number of methods for SLS production which includes lignin isolation techniques and sulphonation reaction. The use of SLS alone as EOR surfactant, however, is often not feasible as the Interfacial Tension (IFT) value of SLS is typically above the order of 10-3 dyne/cm which is mandated for EOR application. Hence, brief discussion on SLS formulation screening is provided which illustrates an extensive labwork experience during the SLS development in our lab.

  12. Methods for enhancing mapping of thermal fronts in oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

    1984-03-30

    A method for enhancing the resistivity contrasts of a thermal front in an oil recovery production field as measured by the controlled source audio frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) technique is disclosed. This method includes the steps of: (1) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field; (2) introducing a solution of a dopant material into the production field at a concentration effective to alter the resistivity associated with the thermal front; said dopant material having a high cation exchange capacity which might be selected from the group consisting of montmorillonite, illite, and chlorite clays; said material being soluble in the conate water of the production field; (3) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field while said dopant material is moving therethrough; and (4) mathematically comparing the maps from step (1) and step (3) to determine the location of the thermal front. This method is effective with the steam flood, fire flood and water flood techniques.

  13. Microbial enhanced oil recovery research. Final report, Annex 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, M.M.; Gerogiou, G.

    1993-07-01

    The objective of this project was to develop an engineering framework for the exploitation of microorganisms to enhance oil recovery. An order of magnitude analysis indicated that selective plugging and the production of biosurfactants are the two most likely mechanisms for the mobilization of oil in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The latter, biosurfactant production, is easier to control within a reservoir environment and was investigated in some detail. An extensive literature survey indicated that the bacterium Bacillus licheniformis JF-2 produces a very effective surface active agent capable of increasing the capillary number to values sufficiently low for oil mobilization. In addition, earlier studies had shown that growth of this bacterium and biosurfactant production occur under conditions that are typically encountered in MEOR, namely temperatures up to 55{degrees}C, lack of oxygen and salinities of up to 10% w/v. The chemical structure of the surfactant, its interfacial properties and its production by fermentation were characterized in some detail. In parallel, a set of experiments as conducted to measure the transport of Bacillus licheniformis JF-2 in sandpacks. It was shown that the determining parameters for cell transport in porous media are: cell size and degree of coagulation, presence of dispersants, injection velocity and cell concentration. The mechanisms of bacteria retention within the pores of the reservoir were analyzed based on heuristic arguments. A mathematical simulator of MEOR was developed using conservation equations in which the mechanisms of bacteria retention and the growth kinetics of the cells were incorporated. The predictions of the model agreed reasonably well with experimental results.

  14. Ecosystem impacts of hypoxia: thresholds of hypoxia and pathways to recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steckbauer, A; Duarte, C M; Vaquer-Sunyer, R; Carstensen, J; Conley, D J

    2011-01-01

    Coastal hypoxia is increasing in the global coastal zone, where it is recognized as a major threat to biota. Managerial efforts to prevent hypoxia and achieve recovery of ecosystems already affected by hypoxia are largely based on nutrient reduction plans. However, these managerial efforts need to be informed by predictions on the thresholds of hypoxia (i.e. the oxygen levels required to conserve biodiversity) as well as the timescales for the recovery of ecosystems already affected by hypoxia. The thresholds for hypoxia in coastal ecosystems are higher than previously thought and are not static, but regulated by local and global processes, being particularly sensitive to warming. The examination of recovery processes in a number of coastal areas managed for reducing nutrient inputs and, thus, hypoxia (Northern Adriatic; Black Sea; Baltic Sea; Delaware Bay; and Danish Coastal Areas) reveals that recovery timescales following the return to normal oxygen conditions are much longer than those of loss following the onset of hypoxia, and typically involve decadal timescales. The extended lag time for ecosystem recovery from hypoxia results in non-linear pathways of recovery due to hysteresis and the shift in baselines, affecting the oxygen thresholds for hypoxia through time.

  15. Enhanced Recovery Implementation in Major Gynecologic Surgeries: Effect of Care Standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesitt, Susan C; Sarosiek, Bethany M; Trowbridge, Elisa R; Redick, Dana L; Shah, Puja M; Thiele, Robert H; Tiouririne, Mohamed; Hedrick, Traci L

    2016-09-01

    To examine implementing an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol for women undergoing major gynecologic surgery at an academic institution and compare surgical outcomes before and after implementation. Two ERAS protocols were developed: a full pathway using regional anesthesia for open procedures and a light pathway without regional anesthesia for vaginal and minimally invasive procedures. Enhanced recovery after surgery pathways included extensive preoperative counseling, carbohydrate loading and oral fluids before surgery, multimodal analgesia with avoidance of intravenous opioids, intraoperative goal-directed fluid resuscitation, and immediate postoperative feeding and ambulation. A before-and-after study design was used to compare clinical outcomes, costs, and patient satisfaction. Complications and risk-adjusted length of stay were drawn from the American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. On the ERAS full protocol, 136 patients were compared with 211 historical controls and the median length of stay was reduced (2.0 compared with 3.0 days; P=.007) despite an increase in National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-predicted length of stay (2.5 compared with 2.0 days; P=.009). Reductions were seen in median intraoperative morphine equivalents (0.3 compared with 12.7 mg; Pcontrols and demonstrated decreased intraoperative and postoperative morphine equivalents (0.0 compared with 13.0 mg; Pcontrol, nurses keeping patients informed, and staff teamwork; 30-day total hospital costs were significantly decreased in both ERAS groups. Implementation of ERAS protocols in gynecologic surgery was associated with a substantial decrease in intravenous fluids and morphine administration coupled with reduction in length of stay for open procedures combined with improved patient satisfaction and decreased hospital costs.

  16. Sustainable Remediation for Enhanced NAPL Recovery from Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaher, M.

    2012-12-01

    Sustainable remediation relates to the achievement of balance between environmental, social, and economic elements throughout the remedial lifecycle. A significant contributor to this balance is the use of green and sustainable technologies which minimize environmental impacts, while maximizing social and economic benefits of remedial implementation. To this end, a patented mobile vapor energy generation (VEG) technology has been developed targeting variable applications, including onsite soil remediation for unrestricted reuse and enhanced non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) recover at the water table. At the core of the mobile VEG technology is a compact, high efficiency vapor generator, which utilizes recycled water and propane within an entirely enclosed system to generate steam as high as 1100°F. Operating within a fully enclosed system and capturing all heat that is generated within this portable system, the VEG technology eliminates all emissions to the atmosphere and yields an undetected carbon footprint with resulting carbon dioxide concentrations that are below ambient levels. Introduction of the steam to the subsurface via existing wells results in a desired change in the NAPL viscosity and the interfacial tension at the soil, water, NAPL interface; in turn, this results in mobilization and capture of the otherwise trapped, weathered NAPL. Approved by the California Air Resources Control Board (and underlying Air Quality Management Districts) and applied in California's San Joaquin Valley, in-well heating of NAPLs trapped at the water table using the VEG technology has proven as effective as electrical resistivity heating (ERH) in changing the viscosity of and mobilizing NAPLs in groundwater in support of recovery, but has achieved these results while minimizing the remedial carbon footprint by 90%, reducing energy use by 99%, and reducing remedial costs by more than 95%. NAPL recovery using VEG has also allowed for completion of source removal historically

  17. Using CO2 Prophet to estimate recovery factors for carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, Emil D.

    2017-07-17

    IntroductionThe Oil and Gas Journal’s enhanced oil recovery (EOR) survey for 2014 (Koottungal, 2014) showed that gas injection is the most frequently applied method of EOR in the United States and that carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is the most commonly used injection fluid for miscible operations. The CO2-EOR process typically follows primary and secondary (waterflood) phases of oil reservoir development. The common objective of implementing a CO2-EOR program is to produce oil that remains after the economic limit of waterflood recovery is reached. Under conditions of miscibility or multicontact miscibility, the injected CO2 partitions between the gas and liquid CO2 phases, swells the oil, and reduces the viscosity of the residual oil so that the lighter fractions of the oil vaporize and mix with the CO2 gas phase (Teletzke and others, 2005). Miscibility occurs when the reservoir pressure is at least at the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP). The MMP depends, in turn, on oil composition, impurities of the CO2 injection stream, and reservoir temperature. At pressures below the MMP, component partitioning, oil swelling, and viscosity reduction occur, but the efficiency is increasingly reduced as the pressure falls farther below the MMP. CO2-EOR processes are applied at the reservoir level, where a reservoir is defined as an underground formation containing an individual and separate pool of producible hydrocarbons that is confined by impermeable rock or water barriers and is characterized by a single natural pressure system. A field may consist of a single reservoir or multiple reservoirs that are not in communication but which may be associated with or related to a single structural or stratigraphic feature (U.S. Energy Information Administration [EIA], 2000). The purpose of modeling the CO2-EOR process is discussed along with the potential CO2-EOR predictive models. The data demands of models and the scope of the assessments require tradeoffs between reservoir

  18. MicroRNA-93 controls perfusion recovery after hindlimb ischemia by modulating expression of multiple genes in the cell cycle pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Surovi; Farber, Charles R; Dokun, Ayotunde O; Pitsillides, Achillieas N; Wang, Tao; Lye, R John; Annex, Brian H

    2013-04-30

    MicroRNAs are key regulators of gene expression in response to injury, but there is limited knowledge of their role in ischemia-induced angiogenesis, such as in peripheral arterial disease. Here, we used an unbiased strategy and took advantage of different phenotypic outcomes that follow surgically induced hindlimb ischemia between inbred mouse strains to identify key microRNAs involved in perfusion recovery from hindlimb ischemia. From comparative microRNA profiling between inbred mouse strains that display profound differences in their extent of perfusion recovery after hindlimb ischemia, we found that the mouse strain with higher levels of microRNA-93 (miR-93) in hindlimb muscle before ischemia and the greater ability to upregulate miR-93 in response to ischemia had better perfusion recovery. In vitro, overexpression of miR-93 attenuated hypoxia-induced apoptosis in both endothelial and skeletal muscle cells and enhanced proliferation in both cell types. In addition, miR-93 overexpression enhanced endothelial cell tube formation. In vivo, miR-93 overexpression enhanced capillary density and perfusion recovery from hindlimb ischemia, and antagomirs to miR-93 attenuated perfusion recovery. Both in vitro and in vivo modulation of miR-93 resulted in alterations in the expression of >1 cell cycle pathway gene in 2 different cell types. Our data indicate that miR-93 enhances perfusion recovery from hindlimb ischemia by modulation of multiple genes that coordinate the functional pathways of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Thus, miR-93 is a strong potential target for pharmacological modulation to promote angiogenesis in ischemic tissue.

  19. Heat Recovery from Multiple-Fracture Enhanced Geothermal Systems: The Effect of Thermoelastic Fracture Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vik, Hedda Slatlem; Salimzadeh, Saeed; Nick, Hamid

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of thermoelastic interactions between multiple parallel fractures on energy production from a multiple-fracture enhanced geothermal system. A coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical finite element model has been developed that accounts for non-isothermal fluid flow within...... increased to maximise the net energy production from the system. Otherwise, the multiple-fracture system fails to improve the energy recovery from the geothermal reservoir, as initially intended....... aperture in the adjacent fracture, and facilitates the creation of favourable flow pathways between the injection and production wells. These flow paths reduce the energy production from the system. The effects of fracture spacing, reservoir temperature gradient and mechanical properties of the rock matrix...

  20. Essays on carbon policy and enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin R.

    The growing concerns about climate change have led policy makers to consider various regulatory schemes designed to reduce the stock and growth of atmospheric CO2 concentrations while at the same time improving energy security. The most prominent proposals are the so called "cap-and-trade" frameworks which set aggregate emission levels for a jurisdiction and then issue or sell a corresponding number of allowances to emitters. Typically, these policy measures will also encourage the deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) in geological formations and mature oil fields through subsidies or other incentives. The ability to store CO 2 in mature oil fields through the deployment of CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2--EOR) is particularly attractive as it can simultaneously improve oil recovery at those fields, and serve as a possible financial bridge to the development of CO2 transportation infrastructure. The purpose of this research is to explore the impact that a tandem subsidy-tax policy regime may have on bargaining between emitters and sequestration providers, and also to identify oil units in Wyoming that can profitably undertake CO 2--EOR as a starting point for the build-out of CO2 pipelines. In the first essay an economics lab experiment is designed to simulate private bargaining between carbon emitters (such as power plants) and carbon sequestration sites when the emitter faces carbon taxes, sequestration subsidies or both. In a tax-subsidy policy regime the carbon tax (or purchased allowances) can be avoided by sequestering the carbon, and in some cases the emitter can also earn a subsidy to help pay for the sequestration. The main policy implications of the experiment results are that the sequestration market might be inefficient, and sequestration providers seem to have bargaining power sufficient to command high prices. This may lead to the integration of CO2 sources and sequestration sites, and reduced prices for the injectable CO2 purchased by oil

  1. Rehabilitative skilled forelimb training enhances axonal remodeling in the corticospinal pathway but not the brainstem-spinal pathways after photothrombotic stroke in the primary motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Naohiko; Himi, Naoyuki; Maruyama-Nakamura, Emi; Hayashi, Norito; Narita, Kazuhiko; Miyamoto, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    Task-specific rehabilitative training is commonly used for chronic stroke patients. Axonal remodeling is believed to be one mechanism underlying rehabilitation-induced functional recovery, and significant roles of the corticospinal pathway have previously been demonstrated. Brainstem-spinal pathways, as well as the corticospinal tract, have been suggested to contribute to skilled motor function and functional recovery after brain injury. However, whether axonal remodeling in the brainstem-spinal pathways is a critical component for rehabilitation-induced functional recovery is not known. In this study, rats were subjected to photothrombotic stroke in the caudal forelimb area of the primary motor cortex and received rehabilitative training with a skilled forelimb reaching task for 4 weeks. After completion of the rehabilitative training, the retrograde tracer Fast blue was injected into the contralesional lower cervical spinal cord. Fast blue-positive cells were counted in 32 brain areas located in the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. Rehabilitative training improved motor performance in the skilled forelimb reaching task but not in the cylinder test, ladder walk test, or staircase test, indicating that rehabilitative skilled forelimb training induced task-specific recovery. In the histological analysis, rehabilitative training significantly increased the number of Fast blue-positive neurons in the ipsilesional rostral forelimb area and secondary sensory cortex. However, rehabilitative training did not alter the number of Fast blue-positive neurons in any areas of the brainstem. These results indicate that rehabilitative skilled forelimb training enhances axonal remodeling selectively in the corticospinal pathway, which suggests a critical role of cortical plasticity, rather than brainstem plasticity, in task-specific recovery after subtotal motor cortex destruction.

  2. Enhanced oil recovery & carbon sequestration building on successful experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, Fred [BEPC (United States)

    2008-07-15

    In this paper it is spoken of the experiences in the capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2} in the companies Basin Electric Power Cooperative (BEPC) and Dakota Gasification Company (DGC); their by-products are mentioned and what these companies are making to control the CO{sub 2} emissions. Their challenges to compress CO{sub 2} are presented and how they have reduced the CO{sub 2} emissions in the DGC of the 2000 to the 2008; how they use CO{sub 2} to enhance the oil recovery and which are their challenges in the CO{sub 2} transport. [Spanish] En esta ponencia se habla de las experiencias en la captura y secuestro de CO{sub 2} en las empresas Basin Electic Power Cooperative (BEPC) y Dakota Gasification Campany (DGC); se mencionan sus subproductos y que estan haciendo estas empresas para controlar las emisiones de CO{sub 2}. Se presentan sus retos para comprimir CO{sub 2} y como han reducido las emisiones de CO{sub 2} en la DGC del 2000 al 2008; como utilizan el CO{sub 2} para mejorar la recuperacion de petroleo y sus cuales son retos en el transporte de CO{sub 2}.

  3. Enhanced oil recovery using flash-driven steamflooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roark, Steven D.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a novel steamflooding process which utilizes three specific stages of steam injection for enhanced oil recovery. The three stages are as follows: As steam is being injected into an oil-bearing reservoir through an injection well, the production rate of a production well located at a distance from the injection well is gradually restricted to a point that the pressure in the reservoir increases at a predetermined rate to a predetermined maximum value. After the maximum pressure has been reached, the production rate is increased to a value such that the predetermined maximum pressure value is maintained. Production at maximum pressure is continued for a length of time that will be unique for each individual reservoir. In some cases, this step of the steamflooding process of the invention may be omitted entirely. In the third stage of the steamflooding process of the invention, production rates at the producing well are increased gradually to allow the pressure to decrease down from the maximum pressure value to the original pressure value at the producing well. The rate of pressure reduction will be unique for each reservoir. After completing stage three, the three stages can be repeated or the steamflood may be terminated as considered desirable.

  4. In situ microbial systems for the enhancement of oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, V.

    1991-01-01

    Microbial Enhancement of Oil Recovery (MEOR) offers important new opportunities in the quest for increased oil production. It refers not to a single technique but rather to a collection of methodologies, analogous to parallel non-microbiological methods. MEOR has relevance for many type of production and reservoir problems detailed protocols: may be tailored specifically to a range of individual reservoir conditions. Microorganisms downhole can generate a wide variety of chemical products from inexpensive feed stocks: where these are more cost-effective than oil field chemicals injected from the surface, microbial methods may win widespread acceptance. MEOR methods must be defined precisely; in any particular reservoir procedure their proposed mechanism of action must be clearly understood and criteria established for evaluating their success. The most important applications for MEOR are 1) the production f insoluble or highly viscous polymer to control coning or to plug selectively high permeability thief zones and fractures, 2) the continuous generation of the active agents for polymer-and/or surfactant floods, 3) matrix acidisation and acid fracturing in carbonate rocks stimulate flows into production wells. All these approaches are currently actively been explored; several programmes for field-testing microbial EOR methods already exist, or are being readied, and rapid progress is likely within the next few years. (author)

  5. Lithium niobate ultrasonic transducer design for Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjun; Xu, Yuanming; Gu, Yuting

    2015-11-01

    Due to the strong piezoelectric effect possessed by lithium niobate, a new idea that uses lithium niobate to design high-power ultrasonic transducer for Enhanced Oil Recovery technology is proposed. The purpose of this paper is to lay the foundation for the further research and development of high-power ultrasonic oil production technique. The main contents of this paper are as follows: firstly, structure design technique and application of a new high-power ultrasonic transducer are introduced; secondly, the experiment for reducing the viscosity of super heavy oil by this transducer is done, the optimum ultrasonic parameters for reducing the viscosity of super heavy oil are given. Experimental results show that heavy large molecules in super heavy oil can be cracked into light hydrocarbon substances under strong cavitation effect caused by high-intensity ultrasonic wave. Experiment proves that it is indeed feasible to design high-power ultrasonic transducer for ultrasonic oil production technology using lithium niobate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermally-enhanced oil recovery method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Charles R.; Gibson, Michael A.; Knudsen, Christian W.

    1987-01-01

    A thermally-enhanced oil recovery method and apparatus for exploiting deep well reservoirs utilizes electric downhole steam generators to provide supplemental heat to generate high quality steam from hot pressurized water which is heated at the surface. A downhole electric heater placed within a well bore for local heating of the pressurized liquid water into steam is powered by electricity from the above-ground gas turbine-driven electric generators fueled by any clean fuel such as natural gas, distillate or some crude oils, or may come from the field being stimulated. Heat recovered from the turbine exhaust is used to provide the hot pressurized water. Electrical power may be cogenerated and sold to an electric utility to provide immediate cash flow and improved economics. During the cogeneration period (no electrical power to some or all of the downhole units), the oil field can continue to be stimulated by injecting hot pressurized water, which will flash into lower quality steam at reservoir conditions. The heater includes electrical heating elements supplied with three-phase alternating current or direct current. The injection fluid flows through the heater elements to generate high quality steam to exit at the bottom of the heater assembly into the reservoir. The injection tube is closed at the bottom and has radial orifices for expanding the injection fluid to reservoir pressure.

  7. Responsive copolymers for enhanced petroleum recovery. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, C.; Hester, R.

    1994-08-01

    A coordinated research program involving synthesis, characterization, and rheology has been undertaken to develop advanced polymer system which should be significantly more efficient than polymers presently used for mobility control and conformance. Unlike the relatively inefficient, traditional EOR polymers, these advanced polymer systems possess microstructural features responsive to temperature, electrolyte concentration, and shear conditions. Contents of this report include the following chapters. (1) First annual report responsive copolymers for enhanced oil recovery. (2) Copolymers of acrylamide and sodium 3-acrylamido-3-methylbutanoate. (3) Terpolymers of NaAMB, Am, and n-decylacrylamide. (4) Synthesis and characterization of electrolyte responsive terpolymers of acrylamide, N-(4-butyl)phenylacrylamide, and sodium acrylate, sodium-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulphonate or sodium-3-acrylamido-3-methylbutanoate. (5) Synthesis and solution properties of associative acrylamido copolymers with pyrensulfonamide fluorescence labels. (6) Photophysical studies of the solution behavior of associative pyrenesulfonamide-labeled polyacrylamides. (7) Ampholytic copolymers of sodium 2-(acrylamido)-2-methylpropanesulfonate with [2-(acrylamido)-2-methypropyl]trimethylammonium chloride. (8) Ampholytic terpolymers of acrylamide with sodium 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulphoante and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanetrimethyl-ammonium chloride and (9) Polymer solution extensional behavior in porous media.

  8. Screening Criteria and Considerations of Offshore Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan-Sang Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of enhanced oil recovery (EOR in offshore oil fields has received significant attention due to the potentially enormous amount of recoverable oil. However, EOR application offshore is in its very early stage due to conditions that are more complex than onshore oil fields, owing to the unique parameters present offshore. Therefore, successful EOR applications in offshore oil fields require different screening criteria than those for conventional onshore applications. A comprehensive database for onshore applications of EOR processes together with a limited offshore EOR application database are analyzed in this paper, and the important parameters for successful offshore application are incorporated into the new EOR screening criteria. In this paper, screening criteria to determine acceptable EOR processes for offshore fields, including hydrocarbon gas miscible, CO2 miscible, and polymer processes, are presented. Suggested screening criteria for these EOR processes comprise quantitative boundaries and qualitative considerations. Quantitative screening criteria are predominantly based on quantifiable data, such as oil and reservoir properties. Qualitative screening considerations mainly focus on the operational issues present offshore, including platform space constraints, limited disposal options, injectant availability, and flow assurance matters (including hydrate formation and difficulties in emulsion separation.

  9. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery for thermal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, T.B.; Bolivar, J.

    1997-12-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Ninth Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 62 through 67. The first, second, third, fourth fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth reports on Annex IV, [Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, and IV-8 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP) (DOE/BC-92/1/SP, DOE/BC-93/3/SP, and DOE/BC-95/3/SP)] contain the results from the first 61 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, October 1991, February 1993, and March 1995 respectively.

  10. Application of decline curve analysis to estimate recovery factors for carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahediesfanjani, Hossein

    2017-07-17

    IntroductionIn the decline curve analysis (DCA) method of estimating recoverable hydrocarbon volumes, the analyst uses historical production data from a well, lease, group of wells (or pattern), or reservoir and plots production rates against time or cumu­lative production for the analysis. The DCA of an individual well is founded on the same basis as the fluid-flow principles that are used for pressure-transient analysis of a single well in a reservoir domain and therefore can provide scientifically reasonable and accurate results. However, when used for a group of wells, a lease, or a reservoir, the DCA becomes more of an empirical method. Plots from the DCA reflect the reservoir response to the oil withdrawal (or production) under the prevailing operating and reservoir conditions, and they continue to be good tools for estimating recoverable hydrocarbon volumes and future production rates. For predicting the total recov­erable hydrocarbon volume, the DCA results can help the analyst to evaluate the reservoir performance under any of the three phases of reservoir productive life—primary, secondary (waterflood), or tertiary (enhanced oil recovery) phases—so long as the historical production data are sufficient to establish decline trends at the end of the three phases.

  11. Combined geophysical methods for mapping infiltration pathways at the Aurora Water Aquifer recharge and recovery site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Cameron A.

    Although aquifer recharge and recovery systems are a sustainable, decentralized, low cost, and low energy approach for the reclamation, treatment, and storage of post- treatment wastewater, they can suffer from poor infiltration rates and the development of a near-surface clogging layer within infiltration ponds. One such aquifer recharge and recovery system, the Aurora Water site in Colorado, U.S.A, functions at about 25% of its predicted capacity to recharge floodplain deposits by flooding infiltration ponds with post-treatment wastewater extracted from river bank aquifers along the South Platte River. The underwater self-potential method was developed to survey self-potential signals at the ground surface in a flooded infiltration pond for mapping infiltration pathways. A method for using heat as a groundwater tracer within the infiltration pond used an array of in situ high-resolution temperature sensing probes. Both relatively positive and negative underwater self-potential anomalies are consistent with observed recovery well pumping rates and specific discharge estimates from temperature data. Results from electrical resistivity tomography and electromagnetics surveys provide consistent electrical conductivity distributions associated with sediment textures. A lab method was developed for resistivity tests of near-surface sediment samples. Forward numerical modeling synthesizes the geophysical information to best match observed self- potential anomalies and provide permeability distributions, which is important for effective aquifer recharge and recovery system design, and optimization strategy development.

  12. Enhanced oil recovery using local alkaline | Akpoturi | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improvement in productivity is one of the Oil and Gas industry's biggest challenges. About 60% of crude Oil still lay trapped in the reservoir even after primary and secondary recovery process have been completed, hence the need for a method that further improves recovery. In this study, flooding experiment was conducted ...

  13. A protocol is not enough to implement an enhanced recovery programme for colorectal resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maessen, J; Dejong, C.H.C.; Hausel, J

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Single-centre studies have suggested that enhanced recovery can be achieved with multimodal perioperative care protocols. This international observational study evaluated the implementation of an enhanced recovery programme in five European centres and examined the determinants...... with a shorter hospital stay. CONCLUSION: Functional recovery in 3 days after colorectal resection could be achieved in daily practice. A protocol is not enough to enable discharge of patients on the day of functional recovery; more experience and better organization of care may be required. Copyright (c) 2006...

  14. Responsive copolymers for enhanced petroleum recovery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This report describes the development of new synthetic polymers to be used in petroleum recovery. The solution behavior and rheology properties, as well as new techniques for measuring extensional flow behavior under controlled conditions in packed bed geometries is described.

  15. Enhancement in the gain recovery of a semiconductor optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-11-02

    Nov 2, 2016 ... Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, ... 2015; revised 15 January 2016; accepted 7 March 2016; published online ... investigation on the temperature dependence of gain recovery, of a semi-.

  16. [Present situation and prospect of enhanced recovery after surgery in pancreatic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mengyu; Zhang, Taiping; Zhao, Yupei

    2017-05-25

    Enhanced recovery after surgery is a multimodal perioperative strategy according to the evidence-based medicine and multidisciplinary collaboration, aiming to improve the restoration of functional capacity after surgery by reducing surgical stress, optimal control of pain, early oral diet and early mobilization. Compared with other sub-specialty in general surgery, pancreatic surgery is characterized by complex disease, highly difficult procedure and more postoperative complications. Accordingly, pancreatic surgery shares a slow development in enhanced recovery after surgery. In this review, the feasibility, safety, application progress, prospect and controversy of enhanced recovery after surgery in pancreatic surgery are discussed.

  17. Best practice in major elective rectal/pelvic surgery: enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Segelman, Josefin; Nygren, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Within traditional clinical care, the postoperative recovery after pelvic/rectal surgery has been slow with high morbidity and long hospital stay. The enhanced recovery after surgery program is a multimodal approach to perioperative care designed to accelerate recovery and safely reduce hospital stay. This review will briefly summarize optimal perioperative care, before, during and after surgery in this group of patients and issues related to implementation and audit.

  18. Causal Link between the Cortico-Rubral Pathway and Functional Recovery through Forced Impaired Limb Use in Rats with Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Akimasa; Isa, Kaoru; Umeda, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Kobayashi, Kenta; Hida, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Intensive rehabilitation is believed to induce use-dependent plasticity in the injured nervous system; however, its causal relationship to functional recovery is unclear. Here, we performed systematic analysis of the effects of forced use of an impaired forelimb on the recovery of rats after lesioning the internal capsule with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Forced limb use (FLU) group rats exhibited better recovery of skilled forelimb functions and their cortical motor area with forelimb representation was restored and enlarged on the ipsilesional side. In addition, abundant axonal sprouting from the reemerged forelimb area was found in the ipsilateral red nucleus after FLU. To test the causal relationship between the plasticity in the cortico-rubral pathway and recovery, loss-of-function experiments were conducted using a double-viral vector technique, which induces selective blockade of the target pathway. Blockade of the cortico-rubral tract resulted in deficits of the recovered forelimb function in FLU group rats. These findings suggest that the cortico-rubral pathway is a substrate for recovery induced by intensive rehabilitation after ICH. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The research aimed at determining the causal linkage between reorganization of the motor pathway induced by intensive rehabilitative training and recovery after stroke. We clarified the expansion of the forelimb representation area of the ipsilesional motor cortex by forced impaired forelimb use (FLU) after lesioning the internal capsule with intracerebral hemorrhaging (ICH) in rats. Anterograde tracing showed robust axonal sprouting from the forelimb area to the red nucleus in response to FLU. Selective blockade of the cortico-rubral pathway by the novel double-viral vector technique clearly revealed that the increased cortico-rubral axonal projections had causal linkage to the recovery of reaching movements induced by FLU. Our data demonstrate that the cortico-rubral pathway is responsible for the

  19. Leveraging technology to enhance addiction treatment and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsch, Lisa A

    2012-01-01

    Technology such as the Internet and mobile phones offers considerable promise for affecting the assessment, prevention, and treatment of and recovery from substance use disorders. Technology may enable entirely new models of behavioral health care within and outside of formal systems of care. This article reviews the promise of technology-based therapeutic tools for affecting the quality and reach of addiction treatment and recovery support systems, as well as the empirical support to date for this approach. Potential models for implementing technology-based interventions targeting substance use disorders are described. Opportunities to optimize the effectiveness and impact of technology-based interventions targeting addiction and recovery, along with outstanding research needs, are discussed.

  20. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 87

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    Approximately 30 research projects are summarized in this report. Title of the project, contract number, company or university, award amount, principal investigators, objectives, and summary of technical progress are given for each project. Enhanced oil recovery projects include chemical flooding, gas displacement, and thermal recovery. Most of the research projects though are related to geoscience technology and reservoir characterization.

  1. Development of More Effective Biosurfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, J.J.; Han, S.O.; Maudgalya, S.; Mouttaki, H.; Folmsbee, M.; Knapp, R.; Nagle, D.; Jackson, B.E.; Stuadt, M.; Frey, W.

    2003-01-16

    The objectives of this were two fold. First, core displacement studies were done to determine whether microbial processes could recover residual oil at elevated pressures. Second, the importance of biosurfactant production for the recovery of residual oil was studies. In these studies, a biosurfactant-producing, microorganisms called Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 was used. This bacterium produces a cyclic peptide biosurfactant that significantly reduces the interfacial tension between oil and brine (7). The use of a mutant deficient in surfactant production and a mathematical MEOR simulator were used to determine the major mechanisms of oil recovery by these two strains.

  2. IN SITU STEAM ENHANCED RECOVERY PROCESS - HUGHES ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS, INC. - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Innovative Technology Evaluation report summarizes the findings of an evaluation of the in situ Steam Enhanced Recovery Process (SERP) operated by Hughes Environmental Systems, Inc. at the Rainbow Disposal facility in Huntington Beach, California. he technology demonstration...

  3. Enhanced metal recovery through oxidation in liquid and/or supercritical carbon dioxide

    KAUST Repository

    Blanco, Mario; Buttner, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Process for enhanced metal recovery from, for example, metal-containing feedstock using liquid and/or supercritical fluid carbon dioxide and a source of oxidation. The oxidation agent can be free of complexing agent. The metal-containing feedstock

  4. Conference on microbiological processes useful in enhanced oil recovery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    Six formal presentations were made at the meeting, followed by four workshops dealing with specific topics: bioengineering, reservoir ecology and environment, transformations, and bioproducts. All were related to microbial enhancement of oil recovery. (DLC)

  5. Development of More Effective Biosurfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery/Advanced Recovery Concepts Awards; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInerney, M.J.; Marsh, T.L.; Zhang, X.; Knapp, R.M.; Nagle, Jr. D.P.; Sharma, P.K.; Jackson, B.E.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this were two fold. First, core displacement studies were done to determine whether microbial processes could recover residual oil at elevated pressures. Second, the importance of biosurfactant production for the recovery of residual oil was studies. In these studies, a biosurfactant-producing, microorganisms called Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 was used. This bacterium produces a cyclic peptide biosurfactant that significantly reduces the interfacial tension between oil and brine (7). The use of a mutant deficient in surfactant production and a mathematical MEOR simulator were used to determine the major mechanisms of oil recovery by these two strains

  6. Development of More Effective Biosurfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery/Advanced Recovery Concepts Awards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, M.J.; Marsh, T.L.; Zhang, X.; Knapp, R.M.; Nagle, Jr., D.P.; Sharma, P.K.; Jackson, B.E.

    2002-05-28

    The objectives of this were two fold. First, core displacement studies were done to determine whether microbial processes could recover residual oil at elevated pressures. Second, the importance of biosurfactant production for the recovery of residual oil was studies. In these studies, a biosurfactant-producing, microorganisms called Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 was used. This bacterium produces a cyclic peptide biosurfactant that significantly reduces the interfacial tension between oil and brine (7). The use of a mutant deficient in surfactant production and a mathematical MEOR simulator were used to determine the major mechanisms of oil recovery by these two strains.

  7. Enhanced Monitored Natural Recovery (EMNR) Case Studies Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    trends in sediment toxicity in thin layer capped and natural recovery areas. • Evaluation of temporal trends in macroinvertebrate benthic community...Pacific biotreatment lagoon . The WW Area is contaminated with mercury originating from a chlor- alkali facility operated by Georgia-Pacific, phenolic

  8. Disruption of cell walls for enhanced lipid recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoshaug, Eric P; Donohoe, Bryon S; Gerken, Henri; Laurens, Lieve; Van Wychen, Stefanie Rose

    2015-03-24

    Presented herein are methods of using cell wall degrading enzymes for recovery of internal lipid bodies from biomass sources such as algae. Also provided are algal cells that express at least one exogenous gene encoding a cell wall degrading enzyme and methods for recovering lipids from the cells.

  9. Comblike Polyacrylamides as Flooding Agent in Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, Diego A. Z.; Picchioni, Francesco; Broekhuis, Antonius A.

    2013-01-01

    The oil recovery from core material and a specifically designed flow cell using novel branched (comblike) polyacrylamides (PAM) has been investigated. The injectivity characteristics of the different branched PAMs were evaluated by filtration tests and core-flow experiments. The number of arms of

  10. Enhancement of recovery of residual oil using a biosurfactant slug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of the biosurfactant extract revealed a mixture of glycolipid and phospholipid in a ratio of 3.35:1. The irreducible water saturation (Swi) and initial residual oil saturation (Sor) of the sand-pack were 0.280 ± 0.003 and 0.373 ± 0.006, respectively. Core flooding experiment showed that an optimum oil recovery ...

  11. Benfotiamine improves functional recovery of the infarcted heart via activation of pro-survival G6PD/Akt signaling pathway and modulation of neurohormonal response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katare, Rajesh; Caporali, Andrea; Emanueli, Costanza; Madeddu, Paolo

    2010-10-01

    Benfotiamine (BFT) is a transketolase activator that directs glucose to the pentose phosphate pathway. The present study investigated whether BFT improves the recovery after myocardial infarction (MI) and explored underlying mechanisms of protection. Non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice were supplemented with BFT (70 mg/kg/day in drinking water) for 4 weeks and then subjected to MI or sham operation. Cardiac function was monitored by echocardiography. At two weeks post-MI, intra-ventricular pressure was measured by Millar tip-catheter and hearts were collected for biochemical, immunohistochemical and expressional analyses. No treatment effect was observed in sham-operated mice. Post-MI mortality was higher in diabetic mice and hemodynamic studies confirmed the worsening effect of diabetes on functional recovery. Furthermore, diabetic mice demonstrated increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis, reduced reparative angiogenesis, larger scars, enhanced oxidative stress, and blunted activation of the pro-survival VEGF receptor-2/Akt/Pim-1 signaling pathway. BFT improved post-MI survival, functional recovery and neovascularization and reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and neurohormonal activation in diabetic as well as in non-diabetic mice. In addition, BFT stimulated the activity of pentose phosphate pathway enzymes, leading to reduction of oxidative stress, phosphorylation/activation of VEGF receptor-2 and Akt and increased Pim-1, pBad and Bcl-2 levels. These effects were contrasted on silencing glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the key enzyme in pentose phosphate pathway, or inhibiting Akt. BFT benefits post-MI recovery through stimulation of pro-survival mechanisms and containment of neurohormonal response. These results may have implications for the treatment of myocardial ischemia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hope and Substance Abuse Recovery: The Impact of Agency and Pathways within an Abstinent Communal-living Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Glen M.; Ferrari, Joseph R.; Groh, David R.; Jason, Leonard A.

    2010-01-01

    Hope is commonly divided into two constructs: agency, defined as goal-directed energy, and pathways, defined as the ability to create paths to a goal. To date, only two studies have examined the utility of hope in substance abuse recovery, and the present investigation buildings on this small literature by assessing hope beliefs within a larger and more diverse sample of adults in recovery. This study examined how two hope constructs of agency and pathways related to substance use abstinence among 90 new residents of communal-living recovery homes (i.e., Oxford Houses) who completed two waves of data assessment. Results indicated that agency scores significantly predicted alcohol use at Wave 1 but pathway scores failed to predict drug or alcohol use at this time point. Additionally, agency and pathway scores predicted drug (but not alcohol use) at an 8-month follow-up assessment. These findings indicated that participants’ hope may be linked to substance use at later stages of recovery. In addition, these results suggested a stronger relationship between hope and drug as opposed to alcohol use at this time point. Implications for substance abuse recovery are discussed. PMID:20689653

  13. Enhanced recovery after elective colorectal surgery: now the standard of care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Andrews, E J

    2011-09-01

    Enhanced recovery programmes have been studied in randomised trials with evidence of quicker recovery of gut function, reduced morbidity, mortality and hospital stay and improved physiological and nutritional outcomes. They aim to reduce the physiological and psychological stress of surgery and consequently the uncontrolled stress response. The key elements, reduced pre-operative fasting, intravenous fluid restriction and early feeding after surgery, are in conflict with traditional management plans but are supported by strong clinical evidence. Given the strength of the current data enhanced recovery should now be the standard of care.

  14. Hydrophobically associated polymers for wettability alteration and enhanced oil recovery – Article review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. El-hoshoudy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil and other petroleum products are crucial to the global economy today due to increasing energy demand approximately (∼1.5% per year and significant oil remaining after primary and secondary oil recovery (∼45–55% of original oil in place, OOIP, which accelerates the development of enhanced oil recovery (EOR technologies to maximize the recovered oil amount by non-conventional methods as polymer flooding. This review discusses enhanced oil recovery methods specially polymer flooding techniques and their effects on rock wettability alteration.

  15. Becoming a "second victim" in health care: Pathway of recovery after adverse event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, C; Leigheb, F; Vanhaecht, K; Donnarumma, C; Panella, M

    2016-07-01

    The healthcare worker involved in an unanticipated adverse patient event can become second victim. These workers suffer physically and psycho-socially and try to overcome the post-event emotional stress by obtaining emotional support in a variety of ways. The goal of this research was to study second victims among health care providers in Italy. This contribution contains the results of 33 interviews of nurses, physicians and other healthcare workers. After institutional approval, the semi-structured interview, composed of 25 questions, was translated from English into Italian. The audio-interviews were transcribed on paper verbatim by the interviewer. It was then verified if the interviewees experienced the six post-event stages of second victim recovery previously described within the literature. The interviewees described the post-event recovery stages described by literature but stages were not detailed in the exact succession order as the American study. All participants clearly remembered the adverse event and referred the physical and psycho-social symptoms. The psychological support obtained by second victims was described as poor and inefficient. The post-event recovery pathway is predictable but not always clearly respected as defined within this Italian sample. Future study of the second-victim phenomenon and desired supportive interventions is necessary to understand the experience and interventions to mitigate harm of future clinicians. Every day healthcare workers become second victims and, considering that human resources are the most important heritage of healthcare infrastructures, after an adverse event it is very important to execute valid interventional programs to support and train these workers. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. In their own words: Content analysis of pathways to recovery among individuals with the lived experience of homelessness and alcohol use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Susan E; Jones, Connor B; Hoffmann, Gail; Nelson, Lonnie A; Hawes, Starlyn M; Grazioli, Véronique S; Mackelprang, Jessica L; Holttum, Jessica; Kaese, Greta; Lenert, James; Herndon, Patrick; Clifasefi, Seema L

    2016-01-01

    as a means of attaining long-term alcohol abstinence. These individuals do, however, have creative ideas about alternative pathways to recovery that treatment providers may support to reduce alcohol-related harm and enhance quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhanced oil recovery chemicals from renewable wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grune, W.N.; Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Crenshaw, J.M.

    1979-04-01

    Most of the wood pulp in the U.S. is produced by cooking, or digesting, wood chips in a chemical solution. These pulping processes have effluent streams which contain dissolved lignins, lignin breakdown products, and carbohydrates. There is a substantial economic incentive to use these materials as feedstocks for the production of high-valued micellar flood chemicals. The pulp and paper industries have practiced chemical recovery for almost a century. The largest chemical recycle processes are the internal recycle of inorganic salts for reuse in pulping. This is coupled with the use of waste organic compounds in the liquor as a fuel for directly-fired evaporation processes. Diversion of effluent and low valued streams for chemical recovery using fermentation, purification, or synthesis methods appears technically feasible in several cases. The use of new recovery processes could yield a variety of different wood-effluent based products. Some of the sugar acids in pulping liquors might be used as sequestering agents in reservoirs where there are large amounts of multivalent cations in flood brines. Fermentation production of high viscosity polymers, sequestering agents, and coagent alcohols appears worth further investigation. Tall oil acids and their derivatives can be used as surfactants in some reservoirs. Some waste constituents may adsorb preferentially on formations and thereby reduce loss of surfactants and other higher-valued chemicals.

  18. Microfluidics: an enabling screening technology for enhanced oil recovery (EOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifton, Victor A

    2016-05-21

    Oil production is a critical industrial process that affects the entire world population and any improvements in its efficiency while reducing its environmental impact are of utmost societal importance. The paper reviews recent applications of microfluidics and microtechnology to study processes of oil extraction and recovery. It shows that microfluidic devices can be useful tools in investigation and visualization of such processes used in the oil & gas industry as fluid propagation, flooding, fracturing, emulsification and many others. Critical macro-scale processes that define oil extraction and recovery are controlled by the micro-scale processes based on wetting, adhesion, surface tension, colloids and other concepts of microfluidics. A growing number of research efforts demonstrates that microfluidics is becoming, albeit slowly, an accepted methodology in this area. We propose several areas of development where implementation of microfluidics may bring about deeper understanding and hence better control over the processes of oil recovery based on fluid propagation, droplet generation, wettability control. Studies of processes such as hydraulic fracturing, sand particle propagation in porous networks, high throughput screening of chemicals (for example, emulsifiers and surfactants) in microfluidic devices that simulate oil reservoirs are proposed to improve our understanding of these complicated physico-chemical systems. We also discuss why methods of additive manufacturing (3D printing) should be evaluated for quick prototyping and modification of the three-dimensional structures replicating natural oil-bearing rock formations for studies accessible to a wider audience of researchers.

  19. Ouabain enhances ADPKD cell apoptosis via the intrinsic pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo eBlanco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is highly influenced by factors circulating in blood. We have shown that the hormone ouabain enhances several characteristics of the ADPKD cystic phenotype, including the rate of cell proliferation, fluid secretion and the capacity of the cells to form cysts. In this work, we found that physiological levels of ouabain (3nM also promote programmed cell death of renal epithelial cells obtained from kidney cysts of patients with ADPKD (ADPKD cells. This was determined by Alexa Fluor 488 labeled-Annexin-V staining and TUNEL assay, both biochemical markers of apoptosis. Ouabain-induced apoptosis also takes place when ADPKD cell growth is blocked; suggesting that the effect is not secondary to the stimulatory actions of ouabain on cell proliferation. Ouabain alters the expression of BCL family of proteins, reducing BCL-2 and increasing BAX expression levels, anti- and pro-apoptotic mediators respectively. In addition, ouabain caused the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Moreover, ouabain activates caspase-3, a key executioner caspase in the cell apoptotic pathway, but did not affect caspase-8. This suggests that ouabain triggers ADPKD cell apoptosis by stimulating the intrinsic, but not the extrinsic pathway of programmed cell death. The apoptotic effects of ouabain are specific for ADPKD cells and do not occur in normal human kidney cells (NHK cells. Taken together with our previous observations, these results show that ouabain causes an imbalance in cell growth/death, to favor growth of the cystic cells. This event, characteristic of ADPKD, further suggests the importance of ouabain as a circulating factor that promotes ADPKD progression.

  20. Incomplete reporting of enhanced recovery elements and its impact on achieving quality improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, R W; Fielder, S; Calhoun, J

    2015-01-01

    per cent), length of stay (47, 94 per cent) and mortality (45, 90 per cent). CONCLUSION: The current standard of reporting is frequently incomplete. To transfer knowledge and facilitate implementation of pathways that demonstrate improvements in perioperative care and recovery, a consistent structured...

  1. Enhanced Oil Recovery with CO2 Capture and Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrei, Maria; De Simoni, Michela; Delbianco, Alberto; Cazzani, Piero; Zanibelli, Laura

    2010-09-15

    This paper presents the results of a feasibility study aimed at extending the production life of a small oilfield in Italy through EOR, employing the CO2 captured from the flue gas streams of the refinery nearby. The EOR operation allows the recovery of additional reserves while a consistent amount of the CO2 injected remains permanently stored into the reservoir. The screening process selection for EOR-CO2 and the main elements of the pilot project for the proper upstream-downstream integration will be described. Evaluation of EOR-CO2 extension to other oilfields and its effect on oil production and project's economics will be reported.

  2. Enhancing Propriospinal Relays to Improve Functional Recovery after SCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    cervical spinal cord (Figure 4). These propriospinal neurons are thought to connect spinal cord segments to support intersegmental communication ...These are the primary neuronal population with surviving axons bypassing the lesion after a moderate contusion injury to the T10 region. This...supraspinal pathways onto the cervical propriospinal neurons . The slight delay in analysis will not delay the overall experimental goals and we are

  3. Polymers for enhanced oil recovery : A paradigm for structure-property relationship in aqueous solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, D. A. Z.; Picchioni, F.; Broekhuis, A. A.

    Recent developments in the field of water-soluble polymers aimed at enhancing the aqueous solution viscosity are reviewed. Classic and novel associating water-soluble polymers for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications are discussed along with their limitations. Particular emphasis is placed on

  4. Lactic Acid Recovery in Electro-Enhanced Dialysis: Modelling and Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado Rubio, Oscar Andres; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2009-01-01

    and migration across the boundary layers and membranes. The model is validated for Donnan dialysis recovery of different monoprotic carboxylic acids. Simulations are used to evaluate the potential enhancement of lactate fluxes under current load conditions, referred as Electro-Enhanced Dialysis operation...

  5. Enhanced malignant transformation is accompanied by increased survival recovery after ionizing radiation in Chinese hamster embryo fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothman, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Transformed Chinese hamster embryo fibroblasts (CHEF), which gradually increase in tumor-forming ability in nude mice, were isolated from normal diploid CHEF/18 cells. Transformed CHEF cells (i.e., T30-4 > 21-2M3 > 21-2 > normal CHEF/18) showed gradual increases in potentially lethal damage (PLD) survival recovery. β-Lapachone and camptothecin, modulators of topoisomerase I (Topo I) activity, not only prevented survival recovery in normal as well as in tumor cells, but enhanced unscheduled DNA synthesis. These seemingly conflicting results are due to the fact that Topo I activity can be modulated by inhibitors to convert single-stranded DNA lesions into double-stranded breaks. Increases in unscheduled DNA synthesis may result from a continual supply of free ends, on which DNA repair processes may act. Altering Topo I activity with modulators appears to increase X-ray lethality via a DNA lesion modification suicide pathway. Cells down-regulate Topo I immediately after ionizing radiation to prevent Topo I-mediated lesion modification and to enhance survival recovery. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  6. Experimental Study of Enhancing Oil Recovery with Weak Base Alkaline/Surfactant/Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Yin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Na2CO3 was used together with surfactant and polymer to form the Alkaline/Surfactant/Polymer (ASP flooding system. Interfacial tension (IFT and emulsification of Dagang oil and chemical solutions were studied in the paper. The experiment results show that the ASP system can form super-low interfacial tension with crude oil and emulsified phase. The stability of the emulsion is enhanced by the Na2CO3, surfactant, and the soap generated at oil/water contact. Six core flooding experiments are conducted in order to investigate the influence of Na2CO3 concentration on oil recovery. The results show the maximum oil recovery can be obtained with 0.3 wt% surfactant, 0.6 wt% Na2CO3, and 2000 mg/L polymer. In a heterogeneous reservoir, the ASP flooding could not enhance the oil recovery by reducing IFT until it reaches the critical viscosity, which indicates expanding the sweep volume is the premise for reducing IFT to enhance oil recovery. Reducing or removing the alkali from ASP system to achieve high viscosity will reduce oil recovery because of the declination of oil displacement efficiency. Weak base ASP alkali can ensure that the whole system with sufficient viscosity can start the medium and low permeability layers and enhance oil recovery even if the IFT only reaches 10−2 mN/m.

  7. Joint recovery programme versus usual care - An economic evaluation of a clinical pathway for joint replacement surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunenberg, DE; van Steyn, MJ; Sluimer, JC; Bekebrede, LL; Bulstra, SK; Joore, MA

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness of a clinical pathway for patients undergoing joint replacement, the Joint Recovery Programme (JRP), as compared with usual care. The existing care process was revised to contain costs and shorten

  8. Nutrition management in enhanced recovery after abdominal pancreatic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez Mesa, Elena; Baz Figueroa, Caleb; Suárez Llanos, José Pablo; Sanz Pereda, Pablo; Barrera Gómez, Manuel Ángel

    Multimodal rehabilitation programs are perioperative standardized strategies with the objective of improving patient recovery, and decreasing morbidity, hospital stay and health cost. The nutritional aspect is an essential component of multimodal rehabilitation programs and therefore nutritional screening is recommended prior to hospital admission, avoiding pre-surgical fasting, with oral carbohydrate overload and early initiation of oral intake after surgery. However, there are no standardized protocols of diet progression after pancreatic surgery. A systematic review was been performed of papers published between 2006 and 2016, describing different nutritional strategies after pancreatic surgery and its possible implications in postoperative outcome. The studies evaluated are very heterogeneous, so conclusive results could not be drawn on the diet protocol to be implemented, its influence on clinical variables, or the need for concomitant artificial nutrition. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Improving hydroturbine pressures to enhance salmon passage survival and recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumbo, Bradly A. [U.S. Army Corp. of Engineers, Walla Walla, WA (United States); Ahmann, Martin L. [U.S. Army Corp. of Engineers, Walla Walla, WA (United States); Renholods, Jon F. [U.S. Army Corp. of Engineers, Walla Walla, WA (United States); Brown, Richard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Colotelo, Alison H. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deng, Zhiqun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-12

    This paper provides an overview of turbine pressure data collection and barotrauma studies relative to fish passage through large Kaplan turbines and how this information may be applied to safer fish passage through turbines. The specific objectives are to 1) discuss turbine pressures defined by Sensor Fish releases; 2) discuss what has been learned about pressure effects on fish and the factors influencing barotrauma associated with simulated turbine passage; 3) elucidate data gaps associated with fish behavior and passage that influence barotrauma during turbine passage; 4) discuss how the results of these studies have led to turbine design criteria for safer fish passage; and 5) relate this information to salmon recovery efforts and safer fish passage for Atlantic and Pacific salmonids.

  10. Role of spared pathways in locomotor recovery after body-weight-supported treadmill training in contused rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anita; Balasubramanian, Sriram; Murray, Marion; Lemay, Michel; Houle, John

    2011-12-01

    Body-weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT)-related locomotor recovery has been shown in spinalized animals. Only a few animal studies have demonstrated locomotor recovery after BWSTT in an incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) model, such as contusion injury. The contribution of spared descending pathways after BWSTT to behavioral recovery is unclear. Our goal was to evaluate locomotor recovery in contused rats after BWSTT, and to study the role of spared pathways in spinal plasticity after BWSTT. Forty-eight rats received a contusion, a transection, or a contusion followed at 9 weeks by a second transection injury. Half of the animals in the three injury groups were given BWSTT for up to 8 weeks. Kinematics and the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) test assessed behavioral improvements. Changes in Hoffmann-reflex (H-reflex) rate depression property, soleus muscle mass, and sprouting of primary afferent fibers were also evaluated. BWSTT-contused animals showed accelerated locomotor recovery, improved H-reflex properties, reduced muscle atrophy, and decreased sprouting of small caliber afferent fibers. BBB scores were not improved by BWSTT. Untrained contused rats that received a transection exhibited a decrease in kinematic parameters immediately after the transection; in contrast, trained contused rats did not show an immediate decrease in kinematic parameters after transection. This suggests that BWSTT with spared descending pathways leads to neuroplasticity at the lumbar spinal level that is capable of maintaining locomotor activity. Discontinuing training after the transection in the trained contused rats abolished the improved kinematics within 2 weeks and led to a reversal of the improved H-reflex response, increased muscle atrophy, and an increase in primary afferent fiber sprouting. Thus continued training may be required for maintenance of the recovery. Transected animals had no effect of BWSTT, indicating that in the absence of spared pathways this

  11. Polymers for enhanced oil recovery: fundamentals and selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rellegadla, Sandeep; Prajapat, Ganshyam; Agrawal, Akhil

    2017-06-01

    With a rising population, the demand for energy has increased over the years. As per the projections, both fossil fuel and renewables will remain as major energy source (678 quadrillion BTU) till 2030 with fossil fuel contributing 78% of total energy consumption. Hence, attempts are continuously made to make fossil fuel production more sustainable and cheaper. From the past 40 years, polymer flooding has been carried out in marginal oil fields and have proved to be successful in many cases. The common expectation from polymer flooding is to obtain 50% ultimate recovery with 15 to 20% incremental recovery over secondary water flooding. Both naturally derived polymers like xanthan gum and synthetic polymers like partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) have been used for this purpose. Earlier laboratory and field trials revealed that salinity and temperature are the major issues with the synthetic polymers that lead to polymer degradation and adsorption on the rock surface. Microbial degradation and concentration are major issues with naturally derived polymers leading to loss of viscosity and pore throat plugging. Earlier studies also revealed that polymer flooding is successful in the fields where oil viscosity is quite higher (up to 126 cp) than injection water due to improvement in mobility ratio during polymer flooding. The largest successful polymer flood was reported in China in 1990 where both synthetic and naturally derived polymers were used in nearly 20 projects. The implementation of these projects provides valuable suggestions for further improving the available processes in future. This paper examines the selection criteria of polymer, field characteristics that support polymer floods and recommendation to design a large producing polymer flooding.

  12. Melatonin Inhibits Neural Cell Apoptosis and Promotes Locomotor Recovery via Activation of the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway After Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhaoliang; Zhou, Zipeng; Gao, Shuang; Guo, Yue; Gao, Kai; Wang, Haoyu; Dang, Xiaoqian

    2017-08-01

    The spinal cord is highly sensitive to spinal cord injury (SCI) by external mechanical damage, resulting in irreversible neurological damage. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway can effectively reduce apoptosis and protect against SCI. Melatonin, an indoleamine originally isolated from bovine pineal tissue, exerts neuroprotective effects after SCI through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. In this study, we demonstrated that melatonin exhibited neuroprotective effects on neuronal apoptosis and supported functional recovery in a rat SCI model by activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We found that melatonin administration after SCI significantly upregulated the expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein 6 phosphorylation (p-LRP-6), lymphoid enhancer factor-1 (LEF-1) and β-catenin protein in the spinal cord. Melatonin enhanced motor neuronal survival in the spinal cord ventral horn and improved the locomotor functions of rats after SCI. Melatonin administration after SCI also reduced the expression levels of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 in the spinal cord and the proportion of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL) positive cells, but increased the expression level of Bcl-2. These results suggest that melatonin attenuated SCI by activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  13. The RAPID protocol enhances patient recovery after both laparoscopic and open colorectal resections.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lloyd, G M

    2010-06-01

    Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs can accelerate recovery and shorten the hospital stay after colorectal resections. The RAPID (remove, ambulate, postoperative analgesia, introduce diet) protocol is a simplified ERAS program that consists of a simplified, user-friendly single-page pro forma schedule. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the RAPID protocol on patients undergoing both laparoscopic and open colorectal resections in two specialized colorectal units.

  14. Non invasive brain stimulation to enhance post-stroke recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Kubis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Brain plasticity after stroke remains poorly understood. Patients may improve spontaneously within the first 3 months and then more slowly in the coming year. The first days, decreased edema and reperfusion of the ischemic penumbra may possibly account for these phenomena, but the improvement during the next weeks suggests plasticity phenomena and cortical reorganization of the brain ischemic areas and of more remote areas. Indeed, the injured ischemic motor cortex has a reduced cortical excitability at the acute phase and a suspension of the topographic representation of affected muscles, whereas the contralateral motor cortex has an increased excitability and an enlarged somatomotor representation; furthermore, contralateral cortex exerts a transcallosal interhemispheric inhibition on the ischemic cortex. This results from the imbalance of the physiological reciprocal interhemispheric inhibition of each hemisphere on the other, contributing to worsening of neurological deficit. Cortical excitability is measurable through transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS and prognosis has been established according to the presence of motor evoked potentials (MEP at the acute phase of stroke, which is predictive of better recovery. Conversely, the lack of response to early stimulation is associated with a poor functional outcome. Non-invasive stimulation techniques such as repetitive TMS (rTMS or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS have the potential to modulate brain cortical excitability with long lasting effects. In the setting of cerebrovascular disease, around 1000 stroke subjects have been included in placebo-controlled trials so far, most often with an objective of promoting motor recovery of the upper limb. High frequency repetitive stimulation (> 3 Hz rTMS, aiming to increase excitability of the ischemic cortex, or low frequency repetitive stimulation (≤ 1 Hz, aiming to reduce excitability of the contralateral homonymous cortex, or

  15. Oil recovery enhancement from fractured, low permeability reservoirs. [Carbonated Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, S.W.

    1991-01-01

    The results of the investigative efforts for this jointly funded DOE-State of Texas research project achieved during the 1990-1991 year may be summarized as follows: Geological Characterization - Detailed maps of the development and hierarchical nature the fracture system exhibited by Austin Chalk outcrops were prepared. The results of these efforts were directly applied to the development of production decline type curves applicable to a dual-fracture-matrix flow system. Analysis of production records obtained from Austin Chalk operators illustrated the utility of these type curves to determine relative fracture/matrix contributions and extent. Well-log response in Austin Chalk wells has been shown to be a reliable indicator of organic maturity. Shear-wave splitting concepts were used to estimate fracture orientations from Vertical Seismic Profile, VSP data. Several programs were written to facilitate analysis of the data. The results of these efforts indicated fractures could be detected with VSP seismic methods.Development of the EOR Imbibition Process - Laboratory displacement as well as Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI and Computed Tomography, CT imaging studies have shown the carbonated water-imbibition displacement process significantly accelerates and increases recovery from oil saturated, low permeability rocks.Field Tests - Two operators amenable to conducting a carbonated water flood test on an Austin Chalk well have been identified. Feasibility studies are presently underway.

  16. Oil Recovery Enhancement from Fractured, Low Permeability Reservoirs. [Carbonated Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, S. W.

    1991-01-01

    The results of the investigative efforts for this jointly funded DOE-State of Texas research project achieved during the 1990-1991 year may be summarized as follows: Geological Characterization - Detailed maps of the development and hierarchical nature the fracture system exhibited by Austin Chalk outcrops were prepared. The results of these efforts were directly applied to the development of production decline type curves applicable to a dual-fracture-matrix flow system. Analysis of production records obtained from Austin Chalk operators illustrated the utility of these type curves to determine relative fracture/matrix contributions and extent. Well-log response in Austin Chalk wells has been shown to be a reliable indicator of organic maturity. Shear-wave splitting concepts were used to estimate fracture orientations from Vertical Seismic Profile, VSP data. Several programs were written to facilitate analysis of the data. The results of these efforts indicated fractures could be detected with VSP seismic methods. Development of the EOR Imbibition Process - Laboratory displacement as well as Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI and Computed Tomography, CT imaging studies have shown the carbonated water-imbibition displacement process significantly accelerates and increases recovery from oil saturated, low permeability rocks. Field Tests - Two operators amenable to conducting a carbonated water flood test on an Austin Chalk well have been identified. Feasibility studies are presently underway.

  17. Facilitators and barriers of implementing enhanced recovery in colorectal surgery at a safety net hospital: A provider and patient perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawadi, Zeinab M; Leal, Isabel; Phatak, Uma R; Flores-Gonzalez, Juan R; Holihan, Julie L; Karanjawala, Burzeen E; Millas, Stefanos G; Kao, Lillian S

    2016-03-01

    Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) pathways are known to decrease complications and duration of stay in colorectal surgery patients. However, it is unclear whether an ERAS pathway would be feasible and effective at a safety-net hospital. The aim of this study was to identify local barriers and facilitators before the adoption of an ERAS pathway for patients undergoing colorectal operations at a safety-net hospital. Semistructured interviews were conducted to assess the perceived barriers and facilitators before ERAS adoption. Stratified purposive sampling was used. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using content analysis. Analytic and investigator triangulation were used to establish credibility. Interviewees included 8 anesthesiologists, 5 surgeons, 6 nurses, and 18 patients. Facilitators identified across the different medical professions were (1) feasibility and alignment with current practice, (2) standardization of care, (3) smallness of community, (4) good teamwork and communication, and (5) caring for patients. The barriers were (1) difficulty in adapting to change, (2) lack of coordination between different departments, (3) special needs of a highly comorbid and socioeconomically disadvantaged patient population, (4) limited resources, and (5) rotating residents. Facilitators identified by the patients were (1) welcoming a speedy recovery, (2) being well-cared for and satisfied with treatment, (3) adequate social support, (4) welcoming early mobilization, and (5) effective pain management. The barriers were (1) lack of quiet and private space, (2) need for more patient education and counseling, and (3) unforeseen complications. Although limited hospital resources are perceived as a barrier to ERAS implementation at a safety-net hospital, there is strong support for such pathways and multiple factors were identified that may facilitate change. Inclusion of patient perspectives is critical to identifying challenges and

  18. Viability of Hydrogen Pathways that Enhance Energy Security: A Comparison of China and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Andreasen, Kristian Peter; Sovacool, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    When designed and built properly, hydrogen energy systems can enhance energy security through technological diversification and minimizing dependence on foreign imports of energy fuels. However, hydrogen can be produced from different feedstocks according to separate pathways, and these different...... pathways create particular consequences on a nation's overall energy security. The objective of this study is to investigate the superiorities and inferiorities of hydrogen pathways from the perspective of China and Denmark, and to determine which pathways best contribute to national energy security...

  19. Using Gelatin Nanoparticle Mediated Intranasal Delivery of Neuropeptide Substance P to Enhance Neuro-Recovery in Hemiparkinsonian Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Zheng Zhao

    Full Text Available Intranasal administration of phospholipid-based gelatin nanoparticles (GNP was prepared to investigate the neuro-recovery effects of neuropeptide Substance P (SP on hemiparkinsonian rats.The SP-loaded gelatin nanoparticles (SP-GNP were prepared by a water-in-water emulsion method and possessed high stability, encapsulating efficiency and loading capacity. PC-12 cells were used to examine the growth enhancement of SP-GNP in vitro by MTT assays and flow cytometry (FCM. The therapeutic effects of SP-GNP on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA induced hemiparkinsonian rats were assessed by quantifying rotational behavior and the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, phosphorylated c-Jun protein (p-c-Jun and Caspase-3 (Cas-3 expressed in substantia nigra (SN region of hemiparkinsonian rats.PC-12 cells under SP-GNP treatment showed better cell viability and lower degree of apoptosis than those under SP solution treatment. Hemiparkinsonian rats under intranasal SP-GNP administration demonstrated better behavioral improvement, higher level of TH in SN along with much lower extent of p-c-Jun and Cas-3 than those under intranasal SP solution administration and intravenous SP-GNP administration.With the advantages of GNP and nose-to-brain pathway, SP can be effectively delivered into the damaged SN region and exhibit its neuro-recovery function through the inhibition on JNK pathway and dopaminergic neuron apoptosis.

  20. The economics of recovery after pancreatic surgery: detailed cost minimization analysis of an enhanced recovery program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagedan, Daniel J; Devitt, Katharine S; Tremblay St-Germain, Amélie; Ramjaun, Aliya; Cleary, Sean P; Wei, Alice C

    2017-11-01

    Clinical pathways (CPW) are considered safe and effective at decreasing postoperative length of stay (LoS), but the effect on economic costs is uncertain. This study sought to elucidate the effect of a CPW on direct hospitalization costs for patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). A CPW for PD patients at a single Canadian institution was implemented. Outcomes included LoS, 30-day readmissions, and direct costs of hospital care. A retrospective cost minimization analysis compared patients undergoing PD prior to and following CPW implementation, using a bootstrapped t test and deviation-based cost modeling. 121 patients undergoing PD after CPW implementation were compared to 74 controls. Index LoS was decreased following CPW implementation (9 vs. 11 days, p = 0.005), as was total LoS (10 vs. 11 days, p = 0.003). The mean total cost of postoperative hospitalization per patient decreased in the CPW group ($15,678.45 CAD vs. $25,732.85 CAD, p = 0.024), as was the mean 30-day cost including readmissions ($16,627.15 CAD vs. $29,872.72 CAD, p = 0.016). Areas of significant cost savings included laboratory tests and imaging investigations. CPWs may generate cost savings by reducing unnecessary investigations, and improve quality of care through process standardization and decreasing practice variation. Copyright © 2017 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Virtual nature environment with nature sound exposure induce stress recovery by enhanced parasympathetic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Annerstedt, Matilda; Jönsson, Peter; Wallergård, Mattias

    2013-01-01

    . The group that recovered in virtual nature without sound and the control group displayed no particular autonomic activation or deactivation. The results demonstrate a potential mechanistic link between nature, the sounds of nature, and stress recovery, and suggest the potential importance of virtual reality......Experimental research on stress recovery in natural environments is limited, as is study of the effect of sounds of nature. After inducing stress by means of a virtual stress test, we explored physiological recovery in two different virtual natural environments (with and without exposure to sounds...... of nature) and in one control condition. Cardiovascular data and saliva cortisol were collected. Repeated ANOVA measurements indicated parasympathetic activation in the group subjected to sounds of nature in a virtual natural environment, suggesting enhanced stress recovery may occur in such surroundings...

  2. Miconazole enhances nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Qiu, Shuai; Yan, Liwei; Zhu, Shuang; Zheng, Canbin; Zhu, Qingtang; Liu, Xiaolin

    2018-05-01

    Improving axonal outgrowth and remyelination is crucial for peripheral nerve regeneration. Miconazole appears to enhance remyelination in the central nervous system. In this study we assess the effect of miconazole on axonal regeneration using a sciatic nerve crush injury model in rats. Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control and miconazole groups. Nerve regeneration and myelination were determined using histological and electrophysiological assessment. Evaluation of sensory and motor recovery was performed using the pinprick assay and sciatic functional index. The Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and Western blotting were used to assess the proliferation and neurotrophic expression of RSC 96 Schwann cells. Miconazole promoted axonal regrowth, increased myelinated nerve fibers, improved sensory recovery and walking behavior, enhanced stimulated amplitude and nerve conduction velocity, and elevated proliferation and neurotrophic expression of RSC 96 Schwann cells. Miconazole was beneficial for nerve regeneration and functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. Muscle Nerve 57: 821-828, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Investigation on Mechanisms of Polymer Enhanced Oil Recovery by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Microscopic Theoretical Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji-Cheng, Zhang; Kao-Ping, Song; Er-Long, Yang; Li, Liu

    2008-01-01

    Polymer flooding is an efficient technique to enhance oil recovery over water flooding. There are lots of discussions regarding the mechanisms for polymer flooding enhancing oil recovery. The main focus is whether polymer flooding can increase sweep efficiency alone, or can increase both of sweep efficiency and displacement efficiency. We present a study on this problem. Oil displacement experiments on 4 natural cores show that polymer flooding can increase oil recovery efficiency by more than 12% over water. Moreover, photos are taken by the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method both after water flooding and after polymer flooding, which show remaining oil saturation distribution at the middle cross section and the central longitudinal section. Analyses of these photos demonstrate that polymer flooding can increase both sweep efficiency and displacement efficiency. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  4. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS®) in Individuals with Diabetes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalawi, Zaina; Laffin, Michael; Gramlich, Leah; Senior, Peter; McAlister, Finlay A

    2017-08-01

    Prevalence of diabetes in surgical patients is 10-40%. It is well recognized that they have higher rates of complications, and longer stays in hospital compared to patients without diabetes. Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) is an evidence-based multimodal surgical care pathway that improves postoperative complications and length of stay in patients without diabetes. This review evaluates the evidence on whether individuals with diabetes would benefit from ERAS implementation. MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and EMBASE searched with no language restrictions applied. Conference proceedings and bibliographies were reviewed. Experts in the field were contacted, and www.clinicaltrials.gov searched for ongoing trials. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) looking at individuals with diabetes undergoing surgery randomized to ERAS ® or conventional care. Non-randomized controlled trials, controlled before-after studies, interrupted time series, and cohort studies with concurrent controls were also considered. Two authors independently screened studies. The electronic search yielded 437 references. After removing duplicates, 376 were screened for eligibility. Conference proceedings and bibliographies identified additional references. Searching www.clinicaltrials.gov yielded 59 references. Contacting experts in the field identified no further studies. Fourteen full articles were assessed and subsequently excluded for the following reasons: used an intervention other than ERAS ® , did not include patients with diabetes, or used an uncontrolled observational design. To date, the effects of ERAS ® on patients with diabetes have not been rigorously evaluated. This review highlights the lack of evidence in this area and provides guidance on design for future studies.

  5. Role of nutrition in performance enhancement and postexercise recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck KL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kathryn L Beck,1 Jasmine S Thomson,2 Richard J Swift,1 Pamela R von Hurst11School of Food and Nutrition, Massey Institute of Food Science and Technology, College of Health, Massey University Albany, Auckland, 2School of Food and Nutrition, Massey Institute of Food Science and Technology, College of Health, Massey University Manawatu, Palmerston North, New ZealandAbstract: A number of factors contribute to success in sport, and diet is a key component. An athlete's dietary requirements depend on several aspects, including the sport, the athlete's goals, the environment, and practical issues. The importance of individualized dietary advice has been increasingly recognized, including day-to-day dietary advice and specific advice before, during, and after training and/or competition. Athletes use a range of dietary strategies to improve performance, with maximizing glycogen stores a key strategy for many. Carbohydrate intake during exercise maintains high levels of carbohydrate oxidation, prevents hypoglycemia, and has a positive effect on the central nervous system. Recent research has focused on athletes training with low carbohydrate availability to enhance metabolic adaptations, but whether this leads to an improvement in performance is unclear. The benefits of protein intake throughout the day following exercise are now well recognized. Athletes should aim to maintain adequate levels of hydration, and they should minimize fluid losses during exercise to no more than 2% of their body weight. Supplement use is widespread in athletes, with recent interest in the beneficial effects of nitrate, beta-alanine, and vitamin D on performance. However, an unregulated supplement industry and inadvertent contamination of supplements with banned substances increases the risk of a positive doping result. Although the availability of nutrition information for athletes varies, athletes will benefit from the advice of a registered dietician or nutritionist

  6. Responsive copolymers for enhanced petroleum recovery. Quarterly technical progress report, December 21, 1994--March 22, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, C.; Hester, R.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to extend the concept of micellar polymerization to more complex systems, and to explore the responsive nature of hydrophobically modified polyelectrolytes by tailoring the microstructure. The synthesis of hydrophobically modified acrylamide/acrylic acid copolymer is described. These types of polymers are of interest as thickening agents utilized in enhanced oil recovery.

  7. Towards the understanding of microbial metabolism in relation to microbial enhanced oil recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2017-01-01

    In this study, Bacillus licheniformis 421 was used as a model organism to understand the effects of microbial cell growth and metabolite production under anaerobic conditions in relation to microbial enhanced oil recovery. The bacterium was able to grow anaerobically on different carbon compounds...

  8. Engineering the biosynthesis of novel rhamnolipids in Escherichia coli for enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, L; Liu, P; Peng, Y; Lin, J; Wang, Q; Ma, Y

    2014-07-01

    The interfacial tension of rhamnolipids and their applications in enhanced oil recovery are dependent on their chemical structures and compositions. To improve their performances of interfacial tension and enhanced oil recovery, the engineered strategies were applied to produce novel rhamnolipids with different chemical structures and compositions. By introducing different key genes for rhamnolipid biosynthesis, Escherichia coli was firstly constructed to produce rhamnolipids that showed different performances in interfacial tension from those from Pseudomonas aeruginosa due to the different fatty acyl compositions. Then, the mutant RhlBs were created by directed evolution and subsequent site-directed mutagenesis and resulted in the production of the novel rhamnolipids with the different performances in interfacial tension as well as enhanced oil recovery. Lastly, computational modelling elucidates that the single amino acid mutation at the position 168 in RhlB would change the volume of binding pocket for substrate and thus affect the selectivity of rhamnolipid formation in E. coli. The novel rhamnolipids that showed the improved performances of interfacial tension and the potential different applications in enhanced oil recovery were successfully produced by engineered E. coli. This study proved that the combination of metabolic engineering and protein engineering is an important engineered strategy to produce many novel metabolites in micro-organisms. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. A Network Model for the Kinetics of Bioclogged Flow Diversion for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Pena, L.A.; Meulenbroek, B.J.; Vermolen, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    After the primary extraction in oil reservoirs up to 60 % of the oil remains trapped in the reservoir (Sen, 2008). Therefore, different mechanisms have been developed to get the oil out to the reservoir. One of these techniques is Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) which is a technique used

  10. Prospects of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery  in Danish chalk rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudyk, Svetlana Nikolayevna; Jørgensen, Leif Wagner; Bah Awasi, Ismail

      Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) uses bacteria, producing gas (CO2), polymers or surfactants to help recover residual oil after the water injection depletes its possibilities. Two strains of Clostridia tyrobutiricum were investigated as possible candidates for MEOR  implementation in Danish...

  11. 76 FR 11402 - Recovery of Delinquent Debts-Treasury Offset Program Enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ...-1213 or TTY 1-800-325- 0778, or visit our Internet site, Social Security Online, at http://www... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Parts 404, 408, 416, and 422 [Docket No. SSA-2010-0010] RIN 0960-AH19 Recovery of Delinquent Debts--Treasury Offset Program Enhancements AGENCY: Social Security...

  12. Can Cold Water Immersion Enhance Recovery in Elite Olympic Weightlifters? An Individualized Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpchen, Jan; Wagner, Maximilian; Ferrauti, Alexander; Kellmann, Michael; Pfeiffer, Mark; Meyer, Tim

    2017-06-01

    We investigated whether cold water immersion (CWI) after intensive training sessions can enhance recovery in elite Olympic weightlifters, taking into account each athlete's individual response pattern. The entire German male Olympic weightlifting national team participated in the study (n = 7), ensuring collection of data from elite athletes only. Using a randomized cross-over design, the athletes went through 2 high-intensity training microcycles consisting of 5 training sessions that were either followed by a CWI or passive recovery. Barbell speed in a snatch pull movement, blood parameters, and subjective ratings of general fatigue and recovery were assessed throughout the study. Physical performance at 2 snatch pull intensities (85% one repetition maximum [1RM]: -0.15% vs. -0.22%, p = 0.94; 90% 1RM: -0.7% vs. +1.23%, p = 0.25) did not differ significantly (condition × time). Although questionnaires revealed a significant decline in the ratings of overall recovery (p creatine kinase: p = 0.53; urea: p = 0.43; cortisol: p = 0.59; testosterone: p = 0.53; testosterone:cortisol ratio: p = 0.69). In general, CWI did not prove to be an effective tool to enhance recovery in elite Olympic weightlifters over a 3-day intensive training period. However, even though the group was rather homogeneous with regard to performance, there were considerable intersubject differences in their response to CWI. It seems that athletes are best advised on a case-by-case basis.

  13. Oil recovery enhancement from fractured, low permeability reservoirs. Annual report 1990--1991, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, S.W.

    1991-12-31

    Joint funding by the Department of Energy and the State of Texas has Permitted a three year, multi-disciplinary investigation to enhance oil recovery from a dual porosity, fractured, low matrix permeability oil reservoir to be initiated. The Austin Chalk producing horizon trending thru the median of Texas has been identified as the candidate for analysis. Ultimate primary recovery of oil from the Austin Chalk is very low because of two major technological problems. The commercial oil producing rate is based on the wellbore encountering a significant number of natural fractures. The prediction of the location and frequency of natural fractures at any particular region in the subsurface is problematical at this time, unless extensive and expensive seismic work is conducted. A major portion of the oil remains in the low permeability matrix blocks after depletion because there are no methods currently available to the industry to mobilize this bypassed oil. The following multi-faceted study is aimed to develop new methods to increase oil and gas recovery from the Austin Chalk producing trend. These methods may involve new geological and geophysical interpretation methods, improved ways to study production decline curves or the application of a new enhanced oil recovery technique. The efforts for the second year may be summarized as one of coalescing the initial concepts developed during the initial phase to more in depth analyses. Accomplishments are predicting natural fractures; relating recovery to well-log signatures; development of the EOR imbibition process; mathematical modeling; and field test.

  14. Repair in schizosaccharomyces pombe as measured by recovery from caffeine enhancement of radiation-induced lethality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentner, N.E.; Werner, M.M.

    1975-01-01

    Inhibition of DNA repair by caffeine is manifested in Schizosaccharomyces pombe wild-type cells as an enhancement of UV- or γ-irradiation-induced lethality. The progress of DNA repair processes involving one or more caffeine-sensitive steps may be conveniently followed by measuring the concomitant decrease of this lethal enhancement effect. By measuring, during post-irradiation incubation, the ability of cells to overcome susceptibility to repair inhibition by caffeine, we have determined the time course and requirements for repair in S. pombe. Recovery began immediately and took 150-200 min after γ-irradiation and more than 500 min after UV-irradiation, for exposures which gave about 10% survival in the absence of caffeine. An incubation medium capable of supporting growth was required for caffeine-sensitive repair; no recovery occurred under liquid holding conditions. Survival curves after various recovery times indicated that a logarithmic phase cell population was homogeneous with respect to caffeine-sensitive repair of both UV- and γ-ray-induced damage. Recovery from caffeine inhibition was compared for cells of different physiological states (logarithmic and stationary phase); although the importance of the physiological state was not the same for the two types of radiation, recovery was found to occur more rapidly in the more radiation-resistant state, in each case. (orig.) [de

  15. Cold water immersion enhances recovery of submaximal muscle function after resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Llion A; Nosaka, Kazunori; Coombes, Jeff S; Peake, Jonathan M

    2014-10-15

    We investigated the effect of cold water immersion (CWI) on the recovery of muscle function and physiological responses after high-intensity resistance exercise. Using a randomized, cross-over design, 10 physically active men performed high-intensity resistance exercise followed by one of two recovery interventions: 1) 10 min of CWI at 10°C or 2) 10 min of active recovery (low-intensity cycling). After the recovery interventions, maximal muscle function was assessed after 2 and 4 h by measuring jump height and isometric squat strength. Submaximal muscle function was assessed after 6 h by measuring the average load lifted during 6 sets of 10 squats at 80% of 1 repetition maximum. Intramuscular temperature (1 cm) was also recorded, and venous blood samples were analyzed for markers of metabolism, vasoconstriction, and muscle damage. CWI did not enhance recovery of maximal muscle function. However, during the final three sets of the submaximal muscle function test, participants lifted a greater load (P work during subsequent training sessions, which could enhance long-term training adaptations. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  16. A call for new standard of care in perioperative gynecologic oncology practice: Impact of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralpeix, Ester; Nick, Alpa M; Meyer, Larissa A; Cata, Juan; Lasala, Javier; Mena, Gabriel E; Gottumukkala, Vijaya; Iniesta-Donate, Maria; Salvo, Gloria; Ramirez, Pedro T

    2016-05-01

    Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs aim to hasten functional recovery and improve postoperative outcomes. However, there is a paucity of data on ERAS programs in gynecologic surgery. We reviewed the published literature on ERAS programs in colorectal surgery, general gynecologic surgery, and gynecologic oncology surgery to evaluate the impact of such programs on outcomes, and to identify key elements in establishing a successful ERAS program. ERAS programs are associated with shorter length of hospital stay, a reduction in overall health care costs, and improvements in patient satisfaction. We suggest an ERAS program for gynecologic oncology practice involving preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative strategies including; preadmission counseling, avoidance of preoperative bowel preparation, use of opioid-sparing multimodal perioperative analgesia (including loco-regional analgesia), intraoperative goal-directed fluid therapy (GDT), and use of minimally invasive surgical techniques with avoidance of routine use of nasogastric tube, drains and/or catheters. Postoperatively, it is important to encourage early feeding, early mobilization, timely removal of tubes and drains, if present, and function oriented multimodal analgesia regimens. Successful implementation of an ERAS program requires a multidisciplinary team effort and active participation of the patient in their goal-oriented functional recovery program. However, future outcome studies should evaluate the efficacy of an intervention within the pathway, include objective measures of symptom burden and control, study measures of functional recovery, and quantify outcomes of the program in relation to the rates of adherence to the key elements of care in gynecologic oncology such as oncologic outcomes and return to intended oncologic therapy (RIOT). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Deprivation and Recovery of Sleep in Succession Enhances Reflexive Motor Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Andreas; Weber, Frederik D; Machner, Bjoern; Talamo, Silke; Scheffelmeier, Sabine; Bethke, Judith; Helmchen, Christoph; Gais, Steffen; Kimmig, Hubert; Born, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Sleep deprivation impairs inhibitory control over reflexive behavior, and this impairment is commonly assumed to dissipate after recovery sleep. Contrary to this belief, here we show that fast reflexive behaviors, when practiced during sleep deprivation, is consolidated across recovery sleep and, thereby, becomes preserved. As a model for the study of sleep effects on prefrontal cortex-mediated inhibitory control in humans, we examined reflexive saccadic eye movements (express saccades), as well as speeded 2-choice finger motor responses. Different groups of subjects were trained on a standard prosaccade gap paradigm before periods of nocturnal sleep and sleep deprivation. Saccade performance was retested in the next morning and again 24 h later. The rate of express saccades was not affected by sleep after training, but slightly increased after sleep deprivation. Surprisingly, this increase augmented even further after recovery sleep and was still present 4 weeks later. Additional experiments revealed that the short testing after sleep deprivation was sufficient to increase express saccades across recovery sleep. An increase in speeded responses across recovery sleep was likewise found for finger motor responses. Our findings indicate that recovery sleep can consolidate motor disinhibition for behaviors practiced during prior sleep deprivation, thereby persistently enhancing response automatization. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Music listening enhances cognitive recovery and mood after middle cerebral artery stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Särkämö, Teppo; Tervaniemi, Mari; Laitinen, Sari; Forsblom, Anita; Soinila, Seppo; Mikkonen, Mikko; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M; Erkkilä, Jaakko; Laine, Matti; Peretz, Isabelle; Hietanen, Marja

    2008-03-01

    We know from animal studies that a stimulating and enriched environment can enhance recovery after stroke, but little is known about the effects of an enriched sound environment on recovery from neural damage in humans. In humans, music listening activates a wide-spread bilateral network of brain regions related to attention, semantic processing, memory, motor functions, and emotional processing. Music exposure also enhances emotional and cognitive functioning in healthy subjects and in various clinical patient groups. The potential role of music in neurological rehabilitation, however, has not been systematically investigated. This single-blind, randomized, and controlled trial was designed to determine whether everyday music listening can facilitate the recovery of cognitive functions and mood after stroke. In the acute recovery phase, 60 patients with a left or right hemisphere middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke were randomly assigned to a music group, a language group, or a control group. During the following two months, the music and language groups listened daily to self-selected music or audio books, respectively, while the control group received no listening material. In addition, all patients received standard medical care and rehabilitation. All patients underwent an extensive neuropsychological assessment, which included a wide range of cognitive tests as well as mood and quality of life questionnaires, one week (baseline), 3 months, and 6 months after the stroke. Fifty-four patients completed the study. Results showed that recovery in the domains of verbal memory and focused attention improved significantly more in the music group than in the language and control groups. The music group also experienced less depressed and confused mood than the control group. These findings demonstrate for the first time that music listening during the early post-stroke stage can enhance cognitive recovery and prevent negative mood. The neural mechanisms potentially

  19. Performance experimental investigation of novel multifunctional nanohybrids on enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibshahi, Reza; Jafari, Arezou; Omidkhah, Mohammadreza; Nezhad, Javad Razavi

    2018-01-01

    The unique characteristics of materials at the nanoscale make them a good candidate to use in the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes. Therefore, in this study, the effect of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube/silica nanohybrids on the oil recovery factor is investigated experimentally and nanofluids were injected into a glass micromodel for the first time. The nanohybrids synthesized by using sol-gel method. Micromodels as microscale apparatuses considered as 2D porous medium. Because they enable visual observation of phase displacement behavior at the pore scale. Distillated water used as the dispersion medium of nanoparticles for nanofluids preparation. A series of runs designed for flooding operations included water injection, carbon nanotube/water injection and two nanohybrids with different weight of MWCNT to the overall weight of the nanohybrid structure (10% and 70%) into the distilled water. Also, the oil recovery factor was considered as the goal parameter to compare the results. It has been found that functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube/silica nanohybrids have a great potential in enhanced oil recovery processes. Results showed that addition of nanohybrids into distillate water causes enhancement of sweep efficiency. In other words, the fingering effect decreases and higher surface of porous medium is in contact with the injected fluid. So the higher amount of oil can produce from the porous medium consequently. By injecting nanofluid with 0.1 wt. % of carbon nanotube, the oil recovery factor increases about 11 % in comparison with water injection alone. Also by increasing the weight of MWCNT to the overall weight of the nanohybrid structure from 10% to 70%, the oil recovery factor increases from 35% to 39%.

  20. Electrophilic acid gas-reactive fluid, proppant, and process for enhanced fracturing and recovery of energy producing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Carlos A.; Heldebrant, David J.; Bonneville, Alain; Jung, Hun Bok; Carroll, Kenneth C.

    2018-01-23

    An electrophilic acid gas-reactive fracturing fluid, proppant, and process are detailed. The fluid expands in volume to provide rapid and controlled increases in pressure that enhances fracturing in subterranean bedrock for recovery of energy-producing materials. The proppant stabilizes fracture openings in the bedrock to enhance recovery of energy-producing materials.

  1. Biosurfactant production by Bacillus subtilis B30 and its application in enhancing oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wahaibi, Yahya; Joshi, Sanket; Al-Bahry, Saif; Elshafie, Abdulkadir; Al-Bemani, Ali; Shibulal, Biji

    2014-02-01

    The fermentative production of biosurfactants by Bacillus subtilis strain B30 and the evaluation of biosurfactant based enhanced oil recovery using core-flood were investigated. Different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, starch, date molasses, cane molasses) were tested to determine the optimal biosurfactant production. The isolate B30 produced a biosurfactant that could reduce the surface tension and interfacial tension to 26.63±0.45 mN/m and 3.79±0.27 mN/m, respectively in less than 12h in both glucose or date molasses based media. A crude biosurfactant concentration of 0.3-0.5 g/l and critical micelle dilution (CMD) values of 1:8 were observed. The biosurfactants gave stable emulsions with wide range of hydrocarbons including light and heavy crude oil. The biosurfactants were partially purified and identified as a mixture of lipopeptides similar to surfactin, using high performance thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The biosurfactants were stable over wide range of pH, salinity and temperatures. The crude biosurfactant preparation enhanced light oil recovery by 17-26% and heavy oil recovery by 31% in core-flood studies. The results are indicative of the potential of the strain for the development of ex situ microbial enhanced oil recovery processes using glucose or date molasses based minimal media. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Accelerating Innovation that Enhances Resource Recovery in the Wastewater Sector: Advancing a National Testbed Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihelcic, James R; Ren, Zhiyong Jason; Cornejo, Pablo K; Fisher, Aaron; Simon, A J; Snyder, Seth W; Zhang, Qiong; Rosso, Diego; Huggins, Tyler M; Cooper, William; Moeller, Jeff; Rose, Bob; Schottel, Brandi L; Turgeon, Jason

    2017-07-18

    This Feature examines significant challenges and opportunities to spur innovation and accelerate adoption of reliable technologies that enhance integrated resource recovery in the wastewater sector through the creation of a national testbed network. The network is a virtual entity that connects appropriate physical testing facilities, and other components needed for a testbed network, with researchers, investors, technology providers, utilities, regulators, and other stakeholders to accelerate the adoption of innovative technologies and processes that are needed for the water resource recovery facility of the future. Here we summarize and extract key issues and developments, to provide a strategy for the wastewater sector to accelerate a path forward that leads to new sustainable water infrastructures.

  3. Optimization of Spore Forming Bacteria Flooding for Enhanced Oil Recovery in North Sea Chalk Reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2015-01-01

    .2-3.8 cm) during bacteria injection. Further seawater flooding after three days shut in period showed that permeability gradually increased in the first two sections of the core and started to decrease in the third section of the core (3.8-6.3 cm). Complete plugging was never observed in our experiments.......Little has been done to study microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) in chalk reservoirs. The present study focused on core flooding experiments to see microbial plugging and its effect on oil recovery. A pressure tapped core holder with pressure ports at 1.2 cm, 3.8 cm, and 6.3 cm from the inlet...

  4. Biosurfactants production and possible uses in microbial enhanced oil recovery and oil pollution remediation: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banat, I.M.

    1995-01-01

    Surfactants are widely used for various purposes in industry, but for many years were mainly chemically synthesized. It has only been in the past few decades that biological surface-active compounds (biosurfactants) have been described. Biosurfactants are gaining prominence and have already taken over for a number of important industrial uses, due to their advantages of biodegradability, production on renewable resources and functionality under extreme conditions; particularly those pertaining during tertiary crude-oil recovery. Conflicting reports exist concerning their efficacy and the economics of both their production and application. The limited successes and applications for biosurfactants production, recovery, use in oil pollution control, oil storage tank clean-up and enhanced oil-recovery are reviewed from the technical point of view. (author)

  5. 1D Simulations for Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery with Metabolite Partitioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Shapiro, Alexander; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a mathematical model describing the process of microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The one-dimensional isothermal model comprises displacement of oil bywater containing bacteria and substrate for their feeding. The bacterial products are both bacteria andmetabolites....... The characteristics for the water phase saturation profiles and the oil recovery curves are elucidated. However, the effect from the surfactant is not necessarily restricted to influence only interfacial tension, but it can also be an approach for changing, e.g., wettability. The distribution coefficient determines...... the time lag, until residual oil mobilization is initialized. It has also been found that the final recovery depends on the distance from the inlet before the surfactant effect takes place. The surfactant effect position is sensitive to changes in maximum growth rate, and injection concentrations...

  6. Investigation of spore forming bacterial flooding for enhanced oil recovery in a North Sea chalk Reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Little has been done to study microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) in chalk reservoirs. The present study focuses on core flooding experiments designed to see microbial plugging and its effect on oil recovery. A pressure tapped core holder was used for this purpose. A spore forming bacteria...... Bacillus licheniformis 421 was used as it was shown to be a good candidate in a previous study. Bacterial spore can penetrate deeper into the chalk rock, squeezing through the pore throats. Our results showed that injection of B. licheniformis 421 as a tertiary oil recovery method, in the residual oil...... saturation state, was able to produce additionally 1.0-2.3% original oil in place (OOIP) in homogeneous cores and 6.9-8.8% OOIP in heterogeneous cores. In addition, the pressure gradient was much higher in the heterogeneous cores, which confirms that bacterial selective plugging plays an important role...

  7. Arabidopsis RNA Polymerase V Mediates Enhanced Compaction and Silencing of Geminivirus and Transposon Chromatin during Host Recovery from Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coursey, Tami; Regedanz, Elizabeth; Bisaro, David M

    2018-04-01

    Plants employ RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) and dimethylation of histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me2) to silence geminiviruses and transposable elements (TEs). We previously showed that canonical RdDM (Pol IV-RdDM) involving RNA polymerases IV and V (Pol IV and Pol V) is required for Arabidopsis thaliana to recover from infection with Beet curly top virus lacking a suppressor protein that inhibits methylation (BCTV L2 - ). Recovery, which is characterized by reduced viral DNA levels and symptom remission, allows normal floral development. Here, we used formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements (FAIRE) to confirm that >90% of BCTV L2 - chromatin is highly compacted during recovery, and a micrococcal nuclease-chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that this is largely due to increased nucleosome occupancy. Physical compaction correlated with augmented cytosine and H3K9 methylation and with reduced viral gene expression. We additionally demonstrated that these phenomena are dependent on Pol V and by extension the Pol IV-RdDM pathway. BCTV L2 - was also used to evaluate the impact of viral infection on host loci, including repressed retrotransposons Ta3 and Athila6A Remarkably, an unexpected Pol V-dependent hypersuppression of these TEs was observed, resulting in transcript levels even lower than those detected in uninfected plants. Hypersuppression is likely to be especially important for natural recovery from wild-type geminiviruses, as viral L2 and AL2 proteins cause ectopic TE expression. Thus, Pol IV-RdDM targets both viral and TE chromatin during recovery, simultaneously silencing the majority of viral genomes and maintaining host genome integrity by enforcing tighter control of TEs in future reproductive tissues. IMPORTANCE In plants, RdDM pathways use small RNAs to target cytosine and H3K9 methylation, thereby silencing DNA virus genomes and transposable elements (TEs). Further, Pol IV-RdDM involving Pol IV and Pol V is a key aspect of host

  8. Microbial Activation of Bacillus subtilis-Immobilized Microgel Particles for Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Han Am; Choi, Sang Koo; Jeong, Eun Sook; Kim, Bohyun; Kim, Hyun Tae; Sung, Won Mo; Kim, Jin Woong

    2016-09-06

    Microbially enhanced oil recovery involves the use of microorganisms to extract oil remaining in reservoirs. Here, we report fabrication of microgel particles with immobilized Bacillus subtilis for application to microbially enhanced oil recovery. Using B. subtilis isolated from oil-contaminated soils in Myanmar, we evaluated the ability of this microbe to reduce the interfacial tension at the oil-water interface via production of biosurfactant molecules, eventually yielding excellent emulsification across a broad range of the medium pH and ionic strength. To safely deliver B. subtilis into a permeable porous medium, in this study, these bacteria were physically immobilized in a hydrogel mesh of microgel particles. In a core flooding experiment, in which the microgel particles were injected into a column packed with silica beads, we found that these particles significantly increased oil recovery in a concentration-dependent manner. This result shows that a mesh of microgel particles encapsulating biosurfactant-producing microorganisms holds promise for recovery of oil from porous media.

  9. The potential of Bacillus licheniformis strains for in situ enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakimov, Michail M.; Timmis, Kenneth N. [Microbial Ecology Group, Division of Microbiology, GBF-National Research Centre for Biotechnology, Braunschweig (Germany); Amro, Mohammed M.; Kessel, Dagobert G. [German Petroleum Institute, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Bock, Michael; Boseker, Klaus [BGR, Federal Institute for Geoscience and Natural Resources, Hannover (Germany); Fredrickson, Herbert L. [Environmental Laboratory, Waterways Experimental Station, USAGE, Vicksburg, MS (United States)

    1997-07-15

    The ability of microorganisms isolated from oil reservoirs to increase oil recovery by in situ growth and metabolism following the injection of laboratory grown microbial cells and nutrients were studied. Four strains isolated from Northern German oil reservoirs at depths of 866 to 1520 m, and identified as Bacillus licheniformis, were characterized taxonomically and physiologically. All strains grew on a variety of substrates at temperatures of up to 55C and at salinities of up to 12% NaCl. Extracellular polymer production occurred both aerobically and anaerobically over a wide range of temperatures, pressures and salinities, though it was optimal at temperatures around 50C and at salinities between 5 and 10% NaCl. Strain BNP29 was able to produce significant amounts of biomass, polymer, fermentation alcohols and acids in batch culture experiments under simulated reservoir conditions. Oil recovery (core flooding) experiments with strain BNP29 and a sucrose-based nutrient were performed with lime-free and lime-containing, oil-bearing sandstone cores. Oil recovery efficiencies varied from 9.3 to 22.1% of the water flood residual oil saturation. Biogenic acid production that accompanied oil production, along with selective plugging, are important mechanisms leading to increased oil recovery, presumably through resulting changes in rock porosity and alteration of wettability. These data show that strain BNP29 exhibits potential for the development of enhanced oil recovery processes

  10. Development of an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Guideline and Implementation Strategy Based on the Knowledge-to-action Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Robin S; Aarts, Mary-Anne; Chung, Frances; Eskicioglu, Cagla; Forbes, Shawn S; Conn, Lesley Gotlib; McCluskey, Stuart; McKenzie, Marg; Morningstar, Beverly; Nadler, Ashley; Okrainec, Allan; Pearsall, Emily A; Sawyer, Jason; Siddique, Naveed; Wood, Trevor

    2015-12-01

    Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocols have been shown to increase recovery, decrease complications, and reduce length of stay. However, they are difficult to implement. To develop and implement an ERAS clinical practice guideline (CPG) at multiple hospitals. A tailored strategy based on the Knowledge-to-action (KTA) cycle was used to develop and implement an ERAS CPG at 15 academic hospitals in Canada. This included an initial audit to identify gaps and interviews to assess barriers and enablers to implementation. Implementation included development of an ERAS guideline by a multidisciplinary group, communities of practice led by multidiscipline champions (surgeons, anesthesiologists, and nurses) both provincially and locally, educational tools, and clinical pathways as well as audit and feedback. The initial audit revealed there was greater than 75% compliance in only 2 of 18 CPG recommendations. Main themes identified by stakeholders were that the CPG must be based on best evidence, there must be increased communication and collaboration among perioperative team members, and patient education is essential. ERAS and Pain Management CPGs were developed by a multidisciplinary team and have been adopted at all hospitals. Preliminary data from more than 1000 patients show that the uptake of recommended interventions varies but despite this, mean length of stay has decreased with low readmission rates and adverse events. On the basis of short-term findings, our results suggest that a tailored implementation strategy based on the KTA cycle can be used to successfully implement an ERAS program at multiple sites.

  11. Enhancing gold recovery from electronic waste via lixiviant metabolic engineering in Chromobacterium violaceum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Song Buck; Natarajan, Gayathri; Rahim, Muhammad Nadjad bin Abdul; Tan, Hwee Tong; Chung, Maxey Ching Ming; Ting, Yen Peng; Yew, Wen Shan

    2013-01-01

    Conventional leaching (extraction) methods for gold recovery from electronic waste involve the use of strong acids and pose considerable threat to the environment. The alternative use of bioleaching microbes for gold recovery is non-pollutive and relies on the secretion of a lixiviant or (bio)chemical such as cyanide for extraction of gold from electronic waste. However, widespread industrial use of bioleaching microbes has been constrained by the limited cyanogenic capabilities of lixiviant-producing microorganisms such as Chromobacterium violaceum. Here we show the construction of a metabolically-engineered strain of Chromobacterium violaceum that produces more (70%) cyanide lixiviant and recovers more than twice as much gold from electronic waste compared to wild-type bacteria. Comparative proteome analyses suggested the possibility of further enhancement in cyanogenesis through subsequent metabolic engineering. Our results demonstrated the utility of lixiviant metabolic engineering in the construction of enhanced bioleaching microbes for the bioleaching of precious metals from electronic waste. PMID:23868689

  12. Polymer as permeability modifier in porous media for enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Shima; Weitz, David

    2017-11-01

    We use confocal microscopy to directly visualize the changes in morphology and mobilization of trapped oil ganglia within a 3D micromodel of porous media upon polymer flooding. Enhanced oil recovery is achieved in polymer flooding with large molecular weight at concentrations close or higher than a critical concentration of polymer. We also measure the fluctuations of the velocity of the displacing fluid and show that the velocities change upon polymer flooding in the whole medium. The changes in the fluid velocities are heterogeneous and vary in different pores, hence only providing enough pressure gradient across a few of the trapped oil ganglia and mobilize them. Our measurements show that polymer flooding is an effective method for enhancing oil recovery due to retention of polymer on the solid surfaces and changing the resistances of the available paths to water.

  13. Contrast-enhanced fast fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MR imaging in patients with brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Kyo; Na, Dong Gyu; Ryoo, Wook Jae; Byun Hong Sik; Yoon, Hye Kyung; Kim, Jong hyun

    2000-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of contrast-enhanced fast fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (fast FLAIR) MR imaging in patients with brain tumors. This study involved 31 patients with pathologically proven brain tumors and nine with clinically diagnosed metastases. In all patients, T2-weighted, fast FLAIR, images were visual contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR images were obtained. Contrast-enhanced fast FLAIR images were visually compared with other MR sequences in terms of tumor conspicuity. In order to distinguish tumor and surrounding edema, contrast-enhanced fast FLAIR images were compared with fast FLAIR and T2-weighted images. The tumor-to- white matter contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs), as demonstrated by T2-weighted, fast FLAIR, contrast-enhanced fast FLAIR and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging, were quantitatively assessed and compared. For the visual assessment of tumor conspicuity, contrast-enhanced fast FLAIR image imaging superior to fast FLAIR in 60% of cases (24/40), and superior to T2-weighted in 70% (28/40). Contrast-enhanced fast FLAIR imaging was inferior to contrast-enhanced T1-weighted in 58% of cases (23/40). For distinguishing between tumor and surrounding edema, contrast-enhanced fast FLAIR imaging was superior to fast FLAIR or T2-weighted in 22 of 27 tumors with peritumoral edema (81%). Quantitatively, CNR was the highest on contrast-enhanced fast FLAIR image and the lowest on fast FLAIR. For the detection of leptomeningeal metastases, contrast-enhanced fast FLAIR was partially superior to contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging in two of three high-grade gliomas. Although contrast-enhanced fast FLAIR imaging should not be seen as a replacement for conventional modalities, it provides additional informaton for assessment of the extent of glial cell tumors and leptomeningeal metastases in patients with brain tumors. (author)

  14. Laparoscopic vs. Open Right Hemicolectomies: Short Term Outcomes within an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Chanpreet Arhi

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Studies that recommend laparoscopic right hemicolectomies within an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programme are based on data from all types of colorectal procedures. This study compares short-term outcomes following right hemicolectomies within an ERAS setting. Methods: Retrospective analysis of elective right hemicolectomies carried out between October 2008 and April 2012. Exclusion criteria:- patients not managed with an ERAS programme; inflammatory bowel disease; ASA IV and...

  15. Protein supplementation may enhance the spontaneous recovery of neurological alterations in patients with ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilani, Roberto; Scocchi, Marco; Iadarola, Paolo; Franciscone, Piero; Verri, Manuela; Boschi, Federica; Pasini, Evasio; Viglio, Simona

    2008-12-01

    To determine whether protein supplementation could enhance neurological recovery in subacute patients with ischaemic stroke. Alimentation-independent patients with ischaemic stroke were randomly allocated to either 21 days of protein supplementation (protein-supplemented group; n=20) or to a spontaneous diet only (control group; n=21) in order to investigate the recovery of neurological changes (measured using the National Institute of Health (NIH) Stroke Scale). Tertiary care rehabilitation in Italy. Forty-two patients (27 male and 15 female; 66.4 +/- 11 years) 16 +/-2 days after the acute event. Supplementation with a hyperproteic nutritional formula (10% protein). NIH Stroke Scale and protein intake. At admission to rehabilitation, both groups of patients were homogeneous for demographic, clinical and functional characteristics. After 21 days from the start of the protocol, the NIH Stroke Scale was found to be enhanced in the group with supplemental proteins (-4.4 +/- 1.5 score versus -3 +/- 1.4 of control group; P<0.01). When expressed as difference (triangle up) between baseline and 21 days, the NIH Stroke Scale correlated negatively with change in protein intake (g/day) (r=-0.50, P= 0.001) and positively with change in carbohydrate/protein ratio (r = +0.40, P=0.01) Protein supplementation may enhance neurological recovery in subacute patients with ischaemic stroke.

  16. Production, Characterization and Application of Bacillus licheniformis W16 Biosurfactant in Enhancing Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanket J. Joshi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The biosurfactant production by Bacillus licheniformis W16 and evaluation of biosurfactant based enhanced oil recovery using core-flood under reservoir conditions were investigated. Previously reported nine different production media were screened for biosurfactant production, and two were further optimized with different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, starch, cane molasses or date molasses, as well as the strain was screened for biosurfactant production during the growth in different media. The biosurfactant reduced the surface tension and interfacial tension to 24.33+0.57mN m-1 and 2.47+0.32mN m-1 respectively within 72h, at 40 C, and also altered the wettability of a hydrophobic surface by changing the contact angle from 55.67°+1.6° to 19.54°+0.96°. The critical micelle dilution values of 4X were observed. The biosurfactants were characterized by different analytical techniques and identified as lipopeptide, similar to lichenysin-A. The biosurfactant was stable over wide range of extreme environmental conditions. The core flood experiments showed that the biosurfactant was able to enhance the oil recovery by 24-26% over residual oil saturation (Sor. The results highlight the potential application of lipopeptide biosurfactant in wettability alteration and microbial enhanced oil recovery processes.

  17. Sophorolipids Production by Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 and its Potential Application in Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafie, Abdulkadir E; Joshi, Sanket J; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Al-Bahry, Saif N; Al-Maqbali, Dua'a; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactant production using Candida bombicola ATCC 22214, its characterization and potential applications in enhancing oil recovery were studied at laboratory scale. The seed media and the production media were standardized for optimal growth and biosurfactant production. The production media were tested with different carbon sources: glucose (2%w/v) and corn oil (10%v/v) added separately or concurrently. The samples were collected at 24 h interval up to 120 h and checked for growth (OD660), and biosurfactant production [surface tension (ST) and interfacial tension (IFT)]. The medium with both glucose and corn oil gave better biosurfactant production and reduced both ST and IFT to 28.56 + 0.42mN/m and 2.13 + 0.09mN/m, respectively within 72 h. The produced biosurfactant was quite stable at 13-15% salinity, pH range of 2-12, and at temperature up to 100°C. It also produced stable emulsions (%E24) with different hydrocarbons (pentane, hexane, heptane, tridecane, tetradecane, hexadecane, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2,2,4,4,6,8-heptamethylnonane, light and heavy crude oil). The produced biosurfactant was extracted using ethyl acetate and characterized as a mixture of sophorolipids (SPLs). The potential of SPLs in enhancing oil recovery was tested using core-flooding experiments under reservoir conditions, where additional 27.27% of residual oil (Sor) was recovered. This confirmed the potential of SPLs for applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery.

  18. BIOTIGER, A NATURAL MICROBIAL PRODUCT FOR ENHANCED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY FROM OIL SANDS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Whitney Jones, W; Charles Milliken, C

    2008-05-27

    BioTiger{trademark} is a unique microbial consortia that resulted from over 8 years of extensive microbiology screening and characterization of samples collected from a century-old Polish waste lagoon. BioTiger{trademark} shows rapid and complete degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, produces novel surfactants, is tolerant of both chemical and metal toxicity and shows good activity at temperature and pH extremes. Although originally developed and used by the U.S. Department of Energy for bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils, recent efforts have proven that BioTiger{trademark} can also be used to increase hydrocarbon recovery from oil sands. This enhanced ex situ oil recovery process utilizes BioTiger{trademark} to optimize bitumen separation. A floatation test protocol with oil sands from Ft. McMurray, Canada was used for the BioTiger{trademark} evaluation. A comparison of hot water extraction/floatation test of the oil sands performed with BioTiger{trademark} demonstrated a 50% improvement in separation as measured by gravimetric analysis in 4 h and a five-fold increase at 25 hr. Since BioTiger{trademark} performs well at high temperatures and process engineering can enhance and sustain metabolic activity, it can be applied to enhance recovery of hydrocarbons from oil sands or other complex recalcitrant matrices.

  19. The enhancement of haemopoietic stem cell recovery in irradiated mice by prior treatment with cyclophosphamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackett, N.M.; Aguado, M.

    1979-01-01

    Studies are reported of the enhancement of stem cell recovery following whole body irradiation as a result of prior administration of cyclophosphamide. It is shown that the much larger enhancement of regeneration observed for the hosts own surviving stem cells, compared to the regeneration of injected bone marrow stem cells, is due to the different numbers of stem cells initiating the regeneration in conjunction with the time course of stem cell regeneration. The results show that the environmental changes produced by cyclophosphamide greatly enhance haemopoietic recovery even though at the dose used this agent is relatively toxic to stem cells. Furthermore it has been shown that the level of stem cell regeneration is nearly independent of the γ-ray dose in the range 3-8 gray (300-800 rad). If human bone marrow should respond similarly it follows that regeneration produced by cytotoxic drugs administered prior to radiation embodies a considerable safety factor as far as recovery of the haemopoietic system is concerned. (author)

  20. A business process for enhanced heavy oil recovery research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, P.; Campbell, M.; Kantzas, A.

    1995-01-01

    Husky Oil's enhanced oil recovery (EOR) research management processes for reducing process development time and increasing investment efficiency were described. The considerations that went into the development of the plan a decade ago were reviewed and new ideas incorporated into the revised plan were presented. Four case studies were presented to illustrate the need for process to reservoir matching. A need for strategic research planning was emphasized. Proposed technologies for enhancement of heavy oil reservoir productivity were presented in tabular form. 1 tab., 7 figs

  1. Effects of a surgical ward care protocol following open colon surgery as part of an enhanced recovery after surgery programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, BoYeoul; Park, SungHee; Park, KyuJoo; Ryoo, SeungBum

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the effects of a standardised care protocol as part of an enhanced recovery after surgery programme on the management of patients who underwent open colon surgery at the University Hospital, South Korea. Patients who undergo open colon surgery often have concerns about their care as they prepare for hospitalisation. By shortening hospital stay lengths, enhanced recovery after surgery programmes could reduce the number of opportunities for patient education and communication with nurses. Therefore, our surgical team developed an enhanced recovery after surgery programme, applied using a care protocol for patients with colorectal cancer, that spans the entire recovery process. A retrospective, comparative study was conducted using a care protocol as part of an enhanced recovery after surgery programme. Comparisons were made before and after the implementation of an enhanced recovery after surgery programme with a care protocol. Records of 219 patients who underwent open colon surgery were retrospectively audited. The records were grouped according to the care protocol used (enhanced recovery after surgery programme with a care protocol or traditional care programme). The outcomes, including postoperative bowel function recovery, postoperative pain control, recovery time and postoperative complications, were compared between two categories. Patients who were managed using the programme with a care protocol had shorter hospital stays, fewer complications, such as postoperative ileus wound infections, and emergency room visits than those who were managed using the traditional care programme. The findings can be used to facilitate the implementation of an enhanced recovery after surgery programme with a care protocol following open colon surgery. We present a care protocol that enables effective management using consistent and standardised education providing bedside care for patients who undergo open colon surgery. This care protocol empowers long

  2. Investigated Miscible CO2 Flooding for Enhancing Oil Recovery in Wettability Altered Chalk and Sandstone Rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabrizy, Vahid Alipour

    2012-07-01

    The thesis addresses oil recovery by miscible CO2 flooding from modified sandstone and chalk rocks. Calcite mineral surface is modified with stearic acid (SA) and asphaltene, and the silicate mineral surfaces are modified with N,N-dimethyldodecylamine (NN-DMDA) and asphaltene. The stability of adsorbed polar components in presence of SO4 2- and Mg2 + ions is also investigated. Recovery from sandstone cores is consistently lower than that from chalk cores saturated with the same oil and flooded with CO2 at all miscible flooding conditions. This may be due to the larger permeability contrasts in sandstone cores, which promote the fingering phenomenon. Miscible CO2 flooding for chalk and sandstone cores with distilled water, as initial water saturation, shows also lower oil recovery than cores saturated with different ions. At higher miscible flooding conditions, higher oil recovery is obtained. However, presence of light components (such as C1 or C3) in oil reduced the recovery. Oil recovery in presence of methane (C1) is lower than that in presence of methane and propane (C1/C3). A ternary diagram was constructed in order to understand the CO2 flooding mechanism(s) at the different flooding conditions and in presence of light components. The side effect of the flooding with CO2 is the probability for asphaltene deposition. An approach based on solubility parameter in the liquid, is used to assess the risk for asphaltene deposition during CO2 miscible flooding. The light components (C1/C3) and higher flooding conditions enhanced the risk for asphaltene instability. It is also shown higher amount of asphaltene deposition in chalk cores than that in sandstone cores at similar miscibility conditions.(au)

  3. Neuro-Simulation Tool for Enhanced Oil Recovery Screening and Reservoir Performance Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Bahrekazemi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the suitable enhanced oil recovery method in an oilfield is one of the decisions which are made prior to the natural drive production mechanism. In some cases, having in-depth knowledge about reservoir’s rock, fluid properties, and equipment is needed as well as economic evaluation. Both putting such data into simulation and its related consequent processes are generally very time consuming and costly.  In order to reduce study cases, an appropriate tool is required for primary screening prior to any operations being performed, to which leads reduction of time in design of ether pilot section or production under field condition. In this research, two different and useful screening tools are presented through a graphical user interface. The output of just over 900 simulations and verified screening criteria tables were employed to design the mentioned tools. Moreover, by means of gathered data and development of artificial neural networks, two dissimilar screening tools for proper assessment of suitable enhanced oil recovery method were finally introduced. The first tool is about the screening of enhanced oil recovery process based on published tables/charts and the second one which is Neuro-Simulation tool, concerns economical evaluation of miscible and immiscible injection of carbon dioxide, nitrogen and natural gas into the reservoir. Both of designed tools are provided in the form of a graphical user interface by which the user, can perceive suitable method through plot of oil recovery graph during 20 years of production, costs of gas injection per produced barrel, cumulative oil production, and finally, design the most efficient scenario.

  4. Methylprednisolone promotes recovery of neurological function after spinal cord injury: association with Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Gong-biao; Niu, Fu-wen; Zhang, Ying-chun; Du, Lin; Liang, Zhi-yuan; Gao, Yuan; Yan, Ting-zhen; Nie, Zhi-kui; Gao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Some studies have indicated that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is activated following spinal cord injury, and expression levels of specific proteins, including low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein-6 phosphorylation, β-catenin, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β, are significantly altered. We hypothesized that methylprednisolone treatment contributes to functional recovery after spinal cord injury by inhibiting apoptosis and activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. In the current study, 30 mg/kg methylprednisolone was injected into rats with spinal cord injury immediately post-injury and at 1 and 2 days post-injury. Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scores showed that methylprednisolone treatment significantly promoted locomotor functional recovery between 2 and 6 weeks post-injury. The number of surviving motor neurons increased, whereas the lesion size significantly decreased following methylprednisolone treatment at 7 days post-injury. Additionally, caspase-3, caspase-9, and Bax protein expression levels and the number of apoptotic cells were reduced at 3 and 7 days post-injury, while Bcl-2 levels at 7 days post-injury were higher in methylprednisolone-treated rats compared with saline-treated rats. At 3 and 7 days post-injury, methylprednisolone up-regulated expression and activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, including low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein-6 phosphorylation, β-catenin, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β phosphorylation. These results indicate that methylprednisolone-induced neuroprotection may correlate with activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:28123427

  5. Evaluating the climate benefits of CO2-enhanced oil recovery using life cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Gregory; Littlefield, James; Marriott, Joe; Skone, Timothy J

    2015-06-16

    This study uses life cycle analysis (LCA) to evaluate the greenhouse gas (GHG) performance of carbon dioxide (CO2) enhanced oil recovery (EOR) systems. A detailed gate-to-gate LCA model of EOR was developed and incorporated into a cradle-to-grave boundary with a functional unit of 1 MJ of combusted gasoline. The cradle-to-grave model includes two sources of CO2: natural domes and anthropogenic (fossil power equipped with carbon capture). A critical parameter is the crude recovery ratio, which describes how much crude is recovered for a fixed amount of purchased CO2. When CO2 is sourced from a natural dome, increasing the crude recovery ratio decreases emissions, the opposite is true for anthropogenic CO2. When the CO2 is sourced from a power plant, the electricity coproduct is assumed to displace existing power. With anthropogenic CO2, increasing the crude recovery ratio reduces the amount of CO2 required, thereby reducing the amount of power displaced and the corresponding credit. Only the anthropogenic EOR cases result in emissions lower than conventionally produced crude. This is not specific to EOR, rather the fact that carbon-intensive electricity is being displaced with captured electricity, and the fuel produced from that system receives a credit for this displacement.

  6. Reactive Transport Modeling of Microbe-mediated Fe (II) Oxidation for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surasani, V.; Li, L.

    2011-12-01

    Microbially Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) aims to improve the recovery of entrapped heavy oil in depleted reservoirs using microbe-based technology. Reservoir ecosystems often contain diverse microbial communities those can interact with subsurface fluids and minerals through a network of nutrients and energy fluxes. Microbe-mediated reactions products include gases, biosurfactants, biopolymers those can alter the properties of oil and interfacial interactions between oil, brine, and rocks. In addition, the produced biomass and mineral precipitates can change the reservoir permeability profile and increase sweeping efficiency. Under subsurface conditions, the injection of nitrate and Fe (II) as the electron acceptor and donor allows bacteria to grow. The reaction products include minerals such as Fe(OH)3 and nitrogen containing gases. These reaction products can have large impact on oil and reservoir properties and can enhance the recovery of trapped oil. This work aims to understand the Fe(II) oxidation by nitrate under conditions relevant to MEOR. Reactive transport modeling is used to simulate the fluid flow, transport, and reactions involved in this process. Here we developed a complex reactive network for microbial mediated nitrate-dependent Fe (II) oxidation that involves both thermodynamic controlled aqueous reactions and kinetic controlled Fe (II) mineral reaction. Reactive transport modeling is used to understand and quantify the coupling between flow, transport, and reaction processes. Our results identify key parameter controls those are important for the alteration of permeability profile under field conditions.

  7. A Review of CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery with a Simulated Sensitivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandadige Samintha Anne Perera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a comprehensive study of the CO2-EOR (Enhanced oil recovery process, a detailed literature review and a numerical modelling study. According to past studies, CO2 injection can recover additional oil from reservoirs by reservoir pressure increment, oil swelling, the reduction of oil viscosity and density and the vaporization of oil hydrocarbons. Therefore, CO2-EOR can be used to enhance the two major oil recovery mechanisms in the field: miscible and immiscible oil recovery, which can be further increased by increasing the amount of CO2 injected, applying innovative flood design and well placement, improving the mobility ratio, extending miscibility, and controlling reservoir depth and temperature. A 3-D numerical model was developed using the CO2-Prophet simulator to examine the effective factors in the CO2-EOR process. According to that, in pure CO2 injection, oil production generally exhibits increasing trends with increasing CO2 injection rate and volume (in HCPV (Hydrocarbon pore volume and reservoir temperature. In the WAG (Water alternating gas process, oil production generally increases with increasing CO2 and water injection rates, the total amount of flood injected in HCPV and the distance between the injection wells, and reduces with WAG flood ratio and initial reservoir pressure. Compared to other factors, the water injection rate creates the minimum influence on oil production, and the CO2 injection rate, flood volume and distance between the flood wells have almost equally important influence on oil production.

  8. An Exogenous Surfactant-Producing Bacillus subtilis Facilitates Indigenous Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peike; Li, Guoqiang; Li, Yanshu; Li, Yan; Tian, Huimei; Wang, Yansen; Zhou, Jiefang; Ma, Ting

    2016-01-01

    This study used an exogenous lipopeptide-producing Bacillus subtilis to strengthen the indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery (IMEOR) process in a water-flooded reservoir in the laboratory. The microbial processes and driving mechanisms were investigated in terms of the changes in oil properties and the interplay between the exogenous B. subtilis and indigenous microbial populations. The exogenous B. subtilis is a lipopeptide producer, with a short growth cycle and no oil-degrading ability. The B. subtilis facilitates the IMEOR process through improving oil emulsification and accelerating microbial growth with oil as the carbon source. Microbial community studies using quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing revealed that the exogenous B. subtilis could live together with reservoir microbial populations, and did not exert an observable inhibitory effect on the indigenous microbial populations during nutrient stimulation. Core-flooding tests showed that the combined exogenous and indigenous microbial flooding increased oil displacement efficiency by 16.71%, compared with 7.59% in the control where only nutrients were added, demonstrating the application potential in enhanced oil recovery in water-flooded reservoirs, in particular, for reservoirs where IMEOR treatment cannot effectively improve oil recovery.

  9. Enhancing recovery of ammonia from swine manure anaerobic digester effluent using gas-permeable membrane technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, P J; Vanotti, M B; Szogi, A A; García-González, M C

    2016-03-01

    Gas-permeable membrane technology is useful to recover ammonia from manure. In this study, the technology was enhanced using aeration instead of alkali chemicals to increase pH and the ammonium (NH4(+)) recovery rate. Digested effluents from covered anaerobic swine lagoons containing 1465-2097 mg NH4(+)-N L(-1) were treated using submerged membranes (0.13 cm(2) cm(-3)), low-rate aeration (120 mL air L-manure(-1) min(-1)) and nitrification inhibitor (22 mg L(-1)) to prevent nitrification. The experiment included a control without aeration. The pH of the manure with aeration rose from 8.6 to 9.2 while the manure without aeration decreased from 8.6 to 8.1. With aeration, 97-99% of the NH4(+) was removed in about 5 days of operation with 96-98% recovery efficiency. In contrast, without aeration it took 25 days to treat the NH4(+). Therefore, the recovery of NH4(+) was five times faster with the low-rate aeration treatment. This enhancement could reduce costs by 70%. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. BioTiger{sup TM} : a natural microbial product for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery from oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.L.; Berry, C.J.; Milliken, C.E.; Jones, W. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation discussed the feasibility of using BioTiger{sup TM} technology to increase hydrocarbon recovery from oil sands. This enhanced ex situ oil recovery processes was initially developed and used by the United States Department of Energy for bioremediation of soils contaminated with oil, but it may also be used to optimize bitumen separation. BioTiger was described as being a unique microbial consortia that has resulted from nearly a decade of extensive microbiology screening and characterization of samples collected from an old waste lagoon. The technology offers rapid and complete degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and produces new surfactants. It is tolerant of both chemical and metal toxicity and has good activity at high temperatures at extreme pH levels. A flotation test protocol with oil sands from Fort McMurray, Alberta was used for the BioTiger evaluation. A comparison of hot water extraction/flotation test of the oil sands performed with BioTiger showed a 50 per cent improvement in separation as measured by gravimetric analysis. BioTiger is well suited for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery from oil sands because it performs well at high temperatures. 8 figs.

  11. High-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS Improves Functional Recovery by Enhancing Neurogenesis and Activating BDNF/TrkB Signaling in Ischemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Luo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS has rapidly become an attractive therapeutic approach for stroke. However, the mechanisms underlying this remain elusive. This study aimed to investigate whether high-frequency rTMS improves functional recovery mediated by enhanced neurogenesis and activation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF/tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB pathway and to compare the effect of conventional 20 Hz rTMS and intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS on ischemic rats. Rats after rTMS were sacrificed seven and 14 days after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO, following evaluation of neurological function. Neurogenesis was measured using specific markers: Ki67, Nestin, doublecortin (DCX, NeuN and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, and the expression levels of BDNF were visualized by Western blotting and RT-PCR analysis. Both high-frequency rTMS methods significantly improved neurological function and reduced infarct volume. Moreover, 20 Hz rTMS and iTBS significantly promoted neurogenesis, shown by an increase of Ki67/DCX, Ki67/Nestin, and Ki67/NeuN-positive cells in the peri-infarct striatum. These beneficial effects were accompanied by elevated protein levels of BDNF and phosphorylated-TrkB. In conclusion, high-frequency rTMS improves functional recovery possibly by enhancing neurogenesis and activating BDNF/TrkB signaling pathway and conventional 20 Hz rTMS is better than iTBS at enhancing neurogenesis in ischemic rats.

  12. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review No. 78, quarter ending March 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This report presents descriptions of various research projects and field projects concerned with the enhanced recovery of petroleum. Contract numbers, principal investigators, company names, and project management information is included.

  13. Intrathecal Morphine for Laparoscopic Segmental Colonic Resection as Part of an Enhanced Recovery Protocol: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, M.V. (Mark V.); Teunissen, A.J.W. (Aart Jan W.); E. van der Harst (Erwin); E.J. Ruijgrok (Elisabeth); R.J. Stolker (Robert)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractBackground and Objectives: Management of postoperative pain after laparoscopic segmental colonic resections remains controversial. We compared 2 methods of analgesia within an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) program. The goal of the study was to investigate whether administration

  14. On the stabilizing role of species diffusion in chemical enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daripa, Prabir; Gin, Craig

    2015-11-01

    In this talk, the speaker will discuss a problem on the stability analysis related to the effect of species diffusion on stabilization of fingering in a Hele-Shaw model of chemical enhanced oil recovery. The formulation of the problem is motivated by a specific design principle of the immiscible interfaces in the hope that this will lead to significant stabilization of interfacial instabilities, there by improving oil recovery in the context of porous media flow. Testing the merits of this hypothesis poses some challenges which will be discussed along with some numerical results based on current formulation of this problem. Several open problems in this context will be discussed. This work is currently under progress. Supported by the grant NPRP 08-777-1-141 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of The Qatar Foundation).

  15. Sacrificial adsorbate for surfactants utilized in chemical floods of enhanced oil recovery operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jr., James S.; Westmoreland, Clyde G.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sacrificial or competitive adsorbate for surfactants contained in chemical flooding emulsions for enhanced oil recovery operations. The adsorbate to be utilized in the method of the present invention is a caustic effluent from the bleach stage or the weak black liquor from the digesters and pulp washers of the kraft pulping process. This effluent or weak black liquor is injected into an oil-bearing subterranean earth formation prior to or concurrent with the chemical flood emulsion and is adsorbed on the active mineral surfaces of the formation matrix so as to effectively reduce adsorption of surfactant in the chemical flood. Alternatively, the effluent or liquor can be injected into the subterranean earth formation subsequent to a chemical flood to displace the surfactant from the mineral surfaces for the recovery thereof.

  16. Activation of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway enhances monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Kun; Nathan Grantham, R.; Trachte, Aaron L.; Mannion, John D.; Wilson, Colleen L.

    2006-01-01

    Monocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium has been reported to be one of the early processes in the development of atherosclerosis. In an attempt to develop strategies to prevent or delay atherosclerosis progression, we analyzed effects of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway on monocyte adhesion to various human endothelial cells. Adhesion of fluorescein-labeled monocytes to various human endothelial cells was analyzed under a fluorescent microscope. Unlike sodium chloride, lithium chloride enhanced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. We further demonstrated that inhibitors for glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β or proteosome enhanced monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. Results of semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) indicated that activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway did not change expression levels of mRNA for adhesion molecules. In conclusion, the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway enhanced monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion without changing expression levels of adhesion molecules

  17. Activin pathway enhances colorectal cancer stem cell self-renew and tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Jun-Hua; Xu, Chengxiong; Sun, Bo; Kang, Sa-Ouk

    2016-10-28

    Activin belongs to transforming growth factor (TGF)-β super family of growth and differentiation factors and activin pathway participated in broad range of cell process. Studies elaborated activin pathway maintain pluripotency in human stem cells and suggest that the function of activin/nodal signaling in self-renew would be conserved across embryonic and adult stem cells. In this study, we tried to determine the effect of activin signaling pathway in regulation of cancer stem cells as a potential target for cancer therapy in clinical trials. A population of colorectal cancer cells was selected by the treatment of activin A. This population of cell possessed stem cell character with sphere formation ability. We demonstrated activin pathway enhanced the colorectal cancer stem cells self-renew and contribute to colorectal cancer progression in vivo. Targeting activin pathway potentially provide effective strategy for colorectal cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of particle shape and size on nanofluid properties for potential Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Mohd Tengku Amran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR in oil and gas industry is very important to increase oil recovery and prolong the lifetime of a reservoir but it has been very costly and losing properties of EOR agent due to harsh condition. Nanoparticles have been used in EOR application since they are not degradable in reservoir condition and used in smaller amount compared to polymer usage. Commonly, EOR techniques are focusing on increasing the sweep efficiency by controlling the mobility ratio between reservoir fluid and injected fluid. Thus, this research aimed to analyze the nanofluid viscosity at different particle size and shape, volumetric concentration and types of dispersing fluid, as well as to determine the oil recovery performance at different nanofluid concentration. The nanofluid viscosity was investigated at nanoparticle sizes of 15nm and 60nm and shapes of 15nm spherical-solid and porous. Five nanofluid samples with concentration ranging from 0.1wt.% to 7wt.% were used to investigate the effect of volumetric concentration. Distilled water, ethanol, ethylene glycol (EG and brine were used for the effect of dispersing fluids. Oil recovery was investigated at five different concentrations of nanofluid samples through flooding test. It was found that viscosity of nanofluid increased with decreasing particle size and increasing volumetric concentration. Solid shape particle and increasing dispersing fluid viscosity resulted in higher nanofluid viscosity. The higher the nanofluid concentration, the higher the oil recovery obtained. It can be concluded that nanofluid properties have been significantly affected by the environment and the particle used for potential EOR application.

  19. STIMULI-RESPONSIVE POLYMERS WITH ENHANCED EFFICIENCY IN RESERVOIR RECOVERY PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles McCormick; Roger Hester

    2004-09-30

    This sixth and final progress report for DOE Award Number DE-FC26-01BC15317 describes research during the period March 01, 2004 through August 31, 2004 performed at the University of Southern Mississippi on ''Stimuli Responsive Polymers with Enhanced Efficiency in Reservoir Recovery'' processes. Significantly, terpolymers that are responsive to changes in pH and ionic strength have been synthesized, characterized, and their solution properties have been extensively examined. Terpolymers composed of acrylamide, a carboxylated acrylamido monomer (AMBA), and a quaternary ammonium monomer (AMBATAC) with balanced compositions of the latter two, exhibit increases in aqueous solution viscosity as NaCl concentration is increased. This increase in polymer coil size can be expected upon injection of this type of polymer into oil reservoirs of moderate-to-high salinity, leading to better mobility control. The opposite effect (loss of viscosity) is observed for conventional polymer systems. Additionally polymer mobility characteristics have been conducted for a number of hydrophilic copolymers utilizing an extensional flow apparatus and size exclusion chromatography. This study reveled that oil recovery enhancement through use of polymers in a water flood is due to the polymer's resistance to deformation as it flows through the reservoir. Individual polymers when in aqueous solution form coils. The larger the polymer's coil size, the greater the polymer's resistance to extensional flow and the more effective the polymer is in enhancing oil recovery. Large coil sizes are obtained by increasing the polymer molecular weight and having macromolecular structures that favor greater swelling of the coil by the aqueous solvent conditions (temperature, pH and electrolyte concentration) existing in the reservoir.

  20. Heterologous production of Pseudomonas aeruginosa rhamnolipid under anaerobic conditions for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, F; Shi, R; Zhao, J; Li, G; Bai, X; Han, S; Zhang, Y

    2015-02-01

    The ex situ application of rhamnolipid to enhance oil recovery is costly and complex in terms of rhamnolipid production and transportation, while in situ production of rhamnolipid is restricted by the oxygen-deficient environments of oil reservoirs. To overcome the oxygen-limiting conditions and to circumvent the complex regulation of rhamnolipid biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an engineered strain Pseudomonas stutzeri Rhl was constructed for heterologous production of rhamnolipid under anaerobic conditions. The rhlABRI genes for rhamnolipid biosynthesis were cloned into a facultative anaerobic strain Ps. stutzeri DQ1 to construct the engineered strain Rhl. Anaerobic production of rhamnolipid was confirmed by thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared analysis. Rhamnolipid product reduced the air-water surface tension to 30.3 mN m(-1) and the oil-water interfacial tension to 0.169 mN m(-1). Rhl produced rhamnolipid of 1.61 g l(-1) using glycerol as the carbon source. Rhl anaerobic culture emulsified crude oil up to EI24 ≈ 74. An extra 9.8% of original crude oil was displaced by Rhl in the core flooding test. Strain Rhl achieved anaerobic production of rhamnolipid and worked well for enhanced oil recovery in the core flooding model. The rhamnolipid produced by Rhl was similar to that of the donor strain SQ6. This is the first study to achieve anaerobic and heterologous production of rhamnolipid. Results demonstrated the potential feasibility of Rhl as a promising strain to enhance oil recovery through anaerobic production of rhamnolipid. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Enhanced Recovery Utilizing Variable Frequency Drives and a Distributed Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randy Peden; Sanjiv Shah

    2005-07-26

    This report describes complete results of the project entitled ''Enhanced Recovery Utilizing Variable Frequency Drives and a Distributed Power System''. This demonstration project was initiated in July 2003 and completed in March 2005. The objective of the project was to develop an integrated power production/variable frequency drive system that could easily be deployed in the oil field that would increase production and decrease operating costs. This report describes all the activities occurred and documents results of the demonstration.

  2. Optimal contant time injection policy for enhanced oil recovery and characterization of optimal viscous profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daripa, Prabir

    2011-11-01

    We numerically investigate the optimal viscous profile in constant time injection policy of enhanced oil recovery. In particular, we investigate the effect of a combination of interfacial and layer instabilities in three-layer porous media flow on the overall growth of instabilities and thereby characterize the optimal viscous profile. Results based on monotonic and non-monotonic viscous profiles will be presented. Time permitting. we will also present results on multi-layer porous media flows for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids and compare the results. The support of Qatar National Fund under a QNRF Grant is acknowledged.

  3. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery-Laboratory Experiments with a Strain of Clostridium tyrobutyricum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimoh, Ismaila Adetunji

    the desired metabolic products needed for enhanced oil recovery. In this study, experiments have been performed with a strain of Clostridium tyrobutyricum. The experiments focused on salinity adaptation, gas production and the ability of microbes to modify rock properties. The result of the experiments showed...... that the strain of Clostridium tyrobutyricum adapted to 10, 30, 50, and 90 g/l before the start of the experiments produce more gas with an increase factor of between 0.39-6.9 for the same salinity condition than the pure culture. The adaptation process also led to the production of a strain 90F which can grow...

  4. Non-isothermal compositional gas flow during carbon dioxide storage and enhanced gas recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ashok; Böettcher, N.; Wang, W.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present the conceptual modeling and the numerical scheme for carbon dioxide storage into nearly depleted gas reservoirs for enhanced gas recovery reasons. For this we develop non-isothermal compositional gas flow model. We used a combined monolithic / staggered coupling scheme...... to solve mass balance equation for the gaseous mixture with heat and fractional mass transport equations. Temperature change resulting from fluid expansion and viscous heat dissipation is included in heat transport in addition to advection and conduction. We have used a modified version of the Peng...

  5. Chemically evolving systems for oil recovery enhancement in heavy oil deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunina, L. K.; Kuvshinov, I. V.; Kuvshinov, V. A.; Stasyeva, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    This work presents the results of laboratory studies and field tests of new physicochemical technologies for enhanced oil recovery of heavy oil fields under natural development conditions and with thermal-steam stimulation using oil-displacing "smart" systems. The systems are based on surfactants and buffer systems. Their rheological and acid-base properties can be regulated by their chemical evolution directly in the formation. Field tests of the technologies carried out on high-viscosity oil deposit in the Usinskoye oilfield have shown that the EOR technologies are environmentally friendly and technologically effective.

  6. Potential of Russian Regions to Implement CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Cherepovitsyn

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper assesses the techno-economic potential of Russia to implement carbon capture and storage technologies that imply the capture of anthropogenic CO2 and its injection into geologic reservoirs for long-term storage. The focus is on CO2 enhanced oil recovery projects that seem to be the most economically promising option of carbon capture and storage. The novelty of the work lies in the formulation of a potential assessment method of CO2 enhanced oil recovery, which allows for establishing a connection between energy production and oil extraction from the viewpoint of CO2 supply and demand. Using linear optimization, the most promising combinations of CO2 sources and sinks are identified and an economic evaluation of these projects is carried out. Based on this information, regions of Russia are ranked according to their prospects in regards to CO2 capture and enhanced oil recovery storage. The results indicate that Russia has a significant potential to utilize its power plants as CO2 sources for enhanced oil recovery projects. It has been estimated that 71 coal-fired power plants, and 185 of the gas-fired power plants of Russia annually produce 297.1 and 309.6 Mt of CO2 that can cover 553.4 Mt of the demand of 322 Russian oil fields. At the same time, the total CO2 storage capacity of the Russian fields is estimated at 7382.6 Mt, however, due to geological and technical factors, only 22.6% can be used for CO2-EOR projects. Of the 183 potential projects identified in the regional analysis phase, 99 were found to be cost-effective, with an average unit cost of € 19.07 per ton of CO2 and a payback period of 8.71 years. The most promising of the estimated regions is characterized by a well-developed energy industry, relatively low transportation costs, numerous large and medium-sized oil fields at the final stages of development, and favorable geological conditions that minimize the cost of injection. Geographically, they are located in the

  7. Fast-track surgery-an update on physiological care principles to enhance recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The concept of fast-track surgery (enhanced recovery programs) has been evolved and been documented to be successful by decreasing length of stay, morbidity and convalescence across procedures. FUTURE STRATEGIES: However, there are several possibilities for further improvement of mo...... of the components of fast-track surgery, where surgical stress, fluid and pain management are key factors. There is an urgent need for better design of studies, especially in minimal invasive surgery to achieve maximal outcome effects when integrated into the fast-track methodology....

  8. Enhancing energy recovery in the steel industry: Matching continuous charge with off-gas variability smoothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dal Magro, Fabio; Meneghetti, Antonella; Nardin, Gioacchino; Savino, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A system based on phase change material is inserted into the off-gas-line of a continuous charge electric arc furnace. • The off-gas temperature profile after scrap preheating is smoothed. • A heat transfer fluid through phase change material containers allows to control overheating issues. • The smoothed off-gas profiles enable efficient downstream power generation. • The recovery system investment cost is decreased due to lower sizes of components. - Abstract: In order to allow an efficient energy recovery from off-gas in the steel industry, the high variability of heat flow should be managed. A temperature smoothing device based on phase change materials at high temperatures is inserted into the off-gas line of a continuous charge electric arc furnace process with scrap preheating. To address overheating issues, a heat transfer fluid flowing through containers is introduced and selected by developing an analytical model. The performance of the smoothing system is analyzed by thermo-fluid dynamic simulations. The reduced maximum temperature of off-gas allows to reduce the size and investment cost of the downstream energy recovery system, while the increased minimum temperature enhances the steam turbine load factor, thus increasing its utilization. Benefits on environmental issues due to dioxins generation are also gained

  9. Numerical investigation of complex flooding schemes for surfactant polymer based enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sourav; Daripa, Prabir

    2015-11-01

    Surfactant-polymer flooding is a widely used method of chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in which an array of complex fluids containing suitable and varying amounts of surfactant or polymer or both mixed with water is injected into the reservoir. This is an example of multiphase, multicomponent and multiphysics porous media flow which is characterized by the spontaneous formation of complex viscous fingering patterns and is modeled by a system of strongly coupled nonlinear partial differential equations with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. Here we propose and discuss a modern, hybrid method based on a combination of a discontinuous, multiscale finite element formulation and the method of characteristics to accurately solve the system. Several types of flooding schemes and rheological properties of the injected fluids are used to numerically study the effectiveness of various injection policies in minimizing the viscous fingering and maximizing oil recovery. Numerical simulations are also performed to investigate the effect of various other physical and model parameters such as heterogeneity, relative permeability and residual saturation on the quantities of interest like cumulative oil recovery, sweep efficiency, fingering intensity to name a few. Supported by the grant NPRP 08-777-1-141 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of The Qatar Foundation).

  10. Air injection low temperature oxidation process for enhanced oil recovery from light oil reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunio, A.H.; Harijan, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper represents EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) methods to recover unswept oil from depleted light oil reservoirs. The essential theme here is the removal of oxygen at LTO (Low Temperature Oxidation) from the injected air for a light oil reservoir by means of some chemical reactions occurring between oil and oxygen. In-situ combustion process, HTO (High Temperature Oxidation) is not suitable for deep light oil reservoirs. In case of light oil reservoirs LTO is more suitable to prevail as comparative to HTO. Few laboratory experimental results were obtained from air injection process, to study the LTO reactions. LTO process is suitable for air injection rate in which reservoir has sufficiently high temperature and spontaneous reaction takes place. Out comes of this study are the effect of LTO reactions in oxygen consumption and the recovery of oil. This air injection method is economic compared to other EOR methods i.e. miscible hydrocarbon gas, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide flooding etc. This LTO air injection process is suitable for secondary recovery methods where water flooding is not feasible due to technical problems. (author)

  11. Environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles for enhanced oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behzadi, Abed; Mohammadi, Aliasghar

    2016-01-01

    Environmentally responsive surface-modified nanoparticles are colloidal nanoparticles coated with, at least, two physicochemically distinct surface groups. Recent advances in the synthesis and production of nanoparticles have enabled the production of environmentally responsive surface-modified nanoparticles with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface groups. These nanoparticles act like colloidal surfactants. In this paper, environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles are synthesized and used for enhancement of oil recovery. For this purpose, silica nanoparticles are coated with polyethylene glycol chains as hydrophilic agent and propyl chains as hydrophobic agent at various quantities, and their ability to modulate oil–water interface properties and oil recovery is examined. Oil–water interfacial tension and water surface tension are decreased by 50 % in the presence of silica nanoparticles coated with both agents. Measuring oil-drop contact angle on oil-wetted glass slides and carbonate rock sections, after aging in various surface-modified silica nanofluids, indicates that the wettability of various oil-wetted surfaces is modified from strongly oil-wet to water-wet. Flooding nanofluids to glass micro-models and pore-level investigations demonstrate that surface modification of silica nanoparticles, specially, with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic agents improves considerably their performance in increasing oil recovery and wettability alteration.

  12. An extended model for ultrasonic-based enhanced oil recovery with experimental validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, Mohammed; Meribout, Mahmoud

    2015-03-01

    This paper suggests a new ultrasonic-based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) model for application in oil field reservoirs. The model is modular and consists of an acoustic module and a heat transfer module, where the heat distribution is updated when the temperature rise exceeds 1 °C. The model also considers the main EOR parameters which includes both the geophysical (i.e., porosity, permeability, temperature rise, and fluid viscosity) and acoustical (e.g., acoustic penetration and pressure distribution in various fluids and mediums) properties of the wells. Extended experiments were performed using powerful ultrasonic waves which were applied for different kind of oils & oil saturated core samples. The corresponding results showed a good matching with those obtained from simulations, validating the suggested model to some extent. Hence, a good recovery rate of around 88.2% of original oil in place (OOIP) was obtained after 30 min of continuous generation of ultrasonic waves. This leads to consider the ultrasonic-based EOR as another tangible solution for EOR. This claim is supported further by considering several injection wells where the simulation results indicate that with four (4) injection wells; the recovery rate may increase up-to 96.7% of OOIP. This leads to claim the high potential of ultrasonic-based EOR as compared to the conventional methods. Following this study, the paper also proposes a large scale ultrasonic-based EOR hardware system for installation in oil fields. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Control of waste well casing vent gas from a thermal enhanced oil recovery operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peavy, M.A.; Braun, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of a waste gas treatment system designed to control emissions from thermally enhanced oil recovery wells. This case study discusses the need, design, installation and operations of the system. Oryx Energy Company (Oryx) operates approximately 940 wells in the Midway-Sunset (MWSS) field under casing vapor recovery systems. The emissions collected from well casing vent gas cotaining hydrocarbons and hydrogen sulfide that are collected and processed through casing vapor recovery skids. These skids are composed of condensers, compressors, and pumps that separate fluids from the waste gas stream. The non-condensible gas is then disposed of in incinerators that reduce the hydrocarbon and sulfur emissions into the atmosphere. Approximately 91,000 lbs/day of hydrocarbon and 10,116 lbs/day of sulfur dioxide are removed from the atmosphere from wells contained within these systems operated by Oryx. These hydrocarbons yield approximately 550 barrels of oil per day (BOPD). The system helps manage the pressure differential from the reservoir into each wellbore and contributes to improved ambient air quality in Kern County, California

  14. Environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behzadi, Abed; Mohammadi, Aliasghar, E-mail: amohammadi@sharif.edu [Sharif University of Technology, Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Environmentally responsive surface-modified nanoparticles are colloidal nanoparticles coated with, at least, two physicochemically distinct surface groups. Recent advances in the synthesis and production of nanoparticles have enabled the production of environmentally responsive surface-modified nanoparticles with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface groups. These nanoparticles act like colloidal surfactants. In this paper, environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles are synthesized and used for enhancement of oil recovery. For this purpose, silica nanoparticles are coated with polyethylene glycol chains as hydrophilic agent and propyl chains as hydrophobic agent at various quantities, and their ability to modulate oil–water interface properties and oil recovery is examined. Oil–water interfacial tension and water surface tension are decreased by 50 % in the presence of silica nanoparticles coated with both agents. Measuring oil-drop contact angle on oil-wetted glass slides and carbonate rock sections, after aging in various surface-modified silica nanofluids, indicates that the wettability of various oil-wetted surfaces is modified from strongly oil-wet to water-wet. Flooding nanofluids to glass micro-models and pore-level investigations demonstrate that surface modification of silica nanoparticles, specially, with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic agents improves considerably their performance in increasing oil recovery and wettability alteration.

  15. Experimental study on electromagnetic-assisted ZnO nanofluid flooding for enhanced oil recovery (EOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Latiff, Noor Rasyada; Alnarabiji, Mohamad Sahban

    2018-01-01

    Recently, nano-EOR has emerged as a new frontier for improved and enhanced oil recovery (IOR & EOR). Despite their benefits, the nanoparticles tend to agglomerate at reservoir conditions which cause their detachment from the oil/water interface, and are consequently retained rather than transported through a porous medium. Dielectric nanoparticles including ZnO have been proposed to be a good replacement for EOR due to their high melting point and thermal properties. But more importantly, these particles can be polarized under electromagnetic (EM) irradiation, which provides an innovative smart Nano-EOR process denoted as EM-Assisted Nano-EOR. In this study, parameters involved in the oil recovery mechanism under EM waves, such as reducing mobility ratio, lowering interfacial tensions (IFT) and altering wettability were investigated. Two-phase displacement experiments were performed in sandpacks under the water-wet condition at 95°C, with permeability in the range of 265–300 mD. A crude oil from Tapis oil field was employed; while ZnO nanofluids of two different particle sizes (55.7 and 117.1 nm) were prepared using 0.1 wt. % nanoparticles that dispersed into brine (3 wt. % NaCl) along with SDBS as a dispersant. In each flooding scheme, three injection sequential scenarios have been conducted: (i) brine flooding as a secondary process, (ii) surfactant/nano/EM-assisted nano flooding, and (iii) second brine flooding to flush nanoparticles. Compare with surfactant flooding (2% original oil in place/OOIP) as tertiary recovery, nano flooding almost reaches 8.5–10.2% of OOIP. On the other hand, EM-assisted nano flooding provides an incremental oil recovery of approximately 9–10.4% of OOIP. By evaluating the contact angle and interfacial tension, it was established that the degree of IFT reduction plays a governing role in the oil displacement mechanism via nano-EOR, compare to mobility ratio. These results reveal a promising way to employ water-based ZnO nanofluid

  16. Experimental study on electromagnetic-assisted ZnO nanofluid flooding for enhanced oil recovery (EOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil, Muhammad; Lee, Keanchuan; Mohd Zaid, Hasnah; Ahmad Latiff, Noor Rasyada; Alnarabiji, Mohamad Sahban

    2018-01-01

    Recently, nano-EOR has emerged as a new frontier for improved and enhanced oil recovery (IOR & EOR). Despite their benefits, the nanoparticles tend to agglomerate at reservoir conditions which cause their detachment from the oil/water interface, and are consequently retained rather than transported through a porous medium. Dielectric nanoparticles including ZnO have been proposed to be a good replacement for EOR due to their high melting point and thermal properties. But more importantly, these particles can be polarized under electromagnetic (EM) irradiation, which provides an innovative smart Nano-EOR process denoted as EM-Assisted Nano-EOR. In this study, parameters involved in the oil recovery mechanism under EM waves, such as reducing mobility ratio, lowering interfacial tensions (IFT) and altering wettability were investigated. Two-phase displacement experiments were performed in sandpacks under the water-wet condition at 95°C, with permeability in the range of 265-300 mD. A crude oil from Tapis oil field was employed; while ZnO nanofluids of two different particle sizes (55.7 and 117.1 nm) were prepared using 0.1 wt. % nanoparticles that dispersed into brine (3 wt. % NaCl) along with SDBS as a dispersant. In each flooding scheme, three injection sequential scenarios have been conducted: (i) brine flooding as a secondary process, (ii) surfactant/nano/EM-assisted nano flooding, and (iii) second brine flooding to flush nanoparticles. Compare with surfactant flooding (2% original oil in place/OOIP) as tertiary recovery, nano flooding almost reaches 8.5-10.2% of OOIP. On the other hand, EM-assisted nano flooding provides an incremental oil recovery of approximately 9-10.4% of OOIP. By evaluating the contact angle and interfacial tension, it was established that the degree of IFT reduction plays a governing role in the oil displacement mechanism via nano-EOR, compare to mobility ratio. These results reveal a promising way to employ water-based ZnO nanofluid for

  17. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery: EOR thermal processes. Seventh Amendment and Extension to Annex 4, Enhanced oil recovery thermal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, T B [USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States); Colonomos, P [INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1993-02-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Seventh Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 50 through 55. The first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh reports on Annex IV, Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5 and IV-6 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-89/l/SP, DOE/BC-90/l/SP, and DOE/BC-92/l/SP) contain the results for the first 49 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, December 1989, and October 1991, respectively. Each task report has been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. Importance of fines in smart water enhanced oil recovery (SmW-EOR) for chalk outcrops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    In SmW-EOR it is generally believed that precipitation of brines must be avoided since it can have a negative impact on the SmW sweep efficiency. But substitution of Mg2+ by Ca2+ on calcite surfaces (a well-accepted phenomenon) can change the brine combination and enhance the possibility of fine ......W-EOR experiments reported in literature. Both the amount of available soluble SO4 2- (aq) in the solution and the amount of CaSO4 precipitation has been calculated and correlated to the corresponding oil recovery.......In SmW-EOR it is generally believed that precipitation of brines must be avoided since it can have a negative impact on the SmW sweep efficiency. But substitution of Mg2+ by Ca2+ on calcite surfaces (a well-accepted phenomenon) can change the brine combination and enhance the possibility of fine...

  19. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. Annual report, 1992--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasan, D.T.

    1994-08-01

    In this report, the authors present the results of experimental and theoretical studies in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. The overall objective of this work is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12.0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultralow interfacial tension. In addition, the authors have (1) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, (2) investigated the mechanisms for spontaneous emulsification, (3) developed a technique to monitor low water content in oil, and (4) developed a technique to study water-in-oil emulsion film properties.

  20. Why Does Disaster Recovery Work Influence Mental Health?: Pathways through Physical Health and Household Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Kwok, Richard K; Payne, Julianne; Engel, Lawrence S; Galea, Sandro; Sandler, Dale P

    2016-12-01

    Disaster recovery work increases risk for mental health problems, yet the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. We explored links from recovery work to post-traumatic stress (PTS), major depression (MD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms through physical health symptoms and household income in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. As part of the NIEHS GuLF STUDY, participants (N = 10,141) reported on cleanup work activities, spill-related physical health symptoms, and household income at baseline, and mental health symptoms an average of 14.69 weeks (SD = 16.79) thereafter. Cleanup work participation was associated with higher physical health symptoms, which in turn were associated with higher PTS, MD, and GAD symptoms. Similar pattern of results were found in models including workers only and investigating the influence of longer work duration and higher work-related oil exposure on mental health symptoms. In addition, longer worker duration and higher work-related oil exposure were associated with higher household income, which in turn was associated with lower MD and GAD symptoms. These findings suggest that physical health symptoms contribute to workers' risk for mental health symptoms, while higher household income, potentially from more extensive work, might mitigate risk. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  1. Plerixafor (a CXCR4 antagonist following myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation enhances hematopoietic recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M. B. Green

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The binding of CXCR4 with its ligand (stromal-derived factor-1 maintains hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs in a quiescent state. We hypothesized that blocking CXCR4/SDF-1 interaction after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT promotes hematopoiesis by inducing HSC proliferation. Methods We conducted a phase I/II trial of plerixafor on hematopoietic cell recovery following myeloablative allogeneic HSCT. Patients with hematologic malignancies receiving myeloablative conditioning were enrolled. Plerixafor 240 μg/kg was administered subcutaneously every other day beginning day +2 until day +21 or until neutrophil recovery. The primary efficacy endpoints of the study were time to absolute neutrophil count >500/μl and platelet count >20,000/μl. The cumulative incidence of neutrophil and platelet engraftment of the study cohort was compared to that of a cohort of 95 allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant recipients treated during the same period of time and who received similar conditioning and graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. Results Thirty patients received plerixafor following peripheral blood stem cell (n = 28 (PBSC or bone marrow (n = 2 transplantation. Adverse events attributable to plerixafor were mild and indistinguishable from effects of conditioning. The kinetics of neutrophil and platelet engraftment, as demonstrated by cumulative incidence, from the 28 study subjects receiving PBSC showed faster neutrophil (p = 0.04 and platelet recovery >20 K (p = 0.04 compared to the controls. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that plerixafor can be given safely following myeloablative HSCT. It provides proof of principle that blocking CXCR4 after HSCT enhances hematopoietic recovery. Larger, confirmatory studies in other settings are warranted. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01280955

  2. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery and Wettability Research Program. Annual report, FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bala, G.A.; Barrett, K.B.; Eastman, S.L.; Herd, M.D.; Jackson, J.D.; Robertson, E.P.; Thomas, C.P.

    1993-09-01

    This report covers research results for fiscal year 1991 for the Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) and Wettability Research Program conducted by EG&G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory ONEL) for the US Department of Energy Idaho Field Office (DOE-ID). The program is funded by the Assistant Secretary of Fossil Energy, and managed by DOE-ID and the Bartlesville Project Office (BPO). The objectives of this multi-year program are to develop MEOR systems for application to reservoirs containing medium to heavy crude oils and to design and implement an industry cost-shared field demonstration project of the developed technology. An understanding of the controlling mechanisms will first be developed through the use of laboratory scale testing to determine the ability of microbially mediated processes to recover oil under reservoir conditions and to develop the design criteria for scale-up to the field. Concurrently with this work, the isolation and characterization of microbial species collected from various locations including target oil field environments is underway to develop more effective oil recovery systems for specific applications. Research focus includes the study of biogenic product and formation souring processes including mitigation and prevention. Souring research performed in FY 1991 also included the development of microsensor probe technology for the detection of total sulfide in collaboration with the Montana State University Center for Interfacial Microbial Process Engineering (CIMPE). Wettability research is a multi-year collaborative effort with the New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center (NMPRRC) at the New Mexico institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM to evaluate reservoir wettability and its effects on oil recovery. Results from the wettability research will be applied to determine if alteration of wettability is a significant contributing mechanism for MEOR systems.

  3. Efficient Techniques of Sparse Signal Analysis for Enhanced Recovery of Information in Biomedical Engineering and Geosciences

    KAUST Repository

    Sana, Furrukh

    2016-11-01

    Sparse signals are abundant among both natural and man-made signals. Sparsity implies that the signal essentially resides in a small dimensional subspace. The sparsity of the signal can be exploited to improve its recovery from limited and noisy observations. Traditional estimation algorithms generally lack the ability to take advantage of signal sparsity. This dissertation considers several problems in the areas of biomedical engineering and geosciences with the aim of enhancing the recovery of information by exploiting the underlying sparsity in the problem. The objective is to overcome the fundamental bottlenecks, both in terms of estimation accuracies and required computational resources. In the first part of dissertation, we present a high precision technique for the monitoring of human respiratory movements by exploiting the sparsity of wireless ultra-wideband signals. The proposed technique provides a novel methodology of overcoming the Nyquist sampling constraint and enables robust performance in the presence of noise and interferences. We also present a comprehensive framework for the important problem of extracting the fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) signals from abdominal ECG recordings of pregnant women. The multiple measurement vectors approach utilized for this purpose provides an efficient mechanism of exploiting the common structure of ECG signals, when represented in sparse transform domains, and allows leveraging information from multiple ECG electrodes under a joint estimation formulation. In the second part of dissertation, we adopt sparse signal processing principles for improved information recovery in large-scale subsurface reservoir characterization problems. We propose multiple new algorithms for sparse representation of the subsurface geological structures, incorporation of useful prior information in the estimation process, and for reducing computational complexities of the problem. The techniques presented here enable significantly

  4. Enhanced recovery of subsurface geological structures using compressed sensing and the Ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Sana, Furrukh

    2015-07-26

    Recovering information on subsurface geological features, such as flow channels, holds significant importance for optimizing the productivity of oil reservoirs. The flow channels exhibit high permeability in contrast to low permeability rock formations in their surroundings, enabling formulation of a sparse field recovery problem. The Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a widely used technique for the estimation of subsurface parameters, such as permeability. However, the EnKF often fails to recover and preserve the channel structures during the estimation process. Compressed Sensing (CS) has shown to significantly improve the reconstruction quality when dealing with such problems. We propose a new scheme based on CS principles to enhance the reconstruction of subsurface geological features by transforming the EnKF estimation process to a sparse domain representing diverse geological structures. Numerical experiments suggest that the proposed scheme provides an efficient mechanism to incorporate and preserve structural information in the estimation process and results in significant enhancement in the recovery of flow channel structures.

  5. SolarOil Project, Phase I preliminary design report. [Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccaglini, G.; Bass, J.; Neill, J.; Nicolayeff, V.; Openshaw, F.

    1980-03-01

    The preliminary design of the Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery (SolarOil) Plant is described in this document. This plant is designed to demonstrate that using solar thermal energy is technically feasible and economically viable in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The SolarOil Plant uses the fixed mirror solar concentrator (FMSC) to heat high thermal capacity oil (MCS-2046) to 322/sup 0/C (611/sup 0/F). The hot fluid is pumped from a hot oil storage tank (20 min capacity) through a once-through steam generator which produces 4.8 MPa (700 psi) steam at 80% quality. The plant net output, averaged over 24 hr/day for 365 days/yr, is equivalent to that of a 2.4 MW (8.33 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr) oil-fired steam generator having an 86% availability. The net plant efficiency is 57.3% at equinox noon, a 30%/yr average. The plant will be demonstrated at an oilfield site near Oildale, California.

  6. Production, Characterization, and Application of Bacillus licheniformis W16 Biosurfactant in Enhancing Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sanket J; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Al-Bahry, Saif N; Elshafie, Abdulkadir E; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Al-Bahri, Asma; Al-Mandhari, Musallam S

    2016-01-01

    The biosurfactant production by Bacillus licheniformis W16 and evaluation of biosurfactant based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) using core-flood under reservoir conditions were investigated. Previously reported nine different production media were screened for biosurfactant production, and two were further optimized with different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, starch, cane molasses, or date molasses), as well as the strain was screened for biosurfactant production during the growth in different media. The biosurfactant reduced the surface tension and interfacial tension to 24.33 ± 0.57 mN m -1 and 2.47 ± 0.32 mN m -1 respectively within 72 h, at 40°C, and also altered the wettability of a hydrophobic surface by changing the contact angle from 55.67 ± 1.6 to 19.54°± 0.96°. The critical micelle dilution values of 4X were observed. The biosurfactants were characterized by different analytical techniques and identified as lipopeptide, similar to lichenysin-A. The biosurfactant was stable over wide range of extreme environmental conditions. The core flood experiments showed that the biosurfactant was able to enhance the oil recovery by 24-26% over residual oil saturation (S or ). The results highlight the potential application of lipopeptide biosurfactant in wettability alteration and microbial EOR processes.

  7. Acoustic wave emission for enhanced oil recovery (WAVE.O.R.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichmann, S.; Amro, M. [TU Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany); Giese, R.; Jaksch, K.; Krauss, F.; Krueger, K.; Jurczyk, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam - Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ, Potsdam (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    In the project WAVE.O.R the potential of acoustic waves to enhance oil recovery was reviewed. The project focused on laboratory experiments of the oil displacement in sandstone cores under acoustic stimulation. Additionally, the Seismic Prediction While Drilling (SPWD) borehole device prototype was set up for a feasibility field test. The laboratory experiments showed that, depending on the stimulation frequency, acoustic stimulation allows for an enhanced oil recovery. For single frequency stimulation a mean increase of 3 % pore volumes was observed at distinguished frequencies. A cyclic stimulation, where two of these frequencies were combined, an increase of 5% pore volume was observed. The SPWD borehole device was tested and adjusted during feasibility tests in the GFZ underground laboratory in the research and education mine ''Reiche Zeche'' of the TU Bergakademie Freiberg and in the GFZ KTB-Deep Laboratory in Windischeschenbach. The first successful test of the device under realistic conditions was performed at the test site ''Piana di Toppo'' of the OGS Trieste, Italy.

  8. MEOR (microbial enhanced oil recovery) data base and evaluation of reservoir characteristics for MEOR projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, R.S.

    1989-09-01

    One aspect of NIPER's microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) research program has been focused on obtaining all available information regarding the use of microorganisms in enhanced oil recovery field projects. The data have been evaluated in order to construct a data base of MEOR field projects. The data base has been used in this report to present a list of revised reservoir screening criteria for MEOR field processes. This list is by no means complete; however, until more information is available from ongoing field tests, it represents the best available data to date. The data base has been studied in this report in order to determine any significant reports from MEOR field projects where the microbial treatment was unsuccessful. Such information could indicate limitations of MEOR processes. The types of reservoir information sought from these projects that could be limitations of microorganisms include reservoir permeability, salinity, temperature, and high concentrations of minerals in the rock such as selenium, arsenic, or mercury. Unfortunately, most of the MEOR field projects to date have not reported this type of information; thus we still cannot assess field limitations until more projects report these data. 7 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  9. Applicability of anaerobic nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation to microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongbo; Carlson, Han K; Coates, John D

    2013-08-06

    Microbial processes that produce solid-phase minerals could be judiciously applied to modify rock porosity with subsequent alteration and improvement of floodwater sweep in petroleum reservoirs. However, there has been little investigation of the application of this to enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Here, we investigate a unique approach of altering reservoir petrology through the biogenesis of authigenic rock minerals. This process is mediated by anaerobic chemolithotrophic nitrate-dependent Fe(II)-oxidizing microorganisms that precipitate iron minerals from the metabolism of soluble ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) coupled to the reduction of nitrate. This mineral biogenesis can result in pore restriction and reduced pore throat diameter. Advantageously and unlike biomass plugs, these biominerals are not susceptible to pressure or thermal degradation. Furthermore, they do not require continual substrate addition for maintenance. Our studies demonstrate that the biogenesis of insoluble iron minerals in packed-bed columns results in effective hydrology alteration and homogenization of heterogeneous flowpaths upon stimulated microbial Fe(2+) biooxidation. We also demonstrate almost 100% improvement in oil recovery from hydrocarbon-saturated packed-bed columns as a result of this metabolism. These studies represent a novel departure from traditional microbial EOR approaches and indicate the potential for nitrate-dependent Fe(2+) biooxidation to improve volumetric sweep efficiency and enhance both the quality and quantity of oil recovered.

  10. Enhanced recovery of subsurface geological structures using compressed sensing and the Ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Sana, Furrukh; Katterbauer, Klemens; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Recovering information on subsurface geological features, such as flow channels, holds significant importance for optimizing the productivity of oil reservoirs. The flow channels exhibit high permeability in contrast to low permeability rock formations in their surroundings, enabling formulation of a sparse field recovery problem. The Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a widely used technique for the estimation of subsurface parameters, such as permeability. However, the EnKF often fails to recover and preserve the channel structures during the estimation process. Compressed Sensing (CS) has shown to significantly improve the reconstruction quality when dealing with such problems. We propose a new scheme based on CS principles to enhance the reconstruction of subsurface geological features by transforming the EnKF estimation process to a sparse domain representing diverse geological structures. Numerical experiments suggest that the proposed scheme provides an efficient mechanism to incorporate and preserve structural information in the estimation process and results in significant enhancement in the recovery of flow channel structures.

  11. Acoustic wave emission for enhanced oil recovery (WAVE.O.R.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichmann, S.; Amro, M.; Giese, R.; Jaksch, K.; Krauss, F.; Krueger, K.; Jurczyk, A.

    2016-09-01

    In the project WAVE.O.R the potential of acoustic waves to enhance oil recovery was reviewed. The project focused on laboratory experiments of the oil displacement in sandstone cores under acoustic stimulation. Additionally, the Seismic Prediction While Drilling (SPWD) borehole device prototype was set up for a feasibility field test. The laboratory experiments showed that, depending on the stimulation frequency, acoustic stimulation allows for an enhanced oil recovery. For single frequency stimulation a mean increase of 3 % pore volumes was observed at distinguished frequencies. A cyclic stimulation, where two of these frequencies were combined, an increase of 5% pore volume was observed. The SPWD borehole device was tested and adjusted during feasibility tests in the GFZ underground laboratory in the research and education mine ''Reiche Zeche'' of the TU Bergakademie Freiberg and in the GFZ KTB-Deep Laboratory in Windischeschenbach. The first successful test of the device under realistic conditions was performed at the test site ''Piana di Toppo'' of the OGS Trieste, Italy.

  12. Integrated Mid-Continent Carbon Capture, Sequestration & Enhanced Oil Recovery Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian McPherson

    2010-08-31

    A consortium of research partners led by the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration and industry partners, including CAP CO2 LLC, Blue Source LLC, Coffeyville Resources, Nitrogen Fertilizers LLC, Ash Grove Cement Company, Kansas Ethanol LLC, Headwaters Clean Carbon Services, Black & Veatch, and Schlumberger Carbon Services, conducted a feasibility study of a large-scale CCS commercialization project that included large-scale CO{sub 2} sources. The overall objective of this project, entitled the 'Integrated Mid-Continent Carbon Capture, Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project' was to design an integrated system of US mid-continent industrial CO{sub 2} sources with CO{sub 2} capture, and geologic sequestration in deep saline formations and in oil field reservoirs with concomitant EOR. Findings of this project suggest that deep saline sequestration in the mid-continent region is not feasible without major financial incentives, such as tax credits or otherwise, that do not exist at this time. However, results of the analysis suggest that enhanced oil recovery with carbon sequestration is indeed feasible and practical for specific types of geologic settings in the Midwestern U.S.

  13. Nutrition adequacy in enhanced recovery after surgery: a single academic center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Chelsia; Nguyen, Thi Haiyen; Liberman, A Sender; Carli, Francesco

    2015-06-01

    A prospective observational study was initiated to determine the prevalence of nutrition risk before surgery and assess nutrition adequacy of food choices after elective colorectal surgery. Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment was used to screen all preoperative clinic patients (n = 70) scheduled for elective colorectal surgery. Adequacy of dietary intake (n = 40) was determined for the first 3 postoperative days by estimating total energy and protein intake from leftover food at each meal based on standard hospital portions with food composition tables. Food access questionnaire provided a rationale for observed food intake. All patients received Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) and room service system care. Before surgery, 63% of patients were considered well-nourished, 29% suspected or moderately undernourished, and 8% severely undernourished. Fifty-one percent of patients scored > 4 on the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment, indicating requirement for dietary intervention or symptom management. On average, 77% ± 27%, 63% ± 28%, and 92% ± 39% of energy requirements were met on postoperative days 1, 2, and 3, respectively; conversely, 55% ± 24%, 43% ± 16%, and 45% ± 12% of protein requirements were met. Most common reasons for missed meals included loss of appetite and feelings of fatigue or worry. Preoperative nutrition risk tended to result in a greater 30-day hospital readmission rate compared to well-nourished patients (P = .07). A third of patients scheduled for elective colorectal surgery were at nutrition risk. An acceptable intake of dietary protein was not achieved during the first 3 days of hospitalization. Preoperative nutrition education, as part of Enhanced Recovery Programs, may be useful to optimize nutrition status before surgery to mitigate clinical consequences associated with undernutrition and empower patients to make adequate food choices for recovery. NCT 01727570. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and

  14. Microbial mineral illization of montmorillonite in low-permeability oil reservoirs for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Kai; Sun, Shanshan; Xiao, Meng; Liu, Tongjing; Xu, Quanshu; Dong, Honghong; Wang, Di; Gong, Yejing; Sha, Te; Hou, Jirui; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Fu, Pengcheng

    2018-05-11

    Microbial mineral illization has been investigated for its role in the extraction and recovery of metals from ores. Here we report our application of mineral bioillization for the microbial enhanced oil recovery in low-permeability oil reservoirs. It aimed to reveal the etching mechanism of the four Fe (III)-reducing microbial strains under anaerobic growth conditions on the Ca-montmorillonite. The mineralogical characterization of the Ca-montmorillonite was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer. Results showed that the microbial strains could efficiently reduce Fe (III) at an optimal rate of 71 %, and alter the crystal lattice structure of the lamella to promote the interlayer cation exchange, and to efficiently inhibit the Ca-montmorillonite swelling at an inhibitory rate of 48.9 %. Importance Microbial mineral illization is ubiquitous in the natural environment. Microbes in low-permeability reservoirs are able to enable the alteration of the structure and phase of the Fe-poor minerals by reducing Fe (III) and inhibiting clay swelling which is still poorly studied. This study aimed to reveal the interaction mechanism between Fe (III)-reducing bacterial strains and Ca-montmorillonite under anaerobic atmosphere, and to investigate the extent and rates of Fe (III) reduction and phase changes with their activities. Application of Fe (III)-reducing bacteria will provide a new way to inhibit clay swelling, to elevate reservoir permeability, and to reduce pore throat resistance after water flooding for enhanced oil recovery in low-permeability reservoirs. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Fish oil enhances recovery of intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity in chronic rejection of intestinal transplant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiurong Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The intestinal chronic rejection (CR is the major limitation to long-term survival of transplanted organs. This study aimed to investigate the interaction between intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity in chronic rejection of intestinal transplantation, and to find out whether fish oil enhances recovery of intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The luminal and mucosal microbiota composition of CR rats were characterized by DGGE analysis at 190 days after intestinal transplant. The specific bacterial species were determined by sequence analysis. Furthermore, changes in the localization of intestinal TJ proteins were examined by immunofluorescent staining. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that gut microbiota in CR rats had a shift towards Escherichia coli, Bacteroides spp and Clostridium spp and a decrease in the abundance of Lactobacillales bacteria in the intestines. Fish oil supplementation could enhance the recovery of gut microbiota, showing a significant decrease of gut bacterial proportions of E. coli and Bacteroides spp and an increase of Lactobacillales spp. In addition, CR rats showed pronounced alteration of tight junction, depicted by marked changes in epithelial cell ultrastructure and redistribution of occuldin and claudins as well as disruption in TJ barrier function. Fish oil administration ameliorated disruption of epithelial integrity in CR, which was associated with an improvement of the mucosal structure leading to improved tight junctions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study have presented novel evidence that fish oil is involved in the maintenance of epithelial TJ integrity and recovery of gut microbiota, which may have therapeutic potential against CR in intestinal transplantation.

  16. Measurement of Streaming Potential in Downhole Application: An Insight for Enhanced Oil Recovery Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Mohd Tengku Amran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Downhole monitoring using streaming potential measurement has been developing in order to respond to actual reservoir condition. Most studies have emphasized on monitoring water flooding at various reservoir condition and improving the approaches of measurement. Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR could significantly improve oil recovery and the efficiency of the process should be well-monitored. Alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP flooding is the most promising chemical EOR method due to its synergy of alkaline, surfactant and polymer, which could enhance the extraction of residual oil. However, limited studies have been focused on the application of streaming potential in EOR processes, particularly ASP. Thus, this paper aims to review the streaming potential measurement in downhole monitoring with an insight for EOR application and propose the potential measurement in monitoring ASP flooding. It is important for a preliminary study to investigate the synergy in ASP and the effects on oil recovery. The behaviour of streaming potential should be investigated when the environment of porous media changes with respect to ASP flooding. Numerical model can be generated from the experimental data to forecast the measured streaming potential signal during production associated with ASP flooding. Based on the streaming potential behaviour on foam assisted water alternate gas (FAWAG and water alternate gas (WAG processes, it is expected that the streaming potential could change significantly when ASP flooding alters the environment and surface properties of porous media. The findings could provide new prospect and knowledge in the relationship between streaming potential and ASP mechanisms, which could be a potential approach in monitoring the efficiency of the process.

  17. Inhibition of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3ß Enhances Cognitive Recovery after Stroke: The Role of TAK1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venna, Venugopal Reddy; Benashski, Sharon E.; Chauhan, Anjali; McCullough, Louise D.

    2015-01-01

    Memory deficits are common among stroke survivors. Identifying neuroprotective agents that can prevent memory impairment or improve memory recovery is a vital area of research. Glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (GSK-3ß) is involved in several essential intracellular signaling pathways. Unlike many other kinases, GSK-3ß is active only when…

  18. Homocysteine enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages via ERK and Akt signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Jin; Lee, Yi Sle; Seo, Kyo Won; Bae, Jin Ung; Kim, Gyu Hee; Park, So Youn; Kim, Chi Dae

    2012-01-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) at elevated levels is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Hcy on the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in murine macrophages. Among the MMP known to regulate the activities of collagenase and gelatinase, Hcy exclusively increased the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-9 in J774A.1 cells as well as in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, this activity was found to be correlated with Western blot findings in J774A.1 cells, which showed that MMP-9 expression was concentration- and time-dependently increased by Hcy. Inhibition of the ERK and Akt pathways led to a significant decrease in Hcy-induced MMP-9 expression, and combined treatment with inhibitors of the ERK and Akt pathways showed an additive effects. Activity assays for ERK and Akt showed that Hcy increased the phosphorylation of both, but these phosphorylation were not affected by inhibitors of the Akt and ERK pathways. In line with these findings, the molecular inhibition of ERK and Akt using siRNA did not affect the Hcy-induced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggest that Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages by separately activating the ERK and Akt signaling pathways. -- Highlights: ► Homocysteine (Hcy) induced MMP-9 production in murine macrophages. ► Hcy induced MMP-9 production through ERK and Akt signaling pathways. ► ERK and Akt signaling pathways were activated by Hcy in murine macrophages. ► ERK and Akt pathways were additively act on Hcy-induced MMP-9 production. ► Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in macrophages via activation of ERK and Akt signaling pathways in an independent manner.

  19. Homocysteine enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages via ERK and Akt signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jin; Lee, Yi Sle; Seo, Kyo Won; Bae, Jin Ung; Kim, Gyu Hee; Park, So Youn; Kim, Chi Dae, E-mail: chidkim@pusan.ac.kr

    2012-04-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) at elevated levels is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Hcy on the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in murine macrophages. Among the MMP known to regulate the activities of collagenase and gelatinase, Hcy exclusively increased the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-9 in J774A.1 cells as well as in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, this activity was found to be correlated with Western blot findings in J774A.1 cells, which showed that MMP-9 expression was concentration- and time-dependently increased by Hcy. Inhibition of the ERK and Akt pathways led to a significant decrease in Hcy-induced MMP-9 expression, and combined treatment with inhibitors of the ERK and Akt pathways showed an additive effects. Activity assays for ERK and Akt showed that Hcy increased the phosphorylation of both, but these phosphorylation were not affected by inhibitors of the Akt and ERK pathways. In line with these findings, the molecular inhibition of ERK and Akt using siRNA did not affect the Hcy-induced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggest that Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages by separately activating the ERK and Akt signaling pathways. -- Highlights: ► Homocysteine (Hcy) induced MMP-9 production in murine macrophages. ► Hcy induced MMP-9 production through ERK and Akt signaling pathways. ► ERK and Akt signaling pathways were activated by Hcy in murine macrophages. ► ERK and Akt pathways were additively act on Hcy-induced MMP-9 production. ► Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in macrophages via activation of ERK and Akt signaling pathways in an independent manner.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF MICROORGANISMS WITH IMPROVED TRANSPORT AND BIOSURFACTANT ACTIVITY FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; N. Youssef; T. Fincher; S.K. Maudgalya; M.J. Folmsbee; R. Knapp; D. Nagle

    2004-05-31

    Diverse microorganisms were screened for biosurfactant production and anaerobic growth at elevated salt concentrations to obtain candidates most suitable for microbial oil recovery. Seventy percent of the 205 strains tested, mostly strains of Bacillus mojavensis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus sonorensis, produced biosurfactants aerobically and 41% of the strains had biosurfactant activity greater than Bacillus mojavensis JF-2, the current candidate for oil recovery. Biosurfactant activity varied with the percentage of the 3-hydroxy-tetradecanoate isomers in the fatty acid portion of the biosurfactant. Changing the medium composition by incorporation of different precursors of 3-hydroxy tetradecanoate increased the activity of biosurfactant. The surface tension and critical micelle concentration of 15 different, biosurfactant-producing Bacillus strains was determined individually and in combination with other biosurfactants. Some biosurfactant mixtures were found to have synergistic effect on surface tension (e.g. surface tension was lowered from 41 to 31 mN/m in some cases) while others had a synergistic effect on CMD-1 values. We compared the transport abilities of spores from three Bacillus strains using a model porous system to study spore recovery and transport. Sand-packed columns were used to select for spores or cells with the best transport abilities through brine-saturated sand. Spores of Bacillus mojavensis strains JF-2 and ROB-2 and a natural recombinant, strain C-9, transported through sand at very high efficiencies. The earliest cells/spores that emerged from the column were re-grown, allowed to sporulate, and applied to a second column. This procedure greatly enhanced the transport of strain C-9. Spores with enhanced transport abilities can be easily obtained and that the preparation of inocula for use in MEOR is feasible. Tertiary oil recovery experiments showed that 10 to 40 mg/l of JF-2 biosurfactant in the presence of 0

  1. Play-level distributions of estimates of recovery factors for a miscible carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery method used in oil reservoirs in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2016-03-02

    In a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study, recovery-factor estimates were calculated by using a publicly available reservoir simulator (CO2 Prophet) to estimate how much oil might be recovered with the application of a miscible carbon dioxide (CO2) enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method to technically screened oil reservoirs located in onshore and State offshore areas in the conterminous United States. A recovery factor represents the percentage of an oil reservoir’s original oil in place estimated to be recoverable by the application of a miscible CO2-EOR method. The USGS estimates were calculated for 2,018 clastic and 1,681 carbonate candidate reservoirs in the “Significant Oil and Gas Fields of the United States Database” prepared by Nehring Associates, Inc. (2012).

  2. Nitrate-Mediated Microbially Enhanced Oil Recovery (N-MEOR) from model upflow bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassara, Fatma; Suri, Navreet; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2017-02-15

    Microbially Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) can enhance oil production with less energy input and less costs than other technologies. The present study used different aqueous electron donors (acetate, glucose, molasses) and an aqueous electron acceptor (nitrate) to stimulate growth of heterotrophic nitrate reducing bacteria (hNRB) to improve production of oil. Initial flooding of columns containing heavy oil (viscosity of 3400cP at 20°C) with CSBK (Coleville synthetic brine medium) produced 0.5 pore volume (PV) of oil. Bioreactors were then inoculated with hNRB with 5.8g/L of molasses and 0, 10, 20, 40, 60 or 80mM nitrate, as well as with 17mM glucose or 57mM acetate and 80mM nitrate. During incubations no oil was produced in the bioreactors that received 5.8g/L of molasses and 0, 10, 20, 40 or 60mM nitrate. However, the bioreactors injected with 5.8g/L of molasses, 17mM glucose or 57mM acetate and 80mM nitrate produced 13.9, 11.3±3.1 and 17.8±6.6% of residual oil, respectively. The significant production of oil from these bioreactors may be caused by N 2 -CO 2 gas production. Following continued injection with CSBK without nitrate, subsequent elution of significant residual oil (5-30%) was observed. These results also indicate possible involvement of fermentation products (organic acids, alcohols) to enhance heavy oil recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) monitoring during Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenan, J. W.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L. D.

    2010-12-01

    Jeffrey Heenan, Dimitrios Ntarlagiannis, Lee Slater Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, Newark NJ Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is an established, cost effective, method for enhancing tertiary oil recovery. Although not commonly used for shallow heavy oils, it could be a viable alternative since it can offer sustainable economic recovery and minimal environmental impact. A critical component of successful MEOR treatments is accurate, real time monitoring of the biodegradation processes resulting from the injection of microbial communities into the formation; results of recent biogeophysical research suggest that minimally-invasive geophysical methods could significantly contribute to such monitoring efforts. Here we present results of laboratory experiments, to assess the sensitivity of the spectral induced polarization method (SIP) to MEOR treatments. We used heavy oil, obtained from a shallow oilfield in SW Missouri, to saturate three sand columns. We then followed common industry procedures,and used a commercially available microbial consortia, to treat the oil columns. The active MEOR experiments were performed in duplicate while a control column maintained similar conditions, without promoting microbial activity and oil degradation. We monitored the SIP signatures, between 0.001 Hz and 1000 Hz, for a period of six months. To support the geophysical measurements we also monitored common geochemical parameters, including pH, Eh and fluid conductivity, and collected weekly fluid samples from the outflow and inflow for further analysis; fluid samples were analyzed to confirm that microbes actively degraded the heavy oils in the column while destructive analysis of the solid materials was performed upon termination of the experiment. Preliminary analysis of the results suggests that SIP is sensitive to MEOR processes. In both inoculated columns we recorded an increase in the low frequency polarization with time; measureable

  4. Chemical and Microbial Characterization of North Slope Viscous Oils to Assess Viscosity Reduction and Enhanced Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar; Mary Beth Leigh

    2008-12-31

    A large proportion of Alaska North Slope (ANS) oil exists in the form of viscous deposits, which cannot be produced entirely using conventional methods. Microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a promising approach for improving oil recovery for viscous deposits. MEOR can be achieved using either ex situ approaches such as flooding with microbial biosurfactants or injection of exogenous surfactant-producing microbes into the reservoir, or by in situ approaches such as biostimulation of indigenous surfactant-producing microbes in the oil. Experimental work was performed to analyze the potential application of MEOR to the ANS oil fields through both ex situ and in situ approaches. A microbial formulation containing a known biosurfactant-producing strain of Bacillus licheniformis was developed in order to simulate MEOR. Coreflooding experiments were performed to simulate MEOR and quantify the incremental oil recovery. Properties like viscosity, density, and chemical composition of oil were monitored to propose a mechanism for oil recovery. The microbial formulation significantly increased incremental oil recovery, and molecular biological analyses indicated that the strain survived during the shut-in period. The indigenous microflora of ANS heavy oils was investigated to characterize the microbial communities and test for surfactant producers that are potentially useful for biostimulation. Bacteria that reduce the surface tension of aqueous media were isolated from one of the five ANS oils (Milne Point) and from rock oiled by the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), and may prove valuable for ex situ MEOR strategies. The total bacterial community composition of the six different oils was evaluated using molecular genetic tools, which revealed that each oil tested possessed a unique fingerprint indicating a diverse bacterial community and varied assemblages. Collectively we have demonstrated that there is potential for in situ and ex situ MEOR of ANS oils. Future work

  5. RPAP3 enhances cytotoxicity of doxorubicin by impairing NF-kappa B pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Kana; Saeki, Makio; Egusa, Hiroshi; Fukuyasu, Sho; Yura, Yoshiaki; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Kamisaki, Yoshinori

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → RNA polymerase II-associated protein 3 (RPAP3) possesses an activity to bind with NEMO and to inhibit the ubiquitination of NEMO. → RPAP3 enhances doxorubicin-induced cell death in breast cancer cell line T-47D through the marked impairment of NF-κB pathway. → RPAP3 is a novel modulator of NF-κB pathway in apoptosis induced by anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agents. -- Abstract: Activation of anti-apoptotic gene transcription by NF-κB (nuclear factor-kappa B) has been reported to be linked with a resistance of cancer cells against chemotherapy. NEMO (NF-κB essential modulator) interacts with a number of proteins and modulates the activity of NF-κB pathway. In this study, we revealed that RPAP3 (RNA polymerase II-associated protein 3) possesses an activity to bind with NEMO and to inhibit the ubiquitination of NEMO and that RPAP3 enhances doxorubicin-induced cell death in breast cancer cell line T-47D through the marked impairment of NF-κB pathway. These results indicate that RPAP3 may be a novel modulator of NF-κB pathway in apoptosis induced by anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agents.

  6. Production of microbial rhamnolipid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa MM1011 for ex situ enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amani, Hossein; Müller, Markus Michael; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf

    2013-07-01

    Recently, several investigations have been carried out on the in situ bacteria flooding, but the ex situ biosurfactant production and addition to the sand pack as agents for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) has little been studied. In order to develop suitable technology for ex situ MEOR processes, it is essential to carry out tests about it. Therefore, this work tries to fill the gap. The intention of this study was to investigate whether the rhamnolipid mix could be produced in high enough quantities for enhanced oil recovery in the laboratory scale and prove its potential use as an effective material for field application. In this work, the ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa MM1011 to grow and produce rhamnolipid on sunflower as sole carbon source under nitrogen limitation was shown. The production of Rha-C10-C10 and Rha2-C10-C10 was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The rhamnolipid mixture obtained was able to reduce the surface and interfacial tension of water to 26 and 2 mN/m, respectively. The critical micelle concentration was 120 mg/L. Maximum rhamnolipid production reached to about 0.7 g/L in a shake flask. The yield of rhamnolipid per biomass (Y RL/x ), rhamnolipid per sunflower oil (Y RL/s ), and the biomass per sunflower oil (Y x/s ) for shake flask were obtained about 0.01, 0.0035, and 0.035 g g(-1), respectively. The stability of the rhamnolipid at different salinities, pH and temperature, and also, its emulsifying activity has been investigated. It is an effective surfactant at very low concentrations over a wide range of temperatures, pHs, and salt concentrations, and it also has the ability to emulsify oil, which is essential for enhanced oil recovery. With 120 mg/L rhamnolipid, 27 % of original oil in place was recovered after water flooding from a sand pack. This result not only suggests rhamnolipids as appropriate model biosurfactants for MEOR, but it even shows the potential as a

  7. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 86, quarter ending March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Summaries are presented for 37 enhanced oil recovery contracts being supported by the Department of Energy. The projects are grouped into gas displacement methods, thermal recovery methods, geoscience technology, reservoir characterization, and field demonstrations in high-priority reservoir classes. Each summary includes the objectives of the project and a summary of the technical progress, as well as information on contract dates, size of award, principal investigator, and company or facility doing the research.

  8. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 83, quarter ending June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    Summaries of 41 research projects on enhanced recovery are presented under the following sections: (1) chemical flooding; (2) gas displacement; (3) thermal recovery; (4) geoscience technology; (5) resource assessment technology; and (6) reservoir classes. Each presentation gives the title of the project, contract number, research facility, contract date, expected completion data, amount of the award, principal investigator, and DOE program manager, and describes the objectives of the project and a summary of the technical progress.

  9. Enhancement Of Motor Recovery Through Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Stimulation After Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Oveisgharan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Two previous studies, which investigated transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS use in motor recovery after acute ischemic stroke, did not show tDCS to be effective in this regard. We speculated that additional left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex ‎(DLPFC ‎stimulation may enhance post stroke motor recovery.  ‎ Methods: In the present randomized clinical trial, 20 acute ischemic stroke patients were recruited. Patients received real motor cortex (M1 stimulation in both arms of the trial. The two arms differed in terms of real vs. sham stimulation over the left DLPFC‎. Motor component of the Fugl-Meyer upper extremity assessment (FM and Action Research Arm Test (ARAT scores were used to assess primary outcomes, and non-linear mixed effects models were used for data analyses. Results: Primary outcome measures improved more and faster among the real stimulation group. During the first days of stimulations, sham group’s FM scores increased 1.2 scores per day, while real group’s scores increased 1.7 scores per day (P = 0.003. In the following days, FM improvement decelerated in both groups. Based on the derived models, a hypothetical stroke patient with baseline FM score of 15 improves to 32 in the sham stimulation group and to 41 in the real stimulation group within the first month after stroke. Models with ARAT scores yielded nearly similar results. Conclusion: The current study results showed that left DLPFC‎ stimulation in conjunction with M1 stimulation resulted in better motor recovery than M1 stimulation alone.

  10. Microfluidic diffusivity meter: a tool to optimize CO2 driven enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puneeth, S. B.; Kim, Young Ho; Goel, Sanket

    2017-02-01

    As the energy demands continue to swell with growing population and there persists a lack of unexploited oilfields, the prime focus of any nation would be to maximize the oil recovery factor from existing oil fields. CO2-Enhanced oil recovery is a process to improve the recovery of crude oil from an oil field and works at high pressure and in very deep conditions. CO2 and oil are miscible at high pressure, resulting in low viscosity and oil swells. This swelling can be measured based on mathematical calculations in real time and correlated with the CO2 concentration. This process has myriad advantages over its counterparts which include being able to harness oil trapped in reservoirs besides being cheaper and more efficient. A Diffusivity meter is inevitable in the measurement of the diffusion co-efficient of two samples. Diffusivity meters currently available in the market are weighed down by disadvantages like the requirement of large samples for testing, high cost and complexity. This elicits the need for a Microfluidic based diffusivity meter capable of analyzing Nano-liter sample volumes besides being more precise and affordable. The scope of this work involves the design and development of a Microfluidic robust and inexpensive prototype diffusivity meter using a capillary tube and endorsing its performance by comparison of results with known diffusivity range and supervision of the results with an electronic microscope coupled to PC and Data Acquisition System. The prototype produced at the end of the work is expected to outweigh disadvantages in existing products in terms of sample size, efficiency and time saving.

  11. Enhanced Recovery in Tight Gas Reservoirs using Maxwell-Stefan Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, C. J. S.; Kantzas, A.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the steep production decline in unconventional gas reservoirs, enhanced recovery (ER) methods are receiving great attention from the industry. Wet gas or liquid rich reservoirs are the preferred ER candidates due to higher added value from natural gas liquids (NGL) production. ER in these reservoirs has the potential to add reserves by improving desorption and displacement of hydrocarbons through the medium. Nevertheless, analysis of gas transport at length scales of tight reservoirs is complicated because concomitant mechanisms are in place as pressure declines. In addition to viscous and Knudsen diffusion, multicomponent gas modeling includes competitive adsorption and molecular diffusion effects. Most models developed to address these mechanisms involve single component or binary mixtures. In this study, ER by gas injection is investigated in multicomponent (C1, C2, C3 and C4+, CO2 and N2) wet gas reservoirs. The competing effects of Knudsen and molecular diffusion are incorporated by using Maxwell-Stefan equations and the Dusty-Gas approach. This model was selected due to its superior properties on representing the physics of multicomponent gas flow, as demonstrated during the presented model validation. Sensitivity studies to evaluate adsorption, reservoir permeability and gas type effects are performed. The importance of competitive adsorption on production and displacement times is demonstrated. In the absence of adsorption, chromatographic separation is negligible. Production is merely dictated by competing effects between molecular and Knudsen diffusion. Displacement fronts travel rapidly across the medium. When adsorption effects are included, molecules with lower affinity to the adsorption sites will be produced faster. If the injected gas is inert (N2), an increase in heavier fraction composition occurs in the medium. During injection of adsorbing gases (CH4 and CO2), competitive adsorption effects will contribute to improved recovery of heavier

  12. Converting the Caetité Mill Process to Enhance Uranium Recovery and Expand Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomiero, L. A.; Scassiotti Filho, W.; Veras, A., E-mail: gomiero@inb.gov.br [Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil S/A — INB, Caetité, BA (Brazil); Cunha, J. W. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear-IEN/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Morais, C. A. [Centro do Desenvolvimento da Tec. Nuclear-CDTN/CNEN, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    The Caetité uranium mill was commissioned in 2000 to produce about 340 t U per year from an uranium ore averaging 0.29% U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. This production is sufficient to supply the two operating nuclear power plants in the country. As the Brazilian government has recently confirmed its plan to start building another ones from 2009, the uranium production will have to expand its capacity in the next two years. This paper describes the changes in the milling process that are being evaluated in order to not only increase the production but also the uranium recovery, to fulfil the increasing local demand. The heap leaching process will be changed to conventional tank agitated leaching of ground ore slurry in sulphuric acid medium. Batch and pilot plant essays have shown that the uranium recovery can increase from the 77% historical average to about 93%. As the use of sodium chloride as the stripping agent has presented detrimental effects in the extraction and stripping process, two alternatives are being evaluated for the uranium recovery from the PLS: (a) uranium peroxide precipitation at controlled pH from a PLS that was firstly neutralized and filtered. Batch essays have shown good results with a final calcined precipitate averaging 99% U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Conversely the results obtained at the first pilot plant essay has shown that the precipitation conditions of the continuous process calls for further evaluation. The pilot plant is being improved and another essay will be carried out. (b) uranium extraction with a tertiary amine followed by stripping with concentrated sulphuric acid solution. Efforts are being made to recover the excess sulphuric acid from the pregnant stripping solution to enhance the economic viability of the process and to avoid the formation of a large quantity of gypsum in the pre-neutralization step before the uranium peroxide precipitation. (author)

  13. Optimization of rhamnolipid production from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PBS towards application for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajni; Singh, Jagdish; Verma, Neelam

    2018-01-01

    The present work reveals the potential of biosurfactant producing P. aeruginosa PBS for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The biosurfactant production medium and culture conditions were optimized using response surface methodology. The optimization of media components and process parameters was consecutively executed in two sets of experimental runs designed by central composite rotatable design (CCRD). The maximum biosurfactant yield was attained with 2% fresh inoculum of P. aeruginosa PBS in minimal salt medium (pH 7), possessing 2.17% sodium citrate as C-source and 0.5% yeast extract as N-source, after 48 h upon incubation at 30 °C/150 rpm. Under optimum conditions, biosurfactant yield was increased more than threefold and turned out to be 2.65 g/L as compared to 0.82 g/L under previous conditions. The biosurfactant was characterized as a glycolipid comprising of four rhamnolipid homologs (RhaRhaC 10 C 10 , RhaRhaC 8 C 10 , RhaRhaC 12 C 10 /RhaRhaC 10 C 12 , RhaC 10 C 10 ) by thin layer chromatography, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The produced biosurfactant was highly efficient for oil recovery application showing extreme reduction in surface tension of medium (71.80 to 23.76 mN/m), immense hydrocarbons emulsification capacity (50-60%) and greater stability at wide range of temperature (4-100 °C) and pH (4-10) along with an excellent (56.18 ± 1.59%) additional oil recovery in sand-pack column lab test.

  14. Model study of enhanced oil recovery by flooding with aqueous surfactant solution and comparison with theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Paul D I; Savory, Luke D; Woods, Freya; Clarke, Andrew; Howe, Andrew M

    2015-03-17

    With the aim of elucidating the details of enhanced oil recovery by surfactant solution flooding, we have determined the detailed behavior of model systems consisting of a packed column of calcium carbonate particles as the porous rock, n-decane as the trapped oil, and aqueous solutions of the anionic surfactant sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT). The AOT concentration was varied from zero to above the critical aggregation concentration (cac). The salt content of the aqueous solutions was varied to give systems of widely different, post-cac oil-water interfacial tensions. The systems were characterized in detail by measuring the permeability behavior of the packed columns, the adsorption isotherms of AOT from the water to the oil-water interface and to the water-calcium carbonate interface, and oil-water-calcium carbonate contact angles. Measurements of the percent oil recovery by pumping surfactant solutions into calcium carbonate-packed columns initially filled with oil were analyzed in terms of the characterization results. We show that the measured contact angles as a function of AOT concentration are in reasonable agreement with those calculated from values of the surface energy of the calcium carbonate-air surface plus the measured adsorption isotherms. Surfactant adsorption onto the calcium carbonate-water interface causes depletion of its aqueous-phase concentration, and we derive equations which enable the concentration of nonadsorbed surfactant within the packed column to be estimated from measured parameters. The percent oil recovery as a function of the surfactant concentration is determined solely by the oil-water-calcium carbonate contact angle for nonadsorbed surfactant concentrations less than the cac. For surfactant concentrations greater than the cac, additional oil removal occurs by a combination of solubilization and emulsification plus oil mobilization due to the low oil-water interfacial tension and a pumping pressure increase.

  15. RECOVERY ACT - Thylakoid Assembly and Folded Protein Transport by the Tat Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabney-Smith, Carole [Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States)

    2016-07-18

    Assembly of functional photosystems complete with necessary intrinsic (membrane-bound) and extrinsic proteins requires the function of at least 3 protein transport pathways in thylakoid membranes. Our research focuses on one of those pathways, a unique and essential protein transport pathway found in the chloroplasts of plants, bacteria, and some archaebacteria, the Twin arginine translocation (Tat) system. The chloroplast Tat (cpTat) system is thought to be responsible for the proper location of ~50% of thylakoid lumen proteins, several of which are necessary for proper photosystem assembly, maintenance, and function. Specifically, cpTat systems are unique because they transport fully folded and assembled proteins across ion tight membranes using only three membrane components, Tha4, Hcf106, and cpTatC, and the protonmotive force generated by photosynthesis. Despite the importance of the cpTat system in plants, the mechanism of transport of a folded precursor is not well known. Our long-term goal is to investigate the role protein transport systems have on organelle biogenesis, particularly the assembly of membrane protein complexes in thylakoids of chloroplasts. The objective of this proposal is to correlate structural changes in the membrane-bound cpTat component, Tha4, to the mechanism of translocation of folded-precursor substrates across the membrane bilayer by using a cysteine accessibility and crosslinking approach. Our central hypothesis is that the precursor passes through a proteinaceous pore of assembled Tha4 protomers that have undergone a conformational or topological change in response to transport. This research is predicated upon the observations that Tha4 exists in molar excess in the membrane relative to the other cpTat components; its regulated assembly to the precursor-bound receptor; and our data showing oligomerization of Tha4 into very large complexes in response to transport. Our rationale for these studies is that understanding cp

  16. Dataset on experimental investigation of gum arabic coated alumina nanoparticles for enhanced recovery of nigerian medium crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orodu, Oyinkepreye D; Orodu, Kale B; Afolabi, Richard O; Dafe, Eboh A

    2018-08-01

    The dataset in this article are related to an experimental Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) scheme involving the use of dispersions containing Gum Arabic coated Alumina Nanoparticles (GCNPs) for Nigerian medium crude oil. The result contained in the dataset showed a 7.18% (5 wt% GCNPs), 7.81% (5 wt% GCNPs), and 5.61% (3 wt% GCNPs) improvement in the recovery oil beyond the water flooding stage for core samples A, B, and C respectively. Also, the improvement in recovery of the medium crude oil by the GCNPs dispersions when compared to Gum Arabic polymer flooding was evident in the dataset.

  17. Flow behavior of N2 huff and puff process for enhanced oil recovery in tight oil reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Teng; Li, Zhaomin; Li, Jian; Hou, Dawei; Zhang, Dingyong

    2017-11-16

    In the present work, the potential of N 2 huff and puff process to enhance the recovery of tight oil reservoir was evaluated. N 2 huff and puff experiments were performed in micromodels and cores to investigate the flow behaviors of different cycles. The results showed that, in the first cycle, N 2 was dispersed in the oil, forming the foamy oil flow. In the second cycle, the dispersed gas bubbles gradually coalesced into the continuous gas phase. In the third cycle, N 2 was produced in the form of continuous gas phase. The results from the coreflood tests showed that, the primary recovery was only 5.32%, while the recoveries for the three N 2 huff and puff cycles were 15.1%, 8.53% and 3.22%, respectively.The recovery and the pressure gradient in the first cycle were high. With the increase of huff and puff cycles, and the oil recovery and the pressure gradient rapidly decreased. The oil recovery of N 2 huff and puff has been found to increase as the N 2 injection pressure and the soaking time increased. These results showed that, the properly designed and controlled N 2 huff and puff process can lead to enhanced recovery of tight oil reservoirs.

  18. Tissue Border Enhancement by inversion recovery MRI at 7.0 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costagli, Mauro; Tiberi, Gianluigi; Kelley, Douglas A.C.; Symms, Mark R.; Biagi, Laura; Tosetti, Michela; Stara, Riccardo; Cosottini, Mirco; Maggioni, Eleonora; Barba, Carmen; Guerrini, Renzo

    2014-01-01

    This contribution presents a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisition technique named Tissue Border Enhancement (TBE), whose purpose is to produce images with enhanced visualization of borders between two tissues of interest without any post-processing. The technique is based on an inversion recovery sequence that employs an appropriate inversion time to produce images where the interface between two tissues of interest is hypo-intense; therefore, tissue borders are clearly represented by dark lines. This effect is achieved by setting imaging parameters such that two neighboring tissues of interest have magnetization with equal magnitude but opposite sign; therefore, the voxels containing a mixture of each tissue (that is, the tissue interface) possess minimal net signal. The technique was implemented on a 7.0 T MRI system. This approach can assist the definition of tissue borders, such as that between cortical gray matter and white matter; therefore, it could facilitate segmentation procedures, which are often challenging on ultra-high-field systems due to inhomogeneous radiofrequency distribution. TBE allows delineating the contours of structural abnormalities, and its capabilities were demonstrated with patients with focal cortical dysplasia, gray matter heterotopia, and polymicrogyria. This technique provides a new type of image contrast and has several possible applications in basic neuroscience, neurogenetic research, and clinical practice, as it could improve the detection power of MRI in the characterization of cortical malformations, enhance the contour of small anatomical structures of interest, and facilitate cortical segmentation. (orig.)

  19. Cordyceps sinensis health supplement enhances recovery from taxol-induced leukopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Chung; Chuang, Wei-Ling; Tsai, Min-Lung; Hong, Ji-Hong; McBride, William H; Chiang, Chi-Shiun

    2008-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the ability of the health food supplement Cordyceps sinensis (CS) to ameliorate suppressive effects of chemotherapy on bone marrow function as a model for cancer treatment. Mice were treated with Taxol (17 mg/kg body wt) one day before oral administration of a hot-water extract of CS (50 mg/kg daily) that was given daily for 3 weeks. White blood cell counts in peripheral blood of mice receiving Taxol were at 50% of normal levels on day 28 but had recovered completely in mice treated with CS. In vitro assays showed that CS enhanced the colony-forming ability of both granulocyte macrophage colony forming unit (GM-CFU) and osteogenic cells from bone marrow preparations and promoted the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells into adipocytes, alkaline phosphatase-positive osteoblasts, and bone tissue. This result could be attributed to enhanced expression of Cbfa1 (core binding factor a) and BMP-2 (bone morphogenetic protein) with concurrent suppression of ODF (osteoclast differentiation factor/RANK [receptor activator of NF-kappaB]) ligand. In summary, CS enhances recovery of mice from leukopenia caused by Taxol treatment. It appears to do so by protecting both hematopoietic progenitor cells directly and the bone marrow stem cell niche through its effects on osteoblast differentiation.

  20. Tissue Border Enhancement by inversion recovery MRI at 7.0 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costagli, Mauro; Tiberi, Gianluigi [Imago7 Foundation, Pisa (Italy); IRCCS Stella Maris, Pisa (Italy); Kelley, Douglas A.C. [GE Healthcare Technologies, San Francisco, CA (United States); Symms, Mark R. [GE Applied Science Laboratory, Pisa (Italy); Biagi, Laura; Tosetti, Michela [IRCCS Stella Maris, Pisa (Italy); Stara, Riccardo; Cosottini, Mirco [Imago7 Foundation, Pisa (Italy); University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Maggioni, Eleonora [IRCCS Scientific Institute E. Medea, Bosisio Parini, Lecco (Italy); Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy); Barba, Carmen [Children' s Hospital A. Meyer - University of Florence, Neuroscience Department, Florence (Italy); Guerrini, Renzo [IRCCS Stella Maris, Pisa (Italy); Children' s Hospital A. Meyer - University of Florence, Neuroscience Department, Florence (Italy)

    2014-07-15

    This contribution presents a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisition technique named Tissue Border Enhancement (TBE), whose purpose is to produce images with enhanced visualization of borders between two tissues of interest without any post-processing. The technique is based on an inversion recovery sequence that employs an appropriate inversion time to produce images where the interface between two tissues of interest is hypo-intense; therefore, tissue borders are clearly represented by dark lines. This effect is achieved by setting imaging parameters such that two neighboring tissues of interest have magnetization with equal magnitude but opposite sign; therefore, the voxels containing a mixture of each tissue (that is, the tissue interface) possess minimal net signal. The technique was implemented on a 7.0 T MRI system. This approach can assist the definition of tissue borders, such as that between cortical gray matter and white matter; therefore, it could facilitate segmentation procedures, which are often challenging on ultra-high-field systems due to inhomogeneous radiofrequency distribution. TBE allows delineating the contours of structural abnormalities, and its capabilities were demonstrated with patients with focal cortical dysplasia, gray matter heterotopia, and polymicrogyria. This technique provides a new type of image contrast and has several possible applications in basic neuroscience, neurogenetic research, and clinical practice, as it could improve the detection power of MRI in the characterization of cortical malformations, enhance the contour of small anatomical structures of interest, and facilitate cortical segmentation. (orig.)

  1. Enhanced Adsorption and Recovery of Uranyl Ions by NikR Mutant-Displaying Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouichi Kuroda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Uranium is one of the most important metal resources, and the technology for the recovery of uranyl ions (UO22+ from aqueous solutions is required to ensure a semi-permanent supply of uranium. The NikR protein is a Ni2+-dependent transcriptional repressor of the nickel-ion uptake system in Escherichia coli, but its mutant protein (NikRm is able to selectively bind uranyl ions in the interface of the two monomers. In this study, NikRm protein with ability to adsorb uranyl ions was displayed on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To perform the binding of metal ions in the interface of the two monomers, two metal-binding domains (MBDs of NikRm were tandemly fused via linker peptides and displayed on the yeast cell surface by fusion with the cell wall-anchoring domain of yeast α-agglutinin. The NikRm-MBD-displaying yeast cells with particular linker lengths showed the enhanced adsorption of uranyl ions in comparison to the control strain. By treating cells with citrate buffer (pH 4.3, the uranyl ions adsorbed on the cell surface were recovered. Our results indicate that the adsorption system by yeast cells displaying tandemly fused MBDs of NikRm is effective for simple and concentrated recovery of uranyl ions, as well as adsorption of uranyl ions.

  2. An oral Hemokine™, α-methylhydrocinnamate, enhances myeloid and neutrophil recovery following irradiation in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Douglas V.; Castaneda, Serguei A.; Zhou, Daohong; Vedamony, Merriline; Newburger, Peter E.; White, Gary L.; Kosanke, Stanley; Plett, P. Artur; Orschell, Christie M.; Boosalis, Michael S.; Perrine, Susan P.

    2017-01-01

    An oral therapeutic which reduces duration of cytopenias and is active following accidental radiation exposures is an unmet need in radiation countermeasures. Alpha methylhydrocinnamate (ST7) prolongs STAT-5 phosphorylation, reduces growth-factor dependency of multi-lineage cell lines, and stimulates erythropoiesis. Here, ST7 and its isomers were studied for their effects on myeloid progenitors and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) following radiation, in nonhuman primates, and murine irradiation models. Addition of ST7 or ST7-S increased CFU-GM production by 1.7-fold (p200/mm3 and neutropenia recovered in 6 days with ST7 treatment and 18 days in controls (p<0.05). In lethally-irradiated mice, marrow pathology at 15 days was hypocellular (10% cellularity) in controls, but normal (55–75% cellularity) with complete neutrophil maturation with ST7-S treatment. Following lethal irradiation, ST7, given orally for 4 days, reduced mortality, with 30% survival in ST7-animals vs 8% in controls, (p<0.05). Collectively, the studies indicate that ST7 and ST7-S enhance myeloid recovery post-radiation and merit further evaluation to accelerate hematologic recovery in conditions of radiation-related and other marrow hypoplasias. PMID:27888688

  3. Rhamnolipids Produced by Indigenous Acinetobacter junii from Petroleum Reservoir and its Potential in Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Xia, Wenjie; Dong, Honghong; She, Yuehui; Zhu, Panfeng; Liang, Kang; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Liang, Chuanfu; Song, Zhaozheng; Sun, Shanshan; Zhang, Guangqing

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactant producers are crucial for incremental oil production in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) processes. The isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from oil reservoirs is important because they are considered suitable for the extreme conditions of the reservoir. In this work, a novel biosurfactant-producing strain Acinetobacter junii BD was isolated from a reservoir to reduce surface tension and emulsify crude oil. The biosurfactants produced by the strain were purified and then identified via electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR-MS). The biosurfactants generated by the strain were concluded to be rhamnolipids, the dominant rhamnolipids were C26H48O9, C28H52O9, and C32H58O13. The optimal carbon source and nitrogen source for biomass and biosurfactant production were NaNO3 and soybean oil. The results showed that the content of acid components increased with the progress of crude oil biodegradation. A glass micromodel test demonstrated that the strain significantly increased oil recovery through interfacial tension reduction, wettability alteration and the mobility of microorganisms. In summary, the findings of this study indicate that the newly developed BD strain and its metabolites have great potential in MEOR. PMID:27872613

  4. Blocking type I interferon signaling enhances T cell recovery and reduces HIV-1 reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Ma, Jianping; Li, Jingyun; Li, Dan; Li, Guangming; Li, Feng; Zhang, Qing; Yu, Haisheng; Yasui, Fumihiko; Ye, Chaobaihui; Tsao, Li-Chung; Hu, Zhiyuan; Su, Lishan; Zhang, Liguo

    2017-01-03

    Despite the efficient suppression of HIV-1 replication that can be achieved with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), low levels of type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling persist in some individuals. This sustained signaling may impede immune recovery and foster viral persistence. Here we report studies using a monoclonal antibody to block IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR) signaling in humanized mice (hu-mice) that were persistently infected with HIV-1. We discovered that effective cART restored the number of human immune cells in HIV-1-infected hu-mice but did not rescue their immune hyperactivation and dysfunction. IFNAR blockade fully reversed HIV-1-induced immune hyperactivation and rescued anti-HIV-1 immune responses in T cells from HIV-1-infected hu-mice. Finally, we found that IFNAR blockade in the presence of cART reduced the size of HIV-1 reservoirs in lymphoid tissues and delayed HIV-1 rebound after cART cessation in the HIV-1-infected hu-mice. We conclude that low levels of IFN-I signaling contribute to HIV-1-associated immune dysfunction and foster HIV-1 persistence in cART-treated hosts. Our results suggest that blocking IFNAR may provide a potential strategy to enhance immune recovery and reduce HIV-1 reservoirs in individuals with sustained elevations in IFN-I signaling during suppressive cART.

  5. Rhamnolipids produced by indigenous Acinetobacter junii from petroleum reservoir and its potential in enhanced oil recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Dong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactant producers are crucial for incremental oil production in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR processes. The isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from oil reservoirs is important because they are considered suitable for the extreme conditions of the reservoir. In this work, a novel biosurfactant-producing strain Acinetobacter junii BD was isolated from a reservoir to reduce surface tension and emulsify crude oil. The biosurfactants produced by the strain were purified and then identified via electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR-MS. The biosurfactants generated by the strain were concluded to be rhamnolipids, the dominant rhamnolipids were C26H48O9, C28H52O9 and C32H58O13. The optimal carbon source and nitrogen source for biomass and biosurfactant production were NaNO3 and soybean oil. The results showed that the content of acid components increased with the progress of crude oil biodegradation. A glass micromodel test demonstrated that the strain significantly increased oil recovery through interfacial tension reduction, wettability alteration and the mobility of microorganisms. In summary, the findings of this study indicate that the newly developed BD strain and its metabolites have great potential in MEOR.

  6. Effects of nitrate injection on microbial enhanced oil recovery and oilfield reservoir souring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marcio Luis Busi; Soares, Hugo Moreira; Furigo, Agenor; Schmidell, Willibaldo; Corseuil, Henry Xavier

    2014-11-01

    Column experiments were utilized to investigate the effects of nitrate injection on sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) inhibition and microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). An indigenous microbial consortium collected from the produced water of a Brazilian offshore field was used as inoculum. The presence of 150 mg/L volatile fatty acids (VFA´s) in the injection water contributed to a high biological electron acceptors demand and the establishment of anaerobic sulfate-reducing conditions. Continuous injection of nitrate (up to 25 mg/L) for 90 days did not inhibit souring. Contrariwise, in nitrogen-limiting conditions, the addition of nitrate stimulated the proliferation of δ-Proteobacteria (including SRB) and the associated sulfide concentration. Denitrification-specific nirK or nirS genes were not detected. A sharp decrease in water interfacial tension (from 20.8 to 14.5 mN/m) observed concomitantly with nitrate consumption and increased oil recovery (4.3 % v/v) demonstrated the benefits of nitrate injection on MEOR. Overall, the results support the notion that the addition of nitrate, at this particular oil reservoir, can benefit MEOR by stimulating the proliferation of fortuitous biosurfactant-producing bacteria. Higher nitrate concentrations exceeding the stoichiometric volatile fatty acid (VFA) biodegradation demands and/or the use of alternative biogenic souring control strategies may be necessary to warrant effective SRB inhibition down gradient from the injection wells.

  7. Impact of innovations on future energy supply - chemical enhanced oil recovery (CEOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) expects an increase of global energy demand by one-third during next 20 years together with a change in the global energy mix. A key-influencing factor is a strong expected increase in oil and gas production in the United States driven by 'new' technologies such as hydraulic fracturing. Chemical enhanced oil recovery (CEOR) is another strong growing technology with the potential of a step change innovation, which will help to secure future oil supply by turning resources into reserves. While conventional production methods give access to on average only one-third of original oil in place, the use of surfactants and polymers allows for recovery of up to another third of this oil. In the case of polymer flooding with poly acrylamide, the number of full field implementations has increased in recent years. In the meantime new polymers have been developed to cover previously unmet needs - such polymers can be applied in fields of high salinity and high temperature. Use of surfactants is in an earlier stage, but pilot tests show promising results.

  8. Rhamnolipids Produced by Indigenous Acinetobacter junii from Petroleum Reservoir and its Potential in Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Xia, Wenjie; Dong, Honghong; She, Yuehui; Zhu, Panfeng; Liang, Kang; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Liang, Chuanfu; Song, Zhaozheng; Sun, Shanshan; Zhang, Guangqing

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactant producers are crucial for incremental oil production in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) processes. The isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from oil reservoirs is important because they are considered suitable for the extreme conditions of the reservoir. In this work, a novel biosurfactant-producing strain Acinetobacter junii BD was isolated from a reservoir to reduce surface tension and emulsify crude oil. The biosurfactants produced by the strain were purified and then identified via electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR-MS). The biosurfactants generated by the strain were concluded to be rhamnolipids, the dominant rhamnolipids were C 26 H 48 O 9 , C 28 H 52 O 9 , and C 32 H 58 O 13 . The optimal carbon source and nitrogen source for biomass and biosurfactant production were NaNO 3 and soybean oil. The results showed that the content of acid components increased with the progress of crude oil biodegradation. A glass micromodel test demonstrated that the strain significantly increased oil recovery through interfacial tension reduction, wettability alteration and the mobility of microorganisms. In summary, the findings of this study indicate that the newly developed BD strain and its metabolites have great potential in MEOR.

  9. Potential of wheat bran to promote indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yali; Wang, Qinghong; Chen, Chunmao; Kim, Jung Bong; Zhang, Hongdan; Yoza, Brandon A; Li, Qing X

    2017-06-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is an emerging oil extraction technology that utilizes microorganisms to facilitate recovery of crude oil in depleted petroleum reservoirs. In the present study, effects of wheat bran utilization were investigated on stimulation of indigenous MEOR. Biostimulation conditions were optimized with the response surface methodology. The co-application of wheat bran with KNO 3 and NH 4 H 2 PO 4 significantly promoted indigenous MEOR (IMEOR) and exhibited sequential aerobic (O-), facultative (A n -) and anaerobic (A 0 -) metabolic stages. The surface tension of fermented broth decreased by approximately 35%, and the crude oil was highly emulsified. Microbial community structure varied largely among and in different IMEOR metabolic stages. Pseudomonas sp., Citrobacter sp., and uncultured Burkholderia sp. dominated the O-, A n - and early A 0 -stages. Bacillus sp., Achromobacter sp., Rhizobiales sp., Alcaligenes sp. and Clostridium sp. dominated the later A 0 -stage. This study illustrated occurrences of microbial community succession driven by wheat bran stimulation and its industrial potential.

  10. Study of Synthesis Polyethylene glycol oleate Sulfonated as an Anionic Surfactant for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampora, Yulianti; Juwono, Ariadne L.; Haryono, Agus; Irawan, Yan

    2017-11-01

    Mechanical Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) through chemical injection is using an anionic surfactant to improve the recovery of oil residues, particularly in a reservoir area that has certain characteristics. This case led the authors to conduct research on the synthesis of an anionic surfactant based on oleic acid and polyethylene glycol 400 that could be applied as a chemical injection. In this work, we investigate the sulfonation of Polyethylene glycol oleate (PDO) in a sulfuric acid agent. PDO in this experiment was derived from Indonesian palm oil. Variation of mole reactant and reaction time have been studied. The surfactant has been characterized by measuring the interfacial tension, acid value, ester value, saponification value, iodine value, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and particle size analyzer. There is a new peak at 1170-1178 cm-1 indicating that S=O bond has formed. PDO sulfonate exhibits good surface activity due to interfacial tension of 0,003 mN/m. Thus, polyethylene glycol oleate sulfonate was successfully synthesized and it could be useful as a novel an anionic surfactant.

  11. Sources and delivery of carbon dioxide for enhanced oil recovery. Final report, October 1977--December 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hare, M.; Perlich, H.; Robinson, R.; Shah, M.; Zimmerman, F.

    1978-12-01

    Results are presented from a comprehensive study by Pullman Kellogg, with assistance from Gulf Universities Research Consortium (GURC) and National Cryo-Chemics Incorporated (NCI), of the carbon dioxide supply situation for miscible flooding operations to enhance oil recovery. A survey of carbon dioxide sources within the geographic areas of potential EOR are shown on four regional maps with the tabular data for each region to describe the sources in terms of quantity and quality. Evaluation of all the costs, such as purchase, production, processing, and transportation, associated with delivering the carbon dioxide from its source to its destination are presented. Specific cases to illustrate the use of the maps and cost charts generated in this study have been examined.

  12. How to introduce a program of Enhanced Recovery after Surgery? The experience of the CAPIO group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, J-F; Paget, C; Perlier, F; Demesmay, F

    2016-12-01

    The traditional model of hospital care has been challenged by the development of a care-management process that allows early patient autonomy (outpatient surgery, Enhanced Recovery after Surgery). Hospitalization has been transformed in response to this development, based on innovative medical and organizational strategies. Within a surgical service, the deployment of these processes requires the creation of a support structure, with re-organization of existing structures, analysis of potential obstacles, implementation of management tools, and ongoing follow-up of organizational function, clinical results, organizational and patient satisfaction. These will ultimately assess adaptation of structures within these new organizations. In this article, we share our insights based on experience gained over the past six years by surgical teams of the CAPIO group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Flow in porous media, phase and ultralow interfacial tensions: Mechanisms of enhanced petroleum recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, H.T.; Scriven, L.E.

    1991-07-01

    A major program of university research, longer-ranged and more fundamental in approach than industrial research, into basic mechanisms of enhancing petroleum recovery and into underlying physics, chemistry, geology, applied mathematics, computation, and engineering science has been built at Minnesota. The original focus was surfactant-based chemical flooding, but the approach taken was sufficiently fundamental that the research, longer-ranged than industrial efforts, has become quite multidirectional. Topics discussed are volume controlled porosimetry; fluid distribution and transport in porous media at low wetting phase saturation; molecular dynamics of fluids in ultranarrow pores; molecular dynamics and molecular theory of wetting and adsorption; new numerical methods to handle initial and boundary conditions in immiscible displacement; electron microscopy of surfactant fluid microstructure; low cost system for animating liquid crystallites viewed with polarized light; surfaces of constant mean curvature with prescribed contact angle.

  14. Responsive copolymers for enhanced petroleum recovery. Quarterly technical progress report, September 11, 1994--December 22, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, C.; Hester, R.

    1994-01-01

    Advanced polymer systems that possess microstructural features that are responsive to temperature, electrolyte concentration, and shear conditions are being synthesized which will be superior to polymers presently used for mobility control in enhanced oil recovery. Improved polymer performance is accomplished by controlling hydrophobic or ampholytic interations between individual polymer chains in solution. The advanced polymers will circumbent major problems inherent in conventional EOR polymers in which molecular weight is usually compromised to allow sufficient solution viscosity and uniform reservoir permeation without plugging the porous media. Accomplishments are reported for the following tasks: quaternary ammonium cyclopolymer synthesis; characterization of molecular structure and solution behavior; {sup 23}Na NMR studies of non-binding to anionic polyelectrolytes and solution rheology.

  15. Wettability Improvement with Enzymes: Application to Enhanced Oil Recovery under Conditions of the North Sea Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khusainova, Alsu; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2012-01-01

    (Nasiri et al., 2009), working mechanisms are poorly known and understood. The main goal of the present work is to establish possible mechanisms in which enzymes may enhance oil recovery. Improvement of the brine wettability of the rock and decrease of oil adhesion to it by addition of an enzyme is one...... of the possible mechanisms of enzymatic action. This mechanism has been investigated experimentally, by measurements of the contact angles between oil drops and enzyme solutions in brine on the mineral surfaces. Fifteen enzyme samples belonging to different enzyme classes, such as esterases/lipases, carbohydrases......, proteases and oxidoreductases, provided by Novozymes, have been investigated. Two commercial mixtures containing enzymes: Apollo-GreenZyme™ and EOR-ZYMAX™ have also been applied. The North Sea dead oil and the synthetic sea water were used as test fluids. Internal surface of a carbonate rock has been...

  16. Incidence of venous thromboembolic events in enhanced recovery after surgery for colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendler, M M I; Haidari, T A; Waage, J E

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Both the Danish and the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines recommend prolonged thromboprophylaxis (PT) with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) for 28 days postoperatively after elective surgery for colon cancer. The evidence relies on data from two randomized clinical...... trials (RCTs) that included not only colon cancers but also other abdominal cancers or benign colorectal diseases. Neither of those studies investigated the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) under enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS). We aim to describe the risk of VTE and estimate the cost...... of preventing one case of VTE by PT under ERAS. METHOD: This was a retrospective study of 2230 patients undergoing elective surgery for colon cancer Stage I-III in the Capital Region of Denmark, 1 June 2008 to 31 December 2013. Patients who were discharged on postoperative day 28 or later, died during admission...

  17. Enhanced metal recovery through oxidation in liquid and/or supercritical carbon dioxide

    KAUST Repository

    Blanco, Mario

    2017-08-24

    Process for enhanced metal recovery from, for example, metal-containing feedstock using liquid and/or supercritical fluid carbon dioxide and a source of oxidation. The oxidation agent can be free of complexing agent. The metal-containing feedstock can be a mineral such as a refractory mineral. The mineral can be an ore with high sulfide content or an ore rich in carbonaceous material. Waste can also be used as the metal-containing feedstock. The metal-containing feedstock can be used which is not subjected to ultrafine grinding. Relatively low temperatures and pressures can be used. The metal-containing feedstock can be fed into the reactor at a temperature below the critical temperature of the carbon dioxide, and an exotherm from the oxidation reaction can provide the supercritical temperature. The oxidant can be added to the reactor at a rate to maintain isothermal conditions in the reactor. Minimal amounts of water can be used as an extractive medium.

  18. Foam-oil interaction in porous media: implications for foam assisted enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, R; Andrianov, A; Krastev, R; Hirasaki, G J; Rossen, W R

    2012-11-15

    The efficiency of a foam displacement process in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) depends largely on the stability of foam films in the presence of oil. Experimental studies have demonstrated the detrimental impact of oil on foam stability. This paper reviews the mechanisms and theories (disjoining pressure, coalescence and drainage, entering and spreading of oil, oil emulsification, pinch-off, etc.) suggested in the literature to explain the impact of oil on foam stability in the bulk and porous media. Moreover, we describe the existing approaches to foam modeling in porous media and the ways these models describe the oil effect on foam propagation in porous media. Further, we present various ideas on an improvement of foam stability and longevity in the presence of oil. The outstanding questions regarding foam-oil interactions and modeling of these interactions are pointed out. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Microbial consortia in Oman oil fields: a possible use in enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bahry, Saif N; Elshafie, Abdulkader E; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Joshi, Sanket J; Al-Maaini, Ratiba A; Al-Alawi, Wafa J; Sugai, Yuichi; Al-Mandhari, Mussalam

    2013-01-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is one of the most economical and efficient methods for extending the life of production wells in a declining reservoir. Microbial consortia from Wafra oil wells and Suwaihat production water, Al-Wusta region, Oman were screened. Microbial consortia in brine samples were identified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene sequences. The detected microbial consortia of Wafra oil wells were completely different from microbial consortia of Suwaihat formation water. A total of 33 genera and 58 species were identified in Wafra oil wells and Suwaihat production water. All of the identified microbial genera were first reported in Oman, with Caminicella sporogenes for the first time reported from oil fields. Most of the identified microorganisms were found to be anaerobic, thermophilic, and halophilic, and produced biogases, biosolvants, and biosurfactants as by-products, which may be good candidates for MEOR.

  20. Impact of recent Federal tax and R and D initiatives on enhanced oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brashear, J.P.; Biglarbigi, K.; Ray, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    The National Energy Strategy contains two major elements designed to increase oil production from known reservoirs in the contiguous United States: (1) a tax credit for specific investment and injectant costs for qualified enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects; and (2) a highly focused, public-private cooperative R ampersand D program. Both are currently being implemented by the Department of the Treasury and the Department of Energy, respectively. The present paper estimates the potential reserve additions and impacts on public treasuries at oil prices between $22 and $34/Bbl. The new Federal tax credit, alone, could doubler current proved EOR reserves at oil prices in the $22/Bbl range and increase them by about one-third at prices in the $30/Bbl range. The effect of technology advances alone could also about double EOR reserves at these prices. The combination of technology advances and the tax incentive synergistically amplifies the effects on potential EOR reserves

  1. Molecular design of high performance zwitterionic liquids for enhanced heavy-oil recovery processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Magadán, J M; Cartas-Rosado, A R; Oviedo-Roa, R; Cisneros-Dévora, R; Pons-Jiménez, M; Hernández-Altamirano, R; Zamudio-Rivera, L S

    2018-03-01

    Branched gemini zwitterionic liquids, which contain two zwitterionic moieties of linked quaternary-ammonium and carboxylate groups, are proposed as chemicals to be applied in the Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) from fractured carbonate reservoirs. The zwitterionic moieties are bridged between them through an alkyl chain containing 12 ether groups, and each zwitterionic moiety has attached a long alkyl tail including a CC double bond. A theoretical molecular mechanism over which EOR could rest, consisting on both the disaggregation of heavy oil and the reservoir-rock wettability alteration, was suggested. Results show that chemicals can both reduce the viscosity and remove heavy-oil molecules from the rock surface. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. An innovative treatment method for an aqueous waste from the enhanced oil recovery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimahmoodi, M.; Mulligan, C.N.

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment was evaluated to determine its effectiveness in treating a waste stream from the process of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) to remove solubilized CO 2 (98%) and petroleum hydrocarbons (83%) using formate (2 g/L) and sucrose (2.5 g/L) as electron donors in two consecutive reactors. The method of evolutionary operation (EVOP) factorial design was applied to optimize the system and the net energy ratio (NER) of 3.7 was calculated for the system which showed a sustainable biogas production. This method is less complex than other competitive methods, and in addition to its low energy requirements, it can produce CH 4 from CO 2 as a clean source of energy. (author)

  3. [Enhanced Recovery after Surgery from Theory to Practice
What do We Need to Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Guowei; Liu, Lunxu; Zhou, Qinghua

    2017-04-20

    Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) is a paradigm shift in perioperative care, resulting in substantial improvements in clinical outcomes, shorter length of hospital stay and cost savings. But the current ERAS either by application of breadth or depth is not enough, why? The main reason is the lack of "operability, evaluation, repetition" ERAS protocol and suitable for clinical extensive application protocol. How to form the clinical available protocol? Operational mainly refers to the clinical scheme is simple and feasible, and protocol compliance is good; Evaluate refers to the methods used before, during and after are the objective evaluation criteria and plan; Repeatable is clinical scheme repeatability in the process of single or multiple center.

  4. Mechanism governing nanoparticle flow behaviour in porous media: insight for enhanced oil recovery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agi, Augustine; Junin, Radzuan; Gbadamosi, Afeez

    2018-06-01

    Nanotechnology has found its way to petroleum engineering, it is well-accepted path in the oil and gas industry to recover more oil trapped in the reservoir. But the addition of nanoparticles to a liquid can result in the simplest flow becoming complex. To understand the working mechanism, there is a need to study the flow behaviour of these particles. This review highlights the mechanism affecting the flow of nanoparticles in porous media as it relates to enhanced oil recovery. The discussion focuses on chemical-enhanced oil recovery, a review on laboratory experiment on wettability alteration, effect of interfacial tension and the stability of emulsion and foam is discussed. The flow behaviour of nanoparticles in porous media was discussed laying emphasis on the physical aspect of the flow, the microscopic rheological behaviour and the adsorption of the nanoparticles. It was observed that nanofluids exhibit Newtonian behaviour at low shear rate and non-Newtonian behaviour at high shear rate. Gravitational and capillary forces are responsible for the shift in wettability from oil-wet to water-wet. The dominant mechanisms of foam flow process were lamellae division and bubble to multiple bubble lamellae division. In a water-wet system, the dominant mechanism of flow process and residual oil mobilization are lamellae division and emulsification, respectively. Whereas in an oil-wet system, the generation of pre-spinning continuous gas foam was the dominant mechanism. The literature review on oil displacement test and field trials indicates that nanoparticles can recover additional oil. The challenges encountered have opened new frontier for research and are highlighted herein.

  5. A Survey of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Protocols for Cesarean Delivery in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borislava Pujic

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS protocols have been described for patients undergoing colon surgery. Similar protocols for cesarean delivery (CD have been developed recently. CD is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures, and adoption of ERAS protocols following CD might benefit patients and the health-care system. We aimed to determine which Serbian hospitals reported ERAS protocols, which elements of ERAS protocols were used in CD patients, and whether ERAS and non-ERAS hospitals differed. The survey was sent to all hospitals with obstetric services and 46 of 49 responded. The questionnaire asked whether ERAS protocols had been formally adopted for surgical patients and about their use in CD patients. Specific questions on elements described in other obstetric ERAS protocols for CD included preoperative patient preparation, type of anesthesia and temperature monitoring used for CD, maternal/neonatal contact, and time to discharge. ERAS protocols are used in 24% of surveyed hospitals, 84% admit the patient the day before elective CDs, 87% use a maternal bowel preparation morning on the day of CD, and 80% administer maternal deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis. Only 33% remove IV in the first postoperative day, and 89% of women do not eat solid food until the day following their CD. Neuraxial anesthesia is used in 46% of elective CDs in ERAS hospitals compared to 9% in non-ERAS hospitals (P < 0.01, and neuraxial narcotics for post CD analgesia are given more often in ERAS hospitals. Thirty-six percentage of ERAS patients are discharged within 3 days vs. none in the non-ERAS group. Few elements of ERAS protocols reported from other centers outside Serbia are employed in Serbian hospitals performing CD. Despite significant changes that have been made recently in CD care, enhanced recovery after CD could be significantly improved in Serbian hospitals.

  6. Intra-articular Analgesia and Discharge to Home Enhance Recovery Following Total Knee Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Shivi; Flics, Susan; Cornell, Charles N

    2015-02-01

    a program with our local home care agency. Outcomes assessed and compared between groups included length of stay, incidence of post-op nausea, dizziness, in-hospital falls, occurrence of complications including wound infection and the recovery of range of motion at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 1 year post-op. Pain control was similar between the groups but Group B had fewer side effects. With the new pathway, length of stay (LOS) was reduced from 4.32 to 3.64 days with a similar LOS reduction across all ASA classes. There was no increase in Group B wound or other complications. Return of ROM was similar between groups. Our findings suggest that replacing PCEA and FNB with intra-articular analgesia with a SNB allows for improved early recovery following TKR. That, combined with pre-op discharge planning and initiation of an intensive home PT program, reduced average length of stay.

  7. Development of an In Situ Biosurfactant Production Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; R.M. Knapp; Kathleen Duncan; D.R. Simpson; N. Youssef; N. Ravi; M.J. Folmsbee; T.Fincher; S. Maudgalya; Jim Davis; Sandra Weiland

    2007-09-30

    The long-term economic potential for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is large with more than 300 billion barrels of oil remaining in domestic reservoirs after conventional technologies reach their economic limit. Actual EOR production in the United States has never been very large, less than 10% of the total U. S. production even though a number of economic incentives have been used to stimulate the development and application of EOR processes. The U.S. DOE Reservoir Data Base contains more than 600 reservoirs with over 12 billion barrels of unrecoverable oil that are potential targets for microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). If MEOR could be successfully applied to reduce the residual oil saturation by 10% in a quarter of these reservoirs, more than 300 million barrels of oil could be added to the U.S. oil reserve. This would stimulate oil production from domestic reservoirs and reduce our nation's dependence on foreign imports. Laboratory studies have shown that detergent-like molecules called biosurfactants, which are produced by microorganisms, are very effective in mobilizing entrapped oil from model test systems. The biosurfactants are effective at very low concentrations. Given the promising laboratory results, it is important to determine the efficacy of using biosurfactants in actual field applications. The goal of this project is to move biosurfactant-mediated oil recovery from laboratory investigations to actual field applications. In order to meet this goal, several important questions must be answered. First, it is critical to know whether biosurfactant-producing microbes are present in oil formations. If they are present, then it will be important to know whether a nutrient regime can be devised to stimulate their growth and activity in the reservoir. If biosurfactant producers are not present, then a suitable strain must be obtained that can be injected into oil reservoirs. We were successful in answering all three questions. The specific

  8. Half-times of irradiation recovery in accelerated partialbreast irradiation: Incomplete recovery as a potentially dangerous enhancer of radiation damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowler JF

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare clinical results from accelerated partial breast irradiation with predictions from different half-times of recovery of radiation damage. Method: Three published results of excessive late complications led to an editorial which was a “wake up call” to the possible hazards of fractions spaced close together such as two fractions of 3.85 Gy a day on five consecutive days. These results are re-examined here using linear quadratic modelling with mono-exponential and bi-exponential recovery kinetics. Results: Although clinical results showed rather high proportions of severe complications, only in one of the three studies discussed in reference [1] complications were severe enough to cause it to be terminated. Since then other studies with the same doses have reported acceptable results. However, none of these complication rates are predicted to be tolerable, if mono-exponential kinetics with a single T ½ of ~4 hours is assumed. Conclusions: Better matches to clinical results can be found by assuming bi-exponential recovery with 50%-50% components of 0.3 hand 4 h, and α/β = 3 Gy, for late complications. There is continuing need for data from more clinical results, especially concerning various tumour types.

  9. Whey Protein Supplementation Enhances Whole Body Protein Metabolism and Performance Recovery after Resistance Exercise: A Double-Blind Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel W D; Abou Sawan, Sidney; Mazzulla, Michael; Williamson, Eric; Moore, Daniel R

    2017-07-11

    No study has concurrently measured changes in free-living whole body protein metabolism and exercise performance during recovery from an acute bout of resistance exercise. We aimed to determine if whey protein ingestion enhances whole body net protein balance and recovery of exercise performance during overnight (10 h) and 24 h recovery after whole body resistance exercise in trained men. In a double-blind crossover design, 12 trained men (76 ± 8 kg, 24 ± 4 years old, 14% ± 5% body fat; means ± standard deviation (SD)) performed resistance exercise in the evening prior to consuming either 25 g of whey protein (PRO; MuscleTech 100% Whey) or an energy-matched placebo (CHO) immediately post-exercise (0 h), and again the following morning (~10 h of recovery). A third randomized trial, completed by the same participants, involving no exercise and no supplement served as a rested control trial (Rest). Participants ingested [ 15 N]glycine to determine whole body protein kinetics and net protein balance over 10 and 24 h of recovery. Performance was assessed pre-exercise and at 0, 10, and 24 h of recovery using a battery of tests. Net protein balance tended to improve in PRO ( P = 0.064; effect size (ES) = 0.61, PRO vs. CHO) during overnight recovery. Over 24 h, net balance was enhanced in PRO ( P = 0.036) but not in CHO ( P = 0.84; ES = 0.69, PRO vs. CHO), which was mediated primarily by a reduction in protein breakdown (PRO protein supplementation improved MVC (ES = 0.76), REP (ES = 0.44), and peak power (ES = 0.55). In conclusion, whey protein supplementation enhances whole body anabolism, and may improve acute recovery of exercise performance after a strenuous bout of resistance exercise.

  10. Enhancement of Nucleoside Production in Hirsutella sinensis Based on Biosynthetic Pathway Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Bo; Lin, Shan; Baker, Peter James; Chen, Mao-Sheng; Xue, Ya-Ping; Wu, Hui; Xu, Feng; Yuan, Shui-Jin; Teng, Yi; Wu, Ling-Fang

    2017-01-01

    To enhance nucleoside production in Hirsutella sinensis, the biosynthetic pathways of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides were constructed and verified. The differential expression analysis showed that purine nucleoside phosphorylase, inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, and guanosine monophosphate synthase genes involved in purine nucleotide biosynthesis were significantly upregulated 16.56-fold, 8-fold, and 5.43-fold, respectively. Moreover, dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, uridine nucleosidase, uridine/cytidine monophosphate kinase, and inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase genes participating in pyrimidine nucleoside biosynthesis were upregulated 4.53-fold, 10.63-fold, 4.26-fold, and 5.98-fold, respectively. To enhance the nucleoside production, precursors for synthesis of nucleosides were added based on the analysis of biosynthetic pathways. Uridine and cytidine contents, respectively, reached 5.04 mg/g and 3.54 mg/g when adding 2 mg/mL of ribose, resulting in an increase of 28.6% and 296% compared with the control, respectively. Meanwhile, uridine and cytidine contents, respectively, reached 10.83 mg/g 2.12 mg/g when adding 0.3 mg/mL of uracil, leading to an increase of 176.3% and 137.1%, respectively. This report indicated that fermentation regulation was an effective way to enhance the nucleoside production in H. sinensis based on biosynthetic pathway analysis. PMID:29333435

  11. An enhanced functional interrogation/manipulation of intracellular signaling pathways with the peptide 'stapling' technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y; Chen, D; Zheng, W

    2015-11-12

    Specific protein-protein interactions (PPIs) constitute a key underlying mechanism for the presence of a multitude of intracellular signaling pathways, which are essential for the survival of normal and cancer cells. Specific molecular blockers for a crucial PPI would therefore be invaluable tools for an enhanced functional interrogation of the signaling pathway harboring this particular PPI. On the other hand, if a particular PPI is essential for the survival of cancer cells but is absent in or dispensable for the survival of normal cells, its specific molecular blockers could potentially be developed into effective anticancer therapeutics. Due to the flat and extended PPI interface, it would be conceivably difficult for small molecules to achieve an effective blockade, a problem which could be potentially circumvented with peptides or proteins. However, the well-documented proteolytic instability and cellular impermeability of peptides and proteins in general would make their developing into effective intracellular PPI blockers quite a challenge. With the advent of the peptide 'stapling' technology which was demonstrated to be able to stabilize the α-helical conformation of a peptide via bridging two neighboring amino-acid side chains with a 'molecular staple', a linear parent peptide could be transformed into a stronger PPI blocker with enhanced proteolytic stability and cellular permeability. This review will furnish an account on the peptide 'stapling' technology and its exploitation in efforts to achieve an enhanced functional interrogation or manipulation of intracellular signaling pathways especially those that are cancer relevant.

  12. Responsive eLearning exercises to enhance student interaction with metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, William J; Dreaver-Charles, Kristine

    2018-05-01

    Successful learning of biochemistry requires students to engage with the material. In the past this often involved students writing out pathways by hand, and more recently directing students to online resources such as videos, songs, and animated slide presentations. However, even these latter resources do not really provide students an opportunity to engage with the material in an active fashion. As part of an online introductory metabolism course that was developed at our university, we created a series of twelve online interactive activities using Adobe Captivate 9. These activities targeted glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, the pentose phosphate pathway, glycogen metabolism, the citric acid cycle, and fatty acid oxidation. The interactive exercises consisted of two types. One involved dragging objects such as names of enzymes or allosteric modifiers to their correct drop locations such as a particular point in a metabolic pathway, a specific enzyme, and so forth. A second type involved clicking on objects, locations within a pathway, and so forth, in response to a particular question. In both types of exercises, students received feedback on their decisions in order to enhance learning. The student feedback received on these activities was very positive, and indicated that they found them to increase their confidence in the material and that they had learned the key principles of each pathway. © 2018 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 46(3):223-229, 2018. © 2018 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  13. Brain-wide pathway for waste clearance captured by contrast-enhanced MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliff, Jeffrey J; Lee, Hedok; Yu, Mei; Feng, Tian; Logan, Jean; Nedergaard, Maiken; Benveniste, Helene

    2013-03-01

    The glymphatic system is a recently defined brain-wide paravascular pathway for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) exchange that facilitates efficient clearance of solutes and waste from the brain. CSF enters the brain along para-arterial channels to exchange with ISF, which is in turn cleared from the brain along para-venous pathways. Because soluble amyloid β clearance depends on glymphatic pathway function, we proposed that failure of this clearance system contributes to amyloid plaque deposition and Alzheimer's disease progression. Here we provide proof of concept that glymphatic pathway function can be measured using a clinically relevant imaging technique. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was used to visualize CSF-ISF exchange across the rat brain following intrathecal paramagnetic contrast agent administration. Key features of glymphatic pathway function were confirmed, including visualization of para-arterial CSF influx and molecular size-dependent CSF-ISF exchange. Whole-brain imaging allowed the identification of two key influx nodes at the pituitary and pineal gland recesses, while dynamic MRI permitted the definition of simple kinetic parameters to characterize glymphatic CSF-ISF exchange and solute clearance from the brain. We propose that this MRI approach may provide the basis for a wholly new strategy to evaluate Alzheimer's disease susceptibility and progression in the live human brain.

  14. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review No. 80. Quarterly report, July--September, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This report contains information on petroleum enhanced recovery projects. In addition to project descriptions, contract numbers, principal investigators and project management information is included.

  15. GBRN/DOE Project: Dynamic enhanced recovery technologies. Quarterly technical report, January 1994--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.N.

    1994-04-15

    Global Basins Research Network will perform a field demonstration of their ``Dynamic Enhanced Recovery Technology`` to test the concept that the growth faults in EI-330 field are conduits through which producing reservoirs are charged and that enhanced production can be developed by producing directly from the fault zone. The site, operated by Penzoil, is located in 250 feet of water the productive depth intervals include 4000 to 9000 feet. Previous work, which incorporated pressure, temperature, fluid flow, heat flow, seismic, production, and well log data, indicated active fluid flow along fault zones. The field demonstration will be accomplished by drilling and production test of growth fault systems associated with the EI-330 field. The project utilizes advanced 3-D seismic analysis, geochemical studies, structural and stratigraphic reservoir characterization, reservoir simulation, and compact visualization systems. The quarterly progress reports contains accomplishments to date for the following tasks: Management start-up; database management; field and demonstration equipment; reservoir characterization, modeling; geochemistry; and data integration.

  16. [Dynamic enhanced recovery techniques]. Quarterly technical report, April 1994--June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.N.

    1994-07-15

    Global Basins Research Network will perform a field demonstration of their ``Dynamic Enhanced Recovery Technology`` to test the concept that the growth of faults in Eugene Island Block 330 (EI-330 field) are conduits through which producing reservoirs are charged and that enhanced production can be developed by producing directly from the fault zone. The site, operated by Penzoil, is located in 250 feet of water and the productive depth intervals include 4000 to 9000 feet. The field demonstration will be accomplished by drilling and production testing of growth fault systems associated with the EI-330 field. The project utilizes advanced 3-D seismic analysis, geochemical studies, structural and stratigraphic reservoir characterization, reservoir simulation, and compact visualization systems. In this quarterly report, progress reports are presented for the following tasks: Task one--management start-up; Task two--database management; Task three--field demonstration experiment; Task four--reservoir characterization; Task five--modeling; Task six--geochemistry; and Task seven--data integration.

  17. Recovery and enhancement plan development for the Leading Creek watershed, Meigs County, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, R.J.; Cherry, D.S.; Latimer, H.A.; Babendreier, J.E.; Van Hassel, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    Following the flooding of the Meigs No. 31 coal mine in Meigs County, Ohio, a proactive plan was developed to evaluate initial dewatering effects, recovery and development of a watershed enhancement plan. Approximately half of the 31-mile Leading Creek mainstem received ∼one billion gallons of coal mine discharge, including sludge and slurry. Damage to the stream system resulted from high conductivity (∼6,000 micromhos/cm), low pH (2.5--3.5), high metals (aluminum, cadmium, copper, iron and iron floc, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc) and total suspended solids. Most forms of aquatic life were depleted in the impacted areas. Four years after the incident, many forms of benthic macroinvertebrates and fish have recovered in the creek, with sediments purged of metals by stormwater events. The enhancement plan involves a reconnaissance of the creek and tributaries pinpointing areas of agricultural sedimentation and abandoned minedland discharges (AMD). Seventeen tributary and ten mainstem stations were addressed as point source discharges with water/sediment toxicity and in-situ testing of Asian clams. One-third of the stations were intermittently toxic from rainfall runoff and the degree of AMD input. Benthic macroinvertebrates in many tributaries were stressed and comprised 1--5 taxa. Erosion/sedimentation was addressed by the USEPA 1-Dimensional Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) model, as well as incorporating land use management/habitat assessment, and data management by Geographical Information Systems

  18. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. Final report 1994--1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasan, D.T.

    1995-12-01

    In this report, the authors present the results of their experimental and theoretical studies in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. The overall objective of this work is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12.0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultralow interfacial tension. In addition, the authors have (1) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, (2) investigated the mechanisms for spontaneous emulsification, (3) developed a technique to monitor low water content in oil, and (4) developed a technique to study water-in-oil emulsion film properties, (5) investigated the effect of surfactant on the equilibrium and transient interfacial tension, (6) investigated the kinetics of oil removal from a silica surface, and (7) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, accounting for added surfactant. The results of the studies conducted during the course of this project are summarized.

  19. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasan, D.T.

    1996-05-01

    In this report, we present the results of our experimental and theoretical studies in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. The overall objective of this work is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12. 0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultralow interfacial tension. In addition, we have (1) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, (2) investigated the mechanisms for spontaneous emulsification, (3) developed a technique to monitor low water content in oil and (4) developed a technique to study water-in-oil emulsion film properties, (5) investigated the effect of surfactant on the equilibrium and transient interfacial tension, (6) investigated the kinetics of oil removal from a silica surface, and (7) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, accounting for added surfactant. The results of the studies conducted during the course of this project are discussed.

  20. Implementation of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery: a strategy to transform surgical care across a health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramlich, Leah M; Sheppard, Caroline E; Wasylak, Tracy; Gilmour, Loreen E; Ljungqvist, Olle; Basualdo-Hammond, Carlota; Nelson, Gregg

    2017-05-19

    Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programs have been shown to have a positive impact on outcome. The ERAS care system includes an evidence-based guideline, an implementation program, and an interactive audit system to support practice change. The purpose of this study is to describe the use of the Theoretic Domains Framework (TDF) in changing surgical care and application of the Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) model to analyze end-to-end implementation of ERAS in colorectal surgery across multiple sites within a single health system. The ultimate intent of this work is to allow for the development of a model for spread, scale, and sustainability of ERAS in Alberta Health Services (AHS). ERAS for colorectal surgery was implemented at two sites and then spread to four additional sites. The ERAS Interactive Audit System (EIAS) was used to assess compliance with the guidelines, length of stay, readmissions, and complications. Data sources informing knowledge translation included surveys, focus groups, interviews, and other qualitative data sources such as minutes and status updates. The QUERI model and TDF were used to thematically analyze 189 documents with 2188 quotes meeting the inclusion criteria. Data sources were analyzed for barriers or enablers, organized into a framework that included individual to organization impact, and areas of focus for guideline implementation. Compliance with the evidence-based guidelines for ERAS in colorectal surgery at baseline was 40%. Post implementation compliance, consistent with adoption of best practice, improved to 65%. Barriers and enablers were categorized as clinical practice (22%), individual provider (26%), organization (19%), external environment (7%), and patients (25%). In the Alberta context, 26% of barriers and enablers to ERAS implementation occurred at the site and unit levels, with a provider focus 26% of the time, a patient focus 26% of the time, and a system focus 22% of the time. Using the

  1. A review on applications of nanotechnology in the enhanced oil recovery part B: effects of nanoparticles on flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghian, Goshtasp; Hendraningrat, Luky

    2016-11-01

    Chemical flooding is of increasing interest and importance due to high oil prices and the need to increase oil production. Research in nanotechnology in the petroleum industry is advancing rapidly, and an enormous progress in the application of nanotechnology in this area is to be expected. The nanotechnology has been widely used in several other industries, and the interest in the oil industry is increasing. Nanotechnology has the potential to profoundly change enhanced oil recovery and to improve mechanism of recovery, and it is chosen as an alternative method to unlock the remaining oil resources and applied as a new enhanced oil recovery method in last decade. This paper therefore focuses on the reviews of the application of nanotechnology in chemical flooding process in oil recovery and reviews the applications of nanomaterials for improving oil recovery that have been proposed to explain oil displacement by polymer flooding within oil reservoirs, and also this paper highlights the research advances of polymer in oil recovery. Nanochemical flooding is an immature method from an application point of view.

  2. Enhanced heavy oil recovery for carbonate reservoirs integrating cross-well seismic–a synthetic Wafra case study

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2015-07-14

    Heavy oil recovery has been a major focus in the oil and gas industry to counter the rapid depletion of conventional reservoirs. Various techniques for enhancing the recovery of heavy oil were developed and pilot-tested, with steam drive techniques proven in most circumstances to be successful and economically viable. The Wafra field in Saudi Arabia is at the forefront of utilizing steam recovery for carbonate heavy oil reservoirs in the Middle East. With growing injection volumes, tracking the steam evolution within the reservoir and characterizing the formation, especially in terms of its porosity and permeability heterogeneity, are key objectives for sound economic decisions and enhanced production forecasts. We have developed an integrated reservoir history matching framework using ensemble based techniques incorporating seismic data for enhancing reservoir characterization and improving history matches. Examining the performance on a synthetic field study of the Wafra field, we could demonstrate the improved characterization of the reservoir formation, determining more accurately the position of the steam chambers and obtaining more reliable forecasts of the reservoir’s recovery potential. History matching results are fairly robust even for noise levels up to 30%. The results demonstrate the potential of the integration of full-waveform seismic data for steam drive reservoir characterization and increased recovery efficiency.

  3. Does intermittent pneumatic leg compression enhance muscle recovery after strenuous eccentric exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, D J; Booker, H R; Mundel, T; Barnes, M J

    2013-11-01

    Intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) has gained rapid popularity as a post-exercise recovery modality. Despite its widespread use and anecdotal claims for enhancing muscle recovery there is no scientific evidence to support its use. 10 healthy, active males performed a strenuous bout of eccentric exercise (3 sets of 100 repetitions) followed by IPC treatment or control performed immediately after exercise and at 24 and 48 h post-exercise. Muscular performance measurements were taken prior to exercise and 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise and included single-leg vertical jump (VJ) and peak and average isometric [knee angle 75º] (ISO), concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) contractions performed at slow (30° · s⁻¹) and fast (180° · s⁻¹) velocities. Plasma creatine kinase (CK) samples were taken at pre- and post-exercise 24, 48 and 72 h. Strenuous eccentric exercise resulted in a significant decrease in peak ISO, peak and average CON (30° · s⁻¹) at 24 h compared to pre-exercise for both IPC and control, however VJ performance remained unchanged. There were no significant differences between conditions (IPC and control) or condition-time interactions for any of the contraction types (ISO, CON, ECC) or velocities (CON, ECC 30° · s⁻¹ and 180° · s⁻¹). However, CK was significantly elevated at 24 h compared to pre-exercise in both conditions (IPC and control). IPC did not attenuate muscle force loss following a bout of strenuous eccentric exercise in comparison to a control. While IPC has been used in the clinical setting to treat pathologic conditions, the parameters used to treat muscle damage following strenuous exercise in healthy participants are likely to be very different than those used to treat pathologic conditions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Does hospital readmission following colorectal cancer resection and enhanced recovery after surgery affect long term survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, N J; Noble, E; Salib, E; Hipkiss, R; Meachim, E; Dalton, R; Allison, A; Ockrim, J; Francis, N K

    2017-08-01

    Hospital readmission is undesirable for patients and care providers as this can affect short-term recovery and carries financial consequences. It is unknown if readmission has long-term implications. We aimed to investigate the impact of 30-day readmission on long-term overall survival (OS) following colorectal cancer resection within enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) care and explore the reasons for and the severity and details of readmission episodes. A dedicated, prospectively populated database was reviewed. All patients were managed within an established ERAS programme. Five-year OS was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The number, reason for and severity of 30-day readmissions were classified according to the Clavien-Dindo (CD) system, along with total (initial and readmission) length of stay (LoS). Multivariate analysis was used to identify factors predicting readmission. A total of 1023 consecutive patients underwent colorectal cancer resection between 2002 and 2015. Of these, 166 (16%) were readmitted. Readmission alone did not have a significant impact on 5-year OS (59% vs 70%, P = 0.092), but OS was worse in patients with longer total LoS (20 vs 14 days, P = 0.04). Of the readmissions, 121 (73%) were minor (CD I-II) and 27 (16%) required an intervention of which 16 (10%) were returned to theatre. Gut dysfunction 32 (19%) and wound complications 23 (14%) were the most frequent reasons for readmission. Prolonged initial LoS, rectal cancer and younger age predicted for hospital readmission. Readmission does not have a significant impact on 5-year OS. A broad range of conditions led to readmission, with the majority representing minor complications. Colorectal Disease © 2017 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  5. Enhancing the auto-flocculation of photosynthetic bacteria to realize biomass recovery in brewery wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haifeng; Dong, Shan; Zhang, Guangming; Han, Ting; Zhang, Yuanhui; Li, Baoming

    2018-02-15

    Photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) wastewater treatment technology can simultaneously realize wastewater purification and biomass production. The produced biomass contains high value-added products, which can be used in medical and agricultural industry. However, because of the small size and high electronegativity, PSB are hard to be collected from wastewater, which hampers the commercialization of PSB-based industrial processes. Auto-flocculation is a low cost, energy saving, non-toxic biomass collection method for microbiology. In this work, the influence factors with their optimal levels and mechanism for enhancing the auto-flocculation of PSB were investigated in pure cultivation medium. Then PSB auto-flocculation performance in real brewery wastewater was probed. Results showed that Na + concentration, pH and light intensity were three crucial factors except the initial inoculum sizes and temperature. In the pure medium cultivation system, the optimal condition for PSB auto-flocculation was as follows: pH was 9.5, inoculum size was 420 mg l -1 , Na + concentration was 0.067 mol l -1 , light intensity was 5000 lux, temperature was 30°C. Under the optimal condition, the auto-flocculation ratio and biomass recovery reached 85.0% and 1488 mg l -1 , which improved by 1.67-fold and 2.14-fold compared with the PSB enrichment cultivation conditions, respectively. Mechanism analysis showed that the protein/polysaccharides ratio and absolute Zeta potential value had a liner relationship. For the brewery wastewater treatment, under the above optimal condition, the chemical oxygen demand removal reached 94.3% with the auto-flocculation ratio and biomass recovery of 89.6% and 1510 mg l -1 , which increased 2.75-fold and 2.77-fold, respectively.

  6. Using Polymer Alternating Gas to Enhance Oil Recovery in Heavy Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongzhi; Li, Weirong; Zhou, Tiyao; Dong, Zhenzhen

    2018-02-01

    CO2 has been used to recover oil for more than 40 years. Currently, about 43% of EOR production in U.S. is from CO2 flooding. CO2 flooding is a well-established EOR technique, but its density and viscosity nature are challenges for CO2 projects. Low density (0.5 to 0.8 g/cm3) causes gas to rise upward in reservoirs and bypass many lower portions of the reservoir. Low viscosity (0.02 to 0.08 cp) leads to poor volumetric sweep efficiency. So water-alternating-gas (WAG) method was used to control the mobility of CO2 and improve sweep efficiency. However, WAG process has some other problems in heavy oil reservoir, such as poor mobility ratio and gravity overriding. To examine the applicability of carbon dioxide to recover viscous oil from highly heterogeneous reservoirs, this study suggests a new EOR method--polymer-alternating gas (PAG) process. The process involves a combination of polymer flooding and CO2 injection. To confirm the effectiveness of PAG process in heavy oils, a reservoir model from Liaohe Oilfield is used to compare the technical and economic performance among PAG, WAG and polymer flooding. Simulation results show that PAG method would increase oil recovery over 10% compared with other EOR methods and PAG would be economically success based on assumption in this study. This study is the first to apply PAG to enhance oil recovery in heavy oil reservoir with highly heterogeneous. Besides, this paper provides detailed discussions and comparison about PAG with other EOR methods in this heavy oil reservoir.

  7. Constructive Activation of Reservoir-Resident Microbes for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruyn, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Microbial communities living in subsurface oil reservoirs biodegrade oil, producing methane. If this process could create methane within the waterflooded pore spaces of an oilfield, the methane would be expected to remain and occupy pore space, decreasing water relative permeability, diverting water flow, and increasing oil recovery by expanding the swept zone of the waterflood. This approach was tested in an oilfield in northern Montana. Preliminary assessments were made of geochemical conditions and microbiological habitations. Then, a formulation of microbial activators, with composition tailored for the reservoir's conditions, was metered at low rates into the existing injection water system for one year. In the field, the responses observed included improved oil production performance; a slight increase in injection pressure; and increased time needed for tracers to move between injection and producing wells. We interpret these results to confirm that successful stimulation of the microbial community caused more methane to be created within the swept zone of the waterflooded reservoir. When the methane exsolved as water flowed between high-pressure injection and low-pressure production wells, the bubbles occupied pore space, reducing water saturation and relative permeability, and re-directing some water flow to "slower" unswept rock with lower permeability and higher oil saturation. In total, the waterflood's swept zone had been expanded to include previously-unflooded rock. This technology was applied in this field after screening based on careful anaerobic sampling, advanced microbiological analysis, and the ongoing success of its waterflood. No reservoir or geological or geophysical simulation models were employed, and physical modifications to field facilities were minor. This technology of utilizing existing microbial populations for enhanced oil recovery can therefore be considered for deployment into waterfloods where small scale, advanced maturity, or

  8. Maximization of wave motion within a hydrocarbon reservoir for wave-based enhanced oil recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, C.

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. We discuss a systematic methodology for investigating the feasibility of mobilizing oil droplets trapped within the pore space of a target reservoir region by optimally directing wave energy to the region of interest. The motivation stems from field and laboratory observations, which have provided sufficient evidence suggesting that wave-based reservoir stimulation could lead to economically viable oil recovery.Using controlled active surface wave sources, we first describe the mathematical framework necessary for identifying optimal wave source signals that can maximize a desired motion metric (kinetic energy, particle acceleration, etc.) at the target region of interest. We use the apparatus of partial-differential-equation (PDE)-constrained optimization to formulate the associated inverse-source problem, and deploy state-of-the-art numerical wave simulation tools to resolve numerically the associated discrete inverse problem.Numerical experiments with a synthetic subsurface model featuring a shallow reservoir show that the optimizer converges to wave source signals capable of maximizing the motion within the reservoir. The spectra of the wave sources are dominated by the amplification frequencies of the formation. We also show that wave energy could be focused within the target reservoir area, while simultaneously minimizing the disturbance to neighboring formations - a concept that can also be exploited in fracking operations.Lastly, we compare the results of our numerical experiments conducted at the reservoir scale, with results obtained from semi-analytical studies at the granular level, to conclude that, in the case of shallow targets, the optimized wave sources are likely to mobilize trapped oil droplets, and thus enhance oil recovery.

  9. Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Implementation of an Enhanced Recovery Program in Liver Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joliat, Gaëtan-Romain; Labgaa, Ismaïl; Hübner, Martin; Blanc, Catherine; Griesser, Anne-Claude; Schäfer, Markus; Demartines, Nicolas

    2016-10-01

    Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs have been shown to ease the postoperative recovery and improve clinical outcomes for various surgery types. ERAS cost-effectiveness was demonstrated for colorectal surgery but not for liver surgery. The present study aim was to analyze the implementation costs and benefits of a specific ERAS program in liver surgery. A dedicated ERAS protocol for liver surgery was implemented in our department in July 2013. The subsequent year all consecutive patients undergoing liver surgery were treated according to this protocol (ERAS group). They were compared in terms of real in-hospital costs with a patient series before ERAS implementation (pre-ERAS group). Mean costs per patient were compared with a bootstrap T test. A cost-minimization analysis was performed. Seventy-four ERAS patients were compared with 100 pre-ERAS patients. There were no significant pre- and intraoperative differences between the two groups, except for the laparoscopy number (n = 18 ERAS, n = 9 pre-ERAS, p = 0.010). Overall postoperative complications were observed in 36 (49 %) and 64 patients (64 %) in the ERAS and pre-ERAS groups, respectively (p = 0.046). The median length of stay was significantly shorter for the ERAS group (8 vs. 10 days, p = 0.006). The total mean costs per patient were €38,726 and €42,356 for ERAS and pre-ERAS (p = 0.467). The cost-minimization analysis showed a total mean cost reduction of €3080 per patient after ERAS implementation. ERAS implementation for liver surgery induced a non-significant decrease in cost compared to standard care. Significant decreased complication rate and hospital stay were observed in the ERAS group.

  10. Impact of enhanced recovery after surgery programs on pancreatic surgery: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hai-Bin; Zhu, Wen-Tao; Wei, Qiang; Wang, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Hai-Bin; Chen, Qiang-Pu

    2018-04-21

    To evaluate the impact of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs on postoperative complications of pancreatic surgery. Computer searches were performed in databases (including PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase) for randomized controlled trials or case-control studies describing ERAS programs in patients undergoing pancreatic surgery published between January 1995 and August 2017. Two researchers independently evaluated the quality of the studies' extracted data that met the inclusion criteria and performed a meta-analysis using RevMan5.3.5 software. Forest plots, demonstrating the outcomes of the ERAS group vs the control group after pancreatic surgery, and funnel plots were used to evaluate potential publication bias. Twenty case-control studies including 3694 patients, published between January 1995 and August 2017, were selected for the meta-analysis. This study included the ERAS group ( n = 1886) and the control group ( n = 1808), which adopted the traditional perioperative management. Compared to the control group, the ERAS group had lower delayed gastric emptying rates [odds ratio (OR) = 0.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48-0.72, P < 0.00001], lower postoperative complication rates (OR = 0.57, 95%CI: 0.45-0.72, P < 0.00001), particularly for the mild postoperative complications (Clavien-Dindo I-II) (OR = 0.71, 95%CI: 0.58-0.88, P = 0.002), lower abdominal infection rates (OR = 0.70, 95%CI: 0.54-0.90, P = 0.006), and shorter postoperative length of hospital stay (PLOS) (WMD = -4.45, 95%CI: -5.99 to -2.91, P < 0.00001). However, there were no significant differences in complications, such as, postoperative pancreatic fistulas, moderate to severe complications (Clavien-Dindo III- V), mortality, readmission and unintended reoperation, in both groups. The perioperative implementation of ERAS programs in pancreatic surgery is safe and effective, can decrease postoperative complication rates, and can promote recovery for patients.

  11. Development of Microorganisms with Improved Transport and Biosurfactant Activity for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; K.E. Duncan; N. Youssef; T. Fincher; S.K. Maudgalya; M.J. Folmsbee; R. Knapp; Randy R. Simpson; N.Ravi; D. Nagle

    2005-08-15

    growth at elevated salt concentrations to obtain candidates most suitable for microbial oil recovery. Seventy percent of the 205 strains tested, mostly strains of Bacillus mojavensis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus sonorensis, produced biosurfactants aerobically and 41% of the strains had biosurfactant activity greater than Bacillus mojavensis JF-2, the current candidate for oil recovery. Biosurfactant activity varied with the percentage of the 3-hydroxy-tetradecanoate isomers in the fatty acid portion of the biosurfactant. Changing the medium composition by incorporation of different precursors of 3-hydroxy tetradecanoate increased the activity of biosurfactant. The surface tension and critical micelle concentration of 15 different, biosurfactant-producing Bacillus strains was determined individually and in combination with other biosurfactants. Some biosurfactant mixtures were found to have synergistic effect on surface tension (e.g. surface tension was lowered from 41 to 31 mN/m in some cases) while others had a synergistic effect on CMD-1 values. We compared the transport abilities of spores from three Bacillus strains using a model porous system to study spore recovery and transport. Sand-packed columns were used to select for spores or cells with the best transport abilities through brine-saturated sand. Spores of Bacillus mojavensis strains JF-2 and ROB-2 and a natural recombinant, strain C-9, transported through sand at very high efficiencies. The earliest cells/spores that emerged from the column were regrown, allowed to sporulate, and applied to a second column. This procedure greatly enhanced the transport of strain C-9. Spores with enhanced transport abilities can be easily obtained and that the preparation of inocula for use in MEOR is feasible. We conducted a push-pull test to study in-situ biosurfactant production by exogenous biosurfactant producers to aid in oil recovery from depleted reservoirs. Five wells from the same

  12. Spatial management of marine resources can enhance the recovery of predators and avoid local depletion of forage fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Vinther, Morten; Haslob, Holger

    2012-01-01

    fish, i.e., sprat and herring, is historic low in this area, which in combination with increasing cod stock results in locally high predation mortality of forage fish and cannibalism of cod. In line with low prey availability, body weight and nutritional condition of cod drastically declined...... management to enhance the recovery of predator stocks...

  13. Support of enhanced oil recovery to independent producers in Texas. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fotouh, K.H.

    1995-09-30

    The main objective of this project is to support independent oil producers in Texas and to improve the productivity of marginal wells utilizing enhanced oil recovery techniques. The main task carried out this quarter was the generation of an electronic data base.

  14. Off-shore enhanced oil recovery in the North Sea : The impact of price uncertainty on the investment decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compernolle, T.; K, Welkenhuysen,; Huisman, Kuno; K, Piessens,; Kort, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Although CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) is considered a key solution for CO2 emission mitigation, it is currently not economically feasible. CO2 enhanced oil recovery can play a significant role in stimulating CCS deployment because CO2 is used to extract additional quantities of oil. This study

  15. Systematic Phase Behaviour Study and Foam Stability Analysis for Optimal Alkaline/Surfactant/Foam Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini Nasab, S.M.; Zitha, P.L.J.

    2015-01-01

    Alkaline-Surfactant-Foam (ASF) flooding is a recently introduced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method. This paper presents laboratory study of this ASF to better understand its mechanisms. The focus is on the interaction of ASF chemical agents with oil and in the presence and absence of naphthenic

  16. Combined polymer-curcumin conjugate and ependymal progenitor/stem cell treatment enhances spinal cord injury functional recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo-Aguilar, Raquel; Alastrue-Agudo, Ana; Cases-Villar, Marta; Lopez-Mocholi, Eric; England, Richard; Vicent, María J; Moreno-Manzano, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) suffers from a lack of effective therapeutic strategies. Animal models of acute SCI have provided evidence that transplantation of ependymal stem/progenitor cells of the spinal cord (epSPCs) induces functional recovery, while systemic administration of the anti-inflammatory curcumin provides neuroprotection. However, functional recovery from chronic stage SCI requires additional enhancements in available therapeutic strategies. Herein, we report on a combination treatment for SCI using epSPCs and a pH-responsive polymer-curcumin conjugate. The incorporation of curcumin in a pH-responsive polymeric carrier mainchain, a polyacetal (PA), enhances blood bioavailability, stability, and provides a means for highly localized delivery. We find that PA-curcumin enhances neuroprotection, increases axonal growth, and can improve functional recovery in acute SCI. However, when combined with epSPCs, PA-curcumin also enhances functional recovery in a rodent model of chronic SCI. This suggests that combination therapy may be an exciting new therapeutic option for the treatment of chronic SCI in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel Approach to Treat Uncomplicated Sigmoid Volvulus Combining Minimally Invasive Surgery with Enhanced Recovery, in a Rural Hospital in Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Naald, Niels; Prins, Marloes I.; Otten, Kars; Kumwenda, Dayson; Bleichrodt, Robert P.

    2018-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, sigmoid volvulus is a frequent cause of bowel obstruction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of acute sigmoid resection and anastomosis via a mini-laparotomy in patients with uncomplicated sigmoid volvulus, following the principles of "Enhanced Recovery After

  18. Amphiphilic copolymers based on PEG-acrylate as surface active water viscosifiers : Towards new potential systems for enhanced oil recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raffa, Patrizio; Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Picchioni, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    With the purpose of investigating new potential candidates for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), amphiphilic copolymers based on Poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (PEGA) have been prepared by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP). A P(PEGA) homopolymer, a block copolymer with styrene

  19. Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles for oil-water interfacial tension reduction in enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Hassan; Baig, Mirza Khurram; Yahya, Noorhana; Khodapanah, Leila; Sabet, Maziyar; Demiral, Birol M. R.; Burda, Marek

    2018-02-01

    Nanoparticles show potential use in applications associated with upstream oil and gas engineering to increase the performance of numerous methods such as wettability alteration, interfacial tension reduction, thermal conductivity and enhanced oil recovery operations. Surface tension optimization is an important parameter in enhanced oil recovery. Current work focuses on the new economical method of surface tension optimization of ZnO nanofluids for oil-water interfacial tension reduction in enhanced oil recovery. In this paper, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystallites were prepared using the chemical route and explored for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Adsorption of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) on calcite (111) surface was investigated using the adsorption locator module of Materials Studio software. It was found that ZnO nanoparticles show maximum adsorption energy of - 253 kcal/mol. The adsorption of ZnO on the rock surface changes the wettability which results in capillary force reduction and consequently increasing EOR. The nanofluids have been prepared by varying the concentration of ZnO nanoparticles to find the optimum value for surface tension. The surface tension (ST) was calculated with different concentration of ZnO nanoparticles using the pendant drop method. The results show a maximum value of ST 35.57 mN/m at 0.3 wt% of ZnO NPs. It was found that the nanofluid with highest surface tension (0.3 wt%) resulted in higher recovery efficiency. The highest recovery factor of 11.82% at 0.3 wt% is due to the oil/water interfacial tension reduction and wettability alteration.

  20. Environmental and thermodynamic evaluation of CO2 capture, transport and storage with and without enhanced resource recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iribarren, Diego; Petrakopoulou, Fontina; Dufour, Javier

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the environmental and thermodynamic performance of six coal-fired power plants with CO 2 capture and storage. The technologies examined are post-combustion capture using monoethanolamine, membrane separation, cryogenic fractionation and pressure swing adsorption, pre-combustion capture through coal gasification, and capture performing conventional oxy-fuel combustion. The incorporation of CO 2 capture is evaluated both on its own and in combination with CO 2 transport and geological storage, with and without beneficial use. Overall, we find that pre-combustion CO 2 capture and post-combustion through membrane separation present relatively low life-cycle environmental impacts and high exergetic efficiencies. When accounting for transport and storage, the environmental impacts increase and the efficiencies decrease. However, a better environmental performance can be achieved for CO 2 capture, transport and storage when incorporating beneficial use through enhanced oil recovery. The performance with enhanced coal-bed methane recovery, on the other hand, depends on the impact categories evaluated. The incorporation of methane recovery results in a better thermodynamic performance, when compared to the incorporation of oil recovery. The cumulative energy demand shows that the integration of enhanced resource recovery strategies is necessary to attain favourable life-cycle energy balances. - Highlights: ► Evaluation of six different CO 2 capture technologies for coal-fired power plants. ► Calculation of life-cycle environmental impacts and exergetic efficiencies. ► Suitability of post-combustion capture with membrane separation. ► Suitability of pre-combustion capture through coal gasification. ► Improved performance when incorporating enhanced resource recovery

  1. Characterization of indigenous oil field microorganisms for microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitte, J.; Krueger, M. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Biegel, E.; Herold, A. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Alkan, H. [Wintershall Holding GmbH, Kassel (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Microbial activities and their resulting metabolites became a focus of attention for enhanced oil recovery (MEOR, microbial enhanced oil recovery) in the recent years. In order to develop a strategy for a MEOR application in a German oil field operated by Wintershall experiments were performed to investigate different sampling strategies and the microbial communities found in these samples. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the indigenous microbial communities, (2) to investigate the dependency of microbial activity/diversity on the different sampling strategies, and (3) to study the influence of the in situ pressure on bacterial growth and metabolite production. Fluids were sampled at the well head (surface) and in situ in approx. 785 m depth to collect uncontaminated production water directly from the reservoir horizon and under the in situ pressure of 31 bar (subsurface). In the lab the pressure was either released quickly or slowly to assess the sensitivity of microorganisms to rapid pressure changes. Quantitative PCR resulted in higher microbial cell numbers in the subsurface than in the surface sample. Biogenic CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} formation rates were determined under atmospheric and high pressure conditions in the original fluids, with highest rates found in the surface fluid. Interestingly, no methane was formed in the native fluid samples. While nitrate reduction was exclusively detected in the surface samples, sulfide formation also occurred in the subsurface fluids. Increased CO{sub 2} formation was measured after addition of a variety of substrates in the surface fluids, while only fructose and glucose showed a stimulating effect on CO{sub 2} production for the subsurface sample. Stable enrichment cultures were obtained in complex medium inoculated with the subsurface fluid, both under atmospheric and in situ pressure. Growth experiments with constant or changing pressure, and subsequent DGGE analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes

  2. Metabolic engineering of the phenylpropanoid pathway enhances the antioxidant capacity of Saussurea involucrata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Qiu

    Full Text Available The rare wild species of snow lotus Saussurea involucrata is a commonly used medicinal herb with great pharmacological value for human health, resulting from its uniquely high level of phenylpropanoid compound production. To gain information on the phenylpropanid biosynthetic pathway genes in this critically important medicinal plant, global transcriptome sequencing was performed. It revealed that the phenylpropanoid pathway genes were well represented in S. involucrata. In addition, we introduced two key phenylpropanoid pathway inducing transcription factors (PAP1 and Lc into this medicinal plant. Transgenic S. involucrata co-expressing PAP1 and Lc exhibited purple pigments due to a massive accumulation of anthocyanins. The over-expression of PAP1 and Lc largely activated most of the phenylpropanoid pathway genes, and increased accumulation of several phenylpropanoid compounds significantly, including chlorogenic acid, syringin, cyanrine and rutin. Both ABTS (2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzotiazo-line-6-sulfonic acid and FRAP (ferric reducing anti-oxidant power assays revealed that the antioxidant capacity of transgenic S. involucrata lines was greatly enhanced over controls. In addition to providing a deeper understanding of the molecular basis of phenylpropanoid metabolism, our results potentially enable an alternation of bioactive compound production in S. involucrata through metabolic engineering.

  3. Whey Protein Supplementation Enhances Whole Body Protein Metabolism and Performance Recovery after Resistance Exercise: A Double-Blind Crossover Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. D. West

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available No study has concurrently measured changes in free-living whole body protein metabolism and exercise performance during recovery from an acute bout of resistance exercise. We aimed to determine if whey protein ingestion enhances whole body net protein balance and recovery of exercise performance during overnight (10 h and 24 h recovery after whole body resistance exercise in trained men. In a double-blind crossover design, 12 trained men (76 ± 8 kg, 24 ± 4 years old, 14% ± 5% body fat; means ± standard deviation (SD performed resistance exercise in the evening prior to consuming either 25 g of whey protein (PRO; MuscleTech 100% Whey or an energy-matched placebo (CHO immediately post-exercise (0 h, and again the following morning (~10 h of recovery. A third randomized trial, completed by the same participants, involving no exercise and no supplement served as a rested control trial (Rest. Participants ingested [15N]glycine to determine whole body protein kinetics and net protein balance over 10 and 24 h of recovery. Performance was assessed pre-exercise and at 0, 10, and 24 h of recovery using a battery of tests. Net protein balance tended to improve in PRO (P = 0.064; effect size (ES = 0.61, PRO vs. CHO during overnight recovery. Over 24 h, net balance was enhanced in PRO (P = 0.036 but not in CHO (P = 0.84; ES = 0.69, PRO vs. CHO, which was mediated primarily by a reduction in protein breakdown (PRO < CHO; P < 0.01. Exercise decreased repetitions to failure (REP, maximal strength (MVC, peak and mean power, and countermovement jump performance (CMJ at 0 h (all P < 0.05 vs. Pre. At 10 h, there were small-to-moderate effects for enhanced recovery of the MVC (ES = 0.56, mean power (ES = 0.49, and CMJ variables (ES: 0.27–0.49 in PRO. At 24 h, protein supplementation improved MVC (ES = 0.76, REP (ES = 0.44, and peak power (ES = 0.55. In conclusion, whey protein supplementation enhances whole body anabolism, and may improve acute recovery of

  4. A review on applications of nanotechnology in the enhanced oil recovery part A: effects of nanoparticles on interfacial tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghian, Goshtasp; Hendraningrat, Luky

    2016-01-01

    Chemical enhanced oil recovery is another strong growing technology with the potential of a step change innovation, which will help to secure future oil supply by turning resources into reserves. While Substantial amount of crude oil remains in the reservoir after primary and secondary production, conventional production methods give access to on average only one-third of original oil in place, the use of surfactants and polymers allows for recovery of up to another third of this oil. Chemical flooding is of increasing interest and importance due to high oil prices and the need to increase oil production. Research in nanotechnology in the petroleum industry is advancing rapidly and an enormous progress in the application of nanotechnology in this area is to be expected. Nanotechnology has the potential to profoundly change enhanced oil recovery and to improve mechanism of recovery. This paper, therefore, focuses on the reviews of the application of nano technology in chemical flooding process in oil recovery and reviews the application nano in the polymer and surfactant flooding on the interfacial tension process.

  5. Genetic analysis of pathway regulation for enhancing branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis in plants

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Hao

    2010-08-01

    The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) valine, leucine and isoleucine are essential amino acids that play critical roles in animal growth and development. Animals cannot synthesize these amino acids and must obtain them from their diet. Plants are the ultimate source of these essential nutrients, and they synthesize BCAAs through a conserved pathway that is inhibited by its end products. This feedback inhibition has prevented scientists from engineering plants that accumulate high levels of BCAAs by simply over-expressing the respective biosynthetic genes. To identify components critical for this feedback regulation, we performed a genetic screen for Arabidopsis mutants that exhibit enhanced resistance to BCAAs. Multiple dominant allelic mutations in the VALINE-TOLERANT 1 (VAT1) gene were identified that conferred plant resistance to valine inhibition. Map-based cloning revealed that VAT1 encodes a regulatory subunit of acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS), the first committed enzyme in the BCAA biosynthesis pathway. The VAT1 gene is highly expressed in young, rapidly growing tissues. When reconstituted with the catalytic subunit in vitro, the vat1 mutant-containing AHAS holoenzyme exhibits increased resistance to valine. Importantly, transgenic plants expressing the mutated vat1 gene exhibit valine tolerance and accumulate higher levels of BCAAs. Our studies not only uncovered regulatory characteristics of plant AHAS, but also identified a method to enhance BCAA accumulation in crop plants that will significantly enhance the nutritional value of food and feed. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Next generation of CO2 enhanced water recovery with subsurface energy storage in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Kühn, Michael; Ma, Jianli; Niu, Zhiyong

    2017-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) utilization and storage (CCUS) is very popular in comparison with traditional CO2 capture and storage (CCS) in China. In particular, CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers with enhanced water recovery (CO2-EWR) [1] is gaining more and more attention as a cleaner production technology. The CO2-EWR was written into the "U.S.-China Joint Announcement on Climate Change" released November 11, 2014. "Both sides will work to manage climate change by demonstrating a new frontier for CO2 use through a carbon capture, use, and sequestration (CCUS) project that will capture and store CO2 while producing fresh water, thus demonstrating power generation as a net producer of water instead of a water consumer. This CCUS project with enhanced water recovery will eventually inject about 1.0 million tonnes of CO2 and create approximately 1.4 million cubic meters of freshwater per year." In this article, at first we reviewed the history of the CO2-EWR and addressed its current status in China. Then, we put forth a new generation of the CO2-EWR with emphasizing the collaborative solutions between carbon emission reductions and subsurface energy storage or renewable energy cycle [2]. Furthermore, we figured out the key challenging problems such as water-CCUS nexus when integrating the CO2-EWR with the coal chemical industry in the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, China [3-5]. Finally, we addressed some crucial problems and strategic consideration of the CO2-EWR in China with focuses on its technical bottleneck, relative advantage, early opportunities, environmental synergies and other related issues. This research is not only very useful for the current development of CCUS in the relative "cold season" but also beneficial for the energy security and clean production in China. [1] Li Q, Wei Y-N, Liu G, Shi H (2015) CO2-EWR: a cleaner solution for coal chemical industry in China. Journal of Cleaner Production 103:330-337. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.09.073 [2] Streibel M

  7. Supporting Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery-EOR Thermal Processes Report IV-12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izequeido, Alexandor

    2001-04-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Ninth Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 62 through 67. The first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eight, and ninth reports on Annex IV, [Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, and IV-8 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-89/1/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP) DOE/BC-92/1/SP, DOE/BC-93/3/SP, and DOE/BC-95/3/SP] contain the results from the first 61 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1! 987, November 1988, December 1989, October 1991, February 1993, and March 1995 respectively.

  8. Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Micron-Size Polyacrylamide Elastic Microspheres (MPEMs): Underlying Mechanisms and Displacement Experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Chuanjin; Lei, Guanglun; Hou, Jian; Xu, Xiaohong; Wang, Dan; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2015-01-01

    Micron-size polyacrylamide elastic microsphere (MPEM) is a newly developed profile control and oil displacement agent for enhanced oil recovery in heterogeneous reservoirs. In this study, laboratory experiments were performed to characterize the viscoelastic properties of MPEMs in brine water. A transparent sandpack micromodel was used to observe the microscopic flow and displacement mechanisms, and parallel-sandpack models were used to investigate the profile control and oil displacement performance using MPEMs in heterogeneous reservoirs. The results indicate that MPEMs almost do not increase the viscosity of injection water and can be conveniently injected using the original water injection pipelines. The microscopic profile control and oil displacement mechanisms of MPEMs in porous media mainly behave as selective-plugging in large pores, fluid diversion after MPEMs plugging, oil drainage caused by MPEMs breakthrough, and the mechanism of oil droplets converging into oil flow. MPEMs have a high plugging strength, which can tolerate a long-term water flushing. MPEMs can selectively enter and plug the large pores and pore-throats in high permeability sandpack, but almost do not damage the low permeability sandpack. MPEMs can effectively divert the water flow from the high permeability sandpack to the low permeability sandpack and improve the sweep efficiency of low permeability sandpack and low permeability area in the high permeability sandpack. The results also confirm the dynamic process of profile control and oil displacement using MPEMs in heterogeneous reservoirs.

  9. Enhanced Oil Recovery from Oil-wet Carbonate Rock by Spontaneous Imbibition of Aqueous Surfactant Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standnes, Dag Chun

    2001-09-01

    The main theme of this thesis is an experimental investigation of spontaneous imbibition (SI) of aqueous cationic surfactant solution into oil-wet carbonate (chalk- and dolomite cores). The static imbibition process is believed to represent the matrix flow of oil and water in a fractured reservoir. It was known that aqueous solution of C{sub 12}-N(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}Br (C12TAB) was able to imbibe spontaneously into nearly oil-wet chalk material, but the underlying mechanism was not understood. The present work was therefore initiated, with the following objectives: (1) Put forward a hypothesis for the chemical mechanism underlying the SI of C12TAB solutions into oil-wet chalk material based on experimental data and (2) Perform screening tests of low-cost commercially available surfactants for their ability to displace oil by SI of water into oil-wet carbonate rock material. It is essential for optimal use of the surfactant in field application to have detailed knowledge about the mechanism underlying the SI process. The thesis also discusses some preliminary experimental results and suggests mechanisms for enhanced oil recovery from oil-wet carbonate rock induced by supply of thermal energy.

  10. Surfactant-enhanced recovery of dissolved hydrocarbons at petroleum production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, J.T.; Mayes, M.; Wassmuth, F.; Taylor, K.; Rae, W.; Kuipers, F.

    1997-01-01

    The feasibility and cost effectiveness of surfactant-enhanced pumping to reduce source concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons from contaminated soils was discussed. Light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL) hydrocarbons are present beneath many petroleum production processing facilities in western Canada. Complete removal of LNAPLs from geologic materials is difficult and expensive. Treatment technologies include costly ex-situ methods such as excavation and in-situ methods such as physical extraction by soil venting and pumping, bioremediation, and combination methods such as bioventing, bioslurping or air sparging. Surfactant-aided pumping can reduce source hydrocarbon concentrations when used in conjunction with traditional pump and treat, or deep well injection. This study involved the selection of an appropriate surfactant from a wide variety of commercially available products. A site contaminated by hydrocarbons in Turner Valley, Alberta, was used for field scale testing. One of the major problems was quantifying the increase in the dissolved hydrocarbon concentrations in the recovered water once a surfactant was added. From the 30 surfactants screened in a series of washing and oil solubilization tests, two surfactants, Brij 97 and Tween 80, were selected for further evaluation. Increased hydrocarbon recovery was observed within 10 days of the introduction of the first surfactant. 2 refs., 7 figs

  11. Responsive copolymers for enhanced petroleum recovery. Quarterly progress report, March 21, 1995--June 22, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, C.; Hester, R.

    1995-09-01

    Advanced polymer systems that possess microstructural features that are responsive to temperature, electrolyte concentration, and shear conditions are being synthesized which will be superior to polymers presently used for mobility control in enhanced oil recovery. Improved polymer performance is accomplished by controlling hydrophobic or ampholytic interactions between individual polymer chains in solution. Of special interest to our group have been (1) the elucidation of the mechanism of associative thickening and (2) the tailoring of thickeners with reversible associations responsive to changes in pH, ionic strength, temperature, or shear stress. A polymerization technique, termed ``micellar`` polymerization utilizes a surfactant to solubilize a relatively low mole percent of a hydrophobic monomer in water for copolymerization with a hydrophilic monomer. In this report, we examine the role of surfactant-to-monomer ratio (SMR) in the reaction medium on microstructure utilizing the N-[(1- pyrenylsulfonamido)ethyl] acrylamide (APS) monomer as a fluorescent label. Comparison is made with previously reported terpolymers of identical AM/AA compositions with N-(4-decyl)phenylacrylamide as the hydrophobic monomer. Unlike the uncharged copolymer of AM/APS, however, the AM/AA/APS terpolymers of this study do not show intermolecular associative thickening, apparently due to insufficient liaisons of hydrophobic microdomains even at high concentrations of terpolymer.

  12. Identification of bacteria used for microbial enhanced oil recovery process by fluorescence in situ hybridization technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, K.; Tanaka, S.; Otsuka, M. [Kansai Research Institute, Kyoto (Japan). Lifescience Lab.; Yonebayashi, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Chiba (Japan). Tech. Research Center; Enomoto, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Geoscience and Tech.

    2000-01-01

    A fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique using 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes was developed for rapid detection of microorganisms for use in the microbial enhancement of oil recovery (MEOR) process. Two microorganisms, Enterobacter cloacae TRC-322 and Bacillus licheniformis TRC-18-2-a, were selected from a collection of Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus sp. which were screened in previous studies as candidate microorganisms for injection, and were used for this experiment. Oligonucleotide probes, design based on specific sequences in the 16S rRNA gene were labeled with either fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), or 6-car-boxy-X-rhodamine (ROX), and were allowed to hybridize with fixed cells of the two microorganisms noted above. The fluorescence signal emitted from each microorganism cells could clearly be detected by an epifluorescence microscope. Moreover, E. cloacae TRC-322 and B, licheniformis TRC-18-2-a, suspended in actual reservoir brine, including inorganic salts, oil and aboriginal cells of the reservoir brine, could be detected directly by this hybridization method, without the need for cultivation and isolation. (author)

  13. Cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment alters cerebral metabolism in dopaminergic reward regions. Bromocriptine enhances recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clow, D.W.; Hammer, R.P. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    2-[14C]deoxyglucose autoradiography was used to determine local cerebral glucose utilization (lCGU) in rats following chronic cocaine treatment and subsequent abstinence. lCGU was examined in 43 discrete brain regions in animals which had received daily injections of cocaine for 14 days (10 mg/kg) followed by 3 days of saline or bromocriptine (10 mg/kg) treatment. Cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment significantly reduced lCGU in several regions including mesocorticolimbic structures such as ventral tegmental area, medial prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens (NAc). Within the NAc, however, only the rostral pole showed significant reduction. In contrast, when bromocriptine treatment accompanied abstinence, lCGU was no longer reduced in mesocorticolimbic and most other regions, implying that metabolic recovery was enhanced by bromocriptine treatment during early abstinence following chronic cocaine treatment. These data suggest that cerebral metabolism is decreased during cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment in critical brain regions, and that this alteration can be prevented by treatment with direct-acting dopamine agonists such as bromocriptine

  14. Cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment alters cerebral metabolism in dopaminergic reward regions. Bromocriptine enhances recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clow, D.W.; Hammer, R.P. Jr. (Univ. of Hawaii School of Medicine, Honolulu (USA))

    1991-01-01

    2-(14C)deoxyglucose autoradiography was used to determine local cerebral glucose utilization (lCGU) in rats following chronic cocaine treatment and subsequent abstinence. lCGU was examined in 43 discrete brain regions in animals which had received daily injections of cocaine for 14 days (10 mg/kg) followed by 3 days of saline or bromocriptine (10 mg/kg) treatment. Cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment significantly reduced lCGU in several regions including mesocorticolimbic structures such as ventral tegmental area, medial prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens (NAc). Within the NAc, however, only the rostral pole showed significant reduction. In contrast, when bromocriptine treatment accompanied abstinence, lCGU was no longer reduced in mesocorticolimbic and most other regions, implying that metabolic recovery was enhanced by bromocriptine treatment during early abstinence following chronic cocaine treatment. These data suggest that cerebral metabolism is decreased during cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment in critical brain regions, and that this alteration can be prevented by treatment with direct-acting dopamine agonists such as bromocriptine.

  15. Enhancement recovery of haemostatic system by tocopherol-monoglucoside (TMG) in whole body gamma irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshamy, E.

    2007-01-01

    A preparation of α-tocopherol monoglucoside (TMG) administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) at a dose of 600 mg/kg body wt immediately after whole body gamma-irradiation was examined for its radioprotective efficacy towards some haemostatic parameters (protein C, antithrombin III and tissue plasminogen activators). When rats received gamma-rays at a dose of 6.0 Gy, a marked decrease in plasma protein C and antithrombin 111 activities within the early post-irradiated period was observed. On the other hand, increase in tissue plasminogen activators had been found. Accordingly, whole body y-radiation was found to modulate the coagulation system by down regulating the expression of activated protein C (APC), antithrombins and induction of the fibrinolytic systems by hyper regulating the tissue plasminogen activators, modifying in this way, the balance between pro coagulant and anticoagulant activities and so disturbing the homeostasis. This may lead to micro circulatory disturbance, which plays a role in ischemic organ dysfunction. However, these changes were attenuated in TMG-treated mice. Significant protection of the previous parameters was found for the TMG group of rats. The return to normal value of the reduced protein C and antithrombin Ill starting from the 5th day and the increased plasminogen activators starting from the 12 h interval were less in TMG-treated rats than in untreated irradiated rats. Accordingly, TMG administration was found to enhance haemostatic recovery

  16. Discrete Fracture Modeling of 3D Heterogeneous Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery with Prismatic Meshing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbin Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a 3D multicomponent multiphase simulator with a new fracture characterization technique is developed to simulate the enhanced recovery of coalbed methane. In this new model, the diffusion source from the matrix is calculated using the traditional dual-continuum approach, while in the Darcy flow scale, the Discrete Fracture Model (DFM is introduced to explicitly represent the flow interaction between cleats and large-scale fractures. For this purpose, a general formulation is proposed to model the multicomponent multiphase flow through the fractured coal media. The S&D model and a revised P&M model are incorporated to represent the geomechanical effects. Then a finite volume based discretization and solution strategies are constructed to solve the general ECBM equations. The prismatic meshing algorism is used to construct the grids for 3D reservoirs with complex fracture geometry. The simulator is validated with a benchmark case in which the results show close agreement with GEM. Finally, simulation of a synthetic heterogeneous 3D coal reservoir modified from a published literature is performed to evaluate the production performance and the effects of injected gas composition, well pattern and gas buoyancy.

  17. Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Micron-Size Polyacrylamide Elastic Microspheres (MPEMs): Underlying Mechanisms and Displacement Experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Chuanjin

    2015-10-12

    Micron-size polyacrylamide elastic microsphere (MPEM) is a newly developed profile control and oil displacement agent for enhanced oil recovery in heterogeneous reservoirs. In this study, laboratory experiments were performed to characterize the viscoelastic properties of MPEMs in brine water. A transparent sandpack micromodel was used to observe the microscopic flow and displacement mechanisms, and parallel-sandpack models were used to investigate the profile control and oil displacement performance using MPEMs in heterogeneous reservoirs. The results indicate that MPEMs almost do not increase the viscosity of injection water and can be conveniently injected using the original water injection pipelines. The microscopic profile control and oil displacement mechanisms of MPEMs in porous media mainly behave as selective-plugging in large pores, fluid diversion after MPEMs plugging, oil drainage caused by MPEMs breakthrough, and the mechanism of oil droplets converging into oil flow. MPEMs have a high plugging strength, which can tolerate a long-term water flushing. MPEMs can selectively enter and plug the large pores and pore-throats in high permeability sandpack, but almost do not damage the low permeability sandpack. MPEMs can effectively divert the water flow from the high permeability sandpack to the low permeability sandpack and improve the sweep efficiency of low permeability sandpack and low permeability area in the high permeability sandpack. The results also confirm the dynamic process of profile control and oil displacement using MPEMs in heterogeneous reservoirs.

  18. CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis for CO2 Sequestration at Enhanced Oil Recovery Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhenxue; Viswanathan, Hari; Middleton, Richard; Pan, Feng; Ampomah, William; Yang, Changbing; Jia, Wei; Xiao, Ting; Lee, Si-Yong; McPherson, Brian; Balch, Robert; Grigg, Reid; White, Mark

    2016-07-19

    Using CO2 in enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) is a promising technology for emissions management because CO2-EOR can dramatically reduce sequestration costs in the absence of emissions policies that include incentives for carbon capture and storage. This study develops a multiscale statistical framework to perform CO2 accounting and risk analysis in an EOR environment at the Farnsworth Unit (FWU), Texas. A set of geostatistical-based Monte Carlo simulations of CO2-oil/gas-water flow and transport in the Morrow formation are conducted for global sensitivity and statistical analysis of the major risk metrics: CO2/water injection/production rates, cumulative net CO2 storage, cumulative oil/gas productions, and CO2 breakthrough time. The median and confidence intervals are estimated for quantifying uncertainty ranges of the risk metrics. A response-surface-based economic model has been derived to calculate the CO2-EOR profitability for the FWU site with a current oil price, which suggests that approximately 31% of the 1000 realizations can be profitable. If government carbon-tax credits are available, or the oil price goes up or CO2 capture and operating expenses reduce, more realizations would be profitable. The results from this study provide valuable insights for understanding CO2 storage potential and the corresponding environmental and economic risks of commercial-scale CO2-sequestration in depleted reservoirs.

  19. Microbial processes in the Athabasca Oil Sands and their potential applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harner, N K; Richardson, T L; Thompson, K A; Best, R J; Best, A S; Trevors, J T

    2011-11-01

    The Athabasca Oil Sands are located within the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin, which covers over 140,200 km(2) of land in Alberta, Canada. The oil sands provide a unique environment for bacteria as a result of the stressors of low water availability and high hydrocarbon concentrations. Understanding the mechanisms bacteria use to tolerate these stresses may aid in our understanding of how hydrocarbon degradation has occurred over geological time, and how these processes and related tolerance mechanisms may be used in biotechnology applications such as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The majority of research has focused on microbiology processes in oil reservoirs and oilfields; as such there is a paucity of information specific to oil sands. By studying microbial processes in oil sands there is the potential to use microbes in MEOR applications. This article reviews the microbiology of the Athabasca Oil Sands and the mechanisms bacteria use to tolerate low water and high hydrocarbon availability in oil reservoirs and oilfields, and potential applications in MEOR.

  20. Microwave enhanced recovery of nickel-copper ore: communition and floatability aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henda, R; Hermas, A; Gedye, R; Islam, M R

    2005-01-01

    A study describing the effect of microwave radiation, at a frequency of 2450 MHz, on the processes of communication and flotation of a complex sulphide nickel-copper ore is presented. Ore communication has been investigated under standard radiation-free conditions and after ore treatment in a radiated environment as a function of ore size, exposure time to radiation, and microwave power. The findings show that communication is tremendously improved by microwave radiation with values of the relative work index as low as 23% at a microwave power of 1.406 kW and after 10 s of exposure time. Communication is affected by exposure time and microwave power in a nontrivial manner. In terms of ore floatability, the experimental tests have been carried out on a sample of 75 microm in size under different exposure times. The results show that both ore concentrate recoveries and grades of nickel and copper are significantly enhanced after microwave treatment of the ore with relative increases in recovered concentrate, grade of nickel, and grade of copper of 26 wt%, 15 wt%, and 27%, respectively, at a microwave power of 1330 kW and after 30 s of exposure time.

  1. Artificial Neural Network Model to Estimate the Viscosity of Polymer Solutions for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan-Sang Kang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Polymer flooding is now considered a technically- and commercially-proven method for enhanced oil recovery (EOR. The viscosity of the injected polymer solution is the key property for successful polymer flooding. Given that the viscosity of a polymer solution has a non-linear relationship with various influential parameters (molecular weight, degree of hydrolysis, polymer concentration, cation concentration of polymer solution, shear rate, temperature and that measurement of viscosity based on these parameters is a time-consuming process, the range of solution samples and the measurement conditions need to be limited and precise. Viscosity estimation of the polymer solution is effective for these purposes. An artificial neural network (ANN was applied to the viscosity estimation of FlopaamTM 3330S, FlopaamTM 3630S and AN-125 solutions, three commonly-used EOR polymers. The viscosities measured and estimated by ANN and the Carreau model using Lee’s correlation, the only method for estimating the viscosity of an EOR polymer solution in unmeasured conditions, were compared. Estimation accuracy was evaluated by the average absolute relative deviation, which has been widely used for accuracy evaluation of the results of ANN models. In all conditions, the accuracy of the ANN model is higher than that of the Carreau model using Lee’s correlation.

  2. Synthesis and Evaluation of a Water-Soluble Hyperbranched Polymer as Enhanced Oil Recovery Chemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanjun Lai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel hyperbranched polymer was synthesized using acrylamide (AM, acrylic acid (AA, N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP, and dendrite functional monomer as raw materials by redox initiation system in an aqueous medium. The hyperbranched polymer was characterized by infrared (IR spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectroscopy, 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The viscosity retention rate of the hyperbranched polymer was 22.89% higher than that of the AM/AA copolymer (HPAM at 95°C, and the viscosity retention rate was 8.17%, 12.49%, and 13.68% higher than that of HPAM in 18000 mg/L NaCl, 1800 mg/L CaCl2, and 1800 mg/L MgCl2·6H2O brine, respectively. The hyperbranched polymer exhibited higher apparent viscosity (25.2 mPa·s versus 8.1 mPa·s under 500 s−1 shear rate at 80°C. Furthermore, the enhanced oil recovery (EOR of 1500 mg/L hyperbranched polymer solutions was up to 23.51% by the core flooding test at 80°C.

  3. Mechanical stress activates Smad pathway through PKCδ to enhance interleukin-11 gene transcription in osteoblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Kido

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mechanical stress rapidly induces ΔFosB expression in osteoblasts, which binds to interleukin (IL-11 gene promoter to enhance IL-11 expression, and IL-11 enhances osteoblast differentiation. Because bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs also stimulate IL-11 expression in osteoblasts, there is a possibility that BMP-Smad signaling is involved in the enhancement of osteoblast differentiation by mechanical stress. The present study was undertaken to clarify whether mechanical stress affects BMP-Smad signaling, and if so, to elucidate the role of Smad signaling in mechanical stress-induced enhancement of IL-11 gene transcription. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mechanical loading by fluid shear stress (FSS induced phosphorylation of BMP-specific receptor-regulated Smads (BR-Smads, Smad1/5, in murine primary osteoblasts (mPOBs. FSS rapidly phosphorylated Y311 of protein kinase C (PKCδ, and phosphorylated PKCδ interacted with BR-Smads to phosphorylate BR-Smads. Transfection of PKCδ siRNA or Y311F mutant PKCδ abrogated BR-Smads phosphorylation and suppressed IL-11 gene transcription enhanced by FSS. Activated BR-Smads bound to the Smad-binding element (SBE of IL-11 gene promoter and formed complex with ΔFosB/JunD heterodimer via binding to the C-terminal region of JunD. Site-directed mutagenesis in the SBE and the AP-1 site revealed that both SBE and AP-1 sites were required for full activation of IL-11 gene promoter by FSS. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that PKCδ-BR-Smads pathway plays an important role in the intracellular signaling in response to mechanical stress, and that a cross-talk between PKCδ-BR-Smads and ΔFosB/JunD pathways synergistically stimulates IL-11 gene transcription in response to mechanical stress.

  4. RNA Interference Screen to Identify Pathways That Enhance or Reduce Nonviral Gene Transfer During Lipofection

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Gregory A; Diamond, Scott L

    2008-01-01

    Some barriers to DNA lipofection are well characterized; however, there is as yet no method of finding unknown pathways that impact the process. A druggable genome small-interfering RNA (siRNA) screen against 5,520 genes was tested for its effect on lipofection of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). We found 130 gene targets which, when silenced by pooled siRNAs (three siRNAs per gene), resulted in enhanced luminescence after lipofection (86 gene targets showed reduced expression). In con...

  5. Selected In-Season Nutritional Strategies to Enhance Recovery for Team Sport Athletes: A Practical Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Lisa E; Davis, Jon K; Rawson, Eric S; Nuccio, Ryan P; Witard, Oliver C; Stein, Kimberly W; Baar, Keith; Carter, James M; Baker, Lindsay B

    2017-11-01

    Team sport athletes face a variety of nutritional challenges related to recovery during the competitive season. The purpose of this article is to review nutrition strategies related to muscle regeneration, glycogen restoration, fatigue, physical and immune health, and preparation for subsequent training bouts and competitions. Given the limited opportunities to recover between training bouts and games throughout the competitive season, athletes must be deliberate in their recovery strategy. Foundational components of recovery related to protein, carbohydrates, and fluid have been extensively reviewed and accepted. Micronutrients and supplements that may be efficacious for promoting recovery include vitamin D, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, creatine, collagen/vitamin C, and antioxidants. Curcumin and bromelain may also provide a recovery benefit during the competitive season but future research is warranted prior to incorporating supplemental dosages into the athlete's diet. Air travel poses nutritional challenges related to nutrient timing and quality. Incorporating strategies to consume efficacious micronutrients and ingredients is necessary to support athlete recovery in season.

  6. Modified starch enhances absorption and accelerates recovery in experimental diarrhea in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingertzahn, M A; Teichberg, S; Wapnir, R A

    1999-03-01

    Rice gruels have been used as home remedies to treat dehydration associated with diarrheal illness in developing countries. These preparations have produced conflicting results, most likely due to the heterogeneity of starch used. We investigated whether the modified tapioca starch, Textra (TX), at 5.0 or 10.0 g/L added to a 90 mmol/L Na+-111 mmol glucose oral rehydration solution (ORS) enhanced water and electrolyte absorption in two models of diarrhea. To induce a secretory state (model A), the jejunum of juvenile rats was perfused with 10 mmol/L theophylline (THEO) under anesthesia and then perfused with the solutions indicated above. To produce chronic osmotic-secretory diarrhea (model B), rats had a magnesium citrate-phenolphthalein solution as the sole fluid source for 1 wk, and then were perfused as the THEO-treated rats. Water, electrolyte, and glucose absorption were measured during both perfusions. As an extension of the perfusion studies, we compared how fast rats recovered from chronic osmotic diarrhea by offering them either water, ORS, or ORS containing 5.0 g/L TX along with solid food. Recovery rate markers were measured after 24 h and included weight gain, food and fluid intake, and stool output. In model A, addition of 5.0 g/L TX to ORS reversed Na+ secretion and improved net water as well as K+ and glucose absorption, compared with THEO-treated rats perfused with ORS without TX. In model B, addition of TX to ORS increased water, Na+, K+, and glucose absorption, compared with rats perfused without TX. Increasing TX from 5.0 to 10.0 g/L had no additional benefit. In recovery experiments, animals with free access to ORS with TX had significantly greater weight gain and decreased stool output compared with animals recovering with water or ORS without TX. Our experiments suggest that TX may be a useful additive to standard ORS to promote fluid and electrolyte absorption and may provide additional energy without increasing ORS osmotic load.

  7. Designer-Wet Micromodels for Studying Potential Changes in Wettability during Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R. T.; Wildenschild, D.

    2010-12-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is a process where microorganisms are used for tertiary recovery of oil. Some bacteria can facilitate the mobilization of oil through the production of amphiphilic compounds called biosurfactants that reduce the interfacial tension (IFT) between immiscible phases. Additionally, most bacteria have an inclination to colonize surfaces and form biofilm, which can change a reservoir's wetting properties or clog preferential flow paths. Herein, we aim to understand changes in wettability during MEOR under mixed wettability conditions within silicon etched micromodels and to identify the type of oil field (i.e. based on wettability) in which MEOR is likely to be most profitable. To quantify porous media wettability, macro-scale indexes (obtained with techniques such as the Carter or Amott methods) are used regularly. However, these measurements lack the capability for characterization of changes in wettability during MEOR treatment, and only provide macro-scale information. In an effort to understand micro-scale temporal and spatial changes in wettability we measure interfacial curvature from stereo microscope images using level set methods. Curvature, from the perspective of the oil phase, is positive for a concave interface (i.e. water-wet surface) and negative for a convex interface (i.e. oil-wet surface). Thus, shifts in the radius of curvature distribution (i.e. from positive to negative or conversely) are indicative of wettability changes. Both curvature distributions using level-set methods and the Carter method are used to characterize wettability before and after microbial treatment. In preliminary studies aimed at understanding wettability changes due to microbial surface interactions by Bacillus mojavensis JF-2, oil droplets were placed on glass slides suspended in growth media and the resulting contact angle was measured over time. Results showed that a water-wet surface will become more water wet as JF-2 accumulated in

  8. Enhancement of lipid extraction for improved biodiesel recovery from the biodiesel promising microalga Scenedesmus obliquus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abomohra, Abd El-Fatah; Jin, Wenbiao; El-Sheekh, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    -water pretreatment not only deactivate lipases, but also enhances the EFAs recovery.

  9. ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY WITH DOWNHOLE VIBRATION STIMULATION IN OSAGE COUNTY OKLAHOMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Westermark; J. Ford Brett

    2003-11-01

    This Final Report covers the entire project from July 13, 2000 to June 30, 2003. The report summarizes the details of the work done on the project entitled ''Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibration Stimulation in Osage County Oklahoma'' under DOE Contract Number DE-FG26-00BC15191. The project was divided into nine separate tasks. This report is written in an effort to document the lessons learned during the completion of each task. Therefore each task will be discussed as the work evolved for that task throughout the duration of the project. Most of the tasks are being worked on simultaneously, but certain tasks were dependent on earlier tasks being completed. During the three years of project activities, twelve quarterly technical reports were submitted for the project. Many individual topic and task specific reports were included as appendices in the quarterly reports. Ten of these reports have been included as appendices to this final report. Two technical papers, which were written and accepted by the Society of Petroleum Engineers, have also been included as appendices. The three primary goals of the project were to build a downhole vibration tool (DHVT) to be installed in seven inch casing, conduct a field test of vibration stimulation in a mature waterflooded field and evaluate the effects of the vibration on both the produced fluid characteristics and injection well performance. The field test results are as follows: In Phase I of the field test the DHVT performed exceeding well, generating strong clean signals on command and as designed. During this phase Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory had installed downhole geophones and hydrophones to monitor the signal generated by the downhole vibrator. The signals recorded were strong and clear. Phase II was planned to be ninety-day reservoir stimulation field test. This portion of the field tests was abruptly ended after one week of operations, when the DHVT became stuck in the well

  10. BFV activates the NF-κB pathway through its transactivator (BTas) to enhance viral transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jian; Tan Juan; Zhang Xihui; Guo Hongyan; Zhang Qicheng; Guo Tingting; Geng Yunqi; Qiao Wentao

    2010-01-01

    Multiple families of viruses have evolved sophisticated strategies to regulate nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling, which plays a pivotal role in diverse cellular events, including virus-host interactions. In this study, we report that bovine foamy virus (BFV) is able to activate the NF-κB pathway through the action of its transactivator, BTas. Both cellular IKKβ and IκBα also participate in this activation. In addition, we demonstrate that BTas induces the processing of p100, which implies that BTas can activate NF-κB through a noncanonical pathway as well. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis shows that BTas interacts with IKK catalytic subunits (IKKα and IKKβ), which may be responsible for regulation of IKK kinase activity and persistent NF-κB activation. Furthermore, our results indicate that the level of BTas-mediated LTR transcription correlates with the activity of cellular NF-κB. Together, this study suggests that BFV activates the NF-κB pathway through BTas to enhance viral transcription.

  11. Enhancing GDP-fucose production in recombinant Escherichia coli by metabolic pathway engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yafei; Han, Donglei; Pan, Ying; Wang, Shuaishuai; Fang, Junqiang; Wang, Peng; Liu, Xian-wei

    2015-02-01

    Guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP)-fucose is the indispensible donor substrate for fucosyltransferase-catalyzed synthesis of fucose-containing biomolecules, which have been found involving in various biological functions. In this work, the salvage pathway for GDP-fucose biosynthesis from Bacterioides fragilis was introduced into Escherichia coli. Besides, the biosynthesis of guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP), an essential substrate for GDP-fucose biosynthesis, was enhanced via overexpression of enzymes involved in the salvage pathway of GTP biosynthesis. The production capacities of metabolically engineered strains bearing different combinations of recombinant enzymes were compared. The shake flask fermentation of the strain expressing Fkp, Gpt, Gmk and Ndk obtained the maximum GDP-fucose content of 4.6 ± 0.22 μmol/g (dry cell mass), which is 4.2 fold that of the strain only expressing Fkp. Through fed-batch fermentation, the GDP-fucose content further rose to 6.6 ± 0.14 μmol/g (dry cell mass). In addition to a better productivity than previous fermentation processes based on the de novo pathway for GDP-fucose biosynthesis, the established schemes in this work also have the advantage to be a potential avenue to GDP-fucose analogs encompassing chemical modification on the fucose residue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Control Structure Design of an Innovative Enhanced Biological Nutrient Recovery Activated Sludge System Coupled with a Photobioreactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valverde Perez, Borja; Fuentes-Martínez, José Manuel; Flores Alsina, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The TRENS system is a train of biological units designed for resource recovery from wastewater. It is a sequence of a modified enhanced biological phosphorus removal and recovery system (EBP2R) coupled with a photobioreactor (PBR). The bacteria-based system constructs an optimal culture media...... for the downstream algae cultivation. In this work, we present a control strategy to ensure an optimal nutrient balance to feed to the PBR, so the grown algal suspension is suitable for fertigation (irrigation and fertilization of agricultural crops). The system is able to recover up to 75% of the influent load......, while keeping an optimal N-to-P ratio of 16 in the influent to the PBR. The system is tested under different scenarios, where the influent quality is disturbed following a step change. The control system is able to reject most of the disturbances. However, when the P-recovery is limited by the bacteria...

  13. Modeling and simulation of multiphase multicomponent multiphysics porous media flows in the context of chemical enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sourav; Daripa, Prabir; Fluids Team

    2015-11-01

    One of the most important methods of chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) involves the use of complex flooding schemes comprising of various layers of fluids mixed with suitable amounts of polymer or surfactant or both. The fluid flow is characterized by the spontaneous formation of complex viscous fingering patterns which is considered detrimental to oil recovery. Here we numerically study the physics of such EOR processes using a modern, hybrid method based on a combination of a discontinuous, multiscale finite element formulation and the method of characteristics. We investigate the effect of different types of heterogeneity on the fingering mechanism of these complex multiphase flows and determine the impact on oil recovery. We also study the effect of surfactants on the dynamics of the flow via reduction of capillary forces and increase in relative permeabilities. Supported by the grant NPRP 08-777-1-141 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of The Qatar Foundation).

  14. A self-lysis pathway that enhances the virulence of a pathogenic bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Kirsty A; Dolben, Emily L; LeRoux, Michele; Kambara, Tracy K; Ramsey, Kathryn M; Kirkpatrick, Robin L; Mougous, Joseph D; Hogan, Deborah A; Dove, Simon L

    2015-07-07

    In mammalian cells, programmed cell death (PCD) plays important roles in development, in the removal of damaged cells, and in fighting bacterial infections. Although widespread among multicellular organisms, there are relatively few documented instances of PCD in bacteria. Here we describe a potential PCD pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa that enhances the ability of the bacterium to cause disease in a lung infection model. Activation of the system can occur in a subset of cells in response to DNA damage through cleavage of an essential transcription regulator we call AlpR. Cleavage of AlpR triggers a cell lysis program through de-repression of the alpA gene, which encodes a positive regulator that activates expression of the alpBCDE lysis cassette. Although this is lethal to the individual cell in which it occurs, we find it benefits the population as a whole during infection of a mammalian host. Thus, host and pathogen each may use PCD as a survival-promoting strategy. We suggest that activation of the Alp cell lysis pathway is a disease-enhancing response to bacterial DNA damage inflicted by the host immune system.

  15. Enhanced Glycogen Storage of a Subcellular Hot Spot in Human Skeletal Muscle during Early Recovery from Eccentric Contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Joachim; Farup, Jean; Rahbek, Stine Klejs; de Paoli, Frank Vincenzo; Vissing, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Unaccustomed eccentric exercise is accompanied by muscle damage and impaired glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis during subsequent recovery. Recently, it was shown that the role and regulation of glycogen in skeletal muscle are dependent on its subcellular localization, and that glycogen synthesis, as described by the product of glycogen particle size and number, is dependent on the time course of recovery after exercise and carbohydrate availability. In the present study, we investigated the subcellular distribution of glycogen in fibers with high (type I) and low (type II) mitochondrial content during post-exercise recovery from eccentric contractions. Analysis was completed on five male subjects performing an exercise bout consisting of 15 x 10 maximal eccentric contractions. Carbohydrate-rich drinks were subsequently ingested throughout a 48 h recovery period and muscle biopsies for analysis included time points 3, 24 and 48 h post exercise from the exercising leg, whereas biopsies corresponding to prior to and at 48 h after the exercise bout were collected from the non-exercising, control leg. Quantitative imaging by transmission electron microscopy revealed an early (post 3 and 24 h) enhanced storage of intramyofibrillar glycogen (defined as glycogen particles located within the myofibrils) of type I fibers, which was associated with an increase in the number of particles. In contrast, late in recovery (post 48 h), intermyofibrillar, intramyofibrillar and subsarcolemmal glycogen in both type I and II fibers were lower in the exercise leg compared with the control leg, and this was associated with a smaller size of the glycogen particles. We conclude that in the carbohydrate-supplemented state, the effect of eccentric contractions on glycogen metabolism depends on the subcellular localization, muscle fiber’s oxidative capacity, and the time course of recovery. The early enhanced storage of intramyofibrillar glycogen after the eccentric contractions may

  16. INEEL Biotechnology for Oilfield Application--Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery FY-03 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. A. Bala; D. F. Bruhn; S. L. Fox; K. S. Noah; K. D. Schaller; E. P. Robertson; X. Xie

    2003-11-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Biotechnology for Oilfield Operations program supports development, engineering, and application of biotechnology for exploration and production. This continuing INEEL program also supports mitigation of detrimental field conditions. The program is consistent with the United States Department of Energy mission to ¡§promote activities and policies through its oil technology and natural gas supply programs to enhance the efficiency and environmental quality of domestic oil and natural gas exploration, recovery, processing, transport, and storage.¡¨ In addition, the program directly supports the focus areas of Reservoir Life Extension; Advanced Drilling, Completion and Stimulation Systems; Effective Environmental Protection; and Cross Cutting Areas. The program is enhanced by collaborative relationships with industry and academia. For fiscal year 2003, the program focused on production and characterization of biological surfactants from agricultural residuals and the production and application of reactive microbial polymers. This report specifically details: 1. Use of a chemostat reactor operated in batch mode for producing surfactin, with concomitant use of an antifoam to prevent surfactant loss. The program achieved production and recovery of 0.6 g/L of surfactin per 12 hr. 2. Characterization of surfactin produced from agricultural residuals with respect to its ability to mediate changes in surface tension. Conditions evaluated were salt (as NaCl) from 0 to 10% (w/v), pH from 3 to 10, temperature from 21 to 70¢XC, and combinations of these conditions. When evaluated singularly, pH below 6 and salt concentrations above 30 g/L were found to have an adverse impact on surfactin. Temperatures of 70¢XC for 95 days had no effect. When the effect of temperature was added to the pH experiment, there were no significant changes, and, again, surface tension, at any temperature, increased at pH below 6

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF MICROORGANISMS WITH IMPROVED TRANSPORT AND BIOSURFACTANT ACTIVITY FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; R.M. Knapp; D.P. Nagle, Jr.; Kathleen Duncan; N. Youssef; M.J. Folmsbee; S. Maudgakya

    2003-06-26

    Biosurfactants enhance hydrocarbon biodegradation by increasing apparent aqueous solubility or affecting the association of the cell with poorly soluble hydrocarbon. Here, we show that a lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus mojavensis strain JF-2 mobilized substantial amounts of residual hydrocarbon from sand-packed columns when a viscosifying agent and a low molecular weight alcohol were present. The amount of residual hydrocarbon mobilized depended on the biosurfactant concentration. One pore volume of cell-free culture fluid with 900 mg/l of the biosurfactant, 10 mM 2,3-butanediol and 1000 mg/l of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide polymer mobilized 82% of the residual hydrocarbon. Consistent with the high residual oil recoveries, we found that the bio-surfactant lowered the interfacial tension (IFT) between oil and water by nearly 2 orders of magnitude compared to typical IFT values of 28-29 mN/m. Increasing the salinity increased the IFT with or without 2,3-butanediol present. The lowest interfacial tension observed was 0.1 mN/m. The lipopeptide biosurfactant system may be effective in removing hydrocarbon contamination sources in soils and aquifers and for the recovery of entrapped oil from low production oil reservoirs. Previously, we reported that Proteose peptone was necessary for anaerobic growth and biosurfactant production by B. mojavensis JF-2. The data gathered from crude purification of the growth-enhancing factor in Proteose peptone suggested that it consisted of nucleic acids; however, nucleic acid bases, nucleotides or nucleosides did not replace the requirement for Proteose Peptone. Further studies revealed that salmon sperm DNA, herring sperm DNA, Echerichia coli DNA and synthetic DNA replaced the requirement for Proteose peptone. In addition to DNA, amino acids and nitrate were required for anaerobic growth and vitamins further improved growth. We now have a defined medium that can be used to manipulate growth and biosurfactant

  18. Prominent porto-systemic collateral pathways in patients with portal hypertension: demonstration by gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldana, Rogerio Pedreschi; Bezerra, Alexandre Araujo Sergio; Cecin, Alexnadre Oliveira; Souza, Luis Ronan Marques Ferreira de; Goldman, Susan Menasce; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe; Szejnfeld, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    To demonstrate the usefulness of gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in the evaluation of prominent porto-systemic collateral pathways. We reviewed the images from 40 patients with portal hypertension studied with gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography and selected illustrative cases of prominent porto-systemic collateral pathways. The scans were performed using high field equipment (1.5 Tesla) and a 3 D volume technique. Image were obtained after intravenous injection of paramagnetic contrast media using a power injector. Magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated with precision the porto-systemic collateral pathways, particularly when investigating extensive territories or large vessels. The cases presented show the potential of this method in the investigation of patients with portal hypertension. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography is a useful method for the evaluation of patients with portal hypertension and prominent collateral pathways. (author)

  19. Synthesis of dodecyl lauroyl benzene sulfonate and its application in enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Zhenggang; Wu, Le; Sun, Mingming; Jiang, Jian-zhong; Wang, Feng [Jiangnan Univ., Wuxi (China). School of Chemical and Material Engineering

    2011-09-15

    A new hydrophobic surfactant, dodecyl lauroyl benzene sulfonate (DLBS), was synthesized and its application in enhanced oil recovery by alkali-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding was studied. The results show that DLBS can be synthesized by reaction of industrial dodecyl benzene with lauroyl chloride in the presence of AlCl{sub 3}, followed by sulfonation with ClSO{sub 3}H and neutralization with NaOH. The lauroyl-group is confirmed to be connected to the para-position of the alkylbenzene by1HNMR spectrum. The synthesized DLBS is well soluble in pure water and reservoir (connate) water at 45 C. It is highly surface active which is indicated by its low CMC of 1.1 . 10{sup -5} mol/L, and its low surface tension, {gamma}{sub cmc} of 28.6 mN m{sup -1}. By mixing with heavy alkylbenzene sulfonates of relatively low average molar mass (387g mol{sup -1}) at a total surfactant concentration of 5 mM, DLBS can reduce the interfacial tension of Daqing crude oil/connate water to an order of 10{sup -3} mN/m at 45 C in the presence of 0.5-1.0 wt.% NaOH and 1000 mg L{sup -1} of polymer. If the NaOH was replaced by a gentle alkaline salt, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, certain amounts of dodecyl dimethyl carboxy betaine were added and the concentration of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was increased to 1.2-2.0 wt.%, the interfacial tension of Daqing crude oil/connate water can also be reduced to an ultralow value. Therefore DLBS is a good hydrophobic surfactant applicable in ASP flooding with either NaOH or Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as alkaline agents. (orig.)

  20. The benefit of an enhanced recovery programme following elective laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Al Chalabi, Hasan

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Enhanced recovery programmes (ERPs) have demonstrated reduced morbidity and length of hospital stay in patients undergoing open elective colorectal resections. The application of laparoscopic techniques to colorectal surgery is associated with shorter length of stay and morbidity compared to open resections. In the setting of laparoscopic surgery, it is unclear whether there is an additive effect on length of stay and morbidity by combining these. The current study addresses the benefit of an ERP (RAPID protocol) in a cohort of matched patients undergoing laparoscopic sigmoid colon resection MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients over a 40-month period who underwent laparoscopic sigmoid colon resection were assigned either to the RAPID protocol (group 1) or traditional post operative care (group 2) in a non-randomised manner. Analysis was on an "intention to treat" basis. Primary and secondary endpoints were identified; primary endpoints included length of hospital stay and readmission rate. Secondary endpoints included morbidity and mortality rate. RESULTS: Seventy-three consecutive patients were included. Group 1 included 37 patients. Group 2 included 36 patients. Median length of hospital stay in groups 1 and 2 was 5 and 8 days, respectively (p = 0.01). Readmission rate in groups 1 and 2 was 8.1% and 8.3%, respectively (p = 0.98). Morbidity rate in groups 1 and 2 was 30% and 22%, respectively (p = 0.61); there was one mortality in each group. CONCLUSION: The application of the ERP (RAPID) to patients undergoing laparoscopic sigmoid colon resection results in a significant improvement in length of hospital stay, with comparable morbidity and readmission rates.

  1. CO2-driven Enhanced Oil Recovery as a Stepping Stone to What?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2010-07-14

    This paper draws heavily on the authors’ previously published research to explore the extent to which near term carbon dioxide-driven enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) can be “a stepping stone to a long term sequestration program of a scale to be material in climate change risk mitigation.” The paper examines the historical evolution of CO2-EOR in the United States and concludes that estimates of the cost of CO2-EOR production or the extent of CO2 pipeline networks based upon this energy security-driven promotion of CO2-EOR do not provide a robust platform for spurring the commercial deployment of carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies (CCS) as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The paper notes that the evolving regulatory framework for CCS makes a clear distinction between CO2-EOR and CCS and the authors examine arguments in the technical literature about the ability for CO2-EOR to generate offsetting revenue to accelerate the commercial deployment of CCS systems in the electric power and industrial sectors of the economy. The authors conclude that the past 35 years of CO2-EOR in the U.S. have been important for boosting domestic oil production and delivering proven system components for future CCS systems. However, though there is no reason to suggest that CO2-EOR will cease to deliver these benefits, there is also little to suggest that CO2-EOR is a necessary or significantly beneficial step towards the commercial deployment of CCS as a means of addressing climate change.

  2. Diabetic Ephrin-B2-Stimulated Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Enhance Poststroke Recovery in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Hilal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trials of cell therapy in stroke favor autologous cell transplantation. To date, feasibility studies have used bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells, but harvesting bone marrow cells is invasive thus complicating bedside treatment. We investigated the therapeutic potential of peripheral blood-derived mononuclear cells (PB-MNC harvested from diabetic patients and stimulated by ephrin-B2 (PB-MNC+ (500,000 cells, injected intravenously 18–24 hours after induced cerebral ischemia in mice. Infarct volume, neurological deficit, neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and inflammation were investigated as were the potential mechanisms of PB-MNC+ cells in poststroke neurorepair. At D3, infarct volume was reduced by 60% and 49% compared to unstimulated PB-MNC and PBS-treated mice, respectively. Compared to PBS, injection of PB-MNC+ increased cell proliferation in the peri-infarct area and the subventricular zone, decreased microglia/macrophage cell density, and upregulated TGF-β expression. At D14, microvessel density was decreased and functional recovery was enhanced compared to PBS-treated mice, whereas plasma levels of BDNF, a major regulator of neuroplasticity, were increased in mice treated with PB-MNC+ compared to the other two groups. Cell transcriptional analysis showed that ephrin-B2 induced phenotype switching of PB-MNC by upregulating genes controlling cell proliferation, inflammation, and angiogenesis, as confirmed by adhesion and Matrigel assays. Conclusions. This feasibility study suggests that PB-MNC+ transplantation poststroke could be a promising approach but warrants further investigation. If confirmed, this rapid, noninvasive bedside cell therapy strategy could be applied to stroke patients at the acute phase.

  3. Diabetic Ephrin-B2-Stimulated Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Enhance Poststroke Recovery in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, Rose; Poittevin, Marine; Pasteur-Rousseau, Adrien; Cogo, Adrien; Mangin, Gabrielle; Chevauché, Marie; Ziat, Yasmine; Vilar, José; Launay, Jean-Marie; Gautier, Jean-François; Broquères-You, Dong; Levy, Bernard I; Merkulova-Rainon, Tatyana; Kubis, Nathalie

    2018-01-01

    Clinical trials of cell therapy in stroke favor autologous cell transplantation. To date, feasibility studies have used bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells, but harvesting bone marrow cells is invasive thus complicating bedside treatment. We investigated the therapeutic potential of peripheral blood-derived mononuclear cells (PB-MNC) harvested from diabetic patients and stimulated by ephrin-B2 (PB-MNC+) (500,000 cells), injected intravenously 18-24 hours after induced cerebral ischemia in mice. Infarct volume, neurological deficit, neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and inflammation were investigated as were the potential mechanisms of PB-MNC+ cells in poststroke neurorepair. At D3, infarct volume was reduced by 60% and 49% compared to unstimulated PB-MNC and PBS-treated mice, respectively. Compared to PBS, injection of PB-MNC+ increased cell proliferation in the peri-infarct area and the subventricular zone, decreased microglia/macrophage cell density, and upregulated TGF- β expression. At D14, microvessel density was decreased and functional recovery was enhanced compared to PBS-treated mice, whereas plasma levels of BDNF, a major regulator of neuroplasticity, were increased in mice treated with PB-MNC+ compared to the other two groups. Cell transcriptional analysis showed that ephrin-B2 induced phenotype switching of PB-MNC by upregulating genes controlling cell proliferation, inflammation, and angiogenesis, as confirmed by adhesion and Matrigel assays. Conclusions . This feasibility study suggests that PB-MNC+ transplantation poststroke could be a promising approach but warrants further investigation. If confirmed, this rapid, noninvasive bedside cell therapy strategy could be applied to stroke patients at the acute phase.

  4. Modified enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols for patients with obstructive colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shida, Dai; Tagawa, Kyoko; Inada, Kentaro; Nasu, Keiichi; Seyama, Yasuji; Maeshiro, Tsuyoshi; Miyamoto, Sachio; Inoue, Satoru; Umekita, Nobutaka

    2017-02-16

    Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols are now well-known to be useful for elective colorectal surgery, as they result in shorter hospital stays without adversely affecting morbidity. However, the efficacy and safety of ERAS protocols for patients with obstructive colorectal cancer have yet to be clarified. We evaluated 122 consecutive resections for obstructive colorectal cancer performed between July 2008 and November 2012 at Tokyo Metropolitan Bokutoh Hospital. Patients with rupture or impending rupture and those who received simple colostomy were excluded. The first set of 42 patients was treated based on traditional protocols, and the latter 80 according to modified ERAS protocols. The main endpoints were length of postoperative hospital stay, postoperative short-term morbidity, rate of readmission within 30 days, and mortality. Differences in modified ERAS protocols relative to traditional care include intensive preoperative counseling (by both surgeons and anesthesiologists), perioperative fluid management (avoidance of sodium/fluid overload), shortening of postoperative fasting period and early provision of oral nutrition, intraoperative warm air body heating, enforced postoperative mobilization, stimulation of gut motility, early removal of urinary catheter, and a multidisciplinary team approach to care. Median (interquartile range) postoperative hospital stay was 10 (10-14.25) days in the traditional group, and seven (7-8.75) days in the ERAS group, showing a 3-day reduction in hospital stay (p < 0.01). According to the Clavien-Dindo classification, overall incidences of grade 2 or higher postoperative complications for the traditional and ERAS groups were 15 and 10% (p = 0.48), and 30-day readmission rates were 0 and 1.3% (p = 1.00), respectively. As for mortality, one patient in the traditional group died and none in the ERAS group (p = 0.34). Modified ERAS protocols for obstructive colorectal cancer reduced hospital stay

  5. Implementation of enhanced recovery programme for laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy: feasibility, safety and cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, John; Di Fabio, Francesco; Clarke, Hannah; Bajalan, Mohammed; Davids, Joe; Abu Hilal, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of laparoscopy for distal pancreatectomy has proven to substantially improve short-term outcomes. Stress response after major surgery can be further minimized within an enhanced recovery programme (ERP). However, data on the potential benefit of an ERP for laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy are still lacking. The aim was to assess the feasibility, safety and cost of ERP for patients undergoing laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy. This is a case-control study from a Tertiary University Hospital. Sixty-six consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy were analyzed. Twenty-two patients were enrolled for the ERP and compared with previous consecutive 44 patients managed traditionally (1:2 ratio). Operative details, post-operative outcome and cost analysis were compared in the two groups. Patients enrolled in the ERP had similar intraoperative blood loss (median 165 ml vs. 200 ml; p = 0.176), operation time (225 min vs. 210 min; p = 0.633), time to remove naso-gastric tube (1 vs. 1 day; p = 0.081) but significantly shorter time to mobilization (median 1 vs. 2 days; p = 0.0001), start solid diet (2 vs. 3 days; p = 0004), and pass stools (3 vs. 5 days; p = 0.002) compared to the control group. Median length of stay was significantly shorter in the ERP group (3 vs. 6 days; p pancreatectomy with significant earlier return to normal gut function, reduced length of stay and cost saving. Copyright © 2015 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Adsorption of surfactants on sand surface in enhanced oil recovery: Isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bera, Achinta; Kumar, T.; Ojha, Keka; Mandal, Ajay, E-mail: mandal_ajay@hotmail.com

    2013-11-01

    Adsorption of surfactants onto reservoir rock surface may result in the loss and reduction of their concentrations in surfactant flooding, which may render them less efficient or ineffective in practical applications of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques. Surfactant flooding for EOR received attraction due to its ability to increase the displacement efficiency by lowering the interfacial tension between oil and water and mobilizing the residual oil. This article highlights the adsorption of surfactants onto sand surface with variation of different influencing factors. It has been experimentally found that adsorption of cationic surfactant on sand surface is more and less for anionic surfactant, while non-ionic surfactant shows intermediate behaviour. X-ray diffraction (XRD) study of clean sand particles has been made to determine the main component present in the sand particles. The interaction between sand particles and surfactant has been studied by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy of the sand particles before and after aging with surfactant. Salinity plays an important role in adsorption of anionic surfactant. Batch experiments were also performed to understand the effects of pH and adsorbent dose on the sorption efficiency. The sand particles exhibited high adsorption efficiency at low pH for anionic and nonionic surfactants. But opposite trend was found for cationic surfactant. Adsorption data were analyzed by fitting with Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, and Sips isotherm models. Results show that the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetics models suit the equilibrium and kinetics of adsorption on sand surface. Thermodynamics feasibility of the adsorption process was also studied to verify the spontaneity of the process.

  7. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced by Bacillus licheniformis TT42 Having Potential for Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Harish; Nerurkar, Anuradha

    2016-09-01

    Bacillus licheniformis TT42 produced a low-molecular weight anionic biosurfactant that reduced the surface tension of water from 72 to 27 mN/m and the interfacial tension from 12 to 0.05 mN/m against crude oil. We have earlier reported significant enhancement in oil recovery in laboratory sand pack columns and core flood studies, by biosurfactant-TT42 compared to standard strain, Bacillus mojavensis JF2. In the context of this application of the biosurfactant-TT42, its characterization was deemed important. In the preliminary studies, the biosurfactant-TT42 was found to be functionally stable at under conditions of temperature, pH, and salinity generally prevalent in oil reservoirs. Furthermore, the purified biosurfactant-TT42 was found to have a CMC of 22 mg/l. A newly developed activity staining TLC method was used for the purification of biosurfactant-TT42. Structural characterization of biosurfactant-TT42 using TLC, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), GC-MS, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF)/TOF suggested that it was a mixture of lipopeptide species, all having a common hydrophilic cyclic heptapeptide head with the sequence, Gln-Leu/Ileu-Leu/Ileu-Val-Asp-Leu/Ileu-Leu/Ileu linked to hydrophobic tails of different lengths of 3β-OH-fatty acids bearing 1043, 1057 and 1071 Da molecular weight, where 3β-OH-C19 fatty acid was predominant. This is the longest chain length of fatty acids reported in a lipopeptide.

  8. Early prediction of adverse events in enhanced recovery based upon the host systemic inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, J C; Wright, S; Burch, J; Kennedy, R H; Jenkins, J T

    2013-02-01

    Early identification of patients experiencing postoperative complications is imperative for successful management. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a nonspecific marker of inflammation used in many specialties to monitor patient condition. The role of CRP measurement early in the elective postoperative colorectal patient is unclear, particularly in the context of enhanced recovery (ERAS). Five hundred and thirty-three consecutive patients who underwent elective colorectal surgery between October 2008 and October 2010 within an established ERAS programme were studied. Patients were separated into a development group of 265 patients and a validation group of 268 patients by chronological order. CRP and white cell count were added to a prospectively maintained ERAS database. The primary outcome of the study was all adverse events (including infective complications, postoperative organ dysfunction and prolonged length of stay) during the initial hospital admission. Significant predictors for adverse events on univariate analysis were submitted to multivariate regression analysis and the resulting model applied to the validation group. The validity and predictive accuracy of the regression model was assessed using receiver operating characteristic curve/area under the curve (AUC) analysis. CRP levels >150 mg/l on postoperative day 2 and a rising CRP on day 3 were independently associated with all adverse events during the hospital admission. A weighted model was applied to the validation group yielding an AUC of 0.65 (95% CI 0.58-0.73) indicating, at best, modest discrimination and predictive accuracy for adverse events. Measurement of CRP in patients after elective colorectal surgery in the first few days after surgery within ERAS can assist in identifying those at risk of adverse events and a prolonged hospital stay. A CRP value of >150 mg/l on day 2 and a rising CRP on day 3 should alert the surgeon to an increased likelihood of such events. © 2012 The Authors

  9. Mixing in three-phase systems: Implications for enhanced oil recovery and unconventional gas extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Martinez, J.; Porter, M. L.; Hyman, J.; Carey, J. W.; Viswanathan, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    Although the mixing of fluids within a porous media is a common process in natural and industrial systems, how the degree of mixing depends on the miscibility of multiple phases is poorly characterized. Often, the direct consequence of miscible mixing is the modification of the resident fluid (brine and hydrocarbons) rheological properties. We investigate supercritical (sc)CO2 displacement and mixing processes in a three-phase system (scCO2, oil, and H2O) using a microfluidics experimental system that accommodates the high pressures and temperatures encountered in fossil fuel extraction operations. The miscibility of scCO2 with the resident fluids, low with aqueous solutions and high with hydrocarbons, impacts the mixing processes that control sweep efficiency in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and the unlocking of the system in unconventional oil and gas extraction. Using standard volume-averaging techniques we upscale the aqueous phase saturation to the field-scale (i.e., Darcy scale) and interpret the results as a simpler two-phase system. This process allows us to perform a statistical analysis to quantify i) the degree of heterogeneity in the system resulting from the immiscible H2O and ii) how that heterogeneity impacts mixing between scCO2 and oil and their displacement. Our results show that when scCO2 is used for miscible displacement, the presence of an aqueous solution, which is common in secondary and tertiary EOR and unconventional oil and gas extraction, strongly impacts the mixing of scCO2 with the hydrocarbons due to low scCO2-H2O miscibility. H2O, which must be displaced advectively by the injected scCO2, introduces spatio-temporal variability into the system that acts as a barrier between the two miscibile fluids. This coupled with the effect of viscosity contrast, i.e., viscous fingering, has an impact on the mixing of the more miscible pair.

  10. Instillation of Sericin Enhances Corneal Wound Healing through the ERK Pathway in Rat Debrided Corneal Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Nagai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sericin is a major constituent of silk produced by silkworms. We previously found that the instillation of sericin enhanced the proliferation of corneal epithelial cells, and acted to promote corneal wound healing in both normal and diabetic model rats. However, the mechanisms by which sericin promotes the proliferation of corneal cells have not been established. In this study, we investigated the effects of sericin on Akt and ERK activation in a human corneal epithelial cell line (HCE-T cells and rat debrided corneal epithelium. Although Akt phosphorylation was not detected following the treatment of HCE-T cells with sericin, ERK1/2 phosphorylation was enhanced. The growth of HCE-T cells treated with sericin was significantly increased, with the cell growth of sericin-treated HCE-T cells being 1.7-fold higher in comparison with vehicle-treated HCE-T cells. On the other hand, both of an ERK inhibitor U0126 (non-specific specific inhibitor and SCH772984 (specific inhibitor attenuated the enhanced cell growth by sericin, and the growth level in the case of co-treatment with sericin and ERK1/2 inhibitor was similar to that of cells treated with ERK1/2 inhibitor alone. In an in vivo study using rat debrided corneal epithelium, the corneal wound healing rate was enhanced by the instillation of sericin, and this enhancement was also attenuated by the instillation of U0126. In addition, the corneal wound healing rate in rats co-instilled with sericin and U0126 was similar to that following the instillation of U0126 alone. In conclusion, we found that the instillation of sericin enhanced cell proliferation via the activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway, resulting in the promotion of corneal wound healing in rat eyes. These findings provide significant information for designing further studies to develop potent corneal wound-healing drugs.

  11. Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration in the Powder River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2010-06-01

    Unminable coal beds are potentially large storage reservoirs for the sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 and offer the benefit of enhanced methane production, which can offset some of the costs associated with CO2 sequestration. The objective of this report is to provide a final topical report on enhanced coal bed methane recovery and CO2 sequestration to the U.S. Department of Energy in fulfillment of a Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership milestone. This report summarizes work done at Idaho National Laboratory in support of Phase II of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership. Research that elucidates the interaction of CO2 and coal is discussed with work centering on the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. Sorption-induced strain, also referred to as coal swelling/shrinkage, was investigated. A new method of obtaining sorption-induced strain was developed that greatly decreases the time necessary for data collection and increases the reliability of the strain data. As coal permeability is a strong function of sorption-induced strain, common permeability models were used to fit measured permeability data, but were found inadequate. A new permeability model was developed that can be directly applied to coal permeability data obtained under laboratory stress conditions, which are different than field stress conditions. The coal permeability model can be used to obtain critical coal parameters that can be applied in field models. An economic feasibility study of CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming was done. Economic analyses of CO2 injection options are compared. Results show that injecting flue gas to recover methane from CBM fields is marginally economical; however, this method will not significantly contribute to the need to sequester large quantities of CO2. Separating CO2 from flue gas and injecting it into the unminable coal zones of the Powder River Basin seam is currently uneconomical, but can

  12. Research and Application of Radiation Processed Polymers to Enhance Oil Recovery in Petroleum Industry - Current Status and Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Hai; Nguyen Trong Hoanh Phong; Le Van Toan; Nguyen Ly Lan; Nguyen Tan Man; Le Dinh Lang; Nguyen Van Toan; Pham Anh Tuan

    2011-01-01

    The preparation of polymers for enhanced oil recovery has been carried out by radiation copolymerization method involving two monomers of acrylamide and N-vinyl-2- pyrrolidone, and N-methylpyrrolidone used as an anti-gel agent. The properties and oil recovery efficiency of polymer solution was discussed. The studied polymer dissolved in water and in saline water. They have non-precipitating behavior in hard brines at high temperature (>120 o C) and their viscosity decreased 20% after heating 30 days at 120 o C. Evaluation of oil recovery efficiency has been carried out at Laboratory model of reservoir of oil wells were submerged, the obtained results shown that the recovery yield of oil enhanced higher than 10% in the reservoir temperature and pressure conditions. The experimental results also shown that studied polymer products are applying in effect for submerged oil wells. These studied polymers have been being planned for application in pilot scale on the White Tiger oil field one of the big oil fields in this country. (author)

  13. Curcumin enhances recovery of pancreatic islets from cellular stress induced inflammation and apoptosis in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, Kahkashan; Sil, Parames C.

    2015-01-01

    The phytochemical, curcumin, has been reported to play many beneficial roles. However, under diabetic conditions, the detail mechanism of its beneficial action in the glucose homeostasis regulatory organ, pancreas, is poorly understood. The present study has been designed and carried out to explore the role of curcumin in the pancreatic tissue of STZ induced and cellular stress mediated diabetes in eight weeks old male Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced with a single intraperitoneal dose of STZ (65 mg/kg body weight). Post to diabetes induction, animals were treated with curcumin at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight for eight weeks. Underlying molecular and cellular mechanism was determined using various biochemical assays, DNA fragmentation, FACS, histology, immunoblotting and ELISA. Treatment with curcumin reduced blood glucose level, increased plasma insulin and mitigated oxidative stress related markers. In vivo and in vitro experimental results revealed increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL1-β and IFN-γ), reduced level of cellular defense proteins (Nrf-2 and HO-1) and glucose transporter (GLUT-2) along with enhanced levels of signaling molecules of ER stress dependent and independent apoptosis (cleaved Caspase-12/9/8/3) in STZ administered group. Treatment with curcumin ameliorated all the adverse changes and helps the organ back to its normal physiology. Results suggest that curcumin protects pancreatic beta-cells by attenuating inflammatory responses, and inhibiting ER/mitochondrial dependent and independent pathways of apoptosis and crosstalk between them. This uniqueness and absence of any detectable adverse effect proposes the possibility of using this molecule as an effective protector in the cellular stress mediated diabetes mellitus. - Highlights: • STZ induced cellular stress plays a vital role in pancreatic dysfunction. • Cellular stress causes inflammation, pancreatic islet cell death and diabetes. • Deregulation of Nrf-2

  14. Curcumin enhances recovery of pancreatic islets from cellular stress induced inflammation and apoptosis in diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Kahkashan; Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@jcbose.ac.in

    2015-02-01

    The phytochemical, curcumin, has been reported to play many beneficial roles. However, under diabetic conditions, the detail mechanism of its beneficial action in the glucose homeostasis regulatory organ, pancreas, is poorly understood. The present study has been designed and carried out to explore the role of curcumin in the pancreatic tissue of STZ induced and cellular stress mediated diabetes in eight weeks old male Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced with a single intraperitoneal dose of STZ (65 mg/kg body weight). Post to diabetes induction, animals were treated with curcumin at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight for eight weeks. Underlying molecular and cellular mechanism was determined using various biochemical assays, DNA fragmentation, FACS, histology, immunoblotting and ELISA. Treatment with curcumin reduced blood glucose level, increased plasma insulin and mitigated oxidative stress related markers. In vivo and in vitro experimental results revealed increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL1-β and IFN-γ), reduced level of cellular defense proteins (Nrf-2 and HO-1) and glucose transporter (GLUT-2) along with enhanced levels of signaling molecules of ER stress dependent and independent apoptosis (cleaved Caspase-12/9/8/3) in STZ administered group. Treatment with curcumin ameliorated all the adverse changes and helps the organ back to its normal physiology. Results suggest that curcumin protects pancreatic beta-cells by attenuating inflammatory responses, and inhibiting ER/mitochondrial dependent and independent pathways of apoptosis and crosstalk between them. This uniqueness and absence of any detectable adverse effect proposes the possibility of using this molecule as an effective protector in the cellular stress mediated diabetes mellitus. - Highlights: • STZ induced cellular stress plays a vital role in pancreatic dysfunction. • Cellular stress causes inflammation, pancreatic islet cell death and diabetes. • Deregulation of Nrf-2

  15. Prevalence and pathways of recovery from drug and alcohol problems in the United States population: Implications for practice, research, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John F; Bergman, Brandon; Hoeppner, Bettina B; Vilsaint, Corrie; White, William L

    2017-12-01

    Alcohol and other drug (AOD) problems confer a global, prodigious burden of disease, disability, and premature mortality. Even so, little is known regarding how, and by what means, individuals successfully resolve AOD problems. Greater knowledge would inform policy and guide service provision. Probability-based survey of US adult population estimating: 1) AOD problem resolution prevalence; 2) lifetime use of "assisted" (i.e., treatment/medication, recovery services/mutual help) vs. "unassisted" resolution pathways; 3) correlates of assisted pathway use. Participants (response=63.4% of 39,809) responding "yes" to, "Did you use to have a problem with alcohol or drugs but no longer do?" assessed on substance use, clinical histories, problem resolution. Weighted prevalence of problem resolution was 9.1%, with 46% self-identifying as "in recovery"; 53.9% reported "assisted" pathway use. Most utilized support was mutual-help (45.1%,SE=1.6), followed by treatment (27.6%,SE=1.4), and emerging recovery support services (21.8%,SE=1.4), including recovery community centers (6.2%,SE=0.9). Strongest correlates of "assisted" pathway use were lifetime AOD diagnosis (AOR=10.8[7.42-15.74], model R2=0.13), drug court involvement (AOR=8.1[5.2-12.6], model R2=0.10), and, inversely, absence of lifetime psychiatric diagnosis (AOR=0.3[0.2-0.3], model R2=0.10). Compared to those with primary alcohol problems, those with primary cannabis problems were less likely (AOR=0.7[0.5-0.9]) and those with opioid problems were more likely (AOR=2.2[1.4-3.4]) to use assisted pathways. Indices related to severity were related to assisted pathways (R2<0.03). Tens of millions of Americans have successfully resolved an AOD problem using a variety of traditional and non-traditional means. Findings suggest a need for a broadening of the menu of self-change and community-based options that can facilitate and support long-term AOD problem resolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Technical and economic feasibility study of enhanced oil recovery in six Colombian fields. Appendix C. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    The primary objectives of the study were to determine which of the reservoirs in the principal fields were amenable to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, to evaluate which process was the most effective from both a technical and economic point of view, and to propose the steps required to further investigate the recommended EOR methods at the laboratory and field (pilot) level. Appendix C is divided into three sections: (A) Casabe Field; (B) La Cira Field; and (C) Tibu-Barco.

  17. The fifth international conference on microbial enhanced oil recovery and related biotechnology for solving environmental problems: 1995 Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, R. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    This volume contains 41 papers covering the following topics: field trials of microbial enhanced recovery of oil; control and treatment of sour crudes and natural gas with microorganisms; bioremediation of hydrocarbon contamination in soils; microbial plugging processes; microbial waste water treatment; the use of microorganisms as biological indicators of oils; and characterization and behavior of microbial systems. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. Decreasing Striatopallidal Pathway Function Enhances Motivation by Energizing the Initiation of Goal-Directed Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho Poyraz, Fernanda; Holzner, Eva; Bailey, Matthew R.; Meszaros, Jozsef; Kenney, Lindsay; Kheirbek, Mazen A.

    2016-01-01

    Altered dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) binding in the striatum has been associated with abnormal motivation in neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Here, we tested whether motivational deficits observed in mice with upregulated D2Rs (D2R-OEdev mice) are reversed by decreasing function of the striatopallidal “no-go” pathway. To this end, we expressed the Gαi-coupled designer receptor hM4D in adult striatopallidal neurons and activated the receptor with clozapine-N-oxide (CNO). Using a head-mounted miniature microscope we confirmed with calcium imaging in awake mice that hM4D activation by CNO inhibits striatopallidal function measured as disinhibited downstream activity in the globus pallidus. Mice were then tested in three operant tasks that address motivated behavior, the progressive ratio task, the progressive hold-down task, and outcome devaluation. Decreasing striatopallidal function in the dorsomedial striatum or nucleus accumbens core enhanced motivation in D2R-OEdev mice and control littermates. This effect was due to increased response initiation but came at the cost of goal-directed efficiency. Moreover, response vigor and the sensitivity to changes in reward value were not altered. Chronic activation of hM4D by administering CNO for 2 weeks in drinking water did not affect motivation due to a tolerance effect. However, the acute effect of CNO on motivation was reinstated after discontinuing chronic treatment for 48 h. Used as a therapeutic approach, striatopallidal inhibition should consider the risk of impairing goal-directed efficiency and behavioral desensitization. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Motivation involves a directional component that allows subjects to efficiently select the behavior that will lead to an optimal outcome and an activational component that initiates and maintains the vigor and persistence of actions. Striatal output pathways modulate motivated behavior, but it remains unknown how these pathways regulate specific

  19. Decreasing Striatopallidal Pathway Function Enhances Motivation by Energizing the Initiation of Goal-Directed Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho Poyraz, Fernanda; Holzner, Eva; Bailey, Matthew R; Meszaros, Jozsef; Kenney, Lindsay; Kheirbek, Mazen A; Balsam, Peter D; Kellendonk, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Altered dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) binding in the striatum has been associated with abnormal motivation in neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Here, we tested whether motivational deficits observed in mice with upregulated D2Rs (D2R-OEdev mice) are reversed by decreasing function of the striatopallidal "no-go" pathway. To this end, we expressed the Gαi-coupled designer receptor hM4D in adult striatopallidal neurons and activated the receptor with clozapine-N-oxide (CNO). Using a head-mounted miniature microscope we confirmed with calcium imaging in awake mice that hM4D activation by CNO inhibits striatopallidal function measured as disinhibited downstream activity in the globus pallidus. Mice were then tested in three operant tasks that address motivated behavior, the progressive ratio task, the progressive hold-down task, and outcome devaluation. Decreasing striatopallidal function in the dorsomedial striatum or nucleus accumbens core enhanced motivation in D2R-OEdev mice and control littermates. This effect was due to increased response initiation but came at the cost of goal-directed efficiency. Moreover, response vigor and the sensitivity to changes in reward value were not altered. Chronic activation of hM4D by administering CNO for 2 weeks in drinking water did not affect motivation due to a tolerance effect. However, the acute effect of CNO on motivation was reinstated after discontinuing chronic treatment for 48 h. Used as a therapeutic approach, striatopallidal inhibition should consider the risk of impairing goal-directed efficiency and behavioral desensitization. Motivation involves a directional component that allows subjects to efficiently select the behavior that will lead to an optimal outcome and an activational component that initiates and maintains the vigor and persistence of actions. Striatal output pathways modulate motivated behavior, but it remains unknown how these pathways regulate specific components of motivation. Here

  20. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force, reporting period March--August 1991; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, reporting period October--December 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    Activities of DOE's Oil Implementation Task Force for the period March--August 1991 are reviewed. Contracts for fields projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery are discussed, with a list of related publications given. Enhanced recovery processes covered include chemical flooding, gas displacement, thermal recovery, and microbial recovery.

  1. The use of tritium to evaluate enhanced recovery of petroleum in the Neuquen basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somaruga, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    To explain the results of field experiments performed in the Neuquen basin, a mathematical model has been developed which describes the flow of tritiated water in petroleum reservoirs where secondary recovery is carried out. (author)

  2. Selected In-Season Nutritional Strategies to Enhance Recovery for Team Sport Athletes: A Practical Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Heaton, Lisa E.; Davis, Jon K.; Rawson, Eric S.; Nuccio, Ryan P.; Witard, Oliver C.; Stein, Kimberly W.; Baar, Keith; Carter, James M.; Baker, Lindsay B.

    2017-01-01

    Team sport athletes face a variety of nutritional challenges related to recovery during the competitive season. The purpose of this article is to review nutrition strategies related to muscle regeneration, glycogen restoration, fatigue, physical and immune health, and preparation for subsequent training bouts and competitions. Given the limited opportunities to recover between training bouts and games throughout the competitive season, athletes must be deliberate in their recovery strategy. F...

  3. Deprivation and Recovery of Sleep in Succession Enhances Reflexive Motor Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Sprenger, Andreas; Weber, Frederik D.; Machner, Bjoern; Talamo, Silke; Scheffelmeier, Sabine; Bethke, Judith; Helmchen, Christoph; Gais, Steffen; Kimmig, Hubert; Born, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation impairs inhibitory control over reflexive behavior, and this impairment is commonly assumed to dissipate after recovery sleep. Contrary to this belief, here we show that fast reflexive behaviors, when practiced during sleep deprivation, is consolidated across recovery sleep and, thereby, becomes preserved. As a model for the study of sleep effects on prefrontal cortex-mediated inhibitory control in humans, we examined reflexive saccadic eye movements (express saccades), as w...

  4. Enhancement of recovery of Neisseria meningitidis by gelatin in blood culture media.

    OpenAIRE

    Pai, C H; Sorger, S

    1981-01-01

    The efficacy of gelatin for the recovery of Neisseria meningitidis from blood cultures was evaluated in a clinical setting. The organism was isolated from seven patients with meningococcal infections in blood culture media containing 1% gelatin. In contrast, only two blood cultures from these patients were positive in media without gelatin (P less than 0.05). Gelatin did not influence the recovery of other organisms isolated during this study. Conventional blood culture media may be supplemen...

  5. Optimization of parameters for enhanced oil recovery from enzyme treated wild apricot kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Mahatre R; Kumbhar, Baburao K; Singh, Anupama; Lohani, Umesh Chandra; Shahi, Navin C

    2012-08-01

    Present investigation was undertaken with the overall objective of optimizing the enzymatic parameters i.e. moisture content during hydrolysis, enzyme concentration, enzyme ratio and incubation period on wild apricot kernel processing for better oil extractability and increased oil recovery. Response surface methodology was adopted in the experimental design. A central composite rotatable design of four variables at five levels was chosen. The parameters and their range for the experiments were moisture content during hydrolysis (20-32%, w.b.), enzyme concentration (12-16% v/w of sample), combination of pectolytic and cellulolytic enzyme i.e. enzyme ratio (30:70-70:30) and incubation period (12-16 h). Aspergillus foetidus and Trichoderma viride was used for production of crude enzyme i.e. pectolytic and cellulolytic enzyme respectively. A complete second order model for increased oil recovery as the function of enzymatic parameters fitted the data well. The best fit model for oil recovery was also developed. The effect of various parameters on increased oil recovery was determined at linear, quadric and interaction level. The increased oil recovery ranged from 0.14 to 2.53%. The corresponding conditions for maximum oil recovery were 23% (w.b.), 15 v/w of the sample, 60:40 (pectolytic:cellulolytic), 13 h. Results of the study indicated that incubation period during enzymatic hydrolysis is the most important factor affecting oil yield followed by enzyme ratio, moisture content and enzyme concentration in the decreasing order. Enzyme ratio, incubation period and moisture content had insignificant effect on oil recovery. Second order model for increased oil recovery as a function of enzymatic hydrolysis parameters predicted the data adequately.

  6. The sigma-1 receptor enhances brain plasticity and functional recovery after experimental stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruscher, Karsten; Shamloo, Mehrdad; Rickhag, Karl Mattias

    2011-01-01

    Stroke leads to brain damage with subsequent slow and incomplete recovery of lost brain functions. Enriched housing of stroke-injured rats provides multi-modal sensorimotor stimulation, which improves recovery, although the specific mechanisms involved have not been identified. In rats housed in ...... of biomolecules required for brain repair, thereby stimulating brain plasticity. Pharmacological targeting of the sigma-1 receptor provides new opportunities for stroke treatment beyond the therapeutic window of neuroprotection....

  7. Oil recovery enhancement from fractured, low permeability reservoirs. Part 2, Annual report, October 1, 1990--September 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, S.W.

    1991-12-31

    The results of the investigative efforts for this jointly funded DOE-State of Texas research project achieved during the 1990--1991 year may be summarized as follows: Geological Characterization -- Detailed maps of the development and hierarchical nature the fracture system exhibited by Austin Chalk outcrops were prepared. These results of these efforts were directly applied to the development of production decline type curves applicable to a dual fracture-matrix flow system. Analysis of production records obtained from Austin Chalk operators illustrated the utility of these type curves to determine relative fracture/matrix contributions and extent. Well-log response in Austin Chalk wells has been shown to be a reliable indicator of organic maturity. (VSP) Vertical-Seismic Profile data was used to use shear-wave splitting concepts to estimate fracture orientations. Several programs were to be written to facilitate analysis of the data. The results of these efforts indicated fractures could be detected with VSP seismic methods. Development of the (EOR) Enhanced Oil Recovery Imbibition Process -- Laboratory displacement as well as MRI and CT imaging studies have shown the carbonated water-imbibition displacement process significantly accelerates and increases recovery of an oil saturated, low permeability core material, when compared to that of a normal brine imbibition displacement process. A study of oil recovery by the application of a cyclic carbonated water imbibition process, followed by reducing the pressure below the bubble point of the CO{sub 2}-water solution, indicated the possibility of alternate and new enhanced recovery method. The installation of an artificial solution gas drive significantly increased oil recovery. The extent and arrangement of micro-fractures in Austin Chalk horizontal cores was mapped with CT scanning techniques. The degree of interconnection of the micro-fractures was easily visualized.

  8. EnROL: A multicentre randomised trial of conventional versus laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer within an enhanced recovery programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy Robin H

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last two decades the use of laparoscopic resection and a multimodal approach known as an enhanced recovery programme, have been major changes in colorectal perioperative care. Clinical outcome improves using laparoscopic surgery to resect colorectal cancer but until recently no multicentre trial evidence had been reported regarding whether the benefits of laparoscopy still exist when open surgery is optimized within an enhanced recovery programme. The EnROL trial (Enhanced Recovery Open versus Laparoscopic examines the hypothesis that laparoscopic surgery within an enhanced recovery programme will provide superior postoperative outcomes when compared to conventional open resection of colorectal cancer within the same programme. Methods/design EnROL is a phase III, multicentre, randomised trial of laparoscopic versus open resection of colon and rectal cancer with blinding of patients and outcome observers to the treatment allocation for the first 7 days post-operatively, or until discharge if earlier. 202 patients will be recruited at approximately 12 UK hospitals and randomised using minimization at a central computer system in a 1:1 ratio. Recruiting surgeons will previously have performed >100 laparoscopic colorectal resections and >50 open total mesorectal excisions to minimize conversion. Eligible patients are those suitable for elective resection using either technique. Excluded patients include: those with acute intestinal obstruction and patients in whom conversion from laparoscopic to open procedure is likely. The primary outcome is physical fatigue as measured by the physical fatigue domain of the multidimensional fatigue inventory 20 (MFI-20 with secondary outcomes including postoperative hospital stay; complications; reoperation and readmission; quality of life indicators; cosmetic assessments; standardized performance indicators; health economic analysis; the other four domains of the MFI-20

  9. Biosurfactant-biopolymer driven microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) and its optimization by an ANN-GA hybrid technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanarajan, Gunaseelan; Rangarajan, Vivek; Bandi, Chandrakanth; Dixit, Abhivyakti; Das, Susmita; Ale, Kranthikiran; Sen, Ramkrishna

    2017-08-20

    A lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by marine Bacillus megaterium and a biopolymer produced by thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis were tested for their application potential in the enhanced oil recovery. The crude biosurfactant obtained after acid precipitation effectively reduced the surface tension of deionized water from 70.5 to 28.25mN/m and the interfacial tension between lube oil and water from 18.6 to 1.5mN/m at a concentration of 250mgL -1 . The biosurfactant exhibited a maximum emulsification activity (E 24 ) of 81.66% against lube oil. The lipopeptide micelles were stabilized by addition of Ca 2+ ions to the biosurfactant solution. The oil recovery efficiency of Ca 2+ conditioned lipopeptide solution from a sand-packed column was optimized by using artificial neural network (ANN) modelling coupled with genetic algorithm (GA) optimization. Three important parameters namely lipopeptide concentration, Ca 2+ concentration and solution pH were considered for optimization studies. In order to further improve the recovery efficiency, a water soluble biopolymer produced by Bacillus licheniformis was used as a flooding agent after biosurfactant incubation. Upon ANN-GA optimization, 45% tertiary oil recovery was achieved, when biopolymer at a concentration of 3gL -1 was used as a flooding agent. Oil recovery was only 29% at optimal conditions predicted by ANN-GA, when only water was used as flooding solution. The important characteristics of biopolymers such as its viscosity, pore plugging capabilities and bio-cementing ability have also been tested. Thus, as a result of biosurfactant incubation and biopolymer flooding under the optimal process conditions, a maximum oil recovery of 45% was achieved. Therefore, this study is novel, timely and interesting for it showed the combined influence of biosurfactant and biopolymer on solubilisation and mobilization of oil from the soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Study on the enhancement of hydrocarbon recovery by characterization of the reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Young Hoon; Son, Jin Dam; Oh, Jae Ho [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)] [and others

    1998-12-01

    Three year project is being carried out on the enhancement of hydrocarbon recovery by the reservoir characterization. This report describes the results of the second year's work. This project deals with characterization of fluids, bitumen ad rock matrix in the reservoir. New equipment and analytical solutions for naturally fractured reservoir were also included in this study. Main purpose of the reservoir geochemistry is to understand the origin of fluids (gas, petroleum and water) and distribution of the bitumens within the reservoir and to use them not only for exploration but development of the petroleum. For the theme of reservoir geochemistry, methods and principles of the reservoir gas and bitumen characterization, which is applicable to the petroleum development, are studied. and case study was carried out on the gas, water and bitumen samples in the reservoir taken form Haenam area and Ulleung Basin offshore Korea. Gases taken form the two different wells indicate the different origin. Formation water analyses show the absence of barrier within the tested interval. With the sidewall core samples from a well offshore Korea, the analysis using polarizing microscope, scanning electron microscope with EDX and cathodoluminoscope was performed for the study on sandstone diagenesis. The I/S changes were examined on the cuttings samples from a well, offshore Korea to estimate burial temperature. Oxygen stable isotope is used to study geothermal history in sedimentary basin. Study in the field is rare in Korea and basic data are urgently needed especially in continental basins to determine the value of formation water. In the test analyses, three samples from marine basins indicate final temperature from 55 deg.C to 83 deg.C and one marine sample indicate the initial temperature of 36 deg.C. One sample from continental basin represented the final temperature from 53 and 80 deg.C. These temperatures will be corrected because these values were based on assumed

  11. CO{sub 2} capture and utilization for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilhelmsen, P.J.; Well, W. van; Nielsen, Charles [DONG Energy Generation, Fredericia (Denmark); Harrar, W.; Reffstrup, J. [DONG Energy Exploration and Production, Hoersholm (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    CO{sub 2} is an international theme and the cap-and-trade systems under implementation will lead to significant alterations in the energy market and in the energy system altogether. A possible technical step to reduce atmospheric emissions is CO{sub 2} capture and the utilisation of the CO{sub 2} for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). CO{sub 2} capture is to some extent a know technology but has not yet been optimised and commercialised for power plant utilisation. Correspondingly CO{sub 2} utilisation for EOR is a known method in other areas of the world where the reservoir conditions are different from those of the North Sea. For several years Elsam and Energi E2, part of DONG Energy, have worked on reducing CO{sub 2} emissions through increased efficiency at the coal-fired power plants, and this work has now been extended to also include capture and utilisation of CO{sub 2}. DONG E and P within DONG Energy has started work on the utilisation of CO{sub 2} for EOR at the company's fields in the North Sea. Based on DONG Energy's interest in working through the whole value chain from power plants to EOR utilisation in the North Sea, this paper describes our experience with CO{sub 2} capture at the trial plant CASTOR at Esbjerg power plant and the actual work of investigating and preparing the pilot test of CO{sub 2} for EOR in the North Sea. The paper also illustrates the perspectives of retrofitting the existing fleet of super critical coal-fired power plants close to the North Sea with CO{sub 2} capture and the utilisation of the CO{sub 2} for EOR in the North Sea. DONG Energy's perspective is that CO{sub 2} for EOR can contribute to materialising the vision that the central power plant can be developed into an energy refinery. The development work presented will be carried out in cooperation with leading international players and Danish universities and knowledge centres Technical University of Denmark (DTU), The Danish Geotechnical Institute (GEO) and Geological

  12. Cholecystokinin enhances visceral pain-related affective memory via vagal afferent pathway in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Bing

    2012-06-01

    the nociceptive response (visceral pain sensitivity and anterior cingulate cortex neuronal responses to CRD. Conclusion CCK activating vagal afferent C fibers enhances memory consolidation and retention involved in long-term visceral negative affective state. Thus, in a number of gastrointestinal disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome, nutrient content may contribute to painful visceral perception by enhancing visceral aversive memory via acts on vagal afferent pathway.

  13. Cholecystokinin enhances visceral pain-related affective memory via vagal afferent pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bing; Zhang, Xu; Yan, Ni; Chen, Shengliang; Li, Ying

    2012-06-09

    sensitivity) and anterior cingulate cortex neuronal responses to CRD. CCK activating vagal afferent C fibers enhances memory consolidation and retention involved in long-term visceral negative affective state. Thus, in a number of gastrointestinal disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome, nutrient content may contribute to painful visceral perception by enhancing visceral aversive memory via acts on vagal afferent pathway.

  14. Studies on interfacial tension and contact angle of synthesized surfactant and polymeric from castor oil for enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Keshak; Pal, Nilanjan; Bera, Achinta; Saxena, V. K.; Mandal, Ajay

    2015-10-01

    New synthesized polymeric surfactants have immensely attracted the researchers for further development of chemical enhanced oil recovery method particularly in surfactant flooding. Contact angle and interfacial tension measurement tests are the effective ways to identify proper chemicals/surfactants for enhanced oil recovery by chemical/surfactant flooding. In the present study a new polymeric surfactant was synthesized from pre-synthesized sodium methyl ester sulfonate (surfactant) and acrylamide for application in chemical enhanced oil recovery. The synthesized surfactant and polymeric surfactant were used to measure interfacial tension between their aqueous phase and crude oil phase to investigate the efficiency of the surfactants in reduction of interfacial tension. The synthesized polymeric surfactant has also ability to control the mobility because of its viscous nature in aqueous solution. Contact angles of solid-crude oil-surfactant interface were also measured to study the effect of the synthesized surfactant and polymeric surfactant on wettability alteration mechanism. Synergistic effect was studied by using NaCl and synthesized surfactants on interfacial tension. Dynamic interfacial tensions of the surfactant and polymeric surfactant solutions with crude oil were measured at different NaCl concentrations. Interfacial tension was found to be lowered up to 10-2 to 10-3 mN/m which is effective for oil recovery. Measurement of contact angle indicates the wettability change of the quartz surface. Comparative studies on efficiencies of synthesized sodium methyl ester sulfonate surfactant and polymeric surfactant were also carried out with respect to interfacial tension reduction and contact angle change.

  15. Enhanced pathway efficiency of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by introducing thermo-tolerant devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yueqin; Zhang, Genli; Sun, Huan; Sun, Xiangying; Jiang, Nisi; Rasool, Aamir; Lin, Zhanglin; Li, Chun

    2014-10-01

    In this study, thermo-tolerant devices consisting of heat shock genes from thermophiles were designed and introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae for improving its thermo-tolerance. Among ten engineered thermo-tolerant yeasts, T.te-TTE2469, T.te-GroS2 and T.te-IbpA displayed over 25% increased cell density and 1.5-4-fold cell viability compared with the control. Physiological characteristics of thermo-tolerant strains revealed that better cell wall integrity, higher trehalose content and enhanced metabolic energy were preserved by thermo-tolerant devices. Engineered thermo-tolerant strain was used to investigate the impact of thermo-tolerant device on pathway efficiency by introducing β-amyrin synthesis pathway, showed 28.1% increased β-amyrin titer, 28-35°C broadened growth temperature range and 72h shortened fermentation period. The results indicated that implanting heat shock proteins from thermophiles to S. cerevisiae would be an efficient approach to improve its thermo-tolerance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhancement of cordyceps polysaccharide production via biosynthetic pathway analysis in Hirsutella sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shan; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Baker, Peter James; Yi, Ming; Wu, Hui; Xu, Feng; Teng, Yi; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2016-11-01

    The addition of various sulfates for enhanced cordyceps polysaccharide (CP) production in submerged cultivation of H. sinensis was investigated, and manganese sulfate was found the most effective. 2mM of manganese sulfate on 0day (d) was investigated as the optimal adding condition, and the CP production reached optimum with 5.33%, increasing by 93.3% compared with the control. Furthermore, the consumption of three main precursors of CP was studied over cultivation under two conditions. Intracellular mannose content decreased by 43.1% throughout 6days cultivation, which corresponded to CP accumulation rate sharply increased from 0 d to 6 d, and mannose was considered as the most preferred precursor for generating CP. Subsequently, mannose biosynthetic pathway was constructed and verified for the first time in H. sinensis, which constituted the important part of CP biosynthesis, and transcriptional levels of the biosynthetic genes were studied. Transcriptional level of gene cpsA was significantly up-regulated 5.35-fold and it was a key gene involved both in mannose and CP biosynthesis. This study demonstrated that manganese sulfate addition is an efficient and simple way to improve CP production. Transcriptional analysis based on biosynthetic pathway was helpful to find key genes and better understand CP biosynthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhancement of thermal conductive pathway of boron nitride coated polymethylsilsesquioxane composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyungbok; Ryu, Seung Han; Lee, Jun-Tae; Seong, Ki-Hun; Lee, Jae Eun; Yoon, Phil-Joong; Kim, Bum-Sung; Hussain, Manwar; Choa, Yong-Ho

    2013-11-01

    We report here in the fabrication of enhanced thermal conductive pathway nanocomposites of boron nitride (BN)-coated polymethylsilsesquioxane (PMSQ) composite beads using isopropyl alcohol (IPA) as a mixing medium. Exfoliated and size-reduced boron nitride particles were successfully coated on the PMSQ beads and explained by surface charge differences. A homogeneous dispersion and coating of BN on the PMSQ beads using IPA medium was confirmed by SEM. Each condition of the composite powder was carried into the stainless still mould and then hot pressed in an electrically heated hot press machine. Three-dimensional percolation networks and conductive pathways created by exfoliated BN were precisely formed in the nanocomposites. The thermal conductivity of nanocomposites was measured by multiplying specific gravity, specific heat, and thermal diffusivity, based upon the laser flash method. Densification of the composite resulted in better thermal properties. For an epoxy reinforced composite with 30 vol% BN and PMSQ, a thermal conductivity of nine times higher than that of pristine PMSQ was observed.

  18. A Fat-Facets-Dscam1-JNK Pathway Enhances Axonal Growth in Development and after Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Koch

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Injury to the adult central nervous systems (CNS can result in severe long-term disability because damaged CNS connections fail to regenerate after trauma. Identification of regulators that enhance the intrinsic growth capacity of severed axons is a first step to restore function. Here, we conducted a gain-of-function genetic screen in Drosophila to identify strong inducers of axonal growth after injury. We focus on a novel axis the Down Syndrome Cell Adhesion Molecule (Dscam1, the de-ubiquitinating enzyme Fat Facets (Faf/Usp9x and the Jun N-Terminal Kinase (JNK pathway transcription factor Kayak (Kay/Fos. Genetic and biochemical analyses link these genes in a common signaling pathway whereby Faf stabilizes Dscam1 protein levels, by acting on the 3′-UTR of its mRNA, and Dscam1 acts upstream of the growth-promoting JNK signal. The mammalian homolog of Faf, Usp9x/FAM, shares both the regenerative and Dscam1 stabilizing activities, suggesting a conserved mechanism.

  19. Enhancement of arachidonic acid signaling pathway by nicotinic acid receptor HM74A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yuting; Zhou, Lubing; Gunnet, Joseph W.; Wines, Pamela G.; Cryan, Ellen V.; Demarest, Keith T.

    2006-01-01

    HM74A is a G protein-coupled receptor for nicotinic acid (niacin), which has been used clinically to treat dyslipidemia for decades. The molecular mechanisms whereby niacin exerts its pleiotropic effects on lipid metabolism remain largely unknown. In addition, the most common side effect in niacin therapy is skin flushing that is caused by prostaglandin release, suggesting that the phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 )/arachidonic acid (AA) pathway is involved. Various eicosanoids have been shown to activate peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) that play a diverse array of roles in lipid metabolism. To further elucidate the potential roles of HM74A in mediating the therapeutic effects and/or side effects of niacin, we sought to explore the signaling events upon HM74A activation. Here we demonstrated that HM74A synergistically enhanced UTP- and bradykinin-mediated AA release in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner in A431 cells. Activation of HM74A also led to Ca 2+ -mobilization and enhanced bradykinin-promoted Ca 2+ -mobilization through Gi protein. While HM74A increased ERK1/2 activation by the bradykinin receptor, it had no effects on UTP-promoted ERK1/2 activation.Furthermore, UTP- and bradykinin-mediated AA release was significantly decreased in the presence of both MAPK kinase inhibitor PD 098059 and PKC inhibitor GF 109203X. However, the synergistic effects of HM74A were not dramatically affected by co-treatment with both inhibitors, indicating the cross-talk occurred at the receptor level. Finally, stimulation of A431 cells transiently transfected with PPRE-luciferase with AA significantly induced luciferase activity, mimicking the effects of PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone, suggesting that alteration of AA signaling pathway can regulate gene expression via endogenous PPARs

  20. Enhancement of arachidonic acid signaling pathway by nicotinic acid receptor HM74A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yuting [Endocrine Therapeutics and Metabolic Disorders, Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, L.L.C., 1000 Rt. 202, Raritan, NJ 08869 (United States); Zhou, Lubing [Endocrine Therapeutics and Metabolic Disorders, Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, L.L.C., 1000 Rt. 202, Raritan, NJ 08869 (United States); Gunnet, Joseph W [Endocrine Therapeutics and Metabolic Disorders, Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, L.L.C., 1000 Rt. 202, Raritan, NJ 08869 (United States); Wines, Pamela G [Endocrine Therapeutics and Metabolic Disorders, Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, L.L.C., 1000 Rt. 202, Raritan, NJ 08869 (United States); Cryan, Ellen V [Endocrine Therapeutics and Metabolic Disorders, Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, L.L.C., 1000 Rt. 202, Raritan, NJ 08869 (United States); Demarest, Keith T [Endocrine Therapeutics and Metabolic Disorders, Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, L.L.C., 1000 Rt. 202, Raritan, NJ 08869 (United States)

    2006-06-23

    HM74A is a G protein-coupled receptor for nicotinic acid (niacin), which has been used clinically to treat dyslipidemia for decades. The molecular mechanisms whereby niacin exerts its pleiotropic effects on lipid metabolism remain largely unknown. In addition, the most common side effect in niacin therapy is skin flushing that is caused by prostaglandin release, suggesting that the phospholipase A{sub 2} (PLA{sub 2})/arachidonic acid (AA) pathway is involved. Various eicosanoids have been shown to activate peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) that play a diverse array of roles in lipid metabolism. To further elucidate the potential roles of HM74A in mediating the therapeutic effects and/or side effects of niacin, we sought to explore the signaling events upon HM74A activation. Here we demonstrated that HM74A synergistically enhanced UTP- and bradykinin-mediated AA release in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner in A431 cells. Activation of HM74A also led to Ca{sup 2+}-mobilization and enhanced bradykinin-promoted Ca{sup 2+}-mobilization through Gi protein. While HM74A increased ERK1/2 activation by the bradykinin receptor, it had no effects on UTP-promoted ERK1/2 activation.Furthermore, UTP- and bradykinin-mediated AA release was significantly decreased in the presence of both MAPK kinase inhibitor PD 098059 and PKC inhibitor GF 109203X. However, the synergistic effects of HM74A were not dramatically affected by co-treatment with both inhibitors, indicating the cross-talk occurred at the receptor level. Finally, stimulation of A431 cells transiently transfected with PPRE-luciferase with AA significantly induced luciferase activity, mimicking the effects of PPAR{gamma} agonist rosiglitazone, suggesting that alteration of AA signaling pathway can regulate gene expression via endogenous PPARs.

  1. IGF-I enhances cellular senescence via the reactive oxygen species-p53 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handayaningsih, Anastasia-Evi; Takahashi, Michiko; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Iguchi, Genzo; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Suda, Kentaro [Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Takahashi, Yutaka, E-mail: takahash@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellular senescence plays an important role in tumorigenesis and aging process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrated IGF-I enhanced cellular senescence in primary confluent cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IGF-I enhanced cellular senescence in the ROS and p53-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These results may explain the underlying mechanisms of IGF-I involvement in tumorigenesis and in regulation of aging. -- Abstract: Cellular senescence is characterized by growth arrest, enlarged and flattened cell morphology, the expression of senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase (SA-{beta}-gal), and by activation of tumor suppressor networks. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays a critical role in cellular growth, proliferation, tumorigenesis, and regulation of aging. In the present study, we show that IGF-I enhances cellular senescence in mouse, rat, and human primary cells in the confluent state. IGF-I induced expression of a DNA damage marker, {gamma}H2AX, the increased levels of p53 and p21 proteins, and activated SA-{beta}-gal. In the confluent state, an altered downstream signaling of IGF-I receptor was observed. Treatment with a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, N-acetylcystein (NAC) significantly suppressed induction of these markers, indicating that ROS are involved in the induction of cellular senescence by IGF-I. In p53-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts, the IGF-I-induced augmentation of SA-{beta}-gal and p21 was inhibited, demonstrating that p53 is required for cellular senescence induced by IGF-I. Thus, these data reveal a novel pathway whereby IGF-I enhances cellular senescence in the ROS and p53-dependent manner and may explain the underlying mechanisms of IGF-I involvement in tumorigenesis and in regulation of aging.

  2. IGF-I enhances cellular senescence via the reactive oxygen species–p53 pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handayaningsih, Anastasia-Evi; Takahashi, Michiko; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Iguchi, Genzo; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Suda, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cellular senescence plays an important role in tumorigenesis and aging process. ► We demonstrated IGF-I enhanced cellular senescence in primary confluent cells. ► IGF-I enhanced cellular senescence in the ROS and p53-dependent manner. ► These results may explain the underlying mechanisms of IGF-I involvement in tumorigenesis and in regulation of aging. -- Abstract: Cellular senescence is characterized by growth arrest, enlarged and flattened cell morphology, the expression of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal), and by activation of tumor suppressor networks. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays a critical role in cellular growth, proliferation, tumorigenesis, and regulation of aging. In the present study, we show that IGF-I enhances cellular senescence in mouse, rat, and human primary cells in the confluent state. IGF-I induced expression of a DNA damage marker, γH2AX, the increased levels of p53 and p21 proteins, and activated SA-β-gal. In the confluent state, an altered downstream signaling of IGF-I receptor was observed. Treatment with a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, N-acetylcystein (NAC) significantly suppressed induction of these markers, indicating that ROS are involved in the induction of cellular senescence by IGF-I. In p53-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts, the IGF-I-induced augmentation of SA-β-gal and p21 was inhibited, demonstrating that p53 is required for cellular senescence induced by IGF-I. Thus, these data reveal a novel pathway whereby IGF-I enhances cellular senescence in the ROS and p53-dependent manner and may explain the underlying mechanisms of IGF-I involvement in tumorigenesis and in regulation of aging.

  3. Subtask – CO2 storage and enhanced bakken recovery research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, James [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Hawthorne, Steven [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Smith, Steven [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Braunberger, Jason [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Liu, Guoxiang [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Klenner, Robert [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Botnen, Lisa [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Steadman, Edward [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Harju, John [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Doll, Thomas [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    2014-05-31

    Small improvements in productivity could increase technically recoverable oil in the Bakken Petroleum System by billions of barrels. The use of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in tight oil reservoirs is a relatively new concept. The large-scale injection of CO2 into the Bakken would also result in the geological storage of significant amounts of CO2. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has conducted laboratory and modeling activities to examine the potential for CO2 storage and EOR in the Bakken. Specific activities included the characterization and subsequent modeling of North Dakota study areas as well as dynamic predictive simulations of possible CO2 injection schemes to predict the potential CO2 storage and EOR in those areas. Laboratory studies to evaluate the ability of CO2 to remove hydrocarbons from Bakken rocks and determine minimum miscibility pressures for Bakken oil samples were conducted. Data from a CO2 injection test conducted in the Elm Coulee area of Montana in 2009 were evaluated with an eye toward the possible application of knowledge gained to future injection tests in other areas. A first-order estimation of potential CO2 storage capacity in the Bakken Formation in North Dakota was also conducted. Key findings of the program are as follows. The results of the research activities suggest that CO2 may be effective in enhancing the productivity of oil from the Bakken and that the Bakken may hold the ability to geologically store between 120 Mt and 3.2 Gt of CO2. However, there are no clear-cut answers regarding the most effective approach for using CO2 to improve oil productivity or the storage capacity of the Bakken. The results underscore the notion that an unconventional resource will likely require unconventional methods of both assessment and implementation when it comes to the injection of CO

  4. Complex electrical monitoring of biopolymer and iron mineral precipitation for microbial enhanced hydrocarbon recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Hubbard, C. G.; Dong, W.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2011-12-01

    Microbially enhanced hydrocarbon recovery (MEHR) mechanisms are expected to be impacted by processes and properties that occur over a wide range of scales, ranging from surface interactions and microbial metabolism at the submicron scale to changes in wettability and pore geometry at the pore scale to geological heterogeneities at the petroleum reservoir scale. To eventually ensure successful, production-scale implementation of laboratory-developed MEHR procedures under field conditions, it is necessary to develop approaches that can remotely monitor and accurately predict the complex microbially-facilitated transformations that are expected to occur during MEHR treatments in reservoirs (such as the evolution of redox profiles, oil viscosity or matrix porosity/permeability modifications). Our initial studies are focused on laboratory experiments to assess the geophysical signatures of MEHR-induced biogeochemical transformations, with an ultimate goal of using these approaches to monitor field treatments. Here, we explore the electrical signatures of two MEHR processes that are designed to produce end-products that will plug high permeability zones in reservoirs and thus enhance sweep efficiency. The MEHR experiments to induce biopolymers (in this case dextran) and iron mineral precipitates were conducted using flow-through columns. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, a facultative anaerobe, known to produce dextran from sucrose was used in the biopolymer experiments. Paused injection of sucrose, following inoculation and initial microbial attachment, was carried out on daily basis, allowing enough time for dextran production to occur based on batch experiment observations. Electrical data were collected on daily basis and fluid samples were extracted from the column for characterization. Changes in electrical signal were not observed during initial microbial inoculation. Increase of electrical resistivity and decrease of electrical phase response were observed during the

  5. Numerical Simulations for Enhanced Methane Recovery from Gas Hydrate Accumulations by Utilizing CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhara, Prathyusha

    In 2013, the International Energy Outlook (EIA, 2013) projected that global energy demand will grow by 56% between 2010 and 2040. Despite strong growth in renewable energy supplies, much of this growth is expected to be met by fossil fuels. Concerns ranging from greenhouse gas emissions and energy security are spawning new interests for other sources of energy including renewable and unconventional fossil fuel such as shale gas and oil as well as gas hydrates. The production methods as well as long-term reservoir behavior of gas hydrate deposits have been under extensive investigation. Reservoir simulators can be used to predict the production potentials of hydrate formations and to determine which technique results in enhanced gas recovery. In this work, a new simulation tool, Mix3HydrateResSim (Mix3HRS), which accounts for complex thermodynamics of multi-component hydrate phase comprised of varying hydrate solid crystal structure, is used to perform the CO2-assisted production technique simulations from CH4 hydrate accumulations. The simulator is one among very few reservoir simulators which can simulate the process of CH4 substitution by CO2 (and N2 ) in the hydrate lattice. Natural gas hydrate deposits around the globe are categorized into three different classes based on the characteristics of the geological sediments present in contact with the hydrate bearing deposits. Amongst these, the Class 2 hydrate accumulations predominantly confirmed in the permafrost and along seashore, are characterized by a mobile aqueous phase underneath a hydrate bearing sediment. The exploitation of such gas hydrate deposits results in release of large amounts of water due to the presence of permeable water-saturated sediments encompassing the hydrate deposits, thus lowering the produced gas rates. In this study, a suite of numerical simulation scenarios with varied complexity are considered which aimed at understanding the underlying changes in physical, thermodynamic and

  6. Pre- and postoperative stoma education and guidance within an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programme reduces length of hospital stay in colorectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsmo, H M; Pfeffer, F; Rasdal, A; Sintonen, H; Körner, H; Erichsen, C

    2016-12-01

    Stoma formation delays discharge after colorectal surgery. Stoma education is widely recommended, but little data are available regarding whether educational interventions are effective. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate whether an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programme with dedicated ERAS and stoma nurse specialists focusing on counselling and stoma education can reduce the length of hospital stay, re-admission, and stoma-related complications and improve health-related quality of life (HRQoL) compared to current stoma education in a traditional standard care pathway. In a single-center study 122 adult patients eligible for laparoscopic or open colorectal resection who received a planned stoma were treated in either the ERAS program with extended stoma education (n = 61) or standard care with current stoma education (n = 61). The primary endpoint was total postoperative hospital stay. Secondary endpoints were postoperative hospital stay, major or minor morbidity, early stoma-related complications, health-related quality of life, re-admission rate, and mortality. HRQoL was measured by the generic 15D instrument. Total hospital stay was significantly shorter in the ERAS group with education than the standard care group (median [range], 6 days [2-21 days] vs. 9 days [5-45 days]; p stoma-related complications and 30-day mortality, the two treatment groups exhibited similar outcomes. Patients receiving a planned stoma can be included in an ERAS program. Pre-operative and postoperative stoma education in an enhanced recovery programme is associated with a significantly shorter hospital stay without any difference in re-admission rate or early stoma-related complications. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Numerical simulations of enhanced gas recovery at the Zalezcze gas field in Poland confirm high CO2 storage capacity and mechanical integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimkowski, Lukasz; Nagy, Stanislaw; Papiernik, Bartosz; Orlic, Bogdan; Kempka, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Natural gas from the Zalecze gas field located in the Fore-Sudetic Monocline of the Southern Permian Basin has been produced since November 1973, and continuous gas production led to a decrease in the initial reservoir pressure from 151 bar to about 22 bar until 2010. We investigated a prospective enhanced gas recovery operation at the Zalecze gas field by coupled numerical hydro-mechanical simulations to account for the CO 2 storage capacity, trapping efficiency and mechanical integrity of the reservoir, cap-rock and regional faults. Dynamic flow simulations carried out indicate a CO 2 storage capacity of 106.6 Mt with a trapping efficiency of about 43% (45.8 Mt CO 2 ) established after 500 years of simulation. Two independent strategies on the assessment of mechanical integrity were followed by two different modeling groups resulting in the implementation of field- to regional-scale hydro-mechanical simulation models. The simulation results based on application of different constitutive laws for the lithological units show deviations of 31% to 93% for the calculated maximum vertical displacements at the reservoir top. Nevertheless, results of both simulation strategies indicate that fault reactivation generating potential leakage pathways from the reservoir to shallower units is very unlikely due to the low fault slip tendency (close to zero) in the Zechstein cap-rocks. Consequently, our simulation results also emphasise that the supra- and sub-saliferous fault systems at the Zalecze gas field are independent and very likely not hydraulically connected. Based on our simulation results derived from two independent modeling strategies with similar simulation results on fault and cap-rock integrity, we conclude that the investigated enhanced gas recovery scheme is feasible, with a negligibly low risk of relevant fault reactivation or formation fluid leakage through the Zechstein cap-rocks. (authors)

  8. Laboratory investigation of the factors impact on bubble size, pore blocking and enhanced oil recovery with aqueous Colloidal Gas Aphron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shenglong; Wang, Yefei; Li, Zhongpeng; Chen, Qingguo; Zhao, Zenghao

    Colloidal Gas Aphron as a mobility control in enhanced oil recovery is becoming attractive; it is also designed to block porous media with micro-bubbles. In this paper, the effects of surfactant concentration, polymer concentration, temperature and salinity on the bubble size of the Colloidal Gas Aphron were studied. Effects of injection rates, Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid composition, heterogeneity of reservoir on the resistance to the flow of Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid through porous media were investigated. Effects of Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid composition and temperature on residual oil recovery were also studied. The results showed that bubble growth rate decreased with increasing surfactant concentration, polymer concentration, and decreasing temperature, while it decreased and then increased slightly with increasing salinity. The obvious increase of injection pressure was observed as more Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid was injected, indicating that Colloidal Gas Aphron could block the pore media effectively. The effectiveness of the best blend obtained through homogeneous sandpack flood tests was modestly improved in the heterogeneous sandpack. The tertiary oil recovery increased 26.8 % by Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid as compared to 20.3 % by XG solution when chemical solution of 1 PV was injected into the sandpack. The maximum injected pressure of Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid was about three times that of the XG solution. As the temperature increased, the Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid became less stable; the maximum injection pressure and tertiary oil recovery of Colloidal Gas Aphron fluid decreased.

  9. Experimental study of solvent-based emulsion injection to enhance heavy oil recovery in Alaska North Slope area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, F.; Mamora, D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using a chemical enhanced oil recovery method to overcome some of the technical challenges associated with thermal recovery in the Alaska North Slope (ANS). This paper described the second stage research of an experimental study on nano-particle and surfactant-stabilized solvent-based emulsions for the ANS area. Four successful core flood experiments were performed using heavy ANS oil. The runs included water flooding followed by emulsion flooding; and pure emulsion injection core flooding. The injection rate and core flooding temperature remained constant and only 1 PV micro-emulsion was injected after breakthrough under water flooding or emulsion flooding. Oil recovery increased by 26.4 percent from 56.2 percent original oil in place (OOIP) with waterflooding to 82.6 percent OOIP with injection of emulsion following water flooding. Oil recovery was slightly higher with pure emulsion flooding, at 85.8 percent OOIP. The study showed that low permeability generally resulted in a higher shear rate, which is favourable for in-situ emulsification and higher displacement efficiency. 11 refs., 4 tabs., 20 figs.

  10. 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol Enhances Male Broiler Breast Meat Yield through the mTOR Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignale, Karen; Greene, Elizabeth S; Caldas, Justina V; England, Judith A; Boonsinchai, Nirun; Sodsee, Phiphob; Pollock, Erik D; Dridi, Sami; Coon, Craig N

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing body of evidence indicating that replacing cholecalciferol (vitamin D₃) with 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D₃] through dietary supplementation enhances breast meat yield in broiler chickens. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unknown. We investigated the effect of 25(OH)D₃ on male broiler growth performance (body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and breast meat yield), muscle protein synthesis, and the potential underlying molecular mechanisms. Male Cobb 500 broiler chickens were divided into 4 body weight-matched groups and received a control diet with normal cholecalciferol (2760 IU/kg feed) for 42 d, a diet with high concentrations of cholecalciferol (5520 IU/kg feed) for 42 d, or a diet with 25(OH)D₃ (5520 IU/kg feed) for 42 d (HyD-42). A fourth group consumed the HyD-42 for 21 d and then control feed for 21 d (HyD-21) (n = 360 birds, 12 replicates/treatment). Food and clean water were available for ad libitum consumption. At the end of the 42-d experiment, protein turnover was measured by phenylalanine flooding dose. Breast muscle tissues were collected and protein synthesis-related gene and protein expression were measured by real time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, respectively. Functional studies were performed in vitro with the use of a quail myoblast (QM7) cell line. QM7 cells were treated with 2 doses (1 nM and 10 nM) of cholecalciferol or 25(OH)D₃ alone or in combination with 100 nM rapamycin, and cell proliferation was determined by cell proliferation assay. Protein synthesis-related gene and protein expression were also determined. The HyD-42 increased 25(OH)D₃ circulating concentrations by 126% (P meat yield (P vitro functional studies showed that cells treated with 25(OH)D₃ for 24 h had increased VDR expression, and activated the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)/S6 kinase (S6K) pathway, enhanced Ki67 protein concentrations, and induced QM7

  11. Bacterial community diversity in a low-permeability oil reservoir and its potential for enhancing oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Meng; Zhang, Zhong-Zhi; Wang, Jing-Xiu; Zhang, Guang-Qing; Luo, Yi-Jing; Song, Zhao-Zheng; Zhang, Ji-Yuan

    2013-11-01

    The diversity of indigenous bacterial community and the functional species in the water samples from three production wells of a low permeability oil reservoir was investigated by high-throughput sequencing technology. The potential of application of indigenous bacteria for enhancing oil recovery was evaluated by examination of the effect of bacterial stimulation on the formation water-oil-rock surface interactions and micromodel test. The results showed that production well 88-122 had the most diverse bacterial community and functional species. The broth of indigenous bacteria stimulated by an organic nutrient activator at aerobic condition changed the wettability of the rock surface from oil-wet to water-wet. Micromodel test results showed that flooding using stimulated indigenous bacteria following water flooding improved oil recovery by 6.9% and 7.7% in fractured and unfractured micromodels, respectively. Therefore, the zone of low permeability reservoir has a great potential for indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Production and characterisation of glycolipid biosurfactant by Halomonas sp. MB-30 for potential application in enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhasayan, Asha; Kiran, G Seghal; Selvin, Joseph

    2014-12-01

    Biosurfactant-producing Halomonas sp. MB-30 was isolated from a marine sponge Callyspongia diffusa, and its potency in crude oil recovery from sand pack column was investigated. The biosurfactant produced by the strain MB-30 reduced the surface tension to 30 mN m(-1) in both glucose and hydrocarbon-supplemented minimal media. The critical micelle concentration of biosurfactant obtained from glucose-based medium was at 0.25 mg ml(-1) at critical micelle dilution 1:10. The chemical structure of glycolipid biosurfactant was characterised by infrared spectroscopy and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The emulsification activity of MB-30 biosurfactant was tested with different hydrocarbons, and 93.1 % emulsification activity was exhibited with crude oil followed by kerosene (86.6 %). The formed emulsion was stable for up to 1 month. To identify the effectiveness of biosurfactant for enhanced oil recovery in extreme environments, the interactive effect of pH, temperature and salinity on emulsion stability with crude oil and kerosene was evaluated. The stable emulsion was formed at and above pH 7, temperature >80 °C and NaCl concentration up to 10 % in response surface central composite orthogonal design model. The partially purified biosurfactant recovered 62 % of residual crude oil from sand pack column. Thus, the stable emulsifying biosurfactant produced by Halomonas sp. MB-30 could be used for in situ biosurfactant-mediated enhanced oil recovery process and hydrocarbon bioremediation in extreme environments.

  13. Proficiency feasibility of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the presence of polymeric surfactant on enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezhad, Javad Razavi; Jafari, Arezou; Abdollahi, Mahdi

    2018-01-01

    Enhanced heavy oil recovery methods are widely utilized to increase oil recovery. For this purpose, polymer and surfactant flooding have been used extensively. Recently, polymeric surfactant flooding has become an attractive alternative to sole polymer flooding due to their capability of providing an increase in solution viscosity and a decrease in interfacial tension, which are both beneficial for efficiency of the process. Applying nanoparticles as an additive to polymer solutions is a method to improve viscosity and alter rock wettability. Therefore, in this research, multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) was mixed with a polymeric surfactant of polyacrylamide-graft-lignin copolymer (PAM-g-L) synthesized via radical grafting reaction. Moreover, several solutions with different concentrations of nanoparticles with PAM-g-L were prepared. The solutions were injected into a micromodel to evaluate the PAM-g-L flooding efficiency in presence of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The results of micromodel flooding showed that increasing MWCNT concentration results in lower sweep efficiencies; and consequently, oil production will decrease. Therefore, MWCNT along with PAM-g-L has an unacceptable performance in enhanced heavy oil recovery. But data of wettability tests revealed that MWCNT can change the wettability from oil-wet to water-wet. In addition, the combination of the PAM-g-L and MWCNT in a solution will cause more water-wet condition.

  14. Enhancing nutrient recovery and compost maturity of coconut husk by vermicomposting technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarnam, T P; Velmurugan, A; Pandey, Sanjay Kumar; Dam Roy, S

    2016-05-01

    Vermicompost was prepared by five different treatments from relatively resistant coconut husk mixed with either pig slurry or poultry manure. The recovery of vermicompost varied from 35% to 43% and it resulted in significant increase in pH, microbial biomass carbon, macro and micro nutrients concentration. Among the treatments highest relative N (1.6) and K (1.3) recovery were observed for 20% feedstock substitution by pig slurry while poultry manure substitution recorded highest P recovery (2.4). Compost maturity parameters significantly differed and well correlated. The characteristics of different treatments established the maturity indices as C/N 15-20; Cw1.5 and HI>15.0. The manurial value of the coconut husk compost was improved by feedstock substitution with pig slurry (80:20). The results revealed the technical feasibility of converting coconut husk into valuable compost by feedstock substitution with pig slurry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Exercise enhanced functional recovery and expression of GDNF after photochemically induced cerebral infarction in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohwatashi, Akihiko; Ikeda, Satoshi; Harada, Katsuhiro; Kamikawa, Yurie; Yoshida, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Exercise has been considered to affect the functional recovery from central nervous damage. Neurotrophic factors have various effects on brain damage. However, the effects of exercise for expression of GDNF on functional recovery with brain damage are not well known. We investigated the difference in functional recovery between non-exercise and beam-walking exercise groups, and the expression of GDNF in both groups after photochemical infarction. Adult male Wistar rats (N = 64) were used. Animals were divided into two groups: non-exercise (N = 35), and beam-walking exercise (N = 29). All rats underwent surgical photochemical infarction. The rats of the beam-walking group were trained every day to walk on a narrow beam after a one-day recovery period and those of the non-exercise group were left to follow a natural course. Animals were evaluated for hind limb function every day using a beam-walking task with an elevated narrow beam. The number of GDNF-like immunoreactive cells in the temporal cortex surrounding the lesion was counted 1, 3, 5, and 7 days after the infarction. Functional recovery of the beam-walking exercise group was significantly earlier than that of the non-exercise group. At 3 days after infarction, the number of GDNF-positive cells in the temporal cortex surrounding the infarction was significantly increased in the beam-walking exercise group compared with that in the non-exercise group. In the exercise group, motor function was remarkably recovered with the increased expression of GDNF-like immunoreactive cells. Our results suggested that a rehabilitative approach increased the expression of GDNF and facilitated functional recovery from cerebral infarction.

  16. RNA interference screen to identify pathways that enhance or reduce nonviral gene transfer during lipofection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Gregory A; Diamond, Scott L

    2008-09-01

    Some barriers to DNA lipofection are well characterized; however, there is as yet no method of finding unknown pathways that impact the process. A druggable genome small-interfering RNA (siRNA) screen against 5,520 genes was tested for its effect on lipofection of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). We found 130 gene targets which, when silenced by pooled siRNAs (three siRNAs per gene), resulted in enhanced luminescence after lipofection (86 gene targets showed reduced expression). In confirmation tests with single siRNAs, 18 of the 130 hits showed enhanced lipofection with two or more individual siRNAs in the absence of cytotoxicity. Of these confirmed gene targets, we identified five leading candidates, two of which are isoforms of the regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). The best candidate siRNA targeted the PPP2R2C gene and produced a 65% increase in luminescence from lipofection, with a quantitative PCR-validated knockdown of approximately 76%. Flow cytometric analysis confirmed that the silencing of the PPP2R2C gene resulted in an improvement of 10% in transfection efficiency, thereby demonstrating an increase in the number of transfected cells. These results show that an RNA interference (RNAi) high-throughput screen (HTS) can be applied to nonviral gene transfer. We have also demonstrated that siRNAs can be co-delivered with lipofected DNA to increase the transfection efficiency in vitro.

  17. Modulation of guanosine nucleotides biosynthetic pathways enhanced GDP-L-fucose production in recombinant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Heong; Shin, So-Yeon; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Han, Nam Soo; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2012-03-01

    Guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) is the key substrate for biosynthesis of guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP)-L-fucose. In this study, improvement of GDP-L-fucose production was attempted by manipulating the biosynthetic pathway for guanosine nucleotides in recombinant Escherichia coli-producing GDP-L-fucose. The effects of overexpression of inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) dehydrogenase, guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP) synthetase (GuaB and GuaA), GMP reductase (GuaC) and guanosine-inosine kinase (Gsk) on GDP-L-fucose production were investigated in a series of fed-batch fermentations. Among the enzymes tested, overexpression of Gsk led to a significant improvement of GDP-L-fucose production. Maximum GDP-L-fucose concentration of 305.5 ± 5.3 mg l(-1) was obtained in the pH-stat fed-batch fermentation of recombinant E. coli-overexpressing Gsk, which corresponds to a 58% enhancement in the GDP-L-fucose production compared with the control strain overexpressing GDP-L-fucose biosynthetic enzymes. Such an enhancement of GDP-L-fucose production could be due to the increase in the intracellular level of GMP.

  18. Host and Pathway Engineering for Enhanced Lycopene Biosynthesis in Yarrowia lipolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory Schwartz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are a class of molecules with commercial value as food and feed additives with nutraceutical properties. Shifting carotenoid synthesis from petrochemical-based precursors to bioproduction from sugars and other biorenewable carbon sources promises to improve process sustainability and economics. In this work, we engineered the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica to produce the carotenoid lycopene. To enhance lycopene production, we tested a series of strategies to modify host cell physiology and metabolism, the most successful of which were mevalonate pathway overexpression and alleviating auxotrophies previously engineered into the PO1f strain of Y. lipolytica. The beneficial engineering strategies were combined into a single strain, which was then cultured in a 1-L bioreactor to produce 21.1 mg/g DCW. The optimized strain overexpressed a total of eight genes including two copies of HMG1, two copies of CrtI, and single copies of MVD1, EGR8, CrtB, and CrtE. Recovering leucine and uracil biosynthetic capacity also produced significant enhancement in lycopene titer. The successful engineering strategies characterized in this work represent a significant increase in understanding carotenoid biosynthesis in Y. lipolytica, not only increasing lycopene titer but also informing future studies on carotenoid biosynthesis.

  19. Isolation and Characterization of Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria for the Application in Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Niraj; Dasgupta, Sumita; Chakraborty, Mousumi; Gupta, Smita

    2017-07-01

    In the present study, a biosurfactant producing bacterial strain was isolated, screened and identified. Further, various fermentation conditions (such as pH (5-10), incubation period (24-96h) and incubation temperature (20-60 °C) were optimized for maximum production of biosurfactant. The produced biosurfactant was characterized by measuring emulsification index, foaming characteristics, rhamnolipid detection, interfacial tension between water and oil and stability against pH and temperature for its potential application in oil recovery process. The additional oil recovery for two different sand, sand1 and sand2, was found to be 49% and 38%, respectively.

  20. Large scale carbon dioxide production from coal-fired power stations for enhanced oil recovery: a new economic feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tontiwachwuthikul, P.; Chan, C. W.; Kritpiphat, W.; Demontigny, D.; Skoropad, D.; Gelowitz, D.; Aroonwilas, A.; Mourits, F.; Wilson, M.; Ward, L.

    1998-01-01

    The concept of capturing carbon dioxide from fossil-fuelled electric power generating plants and utilizing it as a flooding agent in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, was explored. In this context, this paper describes how cogeneration concepts, together with process optimization strategies, help to reduce the carbon dioxide production cost by utilizing low-pressure steam and waste heat from various sections of the power generation process. Based on these optimization strategies, the recovery cost of carbon dioxide from coal-fired power stations is estimated to be in the range of $ 0.50 to $ 2.00/mscf. Assuming an average cost of $ 1.25/mscf, the production cost of incremental oil would be about $ 18.00. This means that even with today's modest oil prices, there is room for profit to be made operating a carbon dioxide flood with flue gas extracted carbon dioxide

  1. Large scale carbon dioxide production from coal-fired power stations for enhanced oil recovery : a new economic feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tontiwachwuthikul, P.; Chan, C.W.; Kritpiphat, W.; DeMontigny, D.; Skoropad, D.; Gelowitz, D.; Aroonwilas, A.; Mourits, F.; Wilson, M.; Ward, L.

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the economics of capturing carbon dioxide from coal-fired power plants to be subsequently used as a flooding agent for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technologies. It was shown that the production of CO 2 for EOR projects can be technically and economically feasible, particularly when the concepts of cogeneration and optimization are used to reduce steam and electricity expenditures. This is done by using low-pressure steam and waste heat from various sections of the power generation process. It was shown that recovery costs could range between $0.50 to $2.00 per mscf. This translates to a recovered oil price of in the range of $17.39 to $19.95 per bbl., suggesting that even at today's low oil prices there is room for CO 2 flooding with flue gas extracted CO 2 . Practical implications for Saskatchewan were examined. 15 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs

  2. Arctigenin enhances swimming endurance of sedentary rats partially by regulation of antioxidant pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruo-ming; Sun, Yan-yan; Zhou, Ting-ting; Zhu, Zhi-yuan; Zhuang, Jing-jing; Tang, Xuan; Chen, Jing; Hu, Li-hong; Shen, Xu

    2014-10-01

    Arctigenin, a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan found in traditional Chinese herbs, has been determined to exhibit a variety of pharmacological activities, including anti-tumor, anti-inflammation, neuroprotection, and endurance enhancement. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidation and anti-fatigue effects of arctigenin in rats. Rat L6 skeletal muscle cell line was exposed to H2O2 (700 μmol/L), and ROS level was assayed using DCFH-DA as a probe. Male SD rats were injected with arctigenin (15 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), ip) for 6 weeks, and then the weight-loaded forced swimming test (WFST) was performed to evaluate their endurance. The levels of antioxidant-related genes in L6 cells and the skeletal muscles of rats were analyzed using real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. Incubation of L6 cells with arctigenin (1, 5, 20 μmol/L) dose-dependently decreased the H2O2-induced ROS production. WFST results demonstrated that chronic administration of arctigenin significantly enhanced the endurance of rats. Furthermore, molecular biology studies on L6 cells and skeletal muscles of the rats showed that arctigenin effectively increased the expression of the antioxidant-related genes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (Gsr), glutathione peroxidase (GPX1), thioredoxin (Txn) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), through regulation of two potential antioxidant pathways: AMPK/PGC-1α/PPARα in mitochondria and AMPK/p53/Nrf2 in the cell nucleus. Arctigenin efficiently enhances rat swimming endurance by elevation of the antioxidant capacity of the skeletal muscles, which has thereby highlighted the potential of this natural product as an antioxidant in the treatment of fatigue and related diseases.

  3. Arctigenin enhances swimming endurance of sedentary rats partially by regulation of antioxidant pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruo-ming; Sun, Yan-yan; Zhou, Ting-ting; Zhu, Zhi-yuan; Zhuang, Jing-jing; Tang, Xuan; Chen, Jing; Hu, Li-hong; Shen, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Arctigenin, a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan found in traditional Chinese herbs, has been determined to exhibit a variety of pharmacological activities, including anti-tumor, anti-inflammation, neuroprotection, and endurance enhancement. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidation and anti-fatigue effects of arctigenin in rats. Methods: Rat L6 skeletal muscle cell line was exposed to H2O2 (700 μmol/L), and ROS level was assayed using DCFH-DA as a probe. Male SD rats were injected with arctigenin (15 mg·kg−1·d−1, ip) for 6 weeks, and then the weight-loaded forced swimming test (WFST) was performed to evaluate their endurance. The levels of antioxidant-related genes in L6 cells and the skeletal muscles of rats were analyzed using real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. Results: Incubation of L6 cells with arctigenin (1, 5, 20 μmol/L) dose-dependently decreased the H2O2-induced ROS production. WFST results demonstrated that chronic administration of arctigenin significantly enhanced the endurance of rats. Furthermore, molecular biology studies on L6 cells and skeletal muscles of the rats showed that arctigenin effectively increased the expression of the antioxidant-related genes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (Gsr), glutathione peroxidase (GPX1), thioredoxin (Txn) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), through regulation of two potential antioxidant pathways: AMPK/PGC-1α/PPARα in mitochondria and AMPK/p53/Nrf2 in the cell nucleus. Conclusion: Arctigenin efficiently enhances rat swimming endurance by elevation of the antioxidant capacity of the skeletal muscles, which has thereby highlighted the potential of this natural product as an antioxidant in the treatment of fatigue and related diseases. PMID:25152028

  4. Intrathecal Morphine for Laparoscopic Segmental Colonic Resection as Part of an Enhanced Recovery Protocol: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Mark V; Teunissen, Aart Jan W; van der Harst, Erwin; Ruijgrok, Elisabeth J; Stolker, Robert Jan

    2018-02-01

    Management of postoperative pain after laparoscopic segmental colonic resections remains controversial. We compared 2 methods of analgesia within an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) program. The goal of the study was to investigate whether administration of intrathecal bupivacaine/morphine would lead to an enhanced recovery. A single-center, randomized, double-blind controlled trial was performed (NL43488.101.13). Patients scheduled for laparoscopic segmental intestinal resections were considered. Exclusion criteria were patients in whom contraindications to spinal anesthesia were present, conversion to open surgery, and gastric and rectal surgery. The intervention group received single-shot intrathecal bupivacaine/morphine (12.5 mg/300 μg), with an altered dose for older patients. The control group received a sham procedure and a bolus of piritramide (0.1 mg/kg). Both groups received standardized general anesthesia and a patient-controlled intravenous analgesia pump as postoperative analgesia. All patients were treated according to an ERAS protocol. A decrease in days to "fit for discharge" was the primary outcome. Fifty-six patients were enrolled. Intervention group patients were fit for discharge earlier (median of 3 vs 4 days, P = 0.044). Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in opioid use and lower pain scores on the first postoperative day in the intervention group. There were no differences in adverse events (except for more pruritus), time to mobilization, fluid administration, or patient satisfaction. This randomized controlled trial shows that intrathecal morphine is a more effective method of postoperative analgesia in laparoscopic surgery than intravenous opioids within an ERAS program. Recovery is faster and less painful with intrathecal morphine. Other studies have confirmed these results, although data on faster recovery are new and require confirmation in future trials. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT

  5. Pore-scale simulation of wettability and interfacial tension effects on flooding process for enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin; Wen, Dongsheng

    2017-08-27

    For enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications, the oil/water flow characteristics during the flooding process was numerically investigated with the volume-of-fluid method at the pore scale. A two-dimensional pore throat-body connecting structure was established, and four scenarios were simulated in this paper. For oil-saturated pores, the wettability effect on the flooding process was studied; for oil-unsaturated pores, three effects were modelled to investigate the oil/water phase flow behaviors, namely the wettability effect, the interfacial tension (IFT) effect, and the combined wettability/IFT effect. The results show that oil saturated pores with the water-wet state can lead to 25-40% more oil recovery than with the oil-wet state, and the remaining oil mainly stays in the near wall region of the pore bodies for oil-wet saturated pores. For oil-unsaturated pores, the wettability effects on the flooding process can help oil to detach from the pore walls. By decreasing the oil/water interfacial tension and altering the wettability from oil-wet to water-wet state, the remaining oil recovery rate can be enhanced successfully. The wettability-IFT combined effect shows better EOR potential compared with decreasing the interfacial tension alone under the oil-wet condition. The simulation results in this work are consistent with previous experimental and molecular dynamics simulation conclusions. The combination effect of the IFT reducation and wettability alteration can become an important recovery mechanism in future studies for nanoparticles, surfactant, and nanoparticle-surfactant hybrid flooding process.

  6. Investigation of Chemical-Foam Design as a Novel Approach toward Immiscible Foam Flooding for Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Nasab, S M; Zitha, P L J

    2017-10-19

    Strong foam can be generated in porous media containing oil, resulting in incremental oil recovery; however, oil recovery factor is restricted. A large fraction of oil recovered by foam flooding forms an oil-in-water emulsion, so that costly methods may need to be used to separate the oil. Moreover, strong foam could create a large pressure gradient, which may cause fractures in the reservoir. This study presents a novel chemical-foam flooding process for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) from water-flooded reservoirs. The presented method involved the use of chemically designed foam to mobilize the remaining oil after water flooding and then to displace the mobilized oil to the production well. A blend of two anionic surfactant formulations was formulated for this method: (a) IOS, for achieving ultralow interfacial tension (IFT), and (b) AOS, for generating a strong foam. Experiments were performed using Bentheimer sandstone cores, where X-ray CT images were taken during foam generation to find the stability of the advancing front of foam propagation and to map the gas saturation for both the transient and the steady-state flow regimes. Then the proposed chemical-foam strategy for incremental oil recovery was tested through the coinjection of immiscible nitrogen gas and surfactant solutions with three different formulation properties in terms of IFT reduction and foaming strength capability. The discovered optimal formulation contains a foaming agent surfactant, a low IFT surfactant, and a cosolvent, which has a high foam stability and a considerably low IFT (1.6 × 10 -2 mN/m). Coinjection resulted in higher oil recovery and much less MRF than the same process with only using a foaming agent. The oil displacement experiment revealed that coinjection of gas with a blend of surfactants, containing a cosolvent, can recover a significant amount of oil (33% OIIP) over water flooding with a larger amount of clean oil and less emulsion.

  7. A Novel Growth-Promoting Pathway Formed by GDNF-Overexpressing Schwann Cells Promotes Propriospinal Axonal Regeneration, Synapse formation, and Partial Recovery of Function after Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lingxiao; Deng, Ping; Ruan, Yiwen; Xu, Zao Cheng; Liu, Naikui; Wen, Xuejun; Smith, George M.; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Descending propriospinal neurons (DPSN) are known to establish functional relays for supraspinal signals, and they display a greater growth response after injury than do the long projecting axons. However, their regenerative response is still deficient due to their failure to depart from growth supportive cellular transplants back into the host spinal cord, which contains numerous impediments to axon growth. Here we report the construction of a continuous growth-promoting pathway in adult rats, formed by grafted Schwann cells (SCs) overexpressing glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). We demonstrate that such a growth-promoting pathway, extending from the axonal cut ends to the site of innervation in the distal spinal cord, promoted regeneration of DPSN axons through and beyond the lesion gap of a spinal cord hemisection. Within the distal host spinal cord, regenerated DPSN axons formed synapses with host neurons leading to the restoration of action potentials and partial recovery of function. PMID:23536080

  8. Enhanced oil recovery using improved aqueous fluid-injection methods: an annotated bibliography. [328 citations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meister, M.J.; Kettenbrink, G.K.; Collins, A.G.

    1976-10-01

    This annotated bibliography contains abstracts, prepared by the authors, of articles published between 1968 and early 1976 on tests of improved aqueous fluid injection methods (i.e., polymer and surfactant floods). The abstracts have been written and organized to facilitate studies of the oil recovery potential of polymer and surfactant floods under known reservoir conditions. 328 citations.

  9. Bacterial fatty acids enhance recovery from the dauer larva in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany K Kaul

    Full Text Available The dauer larva is a specialized dispersal stage in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans that allows the animal to survive starvation for an extended period of time. The dauer does not feed, but uses chemosensation to identify new food sources and to determine whether to resume reproductive growth. Bacteria produce food signals that promote recovery of the dauer larva, but the chemical identities of these signals remain poorly defined. We find that bacterial fatty acids in the environment augment recovery from the dauer stage under permissive conditions. The effect of increased fatty acids on different dauer constitutive mutants indicates a role for insulin peptide secretion in coordinating recovery from the dauer stage in response to fatty acids. These data suggest that worms can sense the presence of fatty acids in the environment and that elevated levels can promote recovery from dauer arrest. This may be important in the natural environment where the dauer larva needs to determine whether the environment is appropriate to support reproductive growth following dauer exit.

  10. Systematic review of laparoscopic vs open colonic surgery within an enhanced recovery programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlug, M. S.; Wind, J.; van der Zaag, J.; Ubbink, D. T.; Cense, H. A.; Bemelman, W. A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fast track surgery accelerates recovery, reduces morbidity and shortens hospital stay. It is unclear what the effects are of laparoscopic or open surgery within a fast track programme. The aim of this systematic review was to review the existing evidence. METHOD: A systematic review was

  11. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review No. 89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    Summaries are presented for the DOE contracts related to supported research for thermal recovery of petroleum, geoscience technology, and field demonstrations in high-priority reservoir classes. Data included for each project are: title, contract number, principal investigator, research organization, beginning date, expected completion date, amount of award, objectives of the research, and summary of technical progress.

  12. An LCA model for waste incineration enhanced with new technologies for metal recovery and application to the case of Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesch, Michael E.; Vadenbo, Carl; Saner, Dominik; Huter, Christoph; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An enhanced process-based LCA model for MSWI is featured and applied in case study. • LCA modeling of recent technological developments for metal recovery from fly ash. • Net release from Swiss MSWI 133 kg CO 2 -eq/tonne waste from attributional LCA perspective. • Net savings from a consequential LCA perspective reach up to 303 kg CO 2 -eq/tonne waste. • Impacts according to ReCiPe and CExD show similar pattern to climate change. - Abstract: A process model of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) and new technologies for metal recovery from combustion residues was developed. The environmental impact is modeled as a function of waste composition as well as waste treatment and material recovery technologies. The model includes combustion with a grate incinerator, several flue gas treatment technologies, electricity and steam production from waste heat recovery, metal recovery from slag and fly ash, and landfilling of residues and can be tailored to specific plants and sites (software tools can be downloaded free of charge). Application of the model to Switzerland shows that the treatment of one tonne of municipal solid waste results on average in 425 kg CO 2 -eq. generated in the incineration process, and 54 kg CO 2 -eq. accrue in upstream processes such as waste transport and the production of operating materials. Downstream processes, i.e. residue disposal, generates 5 kg CO 2 -eq. Savings from energy recovery are in the range of 67 to 752 kg CO 2 -eq. depending on the assumptions regarding the substituted energy production, while the recovery of metals from slag and fly ash currently results in a net saving of approximately 35 kg CO 2 -eq. A similar impact pattern is observed when assessing the MSWI model for aggregated environmental impacts (ReCiPe) and for non-renewable resource consumption (cumulative exergy demand), except that direct emissions have less and no relevance, respectively, on the total score. The study illustrates

  13. An LCA model for waste incineration enhanced with new technologies for metal recovery and application to the case of Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boesch, Michael E. [Aveny GmbH, Schwandenholzstr. 212, CH-8046 Zürich (Switzerland); Vadenbo, Carl, E-mail: vadenbo@ifu.baug.ethz.ch [ETH Zurich, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Schafmattstrasse 6, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Saner, Dominik [Swiss Post, Communications, Politics and Social Responsibility, Viktoriastrasse 21, P.O. Box, CH-3030 Berne (Switzerland); Huter, Christoph [City of Zürich, ERZ Entsorgung - Recycling Zürich, Hagenholzstrasse 110, P.O. Box, CH-8050 Zürich (Switzerland); Hellweg, Stefanie [ETH Zurich, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Schafmattstrasse 6, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • An enhanced process-based LCA model for MSWI is featured and applied in case study. • LCA modeling of recent technological developments for metal recovery from fly ash. • Net release from Swiss MSWI 133 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/tonne waste from attributional LCA perspective. • Net savings from a consequential LCA perspective reach up to 303 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/tonne waste. • Impacts according to ReCiPe and CExD show similar pattern to climate change. - Abstract: A process model of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) and new technologies for metal recovery from combustion residues was developed. The environmental impact is modeled as a function of waste composition as well as waste treatment and material recovery technologies. The model includes combustion with a grate incinerator, several flue gas treatment technologies, electricity and steam production from waste heat recovery, metal recovery from slag and fly ash, and landfilling of residues and can be tailored to specific plants and sites (software tools can be downloaded free of charge). Application of the model to Switzerland shows that the treatment of one tonne of municipal solid waste results on average in 425 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. generated in the incineration process, and 54 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. accrue in upstream processes such as waste transport and the production of operating materials. Downstream processes, i.e. residue disposal, generates 5 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. Savings from energy recovery are in the range of 67 to 752 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. depending on the assumptions regarding the substituted energy production, while the recovery of metals from slag and fly ash currently results in a net saving of approximately 35 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. A similar impact pattern is observed when assessing the MSWI model for aggregated environmental impacts (ReCiPe) and for non-renewable resource consumption (cumulative exergy demand), except that direct emissions have less and no relevance, respectively, on the total

  14. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, July--September 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiedemann, H.A. (ed.) (USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (USA))

    1991-05-01

    The report contains a general introduction and background to DOE's revised National Energy Strategy Advanced Oil Recovery Program and activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force; a detailed synopsis of the symposium, including technical presentations, comments and suggestions; a section of technical information on deltaic reservoirs; and appendices containing a comprehensive listing of references keyed to general deltaic and geological aspects of reservoirs and those relevant to six selected deltaic plays. Enhanced recovery processes include chemical floodings, gas displacement, thermal recovery, geoscience, and microbial recovery.

  15. Arctigenin enhances chemosensitivity of cancer cells to cisplatin through inhibition of the STAT3 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiangyang; Zhu, Fenfen; Zhao, Zhihui; Liu, Chang; Luo, Lan; Yin, Zhimin

    2011-10-01

    Arctigenin is a dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan isolated from Bardanae fructus, Arctium lappa L, Saussureamedusa, Torreya nucifera, and Ipomea cairica. It has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities, which is mainly mediated through its inhibitory effect on nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-κB). But the role of arctigenin in JAK-STAT3 signaling pathways is still unclear. In present study, we investigated the effect of arctigenin on signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway and evaluated whether suppression of STAT3 activity by arctigenin could sensitize cancer cells to a chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin. Our results show that arctigenin significantly suppressed both constitutively activated and IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and subsequent nuclear translocation in cancer cells. Inhibition of STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation was found to be achieved through suppression of Src, JAK1, and JAK2, while suppression of STAT3 serine phosphorylation was mediated by inhibition of ERK activation. Pervanadate reversed the arctigenin-induced downregulation of STAT3 activation, suggesting the involvement of a protein tyrosine phosphatase. Indeed, arctigenin can obviously induce the expression of the PTP SHP-2. Furthermore, the constitutive activation level of STAT3 was found to be correlated to the resistance of cancer cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Arctigenin dramatically promoted cisplatin-induced cell death in cancer cells, indicating that arctigenin enhanced the sensitivity of cancer cells to cisplatin mainly via STAT3 suppression. These observations suggest a novel anticancer function of arctigenin and a potential therapeutic strategy of using arctigenin in combination with chemotherapeutic agents for cancer treatment. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Metabolic Pathways Involved in Carbon Dioxide Enhanced Heat Tolerance in Bermudagrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjin Yu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Global climate changes involve elevated temperature and CO2 concentration, imposing significant impact on plant growth of various plant species. Elevated temperature exacerbates heat damages, but elevated CO2 has positive effects on promoting plant growth and heat tolerance. The objective of this study was to identify metabolic pathways affected by elevated CO2 conferring the improvement of heat tolerance in a C4 perennial grass species, bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon Pers.. Plants were planted under either ambient CO2 concentration (400 μmol⋅mol-1 or elevated CO2 concentration (800 μmol⋅mol-1 and subjected to ambient temperature (30/25°C, day/night or heat stress (45/40°C, day/night. Elevated CO2 concentration suppressed heat-induced damages and improved heat tolerance in bermudagrass. The enhanced heat tolerance under elevated CO2 was attributed to some important metabolic pathways during which proteins and metabolites were up-regulated, including light reaction (ATP synthase subunit and photosystem I reaction center subunit and carbon fixation [(glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, GAPDH, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, phosphoglycerate kinase, sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase and sugars of photosynthesis, glycolysis (GAPDH, glucose, fructose, and galactose and TCA cycle (pyruvic acid, malic acid and malate dehydrogenase of respiration, amino acid metabolism (aspartic acid, methionine, threonine, isoleucine, lysine, valine, alanine, and isoleucine as well as the GABA shunt (GABA, glutamic acid, alanine, proline and 5-oxoproline. The up-regulation of those metabolic processes by elevated CO2 could at least partially contribute to the improvement of heat tolerance in perennial grass species.

  17. Multiple heavy metals extraction and recovery from hazardous electroplating sludge waste via ultrasonically enhanced two-stage acid leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuncheng; Xie, Fengchun; Ma, Yang; Cai, Tingting; Li, Haiying; Huang, Zhiyuan; Yuan, Gaoqing

    2010-06-15

    An ultrasonically enhanced two-stage acid leaching process on extracting and recovering multiple heavy metals from actual electroplating sludge was studied in lab tests. It provided an effective technique for separation of valuable metals (Cu, Ni and Zn) from less valuable metals (Fe and Cr) in electroplating sludge. The efficiency of the process had been measured with the leaching efficiencies and recovery rates of the metals. Enhanced by ultrasonic power, the first-stage acid leaching demonstrated leaching rates of 96.72%, 97.77%, 98.00%, 53.03%, and 0.44% for Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, and Fe respectively, effectively separated half of Cr and almost all of Fe from mixed metals. The subsequent second-stage leaching achieved leaching rates of 75.03%, 81.05%, 81.39%, 1.02%, and 0% for Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, and Fe that further separated Cu, Ni, and Zn from mixed metals. With the stabilized two-stage ultrasonically enhanced leaching, the resulting over all recovery rates of Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr and Fe from electroplating sludge could be achieved at 97.42%, 98.46%, 98.63%, 98.32% and 100% respectively, with Cr and Fe in solids and the rest of the metals in an aqueous solution discharged from the leaching system. The process performance parameters studied were pH, ultrasonic power, and contact time. The results were also confirmed in an industrial pilot-scale test, and same high metal recoveries were performed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Off-shore enhanced oil recovery in the North Sea: The impact of price uncertainty on the investment decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compernolle, T.; Welkenhuysen, K.; Huisman, K.; Piessens, K.; Kort, P.

    2017-01-01

    Although CO_2 Capture and Storage (CCS) is considered a key solution for CO_2 emission mitigation, it is currently not economically feasible. CO_2 enhanced oil recovery can play a significant role in stimulating CCS deployment because CO_2 is used to extract additional quantities of oil. This study analyzes the investment decision of both a carbon emitting source and an oil company separately by adopting a real options approach. It is shown that when uncertainty is integrated in the economic analysis, CO_2 and oil price threshold levels at which investments in CO_2 capture and enhanced oil recovery will take place, are higher than when a net present value approach is adopted. We also demonstrate that a tax on CO_2 instead of an emission trading system results in a lower investment threshold level for the investment in the CO_2 capture unit. Furthermore, we determine a minimum CO_2 selling price between the two firms and show that CO_2-EOR has the potential to pull CCS into the market by providing an additional revenue on the capture plant. However, when CO_2 permit prices are above an identifiable level, the EU ETS does not necessarily result in the adoption of CCS and stimulates oil production. - Highlights: • Real options theory is applied to study how uncertainty affects CO2EOR investments. • Compared to an NPV approach, investment threshold levels are higher. • A tax on CO2 would result in lower investment threshold levels compared to EUETS. • A minimum CO2 selling price is determined • The CO2 needed for enhanced oil recovery is not necessarily a cost.

  19. Study of the enhanced oil recovery with surfactant based systems; Estudo de recuperacao avancada de petroleo por sistemas a base de tensoativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro Neto, Valdir Cotrim; Paulino, Luisa Cimatti; Acyoly, Alessandra; Santos, Enio Rafael M.; Dantas Neto, Afonso Avelino [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The recent changes in the world scenario, the large reserves of heavy oils and also the lack of new discoveries of large petroleum fields are indications that, in the near future, the oil recovery by conventional methods will be limited. In order to increase the efficiency of the extraction process, it must be used enhanced recovery methods. One of these technologies is the injection of surfactant solutions, where exists a chemical interaction between the injected fluid and the reservoir's fluid. With this in mind, this work was developed with two main objectives: to study of parameters that influence the surfactant behavior in solution, namely the critical micelle concentration (CMC), the surface and interface tensions between fluids and the evaluation of oil recovery with these solutions. After the Botucatu sandstone (Brazil) porosity study, the plug samples were submitted to assay steps comprising saturation with seawater and petroleum, conventional recovery with seawater and enhanced recovery with surfactant solutions. The solutions were studied in enhanced recovery step, when the plug samples could already be compared to a mature field. The PJN surfactant, at a concentration 1000% above CMC in water, had a higher recovery factor, causing the original oil in place to be recovered by an extra 20.97%, after conventional recovery with seawater. (author)

  20. Production of lipopeptide biosurfactants by Bacillus atrophaeus 5-2a and their potential use in microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhui; Xue, Quanhong; Gao, Hui; Lai, Hangxian; Wang, Ping

    2016-10-03

    Lipopeptides are known as promising microbial surfactants and have been successfully used in enhancing oil recovery in extreme environmental conditions. A biosurfactant-producing strain, Bacillus atrophaeus 5-2a, was recently isolated from an oil-contaminated soil in the Ansai oilfield, Northwest China. In this study, we evaluated the crude oil removal efficiency of lipopeptide biosurfactants produced by B. atrophaeus 5-2a and their feasibility for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The production of biosurfactants by B. atrophaeus 5-2a was tested in culture media containing eight carbon sources and nitrogen sources. The production of a crude biosurfactant was 0.77 g L -1 and its surface tension was 26.52 ± 0.057 mN m -1 in a basal medium containing brown sugar (carbon source) and urea (nitrogen source). The biosurfactants produced by the strain 5-2a demonstrated excellent oil spreading activity and created a stable emulsion with paraffin oil. The stability of the biosurfactants was assessed under a wide range of environmental conditions, including temperature (up to 120 °C), pH (2-13), and salinity (0-50 %, w/v). The biosurfactants were found to retain surface-active properties under the extreme conditions. Additionally, the biosurfactants were successful in a test to simulate microbial enhanced oil recovery, removing 90.0 and 93.9 % of crude oil adsorbed on sand and filter paper, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the biosurfactants were a mixture of lipopeptides, which are powerful biosurfactants commonly produced by Bacillus species. The study highlights the usefulness of optimization of carbon and nitrogen sources and their effects on the biosurfactants production and further emphasizes on the potential of lipopeptide biosurfactants produced by B. atrophaeus 5-2a for crude oil removal. The favorable properties of the lipopeptide biosurfactants make them good candidates for application in the bioremediation of oil

  1. Recovery Act: Develop a Modular Curriculum for Training University Students in Industry Standard CO{sub 2} Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trentham, R. C.; Stoudt, E. L.

    2013-05-31

    CO{sub 2} Enhanced Oil Recovery, Sequestration, & Monitoring Measuring & Verification are topics that are not typically covered in Geoscience, Land Management, and Petroleum Engineering curriculum. Students are not typically exposed to the level of training that would prepare them for CO{sub 2} reservoir and aquifer sequestration related projects when they begin assignments in industry. As a result, industry training, schools & conferences are essential training venues for new & experienced personnel working on CO{sub 2} projects for the firs