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Sample records for enhanced keap1-cul3 interaction

  1. Dihydro-CDDO-trifluoroethyl amide (dh404, a novel Nrf2 activator, suppresses oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonaga Ichikawa

    Full Text Available Targeting Nrf2 signaling appears to be an attractive approach for the treatment of maladaptive cardiac remodeling and dysfunction; however, pharmacological modulation of the Nrf2 pathway in the cardiovascular system remains to be established. Herein, we report that a novel synthetic triterpenoid derivative, dihydro-CDDO-trifluoroethyl amide (dh404, activates Nrf2 and suppresses oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes. Dh404 interrupted the Keap1-Cul3-Rbx1 E3 ligase complex-mediated Nrf2 ubiquitination and subsequent degradation saturating the binding capacity of Keap1 to Nrf2, thereby rendering more Nrf2 to be translocated into the nuclei to activate Nrf2-driven gene transcription. A mutant Keap1 protein containing a single cysteine-to-serine substitution at residue 151 within the BTB domain of Keap1 was resistant to dh404-induced stabilization of Nrf2 protein. In addition, dh404 did not dissociate the interaction of Nrf2 with the Keap1-Cul3-Rbx1 E3 ligase complex. Thus, it is likely that dh404 inhibits the ability of Keap1-Cul3-Rbx1 E3 ligase complex to target Nrf2 for ubiquitination and degradation via modifying Cys-151 of Keap1 to change the conformation of the complex. Moreover, dh404 was able to stabilize Nrf2 protein, to enhance Nrf2 nuclear translocation, to activate Nrf2-driven transcription, and to suppress angiotensin II (Ang II-induced oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes. Knockdown of Nrf2 almost blocked the anti-oxidative effect of dh404. Dh404 activated Nrf2 signaling in the heart. Taken together, dh404 appears to be a novel Nrf2 activator with a therapeutic potential for cardiac diseases via suppressing oxidative stress.

  2. Vector-Interaction-Enhanced Bag Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cierniak, Mateusz; Klähn, Thomas; Fischer, Tobias; Bastian, Niels-Uwe

    2018-02-01

    A commonly applied quark matter model in astrophysics is the thermodynamic bag model (tdBAG). The original MIT bag model approximates the effect of quark confinement, but does not explicitly account for the breaking of chiral symmetry, an important property of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). It further ignores vector repulsion. The vector-interaction-enhanced bag model (vBag) improves the tdBAG approach by accounting for both dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and repulsive vector interactions. The latter is of particular importance to studies of dense matter in beta-equilibriumto explain the two solar mass maximum mass constraint for neutron stars. The model is motivated by analyses of QCD based Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSE), assuming a simple quark-quark contact interaction. Here, we focus on the study of hybrid neutron star properties resulting from the application of vBag and will discuss possible extensions.

  3. Interactive computer-enhanced remote viewing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourtellott, J.A.; Wagner, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    Remediation activities such as decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) typically involve materials and activities hazardous to humans. Robots are an attractive way to conduct such remediation, but for efficiency they need a good three-dimensional (3-D) computer model of the task space where they are to function. This model can be created from engineering plans and architectural drawings and from empirical data gathered by various sensors at the site. The model is used to plan robotic tasks and verify that selected paths are clear of obstacles. This report describes the development of an Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote Viewing System (ICERVS), a software system to provide a reliable geometric description of a robotic task space, and enable robotic remediation to be conducted more effectively and more economically

  4. Interactive computer-enhanced remote viewing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tourtellott, J.A.; Wagner, J.F. [Mechanical Technology Incorporated, Latham, NY (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Remediation activities such as decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) typically involve materials and activities hazardous to humans. Robots are an attractive way to conduct such remediation, but for efficiency they need a good three-dimensional (3-D) computer model of the task space where they are to function. This model can be created from engineering plans and architectural drawings and from empirical data gathered by various sensors at the site. The model is used to plan robotic tasks and verify that selected paths are clear of obstacles. This report describes the development of an Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote Viewing System (ICERVS), a software system to provide a reliable geometric description of a robotic task space, and enable robotic remediation to be conducted more effectively and more economically.

  5. Interactive computer enhanced remote viewing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.A.; Tourtellott, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Interactive, Computer Enhanced, Remote Viewing System (ICERVSA) is a volumetric data system designed to help the Department of Energy (DOE) improve remote operations in hazardous sites by providing reliable and accurate maps of task spaces where robots will clean up nuclear wastes. The ICERVS mission is to acquire, store, integrate and manage all the sensor data for a site and to provide the necessary tools to facilitate its visualization and interpretation. Empirical sensor data enters through the Common Interface for Sensors and after initial processing, is stored in the Volumetric Database. The data can be analyzed and displayed via a Graphic User Interface with a variety of visualization tools. Other tools permit the construction of geometric objects, such as wire frame models, to represent objects which the operator may recognize in the live TV image. A computer image can be generated that matches the viewpoint of the live TV camera at the remote site, facilitating access to site data. Lastly, the data can be gathered, processed, and transmitted in acceptable form to a robotic controller. Descriptions are given of all these components. The final phase of the ICERVS project, which has just begun, will produce a full scale system and demonstrate it at a DOE site to be selected. A task added to this Phase will adapt the ICERVS to meet the needs of the Dismantlement and Decommissioning (D and D) work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

  6. Interactive computer-enhanced remote viewing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourtellott, J.A.; Wagner, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    Remediation activities such as decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) typically involve materials and activities hazardous to humans. Robots are an attractive way to conduct such remediation, but for efficiency they need a good three-dimensional (3-D) computer model of the task space where they are to function. This model can be created from engineering plans and architectural drawings and from empirical data gathered by various sensors at the site. The model is used to plan robotic tasks and verify that selected paths am clear of obstacles. This need for a task space model is most pronounced in the remediation of obsolete production facilities and underground storage tanks. Production facilities at many sites contain compact process machinery and systems that were used to produce weapons grade material. For many such systems, a complex maze of pipes (with potentially dangerous contents) must be removed, and this represents a significant D ampersand D challenge. In an analogous way, the underground storage tanks at sites such as Hanford represent a challenge because of their limited entry and the tumbled profusion of in-tank hardware. In response to this need, the Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote Viewing System (ICERVS) is being designed as a software system to: (1) Provide a reliable geometric description of a robotic task space, and (2) Enable robotic remediation to be conducted more effectively and more economically than with available techniques. A system such as ICERVS is needed because of the problems discussed below

  7. Interactive Videos Enhance Learning about Socio-Ecological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithwick, Erica; Baxter, Emily; Kim, Kyung; Edel-Malizia, Stephanie; Rocco, Stevie; Blackstock, Dean

    2018-01-01

    Two forms of interactive video were assessed in an online course focused on conservation. The hypothesis was that interactive video enhances student perceptions about learning and improves mental models of social-ecological systems. Results showed that students reported greater learning and attitudes toward the subject following interactive video.…

  8. Cooperative Learning Principles Enhance Online Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George; Seow, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes eight principles that can be used to promote cooperative interactions among students working in online environments. The principles derive from a well-established approach to education, known variously as cooperative learning and collaborative learning. Each principle is explained as to what it means, why it is important and…

  9. Interactive Taste Tests Enhance Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Michael; Roth-Johnson, Elizabeth A.; Levis-Fitzgerald, Marc; Rowat, Amy

    2015-01-01

    If we could effectively engage students in general science curricula and lead them to recognize the everyday relevance of scientific concepts, we would significantly strengthen the understanding of science among our nation's future workforce. This article shows that increased levels of student cognition can be achieved through interactive taste…

  10. Personal Profiles: Enhancing Social Interaction in Learning Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berlanga, Adriana; Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Brouns, Francis; Sloep, Peter; Fetter, Sibren

    2009-01-01

    Berlanga, A. J., Bitter-Rijpkema, M., Brouns, F., Sloep, P. B., & Fetter, S. (2011). Personal Profiles: Enhancing Social Interaction in Learning Networks. International Journal of Web Based Communities, 7(1), 66-82.

  11. Brain Computer Interfaces for Enhanced Interaction with Mobile Robot Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-27

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) show great potential in allowing humans to interact with computational environments in a...Distribution Unlimited UU UU UU UU 27-07-2016 17-Sep-2013 16-Sep-2014 Final Report: Brain Computer Interfaces for Enhanced Interactions with Mobile Robot...published in peer-reviewed journals: Number of Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Brain Computer Interfaces for Enhanced

  12. Technology-enhanced human interaction in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Zac E; Caperton, Derek D; Tanana, Michael; Atkins, David C

    2017-07-01

    Psychotherapy is on the verge of a technology-inspired revolution. The concurrent maturation of communication, signal processing, and machine learning technologies begs an earnest look at how these technologies may be used to improve the quality of psychotherapy. Here, we discuss 3 research domains where technology is likely to have a significant impact: (1) mechanism and process, (2) training and feedback, and (3) technology-mediated treatment modalities. For each domain, we describe current and forthcoming examples of how new technologies may change established applications. Moreover, for each domain we present research questions that touch on theoretical, systemic, and implementation issues. Ultimately, psychotherapy is a decidedly human endeavor, and thus the application of modern technology to therapy must capitalize on-and enhance-our human capacities as counselors, students, and supervisors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Interactive green street enhancement using light dependent sensors and actuators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Ivo; Chen, W.; Oorschot, van B.; Smeenk, W.

    2008-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a design of an interactive green street facility using light dependent sensors and actuators for enhancing the social cohesion of people. We show that electronics and green design can have positive effect on social interaction in a neighbourhood by a design example, called

  14. Enhancement of Light-Matter Interaction in Semiconductor Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stobbe, Søren

    This thesis reports research on enhancement of light-matter interaction in semi- conductor quantum nanostructures by means of nanostructure fabrication, optical measurements, and theoretical modeling. Photonic crystal membranes of very high quality and samples for studies of quantum dots in proxi......-matter interaction is investigated. For the rst time the vacuum Rabi splitting is observed in an electrically tunable device....

  15. Exploring Conditions to Enhance Student/Host Family Interaction Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Susan M.; Schmidt-Rinehart, Barbara C.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the role of task-based learning in the study abroad experience in order to enhance interaction with the host family. Tasks were incorporated into a Family Interaction Journal and implemented under four evolving, though different, conditions over a 5-year period. The conditions were: (1) home campus administered/student…

  16. Enhanced solar light absorption of graphene by interaction with anisole

    KAUST Repository

    Kahaly, M. Upadhyay

    2014-10-01

    We study suspended graphene in contact with the organic molecule anisole to analyse the implications of the interaction for the optical absorption, using first principle calculations. Because of a weak interaction multiple orientations of the molecule with respect to the graphene sheet are possible. A substantial enhancement of the optical absorption independent of the specific orientation is observed, which is promising for energy harvesting. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Haptic and Audio-visual Stimuli: Enhancing Experiences and Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Dijk, Esko O.; Lemmens, Paul M.C.; Luitjens, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    The intention of the symposium on Haptic and Audio-visual stimuli at the EuroHaptics 2010 conference is to deepen the understanding of the effect of combined Haptic and Audio-visual stimuli. The knowledge gained will be used to enhance experiences and interactions in daily life. To this end, a

  18. Quantifying the FIR interaction enhancement in paired galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Cong; Sulentic, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    We studied the ''Catalogue of Isolated Pairs of Galaxies in the Northern Hemisphere'' by Karachentsev (1972) and a well matched comparison sample taken from the ''Catalogue of Isolated Galaxies'' by Karachentseva (1973) in order to quantify the enhanced FIR emission properties of interacting galaxies. 8 refs, 6 figs

  19. Interaction of magnetic resonators studied by the magnetic field enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumin Hou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is the first time that the magnetic field enhancement (MFE is used to study the interaction of magnetic resonators (MRs, which is more sensitive than previous parameters–shift and damping of resonance frequency. To avoid the coherence of lattice and the effect of Bloch wave, the interaction is simulated between two MRs with same primary phase when the distance is changed in the range of several resonance wavelengths, which is also compared with periodic structure. The calculated MFE oscillating and decaying with distance with the period equal to resonance wavelength directly shows the retardation effect. Simulation also shows that the interaction at normal incidence is sensitive to the phase correlation which is related with retardation effect and is ultra-long-distance interaction when the two MRs are strongly localized. When the distance is very short, the amplitude of magnetic resonance is oppressed by the strong interaction and thus the MFE can be much lower than that of single MR. This study provides the design rules of metamaterials for engineering resonant properties of MRs.

  20. Plasma surface interactions in Q-enhanced mirror systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    Two approaches to enhancement of the Q (energy gain) factor of mirror systems are under study at Livermore. These include the Tandem Mirror and the Field Reversed Mirror. Both of these new ideas preserve features of conventional mirror systems as far as plasma-wall interactions are concerned. Specifically in both approaches field lines exit from the ends of the system and impinge on walls located at a distance from the confinement chamber. It is possible to predict some aspects of the plasma/surface interactions of TM and FRM systems from experience obtained in the Livermore 2XIIB experiment. In particular, as observed in 2XIIB, effective isolation of the plasma from thermal contact with the ends owing to the development of sheath-like regions is to be expected. Studies presently underway directed toward still further enhancing the decoupling of the plasma from the effects of plasma surface interactions at the walls will be discussed, with particular reference to the problem of minimizing the effects of refluxing secondary electrons produced by plasma impact on the end walls

  1. Surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy using interacting gold nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubrech, Frank; Weber, Daniel; Pucci, Annemarie [Kirchhoff-Institut fuer Physik, Heidelberg (Germany); Shen, Hong [Universite Troyes, Troyes (France); Lamy de la Chapelle, Marc [Universite Paris 13, Bobigny (France)

    2009-07-01

    We performed surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy (SEIRS) of molecules adsorbed on gold nanowires using synchrotron light of the ANKA IR-beamline at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Arrays of gold nanowires with interparticle spacings down to 30nm were prepared by electron beam lithography. The interparticle distance was reduced further by wet-chemically increasing the size of the gold nanowires. The growth of the wires was proofed using IR spectroscopy as well as scanning electron microscopy. After this preparation step, appropriate arrays of nanowires with an interparticle distance down to a few nanometers were selected to demonstrate the surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy of one monolayer octadecanthiol (ODT). As know from SEIRS studies using single gold nanowires, the spectral position of the antenna-like resonance in relation to the absorption bands of ODT (2850cm-1 and 2919cm-1) is crucial for both, the lineshape of the molecular vibration and the signal enhancement. In contrast to single nanowires studies, a further increase of the enhanced signals is expected due to the interaction of the electromagnetic fields of the close-by nanowires.

  2. Augmented Robotics Dialog System for Enhancing Human–Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Martín, Fernando; Castro-González, Aívaro; de Gorostiza Luengo, Francisco Javier Fernandez; Salichs, Miguel Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Augmented reality, augmented television and second screen are cutting edge technologies that provide end users extra and enhanced information related to certain events in real time. This enriched information helps users better understand such events, at the same time providing a more satisfactory experience. In the present paper, we apply this main idea to human–robot interaction (HRI), to how users and robots interchange information. The ultimate goal of this paper is to improve the quality of HRI, developing a new dialog manager system that incorporates enriched information from the semantic web. This work presents the augmented robotic dialog system (ARDS), which uses natural language understanding mechanisms to provide two features: (i) a non-grammar multimodal input (verbal and/or written) text; and (ii) a contextualization of the information conveyed in the interaction. This contextualization is achieved by information enrichment techniques that link the extracted information from the dialog with extra information about the world available in semantic knowledge bases. This enriched or contextualized information (information enrichment, semantic enhancement or contextualized information are used interchangeably in the rest of this paper) offers many possibilities in terms of HRI. For instance, it can enhance the robot's pro-activeness during a human–robot dialog (the enriched information can be used to propose new topics during the dialog, while ensuring a coherent interaction). Another possibility is to display additional multimedia content related to the enriched information on a visual device. This paper describes the ARDS and shows a proof of concept of its applications. PMID:26151202

  3. Dimuon enhancement in nucleus-nucleus ultrarelativistic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordalo, Paula; Abreu, M.C.; Alessandro, B.; Alexa, C.; Arnaldi, R.; Astruc, J.; Atayan, M.; Baglin, C.; Baldit, A.; Bedjidian, M.; Bellaiche, F.; Beole, S.; Bohrani, A.; Boldea, V.; Bussiere, A.; Capelli, L.; Caponi, V.; Casagrande, L.; Castor, J.; Chambon, T.; Chaurand, B.; Chevrot, I.; Cheynis, B.; Chiavassa, E.; Cicalo, C.; Comets, M.P.; Constans, N.; Constantinescu, S.; Contardo, D.; Cruz, J.; De Falco, A.; De Marco, N.; Dellacasa, G.; Devaux, A.; Dita, S.; Drapier, O.; Ducroux, L.; Espagnon, B.; Fargeix, J.; Ferreira, R.; Filippov, S.N.; Fleuret, F.; Force, P.; Gallio, M.; Gavrilov, Y.K.; Gerschel, C.; Giubellino, P.; Golubeva, M.B.; Gonin, M.; Gorodetzky, P.; Grigorian, A.A.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Guber, F.F.; Guichard, A.; Gulkanyan, H.; Hakobyan, R.; Haroutunian, R.; Idzik, M.; Jouan, D.; Karavitcheva, T.L.; Kluberg, L.; Kossakowski, R.; Kurepin, A.B.; Landau, G.; Le Bornec, Y.; Lourenco, C.; Luquin, L.; Macciotta, P.; Mac Cormick, M.; Mandry, R.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Monteno, M.; Mourgues, S.; Musso, A.; Ohlsson-Malek, F.; Petiau, P.; Piccotti, A.; Pizzi, J.R.; Prado da Silva, W.L.; Puddu, G.; Quintans, C.; Racca, C.; Ramello, L.; Ramos, S.; Rato-Mendes, P.; Riccati, L.; Romana, A.; Ropotar, I.; Saturnini, P.; Scomparin, E.; Serci, S.; Shahoyan, R.; Silva, S.; Sitta, M.; Soave, C.; Sonderegger, P.; Tarrago, X.; Topilskaya, N.S.; Usai, G.L.; Varela, J.; Vercellin, E.; Villatte, L.

    1999-01-01

    The study of muon pairs in the mass region 1.5 μμ 2 in 450 GeV/c p-A, 200 GeV/nucleon S-U and 158 GeV/nucleon Pb-Pb collisions is presented. In p-A interactions, the dimuon signal mass spectra are well described by a superposition of Drell-Yan and charmed meson semi-leptonic decay contributions, in agreement with previous experiments when considering a linear A dependence. In nucleus-nucleus reactions, taking only into account these two physical ingredients, a dimuon enhancement both with increasing A·B and centrality is observed

  4. Enhancing the Functional Content of Eukaryotic Protein Interaction Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Gaurav; Arora, Sonali; Manocha, Sahil; Whalen, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Protein interaction networks are a promising type of data for studying complex biological systems. However, despite the rich information embedded in these networks, these networks face important data quality challenges of noise and incompleteness that adversely affect the results obtained from their analysis. Here, we apply a robust measure of local network structure called common neighborhood similarity (CNS) to address these challenges. Although several CNS measures have been proposed in the literature, an understanding of their relative efficacies for the analysis of interaction networks has been lacking. We follow the framework of graph transformation to convert the given interaction network into a transformed network corresponding to a variety of CNS measures evaluated. The effectiveness of each measure is then estimated by comparing the quality of protein function predictions obtained from its corresponding transformed network with those from the original network. Using a large set of human and fly protein interactions, and a set of over GO terms for both, we find that several of the transformed networks produce more accurate predictions than those obtained from the original network. In particular, the measure and other continuous CNS measures perform well this task, especially for large networks. Further investigation reveals that the two major factors contributing to this improvement are the abilities of CNS measures to prune out noisy edges and enhance functional coherence in the transformed networks. PMID:25275489

  5. Cognitive enhancers (nootropics). Part 2: drugs interacting with enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froestl, Wolfgang; Muhs, Andreas; Pfeifer, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive enhancers (nootropics) are drugs to treat cognition deficits in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or aging. Cognition refers to a capacity for information processing, applying knowledge, and changing preferences. It involves memory, attention, executive functions, perception, language, and psychomotor functions. The term nootropics was coined in 1972 when memory enhancing properties of piracetam were observed in clinical trials. In the meantime, hundreds of drugs have been evaluated in clinical trials or in preclinical experiments. To classify the compounds, a concept is proposed assigning drugs to 19 categories according to their mechanism(s) of action, in particular drugs interacting with receptors, enzymes, ion channels, nerve growth factors, re-uptake transporters, antioxidants, metal chelators, and disease modifying drugs meaning small molecules, vaccines, and monoclonal antibodies interacting with amyloid-β and tau. For drugs whose mechanism of action is not known, they are either classified according to structure, e.g., peptides, or their origin, e.g., natural products. This review covers the evolution of research in this field over the last 25 years.

  6. Cognitive enhancers (nootropics). Part 1: drugs interacting with receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froestl, Wolfgang; Muhs, Andreas; Pfeifer, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive enhancers (nootropics) are drugs to treat cognition deficits in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or aging. Cognition refers to a capacity for information processing, applying knowledge, and changing preferences. It involves memory, attention, executive functions, perception, language, and psychomotor functions. The term nootropics was coined in 1972 when memory enhancing properties of piracetam were observed in clinical trials. In the meantime, hundreds of drugs have been evaluated in clinical trials or in preclinical experiments. To classify the compounds, a concept is proposed assigning drugs to 18 categories according to their mechanism(s) of action, in particular drugs interacting with receptors, enzymes, ion channels, nerve growth factors, re-uptake transporters, antioxidants, metal chelators, and disease-modifying drugs meaning small molecules, vaccines, and monoclonal antibodies interacting with amyloid-β and tau. For drugs, whose mechanism of action is not known, they are either classified according to structure, e.g., peptides, or their origin, e.g., natural products. The review covers the evolution of research in this field over the last 25 years.

  7. Kernel Method Based Human Model for Enhancing Interactive Evolutionary Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiangfu; Liu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    A fitness landscape presents the relationship between individual and its reproductive success in evolutionary computation (EC). However, discrete and approximate landscape in an original search space may not support enough and accurate information for EC search, especially in interactive EC (IEC). The fitness landscape of human subjective evaluation in IEC is very difficult and impossible to model, even with a hypothesis of what its definition might be. In this paper, we propose a method to establish a human model in projected high dimensional search space by kernel classification for enhancing IEC search. Because bivalent logic is a simplest perceptual paradigm, the human model is established by considering this paradigm principle. In feature space, we design a linear classifier as a human model to obtain user preference knowledge, which cannot be supported linearly in original discrete search space. The human model is established by this method for predicting potential perceptual knowledge of human. With the human model, we design an evolution control method to enhance IEC search. From experimental evaluation results with a pseudo-IEC user, our proposed model and method can enhance IEC search significantly. PMID:25879050

  8. Protein solubility and folding enhancement by interaction with RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Il Choi

    Full Text Available While basic mechanisms of several major molecular chaperones are well understood, this machinery has been known to be involved in folding of only limited number of proteins inside the cells. Here, we report a chaperone type of protein folding facilitated by interaction with RNA. When an RNA-binding module is placed at the N-terminus of aggregation-prone target proteins, this module, upon binding with RNA, further promotes the solubility of passenger proteins, potentially leading to enhancement of proper protein folding. Studies on in vitro refolding in the presence of RNA, coexpression of RNA molecules in vivo and the mutants with impaired RNA binding ability suggests that RNA can exert chaperoning effect on their bound proteins. The results suggest that RNA binding could affect the overall kinetic network of protein folding pathway in favor of productive folding over off-pathway aggregation. In addition, the RNA binding-mediated solubility enhancement is extremely robust for increasing soluble yield of passenger proteins and could be usefully implemented for high-throughput protein expression for functional and structural genomic research initiatives. The RNA-mediated chaperone type presented here would give new insights into de novo folding in vivo.

  9. Effects of Soil Quality Enhancement on Pollinator-Plant Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin J. Cardoza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Both biotic and abiotic factors can affect soil quality, which can significantly impact plant growth, productivity, and resistance to pests. However, the effects of soil quality on the interactions of plants with beneficial arthropods, such as pollinators, have not been extensively examined. We studied the effects of vermicompost (earthworm compost, VC soil amendment on behavioral and physiological responses of pollinators to flowers and floral resources, using cucumbers, Cucumis sativus, as our model system. Results from experiments conducted over three field seasons demonstrated that, in at least two out of three years, VC amendment significantly increased visit length, while reducing the time to first discovery. Bumblebee (Bombus impatiens workers that fed on flowers from VC-amended plants had significantly larger and more active ovaries, a measure of nutritional quality. Pollen fractions of flowers from VC-grown plants had higher protein compared to those of plants grown in chemically fertilized potting soil. Nectar sugar content also tended to be higher in flowers from VC-grown plants, but differences were not statistically significant. In conclusion, soil quality enhancement, as achieved with VC amendment in this study, can significantly affect plant-pollinator interactions and directly influences pollinator nutrition and overall performance.

  10. Paramagnetic relaxation enhancements in NMR peptide-membrane interaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosol, S.

    2011-01-01

    Small membrane-bound proteins or peptides are involved in numerous essential biological processes, like cellular recognition, signaling, channel formation, and cytolysis. The secondary structure, orientation, mode of interaction and dynamics of these peptides can be as varied as their functions. Their localization in the membrane, the immersion depth, and their binding mode are factors critical to the function of these peptides. The atomic 3D solution structure of peptides bound to micelles can be determined by NMR spectroscopy. However, by employing paramagnetic relaxation enhancements (PREs) information on the complete topology of peptide bound to a micelle can be obtained. The antimicrobial peptide maximin H6, fst, a bacterial toxin, and the human peptide hormone ghrelin served as membrane-bound model peptides of similar sizes but strongly differing amino acid sequences. Their structures and binding behavior were determined and compared.The measured PREs provided suitable data for determining and distinguishing the different topologies of the investigated peptides bound to micelles. Maximin H6 and fst fold into α-helices upon insertion into a membrane, whereas the unstructured ghrelin is freely mobile in solution and interacts only via a covalently bound octanoyl group with the lipids. Maximin H6 is oriented parallel to the membrane surface, enabling the peptide to aggregate at the membrane water interface. Fst binds in transmembrane orientation with a protruding intrinsically disordered region near the C-terminus. Aside from determining the orientation of the bound peptides from the PREs, the moieties critical for membrane binding could be mapped in ghrelin. If suitable relaxation-edited spectra are acquired, the complete orientation and immersion depth of a peptide bound to a micelle can readily be obtained. (author) [de

  11. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Enhancing Parent-Child Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Urquiza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Disruptive child behavior problems are common problems for parents and can be associated with serious delinquent behaviors and aggressive/violent behaviors in adolescence and adulthood. Parenting interventions to address disruptive child behavior problems has gained widespread acceptance. One of these parenting interventions is Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT. PCIT is a 14- to 20-week, founded on social learning and attachment theories, designed for children between 2 and 7 years of age with disruptive, or externalizing, behavior problems. This article will provide a brief review of the history of PCIT, a description of the basic components of PCIT, and an overview of recent developments that highlight the promise of PCIT with maltreating parent-child relationships, traumatized children, and in developing resilience in young children. In addressing the three basic treatment objectives for PCIT (i.e., reduction in child behavior problems, improving parenting skills, enhancing the quality of parent-child relationships, there is an abundance of research demonstrating very strong treatment effects and therefore, its value to the field. Recent research has also demonstrated the value of PCIT in reducing trauma symptoms in young children.

  12. Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote Viewing System (ICERVS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    The Integrated Computer-Enhanced Remote Viewing System (ICERVS) supports the robotic remediation of hazardous environments such as underground storage tanks, buried waste sites, and contaminated production facilities. The success of these remediation missions will depend on reliable geometric descriptions of the work environment in order to achieve effective task planning, path planning, and collision avoidance. ICERVS provides a means for deriving a reliable geometric description more effectively and efficiently than current systems by combining a number of technologies: Sensing of the environment to acquire dimensional and material property data; integration of acquired data into a common data structure (based on octree technology); presentation of data to robotic task planners for analysis and visualization; interactive synthesis of geometric/surface models to denote features of interest in the environment and transfer of this information to robot control and collision avoidance systems. A key feature of ICERVS is that it will enable an operator to match xyz data from a sensor with surface models of the same region in space. This capability will help operators to better manage the complexities of task and path planning in three-dimensional (3D) space, thereby leading to safer and more effective remediation. The Phase 1 work performed by MTI has brought the ICERVS design to Maturity Level 3, Subscale Major Subsystem, and met the established success criteria

  13. Enhancing food engineering education with interactive web-based simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Koulouris

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional deductive approach in teaching any engineering topic, teachers would first expose students to the derivation of the equations that govern the behavior of a physical system and then demonstrate the use of equations through a limited number of textbook examples. This methodology, however, is rarely adequate to unmask the cause-effect and quantitative relationships between the system variables that the equations embody. Web-based simulation, which is the integration of simulation and internet technologies, has the potential to enhance the learning experience by offering an interactive and easily accessible platform for quick and effortless experimentation with physical phenomena.This paper presents the design and development of a web-based platform for teaching basic food engineering phenomena to food technology students. The platform contains a variety of modules (“virtual experiments” covering the topics of mass and energy balances, fluid mechanics and heat transfer. In this paper, the design and development of three modules for mass balances and heat transfer is presented. Each webpage representing an educational module has the following features: visualization of the studied phenomenon through graphs, charts or videos, computation through a mathematical model and experimentation.  The student is allowed to edit key parameters of the phenomenon and observe the effect of these changes on the outputs. Experimentation can be done in a free or guided fashion with a set of prefabricated examples that students can run and self-test their knowledge by answering multiple-choice questions.

  14. Technology-enhanced storytelling stimulating parent–child interaction and preschool children's vocabulary knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepe, R.C.; Molenaar, I.; Verhoeven, L.

    2016-01-01

    Preschool children's vocabulary mainly develops verbal through interaction. Therefore, the technology-enhanced storytelling (TES) activity Jeffy's Journey is developed to support parent–child interaction and vocabulary in preschool children. TES entails shared verbal storytelling supported by a

  15. Technology-enhanced storytelling stimulating parent-child interaction and preschool children's vocabulary knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepe, R.C.; Molenaar, I.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2017-01-01

    Preschool children's vocabulary mainly develops verbal through interaction. Therefore, the technology-enhanced storytelling (TES) activity Jeffy's Journey is developed to support parent-child interaction and vocabulary in preschool children. TES entails shared verbal storytelling supported by a

  16. Using Interactive Video Instruction To Enhance Public Speaking Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Michael W.; Kennan, William R.

    Noting that interactive video instruction (IVI) should not and cannot replace classroom instruction, this paper offers an introduction to interactive video instruction as an innovative technology that can be used to expand pedagogical opportunities in public speaking instruction. The paper: (1) defines the distinctive features of IVI; (2) assesses…

  17. Strong enhancement of transport by interaction on contact links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Dan; Schmitteckert, P.

    2007-01-01

    Strong repulsive interactions within a one-dimensional Fermi system in a two-probe configuration normally lead to a reduced off-resonance conductance. We show that if the repulsive interaction extends to the contact regions, a strong increase of the conductance may occur, even for systems where o...

  18. Enhanced solar light absorption of graphene by interaction with anisole

    KAUST Repository

    Kahaly, M. Upadhyay; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2014-01-01

    of the molecule with respect to the graphene sheet are possible. A substantial enhancement of the optical absorption independent of the specific orientation is observed, which is promising for energy harvesting. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhancing the Appreciation of Traditional Chinese Painting Using Interactive Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichao Zhao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a two-part study. The first part was a cultural appreciation study. Through this study, we explored the specific approach of cross-cultural aesthetic appreciation and mapped out the potential insights for a prototype design. In the second part, we carried out a design-led study. We designed a tablet application and conducted focus group studies to explore the interactive technology that assists in the support of cross-cultural audiences’ aesthetic appreciation and engagement of traditional Chinese painting. Based on these findings, we went on to further explore an approach of interactive engagement which is specific to supporting cross-cultural appreciation, while also reflecting upon the interactive design suggestions for the development of aesthetic appreciation to offer various transferable insights to the Human–Computer Interaction (HCI community.

  20. Social interaction enhances motor resonance for observed human actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogeveen, Jeremy; Obhi, Sukhvinder S

    2012-04-25

    Understanding the neural basis of social behavior has become an important goal for cognitive neuroscience and a key aim is to link neural processes observed in the laboratory to more naturalistic social behaviors in real-world contexts. Although it is accepted that mirror mechanisms contribute to the occurrence of motor resonance (MR) and are common to action execution, observation, and imitation, questions remain about mirror (and MR) involvement in real social behavior and in processing nonhuman actions. To determine whether social interaction primes the MR system, groups of participants engaged or did not engage in a social interaction before observing human or robotic actions. During observation, MR was assessed via motor-evoked potentials elicited with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Compared with participants who did not engage in a prior social interaction, participants who engaged in the social interaction showed a significant increase in MR for human actions. In contrast, social interaction did not increase MR for robot actions. Thus, naturalistic social interaction and laboratory action observation tasks appear to involve common MR mechanisms, and recent experience tunes the system to particular agent types.

  1. Hund's Induced Fermi-Liquid Instabilities and Enhanced Quasiparticle Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De' Medici, Luca

    2017-04-21

    Hund's coupling is shown to generally favor, in a doped half-filled Mott insulator, an increase in the compressibility culminating in a Fermi-liquid instability towards phase separation. The largest effect is found near the frontier between an ordinary and an orbitally decoupled ("Hund's") metal. The increased compressibility implies an enhancement of quasiparticle scattering, thus favoring other possible symmetry breakings. This physics is shown to happen in simulations of the 122 Fe-based superconductors, possibly implying the relevance of this mechanism in the enhancement of the critical temperature for superconductivity.

  2. Teaching Strategies for Enhancing Peer Interaction among Diverse Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Helena Hing Wa

    2012-01-01

    Hong Kong's universities have been attracting non-local students to diversify the overall student mix and enhance internationalism in higher education. Mainland Chinese students have become the largest non-local student source in this Western-style higher education sector. The diversity of student body together with the promotion of multicultural…

  3. Enhanced Light–Matter Interactions in Graphene-Covered Gold Nanovoid Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Shi, Lei; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk

    2013-01-01

    The combination of graphene with noble-metal nanostructures is currently being explored for strong light–graphene interactions enhanced by plasmons. We introduce a novel hybrid graphene–metal system for studying light–matter interactions with gold-void nanostructures exhibiting resonances...... in the visible range. Enhanced coupling of graphene to the plasmon modes of the nanovoid arrays results in significant frequency shifts of the underlying plasmon resonances, enabling 30% enhanced absolute light absorption by adding a monolayer graphene and up to 700-fold enhancement of the Raman response...

  4. Input Devices and Interaction Techniques for VR-Enhanced Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Luigi; Pietro, Giuseppe De

    Virtual Reality (VR) technologies make it possible to reproduce faithfully real life events in computer-generated scenarios. This approach has the potential to simplify the way people solve problems, since they can take advantage of their real life experiences while interacting in synthetic worlds.

  5. Father-Infant Interactions Are Enhanced by Massage Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Christy; Field, Tiffany; Escalona, Angelica; Hartshorn, Kristin

    2000-01-01

    Examined the impact of fathers giving massages to their infants, ages 3 to 14 months, for 15 minutes prior to their daily bedtime for 1 month. Found that fathers who had massaged their infants were more expressive and showed more enjoyment and more warmth during floor-play interactions with their infants than did fathers in the wait-list control…

  6. Designing Interactive Multimedia Instruction To Enable and Enhance Information Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, Leslie E.

    2001-01-01

    Addresses key strategies for the design and development of Interactive Multimedia Instruction (IMI) programs for adult learners, focusing on the removal of learning barriers and the incorporation of information literacy principles. Barriers include financial constraints, socio-economic and social class, communication skills, time constraints,…

  7. Plasmonic Nanostructures for Enhanced Light-Matter Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong

    Plasmonics, a recent booming field, plays a major role in the fascinating research area of nanophotonics. Graphene, the newly rising star on the horizon of materials science and optoelectronics, exhibits exceptionally surprising properties. In optoelectronics, graphene (including other 2D materials...... an important platform for optoelectronic applications. Then, unprecedented large-area graphene nanodot and antidot optical arrays are fabricated by nanosphere lithography, with structural control down to the sub-100 nm regime. The interaction between graphene plasmon modes and the substrate phonons...

  8. Improving continuing medical education by enhancing interactivity: lessons from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Seyed Aliakbar; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Jalil; Soltani Arabshahi, Seyed Kamran; Faghih, Zahra; Parikh, Sagar V; Shirazi, Mandana

    2016-04-01

    Continuing Medical Education (CME) has been considered as a lifelong commitment for doctors to provide the optimal care for patients. Despite a long history of creating CME programs, outcomes are far from ideal. The present qualitative study aims to clarify the barriers affecting effectiveness of the CME programs in Iran based on the experiences of general practitioners. Sixteen general practitioners were recruited to participate in in-depth interviews and field observations concerning experiences with CME. The study was performed using a qualitative content analysis method. The codes, categories and themes were explored through an inductive process in which the researchers moved from specific to general. The participants' experiences identified a number of barriers, particularly insufficient interaction with the instructors; additional problems included the teachers' use of an undifferentiated approach; unreal and abstract CME; and ignorance of the diverse reasons to participate in CME. Based on the study results, there are multiple barriers to effective implementation of CME in Iran. The key barriers include insufficient interaction between the trainees and providers, which must be considered by other stakeholders and program designers. Such interactions would facilitate improved program design, invite more specific tailoring of the education to the participants, allow for more effective educational methods and set the stage for outcome evaluation from the learners actually applying their new knowledge in practice. Replication of these findings with another sample would improve confidence in these recommendations, but these findings are broadly consistent with findings in the educational literature on improving the efficacy of CME.

  9. ANSIBLE: A Network of Social Interactions for Bilateral Life Enhancement, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ANSIBLE (A Network of Social Interactions for Bilateral Life Enhancement) can be used pre, during, and post flight to connect the flight crew with their family,...

  10. Parity-violating internucleon potential and strong-interaction enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donoghue, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    The NNπ and NNV vertices that enter the parity-violating internucleon potential are calculated in the Cabibbo and Weinberg-Salam models, using a mechanism whereby octet enhancement results from the short-distance behavior of the current-current product. A quark model is used to calculate the NNπ vertex, and for the NNV vertices, a modified factorization approach is proposed. The Cabibbo NNπ vertex is estimated to be an order of magnitude smaller than previous calculations had indicated and arguments against the previous method are given. In the Weinberg model the NNπ vertex is A (N 0 /sub -/) = 1.3 sin 2 theta/subW/A (Λ 0 /sub -/), with only neutral currents contributing. In both models the NNV vertices with only neutral currents contributing. In both models the NNV vertices, however, reasonable values of the enhancement parameters are not expected to be large enough to explain by themselves the large circular polarization measured in n + p → d+γ

  11. Technology-Enhanced Storytelling Stimulating Parent-Child Interaction and Preschool Children's Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teepe, R. C.; Molenaar, I.; Verhoeven, L.

    2017-01-01

    Preschool children's vocabulary mainly develops verbal through interaction. Therefore, the technology-enhanced storytelling (TES) activity Jeffy's Journey is developed to support parent-child interaction and vocabulary in preschool children. TES entails shared verbal storytelling supported by a story structure and real-time visual, auditory and…

  12. Interactive 3D audio: Enhancing awareness of details in immersive soundscapes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Schwartz, Stephen; Larsen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Spatial audio and the possibility of interacting with the audio environment is thought to increase listeners' attention to details in a soundscape. This work examines if interactive 3D audio enhances listeners' ability to recall details in a soundscape. Nine different soundscapes were constructed...

  13. The Use of Individualized Video Modeling to Enhance Positive Peer Interactions in Three Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Vanessa A.; Prior, Tessa; Smart, Emily; Boelema, Tanya; Drysdale, Heather; Harcourt, Susan; Roche, Laura; Waddington, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    The study described in this article sought to enhance the social interaction skills of 3 preschool children using video modeling. All children had been assessed as having difficulties in their interactions with peers. Two were above average on internalizing problems and the third was above average on externalizing problems. The study used a…

  14. Environmental Research Translation: Enhancing Interactions with Communities at Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D.; Brusseau, Mark L.; Artiola, Janick F.; Maier, Raina M.; Gandolfi, A. Jay

    2014-01-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation, and decision-making and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with environmental contamination sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites. PMID:25173762

  15. Environmental Research Translation: Enhancing Interactions with Communities at Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, M.; Brusseau, M. L. L.; Artiola, J. F.; Maier, R. M.; Gandolfi, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation and decision-making, and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with contaminated sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites.

  16. "Help Me Pull That Cursor" A Collaborative Interactive Floor Enhancing Community Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Krogh

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the development, experiments and evaluation of the iFloor, an interactive floor prototype installed at the local central municipality library. The primary purpose of the iFloor prototype is to support and stimulate community interaction between collocated people. The context of the library demands that any user can walk up and use the prototype without any devices or prior introduction. To achieve this, the iFloor proposes innovative interaction (modes/paradigms/patterns for floor surfaces through the means of video tracking. Browsing and selecting content is done in a collaborative process and mobile phones are used for posting messages onto the floor. The iFloor highlights topics on social issues of ubiquitous computing environments in public spaces, and provides an example of how to exploit human spatial movements, positions and arrangements in interaction with computers.

  17. Peptide-Graphene Interactions Enhance the Mechanical Properties of Silk Fibroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan; Koh, Leng-Duei; Li, Dechang; Ji, Baohua; Zhang, Yingyan; Yeo, Jingjie; Guan, Guijian; Han, Ming-Yong; Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2015-10-07

    Studies reveal that biomolecules can form intriguing molecular structures with fascinating functionalities upon interaction with graphene. Then, interesting questions arise. How does silk fibroin interact with graphene? Does such interaction lead to an enhancement in its mechanical properties? In this study, using large-scale molecular dynamics simulations, we first examine the interaction of graphene with several typical peptide structures of silk fibroin extracted from different domains of silk fibroin, including pure amorphous (P1), pure crystalline (P2), a segment from N-terminal (P3), and a combined amorphous and crystalline segment (P4), aiming to reveal their structural modifications. Our study shows that graphene can have intriguing influences on the structures formed by the peptides with sequences representing different domains of silk fibroin. In general, for protein domains with stable structure and strong intramolecular interaction (e.g., β-sheets), graphene tends to compete with the intramolecular interactions and thus weaken the interchain interaction and reduce the contents of β-sheets. For the silk domains with random or less ordered secondary structures and weak intramolecular interactions, graphene tends to enhance the stability of peptide structures; in particular, it increases the contents of helical structures. Thereafter, tensile simulations were further performed on the representative peptides to investigate how such structure modifications affect their mechanical properties. It was found that the strength and resilience of the peptides are enhanced through their interaction with graphene. The present work reveals interesting insights into the interactions between silk peptides and graphene, and contributes in the efforts to enhance the mechanical properties of silk fibroin.

  18. Cognitive enhancers (Nootropics). Part 1: drugs interacting with receptors. Update 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froestl, Wolfgang; Muhs, Andreas; Pfeifer, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Scientists working in the fields of Alzheimer's disease and, in particular, cognitive enhancers are very productive. The review "Cognitive enhancers (nootropics): drugs interacting with receptors" was accepted for publication in July 2012. Since then, new targets for the potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease were identified. This update describes drugs interacting with 42 receptors versus 32 receptors in the first paper. Some compounds progressed in their development, while many others were discontinued. The present review covers the evolution of research in this field through March 2014.

  19. IntaRNA 2.0: enhanced and customizable prediction of RNA-RNA interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Martin; Wright, Patrick R; Backofen, Rolf

    2017-07-03

    The IntaRNA algorithm enables fast and accurate prediction of RNA-RNA hybrids by incorporating seed constraints and interaction site accessibility. Here, we introduce IntaRNAv2, which enables enhanced parameterization as well as fully customizable control over the prediction modes and output formats. Based on up to date benchmark data, the enhanced predictive quality is shown and further improvements due to more restrictive seed constraints are highlighted. The extended web interface provides visualizations of the new minimal energy profiles for RNA-RNA interactions. These allow a detailed investigation of interaction alternatives and can reveal potential interaction site multiplicity. IntaRNAv2 is freely available (source and binary), and distributed via the conda package manager. Furthermore, it has been included into the Galaxy workflow framework and its already established web interface enables ad hoc usage. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. IntaRNA 2.0: enhanced and customizable prediction of RNA–RNA interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Martin; Wright, Patrick R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The IntaRNA algorithm enables fast and accurate prediction of RNA–RNA hybrids by incorporating seed constraints and interaction site accessibility. Here, we introduce IntaRNAv2, which enables enhanced parameterization as well as fully customizable control over the prediction modes and output formats. Based on up to date benchmark data, the enhanced predictive quality is shown and further improvements due to more restrictive seed constraints are highlighted. The extended web interface provides visualizations of the new minimal energy profiles for RNA–RNA interactions. These allow a detailed investigation of interaction alternatives and can reveal potential interaction site multiplicity. IntaRNAv2 is freely available (source and binary), and distributed via the conda package manager. Furthermore, it has been included into the Galaxy workflow framework and its already established web interface enables ad hoc usage. PMID:28472523

  1. 3D interactive augmented reality-enhanced digital learning systems for mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Kai-Ten; Tseng, Po-Hsuan; Chiu, Pei-Shuan; Yang, Jia-Lin; Chiu, Chun-Jie

    2013-03-01

    With enhanced processing capability of mobile platforms, augmented reality (AR) has been considered a promising technology for achieving enhanced user experiences (UX). Augmented reality is to impose virtual information, e.g., videos and images, onto a live-view digital display. UX on real-world environment via the display can be e ectively enhanced with the adoption of interactive AR technology. Enhancement on UX can be bene cial for digital learning systems. There are existing research works based on AR targeting for the design of e-learning systems. However, none of these work focuses on providing three-dimensional (3-D) object modeling for en- hanced UX based on interactive AR techniques. In this paper, the 3-D interactive augmented reality-enhanced learning (IARL) systems will be proposed to provide enhanced UX for digital learning. The proposed IARL systems consist of two major components, including the markerless pattern recognition (MPR) for 3-D models and velocity-based object tracking (VOT) algorithms. Realistic implementation of proposed IARL system is conducted on Android-based mobile platforms. UX on digital learning can be greatly improved with the adoption of proposed IARL systems.

  2. Music and Sign Language to Promote Infant and Toddler Communication and Enhance Parent-Child Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Cynthia; Memmott, Jenny; Meeker-Miller, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of using music and/or sign language to promote early communication in infants and toddlers (6-20 months) and to enhance parent-child interactions. Three groups used for this study were pairs of participants (care-giver(s) and child) assigned to each group: 1) Music Alone 2) Sign Language…

  3. Interactive Learning to Stimulate the Brain's Visual Center and to Enhance Memory Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yang H.; Allen, Philip A.; Chaumpanich, Kritsakorn; Xiao, Yingcai

    2014-01-01

    This short paper describes an ongoing NSF-funded project on enhancing science and engineering education using the latest technology. More specifically, the project aims at developing an interactive learning system with Microsoft Kinect™ and Unity3D game engine. This system promotes active, rather than passive, learning by employing embodied…

  4. Ad Hoc Transient Communities to Enhance Social Interaction and Spread Tutor Responsibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Sloep, Peter; Kester, Liesbeth; Brouns, Francis; Van Rosmalen, Peter; De Vries, Fred; De Croock, Marcel; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Sloep, P.B., Kester, L. Brouns, F., Van Rosmalen, P., De Vries, F., De Croock, M., Koper, R. (2007) Ad Hoc Transient Communities to Enhance Social Interaction and Spread Tutor Responsibilities. In V. Uskov (Ed.) The Sixth IASTED International Conference on Web-based Education WBE 2007, March 14-16, Chamonix, France (pp. 549-554). Calgary, Canada: Acta Press.

  5. Ad Hoc Transient Communities to Enhance Social Interaction and Spread Tutor Responsibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Kester, Liesbeth; Brouns, Francis; Van Rosmalen, Peter; De Vries, Fred; De Croock, Marcel; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Sloep, P.B., Kester, L. Brouns, F., Van Rosmalen, P., De Vries, F., De Croock, M., Koper, R. (2007) Ad Hoc Transient Communities to Enhance Social Interaction and Spread Tutor Responsibilities. In V. Uskov (Ed.) The Sixth IASTED International Conference on Web-based Education WBE 2007, March 14-16,

  6. Ad Hoc Transient Communities to Enhance Social Interaction and Spread Tutor Responsibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Kester, Liesbeth; Brouns, Francis; Van Rosmalen, Peter; De Vries, Fred; De Croock, Marcel; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Sloep, P.B., Kester, L., Brouns, F., Van Rosmalen, P., De Vries, F., De Croock, M., Koper, R. (2007). Ad Hoc Transient Communities to Enhance Social Interaction and Spread Tutor Responsibilities. Presentation given at the Sixth IASTED International Conference on Web-based Education, 14-16 March,

  7. On the Importance of Personal Profiles to Enhance Social Interaction in Learning Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berlanga, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Berlanga, A. J., Bitter-Rijpkema, M. E., Brouns F., & Sloep, P. B. (2008). On the Importance of Personal Profiles to Enhance Social Interaction in Learning Networks. Presented at the IADIS International Conference on Web Based Communities 2008. July, 24-26, 2008, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

  8. On the importance of personal profiles to enhance social interaction in Learning Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berlanga, Adriana; Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Brouns, Francis; Sloep, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Berlanga, A. J., Bitter-Rijpkema, M., Brouns F., & Sloep, P.B. (2008). On the importance of personal profiles to enhance social interaction in Learning Networks. In P. Kommers (Ed.), Proceedings of Web Based Communities Conference (WEBC 2008) (pp. 55-62). July, 24-26, 2008, Amsterdam, The

  9. A Performance Enhanced Interactive Learning Workshop Model as a Supplement for Organic Chemistry Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Karen E. S.; Grose-Fifer, Jilliam

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors describe a Performance Enhanced Interactive Learning (PEIL) workshop model as a supplement for organic chemistry instruction. This workshop model differs from many others in that it includes public presentations by students and other whole-class-discussion components that have not been thoroughly investigated in the…

  10. Enhancement of Ebola Virus Infection via Ficolin-1 Interaction with the Mucin Domain of GP Glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, Anne-Laure; Gout, Evelyne; Reynard, Olivier; Ferraris, Olivier; Kleman, Jean-Philippe; Volchkov, Viktor; Peyrefitte, Christophe; Thielens, Nicole M

    2016-06-01

    Ebola virus infection requires the surface viral glycoprotein to initiate entry into the target cells. The trimeric glycoprotein is a highly glycosylated viral protein which has been shown to interact with host C-type lectin receptors and the soluble complement recognition protein mannose-binding lectin, thereby enhancing viral infection. Similarly to mannose-binding lectin, ficolins are soluble effectors of the innate immune system that recognize particular glycans at the pathogen surface. In this study, we demonstrate that ficolin-1 interacts with the Zaire Ebola virus (EBOV) glycoprotein, and we characterized this interaction by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. Ficolin-1 was shown to bind to the viral glycoprotein with a high affinity. This interaction was mediated by the fibrinogen-like recognition domain of ficolin-1 and the mucin-like domain of the viral glycoprotein. Using a ficolin-1 control mutant devoid of sialic acid-binding capacity, we identified sialylated moieties of the mucin domain to be potential ligands on the glycoprotein. In cell culture, using both pseudotyped viruses and EBOV, ficolin-1 was shown to enhance EBOV infection independently of the serum complement. We also observed that ficolin-1 enhanced EBOV infection on human monocyte-derived macrophages, described to be major viral target cells,. Competition experiments suggested that although ficolin-1 and mannose-binding lectin recognized different carbohydrate moieties on the EBOV glycoprotein, the observed enhancement of the infection likely depended on a common cellular receptor/partner. In conclusion, ficolin-1 could provide an alternative receptor-mediated mechanism for enhancing EBOV infection, thereby contributing to viral subversion of the host innate immune system. A specific interaction involving ficolin-1 (M-ficolin), a soluble effector of the innate immune response, and the glycoprotein (GP) of EBOV was identified. Ficolin-1 enhanced virus infection instead of tipping the

  11. Enhanced and tunable electric dipole-dipole interactions near a planar metal film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei-Ming; Yao, Pei-Jun; Zhao, Nan; Sun, Fang-Wen

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the enhanced electric dipole-dipole interaction of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) supported by a planar metal film waveguide. By taking two nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center electric dipoles in diamond as an example, both the coupling strength and collective relaxation of two dipoles are studied with the numerical Green Function method. Compared to two-dipole coupling on a planar surface, metal film provides stronger and tunable coupling coefficients. Enhancement of the interaction between coupled NV center dipoles could have applications in both quantum information and energy transfer investigation. Our investigation provides systematic results for experimental applications based on a dipole-dipole interaction mediated with SPPs on a planar metal film.

  12. Using Multitouch Collaboration Technology to Enhance Social Interaction of Children with High-Functioning Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Eynat; Lamash, Liron; Bauminger-Zviely, Nirit; Zancanaro, Massimo; Weiss, Patrice L Tamar

    2016-01-01

    Children with high-functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HFASD) have major difficulties in social communication skills, which may impact their performance and participation in everyday life. The goal of this study was to examine whether the StoryTable, an intervention paradigm based on a collaborative narrative, multitouch tabletop interface, enhanced social interaction for children with HFASD, and to determine whether the acquired abilities were transferred to behaviors during other tasks. Fourteen boys with HFASD, aged 7-12 years, participated in a 3-week, 11-session intervention. Social interactions during two nonintervention tasks were videotaped at three points in time, one prior to the intervention (pre), a second immediately following the intervention (post) and a third three weeks after the intervention (follow-up). The video-recorded files were coded using the Friendship Observation Scale to ascertain the frequencies of positive and negative social interactions and collaborative play. Differences in these behaviors were tested for significance using nonparametric statistical tests. There were significantly higher rates of positive social interactions and collaborative play, and lower rates of negative social interactions following the intervention suggesting generalization of the social skills learned during the intervention. Improvement was maintained when tested three weeks later. These findings provide support for the use of collaborative technology-based interventions within educational settings to enhance social interaction of children with HFASD.

  13. Highly Enhanced Many-Body Interactions in Anisotropic 2D Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ankur; Yan, Han; Zhang, Linglong; Sun, Xueqian; Liu, Boqing; Lu, Yuerui

    2018-05-15

    Atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors have presented a plethora of opportunities for future optoelectronic devices and photonics applications, made possible by the strong light matter interactions at the 2D quantum limit. Many body interactions between fundamental particles in 2D semiconductors are strongly enhanced compared with those in bulk semiconductors because of the reduced dimensionality and, thus, reduced dielectric screening. These enhanced many body interactions lead to the formation of robust quasi-particles, such as excitons, trions, and biexcitons, which are extremely important for the optoelectronics device applications of 2D semiconductors, such as light emitting diodes, lasers, and optical modulators, etc. Recently, the emerging anisotropic 2D semiconductors, such as black phosphorus (termed as phosphorene) and phosphorene-like 2D materials, such as ReSe 2 , 2D-perovskites, SnS, etc., show strong anisotropic optical and electrical properties, which are different from conventional isotropic 2D semiconductors, such as transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) monolayers. This anisotropy leads to the formation of quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) excitons and trions in a 2D system, which results in even stronger many body interactions in anisotropic 2D materials, arising from the further reduced dimensionality of the quasi-particles and thus reduced dielectric screening. Many body interactions have been heavily investigated in TMD monolayers in past years, but not in anisotropic 2D materials yet. The quasi-particles in anisotropic 2D materials have fractional dimensionality which makes them perfect candidates to serve as a platform to study fundamental particle interactions in fractional dimensional space. In this Account, we present our recent progress related to 2D phosphorene, a 2D system with quasi-1D excitons and trions. Phosphorene, because of its unique anisotropic properties, provides a unique 2D platform for investigating the

  14. Enhanced optoelastic interaction range in liquid crystals with negative dielectric anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoni, F.; Lalli, S.; Lucchetti, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Ingegneria della Materia, dell' Ambiente ed Urbanistica and CNISM, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona (Italy); Criante, L. [Center for Nano Science and Technology-PoliMi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Giovanni Pascoli, 70/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Brasselet, E. [Univ. Bordeaux and CNRS, Laboratoire Ondes et Matière d' Aquitaine, UMR 5798, F-33400 Talence (France)

    2014-01-06

    We demonstrate that the long-range interaction between surface-functionalized microparticles immersed a nematic liquid crystal—a “nematic colloid”—and a laser-induced “ghost colloid” can be enhanced by a low-voltage quasistatic electric field when the nematic mesophase has a negative dielectric anisotropy. The optoelastic trapping distance is shown to be enhanced by a factor up to 2.5 in presence of an electric field. Experimental data are quantitatively described with a theoretical model accounting for the spatial overlap between the orientational distortions around the microparticle and those induced by the trapping light beam itself.

  15. Cognitive enhancers (nootropics). Part 2: drugs interacting with enzymes. Update 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froestl, Wolfgang; Muhs, Andreas; Pfeifer, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Scientists working in the field of Alzheimer's disease and, in particular, cognitive enhancers are very productive. The review on Drugs interacting with Enzymes was accepted in August 2012. However, this field is very dynamic. New potential targets for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease were identified. This update describes drugs interacting with 60 enzymes versus 43 enzymes in the first paper. Some compounds progressed in their development, while many others were discontinued. The present review covers the evolution of research in this field through April 2014.

  16. Promoting Active Learning in Calculus and General Physics through Interactive and Media-Enhanced Lectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Tang

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an approach of incorporating interactive and media-enhanced lectures to promote active learning in Calculus and General Physics courses. The pedagogical practice of using interactive techniques in lectures to require "heads-on" and "hands-on" learning, and involve students more as active participants than passive receivers is a part of academic curricular reform efforts undertaken currently by the mathematics, physics and chemistry departments at North Carolina A&T State University under the NSF funded project "Talent-21: Gateway for Advancing Science and Mathematics Talents."

  17. Benefits and Pitfalls of Multimedia and Interactive Features in Technology-Enhanced Storybooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takacs, Zsofia K.; Swart, Elise K.; Bus, Adriana G.

    2015-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted on the effects of technology-enhanced stories for young children’s literacy development when compared to listening to stories in more traditional settings like storybook reading. A small but significant additional benefit of technology was found for story comprehension (g+ = 0.17) and expressive vocabulary (g+ = 0.20), based on data from 2,147 children in 43 studies. When investigating the different characteristics of technology-enhanced stories, multimedia features like animated pictures, music, and sound effects were found beneficial. In contrast, interactive elements like hotspots, games, and dictionaries were found to be distracting. Especially for children disadvantaged because of less stimulating family environments, multimedia features were helpful and interactive features were detrimental. Findings are discussed from the perspective of cognitive processing theories. PMID:26640299

  18. Enhancement of PM2.5 Concentrations by Aerosol-Meteorology Interactions Over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Qiang; Hong, Chaopeng; Zheng, Yixuan; Geng, Guannan; Tong, Dan; Zhang, Yuxuan; Zhang, Xiaoye

    2018-01-01

    Aerosol-meteorology interactions can change surface aerosol concentrations via different mechanisms such as altering radiation budget or cloud microphysics. However, few studies investigated the impacts of different mechanisms on temporal and spatial distribution of PM2.5 concentrations over China. Here we used the fully coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with online chemistry (WRF-Chem) to quantify the enhancement of PM2.5 concentrations by aerosol-meteorology feedback in China in 2014 for different seasons and separate the relative impacts of aerosol radiation interactions (ARIs) and aerosol-cloud interactions (ACIs). We found that ARIs and ACIs could increase population-weighted annual mean PM2.5 concentration over China by 4.0 μg/m3 and 1.6 μg/m3, respectively. We found that ARIs play a dominant role in aerosol-meteorology interactions in winter, while the enhancement of PM2.5 concentration by ARIs and ACIs is comparable in other three seasons. ARIs reduced the wintertime monthly mean wind speed and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height by up to 0.1 m/s and 160 m, respectively, but increased the relative humidity by up to 4%, leading to accumulation of pollutants within PBL. Also, ARIs reduced dry deposition velocity of aerosols by up to 20%, resulting in an increase in PM2.5 lifetime and concentrations. ARIs can increase wintertime monthly mean surface PM2.5 concentration by a maximum of 30 μg/m3 in Sichuan Basin. ACIs can also increase PM2.5 concentration with more significant impacts in wet seasons via reduced wet scavenging and enhanced in-cloud chemistry. Dominant processes in PM2.5 enhancement are also clarified in different seasons. Results show that physical process is more important than chemical processes in winter in ARIs, while chemical process of secondary inorganic aerosols production may be crucial in wet seasons via ACIs.

  19. A Public Finance Perspective on Climate Policy: Six Interactions That May Enhance Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Siegmeier, Jan; Mattauch, Linus; Franks, Max; Klenert, David; Schultes, Anselm; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2015-01-01

    Climate change economics mostly neglects sizeable interactions of carbon pricing with other fiscal policy instruments. Conversely, public finance typically overlooks the effects of future decarbonization efforts when devising instruments for the major goals of fiscal policy. We argue that such a compartmentalisation is undesirable: policy design taking into account such interdependencies may enhance welfare and change the distribution of mitigation costs within and across generations. This cl...

  20. Enhancement of four-wave mixing induced by interacting dark resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Weifeng; Gong Shangqing; Niu Yueping; Jin Shiqi; Xu Zhizhan

    2005-01-01

    We analyse a four-wave mixing (FWM) scheme in a five-level atomic system in which double-dark resonances are present. It is found that the enhancement of FWM in both electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) windows can be obtained even without the condition of multiphoton resonance. Moreover, the conversion efficiency of FWM in one EIT window can be much larger than that in the other due to the presence of interacting dark resonances

  1. Enhancement of third-order harmonic generation by interaction of two IR femtosecond filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z Y; Ding, P J; Shi, Y C; Lu, X; Liu, Q C; Sun, S H; Ding, B W; Hu, B T; Liu, X L

    2012-01-01

    Three orders of magnitude in the enhancement of the third-order harmonic (TH) generation induced by the interaction of two femtosecond filaments crossing with small angles in the air is achieved. The dependences of the TH generation on the time delay, the relative polarization, the input laser intensity ratios between the probe and pump beam are measured with the crossing angle of 3.5deg , and the results with quasi-vertical crossing angle are also shown for comparison

  2. Predicting stimulation-dependent enhancer-promoter interactions from ChIP-Seq time course data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Dzida

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a machine learning approach to predict stimulation-dependent enhancer-promoter interactions using evidence from changes in genomic protein occupancy over time. The occupancy of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα, RNA polymerase (Pol II and histone marks H2AZ and H3K4me3 were measured over time using ChIP-Seq experiments in MCF7 cells stimulated with estrogen. A Bayesian classifier was developed which uses the correlation of temporal binding patterns at enhancers and promoters and genomic proximity as features to predict interactions. This method was trained using experimentally determined interactions from the same system and was shown to achieve much higher precision than predictions based on the genomic proximity of nearest ERα binding. We use the method to identify a genome-wide confident set of ERα target genes and their regulatory enhancers genome-wide. Validation with publicly available GRO-Seq data demonstrates that our predicted targets are much more likely to show early nascent transcription than predictions based on genomic ERα binding proximity alone.

  3. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization enhanced NMR at 187 GHz/284 MHz using an Extended Interaction Klystron amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Thomas F; Dannatt, Hugh R W; Barrow, Nathan S; Watts, Anthony; Brown, Steven P; Newton, Mark E; Dupree, Ray

    2016-04-01

    A Dynamic Nuclear Polarisation (DNP) enhanced solid-state Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) NMR spectrometer which uses a 187 GHz (corresponding to (1)H NMR frequency of 284 MHz) Extended Interaction Klystron (EIK) amplifier as the microwave source is briefly described. Its performance is demonstrated for a biomolecule (bacteriorhodopsin), a pharmaceutical, and surface functionalised silica. The EIK is very compact and easily incorporated into an existing spectrometer. The bandwidth of the amplifier is sufficient that it obviates the need for a sweepable magnetic field, once set, for all commonly used radicals. The variable power (CW or pulsed) output from the EIK is transmitted to the DNP-NMR probe using a quasi-optic system with a high power isolator and a corrugated waveguide which feeds the microwaves into the DNP-NMR probe. Curved mirrors inside the probe project the microwaves down the axis of the MAS rotor, giving a very efficient system such that maximum DNP enhancement is achieved with less than 3 W output from the microwave source. The DNP-NMR probe operates with a sample temperature down to 90K whilst spinning at 8 kHz. Significant enhancements, in excess of 100 for bacteriorhodopsin in purple membrane (bR in PM), are shown along with spectra which are enhanced by ≈25 with respect to room temperature, for both the pharmaceutical furosemide and surface functionalised silica. These enhancements allow hitherto prohibitively time consuming experiments to be undertaken. The power at which the DNP enhancement in bR in PM saturates does not change significantly between 90K and 170 K even though the enhancement drops by a factor of ≈11. As the DNP build up time decreases by a factor 3 over this temperature range, the reduction in T1n is presumably a significant contribution to the drop in enhancement. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Graphene-enhanced intermolecular interaction at interface between copper- and cobalt-phthalocyanines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Wei-Dong [Department of Physics, Shaoxing University, Shaoxing 312000 (China); Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF) and Department of Physics and Material Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Huang, Shu-Ping [Department of Chemistry, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 (United States); Lee, Chun-Sing, E-mail: apcslee@cityu.edu.hk [Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF) and Department of Physics and Material Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-10-07

    Interfacial electronic structures of copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc), cobalt-phthalocyanine (CoPc), and graphene were investigated experimentally by using photoelectron spectroscopy. While the CuPc/graphene interface shows flat band structure and negligible interfacial dipole indicating quite weak molecule-substrate interaction, the CuPc/CoPc/graphene interface shows a large interfacial dipole and obvious energy level bending. Controlled experiments ruled out possible influences from the change in film structure of CuPc and pure π–π interaction between CoPc and CuPc. Analysis based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory reveals that the decrease in the work function for the CuPc/CoPc/graphene system is induced by the intermolecular interaction between CuPc and CoPc which is enhanced owning to the peculiar electronic properties at the CoPc-graphene interface.

  5. A biomimetic approach to enhancing interfacial interactions: polydopamine-coated clay as reinforcement for epoxy resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liping; Phua, Si Lei; Teo, Jun Kai Herman; Toh, Cher Ling; Lau, Soo Khim; Ma, Jan; Lu, Xuehong

    2011-08-01

    A facile biomimetic method was developed to enhance the interfacial interaction in polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites. By mimicking mussel adhesive proteins, a monolayer of polydopamine was constructed on clay surface by a controllable coating method. The modified clay (D-clay) was incorporated into an epoxy resin, it is found that the strong interfacial interactions brought by the polydopamine benefits not only the dispersion of the D-clay in the epoxy but also the effective interfacial stress transfer, leading to greatly improved thermomechanical properties at very low inorganic loadings. Rheological and infrared spectroscopic studies show that the interfacial interactions between the D-clay and epoxy are dominated by the hydrogen bonds between the catechol-enriched polydopamine and the epoxy.

  6. Enhanced proton acceleration by ultrashort laser pulse interaction with nanostructured thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Angana; Dalui, Malay; Tata, Sheroy; Sarkar, Subhrangshu; Jha, Jagannath; Lad, Amit; Krishnamurthy, M.; Ayyub, P.; Wang, W m; Sheng, Z m

    2015-01-01

    Enhancement of local electromagnetic field in nanostructured targets as opposed to plain polished targets has been experimentally observed and studied. This increase in field strength leads to enhanced hot electron generation, which gives rise to highly energetic ions through Target Normal Sheath Acceleration. As the laser energy coupled to the electrons increases, the sheath magnitude is expected to increase, leading to an enhancement in ion acceleration. We investigate energy enhancements in ions generated as a result of intense femtosecond laser interaction with nanostructured thin film targets, comprising 2 μm Ta foil coated with 100-200 nm diameter Ta clusters. The optimum nanoparticle size of 100 nm corresponding to maximum laser energy absorption has been predetermined through PIC simulations. The accelerated ions have been studied using Thompson parabola spectrometer at a laser intensity of 15 x 10 19 W/cm 2 at the TIFR high contrast 100 TW Ti:Sapphire laser facility. The proton cut-off energy is observed to increase rapidly with increasing cluster density till a saturation is reached. The enhancement in the proton cut-off energy is observed to be three-fold as compared to the proton cut-off energy for unstructured foils. (author)

  7. Dermatopontin interacts with fibronectin, promotes fibronectin fibril formation, and enhances cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Aiko; Okamoto, Osamu; Ishikawa, Kazushi; Sumiyoshi, Hideaki; Matsuo, Noritaka; Yoshioka, Hidekatsu; Nomizu, Motoyoshi; Shimada, Tatsuo; Fujiwara, Sakuhei

    2011-04-29

    We report that dermatopontin (DP), an abundant dermal extracellular matrix protein, is found in the fibrin clot and in the wound fluid, which comprise the provisional matrix at the initial stage of wound healing. DP was also found in the serum but at a lower concentration than that in wound fluid. DP co-localized with both fibrin and fibronectin on fibrin fibers and interacted with both proteins. Both normal fibroblast and HT1080 cell adhesion to the fibrin-fibronectin matrix were dose-dependently enhanced by DP, and the adhesion was mediated by α5β1 integrin. The cytoskeleton was more organized in the cells that adhered to the fibrin-fibronectin-DP complex. When incubated with DP, fibronectin formed an insoluble complex of fibronectin fibrils as visualized by electron microscopy. The interacting sites of fibronectin with DP were the first, thirteenth, and fourteenth type III repeats (III(1), III(13), and III(14)), with III(13) and III(14) assumed to be the major sites. The interaction between III(2-3) and III(12-14) was inhibited by DP, whereas the interaction between I(1-5) and III(12-14) was specifically and strongly enhanced by DP. Because the interaction between III(2-3) and III(12-14) is involved in forming a globular conformation of fibronectin, and that between I(1-5) and III(12-14) is required for forming fibronectin fibrils, DP promotes fibronectin fibril formation probably by changing the fibronectin conformation. These results suggest that DP has an accelerating role in fibroblast cell adhesion to the provisional matrix in the initial stage of wound healing.

  8. Energy landscape of all-atom protein-protein interactions revealed by multiscale enhanced sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Moritsugu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein-protein interactions are regulated by a subtle balance of complicated atomic interactions and solvation at the interface. To understand such an elusive phenomenon, it is necessary to thoroughly survey the large configurational space from the stable complex structure to the dissociated states using the all-atom model in explicit solvent and to delineate the energy landscape of protein-protein interactions. In this study, we carried out a multiscale enhanced sampling (MSES simulation of the formation of a barnase-barstar complex, which is a protein complex characterized by an extraordinary tight and fast binding, to determine the energy landscape of atomistic protein-protein interactions. The MSES adopts a multicopy and multiscale scheme to enable for the enhanced sampling of the all-atom model of large proteins including explicit solvent. During the 100-ns MSES simulation of the barnase-barstar system, we observed the association-dissociation processes of the atomistic protein complex in solution several times, which contained not only the native complex structure but also fully non-native configurations. The sampled distributions suggest that a large variety of non-native states went downhill to the stable complex structure, like a fast folding on a funnel-like potential. This funnel landscape is attributed to dominant configurations in the early stage of the association process characterized by near-native orientations, which will accelerate the native inter-molecular interactions. These configurations are guided mostly by the shape complementarity between barnase and barstar, and lead to the fast formation of the final complex structure along the downhill energy landscape.

  9. Exponentially Enhanced Light-Matter Interaction, Cooperativities, and Steady-State Entanglement Using Parametric Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Miranowicz, Adam; Li, Peng-Bo; Lü, Xin-You; You, J. Q.; Nori, Franco

    2018-03-01

    We propose an experimentally feasible method for enhancing the atom-field coupling as well as the ratio between this coupling and dissipation (i.e., cooperativity) in an optical cavity. It exploits optical parametric amplification to exponentially enhance the atom-cavity interaction and, hence, the cooperativity of the system, with the squeezing-induced noise being completely eliminated. Consequently, the atom-cavity system can be driven from the weak-coupling regime to the strong-coupling regime for modest squeezing parameters, and even can achieve an effective cooperativity much larger than 100. Based on this, we further demonstrate the generation of steady-state nearly maximal quantum entanglement. The resulting entanglement infidelity (which quantifies the deviation of the actual state from a maximally entangled state) is exponentially smaller than the lower bound on the infidelities obtained in other dissipative entanglement preparations without applying squeezing. In principle, we can make an arbitrarily small infidelity. Our generic method for enhancing atom-cavity interaction and cooperativities can be implemented in a wide range of physical systems, and it can provide diverse applications for quantum information processing.

  10. Biomaterials that promote cell-cell interactions enhance the paracrine function of MSCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Taimoor H; Mooney, David J; Duda, Georg N; Geissler, Sven

    2017-09-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) secrete paracrine factors that play crucial roles during tissue regeneration. Whether this paracrine function is influenced by the properties of biomaterials in general, and those used for cell delivery in particular, largely remains unexplored. Here, we investigated if three-dimensional culture in distinct microenvironments - nanoporous hydrogels (mean pore size ∼5 nm) and macroporous scaffolds (mean pore size ∼120 μm) - affects the secretion pattern of MSCs, and consequently leads to differential paracrine effects on target progenitor cells such as myoblasts. We report that compared to MSCs encapsulated in hydrogels, scaffold seeded MSCs show an enhanced secretion profile and exert beneficial paracrine effects on various myoblast functions including migration and proliferation. Additionally, we show that the heightened paracrine effects of scaffold seeded cells can in part be attributed to N-cadherin mediated cell-cell interactions during culture. In hydrogels, this physical interaction between cells is prevented by the encapsulating matrix. Functionally blocking N-cadherin negatively affected the secretion profile and paracrine effects of MSCs on myoblasts, with stronger effects observed for scaffold seeded compared to hydrogel encapsulated cells. Together, these findings demonstrate that the therapeutic potency of MSCs can be enhanced by biomaterials that promote cell-cell interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhancement of proton acceleration field in laser double-layer target interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Y. J.; Kong, Q.; Li, X. F.; Yu, Q.; Wang, P. X.; Kawata, S.; Izumiyama, T.; Ma, Y. Y.

    2013-01-01

    A mechanism is proposed to enhance a proton acceleration field in laser plasma interaction. A double-layer plasma with different densities is illuminated by an intense short pulse. Electrons are accelerated to a high energy in the first layer by the wakefield. The electrons accelerated by the laser wakefield induce the enhanced target normal sheath (TNSA) and breakout afterburner (BOA) accelerations through the second layer. The maximum proton energy reaches about 1 GeV, and the total charge with an energy higher than 100 MeV is about several tens of μC/μm. Both the acceleration gradient and laser energy transfer efficiency are higher than those in single-target-based TNSA or BOA. The model has been verified by 2.5D-PIC simulations

  12. Interactions Between HIV-1 Gag and Viral RNA Genome Enhance Virion Assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dilley, Kari A; Nikolaitchik, Olga A; Galli, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    between Gag and viral RNA are required for the enhancement of particle production. Taken together, these studies are consistent with our previous hypothesis that specific dimeric viral RNA:Gag interactions are the nucleation event of infectious virion assembly, ensuring that one RNA dimer is packaged......Most HIV-1 virions contain two copies of full-length viral RNA, indicating that genome packaging is efficient and tightly regulated. However, the structural protein Gag is the only component required for the assembly of noninfectious virus-like particles and the viral RNA is dispensable...... in this process. The mechanism that allows HIV-1 to achieve such high efficiency of genome packaging when a packageable viral RNA is not required for virus assembly is currently unknown. In this report, we examined the role of HIV-1 RNA in virus assembly and found that packageable HIV-1 RNA enhances particle...

  13. Enhancement of the Number of Fast Electrons Generated in a Laser Inverse Cone Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan-Ling, Ji; Gang, Jiang; Wei-Dong, Wu; Ji-Cheng, Zhang; Yong-Jian, Tang

    2010-01-01

    Enhancement of the energy-conversion efficiency from laser to target electrons is demonstrated by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations in a laser-inverse cone interaction. When an intense short-pulse laser illuminates the inverse cone target, the electrons at the cone end are accelerated by the ponderomotive force. Then these electrons are guided and confined to transport along the inverse cone walls by the induced electromagnetic fields. A device consisting of inverse hollow-cone and multihole array plasma is proposed in order to increase the energy-conversion efficiency from laser to electrons. Particle-in-cell simulations present that the multiholes transpiercing the cone end help to enhance the number of fast electrons and the maximum electron energy significantly. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  14. Enhanced health E-decision literacy via interactive multi-criterial support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Almeida, J.; Moncho Mas, Vicent

    Healthcare lacks a generic language for decisional communication. We aim to enhance health decision literacy via specific e-decision support. Given the multi-criterial, preference-sensitive nature of decision-making, we implement the Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) technique online...... in an interactive and visual template (Annalisa), developing decision-specific tools at the clinical/personal and group/policy levels. Our current nationally funded project on bone health caters for home-prepared, informed and preference-based consent and taps into existing e-health infrastructures towards person...

  15. Counter-propagating wave interaction for contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, G.; Bosch, J. G.; ten Kate, G. L.; Shamdasani, V.; Entrekin, R.; de Jong, N.; van der Steen, A. F. W.

    2012-11-01

    Most techniques for contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging require linear propagation to detect nonlinear scattering of contrast agent microbubbles. Waveform distortion due to nonlinear propagation impairs their ability to distinguish microbubbles from tissue. As a result, tissue can be misclassified as microbubbles, and contrast agent concentration can be overestimated; therefore, these artifacts can significantly impair the quality of medical diagnoses. Contrary to biological tissue, lipid-coated gas microbubbles used as a contrast agent allow the interaction of two acoustic waves propagating in opposite directions (counter-propagation). Based on that principle, we describe a strategy to detect microbubbles that is free from nonlinear propagation artifacts. In vitro images were acquired with an ultrasound scanner in a phantom of tissue-mimicking material with a cavity containing a contrast agent. Unlike the default mode of the scanner using amplitude modulation to detect microbubbles, the pulse sequence exploiting counter-propagating wave interaction creates no pseudoenhancement behind the cavity in the contrast image.

  16. Depth of interaction detection with enhanced position-sensitive proportional resistor network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, Ch.W.; Benlloch, J.M.; Sanchez, F.; Pavon, N.; Gimenez, N.; Fernandez, M.; Gimenez, M.; Sebastia, A.; Martinez, J.; Mora, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    A new method of determining the depth of interaction of γ-rays in thick inorganic scintillation crystals was tested experimentally. The method uses the strong correlation between the width of the scintillation light distribution within large continuous crystals and the γ-ray's interaction depth. This behavior was successfully reproduced by a theoretical model distribution based on the inverse square law. For the determination of the distribution's width, its standard deviation σ is computed using an enhanced position-sensitive proportional resistor network which is often used in γ-ray-imaging devices. Minor changes of this known resistor network allow the analog and real-time determination of the light distribution's 2nd moment without impairing the measurement of the energy and centroid. First experimental results are presented that confirm that the described method works correctly. Since only some cheap electronic components, but no additional detectors or crystals are required, the main advantage of this method is its low cost

  17. Foam-oil interaction in porous media: implications for foam assisted enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, R; Andrianov, A; Krastev, R; Hirasaki, G J; Rossen, W R

    2012-11-15

    The efficiency of a foam displacement process in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) depends largely on the stability of foam films in the presence of oil. Experimental studies have demonstrated the detrimental impact of oil on foam stability. This paper reviews the mechanisms and theories (disjoining pressure, coalescence and drainage, entering and spreading of oil, oil emulsification, pinch-off, etc.) suggested in the literature to explain the impact of oil on foam stability in the bulk and porous media. Moreover, we describe the existing approaches to foam modeling in porous media and the ways these models describe the oil effect on foam propagation in porous media. Further, we present various ideas on an improvement of foam stability and longevity in the presence of oil. The outstanding questions regarding foam-oil interactions and modeling of these interactions are pointed out. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhancement and suppression of opto-acoustic parametric interactions using optical feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhongyang; Zhao Chunnong; Ju, L.; Blair, D. G.

    2010-01-01

    A three mode opto-acoustic parametric amplifier (OAPA) is created when two orthogonal optical modes in a high finesse optical cavity are coupled via an acoustic mode of the cavity mirror. Such interactions are predicted to occur in advanced long baseline gravitational wave detectors. They can have high positive gain, which leads to strong parametric instability. Here we show that an optical feedback scheme can enhance or suppress the parametric gain of an OAPA, allowing exploration of three-mode parametric interactions, especially in cavity systems that have insufficient optical power to achieve spontaneous instability. We derive analytical equations and show that optical feedback is capable of controlling predicted instabilities in advanced gravitational wave detectors within a time scale of 13∼10 s.

  19. Interactive, technology-enhanced self-regulated learning tools in healthcare education: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Learning technology is increasingly being implemented for programmes of blended learning within nurse education. With a growing emphasis on self-directed study particularly in post-basic education, there is a need for learners to be guided in their learning away from practice and limited classroom time. Technology-enabled (TE) tools which engage learners actively can play a part in this. The effectiveness and value of interactive TE learning strategies within healthcare is the focus of this paper. To identify literature that explores the effectiveness of interactive, TE tools on knowledge acquisition and learner satisfaction within healthcare with a view to evaluating their use for post-basic nurse education. A Literature Review was performed focusing on papers exploring the comparative value and perceived benefit of TE tools compared to traditional modes of learning within healthcare. The Databases identified as most suitable due to their relevance to healthcare were accessed through EBSCOhost. Primary, Boolean and advanced searches on key terms were undertaken. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied which resulted in a final selection of 11 studies for critique. Analysis of the literature found that knowledge acquisition in most cases was enhanced and measured learner satisfaction was generally positive for interactive, self-regulated TE tools. However, TE education may not suit all learners and this is critiqued in the light of the identified limitations. Interactive self regulation and/or testing can be a valuable learning strategy that can be incorporated into self-directed programmes of study for post-registration learners. Whilst acknowledging the learning styles not suited to such tools, the concurrent use of self-directed TE tools with those learning strategies necessitating a more social presence can work together to support enhancement of knowledge required to deliver rationale for nursing practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  20. Synergistic Interactions within a Multispecies Biofilm Enhance Individual Species Protection against Grazing by a Pelagic Protozoan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem K. Raghupathi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm formation has been shown to confer protection against grazing, but little information is available on the effect of grazing on biofilm formation and protection in multispecies consortia. With most biofilms in nature being composed of multiple bacterial species, the interactions and dynamics of a multispecies bacterial biofilm subject to grazing by a pelagic protozoan predator were investigated. To this end, a mono and multispecies biofilms of four bacterial soil isolates, namely Xanthomonas retroflexus, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, Microbacterium oxydans and Paenibacillus amylolyticus, were constructed and subjected to grazing by the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis. In monocultures, grazing strongly reduced planktonic cell numbers in P. amylolyticus and S. rhizophila and also X. retroflexus. At the same time, cell numbers in the underlying biofilms increased in S. rhizophila and X. retroflexus, but not in P. amylolyticus. This may be due to the fact that while grazing enhanced biofilm formation in the former two species, no biofilm was formed by P. amylolyticus in monoculture, either with or without grazing. In four-species biofilms, biofilm formation was higher than in the best monoculture, a strong biodiversity effect that was even more pronounced in the presence of grazing. While cell numbers of X. retroflexus, S. rhizophila, and P. amylolyticus in the planktonic fraction were greatly reduced in the presence of grazers, cell numbers of all three species strongly increased in the biofilm. Our results show that synergistic interactions between the four-species were important to induce biofilm formation, and suggest that bacterial members that produce more biofilm when exposed to the grazer not only protect themselves but also supported other members which are sensitive to grazing, thereby providing a “shared grazing protection” within the four-species biofilm model. Hence, complex interactions shape the dynamics of the biofilm and

  1. Interplay between cooperation-enhancing mechanisms in evolutionary games with tag-mediated interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzibeganovic, Tarik; Stauffer, Dietrich; Han, Xiao-Pu

    2018-04-01

    Cooperation is fundamental for the long-term survival of biological, social, and technological networks. Previously, mechanisms for the enhancement of cooperation, such as network reciprocity, have largely been studied in isolation and with often inconclusive findings. Here, we present an evolutionary, multiagent-based, and spatially explicit computer model to specifically address the interactive interplay between such mechanisms. We systematically investigate the effects of phenotypic diversity, network structure, and rewards on cooperative behavior emerging in a population of reproducing artificial decision makers playing tag-mediated evolutionary games. Cooperative interactions are rewarded such that both the benefits of recipients and costs of donators are affected by the reward size. The reward size is determined by the number of cooperative acts occurring within a given reward time frame. Our computational experiments reveal that small reward frames promote unconditional cooperation in populations with both low and high diversity, whereas large reward frames lead to cycles of conditional and unconditional strategies at high but not at low diversity. Moreover, an interaction between rewards and spatial structure shows that relative to small reward frames, there is a strong difference between the frequency of conditional cooperators populating rewired versus non-rewired networks when the reward frame is large. Notably, in a less diverse population, the total number of defections is comparable across different network topologies, whereas in more diverse environments defections become more frequent in a regularly structured than in a rewired, small-world network of contacts. Acknowledging the importance of such interaction effects in social dilemmas will have inevitable consequences for the future design of cooperation-enhancing protocols in large-scale, distributed, and decentralized systems such as peer-to-peer networks.

  2. Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote Viewing System (ICERVS): Final report, November 1994--September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote Viewing System (ICERVS) is a software tool for complex three-dimensional (3-D) visualization and modeling. Its primary purpose is to facilitate the use of robotic and telerobotic systems in remote and/or hazardous environments, where spatial information is provided by 3-D mapping sensors. ICERVS provides a robust, interactive system for viewing sensor data in 3-D and combines this with interactive geometric modeling capabilities that allow an operator to construct CAD models to match the remote environment. Part I of this report traces the development of ICERVS through three evolutionary phases: (1) development of first-generation software to render orthogonal view displays and wireframe models; (2) expansion of this software to include interactive viewpoint control, surface-shaded graphics, material (scalar and nonscalar) property data, cut/slice planes, color and visibility mapping, and generalized object models; (3) demonstration of ICERVS as a tool for the remediation of underground storage tanks (USTs) and the dismantlement of contaminated processing facilities. Part II of this report details the software design of ICERVS, with particular emphasis on its object-oriented architecture and user interface.

  3. Social and emotional relevance in face processing: Happy faces of future interaction partners enhance the LPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian eBublatzky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human face perception is modulated by both emotional valence and social relevance, but their interaction has rarely been examined. Event-related brain potentials (ERP to happy, neutral, and angry facial expressions with different degrees of social relevance were recorded. Social relevance was manipulated by presenting pictures of two specific face actors as future interaction partners (meet condition, whereas two other face actors remained non-relevant. As a further control condition all stimuli were presented without specific task instructions (passive viewing condition. A within-subject design (Facial Expression x Relevance x Task was implemented, where randomly ordered face stimuli of four actors (2 women, from the KDEF were presented for 1s to 26 participants (16 female. Results showed an augmented N170, early posterior negativity (EPN, and late positive potential (LPP for emotional in contrast to neutral facial expressions. Of particular interest, face processing varied as a function of instructed social relevance. Whereas the meet condition was accompanied with unspecific effects regardless of relevance (P1, EPN, viewing potential interaction partners was associated with increased LPP amplitudes. The LPP was specifically enhanced for happy facial expressions of the future interaction partners. This underscores that social relevance can impact face processing already at an early stage of visual processing. These findings are discussed within the framework of motivated attention and face processing theories.

  4. Criteria for Public Open Space Enhancement to Achieve Social Interaction: a Review Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, S. A.; Ismail, S.

    2017-12-01

    A This paper presents a various literatures, studies, transcripts and papers aiming to provide an overview of some theories and existing research on the significance of natural environments and green open spaces to achieve social interaction and outdoor recreation. The main objective of the paper is to identify the factors that affecting social interaction in green open spaces, through proving that an appropriate open spaces is important to enhance social interaction and community. This study employs (qualitative) summarizing content analysis method which mainly focused on collect and summarizing of documentation such as transcripts, articles, papers, and books from more than 25 source, regarding the importance of public open spaces for the community. The summarizing content analysis of this paper is the fundament for a qualitative oriented procedure of text interpretation used to analyse the information gathered. Results of this study confirms that sound social interaction need an appropriate physical space including criteria of: design, activities, access and linkage, administration and maintenance, place attachment and users’ characteristics, also previous studies in this area have a health perspective with measures of physical activity of open spaces in general.

  5. Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote Viewing System (ICERVS): Final report, November 1994--September 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote Viewing System (ICERVS) is a software tool for complex three-dimensional (3-D) visualization and modeling. Its primary purpose is to facilitate the use of robotic and telerobotic systems in remote and/or hazardous environments, where spatial information is provided by 3-D mapping sensors. ICERVS provides a robust, interactive system for viewing sensor data in 3-D and combines this with interactive geometric modeling capabilities that allow an operator to construct CAD models to match the remote environment. Part I of this report traces the development of ICERVS through three evolutionary phases: (1) development of first-generation software to render orthogonal view displays and wireframe models; (2) expansion of this software to include interactive viewpoint control, surface-shaded graphics, material (scalar and nonscalar) property data, cut/slice planes, color and visibility mapping, and generalized object models; (3) demonstration of ICERVS as a tool for the remediation of underground storage tanks (USTs) and the dismantlement of contaminated processing facilities. Part II of this report details the software design of ICERVS, with particular emphasis on its object-oriented architecture and user interface

  6. Enhanced SUMOylation of proteins containing a SUMO-interacting motif by SUMO-Ubc9 fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eui Tae; Kim, Kyeong Kyu; Matunis, Mike J.; Ahn, Jin-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Identifying new targets for SUMO and understanding the function of protein SUMOylation are largely limited by low level of SUMOylation. It was found recently that Ubc9, the SUMO E2 conjugating enzyme, is covalently modified by SUMO at a lysine 14 in the N-terminal alpha helix, and that SUMO-modified Ubc9 has enhanced conjugation activity for certain target proteins containing a SUMO-interacting motif (SIM). Here, we show that, compared to intact Ubc9, the SUMO-Ubc9 fusion protein has higher conjugating activity for SIM-containing targets such as Sp100 and human cytomegalovirus IE2. Assays using an IE2 SIM mutant revealed the requirement of SIM for the enhanced IE2 SUMOylation by SUMO-Ubc9. In pull-down assays with cell extracts, the SUMO-Ubc9 fusion protein bound to more diverse cellular proteins and interacted with some SIM-containing proteins with higher affinities than Ubc9. Therefore, the devised SUMO-Ubc9 fusion will be useful for identifying SIM-containing SUMO targets and producing SUMO-modified proteins.

  7. Insulin receptor substrate-3, interacting with Bcl-3, enhances p50 NF-{kappa}B activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabuta, Tomohiro [Departments of Animal Sciences and Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Department of Degenerative Neurological Diseases, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo 187-8502 (Japan); Hakuno, Fumihiko; Cho, Yoshitake; Yamanaka, Daisuke; Chida, Kazuhiro [Departments of Animal Sciences and Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Asano, Tomoichiro [Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan); Wada, Keiji [Department of Degenerative Neurological Diseases, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo 187-8502 (Japan); Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro, E-mail: atkshin@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Departments of Animal Sciences and Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan)

    2010-04-09

    The insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins are major substrates of both insulin receptor and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I receptor tyrosine kinases. Previously, we reported that IRS-3 is localized to both cytosol and nucleus, and possesses transcriptional activity. In the present study, we identified Bcl-3 as a novel binding protein to IRS-3. Bcl-3 is a nuclear protein, which forms a complex with the homodimer of p50 NF-{kappa}B, leading to enhancement of transcription through p50 NF-{kappa}B. We found that Bcl-3 interacts with the pleckstrin homology domain and the phosphotyrosine binding domain of IRS-3, and that IRS-3 interacts with the ankyrin repeat domain of Bcl-3. In addition, IRS-3 augmented the binding activity of p50 to the NF-{kappa}B DNA binding site, as well as the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}-induced transcriptional activity of NF-{kappa}B. Lastly, IRS-3 enhanced NF-{kappa}B-dependent anti-apoptotic gene induction and consequently inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced cell death. This series of results proposes a novel function for IRS-3 as a transcriptional regulator in TNF-{alpha} signaling, distinct from its function as a substrate of insulin/IGF receptor kinases.

  8. Localization enhanced and degraded topological order in interacting p -wave wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kells, G.; Moran, N.; Meidan, D.

    2018-02-01

    We numerically study the effect of disorder on the stability of the many-body zero mode in a Kitaev chain with local interactions. Our numerical procedure allows us to resolve the position space and multiparticle structure of the zero modes, as well as providing estimates for the mean energy splitting between pairs of states of opposite fermion parity, over the full many-body spectrum. We find that the parameter space of a clean system can be divided into regions where interaction induced decay transitions are suppressed (region I) and where they are not (region II). In region I we observe that disorder has an adverse effect on the zero mode, which extends further into the bulk and is accompanied by an increased energy splitting between pairs of states of opposite parity. Conversely region II sees a more intricate effect of disorder, showing an enhancement of localization at the system's end accompanied by a reduction in the mean pairwise energy splitting. We discuss our results in the context of the many-body localization (MBL). We show that while the mechanism that drives the MBL transition also contributes to the fock-space localization of the many-body zero modes, measures that characterize the degree of MBL do not necessarily correlate with an enhancement of the zero mode or an improved stability of the topological region.

  9. IQGAP1 interacts with Aurora-A and enhances its stability and its role in cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Ning; Shi, Ji; Wang, Dapeng; Tong, Tong; Wang, Mingrong; Fan, Feiyue; Zhan, Qimin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► IQGAP1 interacts with Aurora-A through its RGCt domain. ► Overexpression of IQGAP1 prevents ubiquitination of Aurora-A. ► Overexpression of IQGAP1 enhances the protein stability of Aurora-A. ► Overexpression of IQGAP1 promotes the kinase activity of Aurora-A. -- Abstract: IQGAP1, a ubiquitously expressed scaffold protein, has been identified in a wide range of organisms. It participates in multiple aspects of cellular events by binding to and regulating numerous interacting proteins. In our present study, we identified a new IQGAP1 binding protein named Aurora-A which is an oncogenic protein and overexpressed in various types of human tumors. In vitro analysis with GST-Aurora-A fusion proteins showed a physical interaction between Aurora-A and IQGAP1. Moreover, the binding also occurred in HeLa cells as endogenous Aurora-A co-immunoprecipitated with IQGAP1 from the cell lysates. Overexpression of IQGAP1 resulted in an elevation of both expression and activity of Aurora-A kinase. Endogenous IQGAP1 knockdown by siRNA promoted Aurora-A degradation whereas IQGAP1 overexpression enhanced the stability of Aurora-A. Additionally, we documented that the IQGAP1-induced cell proliferation was suppressed by knocking down Aurora-A expression. Taken together, our results showed an unidentified relationship between Aurora-A and IQGAP1, and provided a new insight into the molecular mechanism by which IQGAP1 played a regulatory role in cancer.

  10. Metabolic syndrome enhances endoplasmic reticulum, oxidative stress and leukocyte-endothelium interactions in PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuls, Celia; Rovira-Llopis, Susana; Martinez de Marañon, Aranzazu; Veses, Silvia; Jover, Ana; Gomez, Marcelino; Rocha, Milagros; Hernandez-Mijares, Antonio; Victor, Victor M

    2017-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with insulin resistance, which can lead to metabolic syndrome (MetS). Oxidative stress and leukocyte-endothelium interactions are related to PCOS. Our aim was to evaluate whether the presence of MetS in PCOS patients can influence endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress and leukocyte-endothelium interactions. This was a prospective controlled study conducted in an academic medical center. The study population consisted of 148 PCOS women (116 without/32 with MetS) and 112 control subjects (87 without / 25 with MetS). Metabolic parameters, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, ER stress markers (GRP78, sXBP1, ATF6), leukocyte-endothelium interactions, adhesion molecules (VCAM-1, ICAM-1, E-Selectin), TNF-α and IL-6 were determined. Total ROS, inflammatory parameters and adhesion molecules were enhanced in the presence of MetS (pPCOS+MetS group showed higher levels of IL-6 and ICAM-1 than controls (pPCOS and PCOS+MetS groups vs their respective controls (pPCOS groups (pPCOS+MetS patients exhibited higher GRP78 and ATF6 levels than controls and PCOS patients without MetS (pPCOS women, HOMA-IR was positively correlated with ICAM-1 (r=0.501; pPCOS, all of which are related to vascular complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Line-Drawing Enhanced Interactive Mural Restoration for Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X. Y.; Han, Y.; Sun, Z. J.; Ma, X. J.; Xu, Y. Q.

    2017-08-01

    Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes in western China is one of the most famous World Cultural Heritage Sites, known for its glorious Chinese Buddhist art spanning a period of 1,000 years. However, it has been suffering from damage and degradation caused by man-made and natural factors. In this article, we present a novel line-drawing enhanced interactive system for digital restoration of damaged murals in Mogao Grottoes. Our system consists of four components, namely data pre-processing, damaged area selection, line-drawing segmentation, and mural restoration. Each component is a hybrid of efficient algorithms and user interactions. We introduce the infrastructure and process of using our system, from data capture and collection, database establishment, to interactive restoration. We conduct a user study with 15 participants who have varied experiences with and skills on repairing murals and editing images. Results and feedback suggest that our system can achieve satisfactory restoration results without overburdening the users. It can benefit both experts trained in restoration and amateurs interested in cultural heritage conservation.

  12. DEVELOPING VISUAL NOVEL GAME WITH SPEECH-RECOGNITION INTERACTIVITY TO ENHANCE STUDENTS’ MASTERY ON ENGLISH EXPRESSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Anggraeni Amalo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of English-expressions has always been done through conversation samples in form of written texts, audio recordings, and videos. In the meantime, the development of computer-aided learning technology has made autonomous language learning possible. Game, as one of computer-aided learning technology products, can serve as a medium to provide educational contents like that of language teaching and learning. Visual Novel is considered as a conversational game that is suitable to be combined with English-expressions material. Unlike the other click-based interaction Visual Novel Games, the visual novel game in this research implements speech recognition as the interaction trigger. Hence, this paper aims at elaborating how visual novel games are utilized to deliver English-expressions with speech recognition command for the interaction. This research used Research and Development (R&D method with Experimental design through control and experimental groups to measure its effectiveness in enhancing students’ English-expressions mastery. ANOVA was utilized to prove the significant differences between the control and experimental groups. It is expected that the result of this development and experiment can devote benefits to the English teaching and learning, especially on English-expressions.

  13. The Effects of Using the Kinect Motion-Sensing Interactive System to Enhance English Learning for Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wen Fu

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test whether the Kinect motion-sensing interactive system (KMIS) enhanced students' English vocabulary learning, while also comparing the system's effectiveness against a traditional computer-mouse interface. Both interfaces utilized an interactive game with a questioning strategy. One-hundred and twenty…

  14. Cul3-mediated Nrf2 ubiquitination and antioxidant response element (ARE) activation are dependent on the partial molar volume at position 151 of Keap1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggler, Aimee L; Small, Evan; Hannink, Mark; Mesecar, Andrew D

    2009-07-29

    Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) is a transcription factor that activates transcription of a battery of cytoprotective genes by binding to the ARE (antioxidant response element). Nrf2 is repressed by the cysteine-rich Keap1 (kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1) protein, which targets Nrf2 for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by a Cul3 (cullin 3)-mediated ubiquitination complex. We find that modification of Cys(151) of human Keap1, by mutation to a tryptophan, relieves the repression by Keap1 and allows activation of the ARE by Nrf2. The Keap1 C151W substitution has a decreased affinity for Cul3, and can no longer serve to target Nrf2 for ubiquitination, though it retains its affinity for Nrf2. A series of 12 mutant Keap1 proteins, each containing a different residue at position 151, was constructed to explore the chemistry required for this effect. The series reveals that the extent to which Keap1 loses the ability to target Nrf2 for degradation, and hence the ability to repress ARE activation, correlates well with the partial molar volume of the residue. Other physico-chemical properties do not appear to contribute significantly to the effect. Based on this finding, a structural model is proposed whereby large residues at position 151 cause steric clashes that lead to alteration of the Keap1-Cul3 interaction. This model has significant implications for how electrophiles which modify Cys(151), disrupt the repressive function of Keap1.

  15. ARA24/Ran enhances the androgen-dependent NH2- and COOH-terminal interaction of the androgen receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Naoki; Ohmori, Yuji; Yamaji, Ryoichi; Higashimura, Yasuki; Okamoto, Kazuki; Isohashi, Fumihide; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Inui, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) acts as an androgen-dependent transcription factor controlling the development of prostate tissue. Upon binding to androgen, AR undergoes a dynamic structural change leading to interaction between the NH 2 - and COOH-terminal regions of AR (N-C interaction). ARA24/Ran, which is a small GTPase, functions as an AR coactivator. Here, we report that ARA24/Ran enhances the N-C interaction of AR. The constitutively GTP- or GDP-bound form of ARA24/Ran repressed the AR N-C interaction. ARA24/Ran did not enhance the transcriptional activities of AR mutants that disrupt the N-C interaction. ARA24/Ran formed an endogenous protein complex with nuclear AR, but not cytoplasmic AR. Unlike SRC-1 with the positive activity for AR N-C interaction, ARA24/Ran did not enhance the transcriptional activity of the COOH-terminal domain-deleted AR mutant that is constitutively localized in the nucleus. These data demonstrate that ARA24/Ran increases AR transactivation by enhancing the AR N-C interaction in the nucleus

  16. Interactive computer-enhanced remote viewing system with data fusion capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Robotic missions will increasingly involve sending autonomous and semiautonomous vehicles into unstructured work environments. Mission success will often depend on the ability to accurately map scenes, to combine information from a variety of sensor types, to convey the three-dimensional (3-D) characteristics of these spaces to operators, and to construct geometric model task planning and collision avoidance. To meet these needs, an interactive computer-enhanced remote viewing system (ICERVS) has been developed with general-purpose capabilities for data visualization and geometric modeling. ICERVS has been augmented with software that enables fusing data from multiple mapping sensors and poses to reduce the error effects in individual data sets and improve the mapping accuracy of a work space

  17. Analysis of enhanced modal damping ratio in porous materials using an acoustic-structure interaction model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kook, Junghwan; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the enhancement of the damping ratio of a structure with embedded microbeam resonators in air-filled internal cavities. In this context, we discuss theoretical aspects in the framework of the effective modal damping ratio (MDR) and derive an approximate...... relation expressing how an increased damping due to the acoustic medium surrounding the microbeam affect the MDR of the macrobeam. We further analyze the effect of including dissipation of the acoustic medium by using finite element (FE) analysis with acoustic-structure interaction (ASI) using a simple...... phenomenological acoustic loss model. An eigenvalue analysis is carried out to demonstrate the improvement of the damping characteristic of the macrobeam with the resonating microbeam in the lossy air and the results are compared to a forced vibration analysis for a macrobeam with one or multiple embedded...

  18. Heat Recovery from Multiple-Fracture Enhanced Geothermal Systems: The Effect of Thermoelastic Fracture Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vik, Hedda Slatlem; Salimzadeh, Saeed; Nick, Hamid

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of thermoelastic interactions between multiple parallel fractures on energy production from a multiple-fracture enhanced geothermal system. A coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical finite element model has been developed that accounts for non-isothermal fluid flow within...... increased to maximise the net energy production from the system. Otherwise, the multiple-fracture system fails to improve the energy recovery from the geothermal reservoir, as initially intended....... aperture in the adjacent fracture, and facilitates the creation of favourable flow pathways between the injection and production wells. These flow paths reduce the energy production from the system. The effects of fracture spacing, reservoir temperature gradient and mechanical properties of the rock matrix...

  19. Towards passive and active laser stabilization using cavity-enhanced atomic interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäffer, Stefan Alaric; Christensen, Bjarke Takashi Røjle; Rathmann, Stefan Mossor

    2017-01-01

    Ultra stable frequency references such as the ones used in optical atomic clocks and for quantum metrology may be obtained by stabilizing a laser to an optical cavity that is stable over time. State-of-the-art frequency references are constructed in this way, but their stabilities are currently...... experimental efforts derived from these proposals, to use cavity-enhanced interaction with atomic 88Sr samples as a frequency reference for laser stabilization. Such systems can be realized using both passive and active approaches where either the atomic phase response is used as an error signal, or the narrow...... atomic transition itself is used as a source for a spectrally pure laser. Both approaches shows the promise of being able to compete with the current state of the art in stable lasers and have similar limitations on their ultimately achievable linewidths [1, 2]....

  20. Interacting with target tracking algorithms in a gaze-enhanced motion video analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hild, Jutta; Krüger, Wolfgang; Heinze, Norbert; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth; Beyerer, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Motion video analysis is a challenging task, particularly if real-time analysis is required. It is therefore an important issue how to provide suitable assistance for the human operator. Given that the use of customized video analysis systems is more and more established, one supporting measure is to provide system functions which perform subtasks of the analysis. Recent progress in the development of automated image exploitation algorithms allow, e.g., real-time moving target tracking. Another supporting measure is to provide a user interface which strives to reduce the perceptual, cognitive and motor load of the human operator for example by incorporating the operator's visual focus of attention. A gaze-enhanced user interface is able to help here. This work extends prior work on automated target recognition, segmentation, and tracking algorithms as well as about the benefits of a gaze-enhanced user interface for interaction with moving targets. We also propose a prototypical system design aiming to combine both the qualities of the human observer's perception and the automated algorithms in order to improve the overall performance of a real-time video analysis system. In this contribution, we address two novel issues analyzing gaze-based interaction with target tracking algorithms. The first issue extends the gaze-based triggering of a target tracking process, e.g., investigating how to best relaunch in the case of track loss. The second issue addresses the initialization of tracking algorithms without motion segmentation where the operator has to provide the system with the object's image region in order to start the tracking algorithm.

  1. Enhanced audio-visual interactions in the auditory cortex of elderly cochlear-implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierholz, Irina; Finke, Mareike; Schulte, Svenja; Hauthal, Nadine; Kantzke, Christoph; Rach, Stefan; Büchner, Andreas; Dengler, Reinhard; Sandmann, Pascale

    2015-10-01

    Auditory deprivation and the restoration of hearing via a cochlear implant (CI) can induce functional plasticity in auditory cortical areas. How these plastic changes affect the ability to integrate combined auditory (A) and visual (V) information is not yet well understood. In the present study, we used electroencephalography (EEG) to examine whether age, temporary deafness and altered sensory experience with a CI can affect audio-visual (AV) interactions in post-lingually deafened CI users. Young and elderly CI users and age-matched NH listeners performed a speeded response task on basic auditory, visual and audio-visual stimuli. Regarding the behavioral results, a redundant signals effect, that is, faster response times to cross-modal (AV) than to both of the two modality-specific stimuli (A, V), was revealed for all groups of participants. Moreover, in all four groups, we found evidence for audio-visual integration. Regarding event-related responses (ERPs), we observed a more pronounced visual modulation of the cortical auditory response at N1 latency (approximately 100 ms after stimulus onset) in the elderly CI users when compared with young CI users and elderly NH listeners. Thus, elderly CI users showed enhanced audio-visual binding which may be a consequence of compensatory strategies developed due to temporary deafness and/or degraded sensory input after implantation. These results indicate that the combination of aging, sensory deprivation and CI facilitates the coupling between the auditory and the visual modality. We suggest that this enhancement in multisensory interactions could be used to optimize auditory rehabilitation, especially in elderly CI users, by the application of strong audio-visually based rehabilitation strategies after implant switch-on. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A strategy for prioritising interactive measures for enhancing energy efficiency of air-conditioned buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.L.; Yik, F.W.H.; Jones, P.

    2003-01-01

    Within a given budget, selection of the optimal set of measures for enhancing the energy efficiency of a building is often based on the relative order of the feasible measures, prioritised according to either the life cycle cost saving or the economic benefit-cost ratio of the measures. A sensitivity analysis shows that, compared to the life cycle cost analysis, the benefit-cost ratio analysis is less susceptible to the influence of uncertainties in the estimates of the present value of the life cycle energy saving and cost. Where interactive measures are involved, the effects of some are dependent on the co-existence of other measures. The prioritisation determined according to the benefit-cost ratios of individual measures, each taken in the absence of all the others, can lead to the choice of a range of measures that is below optimal. Selection of the optimal set of energy efficiency enhancement measures requires a multistep approach, which is exemplified by the case study described in the paper

  3. Toward Multimodal Human-Robot Interaction to Enhance Active Participation of Users in Gait Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Kai; Liu, Honghai; Zhang, Dingguo

    2017-11-01

    Robotic exoskeletons for physical rehabilitation have been utilized for retraining patients suffering from paraplegia and enhancing motor recovery in recent years. However, users are not voluntarily involved in most systems. This paper aims to develop a locomotion trainer with multiple gait patterns, which can be controlled by the active motion intention of users. A multimodal human-robot interaction (HRI) system is established to enhance subject's active participation during gait rehabilitation, which includes cognitive HRI (cHRI) and physical HRI (pHRI). The cHRI adopts brain-computer interface based on steady-state visual evoked potential. The pHRI is realized via admittance control based on electromyography. A central pattern generator is utilized to produce rhythmic and continuous lower joint trajectories, and its state variables are regulated by cHRI and pHRI. A custom-made leg exoskeleton prototype with the proposed multimodal HRI is tested on healthy subjects and stroke patients. The results show that voluntary and active participation can be effectively involved to achieve various assistive gait patterns.

  4. Mobile Mixed-Reality Interfaces That Enhance Human–Robot Interaction in Shared Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared A. Frank

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although user interfaces with gesture-based input and augmented graphics have promoted intuitive human–robot interactions (HRI, they are often implemented in remote applications on research-grade platforms requiring significant training and limiting operator mobility. This paper proposes a mobile mixed-reality interface approach to enhance HRI in shared spaces. As a user points a mobile device at the robot’s workspace, a mixed-reality environment is rendered providing a common frame of reference for the user and robot to effectively communicate spatial information for performing object manipulation tasks, improving the user’s situational awareness while interacting with augmented graphics to intuitively command the robot. An evaluation with participants is conducted to examine task performance and user experience associated with the proposed interface strategy in comparison to conventional approaches that utilize egocentric or exocentric views from cameras mounted on the robot or in the environment, respectively. Results indicate that, despite the suitability of the conventional approaches in remote applications, the proposed interface approach provides comparable task performance and user experiences in shared spaces without the need to install operator stations or vision systems on or around the robot. Moreover, the proposed interface approach provides users the flexibility to direct robots from their own visual perspective (at the expense of some physical workload and leverages the sensing capabilities of the tablet to expand the robot’s perceptual range.

  5. The Influence of Interactive Multimedia Technology to Enhance Achievement Students on Practice Skills in Mechanical Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Made Rajendra, I.; Made Sudana, I.

    2018-01-01

    Interactive multimedia technology empowers the educational process by means of increased interaction between teachers and the students. The utilization of technology in the instructional media development has an important role in the increase of the quality of teaching and learning achievements of students. The application of multimedia technology in the instructional media development is able to integrate aspects of knowledge and skills. The success of multimedia technology has revolutionized teaching and learning methods. The design of the study was quasi-experimental with pre and post. The instrument used is the form of questionnaires and tests This study reports research findings indicated that there is a significance difference between the mean performances of students in the experimental group than those students in the control group. The students in the experimental group performed better in mechanical technology practice and in retention test than those in the control group. The study recommended that multimedia instructional tool is an effective tool to enhance achievement students on practice skills in mechanical Technology.

  6. Responsive eLearning exercises to enhance student interaction with metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, William J; Dreaver-Charles, Kristine

    2018-05-01

    Successful learning of biochemistry requires students to engage with the material. In the past this often involved students writing out pathways by hand, and more recently directing students to online resources such as videos, songs, and animated slide presentations. However, even these latter resources do not really provide students an opportunity to engage with the material in an active fashion. As part of an online introductory metabolism course that was developed at our university, we created a series of twelve online interactive activities using Adobe Captivate 9. These activities targeted glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, the pentose phosphate pathway, glycogen metabolism, the citric acid cycle, and fatty acid oxidation. The interactive exercises consisted of two types. One involved dragging objects such as names of enzymes or allosteric modifiers to their correct drop locations such as a particular point in a metabolic pathway, a specific enzyme, and so forth. A second type involved clicking on objects, locations within a pathway, and so forth, in response to a particular question. In both types of exercises, students received feedback on their decisions in order to enhance learning. The student feedback received on these activities was very positive, and indicated that they found them to increase their confidence in the material and that they had learned the key principles of each pathway. © 2018 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 46(3):223-229, 2018. © 2018 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  7. Counter-propagating wave interaction for contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, G; Bosch, J G; Ten Kate, G L; De Jong, N; Van der Steen, A F W; Shamdasani, V; Entrekin, R

    2012-01-01

    Most techniques for contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging require linear propagation to detect nonlinear scattering of contrast agent microbubbles. Waveform distortion due to nonlinear propagation impairs their ability to distinguish microbubbles from tissue. As a result, tissue can be misclassified as microbubbles, and contrast agent concentration can be overestimated; therefore, these artifacts can significantly impair the quality of medical diagnoses. Contrary to biological tissue, lipid-coated gas microbubbles used as a contrast agent allow the interaction of two acoustic waves propagating in opposite directions (counter-propagation). Based on that principle, we describe a strategy to detect microbubbles that is free from nonlinear propagation artifacts. In vitro images were acquired with an ultrasound scanner in a phantom of tissue-mimicking material with a cavity containing a contrast agent. Unlike the default mode of the scanner using amplitude modulation to detect microbubbles, the pulse sequence exploiting counter-propagating wave interaction creates no pseudoenhancement behind the cavity in the contrast image. (fast track communication)

  8. Hydrogen sulfide interacts with calcium signaling to enhance the chromium tolerance in Setaria italica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Huihui; Jing, Tao; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Liping; Jin, Zhuping; Pei, Yanxi

    2014-12-01

    The oscillation of intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) concentration is a primary event in numerous biological processes in plants, including stress response. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an emerging gasotransmitter, was found to have positive effects in plants responding to chromium (Cr(6+)) stress through interacting with Ca(2+) signaling. While Ca(2+) resemblances H2S in mediating biotic and abiotic stresses, crosstalk between the two pathways remains unclear. In this study, Ca(2+) signaling interacted with H2S to produce a complex physiological response, which enhanced the Cr(6+) tolerance in foxtail millet (Setaria italica). Results indicate that Cr(6+) stress activated endogenous H2S synthesis as well as Ca(2+) signaling. Moreover, toxic symptoms caused by Cr(6+) stress were strongly moderated by 50μM H2S and 20mM Ca(2+). Conversely, treatments with H2S synthesis inhibitor and Ca(2+) chelators prior to Cr(6+)-exposure aggravated these toxic symptoms. Interestingly, Ca(2+) upregulated expression of two important factors in metal metabolism, MT3A and PCS, which participated in the biosynthesis of heavy metal chelators, in a H2S-dependent manner to cope with Cr(6+) stress. These findings also suggest that the H2S dependent pathway is a component of the Ca(2+) activating antioxidant system and H2S partially contributes Ca(2+)-activating antioxidant system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Using Discursis to enhance the qualitative analysis of hospital pharmacist-patient interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette A M Chevalier

    Full Text Available Pharmacist-patient communication during medication counselling has been successfully investigated using Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT. Communication researchers in other healthcare professions have utilised Discursis software as an adjunct to their manual qualitative analysis processes. Discursis provides a visual, chronological representation of communication exchanges and identifies patterns of interactant engagement.The aim of this study was to describe how Discursis software was used to enhance previously conducted qualitative analysis of pharmacist-patient interactions (by visualising pharmacist-patient speech patterns, episodes of engagement, and identifying CAT strategies employed by pharmacists within these episodes.Visual plots from 48 transcribed audio recordings of pharmacist-patient exchanges were generated by Discursis. Representative plots were selected to show moderate-high and low- level speaker engagement. Details of engagement were investigated for pharmacist application of CAT strategies (approximation, interpretability, discourse management, emotional expression, and interpersonal control.Discursis plots allowed for identification of distinct patterns occurring within pharmacist-patient exchanges. Moderate-high pharmacist-patient engagement was characterised by multiple off-diagonal squares while alternating single coloured squares depicted low engagement. Engagement episodes were associated with multiple CAT strategies such as discourse management (open-ended questions. Patterns reflecting pharmacist or patient speaker dominance were dependant on clinical setting.Discursis analysis of pharmacist-patient interactions, a novel application of the technology in health communication, was found to be an effective visualisation tool to pin-point episodes for CAT analysis. Discursis has numerous practical and theoretical applications for future health communication research and training. Researchers can use the software to

  10. Using Discursis to enhance the qualitative analysis of hospital pharmacist-patient interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Bernadette A M; Watson, Bernadette M; Barras, Michael A; Cottrell, William N; Angus, Daniel J

    2018-01-01

    Pharmacist-patient communication during medication counselling has been successfully investigated using Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT). Communication researchers in other healthcare professions have utilised Discursis software as an adjunct to their manual qualitative analysis processes. Discursis provides a visual, chronological representation of communication exchanges and identifies patterns of interactant engagement. The aim of this study was to describe how Discursis software was used to enhance previously conducted qualitative analysis of pharmacist-patient interactions (by visualising pharmacist-patient speech patterns, episodes of engagement, and identifying CAT strategies employed by pharmacists within these episodes). Visual plots from 48 transcribed audio recordings of pharmacist-patient exchanges were generated by Discursis. Representative plots were selected to show moderate-high and low- level speaker engagement. Details of engagement were investigated for pharmacist application of CAT strategies (approximation, interpretability, discourse management, emotional expression, and interpersonal control). Discursis plots allowed for identification of distinct patterns occurring within pharmacist-patient exchanges. Moderate-high pharmacist-patient engagement was characterised by multiple off-diagonal squares while alternating single coloured squares depicted low engagement. Engagement episodes were associated with multiple CAT strategies such as discourse management (open-ended questions). Patterns reflecting pharmacist or patient speaker dominance were dependant on clinical setting. Discursis analysis of pharmacist-patient interactions, a novel application of the technology in health communication, was found to be an effective visualisation tool to pin-point episodes for CAT analysis. Discursis has numerous practical and theoretical applications for future health communication research and training. Researchers can use the software to support

  11. Mental practice with interactive 3D visual aids enhances surgical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiasemidou, Marina; Glassman, Daniel; Mushtaq, Faisal; Athanasiou, Christos; Williams, Mark-Mon; Jayne, David; Miskovic, Danilo

    2017-10-01

    Evidence suggests that Mental Practice (MP) could be used to finesse surgical skills. However, MP is cognitively demanding and may be dependent on the ability of individuals to produce mental images. In this study, we hypothesised that the provision of interactive 3D visual aids during MP could facilitate surgical skill performance. 20 surgical trainees were case-matched to one of three different preparation methods prior to performing a simulated Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (LC). Two intervention groups underwent a 25-minute MP session; one with interactive 3D visual aids depicting the relevant surgical anatomy (3D-MP group, n = 5) and one without (MP-Only, n = 5). A control group (n = 10) watched a didactic video of a real LC. Scores relating to technical performance and safety were recorded by a surgical simulator. The Control group took longer to complete the procedure relative to the 3D&MP condition (p = .002). The number of movements was also statistically different across groups (p = .001), with the 3D&MP group making fewer movements relative to controls (p = .001). Likewise, the control group moved further in comparison to the 3D&MP condition and the MP-Only condition (p = .004). No reliable differences were observed for safety metrics. These data provide evidence for the potential value of MP in improving performance. Furthermore, they suggest that 3D interactive visual aids during MP could potentially enhance performance, beyond the benefits of MP alone. These findings pave the way for future RCTs on surgical preparation and performance.

  12. Enhancement of proinflammatory and procoagulant responses to silica particles by monocyte-endothelial cell interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inorganic particles, such as drug carriers or contrast agents, are often introduced into the vascular system. Many key components of the in vivo vascular environment include monocyte-endothelial cell interactions, which are important in the initiation of cardiovascular disease. To better understand the effect of particles on vascular function, the present study explored the direct biological effects of particles on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and monocytes (THP-1 cells. In addition, the integrated effects and possible mechanism of particle-mediated monocyte-endothelial cell interactions were investigated using a coculture model of HUVECs and THP-1 cells. Fe3O4 and SiO2 particles were chosen as the test materials in the present study. Results The cell viability data from an MTS assay showed that exposure to Fe3O4 or SiO2 particles at concentrations of 200 μg/mL and above significantly decreased the cell viability of HUVECs, but no significant loss in viability was observed in the THP-1 cells. TEM images indicated that with the accumulation of SiO2 particles in the cells, the size, structure and morphology of the lysosomes significantly changed in HUVECs, whereas the lysosomes of THP-1 cells were not altered. Our results showed that reactive oxygen species (ROS generation; the production of interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and IL-1β; and the expression of CD106, CD62E and tissue factor in HUVECs and monocytes were significantly enhanced to a greater degree in the SiO2-particle-activated cocultures compared with the individual cell types alone. In contrast, exposure to Fe3O4 particles had no impact on the activation of monocytes or endothelial cells in monoculture or coculture. Moreover, using treatment with the supernatants of SiO2-particle-stimulated monocytes or HUVECs, we found that the enhancement of proinflammatory response by SiO2

  13. Atypical energetic particle events observed prior energetic particle enhancements associated with corotating interaction regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabarova, Olga; Malandraki, Olga; Zank, Gary; Jackson, Bernard; Bisi, Mario; Desai, Mihir; Li, Gang; le Roux, Jakobus; Yu, Hsiu-Shan

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies of mechanisms of particle acceleration in the heliosphere have revealed the importance of the comprehensive analysis of stream-stream interactions as well as the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) - stream interactions that often occur in the solar wind, producing huge magnetic cavities bounded by strong current sheets. Such cavities are usually filled with small-scale magnetic islands that trap and re-accelerate energetic particles (Zank et al. ApJ, 2014, 2015; le Roux et al. ApJ, 2015, 2016; Khabarova et al. ApJ, 2015, 2016). Crossings of these regions are associated with unusual variations in the energetic particle flux up to several MeV/nuc near the Earth's orbit. These energetic particle flux enhancements called "atypical energetic particle events" (AEPEs) are not associated with standard mechanisms of particle acceleration. The analysis of multi-spacecraft measurements of energetic particle flux, plasma and the interplanetary magnetic field shows that AEPEs have a local origin as they are observed by different spacecraft with a time delay corresponding to the solar wind propagation from one spacecraft to another, which is a signature of local particle acceleration in the region embedded in expanding and rotating background solar wind. AEPEs are often observed before the arrival of corotating interaction regions (CIRs) or stream interaction regions (SIRs) to the Earth's orbit. When fast solar wind streams catch up with slow solar wind, SIRs of compressed heated plasma or more regular CIRs are created at the leading edge of the high-speed stream. Since coronal holes are often long-lived structures, the same CIR re-appears often for several consecutive solar rotations. At low heliographic latitudes, such CIRs are typically bounded by forward and reverse waves on their leading and trailing edges, respectively, that steepen into shocks at heliocentric distances beyond 1 AU. Energetic ion increases have been frequently observed in association with CIR

  14. Cognitive enhancers (Nootropics). Part 3: drugs interacting with targets other than receptors or enzymes. Disease-modifying drugs. Update 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froestl, Wolfgang; Pfeifer, Andrea; Muhs, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Scientists working in the field of Alzheimer's disease and, in particular, cognitive enhancers, are very productive. The review "Drugs interacting with Targets other than Receptors or Enzymes. Disease-modifying Drugs" was accepted in October 2012. In the last 20 months, new targets for the potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease were identified. Enormous progress was realized in the pharmacological characterization of natural products with cognitive enhancing properties. This review covers the evolution of research in this field through May 2014.

  15. Contactless ultrasonic energy transfer for wireless systems: acoustic-piezoelectric structure interaction modeling and performance enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahab, S; Erturk, A

    2014-01-01

    There are several applications of wireless electronic components with little or no ambient energy available to harvest, yet wireless battery charging for such systems is still of great interest. Example applications range from biomedical implants to sensors located in hazardous environments. Energy transfer based on the propagation of acoustic waves at ultrasonic frequencies is a recently explored alternative that offers increased transmitter-receiver distance, reduced loss and the elimination of electromagnetic fields. As this research area receives growing attention, there is an increased need for fully coupled model development to quantify the energy transfer characteristics, with a focus on the transmitter, receiver, medium, geometric and material parameters. We present multiphysics modeling and case studies of the contactless ultrasonic energy transfer for wireless electronic components submerged in fluid. The source is a pulsating sphere, and the receiver is a piezoelectric bar operating in the 33-mode of piezoelectricity with a fundamental resonance frequency above the audible frequency range. The goal is to quantify the electrical power delivered to the load (connected to the receiver) in terms of the source strength. Both the analytical and finite element models have been developed for the resulting acoustic-piezoelectric structure interaction problem. Resistive and resistive–inductive electrical loading cases are presented, and optimality conditions are discussed. Broadband power transfer is achieved by optimal resistive-reactive load tuning for performance enhancement and frequency-wise robustness. Significant enhancement of the power output is reported due to the use of a hard piezoelectric receiver (PZT-8) instead of a soft counterpart (PZT-5H) as a result of reduced material damping. The analytical multiphysics modeling approach given in this work can be used to predict and optimize the coupled system dynamics with very good accuracy and

  16. Neuron-astrocyte interaction enhance GABAergic synaptic transmission in a manner dependent on key metabolic enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław eKaczor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain and mechanisms of GABAergic inhibition have been intensely investigated in the past decades. Recent studies provided evidence for an important role of astrocytes in shaping GABAergic currents. One of the most obvious, but yet poorly understood, mechanisms of the cross-talk between GABAergic currents and astrocytes is metabolism including neurotransmitter homeostasis. In particular, how modulation of GABAergic currents by astrocytes depends on key enzymes involved in cellular metabolism remains largely unknown. To address this issue, we have considered two simple models of neuronal cultures: nominally astrocyte-free neuronal culture (NC and neuronal-astrocytic co-cultures (ANCC and miniature Inhibitory Postsynaptic Currents (mIPSCs were recorded in control conditions and in the presence of respective enzyme blockers. We report that enrichment of neuronal culture with astrocytes results in a marked increase in mIPSC frequency. This enhancement of GABAergic activity was accompanied by increased number of GAD65 and vGAT puncta, indicating that at least a part of the frequency enhancement was due to increased number of synaptic contacts. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase (with MSO strongly reduced mIPSC frequency in ANCC but had no effect in NC. Moreover, treatment of ANCC with inhibitor of glycogen phosphorylase (BAYU6751 or with selective inhibitor of astrocytic Krebs cycle,fluoroacetate, resulted in a marked reduction of mIPSC frequency in ANCC having no effect in NC. We conclude that GABAergic synaptic transmission strongly depends on neuron-astrocyte interaction in a manner dependent on key metabolic enzymes as well as on the Krebs cycle.

  17. Interactive dual-volume rendering visualization with real-time fusion and transfer function enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macready, Hugh; Kim, Jinman; Feng, David; Cai, Weidong

    2006-03-01

    Dual-modality imaging scanners combining functional PET and anatomical CT constitute a challenge in volumetric visualization that can be limited by the high computational demand and expense. This study aims at providing physicians with multi-dimensional visualization tools, in order to navigate and manipulate the data running on a consumer PC. We have maximized the utilization of pixel-shader architecture of the low-cost graphic hardware and the texture-based volume rendering to provide visualization tools with high degree of interactivity. All the software was developed using OpenGL and Silicon Graphics Inc. Volumizer, tested on a Pentium mobile CPU on a PC notebook with 64M graphic memory. We render the individual modalities separately, and performing real-time per-voxel fusion. We designed a novel "alpha-spike" transfer function to interactively identify structure of interest from volume rendering of PET/CT. This works by assigning a non-linear opacity to the voxels, thus, allowing the physician to selectively eliminate or reveal information from the PET/CT volumes. As the PET and CT are rendered independently, manipulations can be applied to individual volumes, for instance, the application of transfer function to CT to reveal the lung boundary while adjusting the fusion ration between the CT and PET to enhance the contrast of a tumour region, with the resultant manipulated data sets fused together in real-time as the adjustments are made. In addition to conventional navigation and manipulation tools, such as scaling, LUT, volume slicing, and others, our strategy permits efficient visualization of PET/CT volume rendering which can potentially aid in interpretation and diagnosis.

  18. Interactions between the nuclear matrix and an enhancer of the tryptophan oxygenase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneoka, Hidenori [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Miyake, Katsuhide, E-mail: miyake@nubio.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Iijima, Shinji [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2009-10-02

    The gene for tryptophan oxygenase (TO) is expressed in adult hepatocytes in a tissue- and differentiation-specific manner. The TO promoter has two glucocorticoid-responsive elements (GREs), and its expression is regulated by glucocorticoid hormone in the liver. We found a novel GRE in close proximity to a scaffold/matrix attachment region (S/MAR) that was located around -8.5 kb from the transcriptional start site of the TO gene by electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. A combination of nuclear fractionation and quantitative PCR analysis showed that the S/MAR was tethered to the nuclear matrix in both fetal and adult hepatocytes. ChIP assay showed that, in adult hepatocytes, the S/MAR-GRE and the promoter proximal regions interacted with lamin and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U in a dexamethasone dependent manner, but this was not the case in fetal cells, suggesting that developmental stage-specific expression of the TO gene might rely on the binding of the enhancer (the -8.5 kb S/MAR-GRE) and the promoter to the inner nuclear matrix.

  19. Interactions between the nuclear matrix and an enhancer of the tryptophan oxygenase gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneoka, Hidenori; Miyake, Katsuhide; Iijima, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    The gene for tryptophan oxygenase (TO) is expressed in adult hepatocytes in a tissue- and differentiation-specific manner. The TO promoter has two glucocorticoid-responsive elements (GREs), and its expression is regulated by glucocorticoid hormone in the liver. We found a novel GRE in close proximity to a scaffold/matrix attachment region (S/MAR) that was located around -8.5 kb from the transcriptional start site of the TO gene by electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. A combination of nuclear fractionation and quantitative PCR analysis showed that the S/MAR was tethered to the nuclear matrix in both fetal and adult hepatocytes. ChIP assay showed that, in adult hepatocytes, the S/MAR-GRE and the promoter proximal regions interacted with lamin and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U in a dexamethasone dependent manner, but this was not the case in fetal cells, suggesting that developmental stage-specific expression of the TO gene might rely on the binding of the enhancer (the -8.5 kb S/MAR-GRE) and the promoter to the inner nuclear matrix.

  20. Engineering DNA Backbone Interactions Results in TALE Scaffolds with Enhanced 5-Methylcytosine Selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Preeti; Witte, Anna; Summerer, Daniel

    2017-11-08

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are DNA major-groove binding proteins widely used for genome targeting. TALEs contain an N-terminal region (NTR) and a central repeat domain (CRD). Repeats of the CRD selectively recognize each one DNA nucleobase, offering programmability. Moreover, repeats with selectivity for 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and its oxidized derivatives can be designed for analytical applications. However, both TALE domains also nonspecifically interact with DNA phosphates via basic amino acids. To enhance the 5mC selectivity of TALEs, we aimed to decrease the nonselective binding energy of TALEs. We substituted basic amino acids with alanine in the NTR and identified TALE mutants with increased selectivity. We then analysed conserved, DNA phosphate-binding KQ diresidues in CRD repeats and identified further improved mutants. Combination of mutations in the NTR and CRD was highly synergetic and resulted in TALE scaffolds with up to 4.3-fold increased selectivity in genomic 5mC analysis via affinity enrichment. Moreover, transcriptional activation in HEK293T cells by a TALE-VP64 construct based on this scaffold design exhibited a 3.5-fold increased 5mC selectivity. This provides perspectives for improved 5mC analysis and for the 5mC-conditional control of TALE-based editing constructs in vivo.

  1. Multifocal laser surgery: cutting enhancement by hydrodynamic interactions between cavitation bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toytman, I; Silbergleit, A; Simanovski, D; Palanker, D

    2010-10-01

    Transparent biological tissues can be precisely dissected with ultrafast lasers using optical breakdown in the tight focal zone. Typically, tissues are cut by sequential application of pulses, each of which produces a single cavitation bubble. We investigate the hydrodynamic interactions between simultaneous cavitation bubbles originating from multiple laser foci. Simultaneous expansion and collapse of cavitation bubbles can enhance the cutting efficiency, by increasing the resulting deformations in tissue, and the associated rupture zone. An analytical model of the flow induced by the bubbles is presented and experimentally verified. The threshold strain of the material rupture is measured in a model tissue. Using the computational model and the experimental value of the threshold strain one can compute the shape of the rupture zone in tissue resulting from application of multiple bubbles. With the threshold strain of 0.7 two simultaneous bubbles produce a continuous cut when applied at the distance 1.35 times greater than that required in sequential approach. Simultaneous focusing of the laser in multiple spots along the line of intended cut can extend this ratio to 1.7. Counterpropagating jets forming during collapse of two bubbles in materials with low viscosity can further extend the cutting zone-up to approximately a factor of 1.5.

  2. Neutrophil Interactions with Epithelial Expressed ICAM-1 Enhances Intestinal Mucosal Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumagin, R; Brazil, JC; Nava, P; Nishio, H; Alam, A; Luissint, AC; Weber, DA; Neish, AS; Nusrat, A; Parkos, CA

    2015-01-01

    A characteristic feature of gastrointestinal tract inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, is polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) transepithelial migration (TEM) and accumulation in the gut lumen. PMN accumulation within the intestinal mucosa contributes to tissue injury. While epithelial infiltration by large numbers of PMNs results in mucosal injury, we found that PMN interactions with luminal epithelial membrane receptors may also play a role in wound healing. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a PMN ligand that is upregulated on apical surfaces of intestinal epithelial cells under inflammatory conditions. In our study, increased expression of ICAM-1 resulted in enhanced PMN binding to the apical epithelium, which was associated with reduced PMN apoptosis. Following TEM, PMN adhesion to ICAM-1 resulted in activation of Akt and β-catenin signaling, increased epithelial-cell proliferation, and wound healing. Such responses were ICAM-1 dependent as engagement of epithelial ICAM-1 by antibody-mediated cross-linking yielded similar results. Furthermore, using an in-vivo biopsy-based, colonic-mucosal-injury model, we demonstrated epithelial ICAM-1 plays an important role in activation of epithelial Akt and β-catenin signaling and wound healing. These findings suggest that post-migrated PMNs within the intestinal lumen can regulate epithelial homeostasis, thereby identifying ICAM-1 as a potential therapeutic target for promoting mucosal wound healing. PMID:26732677

  3. Neutrophil interactions with epithelial-expressed ICAM-1 enhances intestinal mucosal wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumagin, R; Brazil, J C; Nava, P; Nishio, H; Alam, A; Luissint, A C; Weber, D A; Neish, A S; Nusrat, A; Parkos, C A

    2016-09-01

    A characteristic feature of gastrointestinal tract inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, is polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) transepithelial migration (TEM) and accumulation in the gut lumen. PMN accumulation within the intestinal mucosa contributes to tissue injury. Although epithelial infiltration by large numbers of PMNs results in mucosal injury, we found that PMN interactions with luminal epithelial membrane receptors may also play a role in wound healing. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a PMN ligand that is upregulated on apical surfaces of intestinal epithelial cells under inflammatory conditions. In our study, increased expression of ICAM-1 resulted in enhanced PMN binding to the apical epithelium, which was associated with reduced PMN apoptosis. Following TEM, PMN adhesion to ICAM-1 resulted in activation of Akt and β-catenin signaling, increased epithelial-cell proliferation, and wound healing. Such responses were ICAM-1 dependent as engagement of epithelial ICAM-1 by antibody-mediated cross-linking yielded similar results. Furthermore, using an in-vivo biopsy-based, colonic-mucosal-injury model, we demonstrated epithelial ICAM-1 has an important role in activation of epithelial Akt and β-catenin signaling and wound healing. These findings suggest that post-migrated PMNs within the intestinal lumen can regulate epithelial homeostasis, thereby identifying ICAM-1 as a potential therapeutic target for promoting mucosal wound healing.

  4. Exchange Enhancement of the Electron-Phonon Interaction: The Case of Weakly Doped Two-Dimensional Multivalley Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamuk, Betül; Zoccante, Paolo; Baima, Jacopo; Mauri, Francesco; Calandra, Matteo

    2018-04-01

    The effect of the exchange interaction on the vibrational properties and on the electron-phonon coupling were investigated in several recent works. In most of the cases, exchange tends to enhance the electron-phonon interaction, although the motivations for such behaviour are not completely understood. Here we consider the class of weakly doped two-dimensional multivalley semiconductors and we demonstrate that a more global picture emerges. In particular we show that in these systems, at low enough doping, even a moderate electron-electron interaction enhances the response to any perturbation inducing a valley polarization. If the valley polarization is due to the electron-phonon coupling, the electron-electron interaction results in an enhancement of the superconducting critical temperature. We demonstrate the applicability of the theory by performing random phase approximation and first principles calculations in transition metal chloronitrides. We find that exchange is responsible for the enhancement of the superconducting critical temperature in LixZrNCl and that much larger Tcs could be obtained in intercalated HfNCl if the synthesis of cleaner samples could remove the Anderson insulating state competing with superconductivity.

  5. The Effect of WhatsApp Chat Group in Enhancing EFL Learners' Verbal Interaction outside Classroom Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minalla, Amir Abdalla

    2018-01-01

    This study was mainly conducted to examine the possibility of utilizing "WhatsApp Group" in enhancing EFL learners' verbal interaction. To do this experimental and descriptive methods were used to achieve the objective of this study. A questionnaire and pre- and post-test were adopted as tools for data collection. Samples of two groups…

  6. Interaction of processes may explain induced seismicity after shut-in in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Silvia; Carrera, Jesus; Vilarrasa, Victor

    2015-04-01

    Deep fluid injection is a necessary operation in several engineering sectors, like geothermal energy production, natural gas storage, CO2 storage, etc. The seismicity associated to these activities has, in some occasions, reached unexpected magnitude, raising public concern. Moreover, the occurrence of such seismicity after the injection shut-in pointed out the incompleteness of the knowledge and the inability of fully managing these processes. On the other hand, the growing attention toward clean energy makes it clear that we cannot abandon these procedures, which have a huge potential. Therefore, deeply understanding the mechanisms that induce seismicity is crucial. In this study we consider hydraulic stimulation of deep geothermal systems and analyze the mechanisms that may induce or trigger seismicity. Given that the basic mechanism is fluid pressure increase, secondary triggering processes have been studied. In detail, we attempt to identify the potential mechanisms that may trigger seismicity in the post-injection phase, when the overpressure decreases. These mechanisms have been investigated with a coupled and uncoupled approach, in order to understand the individual effects of each one and the effects of the interactions between them on the reservoir stability. Besides fluid overpressure, another relevant process is the temperature variation. Indeed, in the case of enhanced geothermal systems, the temperature contrast between the injected cold fluid and the deep hot reservoir is great and induces thermal stress, which sensibly affects the in-situ stress field. Therefore, we have studied overpressure and temperature effects by means of analytic solutions and by means of hydro-mechanical and thermo-hydro-mechanical numerical simulations. Results show that in fractured rocks the spatial variability of hydraulic and mechanic parameters provokes no isotropic variation of the tensional field, in response to pressure and temperature perturbations. Another

  7. How innovative ICT tools can enhance understanding of interactions between societal, hydrological and environmental changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglia, L.; Borsi, I.; Cannata, M.; De Filippis, G.; Criollo, R.; Mehl, S.; Rossetto, R.

    2017-12-01

    The interaction of environmental, physical, and socioeconomic processes alter and are altered by water and by how human can affect water use. For example, a warming climate increases the chance of warm temperatures and lack of precipitation, and when combined with growing population requires understanding of impact on water resources and on all the processes related to the water budget including evapotranspiration. On this foundation, humans add engineered and social systems to control, manage, utilize, and alter our water environment for a variety of uses and through a variety of organizational and individual decisions. Some engineered systems have mixed consequences, for example groundwater helped sustain agriculture during drought periods, but then groundwater levels critically decrease with no chances to recover in some parts of the world. Innovative ICT tools have been demonstrated as a helpful tool for enhancing human understanding of the effect that societal, economical, and policy-based decisions have on the water resources and on the environment in general. Here we apply the new FREEWAT platform to demonstrate the importance of developing ad-hoc database and hydrological models to simulate different scenarios using a participatory approach. Stakeholders have been involved in data collection, database design and model development during the entire project period and discussion between researcher and stakeholders have been fostered during Focus Groups and workshops organized in many countries in Europe and beyond (including case studies in Ukraine and Africa). FREEWAT is an open source and public domain GIS integrated modelling environment for simulation of water quantity and quality in surface water and groundwater with an integrated water management and planning module. FREEWAT aims at promoting water resource management by simplifying the application of the Water Framework Directive and related Directives. Fourteen case studies have been considered and

  8. Cathepsin K in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: LAM Cell-Fibroblast Interactions Enhance Protease Activity by Extracellular Acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongre, Arundhati; Clements, Debbie; Fisher, Andrew J; Johnson, Simon R

    2017-08-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease in which LAM cells and fibroblasts form lung nodules and it is hypothesized that LAM nodule-derived proteases cause cyst formation and tissue damage. On protease gene expression profiling in whole lung tissue, cathepsin K gene expression was 40-fold overexpressed in LAM compared with control lung tissue (P ≤ 0.0001). Immunohistochemistry confirmed cathepsin K protein was expressed in LAM but not control lungs. Cathepsin K gene expression and protein and protease activity were detected in LAM-associated fibroblasts but not the LAM cell line 621-101. In lung nodules, cathepsin K immunoreactivity predominantly co-localized with LAM-associated fibroblasts. In vitro, fibroblast extracellular cathepsin K activity was minimal at pH 7.5 but significantly enhanced at pH 7 and 6. 621-101 cells reduced extracellular pH with acidification dependent on 621-101 mechanistic target of rapamycin activity and net hydrogen ion exporters, particularly sodium bicarbonate co-transporters and carbonic anhydrases, which were also expressed in LAM lung tissue. In LAM cell-fibroblast co-cultures, acidification paralleled cathepsin K activity, and both were reduced by sodium bicarbonate co-transporter (P ≤ 0.0001) and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (P = 0.0021). Our findings suggest that cathepsin K activity is dependent on LAM cell-fibroblast interactions, and inhibitors of extracellular acidification may be potential therapies for LAM. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dynamic interactions of the asialoglycoprotein receptor subunits with coated pits. Enhanced interactions of H2 following association with H1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzir, Z; Nardi, N; Geffen, I; Fuhrer, C; Henis, Y I

    1994-08-26

    Lateral mobility studies comparing native and mutated membrane proteins, combined with treatments that alter clathrin lattice structure, can measure membrane protein-coated pit interactions in intact cells (Fire, E., Zwart, D., Roth, M. G., and Henis, Y. I. (1991) J. Cell Biol. 115, 1585-1594). We applied this approach to study the interactions of the H1 and H2 human asialoglycoprotein receptor subunits with coated pits. The lateral mobilities of singly expressed and coexpressed H1 and H2B (the H2 species that reaches the cell surface) were measured by fluorescence photobleaching recovery. They were compared with mutant proteins, H1(5A) (Tyr-5 replaced by Ala) and H2(5A) (Phe-5 replaced by Ala). While the mobile fractions of H1, H2B, and their mutants were similar, the lateral diffusion rate (measured by D, the lateral diffusion coefficient) was significantly slower for H1, whether expressed alone or with H2B. Coexpression with H1 reduced D of H2B to that of H1. Disruption of the clathrin lattices by hypertonic medium elevated D of H1, H1(5A), H2B, and H2(5A) to the same final level, without affecting their mobile fractions. Cytosol acidification, which retains altered clathrin lattices attached to the membrane and prevents coated vesicle formation, immobilized part of the H1 molecules, reflecting stable entrapment in "frozen" coated pits. H1(5A), H2B, and H2(5A) were not affected; however, coexpression of H2B with H1 conferred the sensitivity to cytosol acidification on H2B. Our results suggest that H1 lateral mobility is inhibited by dynamic interactions with coated pits in which Tyr-5 is involved. H2B resembles H1(5A) rather than H1, and its interactions with coated pits are weaker; efficient interaction of H2B with coated pits depends on complex formation with H1.

  10. Further evidences for enhanced nuclear cross-sections observed in 44 GeV carbon ion interactions with copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, R.; Abdullaev, I.G.; Adloff, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    The work of enhanced nuclear cross-sections of secondary fragments produced in the interaction of 44 GeV 12 C with copper has been deepened and extended. The earlier experiment on the emission of secondary fragments into large angles producing enhanced amounts of 24 Na in copper (Phys. Rev. C, 45, 1194(1992)) was confirmed and refined both experimentally and theoretically. In this context, one looked for another signature of such enhanced production, namely for enhanced neutron production. In order to search for this, a 20 cm thick massive copper target was irradiated with 18 and 44 GeV 12 C-ions. Secondary fragments already described could interact again with copper. Outside the metallic target, secondary neutrons got moderated and low energy nuclear reactions were studied in La and U radiochemically via (n,γ)-reactions and also with various solid state nuclear track detectors. One observed an indication, however not yet significant, of enhanced production rates for low energy nuclear reactions only with 44 GeV 12 C, when compared to 18 GeV 12 C-ions. Besides some proton irradiations at SATURNE, Saclay (France) at 2.6 GeV and at PSI, Villigen (Switzerland) at 0.6 GeV all other irradiations were carried out at the Synchrophasotron, LHE, JINR, Dubna (Russia). 46 refs., 14 figs., 8 tabs

  11. Improving therapeutic outcomes in autism spectrum disorders: Enhancing social communication and sensory processing through the use of interactive robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorato, Felippe; Przybylowski, Leon; Sarko, Diana K

    2017-07-01

    For children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), social robots are increasingly utilized as therapeutic tools in order to enhance social skills and communication. Robots have been shown to generate a number of social and behavioral benefits in children with ASD including heightened engagement, increased attention, and decreased social anxiety. Although social robots appear to be effective social reinforcement tools in assistive therapies, the perceptual mechanism underlying these benefits remains unknown. To date, social robot studies have primarily relied on expertise in fields such as engineering and clinical psychology, with measures of social robot efficacy principally limited to qualitative observational assessments of children's interactions with robots. In this review, we examine a range of socially interactive robots that currently have the most widespread use as well as the utility of these robots and their therapeutic effects. In addition, given that social interactions rely on audiovisual communication, we discuss how enhanced sensory processing and integration of robotic social cues may underlie the perceptual and behavioral benefits that social robots confer. Although overall multisensory processing (including audiovisual integration) is impaired in individuals with ASD, social robot interactions may provide therapeutic benefits by allowing audiovisual social cues to be experienced through a simplified version of a human interaction. By applying systems neuroscience tools to identify, analyze, and extend the multisensory perceptual substrates that may underlie the therapeutic benefits of social robots, future studies have the potential to strengthen the clinical utility of social robots for individuals with ASD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhanced optical spin current injection in the hexagonal lattice with intrinsic and Rashba spin–orbit interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Jianfei, E-mail: zoujianfei@hhu.edu.cn; Tang, Chunmei; Zhang, Aimei

    2017-04-04

    We study the photo-induced spin current injection in a hexagonal lattice with both intrinsic and Rashba spin–orbit interactions which is irradiated by a polarized light beam. It is found that the spin current injection rate could be enhanced as the graphene lattice is in the topological insulator state. Furthermore, the spin current injection rate could be remarkably modulated by the degree of polarization of light and its frequency. - Highlights: • The optical spin current could be enhanced by the intrinsic spin–orbit interaction. • The optical spin current could be modulated by the degree of polarization of light. • The maximum of the spin current injection rate is obtained.

  13. Benefits and Pitfalls of Multimedia and Interactive Features in Technology-Enhanced Storybooks: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takacs, Zsofia K; Swart, Elise K; Bus, Adriana G

    2015-12-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted on the effects of technology-enhanced stories for young children's literacy development when compared to listening to stories in more traditional settings like storybook reading. A small but significant additional benefit of technology was found for story comprehension (g+ = 0.17) and expressive vocabulary (g+ = 0.20), based on data from 2,147 children in 43 studies. When investigating the different characteristics of technology-enhanced stories, multimedia features like animated pictures, music, and sound effects were found beneficial. In contrast, interactive elements like hotspots, games, and dictionaries were found to be distracting. Especially for children disadvantaged because of less stimulating family environments, multimedia features were helpful and interactive features were detrimental. Findings are discussed from the perspective of cognitive processing theories.

  14. Drift-Induced Enhancement of Cubic Dresselhaus Spin-Orbit Interaction in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunihashi, Yoji; Sanada, Haruki; Tanaka, Yusuke; Gotoh, Hideki; Onomitsu, Koji; Nakagawara, Keita; Kohda, Makoto; Nitta, Junsaku; Sogawa, Tetsuomi

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the effect of an in-plane electric field on drifting spins in a GaAs quantum well. Kerr rotation images of the drifting spins revealed that the spin precession wavelength increases with increasing drift velocity regardless of the transport direction. A model developed for drifting spins with a heated electron distribution suggests that the in-plane electric field enhances the effective magnetic field component originating from the cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction.

  15. A Systematic Study of Molecular Interactions of Anionic Drugs with a Dimethylaminoethyl Methacrylate Copolymer Regarding Solubility Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saal, Wiebke; Ross, Alfred; Wyttenbach, Nicole; Alsenz, Jochem; Kuentz, Martin

    2017-04-03

    The methacrylate-copolymer Eudragit EPO (EPO) has raised interest in solubility enhancement of anionic drugs. Effects on aqueous drug solubility at rather low polymer concentrations are barely known despite their importance upon dissolution and dilution of oral dosage forms. We provide evidence for substantial enhancement (factor 4-230) of aqueous solubility of poorly water-soluble anionic drugs induced by low (0.1-5% (w/w)) concentration of EPO for a panel of seven acidic crystalline drugs. Diffusion data (determined by 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) indicate that the solubility increasing effect monitored by quantitative ultraperformance liquid chromatography was caused primarily by molecular API polymer interactions in the bulk liquid phase. Residual solid API remained unaltered as tested by X-ray powder diffraction. The solubility enhancement (SE) revealed a significant rank correlation (r Spearman = -0.83) with rDiff API , where SE and rDiff API are defined ratios of solubility and diffusion coefficient in the presence and absence of EPO. SE decreased in the order of indomethacin, mefenamic acid, warfarin, piroxicam, furosemide, bezafibrate, and tolbutamide. The solubilizing effect was attributed to both ionic and hydrophobic interactions between drugs and EPO. The excellent solubilizing properties of EPO are highly promising for pharmaceutical development, and the data set provides first steps toward an understanding of drug-excipient interaction mechanisms.

  16. Social Presence and Interactivity in Online Courses: Enhancing the Online Learning Environment through Discussion and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Anne M.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored social presence and interactivity in an online undergraduate program designed for adult students. Although social presence and interactivity have been shown to be important contributors to student satisfaction, and therefore essential to student recruitment and retention in online programs, the ultimate goal for the examination…

  17. Enhancing Human-Computer Interaction Design Education: Teaching Affordance Design for Emerging Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiola, Anthony; Matei, Sorin Adam

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of human-computer interaction design (HCID) over the last 20 years suggests that there is a growing need for educational scholars to consider new and more applicable theoretical models of interactive product design. The authors suggest that such paradigms would call for an approach that would equip HCID students with a better…

  18. Predicting drug-target interaction for new drugs using enhanced similarity measures and super-target clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian-Yu; Yiu, Siu-Ming; Li, Yiming; Leung, Henry C M; Chin, Francis Y L

    2015-07-15

    Predicting drug-target interaction using computational approaches is an important step in drug discovery and repositioning. To predict whether there will be an interaction between a drug and a target, most existing methods identify similar drugs and targets in the database. The prediction is then made based on the known interactions of these drugs and targets. This idea is promising. However, there are two shortcomings that have not yet been addressed appropriately. Firstly, most of the methods only use 2D chemical structures and protein sequences to measure the similarity of drugs and targets respectively. However, this information may not fully capture the characteristics determining whether a drug will interact with a target. Secondly, there are very few known interactions, i.e. many interactions are "missing" in the database. Existing approaches are biased towards known interactions and have no good solutions to handle possibly missing interactions which affect the accuracy of the prediction. In this paper, we enhance the similarity measures to include non-structural (and non-sequence-based) information and introduce the concept of a "super-target" to handle the problem of possibly missing interactions. Based on evaluations on real data, we show that our similarity measure is better than the existing measures and our approach is able to achieve higher accuracy than the two best existing algorithms, WNN-GIP and KBMF2K. Our approach is available at http://web.hku.hk/∼liym1018/projects/drug/drug.html or http://www.bmlnwpu.org/us/tools/PredictingDTI_S2/METHODS.html. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. How useful is slow light in enhancing nonlinear interactions in lossy periodic nanostructures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saravi, Sina; Quintero-Bermudez, Rafael; Setzpfandt, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We investigate analytically, and with nonlinear simulations, the extent of usefulness of slow light for enhancing the efficiency of second harmonic generation in lossy nanostructures, and find that the slower is not always the better....

  20. Promoter-enhancer interactions identified from Hi-C data using probabilistic models and hierarchical topological domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Gil; Globerson, Yuval; Moran, Dror; Kaplan, Tommy

    2017-12-21

    Proximity-ligation methods such as Hi-C allow us to map physical DNA-DNA interactions along the genome, and reveal its organization into topologically associating domains (TADs). As the Hi-C data accumulate, computational methods were developed for identifying domain borders in multiple cell types and organisms. Here, we present PSYCHIC, a computational approach for analyzing Hi-C data and identifying promoter-enhancer interactions. We use a unified probabilistic model to segment the genome into domains, which we then merge hierarchically and fit using a local background model, allowing us to identify over-represented DNA-DNA interactions across the genome. By analyzing the published Hi-C data sets in human and mouse, we identify hundreds of thousands of putative enhancers and their target genes, and compile an extensive genome-wide catalog of gene regulation in human and mouse. As we show, our predictions are highly enriched for ChIP-seq and DNA accessibility data, evolutionary conservation, eQTLs and other DNA-DNA interaction data.

  1. Increased frequency of social interaction is associated with enjoyment enhancement and reward system activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Sho K; Hamano, Yuki H; Makita, Kai; Kochiyama, Takanori; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-04-19

    Positive social interactions contribute to the sense that one's life has meaning. Enjoyment of feelings associated through social interaction motivates humans to build social connections according to their personal preferences. Therefore, we hypothesized that social interaction itself activates the reward system in a manner that depends upon individual interaction preferences. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in which 38 participants played a virtual ball-toss game in which the number of ball tosses to the participant was either similar to (normal-frequency condition) or higher than (high-frequency condition) the number of tosses to the other players. Participants reported greater-than-anticipated enjoyment during the high-frequency condition, suggesting that receiving a social reward led to unexpected positive feelings. Consistent with this, the high-frequency condition produced stronger activation in the ventral striatum, which is part of the reward system, and the precuneus, representing positive self-image, which might be translated to social reward. Furthermore, ventral striatal activation covaried with individual participants' preference for interactions with others. These findings suggest that an elevated frequency of social interaction is represented as a social reward, which might motivate individuals to promote social interaction in a manner that is modulated by personal preference.

  2. Interaction Design Beyond the Product : Creating Technology-Enhanced Activity Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaptelinin, Victor; Bannon, Liam J.

    2012-01-01

    The field of interaction design to date has been predominantly concerned with designing products, that is, devices, systems, and more recently services. A growing body of theoretical and empirical analyses suggests that the scope of interaction design needs to be expanded: An explicit concern...... of the field should include not only helping designers create better products but also helping people themselves create better environments for their work, learning, and leisure activities. In this article we argue that expanding the scope of interaction design beyond products requires a revision of some...... of the most central concepts in interaction design, including the notion of “the object of design” and our understanding of the impact of technologies on human practices. The aim of the article is to explore some of these conceptual challenges and discuss possible ways of dealing with them. We differentiate...

  3. Minimum curvilinearity to enhance topological prediction of protein interactions by network embedding

    KAUST Repository

    Cannistraci, Carlo; Alanis Lobato, Gregorio; Ravasi, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Most functions within the cell emerge thanks to protein-protein interactions (PPIs), yet experimental determination of PPIs is both expensive and time-consuming. PPI networks present significant levels of noise and incompleteness

  4. Enhancement of both salivary protein-enological tannin interactions and astringency perception by ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obreque-Slíer, Elías; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; López-Solís, Remigio

    2010-03-24

    Red wine astringency has been associated with interactions of tannins with salivary proteins. Tannins are active protein precipitants. Not much evidence exists demonstrating contribution of other wine components to astringency. We aimed to investigate an eventual role of ethanol both in astringency and salivary protein-enological tannin interactions. A trained sensory panel scored perceived astringency. Salivary protein-tannin interactions were assessed by observing both tannin-dependent changes in salivary protein diffusion on cellulose membranes and tannin-induced salivary protein precipitation. Proanthocyanidins and gallotannins in aqueous and hydroalcoholic solutions were assayed. A biphasic mode of diffusion on cellulose membranes displayed by salivary proteins was unaffected after dilution with water or enological concentrations of ethanol. At those concentrations ethanol was not astringent. In aqueous solution, tannins provoked both restriction of salivary protein diffusion, protein precipitation, and astringency. Those effects were exacerbated by 13% ethanol. In summary, enological concentrations of ethanol exacerbate astringency and salivary protein-tannin interactions.

  5. Scalable Stream Coding for Adaptive Foveation Enhanced Percept Multimedia Information Communication for Interactive Medical Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khan, Javed

    2003-01-01

    .... The demonstrated systems include interactive perceptual transcoding where real-time eye-tracker data fuses with a passing stream, the active subnet diffusion coding-- where multiple active nodes...

  6. Natural enemy-mediated indirect interactions among prey species: potential for enhancing biocontrol services in agroecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chailleux, A.; Mohl, E.K.; Teixeira Alves, M.; Messelink, G.J.; Desneux, N.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how arthropod pests and their natural enemies interact in complex agroecosystems is essential for pest management programmes. Theory predicts that prey sharing a predator, such as a biological control agent, can indirectly reduce each other's density at equilibrium (apparent

  7. Enhancing the prediction of protein pairings between interacting families using orthology information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazos Florencio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has repeatedly been shown that interacting protein families tend to have similar phylogenetic trees. These similarities can be used to predicting the mapping between two families of interacting proteins (i.e. which proteins from one family interact with which members of the other. The correct mapping will be that which maximizes the similarity between the trees. The two families may eventually comprise orthologs and paralogs, if members of the two families are present in more than one organism. This fact can be exploited to restrict the possible mappings, simply by impeding links between proteins of different organisms. We present here an algorithm to predict the mapping between families of interacting proteins which is able to incorporate information regarding orthologues, or any other assignment of proteins to "classes" that may restrict possible mappings. Results For the first time in methods for predicting mappings, we have tested this new approach on a large number of interacting protein domains in order to statistically assess its performance. The method accurately predicts around 80% in the most favourable cases. We also analysed in detail the results of the method for a well defined case of interacting families, the sensor and kinase components of the Ntr-type two-component system, for which up to 98% of the pairings predicted by the method were correct. Conclusion Based on the well established relationship between tree similarity and interactions we developed a method for predicting the mapping between two interacting families using genomic information alone. The program is available through a web interface.

  8. Enhanced effects of biotic interactions on predicting multispecies spatial distribution of submerged macrophytes after eutrophication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kun; Cui, Yichong; Zhang, Xijin; Pan, Yingji; Xu, Junli; Xu, Kaiqin; Da, Liangjun

    2017-10-01

    Water eutrophication creates unfavorable environmental conditions for submerged macrophytes. In these situations, biotic interactions may be particularly important for explaining and predicting the submerged macrophytes occurrence. Here, we evaluate the roles of biotic interactions in predicting spatial occurrence of submerged macrophytes in 1959 and 2009 for Dianshan Lake in eastern China, which became eutrophic since the 1980s. For the four common species occurred in 1959 and 2009, null species distribution models based on abiotic variables and full models based on both abiotic and biotic variables were developed using generalized linear model (GLM) and boosted regression trees (BRT) to determine whether the biotic variables improved the model performance. Hierarchical Bayesian-based joint species distribution models capable of detecting paired biotic interactions were established for each species in both periods to evaluate the changes in the biotic interactions. In most of the GLM and BRT models, the full models showed better performance than the null models in predicting the species presence/absence, and the relative importance of the biotic variables in the full models increased from less than 50% in 1959 to more than 50% in 2009 for each species. Moreover, co-occurrence correlation of each paired species interaction was higher in 2009 than that in 1959. The findings suggest biotic interactions that tend to be positive play more important roles in the spatial distribution of multispecies assemblages of macrophytes and should be included in prediction models to improve prediction accuracy when forecasting macrophytes' distribution under eutrophication stress.

  9. Use of interactive live digital imaging to enhance histology learning in introductory level anatomy and physiology classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higazi, Tarig B

    2011-01-01

    Histology is one of the main subjects in introductory college-level Human Anatomy and Physiology classes. Institutions are moving toward the replacement of traditional microscope-based histology learning with virtual microscopy learning amid concerns of losing the valuable learning experience of traditional microscopy. This study used live digital imaging (LDI) of microscopic slides on a SMART board to enhance Histology laboratory teaching. The interactive LDI system consists of a digital camera-equipped microscope that projects live images on a wall-mounted SMART board via a computer. This set-up allows real-time illustration of microscopic slides with highlighted key structural components, as well as the ability to provide the students with relevant study and review material. The impact of interactive LDI on student learning of Histology was then measured based on performance in subsequent laboratory tests before and after its implementation. Student grades increased from a mean of 76% (70.3-82.0, 95% CI) before to 92% (88.8-95.3, 95% CI) after integration of LDI indicating highly significant (P < 0.001) enhancement in students' Histology laboratory performance. In addition, student ratings of the impact of the interactive LDI on their Histology learning were strongly positive, suggesting that a majority of students who valued this learning approach also improved learning and understanding of the material as a result. The interactive LDI technique is an innovative, highly efficient and affordable tool to enhance student Histology learning, which is likely to expand knowledge and student perception of the subject and in turn enrich future science careers. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.

  10. Interactivity And Mental Arithmetic: Coupling Mind And World Transforms And Enhances Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guthrie Lisa G.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Interactivity has been linked to better performance in problem solving, due in part to a more efficient allocation of attentional resources, a better distribution of cognitive load, but perhaps more important by enabling the reasoner to shape and reshape the physical problem presentation to promote the development of the problem solution. Interactivity in solving quotidian arithmetic problems involves gestures, pointing, and the recruitment of artefacts to facilitate computation and augment efficiency. In the experiment reported here, different types of interactivity were examined with a series of mental arithmetic problems. Using a repeated-measures design, participants solved series of five 11-digit sums in four conditions that varied in the type of interactivity: (i no interactivity (participants solved the problems with their hands on the table top, (ii pointing (participants could point at the numbers, (iii pen and paper (participants could note interim totals with a pen, and (iv tokens (the sums were presented as 11 numbered tokens the arrangement of which participants were free to modify as they proceeded to the solution. Performance in the four conditions was measured in terms of accuracy, calculation error, and efficiency (a ratio composed of the proportion correct over the proportion of time invested in working on the sums. These quantitative analyses were supplemented by a detailed qualitative examination of a participant’s actions in the different conditions. The integration of artefacts, such as tokens or a pen, offered reasoners the opportunity to reconfigure the physical presentation of the problem, enacting different arithmetic strategies: the affordance landscape shifts as the problem trajectory is enacted through interactivity, and this generally produced better “mental” arithmetic performance. Participants also felt more positive about and better engaged with the task when they could reconfigure the problem presentation

  11. Nanoantennas for surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy: Effects of interaction and higher order resonant excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Aizpurua

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity in surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy (SEIRS strongly depends on where the resonant excitation is spectrally located compared to the molecular vibration that is to be enhanced. In this contribution, we study the effect of coupling in the electromagnetic properties of 2D gold nanorod arrays in the IR. We also study the SEIRS activity of higher order resonant excitations in long nanoantennas to identify polaritonic signals of a supporting SiO2 layer with nanometer thickness (3 nm on a silicon substrate.

  12. Dodecyl Amino Glucoside Enhances Transdermal and Topical Drug Delivery via Reversible Interaction with Skin Barrier Lipids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopečná, M.; Macháček, M.; Prchalová, Eva; Štěpánek, P.; Drašar, P.; Kotora, Martin; Vávrová, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 3 (2017), s. 640-653 ISSN 0724-8741 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : penetration enhancers * sugar * topical drug delivery * transdermal drug delivery Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry OBOR OECD: Pharmacology and pharmacy Impact factor: 3.002, year: 2016

  13. Enhancement of selective attention by tDCS: interaction with interference in a Sternberg task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gladwin, T.E.; den Uyl, T.E.; Fregni, F.F.; Wiers, R.W.

    2012-01-01

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) enhances performance on working memory tasks. However, such effects may be dependent on modulation of specific aspects of working memory. We therefore tested the hypothesis that tDCS improves selective attention in the context of a Sternberg task.

  14. Interaction of heavy ion beams with a hydrogen plasma: plasma lens effect and stopping power enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardes, D.; Bimbot, R.; Della-Negra, S.; Dumail, M.; Kubica, B.; Richard, A.; Rivet, M.F.; Servajean, A.; Deutsch, C.; Maynard, G.

    1988-01-01

    By coupling a hydrogen plasma to a Tandem accelerator, transmission and energy losses of 2 MeV/u carbon and sulfur beams passing through a plasma target have been investigated. Fluctuations in beam transmission have been observed and attributed to a plasma lens effect. Moreover, energy loss measurements indicate an enhanced stopping power of the plasma relative to its cold matter equivalent

  15. Executive functions and parent-child interaction during technology-enhanced storytelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horvers, A.; Molenaar, I.; Teepe, R.C.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2017-01-01

    This study explores how children's executive functions influences the way parent and child engage in a technology-enhanced story telling activity (TES). Research has indicated that children's executive functions (inhibitory control, memory and cognitive flexibility) are related to how they engage in

  16. Texture-taste interactions: Enhancement of taste intensity by structural modifications of the food matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stieger, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The reduction of salt and sugar in food products remains a challenge due to the importance of those ingredients in providing a highly desired taste quality, enhancing flavor, determining the behavior of structuring ingredients, and ensuring microbiological safety. Several technologies have been used

  17. Technology Enhanced Learning in Science: Interactions, Affordances and Design Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    The role of an educational technologist is difficult to define. This paper reflects on the experience of working on a range of technology enhanced learning in science projects to review a number of working principles which have proved effective in the practice of educational technology. It discusses how these principles relate to the theories in…

  18. Enhancing the innovative capacity of small firms through triple helix interactions : challenges and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranga, Liana Marina; Miedema, Joost; Jorna, Rene

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a recent exploratory study aiming to enhance the innovative capacity of small firms in the Northern Netherlands, a region lagging behind the rest of the country in terms of economic growth and innovative capacity. The triple helix perspective is adopted to examine

  19. Technology-enhanced instruction in learning world languages: The Middlebury interactive learning program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Lake

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Middlebury Interactive Language (MIL programs are designed to teach world language courses using blended and online learning for students in kindergarten through grade 12. Middlebury Interactive courses start with fundamental building blocks in four key areas of world-language study: listening comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing. As students progress through the course levels, they deepen their understanding of the target language, continuing to focus on the three modes of communication: interpretive, interpersonal, and presentational. The extensive use of authentic materials (video, audio, images, or texts is intended to provide a contextualized and interactive presentation of the vocabulary and the linguistic structures. In the present paper, we describe the MIL program and the results of a mixed-methods survey and case-study evaluation of its implementation in a broad sample of schools. Technology application is examined with regard to MIL instructional strategies and the present evaluation approach relative to those employed in the literature.

  20. Skeletal stem cell and bone implant interactions are enhanced by LASER titanium modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisti, Karin E., E-mail: karinellensisti@gmail.com [Bone and Joint Research Group, Centre for Human Development, Stem Cells and Regeneration, Institute of Developmental Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD (United Kingdom); Biomaterials Group, Institute of Chemistry, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Box 355, Araraquara (Brazil); Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande (Brazil); Andrés, María C. de; Johnston, David [Bone and Joint Research Group, Centre for Human Development, Stem Cells and Regeneration, Institute of Developmental Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD (United Kingdom); Almeida-Filho, Edson; Guastaldi, Antonio C. [Biomaterials Group, Institute of Chemistry, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Box 355, Araraquara (Brazil); Oreffo, Richard O.C. [Bone and Joint Research Group, Centre for Human Development, Stem Cells and Regeneration, Institute of Developmental Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-06

    Purpose: To evaluate the osteo-regenerative potential of Titanium (Ti) modified by Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) beam (Yb-YAG) upon culture with human Skeletal Stem Cells (hSSCs{sup 1}). Methods: Human skeletal cell populations were isolated from the bone marrow of haematologically normal patients undergoing primary total hip replacement following appropriate consent. STRO-1{sup +} hSSC{sup 1} function was examined for 10 days across four groups using Ti discs: i) machined Ti surface group in basal media (Mb{sup 2}), ii) machined Ti surface group in osteogenic media (Mo{sup 3}), iii) LASER-modified Ti group in basal media (Lb{sup 4}) and, iv) LASER-modified Ti group in osteogenic media (Lo{sup 5}). Molecular analysis and qRT-PCR as well as functional analysis including biochemistry (DNA, Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP{sup 6}) specific activity), live/dead immunostaining (Cell Tracker Green (CTG{sup 7})/Ethidium Homodimer-1 (EH-1{sup 8})), and fluorescence staining (for vinculin and phalloidin) were undertaken. Inverted, confocal and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) approaches were used to characterise cell adherence, proliferation, and phenotype. Results: Enhanced cell spreading and morphological rearrangement, including focal adhesions were observed following culture of hSSCs{sup 1} on LASER surfaces in both basal and osteogenic conditions. Biochemical analysis demonstrated enhanced ALP{sup 6} specific activity on the hSSCs{sup 1}-seeded on LASER-modified surface in basal culture media. Molecular analysis demonstrated enhanced ALP{sup 6} and osteopontin expression on titanium LASER treated surfaces in basal conditions. SEM, inverted microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed extensive proliferation and migration of human bone marrow stromal cells on all surfaces evaluated. Conclusions: LASER-modified Ti surfaces modify the behaviour of hSSCs.{sup 1} In particular, SSC{sup 1} adhesion, osteogenic gene expression, cell

  1. Control of a Robot Dancer for Enhancing Haptic Human-Robot Interaction in Waltz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongbo Wang; Kosuge, K

    2012-01-01

    Haptic interaction between a human leader and a robot follower in waltz is studied in this paper. An inverted pendulum model is used to approximate the human's body dynamics. With the feedbacks from the force sensor and laser range finders, the robot is able to estimate the human leader's state by using an extended Kalman filter (EKF). To reduce interaction force, two robot controllers, namely, admittance with virtual force controller, and inverted pendulum controller, are proposed and evaluated in experiments. The former controller failed the experiment; reasons for the failure are explained. At the same time, the use of the latter controller is validated by experiment results.

  2. Enhancing in-Museum Informal Learning by Augmenting Artworks with Gesture Interactions and AIED Paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanchard, Emmanuel G.; Zanciu, Alin-Nicolae; Mahmoud, Haydar

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a computer-supported approach for providing ‘enhanced’ discovery learning in informal settings like museums. It is grounded on a combination of gesture-based interactions and artwork-embedded AIED paradigms, and is implemented through a distributed architecture.......This paper presents a computer-supported approach for providing ‘enhanced’ discovery learning in informal settings like museums. It is grounded on a combination of gesture-based interactions and artwork-embedded AIED paradigms, and is implemented through a distributed architecture....

  3. Enhancing Children's Language Learning and Cognition Experience through Interactive Kinetic Typography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Newman M. L.; Chu, Veni H. T.

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed at investigating the method of using kinetic typography and interactive approach to conduct a design experiment for children to learn vocabularies. Typography is the unique art and technique of arranging type in order to make language visible. By adding animated movement to characters, kinetic typography expresses language…

  4. Using New Interactive Media to Enhance the Teaching of Psychology (and Other Disciplines) in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, David G

    2009-01-01

    My idea for improving psychology responds to the challenge of teaching psychology in lower income, developing countries. With new Web-based e-books on the horizon, I suggest harnessing the Internet to deliver state-of-the-art, interactive, low-cost, locally adapted content to students who cannot afford books. © 2009 Association for Psychological Science.

  5. TreePlus: interactive exploration of networks with enhanced tree layouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bongshin; Parr, Cynthia S; Plaisant, Catherine; Bederson, Benjamin B; Veksler, Vladislav D; Gray, Wayne D; Kotfila, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Despite extensive research, it is still difficult to produce effective interactive layouts for large graphs. Dense layout and occlusion make food webs, ontologies, and social networks difficult to understand and interact with. We propose a new interactive Visual Analytics component called TreePlus that is based on a tree-style layout. TreePlus reveals the missing graph structure with visualization and interaction while maintaining good readability. To support exploration of the local structure of the graph and gathering of information from the extensive reading of labels, we use a guiding metaphor of "Plant a seed and watch it grow." It allows users to start with a node and expand the graph as needed, which complements the classic overview techniques that can be effective at (but often limited to) revealing clusters. We describe our design goals, describe the interface, and report on a controlled user study with 28 participants comparing TreePlus with a traditional graph interface for six tasks. In general, the advantage of TreePlus over the traditional interface increased as the density of the displayed data increased. Participants also reported higher levels of confidence in their answers with TreePlus and most of them preferred TreePlus.

  6. Inhibition of FOXP3/NFAT interaction enhances T cell function after TCR stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, Teresa; Villanueva, Lorea; Durántez, Maika; Gorraiz, Marta; Ruiz, Marta; Belsúe, Virginia; Riezu-Boj, José I.; Hervás-Stubbs, Sandra; Oyarzábal, Julen; Bandukwala, Hozefa; Lourenço, Ana R.; Coffer, Paul J.; Sarobe, Pablo; Prieto, Jesús; Casares, Noelia; Lasarte, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory T cell (Treg) activity is modulated by a cooperative complex between the transcription factor NFAT and FOXP3, a lineage specification factor for Tregs. FOXP3/NFAT interaction is required to repress expression of IL-2, upregulate expression of the Treg markers CTLA4 and CD25, and confer

  7. Investigating interactional competence using video recordings in ESL classrooms to enhance communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnasamy, Hariharan N.

    2016-08-01

    Interactional competence, or knowing and using the appropriate skills for interaction in various communication situations within a given speech community and culture is important in the field of business and professional communication [1], [2]. Similar to many developing countries in the world, Malaysia is a growing economy and undergraduates will have to acquire appropriate communication skills. In this study, two aspects of the interactional communicative competence were investigated, that is the linguistic and paralinguistic behaviors in small group communication as well as conflict management in small group communication. Two groups of student participants were given a problem-solving task based on a letter of complaint. The two groups of students were video recorded during class hours for 40 minutes. The videos and transcription of the group discussions were analyzed to examine the use of language and interaction in small groups. The analysis, findings and interpretations were verified with three lecturers in the field of communication. The results showed that students were able to accomplish the given task using verbal and nonverbal communication. However, participation was unevenly distributed with two students talking for less than a minute. Negotiation was based more on alternative views and consensus was easily achieved. In concluding, suggestions are given on ways to improve English language communication.

  8. Goal-Setting and Self-Reflection to Enhance Learners' Interaction in an ESP Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano Velandia, Sergio Andrés

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative action research study explored the interactions of young-adult learners carrying out self-reflection on their learning processes in an ESP (English for special purposes) course at an airline training-center in Bogotá, Colombia. Needs analysis revealed that learners had poor knowledge of technical English, and lacked strong…

  9. Toward a Web-Enhanced Model of Interaction in Freshman General Education History Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olt, Phillip

    2018-01-01

    While American students increasingly choose to study online, most professors remain skeptical of its quality. This paper explores the perspectives of history professors at a liberal arts institution regarding their general education classes taught face-to-face (F2F) and online, focusing on interactive communication with students between the two…

  10. Enhancing Building, Conversation, and Learning through Caregiver-Child Interactions in a Children's Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Nora; Haden, Catherine A.; Wilkerson, Erin

    2010-01-01

    The authors adapted an experimental design to examine effects of instruction prior to entry into a children's museum exhibit on caregiver-child interactions and children's learning. One hundred twenty-one children (mean age = 6.6 years) and their caregivers were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 conditions that varied according to what, if any,…

  11. Brain computer interfaces as intelligent sensors for enhancing human-computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, M.; Nijboer, F.; Broek, E.L. van den; Fairclough, S.; Nijholt, A.

    2012-01-01

    BCIs are traditionally conceived as a way to control apparatus, an interface that allows you to act on" external devices as a form of input control. We propose an alternative use of BCIs, that of monitoring users as an additional intelligent sensor to enrich traditional means of interaction. This

  12. Brain computer interfaces as intelligent sensors for enhancing human-computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, Mannes; Nijboer, Femke; van den Broek, Egon; Fairclough, Stephen; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Bohus, Dan; Aghajan, Hamid; Nijholt, Antinus; Cassell, Justine; Epps, Julien

    2012-01-01

    BCIs are traditionally conceived as a way to control apparatus, an interface that allows you to "act on" external devices as a form of input control. We propose an alternative use of BCIs, that of monitoring users as an additional intelligent sensor to enrich traditional means of interaction. This

  13. Using interactive problem-solving techniques to enhance control systems education for non English-speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, L. A.; Chaar, L.; Toms, C.

    2010-03-01

    Interactive learning is beneficial to students in that it allows the continual development and testing of many skills. An interactive approach enables students to improve their technical capabilities, as well as developing both verbal and written communicative ability. Problem solving and communication skills are vital for engineering students; in the workplace they will be required to communicate with people of varying technical abilities and from different linguistic and engineering backgrounds. In this paper, a case study is presented that discusses how the traditional method of teaching control systems can be improved. 'Control systems' is a complex engineering topic requiring students to process an extended amount of mathematical formulae. MATLAB software, which enables students to interactively compare a range of possible combinations and analyse the optimal solution, is used to this end. It was found that students became more enthusiastic and interested when given ownership of their learning objectives. As well as improving the students' technical knowledge, other important engineering skills are also improved by introducing an interactive method of teaching.

  14. Enhanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin I. Bayala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land Surface Temperature (LST is a key parameter in the energy balance model. However, the spatial resolution of the retrieved LST from sensors with high temporal resolution is not accurate enough to be used in local-scale studies. To explore the LST–Normalised Difference Vegetation Index relationship potential and obtain thermal images with high spatial resolution, six enhanced image sharpening techniques were assessed: the disaggregation procedure for radiometric surface temperatures (TsHARP, the Dry Edge Quadratic Function, the Difference of Edges (Ts∗DL and three models supported by the relationship of surface temperature and water stress of vegetation (Normalised Difference Water Index, Normalised Difference Infrared Index and Soil wetness index. Energy Balance Station data and in situ measurements were used to validate the enhanced LST images over a mixed agricultural landscape in the sub-humid Pampean Region of Argentina (PRA, during 2006–2010. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (EOS-MODIS thermal datasets were assessed for different spatial resolutions (e.g., 960, 720 and 240 m and the performances were compared with global and local TsHARP procedures. Results suggest that the Ts∗DL technique is the most adequate for simulating LST to high spatial resolution over the heterogeneous landscape of a sub-humid region, showing an average root mean square error of less than 1 K.

  15. Curcumin enhances neurogenesis and cognition in aged rats: implications for transcriptional interactions related to growth and synaptic plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzhen Dong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Curcumin has been demonstrated to have many neuroprotective properties, including improvement of cognition in humans and neurogenesis in animals, yet the mechanism of such effects remains unclear. METHODOLOGY: We assessed behavioural performance and hippocampal cell proliferation in aged rats after 6- and 12-week curcumin-fortified diets. Curcumin enhanced non-spatial and spatial memory, as well as dentate gyrate cell proliferation as compared to control diet rats. We also investigated underlying mechanistic pathways that might link curcumin treatment to increased cognition and neurogenesis via exon array analysis of cortical and hippocampal mRNA transcription. The results revealed a transcriptional network interaction of genes involved in neurotransmission, neuronal development, signal transduction, and metabolism in response to the curcumin treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest a neurogenesis- and cognition-enhancing potential of prolonged curcumin treatment in aged rats, which may be due to its diverse effects on genes related to growth and plasticity.

  16. Curcumin Enhances Neurogenesis and Cognition in Aged Rats: Implications for Transcriptional Interactions Related to Growth and Synaptic Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, E. Siobhan; Xiu, Jin; Tiwari, Jyoti K.; Hu, Yinghe; Cao, Xiaohua; Zhao, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Curcumin has been demonstrated to have many neuroprotective properties, including improvement of cognition in humans and neurogenesis in animals, yet the mechanism of such effects remains unclear. Methodology We assessed behavioural performance and hippocampal cell proliferation in aged rats after 6- and 12-week curcumin-fortified diets. Curcumin enhanced non-spatial and spatial memory, as well as dentate gyrate cell proliferation as compared to control diet rats. We also investigated underlying mechanistic pathways that might link curcumin treatment to increased cognition and neurogenesis via exon array analysis of cortical and hippocampal mRNA transcription. The results revealed a transcriptional network interaction of genes involved in neurotransmission, neuronal development, signal transduction, and metabolism in response to the curcumin treatment. Conclusions The results suggest a neurogenesis- and cognition-enhancing potential of prolonged curcumin treatment in aged rats, which may be due to its diverse effects on genes related to growth and plasticity. PMID:22359574

  17. Volitional enhancement of firing synchrony and oscillation by neuronal operant conditioning: interaction with neurorehabilitation and brain-machine interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoshio; Song, Kichan; Tachibana, Shota; Takahashi, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we focus on neuronal operant conditioning in which increments in neuronal activities are directly rewarded without behaviors. We discuss the potential of this approach to elucidate neuronal plasticity for enhancing specific brain functions and its interaction with the progress in neurorehabilitation and brain-machine interfaces. The key to-be-conditioned activities that this paper emphasizes are synchronous and oscillatory firings of multiple neurons that reflect activities of cell assemblies. First, we introduce certain well-known studies on neuronal operant conditioning in which conditioned enhancements of neuronal firing were reported in animals and humans. These studies demonstrated the feasibility of volitional control over neuronal activity. Second, we refer to the recent studies on operant conditioning of synchrony and oscillation of neuronal activities. In particular, we introduce a recent study showing volitional enhancement of oscillatory activity in monkey motor cortex and our study showing selective enhancement of firing synchrony of neighboring neurons in rat hippocampus. Third, we discuss the reasons for emphasizing firing synchrony and oscillation in neuronal operant conditioning, the main reason being that they reflect the activities of cell assemblies, which have been suggested to be basic neuronal codes representing information in the brain. Finally, we discuss the interaction of neuronal operant conditioning with neurorehabilitation and brain-machine interface (BMI). We argue that synchrony and oscillation of neuronal firing are the key activities required for developing both reliable neurorehabilitation and high-performance BMI. Further, we conclude that research of neuronal operant conditioning, neurorehabilitation, BMI, and system neuroscience will produce findings applicable to these interrelated fields, and neuronal synchrony and oscillation can be a common important bridge among all of them.

  18. AML1/ETO trans-activates c-KIT expression through the long range interaction between promoter and intronic enhancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ying; Wang, Genjie; Hu, Qingzhu; Xiao, Xichun; Chen, Shuxia

    2018-04-01

    The AML1/ETO onco-fusion protein is crucial for the genesis of t(8;21) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and is well documented as a transcriptional repressor through dominant-negative effect. However, little is known about the transactivation mechanism of AML1/ETO. Through large cohort of patient's expression level data analysis and a series of experimental validation, we report here that AML1/ETO transactivates c-KIT expression through directly binding to and mediating the long-range interaction between the promoter and intronic enhancer regions of c-KIT. Gene expression analyses verify that c-KIT expression is significantly high in t(8;21) AML. Further ChIP-seq analysis and motif scanning identify two regulatory regions located in the promoter and intronic enhancer region of c-KIT, respectively. Both regions are enriched by co-factors of AML1/ETO, such as AML1, CEBPe, c-Jun, and c-Fos. Further luciferase reporter assays show that AML1/ETO trans-activates c-KIT promoter activity through directly recognizing the AML1 motif and the co-existence of co-factors. The induction of c-KIT promoter activity is reinforced with the existence of intronic enhancer region. Furthermore, ChIP-3C-qPCR assays verify that AML1/ETO mediates the formation of DNA-looping between the c-KIT promoter and intronic enhancer region through the long-range interaction. Collectively, our data uncover a novel transcriptional activity mechanism of AML1/ETO and enrich our knowledge of the onco-fusion protein mediated transcription regulation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Shifts in electron capture to the continuum at low collision energies: Enhanced role of target postcollision interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M. B.; McGrath, C.; Luna, H.; Crothers, D.S.F.; O'Rourke, S.F.C.; Gilbody, H.B.; Illescas, Clara; Riera, A.; Pons, B.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of electron velocity distributions emitted at 0 deg. for collisions of 10- and 20-keV H + incident ions on H 2 and He show that the electron capture to the continuum cusp formation, which is still possible at these low impact energies, is shifted to lower momenta than its standard position (centered on the projectile velocity), as recently predicted. Classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations reproduce the observations remarkably well, and indicate that a long-range residual interaction of the electron with the target ion after ionization is responsible for the shifts, which is a general effect that is enhanced at low nuclear velocities

  20. Enhancer Analysis Unveils Genetic Interactions between TLX and SOX2 in Neural Stem Cells and In Vivo Reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed M; Smith, Derek K; Niu, Wenze; Fang, Sanhua; Iqbal, Nida; Sun, Guoqiang; Shi, Yanhong; Zhang, Chun-Li

    2015-11-10

    The orphan nuclear receptor TLX is a master regulator of postnatal neural stem cell (NSC) self-renewal and neurogenesis; however, it remains unclear how TLX expression is precisely regulated in these tissue-specific stem cells. Here, we show that a highly conserved cis-element within the Tlx locus functions to drive gene expression in NSCs. We demonstrate that the transcription factors SOX2 and MYT1 specifically interact with this genomic element to directly regulate Tlx enhancer activity in vivo. Knockdown experiments further reveal that SOX2 dominantly controls endogenous expression of TLX, whereas MYT1 only plays a modulatory role. Importantly, TLX is essential for SOX2-mediated in vivo reprogramming of astrocytes and itself is also sufficient to induce neurogenesis in the adult striatum. Together, these findings unveil functional genetic interactions among transcription factors that are critical to NSCs and in vivo cell reprogramming.

  1. Enhancer Analysis Unveils Genetic Interactions between TLX and SOX2 in Neural Stem Cells and In Vivo Reprogramming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed M.; Smith, Derek K.; Niu, Wenze; Fang, Sanhua; Iqbal, Nida; Sun, Guoqiang; Shi, Yanhong; Zhang, Chun-Li

    2015-01-01

    Summary The orphan nuclear receptor TLX is a master regulator of postnatal neural stem cell (NSC) self-renewal and neurogenesis; however, it remains unclear how TLX expression is precisely regulated in these tissue-specific stem cells. Here, we show that a highly conserved cis-element within the Tlx locus functions to drive gene expression in NSCs. We demonstrate that the transcription factors SOX2 and MYT1 specifically interact with this genomic element to directly regulate Tlx enhancer activity in vivo. Knockdown experiments further reveal that SOX2 dominantly controls endogenous expression of TLX, whereas MYT1 only plays a modulatory role. Importantly, TLX is essential for SOX2-mediated in vivo reprogramming of astrocytes and itself is also sufficient to induce neurogenesis in the adult striatum. Together, these findings unveil functional genetic interactions among transcription factors that are critical to NSCs and in vivo cell reprogramming. PMID:26607952

  2. Enhancer Analysis Unveils Genetic Interactions between TLX and SOX2 in Neural Stem Cells and In Vivo Reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. Islam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The orphan nuclear receptor TLX is a master regulator of postnatal neural stem cell (NSC self-renewal and neurogenesis; however, it remains unclear how TLX expression is precisely regulated in these tissue-specific stem cells. Here, we show that a highly conserved cis-element within the Tlx locus functions to drive gene expression in NSCs. We demonstrate that the transcription factors SOX2 and MYT1 specifically interact with this genomic element to directly regulate Tlx enhancer activity in vivo. Knockdown experiments further reveal that SOX2 dominantly controls endogenous expression of TLX, whereas MYT1 only plays a modulatory role. Importantly, TLX is essential for SOX2-mediated in vivo reprogramming of astrocytes and itself is also sufficient to induce neurogenesis in the adult striatum. Together, these findings unveil functional genetic interactions among transcription factors that are critical to NSCs and in vivo cell reprogramming.

  3. Hypoxia enhances the interaction between pancreatic stellate cells and cancer cells via increased secretion of connective tissue growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Daiki; Ikenaga, Naoki; Ohuchida, Kenoki; Kozono, Shingo; Cui, Lin; Fujiwara, Kenji; Fujino, Minoru; Ohtsuka, Takao; Mizumoto, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Masao

    2013-05-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC), a hypovascular tumor, thrives under hypoxic conditions. Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) promote PC progression by secreting soluble factors, but their functions in hypoxia are poorly understood. This study aimed to clarify the effects of hypoxic conditions on the interaction between PC cells and PSCs. We isolated human PSCs from fresh pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and analyzed functional differences in PSCs between normoxia (21% O2) and hypoxia (1% O2), including expression of various factors related to tumor-stromal interactions. We particularly analyzed effects on PC invasiveness of an overexpressed molecule-connective tissue growth factor (CTGF)-in PSCs under hypoxic conditions, using RNA interference techniques. Conditioned media from hypoxic PSCs enhanced PC cell invasiveness more intensely than that from normoxic PSCs (P cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantum state detection and state preparation based on cavity-enhanced nonlinear interaction of atoms with single photon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mahdi

    Our ability to engineer quantum states of light and matter has significantly advanced over the past two decades, resulting in the production of both Gaussian and non-Gaussian optical states. The resulting tailored quantum states enable quantum technologies such as quantum optical communication, quantum sensing as well as quantum photonic computation. The strong nonlinear light-atom interaction is the key to deterministic quantum state preparation and quantum photonic processing. One route to enhancing the usually weak nonlinear light-atom interactions is to approach the regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED) interaction by means of high finesse optical resonators. I present results from the MIT experiment of large conditional cross-phase modulation between a signal photon, stored inside an atomic quantum memory, and a control photon that traverses a high-finesse optical cavity containing the atomic memory. I also present a scheme to probabilistically change the amplitude and phase of a signal photon qubit to, in principle, arbitrary values by postselection on a control photon that has interacted with that state. Notably, small changes of the control photon polarization measurement basis by few degrees can substantially change the amplitude and phase of the signal state. Finally, I present our ongoing effort at Purdue to realize similar peculiar quantum phenomena at the single photon level on chip scale photonic systems.

  5. Minimum curvilinearity to enhance topological prediction of protein interactions by network embedding

    KAUST Repository

    Cannistraci, Carlo

    2013-06-21

    Motivation: Most functions within the cell emerge thanks to protein-protein interactions (PPIs), yet experimental determination of PPIs is both expensive and time-consuming. PPI networks present significant levels of noise and incompleteness. Predicting interactions using only PPI-network topology (topological prediction) is difficult but essential when prior biological knowledge is absent or unreliable.Methods: Network embedding emphasizes the relations between network proteins embedded in a low-dimensional space, in which protein pairs that are closer to each other represent good candidate interactions. To achieve network denoising, which boosts prediction performance, we first applied minimum curvilinear embedding (MCE), and then adopted shortest path (SP) in the reduced space to assign likelihood scores to candidate interactions. Furthermore, we introduce (i) a new valid variation of MCE, named non-centred MCE (ncMCE); (ii) two automatic strategies for selecting the appropriate embedding dimension; and (iii) two new randomized procedures for evaluating predictions.Results: We compared our method against several unsupervised and supervisedly tuned embedding approaches and node neighbourhood techniques. Despite its computational simplicity, ncMCE-SP was the overall leader, outperforming the current methods in topological link prediction.Conclusion: Minimum curvilinearity is a valuable non-linear framework that we successfully applied to the embedding of protein networks for the unsupervised prediction of novel PPIs. The rationale for our approach is that biological and evolutionary information is imprinted in the non-linear patterns hidden behind the protein network topology, and can be exploited for predicting new protein links. The predicted PPIs represent good candidates for testing in high-throughput experiments or for exploitation in systems biology tools such as those used for network-based inference and prediction of disease-related functional modules. The

  6. Training in Compensatory Strategies Enhances Rapport in Interactions Involving People with Möbius Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eMichael

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the exploratory study reported here, we tested the efficacy of an intervention designed to train teenagers with Möbius Syndrome (MS to increase the use of alternative communication strategies (e.g. gestures to compensate for their lack of facial expressiveness. Specifically, we expected the intervention to increase the level of rapport experienced in social interactions by our participants. In addition, we aimed to identify the mechanisms responsible for any such increase in rapport. In the study, five teenagers with MS interacted with three naïve participants without MS before the intervention, and with three different naïve participants without MS after the intervention. Rapport was assessed by self-report and by behavioral coders who rated videos of the interactions. Individual nonverbal behavior was assessed via behavioral coders, while verbal behavior was automatically extracted from the sound files. Alignment was assessed using cross recurrence quantification analysis and mixed effects models. The results showed that observer-coded rapport was greater after the intervention, whereas self-reported rapport did not change significantly. Observer-coded gesture and expressivity increased in participants with and without MS, while overall linguistic alignment decreased. Fidgeting and repetitiveness of verbal behavior also decreased in both groups. In sum, the intervention may impact nonverbal and verbal behavior in participants with and without MS, increasing rapport as well as overall gesturing, while decreasing alignment.

  7. Performance-based Reward Administration Enhancing Employees’ Feelings of Interactional Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Ismail

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The transformation in international business landscape has changed organizational management especially reward administration. This is done in order to maintain the organization’s competitiveness in global market place. In the field of reward administration, an emerging trend can be observed whereby most organizations are moving toward the application of psychological elements in administering organizational reward system. The ultimate objective of this study is to investigate the association between performance-based reward administration and interactional justice. The proposed model was empirically tested using a sample of 113 employees from fire and rescue agency in Peninsular Malaysia. This study found an evidence that performance-based reward administration (i.e., communication, participation and performance appraisal is positively and significantly associated with interactional justice. This findings proves that the ability of administrators to appropriately implement communication openness, inspire participative decision-making and organize fairness performance appraisal in administering performance-based reward have significantly evoked the feeling of interactional justice when employees perceived that they are being fairly treated in the reward system.

  8. Enhanced Cycling Stability of Lithium–Sulfur batteries by Electrostatic-Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Zhaoling; Huang, Xiaobing; Jiang, Qianqian; Huo, Jia; Wang, Shuangyin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrostatic interaction is utilized to hinder the shuttling of polysulfides. • Directly functionalizing SG can better prolong the cycle life of Li–S batteries. • SG/PDDA showed significantly improved capacity retention. - Abstract: Lithiums–sulfur battery is considered as one of the most promising energy storage devices to replace the current Li ion batteries because of its high theoretical capacity of 1675 mA h g −1 . However, the poor cycle stability hinders the further development of this battery system. In order to improve the stability of Li–S batteries, the diffusion of polysulfides from electrodes into electrolyte should be suppressed. Herein, we utilize a positively charged polyelectrolyte to functionalize the electrode materials with the aim to hamper the polysulfides dissolution via electrostatic interaction between strong positively charged polyelectrolyte and negatively charged polysulfides anion. The effect of the functionalization quantity of poly(diallyl dimethylammonium) chloride (PDDA) and functionalization sequence on cycling performances is investigated in detail. It is found that the sulfur–graphene composite (SG) directly functionalized with 10 times PDDA exhibited best cycling stability. At a discharge current density of 0.2 C, much higher capacity retention was realized on the functionalized electrodes than the unfunctionalized (81% vs. 47.3%) after 120 cycles. The as-observed results demonstrate that the electrostatic interaction can effectively prolong the cycling life of Li–S batteries, which provides a new promising strategy for improving the electrochemical performance of Li–S batteries.

  9. Enhanced organic contaminants accumulation in crops: Mechanisms, interactions with engineered nanomaterials in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Lizhong

    2018-05-02

    The mechanism of enhanced accumulation of organic contaminants in crops with engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) were investigated by co-exposure of crops (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk (Swamp morning-glory), Cucumis sativus L. (cucumber), Zea mays L. (corn), Spinacia oleracea L. (spinach) and Cucurbita moschata (pumpkin))to a range of chemicals (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE)) and ENMs (TiO 2 , Ag, Al 2 O 3 , graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs)) in soil. Induced by 50 mg kg -1 graphene co-exposure, the increase range of BDE-209, BaP, p,p'-DDE, HCB, PYR, FLU, ANT, and PHEN in the plants were increased in the range of 7.51-36.42, 5.69-32.77, 7.09-59.43, 11.61-66.73, 4.58-57.71, 5.79-109.07, 12.85-109.76, and15.57-127.75 ng g -1 , respectively. The contaminants in ENMs-spiked and control soils were separated into bioavailable, bound and residual fractions using a sequential ultrasonic extraction procedure (SUEP) to investigate the mechanism of the enhanced accumulation. The bioavailable fraction in spiked soils showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) from that in the control, while the bound fraction increased in equal proportion (p > 0.05) to the reduction in the residual fraction. These results implied that ENMs can competitively adsorbed the bound of organic contaminants from soil and co-transferred into crops, followed by a portion of the residual fraction transferred to the bound fraction to maintain the balance of different fractions in soils. The mass balance was all higher than 98.5%, indicating the portion of degraded contaminants was less than 1.5%. These findings could expand our knowledge about the organic contaminants accumulation enhancement in crops with ENMs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Intestinal surfactant permeation enhancers and their interaction with enterocyte cell membranes in a mucosal explant system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal permeation enhancers (PEs) are agents aimed to improve oral delivery of therapeutic drugs with poor bioavailability. The main permeability barrier for oral delivery is the intestinal epithelium, and PEs act to increase the paracellular and/or transcellular passage of drugs. Transcellular...... for the fluorescent polar tracer lucifer yellow, but surprisingly, they all also blocked both constitutive -and receptor-mediated pathways of endocytosis from the brush border, indicating a complete arrest of apical membrane trafficking. At the ultrastructural level, the PEs caused longitudinal fusion of brush border...

  11. INTERACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth; Borggreen, Gunhild; Murphey, TD

    This paper considers the impact of visual art and performance on robotics and human-computer interaction and outlines a research project that combines puppetry and live performance with robotics. Kinesics—communication through movement—is the foundation of many theatre and performance traditions ...

  12. Reward prediction error signal enhanced by striatum-amygdala interaction explains the acceleration of probabilistic reward learning by emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Noriya; Sakagami, Masamichi; Haruno, Masahiko

    2013-03-06

    Learning does not only depend on rationality, because real-life learning cannot be isolated from emotion or social factors. Therefore, it is intriguing to determine how emotion changes learning, and to identify which neural substrates underlie this interaction. Here, we show that the task-independent presentation of an emotional face before a reward-predicting cue increases the speed of cue-reward association learning in human subjects compared with trials in which a neutral face is presented. This phenomenon was attributable to an increase in the learning rate, which regulates reward prediction errors. Parallel to these behavioral findings, functional magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated that presentation of an emotional face enhanced reward prediction error (RPE) signal in the ventral striatum. In addition, we also found a functional link between this enhanced RPE signal and increased activity in the amygdala following presentation of an emotional face. Thus, this study revealed an acceleration of cue-reward association learning by emotion, and underscored a role of striatum-amygdala interactions in the modulation of the reward prediction errors by emotion.

  13. Cognitive enhancers (nootropics). Part 3: drugs interacting with targets other than receptors or enzymes. disease-modifying drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froestl, Wolfgang; Pfeifer, Andrea; Muhs, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive enhancers (nootropics) are drugs to treat cognition deficits in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or aging. Cognition refers to a capacity for information processing, applying knowledge, and changing preferences. It involves memory, attention, executive functions, perception, language, and psychomotor functions. The term nootropics was coined in 1972 when memory enhancing properties of piracetam were observed in clinical trials. In the meantime, hundreds of drugs have been evaluated in clinical trials or in preclinical experiments. To classify the compounds, a concept is proposed assigning drugs to 19 categories according to their mechanism(s) of action, in particular drugs interacting with receptors, enzymes, ion channels, nerve growth factors, re-uptake transporters, antioxidants, metal chelators, and disease modifying drugs, meaning small molecules, vaccines, and monoclonal antibodies interacting with amyloid-β and tau. For drugs, whose mechanism of action is not known, they are either classified according to structure, e.g., peptides, or their origin, e.g., natural products. The review covers the evolution of research in this field over the last 25 years.

  14. Training in Compensatory Strategies Enhances Rapport in Interactions Involving People with Möbius Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, John; Bogart, Kathleen; Tylén, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    , and with three different naïve participants without MS after the intervention. Rapport was assessed by self-report and by behavioral coders who rated videos of the interactions. Individual nonverbal behavior was assessed via behavioral coders, while verbal behavior was automatically extracted from the sound...... files. Alignment was assessed using cross recurrence quantification analysis and mixed effects models. The results showed that observer-coded rapport was greater after the intervention, whereas self-reported rapport did not change significantly. Observer-coded gesture and expressivity increased...

  15. Quantifying Parameter Sensitivity, Interaction and Transferability in Hydrologically Enhanced Versions of Noah-LSM over Transition Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero, Enrique; Yang, Zong-Liang; Wagener, Thorsten; Gulden, Lindsey E.; Yatheendradas, Soni; Niu, Guo-Yue

    2009-01-01

    We use sensitivity analysis to identify the parameters that are most responsible for shaping land surface model (LSM) simulations and to understand the complex interactions in three versions of the Noah LSM: the standard version (STD), a version enhanced with a simple groundwater module (GW), and version augmented by a dynamic phenology module (DV). We use warm season, high-frequency, near-surface states and turbulent fluxes collected over nine sites in the US Southern Great Plains. We quantify changes in the pattern of sensitive parameters, the amount and nature of the interaction between parameters, and the covariance structure of the distribution of behavioral parameter sets. Using Sobol s total and first-order sensitivity indexes, we show that very few parameters directly control the variance of the model output. Significant parameter interaction occurs so that not only the optimal parameter values differ between models, but the relationships between parameters change. GW decreases parameter interaction and appears to improve model realism, especially at wetter sites. DV increases parameter interaction and decreases identifiability, implying it is overparameterized and/or underconstrained. A case study at a wet site shows GW has two functional modes: one that mimics STD and a second in which GW improves model function by decoupling direct evaporation and baseflow. Unsupervised classification of the posterior distributions of behavioral parameter sets cannot group similar sites based solely on soil or vegetation type, helping to explain why transferability between sites and models is not straightforward. This evidence suggests a priori assignment of parameters should also consider climatic differences.

  16. Decision aids for enhancing intergovernmental interactions: The Prenotification Analysis Support System (PASS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, M.; Liebow, E.; Holm, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) plans to honor its commitment to government-to-government interactions by providing advance notice of DOE spent fuel and high-level waste shipments to Indian tribes whose jurisdictions are crossed by or adjacent to transportation routes. The tribes are important contributors to a regional response network, and providing tribes with advance notice of DOE shipping plans marks the start -- not the end -- of direct, government-to-government interactions with DOE. The Tribal Prenotification Analysis Support System (PASS) is being developed for the Office of Special Programs within the Department's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. PASS will help DOE-Headquarters to coordinate field office activities and provide technical and institutional support to the DOE field offices. PASS is designed to be used by anyone with minimum computer literacy and having contemporary computer hardware and software. It uses on-screen maps to choose and display a shipment route, and to display the tribal jurisdictions. With forms that are easy to understand, it provides information about each jurisdiction and points of contact. PASS records all contacts, commitments made, and actions taken

  17. Integrating R and Java for Enhancing Interactivity of Algorithmic Data Analysis Software Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titus Felix FURTUNĂ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Conceiving software solutions for statistical processing and algorithmic data analysis involves handling diverse data, fetched from various sources and in different formats, and presenting the results in a suggestive, tailorable manner. Our ongoing research aims to design programming technics for integrating R developing environment with Java programming language for interoperability at a source code level. The goal is to combine the intensive data processing capabilities of R programing language, along with the multitude of statistical function libraries, with the flexibility offered by Java programming language and platform, in terms of graphical user interface and mathematical function libraries. Both developing environments are multiplatform oriented, and can complement each other through interoperability. R is a comprehensive and concise programming language, benefiting from a continuously expanding and evolving set of packages for statistical analysis, developed by the open source community. While is a very efficient environment for statistical data processing, R platform lacks support for developing user friendly, interactive, graphical user interfaces (GUIs. Java on the other hand, is a high level object oriented programming language, which supports designing and developing performant and interactive frameworks for general purpose software solutions, through Java Foundation Classes, JavaFX and various graphical libraries. In this paper we treat both aspects of integration and interoperability that refer to integrating Java code into R applications, and bringing R processing sequences into Java driven software solutions. Our research has been conducted focusing on case studies concerning pattern recognition and cluster analysis.

  18. Compositing polyetherimide with polyfluorene wrapped carbon nanotubes for enhanced interfacial interaction and conductivity

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Ye

    2014-06-25

    A novel approach to chemically functionalize multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for making superior polyetherimide (PEI) nanocomposites with polyfluorene polymer is presented. In this approach, MWCNTs are non-covalently functionalized with poly(9,9-dioctyfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) (PFO) through π-π stacking as confirmed by UV-vis, fluorescence, and Raman spectra. Atomic force microscopy as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy shows the PFO coated MWCNTs, which provides excellent dispersion of the latter in both solvent and PEI matrix. The strong interaction of PFO with PEI chains, as evidenced from fluorescence spectra, supports the good adhesion of dispersed MWCNTs to PEI leading to stronger interfacial interactions. As a result, the addition of as little as 0.25 wt % of modified MWCNTs to PEI matrix can strongly improve the mechanical properties of the composite (increase of 46% in storage modulus). Increasing the amount of MWCNTs to 2.0 wt % (0.5 wt % PFO loading) affords a great increase of 119% in storage modulus. Furthermore, a sharp decrease of 12 orders of magnitude in volume resistivity of PEI composite is obtained with only 0.5 wt % of PFO modified MWCNT. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  19. Decision-aids for enhancing intergovernmental interactions: The Pre-notification Analysis Support System (PASS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, M.; Liebow, E.; Holm, J.

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) plans to honor its commitment to government-to-government interactions by providing advance notice of DOE spent fuel and high-level waste shipments to Indian tribes whose jurisdictions are crossed by or adjacent to transportation routes. The tribes are important contributors to a regional response network, and providing tribes with advance notice of DOE shipping plans marks the start -- not the end -- of direct, government-to-government interactions with DOE. The Tribal Prenotification Analysis Support System (PASS) is being developed for the Office of Special Programs within the Department's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. PASS will help DOE-Headquarters to coordinate field office activities and provide technical and institutional support to the DOE field offices. PASS is designed to be used by anyone with minimum computer literacy and having contemporary computer hardware and software. It uses on-screen maps to choose and display a shipment route, and to display the tribal jurisdictions. With forms that are easy to understand, it provides information about each jurisdiction and points of contact. PASS records all contacts, commitments made, and actions taken

  20. Synergistic Interactions of a Synthetic Lubricin-Mimetic with Fibronectin for Enhanced Wear Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto C. Andresen Eguiluz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lubricin (LUB, a major mucinous glycoprotein of mammalian synovial fluids, is believed to provide excellent lubrication to cartilage surfaces. Consequently, when joint disease or replacement leads to increased friction and surface damage in the joint, robust synthetic LUB alternatives that could be used therapeutically to improve lubrication and surface protection are needed. Here, we report the characterization of a lubricating multiblock bottlebrush polymer whose architecture was inspired by LUB, and we investigate the role of fibronectin (FN, a glycoprotein found in the superficial zone of cartilage, in mediating the tribological properties of the polymer upon shear between mica surfaces. Our surface forces apparatus (SFA normal force measurements indicate that the lubricin-mimetic (mimLUB could be kept anchored between mica surfaces, even under high contact pressures, when an intermediate layer of FN was present. Additional SFA friction measurements show that FN would also extend the wearless friction regime of the polymer up to pressures of 3.4 MPa while ensuring stable friction coefficients (μ ≈ 0.28. These results demonstrate synergistic interactions between mimLUB and FN in assisting the lubrication and wear protection of ideal (mica substrates upon shear. Collectively, these findings suggest that our proposed mimLUB might be a promising alternative to LUB, as similar mechanisms could potentially facilitate the interaction between the polymer and cartilage surfaces in articular joints and prosthetic implants in vivo.

  1. Chitosan/graphene oxide nanocomposite films with enhanced interfacial interaction and their electrochemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Linghao; Wang, Hongfang; Xia, Guangmei; Sun, Jing; Song, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nanocomposites by introducing graphene oxide (GO) into chitosan (CS) matrix were prepared and the effect of GO on the crystallization, thermal stability and mechanical properties of the films were investigated. In addition, the electrochemical behavior of the CS/GO modified electrode was comparatively studied with that of the neat CS-modified electrode. - Highlights: • Graphene oxide (GO) with well dispersion in the biopolymer chitosan (CS) matrix. • Detectable interactions do exist between the GO nanosheets and CS segments. • The addition of minor GO can improve the electrochemical activity of the neat CS. - Abstract: A series of chitosan (CS) nanocomposites incorporated with graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were facilely prepared by sonochemical method. Characterized by scanning electron microscopy, the obtained nanocomposites showed fine dispersion of GO in the CS matrix. Meanwhile, a marked interfacial interaction was also revealed as the values of glass transition temperature, the decomposition temperature and the storage modulus were significantly increased with the addition of GO. Furthermore, the well dispersed GO nanosheets could significantly improve the electrochemical activity of the CS as demonstrated by the electrochemical behaviors of pure CS and the GO/CS composite electrodes. Hence, the GO/CS nanocomposites film could be a promising candidate in the fabrication of electrochemical biosensors

  2. Gammadelta receptor bearing T cells in scleroderma: enhanced interaction with vascular endothelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahaleh, M B; Fan, P S; Otsuka, T

    1999-05-01

    In view of the documented perivascular mononuclear cell infiltration in the involved organs in scleroderma (SSc) and the reported accumulation of gammadelta-T cells in SSc skin and lung, we evaluated gammadelta-T cell interaction with endothelial cells (EC) in vitro. gammadelta- and alphabeta-T cells were isolated from BPMN of SSc patients with early diffuse disease and of matched control subjects by an immunomagnetic method after stimulation with mycobacterium lysate and interleukin-2 for 2 weeks. Lymphocyte adhesion, proliferation, and cytotoxicity to EC were investigated. SSc gammadelta-T cells adhered to cultured EC and proliferated at higher rates than control cells. Furthermore, significant EC cytotoxicity by SSc gammadelta was seen. The cytotoxicity was blocked by addition of anti-gammadelta-TCR antibody and by anti-granzyme A antibody but not by anti-MHC class I and II antibodies. Expression of granzyme A mRNA was seen in five/five SSc gammadelta-T cells and in one/five control cells. alphabeta-T cells from both SSc and control subjects were significantly less interactive with EC than gammadelta-T cells. The data demonstrate EC recognition by SSc gammadelta-T cells and propose gammadelta-T cells as a possible effector cell type in the immune pathogenesis of SSc. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  3. Pressure Enhancement in Confined Fluids: Effect of Molecular Shape and Fluid-Wall Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepti; Santiso, Erik E; Gubbins, Keith E

    2017-10-24

    Recently, several experimental and simulation studies have found that phenomena that normally occur at extremely high pressures in a bulk phase can occur in nanophases confined within porous materials at much lower bulk phase pressures, thus providing an alternative route to study high-pressure phenomena. In this work, we examine the effect on the tangential pressure of varying the molecular shape, strength of the fluid-wall interactions, and pore width, for carbon slit-shaped pores. We find that, for multisite molecules, the presence of additional rotational degrees of freedom leads to unique changes in the shape of the tangential pressure profile, especially in larger pores. We show that, due to the direct relationship between the molecular density and the fluid-wall interactions, the latter have a large impact on the pressure tensor. The molecular shape and pore size have a notable impact on the layering of molecules in the pore, greatly influencing both the shape and scale of the tangential pressure profile.

  4. Cocrystals of Hydrochlorothiazide: Solubility and Diffusion/Permeability Enhancements through Drug-Coformer Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanphui, Palash; Devi, V Kusum; Clara, Deepa; Malviya, Nidhi; Ganguly, Somnath; Desiraju, Gautam R

    2015-05-04

    Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) is a diuretic and a BCS class IV drug with low solubility and low permeability, exhibiting poor oral absorption. The present study attempts to improve the physicochemical properties of the drug using a crystal engineering approach with cocrystals. Such multicomponent crystals of HCT with nicotinic acid (NIC), nicotinamide (NCT), 4-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), succinamide (SAM), and resorcinol (RES) were prepared using liquid-assisted grinding, and their solubilities in pH 7.4 buffer were evaluated. Diffusion and membrane permeability were studied using a Franz diffusion cell. Except for the SAM and NIC cocrystals, all other binary systems exhibited improved solubility. All of the cocrystals showed improved diffusion/membrane permeability compared to that of HCT with the exception of the SAM cocrystal. When the solubility was high, as in the case of PABA, NCT, and RES cocrystals, the flux/permeability dropped slightly. This is in agreement with the expected interplay between solubility and permeability. Improved solubility/permeability is attributed to new drug-coformer interactions. Cocrystals of SAM, however, showed poor solubility and flux. This cocrystal contains a primary sulfonamide dimer synthon similar to that of HCT polymorphs, which may be a reason for its unusual behavior. Hirshfeld surface analysis was carried out in all cases to determine whether a correlation exists between cocrystal permeability and drug-coformer interactions.

  5. Endothelial cell SHP-2 negatively regulates neutrophil adhesion and promotes transmigration by enhancing ICAM-1-VE-cadherin interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Meiping; Zhang, Xinhua; Chen, Ao; Gu, Wei; Liu, Jie; Ren, Xiaojiao; Zhang, Jianping; Wu, Xiaoxiong; Place, Aaron T; Minshall, Richard D; Liu, Guoquan

    2017-11-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mediates the firm adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells and initiates subsequent signaling that promotes their transendothelial migration (TEM). Vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin plays a critical role in endothelial cell-cell adhesion, thereby controlling endothelial permeability and leukocyte transmigration. This study aimed to determine the molecular signaling events that originate from the ICAM-1-mediated firm adhesion of neutrophils that regulate VE-cadherin's role as a negative regulator of leukocyte transmigration. We observed that ICAM-1 interacts with Src homology domain 2-containing phosphatase-2 (SHP-2), and SHP-2 down-regulation via silencing of small interfering RNA in endothelial cells enhanced neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells but inhibited neutrophil transmigration. We also found that VE-cadherin associated with the ICAM-1-SHP-2 complex. Moreover, whereas the activation of ICAM-1 leads to VE-cadherin dissociation from ICAM-1 and VE-cadherin association with actin, SHP-2 down-regulation prevented ICAM-1-VE-cadherin association and promoted VE-cadherin-actin association. Furthermore, SHP-2 down-regulation in vivo promoted LPS-induced neutrophil recruitment in mouse lung but delayed neutrophil extravasation. These results suggest that SHP-2- via association with ICAM-1-mediates ICAM-1-induced Src activation and modulates VE-cadherin switching association with ICAM-1 or actin, thereby negatively regulating neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells and enhancing their TEM.-Yan, M., Zhang, X., Chen, A., Gu, W., Liu, J., Ren, X., Zhang, J., Wu, X., Place, A. T., Minshall, R. D., Liu, G. Endothelial cell SHP-2 negatively regulates neutrophil adhesion and promotes transmigration by enhancing ICAM-1-VE-cadherin interaction. © FASEB.

  6. Numerical Study on CO2-Brine-Rock Interaction of Enhanced Geothermal Systems with CO2 as Heat Transmission Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Yuyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS with CO2 instead of water as heat transmission fluid is an attractive concept for both geothermal resources development and CO2 geological sequestration. Previous studies show that CO2 has lots of favorable properties as heat transmission fluid and also can offer geologic storage of CO2 as an ancillary benefit. However, after CO2 injection into geological formations, chemical reaction between brine and rock can change chemical characteristics of saline and properties of rock such as porosity and permeability. Is this advantage or disadvantage for EGS operating? To answer this question, we have performed chemically reactive transport modeling to investigate fluid-rock interactions and CO2 mineral carbonation of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS site at Desert Peak (Nevada operated with CO2. The simulation results show that (1 injection CO2 can create a core zone fulfilled with CO2 as main working domain for EGS, and (2 CO2 storage can induced self-enhancing alteration of EGS.

  7. Enhancement of exchange coupling interaction of NdFeB/MnBi hybrid magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong Xuan; Nguyen, Khanh Van; Nguyen, Vuong Van

    2018-03-01

    MnBi ribbons were fabricated by melt - spinning with subsequent annealing. The MnBi ribbons were ground and mixed with NdFeB commercial Magnequench powders (MQA). The hybrid powder mixtures were subjected thrice to the annealing and ball-milling route. The hybrid magnets (100 - x)NdFeB/xMnBi, x=0, 30, 40, 50 and 100 wt% were in-mold aligned in an 18 kOe magnetic field and warm compacted at 290 °C by 2000 psi uniaxial pressure for 10 min. An enhancement of the exchange coupling of NdFeB/MnBi hybrid magnets was obtained by optimizing the magnets' microstructures via annealing and ball-milling processes. The magnetic properties of prepared NdFeB/MnBi hybrid magnets were studied and discussed in details.

  8. Promoting communication with older adults: protocols for resolving interpersonal conflicts and for enhancing interactions with doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, Patricia Flynn; Weitzman, Eben A

    2003-07-01

    In this paper, we review the importance of effective communication in older adulthood, and ideas for promoting it. We focus on theoretical and applied work in two communicative encounters that have particular relevance for older adult health, i.e., interpersonal conflict and visits with a healthcare provider. Little applied work has aimed to adapt training protocols for older adults in these two areas. We will present training protocols we have developed in constructive conflict resolution for older adults, and on enhancing doctor-patient communication. We present these protocols to stimulate ideas on the part of the reader on how to further develop and refine training efforts for older adults in effective communication.

  9. Evaluation of CO2-Fluid-Rock Interaction in Enhanced Geothermal Systems: Field-Scale Geochemical Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that using supercritical CO2 (scCO2 instead of water as a heat transmission fluid in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS may improve energy extraction. While CO2-fluid-rock interactions at “typical” temperatures and pressures of subsurface reservoirs are fairly well known, such understanding for the elevated conditions of EGS is relatively unresolved. Geochemical impacts of CO2 as a working fluid (“CO2-EGS” compared to those for water as a working fluid (H2O-EGS are needed. The primary objectives of this study are (1 constraining geochemical processes associated with CO2-fluid-rock interactions under the high pressures and temperatures of a typical CO2-EGS site and (2 comparing geochemical impacts of CO2-EGS to geochemical impacts of H2O-EGS. The St. John’s Dome CO2-EGS research site in Arizona was adopted as a case study. A 3D model of the site was developed. Net heat extraction and mass flow production rates for CO2-EGS were larger compared to H2O-EGS, suggesting that using scCO2 as a working fluid may enhance EGS heat extraction. More aqueous CO2 accumulates within upper- and lower-lying layers than in the injection/production layers, reducing pH values and leading to increased dissolution and precipitation of minerals in those upper and lower layers. Dissolution of oligoclase for water as a working fluid shows smaller magnitude in rates and different distributions in profile than those for scCO2 as a working fluid. It indicates that geochemical processes of scCO2-rock interaction have significant effects on mineral dissolution and precipitation in magnitudes and distributions.

  10. Tuning metal support interactions enhances the activity and durability of TiO2-supported Pt nanocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Bing-Jen; Tsai, Meng-Che; Pan, Chun-Jern; Su, Wei-Nien; Rick, John; Chou, Hung-Lung; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The coverage of TiO x on Pt can be modified by thermal and fluoric acid treatments. • Strong metal support interaction (SMSI) can be testified by electrochemical method. • For the first time, the SMSI effect is observed at 200 °C with supporting TEM images. • Increased activity and stability are attributed to stronger SMSI. • This tunable approach is valid for other oxide supported catalysts, e.g. Pt/Nb-TiO 2 . - Abstract: A facile approach to enhance catalytic activity and durability of TiO 2 -supported Pt nanocatalysts by tuning strong metal support interaction (SMSI) is investigated in this work. No need for a high temperature treatment, the strong metal-support interaction (SMSI) in TiO 2 -supported Pt can be induced at 200° C by H 2 reduction. Moreover, electrochemical methods (methanol oxidation reaction and cyclic voltammetry) are first reported ever to be effective characterization tools for the coverage state caused by SMSI. In addition, the SMSI has also been confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and Transmission Electron Microscopy. It is found that the encapsulation of TiO 2-x species on the surface Pt clusters was induced and modified by thermal reduction and fluoric acid treatment. The catalytic activity and durability of the TiO 2 -supported Pt nanocatalysts are strongly dependent of the state of SMSI. The proposed SMSI-tunable approach to enhance the ORR activity and stability is also proved applicable to Pt/Ti 0.9 Nb 0.1 O 2 nanocatalysts. We believe that the reported approach paves the way for manipulating the activity and stability of other TiO 2 -supported metal nanocatalysts. Furthermore, the suggested electrochemical methods offer facile and effective ways to verify the presence of coverage state before combining with other physical analysis.

  11. Interaction of Leptospira interrogans with Human Proteolytic Systems Enhances Dissemination through Endothelial Cells and Protease Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Monica L.; Alvarez-Flores, Miryam P.; Kirchgatter, Karin; Romero, Eliete C.; Alves, Ivy J.; de Morais, Zenaide M.; Vasconcellos, Silvio A.; Chudzinski-Tavassi, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    We have recently reported the ability of Leptospira to capture plasminogen (PLG) and generate plasmin (PLA) bound on the microbial surface in the presence of exogenous activators. In this work, we examined the effects of leptospiral PLG binding for active penetration through the endothelial cell barrier and activation. The results indicate that leptospires with PLG association or PLA activation have enhanced migration activity through human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayers compared with untreated bacteria. Leptospira cells coated with PLG were capable of stimulating the expression of PLG activators by HUVECs. Moreover, leptospires endowed with PLG or PLA promoted transcriptional upregulation matrix metalloprotease 9 (MMP-9). Serum samples from patients with confirmed leptospirosis showed higher levels of PLG activators and total MMP-9 than serum samples from normal (healthy) subjects. The highest level of PLG activators and total MMP-9 was detected with microscopic agglutination test (MAT)-negative serum samples, suggesting that this proteolytic activity stimulation occurs at the early stage of the disease. Furthermore, a gelatin zymography profile obtained for MMPs with serum samples from patients with leptospirosis appears to be specific to leptospiral infection because serum samples from patients with unrelated infectious diseases produced no similar degradation bands. Altogether, the data suggest that the Leptospira-associated PLG or PLA might represent a mechanism that contributes to bacterial penetration of endothelial cells through an activation cascade of events that enhances the proteolytic capability of the organism. To our knowledge, this is the first proteolytic activity associated with leptospiral pathogenesis described to date. PMID:23478319

  12. An IBC enhanced DGTD scheme for transient analysis of em interactions with graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping

    2014-07-01

    A discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) method is proposed for analyzing electromagnetic field interactions on graphene from microwave to terahertz frequencies. An impedance boundary condition (IBC) is utilized to model the graphene within the DGTD framework. The numerical flux is reformulated to take into account the IBC. Highly dispersive surface conductivity of graphene present in the resulting flux expression is approximated in terms of rational functions using the fast-relaxation vector-fitting technique. Via inverse Laplace transform, this facilitates the time domain matrix equations into an integral form for time variable t, finite integral technique (FIT) with recursive convolution method is employed to discrete and solve the matrix equations. The accuracy and applicability of the proposed IBC-DGTD is verified by numerical experiments.

  13. Folding of the natural hammerhead ribozyme is enhanced by interaction of auxiliary elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    PENEDO, J. CARLOS; WILSON, TIMOTHY J.; JAYASENA, SUMEDHA D.; KHVOROVA, ANASTASIA; LILLEY, DAVID M.J.

    2004-01-01

    It has been shown that the activity of the hammerhead ribozyme at μM magnesium ion concentrations is markedly increased by the inclusion of loops in helices I and II. We have studied the effect of such loops on the magnesium ion-induced folding of the ribozyme, using fluorescence resonance energy transfer. We find that with the loops in place, folding into the active conformation occurs in a single step, in the μM range of magnesium ion concentration. Disruption of the loop–loop interaction leads to a reversion to two-step folding, with the second stage requiring mM concentrations of magnesium ion. Sodium ions also promote the folding of the natural form of the ribozyme at high concentrations, but the folding occurs as a two-stage process. The loops clearly act as important auxiliary elements in the function of the ribozyme, permitting folding to occur efficiently under physiological conditions. PMID:15100442

  14. Why Robots Should Be Social: Enhancing Machine Learning through Social Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Greeff, Joachim; Belpaeme, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Social learning is a powerful method for cultural propagation of knowledge and skills relying on a complex interplay of learning strategies, social ecology and the human propensity for both learning and tutoring. Social learning has the potential to be an equally potent learning strategy for artificial systems and robots in specific. However, given the complexity and unstructured nature of social learning, implementing social machine learning proves to be a challenging problem. We study one particular aspect of social machine learning: that of offering social cues during the learning interaction. Specifically, we study whether people are sensitive to social cues offered by a learning robot, in a similar way to children’s social bids for tutoring. We use a child-like social robot and a task in which the robot has to learn the meaning of words. For this a simple turn-based interaction is used, based on language games. Two conditions are tested: one in which the robot uses social means to invite a human teacher to provide information based on what the robot requires to fill gaps in its knowledge (i.e. expression of a learning preference); the other in which the robot does not provide social cues to communicate a learning preference. We observe that conveying a learning preference through the use of social cues results in better and faster learning by the robot. People also seem to form a “mental model” of the robot, tailoring the tutoring to the robot’s performance as opposed to using simply random teaching. In addition, the social learning shows a clear gender effect with female participants being responsive to the robot’s bids, while male teachers appear to be less receptive. This work shows how additional social cues in social machine learning can result in people offering better quality learning input to artificial systems, resulting in improved learning performance. PMID:26422143

  15. Why Robots Should Be Social: Enhancing Machine Learning through Social Human-Robot Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Greeff, Joachim; Belpaeme, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Social learning is a powerful method for cultural propagation of knowledge and skills relying on a complex interplay of learning strategies, social ecology and the human propensity for both learning and tutoring. Social learning has the potential to be an equally potent learning strategy for artificial systems and robots in specific. However, given the complexity and unstructured nature of social learning, implementing social machine learning proves to be a challenging problem. We study one particular aspect of social machine learning: that of offering social cues during the learning interaction. Specifically, we study whether people are sensitive to social cues offered by a learning robot, in a similar way to children's social bids for tutoring. We use a child-like social robot and a task in which the robot has to learn the meaning of words. For this a simple turn-based interaction is used, based on language games. Two conditions are tested: one in which the robot uses social means to invite a human teacher to provide information based on what the robot requires to fill gaps in its knowledge (i.e. expression of a learning preference); the other in which the robot does not provide social cues to communicate a learning preference. We observe that conveying a learning preference through the use of social cues results in better and faster learning by the robot. People also seem to form a "mental model" of the robot, tailoring the tutoring to the robot's performance as opposed to using simply random teaching. In addition, the social learning shows a clear gender effect with female participants being responsive to the robot's bids, while male teachers appear to be less receptive. This work shows how additional social cues in social machine learning can result in people offering better quality learning input to artificial systems, resulting in improved learning performance.

  16. Why Robots Should Be Social: Enhancing Machine Learning through Social Human-Robot Interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim de Greeff

    Full Text Available Social learning is a powerful method for cultural propagation of knowledge and skills relying on a complex interplay of learning strategies, social ecology and the human propensity for both learning and tutoring. Social learning has the potential to be an equally potent learning strategy for artificial systems and robots in specific. However, given the complexity and unstructured nature of social learning, implementing social machine learning proves to be a challenging problem. We study one particular aspect of social machine learning: that of offering social cues during the learning interaction. Specifically, we study whether people are sensitive to social cues offered by a learning robot, in a similar way to children's social bids for tutoring. We use a child-like social robot and a task in which the robot has to learn the meaning of words. For this a simple turn-based interaction is used, based on language games. Two conditions are tested: one in which the robot uses social means to invite a human teacher to provide information based on what the robot requires to fill gaps in its knowledge (i.e. expression of a learning preference; the other in which the robot does not provide social cues to communicate a learning preference. We observe that conveying a learning preference through the use of social cues results in better and faster learning by the robot. People also seem to form a "mental model" of the robot, tailoring the tutoring to the robot's performance as opposed to using simply random teaching. In addition, the social learning shows a clear gender effect with female participants being responsive to the robot's bids, while male teachers appear to be less receptive. This work shows how additional social cues in social machine learning can result in people offering better quality learning input to artificial systems, resulting in improved learning performance.

  17. Resonance reactions and enhancement of weak interactions in collisions of cold molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flambaum, V. V.; Ginges, J. S. M.

    2006-01-01

    With the creation of ultracold atoms and molecules, a new type of chemistry - 'resonance' chemistry - emerges: chemical reactions can occur when the energy of colliding atoms and molecules matches a bound state of the combined molecule (Feshbach resonance). This chemistry is rather similar to reactions that take place in nuclei at low energies. In this paper we suggest some problems for future experimental and theoretical work related to the resonance chemistry of ultracold molecules. Molecular Bose-Einstein condensates are particularly interesting because in this system collisions and chemical reactions are extremely sensitive to weak fields; also, a preferred reaction channel may be enhanced due to a finite number of final states. The sensitivity to weak fields arises due to the high density of narrow compound resonances and the macroscopic number of molecules with kinetic energy E=0 (in the ground state of a mean-field potential). The high sensitivity to the magnetic field may be used to measure the distribution of energy intervals, widths, and magnetic moments of compound resonances and study the onset of quantum chaos. A difference in the production rate of right-handed and left-handed chiral molecules may be produced by external electric E and magnetic B fields and the finite width Γ of the resonance (correlation ΓE·B). The same effect may be produced by the parity-violating energy difference in chiral molecules

  18. The interactive effects of chelator, fertilizer, and rhizobacteria for enhancing phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.; Cutright, T.J. [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Univ. of Akron, Akron, OH (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The role of chelator, fertilizer, and enriched rhizobacteria in facilitating Cd, Cr, and Ni accumulation by Helianthus annuus was studied. It was found that by adding a synthetic chelator, EDTA, the shoot concentrations of Cd and Ni were significantly increased from 34.2 mg kg{sup -1} and 14.5 mg kg{sup -1} to 115 mg kg{sup -1} and 117 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. However, the total biomass of plants was drastically decreased by 50 to 60%. Compared with this treatment, inoculating enriched rhizobacteria to plants grown under similar conditions maintained the surged shoot concentrations of Cd and Ni while increasing the plants biomass by more than 1.6-fold. It was also found that introducing a commercial fertilizer, Hydro-Gro trademark, to plants significantly increased the Ni accumulation by 3-fold and the plant biomass by 1.43-fold. These results suggest that combing fertilizers, chelators and/or rhizobacteria might provide a more effective approach for enhancing phytoremediation. (orig.)

  19. Communication and social interaction anxiety enhance interleukin-1 beta and cortisol reactivity during high-stakes public speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Brandon J; Calvi, Jessica L; Jordan, Nicolas M; Schrader, David; Byrd-Craven, Jennifer

    2018-08-01

    Worry or fear related to speaking in front of others, or more broadly, communicating and interacting with others, is common. At elevated levels, however, it may contribute to heightened stress reactivity during acute speaking challenges. The purpose of this study was to examine multi-system physiological stress reactivity in the context of high-stakes public speaking while considering the impact of hypothesized individual difference risk factors. University student participants (n = 95) delivering speeches as a heavily-weighted component of their final grade had saliva samples collected immediately prior to speaking, immediately after, and 20 min after speech completion. Saliva samples were assayed for alpha amylase (sAA), cortisol, and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). Self-reported communication anxiety, social interaction anxiety, rejection sensitivity, and sex were assessed as risk factors for heightened stress reactivity. Salivary sAA, cortisol, and IL-1β significantly changed following speech delivery. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that elevated levels of self-reported communication anxiety and social interaction anxiety were independently associated with increased cortisol and IL-1β responses and combined to enhance HPA axis and inflammatory cytokine activity further (i.e., cortisol and IL-1β AUC I ). Sex and rejection sensitivity were unrelated to physiological stress reactivity. These findings suggest that individuals with elevated communication and interaction fears may be at increased risk of heightened neuroendocrine and inflammatory responses following exposure to acute social stressors. Both types of anxiety may combine to increase physiological reactivity further, with unknown, though likely insalubrious, health consequences over time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Using Online Interactive Physics-based Video Analysis Exercises to Enhance Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla W. Laws

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As part of our new digital video age, physics students throughout the world can use smart phones, video cameras, computers and tablets to produce and analyze videos of physical phenomena using analysis software such as Logger Pro, Tracker or Coach. For several years, LivePhoto Physics Group members have created short videos of physical phenomena. They have also developed curricular materials that enable students to make predictions and use video analysis software to verify them. In this paper a new LivePhoto Physics project that involves the creation and testing of a series of Interactive Video Vignettes (IVVs will be described. IVVs are short webbased assignments that take less than ten minutes to complete. Each vignette is designed to present a video of a phenomenon, ask for a student’s prediction about it, and then conduct on-line video observations or analyses that allow the user to compare findings with his or her initial prediction. The Vignettes are designed for web delivery as ungraded exercises to supplement textbook reading, or to serve as pre-lecture or pre-laboratory activities that span a number of topics normally introduced in introductory physics courses. A sample Vignette on the topic of Newton’s Third Law will be described, and the outcomes of preliminary research on the impact of Vignettes on student motivation, learning and attitudes will be summarized.

  1. Exploring effects of strong interactions in enhancing masses of dynamical origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabo Montes de Oca, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    A previous study of the dynamical generation of masses in massless QCD is considered from another viewpoint. The quark mass is assumed to have a dynamical origin and is substituted for by a scalar field without self-interaction. The potential for the new field background is evaluated up to two loops. Expressing the running coupling in terms of the scale parameter μ, the potential minimum is chosen to fix m top =175 GeV when μ 0 =498 MeV. The second derivative of the potential predicts a scalar field mass of 126.76 GeV. This number is close to the value 114 GeV, which preliminary data taken at CERN suggested to be associated with the Higgs particle. However, the simplifying assumptions limit the validity of the calculations done, as indicated by the large value of α=(g 2 )/(4π)=1.077 obtained. However, supporting statements about the possibility of improving the scheme come from the necessary inclusion of weak and scalar field couplings and mass counterterms in the renormalization procedure, in common with the seemingly needed consideration of the massive W and Z fields, if the real conditions of the SM model are intended to be approached. (orig.)

  2. Magnetospheric conditions at the time of enhanced wave-particle interactions near the plasmapause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, J.C.; Rosenberg, T.J.; Lanzerotti, L.J.

    1976-01-01

    The morphology of geomagnetic and particle disturbances occurring in the American sector during the 0700--1000 UT time interval on January 2, 1971, is examined. This period includes the VLF/X ray burst correlation event that was detected near the plasmapause at Lapprox.4 in the vicinity of Siple Station, Antarctica (Rosenberg et al., 1971; Foster and Rosenberg, 1976a). It is found that a sequence of substorm intensifications occurred (0730, 0820, 0850, and 0925 UT), successive intensifications tending to occur more westwardly than the preceding ones. The last intensification in the sequence was confined principally to latitudes higher than the nominal auroral zone. Injections of energetic electrons into the night side magnetosphere were observed at Lapprox.6.6 during the intensifications at approx.0820 and approx.0850 UT. The onset and pronounced temporal and spectral features of the electron precipitation at Lapprox.4 near dawn can be related to these electron injections when cross-L inward convection and azimuthal drit are considered. It is suggested that injected electrons penetrated at least to the region just outside the plasmapause during the substorm and that simultaneous electron precipitation and VLF wave generation were associated with the onset of cyclotron resonance interactions following the arrival of the electrons on the field line over Siple Station

  3. Interaction of implanted deuterium and helium with beryllium: radiation enhanced oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langley, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    The interaction of implanted deuterium and helium with beryllium is of significant interest in the application of first wall coatings and other components of fusion reactors. Electropolished polycrystalline beryllium was first implanted with an Xe backscatter marker at 1.98 MeV followed by either implantation with 5 keV diatomic deuterium or helium. A 2.0 MeV He beam was used to analyze for impurity buildup; namely oxygen. The oxide layer thickness was found to increase linearly with increasing implant fluence. A 2.5 MeV H/sup +/ beam was used to depth profile the D and He by ion backscattering. In addition the retention of the implant was measured as a function of the implant fluence. The mean depth of the implant was found to agree with theoretical range calculations. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe blister formation. No blisters were observed for implanted D but for implanted He blisters occurred at approx. 1.75 x 10/sup 17/ He cm/sup -2/. The blister diameter increased with increasing implant fluence from about 0.8 ..mu..m at 10/sup 18/ He cm/sup -2/ to 5.5 ..mu..m at 3 x 10/sup 18/ He cm/sup -2/.

  4. Peroxidase-Mimicking Nanozyme with Enhanced Activity and High Stability Based on Metal-Support Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhihao; Yang, Xiangdong; Yang, Yanbing; Tan, Yaning; He, Yue; Liu, Meng; Liu, Xinwen; Yuan, Quan

    2018-01-09

    Peroxidase-mimicking nanozymes offer unique advantages in terms of high stability and low cost over natural peroxidase for applications in bioanalysis, biomedicine, and the treatment of pollution. However, the design of high-efficiency peroxidase-mimicking nanozymes remains a great challenge. In this study, we adopted a structural-design approach through hybridization of cube-CeO 2 and Pt nanoparticles to create a new peroxidase-mimicking nanozyme with high efficiency and excellent stability. Relative to pure cube-CeO 2 and Pt nanoparticles, the as-hybridized Pt/cube-CeO 2 nanocomposites display much improved activities because of the strong metal-support interaction. Meanwhile, the nanocomposites also maintain high catalytic activity after long-term storage and multiple recycling. Based on their excellent properties, Pt/cube-CeO 2 nanocomposites were used to construct high-performance colorimetric biosensors for the sensitive detection of metabolites, including H 2 O 2 and glucose. Our findings highlight opportunities for the development of high-efficiency peroxidase-mimicking nanozymes with potential applications such as diagnostics, biomedicine, and the treatment of pollution. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Enhancing Perception with Tactile Object Recognition in Adaptive Grippers for Human–Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Gandarias

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of tactile perception can help first response robotic teams in disaster scenarios, where visibility conditions are often reduced due to the presence of dust, mud, or smoke, distinguishing human limbs from other objects with similar shapes. Here, the integration of the tactile sensor in adaptive grippers is evaluated, measuring the performance of an object recognition task based on deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs using a flexible sensor mounted in adaptive grippers. A total of 15 classes with 50 tactile images each were trained, including human body parts and common environment objects, in semi-rigid and flexible adaptive grippers based on the fin ray effect. The classifier was compared against the rigid configuration and a support vector machine classifier (SVM. Finally, a two-level output network has been proposed to provide both object-type recognition and human/non-human classification. Sensors in adaptive grippers have a higher number of non-null tactels (up to 37% more, with a lower mean of pressure values (up to 72% less than when using a rigid sensor, with a softer grip, which is needed in physical human–robot interaction (pHRI. A semi-rigid implementation with 95.13% object recognition rate was chosen, even though the human/non-human classification had better results (98.78% with a rigid sensor.

  6. Enhanced plastic deformations of nanofibrillated cellulose film by adsorbed moisture and protein-mediated interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malho, Jani-Markus; Ouellet-Plamondon, Claudiane; Rüggeberg, Markus; Laaksonen, Päivi; Ikkala, Olli; Burgert, Ingo; Linder, Markus B

    2015-01-12

    Biological composites are typically based on an adhesive matrix that interlocks rigid reinforcing elements in fiber composite or brick-and-mortar assemblies. In nature, the adhesive matrix is often made up of proteins, which are also interesting model systems, as they are unique among polymers in that we know how to engineer their structures with atomic detail and to select protein elements for specific interactions with other components. Here we studied how fusion proteins that consist of cellulose binding proteins linked to proteins that show a natural tendency to form multimer complexes act as an adhesive matrix in combination with nanofibrillated cellulose. We found that the fusion proteins are retained with the cellulose and that the proteins mainly affect the plastic yield behavior of the cellulose material as a function of water content. Interestingly, the proteins increased the moisture absorption of the composite, but the well-known plastifying effect of water was clearly decreased. The work helps to understand the functional basis of nanocellulose composites as materials and aims toward building model systems for molecular biomimetic materials.

  7. Enhancing Perception with Tactile Object Recognition in Adaptive Grippers for Human-Robot Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandarias, Juan M; Gómez-de-Gabriel, Jesús M; García-Cerezo, Alfonso J

    2018-02-26

    The use of tactile perception can help first response robotic teams in disaster scenarios, where visibility conditions are often reduced due to the presence of dust, mud, or smoke, distinguishing human limbs from other objects with similar shapes. Here, the integration of the tactile sensor in adaptive grippers is evaluated, measuring the performance of an object recognition task based on deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) using a flexible sensor mounted in adaptive grippers. A total of 15 classes with 50 tactile images each were trained, including human body parts and common environment objects, in semi-rigid and flexible adaptive grippers based on the fin ray effect. The classifier was compared against the rigid configuration and a support vector machine classifier (SVM). Finally, a two-level output network has been proposed to provide both object-type recognition and human/non-human classification. Sensors in adaptive grippers have a higher number of non-null tactels (up to 37% more), with a lower mean of pressure values (up to 72% less) than when using a rigid sensor, with a softer grip, which is needed in physical human-robot interaction (pHRI). A semi-rigid implementation with 95.13% object recognition rate was chosen, even though the human/non-human classification had better results (98.78%) with a rigid sensor.

  8. Interaction of implanted deuterium and helium with beryllium: radiation enhanced oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langley, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    The interaction of implanted deuterium and helium with beryllium is of significant interest in the application of first wall coatings and other components of fusion reactors. Electropolished polycrystalline beryllium was first implanted with an Xe backscatter marker at 1.98 MeV followed by either implantation with 5 keV diatomic deuterium or helium. A 2.0 MeV He beam was used to analyze for impurity buildup; namely oxygen. The oxide layer thickness was found to increase linearly with increasing implant fluence. A 2.5 MeV H + beam was used to depth profile the D and He by ion backscattering. In addition the retention of the implant was measured as a function of the implant fluence. The mean depth of the implant was found to agree with theoretical range calculations. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe blister formation. No blisters were observed for implanted D but for implanted He blisters occurred at approx. 1.75 x 10 17 He cm -2 . The blister diameter increased with increasing implant fluence from about 0.8 μm at 10 18 He cm -2 to 5.5 μm at 3 x 10 18 He cm -2

  9. Enhanced printability of thermoplastic polyurethane substrates by silica particles surface interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, S., E-mail: s.cruz@dep.uminho.pt [IPC/I3N – Institute of Polymers and Composites/Inst. of Nanostructures, Nanomodelling and Nanofabrication, Department Polymer Engineering, University of Minho, 4804-533 Guimarães (Portugal); Rocha, L.A. [CMEMS, University of Minho, 4804-533 Guimarães (Portugal); Viana, J.C. [IPC/I3N – Institute of Polymers and Composites/Inst. of Nanostructures, Nanomodelling and Nanofabrication, Department Polymer Engineering, University of Minho, 4804-533 Guimarães (Portugal)

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A new method development for surface treatment of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) substrates. • The proposed method increases TPU surface energy (by 45%) and consequently the TPU wettability. • Great increase of the TPU surface roughness (by 621%). • Inkjet printed conductive ink was applied to the surface treated TPU substrate and significant improvements on the printability were obtained. - Abstract: A new method developed for the surface treatment of thermoplastic polymer substrates that increases their surface energies is introduced in this paper. The method is environmental friendly and low cost. In the proposed surface treatment method, nanoparticles are spread over the thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) flexible substrate surface and then thermally fixed. This latter step allows the nanoparticles sinking-in on the polymer surface, resulting in a higher polymer–particle interaction at their interfacial region. The addition of nanoparticles onto the polymer surface increases surface roughness. The extent of the nanoparticles dispersion and sink-in in the substrate was evaluated through microscopy analysis (SEM). The roughness of the surface treated polymeric substrate was evaluated by AFM analysis. Substrate critical surface tension (ST) was measured by contact angle. In general, a homogeneous roughness form is achieved to a certain level. Great increase of the TPU surface roughness (by 621%) was induced by the propose method. The proposed surface treatment method increased significantly the substrate ST (by 45%) and consequently the TPU wettability. This novel surface treatment of thermoplastic polymers was applied to the inkjet printing of TPU substrates with conductive inks, and significant improvements on the printability were obtained.

  10. Towards an Enhanced Understanding of Plant–Microbiome Interactions to Improve Phytoremediation: Engineering the Metaorganism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijs, Sofie; Sillen, Wouter; Rineau, Francois; Weyens, Nele; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a promising technology to clean-up contaminated soils based on the synergistic actions of plants and microorganisms. However, to become a widely accepted, and predictable remediation alternative, a deeper understanding of the plant–microbe interactions is needed. A number of studies link the success of phytoremediation to the plant-associated microbiome functioning, though whether the microbiome can exist in alternative, functional states for soil remediation, is incompletely understood. Moreover, current approaches that target the plant host, and environment separately to improve phytoremediation, potentially overlook microbial functions and properties that are part of the multiscale complexity of the plant-environment wherein biodegradation takes place. In contrast, in situ studies of phytoremediation research at the metaorganism level (host and microbiome together) are lacking. Here, we discuss a competition-driven model, based on recent evidence from the metagenomics level, and hypotheses generated by microbial community ecology, to explain the establishment of a catabolic rhizosphere microbiome in a contaminated soil. There is evidence to ground that if the host provides the right level and mix of resources (exudates) over which the microbes can compete, then a competitive catabolic and plant-growth promoting (PGP) microbiome can be selected for as long as it provides a competitive superiority in the niche. The competition-driven model indicates four strategies to interfere with the microbiome. Specifically, the rhizosphere microbiome community can be shifted using treatments that alter the host, resources, environment, and that take advantage of prioritization in inoculation. Our model and suggestions, considering the metaorganism in its natural context, would allow to gain further knowledge on the plant–microbial functions, and facilitate translation to more effective, and predictable phytotechnologies. PMID:27014254

  11. Enhancing teen pregnancy prevention in local communities: capacity building using the interactive systems framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Jennifer L; Prince, Mary Severson; Johnson, Erin E; Alton, Forrest L; Flynn, Shannon; Faye, Amy Mattison; Padgett, Polly Edwards; Rollison, Chris; Becker, Dana; Hinzey, Angela L

    2012-12-01

    Getting To Outcomes (GTO), an innovative framework for planning, implementing, evaluating, and sustaining interventions has been shown to be effective in helping community-based organizations (CBOs) introduce science-based approaches into their prevention work. However, the Interactive Systems Framework (ISF) suggests that adopting innovations like GTO requires a significant amount of capacity building through training and technical assistance (T/TA). In this study, 11 CBOs and three schools in South Carolina entered into a 3 year program of intense and proactive T/TA based on the ISF to learn how to apply an adaptation of GTO (Promoting Science-Based Approaches-Getting To Outcomes, PSBA-GTO) to their teen pregnancy prevention programs. Using semi-structured interviews, the partnering organizations were assessed at three points in time, pre-T/TA, 12 months, and post T/TA (30 months) for their performance of the steps of GTO in their work. The seven organizations which participated in T/TA until the end of the project received an average of 76 h of TA and 112 h of training per organization. Interview results showed increased performance of all 10 steps of PSBA-GTO by these organizations when conducting their teen pregnancy programs. These results suggest targeted and proactive T/TA can successfully bridge the gap between research and practice by using a three part delivery system, as prescribed in the ISF, which relies on an intermediary prevention support system to ensure accurate and effective translation of research to the everyday work of community-based practitioners.

  12. Towards an Enhanced Understanding of Plant-Microbiome Interactions to Improve Phytoremediation: Engineering the Metaorganism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie eThijs

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is a promising technology to clean-up contaminated soils based on the synergistic actions of plants and microorganisms. However, to become a widely accepted, and predictable remediation alternative, a deeper understanding of the plant-microbe interactions is needed. A number of studies link the success of phytoremediation to the plant-associated microbiome functioning, though whether the microbiome can exist in alternative, functional states for soil remediation, is incompletely understood. Moreover, current approaches that target the plant host, and environment separately to improve phytoremediation, potentially overlook microbial functions and properties that are part of the multiscale complexity of the plant-environment wherein biodegradation takes place. In contrast, in situ studies of phytoremediation research at the metaorganism level (host and microbiome together are lacking. Here, we discuss a competition-driven model, based on recent evidence from the metagenomics level, and hypotheses generated by microbial community ecology, to explain the establishment of a catabolic rhizosphere microbiome in a contaminated soil. There is evidence to ground that if the host provides the right level and mix of resources (exudates over which the microbes can compete, then a competitive catabolic and plant-growth promoting (PGP microbiome can be selected for as long as it provides a competitive superiority in the niche. The competition-driven model indicates four strategies to interfere with the microbiome. Specifically, the rhizosphere microbiome community can be shifted using treatments that alter the host, resources, environment, and that take advantage of prioritization in inoculation. Our model and suggestions, considering the metaorganism in its natural context, would allow to gain further knowledge on the plant-microbial functions, and facilitate translation to more effective, and predictable phytotechnologies.

  13. Can role-play with interactive simulations enhance climate change knowledge, affect and intent to act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney-varga, J. N.; Sterman, J.; Fracassi, E. P.; Franck, T.; Kapmeier, F.; Kurker, V.; Jones, A.; Rath, K.

    2017-12-01

    The strong scientific consensus about the reality and risks of anthropogenic climate change stands in stark contrast to widespread confusion and complacency among the public. Many efforts to close that gap, grounded in the information deficit model of risk communication, provide scientific information on climate change through reports and presentations. However, research shows that showing people research does not work: the gap between scientific and public understanding of climate change remains wide. Tools that are rigorously grounded in the science and motivate action on climate change are urgently needed. Here we assess the impact of one such tool, an interactive, role-play simulation, World Climate. Participants take the roles of delegates to the UN climate negotiations and are challenged to create an agreement limiting warming to no more than 2°C. The C-ROADS climate simulation model then provides participants with immediate feedback about the expected impacts of their decisions. Participants use C-ROADS to explore the climate system and use the results to refine their negotiating positions, learning about climate change while experiencing the social dynamics of negotiations and decision-making. Pre- and post-survey results from 21 sessions in eight nations showed significant gains in participants' climate change knowledge, affective engagement, intent to take action, and desire to learn. Contrary to the deficit model, gains in participants' desire to learn more and intention to act were associated with gains in affective engagement, particularly feelings of urgency and hope, but not climate knowledge. Gains were just as strong among participants who oppose government regulation, suggesting the simulation's potential to reach across political divides. Results indicate that simulations like World Climate offer a climate change communication tool that enables people to learn and feel for themselves, which together have the potential to motivate action informed

  14. Colossal enhancement in thermoelectric effect in a laterally coupled double-quantum-dot chain by the Coulomb interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Lun; Yi, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Thermoelectric effects, including Seebeck coefficient (S), thermal conductance (κ), and figure of merit (ZT), in a laterally coupled double-quantum-dot (DQD) chain with two external nonmagnetic contacts are investigated theoretically by the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. In this system, the DQD chain between two contacts forms a main channel for thermal electrons transporting, and each QD in the main chain couples laterally to a dangling one. The numerical calculations show that the Coulomb interactions not only lead to the splitting of the asymmetrical double-peak structure of the Seebeck coefficient, but also make the thermal spectrum show a strong violation of the Wiedemann–Franz law, leading to a colossal enhancement in ZT. These results indicate that the coupled DQD chain has potential applications in the thermoelectric devices with high thermal efficiency.

  15. Enhanced detection of amino acids in hydrophilic interaction chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry with carboxylic acids as mobile phase additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Dengyang; Hu, Xunxiu; Liu, Dantong; Du, Wencheng; Wang, Haibo; Guo, Mengzhe; Tang, Daoquan

    2017-06-01

    Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry technique has been widely used in the analysis of biological targets such as amino acids, peptides, and proteins. In this work, eight common single carboxylic acids or diacids, which contain different pKa have been investigated as the additives to the analysis of amino acids. As the results, carboxylic acid additive can improve the signal intensity of acidity amino acids such as Asp and Glu and the chromatographic separation of basic amino acids such as Arg, His, and Lys. In particular, the diacids have better performance than single acids. The proposed mechanism is that the diacid has hydrogen bond interaction with amino acids to reduce their polarity/amphiprotic characteristics. Besides, oxalic acid has been found having better enhancement than phthalic acid by overall consideration. Therefore, we successfully quantified the 15 amino acids in Sepia bulk pharmaceutical chemical by using oxalic acid as the additive.

  16. The Wheat Bax Inhibitor-1 Protein Interacts with an Aquaporin TaPIP1 and Enhances Disease Resistance in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan-Pan Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1 is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER-resident cell death suppressor evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotes. The ability of BI-1 to inhibit the biotic and abiotic stresses have been well-studied in Arabidopsis, while the functions of wheat BI-1 are largely unknown. In this study, the wheat BI-1 gene TaBI-1.1 was isolated by an RNA-seq analysis of Fusarium graminearum (Fg-treated wheat. TaBI-1.1 expression was induced by a salicylic acid (SA treatment and down-regulated by an abscisic acid (ABA treatment. Based on β-glucuronidase (GUS staining, TaBI-1.1 was expressed in mature leaves and roots but not in the hypocotyl or young leaves. Constitutive expression of TaBI-1.1 in Arabidopsis enhanced its resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato (Pst DC3000 infection and induced SA-related gene expression. Additionally, TaBI-1.1 transgenic Arabidopsis exhibited an alleviation of damage caused by high concentrations of SA and decreased the sensitivity to ABA. Consistent with the phenotype, the RNA-seq analysis of 35S::TaBI-1.1 and Col-0 plants showed that TaBI-1.1 was involved in biotic stresses. These results suggested that TaBI-1.1 positively regulates SA signals and plays important roles in the response to biotic stresses. In addition, TaBI-1.1 interacted with the aquaporin TaPIP1, and both them were localized to ER membrane. Furthermore, we demonstrated that TaPIP1 was up-regulated by SA treatment and TaPIP1 transgenic Arabidopsis enhanced the resistance to Pst DC3000 infection. Thus, the interaction between TaBI-1.1 and TaPIP1 on the ER membrane probably occurs in response to SA signals and defense response.

  17. Improvement of interfacial interactions using natural polyphenol-inspired tannic acid-coated nanoclay enhancement of soy protein isolate biofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhong; Kang, Haijiao; Zhang, Wei [MOE Key Laboratory of Wooden Material Science and Application, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, 100083 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Wood Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, 100083 (China); Zhang, Shifeng, E-mail: shifeng.zhang@bjfu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Wooden Material Science and Application, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, 100083 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Wood Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, 100083 (China); Li, Jianzhang, E-mail: lijzh@bjfu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Wooden Material Science and Application, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, 100083 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Wood Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, 100083 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • A novel interface of MMT was fabricated by natural polyphenol (TA)-inspired chemistry. • The resultant biomimetic surface exhibited good interface and surface compatibility. • TA can act as a bridge between MMT and SPI to enhance the interfacial interaction. • Surface-modified MMT gets the potential to be used in the modification of SPI biofilms for improving the mechanical properties and water resistance apparently. - Abstract: In this study, a novel and economic surface modification technique for montmorillonite (MMT) nanosheets, a biocompatible coupling cross-linking agent, was developed on an attempt at improving the interfacial adhesion with soy protein isolate (SPI) matrix. Inspired by natural polyphenol, the “green dip-coating” method using tannic acid (TA) to surface-modify MMT (TA@MMT). SPI nanocomposite films modified with MMT or TA@MMT, as well as the control ones, were prepared via the casting method. The TA layer was successfully coated on the MMT surface through the (Fe{sup III}) ions coordination chemistry and the synthetic samples were characterized by the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The compatibility and interfacial interactions between modified MMT and SPI matrix were greatly enhanced by the TA-Fe{sup III} coating on the MMT surface. The mechanical properties, water resistance, and thermal stability of the resultant biofilm were increased accordingly. Compared with that of the unmodified SPI film, the tensile strength of the nanocomposite films modified by the green dip-coating was increased by 113.3%. These SPI-based nanocomposite films showed the favorable potential in terms of food packing applications due to their efficient barriers to water vapor and UV and/or visible light.

  18. Protein–nanoparticle interaction in bioconjugated silver nanoparticles: A transmission electron microscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reymond-Laruinaz, Sébastien; Saviot, Lucien; Potin, Valérie; Marco de Lucas, María del Carmen, E-mail: delucas@u-bourgogne.fr

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of protein-conjugated Ag nanoparticles (NPs) in absence of citrates. • NPs size and protein layer thickness determined by TEM. • SERS spectra showed the chemisorption of proteins on the surface of Ag-NPs. - Abstract: Understanding the mechanisms of interaction between proteins and noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) is crucial to extend the use of NPs in biological applications and nanomedicine. We report the synthesis of Ag-NPs:protein bioconjugates synthesized in total absence of citrates or other stabilizing agents in order to study the NP-protein interaction. Four common proteins (lysozyme, bovine serum albumin, cytochrome-C and hemoglobin) were used in this work. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) were mainly used to study these bioconjugated NPs. TEM images showed Ag NPs with sizes in the 5–40 nm range. The presence of a protein layer surrounding the Ag NPs was also observed by TEM. Moreover, the composition at different points of single bioconjugated NPs was probed by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). The thickness of the protein layer varies in the 3–15 nm range and the Ag NPs are a few nanometers away. This allowed to obtain an enhancement of the Raman signal of the proteins in the analysis of water suspensions of bioconjugates. SERS results showed a broadening of the Raman bands of the proteins which we attribute to the contribution of different configurations of the proteins adsorbed on the Ag NPs surface. Moreover, the assignment of an intense and sharp peak in the low-frequency range to Ag–N vibrations points to the chemisorption of the proteins on the Ag-NPs surface.

  19. Protein–nanoparticle interaction in bioconjugated silver nanoparticles: A transmission electron microscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reymond-Laruinaz, Sébastien; Saviot, Lucien; Potin, Valérie; Marco de Lucas, María del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of protein-conjugated Ag nanoparticles (NPs) in absence of citrates. • NPs size and protein layer thickness determined by TEM. • SERS spectra showed the chemisorption of proteins on the surface of Ag-NPs. - Abstract: Understanding the mechanisms of interaction between proteins and noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) is crucial to extend the use of NPs in biological applications and nanomedicine. We report the synthesis of Ag-NPs:protein bioconjugates synthesized in total absence of citrates or other stabilizing agents in order to study the NP-protein interaction. Four common proteins (lysozyme, bovine serum albumin, cytochrome-C and hemoglobin) were used in this work. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) were mainly used to study these bioconjugated NPs. TEM images showed Ag NPs with sizes in the 5–40 nm range. The presence of a protein layer surrounding the Ag NPs was also observed by TEM. Moreover, the composition at different points of single bioconjugated NPs was probed by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). The thickness of the protein layer varies in the 3–15 nm range and the Ag NPs are a few nanometers away. This allowed to obtain an enhancement of the Raman signal of the proteins in the analysis of water suspensions of bioconjugates. SERS results showed a broadening of the Raman bands of the proteins which we attribute to the contribution of different configurations of the proteins adsorbed on the Ag NPs surface. Moreover, the assignment of an intense and sharp peak in the low-frequency range to Ag–N vibrations points to the chemisorption of the proteins on the Ag-NPs surface.

  20. Enhanced methane emission during carbonaceous sediment-basalt interactions as a mechanism for mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, A. I.; Day, J. M.; Ryabov, V. V.; Taylor, L. A.

    2016-12-01

    Precise dating techniques have established the contemporaneous eruption of the Siberian Traps at the beginning of the Permian faunal mass extinction at 248 ± 2 Ma. Within a relatively limited time-period ( 1 Ma), the Siberian Traps expelled approximately ninety percent of its total volume ( 1.5 Mkm3), each episode of volcanism adding substantial amounts of CO2, CH4, and SO2 to the atmosphere. The Permian-Triassic Boundary shows average organic carbon isotope excursions of -6.4 ± 4.4‰ (253 Ma), from a long-term average δ13Corg of -25‰. Retallack and Jahren [2008; Journal of Geology] suggested that eruption into C-rich sediments and resulting methane degassing would satisfy necessary conditions to cause such large, variable perturbations in the carbon isotope record. To test this hypothesis, we measured C isotope variations in upper crustal sediments and metalliferous basalts from the Khungtukun and Dzhatul Intrusions, of the Siberian Traps. We find that δ13C values for Siberian coal and sandstones are restricted at -23 to -25‰, with similar values measured in the metalliferous basalts. Anticipated thermogenic methane from disassociation of these sources would be considerably lighter and consistent with low δ13C isotopic values. We further test this mechanism by employing a zero dimensional energy balance model to examine three key parameters: eruption duration, amounts of CO2 and CH4 emission, and the frequency of eruptions. Greater methane emissions than previously estimated due to carbonaceous sediment-basalt interactions have a sustained temperature effect due to high global warming potential (GWP), between 28 and 36 over 100 years compared to the CO2 reference value. Our model predicts that a quick succession of massive effusive eruptions would cause a sustained and substantial temperature effect consistent with estimated equatorial levels of 40°C during the Permian-Triassic Boundary. This mechanism could explain the deficit between the amount of

  1. Mephedrone interactions with cocaine: prior exposure to the 'bath salt' constituent enhances cocaine-induced locomotor activation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Ryan A; Tallarida, Christopher S; Reitz, Allen B; Rawls, Scott M

    2013-12-01

    Concurrent use of mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone; MEPH) and established drugs of abuse is now commonplace, but knowledge about interactions between these drugs is sparse. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that prior MEPH exposure enhances the locomotor-stimulant effects of cocaine and methamphetamine (METH). For cocaine experiments, rats pretreated with saline, cocaine (15 mg/kg), or MEPH (15 mg/kg) for 5 days were injected with cocaine after 10 days of drug absence. For METH experiments, rats pretreated with saline, METH (2 mg/kg), or MEPH (15 mg/kg) were injected with METH after 10 days of drug absence. Cocaine challenge produced greater locomotor activity after pretreatment with cocaine or MEPH than after pretreatment with saline. METH challenge produced greater locomotor activity after METH pretreatment than after saline pretreatment; however, locomotor activity in rats pretreated with MEPH or saline and then challenged with METH was not significantly different. The locomotor response to MEPH (15 mg/kg) was not significantly affected by pretreatment with cocaine (15 mg/kg) or METH (0.5, 2 mg/kg). The present demonstration that cocaine-induced locomotor activation is enhanced by prior MEPH exposure suggests that MEPH cross-sensitizes to cocaine and increases cocaine efficacy. Interestingly, MEPH cross-sensitization was not bidirectional and did not extend to METH, suggesting that the phenomenon is sensitive to specific psychostimulants.

  2. The Dark Side of Authenticity: Feeling "Real" While Gambling Interacts with Enhancement Motives to Predict Problematic Gambling Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Jamey J; Wohl, Michael J A; Davis, Christopher G

    2015-09-01

    Engaging in activities that make people feel authentic or real is typically associated with a host of positive psychological and physiological outcomes (i.e., being authentic serves to increase well-being). In the current study, we tested the idea that authenticity might have a dark side among people engaged in an addictive or risky behavior (gambling). To test this possibility, we assessed gamblers (N = 61) who were betting on the National Hockey League playoff games at a sports bar. As predicted, people who felt authentic when gambling reported behavior associated with problem gambling (high frequency of betting) as well as problematic play (a big monetary loss and a big monetary win). Moreover, such behavior and gambling outcomes were particularly high among people who were motivated to gamble for the purpose of enhancement. The interaction of feeling authentic when betting and gambling for purposes of enhancing positive emotions proved especially troublesome for problematic forms of play. Implications of authenticity as a potential vulnerability factor for sports betting and other types of gambling are discussed.

  3. Stat1-Vitamin D Receptor Interactions Antagonize 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Transcriptional Activity and Enhance Stat1-Mediated Transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Marcos; Ramana, Chilakamarti V.; Dusso, Adriana S.

    2002-01-01

    The cytokine gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and the calcitropic steroid hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) are activators of macrophage immune function. In sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, and several granulomatoses, IFN-γ induces 1,25D synthesis by macrophages and inhibits 1,25D induction of 24-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in 1,25D inactivation, causing high levels of 1,25D in serum and hypercalcemia. This study delineates IFN-γ-1,25D cross talk in human monocytes-macrophages. Nuclear accumulation of Stat1 and vitamin D receptor (VDR) by IFN-γ and 1,25D promotes protein-protein interactions between Stat1 and the DNA binding domain of the VDR. This prevents VDR-retinoid X receptor (RXR) binding to the vitamin D-responsive element, thus diverting the VDR from its normal genomic target on the 24-hydroxylase promoter and antagonizing 1,25D-VDR transactivation of this gene. In contrast, 1,25D enhances IFN-γ action. Stat1-VDR interactions, by preventing Stat1 deactivation by tyrosine dephosphorylation, cooperate with IFN-γ/Stat1-induced transcription. This novel 1,25D-IFN-γ cross talk explains the pathogenesis of abnormal 1,25D homeostasis in granulomatous processes and provides new insights into 1,25D immunomodulatory properties. PMID:11909970

  4. Enhancer of rudimentary homologue interacts with scaffold attachment factor B at the nuclear matrix to regulate SR protein phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakouli, Sotiria; Lyberopoulou, Aggeliki; Papathanassiou, Maria; Mylonis, Ilias; Georgatsou, Eleni

    2017-08-01

    Scaffold attachment factor B1 (SAFB1) is an integral component of the nuclear matrix of vertebrate cells. It binds to DNA on scaffold/matrix attachment region elements, as well as to RNA and a multitude of different proteins, affecting basic cellular activities such as transcription, splicing and DNA damage repair. In the present study, we show that enhancer of rudimentary homologue (ERH) is a new molecular partner of SAFB1 and its 70% homologous paralogue, scaffold attachment factor B2 (SAFB2). ERH interacts directly in the nucleus with the C-terminal Arg-Gly-rich region of SAFB1/2 and co-localizes with it in the insoluble nuclear fraction. ERH, a small ubiquitous protein with striking homology among species and a unique structure, has also been implicated in fundamental cellular mechanisms. Our functional analyses suggest that the SAFB/ERH interaction does not affect SAFB1/2 function in transcription (e.g. as oestrogen receptor α co-repressors), although it reverses the inhibition exerted by SAFB1/2 on the splicing kinase SR protein kinase 1 (SRPK1), which also binds on the C-terminus of SAFB1/2. Accordingly, ERH silencing decreases lamin B receptor and SR protein phosphorylation, which are major SRPK1 substrates, further substantiating the role of SAFB1 and SAFB2 in the co-ordination of nuclear function. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  5. Polyploidy Enhances F1 Pollen Sterility Loci Interactions That Increase Meiosis Abnormalities and Pollen Sterility in Autotetraploid Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinwen; Shahid, Muhammad Qasim; Chen, Lin; Chen, Zhixiong; Wang, Lan; Liu, Xiangdong; Lu, Yonggen

    2015-12-01

    Intersubspecific autotetraploid rice (Oryza sativa ssp. indica × japonica) hybrids have greater biological and yield potentials than diploid rice. However, the low fertility of intersubspecific autotetraploid hybrids, which is largely caused by high pollen abortion rates, limits their commercial utility. To decipher the cytological and molecular mechanisms underlying allelic interactions in autotetraploid rice, we developed an autotetraploid rice hybrid that was heterozygous (S(i)S(j)) at F1 pollen sterility loci (Sa, Sb, and Sc) using near-isogenic lines. Cytological studies showed that the autotetraploid had higher percentages (>30%) of abnormal chromosome behavior and aberrant meiocytes (>50%) during meiosis than did the diploid rice hybrid control. Analysis of gene expression profiles revealed 1,888 genes that were differentially expressed between the autotetraploid and diploid hybrid lines at the meiotic stage, among which 889 and 999 were up- and down-regulated, respectively. Of the 999 down-regulated genes, 940 were associated with the combined effect of polyploidy and pollen sterility loci interactions (IPE). Gene Ontology enrichment analysis identified a prominent functional gene class consisting of seven genes related to photosystem I (Gene Ontology 0009522). Moreover, 55 meiosis-related or meiosis stage-specific genes were associated with IPE in autotetraploid rice, including Os02g0497500, which encodes a DNA repair-recombination protein, and Os02g0490000, which encodes a component of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. These results suggest that polyploidy enhances epistatic interactions between alleles of pollen sterility loci, thereby altering the expression profiles of important meiosis-related or meiosis stage-specific genes and resulting in high pollen sterility. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Polyploidy Enhances F1 Pollen Sterility Loci Interactions That Increase Meiosis Abnormalities and Pollen Sterility in Autotetraploid Rice1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinwen; Chen, Lin; Chen, Zhixiong; Wang, Lan; Lu, Yonggen

    2015-01-01

    Intersubspecific autotetraploid rice (Oryza sativa ssp. indica × japonica) hybrids have greater biological and yield potentials than diploid rice. However, the low fertility of intersubspecific autotetraploid hybrids, which is largely caused by high pollen abortion rates, limits their commercial utility. To decipher the cytological and molecular mechanisms underlying allelic interactions in autotetraploid rice, we developed an autotetraploid rice hybrid that was heterozygous (SiSj) at F1 pollen sterility loci (Sa, Sb, and Sc) using near-isogenic lines. Cytological studies showed that the autotetraploid had higher percentages (>30%) of abnormal chromosome behavior and aberrant meiocytes (>50%) during meiosis than did the diploid rice hybrid control. Analysis of gene expression profiles revealed 1,888 genes that were differentially expressed between the autotetraploid and diploid hybrid lines at the meiotic stage, among which 889 and 999 were up- and down-regulated, respectively. Of the 999 down-regulated genes, 940 were associated with the combined effect of polyploidy and pollen sterility loci interactions (IPE). Gene Ontology enrichment analysis identified a prominent functional gene class consisting of seven genes related to photosystem I (Gene Ontology 0009522). Moreover, 55 meiosis-related or meiosis stage-specific genes were associated with IPE in autotetraploid rice, including Os02g0497500, which encodes a DNA repair-recombination protein, and Os02g0490000, which encodes a component of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. These results suggest that polyploidy enhances epistatic interactions between alleles of pollen sterility loci, thereby altering the expression profiles of important meiosis-related or meiosis stage-specific genes and resulting in high pollen sterility. PMID:26511913

  7. Dissolution and Solubility Enhancement of the Highly Lipophilic Drug Phenytoin via Interaction with Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-vinylpyrrolidone) Excipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widanapathirana, Lakmini; Tale, Swapnil; Reineke, Theresa M

    2015-07-06

    Excipients of natural or synthetic origin play an important role in pharmaceutical performance to enhance the solubility, bioavailability, release, and stability of insoluble drugs. Herein, a series of seven excipient models was prepared by both homopolymerization and copolymerization of 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (VP) and N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) by free radical polymerization yielding two homopolymers poly(VP) and poly(NIPAAm) and five copolymers of poly(NIPAAm-co-VP) at difference compositions. While the VP monomer provided aqueous solubility at a variety of conditions to the excipient, the incorporation of NIPAAm into the copolymer offered additional hydrogen bond donating sites to optimize the drug-polymer interactions in the system. Due to the presence of NIPAAm, the copolymers were sensitive to temperature as well. It was found that as the proportion of VP was increased (from 0 to 100%), the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) and the water solubility of the polymer models increased. To examine the role of specific drug-polymer interactions during dissolution on drug solubility and bioavailability, the polymers were formulated with the anticonvulsant drug phenytoin, which is a poorly water-soluble BCS class II drug where oral absorption is limited by the drug solubility. Amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) were prepared via spray drying of phenytoin with the polymer excipient models to contain 10% and 25% by weight drug loading. Physical characterization of the ASDs by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed that the polymers held the drug in a high-energy amorphous phase in all the formulations prepared. All ASDs exhibited improved in vitro dissolution rates compared to drug only and physical mixtures of the polymers and the drug. Drug solubility was the highest with the ASDs containing poly(NIPAAm-co-VP) 60:40 and 50:50, which showed a solubility enhancement of near 14-fold increase compared to pure drug

  8. Liver segmentation in contrast enhanced CT data using graph cuts and interactive 3D segmentation refinement methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beichel, Reinhard; Bornik, Alexander; Bauer, Christian; Sorantin, Erich

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Liver segmentation is an important prerequisite for the assessment of liver cancer treatment options like tumor resection, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), radiofrequency ablation, etc. The purpose of this work was to evaluate a new approach for liver segmentation. Methods: A graph cuts segmentation method was combined with a three-dimensional virtual reality based segmentation refinement approach. The developed interactive segmentation system allowed the user to manipulate volume chunks and/or surfaces instead of 2D contours in cross-sectional images (i.e, slice-by-slice). The method was evaluated on twenty routinely acquired portal-phase contrast enhanced multislice computed tomography (CT) data sets. An independent reference was generated by utilizing a currently clinically utilized slice-by-slice segmentation method. After 1 h of introduction to the developed segmentation system, three experts were asked to segment all twenty data sets with the proposed method. Results: Compared to the independent standard, the relative volumetric segmentation overlap error averaged over all three experts and all twenty data sets was 3.74%. Liver segmentation required on average 16 min of user interaction per case. The calculated relative volumetric overlap errors were not found to be significantly different [analysis of variance (ANOVA) test, p = 0.82] between experts who utilized the proposed 3D system. In contrast, the time required by each expert for segmentation was found to be significantly different (ANOVA test, p = 0.0009). Major differences between generated segmentations and independent references were observed in areas were vessels enter or leave the liver and no accepted criteria for defining liver boundaries exist. In comparison, slice-by-slice based generation of the independent standard utilizing a live wire tool took 70.1 min on average. A standard 2D segmentation refinement approach applied to all twenty data sets required on average 38.2 min of

  9. Liver segmentation in contrast enhanced CT data using graph cuts and interactive 3D segmentation refinement methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beichel, Reinhard; Bornik, Alexander; Bauer, Christian; Sorantin, Erich [Departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Internal Medicine, Iowa Institute for Biomedical Imaging, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Institute for Computer Graphics and Vision, Graz University of Technology, Inffeldgasse 16, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa Institute for Biomedical Imaging, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Department of Radiology, Medical University Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 34, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Liver segmentation is an important prerequisite for the assessment of liver cancer treatment options like tumor resection, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), radiofrequency ablation, etc. The purpose of this work was to evaluate a new approach for liver segmentation. Methods: A graph cuts segmentation method was combined with a three-dimensional virtual reality based segmentation refinement approach. The developed interactive segmentation system allowed the user to manipulate volume chunks and/or surfaces instead of 2D contours in cross-sectional images (i.e, slice-by-slice). The method was evaluated on twenty routinely acquired portal-phase contrast enhanced multislice computed tomography (CT) data sets. An independent reference was generated by utilizing a currently clinically utilized slice-by-slice segmentation method. After 1 h of introduction to the developed segmentation system, three experts were asked to segment all twenty data sets with the proposed method. Results: Compared to the independent standard, the relative volumetric segmentation overlap error averaged over all three experts and all twenty data sets was 3.74%. Liver segmentation required on average 16 min of user interaction per case. The calculated relative volumetric overlap errors were not found to be significantly different [analysis of variance (ANOVA) test, p = 0.82] between experts who utilized the proposed 3D system. In contrast, the time required by each expert for segmentation was found to be significantly different (ANOVA test, p = 0.0009). Major differences between generated segmentations and independent references were observed in areas were vessels enter or leave the liver and no accepted criteria for defining liver boundaries exist. In comparison, slice-by-slice based generation of the independent standard utilizing a live wire tool took 70.1 min on average. A standard 2D segmentation refinement approach applied to all twenty data sets required on average 38.2 min of

  10. Liver segmentation in contrast enhanced CT data using graph cuts and interactive 3D segmentation refinement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichel, Reinhard; Bornik, Alexander; Bauer, Christian; Sorantin, Erich

    2012-03-01

    Liver segmentation is an important prerequisite for the assessment of liver cancer treatment options like tumor resection, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), radiofrequency ablation, etc. The purpose of this work was to evaluate a new approach for liver segmentation. A graph cuts segmentation method was combined with a three-dimensional virtual reality based segmentation refinement approach. The developed interactive segmentation system allowed the user to manipulate volume chunks and∕or surfaces instead of 2D contours in cross-sectional images (i.e, slice-by-slice). The method was evaluated on twenty routinely acquired portal-phase contrast enhanced multislice computed tomography (CT) data sets. An independent reference was generated by utilizing a currently clinically utilized slice-by-slice segmentation method. After 1 h of introduction to the developed segmentation system, three experts were asked to segment all twenty data sets with the proposed method. Compared to the independent standard, the relative volumetric segmentation overlap error averaged over all three experts and all twenty data sets was 3.74%. Liver segmentation required on average 16 min of user interaction per case. The calculated relative volumetric overlap errors were not found to be significantly different [analysis of variance (ANOVA) test, p = 0.82] between experts who utilized the proposed 3D system. In contrast, the time required by each expert for segmentation was found to be significantly different (ANOVA test, p = 0.0009). Major differences between generated segmentations and independent references were observed in areas were vessels enter or leave the liver and no accepted criteria for defining liver boundaries exist. In comparison, slice-by-slice based generation of the independent standard utilizing a live wire tool took 70.1 min on average. A standard 2D segmentation refinement approach applied to all twenty data sets required on average 38.2 min of user interaction

  11. Predicting protein complexes from weighted protein-protein interaction graphs with a novel unsupervised methodology: Evolutionary enhanced Markov clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Pavlopoulou, Niki; Papasavvas, Christoforos; Likothanassis, Spiros; Dimitrakopoulos, Christos; Georgopoulos, Efstratios; Moschopoulos, Charalampos; Mavroudi, Seferina

    2015-03-01

    Proteins are considered to be the most important individual components of biological systems and they combine to form physical protein complexes which are responsible for certain molecular functions. Despite the large availability of protein-protein interaction (PPI) information, not much information is available about protein complexes. Experimental methods are limited in terms of time, efficiency, cost and performance constraints. Existing computational methods have provided encouraging preliminary results, but they phase certain disadvantages as they require parameter tuning, some of them cannot handle weighted PPI data and others do not allow a protein to participate in more than one protein complex. In the present paper, we propose a new fully unsupervised methodology for predicting protein complexes from weighted PPI graphs. The proposed methodology is called evolutionary enhanced Markov clustering (EE-MC) and it is a hybrid combination of an adaptive evolutionary algorithm and a state-of-the-art clustering algorithm named enhanced Markov clustering. EE-MC was compared with state-of-the-art methodologies when applied to datasets from the human and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae organisms. Using public available datasets, EE-MC outperformed existing methodologies (in some datasets the separation metric was increased by 10-20%). Moreover, when applied to new human datasets its performance was encouraging in the prediction of protein complexes which consist of proteins with high functional similarity. In specific, 5737 protein complexes were predicted and 72.58% of them are enriched for at least one gene ontology (GO) function term. EE-MC is by design able to overcome intrinsic limitations of existing methodologies such as their inability to handle weighted PPI networks, their constraint to assign every protein in exactly one cluster and the difficulties they face concerning the parameter tuning. This fact was experimentally validated and moreover, new

  12. Electrospun polycaprolactone/gelatin composites with enhanced cell–matrix interactions as blood vessel endothelial layer scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yong-Chao [National Center for International Research of Micro-Nano Molding Technology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); School of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States); Wisconsin Institute for Discovery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States); Jiang, Lin [National Center for International Research of Micro-Nano Molding Technology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States); Wisconsin Institute for Discovery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States); Huang, An [South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States); Wisconsin Institute for Discovery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States); Wang, Xiao-Feng [National Center for International Research of Micro-Nano Molding Technology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); School of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Li, Qian [National Center for International Research of Micro-Nano Molding Technology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Turng, Lih-Sheng, E-mail: turng@engr.wisc.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States); Wisconsin Institute for Discovery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-02-01

    During the fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds and subsequent tissue regeneration, surface bioactivity is vital for cell adhesion, spreading, and proliferation, especially for endothelium dysfunction repair. In this paper, synthetic polymer polycaprolactone (PCL) was blended with natural polymer gelatin at four different weight ratios followed by crosslinking (i.e., 100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 30:70, labeled as PCL-C, P7G3-C, P5G5-C, and P3G7-C) to impart enhanced bioactivity and tunable mechanical properties. The PCL/gelatin blends were first dissolved in 2,2,2-trifluroethanol (TFE) and supplementary acetic acid (1% relative to TFE) solvent, electrospun, and then cross-linked to produce PBS-proof fibrous scaffolds. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) indicated that fibers of each sample were smooth and homogeneous, with the fiber diameters increasing from 1.01 ± 0.51 μm to 1.61 ± 0.46 μm as the content of gelatin increased. While thermal resistance and crystallization of the blends were affected by the presence of gelatin, as reflected by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results, water contact angle (WCA) tests confirmed that the scaffold surfaces became more hydrophilic. Tensile tests showed that PCL-C and P7G3-C scaffolds had mechanical properties comparable to those of human coronary arteries. As for cytocompatibility, skeleton staining images showed that human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) had more favorable binding sites on PCL/gelatin scaffolds than those on PCL scaffolds. Cell proliferation assays revealed that P7G3-C scaffolds could support the most number of hMSCs. The results of this study demonstrated the enhanced cell-matrix interactions and potential use of electrospun PCL/gelatin scaffolds in the tissue engineering field, especially in wound dressings and endothelium regeneration. - Highlights: • Aqueous solution-resistant PCL/gelatin scaffolds were made via electrospinning. • PCL/gelatin composite scaffolds have tunable biophysical

  13. Electrospun polycaprolactone/gelatin composites with enhanced cell–matrix interactions as blood vessel endothelial layer scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yong-Chao; Jiang, Lin; Huang, An; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Li, Qian; Turng, Lih-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    During the fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds and subsequent tissue regeneration, surface bioactivity is vital for cell adhesion, spreading, and proliferation, especially for endothelium dysfunction repair. In this paper, synthetic polymer polycaprolactone (PCL) was blended with natural polymer gelatin at four different weight ratios followed by crosslinking (i.e., 100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 30:70, labeled as PCL-C, P7G3-C, P5G5-C, and P3G7-C) to impart enhanced bioactivity and tunable mechanical properties. The PCL/gelatin blends were first dissolved in 2,2,2-trifluroethanol (TFE) and supplementary acetic acid (1% relative to TFE) solvent, electrospun, and then cross-linked to produce PBS-proof fibrous scaffolds. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) indicated that fibers of each sample were smooth and homogeneous, with the fiber diameters increasing from 1.01 ± 0.51 μm to 1.61 ± 0.46 μm as the content of gelatin increased. While thermal resistance and crystallization of the blends were affected by the presence of gelatin, as reflected by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results, water contact angle (WCA) tests confirmed that the scaffold surfaces became more hydrophilic. Tensile tests showed that PCL-C and P7G3-C scaffolds had mechanical properties comparable to those of human coronary arteries. As for cytocompatibility, skeleton staining images showed that human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) had more favorable binding sites on PCL/gelatin scaffolds than those on PCL scaffolds. Cell proliferation assays revealed that P7G3-C scaffolds could support the most number of hMSCs. The results of this study demonstrated the enhanced cell-matrix interactions and potential use of electrospun PCL/gelatin scaffolds in the tissue engineering field, especially in wound dressings and endothelium regeneration. - Highlights: • Aqueous solution-resistant PCL/gelatin scaffolds were made via electrospinning. • PCL/gelatin composite scaffolds have tunable biophysical

  14. Do work relationships matter? Characteristics of workplace interactions that enhance or detract from employee perceptions of well-being and health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroianni, Karen; Storberg-Walker, Julia

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study adopted the position that health and health behaviors are complex social constructs influenced by multiple factors. Framed by the social ecological model, the study explored how work interactions enhanced or detracted from the perceptions of well-being and health behaviors. Despite the fact that previous studies indicated that the social workplace environment contributed to employee health, there was little information regarding the characteristics. Specifically, little was known about how employees perceived the connections between workplace interactions and health, or how social interactions enhanced or detracted from well-being and health behaviors. The participants included 19 volunteers recruited from four companies, who shared their experiences of workplace interactions through interviews and journaling assignments. The findings indicated that feelings of well-being were enhanced by work interactions, which were trusting, collaborative, and positive, as well as when participants felt valued and respected. The study also found that interactions detracted from well-being and health behaviors when interactions lacked the aforementioned characteristics, and also included lack of justice and empathy. The enhancing and detracting relationships generated physical symptoms, and influenced sleeping and eating patterns, socializing, exercise, personal relations, careers, and energy. Surprisingly, the study found that regardless of how broadly participants defined health, when they were asked to rate their health, participants uniformly rated theirs on physical attributes alone. The exclusive consideration of physical attributes suggests that participants may have unconsciously adopted the typical western medical view of health - an individually determined and physiologic characteristic. Despite research suggesting health is more than biology, and despite defining health broadly, participants uniformly adopted this traditional view. The study

  15. Do work relationships matter? Characteristics of workplace interactions that enhance or detract from employee perceptions of well-being and health behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroianni, Karen; Storberg-Walker, Julia

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study adopted the position that health and health behaviors are complex social constructs influenced by multiple factors. Framed by the social ecological model, the study explored how work interactions enhanced or detracted from the perceptions of well-being and health behaviors. Despite the fact that previous studies indicated that the social workplace environment contributed to employee health, there was little information regarding the characteristics. Specifically, little was known about how employees perceived the connections between workplace interactions and health, or how social interactions enhanced or detracted from well-being and health behaviors. The participants included 19 volunteers recruited from four companies, who shared their experiences of workplace interactions through interviews and journaling assignments. The findings indicated that feelings of well-being were enhanced by work interactions, which were trusting, collaborative, and positive, as well as when participants felt valued and respected. The study also found that interactions detracted from well-being and health behaviors when interactions lacked the aforementioned characteristics, and also included lack of justice and empathy. The enhancing and detracting relationships generated physical symptoms, and influenced sleeping and eating patterns, socializing, exercise, personal relations, careers, and energy. Surprisingly, the study found that regardless of how broadly participants defined health, when they were asked to rate their health, participants uniformly rated theirs on physical attributes alone. The exclusive consideration of physical attributes suggests that participants may have unconsciously adopted the typical western medical view of health – an individually determined and physiologic characteristic. Despite research suggesting health is more than biology, and despite defining health broadly, participants uniformly adopted this traditional view. The

  16. Crisis management on surgical wards: a simulation-based approach to enhancing technical, teamwork, and patient interaction skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sonal; Hull, Louise; Fitzpatrick, Maureen; Sevdalis, Nick; Birnbach, David J

    2015-05-01

    To establish the efficacy of simulation-based training for improving residents' management of postoperative complications on a surgical ward. Effective postoperative care is a crucial determinant of patient outcome, yet trainees learn this through the Halstedian approach. Little evidence exists on the efficacy of simulation in this safety-critical environment. A pre-/postintervention design was employed with 185 residents from 5 hospitals. Residents participated in 2 simulated ward-based scenarios consisting of a deteriorating postoperative patient. A debriefing intervention was implemented between scenarios. Resident performance was evaluated by calibrated, blinded assessors using the validated Global Assessment Toolkit for Ward Care. This included an assessment of clinical skills (checklist of 35 tasks), team-working skills (score range 1-6 per skill), and physician-patient interaction skills. Excellent interrater reliability was achieved in all assessments (reliability 0.89-0.99, P pre = 73.7% vs post = 94.8%, P pre = 21.1% vs post = 84.2% P pre = 42.1% vs post = 100%, P pre = 36.8% vs post = 89.8%, P pre = 1.75 vs post = 3.43), leadership (pre = 2.43 vs post = 4.20), and decision-making skills (pre = 2.20 vs post = 3.81, P < 0.001). Finally, residents improved in all elements of interaction with patients: empathy, organization, and verbal and nonverbal expression (Ps < 0.001). The study provides evidence for the efficacy of ward-based team training using simulation. Such exercises should be formally incorporated into training curricula to enhance patient safety in the high-risk surgical ward environment.

  17. Do Learners Notice Enhanced Forms While Interacting with the L2? An Online and Offline Study of the Role of Written Input Enhancement in L2 Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Ronald P.

    2001-01-01

    Think-aloud protocols were gathered to establish that first-year college level participants noticed targeted linguistic forms (Spanish formal imperatives) while reading an enhanced or unenhanced text. Suggests there are no significant benefits of written input enhancement over unenhanced written input for the amount of reported noticing of Spanish…

  18. Towards phonon photonics: scattering-type near-field optical microscopy reveals phonon-enhanced near-field interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillenbrand, Rainer

    2004-01-01

    Diffraction limits the spatial resolution in classical microscopy or the dimensions of optical circuits to about half the illumination wavelength. Scanning near-field microscopy can overcome this limitation by exploiting the evanescent near fields existing close to any illuminated object. We use a scattering-type near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM) that uses the illuminated metal tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) to act as scattering near-field probe. The presented images are direct evidence that the s-SNOM enables optical imaging at a spatial resolution on a 10 nm scale, independent of the wavelength used (λ=633 nm and 10 μm). Operating the microscope at specific mid-infrared frequencies we found a tip-induced phonon-polariton resonance on flat polar crystals such as SiC and Si 3 N 4 . Being a spectral fingerprint of any polar material such phonon-enhanced near-field interaction has enormous applicability in nondestructive, material-specific infrared microscopy at nanoscale resolution. The potential of s-SNOM to study eigenfields of surface polaritons in nanostructures opens the door to the development of phonon photonics--a proposed infrared nanotechnology that uses localized or propagating surface phonon polaritons for probing, manipulating and guiding infrared light in nanoscale devices, analogous to plasmon photonics

  19. Blocking of PDL-1 interaction enhances primary and secondary CD8 T cell response to herpes simplex virus-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudragouda Channappanavar

    Full Text Available The blocking of programmed death ligand-1 (PDL-1 has been shown to enhance virus-specific CD8 T cell function during chronic viral infections. Though, how PDL-1 blocking at the time of priming affects the quality of CD8 T cell response to acute infections is not well understood and remains controversial. This report demonstrates that the magnitude of the primary and secondary CD8 T cell responses to herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1 infection is subject to control by PDL-1. Our results showed that after footpad HSV-1 infection, PD-1 expression increases on immunodominant SSIEFARL peptide specific CD8 T cells. Additionally, post-infection, the level of PDL-1 expression also increases on CD11c+ dendritic cells. Intraperitoneal administration of anti-PDL-1 monoclonal antibody given one day prior to and three days after cutaneous HSV-1 infection, resulted in a marked increase in effector and memory CD8 T cell response to SSIEFARL peptide. This was shown by measuring the quantity and quality of SSIEFARL-specific CD8 T cells by making use of ex-vivo assays that determine antigen specific CD8 T cell function, such as intracellular cytokine assay, degranulation assay to measure cytotoxicity and viral clearance. Our results are discussed in terms of the beneficial effects of blocking PDL-1 interactions, while giving prophylactic vaccines, to generate a more effective CD8 T cell response to viral infection.

  20. Enhanced vibronic interaction caused by local lattice symmetry lowering in the (Fe, Mg)As2 ternary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishtshev, A.; Rubin, P.

    2018-04-01

    By means of periodic density functional theory (DFT) electronic structure calculations, we investigate iron-site doping effects in a structural model of bulk FeAs2. Simulations performed within the projector augmented-wave method-Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functional scheme reveal that the impacts of the two stoichiometric substitutions Fe → Mg and Fe → Ni are radically different with respect to the structural and electronic behavior of the dopants. In particular, unlike the Ni dopant, the Mg dopant incorporated in FeAs2 occupies a noncentral equilibrium position characterized by an off-center displacement from the reference higher-symmetry position. Analysis of the respective electron and vibrational factors allows us to explain this result in terms of the local pseudo Jahn-Teller effect (pJTE). On the basis of DFT calculations, we deduce which electron orbitals and lattice vibrational modes are appropriate for promoting the local instability at the origin of the pJTE. Quantitative evaluations of the pJTE parameters performed within the polyatomic formalism of an effective tight-binding model show that it is just the enhanced vibronic interaction in the Mg-[FeAs6] cluster that is responsible for the local lattice symmetry breaking.

  1. Interaction of CDCP1 with HER2 Enhances HER2-Driven Tumorigenesis and Promotes Trastuzumab Resistance in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Alajati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular pathways that contribute to the aggressive behavior of HER2-positive breast cancers may aid in the development of novel therapeutic interventions. Here, we show that CDCP1 and HER2 are frequently co-overexpressed in metastatic breast tumors and associated with poor patient prognosis. HER2 and CDCP1 co-overexpression leads to increased transformation ability, cell migration, and tumor formation in vivo, and enhanced HER2 activation and downstream signaling in different breast cancer cell lines. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that CDCP1 binds to HER2 through its intracellular domain, thereby increasing HER2 interaction with the non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-SRC (SRC, leading to trastuzumab resistance. Taken together, our findings establish that CDCP1 is a modulator of HER2 signaling and a biomarker for the stratification of breast cancer patients with poor prognosis. Our results also provide a rationale for therapeutic targeting of CDCP1 in HER2-positive breast cancer patients.

  2. LBL coating of type I collagen and hyaluronic acid on aminolyzed PLLA to enhance the cell-material interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Zhao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to assemble extracellular matrix components onto poly (L-lactic acid (PLLA films using layer-by-layer (LBL depositing method to enhance the cell-material interaction. To introduce charges onto the hydrophobic and neutral PLLA surface so that the electronic assembly can be processed, poly (ethylene imine (PEI was covalently bonded to modify the PLLA films. Positively charged collagen I (Col I was then deposited onto the aminolyzed PLLA film surface in a LBL assembly manner using hyaluronic acid (HA as a negatively charged polyelectrolyte. The PEI modification efficiency was monitored via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS measurements. The results of Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR and Water contact angle (WCA monitoring the LBL assemble process presented that the HA/Col I deposited alternately onto the PLLA surface. The surface topography of the films was observed by Atomic force microscope (AFM. In vitro osteoblast culture found that the presence of Col I layer greatly improved the cytocompatibility of the PLLA films in terms of cell viability, cell proliferation and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP expression. Furthermore, osteoblast extensions were found to be directed by contact guidance of the aligned Col I fibrils. Thus, these very flexible systems may allow broad applications for improve the bioactivity of polymeric materials, which might be a potential application for bone tissue engineering.

  3. Materials interaction tests to identify base and coating materials for an enhanced in-vessel core catcher design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempe, J.L.; Knudson, D.L.; Condie, K.G.; Swank, W.D. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls ID (United States); Cheung, F.B. [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, University Park PA (United States); Suh, K.Y. [Seoul National University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S.B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Severe Accident Research Project, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    An enhanced in-vessel core catcher is being designed and evaluated, it must ensure In-Vessel Retention of core materials that may relocate under severe accident conditions in advanced reactors. To reduce cost and simplify manufacture and installation, this new core catcher design consists of several interlocking sections that are machined to fit together when inserted into the lower head. If needed, the core catcher can be manufactured with holes to accommodate lower head penetrations. Each section of the core catcher consists of two material layers with an option to add a third layer (if deemed necessary): a base material, which has the capability to support and contain the mass of core materials that may relocate during a severe accident; an insulating oxide coating material on top of the base material, which resists interactions with high-temperature core materials; and an optional coating on the bottom side of the base material to prevent any potential oxidation of the base material during the lifetime of the reactor. Initial evaluations suggest that a thermally-sprayed oxide material is the most promising candidate insulator coating for a core catcher. Tests suggest that 2 coatings can provide adequate protection to a stainless steel core catcher: -) a 500 {mu}m thick zirconium dioxide coating over a 100-200 {mu}m Inconel 718 bond coating, and -) a 500 {mu}m thick magnesium zirconate coating.

  4. RF Sheath-Enhanced Plasma Surface Interaction Studies using Beryllium Optical Emission Spectroscopy in JET ITER-Like Wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarici, G. [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Barcelona, Spain; Klepper, C Christopher [ORNL; Colas, L. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA); Krivska, Alena [Ecole Royale Militaire, Brussels Belgium; Bobkov, V. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching, Germany; Jacquet, P. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy (CCFE), Abingdon, UK; Delabie, Ephrem G. [ORNL; Giroud, C. [EURATOM / UKAEA, UK; Kirov, K K. [Association EURATOM-CCFE, Abingdon, UK; Lasa Esquisabel, Ane [ORNL; Lerche, E. [ERM-KMS, Association EURATOM-Belgian State, Brussels, Belgium; Dumortier, P. [ERM-KMS, Association EURATOM-Belgian State, Brussels, Belgium; Durodie, Frederic [Ecole Royale Militaire, Brussels Belgium

    2017-10-01

    A dedicated study on JET-ILW, deploying two types of ICRH antennas and spectroscopic observation spots at two outboard, beryllium limiters, has provided insight on long-range (up to 6m) RFenhanced plasma-surface interactions (RF-PSI) due to near-antenna electric fields. To aid in the interpretation of optical emission measurements of these effects, the antenna near-fields are computed using the TOPICA code, specifically run for the ITER-like antenna (ILA); similar modelling already existed for the standard JET antennas (A2). In the experiment, both antennas were operated in current drive mode, as RF-PSI tends to be higher in this phasing and at similar power (∼0.5 MW). When sweeping the edge magnetic field pitch angle, peaked RF-PSI effects, in the form of 2-4 fold increase in the local Be source,are consistently measured with the observation spots magnetically connect to regions of TOPICAL-calculated high near-fields, particularly at the near-antenna limiters. It is also found that similar RF-PSI effects are produced by the two types of antenna on similarly distant limiters. Although this mapping of calculated near-fields to enhanced RF-PSI gives only qualitative interpretion of the data, the present dataset is expected to provide a sound experimental basis for emerging RF sheath simulation model validation.

  5. Enhancing the Awareness of the Interaction of the Space Weather and Public: Some Case Studies in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulunay, Y.; Tulunay, E.; Kocabas, Z.; Altuntas, E.; Yapici, T.; Senalp, E. T.; Hippler, R.

    2009-04-01

    Space Weather has important effects on many systems and peripherals that human interacts with. However, most of the people are not aware of those interactions. During the FP6 SWEETS, COST 724 and the ‘I love my Sun' activities it was aimed to create basis to bring together academicians from universities, experts from industry, scientific institutes, and the public, especially the school children of age 7-11, in order to enhance the awareness of space weather effects and to discuss appropriate countermeasures by different education and promotion methods including non-technical ones. This work mentions the activities performed in Turkey within the framework. Since 1990, a small group at METU has been developing data driven models in order to forecast some critical system parameters related with the near-Earth space processes. With the background on the subject the group feels responsible to organise activities in Turkey to inform public on enhancing the awareness of space weather effects. In order to inform and educate public on their interaction with the Space Weather, distinct social activities which take quick and strong attention were organised. Those include art shows and workshops, quizes, movies and entertainments, special programs for school children of age 7-11 under the ‘I love my Sun' activities, press releases, audio-visual media including webpages [Tulunay, 2007]. The impact of the activities can be evaluated considering the before and after activity record materials of the participants. For instance, under the ‘I love my Sun' activities, the school children drew pictures related with Sun before and after the informative programs. The performance of reaching the school children on the subject is very promising. Sub-activities conducted under the action are: 1. Space Weather Dance Show "Sonnensturm" 2. Web Quiz all over Europe: In Türkiye 3. Space Weather / Sun / Heliospheric Public Science Festivals in 27 Countries: In Türkiye 4. Space Weather on

  6. Direct interactions of OCA-B and TFII-I regulate immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene transcription by facilitating enhancer-promoter communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaodi; Siegel, Rachael; Kim, Unkyu; Roeder, Robert G

    2011-05-06

    B cell-specific coactivator OCA-B, together with Oct-1/2, binds to octamer sites in promoters and enhancers to activate transcription of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes, although the mechanisms underlying their roles in enhancer-promoter communication are unknown. Here, we demonstrate a direct interaction of OCA-B with transcription factor TFII-I, which binds to DICE elements in Igh promoters, that affects transcription at two levels. First, OCA-B relieves HDAC3-mediated Igh promoter repression by competing with HDAC3 for binding to promoter-bound TFII-I. Second, and most importantly, Igh 3' enhancer-bound OCA-B and promoter-bound TFII-I mediate promoter-enhancer interactions, in both cis and trans, that are important for Igh transcription. These and other results reveal an important function for OCA-B in Igh 3' enhancer function in vivo and strongly favor an enhancer mechanism involving looping and facilitated factor recruitment rather than a tracking mechanism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Boron Supply Enhances Aluminum Tolerance in Root Border Cells of Pea (Pisum sativum by Interacting with Cell Wall Pectins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Wen Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is the primary factor limiting crop growth in acidic soils. Boron (B alleviates Al toxicity in plants, which is mainly considered to be due to the formation of Rhamnogalacturonan II-B (RGII-B complexes, which helps to stabilize the cytoskeleton. It is unclear yet whether this is due to the increasing of net negative charges and/or further mechanisms. Kinetics of Al accumulation and adsorption were investigated using entire cells, cell wall and pectin of root border cells (RBCs of pea (Pisum sativum, to reveal the mechanism of B in interacting with alkali-soluble and chelator-soluble pectin for an increased Al tolerance in RBCs. The results show that B could rescue RBCs from Al-induced cell death by accumulating more Al in the cell wall, predominately in alkali-soluble pectin. Boron also promotes Al3+ adsorption and inhibits Al3+ desorption from alkali-soluble pectin. Thus, more Al3+ is immobilized within the alkali-soluble pectin fraction and less in the chelator-soluble pectin, rendering Al3+ less mobile. Boron induces an increase of RG-II (KDO,2-keto-3-deoxyoctonic acid content for forming more borate-RGII complexes, and the decrease of pectin methyl-esterification, thus creates more negative charges to immobilize Al3+ in cell wall pectin. The study provides evidence that abundant B supply enhances the immobilization of Al in alkali-soluble pectin, thus most likely reducing the entry of Al3+ into the symplast from the surroundings.

  8. Enhance the performance of current scoring functions with the aid of 3D protein-ligand interaction fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Su, Minyi; Liu, Zhihai; Li, Jie; Li, Yan; Wang, Renxiao

    2017-07-18

    In structure-based drug design, binding affinity prediction remains as a challenging goal for current scoring functions. Development of target-biased scoring functions provides a new possibility for tackling this problem, but this approach is also associated with certain technical difficulties. We previously reported the Knowledge-Guided Scoring (KGS) method as an alternative approach (BMC Bioinformatics, 2010, 11, 193-208). The key idea is to compute the binding affinity of a given protein-ligand complex based on the known binding data of an appropriate reference complex, so the error in binding affinity prediction can be reduced effectively. In this study, we have developed an upgraded version, i.e. KGS2, by employing 3D protein-ligand interaction fingerprints in reference selection. KGS2 was evaluated in combination with four scoring functions (X-Score, ChemPLP, ASP, and GoldScore) on five drug targets (HIV-1 protease, carbonic anhydrase 2, beta-secretase 1, beta-trypsin, and checkpoint kinase 1). In the in situ scoring test, considerable improvements were observed in most cases after application of KGS2. Besides, the performance of KGS2 was always better than KGS in all cases. In the more challenging molecular docking test, application of KGS2 also led to improved structure-activity relationship in some cases. KGS2 can be applied as a convenient "add-on" to current scoring functions without the need to re-engineer them, and its application is not limited to certain target proteins as customized scoring functions. As an interpolation method, its accuracy in principle can be improved further with the increasing knowledge of protein-ligand complex structures and binding affinity data. We expect that KGS2 will become a practical tool for enhancing the performance of current scoring functions in binding affinity prediction. The KGS2 software is available upon contacting the authors.

  9. Behavioural Sequential Analysis of Using an Instant Response Application to Enhance Peer Interactions in a Flipped Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ting-Chia

    2018-01-01

    To stimulate classroom interactions, this study employed two different smartphone application modes, providing an additional instant interaction channel in a flipped classroom teaching fundamental computer science concepts. One instant interaction mode provided the students (N = 36) with anonymous feedback in chronological time sequence, while the…

  10. A Model for Enhancing Social Communication and Interaction in Everyday Activities for Primary School Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Children with a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder may find the social aspects of learning particularly challenging because of the traits of diffculty with social communication and interaction. This paper evaluates the impact of an interactive model designed to support social communication and interaction for twelve students with ASD, who…

  11. Solution and solid-state studies on the halide binding affinity of perfluorophenyl-armed uranyl-salophen receptors enhanced by anion-π interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leoni, Luca; Mele, Andrea; Giannicchi, Ilaria; Mihan, Francesco Yafteh; Dalla Cort, Antonella [Dipartimento di Chimica and IMC-CNR, Universita di Roma La Sapienza (Italy); Puttreddy, Rakesh; Jurcek, Ondrej; Rissanen, Kari [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Chemistry, Nanoscience Center (Finland)

    2016-12-23

    The enhancement of the binding between halide anions and a Lewis acidic uranyl-salophen receptor has been achieved by the introduction of pendant electron-deficient arene units into the receptor skeleton. The association and the occurrence of the elusive anion-π interaction with halide anions (as tetrabutylammonium salts) have been demonstrated in solution and in the solid state, providing unambiguous evidence on the interplay of the concerted interactions responsible for the anion binding. (copyright 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Polarization enhancement and ferroelectric switching enabled by interacting magnetic structures in DyMnO3 thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Chengliang; Dong, Shuai; Xia, Zhengcai; Luo, Hui; Yan, Zhibo; Wang, Haowen; Tian, Zhaoming; Yuan, Songliu; Wu, Tao; Liu, Junming

    2013-01-01

    magnetically induced electric polarization and its remarkable response to magnetic field (an enhancement of ?800% upon a field of 2 Tesla at 2 K) in DyMnO3 thin films grown on Nb-SrTiO3 substrates. Accompanying with the large polarization enhancement

  13. Interaction of CtBP with adenovirus E1A suppresses immortalization of primary epithelial cells and enhances virus replication during productive infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, T.; Zhao, Ling-jun; Chinnadurai, G., E-mail: chinnag@slu.edu

    2013-09-01

    Adenovirus E1A induces cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation and promotes viral replication through interaction with p300/CBP, TRRAP/p400 multi-protein complex and the retinoblastoma (pRb) family proteins through distinct domains in the E1A N-terminal region. The C-terminal region of E1A suppresses E1A/Ras co-transformation and interacts with FOXK1/K2, DYRK1A/1B/HAN11 and CtBP1/2 (CtBP) protein complexes. To specifically dissect the role of CtBP interaction with E1A, we engineered a mutation (DL→AS) within the CtBP-binding motif, PLDLS, and investigated the effect of the mutation on immortalization and Ras cooperative transformation of primary cells and viral replication. Our results suggest that CtBP–E1A interaction suppresses immortalization and Ras co-operative transformation of primary rodent epithelial cells without significantly influencing the tumorigenic activities of transformed cells in immunodeficient and immunocompetent animals. During productive infection, CtBP–E1A interaction enhances viral replication in human cells. Between the two CtBP family proteins, CtBP2 appears to restrict viral replication more than CtBP1 in human cells. - Highlights: • Adenovirus E1A C-terminal region suppresses E1A/Ras co-transformation. • This E1A region binds with FOXK, DYRK1/HAN11 and CtBP cellular protein complexes. • We found that E1A–CtBP interaction suppresses immortalization and transformation. • The interaction enhances viral replication in human cells.

  14. Hepatitis B spliced protein (HBSP) promotes the carcinogenic effects of benzo [alpha] pyrene by interacting with microsomal epoxide hydrolase and enhancing its hydrolysis activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jin-Yan; Chen, Wan-Nan; Jiao, Bo-Yan; Lin, Wan-Song; Wu, Yun-Li; Liu, Ling-Ling; Lin, Xu

    2014-01-01

    The risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) increases in chronic hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers who often have concomitant increase in the levels of benzo[alpha]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide(±) (BPDE)-DNA adduct in liver tissues, suggesting a possible co-carcinogenesis of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and benzo[alpha]pyrene in HCC; however the exact mechanisms involved are unclear. The interaction between hepatitis B spliced protein (HBSP) and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) was confirmed using GST pull-down, co-immunoprecipitation and mammalian two-hybrid assay; the effects of HBSP on mEH-mediated B[alpha]P metabolism was examined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); and the influences of HBSP on B[alpha]P carcinogenicity were evaluated by bromodeoxyuridine cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth and tumor xenograft. HBSP could interact with mEH in vitro and in vivo, and this interaction was mediated by the N terminal 47 amino acid residues of HBSP. HBSP could greatly enhance the hydrolysis activity of mEH in cell-free mouse liver microsomes, thus accelerating the metabolism of benzo[alpha]pyrene to produce more ultimate carcinnogen, BPDE, and this effect of HBSP requires the intact HBSP molecule. Expression of HBSP significantly increased the formation of BPDE-DNA adduct in benzo[alpha]pyrene-treated Huh-7 hepatoma cells, and this enhancement was blocked by knockdown of mEH. HBSP could enhance the cell proliferation, accelerate the G1/S transition, and promote cell transformation and tumorigenesis of B[alpha]P-treated Huh-7 hepatoma cells. Our results demonstrated that HBSP could promote carcinogenic effects of B[alpha]P by interacting with mEH and enhancing its hydrolysis activity

  15. Positron-attachment to small molecules: Vibrational enhancement of positron affinities with configuration interaction level of multi-component molecular orbital approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachikawa, Masanori [Quantum Chemistry Division, Graduate School of NanoBioScience, Yokohama City University, 22-2 Seto, Kanazawa, Yokohama 236-0027 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    To theoretically demonstrate the binding of a positron to small polarized molecules, we have calculated the vibrational averaged positron affinity (PA) values along the local vibrational contribution with the configuration interaction level of multi-component molecular orbital method. This method can take the electron-positron correlation contribution into account through single electronic - single positronic excitation configurations. The PA values are enhanced by including the local vibrational contribution from vertical PA values due to the anharmonicity of the potential.

  16. PRDM16 enhances nuclear receptor-dependent transcription of the brown fat-specific Ucp1 gene through interactions with Mediator subunit MED1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Satoshi; Chen, Wei; Nakadai, Tomoyoshi; Ohkuma, Yoshiaki; Roeder, Robert G

    2015-02-01

    PR domain-containing 16 (PRDM16) induces expression of brown fat-specific genes in brown and beige adipocytes, although the underlying transcription-related mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, in vitro studies show that PRDM16, through its zinc finger domains, directly interacts with the MED1 subunit of the Mediator complex, is recruited to the enhancer of the brown fat-specific uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) gene through this interaction, and enhances thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-driven transcription in a biochemically defined system in a Mediator-dependent manner, thus providing a direct link to the general transcription machinery. Complementary cell-based studies show that upon forskolin treatment, PRDM16 induces Ucp1 expression in undifferentiated murine embryonic fibroblasts, that this induction depends on MED1 and TR, and, consistent with a direct effect, that PRDM16 is recruited to the Ucp1 enhancer. Related studies have defined MED1 and PRDM16 interaction domains important for Ucp1 versus Ppargc1a induction by PRDM16. These results reveal novel mechanisms for PRDM16 function through the Mediator complex. © 2015 Iida et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  17. iPads Enhance Social Interaction Skills among Hearing-Impaired Children of Low Income Families in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahatheg, Raja Omar

    2015-01-01

    This research tries to investigate the technical contribution on improving the social interaction of hearing-impaired children from low income families in Saudi Arabia. It compares the social interaction skills of hearing-impaired children who do and do not have access to iPads. To achieve the goals of the study; seventeen children aged five years…

  18. CLCuMuB βC1 Subverts Ubiquitination by Interacting with NbSKP1s to Enhance Geminivirus Infection in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Jia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Viruses interfere with and usurp host machinery and circumvent defense responses to create a suitable cellular environment for successful infection. This is usually achieved through interactions between viral proteins and host factors. Geminiviruses are a group of plant-infecting DNA viruses, of which some contain a betasatellite, known as DNAβ. Here, we report that Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMuV uses its sole satellite-encoded protein βC1 to regulate the plant ubiquitination pathway for effective infection. We found that CLCuMu betasatellite (CLCuMuB βC1 interacts with NbSKP1, and interrupts the interaction of NbSKP1s with NbCUL1. Silencing of either NbSKP1s or NbCUL1 enhances the accumulation of CLCuMuV genomic DNA and results in severe disease symptoms in plants. βC1 impairs the integrity of SCFCOI1 and the stabilization of GAI, a substrate of the SCFSYL1 to hinder responses to jasmonates (JA and gibberellins (GA. Moreover, JA treatment reduces viral accumulation and symptoms. These results suggest that CLCuMuB βC1 inhibits the ubiquitination function of SCF E3 ligases through interacting with NbSKP1s to enhance CLCuMuV infection and symptom induction in plants.

  19. Effects of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on terrestrial subarctic ecosystems and implications for interactions with increased atmospheric CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrke, C.; Johanson, U.; Bjoern, L.O.; Gwynn-Jones, D.; Callaghan, T.V.; Lee, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Two predominating types of ecosystems in the Subarctic were exposed to simulated environmental perturbations. A heathland ecosystem was exposed to enhanced UV-B (corresponding to 15% ozone depletion) combined with either increased CO 2 (600 ppm) or additional watering. An ombrotrophic peatland ecosystem was exposed to only enhanced UV-B. Responses both at a plant species level, including different growth forms and life strategies, and at a trophic level (decomposition of organic matter) were studied. There were differences both in the magnitude and direction of plant responses to enhanced UV-B. The four dwarf shrub species in the heathland developed shorter stems, though not at a significant level in the two deciduous species. The leaves of the evergreen, thick-leaved V. vitus-idaea grew thicker under enhanced UV-B, while leaves of the two deciduous species V. myrtillus and V. uliginosum grew thinner. The heathland moss H. splendens showed reduced growth after two and three years under enhanced UV-B but when water was applied simultaneously growth was stimulated by enhanced UV-B. The peat moss S. fuscum had 20% less height increment during the first growing season under enhanced UV-B. Mosses tended to respond quicker to a change in UV-B regime than long-lived dwarf shrubs did. They responded in growth and phenological development already after a few weeks of treatment. Enhanced UV-B in the heathland affected decomposition of organic matter. It had direct negative effects on decomposer community function and structure and indirect negative effects on turnover of V. uliginosum leaf litter by changing the tissue quality of the litter. This was confirmed by studies in the field with another deciduous dwarf shrub (V. myrtillus). Increased growth due to enhanced CO 2 was recorded in V. myrtillus during the first growing season. No change in growth was apparent in any of the dwarf shrubs on a longer-term perspective but the number of flowers and berries were increased in

  20. Cognitive Learning and Motivation of First Year Secondary School Students Using an Interactive and Multimedia-enhanced e-Book made with iBooks Author

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niamh O'Mahony

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, multimedia and interactive e-book content was explored to determine the impact on 1st year Irish secondary school students, specifically looking at cognitive learning and student motivation. To achieve this, a controlled experiment was undertaken using a comparison between a test group and a control group. The test group was given an interactive and multimedia enhanced e-book, developed with interactive widgets of the iBooks Author for the iPad. The control group was presented with the same material, but the widgets were replaced with static materials. The study found that some widgets were more successful for learning than others, and that the ibook format indicates a high level of motivation in students.

  1. Glucocorticoids interact with the noradrenergic arousal system in the nucleus accumbens shell to enhance memory consolidation of both appetitive and aversive taste learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Romy; Fornari, Raquel V; Roozendaal, Benno

    2012-09-01

    It is well established that glucocorticoid hormones strengthen the consolidation of long-term memory of emotionally arousing experiences but have little effect on memory of low-arousing experiences. Although both positive and negative emotionally arousing events tend to be well remembered, studies investigating the neural mechanism underlying glucocorticoid-induced memory enhancement focused primarily on negatively motivated training experiences. In the present study we show an involvement of glucocorticoids within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in enhancing memory consolidation of both an appetitive and aversive form of taste learning. The specific glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonist RU 28362 (1 or 3ng) administered bilaterally into the NAc shell, but not core, of male Sprague-Dawley rats immediately after an appetitive saccharin drinking experience dose-dependently enhanced 24-h retention of the safe taste, resulting in a facilitated attenuation of neophobia. Similarly, GR agonist infusions given into the NAc shell immediately after pairing of the saccharin taste with a malaise-inducing agent enhanced memory of this negative experience, resulting in an intensified conditioned aversion. Importantly, a suppression of noradrenergic activity within the NAc shell with the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol blocked the facilitating effect of a concurrently administered GR agonist on memory consolidation in both the appetitive and aversive learning task. Thus, these findings indicate that GR activation interacts with the noradrenergic arousal system within the NAc to enhance memory consolidation of emotionally arousing training experiences regardless of valence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Interactive video tutorials for enhancing problem solving, reasoning, and meta-cognitive skills of introductory physics students

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the development of interactive video tutorial-based problems to help introductory physics students learn effective problem solving heuristics. The video tutorials present problem solving strategies using concrete examples in an interactive environment. They force students to follow a systematic approach to problem solving and students are required to solve sub-problems (research-guided multiple choice questions) to show their level of understanding at every stage of prob lem solvin...

  3. A study of the effects of enhanced oil recovery agents on the quality of Strategic Petroleum Reserves crude oil. [Physical and chemical interactions of Enhanced Oil Recovery reagents with hydrocarbons present in petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1992-10-01

    The project was initiated on September 1, 1990. The objective of the project was to carry out a literature search to estimate the types and extents of long time interactions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents, such as surfactants, caustics and polymers, with crude oil. This information is necessary to make recommendations about mixing EOR crude oil with crude oils from primary and secondary recovery processes in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Data were sought on both adverse and beneficial effects of EOR agents that would impact handling, transportation and refining of crude oil. An extensive literature search has been completed, and the following informations has been compiled: (1) a listing of existing EOR test and field projects; (2) a listing of currently used EOR agents; and (3) evidence of short and long term physical and chemical interactions of these EOR-agents with hydrocarbons, and their effects on the quality of crude oil at long times. This information is presented in this report. Finally some conclusions are derived and recommendations are made. Although the conclusions are based mostly on extrapolations because of lack of specific data, it is recommended that the enhancement of the rates of biodegradation of oil catalyzed by the EOR agents needs to be further studied. There is no evidence of substantial long term effects on crude oil because of other interactions. Some recommendations are also made regarding the types of studies that would be necessary to determine the effect of certain EOR agents on the rates of biodegradation of crude oil.

  4. Interaction of CtBP with adenovirus E1A suppresses immortalization of primary epithelial cells and enhances virus replication during productive infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, T; Zhao, Ling-Jun; Chinnadurai, G

    2013-09-01

    Adenovirus E1A induces cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation and promotes viral replication through interaction with p300/CBP, TRRAP/p400 multi-protein complex and the retinoblastoma (pRb) family proteins through distinct domains in the E1A N-terminal region. The C-terminal region of E1A suppresses E1A/Ras co-transformation and interacts with FOXK1/K2, DYRK1A/1B/HAN11 and CtBP1/2 (CtBP) protein complexes. To specifically dissect the role of CtBP interaction with E1A, we engineered a mutation (DL→AS) within the CtBP-binding motif, PLDLS, and investigated the effect of the mutation on immortalization and Ras cooperative transformation of primary cells and viral replication. Our results suggest that CtBP-E1A interaction suppresses immortalization and Ras co-operative transformation of primary rodent epithelial cells without significantly influencing the tumorigenic activities of transformed cells in immunodeficient and immunocompetent animals. During productive infection, CtBP-E1A interaction enhances viral replication in human cells. Between the two CtBP family proteins, CtBP2 appears to restrict viral replication more than CtBP1 in human cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Corticotropin-releasing factor in the basolateral amygdala enhances memory consolidation via an interaction with the beta-adrenoceptor-cAMP pathway: dependence on glucocorticoid receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozendaal, Benno; Schelling, Gustav; McGaugh, James L

    2008-06-25

    Extensive evidence indicates that stress hormone effects on the consolidation of emotionally influenced memory involve noradrenergic activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA). The present experiments examined whether corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) modulates memory consolidation via an interaction with the beta-adrenoceptor-cAMP system in the BLA. In a first experiment, male Sprague Dawley rats received bilateral infusions of the CRF-binding protein ligand inhibitor CRF(6-33) into the BLA either alone or together with the CRF receptor antagonist alpha-helical CRF(9-41) immediately after inhibitory avoidance training. CRF(6-33) induced dose-dependent enhancement of 48 h retention latencies, which was blocked by coadministration of alpha-helical CRF(9-41), suggesting that CRF(6-33) enhances memory consolidation by displacing CRF from its binding protein, thereby increasing "free" endogenous CRF concentrations. In a second experiment, intra-BLA infusions of atenolol (beta-adrenoceptor antagonist) and Rp-cAMPS (cAMP inhibitor), but not prazosin (alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist), blocked CRF(6-33)-induced retention enhancement. In a third experiment, the CRF receptor antagonist alpha-helical CRF(9-41) administered into the BLA immediately after training attenuated the dose-response effects of concurrent intra-BLA infusions of clenbuterol (beta-adrenoceptor agonist). In contrast, alpha-helical CRF(9-41) did not alter retention enhancement induced by posttraining intra-BLA infusions of either cirazoline (alpha(1)-adrenoceptor agonist) or 8-br-cAMP (cAMP analog). These findings suggest that CRF facilitates the memory-modulatory effects of noradrenergic stimulation in the BLA via an interaction with the beta-adrenoceptor-cAMP cascade, at a locus between the membrane-bound beta-adrenoceptor and the intracellular cAMP formation site. Moreover, consistent with evidence that glucocorticoids enhance memory consolidation via a similar interaction with the

  6. Annexin A4 fucosylation enhances its interaction with the NF-kB p50 and promotes tumor progression of ovarian clear cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huimin; Deng, Lu; Cai, Mingbo; Zhuang, Huiyu; Zhu, Liancheng; Hao, Yingying; Gao, Jian; Liu, Juanjuan; Li, Xiao; Lin, Bei

    2017-12-08

    To study the structural relationship between annexin A4 and the Lewis y antigen and compare their expression and significance in ovarian clear cell carcinoma, and to explore how annexin A4 fucose glycosylation effects the interaction between annexin A4 and NF-kB p50, and how it promotes tumour progression of ovarian clear cell carcinoma. Structural relationships between annexin A4 and Lewis y antigen were detected using immunoprecipitation. Annexin A4 and Lewis y antigen expression in various subtypes of ovarian cancer tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry, and the relation between their expression was examined. Any interactions between annexin A4 and NF-kB p50 in ovarian clear cell carcinoma were detected by co-immunoprecipitation. Then looked for changes in expression of Lewis y antigen, annexin A4, NF-kB p50 and a number of downstream related molecules before and after transfection annexin A4 or FUT1, and also analyzed changes in biological processes. Lewis y antigen is a part of annexin A4 structure. The expression rate of both annexin A4 and Lewis y antigen was significantly higher in ovarian clear cell carcinoma than in other subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer, and are associated with the clinical stages, chemotherapy resistance and poor prognostic. The interaction between annexin A4 and NF-kB p50 promoted cell proliferation, adhesion, invasion, metastasis ability and autophagy, and inhibits apoptosis, Lewis y enhanced this interaction. Annexin A4 contains Lewis y structure, Lewis y antigen modification of annexin A4 enhances its interaction with NF-kB p50, which promotes ovarian clear cell carcinoma malignancy progression.

  7. Benefits and Pitfalls of Multimedia and Interactive Features in Technology-Enhanced Storybooks : A Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takacs, Zsofia K.; Swart, Elise K.; Bus, Adriana G

    2015-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted on the effects of technology-enhanced stories for young children's literacy development when compared to listening to stories in more traditional settings like storybook reading. A small but significant additional benefit of technology was found for story comprehension

  8. Label-Free Detection of Glycan-Protein Interactions for Array Development by Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Xiuru; Martin, Sharon J H; Chinoy, Zoeisha S; Liu, Lin; Rittgers, Brandon; Dluhy, Richard A; Boons, Geert-Jan

    2016-01-01

    A glyco-array platform has been developed, in which glycans are attached to plasmonic nanoparticles through strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition. Glycan-protein binding events can then be detected in a label-free manner employing surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). As proof of concept,

  9. Benefits and Pitfalls of Multimedia and Interactive Features in Technology-Enhanced Storybooks: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takacs, Zsofia K.; Swart, Elise K.; Bus, Adriana G.

    2015-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted on the effects of technology-enhanced stories for young children's literacy development when compared to listening to stories in more traditional settings like storybook reading. A small but significant additional benefit of technology was found for story comprehension (g+ = 0.17) and expressive vocabulary (g+ =…

  10. Using Theoretical Models to Examine the Acceptance Behavior of Mobile Phone Messaging to Enhance Parent-Teacher Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Li-Hsing; Hung, Chang-Liang; Chen, Hui-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Student academic performance and social competence are influenced positively by parent involvement; effective parent-teacher communication not builds parent reliance on a school, it enhances parent knowledge of raising children. As information technology develops rapidly, it is already a trend that e-communication is replacing traditional paper…

  11. A 1-kb bacteriophage lambda fragment functions as an insulator to effectively block enhancer-promoter interactions in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 35S cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) promoter contains an enhancer element that is able to override the tissue-, organ- and developmental-stage specificity of nearby promoters. Consequently, the precise control of transgene expression in transgenic plants, which often contain the 35S CaMV promot...

  12. Enhanced Biofilm Formation and Increased Resistance to Antimicrobial Agents and Bacterial Invasion Are Caused by Synergistic Interactions in Multispecies Biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burmølle, Mette; Webb, J.S.; Rao, D.

    2006-01-01

    from the surface of the marine alga Ulva australis, were screened for synergistic interactions within biofilms when present together in different combinations. Four isolates, Microbacterium phyllosphaerae, Shewanella japonica, Dokdonia donghaensis, and Acinetobacter lwoffii, were found to interact......Most biofilms in their natural environments are likely to consist of consortia of species that influence each other in synergistic and antagonistic manners. However, few reports specifically address interactions within multispecies biofilms. In this study, 17 epiphytic bacterial strains, isolated...... synergistically in biofilms formed in 96-well microtiter plates: biofilm biomass was observed to increase by >167% in biofilms formed by the four strains compared to biofilms composed of single strains. When exposed to the antibacterial agent hydrogen peroxide or tetracycline, the relative activity (exposed...

  13. Response of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies to the interactive effect of neighbor identity and enhanced CO2 levels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rolo, V.; Andivia, E.; Pokorný, Radek

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 5 (2015), s. 1459-1469 ISSN 0931-1890 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : mixed-forest * climate change * root morphology * growth * non-structural carbohydrates * CO2 fumigation * plant-to-plant interactions Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.706, year: 2015

  14. Interspecies interactions result in enhanced biofilm formation by co-cultures of bacteria isolated from a food processing environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Henriette Lyng; Raghupathi, Prem Krishnan; Herschend, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial attachment and biofilm formation can lead to poor hygienic conditions in food processing environments. Furthermore, interactions between different bacteria may induce or promote biofilm formation. In this study, we isolated and identified a total of 687 bacterial strains from seven......-culture biofilm production with high relevance for food safety and food production facilities....

  15. The HaDREB2 transcription factor enhances basal thermotolerance and longevity of seeds through functional interaction with HaHSFA9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carranco Raúl

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcription factor HaDREB2 was identified in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. as a drought-responsive element-binding factor 2 (DREB2 with unique properties. HaDREB2 and the sunflower Heat Shock Factor A9 (HaHSFA9 co-activated the Hahsp17.6G1 promoter in sunflower embryos. Both factors could be involved in transcriptional co-activation of additional small heat stress protein (sHSP promoters, and thus contribute to the HaHSFA9-mediated enhancement of longevity and basal thermotolerance of seeds. Results We found that overexpression of HaDREB2 in seeds did not enhance longevity. This was deduced from assays of basal thermotolerance and controlled seed-deterioration, which were performed with transgenic tobacco. Furthermore, the constitutive overexpression of HaDREB2 did not increase thermotolerance in seedlings or result in the accumulation of HSPs at normal growth temperatures. In contrast, when HaDREB2 and HaHSFA9 were conjointly overexpressed in seeds, we observed positive effects on seed longevity, beyond those observed with overexpression of HaHSFA9 alone. Such additional effects are accompanied by a subtle enhancement of the accumulation of subsets of sHSPs belonging to the CI and CII cytosolic classes. Conclusion Our results reveal the functional interdependency of HaDREB2 and HaHSFA9 in seeds. HaDREB2 differs from other previously characterized DREB2 factors in plants in terms of its unique functional interaction with the seed-specific HaHSFA9 factor. No functional interaction between HaDREB2 and HaHSFA9 was observed when both factors were conjointly overexpressed in vegetative tissues. We therefore suggest that additional, seed-specific factors, or protein modifications, could be required for the functional interaction between HaDREB2 and HaHSFA9.

  16. The interaction between cations and anionic groups inducing SHG enhancement in a series of apatite-like crystals: A first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, Qun; Dong, Xiaoyu; Yang, Zhihua; Pan, Shilie; Zhang, Bingbing; Huang, Xuchu; Chen, Mingwei

    2014-01-01

    It is an interesting topic to reveal the origin of the SHG intensity enhancement after substitution from alkali and alkali-earth metal atoms to cadmium in a series of apatite-like borates KSr 4 (BO 3 ) 3 , Ca 5 (BO 3 ) 3 F, Cd 5 (BO 3 ) 3 F. Combined with the first-principles method, SHG-density method and real-space atom-cutting method, the electronic structure, the optical properties and the contribution of respective ion and ion groups have been investigated. Second harmonic generation (SHG) responses are mainly attributed to BO 3 groups with π conjugated configuration and their alignment framework. The contributions of A site are more important in CaBOF and CdBOF compounds than in KSrBO. It is also demonstrated that the strong covalent interactions between the boron–oxygen groups and the cadmium atoms contribute the enhancement of SHG responses after substitution from alkali and alkali-earth metal atoms. - graphical abstract: Combined with the first-principles method, SHG-density method and real-space atom-cutting method, the enhancement of SHG response are attributed to the interaction between cadmium and BO 3 groups. - Highlights: • SHG response on a series of apatite-like borates was studied by a SHG-density method. • SHG responses are mainly attributed to BO 3 groups and their alignment framework. • The contributions of A site are more important in CaBOF and CdBOF than in KSrBO. • Covalent interaction between BO and Cd is responsible for SHG of CdBOF

  17. Socially Interactive and Passive Technologies Enhance Friendship Quality: An Investigation of the Mediating Roles of Online and Offline Self-Disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjarlais, Malinda; Joseph, Jessica J

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies indicate that characteristics of social-based technologies (STs) stimulate the sharing of intimate information online, which in turn enhances the quality of friendships. In addition, intimate online self-disclosure has been positively associated with offline self-disclosure. One objective of the current study was to combine the literature and test a model which postulates that STs use stimulates online self-disclosure which facilitates offline self-disclosure and, thereby, enhances the quality of close friendships. A second objective of this study was to examine if the aforementioned model applies to two categories of STs, including socially interactive technologies (SITs; e.g., instant messaging) and socially passive technologies (SPTs; e.g., reading posts on social networking sites). An online survey was conducted with 212 young adults between 18 and 25 years of age. The proposed indirect positive effects of SITs and SPTs use on the quality of friendships were supported. The positive effect of SITs use on the quality of friendships was explained entirely by the young adults' disclosure of personal information when using SITs which facilitated intimate self-disclosure during face-to-face interactions. Although there was not a direct effect of SPTs use on the quality of friendships, SPTs use was positively related to SPTs self-disclosure, which had a positive effect on offline self-disclosure. The current study enhances our understanding regarding the positive effects associated with the use of STs among close friends and identifies the contribution of online self-disclosure for offline interactions.

  18. Enhanced target normal sheath acceleration of protons from intense laser interaction with a cone-tube target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser driven proton acceleration is proposed to be greatly enhanced by using a cone-tube target, which can be easily manufactured by current 3D-print technology. It is observed that energetic electron bunches are generated along the tube and accelerated to a much higher temperature by the combination of ponderomotive force and longitudinal electric field which is induced by the optical confinement of the laser field. As a result, a localized and enhanced sheath field is produced at the rear of the target and the maximum proton energy is about three-fold increased based on the two-dimentional particle-in-cell simulation results. It is demonstrated that by employing this advanced target scheme, the scaling of the proton energy versus the laser intensity is much beyond the normal target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA case.

  19. Bioinformatic analysis of neurotropic HIV envelope sequences identifies polymorphisms in the gp120 bridging sheet that increase macrophage-tropism through enhanced interactions with CCR5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mefford, Megan E.; Kunstman, Kevin; Wolinsky, Steven M.; Gabuzda, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages express low levels of the CD4 receptor compared to T-cells. Macrophage-tropic HIV strains replicating in brain of untreated patients with HIV-associated dementia (HAD) express Envs that are adapted to overcome this restriction through mechanisms that are poorly understood. Here, bioinformatic analysis of env sequence datasets together with functional studies identified polymorphisms in the β3 strand of the HIV gp120 bridging sheet that increase M-tropism. D197, which results in loss of an N-glycan located near the HIV Env trimer apex, was detected in brain in some HAD patients, while position 200 was estimated to be under positive selection. D197 and T/V200 increased fusion and infection of cells expressing low CD4 by enhancing gp120 binding to CCR5. These results identify polymorphisms in the HIV gp120 bridging sheet that overcome the restriction to macrophage infection imposed by low CD4 through enhanced gp120–CCR5 interactions, thereby promoting infection of brain and other macrophage-rich tissues. - Highlights: • We analyze HIV Env sequences and identify amino acids in beta 3 of the gp120 bridging sheet that enhance macrophage tropism. • These amino acids at positions 197 and 200 are present in brain of some patients with HIV-associated dementia. • D197 results in loss of a glycan near the HIV Env trimer apex, which may increase exposure of V3. • These variants may promote infection of macrophages in the brain by enhancing gp120–CCR5 interactions

  20. Bioinformatic analysis of neurotropic HIV envelope sequences identifies polymorphisms in the gp120 bridging sheet that increase macrophage-tropism through enhanced interactions with CCR5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mefford, Megan E., E-mail: megan_mefford@hms.harvard.edu [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Kunstman, Kevin, E-mail: kunstman@northwestern.edu [Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States); Wolinsky, Steven M., E-mail: s-wolinsky@northwestern.edu [Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States); Gabuzda, Dana, E-mail: dana_gabuzda@dfci.harvard.edu [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Neurology (Microbiology and Immunobiology), Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Macrophages express low levels of the CD4 receptor compared to T-cells. Macrophage-tropic HIV strains replicating in brain of untreated patients with HIV-associated dementia (HAD) express Envs that are adapted to overcome this restriction through mechanisms that are poorly understood. Here, bioinformatic analysis of env sequence datasets together with functional studies identified polymorphisms in the β3 strand of the HIV gp120 bridging sheet that increase M-tropism. D197, which results in loss of an N-glycan located near the HIV Env trimer apex, was detected in brain in some HAD patients, while position 200 was estimated to be under positive selection. D197 and T/V200 increased fusion and infection of cells expressing low CD4 by enhancing gp120 binding to CCR5. These results identify polymorphisms in the HIV gp120 bridging sheet that overcome the restriction to macrophage infection imposed by low CD4 through enhanced gp120–CCR5 interactions, thereby promoting infection of brain and other macrophage-rich tissues. - Highlights: • We analyze HIV Env sequences and identify amino acids in beta 3 of the gp120 bridging sheet that enhance macrophage tropism. • These amino acids at positions 197 and 200 are present in brain of some patients with HIV-associated dementia. • D197 results in loss of a glycan near the HIV Env trimer apex, which may increase exposure of V3. • These variants may promote infection of macrophages in the brain by enhancing gp120–CCR5 interactions.

  1. Liquid-infiltrated photonic crystals: enhanced light-matter interactions for lab-on-a-chip applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Asger; Xiao, Sanshui; Pedersen, Jesper Goor

    2008-01-01

    Optical techniques are finding widespread use in analytical chemistry for chemical and bio-chemical analysis. During the past decade, there has been an increasing emphasis on miniaturization of chemical analysis systems and naturally this has stimulated a large effort in integrating microfluidics...... slow-light enhancement of Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption, photonic band-gap based refractometry, and high-Q cavity sensing....

  2. Electrodynamical forbiddance of a strong quadrupole interaction in surface enhanced optical processes. Experimental confirmation of the existence in fullerene C{sub 60}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polubotko, A. M., E-mail: alex.marina@mail.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Chelibanov, V. P., E-mail: Chelibanov@gmail.com [State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    It is demonstrated that in the SERS and SEIRA spectra of the fullerene C{sub 60}, the lines, which are forbidden in usual Raman and IR spectra and allowed in SERS and SEIRA, are absent. In addition the enhancement SERS coefficient in a single molecule detection regime is ~10{sup 8} instead of the value 10{sup 14}–10{sup 15}, characteristic for this phenomenon. These results are explained by the existence of so-called electrodynamical forbiddance of a strong quadrupole light-molecule interaction, which arises because of belonging of C{sup 60} to the icosahedral symmetry group and due to the electrodynamical law divE = 0.

  3. Extreme enhancement of blocking temperature by strong magnetic dipoles interaction of α-Fe nanoparticle-based high-density agglomerate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kura, H; Takahashi, M; Ogawa, T

    2011-01-01

    High-volume fraction α-Fe nanoparticle (NP) agglomerates were prepared using chemically synthesized NPs. In the agglomerate, NPs are separated by surfactant and NP superlattice with a hexagonal close-packed structure is locally realized. Volume fractions of NPs at 20% and 42% were obtained in agglomerates consisting of 2.9 nm and 8.2 nm diameter NPs, respectively. The high saturation magnetization of α-Fe NPs and high volume fraction of NPs in the agglomerate provide strong magnetic dipole-dipole interaction. The interaction energy of the agglomerate became much larger than the anisotropic energy of individual NPs. As a result, the blocking temperature of the 8.2 nm NP agglomerate was significantly enhanced from 52.2 K to around 500 K. (fast track communication)

  4. Electromagnetic study of surface enhanced Raman scattering of plasmonic-biomolecule: An interaction between nanodimer and single biomolecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Gyanendra Krishna; Pathak, Nilesh Kumar; Uma, R.; Sharma, R. P.

    2017-04-01

    In this article we have investigated the electromagnetic surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of single biomolecule adsorbed at the surface of spherical nanodimer. The SERS mechanism has been studied using first principle approach for spherical nanodimer geometry. The coupling of plasmonic concept to biomolecule results the broadband tunable enhancement in Raman gain factor. In this observation the enhancement factor was observed around ≈ 1015. The plasmonic properties of metal nanodimer are analysed in terms of surface plasmon resonances, extinction efficiency and polarisability that have been derived under quasistatic approximation. In this paper, various facets like interdipole separation, molecule distance and size of the plasmonic nanogeometry are taken into account to analyse the Raman gain factor. We also observe that the frequency range expands sufficiently which increases the broad detectability range of the molecule which generates signal even in the outside of Raman range i.e. in between IR to UV region. Lastly, the extinction spectra and electric field profile have been evaluated at resonance wavelength 364 nm. The comparison between electrostatic approach and numerical approach (using DDA) has also been done in terms of extinction spectra.

  5. Unveiling aerosol-cloud interactions - Part 1: Cloud contamination in satellite products enhances the aerosol indirect forcing estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Matthew W.; Neubauer, David; Poulsen, Caroline A.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McGarragh, Gregory R.; Povey, Adam C.; Proud, Simon R.; Grainger, Roy G.

    2017-11-01

    Increased concentrations of aerosol can enhance the albedo of warm low-level cloud. Accurately quantifying this relationship from space is challenging due in part to contamination of aerosol statistics near clouds. Aerosol retrievals near clouds can be influenced by stray cloud particles in areas assumed to be cloud-free, particle swelling by humidification, shadows and enhanced scattering into the aerosol field from (3-D radiative transfer) clouds. To screen for this contamination we have developed a new cloud-aerosol pairing algorithm (CAPA) to link cloud observations to the nearest aerosol retrieval within the satellite image. The distance between each aerosol retrieval and nearest cloud is also computed in CAPA. Results from two independent satellite imagers, the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), show a marked reduction in the strength of the intrinsic aerosol indirect radiative forcing when selecting aerosol pairs that are located farther away from the clouds (-0.28±0.26 W m-2) compared to those including pairs that are within 15 km of the nearest cloud (-0.49±0.18 W m-2). The larger aerosol optical depths in closer proximity to cloud artificially enhance the relationship between aerosol-loading, cloud albedo, and cloud fraction. These results suggest that previous satellite-based radiative forcing estimates represented in key climate reports may be exaggerated due to the inclusion of retrieval artefacts in the aerosol located near clouds.

  6. The tumor suppressors p33ING1 and p33ING2 interact with alien in vivo and enhance alien-mediated gene silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegers, Inga; Kob, Robert; Eckey, Maren; Schmidt, Oliver; Goeman, Frauke; Papaioannou, Maria; Escher, Niko; von Eggeling, Ferdinand; Melle, Christian; Baniahmad, Aria

    2007-11-01

    The tumor suppressor p33ING1 is involved in DNA repair and cell cycle regulation. Furthermore, p33ING1 is a transcriptional silencer that recognizes the histone mark for trimethylated lysine 4 at histone H3. Interestingly, expression of p33ING1 and p33ING2 is able to induce premature senescence in primary human fibroblasts. The corepressor Alien is involved in gene silencing mediated by selected members of nuclear hormone receptors. In addition, Alien acts as a corepressor for E2F1, a member of the E2F cell cycle regulatory family. Furthermore, recent findings suggest that Alien is complexed with transcription factors participating in DNA repair and chromatin. Here, using a proteomic approach by surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization and mass spectrometry (SELDI-MS) combined with immunological techniques, we show that Alien interacts in vivo with the tumor suppressor p33ING1 as well as with the related tumor suppressor candidate p33ING2. The interaction of Alien with p33ING1 and p33ING2 was confirmed in vitro with GST-pull-down, suggesting a direct binding of Alien to these factors. The binding domain was mapped to a central region of Alien. Functionally, the expression of p33ING1 or p33ING2 enhances the Alien-mediated silencing, suggesting that the interaction plays a role in transcriptional regulation. Thus, the findings suggest that the identified interaction between Alien and the tumor suppressors p33ING1 and p33ING2 reveals a novel cellular protein network.

  7. Enhanced electroactive and mechanical properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) by controlling crystallization and interfacial interactions with low loading polydopamine coated BaTiO₃.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Nan; Xing, Qian; Liu, Xu; Sun, Jing; Xia, Guangmei; Huang, Wei; Song, Rui

    2015-09-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is a semi-crystalline polymer and the polar β-phase of PVDF shows superb electroactive properties. In order to enhance the β-phase of PVDF, extreme low content of BaTiO3 nanoparticles (BT-NPs) coated with polydopamine (Pdop) were incorporated into PVDF matrix by solution casting. The β-phase of the resulting PVDF nanocomposites film was dramatically increased and the d33 value reached 34.3±0.4 pCN(-1). It is found that the Pdop layer could improve the dispersibility and stability of the BT NPs in solution and endow the BT NPs good dispersity in the PVDF matrix. Moreover, the interfacial interaction between PVDF chains and the surface of BT-Pdop nanoparticles (BT-Pdop NPs) were revealed, in which the CF2 groups on PVDF could interact with the electron-rich plane of aromatic ring of Pdop moiety. This interaction, led to the increase of the crystallization activation energy as derived from the DSC nonisothermal crystallization measurement. The α-β crystal transformation, organization of interfacial interactions as well as the prevention of agglomeration of BT-NPs confer the improvement of mechanical and thermal properties of PVDF, such as toughness, tensile strength, elongation at break, and thermal conductivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Role of Water Distribution Controlled by Transmembrane Potentials in the Cytochrome c-Cardiolipin Interaction: Revealing from Surface-Enhanced Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Li; Wu, Lie; Liu, Li; Jiang, Xiue

    2017-11-02

    The interaction of cytochrome c (cyt c) with cardiolipin (CL) plays a crucial role in apoptotic functions, however, the changes of the transmembrane potential in governing the protein behavior at the membrane-water interface have not been studied due to the difficulties in simultaneously monitoring the interaction and regulating the electric field. Herein, surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroelectrochemistry is employed to study the mechanism of how the transmembrane potentials control the interaction of cyt c with CL membranes by regulating the electrode potentials of an Au film. When the transmembrane potential decreases, the water content at the interface of the membranes can be increased to slow down protein adsorption through decreasing the hydrogen-bond and hydrophobic interactions, but regulates the redox behavior of CL-bound cyt c through a possible water-facilitated proton-coupled electron transfer process. Our results suggest that the potential drop-induced restructure of the CL conformation and the hydration state could modify the structure and function of CL-bound cyt c on the lipid membrane. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Tyrosine dephosphorylation enhances the therapeutic target activity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by disrupting its interaction with estrogen receptor (ER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shao; Yin, Ning; Qi, Xiaomei; Pfister, Sandra L; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Ma, Rong; Chen, Guan

    2015-05-30

    Protein-protein interactions can increase or decrease its therapeutic target activity and the determining factors involved, however, are largely unknown. Here, we report that tyrosine-dephosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) increases its therapeutic target activity by disrupting its interaction with estrogen receptor (ER). Protein tyrosine phosphatase H1 (PTPH1) dephosphorylates the tyrosine kinase EGFR, disrupts its interaction with the nuclear receptor ER, and increases breast cancer sensitivity to small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). These effects require PTPH1 catalytic activity and its interaction with EGFR, suggesting that the phosphatase may increase the sensitivity by dephosphorylating EGFR leading to its dissociation with ER. Consistent with this notion, a nuclear-localization defective ER has a higher EGFR-binding activity and confers the resistance to TKI-induced growth inhibition. Additional analysis show that PTPH1 stabilizes EGFR, stimulates the membranous EGFR accumulation, and enhances the growth-inhibitory activity of a combination therapy of TKIs with an anti-estrogen. Since EGFR and ER both are substrates for PTPH1 in vitro and in intact cells, these results indicate that an inhibitory EGFR-ER protein complex can be switched off through a competitive enzyme-substrate binding. Our results would have important implications for the treatment of breast cancer with targeted therapeutics.

  10. Students' interaction for enhancing learning motivation and learning success: findings from integrating a simulation game into a university course

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, a vast amount of literature has been published discussing the educational use of simulation games in higher education. Since their emergence in the 1960s, simulation games have had a substantial effect on the way we think about teaching and learning in higher education. One reason simulation games are regarded as superior to traditional teaching is that they encourage students to interact and collaborate. Simulation games can therefore be subsumed under Kolbs learning model...

  11. Fine Formation During Brine-Crude Oil-Calcite Interaction in Smart Water Enhanced Oil Recovery for Caspian Carbonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    Modified sea water has been shown to affect the oil recovery fraction considerably during secondary and tertiary waterfloods. Available soluble potential ions (i.e. Ca2+, Mg2+ & SO42-) in the interacting waterflood (ITW) are suggested to play a key role in increasing the displacement efficiency...... of oil. In previous studies, compositions of injected waterfloods (IJW) have been correlated to the observed oil recovery. This study highlights differences between IJW and ITW for different studies reported in literature....

  12. Using Research-Based Interactive Video Vignettes to Enhance Out-of-Class Learning in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Priscilla W.; Willis, Maxine C.; Jackson, David P.; Koenig, Kathleen; Teese, Robert

    2015-02-01

    Ever since the first generalized computer-assisted instruction system (PLATO1) was introduced over 50 years ago, educators have been adding computer-based materials to their classes. Today many textbooks have complete online versions that include video lectures and other supplements. In the past 25 years the web has fueled an explosion of online homework and course management systems, both as blended learning and online courses. Meanwhile, introductory physics instructors have been implementing new approaches to teaching based on the outcomes of Physics Education Research (PER). A common theme of PER-based instruction has been the use of active-learning strategies designed to help students overcome alternative conceptions that they often bring to the study of physics.2 Unfortunately, while classrooms have become more active, online learning typically relies on passive lecture videos or Kahn-style3 tablet drawings. To bring active learning online, the LivePhoto Physics Group has been developing Interactive Video Vignettes (IVVs) that add interactivity and PER-based elements to short presentations. These vignettes incorporate web-based video activities that contain interactive elements and typically require students to make predictions and analyze real-world phenomena.

  13. Lymphatic transport and lymph node targeting of methotrexate-conjugated PEGylated dendrimers are enhanced by reducing the length of the drug linker or masking interactions with the injection site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Gemma M; McLeod, Victoria M; Mehta, Dharmini; Kelly, Brian D; Stanislawski, Pauline C; Owen, David J; Kaminskas, Lisa M; Porter, Christopher J H

    2017-11-01

    Drug conjugation to dendrimer-based delivery systems has been shown to enhance delivery to the lymphatic system after subcutaneous administration. Dendrimer interaction with components of the interstitium at the injection site, however, may prevent drainage from the injection site. The current study sought to vary the length of a linker employed to conjugate methotrexate (MTX) to a PEGylated dendrimer, in an attempt to reduce MTX interaction with interstitial binding sites and enhance lymphatic drainage. Dendrimers with shorter linkers resulted in higher lymphatic drainage, presumably via shielding of interaction sites by the PEG mantle, but were not retained in lymph nodes. Improved drainage of dendrimers with longer linkers was achieved through coadministration with dextran to mask interactions at the injection site while maintaining retention within the node. Enhanced drug exposure to the lymph node has the potential to enhance the treatment of lymph-node resident cancer metastases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fine-tuning the onset of myogenesis by homeobox proteins that interact with the Myf5 limb enhancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubas, Philippe; Duval, Nathalie; Bajard, Lola; Langa Vives, Francina; Robert, Benoît; Mankoo, Baljinder S.; Buckingham, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Skeletal myogenesis in vertebrates is initiated at different sites of skeletal muscle formation during development, by activation of specific control elements of the myogenic regulatory genes. In the mouse embryo, Myf5 is the first myogenic determination gene to be expressed and its spatiotemporal regulation requires multiple enhancer sequences, extending over 120 kb upstream of the Mrf4-Myf5 locus. An enhancer, located at −57/−58 kb from Myf5, is responsible for its activation in myogenic cells derived from the hypaxial domain of the somite, that will form limb muscles. Pax3 and Six1/4 transcription factors are essential activators of this enhancer, acting on a 145-bp core element. Myogenic progenitor cells that will form the future muscle masses of the limbs express the factors necessary for Myf5 activation when they delaminate from the hypaxial dermomyotome and migrate into the forelimb bud, however they do not activate Myf5 and the myogenic programme until they have populated the prospective muscle masses. We show that Msx1 and Meox2 homeodomain-containing transcription factors bind in vitro and in vivo to specific sites in the 145-bp element, and are implicated in fine-tuning activation of Myf5 in the forelimb. Msx1, when bound between Pax and Six sites, prevents the binding of these key activators, thus inhibiting transcription of Myf5 and consequent premature myogenic differentiation. Meox2 is required for Myf5 activation at the onset of myogenesis via direct binding to other homeodomain sites in this sequence. Thus, these homeodomain factors, acting in addition to Pax3 and Six1/4, fine-tune the entry of progenitor cells into myogenesis at early stages of forelimb development. PMID:26538636

  15. Fine-tuning the onset of myogenesis by homeobox proteins that interact with the Myf5 limb enhancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Daubas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal myogenesis in vertebrates is initiated at different sites of skeletal muscle formation during development, by activation of specific control elements of the myogenic regulatory genes. In the mouse embryo, Myf5 is the first myogenic determination gene to be expressed and its spatiotemporal regulation requires multiple enhancer sequences, extending over 120 kb upstream of the Mrf4-Myf5 locus. An enhancer, located at −57/−58 kb from Myf5, is responsible for its activation in myogenic cells derived from the hypaxial domain of the somite, that will form limb muscles. Pax3 and Six1/4 transcription factors are essential activators of this enhancer, acting on a 145-bp core element. Myogenic progenitor cells that will form the future muscle masses of the limbs express the factors necessary for Myf5 activation when they delaminate from the hypaxial dermomyotome and migrate into the forelimb bud, however they do not activate Myf5 and the myogenic programme until they have populated the prospective muscle masses. We show that Msx1 and Meox2 homeodomain-containing transcription factors bind in vitro and in vivo to specific sites in the 145-bp element, and are implicated in fine-tuning activation of Myf5 in the forelimb. Msx1, when bound between Pax and Six sites, prevents the binding of these key activators, thus inhibiting transcription of Myf5 and consequent premature myogenic differentiation. Meox2 is required for Myf5 activation at the onset of myogenesis via direct binding to other homeodomain sites in this sequence. Thus, these homeodomain factors, acting in addition to Pax3 and Six1/4, fine-tune the entry of progenitor cells into myogenesis at early stages of forelimb development.

  16. An enhanced forest classification scheme for modeling vegetation-climate interactions based on national forest inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majasalmi, Titta; Eisner, Stephanie; Astrup, Rasmus; Fridman, Jonas; Bright, Ryan M.

    2018-01-01

    Forest management affects the distribution of tree species and the age class of a forest, shaping its overall structure and functioning and in turn the surface-atmosphere exchanges of mass, energy, and momentum. In order to attribute climate effects to anthropogenic activities like forest management, good accounts of forest structure are necessary. Here, using Fennoscandia as a case study, we make use of Fennoscandic National Forest Inventory (NFI) data to systematically classify forest cover into groups of similar aboveground forest structure. An enhanced forest classification scheme and related lookup table (LUT) of key forest structural attributes (i.e., maximum growing season leaf area index (LAImax), basal-area-weighted mean tree height, tree crown length, and total stem volume) was developed, and the classification was applied for multisource NFI (MS-NFI) maps from Norway, Sweden, and Finland. To provide a complete surface representation, our product was integrated with the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative Land Cover (ESA CCI LC) map of present day land cover (v.2.0.7). Comparison of the ESA LC and our enhanced LC products (https://doi.org/10.21350/7zZEy5w3) showed that forest extent notably (κ = 0.55, accuracy 0.64) differed between the two products. To demonstrate the potential of our enhanced LC product to improve the description of the maximum growing season LAI (LAImax) of managed forests in Fennoscandia, we compared our LAImax map with reference LAImax maps created using the ESA LC product (and related cross-walking table) and PFT-dependent LAImax values used in three leading land models. Comparison of the LAImax maps showed that our product provides a spatially more realistic description of LAImax in managed Fennoscandian forests compared to reference maps. This study presents an approach to account for the transient nature of forest structural attributes due to human intervention in different land models.

  17. Site-specific O-glycosylation of members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor superfamily enhances ligand interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Shengjun; Mao, Yang; Narimatsu, Yoshiki

    2018-01-01

    in the LA linker regions of VLDLR, LRP1, and LRP2 (Megalin) from both cell lines and rat organs. Using a panel of gene-edited isogenic cell line models, we demonstrate that GalNAc-T11-mediated LDLR and VLDLR O-glycosylation is not required for transport and cell surface expression and stability...... of these receptors, but markedly enhances LDL and VLDL binding and uptake. Direct ELISA-based binding assays with truncated LDLR constructs revealed that O-glycosylation increased affinity for LDL by approximately 5-fold. The molecular basis for this observation is currently unknown, but these findings open up new...

  18. Enhancements of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) metabolism and carcinogenic risk via NNK/arsenic interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.-L.; Chang, Louis W.; Wu, J.-P.; Ueng, Y.-F.; Tsai, M.-H.; Hsieh, Dennis Paul Hsientang; Lin Pinpin

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicated an enhancement of cigarette smoke-induced carcinogenicity, including hepatocellular carcinoma, by arsenic. We believe that arsenic will enhance the expression of hepatic CYP2A enzyme and NNK metabolism (a cigarette smoke component), thus its metabolites, and carcinogenic DNA adducts. Male ICR mice were exposed to NNK (0.5 mg/mouse) and sodium arsenite (0, 10, or 20 mg/kg) daily via gavaging for 10 days and their urine was collected at day 10 for NNK metabolite analysis. Liver samples were also obtained for CYP2A enzyme and DNA adducts evaluations. Both the cyp2a4/5 mRNA levels and the CYP2A enzyme activity were significantly elevated in arsenic-treated mice liver. Furthermore, urinary NNK metabolites in NNK/arsenic co-treated mice also increased compared to those treated with NNK alone. Concomitantly, DNA adducts (N 7 -methylguanine and O 6 -methylguanine) were significantly elevated in the livers of mice co-treated with NNK and arsenic. Our findings provide clear evidence that arsenic increased NNK metabolism by up-regulation of CYP2A expression and activity leading to an increased NNK metabolism and DNA adducts (N 7 -methylguanine and O 6 -methylguanine). These findings suggest that in the presence of arsenic, NNK could induce greater DNA adducts formation in hepatic tissues resulting in higher carcinogenic potential

  19. Tumour cell–derived extracellular vesicles interact with mesenchymal stem cells to modulate the microenvironment and enhance cholangiocarcinoma growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Haga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The contributions of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs to tumour growth and stroma formation are poorly understood. Tumour cells can transfer genetic information and modulate cell signalling in other cells through the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs. We examined the contribution of EV-mediated inter-cellular signalling between bone marrow MSCs and tumour cells in human cholangiocarcinoma, highly desmoplastic cancers that are characterized by tumour cells closely intertwined within a dense fibrous stroma. Exposure of MSCs to tumour cell–derived EVs enhanced MSC migratory capability and expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin mRNA, in addition to mRNA expression and release of CXCL-1, CCL2 and IL-6. Conditioned media from MSCs exposed to tumour cell–derived EVs increased STAT-3 phosphorylation and proliferation in tumour cells. These effects were completely blocked by anti-IL-6R antibody. In conclusion, tumour cell–derived EVs can contribute to the generation of tumour stroma through fibroblastic differentiation of MSCs, and can also selectively modulate the cellular release of soluble factors such as IL-6 by MSCs that can, in turn, alter tumour cell proliferation. Thus, malignant cells can “educate” MSCs to induce local microenvironmental changes that enhance tumour cell growth.

  20. Polarization enhancement and ferroelectric switching enabled by interacting magnetic structures in DyMnO3 thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Chengliang

    2013-12-02

    The mutual controls of ferroelectricity and magnetism are stepping towards practical applications proposed for quite a few promising devices in which multiferroic thin films are involved. Although ferroelectricity stemming from specific spiral spin ordering has been reported in highly distorted bulk perovskite manganites, the existence of magnetically induced ferroelectricity in the corresponding thin films remains an unresolved issue, which unfortunately halts this step. In this work, we report magnetically induced electric polarization and its remarkable response to magnetic field (an enhancement of ?800% upon a field of 2 Tesla at 2 K) in DyMnO3 thin films grown on Nb-SrTiO3 substrates. Accompanying with the large polarization enhancement, the ferroelectric coercivity corresponding to the magnetic chirality switching field is significantly increased. A picture based on coupled multicomponent magnetic structures is proposed to understand these features. Moreover, different magnetic anisotropy related to strain-suppressed GdFeO 3-type distortion and Jahn-Teller effect is identified in the films.

  1. Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 enhances transcriptional activity of the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 long terminal repeat through direct interaction with Tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Soo-Jin; Lu, Hanxin; Cho, Won-Kyung; Park, Hyeon Ung; Pise-Masison, Cynthia; Brady, John N

    2006-10-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that the coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1), which methylates histone H3 and other proteins such as p300/CBP, is positively involved in the regulation of Tax transactivation. First, transfection studies demonstrated that overexpression of CARM1 wild-type protein resulted in increased Tax transactivation of the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) long terminal repeat (LTR). In contrast, transfection of a catalytically inactive CARM1 methyltransferase mutant did not enhance Tax transactivation. CARM1 facilitated Tax transactivation of the CREB-dependent cellular GEM promoter. A direct physical interaction between HTLV-1 Tax and CARM1 was demonstrated using in vitro glutathione S-transferase-Tax binding assays, in vivo coimmunoprecipitation, and confocal microscopy experiments. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of the activated HTLV-1 LTR promoter showed the association of CARM1 and methylated histone H3 with the template DNA. In vitro, Tax facilitates the binding of CARM1 to the transcription complex. Together, our data provide evidence that CARM1 enhances Tax transactivation of the HTLV-1 LTR through a direct interaction between CARM1 and Tax and this binding promotes methylation of histone H3 (R2, R17, and R26).

  2. Post-Mesozoic Rapid Increase of Seawater Mg/Ca due to Enhanced Mantle-Seawater Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Ligi; Enrico Bonatti; Marco Cuffaro; Daniele Brunelli

    2013-01-01

    The seawater Mg/Ca ratio increased significantly from ~ 80?Ma to present, as suggested by studies of carbonate veins in oceanic basalts and of fluid inclusions in halite. We show here that reactions of mantle-derived peridotites with seawater along slow spreading mid-ocean ridges contributed to the post-Cretaceous Mg/Ca increase. These reactions can release to modern seawater up to 20% of the yearly Mg river input. However, no significant peridotite-seawater interaction and Mg-release to the ...

  3. Enhancing non-local correlations in the bipartite partitions of two qubit-system with non-mutual interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, A.-B.A., E-mail: abdelbastm@yahoo.com [College of Sciences and Humanities, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Aflaj (Saudi Arabia); Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut (Egypt); Joshi, A., E-mail: mcbamji@gmail.com [Physics Department, Adelphi University Garden City, NY 11530 (United States); Department of Physics and Optical Engineering, RHIT, Terra Haute IN 47803 (United States); Hassan, S.S., E-mail: shoukryhassan@hotmail.com [Department of Mathematics, College of Science, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038 (Bahrain)

    2016-03-15

    Several quantum-mechanical correlations, notably, quantum entanglement, measurement-induced nonlocality and Bell nonlocality are studied for a two qubit-system having no mutual interaction. Analytical expressions for the measures of these quantum-mechanical correlations of different bipartite partitions of the system are obtained, for initially two entangled qubits and the two photons are in their vacuum states. It is found that the qubits-fields interaction leads to the loss and gain of the initial quantum correlations. The lost initial quantum correlations transfer from the qubits to the cavity fields. It is found that the maximal violation of Bell’s inequality is occurring when the quantum correlations of both the logarithmic negativity and measurement-induced nonlocality reach particular values. The maximal violation of Bell’s inequality occurs only for certain bipartite partitions of the system. The frequency detuning leads to quick oscillations of the quantum correlations and inhibits their transfer from the qubits to the cavity modes. It is also found that the dynamical behavior of the quantum correlation clearly depends on the qubit distribution angle.

  4. Quaternary re-arrangement analysed by spectral enhancement: the interaction of a sporulation repressor with its antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D J; Leejeerajumnean, S; Brannigan, J A; Lewis, R J; Wilkinson, A J; Hoggett, J G

    1999-11-12

    The protein/protein interaction between SinI and SinR has been studied by analytical ultracentrifugation and gel electrophoresis in an attempt to understand how these proteins contribute to developmental control of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. SinR was found to be tetrameric, while SinI was found to exist as monomers and dimers in a rapidly reversible equilibrium. Labelling of SinR by incorporating the tryptophan analogue 7-azatryptophan (7AW) into the protein in place of tryptophan shifts the UV absorbance spectrum, thus allowing selective monitoring of 7AWSinR at 315 nm using the UV absorption optics of the analytical ultracentrifuge. Selective monitoring of SinR in mixtures of SinR and SinI enables the binding and stoichiometry of the interaction to be investigated quantitatively and unambiguously. We demonstrate that the oligomeric forms of SinR and SinI re-arrange to form a tight 1:1 SinR:SinI complex, with no stable intermediate species. A fragment of SinR, SinR(1-69), which contains only the DNA-binding domain, was found to be monomeric, showing that the protein appears not to oligomerise in a similar manner to the Cro repressor, a protein with which it shares a marked structural similarity. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  5. Post-Mesozoic Rapid Increase of Seawater Mg/Ca due to Enhanced Mantle-Seawater Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligi, Marco; Bonatti, Enrico; Cuffaro, Marco; Brunelli, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    The seawater Mg/Ca ratio increased significantly from ~ 80 Ma to present, as suggested by studies of carbonate veins in oceanic basalts and of fluid inclusions in halite. We show here that reactions of mantle-derived peridotites with seawater along slow spreading mid-ocean ridges contributed to the post-Cretaceous Mg/Ca increase. These reactions can release to modern seawater up to 20% of the yearly Mg river input. However, no significant peridotite-seawater interaction and Mg-release to the ocean occur in fast spreading, East Pacific Rise-type ridges. The Mesozoic Pangean superocean implies a hot fast spreading ridge system. This prevented peridotite-seawater interaction and Mg release to the Mesozoic ocean, but favored hydrothermal Mg capture and Ca release by the basaltic crust, resulting in a low seawater Mg/Ca ratio. Continent dispersal and development of slow spreading ridges allowed Mg release to the ocean by peridotite-seawater reactions, contributing to the increase of the Mg/Ca ratio of post-Mesozoic seawater. PMID:24067442

  6. Protein-x of hepatitis B virus in interaction with CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα - an in silico analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadkhani Ashraf

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though many functions of protein-x from the Hepatitis B virus (HBV have been revealed, the nature of protein-x is yet unknown. This protein is well-known for its transactivation activity through interaction with several cellular transcription factors, it is also known as an oncogene. In this work, we have presented computational approaches to design a model to show the structure of protein-x and its respective binding sites associated with the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα. C/EBPα belongs to the bZip family of transcription factors, which activates transcription of several genes through its binding sites in liver and fat cells. The C/EBPα has been shown to bind and modulate enhancer I and the enhancer II/core promoter of HBV. In this study using the bioinformatics tools we tried to present a reliable model for the protein-x interaction with C/EBPα. Results The amino acid sequence of protein-x was extracted from UniProt [UniProt:Q80IU5] and the x-ray crystal structure of the partial CCAAT-enhancer α [PDB:1NWQ] was retrieved from the Protein Data Bank (PDB. Similarity search for protein-x was carried out by psi-blast and bl2seq using NCBI [GenBank: BAC65106.1] and Local Meta-Threading-Server (LOMETS was used as a threading server for determining the maximum tertiary structure similarities. Advanced MODELLER was implemented to design a comparative model, however, due to the lack of a suitable template, Quark was used for ab initio tertiary structure prediction. The PDB-blast search indicated a maximum of 23% sequence identity and 33% similarity with crystal structure of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus leader protease Nsp1α [PDB:3IFU]. This meant that protein-x does not have a suitable template to predict its tertiary structure using comparative modeling tools, therefore we used QUARK as an ab initio 3D prediction approach. Docking results from the ab initio tertiary structure of

  7. Curcumin stably interacts with DNA hairpin through minor groove binding and demonstrates enhanced cytotoxicity in combination with FdU nucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Supratim; Mallick, Sumana; Das, Upasana; Verma, Ajay; Pal, Uttam; Chatterjee, Sabyasachi; Nandy, Abhishek; Saha, Krishna D; Maiti, Nakul Chandra; Baishya, Bikash; Suresh Kumar, G; Gmeiner, William H

    2018-03-01

    We report, based on biophysical studies and molecular mechanical calculations that curcumin binds DNA hairpin in the minor groove adjacent to the loop region forming a stable complex. UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy indicated interaction of curcumin with DNA hairpin. In this novel binding motif, two ɣ H of curcumin heptadiene chain are closely positioned to the A 16 -H8 and A 17 -H8, while G 12 -H8 is located in the close proximity of curcumin α H. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggest, the complex is stabilized by noncovalent forces including; π-π stacking, H-bonding and hydrophobic interactions. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in combination with molecular dynamics simulations indicated curcumin is bound in the minor groove, while circular dichroism (CD) spectra suggested minute enhancement in base stacking and a little change in DNA helicity, without significant conformational change of DNA hairpin structure. The DNA:curcumin complex formed with FdU nucleotides rather than Thymidine, demonstrated enhanced cytotoxicity towards oral cancer cells relative to the only FdU substituted hairpin. Fluorescence co-localization demonstrated stability of the complex in biologically relevant conditions, including its cellular uptake. Acridine orange/EtBr staining further confirmed the enhanced cytotoxic effects of the complex, suggesting apoptosis as mode of cell death. Thus, curcumin can be noncovalently complexed to small DNA hairpin for cellular delivery and the complex showed increased cytotoxicity in combination with FdU nucleotides, demonstrating its potential for advanced cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhancing the blocking temperature in single-molecule magnets by incorporating 3d-5d exchange interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kasper Søndergaard; Schau-Magnussen, Magnus; Bendix, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    We report the first single-molecule magnet (SMM) to incorporate the [Os(CN)(6)](3-) moiety. The compound (1) has a trimeric, cyanide-bridged Mn(III)-Os(III)-Mn(III) skeleton in which Mn(III) designates a [Mn(5-Brsalen)(MeOH)](+) unit (5-Brsalen=N,N'-ethylenebis(5-bromosalicylideneiminato)). X......-ray crystallographic experiments reveal that 1 is isostructural with the Mn(III)-Fe(III)-Mn(III) analogue (2). Both compounds exhibit a frequency-dependent out-of-phase ¿''(T) alternating current (ac) susceptibility signal that is suggestive of SMM behaviour. From the Arrhenius expression, the effective barrier for 1...... for the design of a new generation of SMMs with enhanced SMM properties....

  9. Confined Catalysis in the g-C3N4/Pt(111) Interface: Feasible Molecule Intercalation, Tunable Molecule-Metal Interaction, and Enhanced Reaction Activity of CO Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujiao; Feng, Yingxin; Yu, Ming'an; Wan, Qiang; Lin, Sen

    2017-09-27

    The deposition of a two-dimensional (2D) atomic nanosheet on a metal surface has been considered as a new route for tuning the molecule-metal interaction and surface reactivity in terms of the confinement effect. In this work, we use first-principles calculations to systematically explore a novel nanospace constructed by placing a 2D graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 ) nanosheet over a Pt(111) surface. The confined catalytic activity in this nanospace is investigated using CO oxidation as a model reaction. With the inherent triangular pores in the g-C 3 N 4 overlayer being taken advantage of, molecules such as CO and O 2 can diffuse to adsorb on the Pt(111) surface underneath the g-C 3 N 4 overlayer. Moreover, the mechanism of intercalation is also elucidated, and the results reveal that the energy barrier depends mainly on the properties of the molecule and the channel. Importantly, the molecule-catalyst interaction can be tuned by the g-C 3 N 4 overlayer, considerably reducing the adsorption energy of CO on Pt(111) and leading to enhanced reactivity in CO oxidation. This work will provide important insight for constructing a promising nanoreactor in which the following is observed: The molecule intercalation is facile; the molecule-metal interaction is efficiently tuned; the metal-catalyzed reaction is promoted.

  10. Induction of human interferon gene expression is associated with a nuclear factor that interacts with the site of the human immunodeficiency virus-enhancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiscott, J.; Alper, D.; Cohen, L.; Leblanc, J.F.; Sportza, L.; Wong, A.; Xanthoudakis, S.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between transcription of alpha and beta interferon (IFN-α and IFN-β) genes and the interaction of IFN promoter-binding transcription factors has been examined in monoblastoid U937 cells following priming with recombinant IFN-α2 (rIFN-α2) and Sendai virus induction. Pretreatment of U937 cells with rIFN-α2 prior to Sendai virus infection increased the mRNA levels of IFN-α1, IFN-α2, and IFN-β as well as the final yield of biologically active IFN. Analysis of nuclear protein-IFN promoter DNA interactions by electrophoretic mobility-shift assays demonstrated increased factor binding to IFN-α1 and IFN-β regulatory domains, although no new induction-specific complexes were identified. On the basis of competition electrophoretic mobility-shift assay results, factors interacting with the IFN-α1 and IFN-β promoters appear to be distinct DNA-binding proteins. Hybrid promoter-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase fusion plasmids, containing either the IFN-β regulatory element or the human immunodeficiency virus enhancer element linked to the simian virus 40 promoter, were analyzed for virus and phorbol ester inducibility in epithelial and lymphoid cells, respectively. These experiments suggest that induction of IFN gene expression may be controlled in part by transcription regulatory proteins binding to an NF-κB-like site within the IFN-β promoter

  11. Al-Fe interactions and growth enhancement in Melastoma malabathricum and Miscanthus sinensis dominating acid sulphate soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Toshihiro; Jansen, Steven; Osaki, Mitsuru

    2006-12-01

    Plants growing in acid sulphate soils are subject to high levels of Al availability, which may have effects on the growth and distribution of these species. Although Fe availability is also high in acid sulphate soils, little is known about the effect of Fe on the growth of native plants in these soils. Two species dominating this soil type in Asia, viz. Melastoma malabathricum and Miscanthus sinensis were grown hydroponically in a nutrient solution with different concentrations of Al and Fe. Melastoma malabathricum is found to be sensitive to Fe (40 and 100 microm). Application of 500 microm Al, however, completely ameliorates Fe toxicity and is associated with a decrease of Fe concentration in shoots and roots. The primary reason for the Al-induced growth enhancement of M. malabathricum is considered to be the Al-induced reduction of toxic Fe accumulation in roots and shoots. Therefore, Al is nearly essential for M. malabathricum when growing in acid sulphate soils. In contrast, application of both Fe and Al does not reduce the growth of M. sinensis, and Al application does not result in lower shoot concentrations of Fe, suggesting that this grass species has developed different mechanisms for adaptation to acid sulphate soils.

  12. Viral-toxin interactions and Parkinson’s disease: poly(I:C priming enhanced the neurodegenerative effects of paraquat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobyn Jessica

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parkinson’s disease (PD has been linked with exposure to a variety of environmental and immunological insults (for example, infectious pathogens in which inflammatory and oxidative processes seem to be involved. In particular, epidemiological studies have found that pesticide exposure and infections may be linked with the incidence of PD. The present study sought to determine whether exposure to a viral mimic prior to exposure to pesticides would exacerbate PD-like pathology. Methods Mice received a supra-nigral infusion of 5 μg of the double-stranded RNA viral analog, polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C, followed 2, 7 or 14 days later by administration of the pesticide, paraquat (nine 10 mg/kg injections over three weeks. Results As hypothesized, poly(I:C pre-treatment enhanced dopamine (DA neuron loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta elicited by subsequent paraquat treatment. The augmented neuronal loss was accompanied by robust signs of microglial activation, and by increased expression of the catalytic subunit (gp91 of the NADPH oxidase oxidative stress enzyme. However, the paraquat and poly(I:C treatments did not appreciably affect home-cage activity, striatal DA terminals, or subventricular neurogenesis. Conclusions These findings suggest that viral agents can sensitize microglial-dependent inflammatory responses, thereby rendering nigral DA neurons vulnerable to further environmental toxin exposure.

  13. Organic-Silica Interactions in Saline: Elucidating the Structural Influence of Calcium in Low-Salinity Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, J L; Juhl, K; Hassenkam, T; Stipp, S L S; Walsh, T R; Rodger, P M

    2017-09-08

    Enhanced oil recovery using low-salinity solutions to sweep sandstone reservoirs is a widely-practiced strategy. The mechanisms governing this remain unresolved. Here, we elucidate the role of Ca 2+ by combining chemical force microscopy (CFM) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We probe the influence of electrolyte composition and concentration on the adsorption of a representative molecule, positively-charged alkylammonium, at the aqueous electrolyte/silica interface, for four electrolytes: NaCl, KCl, MgCl 2 , and CaCl 2 . CFM reveals stronger adhesion on silica in CaCl 2 compared with the other electrolytes, and shows a concentration-dependent adhesion not observed for the other electrolytes. Using MD simulations, we model the electrolytes at a negatively-charged amorphous silica substrate and predict the adsorption of methylammonium. Our simulations reveal four classes of surface adsorption site, where the prevalence of these sites depends only on CaCl 2 concentration. The sites relevant to strong adhesion feature the O - silica site and Ca 2+ in the presence of associated Cl - , which gain prevalence at higher CaCl 2 concentration. Our simulations also predict the adhesion force profile to be distinct for CaCl 2 compared with the other electrolytes. Together, these analyses explain our experimental data. Our findings indicate in general how silica wettability may be manipulated by electrolyte concentration.

  14. Enhanced land subsidence in Galveston Bay, Texas: Interaction between sediment accumulation rates and relative sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mukaimi, Mohammad E.; Dellapenna, Timothy M.; Williams, Joshua R.

    2018-07-01

    Galveston Bay is the second largest estuary along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast, with a watershed containing one of largest concentrations of petroleum and chemical industries globally, as well as Houston, the fifth largest metropolitan area in the USA. Throughout the last century, extensive groundwater extraction to support these industries and an expanding population has resulted in significantly enhanced land subsidence (0.6-3.0 cm yr-1). The highest subsidence rates observed in the bay are within the lower 15 km of the San Jacinto River/Houston Ship Channel region (SJR/HSC), with distal areas in East and West Galveston Bays having subsidence rates on the order of 0.2 cm yr-1. In order to investigate the impacts of subsidence on sedimentation, a series of 22 vibracores were collected throughout the bay, and 210Pb and 137Cs radioisotope geochronologies and grain size distributions were determined. Sediment accumulation rates are highest (1.9 ± 0.5 cm yr-1) in the SJR/HSC, and decrease (sedimentation rates are significantly (p sedimentation rates are lower (as much as 50%) than estimated RSLR, indicating a sediment accretionary deficit. In areas (e.g., Scott Bay) within the SJR/HSC, the bay has deepened by more than 1.5 m, suggesting that sediment accumulation cannot keep pace with RSLR. Ultimately, this has resulted in a loss of coastal wetlands and a conversion of marine habitats from relatively shallow to deeper water settings.

  15. Blended Infant Massage-Parenting Enhancement Program on Recovering Substance-Abusing Mothers' Parenting Stress, Self-Esteem, Depression, Maternal Attachment, and Mother-Infant Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Luz S; Porter, Brian O; McCoy, Virginia; Bango-Sanchez, Vivian; Kissel, Bonnie; Williams, Marjorie; Nunnewar, Sachin

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to determine whether a blended Infant Massage-Parenting Enhancement Program (IMPEP) improved maternal psychosocial health outcomes (parenting stress, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, maternal attachment) and maternal-infant interaction among substance-addicted mothers (SAMs) actively engaged in outpatient rehabilitation. Designed as a randomized, three-group controlled trial testing two levels of psychoeducational intervention (IMPEP vs. PEP) and a control group (standard care parenting resources), the study was conducted in two substance abuse centers in southeast Florida on a convenience sample of 138 recovering SAM-infant pairs. IMPEP or PEP classes were held weekly on Weeks 2-5, with data collected at baseline (Week 1), Week 6, and Week 12 via structured interviews, observation (Observation Checklist on Maternal-Infant Interaction), and self-administered questionnaires (Abidin Parenting Stress Index, Beck Depression Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Muller's Maternal Attachment Inventory), analyzed descriptively and inferentially using Kruskall-Wallis analysis of variance and post hoc Wilcoxon rank sum and Mann-Whitney U tests. Both IMPEP and PEP groups had significantly increased Parenting Stress Index scores (decreased parenting stress) and decreased Beck Depression Inventory scores (decreased depressive symptoms) compared to controls at Week 12, whereas there were no clinically meaningful differences among study groups in Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Muller's Maternal Attachment Inventory, or Observation Checklist on Maternal-Infant Interaction scores. Only the IMPEP group showed significant improvements in both psychological and physical (waist-hip ratio) measures of parenting stress over time. The findings suggest that infant massage blended into a structured parenting program has value-added effects in decreasing parenting stress and maternal depressive symptoms, but not on SAM's self-esteem, attachment, or maternal

  16. Enhanced interfacial interaction and antioxidative behavior of novel halloysite nanotubes/silica hybrid supported antioxidant in styrene-butadiene rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing; Luo, Yuanfang; Zhong, Bangchao; Hu, Dechao; Jia, Zhixin; Jia, Demin

    2018-05-01

    A novel antioxidant (HS-s-RT) to improve the mechanical properties and anti-aging performance of styrene-butadiene (SBR) composites was prepared by antioxidant intermediate p-aminodiphenylamine (RT) grafting on the surface of halloysite nanotubes/silica hybrid (HS) via the linkage of silane coupling agent. The analysis of SEM and rubber processing analyzer (RPA) demonstrated HS-s-RT was uniformly dispersed in SBR, and stronger interfacial interaction between HS-s-RT and SBR was formed. Consequently, SBR/HS-s-RT composites have improving mechanical properties. Furthermore, the test of the retention of mechanical properties, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR), and oxidation induction time (OIT) showed HS-s-RT can effectively improve the anti-aging effect of SBR composites than corresponding low molecular-weight antioxidant N-isopropyl-N‧-phenyl-4-phenylenediamin (4010NA). Then, the mechanism of thermo-oxidative aging of SBR/HS composites was also investigated, and the superior antioxidative efficiency is attributed to the uniform dispersion and excellent migration resistance of HS-s-RT. Hence, this novel antioxidant might open up new opportunities for the fabrication of high-performance rubber composites due to its superior anti-aging effect and reinforcement.

  17. Comparing FRACHEM and TOUGHREACT for reactive transport modelingof brine-rock interactions in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, L.; Spycher, N.; Xu, T.; Pruess, K.; Vuataz, F.-D.

    2005-11-15

    Coupled modelling of fluid flow and reactive transport ingeothermal systems is challenging because of reservoir conditions such ashigh temperatures, elevated pressures and sometimes high salinities ofthe formation fluids. Thermal hydrological-chemical (THC) codes, such asFRACHEM and TOUGHREACT, have been developed to evaluate the long-termhydrothermal and chemical evolution of exploited reservoirs. In thisstudy, the two codes were applied to model the same geothermal reservoir,to forecast reservoir evolution using respective thermodynamic andkinetic input data. A recent (unreleased) TOUGHREACT version allows theuse of either an extended Debye-Hu?ckel or Pitzer activity model forcalculating activity coefficients, while FRACHEM was designed to use thePitzer formalism. Comparison of models results indicate that differencesin thermodynamic equilibrium constants, activity coefficients andkinetics models can result in significant differences in predictedmineral precipitation behaviour and reservoir-porosity evolution.Differences in the calculation schemes typically produce less differencein model outputs than differences in input thermodynamic and kineticdata, with model results being particularly sensitive to differences inion-interaction parameters for highsalinity systems.

  18. Using carboxylated cellulose nanofibers to enhance mechanical and barrier properties of collagen fiber film by electrostatic interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenhang; Zhang, Xiuling; Li, Cong; Du, Guanhua; Zhang, Hongjie; Ni, Yonghao

    2018-06-01

    Collagen-based films including casings with a promising application in meat industry are still needed to improve its inferior performance. In the present study, the reinforcement of carboxylated cellulose nanofibers (CNF) for collagen film, based on inter-/intra- molecular electrostatic interaction between cationic acid-swollen collagen fiber and anionic carboxylated CNF, was investigated. Adding CNF decreased the zeta-potential but increased particle size of collagen fiber suspension, with little effect on pH. Furthermore, CNF addition led to a higher tensile strength but a lower elongation, and the water vapor and oxygen barrier properties were improved remarkably. Because the CNF content was 50 g kg -1 or lower, the films had a homogeneous interwoven network, and CNF homogeneously embedded into collagen fiber matrix according to the scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy analysis. Additionally, CNF addition increased film thickness and opacity, as well as swelling rate. The incorporation of CNF endows collagen fiber films good mechanical and barrier properties over a proper concentration range (≤ 50 g kg -1 collagen fiber), which is closely associated with electrostatic reaction of collagen fiber and CNF and, subsequently, the form of the homogenous, compatible spatial network, indicating a potential applications of CNF in collagenous protein films, such as edible casings. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Dysregulated miR34a/diacylglycerol kinase ζ interaction enhances T-cell activation in acquired aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuan-Xin; Li, Hui; Feng, Qi; Li, Xin; Yu, Ying-Yi; Zhou, Li-Wei; Gao, Yan; Li, Guo-Sheng; Ren, Juan; Ma, Chun-Hong; Gao, Cheng-Jiang; Peng, Jun

    2017-01-24

    Acquired aplastic anemia is an idiopathic paradigm of human bone marrow failure syndrome, which involves active destruction of hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors by cytotoxic T cells in the bone marrow. Aberrant expression of microRNAs in T cells has been shown to lead to development of certain autoimmune diseases. In the present study, we performed a microarray analysis of miRNA expression in bone marrow CD3+ T cells from patients with aplastic anemia and healthy controls. Overexpression of miR34a and underexpression of its target gene diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) ζ in bone marrow mononuclear cells were validated in 41 patients and associated with the severity of aplastic anemia. Further, the level of miR34a was higher in naïve T cells from patients than from controls. The role of miR34a and DGKζ in aplastic anemia was investigated in a murine model of immune-mediated bone marrow failure using miR34a-/- mice. After T-cell receptor stimulation in vitro, lymph node T cells from miR34a-/- mice demonstrated reduced activation and proliferation accompanied with a less profound down-regulation of DGKζ expression and decreased ERK phosphorylation compared to those from wild-type C57BL6 control mice. Infusion of 5 × 106 miR34a-/- lymph node T cells into sublethally irradiated CB6F1 recipients led to increased Lin-Sca1+CD117+ cells and less vigorous expansion of CD8+ T cells than injection of same number of wild-type lymph node cells. Our study demonstrates that the miR34a/DGKζ dysregulation enhances T-cell activation in aplastic anemia and targeting miR34a may represent a novel molecular therapeutic approach for patients with aplastic anemia.

  20. Site-specific O-glycosylation of members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor superfamily enhances ligand interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengjun; Mao, Yang; Narimatsu, Yoshiki; Ye, Zilu; Tian, Weihua; Goth, Christoffer K; Lira-Navarrete, Erandi; Pedersen, Nis B; Benito-Vicente, Asier; Martin, Cesar; Uribe, Kepa B; Hurtado-Guerrero, Ramon; Christoffersen, Christina; Seidah, Nabil G; Nielsen, Rikke; Christensen, Erik I; Hansen, Lars; Bennett, Eric P; Vakhrushev, Sergey Y; Schjoldager, Katrine T; Clausen, Henrik

    2018-05-11

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and related receptors are important for the transport of diverse biomolecules across cell membranes and barriers. Their functions are especially relevant for cholesterol homeostasis and diseases, including neurodegenerative and kidney disorders. Members of the LDLR-related protein family share LDLR class A (LA) repeats providing binding properties for lipoproteins and other biomolecules. We previously demonstrated that short linker regions between these LA repeats contain conserved O -glycan sites. Moreover, we found that O -glycan modifications at these sites are selectively controlled by the GalNAc-transferase isoform, GalNAc-T11. However, the effects of GalNAc-T11-mediated O -glycosylation on LDLR and related receptor localization and function are unknown. Here, we characterized O -glycosylation of LDLR-related proteins and identified conserved O -glycosylation sites in the LA linker regions of VLDLR, LRP1, and LRP2 (Megalin) from both cell lines and rat organs. Using a panel of gene-edited isogenic cell line models, we demonstrate that GalNAc-T11-mediated LDLR and VLDLR O -glycosylation is not required for transport and cell-surface expression and stability of these receptors but markedly enhances LDL and VLDL binding and uptake. Direct ELISA-based binding assays with truncated LDLR constructs revealed that O -glycosylation increased affinity for LDL by ∼5-fold. The molecular basis for this observation is currently unknown, but these findings open up new avenues for exploring the roles of LDLR-related proteins in disease. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Development and Alpha Testing of QuitIT: An Interactive Video Game to Enhance Skills for Coping With Smoking Urges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Paul; Burkhalter, Jack E; Snow, Bert; Fiske, Jeff; Ostroff, Jamie S

    2013-09-11

    Despite many efforts at developing relapse prevention interventions, most smokers relapse to tobacco use within a few months after quitting. Interactive games offer a novel strategy for helping people develop the skills required for successful tobacco cessation. The objective of our study was to develop a video game that enables smokers to practice strategies for coping with smoking urges and maintaining smoking abstinence. Our team of game designers and clinical psychologists are creating a video game that integrates the principles of smoking behavior change and relapse prevention. We have reported the results of expert and end-user feedback on an alpha version of the game. The alpha version of the game consisted of a smoking cue scenario often encountered by smokers. We recruited 5 experts in tobacco cessation research and 20 current and former smokers, who each played through the scenario. Mixed methods were used to gather feedback on the relevance of cessation content and usability of the game modality. End-users rated the interface from 3.0 to 4.6/5 in terms of ease of use and from 2.9 to 4.1/5 in terms of helpfulness of cessation content. Qualitative themes showed several user suggestions for improving the user interface, pacing, and diversity of the game characters. In addition, the users confirmed a high degree of game immersion, identification with the characters and situations, and appreciation for the multiple opportunities to practice coping strategies. This study highlights the procedures for translating behavioral principles into a game dynamic and shows that our prototype has a strong potential for engaging smokers. A video game modality exemplifies problem-based learning strategies for tobacco cessation and is an innovative step in behavioral management of tobacco use.

  2. Surface decoration through electrostatic interaction leading to enhanced reactivity: Low temperature synthesis of nanostructured chromium borides (CrB and CrB2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menaka,; Kumar, Bharat; Kumar, Sandeep; Ganguli, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes a novel low temperature route at ambient pressure for the synthesis of nanocrystalline chromium borides (CrB and CrB 2 ) without using any flux or additives. The favorable and intimate mixing of nanoparticles of chromium acetate (Cr source) and boron forms an active chromium–boron precursor which decomposes at much lower temperature (400 °C) to form CrB (which is ∼1000 °C less than the known ambient pressure synthesis). The chromium acetate nanoparticles (∼5 nm) decorate the larger boron particles (150–200 nm) due to electrostatic interactions resulting from opposing surface charges of boron (zeta potential:+48.101 mV) and chromium acetate (zeta potential:−4.021 mV) in ethanolic medium and is evident in the TEM micrographs. The above method leads to the formation of pure CrB film like structure at 400 °C and nanospheres (40–60 nm) at 600 °C. Also, chromium diboride (CrB 2 ) nanoparticles (25 nm) could be obtained at 1000 °C. - Graphical abstract: Variation of surface charge of reactants, precursor and the products, chromium borides (CrB and CrB 2 ). Highlights: ► Novel borothermal reduction process for synthesis of chromium boride. ► Significant lowering of reaction temperature to obtain nanocrystalline chromium boride. ► Enhanced reactivity due to appropriate surface interactions

  3. Autolytic activity of human calpain 7 is enhanced by ESCRT-III-related protein IST1 through MIT-MIM interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osako, Yohei; Maemoto, Yuki; Tanaka, Ryohei; Suzuki, Hironori; Shibata, Hideki; Maki, Masatoshi

    2010-11-01

    Calpain 7, a mammalian ortholog of yeast Cpl1/Rim13 and fungal PalB, is an atypical calpain that lacks a penta-EF-hand domain. Previously, we reported that a region containing a tandem repeat of microtubule-interacting and transport (MIT) domains in calpain 7 interacts with a subset of endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-III-related proteins, suggesting involvement of calpain 7 in the ESCRT system. Although yeast and fungal calpains are thought to be involved in alkaline adaptation via limited proteolysis of specific transcription factors, proteolytic activity of calpain 7 has not been demonstrated yet. In this study, we investigated the interaction between calpain 7 and a newly reported ESCRT-III family member, increased sodium tolerance-1 (IST1), which possesses two different types of MIT-interacting motifs (MIM1 and MIM2). We found that glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-fused tandem MIT domains of calpain 7 (calpain 7MIT) pulled down FLAG-tagged IST1 expressed in HEK293T cells. Coimmunoprecipitation assays with various deletion or point mutants of epitope-tagged calpain 7 and IST1 revealed that both repetitive MIT domains and MIMs are required for efficient interaction. Direct MIT-MIM binding was confirmed by a pulldown experiment with GST-fused IST1 MIM and purified recombinant calpain 7MIT. Furthermore, we found that the GST-MIM protein enhances the autolysis of purified Strep-tagged monomeric green fluorescent protein (mGFP)-fused calpain 7 (mGFP-calpain 7-Strep). The autolysis was almost completely abolished by 10 mmN-ethylmaleimide but only partially inhibited by 1 mm leupeptin or E-64. The putative catalytic Cys290-substituted mutant (mGFP-calpain 7(C290S)-Strep) showed no autolytic activity. These results demonstrate for the first time that human calpain 7 is proteolytically active, and imply that calpain 7 is activated in the ESCRT system. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 FEBS.

  4. Nodal enhances the activity of FoxO3a and its synergistic interaction with Smads to regulate cyclin G2 transcription in ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, G; Peng, C

    2011-09-15

    Nodal, a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, has been recently shown to suppress cell proliferation and to stimulate the expression of cyclin G2 (CCNG2) in human epithelial ovarian cancer cells. However, the precise mechanisms underlying these events are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the transcriptional regulation of CCNG2 by the Nodal signaling pathway. In ovarian cancer cells, overexpression of Nodal or its receptors, activin receptor-like kinase 7 (ALK7) or ALK4, resulted in an increase in the CCNG2 promoter activity. Several putative Forkhead box class O (FoxO)3a-binding sites are present in the human CCNG2 promoter and overexpression of FoxO3a enhanced the CCNG2 promoter activity. The functional FoxO3a-binding element (FBE) was mapped to a proximal region located between -398 and -380 bp (FBE1) through deletion and mutation analyses, as well as chromatin immunoprecipitation (IP) assay. Interestingly, mutation of the FBE1 not only abolished the effect of FoxO3a, but also blocked Nodal-induced CCNG2 transcription. Nodal stimulated FoxO3a mRNA and protein expression through the canonical Smad pathway and suppressed FoxO3a inactivation by inhibiting AKT activity. Silencing of FoxO3a using small interfering RNA significantly reduced the effect of Nodal on the CCNG2 promoter activity. On the other hand, overexpression of Smad2 and Smad3 enhanced the FoxO3a-induced CCNG2 promoter activity whereas knockdown of Smad4 blocked the activity of FoxO3a. Furthermore, IP assays revealed that FoxO3a formed complexes with Smad proteins and that Nodal enhanced the binding of FoxO3a to the CCNG2 promoter. Finally, silencing of FoxO3a reversed the inhibitory effect of Nodal on cell proliferation. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that Nodal signaling promotes CCNG2 transcription by upregulating FoxO3a expression, inhibiting FoxO3a phosphorylation and enhancing its synergistic interaction with Smads. These results also suggest

  5. Interaction between shallow and deep aquifers in the Tivoli Plain (Central Italy) enhanced by groundwater extraction: A multi-isotope approach and geochemical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carucci, Valentina; Petitta, Marco; Aravena, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    In the Tivoli Plain (Rome, Central Italy) the interaction between shallow and deep groundwater flow systems enhanced by groundwater extraction has been investigated using isotopic and chemical tracers. A conceptual model of the groundwater flowpaths has been developed and verified by geochemical modeling. A combined hydrogeochemical and isotopic investigation using ion relationships such as DIC/Cl − , Ca/(Ca + Mg)/SO 4 /(SO 4 + HCO 3 ), and environmental isotopes (δ 18 O, δ 2 H, 87 Sr/ 86 Sr, δ 34 S and δ 13 C) was carried out in order to determine the sources of recharge of the aquifer, the origin of solutes and the mixing processes in groundwater of Tivoli Plain. Multivariate statistical methods such as principal component analysis and Cluster analyses have confirmed the existence of different geochemical facies and the role of mixing in the chemical composition of the groundwater. Results indicate that the hydrochemistry of groundwater is characterized by mixing between end-members coming directly from carbonate recharge areas and to groundwater circulating in a deeply buried Meso-Cenozoic carbonate sequence. The travertine aquifer is fed by both flow systems, but a local contribution by direct input in the Plain has also been recognized. The stable isotope data ( 18 O, 2 H, 13 C and 34 S) supports the flow system conceptual model inferred from the geochemical data and represents key data to quantify the geochemical mixing in the different groundwaters of the Plain. The results of numerical modeling (PHREEQC) are consistent with the flowpaths derived from the hydrogeochemical conceptual model. The inverse models performed generated the main geochemical processes occurring in the groundwater flow system, which also included mixing. Geochemical and isotope modeling demonstrate an increasing influence of groundwater from the deeply buried aquifer in the travertine aquifer, enhanced by lowering of the travertine aquifer water table due to quarry pumping.

  6. Understanding the plant-microbe interaction molecular mechanisms for better exploitation of bio-control agents to enhance sustainable agricultural practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Kumari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma spp. are well-known bio-control agents which promote the plant growth and suppress the pathogen infection. The beneficial effects are attributed to the production of phytohormones, antibiotics, siderophores and secondary metabolites (SM. Trichodermin and Harzianum A, SMs have documented anti-fungal activities as well. Tri5 gene encodes for trichodiene synthase (TS contains a terpene fold and involved at the initial step of the biosynthetic pathway of these molecules. Furthermore, domain analysis of proteins from diverse organisms showed that the terpene fold has functional diversity with diverse applications in agriculture, medicine and applied biotechnology. These proteins can be classified into single and multi-domains based on their structures. It was observed that multi-domain proteins carry additional helices which may regulate the catalytic efficiency. Further, activity enhancing mutations with potentially higher catalytic activities were screened. In an offshoot to the above work, we have analyzed binding of Trichodermin with the 25S rRNA that constitutes the petidyltransferase centre (PTC. The trichodermin resistance protein (60S ribosomal protein L3 was reported to overcome the inhibitory effects of trichothecene compounds. Normal mode analysis and MD of trichodermin resistance protein and 25S consisting of PTC showed that the W-finger region of the protein may move towards 25S rRNA and may block the binding pocket of the trichodermin. These results may lead to develop strategies for higher TS activity and the mechanism of action of these molecules involved in plant-microbe interactions. These may be further exploited for enhancing the efficiency of these biotechnological agents used in sustainable agriculture.

  7. COROTATING INTERACTION REGION ASSOCIATED SUPRATHERMAL HELIUM ION ENHANCEMENTS AT 1 AU: EVIDENCE FOR LOCAL ACCELERATION AT THE COMPRESSION REGION TRAILING EDGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, R. W.; Dayeh, M. A.; Desai, M. I.; Mason, G. M.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the temporal profiles and peak intensities for 73 corotating interaction region (CIR)-associated suprathermal (∼0.1-8 MeV nucleon –1 ) helium (He) ion enhancements identified at STEREO-A, STEREO-B, and/or Advanced Composition Explorer between 2007 and 2010. We found that in most events the peak He intensity times were well organized by the CIR compression region trailing edge, regardless of whether or not a reverse shock was present. Out of these events, 19% had their 0.193 MeV nucleon –1 He intensities peak within 1 hr and 50% within 4.75 hr of the CIR trailing edge, the distribution having a 1σ value of 7.3 hr. Events with a 0.193 MeV nucleon –1 He intensity peak time within 1σ of the CIR trailing edge showed a positive correlation between the ∼0.1 and 0.8 MeV nucleon –1 He peak intensities and magnetic compression ratios in events both with and without a reverse shock. The peak intensities in all other events showed little to moderate correlation between these parameters. Our results provide evidence that some fraction of the CIR-associated –1 He intensity enhancements observed at 1 AU are locally driven. We suggest an extended source for the CIR-associated energetic particles observed at 1 AU where the –1 ions are accelerated locally at or near the CIR trailing edge, the intensities being proportional to the local compression ratio strength, while the >MeV particles are likely accelerated at CIR-driven shocks beyond Earth orbit.

  8. Surface interaction between cubic phase NaNbO3 nanoflowers and Ru nanoparticles for enhancing visible-light driven photosensitized photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Hu, Yin; Ba, Mingwei

    2018-03-01

    Ru nanoparticles supported on perovskite NaNbO3 with cubic crystal structure and nanoflower-like morphology was prepared by a convenient solvothermal method combined with photo-deposition technique. Crystal structure, chemical component and surface valence states determined by XRD, XPS, TEM and SEM demonstrated the metastable cubic phase of perovskite NaNbO3, and its modified surface by Ru species. Optical and electrochemical analysis, such as UV-vis DRS, OTCS and EIS, indicated the excellent photoelectrochemical properties and the efficient electron transfer of the composites. Compared with naked and Ru-doped NaNbO3, the composite photocatalyst exhibited outstanding performance for the degradation of RhB under visible light irradiation due to the dye self-photosensitization and the surface interaction between Ru metal nanoparticles and semiconductor. In-situ reduction of surface Ru oxide species in the photocatalytic process assisted the further improvement of the photocatalytic activity and stability. Investigation of the main active species during the photocatalysis confirmed the efficient transfer of the photo-generated electrons and the positive effect of oxygen defects in NaNbO3. Finally, possible mechanism of the present visible-light driven photocatalysis was proposed in detail. This work provided an alternative strategy to enhance the visible-light photocatalytic efficiency of the catalyst with wide band gap on the basis of the synergistic effect of dye self-photosensitization, interaction between NaNbO3 and its surface Ru nanoparticles, and the "self-doping" of oxygen defects in NaNbO3.

  9. Rab5 Enhances Classical Swine Fever Virus Proliferation and Interacts with Viral NS4B Protein to Facilitate Formation of NS4B Related Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihui Lin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever virus (CSFV is a fatal pig pestivirus and causes serious financial losses to the pig industry. CSFV NS4B protein is one of the most important viral replicase proteins. Rab5, a member of the small Rab GTPase family, is involved in infection and replication of numerous viruses including hepatitis C virus and dengue virus. Until now, the effects of Rab5 on the proliferation of CSFV are poorly defined. In the present study, we showed that Rab5 could enhance CSFV proliferation by utilizing lentivirus-mediated constitutive overexpression and eukaryotic plasmid transient overexpression approaches. On the other hand, lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA knockdown of Rab5 dramatically inhibited virus production. Co-immunoprecipitation, glutathione S-transferase pulldown and laser confocal microscopy assays further confirmed the interaction between Rab5 and CSFV NS4B protein. In addition, intracellular distribution of NS4B-Red presented many granular fluorescent signals (GFS in CSFV infected PK-15 cells. Inhibition of basal Rab5 function with Rab5 dominant negative mutant Rab5S34N resulted in disruption of the GFS. These results indicate that Rab5 plays a critical role in facilitating the formation of the NS4B related complexes. Furthermore, it was observed that NS4B co-localized with viral NS3 and NS5A proteins in the cytoplasm, suggesting that NS3 and NS5A might be components of the NS4B related complex. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Rab5 positively modulates CSFV propagation and interacts with NS4B protein to facilitate the NS4B related complexes formation.

  10. Incorporating an Interactive Statistics Workshop into an Introductory Biology Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience (CURE) Enhances Students' Statistical Reasoning and Quantitative Literacy Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olimpo, Jeffrey T; Pevey, Ryan S; McCabe, Thomas M

    2018-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) provide an avenue for student participation in authentic scientific opportunities. Within the context of such coursework, students are often expected to collect, analyze, and evaluate data obtained from their own investigations. Yet, limited research has been conducted that examines mechanisms for supporting students in these endeavors. In this article, we discuss the development and evaluation of an interactive statistics workshop that was expressly designed to provide students with an open platform for graduate teaching assistant (GTA)-mentored data processing, statistical testing, and synthesis of their own research findings. Mixed methods analyses of pre/post-intervention survey data indicated a statistically significant increase in students' reasoning and quantitative literacy abilities in the domain, as well as enhancement of student self-reported confidence in and knowledge of the application of various statistical metrics to real-world contexts. Collectively, these data reify an important role for scaffolded instruction in statistics in preparing emergent scientists to be data-savvy researchers in a globally expansive STEM workforce.

  11. Incorporating an Interactive Statistics Workshop into an Introductory Biology Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience (CURE) Enhances Students’ Statistical Reasoning and Quantitative Literacy Skills †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olimpo, Jeffrey T.; Pevey, Ryan S.; McCabe, Thomas M.

    2018-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) provide an avenue for student participation in authentic scientific opportunities. Within the context of such coursework, students are often expected to collect, analyze, and evaluate data obtained from their own investigations. Yet, limited research has been conducted that examines mechanisms for supporting students in these endeavors. In this article, we discuss the development and evaluation of an interactive statistics workshop that was expressly designed to provide students with an open platform for graduate teaching assistant (GTA)-mentored data processing, statistical testing, and synthesis of their own research findings. Mixed methods analyses of pre/post-intervention survey data indicated a statistically significant increase in students’ reasoning and quantitative literacy abilities in the domain, as well as enhancement of student self-reported confidence in and knowledge of the application of various statistical metrics to real-world contexts. Collectively, these data reify an important role for scaffolded instruction in statistics in preparing emergent scientists to be data-savvy researchers in a globally expansive STEM workforce. PMID:29904549

  12. Enhanced interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and isolated skyrmions in the inversion-symmetry-broken Ru/Co/W/Ru films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardak, Alexander; Kolesnikov, Alexander; Stebliy, Maksim; Chebotkevich, Ludmila; Sadovnikov, Alexandr; Nikitov, Sergei; Talapatra, Abhishek; Mohanty, Jyoti; Ognev, Alexey

    2018-05-01

    An enhancement of the spin-orbit effects arising on an interface between a ferromagnet (FM) and a heavy metal (HM) is possible through the strong breaking of the structural inversion symmetry in the layered films. Here, we show that an introduction of an ultrathin W interlayer between Co and Ru in Ru/Co/Ru films enables to preserve perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and simultaneously induce a large interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (iDMI). The study of the spin-wave propagation in the Damon-Eshbach geometry by Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy reveals the drastic increase in the iDMI value with the increase in W thickness (tW). The maximum iDMI of -3.1 erg/cm2 is observed for tW = 0.24 nm, which is 10 times larger than for the quasi-symmetrical Ru/Co/Ru films. We demonstrate the evidence of the spontaneous field-driven nucleation of isolated skyrmions supported by micromagnetic simulations. Magnetic force microscopy measurements reveal the existence of sub-100-nm skyrmions in the zero magnetic field. The ability to simultaneously control the strength of PMA and iDMI in quasi-symmetrical HM/FM/HM trilayer systems through the interface engineered inversion asymmetry at the nanoscale excites new fundamental and practical interest in ultrathin ferromagnets, which are a potential host for stable magnetic skyrmions.

  13. Interaction of integrin β4 with S1P receptors in S1P- and HGF-induced endothelial barrier enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiuqin; Epshtein, Yulia; Chen, Weiguo; Zhou, Tingting; Xie, Lishi; Garcia, Joe G N; Jacobson, Jeffrey R

    2014-06-01

    We previously reported sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) augment endothelial cell (EC) barrier function and attenuate murine acute lung inury (ALI). While the mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully understood, S1P and HGF both transactivate the S1P receptor, S1PR1 and integrin β4 (ITGB4) at membrane caveolin-enriched microdomains (CEMs). In the current study, we investigated the roles of S1PR2 and S1PR3 in S1P/HGF-mediated EC signaling and their associations with ITGB4. Our studies confirmed ITGB4 and S1PR2/3 are recruited to CEMs in human lung EC in response to either S1P (1 µM, 5 min) or HGF (25 ng/ml, 5 min). Co-immunoprecipitation experiments identified an S1P/HGF-mediated interaction of ITGB4 with both S1PR2 and S1PR3. We then employed an in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA) to confirm a direct ITGB4-S1PR3 association induced by S1P/HGF although a direct association was not detectable between S1PR2 and ITGB4. S1PR1 knockdown (siRNA), however, abrogated S1P/HGF-induced ITGB4-S1PR2 associations while there was no effect on ITGB4-S1PR3 associations. Moreover, PLA confirmed a direct association between S1PR1 and S1PR2 induced by S1P and HGF. Finally, silencing of S1PR2 significantly attenuated S1P/HGF-induced EC barrier enhancement as measured by transendothelial resistance while silencing of S1PR3 significantly augmented S1P/HGF-induced barrier enhancement. These results confirm an important role for S1PR2 and S1PR3 in S1P/HGF-mediated EC barrier responses that are associated with their complex formation with ITGB4. Our findings elucidate novel mechanisms of EC barrier regulation that may ultimately lead to new therapeutic targets for disorders characterized by increased vascular permeability including ALI. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. An integrated study of fluid–rock interaction in a CO2-based enhanced geothermal system: A case study of Songliao Basin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Jin; Xu, Tianfu; Yuan, Yilong; Feng, Bo; Tian, Hailong; Bao, Xinhua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We evaluated the interactions between rock, brine, and CO 2 in CO 2 -EGS using laboratory experiments. • We examined changes of the dissolved ionic composition of the solution. • Minerals dissolve (feldspar and calcite) or precipitate (secondly carbonates). • We used numerical simulations to reproduce chemical processes of CO 2 -EGS. • Numerical simulations were generally consistent with experimental results. - Abstract: The reactive behavior of a mixture of supercritical CO 2 and brine under physical–chemical conditions relevant to the CO 2 -based Enhanced Geothermal System (CO 2 -EGS) is largely unknown. Thus, laboratory experiments and numerical simulations were employed in this study to investigate the fluid–rock interaction occurring in the CO 2 -EGS. Rock samples and thermal–physical conditions specific to the Yingcheng Formation of Songliao Basin, China, an EGS research site, were used. Experiments were conducted by using of reactors at high temperature and pressure. Six batch reaction experiments injected with supercritical CO 2 were designed at temperatures of 150–170 °C and a pressure of 35 MPa. Moreover, a separate experiment at the same experimental conditions without injection of CO 2 was also conducted for comparison. Analyses of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the resulting solids were conducted to characterize changes in mineral phases. Numerical simulations were also performed under the same conditions as those used in the experiments. Significant mineral alterations were detected at the CO 2 -EGS reservoir, which may change the properties of fluid flow. The presence of supercritical CO 2 led to an dissolution of primary minerals such as calcite and K-feldspar and precipitations of secondary carbonate such as calcite and ankerite. The numerical simulations were generally consistent with laboratory experiments, which provide a tool for scaling the time up for long period of reservoir

  15. Massive production of heavy metals in the Ganga (Hooghly) River estuary, India: Global importance of solute-particle interaction and enhanced metal fluxes to the oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Saumik; Dalai, Tarun K.

    2018-05-01

    The Ganga River System is a major contributor to the global sediment and water discharge to the oceans. The estuary of Ganga (Hooghly) River in India is under increasing influence of anthropogenic contributions via discharge of the industrial and urban effluents. Here we document, based on the investigation of water and suspended sediment samples collected during six periods over two years, that there is extensive production of heavy metals (Co, Ni and Cu) in the estuary such that the annual dissolved fluxes of metals from the Hooghly River are enhanced by up to 230-1770%. Furthermore, the estuarine dissolved metal fluxes, when normalized with water fluxes, are the highest among estuaries of the major rivers in the world. Our simultaneous data on the dissolved, suspended particulate and exchangeable phases allow us to identify the ion-exchange process (coupled adsorption and desorption) as the dominant contributor to the generation of heavy metals in the middle and lower estuary where the estimated anthropogenic contribution is negligible. The estimated contributions from the groundwater are also insufficient to explain the measured metal concentrations in the estuary. A strong positive correlation that is observed between the dissolved heavy metal fluxes and the suspended particulate matter (SPM) fluxes, after normalizing them with the water fluxes, for estuaries of the major global rivers imply that the solute-particle interaction is a globally significant process in the estuarine production of metals. Based on this correlation that is observed for major estuaries around the world, we demonstrate that the South Asian Rivers which supply only ∼9% of the global river water discharge but carry elevated SPM load, contribute a far more significant proportion (∼40 ± 2% Ni and 15 ± 1% Cu) to the global supply of the dissolved metals from the rivers.

  16. Assessing the potential roles of silicon and germanium phthalocyanines in planar heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices and how pentafluoro phenoxylation can enhance π-π interactions and device performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, Benoît H; White, Robin T; Al-Amar, Mohammad; Plint, Trevor; Castrucci, Jeffrey S; Josey, David S; Lu, Zheng-Hong; Bender, Timothy P

    2015-03-11

    In this study, we have assessed the potential application of dichloro silicon phthalocyanine (Cl2-SiPc) and dichloro germanium phthalocyanine (Cl2-GePc) in modern planar heterojunction organic photovoltaic (PHJ OPV) devices. We have determined that Cl2-SiPc can act as an electron donating material when paired with C60 and that Cl2-SiPc or Cl2-GePc can also act as an electron acceptor material when paired with pentacene. These two materials enabled the harvesting of triplet energy resulting from the singlet fission process in pentacene. However, contributions to the generation of photocurrent were observed for Cl2-SiPc with no evidence of photocurrent contribution from Cl2-GePc. The result of our initial assessment established the potential for the application of SiPc and GePc in PHJ OPV devices. Thereafter, bis(pentafluoro phenoxy) silicon phthalocyanine (F10-SiPc) and bis(pentafluoro phenoxy) germanium phthalocyanine (F10-GePc) were synthesized and characterized. During thermal processing, it was discovered that F10-SiPc and F10-GePc underwent a reaction forming small amounts of difluoro SiPc (F2-SiPc) and difluoro GePc (F2-GePc). This undesirable reaction could be circumvented for F10-SiPc but not for F10-GePc. Using single crystal X-ray diffraction, it was determined that F10-SiPc has significantly enhanced π-π interactions compared with that of Cl2-SiPc, which had little to none. Unoptimized PHJ OPV devices based on F10-SiPc were fabricated and directly compared to those constructed from Cl2-SiPc, and in all cases, PHJ OPV devices based on F10-SiPc had significantly improved device characteristics compared to Cl2-SiPc.

  17. Interleukin-1 interaction with neuroregulatory systems: selective enhancement by recombinant human and mouse interleukin-1 of in vitro opioid peptide receptor binding in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedermann, C.J.

    1989-02-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) exerts a wide variety of biological effects on various cell types and may be regarded as a pleiotropic peptide hormone. Biological evidence suggests that IL-1 participates in the modulation of central nervous system physiology and behavior in a fashion characteristic of neuroendocrine hormones. In this investigation, recombinant (r) human (h) IL-1 and r mouse (m) IL-1 were examined for their modulation of opioid peptide receptor binding in vitro. Experiments were performed on frozen sections of rat brain. Receptor binding of radiolabeled substance P and of radiolabeled neurotensin were not significantly affected by the presence of rIL-1s. Recombinant IL-1s, however, significantly enhanced specific binding of 125I-beta-endorphin (125I-beta-END) and of D-ala2-(tyrosyl-3,5-3H)enkephalin-(5-D-leucine) (3H-D-ALA), equipotently and in a concentration-dependent manner with maximal activity occurring at a concentration of 10 LAF units/ml. The increased binding of 125I-beta-END and 3H-D-ALA was blocked steroselectively by (-)-naloxone and by etorphine, suggesting detection of opiate receptors. In addition, brain distribution patterns of receptors labeled in the presence of rIL-1s corresponded to patterns previously published for opiate receptors. Autoradiographic visualization of receptors revealed that rIL-1s in the different areas of the brain exert their effect on opioid binding with comparable potencies. The data suggest that certain central nervous system effects of IL-1s may be mediated by their selective interaction with opiatergic systems at the receptor level.

  18. New Partners in Regulation of Gene Expression: The Enhancer of Trithorax and Polycomb Corto Interacts with Methylated Ribosomal Protein L12 Via Its Chromodomain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coléno-Costes, Anne; Jang, Suk Min; de Vanssay, Augustin; Rougeot, Julien; Bouceba, Tahar; Randsholt, Neel B.; Gibert, Jean-Michel; Le Crom, Stéphane; Mouchel-Vielh, Emmanuèle

    2012-01-01

    Chromodomains are found in many regulators of chromatin structure, and most of them recognize methylated lysines on histones. Here, we investigate the role of the Drosophila melanogaster protein Corto's chromodomain. The Enhancer of Trithorax and Polycomb Corto is involved in both silencing and activation of gene expression. Over-expression of the Corto chromodomain (CortoCD) in transgenic flies shows that it is a chromatin-targeting module, critical for Corto function. Unexpectedly, mass spectrometry analysis reveals that polypeptides pulled down by CortoCD from nuclear extracts correspond to ribosomal proteins. Furthermore, real-time interaction analyses demonstrate that CortoCD binds with high affinity RPL12 tri-methylated on lysine 3. Corto and RPL12 co-localize with active epigenetic marks on polytene chromosomes, suggesting that both are involved in fine-tuning transcription of genes in open chromatin. RNA–seq based transcriptomes of wing imaginal discs over-expressing either CortoCD or RPL12 reveal that both factors deregulate large sets of common genes, which are enriched in heat-response and ribosomal protein genes, suggesting that they could be implicated in dynamic coordination of ribosome biogenesis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that Corto and RPL12 bind hsp70 and are similarly recruited on gene body after heat shock. Hence, Corto and RPL12 could be involved together in regulation of gene transcription. We discuss whether pseudo-ribosomal complexes composed of various ribosomal proteins might participate in regulation of gene expression in connection with chromatin regulators. PMID:23071455

  19. Designing for mobile interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazzi, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The theme of this PhD project is designing for mobile interaction with devices and services, for the accessing, making, and sharing of information, taking into account the dynamic physical and social settings that embrace this interaction. To narrow down this theme, the whole project focuses...... on the exploitation of social interaction --- in particular among senior citizens --- to enhance and support mobile interaction....

  20. Combining water-rock interaction experiments with reaction path and reactive transport modelling to predict reservoir rock evolution in an enhanced geothermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuesters, Tim; Mueller, Thomas; Renner, Joerg

    2016-04-01

    Reliably predicting the evolution of mechanical and chemical properties of reservoir rocks is crucial for efficient exploitation of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). For example, dissolution and precipitation of individual rock forming minerals often result in significant volume changes, affecting the hydraulic rock properties and chemical composition of fluid and solid phases. Reactive transport models are typically used to evaluate and predict the effect of the internal feedback of these processes. However, a quantitative evaluation of chemo-mechanical interaction in polycrystalline environments is elusive due to poorly constrained kinetic data of complex mineral reactions. In addition, experimentally derived reaction rates are generally faster than reaction rates determined from natural systems, likely a consequence of the experimental design: a) determining the rate of a single process only, e.g. the dissolution of a mineral, and b) using powdered sample materials and thus providing an unrealistically high reaction surface and at the same time eliminating the restrictions on element transport faced in-situ for fairly dense rocks. In reality, multiple reactions are coupled during the alteration of a polymineralic rocks in the presence of a fluid and the rate determining process of the overall reactions is often difficult to identify. We present results of bulk rock-water interaction experiments quantifying alteration reactions between pure water and a granodiorite sample. The rock sample was chosen for its homogenous texture, small and uniform grain size (˜0.5 mm in diameter), and absence of pre-existing alteration features. The primary minerals are plagioclase (plg - 58 vol.%), quartz (qtz - 21 vol.%), K-feldspar (Kfs - 17 vol.%), biotite (bio - 3 vol.%) and white mica (wm - 1 vol.%). Three sets of batch experiments were conducted at 200 ° C to evaluate the effect of reactive surface area and different fluid path ways using (I) powders of the bulk rock with

  1. Modeling brine-rock interactions in an enhanced geothermal systemdeep fractured reservoir at Soultz-Sous-Forets (France): a joint approachusing two geochemical codes: frachem and toughreact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, Laurent; Spycher, Nicolas; Xu, Tianfu; Vuataz,Francois-D.; Pruess, Karsten.

    2006-12-31

    The modeling of coupled thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in geothermal systems is complicated by reservoir conditions such as high temperatures, elevated pressures and sometimes the high salinity of the formation fluid. Coupled THC models have been developed and applied to the study of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) to forecast the long-term evolution of reservoir properties and to determine how fluid circulation within a fractured reservoir can modify its rock properties. In this study, two simulators, FRACHEM and TOUGHREACT, specifically developed to investigate EGS, were applied to model the same geothermal reservoir and to forecast reservoir evolution using their respective thermodynamic and kinetic input data. First, we report the specifics of each of these two codes regarding the calculation of activity coefficients, equilibrium constants and mineral reaction rates. Comparisons of simulation results are then made for a Soultz-type geothermal fluid (ionic strength {approx}1.8 molal), with a recent (unreleased) version of TOUGHREACT using either an extended Debye-Hueckel or Pitzer model for calculating activity coefficients, and FRACHEM using the Pitzer model as well. Despite somewhat different calculation approaches and methodologies, we observe a reasonably good agreement for most of the investigated factors. Differences in the calculation schemes typically produce less difference in model outputs than differences in input thermodynamic and kinetic data, with model results being particularly sensitive to differences in ion-interaction parameters for activity coefficient models. Differences in input thermodynamic equilibrium constants, activity coefficients, and kinetics data yield differences in calculated pH and in predicted mineral precipitation behavior and reservoir-porosity evolution. When numerically cooling a Soultz-type geothermal fluid from 200 C (initially equilibrated with calcite at pH 4.9) to 20 C and suppressing mineral

  2. Computations and interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baeten, J.C.M.; Luttik, S.P.; Tilburg, van P.J.A.; Natarajan, R.; Ojo, A.

    2011-01-01

    We enhance the notion of a computation of the classical theory of computing with the notion of interaction. In this way, we enhance a Turing machine as a model of computation to a Reactive Turing Machine that is an abstract model of a computer as it is used nowadays, always interacting with the user

  3. Enhancing User Experience through Emotional Interaction: Determining Users' Interests in Online Art Collections Using AMARA (Affective Museum of Art Resource Agent)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S. Joon

    2013-01-01

    The need for emotional interaction has already influenced various disciplines and industries, and online museums represent a domain where providing emotional interactions could have a significant impact. Today, online museums lack the appropriate affective and hedonic values necessary to engage art enthusiasts on an emotional level. To address…

  4. Blended Infant Massage–Parenting Enhancement Program on Recovering Substance-Abusing Mothers' Parenting Stress, Self-Esteem, Depression, Maternal Attachment, and Mother-Infant Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz S. Porter, PhD, ARNP, FAANP, FAAN

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: The findings suggest that infant massage blended into a structured parenting program has value-added effects in decreasing parenting stress and maternal depressive symptoms, but not on SAM's self-esteem, attachment, or maternal-infant interaction.

  5. Using Interactive Animations to Enhance Teaching, Learning, and Retention of Respiration Pathway Concepts in Face-to-Face and Online High School, Undergraduate, and Continuing Education Learning Environments ?

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Sederick C.

    2013-01-01

    One major tool set teachers/instructors can use is online interactive animations, which presents content in a way that helps pique students' interest and differentiates instructional content.  The Virtual Cell Animation Collections (VCAC), developed from the Molecular and Cellular Biology Learning Center, has developed a series of online interactive animations that provide teacher/instructors and students with immersive learning tools for studying and understanding respiration processes.  The...

  6. Plasmon-enhanced scattering and charge transfer in few-layer graphene interacting with buried printed 2D-pattern of silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carles, R.; Bayle, M.; Bonafos, C.

    2018-04-01

    Hybrid structures combing silver nanoparticles and few-layer graphene have been synthetized by combining low-energy ion beam synthesis and stencil techniques. A single plane of metallic nanoparticles plays the role of an embedded plasmonic enhancer located in dedicated areas at a controlled nanometer distance from deposited graphene layers. Optical imaging, reflectance and Raman scattering mapping are used to measure the enhancement of electronic and vibrational properties of these layers. In particular electronic Raman scattering is shown as notably efficient to analyze the optical transfer of charge carriers between the systems and the presence of intrinsic and extrinsic defects.

  7. Tuning the interaction between propagating and localized surface plasmons for surface enhanced Raman scattering in water for biomedical and environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shioi, Masahiko, E-mail: shioi.masahiko@jp.panasonic.com [Device Solutions Center, Panasonic Corporation, 3-4, Hikaridai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0237 (Japan); Department of Electric and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Jans, Hilde [Interuniversity Microelectronics Center VZW., Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Lodewijks, Kristof [Interuniversity Microelectronics Center VZW., Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Van Dorpe, Pol; Lagae, Liesbet [Interuniversity Microelectronics Center VZW., Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Physics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kawamura, Tatsuro [Device Solutions Center, Panasonic Corporation, 3-4, Hikaridai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0237 (Japan)

    2014-06-16

    With a view to biomedical and environmental applications, we investigate the plasmonic properties of a rectangular gold nanodisk array in water to boost surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effects. To control the resonance wavelengths of the surface plasmon polariton and the localized surface plasmon, their dependence on the array period and diameter in water is studied in detail using a finite difference time domain method. A good agreement is obtained between calculated resonant wavelengths and those of gold nanodisk arrays fabricated using electron beam lithography. For the optimized structure, a SERS enhancement factor of 7.8 × 10{sup 7} is achieved in water experimentally.

  8. The C-terminal extension unique to the long isoform of the shelterin component TIN2 enhances its interaction with TRF2 in a phosphorylation- and dyskeratosis congenita-cluster-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Nya D; Dodson, Lois M; Escudero, Laura; Sukumar, Ann T; Williams, Christopher L; Mihalek, Ivana; Baldan, Alessandro; Baird, Duncan M; Bertuch, Alison A

    2018-03-26

    TIN2 is central to the shelterin complex, linking the telomeric proteins TRF1 and TRF2 with TPP1/POT1. Mutations in TINF2 , which encodes TIN2, that are found in dyskeratosis congenita (DC) result in very short telomeres and cluster in a region shared by the two TIN2 isoforms, TIN2S (short) and TIN2L (long). Here we show that TIN2L, but not TIN2S, is phosphorylated. TRF2 interacts more with TIN2L than TIN2S, and both the DC-cluster and phosphorylation promote this enhanced interaction. The binding of TIN2L, but not TIN2S, is affected by TRF2-F120, which is also required for TRF2's interaction with end processing factors such as Apollo. Conversely, TRF1 interacts more with TIN2S than with TIN2L. A DC-associated mutation further reduces TIN2L-TRF1, but not TIN2S-TRF1, interaction. Cells overexpressing TIN2L or phosphomimetic-TIN2L are permissive to telomere elongation, whereas cells overexpressing TIN2S or phosphodead-TIN2L are not. Telomere lengths are unchanged in cell lines in which TIN2L expression has been eliminated by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutation. These results indicate that TIN2 isoforms are biochemically and functionally distinguishable, and that shelterin composition could be fundamentally altered in patients with TINF2 mutations. Copyright © 2018 Nelson et al.

  9. The intervening domain from MeCP2 enhances the DNA affinity of the methyl binding domain and provides an independent DNA interaction site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claveria-Gimeno, Rafael; Lanuza, Pilar M; Morales-Chueca, Ignacio; Jorge-Torres, Olga C; Vega, Sonia; Abian, Olga; Esteller, Manel; Velazquez-Campoy, Adrian

    2017-01-31

    Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) preferentially interacts with methylated DNA and it is involved in epigenetic regulation and chromatin remodelling. Mutations in MeCP2 are linked to Rett syndrome, the leading cause of intellectual retardation in girls and causing mental, motor and growth impairment. Unstructured regions in MeCP2 provide the plasticity for establishing interactions with multiple binding partners. We present a biophysical characterization of the methyl binding domain (MBD) from MeCP2 reporting the contribution of flanking domains to its structural stability and dsDNA interaction. The flanking disordered intervening domain (ID) increased the structural stability of MBD, modified its dsDNA binding profile from an entropically-driven moderate-affinity binding to an overwhelmingly enthalpically-driven high-affinity binding. Additionally, ID provided an additional site for simultaneously and autonomously binding an independent dsDNA molecule, which is a key feature linked to the chromatin remodelling and looping activity of MeCP2, as well as its ability to interact with nucleosomes replacing histone H1. The dsDNA interaction is characterized by an unusually large heat capacity linked to a cluster of water molecules trapped within the binding interface. The dynamics of disordered regions together with extrinsic factors are key determinants of MeCP2 global structural properties and functional capabilities.

  10. Interactive Read-Alouds--An Avenue for Enhancing Children's Language for Thinking and Understanding: A Review of Recent Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Enhancing young children's early literacy achievement is a top priority in many countries. There is a considerable body of research demonstrating young children's language development as a critical factor in reading and later academic success. Implementation of high quality literacy instruction has the potential to improve literacy…

  11. HSP72 protects cells from ER stress-induced apoptosis via enhancement of IRE1alpha-XBP1 signaling through a physical interaction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gupta, Sanjeev

    2010-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a feature of secretory cells and of many diseases including cancer, neurodegeneration, and diabetes. Adaptation to ER stress depends on the activation of a signal transduction pathway known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). Enhanced expression of Hsp72 has been shown to reduce tissue injury in response to stress stimuli and improve cell survival in experimental models of stroke, sepsis, renal failure, and myocardial ischemia. Hsp72 inhibits several features of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Hsp72 expression inhibits ER stress-induced apoptosis are not clearly understood. Here we show that Hsp72 enhances cell survival under ER stress conditions. The UPR signals through the sensor IRE1alpha, which controls the splicing of the mRNA encoding the transcription factor XBP1. We show that Hsp72 enhances XBP1 mRNA splicing and expression of its target genes, associated with attenuated apoptosis under ER stress conditions. Inhibition of XBP1 mRNA splicing either by dominant negative IRE1alpha or by knocking down XBP1 specifically abrogated the inhibition of ER stress-induced apoptosis by Hsp72. Regulation of the UPR was associated with the formation of a stable protein complex between Hsp72 and the cytosolic domain of IRE1alpha. Finally, Hsp72 enhanced the RNase activity of recombinant IRE1alpha in vitro, suggesting a direct regulation. Our data show that binding of Hsp72 to IRE1alpha enhances IRE1alpha\\/XBP1 signaling at the ER and inhibits ER stress-induced apoptosis. These results provide a physical connection between cytosolic chaperones and the ER stress response.

  12. HSP72 protects cells from ER stress-induced apoptosis via enhancement of IRE1alpha-XBP1 signaling through a physical interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Gupta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress is a feature of secretory cells and of many diseases including cancer, neurodegeneration, and diabetes. Adaptation to ER stress depends on the activation of a signal transduction pathway known as the unfolded protein response (UPR. Enhanced expression of Hsp72 has been shown to reduce tissue injury in response to stress stimuli and improve cell survival in experimental models of stroke, sepsis, renal failure, and myocardial ischemia. Hsp72 inhibits several features of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Hsp72 expression inhibits ER stress-induced apoptosis are not clearly understood. Here we show that Hsp72 enhances cell survival under ER stress conditions. The UPR signals through the sensor IRE1alpha, which controls the splicing of the mRNA encoding the transcription factor XBP1. We show that Hsp72 enhances XBP1 mRNA splicing and expression of its target genes, associated with attenuated apoptosis under ER stress conditions. Inhibition of XBP1 mRNA splicing either by dominant negative IRE1alpha or by knocking down XBP1 specifically abrogated the inhibition of ER stress-induced apoptosis by Hsp72. Regulation of the UPR was associated with the formation of a stable protein complex between Hsp72 and the cytosolic domain of IRE1alpha. Finally, Hsp72 enhanced the RNase activity of recombinant IRE1alpha in vitro, suggesting a direct regulation. Our data show that binding of Hsp72 to IRE1alpha enhances IRE1alpha/XBP1 signaling at the ER and inhibits ER stress-induced apoptosis. These results provide a physical connection between cytosolic chaperones and the ER stress response.

  13. Enhancing the Reuse of Digital Resources for Integrated Systems to Represent, Understand and Dynamize Complex Interactions in Architectural Cultural Heritage Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, F. J.; Martinez, R.; Finat, J.; Martinez, J.; Puche, J. C.; Finat, F. J.

    2013-07-01

    In this work we develop a multiply interconnected system which involves objects, agents and interactions between them from the use of ICT applied to open repositories, users communities and web services. Our approach is applied to Architectural Cultural Heritage Environments (ACHE). It includes components relative to digital accessibility (to augmented ACHE repositories), contents management (ontologies for the semantic web), semiautomatic recognition (to ease the reuse of materials) and serious videogames (for interaction in urban environments). Their combination provides a support for local real/remote virtual tourism (including some tools for low-level RT display of rendering in portable devices), mobile-based smart interactions (with a special regard to monitored environments) and CH related games (as extended web services). Main contributions to AR models on usual GIS applied to architectural environments, concern to an interactive support performed directly on digital files which allows to access to CH contents which are referred to GIS of urban districts (involving facades, historical or preindustrial buildings) and/or CH repositories in a ludic and transversal way to acquire cognitive, medial and social abilities in collaborative environments.

  14. Microbial Fluid-Rock Interactions in Chalk Samples and Salinity Factor in Divalent Ca2+ ions Release for Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimoh, Ismaila Adetunji; Rudyk, Svetlana Nikolayevna; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2011-01-01

    In this study, laboratory experiments were performed on chalk samples from Danish sector of the North Sea to study microbial fluid-rock interactions with carbonate rock and to evaluate the dissolution of rock matrix (CaCO3). Result showed that the average concentration of Ca2+ ions after microbia...

  15. The Effectiveness of Using Interactive Multimedia Based on Motion Graphic in Concept Mastering Enhancement and Fashion Designing Skill in Digital Format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winwin Wiana

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is related to the effort to design a more representative learning system to improve the learning result of digital fashion design, through the development of interactive multimedia based on motion graphic. This research is aimed to know the effect of interactive multimedia application based on motion graphic to increase the mastery of the concept and skill of the students to making fashion designing in digital format. The research method used is quasi experiment with research design of Nonequivalent Control Group Design. The lectures are conducted in two different classes, namely class A as the Experimental Class and class B as the Control Class. From the calculation result after interpreted using Normalize Gain, there is an increase of higher learning result in student with interactive learning based on motion graphic, compared with student achievement on conventional learning. In this research, interactive multimedia learning based on motion graphic is effective toward the improvement of student learning in concept mastering indicator and on the aspect of making fashion design in digital format.

  16. Interactive effects of herbicide and enhanced UV-B on growth, oxidative damage and the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in two Azolla species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sheo Mohan; Kumar, Sushil; Parihar, Parul; Singh, Rachana

    2016-11-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of alone and combined exposures of herbicide pretilachlor (5, 10 and 20μgml(-1)) and enhanced UV-B radiation (UV-B1; ambient +2.2kJm(-2) day(-1) and UV-B2; ambient +4.4kJm(-2) day(-1)) on growth, oxidative stress and the ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle in two agronomically important Azolla spp. viz., Azolla microphylla and Azolla pinnata. Decreased relative growth rate (RGR) in both the species under tested stress could be linked to enhanced oxidative stress, thus higher H2O2 accumulation was observed, that in turn might have caused severe damage to lipids and proteins, thereby decreasing membrane stability. The effects were exacerbated when spp. were exposed to combined treatments of enhanced UV-B and pretilachlor. Detoxification of H2O2 is regulated by enzymes/metabolites of AsA-GSH cycle such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activity that were found to be stimulated. While, dehydroascorabte reductase (DHAR) activity, and the amount of metabolites: ascorbate (AsA), glutathione (GSH) and ratios of reduced/oxidized AsA (AsA/DHA) and GSH (GSH/GSSG), showed significant reduction with increasing doses of both the stressors, either applied alone or in combination. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST), an enzyme involved in scavenging of xenobiotics, was found to be stimulated under the tested stress. This study suggests that decline in DHAR activity and in AsA/DHA ratio might have led to enhanced H2O2 accumulation, thus decreased RGR was noticed under tested stress in both the species and the effect was more pronounced in A. pinnata. Owing to better performance of AsA-GSH cycle in A. microphylla, this study substantiates the view that A. microphylla is more tolerant than A. pinnata. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Conditions promoting and restraining agronomic effectiveness of water-insoluble phosphate sources, in particular phosphate rock (PR): III. 32P-aided soil-PR interaction studies aimed at enhancing P bioavailability from PR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borlan, Z.; Soare, M.; Gavriluta, I.; Alexandrescu, A.; Stefanescu, D.

    2002-01-01

    Mobilization of PR and bioavailability of PR-P for plants takes place through complex chemical and biochemical processes that occurs during prolonged soil interaction with PR. There is a high probability that certain processes of a biochemical nature are also involved through proteinaceous ion carriers whose concentration and physiological activity in plant roots may be influenced by means of specially formulated foliar fertilizer compositions. 32 P-aided studies have contributed to identify possibilities of enhancing PR-P bioavailability through foliar fertilizer application. (author)

  18. Impaired social interaction and enhanced sensitivity to phencyclidine-induced deficits in novel object recognition in rats with cortical cholinergic denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, S; Kehr, J; Olson, L; Mattsson, A

    2011-11-10

    Dysregulated cholinergic neurotransmission has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, particularly negative symptoms and cognitive deficits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of neocortical cholinergic innervation and of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) on social interaction and novel object recognition (NOR), a declarative memory task. The cholinergic corticopetal projection was lesioned by local infusion of the immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin into nucleus basalis magnocellularis of adult male Lister hooded rats. Behavior was assessed 2.5 weeks later in a social interaction paradigm followed by the NOR task. We found that selective cholinergic denervation of neocortex led to a significant reduction in duration of social interaction, specifically active social interaction. Acute administration of PCP (1.0 mg/kg, s.c.) caused a marked decrease of active social interaction, such that there was no longer a difference between intact and denervated animals. Neither cholinergic denervation alone, nor PCP (1.0 mg/kg, s.c.) alone blocked the ability of rats to recognize a novel object. However, when animals lacking cortical cholinergic innervation were challenged by PCP, they were no longer able to recognize a novel object. This study indicates that rats lacking cholinergic innervation of neocortex have impaired social interaction and specifically that the duration of active contact is shortened. Animals with severe cortical cholinergic hypofunction maintain the ability to perform in a declarative memory test, although the task is carried out less intensively. However, a provocation of psychosis-like behavior by a dose of PCP that does not by itself impair performance in normal animals, will abolish the ability to recognize novel objects in animals lacking cortical cholinergic innervation. The present findings support a possible role for cortical cholinergic hypofunction in the negative and cognitive

  19. Use of computer aids including expert systems to enhance diagnosis of NPP safety status and operator response. VDU displays in accidents - Interact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humble, P.; Welbourne, D.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes NNC development of a demonstration concept called Interact of Visual Display Unit (VDU) displays, integrating on-screen control of plant actions. Most plant vendors now propose on-screen control and it is being included on some plants. The integration of Station Operating Instructions (SOI) into VDU presentation of plants is being developed rapidly. With on-screen control, SOIs can be displayed with control targets able to initiate plant control, directly as called for in the SOIs. Interact displays information and control options, using a cursor to simulate on-screen display and plant control. The displays show a method which integrates soft control and SOI information into a single unified presentation. They simulate the SOI for an accident, on-screen, with simulated inserted plant values

  20. Toxic effect of PBDE-47 on thyroid development, learning, and memory, and the interaction between PBDE-47 and PCB153 that enhances toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Wang, Aiguo; Niu, Qiang; Guo, Lijuan; Xia, Tao; Chen, Xuemin

    2011-04-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread environmental contaminants. There are potential interactive effects between PBDEs and PCBs, as these compounds share similar structures. The developmental neurotoxicity of 2, 2', 4, 4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-47) and the interaction of PBDE-47 with 2, 2', 4, 4', 5, 5'-hexachlorobipheny (PCB153) were investigated herein, as the dominant congener forms of PBDEs and PCBs, respectively. SD rats were exposed to a single oral dose of PBDE-47 (1, 5, and 10 μg/g) and/or PCB153 (5 μg/g) on post-natal day (PND) 10. Concentrations of PBDE-47, triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroxine (T(4)), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in serum; organ-to-body weight ratios; as well as long-term learning and memory were measured in 2-month-old rats. The present study found that some doses of PBDE-47 decreased the organ-to-body weight ratios of the thyroid and uterus, decreased the concentration of T(4) in serum, and increased the organ-to-body weight ratio of the ovaries (p action of PBDE-47 during combined exposure, but this interaction was not found between PBDE-47 and PCB153. In a Morris water maze experiment, the latency periods were significantly prolonged and time ratios were obviously depressed in all PBDE-47-treated groups compared to the control (p memory capabilities in adult rats exposed to PBDE-47 on PND 10. PCB153 can interact with PBDE-47, resulting in an increase in developmental neurotoxicity.

  1. Adenoviral gene transfer of PLD1-D4 enhances insulin sensitivity in mice by disrupting phospholipase D1 interaction with PED/PEA-15.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cassese

    Full Text Available Over-expression of phosphoprotein enriched in diabetes/phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes (PED/PEA-15 causes insulin resistance by interacting with the D4 domain of phospholipase D1 (PLD1. Indeed, the disruption of this association restores insulin sensitivity in cultured cells over-expressing PED/PEA-15. Whether the displacement of PLD1 from PED/PEA-15 improves insulin sensitivity in vivo has not been explored yet. In this work we show that treatment with a recombinant adenoviral vector containing the human D4 cDNA (Ad-D4 restores normal glucose homeostasis in transgenic mice overexpressing PED/PEA-15 (Tg ped/pea-15 by improving both insulin sensitivity and secretion. In skeletal muscle of these mice, D4 over-expression inhibited PED/PEA-15-PLD1 interaction, decreased Protein Kinase C alpha activation and restored insulin induced Protein Kinase C zeta activation, leading to amelioration of insulin-dependent glucose uptake. Interestingly, Ad-D4 administration improved insulin sensitivity also in high-fat diet treated obese C57Bl/6 mice. We conclude that PED/PEA-15-PLD1 interaction may represent a novel target for interventions aiming at improving glucose tolerance.

  2. Enhancing the gene-environment interaction framework through a quasi-experimental research design: evidence from differential responses to September 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason M

    2014-01-01

    This article uses a gene-environment interaction framework to examine the differential responses to an objective external stressor based on genetic variation in the production of depressive symptoms. This article advances the literature by utilizing a quasi-experimental environmental exposure design, as well as a regression discontinuity design, to control for seasonal trends, which limit the potential for gene-environment correlation and allow stronger causal claims. Replications are attempted for two prominent genes (5-HTT and MAOA), and three additional genes are explored (DRD2, DRD4, and DAT1). This article provides evidence of a main effect of 9/11 on reports of feelings of sadness and fails to replicate a common finding of interaction using 5-HTT but does show support for interaction with MAOA in men. It also provides new evidence that variation in the DRD4 gene modifies an individual's response to the exposure, with individuals with no 7-repeats found to have a muted response.

  3. Regulation of Pancreatic β Cell Mass by Cross-Interaction between CCAAT Enhancer Binding Protein β Induced by Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomokazu Matsuda

    Full Text Available During the development of type 2 diabetes, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress leads to not only insulin resistance but also to pancreatic beta cell failure. Conversely, cell function under various stressed conditions can be restored by reducing ER stress by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK. However, the details of this mechanism are still obscure. Therefore, the current study aims to elucidate the role of AMPK activity during ER stress-associated pancreatic beta cell failure. MIN6 cells were loaded with 5-amino-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide (AICAR and metformin to assess the relationship between AMPK activity and CCAAT enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ expression levels. The effect of C/EBPβ phosphorylation on expression levels was also investigated. Vildagliptin and metformin were administered to pancreatic beta cell-specific C/EBPβ transgenic mice to investigate the relationship between C/EBPβ expression levels and AMPK activity in the pancreatic islets. When pancreatic beta cells are exposed to ER stress, the accumulation of the transcription factor C/EBPβ lowers the AMP/ATP ratio, thereby decreasing AMPK activity. In an opposite manner, incubation of MIN6 cells with AICAR or metformin activated AMPK, which suppressed C/EBPβ expression. In addition, administration of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin and metformin to pancreatic beta cell-specific C/EBPβ transgenic mice decreased C/EBPβ expression levels and enhanced pancreatic beta cell mass in proportion to the recovery of AMPK activity. Enhanced C/EBPβ expression and decreased AMPK activity act synergistically to induce ER stress-associated pancreatic beta cell failure.

  4. Additional sex combs-like 1 belongs to the enhancer of trithorax and Polycomb Group and genetically interacts with Cbx2 in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, C.L.; Lee, I.; Bloyer, S.; Bozza, S.; Chevalier, J.; Dahl, A; Bodner, C.; Helgason, C. D.; Hess, J.L.; Humphries, R.K.; Brock, H.W.

    2009-01-01

    The Additional sex combs (Asx) gene of Drosophila behaves genetically as an enhancer of trithorax and Polycomb (ETP) in displaying bidirectional homeotic phenotypes, suggesting that is required for maintenance of both activation and silencing of Hox genes. There are 3 murine homologs of Asx called Additional sex combs-like1, 2, and-3. Asxl1 is required for normal adult hematopoiesis; however its embryonic function is unknown. We used a targeted mouse mutant line Asxl1tm1Bc to determine if Asxl1 is required to silence and activate Hox genes in mice during axial patterning. The mutant embryos exhibit simultaneous anterior and posterior transformations of the axial skeleton, consistent with a role for Asxl1 in activation and silencing of Hox genes. Transformations of the axial skeleton are enhanced in compound mutant embryos for the Polycomb group gene M33/Cbx2. Hox a4, a7, and c8 are derepressed in Asxl1tm1Bc mutants in the antero-posterior axis, but Hox c8 expression is reduced in the brain of mutants, consistent with Asxl1 being required both for activation and repression of Hox genes. We discuss the genetic and molecular definition of ETPs, and suggest that the function of Asxl1 depends on its cellular context. PMID:19833123

  5. Mast cell activation is enhanced by Tim1:Tim4 interaction but not by Tim-1 antibodies [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binh Phong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms in the T cell (or transmembrane immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1 gene, particularly in the mucin domain, have been associated with atopy and allergic diseases in mice and human. Genetic- and antibody-mediated studies revealed that Tim-1 functions as a positive regulator of Th2 responses, while certain antibodies to Tim-1 can exacerbate or reduce allergic lung inflammation. Tim-1 can also positively regulate the function of B cells, NKT cells, dendritic cells and mast cells. However, the precise molecular mechanisms by which Tim-1 modulates immune cell function are currently unknown. In this study, we have focused on defining Tim-1-mediated signaling pathways that enhance mast cell activation through the high affinity IgE receptor (FceRI. Using a Tim-1 mouse model lacking the mucin domain (Tim-1Dmucin, we show for the first time that the polymorphic Tim-1 mucin region is dispensable for normal mast cell activation. We further show that Tim-4 cross-linking of Tim-1 enhances select signaling pathways downstream of FceRI in mast cells, including mTOR-dependent signaling, leading to increased cytokine production but without affecting degranulation.

  6. Enhancing pediatric safety: assessing and improving resident competency in life-threatening events with a computer-based interactive resuscitation tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerner, Catherine; Gaca, Ana M.; Frush, Donald P.; Ancarana, Anjanette; Hohenhaus, Sue; Seelinger, Terry A.; Frush, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Though rare, allergic reactions occur as a result of administration of low osmolality nonionic iodinated contrast material to pediatric patients. Currently available resuscitation aids are inadequate in guiding radiologists' initial management of such reactions. To compare radiology resident competency with and without a computer-based interactive resuscitation tool in the management of life-threatening events in pediatric patients. The study was approved by the IRB. Radiology residents (n=19; 14 male, 5 female; 19 certified in basic life support/advanced cardiac life support; 1 certified in pediatric advanced life support) were videotaped during two simulated 5-min anaphylaxis scenarios involving 18-month-old and 8-year-old mannequins (order randomized). No advance warning was given. In half of the scenarios, a computer-based interactive resuscitation tool with a response-driven decision tree was available to residents (order randomized). Competency measures included: calling a code, administering oxygen and epinephrine, and correctly dosing epinephrine. Residents performed significantly more essential interventions with the computer-based resuscitation tool than without (72/76 vs. 49/76, P<0.001). Significantly more residents appropriately dosed epinephrine with the tool than without (17/19 vs. 1/19; P<0.001). More residents called a code with the tool than without (17/19 vs. 14/19; P = 0.08). A learning effect was present: average times to call a code, request oxygen, and administer epinephrine were shorter in the second scenario (129 vs. 93 s, P=0.24; 52 vs. 30 s, P<0.001; 152 vs. 82 s, P=0.025, respectively). All the trainees found the resuscitation tool helpful and potentially useful in a true pediatric emergency. A computer-based interactive resuscitation tool significantly improved resident performance in managing pediatric emergencies in the radiology department. (orig.)

  7. Green synthesis of zero-valent Fe-nanoparticles: Catalytic degradation of rhodamine B, interactions with bovine serum albumin and their enhanced antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zaheer; Al-Thabaiti, Shaeel Ahmad

    2018-03-01

    Biomimetic method was used for the synthesis of Fe-nanoparticles (FeNPs). FeCl 3 and Hibiscus sabdariffa, Roselle flower aqueous extract (HBS) were employed in the present studies. The FeNPs have been characterized by using UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM), and energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The average particles diameter was found to be 18 nm. The as prepared FeNPs were used as a catalyst to the oxidative degradation of rhodamine B (RB) in presence of NaBH 4 . The effects of various quencher on the degradation rates were examined by employing ammonium oxalate (AO), benzoquinone (BQ), isopropyl alcohol (IPA), and potassium iodide (KI). The interactions of FeNPs with bovine serum albumin (BSA) have been determined and discussed. Adsorption of FeNPs into the core of BSA changes the tryptophan environment from hydrophobic to hydrophilic (from folding to partially folded and/or unfolded). Tryptophan residues, indole moieties of BSA were responsible to complex formation with FeNPs in excited states via electrostatic, van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions with static quenching. The antimicrobial activities of FeNPs have been determined against human pathogens. Hibiscus sabdariffa flower extract shows mild antimicrobial activities against all target pathogenic organisms. FeNPs have potential antimicrobial activity against both bacterial strains and candida fungus even at low concentration, and retains potential application in biomedical industries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhancing children's vegetable consumption using vegetable-promoting picture books. The impact of interactive shared reading and character-product congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Droog, Simone M; Buijzen, Moniek; Valkenburg, Patti M

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated whether and how a picture book promoting carrots can increase young children's carrot consumption. One hundred and four children (aged 4-6years) participated in shared reading sessions using the book on five consecutive days in school. These children were assigned randomly to one of four experimental conditions. In a 2×2 between-subjects design, the reading style and character in the book were manipulated. The reading style was either passive (listening to the story) or interactive (also answering questions about the story). The character in the book fitted either conceptually well with carrots (a rabbit) or not (a turtle). Compared to a baseline group of 56 children who were not exposed to the book, the children in the experimental groups consumed almost twice as much carrots (in proportion to other foods consumed), F(1,159)=7.08, ppicture books are particularly effective when children are actively involved, answering questions about the story. Young children seem to enjoy this interactive shared reading style, triggering positive feelings that increase children's liking and consumption of the healthy food promoted in the book. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhanced fullerene–Au(111 coupling in (2√3 × 2√3R30° superstructures with intermolecular interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Paßens

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Disordered and uniform (2√3 × 2√3R30° superstructures of fullerenes on the Au(111 surface have been studied using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. It is shown that the deposition and growth process of a fullerene monolayer on the Au(111 surface determine the resulting superstructure. The supply of thermal energy is of importance for the activation of a Au vacancy forming process and thus, one criterion for the selection of the respective superstructure. However, here it is depicted that a vacancy–adatom pair can be formed even at room temperature. This latter process results in C60 molecules that appear slightly more bright in scanning tunnelling microscopy images and are identified in disordered (2√3 x 2√3R30° superstructures based on a detailed structure analysis. In addition, these slightly more bright C60 molecules form uniform (2√3 x 2√3R30° superstructures, which exhibit intermolecular interactions, likely mediated by Au adatoms. Thus, vacancy–adatom pairs forming at room temperature directly affect the resulting C60 superstructure. Differential conductivity spectra reveal a lifting of the degeneracy of the LUMO and LUMO+1 orbitals in the uniform (2√3 x 2√3R30° superstructure and in addition, hybrid fullerene–Au(111 surface states suggest partly covalent interactions.

  10. Dynamic inter-subunit interactions in thermophilic F1-ATPase subcomplexes studied by cross-correlated relaxation-enhanced polarization transfer NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masumi; Yagi, Hiromasa; Yamazaki, Toshio; Yoshida, Masasuke; Akutsu, Hideo

    2008-01-01

    F 1 -ATPase is a unique enzyme in terms of its rotational catalytic activity. The smallest unit showing this property is the α 3 β 3 γ complex (351 kDa). For investigation of such a huge system by means of solution NMR, we have explored a suitable NMR method using F 1 -ATPase subcomplexes from a thermophilic Bacillus PS3 including an α 3 β 3 hexamer (319 kDa). Pulse sequences for large molecules, effects of deuteration and simplification of the spectra were examined in this work. Since the β subunit includes the catalytic site, this was the target of the analysis in this work. The combination of [ 15 N, 1 H]-CRINEPT-HMQC-[ 1 H]-TROSY, deuteration of both α and β subunits, and segmental isotope-labeling was found essential to analyze such a huge and complex molecular system. Utilizing this method, subcomplexes composed of α and β subunits were investigated in terms of inter-subunit interactions. It turned out that there is equilibrium among monomers, heterodimers and the α 3 β 3 hexamers in solution. The rate of exchange between the dimer and hexamer is in the slow regime on the NMR time scale. In chemical shift perturbation experiments, the N-terminal domain was found to be involved in strong inter-subunit interactions. In contrast, the C-terminal domain was found to be mobile even in the hexamer

  11. The cytochrome b p.278Y>C mutation causative of a multisystem disorder enhances superoxide production and alters supramolecular interactions of respiratory chain complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghelli, Anna; Tropeano, Concetta V; Calvaruso, Maria Antonietta

    2013-01-01

    , the examination of respiratory supercomplexes revealed that the amounts of CIII dimer and III2IV1 were reduced, whereas those of I1III2IVn slightly increased. We therefore suggest that the deleterious effects of p.278Y>C mutation on cytochrome b are palliated when CIII is assembled into the supercomplexes I1III2......IVn, in contrast to when it is found alone. These findings underline the importance of supramolecular interactions between complexes for maintaining a basal respiratory chain activity and shed light to the molecular basis of disease manifestations associated with this mutation.......Cytochrome b is the only mtDNA-encoded subunit of the mitochondrial complex III (CIII), the functional bottleneck of the respiratory chain. Previously, the human cytochrome b missense mutation m.15579A>G, which substitutes the Tyr 278 with Cys (p.278Y>C), was identified in a patient with severe...

  12. Real-time "x-ray vision" for healthcare simulation: an interactive projective overlay system to enhance intubation training and other procedural training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samosky, Joseph T; Baillargeon, Emma; Bregman, Russell; Brown, Andrew; Chaya, Amy; Enders, Leah; Nelson, Douglas A; Robinson, Evan; Sukits, Alison L; Weaver, Robert A

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a prototype of a real-time, interactive projective overlay (IPO) system that creates augmented reality display of a medical procedure directly on the surface of a full-body mannequin human simulator. These images approximate the appearance of both anatomic structures and instrument activity occurring within the body. The key innovation of the current work is sensing the position and motion of an actual device (such as an endotracheal tube) inserted into the mannequin and using the sensed position to control projected video images portraying the internal appearance of the same devices and relevant anatomic structures. The images are projected in correct registration onto the surface of the simulated body. As an initial practical prototype to test this technique we have developed a system permitting real-time visualization of the intra-airway position of an endotracheal tube during simulated intubation training.

  13. Enhanced 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol production in sequential mixed fermentation with Torulaspora delbrueckii/Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals a situation of synergistic interaction between two industrial strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe eRenault

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the volatile thiol productions of 2 industrial strains of Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation (AF of Sauvignon Blanc must. In order to evaluate the influence of the inoculation procedure, sequential and simultaneous mixed cultures were carried out and compared to pure cultures of T. delbrueckii and S. cerevisiae. The results confirmed the inability of T. delbrueckii to release 4-methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one (4MSP and its low capacity to produce 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate (3SHA, as already reported in previous studies. A synergistic interaction was observed between the two species, resulting in higher levels of 3SH (3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol and its acetate when S. cerevisiae was inoculated 24 hours after T. delbrueckii, compared to the pure cultures. To elucidate the nature of the interactions between these 2 species, the yeast population kinetics were examined and monitored, as well as the production of 3SH, its acetate and their related non-odorous precursors: Glut-3SH (glutathionylated conjugate precursor and Cys-3SH (cysteinylated conjugate precursor. For the first time, it was suggested that, unlike, S. cerevisiae, which is able to metabolize the two precursor forms, T. delbrueckii was only able to metabolize the glutathionylated precursor. Consequently, the presence of T. delbrueckii during mixed fermentation led to an increase in Glut-3SH degradation and Cys-3SH production. This overproduction was dependent on the T. delbrueckii biomass. In sequential culture, thus favouring T. delbrueckii development, the higher availability of Cys-3SH throughout AF (alcoholic fermentation resulted in more abundant 3SH and 3SHA production by S. cerevisiae

  14. Enhanced 3-Sulfanylhexan-1-ol Production in Sequential Mixed Fermentation with Torulaspora delbrueckii/Saccharomyces cerevisiae Reveals a Situation of Synergistic Interaction between Two Industrial Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Philippe; Coulon, Joana; Moine, Virginie; Thibon, Cécile; Bely, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the volatile thiol productions of two industrial strains of Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation (AF) of Sauvignon Blanc must. In order to evaluate the influence of the inoculation procedure, sequential and simultaneous mixed cultures were carried out and compared to pure cultures of T. delbrueckii and S. cerevisiae. The results confirmed the inability of T. delbrueckii to release 4-methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one (4MSP) and its low capacity to produce 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate (3SHA), as already reported in previous studies. A synergistic interaction was observed between the two species, resulting in higher levels of 3SH (3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol) and its acetate when S. cerevisiae was inoculated 24 h after T. delbrueckii, compared to the pure cultures. To elucidate the nature of the interactions between these two species, the yeast population kinetics were examined and monitored, as well as the production of 3SH, its acetate and their related non-odorous precursors: Glut-3SH (glutathionylated conjugate precursor) and Cys-3SH (cysteinylated conjugate precursor). For the first time, it was suggested that, unlike S. cerevisiae, which is able to metabolize the two precursor forms, T. delbrueckii was only able to metabolize the glutathionylated precursor. Consequently, the presence of T. delbrueckii during mixed fermentation led to an increase in Glut-3SH degradation and Cys-3SH production. This overproduction was dependent on the T. delbrueckii biomass. In sequential culture, thus favoring T. delbrueckii development, the higher availability of Cys-3SH throughout AF resulted in more abundant 3SH and 3SHA production by S. cerevisiae.

  15. Using Interactive Animations to Enhance Teaching, Learning, and Retention of Respiration Pathway Concepts in Face-to-Face and Online High School, Undergraduate, and Continuing Education Learning Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sederick C. Rice

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One major tool set teachers/instructors can use is online interactive animations, which presents content in a way that helps pique students' interest and differentiates instructional content.  The Virtual Cell Animation Collections (VCAC, developed from the Molecular and Cellular Biology Learning Center, has developed a series of online interactive animations that provide teacher/instructors and students with immersive learning tools for studying and understanding respiration processes.  These virtual tools work as powerful instructional devices to help explain and reinforce concepts of metabolic pathways that would normally be taught traditionally using static textbook pages or by neumonic flashcards. High school, undergraduate, and continuing education students of today learn and retain knowledge differently than their predecessors.  Now teachers face new challenges and must engage and assess students, within a small window during classroom instruction, but also have the skills to provide useful content in distance learning environments.  Educators have to keep up with changing trends in education as a result of technological advances, higher student/teacher ratios, and the influence of social media on education. It is critical for teachers/instructors to be able to present content that not only keeps students interested but also helps bridge learning gaps. VCAC provides high school, undergraduate, and continuing education biology or life science teachers/instructors with classroom strategies and tools for introducing respiration content through free open source online resources. VCAC content supports the development of more inquiry-based classroom and distance-learning environments that can be facilitated by teachers/instructors, which helps improve retention of important respiration subject content and problem-based learning skills for students.

  16. A developmental evaluation to enhance stakeholder engagement in a wide-scale interactive project disseminating quality improvement data: study protocol for a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laycock, Alison; Bailie, Jodie; Matthews, Veronica; Cunningham, Frances; Harvey, Gillian; Percival, Nikki; Bailie, Ross

    2017-07-13

    Bringing together continuous quality improvement (CQI) data from multiple health services offers opportunities to identify common improvement priorities and to develop interventions at various system levels to achieve large-scale improvement in care. An important principle of CQI is practitioner participation in interpreting data and planning evidence-based change. This study will contribute knowledge about engaging diverse stakeholders in collaborative and theoretically informed processes to identify and address priority evidence-practice gaps in care delivery. This paper describes a developmental evaluation to support and refine a novel interactive dissemination project using aggregated CQI data from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary healthcare centres in Australia. The project aims to effect multilevel system improvement in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary healthcare. Data will be gathered using document analysis, online surveys, interviews with participants and iterative analytical processes with the research team. These methods will enable real-time feedback to guide refinements to the design, reports, tools and processes as the interactive dissemination project is implemented. Qualitative data from interviews and surveys will be analysed and interpreted to provide in-depth understanding of factors that influence engagement and stakeholder perspectives about use of the aggregated data and generated improvement strategies. Sources of data will be triangulated to build up a comprehensive, contextualised perspective and integrated understanding of the project's development, implementation and findings. The Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) of the Northern Territory Department of Health and Menzies School of Health Research (Project 2015-2329), the Central Australian HREC (Project 15-288) and the Charles Darwin University HREC (Project H15030) approved the study. Dissemination will include articles in peer-reviewed journals, policy

  17. GhZFP1, a novel CCCH-type zinc finger protein from cotton, enhances salt stress tolerance and fungal disease resistance in transgenic tobacco by interacting with GZIRD21A and GZIPR5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying-Hui; Yu, Yue-Ping; Wang, Dong; Wu, Chang-Ai; Yang, Guo-Dong; Huang, Jin-Guang; Zheng, Cheng-Chao

    2009-01-01

    * Zinc finger proteins are a superfamily involved in many aspects of plant growth and development. However, CCCH-type zinc finger proteins involved in plant stress tolerance are poorly understood. * A cDNA clone designated Gossypium hirsutum zinc finger protein 1 (GhZFP1), which encodes a novel CCCH-type zinc finger protein, was isolated from a salt-induced cotton (G. hirsutum) cDNA library using differential hybridization screening and further studied in transgenic tobacco Nicotiana tabacum cv. NC89. Using yeast two-hybrid screening (Y2H), proteins GZIRD21A (GhZFP1 interacting and responsive to dehydration protein 21A) and GZIPR5 (GhZFP1 interacting and pathogenesis-related protein 5), which interacted with GhZFP1, were isolated. * GhZFP1 contains two typical zinc finger motifs (Cx8Cx5Cx3H and Cx5Cx4Cx3H), a putative nuclear export sequence (NES) and a potential nuclear localization signal (NLS). Transient expression analysis using a GhZFP1::GFP fusion gene in onion epidermal cells indicated a nuclear localization for GhZFP1. RNA blot analysis showed that the GhZFP1 transcript was induced by salt (NaCl), drought and salicylic acid (SA). The regions in GhZFP1 that interact with GZIRD21A and GZIPR5 were identified using truncation mutations. * Overexpression of GhZFP1 in transgenic tobacco enhanced tolerance to salt stress and resistance to Rhizoctonia solani. Therefore, it appears that GhZFP1 might be involved as an important regulator in plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses.

  18. Using In-class Group Exercises to Enhance Lectures and Provide Introductory Physics Students an Opportunity to Perfect Problem Solving Skills through Interactions with Fellow Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Joseph; Bland, Jared

    2013-03-01

    In this pilot project, one hour of lecture time was replaced with one hour of in-class assignments, which groups of students collaborated on. These in-class assignments consisted of problems or projects selected for the calculus-based introductory physics students The first problem was at a level of difficulty that the majority of the students could complete with a small to moderate amount of difficulty. Each successive problem was increasingly more difficult, the last problem being having a level of difficulty that was beyond the capabilities of the majority of the students and required some instructor intervention. The students were free to choose their own groups. Students were encouraged to interact and help each other understand. The success of the in-class exercises were measured using pre-tests and post-tests. The pre-test and post-test were completed by each student independently. Statistics were also compiled on each student's attendance record and the amount of time spent reading and studying, as reported by the student. Statistics were also completed on the student responses when asked if they had sufficient time to complete the pre-test and post-test and if they would have completed the test with the correct answers if they had more time. The pre-tests and post-tests were not used in the computation of the grades of the students.

  19. Interactions in multispecies biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burmølle, Mette; Ren, Dawei; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The recent focus on complex bacterial communities has led to the recognition of interactions across species boundaries. This is particularly pronounced in multispecies biofilms, where synergistic interactions impact the bacterial distribution and overall biomass produced. Importantly, in a number...... of settings, the interactions in a multispecies biofilm affect its overall function, physiology, or surroundings, by resulting in enhanced resistance, virulence, or degradation of pollutants, which is of significant importance to human health and activities. The underlying mechanisms causing these synergistic...

  20. N-glycosylation by N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V enhances the interaction of CD147/basigin with integrin β1 and promotes HCC metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jian; Huang, Wan; Wu, Bo; Jin, Jin; Jing, Lin; Shi, Wen-Pu; Liu, Zhen-Yu; Yuan, Lin; Luo, Dan; Li, Ling; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Jiang, Jian-Li

    2018-05-01

    While the importance of protein N-glycosylation in cancer cell migration is well appreciated, the precise mechanisms by which N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (GnT-V) regulates cancer processes remain largely unknown. In the current study, we report that GnT-V-mediated N-glycosylation of CD147/basigin, a tumor-associated glycoprotein that carries β1,6-N-acetylglucosamine (β1,6-GlcNAc) glycans, is upregulated during TGF-β1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which correlates with tumor metastasis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Interruption of β1,6-GlcNAc glycan modification of CD147/basigin decreased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression in HCC cell lines and affected the interaction of CD147/basigin with integrin β1. These results reveal that β1,6-branched glycans modulate the biological function of CD147/basigin in HCC metastasis. Moreover, we showed that the PI3K/Akt pathway regulates GnT-V expression and that inhibition of GnT-V-mediated N-glycosylation suppressed PI3K signaling. In summary, β1,6-branched N-glycosylation affects the biological function of CD147/basigin and these findings provide a novel approach for the development of therapeutic strategies targeting metastasis. © 2018 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. © 2018 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  1. Sun protection enhancement of titanium dioxide crystals by the use of carnauba wax nanoparticles: the synergistic interaction between organic and inorganic sunscreens at nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-Hernández, J R; Müller-Goymann, C C

    2006-09-28

    Carnauba wax is partially composed of cinnamates. The rational combination of cinnamates and titanium dioxide has shown a synergistic effect to improve the sun protection factor (SPF) of cosmetic preparations. However, the mechanism of this interaction has not been fully understood. In this study, an ethanolic extract of the carnauba wax and an ethanolic solution of a typical cinnamate derivative, ethylcinnamate, were prepared and their UV absorption and SPF either alone or in the presence of titanium dioxide were compared. The titanium dioxide crystals and the cinnamates solutions were also distributed into a matrix composed of saturated fatty acids to emulate the structure of the crystallized carnauba wax. SPF, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray studies of these matrices were performed. Additionally, carnauba wax nanosuspensions containing titanium dioxide either in the lipid phase or in the aqueous phase were prepared to evaluate their SPFs and their physical structure. Strong UV absorption was observed in diluted suspensions of titanium dioxide after the addition of cinnamates. The saturated fatty acid matrices probably favored the adsorption of the cinnamates at the surface of titanium dioxide crystals, which was reflected by an increase in the SPF. No modification of the crystal structure of the fatty acid matrices was observed after the addition of cinnamates or titanium dioxide. The distribution of the titanium dioxide inside the lipid phase of the nanosuspensions was more effective to reach higher SPFs than that at the aqueous phase. The close contact between the carnauba wax and the titanium dioxide crystals after the high-pressure homogenization process was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  2. Mussel byssus-inspired engineering of synergistic nanointerfacial interactions as sacrificial bonds into carbon nanotube-reinforced soy protein/nanofibrillated cellulose nanocomposites: Versatile mechanical enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong; Zhao, Shujun; Kang, Haijiao; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Shifeng; Li, Jianzhang

    2018-03-01

    Achieving flexible and stretchable biobased nanocomposites combining high strength and toughness is still a very challenging endeavor. Herein, we described a novel and versatile biomimetic design for tough and high-performance TEMPO-oxidized nanofibrillated cellulose (TONFC)/soy protein isolate (SPI) nanocomposites, which are triggered by catechol-mimetic carbon nanotubes (PCT) and iron ions (Fe(III)) to yield a strong yet sacrificial metal-ligand motifs into a chemically cross-linked architecture network. Taking advantage of self-polymerization of catechol-inspired natural tannic acid, PCT nanohybrid was prepared through adhering reactive poly-(tannic acid) (PTA) layer onto surfaces of carbon nanotubes via a simple dip-coating process. The high-functionality PCT induced the formation of the metal-ligand bonds through the ionic coordinates between the catechol groups in PCT and -COOH groups of TONFC skeleton with Fe(III) mediation that mimicked mussel byssus. Upon stretching, this tailored TONFC-Fe(III)-catechol coordination bonds served as sacrificial bonds that preferentially detach prior to the covalent network, which gave rise to efficient energy dissipation that the nanocomposites integrity was survived. As a result of these kind of synergistic interfacial interactions (sacrificial and covalent bonding), the optimal nanocomposite films processed high tensile strength (ca. 11.5 MPa), large elongation (ca. 79.3%), remarkable toughness (ca. 6.9 MJ m-3), and favorable water resistance as well as electrical conductivity. The proposed bioinspired strategy for designing plant protein-based materials enables control over their mechanical performance through the synergistic engineering of sacrificial bonds into the composite interface.

  3. ChIP-PIT: Enhancing the Analysis of ChIP-Seq Data Using Convex-Relaxed Pair-Wise Interaction Tensor Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Guo, Wei-Li; Deng, Su-Ping; Huang, De-Shuang

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, thanks to the efforts of individual scientists and research consortiums, a huge amount of chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) experimental data have been accumulated. Instead of investigating them independently, several recent studies have convincingly demonstrated that a wealth of scientific insights can be gained by integrative analysis of these ChIP-seq data. However, when used for the purpose of integrative analysis, a serious drawback of current ChIP-seq technique is that it is still expensive and time-consuming to generate ChIP-seq datasets of high standard. Most researchers are therefore unable to obtain complete ChIP-seq data for several TFs in a wide variety of cell lines, which considerably limits the understanding of transcriptional regulation pattern. In this paper, we propose a novel method called ChIP-PIT to overcome the aforementioned limitation. In ChIP-PIT, ChIP-seq data corresponding to a diverse collection of cell types, TFs and genes are fused together using the three-mode pair-wise interaction tensor (PIT) model, and the prediction of unperformed ChIP-seq experimental results is formulated as a tensor completion problem. Computationally, we propose efficient first-order method based on extensions of coordinate descent method to learn the optimal solution of ChIP-PIT, which makes it particularly suitable for the analysis of massive scale ChIP-seq data. Experimental evaluation the ENCODE data illustrate the usefulness of the proposed model.

  4. Wheat Brassinosteroid-Insensitive1 (TaBRI1 Interacts with Members of TaSERK Gene Family and Cause Early Flowering and Seed Yield Enhancement in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Singh

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BRs hormones are important for plant growth, development and immune responses. They are sensed by the transmembrane receptor kinase Brassinosteroid-Insensitive 1 (BRI1 when they bind to its extracellular Leu-rich repeat (LRR domain. We cloned and characterized the TaBRI1 from T. aestivum and raised overexpression transgenics in Arabidopsis to decipher its functional role. TaBRI1 protein consists of a putative signal peptide followed by 25 leucine rich repeats (LRR, a transmembrane domain and a C-terminal kinase domain. The analysis determined the interaction of TaBRI1 with five members of the wheat Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinase (TaSERKs gene family (TaSERK1, TaSERK2, TaSERK3, TaSERK4 and TaSERK5, at the plasma membrane. Furthermore, overexpression of TaBRI1 in Arabidopsis leads to the early flowering, increased silique size and seed yield. Root growth analysis of TaBRI1 overexpressing transgenic plants showed hypersensitivity to epi-brassinolide (epi-BL hormone in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, transgenic Arabidopsis plants show thermotolerance phenotype at the seedling stages as revealed by chlorophyll content, photosystem II activity and membrane stability. The transcriptome profiling on the basis of microarray analysis indicates up-regulation of several genes related to brassinosteroid signaling pathway, abiotic stress response, defense response and transcription factors. These studies predict the possible role of TaBRI1 gene in plant growth and development imparting tolerance to thermal stress.

  5. Polyelectrolyte multi-layers assembly of SiCHA nanopowders and collagen type I on aminolysed PLA films to enhance cell-material interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba Ismail, Yanny Marliana; Ferreira, Ana Marina; Bretcanu, Oana; Dalgarno, Kenneth; El Haj, Alicia J

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a new approach in assembling bone extracellular matrix components onto PLA films, and investigates the most favourable environment which can be created using the technique for cell-material interactions. Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) films were chemically modified by covalently binding the poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) as to prepare the substrate for immobilization of polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) coating. Negatively charged polyelectrolyte consists of well-dispersed silicon-carbonated hydroxyapatite (SiCHA) nanopowders in hyaluronic acid (Hya) was deposited onto the modified PLA films followed by SiCHA in collagen type I as the positively charged polyelectrolyte. The outermost layer was finally cross-linked by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrocholoride and N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide sodium salt (EDC/NHS) solutions. The physicochemical features of the coated PLA films were monitored via X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The amounts of calcium and collagen deposited on the surface were qualitatively and quantitatively determined. The surface characterizations suggested that 5-BL has the optimum surface roughness and highest amounts of calcium and collagen depositions among tested films. In vitro human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultured on the coated PLA films confirmed that the coating materials greatly improved cell attachment and survival compared to unmodified PLA films. The cell viability, cell proliferation and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) expression on 5-BL were found to be the most favourable of the tested films. Hence, this newly developed coating materials assembly could contribute to the improvement of the bioactivity of polymeric materials and structures aimed to bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Atomic and plasma-material interaction data for fusion. V. 7, part B. Particle induced erosion of Be, C and W in fusion plasmas. Part B: Physical sputtering and radiation-enhanced sublimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckstein, W.; Stephens, J.A.; Clark, R.E.H.; Davis, J.W.; Haasz, A.A.; Vietzke, E.; Hirooka, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The present volume of Atomic and Plasma-Material Interaction Data for Fusion is devoted to a critical review of the physical sputtering and radiation enhanced sublimation (RES) behaviour of fusion plasma-facing materials, in particular carbon, beryllium and tungsten. The present volume is intended to provide fusion reactor designers a detailed survey and parameterization of existing, critically assessed data for the chemical erosion of plasma-facing materials by particle impact. The survey and data compilation is presented for a variety of materials containing the elements C, Be and W (including dopants in carbon materials) and impacting plasma species. The dependencies of physical sputtering and RES yields on the material temperature, incident projectile energy, and incident flux are considered. The main data compilation is presented as separate data sheets indicating the material, impacting plasma species, experimental conditions, and parameterizations in terms of analytic functions

  7. Scandium and vanadium borohydride ammoniates: Enhanced dehydrogenation behavior upon coordinative expansion and establishment of Hδ+⋯−δH interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Ziwei; Yuan, Feng; Gu, Qinfen; Tan, Yingbin; Chen, Xiaowei; Jensen, Craig M.; Yu, Xuebin

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Two novel metal borohydride ammoniates—ScLi(BH 4 ) 4 ·4NH 3 and V(BH 4 ) 3 ·3NH 3 are shown to exhibit superior dehydrogenation performances established upon intensive interactions and balanced stoichiometry of dihydrogen. -- Abstract: LiSc(BH 4 ) 4 ·4NH 3 and V(BH 4 ) 3 ·3NH 3 , two novel metal borohydride ammoniates (MBAs), have been successfully synthesized via ball-milling the mixtures of MCl 3 ·xNH 3 (M = Sc, V and x = 3, 4) with LiBH 4 . Structure analysis reveals that LiSc(BH 4 ) 4 ·4NH 3 crystallizes in an orthorhombic structure with lattice parameters of a = 7.4376(3) Å, b = 11.1538(5) Å and c = 14.5132(7) Å and space group of Pc2 1 n, in which the base octahedral units are composed of central metal and an equivalent number of BH 4 and NH 3 units, distinct from other reported MBAs. Base units with the above constitution are also observed in the crystal structure of V(BH 4 ) 3 ·3NH 3 , which is identified as a cubic structure with lattice parameters of a = 10.78060(25) Å and space group of F23. These two compounds exhibit a favorable dehydrogenation capability, releasing 15.1 and 14.3 wt.% high-purity hydrogen, respectively, below 300 °C. Isothermal measurements reveal that, at a constant temperature of 110 °C, which meets the operation requirement of fuel cells, >8 and >10 wt.% pure hydrogen is released from the two compounds with favorable kinetics, respectively. Moreover, by reacting with N 2 H 4 in liquid ammonia, the decomposed LiSc(BH 4 ) 4 ·4NH 3 can be partly hydrogenated and can possibly establish a system that will undergo reversible dehydrogenation. These favorable properties point to potential on-board application. The dehydrogenation capacity, purity and temperature of the two systems can be adjusted, by tuning the ratios of the starting reagents LiBH 4 and MCl 3 ·xNH 3 , to achieve expected stoichiometric proportions of BH 4 and NH 3 units, which provides a facile and viable strategy for the synthesis of

  8. Does a Directive to an Internet Site Enhance the Doctor-Patient Interaction? A Prospective Randomized Study for Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Khin-Kyemon; Wu, Wei Kang; Tokumi, Andrew; Kuo, Phoebe; Day, Charles S

    2015-07-01

    patient was given a handout or had visited the ASSH or other Internet web sites, the knowledge and satisfaction scores for all patients were similar. Since the physician was the common denominator in both groups, the results indicate that the patient-physician relationship may be more valuable than the Internet in providing patient education. Effective communication between patients and practitioners is at the cornerstone of delivering excellent care and building trusting relationships. This study examines whether reliable Internet information should be embraced as a tool to enhance patient-surgeon communication in a clinical context. Copyright © 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  9. Heterocellular interaction enhances recruitment of α and β-catenins and ZO-2 into functional gap-junction complexes and induces gap junction-dependant differentiation of mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talhouk, Rabih S.; Mroue, Rana; Mokalled, Mayssa; Abi-Mosleh, Lina; Nehme, Ralda; Ismail, Ayman; Khalil, Antoine; Zaatari, Mira; El-Sabban, Marwan E.

    2008-01-01

    Gap junctions (GJ) are required for mammary epithelial differentiation. Using epithelial (SCp2) and myoepithelial-like (SCg6) mouse-derived mammary cells, the role of heterocellular interaction in assembly of GJ complexes and functional differentiation (β-casein expression) was evaluated. Heterocellular interaction is critical for β-casein expression, independent of exogenous basement membrane or cell anchoring substrata. Functional differentiation of SCp2, co-cultured with SCg6, is more sensitive to GJ inhibition relative to homocellular SCp2 cultures differentiated by exogenous basement membrane. Connexin (Cx)32 and Cx43 levels were not regulated across culture conditions; however, GJ functionality was enhanced under differentiation-permissive conditions. Immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated association of junctional complex components (α-catenin, β-catenin and ZO-2) with Cx32 and Cx43, in differentiation conditions, and additionally with Cx30 in heterocellular cultures. Although β-catenin did not shuttle between cadherin and GJ complexes, increased association between connexins and β-catenin in heterocellular cultures was observed. This was concomitant with reduced nuclear β-catenin, suggesting that differentiation in heterocellular cultures involves sequestration of β-catenin in GJ complexes

  10. Enhancement of HHG yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrat, C.; Biegert, J.

    2011-01-01

    A static electric field periodically distributed in space controls and enhances the yield in high harmonic generation. The method is relatively simple to implement and allows tuning from the extreme-ultraviolet to soft X-ray. The radiation yield is selectively enhanced due to symmetry breaking induced by a static electric field on the interaction between the driving laser and the medium. The enhanced spectral region is tuned by varying the periodicity of the static electric field. Simulations predict an increase of more than two orders of magnitude for harmonics in the water window spectral range.

  11. Interactive Gallery : Enhance social interaction for elders by story sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, C.; Lin, X.; Kang, K.; Hu, Jun; Hengeveld, B.J.; Hummels, C.C.M.; Rauterberg, M.

    2018-01-01

    At present, the most effective way to deal with the demographic shift of elders is encouraging them to live in nursing homes for more effective health care. However, such move dramatically increases their risk of social isolation. A contextual inquiry in a local nursing home revealed that most

  12. A green and efficient technology for the degradation of cellulosic materials: structure changes and enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of natural cellulose pretreated by synergistic interaction of mechanical activation and metal salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjuan; Li, Qian; Su, Jianmei; Lin, Ye; Huang, Zuqiang; Lu, Yinghua; Sun, Guosong; Yang, Mei; Huang, Aimin; Hu, Huayu; Zhu, Yuanqin

    2015-02-01

    A new technology for the pretreatment of natural cellulose was developed, which combined mechanical activation (MA) and metal salt treatments in a stirring ball mill. Different valent metal nitrates were used to investigate the changes in degree of polymerization (DP) and crystallinity index (CrI) of cellulose after MA+metal salt (MAMS) pretreatment, and Al(NO3)3 showed better pretreatment effect than NaNO3 and Zn(NO3)2. The destruction of morphological structure of cellulose was mainly resulted from intense ball milling, and the comparative studies on the changes of DP and crystal structure of MA and MA+Al(NO3)3 pretreated cellulose samples showed a synergistic interaction of MA and Al(NO3)3 treatments with more effective changes of structural characteristics of MA+Al(NO3)3 pretreated cellulose and substantial increase of reducing sugar yield in enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. In addition, the results indicated that the presence of Al(NO3)3 had significant enhancement for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Highlighting the Role of Groundwater in Lake– Aquifer Interaction to Reduce Vulnerability and  Enhance Resilience to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Yihdego

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available method is presented to analyze the interaction between groundwater and Lake Linlithgow (Australia as a case study. A simplistic approach based on a “node” representing the groundwater component is employed in a spreadsheet of water balance modeling to analyze and highlight the effect of groundwater on the lake level over time. A comparison is made between the simulated and observed lake levels over a period of time by switching the groundwater “node “on and off. A bucket model is assumed to represent the lake behaviour. Although this study demonstrates the understanding of Lake Linlithgow’s groundwater system, the current model reflects the contemporary understanding of the local groundwater system, illustrates how to go about modeling in data-scarce environments, and provides a means to assess focal areas for future data collection and model improvements. Results show that this approach is convenient for getting first‐hand information on the effect of groundwater on wetland or lake levels through lake water budget computation via a node representing the groundwater component. The method can be used anywhere and the applicability of such a method is useful to put in place relevant adaptation mechanisms for future water resources management, reducing vulnerability and enhancing resilience to climate change within the lake basin.

  14. Interactions of nickel(II) with histones: enhancement of 2'-deoxyguanosine oxidation by Ni(II) complexes with CH3CO-Cys-Ala-Ile-His-NH2, a putative metal binding sequence of histone H3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, W; Lukszo, J; Kasprazak, K S

    1996-03-01

    Studies of 2'-deoxyguanosine oxidation by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of CH3CO-Cys-Ala-Ile-His-NH2 (CAIH) and/or NiCl2 have been carried out in 100 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) at 37 degrees C. The dimeric CAIH oxidation product, CAIH disulfide, and its weak, octahedral Ni(II) complex, rather than the monomeric CAIH and its strong, square-planar Ni(II) complex, were found to be major catalysts of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) formation. The presence of Ni(II) largely enhanced 8-oxo-dG yield, especially at submillimolar concentrations of H2O2. The reaction was found not to involve detectable amounts of free radicals or Ni(III). These results, together with those published previously [Bal, W. et al. (1995) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 8, 683-692], lay a framework for the detailed investigations of the interactions of histone octamer with Ni(II) and other metal ions. They also suggest that molecular mechanisms of nickel carcinogenesis may involve oxidative damage processes catalyzed by weak Ni(II) complexes with cellular components.

  15. An enhanced cerium(IV)-rhodamine 6G chemiluminescence system using guest-host interactions in a lab-on-a-chip platform for estimating the total phenolic content in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Haddabi, Buthaina; Al Lawati, Haider A J; Suliman, FakhrEldin O

    2016-04-01

    Two chemiluminescence-microfluidic (CL-MF) systems, e.g., Ce(IV)-rhodamine B (RB) and Ce(IV)-rhodamine 6G (R6G), for the determination of the total phenolic content in teas and some sweeteners were evaluated. The results indicated that the Ce(IV)-R6G system was more sensitive in comparison to the Ce(IV)-RB CL system. Therefore, a simple (CL-MF) method based on the CL of Ce(IV)-R6G was developed, and the sensitivity, selectivity and stability of this system were evaluated. Selected phenolic compounds (PCs), such as quercetin (QRC), catechin (CAT), rutin (RUT), gallic acid (GA), caffeic acid (CA) and syringic acid (SA), produced analytically useful chemiluminescence signals with low detection limits ranging from 0.35 nmol L(-1) for QRC to 11.31 nmol L(-1) for SA. The mixing sequence and the chip design were crucial, as the sensitivity and reproducibility could be substantially affected by these two factors. In addition, the anionic surfactant (i.e., sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)) can significantly enhance the CL signal intensity by as much as 300% for the QRC solution. Spectroscopic studies indicated that the enhancement was due to a strong guest-host interaction between the cationic R6G molecules and the anionic amphiphilic environment. Other parameters that could affect the CL intensities of the PCs were carefully optimized. Finally, the method was successfully applied to tea and sweetener samples. Six different tea samples exhibited total phenolic/antioxidant levels from 7.32 to 13.5 g per 100g of sample with respect to GA. Four different sweetener samples were also analyzed and exhibited total phenolic/antioxidant levels from 500.9 to 3422.9 mg kg(-1) with respect to GA. The method was selective, rapid and sensitive when used to estimate the total phenolic/antioxidant level, and the results were in good agreement with those reported for honey and tea samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Interactive Playgrounds for Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, Ronald Walter; van Delden, Robertus Wilhelmus; Moreno Celleri, Alejandro Manuel; Reidsma, Dennis; Nijholt, A.; Nijholt, Antinus

    Play is an important factor in the life of children. It plays a role in their cognitive, social, and physical development, and provides entertaining and fulfilling activities in itself. As with any field of human endeavor, interactive technology has a huge potential for transforming and enhancing

  17. InterAction Database (IADB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The InterAction Database includes demographic and prescription information for more than 500,000 patients in the northern and middle Netherlands and has been integrated with other systems to enhance data collection and analysis.

  18. Instrumental interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani , Annie

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The expression instrumental interaction as been introduced by Claude Cadoz to identify a human-object interaction during which a human manipulates a physical object - an instrument - in order to perform a manual task. Classical examples of instrumental interaction are all the professional manual tasks: playing violin, cutting fabrics by hand, moulding a paste, etc.... Instrumental interaction differs from other types of interaction (called symbolic or iconic interactio...

  19. Tip enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, Satoshi

    2007-01-01

    This book discusses the recent advances in the area of near-field Raman scattering, mainly focusing on tip-enhanced and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Some of the key features covered here are the optical structuring and manipulations, single molecule sensitivity, analysis of single-walled carbon nanotubes, and analytic applications in chemistry, biology and material sciences. This book also discusses the plasmonic materials for better enhancement, and optical antennas. Further, near-field microscopy based on second harmonic generation is also discussed. Chapters have been written by some of the leading scientists in this field, who present some of their recent work in this field.·Near-field Raman scattering·Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy·Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy·Nano-photonics·Nanoanalysis of Physical, chemical and biological materials beyond the diffraction limits·Single molecule detection

  20. Weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanda, R.

    1981-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental evidences to form a basis for Lagrangian Quantum field theory for Weak Interactions are discussed. In this context, gauge invariance aspects of such interactions are showed. (L.C.) [pt

  1. Intermolecular interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, I.G.; Rodimova, O.B.; AN SSSR, Tomsk. Inst. Optiki Atmosfery)

    1978-01-01

    The present state of the intermolecular interaction theory is described. The general physical picture of the molecular interactions is given, the relative contributions of interactions of different types are analyzed (electrostatic, resonance, induction, dispersion, relativistic, magnetostatic and exchange), and the main ones in each range of separations are picked out. The methods of the potential curve calculations are considered, specific for definite separations between the interacting systems. The special attention is paid to the analysis of approximations used in different theoretical calculation methods

  2. Efficient Translation of Pelargonium line pattern virus RNAs Relies on a TED-Like 3´-Translational Enhancer that Communicates with the Corresponding 5´-Region through a Long-Distance RNA-RNA Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Pérez, Marta; Pérez-Cañamás, Miryam; Ruiz, Leticia; Hernández, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Cap-independent translational enhancers (CITEs) have been identified at the 3´-terminal regions of distinct plant positive-strand RNA viruses belonging to families Tombusviridae and Luteoviridae. On the bases of their structural and/or functional requirements, at least six classes of CITEs have been defined whose distribution does not correlate with taxonomy. The so-called TED class has been relatively under-studied and its functionality only confirmed in the case of Satellite tobacco necrosis virus, a parasitic subviral agent. The 3´-untranslated region of the monopartite genome of Pelargonium line pattern virus (PLPV), the recommended type member of a tentative new genus (Pelarspovirus) in the family Tombusviridae, was predicted to contain a TED-like CITE. Similar CITEs can be anticipated in some other related viruses though none has been experimentally verified. Here, in the first place, we have performed a reassessment of the structure of the putative PLPV-TED through in silico predictions and in vitro SHAPE analysis with the full-length PLPV genome, which has indicated that the presumed TED element is larger than previously proposed. The extended conformation of the TED is strongly supported by the pattern of natural sequence variation, thus providing comparative structural evidence in support of the structural data obtained by in silico and in vitro approaches. Next, we have obtained experimental evidence demonstrating the in vivo activity of the PLPV-TED in the genomic (g) RNA, and also in the subgenomic (sg) RNA that the virus produces to express 3´-proximal genes. Besides other structural features, the results have highlighted the key role of long-distance kissing-loop interactions between the 3´-CITE and 5´-proximal hairpins for gRNA and sgRNA translation. Bioassays of CITE mutants have confirmed the importance of the identified 5´-3´ RNA communication for viral infectivity and, moreover, have underlined the strong evolutionary constraints that may

  3. Efficient Translation of Pelargonium line pattern virus RNAs Relies on a TED-Like 3´-Translational Enhancer that Communicates with the Corresponding 5´-Region through a Long-Distance RNA-RNA Interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Blanco-Pérez

    Full Text Available Cap-independent translational enhancers (CITEs have been identified at the 3´-terminal regions of distinct plant positive-strand RNA viruses belonging to families Tombusviridae and Luteoviridae. On the bases of their structural and/or functional requirements, at least six classes of CITEs have been defined whose distribution does not correlate with taxonomy. The so-called TED class has been relatively under-studied and its functionality only confirmed in the case of Satellite tobacco necrosis virus, a parasitic subviral agent. The 3´-untranslated region of the monopartite genome of Pelargonium line pattern virus (PLPV, the recommended type member of a tentative new genus (Pelarspovirus in the family Tombusviridae, was predicted to contain a TED-like CITE. Similar CITEs can be anticipated in some other related viruses though none has been experimentally verified. Here, in the first place, we have performed a reassessment of the structure of the putative PLPV-TED through in silico predictions and in vitro SHAPE analysis with the full-length PLPV genome, which has indicated that the presumed TED element is larger than previously proposed. The extended conformation of the TED is strongly supported by the pattern of natural sequence variation, thus providing comparative structural evidence in support of the structural data obtained by in silico and in vitro approaches. Next, we have obtained experimental evidence demonstrating the in vivo activity of the PLPV-TED in the genomic (g RNA, and also in the subgenomic (sg RNA that the virus produces to express 3´-proximal genes. Besides other structural features, the results have highlighted the key role of long-distance kissing-loop interactions between the 3´-CITE and 5´-proximal hairpins for gRNA and sgRNA translation. Bioassays of CITE mutants have confirmed the importance of the identified 5´-3´ RNA communication for viral infectivity and, moreover, have underlined the strong evolutionary

  4. Effective interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    This chapter attempts to describe and compare some of the more important nucleon-nucleon interactions that have been used in nuclear structure calculations, and to relate them where possible to the real nucleon-nucleon interaction. Explains that different interactions have been used depending on whether one is fitting to total binding energies and densities with a Hartree Fock (HF) calculation or fitting to spectra and spectroscopic data in a shell model calculation. Examines both types of calculation after two preliminary sections concerned with notation and with the philosophy underlying the use of model spaces and effective interactions. Discusses Skyrme interactions, finite range interactions, small model space, large model space, and the Sussex potential matrix elements. Focuses on the more empirical approaches in which a simple form is chosen for the effective interaction in a given model space and the parameters are deduced from fitting many-body data

  5. Biocatalyst Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing availability of enzyme collections has assisted attempts by pharmaceutical producers to adopt green chemistry approaches to manufacturing. A joint effort between an enzyme producer and a pharmaceutical manufacturer has been enhanced over the past three years by ena...

  6. Interactions, Starbursts, and Star Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan H. Knapen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We study how interactions between galaxies affect star formation within them by considering a sample of almost 1500 of the nearest galaxies, all within a distance of ∼45 Mpc. We use the far-IR emission to define the massive star formation rate (SFR, and then normalise the SFR by the stellar mass of the galaxy to obtain the specific star formation rate (SSFR. We explore the distribution of (SSFR with morphological type and with stellar mass. We calculate the relative enhancement of SFR and SSFR for each galaxy by normalising them by the median SFR and SSFR values of individual control samples of similar non-interacting galaxies. We find that both the median SFR and SSFR are enhanced in interacting galaxies, and more so as the degree of interaction is higher. The increase is moderate, reaching a maximum of a factor of 1.9 for the highest degree of interaction (mergers. While the SFR and SSFR are enhanced statistically by interactions, in many individual interacting galaxies they are not enhanced at all. Our study is based on a representative sample of nearby galaxies and should be used to place constraints on studies based on samples of galaxies at larger distances.

  7. Weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogava, S.; Savada, S.; Nakagava, M.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of the use of weak interaction laws to study models of elementary particles is discussed. The most typical examples of weak interaction is beta-decay of nucleons and muons. Beta-interaction is presented by quark currents in the form of universal interaction of the V-A type. Universality of weak interactions is well confirmed using as examples e- and μ-channels of pion decay. Hypothesis on partial preservation of axial current is applicable to the analysis of processes with pion participation. In the framework of the model with four flavours lepton decays of hadrons are considered. Weak interaction without lepton participation are also considered. Properties of neutral currents are described briefly

  8. Floor interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marianne Graves; Krogh, Peter; Ludvigsen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Within architecture, there is a long tradition of careful design of floors. The design has been concerned with both decorating floors and designing floors to carry information. Ubiquitous computing technology offers new opportunities for designing interactive floors. This paper presents three...... different interactive floor concepts. Through an urban perspective it draws upon the experiences of floors in architecture, and provides a set of design issues for designing interactive floors....

  9. Playful Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The video Playful Interaction describes a future architectural office, and envisions ideas and concepts for playful interactions between people, materials and appliances in a pervasive and augmented working environment. The video both describes existing developments, technologies and designs...... as well as ideas not yet implemented such as playful modes of interaction with an augmented ball. Playful Interaction has been used as a hybrid of a vision video and a video prototype (1). Externally the video has been used to visualising our new ideas, and internally the video has also worked to inspire...

  10. DENdb: database of integrated human enhancers

    KAUST Repository

    Ashoor, Haitham

    2015-09-05

    Enhancers are cis-acting DNA regulatory regions that play a key role in distal control of transcriptional activities. Identification of enhancers, coupled with a comprehensive functional analysis of their properties, could improve our understanding of complex gene transcription mechanisms and gene regulation processes in general. We developed DENdb, a centralized on-line repository of predicted enhancers derived from multiple human cell-lines. DENdb integrates enhancers predicted by five different methods generating an enriched catalogue of putative enhancers for each of the analysed cell-lines. DENdb provides information about the overlap of enhancers with DNase I hypersensitive regions, ChIP-seq regions of a number of transcription factors and transcription factor binding motifs, means to explore enhancer interactions with DNA using several chromatin interaction assays and enhancer neighbouring genes. DENdb is designed as a relational database that facilitates fast and efficient searching, browsing and visualization of information.

  11. DENdb: database of integrated human enhancers

    KAUST Repository

    Ashoor, Haitham; Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios A.; Radovanovic, Aleksandar; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-01-01

    Enhancers are cis-acting DNA regulatory regions that play a key role in distal control of transcriptional activities. Identification of enhancers, coupled with a comprehensive functional analysis of their properties, could improve our understanding of complex gene transcription mechanisms and gene regulation processes in general. We developed DENdb, a centralized on-line repository of predicted enhancers derived from multiple human cell-lines. DENdb integrates enhancers predicted by five different methods generating an enriched catalogue of putative enhancers for each of the analysed cell-lines. DENdb provides information about the overlap of enhancers with DNase I hypersensitive regions, ChIP-seq regions of a number of transcription factors and transcription factor binding motifs, means to explore enhancer interactions with DNA using several chromatin interaction assays and enhancer neighbouring genes. DENdb is designed as a relational database that facilitates fast and efficient searching, browsing and visualization of information.

  12. Speech enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob; Chen, Jingdong

    2006-01-01

    We live in a noisy world! In all applications (telecommunications, hands-free communications, recording, human-machine interfaces, etc.) that require at least one microphone, the signal of interest is usually contaminated by noise and reverberation. As a result, the microphone signal has to be ""cleaned"" with digital signal processing tools before it is played out, transmitted, or stored.This book is about speech enhancement. Different well-known and state-of-the-art methods for noise reduction, with one or multiple microphones, are discussed. By speech enhancement, we mean not only noise red

  13. Aesthetic interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marianne Graves; Iversen, Ole Sejer; Krogh, Peter

    2004-01-01

    , as it promotes aesthetics of use, rather than aesthetics of appearance. We coin this approach in the perspective of aesthetic interaction. Finally we make the point that aesthetics is not re-defining everything known about interactive systems. We provide a framework placing this perspective among other...

  14. Interactive benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson, Lartey; Nielsen, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    We discuss individual learning by interactive benchmarking using stochastic frontier models. The interactions allow the user to tailor the performance evaluation to preferences and explore alternative improvement strategies by selecting and searching the different frontiers using directional...... in the suggested benchmarking tool. The study investigates how different characteristics on dairy farms influences the technical efficiency....

  15. Explicit Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwgren, Jonas; Eriksen, Mette Agger; Linde, Per

    2006-01-01

    We report an ongoing study of palpable computing to support surgical rehabilitation, in the general field of interaction design for ubiquitous computing. Through explorative design, fieldwork and participatory design techniques, we explore the design principle of explicit interaction as an interp...

  16. Kinesthetic Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogtmann, Maiken Hillerup; Fritsch, Jonas; Kortbek, Karen Johanne

    2008-01-01

    Within the Human-Computer Interaction community there is a growing interest in designing for the whole body in interaction design. The attempts aimed at addressing the body have very different outcomes spanning from theoretical arguments for understanding the body in the design process, to more...... practical examples of designing for bodily potential. This paper presents Kinesthetic Interaction as a unifying concept for describing the body in motion as a foundation for designing interactive systems. Based on the theoretical foundation for Kinesthetic Interaction, a conceptual framework is introduced...... to reveal bodily potential in relation to three design themes – kinesthetic development, kinesthetic means and kinesthetic disorder; and seven design parameters – engagement, sociality, movability, explicit motivation, implicit motivation, expressive meaning and kinesthetic empathy. The framework is a tool...

  17. Species interactions and plant polyploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segraves, Kari A; Anneberg, Thomas J

    2016-07-01

    Polyploidy is a common mode of speciation that can have far-reaching consequences for plant ecology and evolution. Because polyploidy can induce an array of phenotypic changes, there can be cascading effects on interactions with other species. These interactions, in turn, can have reciprocal effects on polyploid plants, potentially impacting their establishment and persistence. Although there is a wealth of information on the genetic and phenotypic effects of polyploidy, the study of species interactions in polyploid plants remains a comparatively young field. Here we reviewed the available evidence for how polyploidy may impact many types of species interactions that range from mutualism to antagonism. Specifically, we focused on three main questions: (1) Does polyploidy directly cause the formation of novel interactions not experienced by diploids, or does it create an opportunity for natural selection to then form novel interactions? (2) Does polyploidy cause consistent, predictable changes in species interactions vs. the evolution of idiosyncratic differences? (3) Does polyploidy lead to greater evolvability in species interactions? From the scarce evidence available, we found that novel interactions are rare but that polyploidy can induce changes in pollinator, herbivore, and pathogen interactions. Although further tests are needed, it is likely that selection following whole-genome duplication is important in all types of species interaction and that there are circumstances in which polyploidy can enhance the evolvability of interactions with other species. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  18. Programming Interactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Ready to create rich interactive experiences with your artwork, designs, or prototypes? This is the ideal place to start. With this hands-on guide, you'll explore several themes in interactive art and design-including 3D graphics, sound, physical interaction, computer vision, and geolocation-and learn the basic programming and electronics concepts you need to implement them. No previous experience is necessary. You'll get a complete introduction to three free tools created specifically for artists and designers: the Processing programming language, the Arduino microcontroller, and the openFr

  19. Interaction graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seiller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Interaction graphs were introduced as a general, uniform, construction of dynamic models of linear logic, encompassing all Geometry of Interaction (GoI) constructions introduced so far. This series of work was inspired from Girard's hyperfinite GoI, and develops a quantitative approach that should...... be understood as a dynamic version of weighted relational models. Until now, the interaction graphs framework has been shown to deal with exponentials for the constrained system ELL (Elementary Linear Logic) while keeping its quantitative aspect. Adapting older constructions by Girard, one can clearly define...... "full" exponentials, but at the cost of these quantitative features. We show here that allowing interpretations of proofs to use continuous (yet finite in a measure-theoretic sense) sets of states, as opposed to earlier Interaction Graphs constructions were these sets of states were discrete (and finite...

  20. Embarrassing Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deterding, Sebastian; Lucero, Andrés; Holopainen, Jussi

    2015-01-01

    Wherever the rapid evolution of interactive technologies disrupts standing situational norms, creates new, often unclear situational audiences, or crosses cultural boundaries, embarrassment is likely. This makes embarrassment a fundamental adoption and engagement hurdle, but also a creative design...

  1. Diffractive interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Duca, V.; Marage, P.

    1996-08-01

    The general framework of diffractive deep inelastic scattering is introduced and reports given in the session on diffractive interactions at the international workshop on deep-inelastic scattering and related phenomena, Rome, April 1996, are presented. (orig.)

  2. Interaction Widget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingstrup, Mads

    2003-01-01

    This pattern describes the idea of making a user interface of discrete, reusable entities---here called interaction widgets. The idea behind widgets is described using two perspectives, that of the user and that of the developer. It is the forces from these two perspectives that are balanced...... in the pattern. The intended audience of the pattern is developers and researchers within the field of human computer interaction....

  3. Hair Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Cani , Marie-Paule; Bertails , Florence

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Processing interactions is one of the main challenges in hair animation. Indeed, in addition to the collisions with the body, an extremely large number of contacts with high friction rates are permanently taking place between individual hair strands. Simulating the latter is essential: without hair self-interactions, strands would cross each other during motion or come to rest at the same location, yielding unrealistic behavior and a visible lack of hair volume. This c...

  4. Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) enhances cAMP-responsive element binding (CREB) protein phosphorylation and phospho-CREB interaction with the mouse steroidogenic acute regulatory protein gene promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Brian F; Hudson, Elizabeth A; Clark, Barbara J

    2005-03-01

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) transcription is regulated through cAMP-protein kinase A-dependent mechanisms that involve multiple transcription factors including the cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) family members. Classically, binding of phosphorylated CREB to cis-acting cAMP-responsive elements (5'-TGACGTCA-3') within target gene promoters leads to recruitment of the coactivator CREB binding protein (CBP). Herein we examined the extent of CREB family member phosphorylation on protein-DNA interactions and CBP recruitment with the StAR promoter. Immunoblot analysis revealed that CREB, cAMP-responsive element modulator (CREM), and activating transcription factor (ATF)-1 are expressed in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells, yet only CREB and ATF-1 are phosphorylated. (Bu)2cAMP treatment of MA-10 cells increased CREB phosphorylation approximately 2.3-fold within 30 min but did not change total nuclear CREB expression levels. Using DNA-affinity chromatography, we now show that CREB and ATF-1, but not CREM, interact with the StAR promoter, and this interaction is dependent on the activator protein-1 (AP-1) cis-acting element within the cAMP-responsive region. In addition, (Bu)2cAMP-treatment increased phosphorylated CREB (P-CREB) association with the StAR promoter but did not influence total CREB interaction. In vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated CREB binding to the StAR proximal promoter is independent of (Bu)2cAMP-treatment, confirming our in vitro analysis. However, (Bu)2cAMP-treatment increased P-CREB and CBP interaction with the StAR promoter, demonstrating for the first time the physical role of P-CREB:DNA interactions in CBP recruitment to the StAR proximal promoter.

  5. Interactive governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob; Peters, B. Guy

    Governance has become one of the most commonly used concepts in contemporary political science. It is, however, often used to mean a variety of different things. This book helps to clarify this conceptual muddle by concentrating on one variety of governance-interactive governance. The authors argue...... that although the state may remain important for many aspects of governing, interactions between state and society represent an important, and perhaps increasingly important, dimension of governance. These interactions may be with social actors such as networks, with market actors or with other governments......, but all these forms represent means of governing involving mixtures of state action with the actions of other entities.This book explores thoroughly this meaning of governance, and links it to broader questions of governance. In the process of explicating this dimension of governance the authors also...

  6. Multiquark interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk'yanov, V.K.

    1984-01-01

    To study multiquark interactions (MQI) the data of experiments confirming the presence of 3q, 6q, 12q states in interacting nuclear nucleons, in hadron- and lepton-nuclear processes at high energies and high momentum transfers are considered. Experimental data on cumulative processes pointing to the existence of MQI are analyzed. Two-channel model of a nucleus (the model of interacting nucleons) in the theory of coupled channels is discussed. The behaviour of form factor of deuteron and NQI (6q) contributions to ed scattering as well as deep inelastic scattering on nuclei are studied. The data known as EMC effect are discussed. It is pointed out that introduction of the notion MQI and consideration of a nucleus as a system of nucleons with a low MQI addition will help to explain such processes as cumulative reactions, form factors of a deuteron and light nuclei, deep inelastic scattering on nuclei

  7. Enhancing Teacher Efficacy in Special Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Elizabeth A.; McCarthy, Holly DiBella

    1989-01-01

    A special education teacher's sense of teaching efficacy and personal teaching efficacy influences teacher motivation and effort, teacher-student interactions, and student achievement. Methods for enhancing teachers' sense of efficacy are suggested. (JDD)

  8. Interaction region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The Interaction Region Group addressed the basic questions of how to collide the SLC beams, how to maximize and monitor the luminosity, and how to minimize the detector backgrounds at the interaction region. In practice, five subgroups evolved to study these questions. The final focus group provided three alternative designs to acheive the 1 to 2 micron beam spot size required by the SLC, as well as studying other problems including: eta, eta' matching from the collider arcs, the implementation of soft bends near the interaction region, beam emittance growth, and magnet tolerances in the final focus. The beam position monitor group proposed two devices, a strip line monitor, and a beamstrahlung monitor, to bring the beams into collision. The luminosity monitor group reviewed the possible QED processes that would be insensitive to weak interaction (Z 0 ) effects. The beam dumping group proposed locations for kicker and septum magnets in the final focus that would achieve a high dumping efficiency and would meet the desired beam tolerances at the Moller scattering target in the beam dump line. Working with the Polarization Group, the Moller experiment was designed into the beam dump beam line. A beam dump was proposed that would maintain radiation backgrounds (penetrating muons) at acceptible levels. The detector backgrounds group proposed soft-bend and masking configurations to shield the detector from synchrotron radiation from the hard/soft bends and from the final focus quadrupoles and evaluated the effectiveness of these designs for the three final focus optics designs. Backgrounds were also estimated from: large angle synchrotron radiation, local and distant beam-gas interactions, 2-photon interactions, and from neutrons and backscattered photons from the beamstrahlung dump

  9. EDITORIAL: Nano-enhanced! Nano-enhanced!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-08-01

    advantages of ZnO nanowires for field emission devices has been greater control over the electronic properties. Alternative morphologies of ZnO nanostructures have also been explored for field emission enhancements, such as urchin structures, which provide field enhancement factors of 1239, but with the additional benefit of greater stability [3]. Theoretical investigations to understand the mechanisms behind these field enhancements have also grown increasingly more sophisticated, through both analytical techniques and finite theorems. Results from a comparison of these two approaches in the form of Mie theory and the finite element method, using a dipole oscillator as the excitation source, were reported recently by researchers from Duke University, USA [4]. The work found excellent agreement in terms of amplitude, plasmon resonance peak position and full width at half-maximum. These field enhancements lend themselves to a range of technological applications, such as the demonstrated potential of plasmonic interactions in DNA sensing arrays [5]. As well as plasmon resonances, Bragg diffraction in nanoparticles also has the potential to provide enhanced system responses. Researchers in Taiwan have shown enhancements in the acceptance angle as well as the photoresponsivity of n-ZnO/p-si photodiodes with the use of a monolayer of silica nanoparticles [6]. In this issue, researchers in Italy and Japan report work on enhancing the cathodoluminescence from SiC-based systems. They investigate the role of a shell of amorphous silica in core/shell 3C-SiC/SiO2 nanowires and observe a shell-induced enhancement of the SiC near-band-edge emission, which is attributed to carrier diffusion from the shell to the core, promoted by the alignment of the SiO2 and SiC bands in a type I quantum well [7]. Their research is another demonstration of how nanostructures provide enhancements to system responses through a wide range of mechanisms, a breadth of creativity that is mirrored in the

  10. Programming Interactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    Make cool stuff. If you're a designer or artist without a lot of programming experience, this book will teach you to work with 2D and 3D graphics, sound, physical interaction, and electronic circuitry to create all sorts of interesting and compelling experiences -- online and off. Programming Interactivity explains programming and electrical engineering basics, and introduces three freely available tools created specifically for artists and designers: Processing, a Java-based programming language and environment for building projects on the desktop, Web, or mobile phonesArduino, a system t

  11. Interacting binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggleton, P.P.; Pringle, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains 15 review articles in the field of binary stars. The subjects reviewed span considerably, from the shortest period of interacting binaries to the longest, symbiotic stars. Also included are articles on Algols, X-ray binaries and Wolf-Rayet stars (single and binary). Contents: Preface. List of Participants. Activity of Contact Binary Systems. Wolf-Rayet Stars and Binarity. Symbiotic Stars. Massive X-ray Binaries. Stars that go Hump in the Night: The SU UMa Stars. Interacting Binaries - Summing Up

  12. EDITORIAL: Enhancing nanolithography Enhancing nanolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Lithography was invented in late 18th century Bavaria by an ambitious young playwright named Alois Senefelder. Senefelder experimented with stone, wax, water and ink in the hope of finding a way of reproducing text so that he might financially gain from a wider distribution of his already successful scripts. His discovery not only facilitated the profitability of his plays, but also provided the world with an affordable printing press that would ultimately democratize the dissemination of art, knowledge and literature. Since Senefelder, experiments in lithography have continued with a range of innovations including the use of electron beams and UV that allow increasingly higher-resolution features [1, 2]. Applications for this have now breached the limits of paper printing into the realms of semiconductor and microelectronic mechanical systems technology. In this issue, researchers demonstrate a technique for fabricating periodic features in poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) [3]. Their method combines field enhancements from silica nanospheres with laser-interference lithography to provide a means of patterning a polymer that has the potential to open the market of low-end, high-volume microelectronics. Laser-interference lithography has already been used successfully in patterning. Researchers in Korea used laser-interference lithography to generate stamps for imprinting a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure into green light emitting diodes (LEDs) [4]. The imprinted patterns comprised depressions 100 nm deep and 180 nm wide with a periodicity of 295 nm. In comparison with unpatterned LEDs, the intensity of photoluminescence was enhanced by a factor of seven in the LEDs that had the photonic crystal structures imprinted in them. The potential of exploiting field enhancements around nanostructures for new technologies has also attracted a great deal of attention. Researchers in the USA and Australia have used the field

  13. Hadron interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.; Kolar, P.; Kundrat, V.

    1988-01-01

    The proceedings contain invited lectures and papers presente at the symposium. Attention was devoted to hadron interactions a high energy in QCD, to the structure and decay of hadrons, the production of hadrons and supersymmetric particles in e + e - and ep collisions, to perturbation theory in quantum field theory, and new supersymmetric extensions of relativistic algebra. (Z.J

  14. Interactive Storytelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Reng, Lars

    2015-01-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling, ICIDS 2015, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in November/December 2015. The 18 revised full papers and 13 short papers presented together with 9 posters, 9 workshop descriptions, an...

  15. Immobilized Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9): Applications for Metabolite Generation, Monitoring Protein-Protein Interactions, and Improving In-vivo Predictions Using Enhanced In-vitro Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenberg, Lance A.

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes are a family of oxoferroreductase enzymes containing a heme moiety and are well known to be involved in the metabolism of a wide variety of endogenous and xenobiotic materials. It is estimated that roughly 75% of all pharmaceutical compounds are metabolized by these enzymes. Traditional reconstituted in-vitro incubation studies using recombinant P450 enzymes are often used to predict in-vivo kinetic parameters of a drug early in development. However, in many cases, these reconstituted incubations are prone to aggregation which has been shown to affect the catalytic activity of an enzyme. Moreover, the presence of other isoforms of P450 enzymes present in a metabolic incubation, as is the case with microsomal systems, may affect the catalytic activity of an enzyme through isoform-specific protein-protein interactions. Both of these effects may result in inaccurate prediction of in-vivo drug metabolism using in-vitro experiments. Here we described the development of immobilized P450 constructs designed to elucidate the effects of aggregation and protein-protein interactions between P450 isoforms on catalytic activities. The long term objective of this project is to develop a system to control the oligomeric state of Cytochrome P450 enzymes to accurately elucidate discrepancies between in vitro reconstituted systems and actual in vivo drug metabolism for the precise prediction of metabolic activity. This approach will serve as a system to better draw correlations between in-vivo and in-vitro drug metabolism data. The central hypothesis is that Cytochrome P450 enzymes catalytic activity can be altered by protein-protein interactions occurring between Cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in drug metabolism, and is dependent on varying states of protein aggregation. This dissertation explains the details of the construction and characterization of a nanostructure device designed to control the state of aggregation of a P450 enzyme. Moreover

  16. Interacting adiabatic quantum motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruch, Anton; Kusminskiy, Silvia Viola; Refael, Gil; von Oppen, Felix

    2018-05-01

    We present a field-theoretic treatment of an adiabatic quantum motor. We explicitly discuss a motor called the Thouless motor which is based on a Thouless pump operating in reverse. When a sliding periodic potential is considered to be the motor degree of freedom, a bias voltage applied to the electron channel sets the motor in motion. We investigate a Thouless motor whose electron channel is modeled as a Luttinger liquid. Interactions increase the gap opened by the periodic potential. For an infinite Luttinger liquid the coupling-induced friction is enhanced by electron-electron interactions. When the Luttinger liquid is ultimately coupled to Fermi liquid reservoirs, the dissipation reduces to its value for a noninteracting electron system for a constant motor velocity. Our results can also be applied to a motor based on a nanomagnet coupled to a quantum spin Hall edge.

  17. Interactive Information Retrieval:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia

    IIR from the perspective of search dedication and task load in order to also include everyday life information seeking? With this presentation, the IIR community is invited to an exchange of ideas and is encouraged to engage in collaborations with the solving of these (and other) issues to our joint......This presentation addresses methodological issues of interactive information retrieval (IIR) evaluation in terms of what it entails to study users' use and interaction with IR systems, as well as their satisfaction with retrieved information. In particular, the presentation focuses on test design...... of the users to ensure a complete and realistic picture to enhance our understanding of IIR. The presentation also reflects on whether a re-thinking of the concept on an information need is necessary. One may ask whether it still makes sense to talk about types of information needs. Or should we rather study...

  18. Paper mechanisms for sonic interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delle Monache, Stefano; Rocchesso, Davide; Qi, Ji

    2012-01-01

    Introducing continuous sonic interaction in augmented pop-up books enhances the expressive and performative qualities of movables, making the whole narrative experience more engaging and personal. The SaMPL Spring School on Sounding Popables explored the specific topic of paper-driven sonic...

  19. Interactive cinema : engagement and interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vosmeer, M.; Schouten, B.; Mitchell, A.

    2014-01-01

    Technologies that were initially developed to be applied within the domain of video games are currently being used in experiments to explore their meaning and possibilities for cinema and cinema audiences. In this position paper we examine how narrativity, interactivity and engagement are mutually

  20. Interactive Macroeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Guilmi, Corrado; Gallegati, Mauro; Landini, Simone

    2017-04-01

    Preface; List of tables; List of figures, 1. Introduction; Part I. Methodological Notes and Tools: 2. The state space notion; 3. The master equation; Part II. Applications to HIA Based Models: 4. Financial fragility and macroeconomic dynamics I: heterogeneity and interaction; 5. Financial fragility and macroeconomic Dynamics II: learning; Part III. Conclusions: 6. Conclusive remarks; Part IV. Appendices and Complements: Appendix A: Complements to Chapter 3; Appendix B: Solving the ME to solve the ABM; Appendix C: Specifying transition rates; Index.

  1. Progressivity Enhanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Hren

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rather than a scientific text, the author contributes a concise memorandum from the originator of the idea who has managed the campaign for the conversion of the military barracks into a creative cluster between 1988 and 2002, when he parted ways with Metelkova due to conflicting views on the center’s future. His views shed light on a distant period of time from a perspective of a participant–observer. The information is abundantly supported by primary sources, also available online. However, some of the presented hypotheses are heavily influenced by his personal experiences of xenophobia, elitism, and predatorial behavior, which were already then discernible on the so-called alternative scene as well – so much so that they obstructed the implementation of progressive programs. The author claims that, in spite of the substantially different reality today, the myths and prejudices concerning Metelkova must be done away with in order to enhance its progressive nature. Above all, the paper calls for an objective view on internal antagonisms, mainly originating in deep class divisions between the users. These make a clear distinction between truly marginal ndividuals and the overambitious beau-bourgeois, as the author labels the large part of users of Metelkova of »his« time. On these grounds, he argues for a robust approach to ban all forms of xenophobia and self-ghettoization.

  2. Down-regulation of 5S rRNA by miR-150 and miR-383 enhances c-Myc-rpL11 interaction and inhibits proliferation of esophageal squamous carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyu; Ren, Yanli; Wang, Zhiqiong; Xiong, Xiangyu; Han, Sichong; Pan, Wenting; Chen, Hongwei; Zhou, Liqing; Zhou, Changchun; Yuan, Qipeng; Yang, Ming

    2015-12-21

    5S rRNA plays an important part in ribosome biology and is over-expression in multiple cancers. In this study, we found that 5S rRNA is a direct target of miR-150 and miR-383 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Overexpression of miR-150 and miR-383 inhibited ESCC cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, 5S rRNA silencing by miR-150 and miR-383 might intensify rpL11-c-Myc interaction, which attenuated role of c-Myc as an oncogenic transcriptional factor and dysregulation of multiple c-Myc target genes. Taken together, our results highlight the involvement of miRNAs in ribosomal regulation during tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Interactive Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Governance analysis has exploded in recent years, and it has become nearly impossible to tell what difference the concept and practice of governance makes from those of government and state. In addition governance analysis has been placed more and more in the shadow of the new institutionalisms and...... and growth. However, interactive governance is not a property or effect of institutions; nor does it apply solely to those individuals who seek success above everything else. It is connective more than individualistic or collectivistic in nature; and it manifests a governability capacity which...

  4. Collocated Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    E. Fischer, Joel; Porcheron, Martin; Lucero, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    interactions. Yet, new challenges abound as people wear and carry more devices than ever, creating fragmented device ecologies at work, and changing the ways we socialise with each other. In this workshop we seek to start a dialogue to look back as well as forward, review best practices, discuss and design......In the 25 years since Ellis, Gibbs, and Rein proposed the time-space taxonomy, research in the ‘same time, same place’ quadrant has diversified, perhaps even fragmented. This one-day workshop will bring together researchers with diverse, yet convergent interests in tabletop, surface, mobile...

  5. Weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    Weak interactions are studied from a phenomenological point of view, by using a minimal number of theoretical hypotheses. Charged-current phenomenology, and then neutral-current phenomenology are discussed. This all is described in terms of a global SU(2) symmetry plus an electromagnetic correction. The intermediate-boson hypothesis is introduced and lower bounds on the range of the weak force are inferred. This phenomenology does not yet reconstruct all the predictions of the conventional SU(2)xU(1) gauge theory. To do that requires an additional assumption of restoration of SU(2) symmetry at asymptotic energies

  6. Strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froissart, Marcel

    1976-01-01

    Strong interactions are introduced by their more obvious aspect: nuclear forces. In hadron family, the nucleon octet, OMEGA - decuplet, and quark triply are successively considered. Pion wave having been put at the origin of nuclear forces, low energy phenomena are described, the force being explained as an exchange of structure corresponding to a Regge trajectory in a variable rotating state instead of the exchange of a well defined particle. At high energies the concepts of pomeron, parton and stratons are introduced, pionization and fragmentation are briefly differentiated [fr

  7. A Multimodal Interaction Framework for Blended Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidakis, Nikolaos; Kalafatis, Konstantinos; Triantafyllidis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Humans interact with each other by utilizing the five basic senses as input modalities, whereas sounds, gestures, facial expressions etc. are utilized as output modalities. Multimodal interaction is also used between humans and their surrounding environment, although enhanced with further senses ...... framework enabling deployment of a vast variety of modalities, tailored appropriately for use in blended learning environment....

  8. Visible-light photoactivity of plasmonic silver supported on mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticles (Ag-MTN) for enhanced degradation of 2-chlorophenol: Limitation of Ag-Ti interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, N. F.; Jalil, A. A.; Triwahyono, S.

    2017-01-01

    Various weight loadings of Ag (1-10 wt.%) were introduced to mesoporous titania nanoparticles (MTN) via a direct in-situ electrochemical method. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, surface area analysis, FTIR, ESR, FESEM-EDX and TEM. Characterization results indicated that the introduction of Ag onto MTN decreased the particles size and band gap of the MTN while increasing the number of oxygen vacancies (OV) and Ti3+ site defects (TSD). The activity performance of Ag-MTN on photodegradation of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) under visible light irradiation was in the following order: 5 wt% Ag-MTN> 1 wt% Ag-MTN > MTN > 10 wt% Ag-MTN, with degradation percentages of 97, 88, 80 and 63%, respectively. The synergistic effect between Ag0 and MTN seemed to play an important role in the system. The Ag0 acted as both an electron trap and a plasmonic sensitizer which suppressed the electron-hole recombination, while OV and TSD in the MTN accelerated the production of hydroxyl radicals for enhanced degradation of 2-CP. However, the formation of Ti-O-Ag in 10 wt% Ag-MTN was found to decrease the photoactivity due to the decrease in the formation of Ag0, TSD and OV as well as the increase in band gap energy. The photodegradation of 5 wt% Ag-MTN followed a pseudo-first-order Langmuir- Hinshelwood model and the catalyst was still stable after five cycles.

  9. Surface enhanced Raman scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Furtak, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    In the course of the development of surface science, advances have been identified with the introduction of new diagnostic probes for analytical characterization of the adsorbates and microscopic structure of surfaces and interfaces. Among the most recently de­ veloped techniques, and one around which a storm of controversy has developed, is what has now been earmarked as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Within this phenomenon, molecules adsorbed onto metal surfaces under certain conditions exhibit an anomalously large interaction cross section for the Raman effect. This makes it possible to observe the detailed vibrational signature of the adsorbate in the ambient phase with an energy resolution much higher than that which is presently available in electron energy loss spectroscopy and when the surface is in contact with a much larger amount of material than that which can be tolerated in infrared absorption experiments. The ability to perform vibrational spectroscopy under these conditions would l...

  10. Gold nanodisc arrays as near infrared metal-enhanced fluorescence platforms with tuneable enhancement factors

    KAUST Repository

    Pang, J.; Theodorou, I. G.; Centeno, A.; Petrov, P. K.; Alford, N. M.; Ryan, M. P.; Xie, F.

    2016-01-01

    Metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF) is a physical effect through which the near-field interaction of fluorophores with metallic nanoparticles can lead to large fluorescence enhancement. MEF can be exploited in many fluorescence-based biomedical applications, with potentially significant improvement in detection sensitivity and contrast enhancement. Offering lower autofluorescence and minimal photoinduced damage, the development of effective and multifunctional MEF platforms in the near-infrared (NIR) region, is particularly desirable. In this work, the enhancement of NIR fluorescence caused by interaction with regular arrays of cylindrical gold (Au) nanoparticles (nanodiscs), fabricated through nanosphere lithography, is reported. Significant MEF of up to 235 times is obtained, with tuneable enhancement factors. The effect of array structure on fluorescence enhancement is investigated by semi-quantitatively de-convoluting excitation enhancement from emission enhancement, and modelling the local electric field enhancement. By considering arrays of Au nanodiscs with the same extinction maximum, it is shown that the excitation enhancement, due to increased electric field, is not significantly different for the particle sizes and separation distances considered. Rather, it is seen that the emission from the fluorophore is strongly enhanced, and is dependent on the topography, in particular particle size. The results show that the structural characteristics of Au nanodisc arrays can be manipulated to tune their enhancement factor, and hence their sensitivity.

  11. Gold nanodisc arrays as near infrared metal-enhanced fluorescence platforms with tuneable enhancement factors

    KAUST Repository

    Pang, J.

    2016-12-28

    Metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF) is a physical effect through which the near-field interaction of fluorophores with metallic nanoparticles can lead to large fluorescence enhancement. MEF can be exploited in many fluorescence-based biomedical applications, with potentially significant improvement in detection sensitivity and contrast enhancement. Offering lower autofluorescence and minimal photoinduced damage, the development of effective and multifunctional MEF platforms in the near-infrared (NIR) region, is particularly desirable. In this work, the enhancement of NIR fluorescence caused by interaction with regular arrays of cylindrical gold (Au) nanoparticles (nanodiscs), fabricated through nanosphere lithography, is reported. Significant MEF of up to 235 times is obtained, with tuneable enhancement factors. The effect of array structure on fluorescence enhancement is investigated by semi-quantitatively de-convoluting excitation enhancement from emission enhancement, and modelling the local electric field enhancement. By considering arrays of Au nanodiscs with the same extinction maximum, it is shown that the excitation enhancement, due to increased electric field, is not significantly different for the particle sizes and separation distances considered. Rather, it is seen that the emission from the fluorophore is strongly enhanced, and is dependent on the topography, in particular particle size. The results show that the structural characteristics of Au nanodisc arrays can be manipulated to tune their enhancement factor, and hence their sensitivity.

  12. Interactive Workspaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Preben Holst

    augmented reality, interactive building elements, and mobile devices to support new ways of working in a diversity of application domains with work situations ranging from individual work, through local collaboration, to distributed collaboration. The work situations may take place in offices/project rooms......Many application domains such as architecture, engineering, industrial design, city planning, environmental supervision, health care etc. share the properties of users working collaboratively with complex mixtures of physical and digital materials. Studies in such domains show that it is hard...... to maintain and integrate these heterogeneous materials in traditional desktop computing environments. Our thesis is that pervasive computing technologies can be developed to support a more natural user collaboration in a rich variety of application. This may be achieved by going beyond the traditional...

  13. Electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosanac, Slobodan Danko

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to theoretical methods used in the extreme circumstances of very strong electromagnetic fields. The development of high power lasers, ultrafast processes, manipulation of electromagnetic fields and the use of very fast charged particles interacting with other charges requires an adequate theoretical description. Because of the very strong electromagnetic field, traditional theoretical approaches, which have primarily a perturbative character, have to be replaced by descriptions going beyond them. In the book an extension of the semi-classical radiation theory and classical dynamics for particles is performed to analyze single charged atoms and dipoles submitted to electromagnetic pulses. Special attention is given to the important problem of field reaction and controlling dynamics of charges by an electromagnetic field.

  14. Electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1980-10-01

    A point of view of the electroweak interaction is presented. It begins phenomenologically and moves in stages toward the conventional gauge theory formalism containing elementary scalar Higgs-fields and then beyond. The purpose in so doing is that the success of the standard SU(2) x U(1) theory in accounting for low energy phenomena need not automatically imply success at high energies. It is deemed unlikely by most theorists that the predicted W +- or Z 0 does not exist or does not have the mass and/or couplings anticipated in the standard model. However, the odds that the standard predictions will work are not 100%. Therefore there is some reason to look at the subject as one would were he forced by a wrong experimental outcome - to go back to fundamentals and ascertain what is the minimal amount of theory necessary to account for the data

  15. Visible-light photoactivity of plasmonic silver supported on mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticles (Ag-MTN) for enhanced degradation of 2-chlorophenol: Limitation of Ag-Ti interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaafar, N.F.; Jalil, A.A.; Triwahyono, S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag 0 loaded on MTN was prepared by a direct in-situ electrochemical method. • The introduction of Ag 0 lowers the band gap and increases the number of OV and TSD. • Ag 0 acted as an electrons trapper and also a plasmonic sensitizer. • The formation of Ti-O-Ag in 10 wt% Ag-MTN decreased the amount of Ag 0 , TSD and OV. • 5 wt% Ag-MTN gave the highest percentage of photodegradation of 2-CP. - Abstract: Various weight loadings of Ag (1–10 wt.%) were introduced to mesoporous titania nanoparticles (MTN) via a direct in-situ electrochemical method. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, surface area analysis, FTIR, ESR, FESEM-EDX and TEM. Characterization results indicated that the introduction of Ag onto MTN decreased the particles size and band gap of the MTN while increasing the number of oxygen vacancies (OV) and Ti 3+ site defects (TSD). The activity performance of Ag-MTN on photodegradation of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) under visible light irradiation was in the following order: 5 wt% Ag-MTN> 1 wt% Ag-MTN > MTN > 10 wt% Ag-MTN, with degradation percentages of 97, 88, 80 and 63%, respectively. The synergistic effect between Ag 0 and MTN seemed to play an important role in the system. The Ag0 acted as both an electron trap and a plasmonic sensitizer which suppressed the electron-hole recombination, while OV and TSD in the MTN accelerated the production of hydroxyl radicals for enhanced degradation of 2-CP. However, the formation of Ti-O-Ag in 10 wt% Ag-MTN was found to decrease the photoactivity due to the decrease in the formation of Ag 0 , TSD and OV as well as the increase in band gap energy. The photodegradation of 5 wt% Ag-MTN followed a pseudo-first-order Langmuir- Hinshelwood model and the catalyst was still stable after five cycles.

  16. Enhanced Antibacterial Activity of Ent-Labdane Derivatives of Salvic Acid (7α-Hydroxy-8(17)-ent-Labden-15-Oic Acid): Effect of Lipophilicity and the Hydrogen Bonding Role in Bacterial Membrane Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría, Javier; Urzúa, Alejandro; Sanhueza, Loreto; Wilkens, Marcela

    2017-06-23

    In the present study, the antibacterial activity of several ent -labdane derivatives of salvic acid (7α-hydroxy-8(17)- ent -labden-15-oic acid) was evaluated in vitro against the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus . For all of the compounds, the antibacterial activity was expressed as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in liquid media and minimum inhibitory amount (MIA) in solid media. Structure activity relationships (SAR) were employed to correlate the effect of the calculated lipophilicity parameters (logP ow ) on the inhibitory activity. Employing a phospholipidic bilayer (POPG) as a bacterial membrane model, ent -labdane-membrane interactions were simulated utilizing docking studies. The results indicate that (i) the presence of a carboxylic acid in the C-15 position, which acted as a hydrogen-bond donor (HBD), was essential for the antibacterial activity of the ent -labdanes; (ii) an increase in the length of the acylated chain at the C-7 position improved the antibacterial activity until an optimum length of five carbon atoms was reached; (iii) an increase in the length of the acylated chain by more than five carbon atoms resulted in a dramatic decrease in activity, which completely disappeared in acyl chains of more than nine carbon atoms; and (iv) the structural factors described above, including one HBD at C-15 and a hexanoyloxi moiety at C-7, had a good fit to a specific lipophilic range and antibacterial activity. The lipophilicity parameter has a predictive characteristic feature on the antibacterial activity of this class of compounds, to be considered in the design of new biologically active molecules.

  17. Designing "Interaction": How Do Interaction Design Students Address Interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlgren, Klas; Ramberg, Robert; Artman, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Interaction design is usually described as being concerned with interactions with and through artifacts but independent of a specific implementation. Design work has been characterized as a conversation between the designer and the situation and this conversation poses a particular challenge for interaction design as interactions can be elusive…

  18. Visible-light photoactivity of plasmonic silver supported on mesoporous TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (Ag-MTN) for enhanced degradation of 2-chlorophenol: Limitation of Ag-Ti interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaafar, N.F. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Jalil, A.A., E-mail: aishahaj@utm.my [Centre of Hydrogen Energy, Institute of Future Energy, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Triwahyono, S. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Centre for Sustainable Nanomaterials, Ibnu Sina Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Ag{sup 0} loaded on MTN was prepared by a direct in-situ electrochemical method. • The introduction of Ag{sup 0} lowers the band gap and increases the number of OV and TSD. • Ag{sup 0} acted as an electrons trapper and also a plasmonic sensitizer. • The formation of Ti-O-Ag in 10 wt% Ag-MTN decreased the amount of Ag{sup 0}, TSD and OV. • 5 wt% Ag-MTN gave the highest percentage of photodegradation of 2-CP. - Abstract: Various weight loadings of Ag (1–10 wt.%) were introduced to mesoporous titania nanoparticles (MTN) via a direct in-situ electrochemical method. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, surface area analysis, FTIR, ESR, FESEM-EDX and TEM. Characterization results indicated that the introduction of Ag onto MTN decreased the particles size and band gap of the MTN while increasing the number of oxygen vacancies (OV) and Ti{sup 3+} site defects (TSD). The activity performance of Ag-MTN on photodegradation of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) under visible light irradiation was in the following order: 5 wt% Ag-MTN> 1 wt% Ag-MTN > MTN > 10 wt% Ag-MTN, with degradation percentages of 97, 88, 80 and 63%, respectively. The synergistic effect between Ag{sup 0} and MTN seemed to play an important role in the system. The Ag0 acted as both an electron trap and a plasmonic sensitizer which suppressed the electron-hole recombination, while OV and TSD in the MTN accelerated the production of hydroxyl radicals for enhanced degradation of 2-CP. However, the formation of Ti-O-Ag in 10 wt% Ag-MTN was found to decrease the photoactivity due to the decrease in the formation of Ag{sup 0}, TSD and OV as well as the increase in band gap energy. The photodegradation of 5 wt% Ag-MTN followed a pseudo-first-order Langmuir- Hinshelwood model and the catalyst was still stable after five cycles.

  19. Doing, using, interacting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordin, Sara; Hjalager, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    of innovation processes: science, technology, and innovation (STI) and doing, using, and interacting (DUI). DUI appears to capture the essence of innovation in tourism enterprises better than STI because it acknowledges the intrinsic nature of services and the typical size and working modes of touristic actors......Innovation is a critical factor for long-term economic development, including in tourism. This chapter examines the processes that lead to new products and services in a tourism context. It does so based on two commonly referred to modes of innovation (Jensen et al., 2007); that is, two types....... The case study of Icehotel illustrates how working in partnerships and in close cooperation with customers enhances the advantages of the DUI model. The handling of externally induced events and difficulties and the critical partnerships are better understood through the DUI than through the STI lens...

  20. Kolmogorov's constant and local interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraichnan, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    Suppose that all the wave-vector triad interactions that involve no wavenumber ratio that exceeds β are removed from the Navier--Stokes equation. Within a class of closures, the paradoxical effect is to enhance energy cascade through the Kolmogorov inertial range for 1<β<β/sub c/, where β/sub c/ may be as large as 8. This may have implications with regard to force-free structures in the true Navier--Stokes dynamics