Sample records for enhanced heat recovery

  1. Ventilation with heat recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend


    This paper presents the experiences from the use of ventilation with heat recovery in several experimental single-family houses developed and built within the last four years to meet the new Danish energy requirements of 2005. Included are descriptions of the ventilation system components...... and the main functional demands as well as measurements of the thermal efficiency, electricity consumptions and building air tightness. The paper addresses the aspects of minimizing the heat loss from the duct system and the heat recovery unit (when placed in an unheated attic space) in order to obtain...

  2. Heat Recovery from Multiple-Fracture Enhanced Geothermal Systems: The Effect of Thermoelastic Fracture Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vik, Hedda Slatlem; Salimzadeh, Saeed; Nick, Hamid


    This study investigates the effect of thermoelastic interactions between multiple parallel fractures on energy production from a multiple-fracture enhanced geothermal system. A coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical finite element model has been developed that accounts for non-isothermal fluid flow within...... increased to maximise the net energy production from the system. Otherwise, the multiple-fracture system fails to improve the energy recovery from the geothermal reservoir, as initially intended....

  3. Waste heat recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Zigan, James A.


    A waste heat recovery system includes a Rankine cycle (RC) circuit having a pump, a boiler, an energy converter, and a condenser fluidly coupled via conduits in that order, to provide additional work. The additional work is fed to an input of a gearbox assembly including a capacity for oil by mechanically coupling to the energy converter to a gear assembly. An interface is positioned between the RC circuit and the gearbox assembly to partially restrict movement of oil present in the gear assembly into the RC circuit and partially restrict movement of working fluid present in the RC circuit into the gear assembly. An oil return line is fluidly connected to at least one of the conduits fluidly coupling the RC components to one another and is operable to return to the gear assembly oil that has moved across the interface from the gear assembly to the RC circuit.

  4. Heat recovery with milk cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindt, P.


    Considerable enregy costs in the milk industry come from hot water preparation. Simultaneously, surplus heat results from the milk cooling process. Heat recovery systems are described, and cost benefits will be compared with investment costs. Such systems work economically for operations with more than 25 cows; the amortization period here is between four and five years.

  5. Heat recovery enhancement in HENs using a combinatorial approach of paths combination and process streams' temperature flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelbagi Osman


    Full Text Available Current economic uncertainties and tighter environmental regulations has led industries to consider energy conservation projects more seriously. In this paper, the option of varying the process stream temperature has been suggested as a mean of increasing heat recovery for heat exchanger networks (HEN. Alternatives are generated and assessed using a developed approach. Essentially, the approach involves systematic steps in varying the Hot and/or Cold streams' temperature for each stream in a way that increases the heat recovery approach temperature (HRAT, thus allowing more heat to be recovered. Using the combinatorial method of paths combinations, the adjustment of heat loads for hot and cold utilities from the heat load shifting through the heat exchanger network could be made and assessed accordingly. The changes in temperature made to the streams while exploring each alternative has to be kept within small magnitude i.e., around 1–5 °C. A user friendly computer program has been developed for performing the approach in view of the significant number of iterations required. An example is used in this paper to demonstrate the application of the developed approach.

  6. Heat recovery equipment for engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segaser, C.L.


    The recovery and use of waste heat from prime movers is an important consideration for evaluating an on-site power system, since it is the basic factor that makes possible a substantial increase in fuel-use efficiency. The equipment usually employed to recover waste heat can be categorized as: (a) shell-and-tube type heat exchangers, (b) radiator-type heat exchangers, (c) exhaust gas boilers for the generation of pressurized hot water and/or steam, (d) steam separators, and (e) combined packaged units for ebulliently cooled internal combustion piston engines. The functional requirements and cost considerations involved in applying these devices for the recovery of waste heat from various types of prime-movers considered for application in the ICES Systems Engineering Program are examined.

  7. Enhanced recovery under constrained conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mungan, N. (AEC Oil and Gas Co. (US))


    This article discusses conditions favorable for the application of enhanced recovery activities in the energy industry. The author focuses on the enhanced recovery of oil. The estimated worldwide in-place gas and oil volumes by geographic areas are estimated.

  8. Heat recovery system series arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffman, Justin P.; Welch, Andrew M.; Dawson, Gregory R.; Minor, Eric N.


    The present disclosure is directed to heat recovery systems that employ two or more organic Rankine cycle (ORC) units disposed in series. According to certain embodiments, each ORC unit includes an evaporator that heats an organic working fluid, a turbine generator set that expands the working fluid to generate electricity, a condenser that cools the working fluid, and a pump that returns the working fluid to the evaporator. The heating fluid is directed through each evaporator to heat the working fluid circulating within each ORC unit, and the cooling fluid is directed through each condenser to cool the working fluid circulating within each ORC unit. The heating fluid and the cooling fluid flow through the ORC units in series in the same or opposite directions.

  9. Toward a Heat Recovery Chimney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Pan


    Full Text Available The worldwide population increase and subsequent surge in energy demand leads electricity producers to increase supply in an attempt to generate larger profit margins. However, with Global Climate Change becoming a greater focus in engineering, it is critical for energy to be converted in as environmentally benign a way as possible. There are different sustainable methods to meet the energy demand. However, the focus of this research is in the area of Waste Heat Recovery. The waste heat stored in the exiting condenser cooling water is delivered to the air flow through a water-air cross flow heat exchanger. A converging thermal chimney structure is then applied to increase the velocity of the airflow. The accelerated air can be used to turn on the turbine-generator installed on the top the thermal chimney so that electricity can be generated. This system is effective in generating electricity from otherwise wasted heat.

  10. Microbial Heat Recovery Cell (MHRC) System Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This factsheet describes a project that aimed to develop a microbial heat recovery cell (MHRC) system that combines a microbial reverse electrodialysis technology with waste heat recovery to convert industrial effluents into electricity and hydrogen.

  11. Coping with heat stress during match-play tennis: Does an individualised hydration regimen enhance performance and recovery? (United States)

    Périard, Julien D; Racinais, Sebastien; Knez, Wade L; Herrera, Christopher P; Christian, Ryan J; Girard, Olivier


    Objectives To determine whether an individualised hydration regimen reduces thermal, physiological and perceptual strain during match-play tennis in the heat, and minimises alterations in neuromuscular function and physical performance postmatch and into recovery. Methods 10 men undertook two matches for an effective playing time (ball in play) of 20 min (∼113 min) in ∼37°C and ∼33% RH conditions. Participants consumed fluids ad libitum during the first match (HOT) and followed a hydration regimen (HYD) in the second match based on undertaking play euhydrated, standardising sodium intake and minimising body mass losses. Results HYD improved prematch urine specific gravity (1.013±0.006 vs 1.021±0.009 g/mL; phydration regimen and ad libitum fluid consumption allowed for minimal body mass losses (<1%). However, undertaking match-play in a euhydrated state attenuated thermal, physiological and perceptual strain. Maximal voluntary strength in the lower limbs and repeated-sprint ability deteriorated similarly in both conditions, but were restored within 24 h. PMID:24668383

  12. Beyond enhanced recovery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christoffer C; Kehlet, Henrik


    We read with great interest the special article by Smart and Daniels discussing several important topics of perioperative care, especially regarding lack of consensus on the definition of "postoperative recovery", and need for further understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms. However, we disagree...

  13. Chemically enhanced in situ recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, T. [CH2M Hill, Denver, CO (United States); Pitts, M.; Wyatt, K. [Surtek, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others


    Chemically enhanced recovery is a promising alternative to current technologies for management of subsurface releases of organic liquids. Through the inclusion of surfactants, solvents, polymers, and/or alkaline agents to a waterflood, the transport of targeted organic compounds can be increased and rates of recovery enhanced. By far, the vast majority of work done in the field of chemically enhanced recovery has been at a laboratory scale. The following text focuses on chemically enhanced recovery from a field application perspective with emphasis given to chlorinated solvents in a low permeability setting. While chlorinated solvents are emphasized, issues discussed are also relevant to organic liquids less dense than water such as petroleum products. Topics reviewed include: (1) Description of technology; (2) General technology considerations; (3) Low permeability media considerations; (4) Cost and reliability considerations; (5) Commercial availability; and (6) Case histories. Through this paper an appreciation is developed of both the potential and limitations of chemically enhanced recovery. Excluded from the scope of this paper is the in situ destruction of organic compounds through processes such as chemical or biological oxidation, chemically enhanced recovery of inorganic compounds, and ex situ soil treatment processes. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) with CO2 as heat transmission fluid--A scheme for combining recovery of renewable energy with geologic storage of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, K.; Spycher, N.


    It has been suggested that enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) may be operated with supercritical CO{sub 2} instead of water as heat transmission fluid (D.W. Brown, 2000). Such a scheme could combine recovery of geothermal energy with simultaneous geologic storage of CO{sub 2}, a greenhouse gas. At geothermal temperature and pressure conditions of interest, the flow and heat transfer behavior of CO{sub 2} would be considerably different from water, and chemical interactions between CO{sub 2} and reservoir rocks would also be quite different from aqueous fluids. This paper summarizes our research to date into fluid flow and heat transfer aspects of operating EGS with CO{sub 2}. (Chemical aspects of EGS with CO{sub 2} are discussed in a companion paper; Xu and Pruess, 2010.) Our modeling studies indicate that CO{sub 2} would achieve heat extraction at larger rates than aqueous fluids. The development of an EGS-CO{sub 2} reservoir would require replacement of the pore water by CO{sub 2} through persistent injection. We find that in a fractured reservoir, CO{sub 2} breakthrough at production wells would occur rapidly, within a few weeks of starting CO{sub 2} injection. Subsequently a two-phase water-CO{sub 2} mixture would be produced for a few years,followed by production of a single phase of supercritical CO{sub 2}. Even after single-phase production conditions are reached,significant dissolved water concentrations will persist in the CO{sub 2} stream for many years. The presence of dissolved water in the production stream has negligible impact on mass flow and heat transfer rates.

  15. Heat pipes for industrial waste heat recovery (United States)

    Merrigan, M. A.


    Development work on the high temperature ceramic recuperator at Los Alamos National Laboratory is described and involved material investigations, fabrication methods development, compatibility tests, heat pipe operation, and the modeling of application conditions based on current industrial usage. Solid ceramic heat pipes, ceramic coated refractory pipes, and high-temperature oxide protected metallic pipes are investigated. Economic studies of the use of heat pipe based recuperators in industrial furnaces are conducted and payback periods determined as a function of material, fabrication, and installation cost.

  16. Enhancing efficiency and power output of gas turbines using either renewable energy or heat recovery cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasser, A.E.M. [Higher Technological Inst., Tenth of Ramadan (Egypt). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    An absorption system to cool intake air to the compressor of an air conditioning system was presented. The system used both solar energy and the waste heat of the exhaust gases to obtain higher temperatures during the summer months. The lithium bromide-water absorption system increased power output by more than 20 per cent during the summer months without consuming more fuel. The system was designed to conserve energy and output power in gas turbine power stations. The system operated by using hot effluent gases leaving the turbine and entered the flue stacks, where heat exchangers recovered the heat energy. Excess electricity produced by the turbine was then used to cool the ambient air before it entered the compressor. Studies have confirmed that the system is financially viable and suited for use in Arabian Gulf countries where temperatures regularly exceed 40 degrees C. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Curcumin treatment enhances islet recovery by induction of heat shock response proteins, Hsp70 and heme oxygenase-1, during cryopreservation. (United States)

    Kanitkar, Meghana; Bhonde, Ramesh R


    Limited recovery of islets post-cryopreservation influences graft survival and transplantation efficiency during diabetes treatment. As curcumin, a potent antioxidant/radical scavenging compound, protects islets against beta cell toxins, we hypothesized that inclusion of curcumin during cryopreservation or during post-thaw culture or both may rescue islets from cryoinjury. To test the effect of curcumin inclusion on islet recovery murine islets were isolated by the collagenase digestion, cultured for 48 h, cryopreserved using dimethylsulphoxide as cryoprotectant -- with or without curcumin (10 microM) -- and then slow cooled to -40 degrees C before immersing them in liquid nitrogen for 7 days. Following rapid thawing with sucrose gradient and 24 h post-thaw culture -- in presence or absence of curcumin (10 microM) -- islet viability and functionality were determined. Islet recovery in curcumin treated groups was significantly higher than in groups where islets were cryopreserved without curcumin. Islets cryopreserved with curcumin also showed more intact islets as well as better morphology as compared to islets cryopreserved without curcumin. Curcumin treated islets also showed significant inhibition of ROS generation as compared to islets cryopreserved without curcumin. Glucose responsiveness and insulin secretion in islets cryopreserved with curcumin was equal to that of the freshly isolated islets as against islets cryopreserved without curcumin. Elevated level of Hsp 70 and HO-1 were observed in islets cryopreserved with curcumin and may contribute to curcumin-induced islet rescue. Hence, we conclude that inclusion of curcumin into cryopreservation medium inhibits ROS generation and corresponding islet damage and dysfunction.

  18. Rational use of energy via heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groscurth, H.M. (Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER), Stuttgart Univ. (Germany))


    The linear, stochastic optimization model ECCO has been developed as a computerized planning tool for case studies on integrated energy management involving heat recovery by heat exchanger networks, heat pumps and cogeneration. The procedure of stochastic optimization is described in detail. For a model city, which consists of three districts with together nearly 20,000 inhabitants and 4 industrial companies, we obtain the following results: Via heat recovery and cogeneration, the primary energy input into the energy system of the model city may be reduced by 25% compared to a status quo scenario. At the same time, the CO[sub 2]-emissions are reduced by 31% with some fuel switching from coal to natural gas being involved. Introducing waste heat recovery and cogeneration into the model city at the current low energy price level would increase the cost of the energy system by at least 41% with respect to the status quo. (orig./BWI)

  19. Design manual. [High temperature heat pump for heat recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, T.E.; Chancellor, P.D.; Dyer, D.F.; Maples, G.


    The design and performance of a waste heat recovery system which utilizes a high temperature heat pump and which is intended for use in those industries incorporating indirect drying processes are described. It is estimated that use of this heat recovery system in the paper, pulp, and textile industries in the US could save 3.9 x 10/sup 14/ Btu/yr. Information is included on over all and component design for the heat pump system, comparison of prime movers for powering the compressor, control equipment, and system economics. (LCL)

  20. Waste heat recovery for offshore applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Kandepu, Rambabu; Haglind, Fredrik


    energy in the gas turbine off-gas using heat exchangers, and the recovered thermal energy acts as heat source for some of the heat loads on the platform. The amount of the recovered thermal energy depends on the heat loads and thus the full potential of waste heat recovery units may not be utilized......With increasing incentives for reducing the CO2 emissions offshore, optimization of energy usage on offshore platforms has become a focus area. Most of offshore oil and gas platforms use gas turbines to support the electrical demand on the platform. It is common to operate a gas turbine mostly...... vary in the range 20-30%. There are several technologies available for onshore gas turbines (and low/medium heat sources) to convert the waste heat into electricity. For offshore applications it is not economical and practical to have a steam bottoming cycle to increase the efficiency of electricity...

  1. Improving efficiency of heat recovery steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V. [ABCO Industries, Abilene, TX (United States)


    Gas Turbine Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSGs) are widely used in cogeneration and combined cycle plants. Single pressure HRSGs are preferred in small capacity units, while larger units can justify multiple pressure level steam generation, which improves the efficiency of energy recovery. This paper reviews a few methods of improving the efficiency of single and multiple pressure HRSGs, which may be of interest to consultants and plant engineers, who are planning new cogeneration projects.

  2. Solid waste utilization: incineration with heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boegly, W.J. Jr.


    As a part of the Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES) Program, Technology Evaluations, this evaluation considers the potential utilization of municipal solid wastes as an energy source by use of incineration with heat recovery. Subjects covered include costs, design data, inputs and outputs, and operational problems. Two generic types of heat recovery incinerators are evaluated. The first type, called a waterwall incinerator, is one in which heat is recovered directly from the furnace using water circulated through tubes imbedded in the furnace walls. This design normally is used for larger installations (>200 tons/day). The second type, a starved-air incinerator is used mainly in smaller sizes (<100 tons/day). Burning is performed in the incinerator, and heat recovery is obtained by the use of heat exchangers on the flue gases from the incinerator. Currently there are not many installations of either type in the United States; however, interest in this form of solid-waste handling appears to be increasing.

  3. Concept of Heat Recovery from Exhaust Gases (United States)

    Bukowska, Maria; Nowak, Krzysztof; Proszak-Miąsik, Danuta; Rabczak, Sławomir


    The theme of the article is to determine the possibility of waste heat recovery and use it to prepare hot water. The scope includes a description of the existing sample of coal-fired boiler plant, the analysis of working condition and heat recovery proposals. For this purpose, a series of calculations necessary to identify the energy effect of exhaust temperature decreasing and transferring recovery heat to hot water processing. Heat recover solutions from the exhaust gases channel between boiler and chimney section were proposed. Estimation for the cost-effectiveness of such a solution was made. All calculations and analysis were performed for typical Polish conditions, for coal-fired boiler plant. Typicality of this solution is manifested by the volatility of the load during the year, due to distribution of heat for heating and hot water, determining the load variation during the day. Analysed system of three boilers in case of load variation allows to operational flexibility and adaptation of the boilers load to the current heat demand. This adaptation requires changes in the operating conditions of boilers and in particular assurance of properly conditions for the combustion of fuel. These conditions have an impact on the existing thermal loss and the overall efficiency of the boiler plant. On the boiler plant efficiency affects particularly exhaust gas temperature and the excess air factor. Increasing the efficiency of boilers plant is possible to reach by following actions: limiting the excess air factor in coal combustion process in boilers and using an additional heat exchanger in the exhaust gas channel outside of boilers (economizer) intended to preheat the hot water.

  4. Nutritional Supplements to Enhance Recovery (United States)

    Ziegenfuss, Tim N.; Landis, Jamie; Greenwood, Mike

    The ability to recover from intense exercise often separates good athletes from great ones. In the past, "recovery" often simply included rest, physical modalities (e.g., massage, hydration therapy) and meeting basic nutritional needs for fluid and energy intake. Today, athletes have a number of additional options to help them recover from high intensity training, one of which includes the judicious use of dietary supplements. This chapter briefly reviews nutritional strategies that have a strong theoretical background for enhancing rehydration/electrolyte balance, replenishing energy reserves, minimizing oxidative damage, and stimulating muscle repair.

  5. Advances in heat transfer enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Sujoy Kumar; Sundén, Bengt; Wu, Zan


    This Brief addresses the phenomena of heat transfer enhancement. A companion edition in the SpringerBrief Subseries on Thermal Engineering and Applied Science to three other monographs including “Critical Heat Flux in Flow Boiling in Microchannels,” this volume is idea for professionals, researchers, and graduate students concerned with electronic cooling.

  6. Cogeneration from glass furnace waste heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hnat, J.G.; Cutting, J.C.; Patten, J.S.


    In glass manufacturing 70% of the total energy utilized is consumed in the melting process. Three basic furnaces are in use: regenerative, recuperative, and direct fired design. The present paper focuses on secondary heat recovery from regenerative furnaces. A diagram of a typical regenerative furnace is given. Three recovery bottoming cycles were evaluated as part of a comparative systems analysis: steam Rankine Cycle (SRC), Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), and pressurized Brayton cycle. Each cycle is defined and schematicized. The net power capabilities of the three different systems are summarized. Cost comparisons and payback period comparisons are made. Organic Rankine cycle provides the best opportunity for cogeneration for all the flue gas mass flow rates considered. With high temperatures, the Brayton cycle has the shortest payback period potential, but site-specific economics need to be considered.

  7. Enhanced Recovery after Vascular Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena D. Stojanovic


    Full Text Available The beginnings of the enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS program were first developed for patients in colorectal surgery, and after it was established as the standard of care in this surgical field, it began to be applied in many others surgical areas. This is multimodal, evidence-based approach program and includes simultaneous optimization of preoperative status of patients, adequate selection of surgical procedure and postoperative management. The aim of this program is to reduce complications, the length of hospital stay and to improve the patients outcome. Over the past decades, special attention was directed to the postoperative management in vascular surgery, especially after major vascular surgery because of the great risk of multiorgan failure, such as: respiratory failure, myocardial infarction, hemodynamic instability, coagulopathy, renal failure, neurological disorders, and intra-abdominal complications. Although a lot of effort was put into it, there is no unique acceptable program for ERAS in this surgical field, and there is still a need to point out the factors responsible for postoperative outcomes of these patients. So far, it is known that special attention should be paid to already existing diseases, type and the duration of the surgical intervention, hemodynamic and fluid management, nutrition, pain management, and early mobilization of patients.

  8. Enhanced recovery after bariatric surgery. (United States)

    Alvarez, Adrian; Goudra, Basavana G; Singh, Preet Mohinder


    Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) methodology has demonstrated consistent benefits in patients undergoing colorectal, urological and thoracic surgeries. Principles of these protocols and their advantages are expected to extend into other surgical specialties such as bariatric surgery. In this review, we summarize the components of ERAS protocols for bariatric surgery and present the evidence on the emerging role of ERAS principles in obese patients. Many recent trials have evaluated ERAS protocols for bariatric surgery. Most of these protocols originate from modifications within the individual hospital-based conventional perioperative care strategies. Studies demonstrate that 'ERAS based' care requires evidence-based modifications in all preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative phase. Despite a lack of standardization in protocols at present, benefits such as decreased length of hospital stay, rapid patient turnover, shorter operating room times and lower healthcare costs have been well demonstrated repeatedly. ERAS for bariatric surgery is in its early phase. Nevertheless, literature supports its role in improving perioperative outcomes compared with conventional care in this scenario. Evidence-based protocols, multidisciplinary teamwork and meticulous audit seem to be the key factors for success in ERAS methodology.

  9. Technologies and countermeasures for gas recovery enhancement


    Ping, Guo; Shasha, Jing; Caizhen, Peng


    Since 2000, China has been ranked as one of the top countries in gas production. Nevertheless, the domestic gas production can hardly satisfy the need of national economic development. Besides, an increasing number of gas fields have come to the middle or late development stages, and most gas reservoirs have low recovery efficiency due to the low permeability and water drive nature. Therefore, gas recovery enhancement has become an urgent issue. At present, the oil recovery enhancement is wel...

  10. Waste heat recovery technologies for offshore platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Benato, Alberto; Scolari, E.


    This article aims at finding the most suitable waste heat recovery technology for existing and future offshore facilities. The technologies considered in this work are the steam Rankine cycle, the air bottoming cycle and the organic Rankine cycle. A multi-objective optimization approach is employed...... to attain optimal designs for each bottoming unit by selecting specific functions tailored to the oil and gas sector, i.e. yearly CO2 emissions, weight and economic revenue. The test case is the gas turbine-based power system serving an offshore platform in the North Sea. Results indicate that the organic...

  11. Design and performance of a thermosiphon heat recovery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Mulaweh, H.I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University at Fort Wayne, 2101 E. Coliseum Blvd., Fort Wayne, IN 46805 (United States)


    The design and performance of a thermosiphon heat recovery system that recovers heat rejected from an air conditioner is described by presenting some experimental test data. This paper presents an experimental setup that was designed, developed, and constructed to help the undergraduate mechanical engineering students in understanding the basic heat transfer processes by utilizing real life applications such as using waste heat from a window type air conditioner to heat water for residential and commercial use. Heat recovery from an air conditioner by thermosiphon is attractive because it eliminates the need for a circulating pump. Results indicate that the design of the thermosiphon heat recovery system was a success. [Author].

  12. Manufacturing A Refrigerator with Heat Recovery Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Mohammed Kadhim


    refrigerator with heat recovery cabinet by 20% more than that of the operation of refrigerator only. This improvement is due to the reduction in the condenser exit temperature by 4 to 6 C˚, and the super heat removing process in reheating cabinet. The temperature of the cabinet reachs to 60 C˚ which is a sufficient for the food heating. A small amount of refrigerant pressure reduction due to these additions, and its effect on the preformace of the refrigerator  may be not considerable.

  13. Enhancing the thermal response of latent heat storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugaje, I.M. [Ahmadu Bello Univ., Zaria (Nigeria)


    This paper reports experiments carried out to investigate methods of enhancing the thermal response of paraffin wax heat storage tubes by incorporation of aluminium thermal conductivity promoters of various designs into the body of the wax. Heating and cooling runs were carried out and phase change times determined. It was found that the phase change time reduced significantly by orders of up to 2.2 in energy storage (heating) and 4.2 in energy recovery (cooling). Internal fins performed much better than the star matrices and expanded aluminium performed better than promoters made from aluminium sheet metal in both storage and recovery of heat. (author)

  14. ENHANCE: Enhancing Brain Plasticity for Sensorimotor Recovery in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ENHANCE: Enhancing Brain Plasticity for Sensorimotor Recovery in Spastic Hemiparesis. Often, people who have had a stroke experience problems recovering the use of their arms, and the issue may persist for a long time. This research will test new ways to boost recovery using non-painful brain stimulation and ...

  15. Simplify heat recovery steam generator evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V. (ABCO Industries, Abilene, TX (US))


    Heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs) are widely used in process and power plants, refineries and in several cogeneration/combined cycle systems. They are usually designed for a set of gas and steam conditions but often operate under different parameters due to plant constraints, steam demand, different ambient conditions (which affect the gas flow and exhaust gas temperature in a gas turbine plant), etc. As a result, the gas and steam temperature profiles in the HRSG, steam production and the steam temperature differ from the design conditions, affecting the entire plant performance and economics. Also, consultants and process engineers who are involved in evaluating the performance of the steam system as a whole, often would like to simulate the performance of an HRSG under different gas flows, inlet gas temperature and analysis, steam pressure and feed water temperature to optimize the entire steam system and select proper auxiliaries such as steam turbines, condensers, deaerators, etc.

  16. Viability of Biopolymers for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sveistrup, Marte; van Mastrigt, Frank; Norrman, Jens; Picchioni, Francesco; Paso, Kristofer


    Xanthan gum and scleroglucan are assessed as environmentally friendly enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents. Viscometric and interfacial tension measurements show that the polysaccharides exhibit favorable viscosifying performance, robust shear tolerance, electrolyte tolerance, and moderate


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Baradey


    Full Text Available Energy conversion technologies, where waste heat recovery systems are included, have received significant attention in recent years due to reasons that include depletion of fossil fuel, increasing oil prices, changes in climatic conditions, and global warming. For low temperature applications, there are many sources of thermal waste heat, and several recovery systems and potential useful applications have been proposed by researchers [1-4]. In addition, many types of equipment are used to recover waste thermal energy from different systems at low, medium, and high temperature applications, such as heat exchangers, waste heat recovery boiler, thermo-electric generators, and recuperators. In this paper, the focus is on waste heat recovery from air conditioners, and an efficient application of these energy resources. Integration of solar energy with heat pump technologies and major factors that affect the feasibility of heat recovery systems have been studied and reviewed as well. KEYWORDS: waste heat recovery; heat pump.

  18. Performance and Reliability of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat Recovery Units (United States)


    Khalil, Zohir, and Farid (2010) investigated heat transfer related to swirling and non- swirling flows through sudden pipe expansions at constant pumping... swirl in air flow in a tube for a concentric double- pipe heat exchanger. The use of a snail entrance feature increased the Nusselt number in the...exhaust gas WHRU. 14. SUBJECT TERMS waste heat recovery, heat recovery performance, swirling flow , pressure drop penalty, temperature

  19. Waste water heat recovery appliance. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapin, H.D.; Armstrong, P.R.; Chapin, F.A.W.


    An efficient convective waste heat recovery heat exchanger was designed and tested. The prototype appliance was designed for use in laundromats and other small commercial operations which use large amounts of hot water. Information on general characteristics of the coin-op laundry business, energy use in laundromats, energy saving resources already in use, and the potential market for energy saving devices in laundromats was collected through a literature search and interviews with local laundromat operators in Fort Collins, Colorado. A brief survey of time-use patterns in two local laundromats was conducted. The results were used, with additional information from interviews with owners, as the basis for the statistical model developed. Mathematical models for the advanced and conventional types were developed and the resulting computer program listed. Computer simulations were made using a variety of parameters; for example, different load profiles, hold-up volumes, wall resistances, and wall areas. The computer simulation results are discussed with regard to the overall conclusions. Various materials were explored for use in fabricating the appliance. Resistance to corrosion, workability, and overall suitability for laundromat installations were considered for each material.

  20. Heat Recovery Apparatus for the Local Air Treatment


    Burlacu, Andrei; Mateescu, Theodor


    The present paper presents a heat-recovery apparatus with heat pipes, originally designed by the authors for the controlled mechanical ventila-tion systems to ensure the comfort in the insulated buildings. The paper highlights a close correlation between the heat pipes heat exchangers and the concepts of thermal comfort, energy economy, environment, etc.

  1. Heat Recovery Apparatus for the Local Air Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor Mateescu


    Full Text Available The present paper presents a heat-recovery apparatus with heat pipes, originally designed by the authors for the controlled mechanical ventila-tion systems to ensure the comfort in the insulated buildings. The paper highlights a close correlation between the heat pipes heat exchangers and the concepts of thermal comfort, energy economy, environment, etc.

  2. Waste heat recovery. Bottoming cycle alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paanu, T.; Niemi, S.; Rantanen, P.


    Based on its high efficiency, the diesel engine is the leading power source for several heavy-duty applications, such as marine installations, electricity production, on-road trucks and buses, and various off-road machines. Inherently, the high efficiency means low carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. Still today, one of the global challenges over the whole energy field is to further reduce greenhouse gas emissions to combat climate change, including the reduction of the CO{sub 2} emissions. This can be achieved by increasing the energy efficiency and energy savings, and by finding renewable options instead of conventional fossil energy sources. In this respect, the diesel engine provides a good starting point with a potential to achieve substantial improvements both in energy efficiency and emissions reduction. (FCEP 2010) Within the ongoing large Finnish research program Future Combustion Engine Power Plant (FCEP), one of the work packages concentrates on the energy efficiency of internal combustion engines. Technologies related to the improvement of energy efficiency are developed. The engine itself, waste heat recovery (WHR) systems, or power conversion are investigated. This study was part of the FCEP research program and focused particularly on the waste heat recovery systems with a target to find feasible solutions to increase the electricity production of diesel and gas engine driven power plants. At the same time, energy efficiency is improved, decreasing CO{sub 2} emissions. Diesel engines, due to their high combustion temperature and pressure, provide an energy conversion technology that is more efficient than any other thermal power device. Especially within the medium-speed range, large diesel and gas engines can reach electrical efficiencies of more than 45%. Nevertheless, the environmental concerns and increasing fuel prices push for continuous improvement in the energy efficiency. The WHR systems are seen as one of the most promising technologies

  3. Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan M.; Zhou, Nan


    Electricity produced by distributed energy resources (DER)located close to end-use loads has the potential to meet consumerrequirements more efficiently than the existing centralized grid.Installation of DER allows consumers to circumvent the costs associatedwith transmission congestion and other non-energy costs of electricitydelivery and potentially to take advantage of market opportunities topurchase energy when attractive. On-site, single-cycle thermal powergeneration is typically less efficient than central station generation,but by avoiding non-fuel costs of grid power and by utilizing combinedheat and power (CHP) applications, i.e., recovering heat from small-scaleon-site thermal generation to displace fuel purchases, DER can becomeattractive to a strictly cost-minimizing consumer. In previous efforts,the decisions facing typical commercial consumers have been addressedusing a mixed-integer linear program, the DER Customer Adoption Model(DER-CAM). Given the site s energy loads, utility tariff structure, andinformation (both technical and financial) on candidate DER technologies,DER-CAM minimizes the overall energy cost for a test year by selectingthe units to install and determining their hourly operating schedules. Inthis paper, the capabilities of DER-CAM are enhanced by the inclusion ofthe option to store recovered low-grade heat. By being able to keep aninventory of heat for use in subsequent periods, sites are able to lowercosts even further by reducing lucrative peak-shaving generation whilerelying on storage to meet heat loads. This and other effects of storageare demonstrated by analysis of five typical commercial buildings in SanFrancisco, California, USA, and an estimate of the cost per unit capacityof heat storage is calculated.

  4. Technologies and countermeasures for gas recovery enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Ping


    Full Text Available Since 2000, China has been ranked as one of the top countries in gas production. Nevertheless, the domestic gas production can hardly satisfy the need of national economic development. Besides, an increasing number of gas fields have come to the middle or late development stages, and most gas reservoirs have low recovery efficiency due to the low permeability and water drive nature. Therefore, gas recovery enhancement has become an urgent issue. At present, the oil recovery enhancement is well defined, and there are methods describing the remaining oil and a complete set of mature EOR (enhanced oil recovery technologies. However, the definition and description of EGR (enhanced gas recovery are still undermined, and the description method for the distribution of residual gas and EGR technologies are almost unavailable. In view of this, by reviewing a wealth of related literatures, we defined EGR and also described the remaining gas distribution based on the remaining gas abundance. In addition, collecting three typical types (low-permeability, condensate and edge/bottom water of major gas reservoirs developed both at home and abroad, we summarized the geological and development characteristics, and found out the obstructions in the development. In response, we concluded and analyzed the relevant technologies and methods for enhancing the gas recovery of such reservoirs, and proposed the suggestions about EGR technology development, which provides a significant reference and popularization basis for EGR measures in fields.

  5. Innovative use of membrane contactor as condenser for heat recovery in carbon capture. (United States)

    Yan, Shuiping; Zhao, Shuaifei; Wardhaugh, Leigh; Feron, Paul H M


    The gas-liquid membrane contactor generally used as a nonselective gas absorption enhancement device is innovatively proposed as a condenser for heat recovery in liquid-absorbent-based carbon capture. The membrane condenser is used as a heat exchanger to recover the latent heat of the exiting vapor from the desorber, and it can help achieve significant energy savings when proper membranes with high heat-transfer coefficients are used. Theoretical thermodynamic analysis of mass and heat transfer in the membrane condensation system shows that heat recovery increases dramatically as inlet gas temperature rises and outlet gas temperature falls. The optimal split mass flow rate is determined by the inlet gas temperature and the overall heat-transfer coefficient in the condensation system. The required membrane area is also strongly dependent on the overall heat-transfer coefficient, particularly at higher inlet gas temperatures. Mass transfer across the membrane has an insignificant effect on heat transfer and heat recovery, suggesting that membrane wetting may not be an issue when a membrane condenser is used for heat recovery. Our analysis provides important insights into the energy recovery performance of the membrane condensation system as well as selection of operational parameters, such as split mass flow rate and membrane area, thickness, and thermal conductivity.

  6. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsvik, T. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway); Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.


    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  7. Investigation and optimization of the depth of flue gas heat recovery in surface heat exchangers (United States)

    Bespalov, V. V.; Bespalov, V. I.; Melnikov, D. V.


    Economic issues associated with designing deep flue gas heat recovery units for natural gas-fired boilers are examined. The governing parameter affecting the performance and cost of surface-type condensing heat recovery heat exchangers is the heat transfer surface area. When firing natural gas, the heat recovery depth depends on the flue gas temperature at the condenser outlet and determines the amount of condensed water vapor. The effect of the outlet flue gas temperature in a heat recovery heat exchanger on the additionally recovered heat power is studied. A correlation has been derived enabling one to determine the best heat recovery depth (or the final cooling temperature) maximizing the anticipated reduced annual profit of a power enterprise from implementation of energy-saving measures. Results of optimization are presented for a surface-type condensing gas-air plate heat recovery heat exchanger for the climatic conditions and the economic situation in Tomsk. The predictions demonstrate that it is economically feasible to design similar heat recovery heat exchangers for a flue gas outlet temperature of 10°C. In this case, the payback period for the investment in the heat recovery heat exchanger will be 1.5 years. The effect of various factors on the optimal outlet flue gas temperature was analyzed. Most climatic, economical, or technological factors have a minor effect on the best outlet temperature, which remains between 5 and 20°C when varying the affecting factors. The derived correlation enables us to preliminary estimate the outlet (final) flue gas temperature that should be used in designing the heat transfer surface of a heat recovery heat exchanger for a gas-fired boiler as applied to the specific climatic conditions.

  8. Heat recovery from ground below the solar pond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganguly, S.; Date, Abhijit; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar


    The method of heat recovery from the ground below solar ponds is investigated in the present brief note. Solar ponds lose considerable amount of heat from its bottom to the ground due to temperature gradient between them. This waste heat from ground, which is at different temperature at different

  9. Design of heat-recovery and seed-recovery units in MHD power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, P.D.; Joubert, J.I.; Demski, R.J.; Bienstock, D.


    Crucial and limiting engineering and materials problems associated with the design of an MHD steam bottoming plant are discussed. Existing experimental and theoretical results on corrosion, fouling and deposits, potassium seed recovery and regeneration, are reviewed. The state of knowledge regarding the design of heat recovery and seed recovery units for coal-fired MHD plants is inadequate at the present time.

  10. Mechanical ventilation with heat recovery in arctic climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Svendsen, Svend


    Mechanical ventilations systems with highly effective heat recovery units in arctic climate have problems with condensing water from the extracted humid indoor air. If the condensing water freezes to ice in the heat recovery unit, the airflow rate will quickly diminish due to the increasing...... pressure drop. Preheating the inlet air (outdoor air) to a temperature just above 0ºC is typically used to solve the problem. To minimize the energy cost, a more efficient solution to the problem is therefore desirable. In this project a new design of a heat recovery unit has been developed to the low...

  11. Minewater heat recovery project. Final Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report consists of three sections: (1) Design, experimental testing and performance analysis of the 20-ft long DBHE (Downhole Bundle Heat Exchanger); (2) Modified design of mine water heat exchanger; and (3) Performance tests on mine water heat exchanger. Appendices summarize design calculations, discuss the scope of the work tasks, and present a diary of the progress throughout the research and development project.

  12. Heat transfer research on enhanced heating surfaces in pool boiling (United States)

    Kalawa, Wojciech; Wójcik, Tadeusz M.; Piasecka, Magdalena

    The paper focuses on the analysis of the enhanced surfaces in such applications as boiling heat transfer. The testing measurement module with enhanced heating surfaces was used for pool boiling research. Pool boiling experiments were conducted with distilled water at atmospheric pressure in the vessel using an enhanced sample as the bottom heating surface. The samples are soldered to a copper heating block of the round cross-section .They were placed: in the fluid (saturation temperature measurement), under the sample for temperature determination. A vessel made of four flat glass panes was used for visualization. The heated surfaces in contact with the fluid differed in roughness were smooth or enhanced. This paper analyzes the effects of the microstructured heated surface on the heat transfer coefficient. The results are presented as relationships between the heat transfer coefficient and the heat flux and as boiling curves. The experimental data obtained for the two types of enhanced heated surfaces was compared with the results recorded for the smooth heated surface. The highest local values of the heat transfer coefficient were reported for the enhanced surfaces.

  13. Identification of existing waste heat recovery and process improvement technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, R.L.; Dodge, R.E.; Smith, S.A.; Ames, K.R.


    General information is provided on waste heat recovery opportunities. The currently available equipment for high- and low-temperature applications are described. Other equipment related to wasteheat recovery equipment such as components, instruments and controls, and cleaning equipment is discussed briefly. A description of the microcomputer data base is included. Suppliers of waste heat equipment are mentioned throughout the report, with specific contacts, addresses, and telephone numbers provided in an Appendix.

  14. Investigations of waste heat recovery from bulk milk cooler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Sapali


    Full Text Available Bulk milk coolers are used to chill the milk from its harvest temperature of 35–4 °C to arrest the bacterial growth and maintain the quality of harvested milk. Milk chilling practices are energy intensive with low coefficient of performance (COP of about 3.0. Increased energy cost concern encouraged an investigation of heat recovery from bulk milk cooler as one conservation alternative for reducing water heating cost in dairy industry. Heat dissipated to atmosphere through condenser is recovered to improve the energy efficiency of plant. The waste heat is utilized to heat the water which is used to clean the milk processing equipments thus saving thermal or electrical energy used to heat the water separately. Shell and coil type heat exchanger is designed and used to recover the waste heat during condensation process. Heat rejected in condensation process consists of superheat and latent heat of the refrigerant. In this work, attempt has been made to recover complete superheat along with part of latent heat which is a present research issue. The results show that complete superheat and 35% of latent heat is recovered. Heat recovery rate is measured for various mass flow rates. Water is flowing on shell side and refrigerant through tubes. The effectiveness of the heat exchanger is determined and the results achieved are presented in this paper. Significant improvements have been achieved and COP of the system is increased from 3 to 4.8.

  15. Recovery rates, enhanced oil recovery and technological limits. (United States)

    Muggeridge, Ann; Cockin, Andrew; Webb, Kevin; Frampton, Harry; Collins, Ian; Moulds, Tim; Salino, Peter


    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques can significantly extend global oil reserves once oil prices are high enough to make these techniques economic. Given a broad consensus that we have entered a period of supply constraints, operators can at last plan on the assumption that the oil price is likely to remain relatively high. This, coupled with the realization that new giant fields are becoming increasingly difficult to find, is creating the conditions for extensive deployment of EOR. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the nature, status and prospects for EOR technologies. It explains why the average oil recovery factor worldwide is only between 20% and 40%, describes the factors that contribute to these low recoveries and indicates which of those factors EOR techniques can affect. The paper then summarizes the breadth of EOR processes, the history of their application and their current status. It introduces two new EOR technologies that are beginning to be deployed and which look set to enter mainstream application. Examples of existing EOR projects in the mature oil province of the North Sea are discussed. It concludes by summarizing the future opportunities for the development and deployment of EOR.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    for power applications. The various methods of heat transfer enhancement in latent heat storage systems were also reviewed systematically. The review showed that three commercially-available PCMs are suitable in the operating temperature range of parabolic trough plants. Many heat transfer enhancement methods ...

  17. Changes in transcription during recovery from heat injury in Salmonella typhimurium and effects of BCAA on recovery. (United States)

    Hsu-Ming, Wen; Naito, Kimitaka; Kinoshita, Yoshimasa; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Honjoh, Ken-ichi; Tashiro, Kousuke; Miyamoto, Takahisa


    Mechanisms of recovery from heat injury in Salmonella typhimurium were elucidated. Recovery of the heat-injured S. typhimurium cells in TSB resulted in full recovery after 3 h of incubation at 37°C. The DNA microarray analysis of 30- and 60-min recovering cells resulted in an increase in transcription of 89 and 141 genes, respectively. Among them, 15 genes, with known function, seemed to be somewhat involved in recovery. They encoded proteins involved in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) transport (livJ, livH), cell envelope integrity (ddg), heat-shock response (cpxP, rrmJ), phage shock protein (pspA), ribosome modulation factor (rmf), virulence (sseB) transcriptional regulation (rpoE, rpoH, rseA, rseB, rseC) and ArcB signal transduction (sixA) and cytoplasmic membrane protein (fxsA). Among them, the effects of BCAA supplementation on recovery from heat injury were studied to confirm the importance of the BCAA transport liv genes during recovery. It was found that supplementation of TSB with 0.1% BCAA resulted in an enhanced recovery of injured cells in comparison to those recovered in TSB without BCAA. Supplementation of BCAA at 0.1% resulted in a cell count increase 4.4-fold greater than that of the control after 1 h incubation. It seems that BCAA promoted the recovery by promoting protein synthesis either directly through their use in translation or indirectly through stimulation of protein synthesis by activation of the Lrp protein.

  18. Coabsorbent and thermal recovery compression heat pumping technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Staicovici, Mihail-Dan


    This book introduces two of the most exciting heat pumping technologies, the coabsorbent and the thermal recovery (mechanical vapor) compression, characterized by a high potential in primary energy savings and environmental protection. New cycles with potential applications of nontruncated, truncated, hybrid truncated, and multi-effect coabsorbent types are introduced in this work.   Thermal-to-work recovery compression (TWRC) is the first of two particular methods explored here, including how superheat is converted into work, which diminishes the compressor work input. In the second method, thermal-to-thermal recovery compression (TTRC), the superheat is converted into useful cooling and/or heating, and added to the cycle output effect via the coabsorbent technology. These and other methods of discharge gas superheat recovery are analyzed for single-, two-, three-, and multi-stage compression cooling and heating, ammonia and ammonia-water cycles, and the effectiveness results are given.  The author presen...

  19. Enhanced recovery after surgery in gastric resections. (United States)

    Bruna Esteban, Marcos; Vorwald, Peter; Ortega Lucea, Sonia; Ramírez Rodríguez, Jose Manuel


    Enhanced recovery after surgery is a modality of perioperative management with the purpose of improving results and providing a faster recovery of patients. This kind of protocol has been applied frequently in colorectal surgery, presenting less available experience and evidence in gastric surgery. According to the RICA guidelines published in 2015, a review of the bibliography and the consensus established in a multidisciplinary meeting in Zaragoza on the 9th of October 2015, we present a protocol that contains the basic procedures of fast-track for resective gastric surgery. The measures to be applied are divided in a preoperative, perioperative and postoperative stage. This document provides recommendations concerning the appropriate information, limited fasting and administration of carbohydrate drinks 2hours before surgery, specialized anesthetic strategies, minimal invasive surgery, no routine use of drainages and tubes, mobilization and early oral tolerance during the immediate postoperative period, as well as criteria for discharge. The application of a protocol of enhanced recovery after surgery in resective gastric surgery can improve and accelerate the functional recovery of our patients, requiring an appropriate multidisciplinary coordination, the evaluation of obtained results with the application of these measures and the investigation of controversial topics about which we currently have limited evidence. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Outpatient colectomy within an enhanced recovery program. (United States)

    Gignoux, B; Pasquer, A; Vulliez, A; Lanz, T


    The application of a fast-track recovery program after surgery can decrease the physiological impact of surgery and reduce the duration of hospitalisation compared to conventional care. This program has permitted us to consider the performance of colectomy on an outpatient basis. After analyzing the recommendations for fast-track recovery, we developed and validated a specific protocol. Drawing on extensive experience in ambulatory surgery (inguinal hernia, cholecystectomy, adjustable gastric-banding), we formalized a protocol for outpatient colectomy. Patient selection criteria were the absence of serious or decompensated comorbidity, very good general condition, and full patient understanding of the procedure. Discharge was authorized if the patient met the exit criteria according to the Chung score. Postoperative surveillance was provided by regular home visits of a nurse trained in enhanced recovery, every afternoon until day 10. Five patients underwent this management strategy (4 men and 1 woman, mean age 64 years, range: 59-69), for indications including cancer of the rectosigmoid junction (1 case), sigmoid diverticulitis (3 cases), and volvulus. The postoperative course was simple and uncomplicated except for two patients who had dysuria and an incisional hematoma, respectively. To our knowledge, these are the first cases of colectomy performed strictly on an outpatient basis (i.e., stayoutpatient colectomy when integrated into a protocol of enhanced recovery for selected patients provided that at-home monitoring was available. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhanced Oil Recovery with Application of Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khusainova, Alsu

    Enzymes have recently been reported as effective enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents. Both laboratory and field tests demonstrated significant increase in the ultimate oil production. Up to16% of additional oil was produced in the laboratory conditions and up to 269 barrels of additional oil per day...... were recovered in the field applications. The following mechanisms were claimed to be responsible for the enhancement of the oil production due to enzymes: wettability improvement of the rock surface; formation of the emulsions; reduction of oil viscosity; and removal of high molecular weight paraffins....... However, the positive effect of enzymes on oil recovery is not that obvious. In most of the studies commercial enzyme products composed of enzymes, surfactants and stabilisers were used. Application of such samples makes it difficult to assign a positive EOR effect to a certain compound, as several...

  2. Sun Coke heat recovery coke technology at Indiana Harbor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.N. [Sun Coke Company (USA). Operations


    Sun Coke heat recovery coke technology was fully established for the first time at Indiana Harbor Coke Company, East Chicago, Indiana (USA). The plant supplies continuous heat to waste heat boilers which provide steam for a 94 MW turbine generator whilst producing 1,350,00 NT per year of metallurgical coke. The paper briefly describes the development of the technology and discusses specific design aspects of the Indiana Harbor plant. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Exhaust bypass flow control for exhaust heat recovery (United States)

    Reynolds, Michael G.


    An exhaust system for an engine comprises an exhaust heat recovery apparatus configured to receive exhaust gas from the engine and comprises a first flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas and a second flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas. A heat exchanger/energy recovery unit is disposed in the second flow passage and has a working fluid circulating therethrough for exchange of heat from the exhaust gas to the working fluid. A control valve is disposed downstream of the first and the second flow passages in a low temperature region of the exhaust heat recovery apparatus to direct exhaust gas through the first flow passage or the second flow passage.

  4. Heat Transfer Characteristics of Calcined Petroleum Coke in Waste Heat Recovery Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zheng


    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of heat transfer characteristics of calcined petroleum coke in waste heat recovery process. The model of heat exchanger was set up. The model has been used to investigate the effects of porosity (0.58 to 0.79, equivalent heat conductivity coefficient (0.9 to 1.1, and equivalent specific heat (0.9 to 1.1. The calculated values of calcined petroleum coke temperature showed good agreement with the corresponding available experimental data. The temperature distribution of calcined petroleum coke, the calcined petroleum coke temperature at heat exchanger outlet, the average heat transfer coefficient, and the heat recovery efficiency were studied. It can also be used in deriving much needed data for heat exchanger designs when employed in industry.

  5. Feasibility and design studies for heat recovery from a refrigeration system with a Canopus heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushik, S.C.; Singh, M. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Centre of Energy Studies


    This paper presents an investigation of the feasibility of heat recovery from the condenser of a vapour compression refrigeration (VCR) system through a Canopus heat exchanger (CHE) between the compressor and condenser components. The presence of the CHE makes it possible to recover the superheat of the discharged vapour and utilize it for increasing the temperature of the external fluid (water) removing heat from the condenser. The effects of the operating temperatures in the condenser and evaporator for different inlet water temperatures and mass flow rates on the heat recovery output and its distribution over the condenser and CHE (the fraction of the condenser heat available through the CHE), available outlet water temperature and heat recovery factor have all been studied and optimum operating parameters for feasible heat recovery have been ascertained. The parametric results obtained for different working fluids, such as R-22, R-12, R-717 and R-500, have been presented. It is found that, in general, a heat recovery factor of the order of 2.0 and 40% of condenser heat can be recovered through the Canopus heat exchanger for a typical set of operating conditions. (Author)

  6. Flow and heat transfer enhancement in tube heat exchangers (United States)

    Sayed Ahmed, Sayed Ahmed E.; Mesalhy, Osama M.; Abdelatief, Mohamed A.


    The performance of heat exchangers can be improved to perform a certain heat-transfer duty by heat transfer enhancement techniques. Enhancement techniques can be divided into two categories: passive and active. Active methods require external power, such as electric or acoustic field, mechanical devices, or surface vibration, whereas passive methods do not require external power but make use of a special surface geometry or fluid additive which cause heat transfer enhancement. The majority of commercially interesting enhancement techniques are passive ones. This paper presents a review of published works on the characteristics of heat transfer and flow in finned tube heat exchangers of the existing patterns. The review considers plain, louvered, slit, wavy, annular, longitudinal, and serrated fins. This review can be indicated by the status of the research in this area which is important. The comparison of finned tubes heat exchangers shows that those with slit, plain, and wavy finned tubes have the highest values of area goodness factor while the heat exchanger with annular fin shows the lowest. A better heat transfer coefficient ha is found for a heat exchanger with louvered finned and thus should be regarded as the most efficient one, at fixed pumping power per heat transfer area. This study points out that although numerous studies have been conducted on the characteristics of flow and heat transfer in round, elliptical, and flat tubes, studies on some types of streamlined-tubes shapes are limited, especially on wing-shaped tubes (Sayed Ahmed et al. in Heat Mass Transf 50: 1091-1102, 2014; in Heat Mass Transf 51: 1001-1016, 2015). It is recommended that further detailed studies via numerical simulations and/or experimental investigations should be carried out, in the future, to put further insight to these fin designs.

  7. Natural Ventilation with Heat Recovery: A Biomimetic Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfikar A. Adamu


    Full Text Available In temperate countries, heat recovery is often desirable through mechanical ventilation with heat recovery (MVHR. Drawbacks of MVHR include use of electric power and complex ducting, while alternative passive heat recovery systems in the form of roof or chimney-based solutions are limited to low rise buildings. This paper describes a biomimetic concept for natural ventilation with heat recovery (NVHR. The NVHR system mimics the process of water/mineral extraction from urine in the Loop of Henle (part of human kidney. Simulations on a facade-integrated Chamber successfully imitated the geometry and behaviour of the Loop of Henle (LoH. Using a space measuring 12 m2 in area and assuming two heat densities of 18.75 W/m2 (single occupancy or 30 W/m2 (double occupancy, the maximum indoor temperatures achievable are up to 19.3 °C and 22.3 °C respectively. These come with mean relative ventilation rates of 0.92 air changes per hour (ACH or 10.7 L·s−1 and 0.92 ACH (11.55 L·s−1, respectively, for the month of January. With active heating and single occupant, the LoH Chamber consumes between 65.7% and 72.1% of the annual heating energy required by a similar naturally ventilated space without heat recovery. The LoH Chamber could operate as stand-alone indoor cabinet, benefitting refurbishment of buildings and evading constraints of complicated ducting, external aesthetic or building age.

  8. Heat Recovery from Ketene Gas Cooldown. (United States)


    problems using full combustion air preheat for a third mouth when data collection for the ketene cooldown project was terminated . Efforts to obtain...production (100/ basis) were higher during the months when the heat exchanger proceo ;a; was being used. While the 24-hour averages for anhydride concentration

  9. Oxidative stress impairs the heat stress response and delays unfolded protein recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Adachi


    Full Text Available Environmental changes, air pollution and ozone depletion are increasing oxidative stress, and global warming threatens health by heat stress. We now face a high risk of simultaneous exposure to heat and oxidative stress. However, there have been few studies investigating their combined adverse effects on cell viability.Pretreatment of hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 specifically and highly sensitized cells to heat stress, and enhanced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. H(2O(2 exposure impaired the HSP40/HSP70 induction as heat shock response (HSR and the unfolded protein recovery, and enhanced eIF2alpha phosphorylation and/or XBP1 splicing, land marks of ER stress. These H(2O(2-mediated effects mimicked enhanced heat sensitivity in HSF1 knockdown or knockout cells. Importantly, thermal preconditioning blocked H(2O(2-mediated inhibitory effects on refolding activity and rescued HSF1 +/+ MEFs, but neither blocked the effects nor rescued HSF1 -/- MEFs. These data strongly suggest that inhibition of HSR and refolding activity is crucial for H(2O(2-mediated enhanced heat sensitivity.H(2O(2 blocks HSR and refolding activity under heat stress, thereby leading to insufficient quality control and enhancing ER stress. These uncontrolled stress responses may enhance cell death. Our data thus highlight oxidative stress as a crucial factor affecting heat tolerance.

  10. Optimization-based design of waste heat recovery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cignitti, Stefano

    product and process system in terms of efficiency and sustainability. Today, some of the most important chemical product design problems are solvents and working fluids. Solvents are a vital part in the recovery of valuable resources in separation processes or waste water treatment. Working fluids....../or selected. This dissertation focuses on the chemical product and process systems used for waste heat recovery. Here, chemical products are working fluids, which are under continuous development and screening to fulfill regulatory environmental protection and safe operation requirements. Furthermore......, for the recovery of low-grade waste heat, new fluids and processes are needed to make the recovery technically and economically feasible. As the chemical product is influential in the design of the process system, the design of novel chemical products must be considered with the process system. Currently, state...

  11. A Review on Electroactive Polymers for Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kolasińska


    Full Text Available This paper reviews materials for thermoelectric waste heat recovery, and discusses selected industrial and distributed waste heat sources as well as recovery methods that are currently applied. Thermoelectric properties, especially electrical conductivity, thermopower, thermal conductivity and the thermoelectric figures of merit, are considered when evaluating thermoelectric materials for waste heat recovery. Alloys and oxides are briefly discussed as materials suitable for medium- and high-grade sources. Electroactive polymers are presented as a new group of materials for low-grade sources. Polyaniline is a particularly fitting polymer for these purposes. We also discuss types of modifiers and modification methods, and their influence on the thermoelectric performance of this class of polymers.

  12. Carbon nanostructured surfaces for enhanced heat transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taha, T.J.


    The advancement of high performance thermal systems has stimulated interest in methods to improve heat transfer rates. Considerable efforts have been made to increase heat transfer rates by implementing passive convective heat transfer enhancement methods that require no direct consumption of

  13. Convective heat transfer enhancement with nanofluids (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Habibur; Abedin, Z.


    Nanofluids are considered to offer important advantages over conventional heat transfer fluids. Over a decade ago, researchers focused on measuring and modeling the effective thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluids. Recently important theoretical and experimental research works on convective heat transfer appeared in the open literatures on the enhancement of heat transfer using suspensions of nanometer-sized solid particle materials, metallic or nonmetallic in base heat transfer fluids. The purpose of this article is to summarize recent research on fluid flow and heat transfer enhancement characteristics of nanofluids and thereby identify opportunities for future research.

  14. Environmental regulations handbook for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madden, M.P. [National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States); Blatchford, R.P.; Spears, R.B. [Spears and Associates, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)


    This handbook is intended to assist owners and operators of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations in acquiring some introductory knowledge of the various state agencies, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the many environmental laws, rules and regulations which can have jurisdiction over their permitting and compliance activities. It is a compendium of summarizations of environmental rules. It is not intended to give readers specific working details of what is required from them, nor can it be used in that manner. Readers of this handbook are encouraged to contact environmental control offices nearest to locations of interest for current regulations affecting them.

  15. Enhanced oil recovery projects data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pautz, J.F.; Sellers, C.A.; Nautiyal, C.; Allison, E.


    A comprehensive enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project data base is maintained and updated at the Bartlesville Project Office of the Department of Energy. This data base provides an information resource that is used to analyze the advancement and application of EOR technology. The data base has extensive information on 1,388 EOR projects in 569 different oil fields from 1949 until the present, and over 90% of that information is contained in tables and graphs of this report. The projects are presented by EOR process, and an index by location is provided.



    Y. Baradey; M. N. A. Hawlader; Ahmad Faris Ismail; Meftah Hrairi


    Energy conversion technologies, where waste heat recovery systems are included, have received significant attention in recent years due to reasons that include depletion of fossil fuel, increasing oil prices, changes in climatic conditions, and global warming. For low temperature applications, there are many sources of thermal waste heat, and several recovery systems and potential useful applications have been proposed by researchers [1-4]. In addition, many types of equipment are used to rec...

  17. Thermally-enhanced oil recovery method and apparatus (United States)

    Stahl, Charles R.; Gibson, Michael A.; Knudsen, Christian W.


    A thermally-enhanced oil recovery method and apparatus for exploiting deep well reservoirs utilizes electric downhole steam generators to provide supplemental heat to generate high quality steam from hot pressurized water which is heated at the surface. A downhole electric heater placed within a well bore for local heating of the pressurized liquid water into steam is powered by electricity from the above-ground gas turbine-driven electric generators fueled by any clean fuel such as natural gas, distillate or some crude oils, or may come from the field being stimulated. Heat recovered from the turbine exhaust is used to provide the hot pressurized water. Electrical power may be cogenerated and sold to an electric utility to provide immediate cash flow and improved economics. During the cogeneration period (no electrical power to some or all of the downhole units), the oil field can continue to be stimulated by injecting hot pressurized water, which will flash into lower quality steam at reservoir conditions. The heater includes electrical heating elements supplied with three-phase alternating current or direct current. The injection fluid flows through the heater elements to generate high quality steam to exit at the bottom of the heater assembly into the reservoir. The injection tube is closed at the bottom and has radial orifices for expanding the injection fluid to reservoir pressure.

  18. Optimal Control of Diesel Engines with Waste Heat Recovery System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Donkers, M.C.F.; Kupper, F.


    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for a Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue

  19. Passive ventilation systems with heat recovery and night cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend


    In building design the requirements for energy consumption for ventilation, heating and cooling and the requirements for increasingly better indoor climate are two opposing factors. This paper presents the schematic layout and simulation results of an innovative multifunc-tional ventilation concept...... with little energy consumption and with satisfying indoor climate. The concept is based on using passive measures like stack and wind driven ventilation, effective night cooling and low pressure loss heat recovery using two fluid coupled water-to-air heat exchangers developed at the Technical University...

  20. Mechanical ventilation with heat recovery in cold climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Rose, Jørgen; Svendsen, Svend


    like the Northern Europe or in arctic climate like in Greenland or Alaska these ventilation systems will typically face problems with ice formation in the heat exchanger. When the warm humid room air comes in contact with the cold surfaces inside the exchanger (cooled by the outside air), the moisture......Building ventilation is necessary to achieve a healthy and comfortable indoor environment, but as energy prices continue to rise it is necessary to reduce the energy consumption. Using mechanical ventilation with heat recovery reduces the ventilation heat loss significantly, but in cold climates...

  1. Waste heat recovery in a coffee roasting plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monte, M. De; Padoano, E.; Pozzetto, D. [Via A Valerio, Trieste (Italy). Dept. of Energetics


    The paper presents the possibility of introducing, in the event of substitution of an old plant, the recovery of heat produced during the roasting process of coffee. During the analysis, thermo and fluid dynamic operating parameters of the present plant were defined also with the support of an experimental measuring campaign. Energy recovery possibilities were then evaluated, and a possible plant solution was examined taking into consideration its economic feasibility. The case study is also interesting because the methodology used for the analysis can be generally applied to production plants, which have hot air exhaust emissions. Waste heat recovery is an important topic, not only for its economic benefits, but also for its environmental outcomes and resource saving. (author)

  2. Heat transfer enhancement with nanofluids

    CERN Document Server

    Bianco, Vincenzo; Nardini, Sergio; Vafai, Kambiz


    Properties of NanofluidSamuel Paolucci and Gianluca PolitiExact Solutions and Their Implications in Anomalous Heat TransferWenhao Li, Chen Yang and Akira NakayamaMechanisms and Models of Thermal Conductivity in NanofluidsSeung-Hyun Lee and Seok Pil JangExperimental Methods for the Characterization of Thermophysical Properties of NanofluidsSergio Bobbo and Laura FedeleNanofluid Forced ConvectionGilles RoyExperimental Study of Convective Heat Transfer in NanofluidsEhsan B. Haghighi, Adi T. Utomo, Andrzej W. Pacek and Björn E. PalmPerformance of Heat Exchangers Using NanofluidsBengt Sundén and Za

  3. Heat exchanger modeling and identification for control of waste heat recovery systems in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Rojer, C.; Jager, B. de; Steinbuch, M.


    To meet future CO2 emission targets, Waste Heat Recovery systems have recently attracted much attention for automotive applications, especially for long haul trucks. This paper focuses on the development of a dynamic counter-flow heat exchanger model for control purposes. The model captures the

  4. Heat recovery and seed recovery development project: preliminary design report (PDR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkett, A. H.; Alexander, K. C.; Bolek, A. D.; Blackman, B. K.; Kurrle, P. E.; Tram, S. V.; Warren, A. M.; Ziobrowski, A. J.


    The preliminary design and performance characteristics are described of the 20 MWt heat recovery and seed recovery (HRSR) system to be fabricated, installed, and evaluated to provide a technological basis for the design of commercial size HRSR systems for coal-fired open-cycle MHD power plants. The system description and heat and material balances, equipment description and functional requirements, controls, interfacing systems, and operation and maintenance are detailed. Appendices include: (1) recommended environmental requirements for compliance with federal and state of Tennessee regulations, (2) channel and diffuser simulator, (3) equipment arrangement drawings, and (4) channel and diffuser simulator barrel drawings. (WHK)

  5. Ammonia and Carbon Dioxide Heat Pumps for Heat Recovery in Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Wiebke; Christensen, Stefan W.; Markussen, Michael M.


    . Calculations of cycle performances are performed using a reference cycle for both ammonia and carbon dioxide as refrigerant. For each cycle a thorough sensitivity analysis reveals that the forward and return temperatures of the heat sink (condenser or gas cooler) of the heat pump are most important......This paper presents a generic, numerical study of high temperature heat pumps for waste heat recovery in industry using ammonia and carbon dioxide as refrigerants. A study of compressors available on the market today, gives a possible application range of the heat pumps in terms of temperatures...

  6. Numerical and Experimental Investigation for Heat Transfer Enhancement by Dimpled Surface Heat Exchanger in Thermoelectric Generator (United States)

    Wang, Yiping; Li, Shuai; Yang, Xue; Deng, Yadong; Su, Chuqi


    For vehicle thermoelectric exhaust energy recovery, the temperature difference between the heat exchanger and the coolant has a strong influence on the electric power generation, and ribs are often employed to enhance the heat transfer of the heat exchanger. However, the introduction of ribs will result in a large unwanted pressure drop in the exhaust system which is unfavorable for the engine's efficiency. Therefore, how to enhance the heat transfer and control the pressure drop in the exhaust system is quite important for thermoelectric generators (TEG). In the current study, a symmetrical arrangement of dimpled surfaces staggered in the upper and lower surfaces of the heat exchanger was proposed to augment heat transfer rates with minimal pressure drop penalties. The turbulent flow characteristics and heat transfer performance of turbulent flow over the dimpled surface in a flat heat exchanger was investigated by numerical simulation and temperature measurements. The heat transfer capacity in terms of Nusselt number and the pressure loss in terms of Fanning friction factors of the exchanger were compared with those of the flat plate. The pressure loss and heat transfer characteristics of dimples with a depth-to-diameter ratio ( h/D) at 0.2 were investigated. Finally, a quite good heat transfer performance with minimal pressure drop heat exchanger in a vehicle TEG was obtained. And based on the area-averaged surface temperature of the heat exchanger and the Seeback effect, the power generation can be improved by about 15% at Re = 25,000 compared to a heat exchanger with a flat surface.

  7. Assessment of thermal efficiency of heat recovery coke making (United States)

    Tiwari, H. P.; Saxena, V. K.; Haldar, S. K.; Sriramoju, S. K.


    The heat recovery stamp charge coke making process is quite complicated due to the evolved volatile matter during coking, is partially combusted in oven crown and sole flue in a controlled manner to provide heat for producing metallurgical coke. Therefore, the control and efficient utilization of heat in the oven crown, and sole flue is difficult, which directly affects the operational efficiency. Considering the complexity and importance of thermal efficiency, evolution of different gases, combustion of gasses in oven crown and sole flue, and heating process of coke oven has been studied. A nonlinear regression methodology was used to predict temperature profile of different depth of coal cake during the coking. It was observed that the predicted temperature profile is in good agreement with the actual temperature profile (R2 = 0.98) and is validated with the actual temperature profile of other ovens. A complete study is being done to calculate the material balance, heat balance, and heat losses. This gives an overall understanding of heat flow which affects the heat penetration into the coal cake. The study confirms that 60% heat was utilized during coking.

  8. Cost Scaling of a Real-World Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery Thermoelectric Generator: A Deeper Dive (United States)

    Hendricks, Terry J.; Yee, Shannon; LeBlanc, Saniya


    Cost is equally important to power density or efficiency for the adoption of waste heat recovery thermoelectric generators (TEG) in many transportation and industrial energy recovery applications. In many cases the system design that minimizes cost (e.g., the $/W value) can be very different than the design that maximizes the system's efficiency or power density, and it is important to understand the relationship between those designs to optimize TEG performance-cost compromises. Expanding on recent cost analysis work and using more detailed system modeling, an enhanced cost scaling analysis of a waste heat recovery thermoelectric generator with more detailed, coupled treatment of the heat exchangers has been performed. In this analysis, the effect of the heat lost to the environment and updated relationships between the hot-side and cold-side conductances that maximize power output are considered. This coupled thermal and thermoelectric treatment of the exhaust waste heat recovery thermoelectric generator yields modified cost scaling and design optimization equations, which are now strongly dependent on the heat leakage fraction, exhaust mass flow rate, and heat exchanger effectiveness. This work shows that heat exchanger costs most often dominate the overall TE system costs, that it is extremely difficult to escape this regime, and in order to achieve TE system costs of $1/W it is necessary to achieve heat exchanger costs of $1/(W/K). Minimum TE system costs per watt generally coincide with maximum power points, but Preferred TE Design Regimes are identified where there is little cost penalty for moving into regions of higher efficiency and slightly lower power outputs. These regimes are closely tied to previously-identified low cost design regimes. This work shows that the optimum fill factor Fopt minimizing system costs decreases as heat losses increase, and increases as exhaust mass flow rate and heat exchanger effectiveness increase. These findings have

  9. Effect of heat sink layer on ultrafast magnetization recovery of FeCo films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Y; Zhao, J Q; Zhang, Z Z; Jin, Q Y [State Key Lab for Advanced Photonic Materials and Devices, Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Hu, H N; Zhou, S M [Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)], E-mail:


    For FeCo alloy thin films with Ag, Cu, Pt, Ta and Cr as heat sink layers, ultrafast demagnetization and recovery processes of transient magnetization have been studied by the time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect. For all samples, the ultrafast demagnetization process is accomplished within almost the same time interval of 500 fs, which is independent of the heat sink layer material and the pump fluence. The recovery rate of the FeCo film grown on the Si(1 0 0) substrate is enhanced with a heat sink layer. In addition, the recovery rate is found to be independent of the heat sink layer thickness; it decreases with increasing pump fluence. Among all heat sink layers, the sample with the Cr layer achieves the highest recovery rate because it has the same bcc structure as that of the FeCo layer and the small lattice mismatch. The sample with the Ta layer, has the largest damage threshold of pump fluence because of the highest melting point.

  10. Enzymes for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasiri, Hamidreza


    Primary oil recovery by reservoir pressure depletion and secondary oil recovery by waterflooding usually result in poor displacement efficiency. As a consequence there is always some trapped oil remaining in oil reservoirs. Oil entrapment is a result of complex interactions between viscous, gravity and capillary forces. Improving recovery from hydrocarbon fields typically involves altering the relative importance of the viscous and capillary forces. The potential of many EOR methods depends on their influence on fluid/rock interactions related to wettability and fluid/fluid interactions reflected in IFT. If the method has the potential to change the interactions favorably, it may be considered for further investigation, i.e. core flooding experiment, pilot and reservoir implementation. Enzyme-proteins can be introduced as an enhanced oil recovery method to improve waterflood performance by affecting interactions at the oil-water-rock interfaces. An important part of this thesis was to investigate how selected enzymes may influence wettability and capillary forces in a crude oil-brine-rock system, and thus possibly contribute to enhanced oil recovery. To investigate further by which mechanisms selected enzyme-proteins may contribute to enhance oil recovery, groups of enzymes with different properties and catalytic functions, known to be interfacially active, were chosen to cover a wide range of possible effects. These groups include (1) Greenzyme (GZ) which is a commercial EOR enzyme and consists of enzymes and stabilizers (surfactants), (2) The Zonase group consists of two types of pure enzyme, Zonase1 and Zonase2 which are protease enzymes and whose catalytic functions are to hydrolyze (breakdown) peptide bonds, (3) The Novozyme (NZ) group consists of three types of pure enzyme, NZ2, NZ3 and NZ6 which are esterase enzymes and whose catalytic functions are to hydrolyze ester bonds, and (4) Alpha-Lactalbumin ( -La) which is an important whey protein. The effect of

  11. "Smart" Multifunctional Polymers for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles McCormick; Andrew Lowe


    Recent recommendations made by the Department of Energy, in conjunction with ongoing research at the University of Southern Mississippi, have signified a need for the development of 'smart' multi-functional polymers (SMFPs) for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes. Herein we summarize research from the period of September 2003 through March 2007 focusing on both Type I and Type II SMFPs. We have demonstrated the synthesis and behavior of materials that can respond in situ to stimuli (ionic strength, pH, temperature, and shear stress). In particular, Type I SMFPs reversibly form micelles in water and have the potential to be utilized in applications that serve to lower interfacial tension at the oil/water interface, resulting in emulsification of oil. Type II SMFPs, which consist of high molecular weight polymers, have been synthesized and have prospective applications related to the modification of fluid viscosity during the recovery process. Through the utilization of these advanced 'smart' polymers, the ability to recover more of the original oil in place and a larger portion of that by-passed or deemed 'unrecoverable' by conventional chemical flooding should be possible.

  12. Microbial enhancement of oil recovery: Recent advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premuzic, E.T.; Woodhead, A.D.; Vivirito, K.J. (eds.)


    During recent years, systematic, scientific, and engineering effort by researchers in the United States and abroad, has established the scientific basis for Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) technology. The successful application of MEOR technology as an oil recovery process is a goal of the Department of Energy (DOE). Research efforts involving aspects of MEOR in the microbiological, biochemical, and engineering fields led DOE to sponsor an International Conference at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1992, to facilitate the exchange of information and a discussion of ideas for the future research emphasis. At this, the Fourth International MEOR Conference, where international attendees from 12 countries presented a total of 35 papers, participants saw an equal distribution between research'' and field applications.'' In addition, several modeling and state-of-the-art'' presentations summed up the present status of MEOR science and engineering. Individual papers in this proceedings have been process separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  13. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery in Laparoscopic Surgery. (United States)

    Leissner, Kay B; Shanahan, Jessica L; Bekker, Peter L; Amirfarzan, Houman


    As part of an effort to maximize value in the perioperative setting, a paradigm shift is underway in the way that patients are cared for preoperatively, on the day of surgery, and postoperatively-a setting collectively known as the perioperative care. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS(®)) is an evidence-based, patient-centered team approach to delivering high-quality perioperative care to surgical patients. This review focuses on anesthesiologists, with their unique purview of perioperative setting, who are important drivers of change in the delivery of valuable perioperative care. ERAS care pathways begin in the preoperative setting by both preparing the patient for the psychological stress of surgery and optimizing the patient's medical and physiologic status so the body is ready for the physical demands of surgery. Minimization of perioperative fasting is important to maintain volume status-decreasing reliance on intravenous fluid administration, and to reduce protein catabolism around the time of surgery. Intraoperative management in ERAS pathways relies on goal-directed fluid therapy and opioid-sparing multimodal analgesia. Postoperatively, early feeding and ambulation, as well as discontinuation of extraneous lines and catheters facilitate patients' functional recovery. The laparoscopic approach to surgery, when possible, compliments ERAS techniques by reducing abdominal wall trauma and the resultant milieu of inflammatory, neurohumoral, and pain responses. Anesthesiologists driving change in the perioperative setting, in collaboration with surgeons and other disciplines, can improve value in healthcare and provide optimal outcomes that matter most to patients and healthcare providers alike.

  14. Reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, L.W.; Pope, G.A.; Schechter, R.S.


    The research in this annual report falls into three tasks each dealing with a different aspect of enhanced oil recovery. The first task strives to develop procedures for accurately modeling reservoirs for use as input to numerical simulation flow models. This action describes how we have used a detail characterization of an outcrop to provide insights into what features are important to fluid flow modeling. The second task deals with scaling-up and modeling chemical and solvent EOR processes. In a sense this task is the natural extension of task 1 and, in fact, one of the subtasks uses many of the same statistical procedures for insight into the effects of viscous fingering and heterogeneity. The final task involves surfactants and their interactions with carbon dioxide and reservoir minerals. This research deals primarily with phenomena observed when aqueous surfactant solutions are injected into oil reservoirs.

  15. The benefits of enhanced recovery after surgery. (United States)

    Slim, K


    Enhanced recovery programs (ERP) after surgery are now being increasingly applied in daily practice. The purpose of this article is to review specific aspects and advantages of this approach. Beyond the reduction in overall morbidity (found for multiple surgical specialties), ERP include issues and stakes that affect patient care, the care team and society in general. Data from the literature are in agreement, emphasizing that, in this clinical pathway, the patient has thus become an actor in his own care, whose active participation is paramount to the success of the program. In parallel with this, a spirit of teamwork is required and the program contributes substantially to cohesion within the team. Finally, all studies show that ERP have a beneficial effect in economic terms for society. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhanced recovery after giant ventral hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K K; Brøndum, T L; Harling, H.


    PURPOSE: Giant ventral hernia repair is associated with a high risk of postoperative morbidity and prolonged length of stay (LOS). Enhanced recovery (ERAS) measures have proved to lead to decreased morbidity and LOS after various surgical procedures, but never after giant hernia repair. The current...... study prospectively examined the results of implementation of an ERAS pathway including high-dose preoperative glucocorticoid, and compared the outcome with patients previously treated according to standard care (SC). METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent giant ventral hernia repair were included...... was 0.92. There were no differences when comparing readmission (5 vs. 2, P = 0.394), postoperative complications (7 vs. 4, P = 0. 458), or reoperation (5 vs. 1, P = 0.172) in ERAS versus controls. CONCLUSIONS: The current study suggests that an ERAS pathway including preoperative high...

  17. Mixed surfactant systems for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llave, F.M.; Gall, B.L.; Noll, L.A.


    The results of an evaluation of mixed surfactant systems for enhanced oil recovery are described. Several surfactant combinations have been studied. These include alkyl aryl sulfonates as primary surfactants and carboxymethylated ethoxylated (CME) surfactants and ethoxylated sulfonates (ES) as secondary surfactants. The ethoxylated surfactants increase the salinity tolerance of the primary surfactants and, in theory, allow tailoring of the surfactant system to match selected reservoir conditions. The experiments conducted included interfacial tension (IFT) measurements, phase behavior measurements, adsorption and/or chromatographic separation of mixed surfactant systems, measurements of solution properties such as the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of surfactant mixtures, and crude oil displacement experiments. The effects of temperature, surfactant concentration, salinity, presence of divalent ions, hydrocarbon type, and component proportions in the mixed surfactant combinations, and injection strategies on the performance potential of the targeted surfactant/hydrocarbon systems were studied. 40 refs., 37 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Water recovery using waste heat from coal fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Stephen W.; Morrow, Charles W.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Dwyer, Brian P.


    The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plants to recover water thereby reducing water net water consumption. Unfortunately, waste heat from a power plant is of poor quality. Membrane distillation (MD) systems may be a technology that can use the low temperature waste heat (<100 F) to treat water. By their nature, they operate at low temperature and usually low pressure. This study investigates the use of MD to recover water from typical power plants. It looks at recovery from three heat producing locations (boiler blow down, steam diverted from bleed streams, and the cooling water system) within a power plant, providing process sketches, heat and material balances and equipment sizing for recovery schemes using MD for each of these locations. It also provides insight into life cycle cost tradeoffs between power production and incremental capital costs.

  19. Seeking prospects for enhanced gas recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doherty, M.G.; Randolph, P.L.


    As part of the Institute of Gas Technology's (IGT) ongoing research on unconventional natural gas sources, a methodology to locate gas wells that had watered-out under over-pressured conditions was developed and implemented. Each year several trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of gas are produced from reservoirs that are basically geopressured aquifers with large gas caps. As the gas is produced, the gas-water interface moves upward in the sandstone body trapping a portion of gas at the producing reservoir pressure. The methodology for identifying such formations consisted of a computer search of a large data base using a series of screening criteria to select or reject wells. The screening criteria consisted of depth cutoff, minimum production volume, minimum pressure gradient, and minimum water production. Wells chosen by the computer search were further screened manually to seek out those wells that exhibited rapid and large increases in water production with an associated quick decline in gas production indicating possible imbibition trapping of gas in the reservoir. The search was performed in an attempt to characterize the watered-out geopressured gas cap resource. Over 475 wells in the Gulf Coast area of Louisiana and Texas were identified as possible candidates representing an estimated potential of up to about 1 Tcf (2.83 x 10/sup 10/ m/sup 3/) of gas production through enhanced recovery operations. A process to determine the suitability of a watered-out geopressured gas cap reservoir for application of enhanced recovery is outlined. This paper addresses the identification of a potential gas source that is considered an unconventional resource. The methodology developed to identify watered-out geopressured gas cap wells can be utilized in seeking other types of watered-out gas reservoirs with the appropriate changes in the screening criteria. 12 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  20. Opportunities for direct-contact waste heat recuperators for industrial heat recovery (United States)

    Richlen, S. L.; Semler, T. T.

    The potential industrial applications of the direct-contact waste heat recuperator (DCWHR) for the 353 K to 672 K temperature range were identified. The DCWHR increases the heat transfer area per unit volume over typical heat exchangers, and holds promise for latent heat recovery from waste streams. Results show that, for selected industrial waste heat sources, the production of hot process water by direct-contact heat exchange can be economically accomplished for waste heat (hot gas) streams at 478 K to 672 K with greater than 4.72 cu m/sec exhaust. Additionally, a DCWHR is particularly recommended for particulate-laden exhaust streams where scrubbing is already required by environmental consideration; the recovered heat becomes a factor in reducing the negative cash flow attributable to the use of scrubbing equipment. Incentives and obstacles to early market penetration of the technology are recognized.

  1. Thermal energy storage for industrial waste heat recovery (United States)

    Hoffman, H. W.; Kedl, R. J.; Duscha, R. A.


    The potential is examined for waste heat recovery and reuse through thermal energy storage in five specific industrial categories: (1) primary aluminum, (2) cement, (3) food processing, (4) paper and pulp, and (5) iron and steel. Preliminary results from Phase 1 feasibility studies suggest energy savings through fossil fuel displacement approaching 0.1 quad/yr in the 1985 period. Early implementation of recovery technologies with minimal development appears likely in the food processing and paper and pulp industries; development of the other three categories, though equally desirable, will probably require a greater investment in time and dollars.

  2. Recov'Heat: An estimation tool of urban waste heat recovery potential in sustainable cities (United States)

    Goumba, Alain; Chiche, Samuel; Guo, Xiaofeng; Colombert, Morgane; Bonneau, Patricia


    Waste heat recovery is considered as an efficient way to increase carbon-free green energy utilization and to reduce greenhouse gas emission. Especially in urban area, several sources such as sewage water, industrial process, waste incinerator plants, etc., are still rarely explored. Their integration into a district heating system providing heating and/or domestic hot water could be beneficial for both energy companies and local governments. EFFICACITY, a French research institute focused on urban energy transition, has developed an estimation tool for different waste heat sources potentially explored in a sustainable city. This article presents the development method of such a decision making tool which, by giving both energetic and economic analysis, helps local communities and energy service companies to make preliminary studies in heat recovery projects.

  3. Heat recovery-based refrigeration and heating in an industrial plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochsner, E.


    Facing the withdrawal of both a license for the use of tap water for cooling purposes and a license for the discharge of hot cooling water into a nearby brook an industrial plant resorted to a mechanical refrigerator of the heat recovery type. The project was to provide for mechanical refrigeration with the help of cold storage systems, heat recovery with the help of thermal energy storage systems, compressor waste heat utilization, the replacement of boilers, and the limited use of steam for production purposes only. Pictures help to explain the cooling water load (cooling zone, tempers, air conditioners), the refrigerators (cold brine), ice storage systems (CRYOGEL), the generation of heat (refrigerator waste heat utilization), and the hot water system. Reference is made to first operational results. (HWJ).

  4. Affordable Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery for Heavy Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Swami Nathan [Eaton Corporation


    Nearly 30% of fuel energy is not utilized and wasted in the engine exhaust. Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) based waste heat recovery (WHR) systems offer a promising approach on waste energy recovery and improving the efficiency of Heavy-Duty diesel engines. Major barriers in the ORC WHR system are the system cost and controversial waste heat recovery working fluids. More than 40% of the system cost is from the additional heat exchangers (recuperator, condenser and tail pipe boiler). The secondary working fluid loop designed in ORC system is either flammable or environmentally sensitive. The Eaton team investigated a novel approach to reduce the cost of implementing ORC based WHR systems to Heavy-Duty (HD) Diesel engines while utilizing safest working fluids. Affordable Rankine Cycle (ARC) concept aimed to define the next generation of waste energy recuperation with a cost optimized WHR system. ARC project used engine coolant as the working fluid. This approach reduced the need for a secondary working fluid circuit and subsequent complexity. A portion of the liquid phase engine coolant has been pressurized through a set of working fluid pumps and used to recover waste heat from the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and exhaust tail pipe exhaust energy. While absorbing heat, the mixture is partially vaporized but remains a wet binary mixture. The pressurized mixed-phase engine coolant mixture is then expanded through a fixed-volume ratio expander that is compatible with two-phase conditions. Heat rejection is accomplished through the engine radiator, avoiding the need for a separate condenser. The ARC system has been investigated for PACCAR’s MX-13 HD diesel engine.

  5. Strain Recovery by TiNi Element Under Fast Heating (United States)

    Volkov, Aleksandr E.; Miszuris, Wiktoria; Volkova, Natalia A.


    A theoretical and experimental study of strain recovery under fast heating of a shape memory alloy (SMA) rod preliminarily stretched in the martensitic state is carried out. Two theoretical models are considered: instantaneous heating and heating with temperature variation during a finite time. In the first case, it is supposed that the straight SMA rod experiences an instantaneous reverse martensitic transformation, and in the second the transformation is supposed to progress at a rate corresponding to the temperature rate. Analytical expression for the time dependence of the rod free-end displacement is obtained. In the experiment, a wire specimen made of titanium-nickel SMA was heated by a short impulse of electric current. The variation of the specimen length in time was registered. Thus, it has been shown that the minimum operation time of an SMA actuator (time needed for the strain recovery) can be reduced to 20 µs. Comparison of the theoretical results with the experimental ones leads to the conclusion that the displacement variation in time is controlled by the rate of heating and the inertia of the specimen. The incubation time of the martensitic transformation on the microscale apparently is estimated as less than 1 µs.

  6. Cogeneration and Heat Recovery in the Industrial Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujasinović, E.


    Full Text Available Related to energy requirements for non-cellulose i. e. polyester production as an energy-intensive process, potential saving options are proposed. From the process data, it is evident that unit operations need electric and thermal energy in significant amounts. At the same time, improved energy management could be realized by applying a combined heat and power system (CHP instead of the usually used process with separate heat and power production. In addition, the boiler flue gases with a sufficiently high outlet temperature could be used for combustion air preheating.Considering industrial process data, a calculation and comparison between the primary energy demand for conventional, CHP system and flue-gas heat recovery is presented. Comparison between separate heat and electricity production i.e. the conventional system with an overall efficiency of 55.6 % and CHP with efficiency of 85 %, shows an absolute efficiency increase of 29.4 %. Using an air preheater for combustion air temperature increasing saves 5.6 % of the fuel and at the same time diminishes thermal pollution because the exhaust flue-gas temperature becomes 77.3 °C instead of 204 °C. Conclusively, cogeneration and flue-gas heat recovery presentsfuel savings, which also implies economic and environmental benefits.

  7. Total Energy Recovery System for Agribusiness. [Geothermally heated]. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogleman, S.F.; Fisher, L.A.; Black, A.R.; Singh, D.P.


    An engineering and economic study was made to determine a practical balance of selected agribusiness subsystems resulting in realistic estimated produce yields for a geothermally heated system known as the Total Energy Recovery System for Agribusiness. The subsystem cycles for an average application at an unspecified hydrothermal resources site in the western United States utilize waste and by-products from their companion cycles insofar as practicable. Based on conservative estimates of current controlled environment yields, produce wholesale market prices, production costs, and capital investment required, it appears that the family-operation-sized TERSA module presents the potential for marginal recovery of all capital investment costs. In addition to family- or small-cooperative-farming groups, TERSA has potential users in food-oriented corporations and large-cooperative-agribusiness operations. The following topics are considered in detail: greenhouse tomatoes and cucumbers; fish farming; mushroom culture; biogas generation; integration methodology; hydrothermal fluids and heat exchanger selection; and the system. 133 references. (MHR)

  8. Waste Heat Recovery. Technology and Opportunities in U.S. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Ilona [BCS, Inc., Laurel, MD (United States); Choate, William T. [BCS, Inc., Laurel, MD (United States); Davidson, Amber [BCS, Inc., Laurel, MD (United States)


    This study was initiated in order to evaluate RD&D needs for improving waste heat recovery technologies. A bottomup approach is used to evaluate waste heat quantity, quality, recovery practices, and technology barriers in some of the largest energyconsuming units in U.S. manufacturing. The results from this investigation serve as a basis for understanding the state of waste heat recovery and providing recommendations for RD&D to advance waste heat recovery technologies.

  9. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry (United States)

    Wojnar, F.; Lunberg, W. L.


    A study to assess the potential for waste heat recovery in the food industry and to evaluate prospective waste heat recovery system concepts employing thermal energy storage was conducted. The study found that the recovery of waste heat in canning facilities can be performed in significant quantities using systems involving thermal energy storage that are both practical and economical. A demonstration project is proposed to determine actual waste heat recovery costs and benefits and to encourage system implementation by the food industry.

  10. Combustion for Enhanced Recovery of Light Oil at Medium Pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoshnevis Gargar, N.


    Using conventional production methods, recovery percentages from oil reservoirs range from 5% for difficult oil to 50% for light oil in highly permeable homogeneous reservoirs. To increase the oil recovery factor, enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods are used. We distinguish EOR that uses chemical

  11. Geothermal Energy Production With Innovative Methods Of Geothermal Heat Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, Allen [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Darlow, Rick [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Sanchez, Angel [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Pierce, Michael [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Sellers, Blake [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States)


    The ThermalDrive™ Power System (“TDPS”) offers one of the most exciting technological advances in the geothermal power generation industry in the last 30 years. Using innovations in subsurface heat recovery methods, revolutionary advances in downhole pumping technology and a distributed approach to surface power production, GeoTek Energy, LLC’s TDPS offers an opportunity to change the geothermal power industry dynamics.

  12. Opportunities for Waste Heat Recovery at Contingency Bases (United States)


    Environment 40(3):353-366. Aladayleh, Wail, and Ali Alahmer. 2015. Recovery of exhaust waste heat for ICE using the beta type Stirling engine . J.of...ASP Director. The work was performed by the Energy Branch (CF-E) of the Facilities Divi- sion (CF), U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center... engines , micro gas turbines, Rankine cycle engines , Stirling engines , and fuel cells. The level of development or “maturity” of these technologies varies

  13. Heavy Duty Roots Expander Heat Energy Recovery (HD-REHER)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Swami [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States)


    Eaton Corporation proposed a comprehensive project to develop and demonstrate advanced component technology that will reduce the cost of implementing Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) systems to Heavy-Duty Diesel engines, making adaptation of this fuel efficiency improving technology more commercially attractive to end-users in the next 5 to 10 year time period. Accelerated adaptation and implementation of new fuel efficiency technology into service is critical for reduction of fuel used in the commercial vehicle segment.

  14. IEA Annex 26: Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, VAN


    With increased concern about the impact of refrigerant leakage on global warming, a number of new supermarket refrigeration system configurations requiring significantly less refrigerant charge are being considered. In order to help promote the development of advanced systems and expand the knowledge base for energy-efficient supermarket technology, the International Energy Agency (IEA) established IEA Annex 26 (Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems) under the ''IEA Implementing Agreement on Heat Pumping Technologies''. Annex 26 focuses on demonstrating and documenting the energy saving and environmental benefits of advanced systems design for food refrigeration and space heating and cooling for supermarkets. Advanced in this context means systems that use less energy, require less refrigerant and produce lower refrigerant emissions. Stated another way, the goal is to identify supermarket refrigeration and HVAC technology options that reduce the total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of supermarkets by reducing both system energy use (increasing efficiency) and reducing total refrigerant charge. The Annex has five participating countries: Canada, Denmark, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The working program of the Annex has involved analytical and experimental investigation of several candidate system design approaches to determine their potential to reduce refrigerant usage and energy consumption. Advanced refrigeration system types investigated include the following: distributed compressor systems--small parallel compressor racks are located in close proximity to the food display cases they serve thus significantly shortening the connecting refrigerant line lengths; secondary loop systems--one or more central chillers are used to refrigerate a secondary coolant (e.g. brine, ice slurry, or CO2) that is pumped to the food display cases on the sales floor; self-contained display cases--each food display case

  15. Analysis of Water Recovery Rate from the Heat Melt Compactor (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Hegde, U.; Gokoglu, S.


    Human space missions generate trash with a substantial amount of plastic (20% or greater by mass). The trash also contains water trapped in food residue and paper products and other trash items. The Heat Melt Compactor (HMC) under development by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) compresses the waste, dries it to recover water and melts the plastic to encapsulate the compressed trash. The resulting waste disk or puck represents an approximately ten-fold reduction in the volume of the initial trash loaded into the HMC. In the current design concept being pursued, the trash is compressed by a piston after it is loaded into the trash chamber. The piston face, the side walls of the waste processing chamber and the end surface in contact with the waste can be heated to evaporate the water and to melt the plastic. Water is recovered by the HMC in two phases. The first is a pre-process compaction without heat or with the heaters initially turned on but before the waste heats up. Tests have shown that during this step some liquid water may be expelled from the chamber. This water is believed to be free water (i.e., not bound with or absorbed in other waste constituents) that is present in the trash. This phase is herein termed Phase A of the water recovery process. During HMC operations, it is desired that liquid water recovery in Phase A be eliminated or minimized so that water-vapor processing equipment (e.g., condensers) downstream of the HMC are not fouled by liquid water and its constituents (i.e., suspended or dissolved matter) exiting the HMC. The primary water recovery process takes place next where the trash is further compacted while the heated surfaces reach their set temperatures for this step. This step will be referred to herein as Phase B of the water recovery process. During this step the waste chamber may be exposed to different selected pressures such as ambient, low pressure (e.g., 0.2 atm), or vacuum. The objective for this step is to remove both bound and

  16. Heat transfer enhancement using 2MHz ultrasound. (United States)

    Bulliard-Sauret, Odin; Ferrouillat, Sebastien; Vignal, Laure; Memponteil, Alain; Gondrexon, Nicolas


    The present work focuses on possible heat transfer enhancement from a heating plate towards tap water in forced convection by means of 2MHz ultrasound. The thermal approach allows to observe the increase of local convective heat transfer coefficients in the presence of ultrasound and to deduce a correlation between ultrasound power and Nusselt number. Heat transfer coefficient under ultrasound remains constant while heat transfer coefficient under silent conditions increases with Reynolds number from 900 up to 5000. Therefore, heat transfer enhancement factor ranges from 25% up to 90% for the same energy conditions (supplied ultrasonic power=110W and supplied thermal power=450W). In the same time cavitational activity due to 2MHz ultrasound emission was characterized from mechanical and chemical viewpoints without significant results. At least, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements have been performed in order to investigate hydrodynamic modifications due to the presence of 2MHz ultrasound. It was therefore possible to propose a better understanding of heat transfer enhancement mechanism with high frequency ultrasound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sustainable Remediation for Enhanced NAPL Recovery from Groundwater (United States)

    Javaher, M.


    Sustainable remediation relates to the achievement of balance between environmental, social, and economic elements throughout the remedial lifecycle. A significant contributor to this balance is the use of green and sustainable technologies which minimize environmental impacts, while maximizing social and economic benefits of remedial implementation. To this end, a patented mobile vapor energy generation (VEG) technology has been developed targeting variable applications, including onsite soil remediation for unrestricted reuse and enhanced non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) recover at the water table. At the core of the mobile VEG technology is a compact, high efficiency vapor generator, which utilizes recycled water and propane within an entirely enclosed system to generate steam as high as 1100°F. Operating within a fully enclosed system and capturing all heat that is generated within this portable system, the VEG technology eliminates all emissions to the atmosphere and yields an undetected carbon footprint with resulting carbon dioxide concentrations that are below ambient levels. Introduction of the steam to the subsurface via existing wells results in a desired change in the NAPL viscosity and the interfacial tension at the soil, water, NAPL interface; in turn, this results in mobilization and capture of the otherwise trapped, weathered NAPL. Approved by the California Air Resources Control Board (and underlying Air Quality Management Districts) and applied in California's San Joaquin Valley, in-well heating of NAPLs trapped at the water table using the VEG technology has proven as effective as electrical resistivity heating (ERH) in changing the viscosity of and mobilizing NAPLs in groundwater in support of recovery, but has achieved these results while minimizing the remedial carbon footprint by 90%, reducing energy use by 99%, and reducing remedial costs by more than 95%. NAPL recovery using VEG has also allowed for completion of source removal historically

  18. Combined effect of ohmic heating and enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process on soy oil recovery. (United States)

    Pare, Akash; Nema, Anurag; Singh, V K; Mandhyan, B L


    This research describes a new technological process for soybean oil extraction. The process deals with the combined effect of ohmic heating and enzyme assisted aqueous oil extraction process (EAEP) on enhancement of oil recovery from soybean seed. The experimental process consisted of following basic steps, namely, dehulling, wet grinding, enzymatic treatment, ohmic heating, aqueous extraction and centrifugation. The effect of ohmic heating parameters namely electric field strength (EFS), end point temperature (EPT) and holding time (HT) on aqueous oil extraction process were investigated. Three levels of electric field strength (i.e. OH600V, OH750V and OH900V), 3 levels of end point temperature (i.e. 70, 80 and 90 °C) and 3 levels of holding time (i.e. 0, 5 and 10 min.) were taken as independent variables using full factorial design. Percentage oil recovery from soybean by EAEP alone and EAEP coupled with ohmic heating were 53.12 % and 56.86 % to 73 % respectively. The maximum oil recovery (73 %) was obtained when the sample was heated and maintained at 90 °C using electric field strength of OH600V for a holding time of 10 min. The free fatty acid (FFA) of the extracted oil (i.e. in range of 0.97 to 1.29 %) was within the acceptable limit of 3 % (oleic acid) and 0.5-3 % prescribed respectively by PFA and BIS.

  19. Evaluation of heat transfer enhancement in air-heating collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattox, D. L.


    The present research effort was initiated for the purpose of increasing the thermal efficiency of air heating solar collectors through identification and development of optimum design and operation criteria for solar absorber-to-air heat exchangers. Initially this effort took the form of a solar collector systems analysis to evaluate the impact of various techniques for enhancing the heat transfer between the absorber and air stream on overall thermal performance of the entire solar collector. This systems analysis resulted in the selection of solar collector designs providing ducted cooling air on the absorber shaded side as a base line. A transient heat transfer analysis of a complete solar air heating collector was used to demonstrate that an optimum absorber-to-air heat exchanger design could be provided with several interrupted fin configurations. Additional analyses were performed to establish that the maximum solar collector thermal performance to required pumping power was realized for a Reynolds number range of 1000 to 2000. This Reynolds number range was used to establish a theoretical design limit curve for maximum thermal performance versus required pumping power for all interrupted fin designs as published in the open literature. Heat and momentum transfer empirical relationships were defined for scaling the state-of-the-art high conductance fin designs identified from a compact configuration to the less compact designs needed for solar collectors.

  20. Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery: 3D Simulation with Gravity Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Jessen, K.; Shapiro, Alexander


    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) utilizes the activity of microorganisms, where microorganisms simultaneously grow in a reservoir and convert substrate into recovery enhancing products (usually, surfactants). In order to predict the performance of a MEOR process, a simulation tool is requir...

  1. Solar technology application to enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Leon, P.; Brown, K.C.; Margolis, J.W.; Nasr, L.H.


    One proposed near-term commercial application for solar energy technology is the use of solar energy systems to generate steam for thermal enhanced oil recovery (EOR). This report examines four aspects of solar energy employed for steam EOR. First, six solar technologies are evaluated and two - parabolic troughs and central receivers - are selected for closer study; typical systems that would meet current production requirements are proposed and costed. Second, the legal and environmental issues attending solar EOR are analyzed. Third, the petroleum producing companies' preferences and requirements are discussed. Finally, alternative means of financing solar EOR are addressed. The study concludes that within the next four to five years, conventional (fossil-fueled) thermal EOR means are much less expensive and more available than solar EOR systems, even given environmental requirements. Within 10 to 15 years, assuming specified advances in solar technologies, central receiver EOR systems will be significantly more cost-effective than parabolic trough EOR systems and will be price competitive with conventional thermal EOR systems. Important uncertainties remain (both in solar energy technologies and in how they affect the operating characteristics of petroleum reservoirs) that need resolution before definitive projections can be made.

  2. Tracer monitoring of enhanced oil recovery projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleven R.


    Full Text Available In enhanced oil recovery (EOR, chemicals are injected into the oil reservoir, either to increase macroscopic sweep efficiency, or to reduce remaining oil saturation in swept zones. Tracers can be used to identify reservoirs that are specifically suited for EOR operations. Injection of a selection of partitioning tracers, combined with frequent sample analysis of produced fluids, provides information suited for estimation of residual oil saturation. Tracers can also be used to evaluate and optimize the application of EOR chemicals in the reservoir. Suitable tracers will follow the EOR chemicals and assist in evaluation of retention, degradation or trapping. In addition to field applications, tracers also have a large potential as a tool to perform mechanistic studies of EOR chemicals in laboratory experiments. By labelling EOR chemicals with radioactive isotopes of elements such as H, C and S, detailed studies of transport mechanisms can be carried out. Co-injection of labelled compounds in dynamic flooding experiments in porous media will give information about retention or separation of the unique compounds constituting the chemical formulation. Separation of such compounds may be detrimental to obtaining the EOR effect expected. The paper gives new information of specific methods, and discusses current status for use of tracers in EOR operations.

  3. Pyrolysis Recovery of Waste Shipping Oil Using Microwave Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Adibah Wan Mahari


    Full Text Available This study investigated the use of microwave pyrolysis as a recovery method for waste shipping oil. The influence of different process temperatures on the yield and composition of the pyrolysis products was investigated. The use of microwave heating provided a fast heating rate (40 °C/min to heat the waste oil at 600 °C. The waste oil was pyrolyzed and decomposed to form products dominated by pyrolysis oil (up to 66 wt. % and smaller amounts of pyrolysis gases (24 wt. % and char residue (10 wt. %. The pyrolysis oil contained light C9–C30 hydrocarbons and was detected to have a calorific value of 47–48 MJ/kg which is close to those traditional liquid fuels derived from fossil fuel. The results show that microwave pyrolysis of waste shipping oil generated an oil product that could be used as a potential fuel.

  4. Enzymes for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)


    Nasiri, Hamidreza


    Primary oil recovery by reservoir pressure depletion and secondary oil recovery by waterflooding usually result in poor displacement efficiency. As a consequence there is always some trapped oil remaining in oil reservoirs. Oil entrapment is a result of complex interactions between viscous, gravity and capillary forces. Improving recovery from hydrocarbon fields typically involves altering the relative importance of the viscous and capillary forces. The potential of many EOR me...

  5. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery: Sixth amendment and extension to Annex IV enhanced oil recovery thermal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, T.B. (USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (United States)); Rivas, O. (INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela))


    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Sixth Amendment and Extension of Annex 4, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 44 through 49. Tasks are: DOE-SUPRI-laboratory research on steam foam, CAT-SCAN, and in-situ combustion; INTEVEP-laboratory research and field projects on steam foam; DOE-NIPER-laboratory research and field projects light oil steam flooding; INTEVEP-laboratory research and field studies on wellbore heat losses; DOE-LLNL-laboratory research and field projects on electromagnetic induction tomography; INTEVEP-laoboratory research on mechanistic studies.

  6. Micro-Organisms In Enhanced Oil Recovery | Osunde | Ife Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extent of bacterial involvement in petroleum genesis has been a subject of debate even while evidence indicates that million years of heat and pressure changed the remains of microscopic plants and animals into oil and natural gas. Microbial-enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) involves processes where microorganisms ...

  7. Advanced Energy and Water Recovery Technology from Low Grade Waste Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexin Wang


    performance was also done, which shows this heat transfer enhancement approach works well in a wide parameters range for typical flue gas conditions. Better understanding of condensing heat transfer mechanism for porous membrane heat transfer surfaces, shows higher condensation and heat transfer rates than non-permeable tubes, due to existence of the porous membrane walls. Laboratory testing has documented increased TMC performance with increased exhaust gas moisture content levels, which has exponentially increased potential markets for the product. The TMC technology can uniquely enhance waste heat recovery in tandem with water vapor recovery for many other industrial processes such as drying, wet and dry scrubber exhaust gases, dewatering, and water chilling. A new metallic substrate membrane tube development and molded TMC part fabrication method, provides an economical way to expand this technology for scaled up applications with less than 3 year payback expectation. A detailed market study shows a broad application area for this advanced waste heat and water recovery technology. A commercialization partner has been lined up to expand this technology to this big market. This research work led to new findings on the TMC working mechanism to improve its performance, better scale up design approaches, and economical part fabrication methods. Field evaluation work needs to be done to verify the TMC real world performance, and get acceptance from the industry, and pave the way for our commercial partner to put it into a much larger waste heat and waste water recovery market. This project is addressing the priority areas specified for DOE Industrial Technologies Program's (ITP's): Energy Intensive Processes (EIP) Portfolio - Waste Heat Minimization and Recovery platform.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    secondary recovery processes involves the injection of fluids which ... production wells [18]. Alkaline flooding is not recommended for carbonate reservoirs because of the profusion of calcium and the mixture between the alkaline chemical and the calcium ions can ... role in oil recovery from mixed – wet naturally fractured.

  9. Immiscible foam for enhancing oil recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simjoo, M.


    Growing worldwide oil demand increased the need of new and efficient oil recovery methods. Gas injection in oil reservoirs is deemed one of the most widely used methods to increase oil recovery. However, the full potential of gas injection is often not realized due to poor vertical and areal sweep

  10. Enhanced oil recovery with modified nonionic surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capelle, A.; Littmann, W.


    Practically all work on chemical flooding, both in the laboratory and in the field, has been focused on petroleum sulphonates. However, as soon as the concentration of electrolyes, especially of divalent ions, exceeds a critical value, the use of this class of anionic surfactants becomes troublesome. Some of the difficulties may be overcome by the use of additives, preferably ether sulphates or ether sulphonates. Hence, the favourable properties of nonionic substances, such as excellent stability to electrolytes, have been combined with those of anionics, and thus the so-called modified nonionics are available for chemical flooding. These products offer the possibility of chemical adaption to the reservoir conditions, are very stable toward electrolytes, and their solubility does not depend on the temperature. The latter is a drawback of nonionic products (cloud point). The modified nonionics are essentially anionics based on ethene oxide derivatives of alcohols or alkylphenols, with subsequent incorporation of sulphate, sulphonate, carboxyl or phosphate groups. On the basis of the reservoir conditions, crude oil properties, and reservoir water, various processes have been screened for enhanced oil recovery in the Velebit reservoir. It was decided to simultaneously inject modified nonionic surfactants and polymers. In part of the reservoir, this process will be tested in two stages in a line drive with several injection wells and production wells. The total area is about 20,000 m/sup 3/. The first stage involves water flooding of about half the area, in order to collect additional data on the reservoir. During the second stage, simultaneous injection of surfactants and polymers will take place. The reservoir is described, and possible EOR processes, the flooding concept and selection of chemicals are discussed.

  11. Feasibility of Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery from Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byunghee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    A thermoelectric generator has the most competitive method to regenerate the waste heat from research reactors, because it has no limitation on operating temperature. In addition, since the TEG is a solid energy conversion device converting heat to electricity directly without moving parts, the regenerating power system becomes simple and highly reliable. In this regard, a waste heat recovery using thermoelectric generator (TEG) from 15-MW pool type research reactor is suggested and the feasibility is demonstrated. The producible power from waste heat is estimated with respect to the reactor parameters, and an application of the regenerated power is suggested by performing a safety analysis with the power. The producible power from TEG is estimated with respect to the LMTD of the HX and the required heat exchange area is also calculated. By increasing LMTD from 2 K to 20K, the efficiency and the power increases greatly. Also an application of the power regeneration system is suggested by performing a safety analysis with the system, and comparing the results with reference case without the power regeneration.

  12. Current and future prospects for heat recovery from waste in European district heating systems: A literature and data review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Urban; Münster, Marie


    generation; energy recovery from waste represents an effective measure to reduce landfilling and avoid disposal emissions while simultaneously reducing the equivalent demand for primary energy supply. A key factor for obtaining the full synergetic benefits of this energy recovery is the presence of local...... heat distribution infrastructures, without which no large-scale recovery and utilisation of excess heat is possible. In this paper, which aims to estimate municipal solid waste volumes available for heat recovery in European district heating systems in 2030, a literature and data review is performed...

  13. Technology strategy for enhanced recovery; Technology Target Areas; TTA3 - enhanced recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) is facing new challenges in reserve replacement and improved recovery in order to maintain the overall oil production rate from the area. A new target for an increase in oil reserves of 800 million Sm3 of oil (5 billion barrels) by year 2015 has been set by NPD. This is an ambitious goal considering several of the large fields are on a steep decline, and most of the recent discoveries are relatively small. A significant part of these increased reserves will have to come from fields currently on production, from reservoir areas that have been partly or fully swept, and it is therefore evident that Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) methods have to play a key role in achieving this target. EOR methods can be divided into gas based EOR methods and water based EOR methods. Thermal methods are not considered applicable on the NCS due to the relatively light oils present, and the depth of the reservoirs. Gas Based EOR; Water Based EOR; CO{sub 2} injection; Surfactants; Air injection; Polymer; Nitrogen injection; Alkaline; Flue gas injection; Polymer gels; WAG; MEOR; FAWAG. The former OG21 strategy document gave high priority to Water Alternating Gas (WAG) methods and CO{sub 2} injection for enhanced recovery. A lot of research and development and evaluation projects on CO{sub 2} injection were launched and are on-going, most of these are being CO{sub 2} WAG studies. The main challenge now in order to realize CO{sub 2} injection on the NCS is on CO{sub 2} availability and transport. It is also believed that increasing gas prices will limit the availability of hydrocarbon gas for injection purposes in the future. There is, however, a clear need for developing alternative cost efficient EOR methods that can improve the sweep efficiency significantly. Since a majority of the fields on the NCS are being produced under water flooding (or WAG), methods that can improve the water flooding efficiency by chemical additives are of special interest and

  14. Microscale surface modifications for heat transfer enhancement. (United States)

    Bostanci, Huseyin; Singh, Virendra; Kizito, John P; Rini, Daniel P; Seal, Sudipta; Chow, Louis C


    In this experimental study, two surface modification techniques were investigated for their effect on heat transfer enhancement. One of the methods employed the particle (grit) blasting to create microscale indentations, while the other used plasma spray coating to create microscale protrusions on Al 6061 (aluminum alloy 6061) samples. The test surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal scanning laser microscopy. Because of the surface modifications, the actual surface area was increased up to 2.8× compared to the projected base area, and the arithmetic mean roughness value (Ra) was determined to vary from 0.3 μm for the reference smooth surface to 19.5 μm for the modified surfaces. Selected samples with modified surfaces along with the reference smooth surface were then evaluated for their heat transfer performance in spray cooling tests. The cooling system had vapor-atomizing nozzles and used anhydrous ammonia as the coolant in order to achieve heat fluxes up to 500 W/cm(2) representing a thermal management setting for high power systems. Experimental results showed that the microscale surface modifications enhanced heat transfer coefficients up to 76% at 500 W/cm(2) compared to the smooth surface and demonstrated the benefits of these practical surface modification techniques to enhance two-phase heat transfer process.

  15. Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems. Country Report, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans-Jørgen Høgaard; Christensen, K. G.

    number of supermarkets that offer frozen and chilled food and further growth of this sector may be expected, the amount of energy used for refrigeration is enormous and will likely increase in the near future. Annex 26 analysed several advanced supermarket refrigeration systems and came to remarkable...... conclusions as far energy conservation and TEWI reduction is concerned. The conclusion justify that advanced supermarket systems with heat recovery should receive great attention and support. And there is still further research needed in several areas. The Annex also included a thorough system analyses...

  16. Technologies and countermeasures for gas recovery enhancement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guo Ping; Jing Shasha; Peng Caizhen


    .... Besides, an increasing number of gas fields have come to the middle or late development stages, and most gas reservoirs have low recovery efficiency due to the low permeability and water drive nature...

  17. Low-temperature waste-heat recovery in the food and paper industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foell, W.K.; Lund, D.; Mitchell, J.W.; Ray, D.; Stevenson, R.; TenWolde, A.


    The potential of low-temperature waste-heat recovery technology is examined. An examination of barriers to impede waste-heat recovery is made and research programs are identified. Extensive information and data are presented in the following chapters: Waste Heat Recovery in the Wisconsin Food Industry; Waste Heat Recovery in the Wisconsin Pulp and Paper Industry; Industries' Economic Analysis of Energy Conservation Projects; Industrial Waste Heat Recovery (selection of heat-recovery heat exchangers for industrial applications, simplified procedure for selection of heat recovery heat exchangers for industrial applications, selection of heat pumps for industrial applications); Institutional Aspects of Industrial Energy Conservation (economic motivation for energy conservation and the industrial response, intrafirm idea channels and their sources, evaluation and approval of plant improvement projects, reported barriers to adopting waste heat recovery projects and recommendations for government involvement, and the final chapter is a summary with major conclusions given. Additional information is given in two appendices on the potential waste heat recovery in a cheese plant (calculation) and conditions for optimum exchanger size and break-even fuel cost. (MCW)

  18. Targeting heat recovery and reuse in industrial zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarić Milana M.


    Full Text Available In order to reduce the usage of fossil fuels in industrial sectors by meeting the requirements of production processes, new heat integration and heat recovery approaches are developed. The goal of this study is to develop an approach to increase energy efficiency of an industrial zone by recovering and reusing waste heat via indirect heat integration. Industrial zones usually consist of multiple independent plants, where each plant is supplied by an independent utility system, as a decentralized system. In this study, a new approach is developed to target minimum energy requirements where an industrial zone would be supplied by a centralized utility system instead of decentralized utility system. The approach assumes that all process plants in an industrial zone are linked through the central utility system. This method is formulated as a linear programming problem (LP. Moreover, the proposed method may be used for decision making related to energy integration strategy of an industrial zone. In addition, the proposed method was applied on a case study. The results revealed that saving of fossil fuel could be achieved. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. OI172063

  19. Effective use of heat-recovery steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V. (Abco Industries, Abilene, TX (United States))


    Heat-recovery steam generators (HRSGs), often called waste-heat boilers, recover energy from gas streams in a wide range of chemical-process plants. They play the same role in cogeneration and combined-cycle plants that generate steam and electric power, and in facilities that incinerate solid, liquid or gaseous waste. The HRSG is basically a heat exchanger that serves as a boiler. The steam-generation rate and the amount of space available help determine the particular type used in a given situation. So do the quantity, temperature, pressure, chemical composition and purity of the gas. HRSGs are in general custom-designed for each situation, and the purchasing company's engineers must take special care in preparing a well-written specification. Guidelines for doing so appear later. How to use HRSGs effectively in chemical-process plants can be aptly illustrated by two major examples, both covered below: steam reforming of natural gas to produce hydrogen, as in an ammonia or methanol plant; and manufacture of sulfuric acid by the contact process. Also included below is a look at HRSGs in incineration plants, followed by guidelines for proper specifying of these heat-exchange devices.

  20. Possibility of heat recovery from gray water in residential building (United States)

    Mazur, Aleksandra; Słyś, Daniel


    Recovery of waste heat from gray water can be an interesting alternative to other energy saving systems in a building, including alternative energy sources. Mainly, due to a number of advantages including independence from weather conditions, small investment outlay, lack of user support, or a slight interference with the installation system. The purpose of this article is to present the financial effectiveness of installations which provide hot, usable water to a detached house, using a Drain Water Heat Recovery (DWHR) system depending on the number of system users and the various combinations of bathing time in the shower, which has an influence on the daily warm water demand in each of the considered options. The economic analysis of the adopted installation variants is based on the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) method, which is characterized by the fact that it also includes the operating costs in addition to the capital expenditure during the entire analysis period. For each case, the necessary devices were selected and the cost of their installation was estimated.

  1. Heat pipes as perspective base elements of heat recovery in heat supply and ventilating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matveev Andrey


    Full Text Available Thermotechnical characteristics of heat pipes are considered as high-efficient heat-transfer devices, which can provide energy-saving technologies for heat supply and ventilating systems and for different branches of industry. Thermotechnical and working (”performance capability” characteristics of heat pipes are investigated. By ”performance capability” of heat pipes and heat-transfer devices on heat pipes we mean the system state, where it can perform set functions and keep parameter values (thermal power, conductivity, thermal resistance, heat-transfer coefficient, temperature level and differential, etc. within the regulations of standardized specifications. The article presents theoretical and experimental methods of «gaslock» length determination on noncondensable gases during long-lasting tests of ammonia heat pipes made of aluminum shape АS – КRА 7.5 – R1 (alloy АD – 31. The paper gives results of research of thermotechnical characteristics of heat pipes in horizontal and vertical states (separate and as a set part while using different systems of thermal insulation. The obtained results of thermotechnical and resource tests show the advantages of ammonia heat pipes as basic elements for heat exchanger design in heating and ventilation systems.

  2. High-order simulation of foam enhanced oil recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meer, J.M.; Van Odyck, D.E.A.; Wirnsberger, P.; Jansen, J.D.


    If secondary hydrocarbon recovery methods fail because of the occurrence of gravity override or viscous fingering one can turn to an enhanced oil recovery method like the injection of foam. The generation of foam can be described by a set of partial differential equations with strongly nonlinear

  3. Enhancement of reproductive heat tolerance in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Burke

    Full Text Available Comparison of average crop yields with reported record yields has shown that major crops exhibit annual average yields three- to seven-fold lower than record yields because of unfavorable environments. The current study investigated the enhancement of pollen heat tolerance through expressing an Arabidopsis thaliana heat shock protein 101 (AtHSP101 that is not normally expressed in pollen but reported to play a crucial role in vegetative thermotolerance. The AtHSP101 construct under the control of the constitutive ocs/mas 'superpromoter' was transformed into cotton Coker 312 and tobacco SRI lines via Agrobacterium mediated transformation. Thermotolerance of pollen was evaluated by in vitro pollen germination studies. Comparing with those of wild type and transgenic null lines, pollen from AtHSP101 transgenic tobacco and cotton lines exhibited significantly higher germination rate and much greater pollen tube elongation under elevated temperatures or after a heat exposure. In addition, significant increases in boll set and seed numbers were also observed in transgenic cotton lines exposed to elevated day and night temperatures in both greenhouse and field studies. The results of this study suggest that enhancing heat tolerance of reproductive tissues in plant holds promise in the development of crops with improved yield production and yield sustainability in unfavorable environments.

  4. Enhanced oil recovery by CO{sub 2} injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moctezuma Berthier, Andres E. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)


    Firstly are presented some basic concepts on the enhanced oil recovery; then a description is made of where the oil deposits in Mexico are located; comments are made over what has been done in Mexico in terms of enhanced oil recovery, the projects of the Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo that have dealt with the subject of enhanced oil recovery, and finally an approach is presented towards the problem of oil recovery using CO{sub 2}. [Spanish] Primeramente se presentan unos conceptos basicos sobre la recuperacion mejorada de petroleo; luego se hace una descripcion de donde se encuentran los yacimientos de petroleo en Mexico; se comenta sobre que se ha hecho en Mexico en terminos de recuperacion mejorada de petroleo; se mencionan los proyectos del Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo que han abordado el tema de la recuperacion mejorada del petroleo y por ultimo se presenta un enfoque hacia el problema de la recuperacion del petroleo usando CO{sub 2}.

  5. Microbial enhanced oil recovery: Entering the log phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, R.S.


    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) technology has advanced internationally since 1980 from a laboratory-based evaluation of microbial processes to field applications. In order to adequately support the decline in oil production in certain areas, research on cost-effective technologies such as microbial enhanced oil recovery processes must focus on both near-term and long-term applications. Many marginal wells are desperately in need of an inexpensive improved oil recovery technology today that can assist producers in order to prevent their abandonment. Microbial enhanced waterflooding technology has also been shown to be an economically feasible technology in the United States. Complementary environmental research and development will also be required to address any potential environmental impacts of microbial processes. In 1995 at this conference, the goal is to further document and promote microbial processes for improved oil recovery and related technology for solving environmental problems.

  6. Technologies for waste heat recovery in off-shore applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Haglind, Fredrik; Kandepu, Rambabu


    pressure level steam Rankine cycle employing the once-through heat recovery steam generator without bypass stack. We compare the three technologies considering the combined cycle thermal efficiency, the weight, the net present value, the profitability index and payback time. Both incomes related to CO2...... taxes and natural gas savings are considered. The results indicate that the Turboden 65-HRS unit is the optimal technology, resulting in a combined cycle thermal efficiency of 41.5% and a net present value of around 15 M$, corresponding to a payback time of approximately 4.5 years. The total weight...... that the once-trough single pressure steam cycle has a combined cycle thermal efficiency of 40.8% and net present value of 13.5 M$. The total weight of the steam Rankine cycle is estimated to be around 170 ton....

  7. Current and future prospects for heat recovery from waste in European district heating systems: A literature and data review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Urban; Münster, Marie


    Municipal solid waste has seen increasing annual volumes for many decades in contemporary Europe and constitutes, if not properly managed, an environmental problem due to local pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. From an energy perspective, waste is also an alternative fuel for power and heat...... heat distribution infrastructures, without which no large-scale recovery and utilisation of excess heat is possible. In this paper, which aims to estimate municipal solid waste volumes available for heat recovery in European district heating systems in 2030, a literature and data review is performed...... to establish and assess current and future EU (European Union) waste generation and management. Main conclusions are that more heat can be recovered from current Waste-to-Energy facilities operating at low average heat recovery efficiencies, that efficient incineration capacity is geographically concentrated...

  8. Testing heated flint palaeodose protocols using dose recovery procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, D. [Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Department of Human Evolution, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)]. E-mail:; Temming, H. [Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Department of Human Evolution, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)


    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating of materials from archaeological contexts has been shown to be an accurate method when comparisons are made with other chronometric dating methods; however, little has been published on the verification of the measurement protocols used to determine the equivalent dose (palaeodose). Instead of testing TL dating protocols for heated flint using archaeological material with unknown thermal and radiation history, dose recovery tests for three samples of different geological origin are presented. These samples exhibit TL emission in the UV, blue and orange-red wavelengths. In addition to the two multiple aliquot protocols (standard additive-regeneration and normalization) generally used to determine the palaeodose, the single-aliquot-regenerative-dose (SAR) TL and OSL procedure, a 'short' SAR-TL and isothermal luminescence (IT) decay procedures are applied using detection windows limited to these emissions. Accurate dose recovery is obtained for the standard and normalization protocols in the commonly employed detection window (UV-blue), the 'short' SAR in the orange-red window and some IT measurements. While the standard techniques give the most accurate and precise results, detection of the TL and IT orange-red emission in connection with a 'short' SAR protocol also gave accurate and precise results. Such procedures are especially suitable for samples too small for standard multiple aliquot techniques, which require large samples.

  9. Two-phase plate-fin heat exchanger modeling for waste heat recovery systems in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; de Jager, B.; Willems, F.; Steinbuch, M.


    This paper presents the modeling and model validation for a modular two-phase heat exchanger that recovers energy in heavy-duty diesel engines. The model is developed for temperature and vapor quality prediction and for control design of the waste heat recovery system. In the studied waste heat

  10. The PTRC : a world leader in enhanced heavy oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristoff, B.; Knudsen, R.; Asghari, K. [Petroleum Technology Research Centre, Regina, SK (Canada); Pappas, E.S. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)


    The Petroleum Technology Research Centre (PTRC) fosters knowledge and progressive technologies to enhance the recovery of petroleum. This paper discussed the PTRC's leadership in enhanced heavy oil recovery, with particular reference to core research program such as heavy oil (post) cold flow; enhanced waterflooding; miscible/immiscible solvent injection; and near-wellbore conformance control. Other projects that were presented included a joint implementation of vapour extraction project (JIVE); and the IEA greenhouse gas (GHG) Weyburn-Midale carbon dioxide monitoring and storage project. The JIVE project will develop, demonstrate and evaluate solvent vapour extraction processes for enhanced oil recovery in heavy oil reservoirs. The GHG Weyburn-Midale project, launched in 2000, studies carbon dioxide injection and storage in partially depleted oil reservoirs. It was concluded that the PTRC continues to develop technologies to meet the world's energy requirements while mitigating both immediate and long-term environmental impacts. 4 figs.

  11. Transcriptomic analysis of grape (Vitis vinifera L. leaves during and after recovery from heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Guo-Tian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grapes are a major fruit crop around the world. Heat stress can significantly reduce grape yield and quality. Changes at the molecular level in response to heat stress and subsequent recovery are poorly understood. To elucidate the effect of heat stress and subsequent recovery on expression of genes by grape leaves representing the classic heat stress response and thermotolerance mechanisms, transcript abundance of grape (Vitis vinifera L. leaves was quantified using the Affymetrix Grape Genome oligonucleotide microarray (15,700 transcripts, followed by quantitative Real-Time PCR validation for some transcript profiles. Results We found that about 8% of the total probe sets were responsive to heat stress and/or to subsequent recovery in grape leaves. The heat stress and recovery responses were characterized by different transcriptional changes. The number of heat stress-regulated genes was almost twice the number of recovery-regulated genes. The responsive genes identified in this study belong to a large number of important traits and biological pathways, including cell rescue (i.e., antioxidant enzymes, protein fate (i.e., HSPs, primary and secondary metabolism, transcription factors, signal transduction, and development. We have identified some common genes and heat shock factors (HSFs that were modulated differentially by heat stress and recovery. Most HSP genes were upregulated by heat stress but were downregulated by the recovery. On the other hand, some specific HSP genes or HSFs were uniquely responsive to heat stress or recovery. Conclusion The effect of heat stress and recovery on grape appears to be associated with multiple processes and mechanisms including stress-related genes, transcription factors, and metabolism. Heat stress and recovery elicited common up- or downregulated genes as well as unique sets of responsive genes. Moreover, some genes were regulated in opposite directions by heat stress and recovery

  12. Alkaline flooding for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittler, W.E.


    There are over 12 active projects of varying size using one of 3 major types of alkaline agents. These include sodium silicate, caustic soda, and soda ash. Among the largest pilots currently is the THUMS project in the Wilmington field, California. Plans called for the injection of a 4% weight concentration of sodium orthosilicate over a 60% PV. Through the first 3 yr, over 27 million bbl of chemicals have been injected. Gulf Oil is operating several alkaline floods, one of which is located off shore in the Quarantine Bay field, Louisiana. In this pilot, sodium hydroxide in a weight concentration of 5 to 12% is being injected. Belco Petroleum Corp. has reported that their pilot operating in the Isenhour Unit in Wyoming is using a .5% weight concentration of soda ash in conjunction with a polymer. Other uses for alkaline agents in chemical flooding include the use of silicate as a preflush or sacrificial agent in micellar/polymer and surfactant recovery systems. In addition, caustic has been tested in the surface-mixed caustic emulsion process while orthosilicate has been tested in a recovery method known as mobility-controlled caustic floods.

  13. Ventilation effectiveness : health benefits of heat recovery ventilators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Studies have shown that the installation of a heat recovery ventilator (HRV) in homes in northern Canada could improve indoor air quality and the respiratory health of inhabitants. Low ventilation rates are common in many homes in the North because the climate is severe, homes are smaller and lack basements, and occupancies are higher, leading to unhealthy indoor air quality. Northern communities also have a high rate of respiratory infections. HRVs recover much of the energy used to ventilate, which is desirable in cold regions with high heating costs. For the study, the test sample was divided into two types of houses, notably houses with active HRVs and those with control HRVs that were installed and operated but that did not function. The study results showed that HRVs provided increased ventilation. Complaints by residents about HRV noise, discomfort, or low humidity were common but equally spread between those with active and placebo HRVs. The study showed that the system design needs to be improved to better suit the needs of Inuit families. The nature of northern housing presents installation and maintenance challenges. It is hard to retrofit HRV ducting inside small, existing houses, and building supplies arrive infrequently, so detailed planning and careful take-offs of all supplies and materials must be done well in advance of construction. In addition, contractors are hard to locate and have variable expertise, and there is little technical follow-up. Robust technical support by local contractors and housing authorities is therefore important. 2 refs.

  14. Optimal operation of integrated processes. Studies on heat recovery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glemmestad, Bjoern


    Separators, reactors and a heat exchanger network (HEN) for heat recovery are important parts of an integrated plant. This thesis deals with the operation of HENs, in particular, optimal operation. The purpose of heat integration is to save energy, but the HEN also introduces new interactions and feedback into the overall plant. A prerequisite for optimisation is that there are extra degrees of freedom left after regulatory control is implemented. It is shown that extra degrees of freedom may not always be utilized for energy optimisation, and a quantitative expression for the degrees of freedom that can be so utilized are presented. A simplified expression that is often valid is also deduced. The thesis presents some improvements and generalisations of a structure based method that has been proposed earlier. Structural information is used to divide possible manipulations into three categories depending on how each manipulation affects the utility consumption. By means of these categories and two heuristic rules for operability, the possible manipulations are ordered in a priority table. This table is used to determine which manipulation should be preferred and which manipulation should be selected if an active manipulation is saturated. It is shown that the method may correspond to split-range control. A method that uses parametric information in addition to structural information is proposed. In this method, the optimal control structure is found through solving an integer programming problem. The thesis also proposes a method that combines the use of steady state optimisation and optimal selection of measurements. 86 refs., 46 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Enhanced Oil Recovery by Horizontal Waterflooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Robinowitz; Dwight Dauben; June Schmeling


    Solar energy has become a major alternative for supplying a substantial fraction of the nation's future energy needs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports activities ranging from the demonstration of existing technology to research on future possibilities. At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), projects are in progress that span a wide range of activities, with the emphasis on research to extend the scientific basis for solar energy applications, and on preliminary development of new approaches to solar energy conversion. To assess various solar applications, it is important to quantify the solar resource. Special instruments have been developed and are now in use to measure both direct solar radiation and circum-solar radiation, i.e., the radiation from near the sun resulting from the scattering of sunlight by small particles in the atmosphere. These measurements serve to predict the performance of solar designs that use focusing collectors employing mirrors or lenses to concentrate the sunlight. Efforts have continued at a low level to assist DOE in demonstrating existing solar technology by providing the San Francisco Operations Office (SAN) with technical support for its management of commercial-building solar demonstration projects. Also, a hot water and space-heating system has been installed on an LBL building as part of the DOE facilities Solar Demonstration Program. LBL continues to provide support for the DOE Appropriate Energy Technology grants program. Evaluations are made of the program's effectiveness by, for example, estimating the resulting potential energy savings. LBL also documents innovative features and improvements in economic feasibility as compared to existing conventional systems or applications. In the near future, we expect that LBL research will have a substantial impact in the areas of solar heating and cooling. Conventional and new types of high-performance absorption air conditioners are being developed that are air


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller; Gary A. Pope; Richard E. Jackson


    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactant structures makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. Also, the addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of surfactant and significant reduction of surfactant adsorption. In addition to reduction of interfacial tension to ultra-low values, surfactants and alkali can be designed to alter wettability to enhance oil recovery. An alkaline surfactant process is designed to enhance spontaneous imbibition in fractured, oil-wet, carbonate formations. It is able to recover oil from dolomite core samples from which there was no oil recovery when placed in formation brine.

  17. Enhanced recovery in colorectal surgery: a multicentre study


    Casal José E; Maeso-Martínez Sergio; Roig José V; Blasco Juan A; Ramírez José M; Esteban Fernando; Lic Daniel


    Abstract Background Major colorectal surgery usually requires a hospital stay of more than 12 days. Inadequate pain management, intestinal dysfunction and immobilisation are the main factors associated with delay in recovery. The present work assesses the short and medium term results achieved by an enhanced recovery program based on previously published protocols. Methods This prospective study, performed at 12 Spanish hospitals in 2008 and 2009, involved 300 patients. All patients underwent...

  18. Bypass valve and coolant flow controls for optimum temperatures in waste heat recovery systems (United States)

    Meisner, Gregory P


    Implementing an optimized waste heat recovery system includes calculating a temperature and a rate of change in temperature of a heat exchanger of a waste heat recovery system, and predicting a temperature and a rate of change in temperature of a material flowing through a channel of the waste heat recovery system. Upon determining the rate of change in the temperature of the material is predicted to be higher than the rate of change in the temperature of the heat exchanger, the optimized waste heat recovery system calculates a valve position and timing for the channel that is configurable for achieving a rate of material flow that is determined to produce and maintain a defined threshold temperature of the heat exchanger, and actuates the valve according to the calculated valve position and calculated timing.

  19. Preoperative methylprednisolone enhances recovery after endovascular aortic repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Motte, Louise; Kehlet, Henrik; Vogt, Katja


    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate effects of preoperative high-dose glucocorticoid on the inflammatory response and recovery after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). BACKGROUND: The postimplantation syndrome after EVAR may delay recovery due to the release of proinflammatory mediators....... Glucocorticoids may reduce postoperative inflammatory responses and enhance recovery, but with limited information on EVAR. METHODS: A single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 153 patients undergoing elective EVAR between November 2009 and January 2013. Patients received 30 mg.......001) and fulfillment of discharge criteria was shorter [2 days (IQR = 2-4 days) vs 3 days (IQR = 3-4 days)] (P factor receptor were also reduced (P

  20. Comparison of heat strain recovery in different anti-heat stress clothing ensembles after work to exhaustion. (United States)

    Zhao, Yijie; Yi, Wen; Chan, Albert P C; Chan, Daniel W M


    A hot environment combined with physically demanding tasks can subject workers to a higher risk of heat stress. A series of regulations and guidelines have been proposed to design appropriate anti-heat stress work uniform to reduce body heat strain. The present study aimed to examine heat strain recovery in different anti-heat stress clothing ensembles after work to exhaustion in the heat. 10 healthy males performed intermittent treadmill running/walking to exhaustion, followed by 30min passive recovery sitting in a climatic chamber, which simulated the hot and humid outdoor environment (34°C temperature, 60% relative humidity, 0.3m/s air velocity, and 450W/m(2) solar radiation). The participants took part in five wear trials in counter-balanced order, including Sportswear, CIC Uniform, NEW Uniform, ICEBANK Cooling Vest, and NEW Cooling Vest, which have different levels of cooling capacity. Core temperature, skin temperature, heart rate, sweat loss, ratings of perceived exertion, and thermal sensations were measured throughout the entire heat exposure period. Physiological heat strain indices, including the physiological strain index (PhSI) and the perceptual strain index (PeSI), were used as a yardstick to quantify and compare the rate of recovery. Significantly lower physiological strain was observed in the newly developed NEW Uniform and NEW Cooling Vest groups compared with the commonly worn CIC Uniform group during recovery. At the end of the recovery period, participants in NEW Cooling Vest achieved the highest recovery (42.18% in PhSI and 81.08% in PeSI), followed by ICEBANK Cooling Vest, Sportswear, NEW Uniform, and CIC Uniform. The cooling capacity of anti-heat stress clothing ensembles and the recovery time significantly affect the rate of recovery in PhSI and PeSI, which may benefit the industry by formulating the appropriate work-rest schedule by considering the clothing effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Model predictive control of a waste heat recovery system for automotive diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Willems, F.; De Jager, B.; Steinbuch, M.


    In this paper, a switching Model Predictive Control strategy is designed for an automotive Waste Heat Recovery system with two parallel evaporators. The objective is to maximize Waste Heat Recovery system output power, while satisfying safe operation under highly dynamic disturbances from the

  2. System and method for determining the net output torque from a waste heat recovery system (United States)

    Tricaud, Christophe; Ernst, Timothy C.; Zigan, James A.


    The disclosure provides a waste heat recovery system with a system and method for calculation of the net output torque from the waste heat recovery system. The calculation uses inputs from existing pressure and speed sensors to create a virtual pump torque sensor and a virtual expander torque sensor, and uses these sensors to provide an accurate net torque output from the WHR system.

  3. A Simulation Study on a Thermoelectric Generator for Waste Heat Recovery from a Marine Engine (United States)

    Ji, Dongxu; Tseng, King Jet; Wei, Zhongbao; Zheng, Yun; Romagnoli, Alessandro


    In this study, a marine engine has been evaluated for waste heat recovery (WHR) using thermoelectric generators (TEG). The feasibility of Mg2Sn0.75Ge0.25, Cu2Se, and Cu1.98Se as potential thermoelectric (TE) material were investigated. A straight fin heat exchanger is used to enhance the heat transfer between the hot exhaust gas and TE modules. To facility the analysis, a system level thermal resistance model is built and validated with experiments. After the model is validated, a small marine engine with rated power of 1.7-3 MW is taken as baseline model and it is found that around 2-4 KW electrical power can be extracted from exhaust gas by the TEG at varying design and operating parameters. The back pressure effect induced by the heat exchanger is also considered in this study. Finally, a parameter study is conducted regarding the impact of the TE module height on the output power. It is shown that the height of the TE leg could play a significant role in the module geometry design, and that the optimal height varies between 1 mm and 2 mm under different heat exchangers and exhaust gas flow rates.

  4. Survey of industrial coal conversion equipment capabilities: heat recovery and utilization. [53 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambill, W. R.; Reed, W. R.


    A scoping survey of the capabilities of industrial heat recovery equipment was conducted to determine their adaptability to proposed coal-conversion complexes. Major categories of heat exchangers included shell-and-tube, periodic-flow and rotary regenerators, heat pipe arrays, direct phase contactors, and steam and organic Rankine cycles for power generation from waste heat. Primary applications encompassed feed-effluent and other process stream interchangers, combustion air preheaters, and heat recovery steam generators (waste heat boiler-superheaters). It is concluded that the single area providing the greatest potential for extending US industrial heat-recovery equipment capabilities as related to coal-conversion processes is a research, development, and testing program to acquire more physical-property and heat-transfer data and more-reliable design correlations.

  5. Ventilation Heat Recovery from Wood-Burning Domestic Flues. A Theoretical Analysis Based on a Triple Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger


    Lionel Druette; Christian Inard; Pierre Peigné


    This paper presents a new air-heating system concept for energy-efficient dwellings. It is a system designed to heat a low-energy building by coupling a heat-recovery ventilation system with a three-fluid heat exchanger located on the chimney of a wood-pellet stove. The proposed work focuses on the heat transfer that occurs between flue gases, the ventilation air and the combustion air within a triple concentric tube heat exchanger with no insulation at its outer surface. The main objective i...

  6. The Misselhorn Cycle: Batch-Evaporation Process for Efficient Low-Temperature Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Gleinser


    Full Text Available The concept of the Misselhorn cycle is introduced as a power cycle that aims for efficient waste heat recovery of temperature sources below 100 °C. The basic idea shows advantages over a standard Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC in overall efficiency and utilization of the heat source. The main characteristic of this cycle is the use of at least three parallel batch evaporators instead of continuous heat exchangers. The operational phases of the evaporators are shifted so that there is always one vaporizer in discharge mode. A transient MATLAB® model (The MathWorks: Natick, MA, USA is used to simulate the achievable performance of the Misselhorn cycle. The calculations of the thermodynamic states of the system are based on the heat flux, the equations for energy conservation and the equations of state found in the NIST Standard Reference Database 23 (Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties - REFPROP, National Institute of Standards and Technology: Gaithersburg, MD, USA. In the isochoric batch evaporation, the pressure and the corresponding boiling temperature rise over time. With a gradually increasing boiling temperature, no pinch point limitation occurs. Furthermore, the heat source medium is passed through the evaporators in serial order to obtain a quasi-counter flow setup. It could be shown that these features offer the possibility to gain both high thermal efficiencies and an enhanced utilization of the heat source at the same time. A basic model with a fixed estimated heat transfer coefficient promises a possible system exergy efficiency of 44.4%, which is an increase of over 60% compared to a basic ORC with a system exergy efficiency of only 26.8%.

  7. Consensus on Training and Implementation of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Nader K; Walker, Thomas; Carter, Fiona


    BACKGROUND: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) is widely accepted in current surgical practice due to its positive impact on patient outcomes. The successful implementation of ERAS is challenging and compliance with protocols varies widely. Continual staff education is essential for successfu...

  8. Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) in penetrating abdominal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programmes employed in elective surgery have provided strong evidence for decreased lengths of hospital stay without increase in postoperative complications. The aim of this study was to explore the role and benefits of ERAS implemented in patients undergoing ...

  9. Foam for Enhanced Oil Recovery : Modeling and Analytical Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashoori, E.


    Foam increases sweep in miscible- and immiscible-gas enhanced oil recovery by decreasing the mobility of gas enormously. This thesis is concerned with the simulations and analytical solutions for foam flow for the purpose of modeling foam EOR in a reservoir. For the ultimate goal of upscaling our

  10. Polymeric surfactants for enhanced oil recovery : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raffa, Patrizio; Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Picchioni, Francesco

    Chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is surely a topic of interest, as conventional oil resources become more scarce and the necessity of exploiting heavy and unconventional oils increases. EOR methods based on polymer flooding, surfactant-polymer flooding and alkali-surfactant-polymer flooding are

  11. Design and evaluation of fluidized bed heat recovery for diesel engine systems (United States)

    Hamm, J. R.; Newby, R. A.; Vidt, E. J.; Lippert, T. E.


    The potential of utilizing fluidized bed heat exchangers in place of conventional counter-flow heat exchangers for heat recovery from adiabatic diesel engine exhaust gas streams was studied. Fluidized bed heat recovery systems were evaluated in three different heavy duty transport applications: (1) heavy duty diesel truck; (2) diesel locomotives; and (3) diesel marine pushboat. The three applications are characterized by differences in overall power output and annual utilization. For each application, the exhaust gas source is a turbocharged-adiabatic diesel core. Representative subposed exhaust gas heat utilization power cycles were selected for conceptual design efforts including design layouts and performance estimates for the fluidized bed heat recovery heat exchangers. The selected power cycles were: organic rankine with RC-1 working fluid, turbocompound power turbine with steam injection, and stirling engine. Fuel economy improvement predictions are used in conjunction with capital cost estimates and fuel price data to determine payback times for the various cases.

  12. Influence of Compressor Station Waste-Heat Recovery Section on Operational Efficiency of Gas Turbine Drive with Isobaric Heat Supply and Regenerative Heat Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Nesenchuk


    Full Text Available The possibility to utilize existing secondary energy resources for heat supply of an industrial enterprise has been proposed on the basis of the analysis on operation of compressor stations of a cross-country gas pipe-line. The paper considers an influence of waste heat recovery section on operational efficiency of gas turbine drive with regenerative heat utilization.

  13. Modern State and Efficiency Analysis of Heat Recovery in Fuel Furnaces Using High Temperature Recuperators. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Soroka


    Full Text Available The paper analyzes various factors that affect upon heat transfer in high temperature recuperators, namely: heat transfer enhancement, heat exchange surface increase and rise of temperature head between primary and secondary heat transfer fluids. Comparison of experimental data with the results of mathematical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD modeling has been performed in the paper. The paper considers some new designs of high temperature heat recovery plants: tube recuperator equipped with internal inserts – secondary emitters inside tubes for metallurgical furnaces and high-efficient two-way radiative recuperators for machinery engineering furnaces.  Advantages of new recuperators in comparison with existing analogues have been estimated in the paper. These advantages are:  provision of additional fuel saving due to increase of preheating temperature of the combustion air and improvement of design stability by decrease of tube wall temperature.

  14. Heat transfer enhancement using tip and junction vortices (United States)

    Gentry, Mark Cecil


    Single-phase convective heat transfer can be enhanced by modifying the heat transfer surface to passively generate streamwise vortices. The swirling flow of the vortices modifies the temperature field, thinning the thermal boundary layer and increasing surface convection. Tip vortices generated by delta wings and junction vortices generated by hemispherical protuberances were studied in laminar flat-plate and developing channel flows. Local and average convective measurements were obtained, and the structure of the vortices was studied using quantitative flow visualization and vortex strength measurements. The pressure drop penalty associated with the heat transfer enhancement was also investigated. Tip vortices generated by delta wings enhanced local convection by as much as 300% over a flat-plate boundary layer flow. Vortex strength increased with Reynolds number based on chord length, wing aspect ratio, and wing angle of attack. As the vortices were advected downstream, they decayed because of viscous interactions. In the developing channel flow, tip vortices produced a significant local heat transfer enhancement on both sides of the channel. The largest spatially averaged heat transfer enhancement was 55%; it was accompanied by a 100% increase in the pressure drop relative to the same channel flow with no delta-wing vortex generator. Junction vortices created by hemispherical surface protuberances provided local heat transfer enhancements as large as 250%. Vortex strength increased with an increasing ratio of hemisphere radius to local boundary layer thickness on a flat plate. In the developing channel flows, heat transfer enhancements were observed on both sides of the channel. The largest spatially averaged heat transfer enhancement was 50%; it was accompanied by a 90% pressure drop penalty relative to the same channel flow with no hemispherical vortex generator. This research is important in compact heat exchanger design. Enhancing heat transfer can lead to

  15. Simulations of Microbial-Enhanced Oil Recovery: Adsorption and Filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Nesterov, Igor; Shapiro, Alexander


    is introduced to study the process efficiency: the dimensionless time at which average recovery between pure water injection and maximum surfactant effect is reached. This characteristic recovery period (CRP) was studied as a function of the different MEOR parameters such as bacterial activity, filtration......In the context of microbial-enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) with injection of surfactant-producing bacteria into the reservoir, different types of bacteria attachment and growth scenarios are studied using a 1D simulator. The irreversible bacteria attachment due to filtration similar to the deep bed...... filtration (DBF) is examined along with the commonly used reversible equilibrium adsorption (REA). The characteristics of the two models are highlighted. The options for bacteria growth are the uniform growth in both phases and growth of attached bacteria only. It is found that uniform growth scenario...

  16. Digital innovations and emerging technologies for enhanced recovery programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michard, F; Gan, T J; Kehlet, H


    .Preoperative physical condition, a major determinant of postoperative outcome, could be optimized with the use of text messages (SMS) or digital applications (Apps) designed to facilitate smoking cessation, modify physical activity, and better manage hypertension and diabetes. Several non-invasive haemodynamic......Enhanced recovery programmes (ERPs) are increasingly used to improve post-surgical recovery. However, compliance to various components of ERPs-a key determinant of success-remains sub-optimal. Emerging technologies have the potential to help patients and caregivers to improve compliance with ERPs......-respiratory function may help in the early detection of clinical deterioration during the postoperative recovery and to address 'failure to rescue'. Activity trackers may be useful to monitor early mobilization, another major element of ERPs. Finally, electronic checklists have been developed to ensure that none...

  17. Thermodynamic analysis of heat recovery steam generator in combined cycle power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Naradasu


    Full Text Available Combined cycle power plants play an important role in the present energy sector. The main challenge in designing a combined cycle power plant is proper utilization of gas turbine exhaust heat in the steam cycle in order to achieve optimum steam turbine output. Most of the combined cycle developers focused on the gas turbine output and neglected the role of the heat recovery steam generator which strongly affects the overall performance of the combined cycle power plant. The present paper is aimed at optimal utilization of the flue gas recovery heat with different heat recovery steam generator configurations of single pressure and dual pressure. The combined cycle efficiency with different heat recovery steam generator configurations have been analyzed parametrically by using first law and second law of thermodynamics. It is observed that in the dual cycle high pressure steam turbine pressure must be high and low pressure steam turbine pressure must be low for better heat recovery from heat recovery steam generator.

  18. Analysis of Deep Heat Recovery From Flue Gases (United States)

    Shatskikh, Y. V.; Sharapov, A. I.; Byankin, I. G.


    The condensing mode of operation steam boiler using as fuel blast furnace gas is analyzed. The heat transfer in the flue of the boiler is calculated, the maximum depth of the cooling of the flue gases is defined, the scheme of installation of the heat exchanger in the flue tract is developed. The optimal operating parameters of heat exchanger are defined.

  19. Industrial applications study. Volume IV. Industrial plant surveys. Final report. [Waste heat recovery and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Harry L.; Hamel, Bernard B.; Karamchetty, Som; Steigelmann, William H.; Gajanana, Birur C.; Agarwal, Anil P.; Klock, Lawrence M.; Henderson, James M.; Calobrisi, Gary; Hedman, Bruce A.; Koluch, Michael; Biancardi, Frank; Bass, Robert; Landerman, Abraham; Peters, George; Limaye, Dilip; Price, Jeffrey; Farr, Janet


    An initial evaluation of the waste heat recovery and utilization potential in the manufacturing portion of the industrial sector is presented. The scope of this initial phase addressed the feasibility of obtaining in-depth energy information in the industrial sector. Within this phase, the methodology and approaches for data gathering and assessment were established. Using these approaches, energy use and waste heat profiles were developed at the 2-digit level; with this data, waste heat utilization technologies were evaluated. This study represents an important first step in the evaluation of waste heat recovery potential.

  20. Evaluating work/recovery schedules in terms of whole body heat storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardcastle, S.G. [Natural Resources Canada, Sudbury, ON (Canada). CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories; Stapleton, J.M.; Kenny, G.P. [Ottawa Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). School of Human Kinetics, Human and Environmental Physiology Research Unit; Allen, C. [Vale Inco, Copper Cliff, ON (Canada)


    This paper reported on heat stress related research aimed at better managing the heat exposure of underground miners. The potential for underground miners to experience heat stress or strain is increasing due to greater mining depth; mechanization, and a trend towards larger diesel equipment; an aging workforce; an increasing amount of personal protective equipment worn to prevent injuries (that has led to most of the miner's body being covered) and increases in the surface climate that are superimposed through the underground workplace. This paper focused on research involving metabolic heat storage and the possibility of heat strain from elevated core temperatures. It targeted work/recovery cycles and the recovery strategies between work bouts. The first study examined the cumulative change in body heat content for a moderate metabolic rate and increasing the recovery allocation as per the TLV screening criteria to offset an increase in the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT). The second study examined strategies that could be used between work bouts and how they affect the thermoregulatory system, heat generation or losses and net cumulative heat storage. The calorimeter based work suggested that a miner's clothing may be improved to promote evaporative cooling, and that work recovery regimes could be modified to maximize recovery. 10 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller; Gary A. Pope; Richard E. Jackson


    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactants makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. Also, the addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of surfactant and significant reduction of surfactant adsorption. In addition to reduction of interfacial tension to ultra-low values, surfactants and alkali can be designed to alter wettability to enhance oil recovery. An alkaline surfactant process is designed to enhance spontaneous imbibition in fractured, oil-wet, carbonate formations. It is able to recover oil from dolomite core samples from which there was no oil recovery when placed in formation brine. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluted to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs. UTCHEM is a reservoir simulator specially designed for surfactant EOR. A dual-porosity version is demonstrated as a potential scale-up tool for fractured reservoirs.

  2. Enhanced recovery pathway in colorectal surgery. 1: Background and principles. (United States)

    Burch, Jennie; Wright, Steve; Kennedy, Robin

    This first in a two-part unit outlines background on the enhanced recovery pathway in colorectal surgery. Enhanced recovery is used in colorectal surgery to optimise care for patients before, during and after their operations. It can be used in other specialties. The pathway includes a number of activities that nurses should explain to patients so they understand these principles. There are some major changes from traditional post-operative care after colorectal surgery. The most obvious one is that fluids and food are allowed and, in fact, encouraged after surgery on the same day as the operation. In addition, early mobilisation by sitting in a chair on the evening after surgery and walking the following day are recommended if a patient's condition allows.

  3. Penentuan Jarak Pltn Dengan Sumur Minyak Untuk Enhanced Oil Recovery (Eor) Ditinjau Dari Aspek Kehilangan Panas Dan Keselamatan


    Dewita, Erlan; Priambodo, Dedy; Ariyanto, Sudi


    DISTANCE DETERMINATION OF NPP AND OIL RESERVOIR ON ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY BASED ON HEAT LOSS AND SAFETY IN VIEW POINT. EOR is a method used to increasing oil recovery by injecting material or other to the reservoir. There are 3 EOR technique have been used in the world, namely thermal injection, chemical injection dan Miscible. Thermal injection method is the method most widely used in the world, however, one drawback is the loss of heat during steam distribution to the injection wells. In Ind...

  4. Performance of Helical Coil Heat Recovery Exchanger using Nanofluid as Coolant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Bozorgan


    Full Text Available Nanofluids are expected to be a promising coolant condidate in chemical processes for heat transfer system size reduction. This paper focuses on reducing the number of turns in a helical coil heat recovery exchanger with a given heat exchange capacity in a biomass heating plant using γ-Al2O3/n-decane nanofluid as coolant. The nanofluid flows through the tubes and the hot n-hexane flows through the shell. The numerical results show that using nanofluid as coolant in a helical coil heat exchanger can reduce the manufacturing cost of the heat exchanger and pumping power by reducing the number of turns of the coil.

  5. High temperature heat recovery systems; Les recuperateurs de chaleur a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, L.


    A state-of-the-art of high temperature heat recovery systems has been made to highlight the advantages of recovery in different energy cycles, and to compare the different geometries, materials and fabrication processes used by the different manufacturers. This leads to define the criteria that a heat recovery system must satisfy in gas turbine cogeneration applications. The pre-dimensioning of a recovery system has been performed in order to compare different geometries and to evaluate them with respect to the criteria defined in the bibliographic study. Finally, the new configuration of the 'Claire' loop has permitted to experimentally characterize a recovery system with an innovative technology based on an helical geometry. These tests have permitted to obtain the global data of the recovery system (efficiency, pressure drop, global exchange coefficient, friction coefficient, velocity and temperature profiles) and to position it with respect to the criteria defined in the bibliographic study. (J.S.)

  6. Laboratory methods for enhanced oil recovery core floods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, E.P.; Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.


    Current research at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is investigating microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) systems for application to oil reservoirs. Laboratory corefloods are invaluable in developing technology necessary for a field application of MEOR. Methods used to prepare sandstone cores for experimentation, coreflooding techniques, and quantification of coreflood effluent are discussed in detail. A technique to quantify the small volumes of oil associated with laboratory core floods is described.

  7. A review of enhanced recovery for thoracic anaesthesia and surgery. (United States)

    Jones, N L; Edmonds, L; Ghosh, S; Klein, A A


    During the past decade, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of thoracic surgical procedures carried out in the UK. The current financial climate dictates that more efficient use of resources is necessary to meet escalating demands on healthcare. One potential means to achieve this is through the introduction of enhanced recovery protocols, designed to produce productivity savings by driving reduction in length of stay. These have been promoted by government bodies in a number of surgical specialties, including colorectal, gynaecological and orthopaedic surgery. This review focuses on aspects of peri-operative care that might be incorporated into such a programme for thoracic anaesthesia, for which an enhanced recovery programme has not yet been introduced in the UK, and a review of the literature specific to this area of practice has not been published before. We performed a comprehensive search for published work relating to the peri-operative management and optimisation of patients undergoing thoracic surgery, and divided these into appropriate areas of practice. We have reviewed the specific interventions that may be included in an enhanced recovery programme, including: pre-optimisation; minimising fasting time; thrombo-embolic prophylaxis; choice of anaesthetic and analgesic technique and surgical approach; postoperative rehabilitation; and chest drain management. Using the currently available evidence, the design and implementation of an enhanced recovery programme based on this review in selected patients as a package of care may reduce morbidity and length of hospital stay, thus maximising utilisation of available resources. Anaesthesia © 2012 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  8. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery - EOR thermal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Eighth Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section.

  9. Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery performance according to the literature (United States)

    Olea, Ricardo A.


    IntroductionThe need to increase the efficiency of oil recovery and environmental concerns are bringing to prominence the use of carbon dioxide (CO2) as a tertiary recovery agent. Assessment of the impact of flooding with CO2 all eligible reservoirs in the United States not yet undergoing enhanced oil recovery (EOR) requires making the best possible use of the experience gained in 40 years of applications. Review of the publicly available literature has located relevant CO2-EOR information for 53 units (fields, reservoirs, pilot areas) in the United States and 17 abroad.As the world simultaneously faces an increasing concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere and a higher demand for fossil fuels, the CO2-EOR process continues to gain popularity for its efficiency as a tertiary recovery agent and for the potential for having some CO2 trapped in the subsurface as an unintended consequence of the enhanced production (Advanced Resources International and Melzer Consulting, 2009). More extensive application of CO2-EOR worldwide, however, is not making it significantly easier to predict the exact outcome of the CO2 flooding in new reservoirs. The standard approach to examine and manage risks is to analyze the intended target by conducting laboratory work, running simulation models, and, finally, gaining field experience with a pilot test. This approach, though, is not always possible. For example, assessment of the potential of CO2-EOR at the national level in a vast country such as the United States requires making forecasts based on information already available.Although many studies are proprietary, the published literature has provided reviews of CO2-EOR projects. Yet, there is always interest in updating reports and analyzing the information under new perspectives. Brock and Bryan (1989) described results obtained during the earlier days of CO2-EOR from 1972 to 1987. Most of the recovery predictions, however, were based on intended injections of 30 percent the size of

  10. High Performance Cascading Adsorption Refrigeration Cycle with Internal Heat Recovery Driven by a Low Grade Heat Source Temperature


    Yuki Ueda; Atsushi Akisawa; Aep Saepul Uyun; Takahiko Miyazaki


    This paper presents the performance of an advanced cascading adsorption cycle that utilizes a driven heat source temperature between 90–130 ºC. The cycle consists of four beds that contain silica gel as an adsorber fill. Two of the beds work in a single stage cycle that is driven by an external heat source, while the other two beds work in a mass recovery cycle that is driven by waste heat of sensible and adsorption heat of the high temperature cycle. The performances, in terms of the coeffic...

  11. Performance Analysis of Thermoelectric Based Automotive Waste Heat Recovery System with Nanofluid Coolant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Li


    Full Text Available Output performance of a thermoelectric-based automotive waste heat recovery system with a nanofluid coolant is analyzed in this study. Comparison between Cu-Ethylene glycol (Cu-EG nanofluid coolant and ethylene glycol with water (EG-W coolant under equal mass flow rate indicates that Cu-EG nanofluid as a coolant can effectively improve power output and thermoelectric conversion efficiency for the system. Power output enhancement for a 3% concentration of nanofluid is 2.5–8 W (12.65–13.95% compared to EG-Water when inlet temperature of exhaust varies within 500–710 K. The increase of nanofluid concentration within a realizable range (6% has positive effect on output performance of the system. Study on the relationship between total area of thermoelectric modules (TEMs and output performance of the system indicates that optimal total area of TEMs exists for maximizing output performance of the system. Cu-EG nanofluid as coolant can decrease optimal total area of TEMs compared with EG-W, which will bring significant advantages for the optimization and arrangement of TEMs whether the system space is sufficient or not. Moreover, power output enhancement under Cu-EG nanofluid coolant is larger than that of EG-W coolant due to the increase of hot side heat transfer coefficient of TEMs.

  12. Survival rate and expression of Heat-shock protein 70 and Frost genes after temperature stress in Drosophila melanogaster lines that are selected for recovery time from temperature coma. (United States)

    Udaka, Hiroko; Ueda, Chiaki; Goto, Shin G


    In this study, we investigated the physiological mechanisms underlying temperature tolerance using Drosophila melanogaster lines with rapid, intermediate, or slow recovery from heat or chill coma that were established by artificial selection or by free recombination without selection. Specifically, we focused on the relationships among their recovery from heat or chill coma, survival after severe heat or cold, and survival enhanced by rapid cold hardening (RCH) or heat hardening. The recovery time from heat coma was not related to the survival rate after severe heat. The line with rapid recovery from chill coma showed a higher survival rate after severe cold exposure, and therefore the same mechanisms are likely to underlie these phenotypes. The recovery time from chill coma and survival rate after severe cold were unrelated to RCH-enhanced survival. We also examined the expression of two genes, Heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and Frost, in these lines to understand the contribution of these stress-inducible genes to intraspecific variation in recovery from temperature coma. The line showing rapid recovery from heat coma did not exhibit higher expression of Hsp70 and Frost. In addition, Hsp70 and Frost transcription levels were not correlated with the recovery time from chill coma. Thus, Hsp70 and Frost transcriptional regulation was not involved in the intraspecific variation in recovery from temperature coma. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Experimental analysis of energy performance of a ventilated window for heat recovery under controlled conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelfeld, David; Svendsen, Svend


    balance of the ventilated window and clarified the methodology for thermal performance evaluation. Comparison between windows with and without ventilation using the window-room-ventilation heat balance revealed that a ventilated window can potentially contribute to energy savings. In addition......A ventilated window in cold climates can be considered as a passive heat recovery system. This study carried out tests to determine the thermal transmittance of ventilated windows by using the Guarded Hot Box. By testing under defined boundary conditions, the investigation described the heat......, it was found that a significant part of preheating occurred through the window frames, which positively influenced the heat recovery of the window but increased the heat loss. Results also showed that increasing air flow decreased the recovery efficiency until the point when the additional thermal...

  14. Surfactant Based Enhanced Oil Recovery and Foam Mobility Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller; Gary A. Pope


    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactant structures makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. A combination of two surfactants was found to be particularly effective for application in carbonate formations at low temperature. A formulation has been designed for a particular field application. The addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of surfactant and significant reduction of surfactant adsorption. In addition to reduction of interfacial tension to ultra-low values, surfactants and alkali can be designed to alter wettability to enhance oil recovery. The design of the process to maximize the region of ultra-low IFT is more challenging since the ratio of soap to synthetic surfactant is a parameter in the conditions for optimal salinity. Compositional simulation of the displacement process demonstrates the interdependence of the various components for oil recovery. An alkaline surfactant process is designed to enhance spontaneous imbibition in fractured, oil-wet, carbonate formations. It is able to recover oil from dolomite core samples from which there was no oil recovery when placed in formation brine. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluated to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs. UTCHEM is a reservoir simulator specially designed for surfactant EOR. It has been modified to represent the effects of a change in wettability. Simulated case studies demonstrate the effects of wettability.

  15. Marine reserves enhance the recovery of corals on Caribbean reefs. (United States)

    Mumby, Peter J; Harborne, Alastair R


    The fisheries and biodiversity benefits of marine reserves are widely recognised but there is mounting interest in exploiting the importance of herbivorous fishes as a tool to help ecosystems recover from climate change impacts. This approach might be particularly suitable for coral reefs, which are acutely threatened by climate change, yet the trophic cascades generated by reserves are strong enough that they might theoretically enhance the rate of coral recovery after disturbance. However, evidence for reserves facilitating coral recovery has been lacking. Here we investigate whether reductions in macroalgal cover, caused by recovery of herbivorous parrotfishes within a reserve, have resulted in a faster rate of coral recovery than in areas subject to fishing. Surveys of ten sites inside and outside a Bahamian marine reserve over a 2.5-year period demonstrated that increases in coral cover, including adjustments for the initial size-distribution of corals, were significantly higher at reserve sites than those in non-reserve sites. Furthermore, macroalgal cover was significantly negatively correlated with the change in total coral cover over time. Recovery rates of individual species were generally consistent with small-scale manipulations on coral-macroalgal interactions, but also revealed differences that demonstrate the difficulties of translating experiments across spatial scales. Size-frequency data indicated that species which were particularly affected by high abundances of macroalgae outside the reserve had a population bottleneck restricting the supply of smaller corals to larger size classes. Importantly, because coral cover increased from a heavily degraded state, and recovery from such states has not previously been described, similar or better outcomes should be expected for many reefs in the region. Reducing herbivore exploitation as part of an ecosystem-based management strategy for coral reefs appears to be justified.

  16. Marine reserves enhance the recovery of corals on Caribbean reefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Mumby

    Full Text Available The fisheries and biodiversity benefits of marine reserves are widely recognised but there is mounting interest in exploiting the importance of herbivorous fishes as a tool to help ecosystems recover from climate change impacts. This approach might be particularly suitable for coral reefs, which are acutely threatened by climate change, yet the trophic cascades generated by reserves are strong enough that they might theoretically enhance the rate of coral recovery after disturbance. However, evidence for reserves facilitating coral recovery has been lacking. Here we investigate whether reductions in macroalgal cover, caused by recovery of herbivorous parrotfishes within a reserve, have resulted in a faster rate of coral recovery than in areas subject to fishing. Surveys of ten sites inside and outside a Bahamian marine reserve over a 2.5-year period demonstrated that increases in coral cover, including adjustments for the initial size-distribution of corals, were significantly higher at reserve sites than those in non-reserve sites. Furthermore, macroalgal cover was significantly negatively correlated with the change in total coral cover over time. Recovery rates of individual species were generally consistent with small-scale manipulations on coral-macroalgal interactions, but also revealed differences that demonstrate the difficulties of translating experiments across spatial scales. Size-frequency data indicated that species which were particularly affected by high abundances of macroalgae outside the reserve had a population bottleneck restricting the supply of smaller corals to larger size classes. Importantly, because coral cover increased from a heavily degraded state, and recovery from such states has not previously been described, similar or better outcomes should be expected for many reefs in the region. Reducing herbivore exploitation as part of an ecosystem-based management strategy for coral reefs appears to be justified.

  17. Literature survey of heat transfer enhancement techniques in refrigeration applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, M.K.; Shome, B. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering and Mechanics


    A survey has been performed of the technical and patent literature on enhanced heat transfer of refrigerants in pool boiling, forced convection evaporation, and condensation. Extensive bibliographies of the technical literature and patents are given. Many passive and active techniques were examined for pure refrigerants, refrigerant-oil mixtures, and refrigerant mixtures. The citations were categorized according to enhancement technique, heat transfer mode, and tube or shell side focus. The effects of the enhancement techniques relative to smooth and/or pure refrigerants were illustrated through the discussion of selected papers. Patented enhancement techniques also are discussed. Enhanced heat transfer has demonstrated significant improvements in performance in many refrigerant applications. However, refrigerant mixtures and refrigerant-oil mixtures have not been studied extensively; no research has been performed with enhanced refrigerant mixtures with oil. Most studies have been of the parametric type; there has been inadequate examination of the fundamental processes governing enhanced refrigerant heat transfer, but some modeling is being done and correlations developed. It is clear that an enhancement technique must be optimized for the refrigerant and operating condition. Fundamental processes governing the heat transfer must be examined if models for enhancement techniques are to be developed; these models could provide the method to optimize a surface. Refrigerant mixtures, with and without oil present, must be studied with enhancement devices; there is too little known to be able to estimate the effects of mixtures (particularly NARMs) with enhanced heat transfer. Other conclusions and recommendations are offered.

  18. Experimental study on heat transfer performance of fin-tube exchanger and PSHE for waste heat recovery (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Bae, Kyung Jin; Kwon, Oh Kyung


    In this paper, heat transfer characteristics of fin-tube heat exchanger and primary surface heat exchanger (PSHE) used in waste heat recovery were investigated experimentally. The flow in the fin-tube heat exchanger is cross flow and in PSHE counter flow. The variations of friction factor and Colburn j factor with air mass flow rate, and Nu number with Re number are presented. Various comparison methods are used to evaluate heat transfer performance, and the results show that the heat transfer rate of the PSHE is on average 17.3% larger than that of fin-tube heat exchanger when air mass flow rate is ranging from 1.24 to 3.45 kg/min. However, the PSHE causes higher pressure drop, and the fin-tube heat exchanger has a wider application range which leads to a 31.7% higher value of maximum heat transfer rate compared to that of the PSHE. Besides, under the same fan power per unit frontal surface, a higher heat transfer rate value is given in the fin-tube heat exchanger.

  19. Ventilation Heat Recovery from Wood-Burning Domestic Flues. A Theoretical Analysis Based on a Triple Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Druette


    Full Text Available This paper presents a new air-heating system concept for energy-efficient dwellings. It is a system designed to heat a low-energy building by coupling a heat-recovery ventilation system with a three-fluid heat exchanger located on the chimney of a wood-pellet stove. The proposed work focuses on the heat transfer that occurs between flue gases, the ventilation air and the combustion air within a triple concentric tube heat exchanger with no insulation at its outer surface. The main objective is to predict outlet temperature for the specific geometry of the heat exchanger studied here. Thus, the governing differential equations are derived for a counter-co-current flow arrangement of the three fluids. Then analytical solutions for the steady-state temperature distribution are obtained as well as the amount of heat transferred to the outside. An expression for the effectiveness of the heat exchanger is also proposed. Based on these results, calculations are performed on a case study to predict the fluid temperature distribution along the heat exchanger. Finally, a parametric study is carried out on this case study to assess the influence of the relevant parameters on the effectiveness of the heat exchanger. In addition, computation of heat losses to the outside justifies whether insulation is needed.

  20. Effect of thymol in heating and recovery media on the isothermal and non-isothermal heat resistance of Bacillus spores. (United States)

    Esteban, Maria-Dolores; Conesa, Raquel; Huertas, Juan-Pablo; Palop, Alfredo


    Members of the genus Bacillus include important food-borne pathogen and spoilage microorganisms for food industry. Essential oils are natural products extracted from herbs and spices, which can be used as natural preservatives in many foods because of their antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties. The aim of this research was to explore the effect of the addition of different concentrations of thymol to the heating and recovery media on the thermal resistance of spores of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis at different temperatures. While the heat resistance was hardly reduced when thymol was present in the heating medium, the effect in the recovery medium was greater, reducing the D100 °C values down to one third for B. subtilis and B. cereus when 0.5 mM thymol was added. This effect was dose dependent and was also observed at other heating temperatures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Waste Heat Recovery from High Temperature Off-Gases from Electric Arc Furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimbalkar, Sachin U [ORNL; Thekdi, Arvind [E3M Inc; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL


    This article presents a study and review of available waste heat in high temperature Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) off gases and heat recovery techniques/methods from these gases. It gives details of the quality and quantity of the sensible and chemical waste heat in typical EAF off gases, energy savings potential by recovering part of this heat, a comprehensive review of currently used waste heat recovery methods and potential for use of advanced designs to achieve a much higher level of heat recovery including scrap preheating, steam production and electric power generation. Based on our preliminary analysis, currently, for all electric arc furnaces used in the US steel industry, the energy savings potential is equivalent to approximately 31 trillion Btu per year or 32.7 peta Joules per year (approximately $182 million US dollars/year). This article describes the EAF off-gas enthalpy model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to calculate available and recoverable heat energy for a given stream of exhaust gases coming out of one or multiple EAF furnaces. This Excel based model calculates sensible and chemical enthalpy of the EAF off-gases during tap to tap time accounting for variation in quantity and quality of off gases. The model can be used to estimate energy saved through scrap preheating and other possible uses such as steam generation and electric power generation using off gas waste heat. This article includes a review of the historical development of existing waste heat recovery methods, their operations, and advantages/limitations of these methods. This paper also describes a program to develop and test advanced concepts for scrap preheating, steam production and electricity generation through use of waste heat recovery from the chemical and sensible heat contained in the EAF off gases with addition of minimum amount of dilution or cooling air upstream of pollution control equipment such as bag houses.

  2. Modular heat pipe radiators for enhanced Shuttle mission capabilities (United States)

    Alario, J.; Haslett, R.


    Current heat pipe radiator technology is reviewed and the results from three state-of-the-art hardware programs are summarized. Heat pipe radiators are shown to be an improvement over all-fluid loop panels for long duration space missions, when micrometeoroid survivability is important. Finally, several heat pipe radiator design concepts are presented which would enhance Shuttle mission capabilities by either extending mission life and/or augmenting heat rejection capability.

  3. Experimental validation of a dynamic waste heat recovery system model for control purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Kupper, F.; Rojer, C.; Seykens, X.L.J.; Scappin, F.; Willems, F.P.T.; Smits, J.; Jager, B. de; Steinbuch, M.


    This paper presents the identification and validation of a dynamic Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system model. Driven by upcoming CO2 emission targets and increasing fuel costs, engine exhaust gas heat utilization has recently attracted much attention to improve fuel efficiency, especially for

  4. Cost Efficient Optimization Based Supervisory Controller for Supermarket Subsystems with Heat Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minko, Tomasz; Wisniewski, Rafal; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon


    In this paper, we present a simple modelling approach for a thermal system, which consists of heating, ventilation, air conditioning system (HVAC) and a vapor compression cycle (VCC) system, with one loop heat recovery. In addition a simple model for water tank is presented, in which the reclaimed...

  5. Experimental Evaluation of a Total Heat Recovery Unit with Polymer Membrane Foils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Yuan, Shu; Nie, Jinzhe


    A laboratory experimental study was conducted to investigate the energy performance of a total heat recovery unit using a polymer membranes heat exchanger. The study was conducted in twin climate chambers. One of the chambers simulated outdoor climate conditions and the other simulated the climat...

  6. Heat recovery from wastewater systems; Waermerueckgewinnung aus Abwassersystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanner, O.


    Wastewater contains large amounts of heat energy which can be recovered by means of a heat pump and a heat exchanger installed in the sewer system. Practical problems, which may arise and have been investigated in this research project, are the reduction of the heat transfer efficiency due to heat exchanger fouling and the reduction of the nitrification capacity of downstream wastewater treatment plants due to lower wastewater temperatures. A mathematical model was developed by which the decrease of the wastewater temperature in the treatment plant influent can be determined as a function of the amount of heat energy gathered from the wastewater in the sewer system. By this model the variation in time and space of the wastewater temperature in a sewer pipe is calculated for given hydraulics, geometry and environmental conditions. By analysis of data from a large wastewater treatment plant and simulations with a calibrated model, the effect of lowered influent temperatures on nitrification safety, total nitrogen removal efficiency and ammonium effluent concentrations could be quantified. A procedure is suggested by which the reserve nitrification capacity of an existing treatment plant and the increase of the ammonium effluent concentration resulting from a permanent decrease of the wastewater influent temperature can be estimated. By experiments with a pilot scale heat exchanger in a small wastewater channel, the significance of parameters known to have an effect on fouling was investigated and measures to reduce fouling were tested. The measures tested included controlled variation of the wastewater flow velocity (flushing), coatings and finish of the heat exchanger surface and obstacles mounted on the surface. The best results were obtained by regular short term increases of the flow velocity. By this measure, the efficiency of the fouled heat exchanger, which on the average was 60% of the efficiency of the clean heat exchanger, could repeatedly be raised to an

  7. Solar thermal enhanced oil recovery (STEOR). Sections 2-8. Final report, October 1, 1979-June 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzinga, E.; Arnold, C.; Allen, D.; Garman, R.; Joy, P.; Mitchell, P. Shaw, H.


    The program objectives were: (1) determine the technical, economic, operational, and environmental feasibility of solar thermal enhanced oil recovery using line focusing distributed collectors at Exxon's Edison Field, and (2) estimate the quantity of solar heat which might be applied to domestic enhanced oil recovery. This volume of the report summarizes all of the work done under the contract Statement of Work. Topics include the selection of the solar system, trade-off studies, preliminary design for steam raising, cost estimate for STEOR at Edison Field, the development plan, and a market and economics analysis. (WHK)

  8. Environmental Development Plan (EDP). Enhanced gas recovery, FY 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This Enhanced Gcs Recovery EDP addresses the environmental impacts of enhanced gas recovery processes in shale and sandstone, methane drainage from coalbeds, and methane recovery from geopressured aquifers. The EDP addresses planning in two basic areas: environmental research and environmental assessment. Environmental research can be categorized as follows: characterization of pollutants from EGR processes; selective application of monitoring and measuring techniques; evaluation of control/mitigation techniques; and evaluation of the synergistic impacts of the development of EGR techniques. Environmental assessment activities scheduled by EDP include: assessment of ecological impacts; assessment of socioeconomic effects; EIA/EIS preparation; evaluation of control technology needs; and analysis of applicable and proposed emission, effluent, and health and safety standards. The EGR EDP includes an EGR technology overview (Section 2), a discussion of EGR environmental issues and requirements (Section 3), an environmental action plan (Section 4), an environmental management strategy for the EGR program (Section 5), and supporting appendices which present information on Federal legislation applicable to EGR technology, a summary of ongoing and completed research, and future research and assessment projects.

  9. Factors influencing successful implementation of enhanced oil recovery projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karović-Maričić Vesna


    Full Text Available Tertiary methods in oil production process called 'Enhanced Oil recovery methods' (EOR are mostly applied in mature oil fields with declining production trend after primary and secondary recovery methods or immediately after primary production phase. These 'Enhanced Oil Recovery' methods implies injection of gases or fluids to mobilize residual oil captured in reservoir rock due to presence of strong viscous and capillary forces and high value of interfacial tension between fluid and rock. Depending on the type of injected fluid, production mechanism, as well as an approach to implementation, EOR methods are divided into thermal methods, chemical methods, miscible/immiscible gas injection methods and other methods that so far have an experimental application. The paper analyzes the key factors influencing the successful implementation of EOR projects: phases of EOR project implementation, the price of crude oil at the world market as a criterion for the beginning and the justification for EOR process application and development of new technologies for more efficient process realization.

  10. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Chinese translation of ITP fact sheet about installing Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces. For most fuel-fired heating equipment, a large amount of the heat supplied is wasted as exhaust or flue gases. In furnaces, air and fuel are mixed and burned to generate heat, some of which is transferred to the heating device and its load. When the heat transfer reaches its practical limit, the spent combustion gases are removed from the furnace via a flue or stack. At this point, these gases still hold considerable thermal energy. In many systems, this is the greatest single heat loss. The energy efficiency can often be increased by using waste heat gas recovery systems to capture and use some of the energy in the flue gas. For natural gas-based systems, the amount of heat contained in the flue gases as a percentage of the heat input in a heating system can be estimated by using Figure 1. Exhaust gas loss or waste heat depends on flue gas temperature and its mass flow, or in practical terms, excess air resulting from combustion air supply and air leakage into the furnace. The excess air can be estimated by measuring oxygen percentage in the flue gases.

  11. Assessment of the Performance of a Ventilated Window Coupled with a Heat Recovery Unit through the Co-Heating Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Danza


    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to describe the results of an experimental campaign based on the assessment of a heat recovery unit coupled with a dynamic window. Two fully monitored and calibrated outdoor test cells are used, in order to evaluate the energy performance and the related thermal comfort. The former presents a traditional window with double-glazing, aluminum frame and indoor blind and a centrifugal extractor for the air circulation. The latter is equipped with a dynamic window with ventilated and blinded double-glazing provided with a heat exchanger. The connection of the dynamic window and heat recovery unit provides different actions: heat recovery; heat transfer reduction; pre-heating before the exchanger. Different operating configurations allowed the trends of the dynamic system to be assessed in different seasons in terms of energy saving, thermal comfort behavior and energy efficiency. The results showed an overall lower consumption of the innovative system, both in winter and summer, with 20% and 15% energy saving, respectively. In general, the dynamic system provided the best comfort conditions, even if it involves a worse behavior than expected, in the summer season.

  12. Application and design of an economizer for waste heat recovery in a cogeneration plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martić Igor I.


    Full Text Available Energy increase cost has required its more effective use. However, many industrial heating processes generate waste energy. Use of waste-heat recovery systems decreases energy consumption. This paper presents case study of waste heat recovering of the exhaust flue gas in a 1415 kWe cogeneration plant. This waste heat can be recovered by installing an economizer to heat the condensed and fresh water in thermal degasification unit and reduce steam use for maintaining the temperature of 105˚C for oxygen removal. Design methodology of economizer is presented.

  13. Industrial Waste Heat Recovery - Potential Applications, Available Technologies and Crosscutting R&D Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thekdi, Arvind [E3M Inc, North Potomac, MD (United States); Nimbalkar, Sachin U. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The purpose of this report was to explore key areas and characteristics of industrial waste heat and its generation, barriers to waste heat recovery and use, and potential research and development (R&D) opportunities. The report also provides an overview of technologies and systems currently available for waste heat recovery and discusses the issues or barriers for each. Also included is information on emerging technologies under development or at various stages of demonstrations, and R&D opportunities cross-walked by various temperature ranges, technology areas, and energy-intensive process industries.

  14. Carbon dioxide flooding as an enhanced oil recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mungan, N. (Alberta Energy Co. Ltd., AB (Canada))


    A description is presented of the state-of-the-art on carbon dioxide flooding and how it relates to recovery of heavy oils. Carbon dioxide flooding enhances recovery due to a number of mechanisms: reduction of oil viscosity, swelling of oil, vaporization of oil, miscibility effects, reduction of interfacial tension, solution gas drive, and increases in injectivity. Three types of reservoir are particularly well suited to carbon dioxide flooding: carbonate formations which may not have a high enough injectivity to make waterflooding successful; reservoirs containing undersaturated crude oils; and certain heavy oil reservoirs. A detailed description is presented of preparation for a field test, pressure-volume-temperature data for light and heavy crude oils, and a pilot testing of CO[sub 2] flooding. To the extent that it is possible, the pilot should closely represent the formation and fluid properties and the pressures that exist in the reservoir. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Microbial enhancement of oil recovery: Recent advances. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premuzic, E.T.; Woodhead, A.D.; Vivirito, K.J. [eds.


    During recent years, systematic, scientific, and engineering effort by researchers in the United States and abroad, has established the scientific basis for Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) technology. The successful application of MEOR technology as an oil recovery process is a goal of the Department of Energy (DOE). Research efforts involving aspects of MEOR in the microbiological, biochemical, and engineering fields led DOE to sponsor an International Conference at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1992, to facilitate the exchange of information and a discussion of ideas for the future research emphasis. At this, the Fourth International MEOR Conference, where international attendees from 12 countries presented a total of 35 papers, participants saw an equal distribution between ``research`` and ``field applications.`` In addition, several modeling and ``state-of-the-art`` presentations summed up the present status of MEOR science and engineering. Individual papers in this proceedings have been process separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  16. Enhanced heat transfer in confined pool boiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rops, C.M.; Lindken, R.; Velthuis, J.F.M.; Westerweel, J.


    We report the results of an experimental investigation of the heat transfer during nucleate boiling on a spatially confined boiling surface. The heat flux as a function of the boiling surface temperature was measured in pool boiling pots with diameters ranging from 15 mm down to 4.5 mm. It was found

  17. An experimental study of the enhanced heating capacity of an electric heat pump (EHP) using the heat recovered from a gas engine generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Min; Chang, Se Dong [HAC R and D Laboratory, LG Electronics, 327-23 Gasan-Dong, Geumcheon-gu, Seoul 153-802 (Korea); Lee, Jaekeun; Hwang, Yujin [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30, Changjeon-Dong, Keumjeong-Ku, Busan 609-735 (Korea)


    This paper is concerned with the effect of recovered heat on the heating capacity of an Electric Heat Pump (EHP), which is supplied with electric power and recovered heat from a gas engine generator system. Two methods of supplying recovery heat are examined: (i) to the refrigerant with the discharge line heat exchanger (HEX), and (ii) to the refrigerant of the evaporator with the sub-evaporator. Heating capacity, input power and coefficient of performance (COP) were investigated and compared for each heat recovery method. Conclusively, we found that the second method was most reasonable to recover wasted heat and increased system COP by 215%. (author)

  18. Microbial enhanced oil recovery and wettability research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.P.; Bala, G.A.; Duvall, M.L.


    This report covers research results for the microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) and wettability research program conducted by EG G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The isolation and characterization of microbial species collected from various locations including target oil field environments is underway to develop more effective oil recovery systems for specific applications. The wettability research is a multi-year collaborative effort with the New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center (NMPRRC), to evaluate reservoir wettability and its effects on oil recovery. Results from the wettability research will be applied to determine if alteration of wettability is a significant contributing mechanism for MEOR systems. Eight facultatively anaerobic surfactant producing isolates able to function in the reservoir conditions of the Minnelusa A Sands of the Powder River Basin in Wyoming were isolated from naturally occurring oil-laden environments. Isolates were characterized according to morphology, thermostability, halotolerance, growth substrates, affinity to crude oil/brine interfaces, degradative effects on crude oils, and biochemical profiles. Research at the INEL has focused on the elucidation of microbial mechanisms by which crude oil may be recovered from a reservoir and the chemical and physical properties of the reservoir that may impact the effectiveness of MEOR. Bacillus licheniformis JF-2 (ATCC 39307) has been used as a benchmark organism to quantify MEOR of medium weight crude oils (17.5 to 38.1{degrees}API) the capacity for oil recovery of Bacillus licheniformis JF-2 utilizing a sucrose-based nutrient has been elucidated using Berea sandstone cores. Spacial distribution of cells after microbial flooding has been analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. Also the effect of microbial surfactants on the interfacial tensions (IFT) of aqueous/crude oil systems has been measured. 87 refs., 60 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. Enhancing recovery rates: lessons from year one of IAPT. (United States)

    Gyani, Alex; Shafran, Roz; Layard, Richard; Clark, David M


    The English Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) initiative aims to make evidence-based psychological therapies for depression and anxiety disorder more widely available in the National Health Service (NHS). 32 IAPT services based on a stepped care model were established in the first year of the programme. We report on the reliable recovery rates achieved by patients treated in the services and identify predictors of recovery at patient level, service level, and as a function of compliance with National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Treatment Guidelines. Data from 19,395 patients who were clinical cases at intake, attended at least two sessions, had at least two outcomes scores and had completed their treatment during the period were analysed. Outcome was assessed with the patient health questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-9) and the anxiety scale (GAD-7). Data completeness was high for a routine cohort study. Over 91% of treated patients had paired (pre-post) outcome scores. Overall, 40.3% of patients were reliably recovered at post-treatment, 63.7% showed reliable improvement and 6.6% showed reliable deterioration. Most patients received treatments that were recommended by NICE. When a treatment not recommended by NICE was provided, recovery rates were reduced. Service characteristics that predicted higher reliable recovery rates were: high average number of therapy sessions; higher step-up rates among individuals who started with low intensity treatment; larger services; and a larger proportion of experienced staff. Compliance with the IAPT clinical model is associated with enhanced rates of reliable recovery. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Recovery of low temperature heat in oil mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carré Patrick


    Full Text Available Energy consumption in oil mills is a major item of costs and a sensitive point in the production of biofuels. To improve their performance, industrials can recover lowtemperature heat thanks to a new technology of heat exchangers suitable for treating granular solid materials. Information about the energy requirements of the rapeseed crushing being not readily available, the article gives a detailed assessment of consumption items (per ton of seed: 263 MJ for preparation operations and 284 MJ for solvent extraction. These exchangers used as pre-conditioners saves about 55 MJ.t−1 of heat by use of steam condensates. We could go further in use of these devices on the one hand to recover heat from press cake and meal, and secondly to use recovered energy to dry and warm up the seeds before pre-pressing. In this configuration, the energy savings could reach 38% of current needs.

  1. Thermally Activated Desiccant Technology for Heat Recovery and Comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalalzadeh, A. A.


    Desiccant cooling is an important part of the diverse portfolio of Thermally Activated Technologies (TAT) designed for conversion of heat for the purpose of indoor air quality control. Thermally activated desiccant cooling incorporates a desiccant material that undergoes a cyclic process involving direct dehumidification of moist air and thermal regeneration. Desiccants fall into two categories: liquid and solid desiccants. Regardless of the type, solid or liquid, the governing principles of desiccant dehumidification systems are the same. In the dehumidification process, the vapor pressure of the moist air is higher than that of the desiccant, leading to transfer of moisture from the air to the desiccant material. By heating the desiccant, the vapor pressure differential is reversed in the regeneration process that drives the moisture from the desiccant. Figure 1 illustrates a rotary solid-desiccant dehumidifier. A burner or a thermally compatible source of waste heat can provide the required heat for regeneration.

  2. Double tube heat exchanger with novel enhancement: part II—single phase convective heat transfer (United States)

    Tiruselvam, R.; Chin, W. M.; Raghavan, Vijay R.


    The study is conducted to evaluate the heat transfer characteristics of two new and versatile enhancement configurations in a double tube heat exchanger annulus. The novelty is that they are usable in single phase forced convection, evaporation and condensation. Heat transfer coefficients are determined by the Wilson Plot technique in laminar and turbulent flow and correlations are proposed for Nusselt numbers. Comparisons are then made between heat transfer and flow friction.

  3. Characterization and Thermal Properties of Nitrate Based Molten Salt for Heat Recovery System (United States)

    Faizal Tukimon, Mohd; Muhammad, Wan Nur Azrina Wan; Nor Annuar Mohamad, Md; Yusof, Farazila


    Molten salt can acts like a storage medium or heat transfer fluid in heat recovery system. Heat transfer fluid is a fluid that has the capability to deliver heat this one side to another while heat recovery system is a system that transfers heat to produce energy. This studies shows about determining the new formulation of different molten nitrate/nitrite salts consisting of LiNO3, KNO2, KNO3 and NaNO2 that give a low temperature of melting point and high average specific heat capacity. Mixed alkaline molten nitrate/nitrite salt can act as a heat transfer fluid due to their advantageous in terms of its properties that feasible in heat recovery system such as high specific heat capacity, low vapour pressure, low cost and wide range of temperature in its application. The mixing of these primary substances will form a new line of quaternary nitrate salt (LiNO3 - KNO2 - KNO3 - NaNO2). The quaternary mixture was heated inside the box furnace at 150°C for four hours and rose up the temperature to 400°C for eight hours to homogenize the mixture. Through heating process, the elements of nitrate/nitrite base were mixed completely. The temperature was then reduced to 115°C for several hours before removing the mixture from the furnace. The melting point of each sample were testified by using thermal gravimetric analysis, TGA/DTA and experiment of determining the specific heat capacity were conducted by using Differential Scanning Calorimeter, DSC. From the result, it is found that the melting point Sample 1 with percentage of weightage (25.4wt% of LiNO3, 33.8wt% of KNO2, 20.7wt% of KNO3 and 20.1wt% of NaNO2) is 94.4°C whereas the average specific heat capacity was 1.0484/g°C while for Sample 3 with percentages of weightage (30.0wt% of LiNO3, 50.2wt% of KNO2, 3.1wt% of KNO3 and 16.7wt% of NaNO2), the melting point is 86.1°C with average specific heat capacity of 0.7274 J/g°C. In the nut shell, the quaternary mixture salts had been a good mixture with good thermal

  4. Enhanced oil recovery by nanoparticles injection: Modeling and simulation

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed


    In the present paper, a mathematical model and numerical simulation to describe the nanoparticles-water suspension imbibes into a water-oil two-phase flow in a porous medium is introduced. We extend the model to include the negative capillary pressure and mixed relative permeabilities correlations to fit with the mixed-wet system. Also, buoyancy and capillary forces as well as Brownian diffusion are considered. Throughout this investigation, we monitor the changing of the fluids and solid properties due to addition of the nanoparticles and check for possible enhancement of the oil recovery process using numerical experiments.

  5. Alkaline injection for enhanced oil recovery: a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, E.H.; Berg, R.L.; Carmichael, J.D.; Weinbrandt, R.M.


    In the past several years, there has been renewed interest in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by alkaline injection. Alkaline solutions also are being used as preflushes in micellar/polymer projects. Several major field tests of alkaline flooding are planned, are in progress, or recently have been completed. Considerable basic research on alkaline injection has been published recently, and more is in progress. This paper summarizes known field tests and, where available, the amount of alkali injected and the performance results. Recent laboratory work, much sponsored by the U.S. DOE, and the findings are described. Alkaline flood field test plans for new projects are summarized.

  6. CO2 flooding strategy to enhance heavy oil recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuo Huang


    For the numerical simulations study, the same oil relative permeability curve was applied to match the experimental results to all tests. Different gas relative permeability curves were obtained when the production pressure schemes are different. A much lower gas relative permeability curve and a higher critical gas saturation were achieved in the best pressure control scheme case compared to other cases. The lower gas relative permeability curve indicates that foamy oil was formed in the pressure depletion processes. Through this study, it is suggested that the pressure control scheme can be optimized in order to maximize the CO2 injection performance for enhanced heavy oil recovery.

  7. Viscous fingering and channeling in chemical enhanced oil recovery (United States)

    Daripa, Prabir; Dutta, Sourav


    We have developed a hybrid numerical method based on discontinuous finite element method and modified method of characteristics to compute the multiphase multicomponent fluid flow in porous media in the context of chemical enhanced oil recovery. We use this method to study the effect of various chemical components on the viscous fingering and channeling in rectilinear and radial flow configurations. We will also discuss about the efficiency of various flooding schemes based on these understandings. Time permitting, we will discuss about the effect of variable injection rates in these practical setting. U.S. National Science Foundation Grant DMS-1522782.

  8. Enhanced recovery after gastro-intestinal surgery: The scientific background. (United States)

    Mariani, P; Slim, K


    Enhanced recovery programs (ERP) are without any doubt a major innovation in the care of surgical patients. This multimodal approach encompasses elements of both medical and surgical care. The goal of this in-depth review is to analyze the surgical aspects of ERP, underlining the scientific rationale behind each element of ERP after surgery and in particular, the role of mechanical bowel preparation before colorectal surgery, the place of minimal access surgery, the utility of nasogastric tube, abdominal drainage, bladder catheters and early re-feeding. Publication of factual data has allowed many dogmas to be discarded. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Energy recovery from waste incineration: assessing the importance of district heating networks. (United States)

    Fruergaard, T; Christensen, T H; Astrup, T


    Municipal solid waste incineration contributes with 20% of the heat supplied to the more than 400 district heating networks in Denmark. In evaluation of the environmental consequences of this heat production, the typical approach has been to assume that other (fossil) fuels could be saved on a 1:1 basis (e.g. 1GJ of waste heat delivered substitutes for 1GJ of coal-based heat). This paper investigates consequences of waste-based heat substitution in two specific Danish district heating networks and the energy-associated interactions between the plants connected to these networks. Despite almost equal electricity and heat efficiencies at the waste incinerators connected to the two district heating networks, the energy and CO(2) accounts showed significantly different results: waste incineration in one network caused a CO(2) saving of 48 kg CO(2)/GJ energy input while in the other network a load of 43 kg CO(2)/GJ. This was caused mainly by differences in operation mode and fuel types of the other heat producing plants attached to the networks. The paper clearly indicates that simple evaluations of waste-to-energy efficiencies at the incinerator are insufficient for assessing the consequences of heat substitution in district heating network systems. The paper also shows that using national averages for heat substitution will not provide a correct answer: local conditions need to be addressed thoroughly otherwise we may fail to assess correctly the heat recovery from waste incineration. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Feasibility of Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Recovery in Conventional Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.; Thornton, M.


    Thermoelectric (TE) generators convert heat directly into electricity when a temperature gradient is applied across junctions of two dissimilar metals. The devices could increase the fuel economy of conventional vehicles by recapturing part of the waste heat from engine exhaust and generating electricity to power accessory loads. A simple vehicle and engine waste heat model showed that a Class 8 truck presents the least challenging requirements for TE system efficiency, mass, and cost; these trucks have a fairly high amount of exhaust waste heat, have low mass sensitivity, and travel many miles per year. These factors help maximize fuel savings and economic benefits. A driving/duty cycle analysis shows strong sensitivity of waste heat, and thus TE system electrical output, to vehicle speed and driving cycle. With a typical alternator, a TE system could allow electrification of 8%-15% of a Class 8 truck's accessories for 2%-3% fuel savings. More research should reduce system cost and improve economics.

  11. Nanoparticle enhanced ionic liquid heat transfer fluids (United States)

    Fox, Elise B.; Visser, Ann E.; Bridges, Nicholas J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.


    A heat transfer fluid created from nanoparticles that are dispersed into an ionic liquid is provided. Small volumes of nanoparticles are created from e.g., metals or metal oxides and/or alloys of such materials are dispersed into ionic liquids to create a heat transfer fluid. The nanoparticles can be dispersed directly into the ionic liquid during nanoparticle formation or the nanoparticles can be formed and then, in a subsequent step, dispersed into the ionic liquid using e.g., agitation.

  12. Energy conservation in fruit dehydrators utilizing recirculation of exhaust air and heat recovery heat exchangers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groh, J E


    Dehydration of fruit in the United States is often done by means of a tunnel dehydrator utilizing large quantities of fossil fuel. Existing dehydrators have been designed to operate with maximum product through-put and with little regard for energy efficiency. Incorporating controlled recirculating air dampers and thermal energy recovery equipment on the exhaust air, calculations and preliminary tests show that the energy required in dehydration may be cut by up to 40%. During this work, one tunnel was modified and upgraded in a commercial 24-tunnel facility to demonstrate the potential savings. A primary element of this program, the heat recovery heat exchanger, operated below specifications. The manufacturer, Hughes Aircraft Company, has determined that the heat exchanger design was based on faulty data, and is constructing a second exchanger which can be installed and tested during a subsequent program.

  13. Energy conservation in fruit dehydrators utilizing recirculation of exhaust air and heat recovery heat exchangers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groh, J E


    Dehydration of fruit in the United States is often done by means of a tunnel dehydrator utilizing large quantities of fossil fuel. Existing dehydrators have been designed to operate with maximum product through-put and with little regard for energy efficiency. Incorporating controlled recirculating air dampers and thermal energy recovery equipment on the exhaust air, calculations and preliminary tests show that the energy required in dehydration may be cut by up to 40 percent. During this work, one tunnel was modified and upgraded in a commercial 24-tunnel facility to demonstrate the potential savings. A primary element of this program, the heat recovery heat exchanger, operated below specifications. The manufacturer, Hughes Aircraft Company, has determined that the heat exchanger design was based on faulty data, and is constructing a second exchanger which can be installed and tested during a subsequent program.

  14. Network analysis of oyster transcriptome revealed a cascade of cellular responses during recovery after heat shock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Zhang

    Full Text Available Oysters, as a major group of marine bivalves, can tolerate a wide range of natural and anthropogenic stressors including heat stress. Recent studies have shown that oysters pretreated with heat shock can result in induced heat tolerance. A systematic study of cellular recovery from heat shock may provide insights into the mechanism of acquired thermal tolerance. In this study, we performed the first network analysis of oyster transcriptome by reanalyzing microarray data from a previous study. Network analysis revealed a cascade of cellular responses during oyster recovery after heat shock and identified responsive gene modules and key genes. Our study demonstrates the power of network analysis in a non-model organism with poor gene annotations, which can lead to new discoveries that go beyond the focus on individual genes.

  15. Control of Single-room Ventilation with Regenerative Heat Recovery for Indoor Climate and Energy Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Kevin Michael; Svendsen, Svend


    The Danish government will seek energy-efficiency improvements to meet their targeted aims. Single-room ventilation with heat recovery allows simple installation through the façade and may be broadly deployed in apartments. Danish building regulations require greater than 80% heat recovery in new...... constructions and will soon require 85%. The development of single-room ventilation units may aim for these requirements as a result. The exhaust temperatures in highly efficient heat exchangers may approach outdoor levels. The cold exhaust cannot contain ample moisture, so vapour will condense on the heat...... exchanger. Available literature suggests that uncoated rotary heat exchangers transfer this condensate to the supply air, so the drying capacity of the ventilation system may be severely limited. This could raise indoor relative humidities to unsafe levels, which could promote the growth of dust...

  16. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel


    The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

  17. Enhanced blink reflex recovery in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. (United States)

    Kandemir, Melek; Gündüz, Ayşegül; Uzun, Nurten; Yeni, S Naz; Kızıltan, Meral E


    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), which has been attributed to the dysfunction of cortico-thalamic pathway, has been considered to be one of the system epilepsies. However, electrophysiological and functional neuroimaging techniques have revealed the functional involvement of various parts of the central nervous system, also. Here, we aimed to analyze the role of brainstem circuits in JME by using the blink reflex recovery cycle (BRrc). Electrophysiological recordings of 18 JME patients together with age and gender matched 18 healthy subjects were made during single and paired supraorbital stimulation. Constant current paired stimuli were delivered at interstimulus intervals (ISI) of 200 and 400ms. Amplitudes of R2 responses were measured on the non-dominant side, and percentages of the recovery cycles were calculated. All participants had normal and similar R1 and R2 components of blink reflex (BR). At ISI of 400ms, R2 recoveries were significantly higher in the JME group compared to healthy subjects (p=0.040). There was no correlation between R2-BRrc and ages of JME patients, disease duration and daily dosage of valproic acid. We suggest that in JME, the integrity of BR circuit is preserved while the excitability of the brainstem BR circuitry is enhanced. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaki Bassiouni


    Full Text Available Ultimate recovery from water—drive gas reservoirs is governed primarily by the reservoir heterogeneity, residual gas saturation behind the water front, and by relatively high—pressure free gas abandoned updip of the highest perforation. Typical recovery from these reservoirs ranges between 35 and 75% of gas in place. Gas recovery can be enhanced using the »co — production« technique, in this process, as the downdip wells begin to water out, they are converted to high-rate water producers while the updip gas wells maintain gas production. If enough water is produced, the water influx can be halted or at least slowed down, allowing updip wells to deplete the free gas zone to lower pressure. Also, bypassed gas may regain mobility as pressure is lowered in the water-swept zone. Material balance calculations and numerical simulation arc used to support the technical feasibility of co—production. The technical as well as the economic feasibility is demonstrated using actual reservoirs.

  19. Enhanced recovery methods for development of technogenic placers (United States)

    Talgamer, B. L.


    The article deals with the structure of gold mining and the prospects of the placer deposits development. The timeliness of the issue on the technogenic placer development has been justified. Their formation causes analysis has been made and the author has been performed the integrated estimation of remaining reserves in-place after the primary deposit development depending on the mining conditions of occurrence and the kind of valued component. The main methods of the enhanced recovery for the placer deposits reworking are offered. General difficulties of the technogenic placer reserves estimation by means of contemporary methods of geological exploration are presented. The author suggested the methods of indirect estimation considering the exploration results of unrecovered deposits and their exploitation during primary placer development. It has been observed that simplification and the speeding up of reserves estimation for technogenic placer makes it possible to enhance its development.

  20. Enhanced recovery of conventional crude oils with flue gas (United States)

    Shokoya, Olawale Surajudeen

    Flue gas injection is becoming more attractive as a feasible and environmentally friendly process for improving oil recovery from conventional oil reservoirs. When obtained from surface sources, the flue gas process has an added advantage of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2), a greenhouse gas, from being vented into the atmosphere. Flue gas can also be generated in situ by the spontaneous ignition of oil when air, a readily available gas, is injected into high temperature, high pressure conventional oil reservoirs. The availability of flue gas and/or air and the observed high oil recovery potential make the flue gas process an economically attractive process. The oil recovery potential from conventional oil reservoirs by flue gas injection, the displacement mechanism, and the effect of oil composition on these parameters were studied in the laboratory with three flue gas compositions having 0%, 16%, and 30% CO2 content and two recombined conventional crude oils (oils A and B) obtained from two different reservoirs. The oils were displaced by the flue gases in a 2.44 m (8 ft.) long, 5.1 cm (2 in.) diameter Berea sandstone core at irreducible brine saturation as well as in a 18.288m (60 ft.) long slim tube. These studies were conducted at reservoir pressures ranging from 17.62 MPa to 41.58 MPa and temperatures of 116°C and 80.6°C, corresponding to the respective reservoir temperature of the oils studied. Experimental coreflood results show that oil A recovery increases from 32.95% to 41.00% of the initial oil in place (IOIP) at 27.7 MPa as the CO 2 content in the flue gas increases from 0% to 30%. The recovery also increase with pressure from 32.95% to 50.94% IOIP at 0% CO2 flue gas content as the displacement pressure increases from 27.47 MPa to 41.58 MPa. Oil B recovery also increased from 45% to 50% IOIP with increase in CO 2 content in flue gas from 16% to 30% at 17.7 MPa. The results also show that conventional oil will benefit from enriched flue gas injection

  1. Numerical approach for enhanced oil recovery with surfactant flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Keshtkar


    concentration and performance variable (cumulative oil recovery are studied. Finally, the comparison of oil recovery between water-flooding and surfactant-flooding was done. The results showed higher oil recovery with changes in capillary number when the partition coefficient is greater than unity. Increasing oil viscosity resulted in decreasing the oil recovery by changing in fractional flow. Moreover, it was concluded that the oil recovery was enhanced by increasing surfactant injection concentration. The oil recovery was increased when surfactant was injected to the system and this result was obtained by comparing water-flooding and surfactant-flooding.

  2. Three approaches for estimating recovery factors in carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.


    PrefaceThe Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 authorized the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2) and requested the USGS to estimate the “potential volumes of oil and gas recoverable by injection and sequestration of industrial carbon dioxide in potential sequestration formations” (42 U.S.C. 17271(b)(4)). Geologic CO2 sequestration associated with enhanced oil recovery (EOR) using CO2 in existing hydrocarbon reservoirs has the potential to increase the U.S. hydrocarbon recoverable resource. The objective of this report is to provide detailed information on three approaches that can be used to calculate the incremental recovery factors for CO2-EOR. Therefore, the contents of this report could form an integral part of an assessment methodology that can be used to assess the sedimentary basins of the United States for the hydrocarbon recovery potential using CO2-EOR methods in conventional oil reservoirs.

  3. Acceleration of granulocytic cell recovery in irradiated mice by a single subcutaneous injection of a heat-killed Lactobacillus casei preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuse, Masako; Tsuneoka, Kazuko [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Uchida, Kazumi; Nomoto, Koji


    Flow cytometric analysis showed that the treatment of irradiated mice with a heat-killed Lactobacillus casei preparation (LC 9018) accelerated the recovery of granulocytic cell populations in peripheral blood, spleen and femur bone marrow. The recovery of the lymphocytic cell population was not accelerated while the recovery of the B-lymphocytic cell population was inhibited. Histological analysis also showed that the LC-9018 treatment markedly enhanced granulopoiesis in the spleen and bone marrow of irradiated mice. The same LC-9018 treatment significantly increased 30-day survival rates of athymic nude mice after lethal whole-body irradiation. The recovery of the granulocytic cell population in peripheral blood of irradiated athymic nude mice was also accelerated by LC-9018 treatment. Our results suggest that LC 9018 protected lethally irradiated mice from bone marrow death by enhancing granulopoiesis rather than lymphopoiesis and that the contribution of activated T lymphocytes to the enhancement of the granulopoiesis was small. (author)

  4. Enhanced recovery in colorectal surgery: a multicentre study. (United States)

    Ramírez, José M; Blasco, Juan A; Roig, José V; Maeso-Martínez, Sergio; Casal, José E; Esteban, Fernando; Lic, Daniel Callejo


    Major colorectal surgery usually requires a hospital stay of more than 12 days. Inadequate pain management, intestinal dysfunction and immobilisation are the main factors associated with delay in recovery. The present work assesses the short and medium term results achieved by an enhanced recovery program based on previously published protocols. This prospective study, performed at 12 Spanish hospitals in 2008 and 2009, involved 300 patients. All patients underwent elective colorectal resection for cancer following an enhanced recovery program. The main elements of this program were: preoperative advice, no colon preparation, provision of carbohydrate-rich drinks one day prior and on the morning of surgery, goal directed fluid administration, body temperature control during surgery, avoiding drainages and nasogastric tubes, early mobilisation, and the taking of oral fluids in the early postoperative period. Perioperative morbidity and mortality data were collected and the length of hospital stay and protocol compliance recorded. The median age of the patients was 68 years. Fifty-two % of the patients were women. The distribution of patients by ASA class was: I 10%, II 50% and III 40%. Sixty-four % of interventions were laparoscopic; 15% required conversion to laparotomy. The majority of patients underwent sigmoidectomy or right hemicolectomy. The overall compliance to protocol was approximately 65%, but varied widely in its different components. The median length of postoperative hospital stay was 6 days. Some 3% of patients were readmitted to hospital after discharge; some 7% required repeat surgery during their initial hospitalisation or after readmission. The most common complications were surgical (24%), followed by septic (11%) or other medical complications (10%). Three patients (1%) died during follow-up. Some 31% of patients suffered symptoms that delayed their discharge, the most common being vomiting or nausea (12%), dyspnoea (7%) and fever (5%). The

  5. Enhanced recovery in colorectal surgery: a multicentre study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casal José E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major colorectal surgery usually requires a hospital stay of more than 12 days. Inadequate pain management, intestinal dysfunction and immobilisation are the main factors associated with delay in recovery. The present work assesses the short and medium term results achieved by an enhanced recovery program based on previously published protocols. Methods This prospective study, performed at 12 Spanish hospitals in 2008 and 2009, involved 300 patients. All patients underwent elective colorectal resection for cancer following an enhanced recovery program. The main elements of this program were: preoperative advice, no colon preparation, provision of carbohydrate-rich drinks one day prior and on the morning of surgery, goal directed fluid administration, body temperature control during surgery, avoiding drainages and nasogastric tubes, early mobilisation, and the taking of oral fluids in the early postoperative period. Perioperative morbidity and mortality data were collected and the length of hospital stay and protocol compliance recorded. Results The median age of the patients was 68 years. Fifty-two % of the patients were women. The distribution of patients by ASA class was: I 10%, II 50% and III 40%. Sixty-four % of interventions were laparoscopic; 15% required conversion to laparotomy. The majority of patients underwent sigmoidectomy or right hemicolectomy. The overall compliance to protocol was approximately 65%, but varied widely in its different components. The median length of postoperative hospital stay was 6 days. Some 3% of patients were readmitted to hospital after discharge; some 7% required repeat surgery during their initial hospitalisation or after readmission. The most common complications were surgical (24%, followed by septic (11% or other medical complications (10%. Three patients (1% died during follow-up. Some 31% of patients suffered symptoms that delayed their discharge, the most common being vomiting or

  6. Bayesian Recovery of the Initial Condition for the Heat Equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapik, B.T.; van der Vaart, A.W.; van Zanten, J.H.


    We study a Bayesian approach to recovering the initial condition for the heat equation from noisy observations of the solution at a later time. We consider a class of prior distributions indexed by a parameter quantifying "smoothness" and show that the corresponding posterior distributions contract

  7. Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol in stoma reversals. (United States)

    Pirzada, Muhammad Taqi; Naseer, Faisal; Haider, Raza; Haider, Jahanzaib; Ahmed, Monis Jaleel; Alam, Shams Nadeem; Siddique, Sheeraz Shakoor


    To compare the length of hospital stay and return of bowel movement using the conventional management versus 'enhanced recovery after surgery' protocol. This study was conducted at the Civil Hospital, Karachi, from June 2014 to May 2015, and comprised patients undergoing stoma reversal. Patients were randomly allocated in two equal groups, i.e. A (treated with conventional peri-operative management) and B (with 'enhanced recovery after surgery' protocol). Prolonged ileus, wound infection and length of hospital stay between the two groups were compared. SPSS 20 was used for statistical analysis. There were 60 participants who were divided into two groups of 30(50%) each. Overall, 39(65%) patients were males and 21(35%) were females. The mean age was 27.80±9.99 years in group A and 23.87±4.56 years in group B. Besides, 25(83%) patients in group A had prolonged ileus compared to 3(10.7%) in group B (p=0.00). Moreover, 14(46.7%) patients in group A and 8(26.7%) patients in group B had wound infection (p=0.10). The mean duration of hospital stay was also less in group B compared to group A (psurgery' protocol was found to be safe.

  8. Geothermal energy for the increased recovery of copper by flotation enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.


    The possible use of geothermal energy (a) to speed the recovery of copper from ore flotation and/or leaching of flotation tailings and (b) to utilize geothermal brines to replace valuable fresh water in copper flotation operations was evaluated. Geothermal energy could be used to enhance copper and molybdenum recovery in mineral flotation by increasing the kinetics of the flotation process. In another approach, geothermal energy could be used to heat the leaching solution which might permit greater copper recovery using the same residence time in a tailings leach facility. Since there is no restriction on the temperature of the leaching fluid, revenues generated from the additional copper recovered would be greater for tailings leach operations than for other types of leach operations (for example, dump leaching operation) for which temperature restrictions exist. The estimated increase in total revenues resulting from two percent increase copper recovery in a 50,000 tons ore/day plant was estimated to be over $2,000,000 annually. It would require an estimated geothermal investment of about $2,130,000 for a geothermal well and pumping system. Thus, the capital investment would be paid out in about one year. Furthermore, considerable savings of fresh waters and process equipment are possible if the geothermal waters can be used directly in the mine-mill operations, which is believed to be practical.

  9. Heat and Dehydration Additively Enhance Cardiovascular Outcomes following Orthostatically-Stressful Calisthenics Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley P. Akerman


    Full Text Available Exercise and exogenous heat each stimulate multiple adaptations, but their roles are not well delineated, and that of the related stressor, dehydration, is largely unknown. While severe and prolonged hypohydration potentially “silences” the long-term heat acclimated phenotype, mild and transient dehydration may enhance cardiovascular and fluid-regulatory adaptations. We tested the hypothesis that exogenous heat stress and dehydration additively potentiate acute (24 h cardiovascular and hematological outcomes following exercise. In a randomized crossover study, 10 physically-active volunteers (mean ± SD: 173 ± 11 cm; 72.1 ± 11.5 kg; 24 ± 3 year; 6 females completed three trials of 90-min orthostatically-stressful calisthenics, in: (i temperate conditions (22°C, 50% rh, no airflow; CON; (ii heat (40°C, 60% rh whilst euhydrated (HEAT, and (iii heat with dehydration (no fluid ~16 h before and during exercise; HEAT+DEHY. Using linear mixed effects model analyses, core temperature (TCORE rose 0.7°C more in HEAT than CON (95% CL: [0.5, 0.9]; p < 0.001, and another 0.4°C in HEAT+DEHY ([0.2, 0.5]; p < 0.001, vs. HEAT. Skin temperature also rose 1.2°C more in HEAT than CON ([0.6, 1.8]; p < 0.001, and similarly to HEAT+DEHY (p = 0.922 vs. HEAT. Peak heart rate was 40 b·min−1 higher in HEAT than in CON ([28, 51]; p < 0.001, and another 15 b·min−1 higher in HEAT+DEHY ([3, 27]; p = 0.011, vs. HEAT. Mean arterial pressure at 24-h recovery was not consistently below baseline after CON or HEAT (p ≥ 0.452, but was reduced 4 ± 1 mm Hg after HEAT+DEHY ([0, 8]; p = 0.020 vs. baseline. Plasma volume at 24 h after exercise increased in all trials; the 7% increase in HEAT was not reliably more than in CON (5%; p = 0.335, but was an additional 4% larger after HEAT+DEHY ([1, 8]; p = 0.005 vs. HEAT. Pooled-trial correlational analysis showed the rise in TCORE predicted the hypotension (r = −0.4 and plasma volume expansion (r = 0.6 at 24 h, with

  10. Enhancing Convective Heat Transfer over a Surrogate Photovoltaic Panel (United States)

    Fouladi, Fama

    This research is particularly focused on studying heat transfer enhancement of a photovoltaic (PV) panel by putting an obstacle at the panel's windward edge. The heat transfer enhancement is performed by disturbing the airflow over the surface and increasing the heat and momentum transfer. Different objects such as triangular, square, rectangular, and discrete rectangular ribs and partial grids were applied at the leading edge of a surrogate PV panel and flow and the heat transfer of the panel are investigated experimentally. This approach was selected to expand understanding of effect of these different objects on the flow and turbulence structures over a flat surface by analyzing the flow comprehensively. It is observed that, a transverse object at the plate's leading edge would cause some flow blockage in the streamwise direction, but at the same time creates some velocity in the normal and cross stream directions. In addition to that, the obstacle generates some turbulence over the surface which persists for a long downstream distance. Also, among all studied objects, discrete rectangular ribs demonstrate the highest heat transfer rate enhancement (maximum Nu/Nu0 of 1.5). However, ribs with larger gap ratios are observed to be more effective at enhancing the heat transfer augmentation at closer distances to the rib, while at larger downstream distances from the rib, discrete ribs with smaller gap ratios are more effective. Furthermore, this work attempted to recognize the most influential flow parameters on the heat transfer enhancement of the surface. It is seen that the flow structure over a surface downstream of an object (flow separation-reattachment behaviour) has a significant effect on the heat transfer enhancement trend. Also, turbulence intensities are the most dominant parameters in enhancing the heat transfer rate from the surface; however, flow velocity (mostly normal velocity) is also an important factor.

  11. Independent air dehumidification with membrane-based total heat recovery: Modeling and experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, C.H.; Zhang, L.Z.; Pei, L.X. [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)


    Fresh air ventilation is helpful for the control of epidemic respiratory disease like Swine flu (H1N1). Fresh air dehumidification systems with energy recovery measures are the key equipments to realize this goal. As a solution, an independent air dehumidification system with membrane-based total heat recovery is proposed. A prototype is built in laboratory. A detailed model is proposed and a cell-by-cell simulation technique is used in simulation to evaluate performances. The results indicate that the model can predict the system accurately. The effects of varying operating conditions like air-flow rates, temperature, and air relative humidity on the air dehumidification rates, cooling powers, electric power consumption, and thermal coefficient of performance are evaluated. The prototype has a COP of 6.8 under nominal operating conditions with total heat recovery. The performance is rather robust to outside weather conditions with a membrane-based total heat exchanger. (author)

  12. Linear Active Disturbance Rejection Control of Waste Heat Recovery Systems with Organic Rankine Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fang


    Full Text Available In this paper, a linear active disturbance rejection controller is proposed for a waste heat recovery system using an organic Rankine cycle process, whose model is obtained by applying the system identification technique. The disturbances imposed on the waste heat recovery system are estimated through an extended linear state observer and then compensated by a linear feedback control strategy. The proposed control strategy is applied to a 100 kW waste heat recovery system to handle the power demand variations of grid and process disturbances. The effectiveness of this controller is verified via a simulation study, and the results demonstrate that the proposed strategy can provide satisfactory tracking performance and disturbance rejection.

  13. Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovovic, Vladimir [Gentherm Incorporated, Azusa, CA (United States)


    Gentherm began work in October 2011 to develop a Thermoelectric Waste Energy Recovery System for passenger vehicle applications. Partners in this program were BMW and Tenneco. Tenneco, in the role of TIER 1 supplier, developed the system-level packaging of the thermoelectric power generator. As the OEM, BMW Group demonstrated the TEG system in their vehicle in the final program phase. Gentherm demonstrated the performance of the TEG in medium duty and heavy duty vehicles. Technology developed and demonstrated in this program showed potential to reduce fuel consumption in medium and heavy duty vehicles. In light duty vehicles it showed more modest potential.

  14. Enhancing anaerobic digestibility and phosphorus recovery of dairy manure through microwave-based thermochemical pretreatment. (United States)

    Jin, Ying; Hu, Zhenhu; Wen, Zhiyou


    Anaerobic digestion and struvite precipitation are two effective ways of treating dairy manure for recovering biogas and phosphorus. Anaerobic digestion of dairy manure is commonly limited by slow fiber degradation, while struvite precipitation is limited by the availability of orthophosphate. The aim of this work is to study the possibility of using microwave-based thermochemical pretreatment to simultaneously enhance manure anaerobic digestibility (through fiber degradation) and struvite precipitation (through phosphorus solubilization). Microwave heating combined with different chemicals (NaOH, CaO, H(2)SO(4), or HCl) enhanced solubilization of manure and degradation of glucan/xylan in dairy manure. However, sulfuric acid-based pretreatment resulted in a low anaerobic digestibility, probably due to the sulfur inhibition and Maillard side reaction. The pretreatments released 20-40% soluble phosphorus and 9-14% ammonium. However, CaO-based pretreatment resulted in lower orthophosphate releases and struvite precipitation efficiency as calcium interferes with phosphate to form calcium phosphate. Collectively, microwave heating combined with NaOH or HCl led to a high anaerobic digestibility and phosphorus recovery. Using these two chemicals, the performance of microwave- and conventional-heating in thermochemical pretreatment was further compared. The microwave heating resulted in a better performance in terms of COD solubilization, glucan/xylan reduction, phosphorus solubilization and anaerobic digestibility. Lastly, temperature and heating time used in microwave treatment were optimized. The optimal values of temperature and heating time were 147 degrees C and 25.3 min for methane production, and 135 degrees C and 26 min for orthophosphate release, respectively.

  15. High Performance Cascading Adsorption Refrigeration Cycle with Internal Heat Recovery Driven by a Low Grade Heat Source Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Ueda


    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance of an advanced cascading adsorption cycle that utilizes a driven heat source temperature between 90–130 ºC. The cycle consists of four beds that contain silica gel as an adsorber fill. Two of the beds work in a single stage cycle that is driven by an external heat source, while the other two beds work in a mass recovery cycle that is driven by waste heat of sensible and adsorption heat of the high temperature cycle. The performances, in terms of the coefficient of performance (COP and the specific cooling power (SCP, are compared with conventional cascading-without-mass-recovery and single-stage cycles. The paper also presents the effect of the adsorbent mass on performance. The results show that the proposed cycle with mass recovery produces as high of a COP as the COP that is produced by the conventional cascading cycle. However, it produces a lower SCP than that of the single-stage cycle.

  16. Boiling local heat transfer enhancement in minichannels using nanofluids (United States)

    Chehade, Ali Ahmad; Gualous, Hasna Louahlia; Le Masson, Stephane; Fardoun, Farouk; Besq, Anthony


    This paper reports an experimental study on nanofluid convective boiling heat transfer in parallel rectangular minichannels of 800 μm hydraulic diameter. Experiments are conducted with pure water and silver nanoparticles suspended in water base fluid. Two small volume fractions of silver nanoparticles suspended in water are tested: 0.000237% and 0.000475%. The experimental results show that the local heat transfer coefficient, local heat flux, and local wall temperature are affected by silver nanoparticle concentration in water base fluid. In addition, different correlations established for boiling flow heat transfer in minichannels or macrochannels are evaluated. It is found that the correlation of Kandlikar and Balasubramanian is the closest to the water boiling heat transfer results. The boiling local heat transfer enhancement by adding silver nanoparticles in base fluid is not uniform along the channel flow. Better performances and highest effect of nanoparticle concentration on the heat transfer are obtained at the minichannels entrance.

  17. Boiling local heat transfer enhancement in minichannels using nanofluids (United States)


    This paper reports an experimental study on nanofluid convective boiling heat transfer in parallel rectangular minichannels of 800 μm hydraulic diameter. Experiments are conducted with pure water and silver nanoparticles suspended in water base fluid. Two small volume fractions of silver nanoparticles suspended in water are tested: 0.000237% and 0.000475%. The experimental results show that the local heat transfer coefficient, local heat flux, and local wall temperature are affected by silver nanoparticle concentration in water base fluid. In addition, different correlations established for boiling flow heat transfer in minichannels or macrochannels are evaluated. It is found that the correlation of Kandlikar and Balasubramanian is the closest to the water boiling heat transfer results. The boiling local heat transfer enhancement by adding silver nanoparticles in base fluid is not uniform along the channel flow. Better performances and highest effect of nanoparticle concentration on the heat transfer are obtained at the minichannels entrance. PMID:23506445


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    compatibility with other materials of the system. In general, candidate ... Cesium Hydroxide (CsOH) and Lead Bromide (PbBr2) have low latent heat of fusion ..... Steam from test facility. DISTOR. II. 100. 55. KNO3/NaNO3. 2000. 225. Steam from parabolic trough. During discharging an average specific power of 42.5. kWth/m3.

  19. Electromagnetic enhancement of turbulent heat transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenjeres, S.


    We performed large eddy simulations (LES) of the turbulent natural convection of an electrically conductive fluid (water with 7% Na2SO4 electrolyte solution) in a moderate (4:4:1) aspect ratio enclosure heated from below and cooled from above and subjected to external nonuniformly distributed

  20. Waste Heat Powered Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Unit for LPG Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald C, Energy Concepts Co.; Lauber, Eric, Western Refining Co.


    An emerging DOE-sponsored technology has been deployed. The technology recovers light ends from a catalytic reformer plant using waste heat powered ammonia absorption refrigeration. It is deployed at the 17,000 bpd Bloomfield, New Mexico refinery of Western Refining Company. The technology recovers approximately 50,000 barrels per year of liquefied petroleum gas that was formerly being flared. The elimination of the flare also reduces CO2 emissions by 17,000 tons per year, plus tons per year reductions in NOx, CO, and VOCs. The waste heat is supplied directly to the absorption unit from the Unifiner effluent. The added cooling of that stream relieves a bottleneck formerly present due to restricted availability of cooling water. The 350oF Unifiner effluent is cooled to 260oF. The catalytic reformer vent gas is directly chilled to minus 25oF, and the FCC column overhead reflux is chilled by 25oF glycol. Notwithstanding a substantial cost overrun and schedule slippage, this project can now be considered a success: it is both profitable and highly beneficial to the environment. The capabilities of directly-integrated waste-heat powered ammonia absorption refrigeration and their benefits to the refining industry have been demonstrated.

  1. Optimizing pain management to facilitate Enhanced Recovery After Surgery pathways. (United States)

    Tan, Mingjuan; Law, Lawrence Siu-Chun; Gan, Tong Joo


    The optimal management of postoperative pain using multimodal analgesia is a key component of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS). Pain has adverse clinical implications on postoperative recovery, including prolonging the time to recovery milestones and length of hospital stay. Moreover, the ubiquity of opioids in postoperative analgesic regimens results in adverse effects, such as sedation, postoperative nausea and vomiting, urinary retention, ileus, and respiratory depression, which can delay discharge. Thus, multimodal analgesia, i.e., the use of more than one analgesic modality to achieve effective pain control while reducing opioid-related side effects, has become the cornerstone of enhanced recovery. The purpose of this review is to address the analgesic techniques used as part of multimodal analgesic regimens to optimize postoperative pain control and to summarize the evidence for their use in reducing opioid requirements and side effects. There is a wide variety of analgesic techniques available for multimodal postoperative analgesia. These modalities are divided into pharmacological and non-pharmacological techniques. Systemic pharmacological modalities involve opioids and non-opioids such as acetaminophen, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, anticonvulsants (e.g., gamma-aminobutyric acid analogues), beta-blockers, alpha-2 agonists, transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor agonists (capsaicin), and glucocorticoids. Other pharmacological modalities include central neuraxial techniques, surgical-site infiltration, and regional anesthesia. Evidence supports the use of these pharmacological techniques as part of multimodal analgesia, but each has its own advantages and specific safety profile, which highlights the importance of selecting the appropriate analgesics for each patient. Adjunctive non-pharmacological techniques include acupuncture, music therapy, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation

  2. Heat Recovery Ventilation for Housing: Air-to-Air Heat Exchangers. (United States)

    Corbett, Robert J.; Miller, Barbara

    The air-to-air heat exchanger (a fan powered ventilation device that recovers heat from stale outgoing air) is explained in this six-part publication. Topic areas addressed are: (1) the nature of air-to-air heat exchangers and how they work; (2) choosing and sizing the system; (3) installation, control, and maintenance of the system; (4) heat…

  3. Analysis of economic and environmental benefits of a new heat pump air conditioning system with a heat recovery device (United States)

    Li, lingxue


    The paper designs a new wind-water cooling and heating water conditioner system, connects cooling tower with heat recovery device, which uses cooling water to completely remove the heat that does not need heat recollection, in order to ensure that the system can work efficiently with higher performance coefficient. After the test actual engineering operation, the system’s maximum cooling coefficient of performance can reach 3.5. Its maximum comprehensive coefficient of performance can reach 6.5. After the analysis of its economic and environmental, we conclude that the new system can save 89822 kw per year. It reflects energy-saving and environmental benefits of the cold and hot water air conditioning system.

  4. Markers of muscle damage and performance recovery following exercise in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Girard, Olivier; Mohr, Magni


    (sprint, endurance and neuromuscular testing) were evaluated in 17 semiprofessional soccer players before, immediately after and during 48 h of recovery from a match played in 43°C (HOT) and compared to a control match (21°C with similar turf and set-up). RESULTS: Muscle temperature was ~ 1°C higher (P......PURPOSE: To determine whether competitive intermittent exercise in the heat affects recovery, aggravates markers of muscle fiber damage, and delay the recovery of performance and muscle glycogen stores. METHODS: Plasma creatine kinase, serum myoglobin, muscle glycogen and performance parameters...

  5. Metabolomic profiling of heat stress: hardening and recovery of homeostasis in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmendal, Anders; Overgaard, Johannes; Bundy, Jacob G


    homeostasis after subsequent heat stress. Several metabolites were identified as responsive to heat stress and could be related to known physiological and biochemical responses. The time course of the recovery of metabolite homeostasis mirrored general changes in gene expression, showing that recovery follows...... the same temporal pattern at these two biological levels. Finally, our data show that heat hardening permits a quicker return to homeostasis, rather than a reduction of the acute metabolic perturbation and that the reestablishment of homeostasis is important for obtaining maximal heat-hardening effect....... The results display the power of NMR metabolomic profiling for characterization of the instantaneous physiological condition, enabling direct visualization of the perturbation of and return to homeostasis....

  6. Vehicle Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery Model with Integrated Thermal Load Leveling (United States)


    advantages that make them particularly attractive for mobile applications including being lightweight , solid- state, and passive. This has the potential for...recovery from automobile engine. Energy. 2010;35:1447–1454. 14 12. Ceraianu MO, Gontean A. Parasitic elements modelling in thermoelectric...JP, Sampath S. Heat transfer modeling and geometry optimization of TEG for automobile applications. Proceedings of the ASME Summer Heat Transfer

  7. Waste heat recovery system for recapturing energy after engine aftertreatment systems (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.


    The disclosure provides a waste heat recovery (WHR) system including a Rankine cycle (RC) subsystem for converting heat of exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine, and an internal combustion engine including the same. The WHR system includes an exhaust gas heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled downstream of an exhaust aftertreatment system and is adapted to transfer heat from the exhaust gas to a working fluid of the RC subsystem. An energy conversion device is fluidly coupled to the exhaust gas heat exchanger and is adapted to receive the vaporized working fluid and convert the energy of the transferred heat. The WHR system includes a control module adapted to control at least one parameter of the RC subsystem based on a detected aftertreatment event of a predetermined thermal management strategy of the aftertreatment system.

  8. Combined particle emission reduction and heat recovery from combustion exhaust - A novel approach for small wood-fired appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messerer, A.; Poeschl, U.; Niessner, R. [Technical University of Munich, Munich (Germany). Institute of Hydrochemistry; Schmatloch, V. [EMPA, Swiss Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Duebendorf (Switzerland)


    Replacing fossil fuels by renewable sources of energy is one approach to address the problem of global warming due to anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. Wood combustion can help to replace fuel oil or gas. It is advisable, however, to use modern technology for combustion and exhaust gas after-treatment in order to achieve best efficiency and avoid air quality problems due to high emission levels often related to small scale wood combustion. In this study, simultaneous combustion particle deposition and heat recovery from the exhaust of two commercially available wood-fired appliances has been investigated. The experiments were performed with a miniature pipe bundle heat exchanger operating in the exhaust gas lines of a fully automated pellet burner or a closed fireplace. The system has been characterised for a wide range of aerosol inlet temperatures (135-295 {sup circle} C) and flow velocities (0.13-1.0ms{sup -1}), and particle deposition efficiencies up to 95% have been achieved. Deposition was dominated by thermophoresis and diffusion and increased with the average temperature difference and retention time in the heat exchanger. The aerosols from the two different appliances exhibited different deposition characteristics, which can be attributed to enhanced deposition of the nucleation mode particles generated in the closed fire place. The measured deposition efficiencies can be described by simple linear parameterisations derived from laboratory studies. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of thermophoretic particle removal from biomass burning flue gas and support the development of modified heat exchanger systems with enhanced capability for simultaneous heat recovery and particle deposition. (author)

  9. Digital innovations and emerging technologies for enhanced recovery programmes. (United States)

    Michard, F; Gan, T J; Kehlet, H


    Enhanced recovery programmes (ERPs) are increasingly used to improve post-surgical recovery. However, compliance to various components of ERPs-a key determinant of success-remains sub-optimal. Emerging technologies have the potential to help patients and caregivers to improve compliance with ERPs.Preoperative physical condition, a major determinant of postoperative outcome, could be optimized with the use of text messages (SMS) or digital applications (Apps) designed to facilitate smoking cessation, modify physical activity, and better manage hypertension and diabetes. Several non-invasive haemodynamic monitoring techniques and decision support tools are now available to individualize perioperative fluid management, a key component of ERPs. Objective nociceptive assessment may help to rationalize the use of pain medications, including opioids. Wearable sensors designed to monitor cardio-respiratory function may help in the early detection of clinical deterioration during the postoperative recovery and to address 'failure to rescue'. Activity trackers may be useful to monitor early mobilization, another major element of ERPs. Finally, electronic checklists have been developed to ensure that none of the above-mentioned ERP elements is omitted during the surgical journey.By optimizing compliance to the multiple components of ERPs, digital innovations, non-invasive techniques and wearable sensors have the potential to magnify the clinical and economic benefits of ERPs. Among the growing number of technical innovations, studies are needed to clarify which tools and solutions have real clinical value and are cost-effective. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  10. The thermodynamics of enhanced heat transfer: a model study (United States)

    Hovhannisyan, Karen; Allahverdyan, Armen E.


    Situations where a spontaneous process of energy or matter transfer is enhanced by an external device are widespread in nature (the human sweating system, enzyme catalysis, facilitated diffusion across biomembranes, industrial heat-exchangers and so on). The thermodynamics of such processes remains, however, open. Here we study enhanced heat transfer by using a model junction immersed between two thermal baths at different temperatures Th and Tc (Th > Tc). The transferred heat power is enhanced via controlling the junction by means of external time-dependent fields. Provided that the spontaneous heat flow process is optimized over the junction Hamiltonian, any enhancement of this spontaneous process demands consumption and subsequent dissipation of work. The efficiency of the enhancement is defined via the increment in the heat power divided by the amount of work done. We show that this efficiency is bounded from above by Tc/(Th - Tc). Formally this is identical to the Carnot bound for the efficiency of ordinary refrigerators which transfer heat from cold to hot bodies. It also shares some (but not all) physical features of the Carnot bound.

  11. Heat Recovery from High Temperature Slags: A Review of Chemical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqi Sun


    Full Text Available Waste heat recovery from high temperature slags represents the latest potential way to remarkably reduce the energy consumption and CO2 emissions of the steel industry. The molten slags, in the temperature range of 1723–1923 K, carry large amounts of high quality energy. However, the heat recovery from slags faces several fundamental challenges, including their low thermal conductivity, inside crystallization, and discontinuous availability. During past decades, various chemical methods have been exploited and performed including methane reforming, coal and biomass gasification, and direct compositional modification and utilization of slags. These methods effectively meet the challenges mentioned before and help integrate the steel industry with other industrial sectors. During the heat recovery using chemical methods, slags can act as not only heat carriers but also as catalysts and reactants, which expands the field of utilization of slags. Fuel gas production using the waste heat accounts for the main R&D trend, through which the thermal heat in the slag could be transformed into high quality chemical energy in the fuel gas. Moreover, these chemical methods should be extended to an industrial scale to realize their commercial application, which is the only way by which the substantial energy in the slags could be extracted, i.e., amounting to 16 million tons of standard coal in China.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, W. L.; Christenson, James A.


    A project is discussed in which the possibilities for economical waste heat recovery and utilization in the food industry were examined. Waste heat availability and applications surveys were performed at two manufacturing plants engaged in low temperature (freezing) and high temperature (cooking, sterilizing, etc.) food processing. The surveys indicate usable waste heat is available in significant quantities which could be applied to existing, on-site energy demands resulting in sizable reductions in factory fuel and energy usage. At the high temperature plant, the energy demands involve the heating of fresh water for boiler make-up, for the food processes and for the daily clean-up operation. Clean-up poses an opportunity for thermal energy storage since waste heat is produced during the one or two production shifts of each working day while the major clean-up effort does not occur until food production ends. At the frozen food facility, the clean-up water application again exists and, in addition, refrigeration waste heat could also be applied to warm the soil beneath the ground floor freezer space. Systems to recover and apply waste heat in these situations were developed conceptually and thermal/economic performance predictions were obtained. The results of those studies indicate the economics of waste heat recovery can be attractive for facilities with high energy demand levels. Small factories, however, with relatively low energy demands may find the economics marginal although, percentagewise, the fuel and energy savings are appreciable.

  13. Microfluidic Study of Foams Flow for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quennouz N.


    Full Text Available In this paper, we report an experimental study of foam flow in different channel geometries using microfluidic devices in the framework of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR. Two different processes of foam formation are studied. The first corresponds to co-injection of gas and water through a cross junction which gives rise to a monodisperse foam. The second one corresponds to the fragmentation of large bubbles by a porous media, a foam formation process simulating multiphase flows in rocks. The foam formation is completely controlled and characterized varying both the water and gas pressure applied. We also use a microdevice with two permeabilities that permits to highlight the diversion of the continuous phase in the low permeability channels. The observations are important for a better understanding of the implied phenomena in EOR as well as to determine pertinent data to feed flow simulators.

  14. On the use of sodium lignosulphonate for enhanced oil recovery (United States)

    Azis, M. M.; Rachmadi, H.; Wintoko, J.; Yuliansyah, A. T.; Hasokowati, W.; Purwono, S.; Rochmadi, W.; Murachman, B.


    There has been large interest to utilize oil reservoirs in Indonesia by using Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes. Injection of surfactant as a part of chemical injection technique in EOR is known to aid the mobility and reduction in surface tension. One potential surfactant for EOR application is Sodium Lignosulphonate (SLS) which can be made from various sources particularly empty fruit bunch of oil palm and black liquor from kraft pulp production. Here, we will discuss a number of methods for SLS production which includes lignin isolation techniques and sulphonation reaction. The use of SLS alone as EOR surfactant, however, is often not feasible as the Interfacial Tension (IFT) value of SLS is typically above the order of 10-3 dyne/cm which is mandated for EOR application. Hence, brief discussion on SLS formulation screening is provided which illustrates an extensive labwork experience during the SLS development in our lab.

  15. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Ship Power Plant Operating with Waste Heat Recovery through Combined Heat and Power Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Grljušić


    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to study a cogeneration plant for combined heat & power (CHP production that utilises the low-temperature waste energy in the power plant of a Suezmax-size oil tanker for all heating and electricity requirements during navigation. After considering various configurations, a standard propulsion engine operating at maximum efficiency and a CHP Plant with R245fa fluid using a supercritical organic Rankine cycle (ORC is selected. All the ship heat requirements can be covered by energy of organic fluid after expansion in the turbine, except feeder-booster heating. Hence, an additional quantity of working fluid may be heated using an after Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG directed to the feeder-booster module. An analysis of the obtained results shows that the steam turbine plant does not yield significant fuel savings. However, a CHP plant with R245fa fluid using supercritical ORC meets all of the demands for electrical energy and heat while burning only a small amount of additional fuel in HRSG at the main engine off-design operation.

  16. Microbial enhanced oil recovery research. Final report, Annex 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, M.M.; Gerogiou, G.


    The objective of this project was to develop an engineering framework for the exploitation of microorganisms to enhance oil recovery. An order of magnitude analysis indicated that selective plugging and the production of biosurfactants are the two most likely mechanisms for the mobilization of oil in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The latter, biosurfactant production, is easier to control within a reservoir environment and was investigated in some detail. An extensive literature survey indicated that the bacterium Bacillus licheniformis JF-2 produces a very effective surface active agent capable of increasing the capillary number to values sufficiently low for oil mobilization. In addition, earlier studies had shown that growth of this bacterium and biosurfactant production occur under conditions that are typically encountered in MEOR, namely temperatures up to 55{degrees}C, lack of oxygen and salinities of up to 10% w/v. The chemical structure of the surfactant, its interfacial properties and its production by fermentation were characterized in some detail. In parallel, a set of experiments as conducted to measure the transport of Bacillus licheniformis JF-2 in sandpacks. It was shown that the determining parameters for cell transport in porous media are: cell size and degree of coagulation, presence of dispersants, injection velocity and cell concentration. The mechanisms of bacteria retention within the pores of the reservoir were analyzed based on heuristic arguments. A mathematical simulator of MEOR was developed using conservation equations in which the mechanisms of bacteria retention and the growth kinetics of the cells were incorporated. The predictions of the model agreed reasonably well with experimental results.

  17. First joint SPE/DOE symposium on enhanced oil recovery, proceedings supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The First Joint Symposium on Enhanced Oil Recovery sponsored by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and the US Department of Energy was held in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Besides the thirty-three technical papers which covered all phases of enhanced oil recovery and were published in the Proceedings, the Symposium included a session on Enhanced Oil Recovery Incentives where ten papers were presented which discussed the status of enhanced oil recovery technology, and included papers on incentive programs of the United States, Canada and Venezuela. These papers are published in this Proceedings Supplement under the following titles: Federal Government Role in enhanced Oil Recovery; Financial Realities of an Adequate Petroleum Supply; Major Technology Constraints in Enhanced Oil Recovery; Decontrol-Opportunities and Dangers; Status of EOR Technology; Impact of Federal Incentives on US Production; Canadian Incentives Program; and Heavy Oil Incentives in Venezuela.

  18. Electrically heated particulate filter enhanced ignition strategy (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J


    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating applied to at least one of the PF and the grid. A control module estimates a temperature of the grid and controls the engine to produce a desired exhaust product to increase the temperature of the grid.

  19. Regenerator heat exchanger – calculation of heat recovery efficiency and pressure loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    Performance of heat exchangers is determined based on two main parameters: efficiency to exchange / recover heat and pressure loss due to friction between fluid and exchanger surfaces. These two parameters are contradicting each other which mean that the higher is efficiency the higher becomes...... pressure loss. The aim of the optimized design of heat exchanger is to reach the highest or the required heat efficiency and at the same time to keep pressure losses as low as possible keeping total exchanger size within acceptable size. In this report is presented analytical calculation method...... to calculate efficiency and pressure loss in the regenerator heat exchanger with a fixed matrix that will be used in the decentralized ventilation unit combined in the roof window. Moreover, this study presents sensitivity study of regenerator heat exchanger performance, taking into account, such parameters as...

  20. Heat Recovery in a Pasta Factory. Pinch Analysis Leads to Optimal Heat Pump Usage.


    Staine, Frédéric; Favrat, Daniel; Krummenacher, Pierre


    In the previous issue of the IEA Heat Pump Centre Newsletter (Vol, 12, No.3, pp. 29-31), an article by these authors described the use of pinch analysis (also known as pinch technology) in a buildings application. This article describes a similar procedure for integrating a heat pump into a pasta production process. Many industrial processes, and particularly those dealing with drying, are characterized by an overabundance of low- grade heat which often cannot be effi...

  1. Heat recovery from Diesel exhausts by means of a fluidized bed heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlomagno, G.M.; Festa, R.; Massimilla, L.


    A fluidized bed heat exchanger, equipped with a specially designed manifold gas distributor, is conveniently used to recover heat from exhausts of a 60 kW Diesel engine. The sensitivity of the bed to tube heat transfer coefficient to soot fouling and the sensitivity of the exchanger efficiency to variations of such coefficients are analyzed. Procedures for in-operation tube defouling are described.

  2. Integrated energy and emission management for heavy-duty diesel engines with waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Rascanu, G.; Feru, E.


    Rankine-cycleWasteHeatRecovery (WHR)systems are promising solutions to reduce fuel consumption for trucks. Due to coupling between engine andWHR system, control of these complex systems is challenging. This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI Diesel

  3. Supervisory control of a heavy-duty diesel engine with an electrified waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Murgovski, N.; Jager, B. de; Willems, F.P.T.


    This paper presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy, called Integrated Power- train Control(IPC), for an Euro-VI diesel engine with an electrified waste heat recovery system. This strategy optimizes the CO – NOx 2 trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with

  4. Optimization of paper machine heat recovery system; Paperikoneen laemmoentalteenottosysteemin optimointi - PMSY 02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, H. [Valmet Oyj Pansio, Turku (Finland)


    Conventionally the energy content of paper and board machine dryer section exhaust air is recovered in the heat recovery tower. This has had a major contribution to the overall energy economy of a paper machine. Modern paper machines have already reached momentary record speeds above 1700 m/min, and speeds above 2000 m/min will be strived to. This is possible by developing new efficient drying technologies. These will require new solutions for the heat recovery systems. At the same time requirements for new heat recovery solutions come from the gradually closing of paper mill water circulation systems. In this project a discrete tool based on optimization is developed, a tool for analyzing, optimizing and dimensioning of paper machine heat recovery systems for different process conditions. Delivery of a paper machine process requires more and more transferring of process knowledge into calculation model parameters. The overall target of the tool is to decrease the energy consumption considering new drying technologies and the gradually closing of water circulation systems. (orig.)

  5. Implementation of Exhaust Gas Recirculation for Double Stage Waste Heat Recovery System on Large Container Vessel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Morten; Marissal, Matthieu; Sørensen, Kim


    Concerned to push ships to have a lower impact on the environment, the International Maritime Organization are implementing stricter regulation of NOx and SOx emissions, called Tier III, within emission control areas (ECAs). Waste Heat Recovery Systems (WHRS) on container ships consist...

  6. Consistent coke quality from Sun Coke Company s heat recovery cokemaking technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkdoll, M. [Sun Coke Company, Knoxville, TN (USA)


    Presents the Sun Coke heat recovery coke making technology which has been developed over the last 41 years. Aspects covered include: development history; ongoing technological development; relationship between coal blend and coke quality; long-term production coke quality; environmental performance; plant economics; and labour requirements. 14 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Integrated energy and emission management for heavy-duty diesel engines with waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Cloudt, R.P.M.


    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue

  8. Water Recovery with the Heat Melt Compactor in a Microgravity Environment (United States)

    Golliher, Eric L.; Goo, Jonathan; Fisher, John


    The Heat Melt Compactor is a proposed utility that will compact astronaut trash, extract the water for eventual re-use, and form dry square tiles that can be used as additional ionizing radiation shields for future human deep space missions. The Heat Melt Compactor has been under development by a consortium of NASA centers. The downstream portion of the device is planned to recover a small amount of water while in a microgravity environment. Drop tower low gravity testing was performed to assess the effect of small particles on a capillary-based water/air separation device proposed for the water recovery portion of the Heat Melt Compactor.

  9. Investigation of heat recovery in CO2 trans-critical solution for supermarket refrigeration


    Sawalha, Samer


    Using computer simulation modeling this study investigates the performance of a CO2 trans-critical system with heat recovery from the de-superheater. The influence of sub-cooling (or further cooling) in the condenser/gas cooler on system performance is investigated. Following the suggested control strategy in this study, the extra operating energy demand required to recover the needed heating energy from the analyzed CO2 system is smaller than what a typical heat pump would require for the sa...

  10. Survey of literature on convective heat transfer coefficients and recovery factors for high atmosphere thermometry (United States)

    Chung, S.


    Heat transfer phenomena of rarefied gas flows is discussed based on a literature survey of analytical and experimental rarefied gas dynamics. Subsonic flows are emphasized for the purposes of meteorological thermometry in the high atmosphere. The heat transfer coefficients for three basic geometries are given in the regimes of free molecular flow, transition flow, slip flow, and continuum flow. Different types of heat phenomena, and the analysis of theoretical and experimental data are presented. The uncertainties calculated from the interpolation rule compared with the available experimental data are discussed. The recovery factor for each geometry in subsonic rarefied flows is also given.

  11. Feasibility of waste heat recovery concepts for geothermal refrigeration and air conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, R.


    This paper presents the qualitative feasibility of two waste heat recovery concepts for geothermal refrigeration and air conditioning. The high temperature available at shallow depths of abandoned or dry wells in oil fields and the natural gas which is being flared without any use near oil producing wells, can be used as heat input for vapour absorption cooling systems. Depending upon the quantity and quality of low grade heat from these sources, conventional refrigerant-absorbent combinations, e.g. water-lithium bromide and ammonia-water may be used for refrigeration and air conditioning purposes in the basic vapour absorption systems.

  12. Waste Heat Recovery and Recycling in Thermal Separation Processes: Distillation, Multi-Effect Evaporation (MEE) and Crystallization Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmanuel A. Dada; Chandrakant B. Panchal; Luke K. Achenie; Aaron Reichl; Chris C. Thomas


    (53:35:12). And for an H2O2 distillation process, the two promising fluids are Trifluoroethanol (TFE) + Triethylene Glycol Dimethyl ether (DMETEG) and Ammonia+ Water. Thermo-physical properties calculated by Aspen+ are reasonably accurate. Documentation of the installation of pilot-plants or full commercial units were not found in the literature for validating thermo-physical properties in an operating unit. Therefore, it is essential to install a pilot-scale unit to verify thermo-physical properties of working fluid pairs and validate the overall efficiency of the thermal heat pump at temperatures typical of distillation processes. For an HO2 process, the ammonia-water heat pump system is more compact and preferable than the TFE-DMETEG heat pump. The ammonia-water heat pump is therefore recommended for the H2O2 process. Based on the complex nature of the heat recovery system, we anticipated that capital costs could make investments financially unattractive where steam costs are low, especially where co-generation is involved. We believe that the enhanced heat transfer equipment has the potential to significantly improve the performance of TEE crystallizers, independent of the absorption heat-pump recovery system. Where steam costs are high, more detailed design/cost engineering will be required to verify the economic viability of the technology. Due to the long payback period estimated for the TEE open system, further studies on the TEE system are not warranted unless there are significant future improvements to heat pump technology. For the H2O2 distillation cycle heat pump waste heat recovery system, there were no significant process constraints and the estimated 5 years payback period is encouraging. We therefore recommend further developments of application of the thermal heat pump in the H2O2 distillation process with the focus on the technical and economic viability of heat exchangers equipped with the state-of-the-art enhancements. This will require additional funding for

  13. Evaluating humidity recovery efficiency of currently available heat and moisture exchangers: a respiratory system model study. (United States)

    Lucato, Jeanette Janaina Jaber; Adams, Alexander Bernard; Souza, Rogério; Torquato, Jamili Anbar; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Marini, John J


    To evaluate and compare the efficiency of humidification in available heat and moisture exchanger models under conditions of varying tidal volume, respiratory rate, and flow rate. Inspired gases are routinely preconditioned by heat and moisture exchangers to provide a heat and water content similar to that provided normally by the nose and upper airways. The absolute humidity of air retrieved from and returned to the ventilated patient is an important measurable outcome of the heat and moisture exchangers' humidifying performance. Eight different heat and moisture exchangers were studied using a respiratory system analog. The system included a heated chamber (acrylic glass, maintained at 37 degrees C), a preserved swine lung, a hygrometer, circuitry and a ventilator. Humidity and temperature levels were measured using eight distinct interposed heat and moisture exchangers given different tidal volumes, respiratory frequencies and flow-rate conditions. Recovery of absolute humidity (%RAH) was calculated for each setting. Increasing tidal volumes led to a reduction in %RAH for all heat and moisture exchangers while no significant effect was demonstrated in the context of varying respiratory rate or inspiratory flow. Our data indicate that heat and moisture exchangers are more efficient when used with low tidal volume ventilation. The roles of flow and respiratory rate were of lesser importance, suggesting that their adjustment has a less significant effect on the performance of heat and moisture exchangers.

  14. Recuperator with microjet technology as a proposal for heat recovery from low-temperature sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajs Jan


    Full Text Available A tendency to increase the importance of so-called dispersed generation, based on the local energy sources and the working systems utilizing both the fossil fuels and the renewable energy resources is observed nowadays. Generation of electricity on industrial or domestic scale together with production of heat can be obtained for example through employment of the ORC systems. It is mentioned in the EU directive 2012/27/EU for cogenerative production of heat and electricity. For such systems the crucial points are connected with the heat exchangers, which should be small in size but be able to transfer high heat fluxes. In presented paper the prototype microjet heat exchanger dedicated for heat recovery systems is introduced. Its novel construction is described together with the systematical experimental analysis of heat transfer and flow characteristics. Reported results showed high values of the overall heat transfer coefficient and slight increase in the pressure drop. The results of microjet heat exchanger were compared with the results of commercially available compact plate heat exchanger.

  15. Performance investigation of advanced adsorption desalination cycle with condenser-evaporator heat recovery scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw


    Energy or heat recovery schemes are keys for the performance improvement of any heat-activated cycles such as the absorption and adsorption cycles. We present two innovative heat recovery schemes between the condensing and evaporating units of an adsorption desalination (AD) cycle. By recovering the latent heat of condenser and dumping it into the evaporative process of the evaporator, it elevates the evaporating temperature and hence the adsorption pressure seen by the adsorbent. From isotherms, this has an effect of increasing the vapour uptake. In the proposed configurations, one approach is simply to have a run-about water circuit between the condenser and the evaporator and a pump is used to achieve the water circulation. This run-around circuit is a practical method for retrofitting purposes. The second method is targeted towards a new AD cycle where an encapsulated condenser-evaporator unit is employed. The heat transfer between the condensing and evaporative vapour is almost immediate and the processes occur in a fully integrated vessel, thereby minimizing the heat transfer resistances of heat exchangers. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  16. Biogas Engine Waste Heat Recovery Using Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Benato


    Full Text Available Italy is a leading country in the biogas sector. Energy crops and manure are converted into biogas using anaerobic digestion and, then, into electricity using internal combustion engines (ICEs. Therefore, there is an urgent need for improving the efficiency of these engines taking the real operation into account. To this purpose, in the present work, the organic Rankine cycle (ORC technology is used to recover the waste heat contained in the exhaust gases of a 1 MWel biogas engine. The ICE behavior being affected by the biogas characteristics, the ORC unit is designed, firstly, using the ICE nameplate data and, then, with data measured during a one-year monitoring activity. The optimum fluid and the plant configuration are selected in both cases using an “in-house” optimization tool. The optimization goal is the maximization of the net electric power while the working fluid is selected among 115 pure fluids and their mixtures. Results show that a recuperative ORC designed using real data guarantees a 30% higher net electric power than the one designed with ICE nameplate conditions.

  17. Modeling and Control of a Parallel Waste Heat Recovery System for Euro-VI Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Jager, B. de; Steinbuch, M.


    This paper presents the modeling and control of a waste heat recovery system for a Euro-VI heavy-duty truck engine. The considered waste heat recovery system consists of two parallel evaporators with expander and pumps mechanically coupled to the engine crankshaft. Compared to previous work, the

  18. Enhanced heat discrimination in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, Hocine; Ptito, Maurice; Kupers, Ron


    There is substantial evidence that congenitally blind individuals perform better than normally sighted controls in a variety of auditory, tactile and olfactory discrimination tasks. However, little is known about the capacity of blind individuals to make fine discriminatory judgments in the thermal...... domain. We therefore compared the capacity to detect small temperature increases in innocuous heat in a group of 12 congenitally blind and 12 age and sex-matched normally sighted participants. In addition, we also tested for group differences in the effects of spatial summation on temperature...... trials (ΔT = 0°C) were also included to test for false positive responses. We used signal detection theory model to analyze the data. Our data revealed that blind participants have a higher accuracy than the sighted (d': Blind=2.4 ± 1.0, Sighted=1.8 ± 0.7, p=0.025), regardless of the size...

  19. Amphetamine enhances endurance by increasing heat dissipation. (United States)

    Morozova, Ekaterina; Yoo, Yeonjoo; Behrouzvaziri, Abolhassan; Zaretskaia, Maria; Rusyniak, Daniel; Zaretsky, Dmitry; Molkov, Yaroslav


    Athletes use amphetamines to improve their performance through largely unknown mechanisms. Considering that body temperature is one of the major determinants of exhaustion during exercise, we investigated the influence of amphetamine on the thermoregulation. To explore this, we measured core body temperature and oxygen consumption of control and amphetamine-trea ted rats running on a treadmill with an incrementally increasing load (both speed and incline). Experimental results showed that rats treated with amphetamine (2 mg/kg) were able to run significantly longer than control rats. Due to a progressively increasing workload, which was matched by oxygen consumption, the control group exhibited a steady increase in the body temperature. The administration of amphetamine slowed down the temperature rise (thus decreasing core body temperature) in the beginning of the run without affecting oxygen consumption. In contrast, a lower dose of amphetamine (1 mg/kg) had no effect on measured parameters. Using a mathematical model describing temperature dynamics in two compartments (the core and the muscles), we were able to infer what physiological parameters were affected by amphetamine. Modeling revealed that amphetamine administration increases heat dissipation in the core. Furthermore, the model predicted that the muscle temperature at the end of the run in the amphetamine-treated group was significantly higher than in the control group. Therefore, we conclude that amphetamine may mask or delay fatigue by slowing down exercise-induced core body temperature growth by increasing heat dissipation. However, this affects the integrity of thermoregulatory system and may result in potentially dangerous overheating of the muscles. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  20. The usage of waste heat recovery units with improved heat engineering rates: theory and experimental research (United States)

    Chebotarev, Victor; Koroleva, Alla; Pirozhnikova, Anastasia


    Use of recuperator in heat producing plants for utilization of natural gas combustion products allows to achieve the saving of gas fuel and also provides for environmental sanitation. Decrease of the volumes of natural gas combustion due to utilization of heat provides not only for reduction of harmful agents in the combustion products discharged into the atmosphere, but also creates conditions for increase of energy saving in heating processes of heat producing plants due to air overheating in the recuperator. Grapho-analytical method of determination of energy saving and reduction of discharges of combustion products into the atmosphere is represented in the article. Multifunctional diagram is developed, allowing to determine simultaneously savings from reduction of volumes of natural gas combusted and from reduction of amounts of harmful agents in the combustion products discharged into the atmosphere. Calculation of natural gas economy for heat producing plant taking into consideration certain capacity is carried out.

  1. Metabolomic profiling of heat stress: hardening and recovery of homeostasis in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmendal, Anders; Overgaard, Johannes; Bundy, Jacob G.


    on selective studies of specific compounds or characteristics or studies at the genomic or proteomic levels. In the present study, we have used untargeted NMR metabolomic profiling to examine the biological response to heat stress in Drosophila melanogaster. The metabolite profile was analyzed during recovery......Frequent exposure of terrestrial insects to temperature variation has led to the evolution of protective biochemical and physiological mechanisms, such as the heat shock response, which markedly increases the tolerance to heat stress. Insight into such mechanisms has, so far, mainly relied...... after exposure to different thermal stress treatments and compared with untreated controls. Both moderate and severe heat stress gave clear effects on the metabolite profiles. The profiles clearly demonstrated that hardening by moderate heat stress led to a faster reestablishment of metabolite...

  2. Recovery of Exhaust Waste Heat for ICE Using the Beta Type Stirling Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wail Aladayleh


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the potential of utilizing the exhaust waste heat using an integrated mechanical device with internal combustion engine for the automobiles to increase the fuel economy, the useful power, and the environment safety. One of the ways of utilizing waste heat is to use a Stirling engine. A Stirling engine requires only an external heat source as wasted heat for its operation. Because the exhaust gas temperature may reach 200 to 700°C, Stirling engine will work effectively. The indication work, real shaft power and specific fuel consumption for Stirling engine, and the exhaust power losses for IC engine are calculated. The study shows the availability and possibility of recovery of the waste heat from internal combustion engine using Stirling engine.

  3. Study on waste heat recovery from exhaust gas spark ignition (S.I. engine using steam turbine mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talib Kamarulhelmy


    Full Text Available The issue of global warming has pushed the effort of researchers not only to find alternative renewable energy, but also to improve the machine’s energy efficiency. This includes the utilization of waste energy into ‘useful energy’. For a vehicle using internal combustion engine (ICE, the waste energy produce by exhaust gas can be utilize to ‘useful energy’ up to 34%. The energy from the automotive exhaust can be harness by implementing heat pipe heat exchanger in the automotive system. In order to maximize the amount of waste energy that can be turned to ‘useful energy’, the used of appropriate fluid in the heat exchanger is important. In this study, the fluid used is water, thus converting the fluid into steam and thus drive the turbine that coupling with generator. The paper will explore the performance of a naturally aspirated spark ignition (S.I. engine equipped with waste heat recovery mechanism (WHRM that used water as the heat absorption medium. The experimental and simulation test suggest that the concept is thermodynamically feasible and could significantly enhance the system performance depending on the load applied to the engine.

  4. Numerical Simulation of Heat Transfer in Finned Tube of Heat Recovery Unit Using Fluid-Solid Coupled Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wei


    Full Text Available Heat recovery unit (HRU is a heat exchange device in drying process. In HRU, room air is preheated by waste hot air and then transported to drying oven to remove moisture, which helps to save both energy and time. The main purpose of this paper is to build a heat transfer model of HRU and study its characteristics. A numerical method based on fluid-solid coupling was used to calculate the heat transfer between tube and fluids, and the actual structure was simplified to improve computation efficiency. The results were validated by theoretical calculation and experiments. Effects of Reynolds number (Re on outlet temperature, Nusselt number, and pressure drop were investigated. It was found that the thermal resistance of shell side is large, by reducing which the total heat transfer coefficient can be improved. The difference between finned tube and smooth tube is in the shell side. Larger Re of shell side leads to good heat transfer performance but also larger pressure drop which increases the flow resistance.

  5. Free shear layer and swirl flow heat transfer enhancement (United States)

    Wirtz, R. A.; Greiner, M.; Snyder, B.


    Two wall shape induced convective heat transfer enhancement mechanisms for channel flows are investigated. The first uses transverse grooves in a channel wall to produce unstable free shear layers which cause traveling waves to be superimposed on the mean flow, thus augmenting heat transfer. The second uses streamline curvature to produce a swirling secondary flow. In this case, a serpentine channel is investigated. Flow visualization and heat transfer/pressure drop measurements with both air and water show that the expected augmentation mechanisms are operable in both the grooved and serpentine channel configurations at flow rates normally encountered in compact heat exchanger applications. When compared to other enhanced surfaces (such as offset strip fins or corrugated plate fins) on an equal pumping power basis, both the grooved and serpentine configurations of the present study produce performance curves which are comparable to, and in some cases superior to other conventional techniques.

  6. Heat transfer enhancement in two-start spirally corrugated tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid S. Kareem


    Full Text Available Various techniques have been tested on heat transfer enhancement to upgrade the involving equipment, mainly in thermal transport devices. These techniques unveiled significant effects when utilized in heat exchangers. One of the most essential techniques used is the passive heat transfer technique. Corrugations represent a passive technique. In addition, it provides effective heat transfer enhancement because it combined the features of extended surfaces, turbulators and artificial roughness. Therefore, A Computational Fluid Dynamics was employed for water flowing at low Reynolds number in spiral corrugated tubes. This article aimed for the determination of the thermal performance of unique smooth corrugation profile. The Performance Evaluation Criteria were calculated for corrugated tubes, and the simulation results of both Nusselt number and friction factor were compared with those of standard plain and corrugated tubes for validation purposes. Results showed the best thermal performance range of 1.8–2.3 for the tube which has the severity of 45.455 × 10−3 for Reynolds number range of 100–700. The heat transfer enhancement range was 21.684%–60.5402% with friction factor increase of 19.2–36.4%. This indicated that this creative corrugation can improve the heat transfer significantly with appreciably increasing friction factor.

  7. Heat transfer enhancement of a single row of tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutsui Takayuki


    Full Text Available A rod was positioned upstream of a circular cylinder to enhance its heat transfer and reduce its drag in air stream. The results are increasing the overall heat transfer by 40% over and reducing the drag by 30% the value for a single circular cylinder. In the present, this technique applied to a single row of tubes. Heat transfer enhancement and drag reduction are important factor for multi-tube heat exchanger. The present study investigated the heat transfer and surface pressure characteristics of each tube for single row of tubes under various numbers of tubes, pitch and Reynolds number. The tube diameter, D, was 20 mm, and the rod diameter was 5 mm. The distance between the center axes of the rod and the tube was 30mm. The Reynolds number based on D ranged from 5.3×103 to 2.1×104. The result is that this technique is effective for heat transfer enhancement and drag reduction of row of tube.

  8. SolarOil Project, Phase I preliminary design report. [Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccaglini, G.; Bass, J.; Neill, J.; Nicolayeff, V.; Openshaw, F.


    The preliminary design of the Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery (SolarOil) Plant is described in this document. This plant is designed to demonstrate that using solar thermal energy is technically feasible and economically viable in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The SolarOil Plant uses the fixed mirror solar concentrator (FMSC) to heat high thermal capacity oil (MCS-2046) to 322/sup 0/C (611/sup 0/F). The hot fluid is pumped from a hot oil storage tank (20 min capacity) through a once-through steam generator which produces 4.8 MPa (700 psi) steam at 80% quality. The plant net output, averaged over 24 hr/day for 365 days/yr, is equivalent to that of a 2.4 MW (8.33 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr) oil-fired steam generator having an 86% availability. The net plant efficiency is 57.3% at equinox noon, a 30%/yr average. The plant will be demonstrated at an oilfield site near Oildale, California.

  9. Enhanced boiling heat transfer in horizontal test bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trewin, R.R.; Jensen, M.K.; Bergles, A.E.


    Two-phase flow boiling from bundles of horizontal tubes with smooth and enhanced surfaces has been investigated. Experiments were conducted in pure refrigerant R-113, pure R-11, and mixtures of R-11 and R-113 of approximately 25, 50, and 75% of R-113 by mass. Tests were conducted in two staggered tube bundles consisting of fifteen rows and five columns laid out in equilateral triangular arrays with pitch-to-diameter ratios of 1.17 and 1.5. The enhanced surfaces tested included a knurled surface (Wolverine`s Turbo-B) and a porous surface (Linde`s High Flux). Pool boiling tests were conducted for each surface so that reference values of the heat transfer coefficient could be obtained. Boiling heat transfer experiments in the tube bundles were conducted at pressures of 2 and 6 bar, heat flux values from 5 to 80 kW/m{sup 2}s, and qualities from 0% to 80%, Values of the heat transfer coefficients for the enhanced surfaces were significantly larger than for the smooth tubes and were comparable to the values obtained in pool boiling. It was found that the performance of the enhanced tubes could be predicted using the pool boiling results. The degradation in the smooth tube heat transfer coefficients obtained in fluid mixtures was found to depend on the difference between the molar concentration in the liquid and vapor.

  10. Is Enhanced Recovery the New Standard of Care in Microsurgical Breast Reconstruction? (United States)

    Afonso, Anoushka; Oskar, Sabine; Tan, Kay See; Disa, Joseph J; Mehrara, Babak J; Ceyhan, Jihan; Dayan, Joseph H


    At present, there are limited data available regarding the use and feasibility of enhanced recovery pathways for patients undergoing microsurgical breast reconstruction. The authors sought to assess patient outcomes before and after the introduction of an enhanced recovery pathway that was adopted at a single cancer center. A multidisciplinary enhanced recovery pathway was developed for patients undergoing deep inferior epigastric perforator or free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap breast reconstruction. Core elements of the enhanced recovery pathway included substituting intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with ketorolac and transversus abdominis plane blocks using liposomal bupivacaine, as well as intraoperative goal-directed fluid management. Patients who underwent surgery between April and August of 2015 using the enhanced recovery pathway were compared with a historical control cohort. The primary endpoints were hospital length of stay and total postoperative opioid consumption. In total, 91 consecutive patients were analyzed (enhanced recovery pathway, n = 42; pre-enhanced recovery pathway, n = 49). Mean hospital length of stay was significantly shorter in the enhanced recovery pathway group than in the pre-enhanced recovery pathway group (4.0 days versus 5.0 days; p < 0.0001). Total postoperative morphine equivalent consumption was also lower in the enhanced recovery pathway group (46.0 mg versus 70.5 mg; p = 0.003). There was no difference in the incidence of 30-day complications between the groups (p = 0.6). The adoption of an enhanced recovery pathway for deep inferior epigastric perforator and transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap reconstruction by multiple surgeons significantly decreased opioid consumption and reduced length of stay by 1 day. Therapeutic, III.

  11. Using CO2 Prophet to estimate recovery factors for carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (United States)

    Attanasi, Emil D.


    IntroductionThe Oil and Gas Journal’s enhanced oil recovery (EOR) survey for 2014 (Koottungal, 2014) showed that gas injection is the most frequently applied method of EOR in the United States and that carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is the most commonly used injection fluid for miscible operations. The CO2-EOR process typically follows primary and secondary (waterflood) phases of oil reservoir development. The common objective of implementing a CO2-EOR program is to produce oil that remains after the economic limit of waterflood recovery is reached. Under conditions of miscibility or multicontact miscibility, the injected CO2 partitions between the gas and liquid CO2 phases, swells the oil, and reduces the viscosity of the residual oil so that the lighter fractions of the oil vaporize and mix with the CO2 gas phase (Teletzke and others, 2005). Miscibility occurs when the reservoir pressure is at least at the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP). The MMP depends, in turn, on oil composition, impurities of the CO2 injection stream, and reservoir temperature. At pressures below the MMP, component partitioning, oil swelling, and viscosity reduction occur, but the efficiency is increasingly reduced as the pressure falls farther below the MMP. CO2-EOR processes are applied at the reservoir level, where a reservoir is defined as an underground formation containing an individual and separate pool of producible hydrocarbons that is confined by impermeable rock or water barriers and is characterized by a single natural pressure system. A field may consist of a single reservoir or multiple reservoirs that are not in communication but which may be associated with or related to a single structural or stratigraphic feature (U.S. Energy Information Administration [EIA], 2000). The purpose of modeling the CO2-EOR process is discussed along with the potential CO2-EOR predictive models. The data demands of models and the scope of the assessments require tradeoffs between reservoir

  12. Enhanced heat transfer characteristics of conjugated air jet impingement on a finned heat sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Shuxia


    Full Text Available Air jet impingement is one of the effective cooling techniques employed in micro-electronic industry. To enhance the heat transfer performance, a cooling system with air jet impingement on a finned heat sink is evaluated via the computational fluid dynamics method. A two-dimensional confined slot air impinging on a finned flat plate is modeled. The numerical model is validated by comparison of the computed Nusselt number distribution on the impingement target with published experimental results. The flow characteristics and heat transfer performance of jet impingement on both of smooth and finned heat sinks are compared. It is observed that jet impingement over finned target plate improves the cooling performance significantly. A dimensionless heat transfer enhancement factor is introduced to quantify the effect of jet flow Reynolds number on the finned surface. The effect of rectangular fin dimensions on impingement heat transfer rate is discussed in order to optimize the cooling system. Also, the computed flow and thermal fields of the air impingement system are examined to explore the physical mechanisms for heat transfer enhancement.

  13. The study of the mobile compressor unit heat losses recovery system waste heat exchanger thermal insulation types influence on the operational efficiency (United States)

    Yusha, V. L.; Chernov, G. I.; Kalashnikov, A. M.


    The paper examines the mobile compressor unit (MCU) heat losses recovery system waste heat exchanger prototype external thermal insulation types influence on the operational efficiency. The study is conducted by means of the numerical method through the modellingof the heat exchange processes carried out in the waste heat exchanger in ANSUS. Thermaflex, mineral wool, penofol, water and air were applied as the heat exchanger external insulation. The study results showed the waste heat exchanger external thermal insulationexistence or absence to have a significant impact on the heat exchanger operational efficiency.

  14. Heat Transfer Enhancement for Finned-tube Heat Exchangers with Winglets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, James Edward; Sohal, Manohar Singh


    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of forced convection heat transfer in a narrow rectangular duct fitted with a circular tube and/or a delta-winglet pair. The duct was designed to simulate a single passage in a fin-tube heat exchanger. Heat transfer measurements were obtained using a transient technique in which a heated airflow is suddenly introduced to the test section. High-resolution local fin-surface temperature distributions were obtained at several times after initiation of the transient using an imaging infrared camera. Corresponding local fin-surface heat transfer coefficient distributions were then calculated from a locally applied one-dimensional semi-infinite inverse heat conduction model. Heat transfer results were obtained over an airflow rate ranging from 1.51 x 10-3 to 14.0 x 10-3 kg/s. These flow rates correspond to a duct-height Reynolds number range of 670 – 6300 with a duct height of 1.106 cm and a duct width-toheight ratio, W/H, of 11.25. The test cylinder was sized such that the diameter-to-duct height ratio, D/H is 5. Results presented in this paper reveal visual and quantitative details of local fin-surface heat transfer distributions in the vicinity of a circular tube, a delta-winglet pair, and a combination of a circular tube and a delta-winglet pair. Comparisons of local and average heat transfer distributions for the circular tube with and without winglets are provided. Overall mean finsurface Nusselt-number results indicate a significant level of heat transfer enhancement associated with the deployment of the winglets with the circular cylinder. At the lowest Reynolds numbers (which correspond to the laminar operating conditions of existing geothermal air-cooled condensers), the enhancement level is nearly a factor of two. At higher Reynolds numbers, the enhancement level is close to 50%.

  15. Evaluation of Waste Heat Recovery and Utilization from Residential Appliances and Fixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomlinson, John J [ORNL; Christian, Jeff [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL


    Executive Summary In every home irrespective of its size, location, age, or efficiency, heat in the form of drainwater or dryer exhaust is wasted. Although from a waste stream, this energy has the potential for being captured, possibly stored, and then reused for preheating hot water or air thereby saving operating costs to the homeowner. In applications such as a shower and possibly a dryer, waste heat is produced at the same time as energy is used, so that a heat exchanger to capture the waste energy and return it to the supply is all that is needed. In other applications such as capturing the energy in drainwater from a tub, dishwasher, or washing machine, the availability of waste heat might not coincide with an immediate use for energy, and consequently a heat exchanger system with heat storage capacity (i.e. a regenerator) would be necessary. This study describes a two-house experimental evaluation of a system designed to capture waste heat from the shower, dishwasher clothes washer and dryer, and to use this waste heat to offset some of the hot water energy needs of the house. Although each house was unoccupied, they were fitted with equipment that would completely simulate the heat loads and behavior of human occupants including operating the appliances and fixtures on a demand schedule identical to Building American protocol (Hendron, 2009). The heat recovery system combined (1) a gravity-film heat exchanger (GFX) installed in a vertical section of drainline, (2) a heat exchanger for capturing dryer exhaust heat, (3) a preheat tank for storing the captured heat, and (4) a small recirculation pump and controls, so that the system could be operated anytime that waste heat from the shower, dishwasher, clothes washer and dryer, and in any combination was produced. The study found capturing energy from the dishwasher and clothes washer to be a challenge since those two appliances dump waste water over a short time interval. Controls based on the status of the

  16. Performance investigation of a cogeneration plant with the efficient and compact heat recovery system

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Aung


    This paper presents the performance investigation of a cogeneration plant equipped with an efficient waste heat recovery system. The proposed cogeneration system produces four types of useful energy namely: (i) electricity, (ii) steam, (iii) cooling and (iv) dehumidification. The proposed plant comprises a Capstone C30 micro-turbine which generates 24 kW of electricity, a compact and efficient waste heat recovery system and a host of waste heat activated devices namely (i) a steam generator, (ii) an absorption chiller, (iii) an adsorption chiller and (iv) a multi-bed desiccant dehumidifier. The numerical analysis for the host of waste heat recovery system and thermally activated devices using FORTRAN power station linked to powerful IMSL library is performed to investigate the performance of the overall system. A set of experiments, both part load and full load, of micro-turbine is conducted to examine the electricity generation and the exhaust gas temperature. It is observed that energy utilization factor (EUF) could achieve as high as 70% while Fuel Energy Saving Ratio (FESR) is found to be 28%.

  17. Wind- and stack-assisted mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and night cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend

    teaching rooms with fresh air. The mean specific fan power (SFP, in Danish: SEL-værdi) is measured to be approx. 240 J=m3. The SFP of the entire system including fans, pump and controls is measured to be approx. 600-700 J=m3. The total heat recovery efficiency of the system was measured to be 63%. Night...... presented the outline of a heat recovery concept suitable for stack and wind-assisted mechanical ventilation systems with total system pressure losses of 74Pa. The heat recovery concept is based on two air-to-water exchangers connected by a liquid loop powered by a pump. The core element of the concept......, a prototype of a heat exchanger, was developed based on design criteria about pressure drop, eciency and production concerns. The exchanger is based on banks of plastic tubing cris-crossing the air flow, thus creating approximate counter flow between air and water. Round PE plastic tubing is used. The tubing...

  18. Waste Heat Recovery of a PEMFC System by Using Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianqi He


    Full Text Available In this study, two systems are brought forward to recover the waste heat of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC, which are named the organic Rankine cycle (ORC, and heat pump (HP combined organic Rankine cycle (HPORC. The performances of both systems are simulated on the platform of MATLAB with R123, R245fa, R134a, water, and ethanol being selected as the working fluid, respectively. The results show that, for PEMFC where operating temperature is constantly kept at 60 °C, there exists an optimum working temperature for each fluid in ORC and HPORC. In ORC, the maximal net power can be achieved with R245fa being selected as the working fluid. The corresponding thermal efficiency of the recovery system is 4.03%. In HPORC, the maximal net power can be achieved with water being selected in HP and R123 in ORC. The thermal efficiency of the recovery system increases to 4.73%. Moreover, the possibility of using ORC as the cooling system of PEMFC is also studied. The heat released from PEMFC stack is assumed to be wholly recovered by the ORC or HPORC system. The results indicate that the HPORC system is much more feasible for the cooling system of a PEMFC stack, since the heat recovery ability can be promoted due to the presence of HP.

  19. Calculation of Efficiencies of a Ship Power Plant Operating with Waste Heat Recovery through Combined Heat and Power Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Grljušić


    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the possibility of a combined heat & power (CHP plant, using the waste heat from a Suezmax-size oil tanker’s main engine, to meet all heating and electricity requirements during navigation. After considering various configurations, a standard propulsion engine operating at maximum efficiency, combined with a supercritical Organic Rankine cycle (ORC system, was selected to supply the auxiliary power, using R245fa or R123 as the working fluid. The system analysis showed that such a plant can meet all heat and electrical power requirements at full load, with the need to burn only a small amount of supplementary fuel in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG when the main engine operates at part load. Therefore, it is possible to increase the overall thermal efficiency of the ship’s power plant by more than 5% when the main engine operates at 65% or more of its specified maximum continuous rating (SMCR.

  20. Waste Heat Recovery from the Advanced Test Reactor Secondary Coolant Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donna Post Guillen


    This study investigated the feasibility of using a waste heat recovery system (WHRS) to recover heat from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) secondary coolant system (SCS). This heat would be used to preheat air for space heating of the reactor building, thus reducing energy consumption, carbon footprint, and energy costs. Currently, the waste heat from the reactor is rejected to the atmosphere via a four-cell, induced-draft cooling tower. Potential energy and cost savings are 929 kW and $285K/yr. The WHRS would extract a tertiary coolant stream from the SCS loop and pump it to a new plate and frame heat exchanger, from which the heat would be transferred to a glycol loop for preheating outdoor air supplied to the heating and ventilation system. The use of glycol was proposed to avoid the freezing issues that plagued and ultimately caused the failure of a WHRS installed at the ATR in the 1980s. This study assessed the potential installation of a new WHRS for technical, logistical, and economic feasibility.

  1. A new mobilized energy storage system for waste heat recovery: Case study in Aerla, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weilong Wang; Jinyue Yan; Dahlquist, Erik (Maelardalen Univ., Vaesteraas (Sweden)). E-mail:; Jenny Nystroem (Eskilstuna Energi och Miljoe AB, Eskilstuna (Sweden))


    This paper introduces a new mobilized thermal energy storage (M-TES) for the recovery of industrial waste heat for distributed heat supply to the distributed users which have not been connected to the district heating network. In the M-TES system, phase-change materials (PCM) are used as the energy storage and carrier to transport the waste heat from the industrial site to the end users by a lorry. A technical feasibility and economic viability of M-TES has been conducted with the comparison of the district heating system as a reference. Thermal performance and cost impacts by different PCM materials have been analyzed compared, aiming at determining the optimum operation conditions. A case study is investigated by utilizing the waste heat from a combine heat and power (CHP) plant for the distributed users which are located at over 30 kilometers away from the plant. The results show that the M-TES may offer a competitive solution compared to building or extending the existing district heating network

  2. Thermoelectric Exhaust Heat Recovery with Heat Pipe-Based Thermal Control (United States)

    Brito, F. P.; Martins, Jorge; Hançer, Esra; Antunes, Nuno; Gonçalves, L. M.


    Heat pipe (HP)-based heat exchangers can be used for very low resistance heat transfer between a hot and a cold source. Their operating temperature depends solely on the boiling point of their working fluid, so it is possible to control the heat transfer temperature if the pressure of the HP can be adjusted. This is the case of the variable conductance HPs (VCHP). This solution makes VCHPs ideal for the passive control of thermoelectric generator (TEG) temperature levels. The present work assesses, both theoretically and experimentally, the merit of the aforementioned approach. A thermal and electrical model of a TEG with VCHP assist is proposed. Experimental results obtained with a proof of concept prototype attached to a small single-cylinder engine are presented and used to validate the model. It was found that the HP heat exchanger indeed enables the TEG to operate at a constant, optimal temperature in a passive and safe way, and with a minimal overall thermal resistance, under part load, it effectively reduces the active module area without deprecating the temperature level of the active modules.

  3. 40 CFR 144.22 - Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells. (United States)


    ... and hydrocarbon storage wells. 144.22 Section 144.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... of Underground Injection by Rule § 144.22 Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells. (a) An existing Class II enhanced recovery or hydrocarbon storage injection well is authorized by...

  4. Enhanced Recovery after Emergency Surgery: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Paduraru, Mihai; Ponchietti, Luca; Casas, Isidro Martinez; Svenningsen, Peter; Zago, Mauro


    Objective: To evaluate the current scientific evidence for the applicability, safety and effectiveness of pathways of enhanced recovery after emergency surgery (ERAS). Methods: We undertook a search using PubMed and Cochrane databases for ERAS protocols in emergency cases. The search generated 65 titles; after eliminating the papers not meeting search criteria, we selected 4 cohort studies and 1 randomized clinical trial (RCT). Data extracted for analysis consisted of: patient age, type of surgery performed, ERAS elements implemented, surgical outcomes in terms of postoperative complications, mortality, length of stay (LOS) and readmission rate. Results: The number of ERAS items applied was good, ranging from 11 to 18 of the 20 recommended by the ERAS Society. The implementation resulted in fewer postoperative complications. LOS for ES patients was shorter when compared to conventional care. Mortality, specifically reported in three studies, was equal or lower with ERAS. Readmission rates varied widely and were generally higher for the intervention group but without statistical significance. Conclusions: The studies reviewed agreed that ERAS in emergency surgery (ES) was feasible and safe with generally better outcomes. Lower compliance with some of the ERAS items shows the need for the protocol to be adapted to ES patients. More evidence is clearly required as to what can improve outcomes and how this can be formulated into an effective care pathway for the heterogeneous ES patient. PMID:28507993

  5. Enhancing recovery after minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum. (United States)

    Litz, Cristen N; Farach, Sandra M; Fernandez, Allison M; Elliott, Richard; Dolan, Jenny; Nelson, Will; Walford, Nebbie E; Snyder, Christopher; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Amankwah, Ernest K; Danielson, Paul D; Chandler, Nicole M


    There are variations in the perioperative management of patients who undergo minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum (MIRPE). The purpose is to analyze the change in resource utilization after implementation of a standardized practice plan and describe an enhanced recovery pathway. A standardized practice plan was implemented in 2013. A retrospective review of patients who underwent MIRPE from 2012 to 2015 was performed to evaluate the trends in resource utilization. A pain management protocol was implemented and a retrospective review was performed of patients who underwent repair before (2010-2012) and after (2014-2015) implementation. There were 71 patients included in the review of resource utilization. After implementation, there was a decrease in intensive care unit length of stay (LOS), and laboratory and radiologic studies ordered. There were 64 patients included in the pain protocol analysis. After implementation, postoperative morphine equivalents (3.3 ± 1.4 vs 1.2 ± 0.5 mg/kg, p pectus excavatum.

  6. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery for thermal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, T.B.; Bolivar, J.


    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Ninth Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 62 through 67. The first, second, third, fourth fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth reports on Annex IV, [Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, and IV-8 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP) (DOE/BC-92/1/SP, DOE/BC-93/3/SP, and DOE/BC-95/3/SP)] contain the results from the first 61 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, October 1991, February 1993, and March 1995 respectively.

  7. Implementation of an enhanced recovery protocol in pediatric colorectal surgery. (United States)

    Short, Heather L; Heiss, Kurt F; Burch, Katelyn; Travers, Curtis; Edney, John; Venable, Claudia; Raval, Mehul V


    Enhanced recovery protocols (ERPs) have been shown to improve outcomes in adult surgical populations. Our purpose was to compare outcomes before and after implementation of an ERP in children undergoing elective colorectal surgery. A pediatric-specific colorectal ERP was developed and implemented at a single center starting in January 2015. A retrospective review was performed including 43 patients in the pre-ERP period (2012-2014) and 36 patients in the post-ERP period (2015-2016). Outcomes of interest included number of ERP interventions received, length of stay (LOS), complications, and readmissions. The median number of ERP interventions received per patient increased from 5 to 11 from 2012 to 2016. The median LOS decreased from 5days to 3days in the post-ERP period (p=0.01). We observed a simultaneous decrease in median time to regular diet, mean dose of narcotics, and mean volume of intraoperative fluids (psurgery is feasible, safe and may lead to improved outcomes. Further experience may highlight other opportunities for increased compliance and improved care. Treatment Study. Level III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhanced Recovery after Emergency Surgery: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Paduraru, Mihai; Ponchietti, Luca; Casas, Isidro Martinez; Svenningsen, Peter; Zago, Mauro


    To evaluate the current scientific evidence for the applicability, safety and effectiveness of pathways of enhanced recovery after emergency surgery (ERAS). We undertook a search using PubMed and Cochrane databases for ERAS protocols in emergency cases. The search generated 65 titles; after eliminating the papers not meeting search criteria, we selected 4 cohort studies and 1 randomized clinical trial (RCT). Data extracted for analysis consisted of: patient age, type of surgery performed, ERAS elements implemented, surgical outcomes in terms of postoperative complications, mortality, length of stay (LOS) and readmission rate. The number of ERAS items applied was good, ranging from 11 to 18 of the 20 recommended by the ERAS Society. The implementation resulted in fewer postoperative complications. LOS for ES patients was shorter when compared to conventional care. Mortality, specifically reported in three studies, was equal or lower with ERAS. Readmission rates varied widely and were generally higher for the intervention group but without statistical significance. The studies reviewed agreed that ERAS in emergency surgery (ES) was feasible and safe with generally better outcomes. Lower compliance with some of the ERAS items shows the need for the protocol to be adapted to ES patients. More evidence is clearly required as to what can improve outcomes and how this can be formulated into an effective care pathway for the heterogeneous ES patient.

  9. Enhanced oil recovery & carbon sequestration building on successful experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, Fred [BEPC (United States)


    In this paper it is spoken of the experiences in the capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2} in the companies Basin Electric Power Cooperative (BEPC) and Dakota Gasification Company (DGC); their by-products are mentioned and what these companies are making to control the CO{sub 2} emissions. Their challenges to compress CO{sub 2} are presented and how they have reduced the CO{sub 2} emissions in the DGC of the 2000 to the 2008; how they use CO{sub 2} to enhance the oil recovery and which are their challenges in the CO{sub 2} transport. [Spanish] En esta ponencia se habla de las experiencias en la captura y secuestro de CO{sub 2} en las empresas Basin Electic Power Cooperative (BEPC) y Dakota Gasification Campany (DGC); se mencionan sus subproductos y que estan haciendo estas empresas para controlar las emisiones de CO{sub 2}. Se presentan sus retos para comprimir CO{sub 2} y como han reducido las emisiones de CO{sub 2} en la DGC del 2000 al 2008; como utilizan el CO{sub 2} para mejorar la recuperacion de petroleo y sus cuales son retos en el transporte de CO{sub 2}.

  10. Responsive copolymers for enhanced petroleum recovery. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, C.; Hester, R.


    A coordinated research program involving synthesis, characterization, and rheology has been undertaken to develop advanced polymer system which should be significantly more efficient than polymers presently used for mobility control and conformance. Unlike the relatively inefficient, traditional EOR polymers, these advanced polymer systems possess microstructural features responsive to temperature, electrolyte concentration, and shear conditions. Contents of this report include the following chapters. (1) First annual report responsive copolymers for enhanced oil recovery. (2) Copolymers of acrylamide and sodium 3-acrylamido-3-methylbutanoate. (3) Terpolymers of NaAMB, Am, and n-decylacrylamide. (4) Synthesis and characterization of electrolyte responsive terpolymers of acrylamide, N-(4-butyl)phenylacrylamide, and sodium acrylate, sodium-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulphonate or sodium-3-acrylamido-3-methylbutanoate. (5) Synthesis and solution properties of associative acrylamido copolymers with pyrensulfonamide fluorescence labels. (6) Photophysical studies of the solution behavior of associative pyrenesulfonamide-labeled polyacrylamides. (7) Ampholytic copolymers of sodium 2-(acrylamido)-2-methylpropanesulfonate with [2-(acrylamido)-2-methypropyl]trimethylammonium chloride. (8) Ampholytic terpolymers of acrylamide with sodium 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulphoante and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanetrimethyl-ammonium chloride and (9) Polymer solution extensional behavior in porous media.

  11. Screening Criteria and Considerations of Offshore Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan-Sang Kang


    Full Text Available The application of enhanced oil recovery (EOR in offshore oil fields has received significant attention due to the potentially enormous amount of recoverable oil. However, EOR application offshore is in its very early stage due to conditions that are more complex than onshore oil fields, owing to the unique parameters present offshore. Therefore, successful EOR applications in offshore oil fields require different screening criteria than those for conventional onshore applications. A comprehensive database for onshore applications of EOR processes together with a limited offshore EOR application database are analyzed in this paper, and the important parameters for successful offshore application are incorporated into the new EOR screening criteria. In this paper, screening criteria to determine acceptable EOR processes for offshore fields, including hydrocarbon gas miscible, CO2 miscible, and polymer processes, are presented. Suggested screening criteria for these EOR processes comprise quantitative boundaries and qualitative considerations. Quantitative screening criteria are predominantly based on quantifiable data, such as oil and reservoir properties. Qualitative screening considerations mainly focus on the operational issues present offshore, including platform space constraints, limited disposal options, injectant availability, and flow assurance matters (including hydrate formation and difficulties in emulsion separation.

  12. Biodiesel production process from microalgae oil by waste heat recovery and process integration. (United States)

    Song, Chunfeng; Chen, Guanyi; Ji, Na; Liu, Qingling; Kansha, Yasuki; Tsutsumi, Atsushi


    In this work, the optimization of microalgae oil (MO) based biodiesel production process is carried out by waste heat recovery and process integration. The exergy analysis of each heat exchanger presented an efficient heat coupling between hot and cold streams, thus minimizing the total exergy destruction. Simulation results showed that the unit production cost of optimized process is 0.592$/L biodiesel, and approximately 0.172$/L biodiesel can be avoided by heat integration. Although the capital cost of the optimized biodiesel production process increased 32.5% and 23.5% compared to the reference cases, the operational cost can be reduced by approximately 22.5% and 41.6%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Preliminary market assessment of fluidized-bed waste-heat recovery technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, F.T.; Fey, C.L.; Grogan, P.J.; Klein, N.P.


    A preliminary assessment of fluidized-bed waste-heat recovery (FBWHR) system market potential is presented with emphasis on the factors influencing industrial acceptability. Preliminary market potential areas are identified based on the availability of waste heat. Trends in energy use are examined to see the effect they might have on these market potential areas in the future. Focus groups interviews are used to explore important factors in the industrial decision-making process. These important factors are explored quantitatively in a survey of industrial plant engineers. The survey deals with the waste-heat boiler configuration of the FBWHR system. Results indicate market acceptance of the fluidized-bed waste-heat boiler could be quite low.

  14. Recovery of exhaust waste heat for a hybrid car using steam turbine (United States)

    Ababatin, Yasser

    A number of car engines operate with an efficiency rate of approximately 22% to 25% [1]. The remainder of the energy these engines generate is wasted through heat escape out of the exhaust pipe. There is now an increasing desire to reuse this heat energy, which would improve the overall efficiency of car engines by reducing their consumption of fuel. Another benefit is that such reuse would minimize harmful greenhouse gases that are emitted into the environment. Therefore, the purpose of this project is to examine how the wasted heat energy can be reused and/or recovered by use of a heat recovery system that would store this energy in a hybrid car battery. Green turbines will be analyzed as a possible solution to recycle the lost energy in a way that will also improve the overall automotive energy efficiency.

  15. Application of waste heat powered absorption refrigeration system to the LNG recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinowski, Paul; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard [Center for Environmental Energy Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Al Hashimi, Saleh; Rodgers, Peter [The Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)


    The recovery process of the liquefied natural gas requires low temperature cooling, which is typically provided by the vapor compression refrigeration systems. The usage of an absorption refrigeration system powered by waste heat from the electric power generating gas turbine could provide the necessary cooling at reduced overall energy consumption. In this study, a potential replacement of propane chillers with absorption refrigeration systems was theoretically analyzed. From the analysis, it was found that recovering waste heat from a 9 megawatts (MW) electricity generation process could provide 5.2 MW waste heat produced additional cooling to the LNG plant and save 1.9 MW of electricity consumption. Application of the integrated cooling, heating, and power is an excellent energy saving option for the oil and gas industry. (author)

  16. Numerical study of finned type heat exchangers for ICEs exhaust waste heat recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hatami


    Full Text Available In this paper, two cases of heat exchangers (HEXs which previously were used in exhaust of internal combustion engines (ICEs are modeled numerically to recover the exhaust waste heat. It is tried to find the best viscous model to obtain the results with more accordance by experimental results. One of the HEXs is used in a compression ignition (CI engine with water as cold fluid and other is used in a spark ignition (SI engine with a mixture of 50% water and 50% ethylene glycol as cold fluid. As a main outcome, SST k–ω and RNG k–ε are suitable viscous models for these kinds of problems. Also, effect sizes and numbers of fins on recovered heat amount are investigated in various engine loads and speeds.

  17. Application of decline curve analysis to estimate recovery factors for carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (United States)

    Jahediesfanjani, Hossein


    IntroductionIn the decline curve analysis (DCA) method of estimating recoverable hydrocarbon volumes, the analyst uses historical production data from a well, lease, group of wells (or pattern), or reservoir and plots production rates against time or cumu­lative production for the analysis. The DCA of an individual well is founded on the same basis as the fluid-flow principles that are used for pressure-transient analysis of a single well in a reservoir domain and therefore can provide scientifically reasonable and accurate results. However, when used for a group of wells, a lease, or a reservoir, the DCA becomes more of an empirical method. Plots from the DCA reflect the reservoir response to the oil withdrawal (or production) under the prevailing operating and reservoir conditions, and they continue to be good tools for estimating recoverable hydrocarbon volumes and future production rates. For predicting the total recov­erable hydrocarbon volume, the DCA results can help the analyst to evaluate the reservoir performance under any of the three phases of reservoir productive life—primary, secondary (waterflood), or tertiary (enhanced oil recovery) phases—so long as the historical production data are sufficient to establish decline trends at the end of the three phases.

  18. Does electrical stimulation enhance post-exercise performance recovery? (United States)

    Babault, Nicolas; Cometti, Carole; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Deley, Gaëlle


    Elite sport requires high-volume and high-intensity training that inevitably induces neuromuscular fatigue detrimental for physical performance. Improving recovery processes is, therefore, fundamental and to this, a wide variety of recovery modalities could be proposed. Among them, neuromuscular electrical stimulation is largely adopted particularly by endurance-type and team sport athletes. This type of solicitation, when used with low stimulation frequencies, induces contractions of short duration and low intensity comparable to active recovery. This might be of interest to favour muscle blood flow and therefore metabolites washout to accelerate recovery kinetics during and after fatiguing exercises, training sessions or competition. However, although electrical stimulation is often used for recovery, limited evidence exists regarding its effects for an improvement of most physiological variables or reduced subjective rating of muscle soreness. Therefore, the main aim of this brief review is to present recent results from the literature to clarify the effectiveness of electrical stimulation as a recovery modality.

  19. Performance investigation on a 4-bed adsorption desalination cycle with internal heat recovery scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw


    Multi-bed adsorption cycle with the internal heat recovery between the condenser and the evaporator is investigated for desalination application. A numerical model is developed for a 4-bed adsorption cycle implemented with the master-and-slave configuration and the aforementioned internal heat recovery scheme. The present model captures the reversed adsorption/desorption phenomena frequently associated with the unmatched switching periods. Mesoporous silica gel and water vapor emanated from the evaporation of the seawater are employed as the adsorbent and adsorbate pair. The experimental data and investigation for such configurations are reported for the first time at heat source temperatures from 50 °C to 70 °C. The numerical model is validated rigorously and the parametric study is conducted for the performance of the cycle at assorted operation conditions such as hot and cooling water inlet temperatures and the cycle times. The specific daily water production (SDWP) of the present cycle is found to be about 10 m/day per tonne of silica gel for the heat source temperature at 70 °C. Performance comparison is conducted for various types of adsorption desalination cycles. It is observed that the AD cycle with the current configuration provides superior performance whilst is operational at unprecedentedly low heat source temperature as low as 50 °C.

  20. Fouling characteristics of compact heat exchangers and enhanced tubes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panchal, C. B.; Rabas, T. J.


    Fouling is a complex phenomenon that (1) encompasses formation and transportation of precursors, and (2) attachment and possible removal of foulants. A basic understanding of fouling mechanisms should guide the development of effective mitigation techniques. The literature on fouling in complex flow passages of compact heat exchangers is limited; however, significant progress has been made with enhanced tubes.

  1. Engineering Scoping Study of Thermoelectric Generator Systems for Industrial Waste Heat Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, Terry [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Choate, William T. [BCS, Inc., Laurel, MD (United States)


    This report evaluates thermoelectric generator (TEG) systems with the intent to: 1) examine industrial processes in order to identify and quantify industrial waste heat sources that could potentially use TEGs; 2) describe the operating environment that a TEG would encounter in selected industrial processes and quantify the anticipated TEG system performance; 3) identify cost, design and/or engineering performance requirements that will be needed for TEGs to operate in the selected industrial processes; and 4) identify the research, development and deployment needed to overcome the limitations that discourage the development and use of TEGs for recovery of industrial waste heat.

  2. Numerical Modeling of Fin and Tube Heat Exchanger for Waste Heat Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Shobhana; Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph

    In the present work, multiphysics numerical modeling is carried out to predict the performance of a liquid-gas fin and tube heat exchanger design. Three-dimensional (3D) steady-state numerical model using commercial software COMSOL based on finite element method (FEM) is developed. The study...

  3. Scalable graphene coatings for enhanced condensation heat transfer. (United States)

    Preston, Daniel J; Mafra, Daniela L; Miljkovic, Nenad; Kong, Jing; Wang, Evelyn N


    Water vapor condensation is commonly observed in nature and routinely used as an effective means of transferring heat with dropwise condensation on nonwetting surfaces exhibiting heat transfer improvement compared to filmwise condensation on wetting surfaces. However, state-of-the-art techniques to promote dropwise condensation rely on functional hydrophobic coatings that either have challenges with chemical stability or are so thick that any potential heat transfer improvement is negated due to the added thermal resistance of the coating. In this work, we show the effectiveness of ultrathin scalable chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene coatings to promote dropwise condensation while offering robust chemical stability and maintaining low thermal resistance. Heat transfer enhancements of 4× were demonstrated compared to filmwise condensation, and the robustness of these CVD coatings was superior to typical hydrophobic monolayer coatings. Our results indicate that graphene is a promising surface coating to promote dropwise condensation of water in industrial conditions with the potential for scalable application via CVD.

  4. Oscillating side-branch enhancements of thermoacoustic heat exchangers (United States)

    Swift, Gregory W.


    A regenerator-based engine or refrigerator has a regenerator with two ends at two different temperatures, through which a gas oscillates at a first oscillating volumetric flow rate in the direction between the two ends and in which the pressure of the gas oscillates, and first and second heat exchangers, each of which is at one of the two different temperatures. A dead-end side branch into which the gas oscillates has compliance and is connected adjacent to one of the ends of the regenerator to form a second oscillating gas flow rate additive with the first oscillating volumetric flow rate, the compliance having a volume effective to provide a selected total oscillating gas volumetric flow rate through the first heat exchanger. This configuration enables the first heat exchanger to be configured and located to better enhance the performance of the heat exchanger rather than being confined to the location and configuration of the regenerator.

  5. A numerical study of vorticity-enhanced heat transfer (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolin; Alben, Silas


    The Glezer lab at Georgia Tech has found that vorticity produced by vibrated reeds can improve heat transfer in electronic hardware. Vortices enhance forced convection by boundary layer separation and thermal mixing in the bulk flow. In this work, we simulate the heat transfer process in a 3-dimensional plate-fin heat sink. We propose a simplified model by considering flow and temperature in a 2-D channel, and extend the model to the third dimension using a 1-D heat fin model. We simulate periodically steady-state solutions. We determine how the global Nusselt number is increased, depending on the vortices' strengths and spacings, in the parameter space of Reynolds and Peclet numbers. We find a surprising spatial oscillation of the local Nusselt number due to the vortices. Support from NSF-DMS grant 1022619 is acknowledged.

  6. Heat and mass transfer through spiral tubes in absorber of absorption heat pump system for waste heat recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Itaya


    Full Text Available Heat and mass transfer of a LiBr/water absorption heat pump system (AHP was experimentally studied during working a heating-up mode. The examination was performed for a single spiral tube, which was simulated for heat transfer tubes in an absorber. The inside and outside of the tube were subjected to a film flow of the absorption liquid and exposed to the atmosphere, respectively. The maximum temperature of the absorption liquid was observed not at the entrance but in the region a little downward from the entrance in the tube. The steam absorption rate and/or heat generation rate in the liquid film are not constant along the tube. Hence the average convective heat transfer coefficient between the liquid film flowing down and the inside wall of the tube was determined based on a logarithmic mean temperature difference between the tube surface temperature and the film temperature at the maximum temperature location and the bottom. The film heat and mass transfer coefficients rose with increasing Reynolds number of the liquid film stream. The coefficients showed opposite trend to the empirical correlation reported for laminar film flow on a straight smooth tube in a refrigeration mode in the past work. The fact can be caused due to a turbulent promotion effect of the liquid in a spiral tube.

  7. Model of Heat Exchangers for Waste Heat Recovery from Diesel Engine Exhaust for Thermoelectric Power Generation (United States)

    Baker, Chad; Vuppuluri, Prem; Shi, Li; Hall, Matthew


    The performance and operating characteristics of a hypothetical thermoelectric generator system designed to extract waste heat from the exhaust of a medium-duty turbocharged diesel engine were modeled. The finite-difference model consisted of two integrated submodels: a heat exchanger model and a thermoelectric device model. The heat exchanger model specified a rectangular cross-sectional geometry with liquid coolant on the cold side, and accounted for the difference between the heat transfer rate from the exhaust and that to the coolant. With the spatial variation of the thermoelectric properties accounted for, the thermoelectric device model calculated the hot-side and cold-side heat flux for the temperature boundary conditions given for the thermoelectric elements, iterating until temperature and heat flux boundary conditions satisfied the convection conditions for both exhaust and coolant, and heat transfer in the thermoelectric device. A downhill simplex method was used to optimize the parameters that affected the electrical power output, including the thermoelectric leg height, thermoelectric n-type to p-type leg area ratio, thermoelectric leg area to void area ratio, load electrical resistance, exhaust duct height, coolant duct height, fin spacing in the exhaust duct, location in the engine exhaust system, and number of flow paths within the constrained package volume. The calculation results showed that the configuration with 32 straight fins was optimal across the 30-cm-wide duct for the case of a single duct with total height of 5.5 cm. In addition, three counterflow parallel ducts or flow paths were found to be an optimum number for the given size constraint of 5.5 cm total height, and parallel ducts with counterflow were a better configuration than serpentine flow. Based on the reported thermoelectric properties of MnSi1.75 and Mg2Si0.5Sn0.5, the maximum net electrical power achieved for the three parallel flow paths in a counterflow arrangement was 1

  8. The feasibility study on supercritical methane Recuperated Brayton Cycle for waste heat recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Dyuisenakhmetov, Aibolat


    Recuperated Brayton Cycle (RBC) has attracted the attention of research scientists not only as a possible replacement for the steam cycle at nuclear power plants but also as an efficient bottoming cycle for waste heat recovery and for concentrated solar power. RBC’s compactness and the ease at which it can be integrated into existent power plants for waste heat recovery require few modifications. Methane, carbon dioxide and trifluoromethane are analyzed as possible working fluids. This work shows that it is possible to achieve higher efficiencies using methane under some operating conditions. However, as it turns out, the performance of Recuperated Brayton Cycle should be evaluated based on net output work. When the performance is assessed on the net output work criteria carbon dioxide still proves to be superior to other gases. This work also suggests that piston engines as compressors and expanders may be used instead of rotating turbines since reciprocating pistons have higher isentropic efficiencies.

  9. Draft report: application of organic Rankine cycle heat recovery systems to diesel powered marine vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The analysis and results of an investigation of the application of organic Rankine cycle heat recovery systems to diesel-powered marine vessels are described. The program under which this study was conducted was sponsored jointly by the US Energy Research and Development Administration, the US Navy, and the US Maritime Administration. The overall objective of this study was to investigate diesel bottoming energy recovery systems, currently under development by three US concerns, to determine the potential for application to marine diesel propulsion and auxiliary systems. The study primarily focused on identifying the most promising vessel applications (considering vessel type, size, population density, operational duty cycle, etc.) so the relative economic and fuel conservation merits of energy recovery systems could be determined and assessed. Vessels in the current fleet and the projected 1985 fleet rated at 1000 BHP class and above were investigated.

  10. Thermodynamic evaluation of the Kalina split-cycle concepts for waste heat recovery applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Knudsen, Thomas; Larsen, Ulrik


    of varying boundary conditions by conducting an exergy analysis. The design parameters of each configuration were determined by performing a multi-variable optimisation. The results indicate that the Kalina split-cycle with reheat presents an exergetic efficiency by 2.8% points higher than a reference Kalina...... and condenser, and indicates a reduction of the exergy destruction by about 23% in the heat recovery system compared to the baseline cycle....

  11. Evaporators for mobile waste heat recovery systems; Verdampfer zur Abwaermenutzung im Fahrzeug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambros, Peter; Fezer, Axel; Necker, Harald [Thesys GmbH, Kirchentellinsfurt (Germany); Orso,Jochen [Thesys GmbH, Kirchentellinsfurt (Germany); Hochschule Reutlingen (Germany)


    Thesys develops evaporators for waste heat recovery systems for mobile and stationary applications. These evaporators utilize the enthalpy availability of hot exhaust gas both in the cooled exhaust gas recirculation duct as well as in the main exhaust gas for example in the muffler. At present there are three different designs for evaporators under development. Prototype measurements have already partially proved their function and performance. (orig.)

  12. Optimized Design of Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting Systems for Waste Heat Recovery from Exhaust Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Nesarajah


    Full Text Available With the increasing interest in energy efficiency and resource protection, waste heat recovery processes have gained importance. Thereby, one possibility is the conversion of the heat energy into electrical energy by thermoelectric generators. Here, a thermoelectric energy harvesting system is developed to convert the waste heat from exhaust pipes, which are very often used to transport the heat, e.g., in automobiles, in industrial facilities or in heating systems. That is why a mockup of a heating is built-up, and the developed energy harvesting system is attached. To build-up this system, a model-based development process is used. The setup of the developed energy harvesting system is very flexible to test different variants and an optimized system can be found in order to increase the energy yield for concrete application examples. A corresponding simulation model is also presented, based on previously developed libraries in Modelica®/Dymola®. In the end, it can be shown—with measurement and simulation results—that a thermoelectric energy harvesting system on the exhaust pipe of a heating system delivers extra energy and thus delivers a contribution for a more efficient usage of the inserted primary energy carrier.

  13. Expression of a Conserved Family of Cytoplasmic Low Molecular Weight Heat Shock Proteins during Heat Stress and Recovery. (United States)

    Derocher, A E; Helm, K W; Lauzon, L M; Vierling, E


    Plants synthesize several families of low molecular weight (LMW) heat shock proteins (HSPs) in response to elevated temperatures. We have characterized two cDNAs, HSP18.1 and HSP17.9, that encode members of the class I family of LMW HSPs from pea (Pisum sativum). In addition, we investigated the expression of these HSPs at the mRNA and protein levels during heat stress and recovery. HSP18.1 and HSP17.9 are 82.1% identical at the amino acid level and are 80.8 to 92.9% identical to class I LMW HSPs of other angiosperms. Heat stress experiments were performed using intact seedlings subjected to a gradual temperature increase and held at a maximum temperature of 30 to 42 degrees Celsius for 4 hours. HSP18.1 and HSP17.9 mRNA levels peaked at the beginning of the maximum temperature period and declined rapidly after the stress period. Antiserum against a HSP18.1 fusion protein recognized both HSP18.1 and HSP17.9 but not members of other families of LMW HSPs. The accumulation of HSP18.1-immunodetected protein was proportional to the severity of the heat stress, and the protein had a half-life of 37.7 +/- 8 hours. The long half-life of these proteins supports the hypothesis that they are involved in establishing thermotolerance.

  14. Effects of heat recovery for district heating on waste incineration health impact: a simulation study in Northern Italy. (United States)

    Cordioli, Michele; Vincenzi, Simone; De Leo, Giulio A


    The construction of waste incinerators in populated areas always causes substantial public concern. Since the heat from waste combustion can be recovered to power district heating networks and allows for the switch-off of domestic boilers in urbanized areas, predictive models for health assessment should also take into account the potential benefits of abating an important source of diffuse emission. In this work, we simulated the dispersion of atmospheric pollutants from a waste incinerator under construction in Parma (Italy) into different environmental compartments and estimated the potential health effect of both criteria- (PM(10)) and micro-pollutants (PCDD/F, PAH, Cd, Hg). We analyzed two emission scenarios, one considering only the new incinerator, and the other accounting for the potential decrease in pollutant concentrations due to the activation of a district heating network. We estimated the effect of uncertainty in parameter estimation on health risk through Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, we analyzed the robustness of health risk to alternative assumptions on: a) the geographical origins of the potentially contaminated food, and b) the dietary habits of the exposed population. Our analysis showed that under the specific set of assumptions and emission scenarios explored in the present work: (i) the proposed waste incinerator plant appears to cause negligible harm to the resident population; (ii) despite the net increase in PM(10) mass balance, ground-level concentration of fine particulate matter may be curbed by the activation of an extensive district heating system powered through waste combustion heat recovery and the concurrent switch-off of domestic/industrial heating boilers. In addition, our study showed that the health risk caused by waste incineration emissions is sensitive to assumptions about the typical diet of the resident population, and the geographical origins of food production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. New configurations of a heat recovery absorption heat pump integrated with a natural gas boiler for boiler efficiency improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Ming [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Yin, Hongxi [Southeast University, Nanjing, China


    Conventional natural gas-fired boilers exhaust flue gas direct to the atmosphere at 150 200 C, which, at such temperatures, contains large amount of energy and results in relatively low thermal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80%. Although condensing boilers for recovering the heat in the flue gas have been developed over the past 40 years, their present market share is still less than 25%. The major reason for this relatively slow acceptance is the limited improvement in the thermal efficiency of condensing boilers. In the condensing boiler, the temperature of the hot water return at the range of 50 60 C, which is used to cool the flue gas, is very close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas. Therefore, the latent heat, the majority of the waste heat in the flue gas, which is contained in the water vapor, cannot be recovered. This paper presents a new approach to improve boiler thermal efficiency by integrating absorption heat pumps with natural gas boilers for waste heat recovery (HRAHP). Three configurations of HRAHPs are introduced and discussed. The three configurations are modeled in detail to illustrate the significant thermal efficiency improvement they attain. Further, for conceptual proof and validation, an existing hot water-driven absorption chiller is operated as a heat pump at operating conditions similar to one of the devised configurations. An overall system performance and economic analysis are provided for decision-making and as evidence of the potential benefits. These three configurations of HRAHP provide a pathway to achieving realistic high-efficiency natural gas boilers for applications with process fluid return temperatures higher than or close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas.

  16. Recovery of oxygenated ignitable liquids by zeolites, Part II: Dual-mode heated passive headspace extraction. (United States)

    Rodgers, Corissa L; St Pierre, Kathryne A; Hall, Adam B


    Previous studies performed by our research group have suggested that zeolites are a suitable adsorbent for the recovery of oxygenates from fire debris through heated passive headspace extraction. Zeolite 13X, in particular, has been shown to be effective for recovering analytes with molecular diameters smaller than 10Å. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the addition of zeolite 13X to heated headspace extraction for the recovery of ignitable liquids. Comparative recoveries of petroleum and alcohol-based ignitable liquid mixtures were studied utilizing activated charcoal strips and zeolites, individually and in tandem. In the presence of both adsorption media within the same sample can, activated charcoal strips recovered the majority of gasoline components, while zeolites recovered the majority of oxygenated compounds. This phenomenon was attributed to the size exclusion properties, polarity, and available surface area of zeolites. This research supports the use of zeolites with activated charcoal strips in a "dual-mode" preparation for casework in which the presence of an ignitable liquid is suspected. The described method allows for the recovery and concentration of ignitable liquid residues in a single extraction procedure, whether the ignitable liquid is petroleum-based or oxygenated in nature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhanced oil recovery using local alkaline | Akpoturi | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improvement in productivity is one of the Oil and Gas industry's biggest challenges. About 60% of crude Oil still lay trapped in the reservoir even after primary and secondary recovery process have been completed, hence the need for a method that further improves recovery. In this study, flooding experiment was conducted ...

  18. Enhancing Propriospinal Relays to Improve Functional Recovery After SCI (United States)


    hindlimb locomotor and   3   increase functional recovery. General Methods: Originally  45   adult  rats  received  T8/T9...recovery or sprouting the examination of synaptic connectivity with this treatment group would not add any information to the overall story. We

  19. A review on waste heat recovery from exhaust in the ceramics industry (United States)

    Delpech, Bertrand; Axcell, Brian; Jouhara, Hussam


    Following the energy crisis in 1980, many saving technologies have been investigated with attempts to implement them into various industries, one of them is the field of ceramic production. In order to comply with energy saving trends and environmental issues, the European ceramic industry sector has developed energy efficient systems which reduced significantly production time and costs and reduced total energy consumption. The last achievement is of great importance as the energy consumption of the ceramic process accounts for a significant percentage of the total production costs. More precisely, the firing stage consumes the highest amount of energy during the whole ceramic production process. The use of roller kilns, fired by natural gas, involves a loss of 50% of the input energy via the flue gas and the cooling gas exhausts. This review paper briefly describes the production process of the different ceramic products, with a focus on the ceramic sector in Europe. Due to the limited on waste heat recovery in the ceramic industry, other high temperature waste heat recovery applications are considered in the paper, such as in concrete and steel production, which could have a potential use in the ceramic industry. The state of the art technologies used in the ceramics industry are reviewed with a special interest in waste heat recovery from the ceramic process exhaust stacks and energy saving technologies.

  20. Membrane-based osmotic heat engine with organic solvent for enhanced power generation from low-grade heat. (United States)

    Shaulsky, Evyatar; Boo, Chanhee; Lin, Shihong; Elimelech, Menachem


    We present a hybrid osmotic heat engine (OHE) system that uses draw solutions with an organic solvent for enhanced thermal separation efficiency. The hybrid OHE system produces sustainable energy by combining pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) as a power generation stage and membrane distillation (MD) utilizing low-grade heat as a separation stage. While previous OHE systems employed aqueous electrolyte draw solutions, using methanol as a solvent is advantageous because methanol is highly volatile and has a lower heat capacity and enthalpy of vaporization than water. Hence, the thermal separation efficiency of a draw solution with methanol would be higher than that of an aqueous draw solution. In this study, we evaluated the performance of LiCl-methanol as a potential draw solution for a PRO-MD hybrid OHE system. The membrane transport properties as well as performance with LiCl-methanol draw solution were evaluated using thin-film composite (TFC) PRO membranes and compared to the results obtained with a LiCl-water draw solution. Experimental PRO methanol flux and maximum projected power density of 47.1 L m(-2) h(-1) and 72.1 W m(-2), respectively, were achieved with a 3 M LiCl-methanol draw solution. The overall efficiency of the hybrid OHE system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages under conditions with and without heat recovery. The modeling results demonstrate higher OHE energy efficiency with the LiCl-methanol draw solution compared to that with the LiCl-water draw solution under practical operating conditions (i.e., heat recoveryheat to power.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Hussein


    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the studies undertaken on convection heat transfer with nanofluids. Initial studies were directed towards the determination of the properties of nanofluids, especially their thermal conductivity and viscosity. The studies indicate that thermal conductivity and viscosity increase with an increase in the concentration of the nanofluid. Experiments were conducted with different nanofluids, at various concentrations and temperature ranges, for the estimation of the heat transfer coefficient and friction factor for water-based nanofluids. All the studies confirmed enhancement of the heat transfer coefficient with an increase in concentration. The experimental ranges of temperature undertaken by the authors were different for different nanofluids. Certain studies with smaller particle sizes indicated an increase in heat transfer enhancements when compared with values obtained when using larger particle sizes. It is observed that the concentration of the nanofluid, the operating temperature, the particle size and shape, together with the material of the nanoparticle dispersed in the base liquid, have significant influence on the heat transfer coefficient. All the studies indicate a nominal increase in pressure drop.

  2. Heat Transfer Enhancement in Turbulent Flows by Blocked Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this study, the heat transfer analyses over flat and blocked surfaces were carried out in turbulent flow under the influence of the block height. A constant-temperature hot wire anemometer was used to the velocity and turbulent intensity measurements, while temperature values were measured by copper-constantan thermocouples. The average Stanton numbers for block heights of 15 and 25 mm were higher than those of flat surface by %38 and %84, respectively. The results showed that the presence of the blocks increased the heat transfer and the enhancement rose with block heights

  3. Modelling of Evaporator in Waste Heat Recovery System using Finite Volume Method and Fuzzy Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahedul Islam Chowdhury


    Full Text Available The evaporator is an important component in the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC-based Waste Heat Recovery (WHR system since the effective heat transfer of this device reflects on the efficiency of the system. When the WHR system operates under supercritical conditions, the heat transfer mechanism in the evaporator is unpredictable due to the change of thermo-physical properties of the fluid with temperature. Although the conventional finite volume model can successfully capture those changes in the evaporator of the WHR process, the computation time for this method is high. To reduce the computation time, this paper develops a new fuzzy based evaporator model and compares its performance with the finite volume method. The results show that the fuzzy technique can be applied to predict the output of the supercritical evaporator in the waste heat recovery system and can significantly reduce the required computation time. The proposed model, therefore, has the potential to be used in real time control applications.

  4. Enhanced heat sink with geometry induced wall-jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Md. Mahamudul, E-mail:; Tikadar, Amitav; Bari, Fazlul; Morshed, A. K. M. M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka-1000. Bangladesh (Bangladesh)


    Mini-channels embedded in solid matrix have already proven to be a very efficient way of electronic cooling. Traditional mini-channel heat sinks consist of single layer of parallel channels. Although mini-channel heat sink can achieve very high heat flux, its pumping requirement for circulating liquid through the channel increase very sharply as the flow velocity increases. The pumping requirements of the heat sink can be reduced by increasing its performance. In this paper a novel approach to increase the thermal performance of the mini-channel heat sink is proposed through geometry induced wall jet which is a passive technique. Geometric irregularities along the channel length causes abrupt pressure change between the channels which causes cross flow through the interconnections thus one channel faces suction and other channel jet action. This suction and jet action disrupts boundary layer causing enhanced heat transfer performance. A CFD model has been developed using commercially available software package FLUENT to evaluate the technique. A parametric study of the velocities and the effect of the position of the wall-jets have been performed. Significant reduction in thermal resistance has been observed for wall-jets, it is also observed that this reduction in thermal resistance is dependent on the position and shape of the wall jet.

  5. Analysis of heat recovery of diesel engine using intermediate working fluid (United States)

    Jin, Lei; Zhang, Jiang; Tan, Gangfeng; Liu, Huaming


    The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is an effective way to recovery the engine exhaust heat. The thermal stability of the evaporation system is significant for the stable operation of the ORC system. In this paper, the performance of the designed evaporation system which combines with the intermediate fluid for recovering the exhaust waste heat from a diesel engine is evaluated. The thermal characteristics of the target diesel engine exhaust gas are evaluated based on the experimental data firstly. Then, the mathematical model of the evaporation system is built based on the geometrical parameters and the specific working conditions of ORC. Finally, the heat transfer characteristics of the evaporation system are estimated corresponding to three typical operating conditions of the diesel engine. The result shows that the exhaust temperature at the evaporator outlet increases slightly with the engine speed and load. In the evaporator, the heat transfer coefficient of the Rankine working fluid is slightly larger than the intermediate fluid. However, the heat transfer coefficient of the intermediate fluid in the heat exchanger is larger than the exhaust side. The heat transfer areas of the evaporator in both the two-phase zone and the preheated zone change slightly along with the engine working condition while the heat transfer areas of the overheated zone has changed obviously. The maximum heat transfer rate occurs in the preheating zone while the minimum value occurs in the overheating zone. In addition, the Rankine working fluid temperature at the evaporator outlet is not sensitively affected by the torque and speed of the engine and the organic fluid flow is relatively stable. It is concluded that the intermediate fluid could effectively reduce the physical changes of Rankine working fluid in the evaporator outlet due to changes in engine operating conditions.

  6. Enhancing heat capacity of colloidal suspension using nanoscale encapsulated phase-change materials for heat transfer. (United States)

    Hong, Yan; Ding, Shujiang; Wu, Wei; Hu, Jianjun; Voevodin, Andrey A; Gschwender, Lois; Snyder, Ed; Chow, Louis; Su, Ming


    This paper describes a new method to enhance the heat-transfer property of a single-phase liquid by adding encapsulated phase-change nanoparticles (nano-PCMs), which absorb thermal energy during solid-liquid phase changes. Silica-encapsulated indium nanoparticles and polymer-encapsulated paraffin (wax) nanoparticles have been made using colloid method, and suspended into poly-alpha-olefin (PAO) and water for potential high- and low-temperature applications, respectively. The shells prevent leakage and agglomeration of molten phase-change materials, and enhance the dielectric properties of indium nanoparticles. The heat-transfer coefficients of PAO containing indium nanoparticles (30% by mass) and water containing paraffin nanoparticles (10% by mass) are 1.6 and 1.75 times higher than those of corresponding single-phase fluids. The structural integrity of encapsulation allows repeated use of such nanoparticles for many cycles in high heat generating devices.

  7. Exergy analysis of the Szewalski cycle with a waste heat recovery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalczyk Tomasz


    Full Text Available The conversion of a waste heat energy to electricity is now becoming one of the key points to improve the energy efficiency in a process engineering. However, large losses of a low-temperature thermal energy are also present in power engineering. One of such sources of waste heat in power plants are exhaust gases at the outlet of boilers. Through usage of a waste heat regeneration system it is possible to attain a heat rate of approximately 200 MWth, under about 90 °C, for a supercritical power block of 900 MWel fuelled by a lignite. In the article, we propose to use the waste heat to improve thermal efficiency of the Szewalski binary vapour cycle. The Szewalski binary vapour cycle provides steam as the working fluid in a high temperature part of the cycle, while another fluid – organic working fluid – as the working substance substituting conventional steam over the temperature range represented by the low pressure steam expansion. In order to define in detail the efficiency of energy conversion at various stages of the proposed cycle the exergy analysis was performed. The steam cycle for reference conditions, the Szewalski binary vapour cycle as well as the Szewalski hierarchic vapour cycle cooperating with a system of waste heat recovery have been comprised.

  8. Responsive copolymers for enhanced petroleum recovery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report describes the development of new synthetic polymers to be used in petroleum recovery. The solution behavior and rheology properties, as well as new techniques for measuring extensional flow behavior under controlled conditions in packed bed geometries is described.

  9. Numerical model of a thermoelectric generator with compact plate-fin heat exchanger for high temperature PEM fuel cell exhaust heat recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xin, Gao; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Chen, Min


    This paper presents a numerical model of an exhaust heat recovery system for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (HTPEMFC) stack. The system is designed as thermoelectric generators (TEGs) sandwiched in the walls of a compact plate-fin heat exchanger. Its model is based...

  10. Magnetic nanofluid properties as the heat transfer enhancement agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roszko Aleksandra


    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper was to investigate an influence of various parameters on the heat transfer processes with strong magnetic field utilization. Two positions of experimental enclosure in magnetic environment, two methods of preparation and three different concentrations of nanoparticles (0.0112, 0.056 and 0.112 vol.% were taken into account together with the magnetic field strength. Analysed nanofluids consisted of distilled water (diamagnetic and Cu/CuO particles (paramagnetic of 40–60 nm size. The nanofluids components had different magnetic properties what caused complex interaction of forces’ system. The heat transfer data and fluid flow structure demonstrated the influence of magnetic field on the convective phenomena. The most visible consequence of magnetic field application was the heat transfer enhancement and flow reorganization under applied conditions.

  11. French guidelines for enhanced recovery after elective colorectal surgery. (United States)

    Alfonsi, P; Slim, K; Chauvin, M; Mariani, P; Faucheron, J L; Fletcher, D


    Enhanced recovery after surgery provides patients with optimal means to counteract or minimize the deleterious effects of surgery. This concept can be adapted to suit a specific surgical procedure (i.e., colorectal surgery) and comes in the form of a program or a clinical pathway covering the pre-, intra- and postoperative periods. The purpose of these Expert Panel Guidelines was firstly to assess the impact of each parameter typically included in the fast-track programs on six foreseeable consequences of colorectal surgery: surgical stress, postoperative ileus, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, decreased postoperative mobility, sleep disorders and postoperative complications; secondly, to validate the value of each parameter in terms of efficacy criteria for success of rapid rehabilitation programs. Two primary endpoints were selected to evaluate the impact of each parameter: the duration of hospital stay and rate of postoperative complications. For some of the parameters, the lack of information in the literature forced the experts to assess the parameter using different criteria (i.e., the duration of postoperative ileus or quality of analgesia); improvement in endpoints favored the implementation of a rapid rehabilitation program. After analysis of the literature, 19 parameters were identified as potentially impacting at least one of the foreseeable consequences of colorectal surgery. GRADE(®) methodology was applied to determine a level of evidence and the strength of recommendation regarding each parameter. After synthesis of the work of experts on the 19 parameters using GRADE(®) methodology, the organizing committee reached 35 formal recommendations. The recommendations were submitted and amended by a group of reviewers. After three rounds of Delphi quotes, strong agreement was obtained for 28 recommendations (80%) and weak agreement for seven recommendations. Consensus was reached among anesthesiologists and surgeons on a number of tactics that are

  12. Numerical Investigation on the Heat Extraction Capacity of Dual Horizontal Wells in Enhanced Geothermal Systems Based on the 3-D THM Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixue Sun


    Full Text Available The Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS constructs an artificial thermal reservoir by hydraulic fracturing to extract heat economically from hot dry rock. As the core element of the EGS heat recovery process, mass and heat transfer of working fluid mainly occurs in fractures. Since the direction of the natural and induced fractures are generally perpendicular to the minimum principal stress in the formation, as an effective stimulation approach, horizontal well production could increase the contact area with the thermal reservoir significantly. In this paper, the thermal reservoir is developed by a dual horizontal well system and treated as a fractured porous medium composed of matrix rock and discrete fracture network. Using the local thermal non-equilibrium theory, a coupled THM mathematical model and an ideal 3D numerical model are established for the EGS heat extraction process. EGS heat extraction capacity is evaluated in the light of thermal recovery lifespan, average outlet temperature, heat production, electricity generation, energy efficiency and thermal recovery rate. The results show that with certain reservoir and production parameters, the heat production, electricity generation and thermal recovery lifespan can achieve the commercial goal of the dual horizontal well system, but the energy efficiency and overall thermal recovery rate are still at low levels. At last, this paper puts forward a series of optimizations to improve the heat extraction capacity, including production conditions and thermal reservoir construction design.

  13. Heat recovery from a thermal energy storage based on the Ca(OH){sub 2}/CaO cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azpiazu, M.N. [E.T.S. Ingenieros, Bilbao (Spain). Dpto. de Ingenieria Quimica y del Medio Ambiente; Morquillas, J.M. [E.T.S. Ingenieros, Bilbao (Spain). Dpto. de Maquinas y Motores Termicos; Vazquez, A. [E.S. da Marina Civil, La Coruna (Spain). Dpto. de Energia y Propulsion Maritima


    Thermal energy storage is very important in many applications related to the use of waste heat from industrial processes, renewable energies or from other sources. Thermochemical storage is very interesting for long-term storage as it can be carried out at room temperature with no energy losses. Dehydration/hydration cycle of Ca(OH){sub 2}/CaO has been applied for thermal energy storage in two types of reactors. One of them was a prototype designed by the authors, and in the other type conventional laboratory glassware was used. Parameters such as specific heats, reaction rate and enthalpy, mass losses and heat release were monitored during cycles. Although in the hydration step water is normally added in vapour phase, liquid water, at 0{sup o}C has been used in these experiences. Results indicated that the energy storage system performance showed no significant differences, when we compared several hydration/dehydration cycles. The selected chemical reaction did not exhibit a complete reversibility because complete Ca(OH){sub 2} dehydration, was not achieved. However the system could be used satisfactorily along 20 cycles at least. Heat recovery experiments showed general system behaviour during the hydration step in both types of reactors. The designed prototype was more efficient in this step. Main conclusions suggested carrying out one complete cycle at a higher dehydration temperature to recover total system reversibility. A modification of the prototype design trying to enhance heat transfer from the Ca(OH){sub 2} bed could also be proposed. (author)

  14. Heat-Transfer Enhancement by Artificially Generated Streamwise Vorticity (United States)

    Ghanem, Akram; Habchi, Charbel; Lemenand, Thierry; Della Valle, Dominique; Peerhossaini, Hassan


    Vortex-induced heat transfer enhancement exploits longitudinal and transverse pressure-driven vortices through the deliberate artificial generation of large-scale vortical flow structures. Thermal-hydraulic performance, Nusselt number and friction factor are experimentally investigated in a HEV (high-efficiency vortex) mixer, which is a tubular heat exchanger and static mixer equipped with trapezoidal vortex generators. Pressure gradients are generated on the trapezoidal tab initiating a streamwise swirling motion in the form of two longitudinal counter-rotating vortex pairs (CVP). Due to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, the shear layer generated at the tab edges, which is a production site of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE), becomes unstable further downstream from the tabs and gives rise to periodic hairpin vortices. The aim of the study is to quantify the effects of hydrodynamics on the heat- and masstransfer phenomena accompanying such flows for comparison with the results of numerical studies and validate the high efficiency of the intensification process implementing such vortex generators. The experimental results reflect the enhancement expected from the numerical studies and confirm the high status of the HEV heat exchanger and static mixer.

  15. 26 CFR 1.43-2 - Qualified enhanced oil recovery project. (United States)


    ... Section 1.43-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.43-2 Qualified enhanced oil recovery project. (a) Qualified enhanced oil... other matter for the purpose of pretreating or preflushing the reservoir to enhance the efficiency of...

  16. Optimization of Spore Forming Bacteria Flooding for Enhanced Oil Recovery in North Sea Chalk Reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Eliasson Lantz, Anna


    Little has been done to study microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) in chalk reservoirs. The present study focused on core flooding experiments to see microbial plugging and its effect on oil recovery. A pressure tapped core holder with pressure ports at 1.2 cm, 3.8 cm, and 6.3 cm from the inlet...

  17. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 87

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Approximately 30 research projects are summarized in this report. Title of the project, contract number, company or university, award amount, principal investigators, objectives, and summary of technical progress are given for each project. Enhanced oil recovery projects include chemical flooding, gas displacement, and thermal recovery. Most of the research projects though are related to geoscience technology and reservoir characterization.

  18. Coal-oxygen process provides CO/sub 2/ for enhanced recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, B.M.


    Carbon dioxide for use in enhanced oil recovery could be produced by electric power plants which burn coal in an O/SUB/2/CO/SUB/2 mixture. The process appears to be competitive with the monoethanol amine and hot potassium carbonate methods of CO/SUB/2 recovery from flue gases.

  19. A review of metallic radiation recuperators for thermal exhaust heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Harshdeep [Galgotias University, Greater Noida (India); Kumar, Anoop; Varun [NIT-Hamirpur, Hamirpur (India); Khurana, Sourabh [Chandigarh University, Chandigarh (India)


    Radiation recuperator is a class of indirect contact heat exchanger widely used for waste heat recovery in high temperature industrial applications. At higher temperatures heat loss is higher and as the cost of energy continues to rise, it becomes imperative to save energy and improve overall energy efficiency. In this light, a radiation recuperator becomes a key component in an energy recovery system with great potential for energy saving. Improving recuperator performance, durability, and its design and material considerations has been an ongoing concern. Recent progress in furnace design and micro turbine applications together with use of recuperators has resulted in reduced fuel consumption, increased cost effectiveness and short pay-back time periods. Due to its high commercial value and confidential nature of the industry, little information is available in the open literature as compared to convection recuperators where results are well documented. This review paper intends to bridge the gap in literature and provides valuable information on experimental and theoretical investigations in radiation recuperator development along with identification of some unresolved issues.

  20. Investigation of austenitic alloys for advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, R.W.; Ren, W.


    The objective of the research is to provide databases and design criteria to assist in the selection of optimum alloys for construction of components needed to contain process streams in advanced heat recovery and hot-gas cleanup systems. Typical components include: steam line piping and superheater tubing for low emission boilers (600 to 700{degrees}C), heat exchanger tubing for advanced steam cycles and topping cycle systems (650 to 800{degrees}C), foil materials for recuperators, on advanced turbine systems (700 to 750{degrees}C), and tubesheets for barrier filters, liners for piping, cyclones, and blowback system tubing for hot-gas cleanup systems (850 to 1000{degrees}C). The materials being examined fall into several classes, depending on which of the advanced heat recovery concepts is of concern. These classes include martensitic steels for service to 650{degrees}C, lean stainless steels and modified 25Cr-30Ni steels for service to 700{degrees}C, modified 25Cr-20Ni steels for service to 900{degrees}C, and high Ni-Cr-Fe or Ni-Cr-Co-Fe alloys for service to 1000{degrees}C.

  1. GBRN/DOE Project: Dynamic enhanced recovery technologies. Quarterly technical report, January 1994--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.N.


    Global Basins Research Network will perform a field demonstration of their ``Dynamic Enhanced Recovery Technology`` to test the concept that the growth faults in EI-330 field are conduits through which producing reservoirs are charged and that enhanced production can be developed by producing directly from the fault zone. The site, operated by Penzoil, is located in 250 feet of water the productive depth intervals include 4000 to 9000 feet. Previous work, which incorporated pressure, temperature, fluid flow, heat flow, seismic, production, and well log data, indicated active fluid flow along fault zones. The field demonstration will be accomplished by drilling and production test of growth fault systems associated with the EI-330 field. The project utilizes advanced 3-D seismic analysis, geochemical studies, structural and stratigraphic reservoir characterization, reservoir simulation, and compact visualization systems. The quarterly progress reports contains accomplishments to date for the following tasks: Management start-up; database management; field and demonstration equipment; reservoir characterization, modeling; geochemistry; and data integration.

  2. Ultrasonic Heat Transfer Enhancement with Obstacle in Front of Heating Surface (United States)

    Nomura, Shinfuku; Nakagawa, Masafumi; Mukasa, Shinobu; Toyota, Hiromichi; Murakami, Koichi; Kobayashi, Ryousuke


    Heat transfer enhancement using a horn-type transducer was carried out in the natural convection region while a flat plate was used as a wall-like obstacle in front of the heating surface. Three types of plate were used as obstacles: acrylic, aluminum, and Styrofoam. A horn tip of 6 mm diameter and 60.7 kHz was used as the ultrasonic transducer. The acoustic cavitation jet induced by the ultrasonic vibration exhibited the same tendency as the axisymmetric free jet. The acoustic jet from the horn tip was shut out by the flat plate; however, the ultrasound passed through the flat plate and transferred the flow effect and agitation effect to the area behind the plate. By applying ultrasonic vibration, the heat transfer coefficient of the heating surface behind the flat plate was increased by up to threefold. The heat transfer coefficient decreased as the thickness of the flat plate increased. The heat transfer coefficient was the highest for the acrylic plate, then the aluminum plate, and lowest for the Styrofoam plate.


    Marsch, Lisa A.


    Technology such as the Internet and mobile phones offers considerable promise for affecting the assessment, prevention, and treatment of and recovery from substance use disorders. Technology may enable entirely new models of behavioral health care within and outside of formal systems of care. This article reviews the promise of technology-based therapeutic tools for affecting the quality and reach of addiction treatment and recovery support systems, as well as the empirical support to date for this approach. Potential models for implementing technology-based interventions targeting substance use disorders are described. Opportunities to optimize the effectiveness and impact of technology-based interventions targeting addiction and recovery, along with outstanding research needs, are discussed. PMID:22873192

  4. Leveraging technology to enhance addiction treatment and recovery. (United States)

    Marsch, Lisa A


    Technology such as the Internet and mobile phones offers considerable promise for affecting the assessment, prevention, and treatment of and recovery from substance use disorders. Technology may enable entirely new models of behavioral health care within and outside of formal systems of care. This article reviews the promise of technology-based therapeutic tools for affecting the quality and reach of addiction treatment and recovery support systems, as well as the empirical support to date for this approach. Potential models for implementing technology-based interventions targeting substance use disorders are described. Opportunities to optimize the effectiveness and impact of technology-based interventions targeting addiction and recovery, along with outstanding research needs, are discussed.

  5. Energy efficiency of acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) recovery by heat-integrated distillation. (United States)

    Grisales Diaz, Victor Hugo; Olivar Tost, Gerard


    Acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) is an alternative biofuel. However, the energy requirement of ABE recovery by distillation is considered elevated (> 15.2 MJ fuel/Kg-ABE), due to the low concentration of ABE from fermentation broths (between 15 and 30 g/l). In this work, to reduce the energy requirements of ABE recovery, four processes of heat-integrated distillation were proposed. The energy requirements and economic evaluations were performed using the fermentation broths of several biocatalysts. Energy requirements of the processes with four distillation columns and three distillation columns were similar (between 7.7 and 11.7 MJ fuel/kg-ABE). Double-effect system (DED) with four columns was the most economical process (0.12-0.16 $/kg-ABE). ABE recovery from dilute solutions by DED achieved energy requirements between 6.1 and 8.7 MJ fuel/kg-ABE. Vapor compression distillation (VCD) reached the lowest energy consumptions (between 4.7 and 7.3 MJ fuel/kg-ABE). Energy requirements for ABE recovery DED and VCD were lower than that for integrated reactors. The energy requirements of ABE production were between 1.3- and 2.0-fold higher than that for alternative biofuels (ethanol or isobutanol). However, the energy efficiency of ABE production was equivalent than that for ethanol and isobutanol (between 0.71 and 0.76) because of hydrogen production in ABE fermentation.

  6. Development of More Effective Biosurfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, J.J.; Han, S.O.; Maudgalya, S.; Mouttaki, H.; Folmsbee, M.; Knapp, R.; Nagle, D.; Jackson, B.E.; Stuadt, M.; Frey, W.


    The objectives of this were two fold. First, core displacement studies were done to determine whether microbial processes could recover residual oil at elevated pressures. Second, the importance of biosurfactant production for the recovery of residual oil was studies. In these studies, a biosurfactant-producing, microorganisms called Bacillus licheniformis strain JF-2 was used. This bacterium produces a cyclic peptide biosurfactant that significantly reduces the interfacial tension between oil and brine (7). The use of a mutant deficient in surfactant production and a mathematical MEOR simulator were used to determine the major mechanisms of oil recovery by these two strains.

  7. Development of portable measuring system for testing of electrical vehicle's heat energy recovery system (United States)

    Sarvajcz, K.; Váradiné Szarka, A.


    Nowadays the consumer society applies a huge amount of energy in many fields including transportation sector. Internal combustion vehicles contribute substantially to the air pollution. An alternative solution for reducing energy consumption is replacing the internal combustion vehicles by electrical or hybrid vehicles. Today one of the biggest disadvantages of the electrical vehicles is the finite capacity of batteries. The research topic presented in this paper is the „Energy Harvesting”, and development of energy recovery system for electrical vehicles which largely contributes in increasing the driving range. At the current phase of the research efficiency analysis of the heat energy recovery devices are investigated in real driving circumstances. Computer based mobile and wireless measurement system for the analysis was developed, tested and installed in a real vehicle. Driving tests were performed and analysed in different circumstances.

  8. Control structure design for resource recovery using the enhanced biological phosphorus removal and recovery (EBP2R) activated sludge process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valverde Perez, Borja; Fuentes-Martínez, José Manuel; Flores Alsina, Xavier


    Nowadays, wastewater is considered as a set of resources to be recovered rather than a mixture of pollutantsthat should be removed. Many resource recovery schemes have been proposed, involving the useof novel technologies whose controllability is poorly studied. In this paper we present a control...... structurefor the novel enhanced biological phosphorus removal and recovery (EBP2R) process, which is currentlyunder development. The aim of the EBP2R is to maximize phosphorus recovery through optimal greenmicro-algal cultivation, which is achieved by controlling the nitrogen to phosphorus ratio (N-to-P ratio......)fed to the algae. Process control structures are developed for a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and a continuous flow reactor system (CFS). Results, obtained using the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 1 (BSM1) dynamic input disturbance time series, suggest that the SBR can maintain a stable N-to-P ratio...

  9. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; John DuPoint


    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: (1) An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing high-moisture, low rank coals. (2) Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. (3) Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. (4) Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. (5) Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. (6) Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. (7) Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. (8) Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  10. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, Edward; Bilirgen, Harun; DuPont, John


    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: • An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing highmoisture, low rank coals. • Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. • Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. • Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. • Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. • Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. • Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. • Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  11. Alkyl polyglycoside/1-naphthol formulations. A case study of surfactant enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglauer, Stefan; Wu, Yongfu; Shuler, Patrick; Tang, Yongchun [California Institute of Technology, Covina, CA (United States). Div. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Goddard, William A. III [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States). Div. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering


    We present a case study of surfactant enhanced oil recovery using Alkyl polyglucoside/1-naphthol formulations. Alkyl polyglucosides are a green, non-toxic and renewable surfactant class synthesized out of agricultural raw materials. We measured interfacial tensions versus n-octane and viscosities of these formulations and conducted one coreflood enhanced oil recovery (EOR) experiment where we recovered 82.6 % of initial oil in place demonstrating that these formulations are efficient EOR agents. (orig.)

  12. Advanced simulations of energy demand and indoor climate of passive ventilation systems with heat recovery and night cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend

    with little energy consumption and with satisfying indoor climate. The concept is based on using passive measures like stack and wind driven ventilation, effective night cooling and low pressure loss heat recovery using two fluid coupled water-to-air heat exchangers developed at the Technical University...

  13. Enhancement of recovery of residual oil using a biosurfactant slug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of the biosurfactant extract revealed a mixture of glycolipid and phospholipid in a ratio of 3.35:1. The irreducible water saturation (Swi) and initial residual oil saturation (Sor) of the sand-pack were 0.280 ± 0.003 and 0.373 ± 0.006, respectively. Core flooding experiment showed that an optimum oil recovery ...

  14. Repetitive Visual Stimulation Enhances Recovery from Severe Amblyopia (United States)

    Montey, Karen L.; Eaton, Nicolette C.; Quinlan, Elizabeth M.


    Severe amblyopia, characterized by a significant reduction in visual acuity through the affected eye, is highly resistant to reversal in adulthood. We have previously shown that synaptic plasticity can be reactivated in the adult rat visual cortex by dark exposure, and the reactivated plasticity can be harnessed to promote the recovery from severe…

  15. Comblike Polyacrylamides as Flooding Agent in Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, Diego A. Z.; Picchioni, Francesco; Broekhuis, Antonius A.


    The oil recovery from core material and a specifically designed flow cell using novel branched (comblike) polyacrylamides (PAM) has been investigated. The injectivity characteristics of the different branched PAMs were evaluated by filtration tests and core-flow experiments. The number of arms of

  16. Enhancement in the gain recovery of a semiconductor optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... reduction is a better and convenient option to speed-up the gain recovery of an SOA, than the use of external assisted-light injection, which requires an additional laser source and wavelength division multiplexing(WDM) components for coupling and de-coupling, leading to insertion losses in the communication channel.

  17. Effect of a 5-min cold-water immersion recovery on exercise performance in the heat. (United States)

    Peiffer, J J; Abbiss, C R; Watson, G; Nosaka, K; Laursen, P B


    This study examined the effect of a 5-min cold-water immersion (14 degrees C) recovery intervention on repeated cycling performance in the heat. 10 male cyclists performed two bouts of a 25-min constant-paced (254 (22) W) cycling session followed by a 4-km time trial in hot conditions (35 degrees C, 40% relative humidity). The two bouts were separated by either 15 min of seated recovery in the heat (control) or the same condition with 5-min cold-water immersion (5th-10th minute), using a counterbalanced cross-over design (CP(1)TT(1) --> CWI or CON --> CP(2)TT(2)). Rectal temperature was measured immediately before and after both the constant-paced sessions and 4-km timed trials. Cycling economy and Vo(2) were measured during the constant-paced sessions, and the average power output and completion times were recorded for each time trial. Compared with control, rectal temperature was significantly lower (0.5 (0.4) degrees C) in cold-water immersion before CP(2) until the end of the second 4-km timed trial. However, the increase in rectal temperature (0.5 (0.2) degrees C) during CP(2) was not significantly different between conditions. During the second 4-km timed trial, power output was significantly greater in cold-water immersion (327.9 (55.7) W) compared with control (288.0 (58.8) W), leading to a faster completion time in cold-water immersion (6.1 (0.3) min) compared with control (6.4 (0.5) min). Economy and Vo(2) were not influenced by the cold-water immersion recovery intervention. 5-min cold-water immersion recovery significantly lowered rectal temperature and maintained endurance performance during subsequent high-intensity exercise. These data indicate that repeated exercise performance in heat may be improved when a short period of cold-water immersion is applied during the recovery period.

  18. Simultaneous Waste Heat and Water Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gases for Advanced Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dexin [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)


    This final report presents the results of a two-year technology development project carried out by a team of participants sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this project is to develop a membrane-based technology to recover both water and low grade heat from power plant flue gases. Part of the recovered high-purity water and energy can be used directly to replace plant boiler makeup water as well as improving its efficiency, and the remaining part of the recovered water can be used for Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD), cooling tower water makeup or other plant uses. This advanced version Transport Membrane Condenser (TMC) with lower capital and operating costs can be applied to existing plants economically and can maximize waste heat and water recovery from future Advanced Energy System flue gases with CO2 capture in consideration, which will have higher moisture content that favors the TMC to achieve higher efficiency.

  19. Numerical and experimental investigation of enhancement of heat transfer in dimpled rib heat exchanger tube (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Maithani, Rajesh; Suri, Amar Raj Singh


    In this study, numerical and experimental investigation has been carried out for a range of system and operating parameters in order to analyse the effect of dimpled rib on heat and fluid flow behaviours in heat exchanger tube. Tube has, stream wise spacing ( x/ d d ) range of 15-35, span wise spacing ( y/ d d ) range of 15-35, ratio of dimpled depth to print diameter ( e/ d d ) of 1.0 and Reynolds number ( Re n ) ranges from 4000 to 28,000. Simulations were carried out to obtain heat and fluid flow behaviour of smooth and rough tube, using commercial CFD software, ANSYS 16.0 (Fluent). Renormalization k - ɛ model was employed to assess the influence of dimpled on turbulent flow and velocity field. Simulation results show that, the enhancement of 3.18 times in heat transfer and 2.87 times enhancement in thermal hydraulic performance as a function of stream wise direction ( x/ d d ) of 15 and span wise direction ( y/ d d ) of 15 respectively. Comparison between numerical and experimental simulation results showed that good agreement as the data fell within ±10% error band.

  20. Enhanced recovery after elective colorectal surgery: now the standard of care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Andrews, E J


    Enhanced recovery programmes have been studied in randomised trials with evidence of quicker recovery of gut function, reduced morbidity, mortality and hospital stay and improved physiological and nutritional outcomes. They aim to reduce the physiological and psychological stress of surgery and consequently the uncontrolled stress response. The key elements, reduced pre-operative fasting, intravenous fluid restriction and early feeding after surgery, are in conflict with traditional management plans but are supported by strong clinical evidence. Given the strength of the current data enhanced recovery should now be the standard of care.

  1. Hydrophobically associated polymers for wettability alteration and enhanced oil recovery – Article review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. El-hoshoudy


    Full Text Available Crude oil and other petroleum products are crucial to the global economy today due to increasing energy demand approximately (∼1.5% per year and significant oil remaining after primary and secondary oil recovery (∼45–55% of original oil in place, OOIP, which accelerates the development of enhanced oil recovery (EOR technologies to maximize the recovered oil amount by non-conventional methods as polymer flooding. This review discusses enhanced oil recovery methods specially polymer flooding techniques and their effects on rock wettability alteration.

  2. Applications of thermal energy storage to process heat and waste heat recovery in the iron and steel industry (United States)

    Katter, L. B.; Peterson, D. J.


    The system identified operates from the primary arc furnace evacuation system as a heat source. Energy from the fume stream is stored as sensible energy in a solid medium (packed bed). A steam-driven turbine is arranged to generate power for peak shaving. A parametric design approach is presented since the overall system design, at optimum payback is strongly dependent upon the nature of the electric pricing structure. The scope of the project was limited to consideration of available technology so that industry-wide application could be achieved by 1985. A search of the literature, coupled with interviews with representatives of major steel producers, served as the means whereby the techniques and technologies indicated for the specific site are extrapolated to the industry as a whole and to the 1985 time frame. The conclusion of the study is that by 1985, a national yearly savings of 1.9 million barrels of oil could be realized through recovery of waste heat from primary arc furnace fume gases on an industry-wide basis. Economic studies indicate that the proposed system has a plant payback time of approximately 5 years.

  3. Hypertension is associated with greater heat exchange during exercise recovery in a hot environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Fonseca


    Full Text Available Individuals with systemic arterial hypertension have a higher risk of heat-related complications. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the thermoregulatory responses of hypertensive subjects during recovery from moderate-intensity exercise performed in the heat. A total of eight essential hypertensive (H and eight normotensive (N male subjects (age=46.5±1.3 and 45.6±1.4 years, body mass index=25.8±0.8 and 25.6±0.6 kg/m2, mean arterial pressure=98.0±2.8 and 86.0±2.3 mmHg, respectively rested for 30 min, performed 1 h of treadmill exercise at 50% of maximal oxygen consumption, and rested for 1 h after exercise in an environmental chamber at 38°C and 60% relative humidity. Skin and core temperatures were measured to calculate heat exchange parameters. Mean arterial pressure was higher in the hypertensive than in the normotensive subjects throughout the experiment (P<0.05, unpaired t-test. The hypertensive subjects stored less heat (H=-24.23±3.99 W·m−2vs N=-13.63±2.24 W·m−2, P=0.03, unpaired t-test, experienced greater variations in body temperature (H=-0.62±0.05°C vsN=-0.35±0.12°C, P=0.03, unpaired t-test, and had more evaporated sweat (H=-106.1±4.59 W·m−2vs N=-91.15±3.24 W·m−2, P=0.01, unpaired t-test than the normotensive subjects during the period of recovery from exercise. In conclusion, essential hypertensive subjects showed greater sweat evaporation and increased heat dissipation and body cooling relative to normotensive subjects during recovery from moderate-intensity exercise performed in hot conditions.

  4. Modern State and Efficient Analysis of Heat Recovery in Fuel Furnaces Using High Temperature Recuperators. Part 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Soroka


    Full Text Available A modern method for determination of fuel efficiency which is used in high-temperature plants (industrial furnaces has been considered in the paper. The paper estimates a heat recovery role of flue gases at the furnace outlet with the purpose to save  natural gas and replace it with alternative gas fuel. Efficient heat-utilizing installations for high-temperature plants have been presented in the paper, examples of heat recovery unit application in various technological schemes including processes of biomass gasification.

  5. Experimental investigation of heat transport enhancement in bubbly flows (United States)

    Gvozdic, Biljana; Almeras, Elise; Mathai, Varghese; van Gils, Dennis; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef


    Bubble injection into a carrier fluid can enhance the convective heat transfer. The exact mechanism behind this phenomenon is still unclear since most of the heat transport measurements in bubbly flows are limited to time-averaged global quantities. In this study we measure the statistical properties of the local temperature fluctuations along with global heat flux measurements in a rectangular bubble column heated from one sidewall and cooled from the opposite wall. We varied the Rayleigh number from 109 to 1011, and the gas volume fraction from 0.5 to 5%. Due to bubble injection, the Nusselt number is increased up to 20 times as compared to the single-phase case. Surprisingly, we find that the Nusselt number is nearly independent on the Rayleigh number in two-phase flows for each studied gas volume fraction. Furthermore, the Nusselt number is found to be proportional to the square root of the gas volume fraction, which is suggestive of a diffusive process. Local measurements of the bulk temperature fluctuations show that not only are the fluctuations increased up to 100 times due to bubble injection, but also that mixing is present at shorter time scales, which is reflected in the power spectrum of the temperature fluctuations.

  6. Experimental and numerical analyses on a plate heat exchanger with phase change for waste heat recovery at off-design conditions (United States)

    Cipollone, Roberto; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Di Battista, Davide; Fatigati, Fabio


    This paper analyzes the performances of an evaporator for small scale waste heat recovery applications based on bottoming Organic Rankine Cycles with net output power in the range 2-5 kW. The heat recovery steam generator is a plate heat exchanger with oil as hot stream and an organic fluid on the cold side. An experimental characterization of the heat exchanger was carried out at different operating points measuring temperatures, pressures and flow rates on both sides. The measurement data further allowed to validate a numerical model of the evaporator whereas heat transfer coefficients were evaluated comparing several literature correlations, especially for the phase-change of the organic fluid. With reference to a waste heat recovery application in industrial compressed air systems, multiple off-design conditions were simulated considering the effects of oil mass flow rate and temperature on the superheating of the organic fluid, a key parameter to ensure a proper operation of the expansion machine, thus of the energy recovery process.

  7. The Optimal Evaporation Temperature of Subcritical ORC Based on Second Law Efficiency for Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Xu


    Full Text Available The subcritical Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC with 28 working fluids for waste heat recovery is discussed in this paper. The effects of the temperature of the waste heat, the critical temperature of working fluids and the pinch temperature difference in the evaporator on the optimal evaporation temperature (OET of the ORC have been investigated. The second law efficiency of the system is regarded as the objective function and the evaporation temperature is optimized by using the quadratic approximations method. The results show that the OET will appear for the temperature ranges investigated when the critical temperatures of working fluids are lower than the waste heat temperatures by 18 ± 5 K under the pinch temperature difference of 5 K in the evaporator. Additionally, the ORC always exhibits the OET when the pinch temperature difference in the evaporator is raised under the fixed waste heat temperature. The maximum second law efficiency will decrease with the increase of pinch temperature difference in the evaporator.

  8. Recovery of waste heat from propellant forced-air dry house. Final report, November 1976-April 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alario, J.; Bozza, E.F.; Mullaney, P.


    This report describes the design, installation, and test evaluation of a heat pipe heat exchanger for a multi-base propellant forced-air dry house for the purpose of recovering heat from the hot air exhausted to the atmosphere during a typical drying operation. Detailed descriptions of the special safety and operating features of the recovery unit are also presented. Evaluation of the unit showed that approximately 62% of the energy used to dry multi-base propellants can be saved by the heat recovery technique employed. Energy/cost saving projections are based upon the installation of similar recovery units at a major Army propellant manufacturing facility such Radford Army Ammunition Plant.

  9. Protein adsorption enhanced radio-frequency heating of silica nanoparticles. (United States)

    Wosik, Jarek; Pande, Rohit; Xie, Leiming; Ketharnath, Dhivya; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Godin, Biana


    Measurements of specific-absorption-rate (SAR) of silica 30, 50, and 100 nm nanoparticles (NP) suspended in water were carried out at 30 MHz in 7 kV/m radio-frequency (rf) electric field. Size dependent, NP-suspension interface related heating of silica NP was observed. To investigate a possible mechanism of heating, bovine serum albumin was adsorbed on the surface of silica NPs in suspension. It resulted in significant enhancement of SAR when compared to bare silica NPs. A calorimetric and rf loss model was used to calculate effective conductivity of silica NP with/without adsorbed albumin as a function of silica size and albumin concentration.

  10. Enhancing Propriospinal Relays to Improve Functional Recovery after SCI (United States)


    time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this...information will allow us to determine in plasticity rostral to the injury site participates in the recovery. However, corticospinal axons could sprouting...400,000 patients with SCI in the United States. Experimental therapies to treat SCI have focused on approaches that promote neural regeneration, but

  11. Metallic nanoparticles for enhanced heavy oil recovery: promises and challenges


    Guo, Kun; Li, Hailong; Yu, Zhixin


    With the increasing global energy demand, great attention has been focused on utilizing heavy oil and bitumen, which are potentially located ultra-deep underground and cannot be easily recovered. Numerous recovery approaches have been proposed for successful extraction of heavy hydrocarbons from ultra-deep reservoirs. However, these approached are often accompanied by high energy consumption, large amounts of wastewater generation, and undesirable environmental damage. Nanotechnology has ...

  12. Mirror therapy enhances upper extremity motor recovery in stroke patients. (United States)

    Mirela Cristina, Luca; Matei, Daniela; Ignat, Bogdan; Popescu, Cristian Dinu


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of mirror therapy program in addition with physical therapy methods on upper limb recovery in patients with subacute ischemic stroke. 15 subjects followed a comprehensive rehabilitative treatment, 8 subjects received only control therapy (CT) and 7 subjects received mirror therapy (MT) for 30 min every day, five times a week, for 6 weeks in addition to the conventional therapy. Brunnstrom stages, Fugl-Meyer Assessment (upper extremity), the Ashworth Scale, and Bhakta Test (finger flexion scale) were used to assess changes in upper limb motor recovery and motor function after intervention. After 6 weeks of treatment, patients in both groups showed significant improvements in the variables measured. Patients who received MT showed greater improvements compared to the CT group. The MT treatment results included: improvement of motor functions, manual skills and activities of daily living. The best results were obtained when the treatment was started soon after the stroke. MT is an easy and low-cost method to improve motor recovery of the upper limb.

  13. Laboratory Experiments on Enhanced Oil Recovery with Nitrogen Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Siregar


    Full Text Available Based on previous studies, nitrogen injection could recover oil up to 45-90% of initial reserves. Although this method has a very good ability to produce oil, sometimes the operation pressure is higher than leak off formation pressure. In this study, operation pressure used a low pressure to solve this problem under immiscible process. Objective of this study is to determine the effect of injection pressure and displacement rate on oil recovery performance of continuous one dimensional nitrogen gas injection with a slim tube apparatus. The effect of nitrogen gas-oil contact on the gas composition was investigated using Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer apparatus. In the experiments, nitrogen gas was injected into an oil sample of 38.5 oAPI gravity at various rates: 20 cc/hr, 30 cc/hr and 36.66/hr under 1500 psi pressure, and then at 20 cc/hr undr 2500 psi pressure. The results showed that an increase in injection rate increased oil recovery factor. The recovery factor lies between 40-54% of original oil in place. Gas analysis before injection and at the injection outlet showed a change of composition. when oil was contacted by nitrogen, indicating that some molecular mass transfer had taken place.

  14. Enhanced oil recovery chemicals from renewable wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grune, W.N.; Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Crenshaw, J.M.


    Most of the wood pulp in the U.S. is produced by cooking, or digesting, wood chips in a chemical solution. These pulping processes have effluent streams which contain dissolved lignins, lignin breakdown products, and carbohydrates. There is a substantial economic incentive to use these materials as feedstocks for the production of high-valued micellar flood chemicals. The pulp and paper industries have practiced chemical recovery for almost a century. The largest chemical recycle processes are the internal recycle of inorganic salts for reuse in pulping. This is coupled with the use of waste organic compounds in the liquor as a fuel for directly-fired evaporation processes. Diversion of effluent and low valued streams for chemical recovery using fermentation, purification, or synthesis methods appears technically feasible in several cases. The use of new recovery processes could yield a variety of different wood-effluent based products. Some of the sugar acids in pulping liquors might be used as sequestering agents in reservoirs where there are large amounts of multivalent cations in flood brines. Fermentation production of high viscosity polymers, sequestering agents, and coagent alcohols appears worth further investigation. Tall oil acids and their derivatives can be used as surfactants in some reservoirs. Some waste constituents may adsorb preferentially on formations and thereby reduce loss of surfactants and other higher-valued chemicals.

  15. Development of Compact Heat Exchangers According to the Results Study of the Regularities of Heat Exchange Enhancement Energy Saving (United States)

    Vasilev, V. Ya


    The conditions for the realization of energy-saving heat exchange enhancement are experimentally determined, in which the increase in heat transfer in the investigated surface ducts is equal to the growth of aerodynamic losses. A method for determining the geometric and regime parameters of surface ducts, which determine the energy-saving regimes of heat exchange enhancement, is implemented. Energy-saving enhancement of heat transfer in the interrupted ducts and channels with ridges and valleys allows, respectively, to 2.78 and 1.40 times to reduce the heat exchange surface and the mass of the heat exchanger with the previous energy costs. The results of the research make it possible to eliminate the intuitive choice of the shape and parameters of the ducts of the heat exchanger surfaces and to ensure their operation in energy-saving regimes.

  16. Improved heat recovery and high-temperature clean-up for coal-gas fired combustion turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelemy, N.M.; Lynn, S.


    This study investigates the performance of an Improved Heat Recovery Method (IHRM) applied to a coal-gas fired power-generating system using a high-temperature clean-up. This heat recovery process has been described by Higdon and Lynn (1990). The IHRM is an integrated heat-recovery network that significantly increases the thermal efficiency of a gas turbine in the generation of electric power. Its main feature is to recover both low- and high-temperature heat reclaimed from various gas streams by means of evaporating heated water into combustion air in an air saturation unit. This unit is a packed column where compressed air flows countercurrently to the heated water prior to being sent to the combustor, where it is mixed with coal-gas and burned. The high water content of the air stream thus obtained reduces the amount of excess air required to control the firing temperature of the combustor, which in turn lowers the total work of compression and results in a high thermal efficiency. Three designs of the IHRM were developed to accommodate three different gasifying process. The performances of those designs were evaluated and compared using computer simulations. The efficiencies obtained with the IHRM are substantially higher those yielded by other heat-recovery technologies using the same gasifying processes. The study also revealed that the IHRM compares advantageously to most advanced power-generation technologies currently available or tested commercially. 13 refs., 34 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Finite element analysis on the thermoelectric generator for the waste heat recovery of solar application (United States)

    Zulkifli, Muhammad Nubli; Ilias, Izzudin; Abas, Amir; Muhamad, Wan Mansor Wan


    Thermoelectric generator (TEG) is the solid state device that converts the thermal gradient into electrical energy. TEG is widely used as the renewable energy source especially for the electronic equipment that operates with the small amount of electrical power. In the present analysis, the finite element analysis (FEA) using ANSYS is conducted on a model of the TEG attached with the aluminium, Al plate on the hot side of the TEG. This simple construction of TEG model was built in order to be used in the waste heat recovery of solar application. It was shown that the changes of the area and thickness of the Al plate increased the temperature gradient between hot and cold sides of TEG. This directly increase the voltage produced by the TEG based on the Seeback effect. The increase of the thermal gradient due to the increment of thickness and width of Al plate might be because of the increase of thermal resistance of Al plate. This finding provides a valuable data in design process to build a good TEG attached with Al plate for the waste heat recovery of solar application.

  18. Process integration and waste heat recovery in Lithuanian and Danish industry. Final report phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The present document forms the Final Report for the first phase of the project `Process Integration and Waste Heat Recovery in Lithuanian and Danish Industry`. The project is carried out in the period 1995-1998 in a co-operation between the COWI offices in Lyngby and Vilnius, The Technical University of Denmark (Institute for Energetics), Kaunas University of Technology (CIPAI) and Vilnius Technical University, financed by The Danish Ministry of Energy`s EFP-95-programme, Lithuanian Energy Agency as well as the participants. The first phase of the project has comprised the establishment of the CIPAI centre (Centre for Industrial Process Analysis and Integration) at Kaunas University of Technology, training and knowledge transfer as well as elaboration of 6 industrial case-studies within the area of `Process Integration and waste Heat Recovery`. The second phase of the project has comprised R and D activities in this area in order to present general conclusions from the project as well as to present new and improved methods and tools for PI-analysis. The aim of the Final Report for the first phase of the project is to summarise project activities and the achieved results from case-studies and from the operation of the CIPAI-centre in general. (au)

  19. Viability analysis of heat recovery solution for industrial process of roasting coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kljajić Miroslav V.


    Full Text Available Every industrial heat recovery solution is specific engineering challenge but not because predicted energy rationalization or achieved energy savings but potential unavoidable technological deviations and consequences on related processes and for sure, high investment because of delicate design and construction. Often, the energy savings in a particular segment of the industrial process is a main goal. However, in the food industry, especially roasting coffee, additional criteria has to be strictly observed and fulfilled. Such criteria may include prescribed and uniform product quality, compliance with food safety standards, stability of the processes etc., and all in the presence of key process parameters variability, inconsistency of raw material composition and quality, complexity of measurement and analytical methods etc. The paper respects all circumstances and checks viability of proposed recovery solution. The paper analyzes the possibility of using waste heat from the roasting process to ensure shortening of roasting cycle, reduction of fuel consumption and increasing capacity of roasting lines on daily basis. Analysis concludes that effects are valuable and substantial, although the complete solution is on the threshold of economic sustainability with numerous opportunities to improve of both technical and economic indicators. The analysis combines measuring and analytical methods with standard cost-benefit analysis. Conclusions are derived from measurements and calculations of key parameters in the operating conditions and checked by experimental methods. Test results deviate from 10 to 15%, in relation with parameters in main production line.

  20. Brayton cycle for internal combustion engine exhaust gas waste heat recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Galindo


    Full Text Available An average passenger car engine effectively uses about one-third of the fuel combustion energy, while the two-thirds are wasted through exhaust gases and engine cooling. It is of great interest to automotive industry to recover some of this wasted energy, thus increasing the engine efficiency and lowering fuel consumption and contamination. Waste heat recovery for internal combustion engine exhaust gases using Brayton cycle machine was investigated. The principle problems of application of such a system in a passenger car were considered: compressor and expander machine selection, machine size for packaging under the hood, efficiency of the cycle, and improvement of engine efficiency. Important parameters of machines design have been determined and analyzed. An average 2-L turbocharged gasoline engine’s New European Driving Cycle points were taken as inlet points for waste heat recovery system. It is theoretically estimated that the recuperated power of 1515 W can be achieved along with 5.7% improvement in engine efficiency, at the point where engine power is 26550 W.

  1. Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol facilitates faster functional patient recovery in elective cardiac surgery


    Kaluinaitė, Greta; Mačiukaitienė, Jomantė; Jakubauskaitė, Ramunė


    Introduction: Fast-track cardiac surgery today is an established and safe method because of achieved early tracheal extubation that leads to decreased length of hospital stay (LOS) with no increased risk of complications. However, we hypothesized, that fast-track protocols not only improve such system-oriented outcomes as LOS or complication rate, but facilitate better patient-oriented outcomes such as functional recovery. Our fast-track protocol was based on ERAS society guidelines, which be...

  2. A Numerical Study on Heat Transfer Enhancement and Pressure drop Decrease of Heat Exchanger by Setting Inserted Plates in Duct


    AMBARITA, Himsar; KISHINAMI, Koki; SATO, Kazuhiko; DAIMARUYA, Masashi; SUGIYAMA, Hiromu; SUZUKI, Jun


    This present paper attempts to numerically estimate heat transfer enhancement and pressure drop decrease on a duct flow system of heat exchanger. Inserted plates inside the duct flow are proposed in order to enhance heat transfer coefficient, however the inserted plates cause a significant pressure drop, In order to decrease the pressure drop, the inserted plates with slits were employed. Numerical calculations of two-dimensional, laminar, and steady state conditions of duct flow with and wit...

  3. Experimental investigation and mechanism of critical heat flux enhancement in pool boiling heat transfer with nanofluids (United States)

    Kamatchi, R.; Venkatachalapathy, S.; Nithya, C.


    In the present study, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is synthesized from graphite using modified Hummer and chemical reduction methods. Various characterizations techniques are carried out to study the in-plane crystallite size, number of layers, presence of functional groups and surface morphology. Different concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, and 0.3 g/l of rGO/water nanofluids are prepared by dispersing the flakes in DI water. The colloidal stability of 0.3 g/l concentration is measured after 5 days using Zetasizer and found to be stable. The rGO/water nanofluids are then used to study the effect on the enhancement of critical heat flux (CHF) in pool boiling heat transfer. Results indicate an enhancement in CHF ranging from 145 to 245 % for the tested concentrations. The mechanisms of CHF enhancement are analyzed based on surface wettability, surface roughness, and porous layer thickness. The macrolayer dryout model sufficiently supports the mechanism of CHF enhancement of thin wire with rGO deposits, which is not reported yet.

  4. Effect of recovery interventions on cycling performance and pacing strategy in the heat. (United States)

    De Pauw, Kevin; Roelands, Bart; Vanparijs, Jef; Meeusen, Romain


    To determine the effect of active recovery (AR), passive rest (PR), and cold-water immersion (CWI) after 90 min of intensive cycling on a subsequent 12-min time trial (TT2) and the applied pacing strategy in TT2. After a maximal test and familiarization trial, 9 trained male subjects (age 22 ± 3 y, VO2max 62.1 ± 5.3 mL · min-1 · kg-1) performed 3 experimental trials in the heat (30°C). Each trial consisted of 2 exercise tasks separated by 1 h. The first was a 60-min constant-load trial at 55% of the maximal power output followed by a 30-min time trial (TT1). The second comprised a 12-min simulated time trial (TT2). After TT1, AR, PR, or CWI was applied for 15 min. No significant TT2 performance differences were observed, but a 1-sample t test (within each condition) revealed different pacing strategies during TT2. CWI resulted in an even pacing strategy, while AR and PR resulted in a gradual decline of power output after the onset of TT2 (P ≤ .046). During recovery, AR and CWI showed a trend toward faster blood lactate ([BLa]) removal, but during TT2 significantly higher [BLa] was only observed after CWI compared with PR (P = .011). The pacing strategy during subsequent cycling performance in the heat is influenced by the application of different postexercise recovery interventions. Although power was not significantly altered between groups, CWI enabled a differently shaped power profile, likely due to decreased thermal strain.

  5. 40 CFR 144.21 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. (United States)


    ... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. 144.21 Section 144.21 Protection of Environment... hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. (a) An existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon... decision; or (9) For Class II wells (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage), five years after...

  6. 26 CFR 1.43-4 - Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs. (United States)


    ... injectant expense that is a qualified enhanced oil recovery cost. The storage tanks X acquires to store the... storage tanks that Z will use solely to store the crude oil that is produced from the enhanced oil... steam to be injected in connection with the cyclic steam project, and purchases storage tanks to store...

  7. Polymers for enhanced oil recovery : A paradigm for structure-property relationship in aqueous solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, D. A. Z.; Picchioni, F.; Broekhuis, A. A.


    Recent developments in the field of water-soluble polymers aimed at enhancing the aqueous solution viscosity are reviewed. Classic and novel associating water-soluble polymers for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications are discussed along with their limitations. Particular emphasis is placed on

  8. Enhanced Oil Recovery with CO2 Capture and Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrei, Maria; De Simoni, Michela; Delbianco, Alberto; Cazzani, Piero; Zanibelli, Laura


    This paper presents the results of a feasibility study aimed at extending the production life of a small oilfield in Italy through EOR, employing the CO2 captured from the flue gas streams of the refinery nearby. The EOR operation allows the recovery of additional reserves while a consistent amount of the CO2 injected remains permanently stored into the reservoir. The screening process selection for EOR-CO2 and the main elements of the pilot project for the proper upstream-downstream integration will be described. Evaluation of EOR-CO2 extension to other oilfields and its effect on oil production and project's economics will be reported.

  9. Enhanced bioenergy recovery from rapeseed plant in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Gang; Talebnia, Farid; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov


    The present study investigated the utilization of the whole rapeseed plant (seed and straw) for multi-biofuels production in a biorefinery concept. Results showed that bioethanol production from straw was technically feasible with ethanol yield of 0.15 g ethanol/g dry straw after combined alkaline......, results from continuous experiments demonstrated that the two-stage hydrogen and methane fermentation process could work stably at organic loading rate up to 4.5 gVS/(L d), while the single-stage methane production process failed. The energy recovery efficiency from rapeseed plant increased from 20...

  10. Demonstration of high temperature thermoelectric waste heat recovery from exhaust gases of a combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trottmann, Matthias; Weidenkaff, Anke; Populoh, Sascha; Brunko, Oliver; Veziridis, Angelika; Bach, Christian; Cabalzar, Urs [Empa, Duebendorf (Switzerland)


    The energy efficiency of passenger cars becomes increasingly important due to a growing awareness in terms of climate change and shortages of resources associated with rising fuel prices. In addition to the efforts towards the optimization of the engine's internal efficiency, waste heat recovery is the main objective. In this respect, thermoelectric (TE) devices seem to be suited as heat recuperation systems. Thermoelectric generators allow for direct transformation of thermal into electrical energy. In order to thoroughly investigate this type of recovery system a TE demonstrator was mounted on the muffler of a VW Touran and tested. The waste heat of the exhaust gas was converted into electricity with a conversion rate of {proportional_to}. 3.5%. The limiting factor was the low thermal stability of the commercial modules used in this pre-study to elaborate reference values. Thermoelectric modules based on sustainable and temperature-stable materials are being developed to improve the measured values. A thermoelectric test generator with perovskite-type oxide modules was constructed confirm the function and stability at elevated temperatures. Despite all the advantages of this material class, the TE performance is still to be improved. A quantitative measure of a material's TE performance is the temperature-independent Figure of Merit ZT. ZT increases with decreasing thermal and increasing electrical conductivity. An approach to thermal conductivity reduction is nanostructuring of the material. The Ultrasonic Spray Combustion (USC) technique allows to produce powders with a grain size on the nanoscale and was tested in this study. (orig.)

  11. Parametric analysis of air–water heat recovery concept applied to HVAC systems: Effect of mass flow rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ramadan


    Full Text Available In the last three decades, the world has experienced enormous increases in energy and fuel consumption as a consequence of the economic and population growth. This causes renewable energy and energy recovery to become a requirement in building designs rather than option. The present work concerns a coupling between energy recovery and Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning HVAC domains and aims to apply heat recovery concepts to HVAC applications working on refrigeration cycles. It particularly uses the waste energy of the condenser hot air to heat/preheat domestic water. The heat exchanger considered in the recovery system is concentric tube heat exchanger. A thermal modeling of the complete system as well as a corresponding iterative code are developed and presented. Calculations with the code are performed and give pertinent magnitude orders of energy saving and management in HVAC applications. A parametric analysis based on several water and air flow rates is carried out. It was shown that water can be heated from 25 to 70 °C depending on the mass flow rates and cooling loads of the HVAC system. The most efficient configurations are obtained by lowering the air flow rate of the condenser fan.

  12. Static Mixer for Heat Transfer Enhancement for Mold Cooling Application (United States)

    Becerra, Rodolfo; Barbosa, Raul; Lee, Kye-Hwan; Park, Younggil

    Injection molding is the process by which a material is melted in a barrel and then it is injected through a nozzle in the mold cavity. When it cools down, the material solidifies into the shape of the cavity. Typical injection mold has cooling channels to maintain constant mold temperature during injection molding process. Even and constant temperature throughout the mold are very critical for a part quality and productivity. Conformal cooling improves the quality and productivity of injection molding process through the implementation of cooling channels that ``conform'' to the shape of the molded part. Recent years, the use of conformal cooling increases with advance of 3D printing technology such as Selective Laser Melting (SLM). Although it maximizes cooling, material and dimension limitations make SLM methods highly expensive. An alternative is the addition of static mixers in the molds with integrated cooling channels. A static mixer is a motionless mixing device that enhances heat transfer by producing improved flow mixing in the pipeline. In this study, the performance of the cooling channels will be evaluated with and without static mixers, by measuring temperature, pressure drop, and flow rate. The following question is addressed: Can a static mixer effectively enhance heat transfer for mold cooling application processes? This will provide insight on the development of design methods and guidelines that can be used to increase cooling efficiency at a lower cost.

  13. Using solar heat to enhance waste-heat use; Solarthermische Abwaermenutzung; Aufwertung von Abwaerme mittels Solarthermie zur Erzeugung hochwertiger Prozessenergie - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, R. [BMG Engineering AG, Schlieren (Switzerland); Luzzi, A.; Marty, H. [HSR, Hochschule fuer Technik, SPF Institut fuer Solartechnik, Rapperswil (Switzerland)


    This final report for Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the work done in a project involving the use of solar heat to enhance the use of waste heat at a chemical plant in Nyon, Switzerland. On the basis of a study carried out in 2006/2007, which looked at the reduction of process energy demand of a production site where an agent is produced in batch operation, possibilities for the recovery of waste heat were identified. The relatively low temperatures of the existing waste heat flows have, however, complicated its efficient use. This reflects a problem with waste heat use in industrial processes that can often be observed. Due to the sunny location in Nyon, a concept using solar energy to increase the temperature level of this waste heat has been developed. The objective of this analysis was the technical and economical assessment of such an installation and its transferability to other sites. Variants are presented and their economic viability is discussed.

  14. Surfactant Based Enhanced Oil Recovery and Foam Mobility Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller


    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactant structures makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. A mixture of two surfactants was found to be particularly effective for application in carbonate formations at low temperature. The mixture is single phase for higher salinity or calcium concentrations than that for either surfactant used alone. This makes it possible to inject the surfactant slug with polymer close to optimal conditions and yet be single phase. A formulation has been designed for a particular field application. It uses partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide for mobility control. The addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of naphthenic soap and significant reduction of synthetic surfactant adsorption. The design of the process to maximize the region of ultra-low IFT takes advantage of the observation that the ratio of soap to synthetic surfactant is a parameter in the conditions for optimal salinity. Even for a fixed ratio of soap to surfactant, the range of salinity for low IFT was wider than that reported for surfactant systems in the literature. Low temperature, forced displacement experiments in dolomite and silica sandpacks demonstrate that greater than 95% recovery of the waterflood remaining oil is possible with 0.2% surfactant concentration, 0.5 PV surfactant slug, with no alcohol. Compositional simulation of the displacement process demonstrates the role of soap/surfactant ratio on passage of the profile through the ultralow IFT region, the importance of a wide salinity range of low IFT, and the importance of the viscosity of the surfactant slug. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluated to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs as well as a

  15. Nutrition management in enhanced recovery after abdominal pancreatic surgery. (United States)

    Márquez Mesa, Elena; Baz Figueroa, Caleb; Suárez Llanos, José Pablo; Sanz Pereda, Pablo; Barrera Gómez, Manuel Ángel

    Multimodal rehabilitation programs are perioperative standardized strategies with the objective of improving patient recovery, and decreasing morbidity, hospital stay and health cost. The nutritional aspect is an essential component of multimodal rehabilitation programs and therefore nutritional screening is recommended prior to hospital admission, avoiding pre-surgical fasting, with oral carbohydrate overload and early initiation of oral intake after surgery. However, there are no standardized protocols of diet progression after pancreatic surgery. A systematic review was been performed of papers published between 2006 and 2016, describing different nutritional strategies after pancreatic surgery and its possible implications in postoperative outcome. The studies evaluated are very heterogeneous, so conclusive results could not be drawn on the diet protocol to be implemented, its influence on clinical variables, or the need for concomitant artificial nutrition. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Polymers for enhanced oil recovery: fundamentals and selection criteria. (United States)

    Rellegadla, Sandeep; Prajapat, Ganshyam; Agrawal, Akhil


    With a rising population, the demand for energy has increased over the years. As per the projections, both fossil fuel and renewables will remain as major energy source (678 quadrillion BTU) till 2030 with fossil fuel contributing 78% of total energy consumption. Hence, attempts are continuously made to make fossil fuel production more sustainable and cheaper. From the past 40 years, polymer flooding has been carried out in marginal oil fields and have proved to be successful in many cases. The common expectation from polymer flooding is to obtain 50% ultimate recovery with 15 to 20% incremental recovery over secondary water flooding. Both naturally derived polymers like xanthan gum and synthetic polymers like partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) have been used for this purpose. Earlier laboratory and field trials revealed that salinity and temperature are the major issues with the synthetic polymers that lead to polymer degradation and adsorption on the rock surface. Microbial degradation and concentration are major issues with naturally derived polymers leading to loss of viscosity and pore throat plugging. Earlier studies also revealed that polymer flooding is successful in the fields where oil viscosity is quite higher (up to 126 cp) than injection water due to improvement in mobility ratio during polymer flooding. The largest successful polymer flood was reported in China in 1990 where both synthetic and naturally derived polymers were used in nearly 20 projects. The implementation of these projects provides valuable suggestions for further improving the available processes in future. This paper examines the selection criteria of polymer, field characteristics that support polymer floods and recommendation to design a large producing polymer flooding.

  17. The RAPID protocol enhances patient recovery after both laparoscopic and open colorectal resections.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lloyd, G M


    Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs can accelerate recovery and shorten the hospital stay after colorectal resections. The RAPID (remove, ambulate, postoperative analgesia, introduce diet) protocol is a simplified ERAS program that consists of a simplified, user-friendly single-page pro forma schedule. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the RAPID protocol on patients undergoing both laparoscopic and open colorectal resections in two specialized colorectal units.

  18. American Society for Enhanced Recovery (ASER) and Perioperative Quality Initiative  (POQI) joint consensus statement on perioperative fluid management within an enhanced recovery pathway for colorectal surgery. (United States)

    Thiele, Robert H; Raghunathan, Karthik; Brudney, C S; Lobo, Dileep N; Martin, Daniel; Senagore, Anthony; Cannesson, Maxime; Gan, Tong Joo; Mythen, Michael Monty G; Shaw, Andrew D; Miller, Timothy E


    Enhanced recovery may be viewed as a comprehensive approach to improving meaningful outcomes in patients undergoing major surgery. Evidence to support enhanced recovery pathways (ERPs) is strong in patients undergoing colorectal surgery. There is some controversy about the adoption of specific elements in enhanced recovery "bundles" because the relative importance of different components of ERPs is hard to discern (a consequence of multiple simultaneous changes in clinical practice when ERPs are initiated). There is evidence that specific approaches to fluid management are better than alternatives in patients undergoing colorectal surgery; however, several specific questions remain. In the "Perioperative Quality Initiative (POQI) Fluids" workgroup, we developed a framework broadly applicable to the perioperative management of intravenous fluid therapy in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery within an ERP. We discussed aspects of ERPs that impact fluid management and made recommendations or suggestions on topics such as bowel preparation; preoperative oral hydration; intraoperative fluid therapy with and without devices for goal-directed fluid therapy; and type of fluid.

  19. Towards convective heat transfer enhancement: surface modification, characterization and measurement techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taha, T.J.; Thakur, D.B.; van der Meer, Theodorus H.


    In this work, heat transfer surface modification and heat transfer measurement technique is developed. Heat transfer investigation was aimed to study the effect of carbon nano fibers (extremely high thermal conductive material) on the enhancement level in heat transfer. Synthesis of these carbon

  20. Study on an advanced adsorption desalination cycle with evaporator–condenser heat recovery circuit

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw


    This paper presents the results of an investigation on the efficacy of a silica gel-water based advanced adsorption desalination (AD) cycle with internal heat recovery between the condenser and the evaporator. A mathematical model of the AD cycle was developed and the performance data were compared with the experimental results. The advanced AD cycle is able to produce the specific daily water production (SDWP) of 9.24 m3/tonne of silica gel per day at 70 °C hot water inlet temperature while the corresponding performance ratio (PR) is comparatively high at 0.77. It is found that the cycle can be operational at 50 °C hot water temperature with SDWP 4.3. The SDWP of the advanced cycle is almost twice that of the conventional AD cycle. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Experiments as to the influence of heat recovery from a bioreactor on sewage sludge disinfecting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarjanyi, J.; Strauch, D.; Philipp, W.

    The influence of heat recovery on the disinfecting effect of composting of sewage sludge in a bio-reactor (in-vessel-composting) was investigated in a reactor type Weiss-system Kneer. As test agents 3 different serovars of salmonella, Parvo- and Poliovirus and eggs of Ascaris suum were used. The experiments were done in a reactor which was fed with dewatered municipal sewage sludge mixed with waste-paper as C-carrier for better composting. Even under winter conditions the test agents were inactivated within the time which is characteristic for the passage of the composting material through the plug-flow reactor. These results cannot simply be applied without further investigation to other reactors of the same type but with different ways of operation. (orig.)

  2. Potential industrial applications for fluidized-bed waste heat recovery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, D.; Lytton, M.; Rao, C.


    Information was developed on potential applications of Fluidized-Bed Waste Heat Recovery Systems (FWHRS) in US industries that will assist the DOE in their decision to plan and participate in a demonstration project of the FWHRS. The study included a review of the literature and personal contacts (via telephone) with industry personnel with the objective to identify a limited number of applications. Technical and economic assessments for specific applications were accomplished by developing generalized design, performance, and cost parameters that could be applied based on selected critical characteristics of each potential application of the FWHR system. Waste energy streams identified included flue gas and off-gas from boilers, furnaces, and kiln. Utilization of the waste energy recovered included electric power generation, preheating combustion air and boiler feedwater, and drying. A course of action is recommended to DOE regarding generic users for demonstration projects.

  3. Waste heat recovery at the glass industry with the intervention of batch and cullet preheating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolianitis Ioannis


    Full Text Available A promising option to reduce the specific energy consumption and CO2 emissions at a conventional natural gas fired container glass furnace deals with the advanced utilization of the exhaust gases downstream the air regenerators by means of batch and cullet preheating. A 3-dimensional computational model that simulates this process using mass and heat transfer equations inside a preheater has been developed. A case study for an efficient small-sized container glass furnace is presented dealing with the investigation of the impact of different operating and design configurations on specific energy consumption, CO2 emissions, flue gas energy recovery, batch temperature and preheater efficiency. In specific, the effect of various parameters is studied, including the preheater’s dimensions, flue gas temperature, batch moisture content, glass pull, combustion air excess and cullet fraction. Expected energy savings margin is estimated to 12-15%.

  4. Investigation of austenitic alloys for advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, R.W.; Ren, W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    Alloys for design and construction of structural components needed to contain process streams and provide internal structures in advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems were examined. Emphasis was placed on high-strength, corrosion-resistant alloys for service at temperatures above 1000 {degrees}F (540{degrees}C). Data were collected that related to fabrication, joining, corrosion protection, and failure criteria. Alloys systems include modified type 310 and 20Cr-25Ni-Nb steels and sulfidation-resistance alloys HR120 and HR160. Types of testing include creep, stress-rupture, creep crack growth, fatigue, and post-exposure short-time tensile. Because of the interest in relatively inexpensive alloys for high temperature service, a modified type 310 stainless steel was developed with a target strength of twice that for standard type 310 stainless steel.

  5. Investigation of austenitic alloys for advanced heat recovery and hot-gas cleanup systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    Materials properties were collected for the design and construction of structural components for use in advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems. Alloys systems included 9Cr-1Mo-V steel, modified 316 stainless steel, modified type 310 stainless steel, modified 20Cr-25Ni-Nb stainless steel, and modified alloy 800. Experimental work was undertaken to expand the databases for potentially useful alloys. Types of testing included creep, stress-rupture, creep-crack growth, fatigue, and post-exposure short-time tensile tests. Because of the interest in relatively inexpensive alloys for service at 700 C and higher, research emphasis was placed on a modified type 310 stainless steel and a modified 20Cr-25Ni-Nb stainless steel. Both steels were found to have useful strength to 925 C with good weldability and ductility.

  6. Investigation of austenitic alloys for advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, R.W.; Ren, W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    Materials properties were collected for the design and construction of structural components for use in advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems. Alloys systems included 9Cr-1Mo-V steel, modified 316 stainless steel, modified type 310 stainless steel, modified 20Cr-25Ni-Nb stainless steel, modified alloy 800, and two sulfidation resistant alloys: HR160 and HR120. Experimental work was undertaken to expand the databases for potentially useful alloys. Types of testing included creep, stress-rupture, creep-crack growth, fatigue, and post-exposure short-time tensile tests. Because of the interest in relatively inexpensive alloys for service at 700{degrees}C and higher, research emphasis was placed on a modified type 310 stainless steel and a modified 20Cr-25Ni-Nb stainless steel. Both steels were found to have useful strength to 925{degrees}C with good weldability and ductility.

  7. [Guidelines for enhanced recovery after elective colorectal surgery]. (United States)

    Alfonsi, P; Slim, K; Chauvin, M; Mariani, P; Faucheron, J-L; Fletcher, D


    Early recovery after surgery provides patients with all means to counteract or minimize the deleterious effects of surgery. This concept is suitable for a surgical procedure (e.g., colorectal surgery) and comes in the form of a clinical pathway that covers three periods (pre-, intra- and postoperative). The purpose of this Expert panel guideline is firstly to assess the impact of each parameter usually included in the rehabilitation programs on 6 foreseeable consequences of colorectal surgery: surgical stress, postoperative ileus, water and energy imbalance, postoperative immobility, sleep alterations and postoperative complications; secondly, to validate the usefulness of each as criteria of efficiency criteria for success of rehabilitation programs. Two main criteria were selected to evaluate the impact of each parameter: the length of stay and frequency of postoperative complications. Lack of information in the literature forced experts to assess some parameters with criteria (duration of postoperative ileus or quality of analgesia) that mainly surrogate a positive impact for the implementation of an early recovery program. After literature analysis, 19 parameters were identified as potentially interfering with at least one of the foreseeable consequences of colorectal surgery. GRADE® methodology was applied to determine a level of evidence and strength of recommendation. After synthesis of the work of experts using GRADE® method on 19 parameters, 35 recommendations were produced by the organizing committee. The recommendations were submitted and amended by a group of reviewers. After three rounds of Delphi quotes, strong agreement was obtained for 28 recommendations (80%) and weak agreement for seven recommendations. A consensus was reached among anesthesiologists and surgeons on a number of approaches that are likely not sufficiently applied for rehabilitation programs in colorectal surgery such as: preoperative intake of carbohydrates; intraoperative

  8. Biomass gasification for CHP with dry gas cleaning and regenerative heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Small scale CHP plants based on biomass gasification technologies are generally expensive and not very efficient due to gas quality problems which increase operation and maintenance cost as well as breakdown. To overcome this situation the team has developed, integrated and tested a complete biomass gasification combine heat and power prototype plant of 250 kWth equipped with a specifically developed dry gas cleaning and heat recovery system. The dry gas cleaning device is a simple dry gas regenerative heat exchanger where tars are stopped by condensation but working at a temperature above due point in order to avoid water condensation. Two types of heat particles separation devices have been tested in parallel multi-cyclone and ceramic filters. After several month spent on modelling design, construction and optimisation, a full test campaign of 400 hours continuous monitoring has been done where all working parameters has been monitored and gas cleaning device performances has been assessed. Results have shown: Inappropriateness of the ceramic filters for the small scale unit due to operation cost and too high sensibility of the filters to the operation conditions fluctuating in a wide range, despite a very high particle separation efficiency 99 %; Rather good efficiency of the multi-cyclone 72% but not sufficient for engine safety. Additional conventional filters where necessary for the finest part; Inappropriateness of the dry gas heat exchanger device for tar removal partly due to a low tar content of the syngas generated, below 100 mg/Nm{sup 3} , but also due to their composition which would have imposed, to be really efficient, a theoretical condensing temperature of 89 C below the water condensation temperature. These results have been confirmed by laboratory tests and modelling. However the tar cracking phase have shown very interesting results and proved the feasibility of thermal cracking with full cleaning of the heat exchanger without further mechanical

  9. Effect of iron saturation on the recovery of lactoferrin in rennet whey coming from heat-treated skim milk. (United States)

    Brisson, G; Britten, M; Pouliot, Y


    This study aimed to determine the effect of thermal treatments on the recovery of lactoferrin in whey coming from rennet-coagulated skim milk. The impact of lactoferrin iron saturation was also assessed using skim milk spiked with different lactoferrin iron forms. The recovery of lactoferrin in the rennet whey fraction was determined by reverse-phase HPLC. One- and 2-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate PAGE analyses were performed on rennet curds to characterize the protein interactions involving lactoferrin in heated milk. The extent of lactoferrin recovered in the whey fraction was found to reduce as the heating temperature increased. The binding of iron by lactoferrin improved its thermal stability and its recovery in the whey fraction. Poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis results showed that the association of lactoferrin in the unheated milk rennet curd involved noncovalent interactions, whereas upon heating, lactoferrin also interacted via an intermolecular disulfide link. Depending on the severity of the heat treatment, lactoferrin aggregates with Cys-containing proteins (beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, alpha(s2)-casein, and kappa-casein) occurred by intermolecular thiol/disulfide exchange reactions. These noncovalent and covalent interactions explained the lower recovery of lactoferrin in heated milk.

  10. Introduction of enhanced recovery for elective caesarean section enabling next day discharge: a tertiary centre experience. (United States)

    Wrench, I J; Allison, A; Galimberti, A; Radley, S; Wilson, M J


    The widespread adoption of enhanced recovery programmes in various surgical specialties has resulted in patient benefits including reduced morbidity, reduced length of stay and an earlier return to normal activities. This evidence, along with the increased financial pressures in the UK National Health Service, has led many units to consider introducing such a programme for obstetric surgery. We report our experience in setting up an enhanced recovery programme for women undergoing elective caesarean section and a prospective analysis of factors that influence length of stay. An enhanced recovery pathway was designed by a multidisciplinary team and introduced in March 2012. Factors influencing length of stay were determined using a log normal model. The proportion of women discharged on Day 1 increased from 1.6% in the first quarter of 2012 to 25.2% in the first quarter of 2014. The 30-day readmission rate was 4.4% for those discharged on Day 1 and 5.6% for Day 2. Earlier gestation, multiple birth, intention to breast feed, longer surgery and more time in the post-anaesthesia recovery unit were all independently associated with a longer postoperative stay. Women presenting for obstetric surgery with the indication "one previous caesarean section" were more likely to leave hospital earlier compared to most other indications. An enhanced recovery programme was successfully introduced into our unit. Many of the interventions were straightforward and could be adopted easily elsewhere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characteristics on the heat storage and recovery by the underground spiral heat exchange pipe; Chichu maisetsu spiral kan ni yoru chikunetsu shunetsu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, I. [Kure National College of Technology, Hiroshima (Japan); Taga, M. [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan)


    The consistency between the experimental value of a soil temperature and the calculation value of a soil temperature given by a non-steady heat conduction equation was confirmed. The experimental value is obtained by laying a spiral heat exchange pipe in the heat-insulated soil box and circulating hot water forcibly in the pipe. The temperature conductivity in soil significantly influences the heat transfer in soil. The storage performance is improved when the temperature conductivity increases because of the contained moisture. As the difference between the initial soil temperature and circulating water temperature becomes greater, the heat storage and recovery values increase. A thermal core heat transfer is done in the spiral pipe. Therefore, the diameter of the pipe little influences the heat storage performance, and the pitch influences largely. About 50 hours after heat is stored, the storage performance is almost the same as for a straight pipe that uses the spiral diameter as a pipe diameter. To obtain the same heat storage value, the spiral pipe is made of fewer materials than the straight pipe and low in price. The spiral pipe is more advantageous than the straight pipe in the necessary motive power and supply heat of a pump. 1 ref., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  12. ICRF heated enhanced performance modes and mode conversion electron heating in alcator C-mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takase, Y.; Golovato, S.; Porkolab, M.; Boivin, R.; Bombarda, F.; Bonoli, P.; Fiore, C.; Garnier, D.; Goetz, J.; Graf, M.; Granetz, R.; Greenwald, M.; Horne, S.; Hubbard, A.; Hutchinson, I.; Irby, J.; LaBombard, B.; Lipschultz, B.; Majeski, R.; Marmar, E.; May, M.; Mazurenko, A.; McCracken, G.; OShea, P.; Pinsker, R.; Reardon, J.; Rice, J.; Rost, C.; Snipes, J.; Terry, J.; Watterson, R.; Welch, B.; Wolfe, S. [MIT Plasma Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)


    D(H) minority heating experiments were performed at {ital B}{sub {ital T}}=5.3 T with up to 3.5 MW of RF power. The highest stored energy of 130 kJ was achieved in an ELM-free H-mode plasma. The H-mode power threshold is roughly consistent with the ITER scaling, {ital P}/{ital S}=0.044{bar {ital n}}{sub {ital eB}}{sub {ital T}}, but H-modes have been obtained at power levels as much as a factor of two below this scaling. H-factors of up to 1.5 have been observed in ELM-free H-mode plasmas. The highest fusion reactivity of 9{times}10{sup 13} sec{sup {minus}1} was obtained in a PEP H-mode plasma with lithium pellet injection and on-axis ICRF heating. These discharges are characterized by highly peaked density and ion temperature profiles, with fusion reactivity enhanced by typically an order of magnitude above similar L-mode discharges. Effective localized direct electron heating by mode converted IBW was observed in H-{sup 3}He plasmas (analogous to D-T plasmas) at 6.5 T. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Reciprocating Expander for an Exhaust Heat Recovery Rankine Cycle for a Passenger Car Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osoko Shonda


    Full Text Available Nowadays, on average, two thirds of the fuel energy consumed by an engine is wasted through the exhaust gases and the cooling liquid. The recovery of this energy would enable a substantial reduction in fuel consumption. One solution is to integrate a heat recovery system based on a steam Rankine cycle. The key component in such a system is the expander, which has a strong impact on the system’s performance. A survey of different expander technologies leads us to select the reciprocating expander as the most promising one for an automotive application. This paper therefore proposes a steady-state semi-empirical model of the expander device developed under the Engineering Equation Solver (EES environment. The ambient and mechanical losses as well as internal leakage were taken into account by the model. By exploiting the expander manufacturer’s data, all the parameters of the expander model were identified. The model computes the mass flow rate, the power output delivered and the exhaust enthalpy of the steam. The maximum deviation between predictions and measurement data is 4.7%. A performance study of the expander is carried out and shows that the isentropic efficiency is quite high and increases with the expander rotary speed. The mechanical efficiency depends on mechanical losses which are quite high, approximately 90%. The volumetric efficiency was also evaluated.

  14. Deformation of HyFlex CM instruments and their shape recovery following heat sterilization. (United States)

    Alfoqom Alazemi, M; Bryant, S T; Dummer, P M H


    To assess the deformation of HyFlex CM instruments (Coltene Whaledent) when used in two instrumentation sequences and to assess their shape recovery after heat sterilization. Simulated root canals with four different shapes were prepared with HyFlex CM instruments using a single-length technique (n = 40) or a crown down technique (n = 40). Pre-preparation, post-preparation and post-sterilization standardized images of each instrument were recorded. Assessment of instrument deformation and their subsequent shape recovery was carried out visually and by comparing the digitised images. Data analysis was carried out using chi-square tests. None of the 400 instruments fractured. Visual assessment of instruments post-preparation revealed that 30.5% had unwound and 0.5% had reverse winding. Following sterilization 8.5% remained unwound and 0.5% remained with reverse winding. When assessing instrument shape using digital images, 35.25% were unwound post-preparation, which reduced to 11% post-sterilization. Nine size 25, 0.08 instruments deformed, but none fully regained their original shape after sterilization; however, other sizes of deformed instruments did regain their shape (P < 0.001). Approximately one third of instruments became deformed as a result of use. However, two thirds of these fully recovered their shape following sterilization. The number of deformed instruments was underestimated when no magnification was used for assessment. Instrument size was related to incidence of deformation and shape recovery. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Radial turbine expander design for organic rankine cycle, waste heat recovery in high efficiency, off-highway vehicles


    Alshammari, F.; Karvountzis-Kontakiotis, A; Pesiridis, A


    Although state-of-the-art, heavy duty diesel engines of today can reach peak thermal efficiencies of approximately 45%, still most of the fuel energy is transformed into wasted heat in the internal combustion process. Recovering this wasted energy could increase the overall thermal efficiency of the engine as well as reduce the exhaust gas emissions. Compared to other Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) technologies, Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) systems are regarded favourably due to their relative simp...

  16. Advances and Outlooks of Heat Transfer Enhancement by Longitudinal Vortex Generators

    CERN Document Server

    He, Ya-Ling


    In the last several decades, heat transfer enhancements using extended surface (fins) has received considerable attentions. A new heat transfer enhancement technique, longitudinal vortex generators (LVG), has received significant attention since the 1990s. It is activated by a special type of extended surface that can generate vortices with axes parallel to the main flow direction. The vortices result from strong swirling secondary flow caused by flow separation and friction. The state-of-the-art on research and applications of LVG are described here. The topical coverage includes heat transfer enhancement in straight channels and in heat exchangers. Among the latter are plate and wavy fin-and-tube heat exchangers, fin-and-oval-tube heat exchangers, and fin-and-tube heat exchangers with multiple rows of tubes. The trends and future directions of heat transfer enhancement by means of LVG are discussed.

  17. Acoustic Streaming and Heat and Mass Transfer Enhancement (United States)

    Trinh, E. H.; Gopinath, A.


    A second order effect associated with high intensity sound field, acoustic streaming has been historically investigated to gain a fundamental understanding of its controlling mechanisms and to apply it to practical aspects of heat and mass transfer enhancement. The objectives of this new research project are to utilize a unique experimental technique implementing ultrasonic standing waves in closed cavities to study the details of the generation of the steady-state convective streaming flows and of their interaction with the boundary of ultrasonically levitated near-spherical solid objects. The goals are to further extend the existing theoretical studies of streaming flows and sample interactions to higher streaming Reynolds number values, for larger sample size relative to the wavelength, and for a Prandtl and Nusselt numbers parameter range characteristic of both gaseous and liquid host media. Experimental studies will be conducted in support to the theoretical developments, and the crucial impact of microgravity will be to allow the neglect of natural thermal buoyancy. The direct application to heat and mass transfer in the absence of gravity will be emphasized in order to investigate a space-based experiment, but both existing and novel ground-based scientific and technological relevance will also be pursued.

  18. Numerical Heat Transfer Studies of a Latent Heat Storage System Containing Nano-Enhanced Phase Change Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S F Hosseinizadeh


    Full Text Available The heat transfer enhancement in the latent heat thermal energy storage system through dispersion of nanoparticle is reported. The resulting nanoparticle-enhanced phase change materials (NEPCM exhibit enhanced thermal conductivity in comparison to the base material. The effects of nanoparticle volume fraction and some other parameters such as natural convection are studied in terms of solid fraction and the shape of the solid-liquid phase front. It has been found that higher nanoparticle volume fraction result in a larger solid fraction. The present results illustrate that the suspended nanoparticles substantially increase the heat transfer rate and also the nanofluid heat transfer rate increases with an increase in the nanoparticles volume fraction. The increase of the heat release rate of the NEPCM shows its great potential for diverse thermal energy storage application.

  19. The effects of cranial cooling during recovery on subsequent uncompensable heat stress tolerance. (United States)

    Wallace, Phillip J; Masbou, Anaïs T; Petersen, Stewart R; Cheung, Stephen S


    This study compared cranial (CC) with passive (CON) cooling during recovery on tolerance to subsequent exercise while wearing firefighting protective ensemble and self-contained breathing apparatus in a hot-humid environment. Eleven males (mean ± SD; age, 30.9 ± 9.2 years; peak oxygen consumption, 49.5 ± 5.1 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)) performed 2 × 20 min treadmill walks (5.6 km · h(-1), 4% incline) in 35 °C and 60% relative humidity. During a 20-min recovery (rest), participants sat and removed gloves, helmets, and flash hoods but otherwise remained encapsulated. A close-fitting liquid-perfused hood pumped 13 °C water at ∼ 500 mL · min(-1) through the head and neck (CC) or no cooling hood was worn (CON). During rest, neck temperature was lower in CC compared with CON from 4 min (CC: 35.73 ± 3.28 °C, CON: 37.66 ± 1.35 °C, p = 0.025) until the end (CC: 33.06 ± 4.70 °C, CON: 36.85 ± 1.63 °C, p = 0.014). Rectal temperature rose in both CC (0.11 ± 0.19 °C) and CON (0.26 ± 0.15 °C) during rest, with nonsignificant interaction between conditions (p = 0.076). Perceived thermal stress was lower (p = 0.006) from 5 min of CC (median: 3 (quartile 1: 3, quartile 3: 4)) until the end of rest compared with CON (median: 4 (quartile 1: 4, quartile 3: 4)). However, there were no significant differences (p = 0.906) in tolerance times during the second exercise between CC (16.55 ± 1.14 min) and CON (16.60 ± 1.31 min), nor were there any difference in rectal temperature at the start (CC: 38.30 ± 0.40 °C, CON: 38.40 ± 0.16 °C, p = 0.496) or at the end (CC: 38.82 ± 0.23 °C, CON: 39.07 ± 0.22 °C, p = 0.173). With high ambient heat and encapsulation, cranial and neck cooling during recovery decreases physiological strain and perceived thermal stress, but is ineffective in improving subsequent uncompensable heat stress tolerance.

  20. MHD heat and seed recovery technology project. Tenth quarterly report, April-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrick, M.; Johnson, T. R.


    The MHD Heat and Seed Recovery Technology Project at Argonne National Laboratory is obtaining information for the design and operation of the steam plant downstream of the MHD channel-diffuser, and of the seed regeneration process. The project goal is to supply the engineering data required in the design of components for prototype and demonstration MHD facilities. The primary effort of the HSR Technology Project at Argonne is directed toward experimental investigations of critical problem areas, such as (1) corrosion and erosion of refractories and metal alloys; (2) NO/sub x/ behavior in the radiant boiler and secondary combustor; (3) radiant boiler design to meet the multiple requirements of steam generation, NO/sub x/ decomposition, and seed-slag separation; (4) effects of solid or liquid seed deposits on heat transfer and gas flow in the steam and air heaters; (5) formation, growth, and deposition of seed-slag particles; and (6) character of the combustion gas effluents. These investigations are performed primarily in a 2-MW test facility, the Argonne MHD Process Engineering Laboratory (AMPEL). Other project activities are related to studies of the thermochemistry of the seed-slag combustion gas system, and evaluation of seed regeneration processes. Progress is reported.

  1. MHD heat and seed recovery technology project. Ninth quarterly report, January-March 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrick, Michael; Johnson, Terry R.


    The MHD Heat and Seed Recovery Technology Project at Argonne National Laboratory is obtaining information for the design and operation of the steam plant downstream of the MHD channel-diffuser, and of the seed regeneration process. The project goal is to supply the engineering data required in the design of components for prototype and demonstration MHD facilities. The primary effort of the HSR Technology Project at Argonne is directed toward experimental investigations of critical problem areas, such as (1) NO/sub x/ behavior in the radiant boiler and secondary combustor; (2) radiant boiler design to meet the multiple requirements of steam generation, NO/sub x/ decomposition, and seed-slag separation; (3) effects of solid or liquid seed deposits on heat transfer and gas flow in the steam and air heaters; (4) formation, growth, and deposition of seed-slag particles; and (5) character of the combustion gas effluents. These investigations are performed primarily in a 2-MW test facility, Argonne MHD Process Engineering Laboratory (AMPEL). Other project activities are related to studies of the thermochemistry of the seed-slag combustion gas system, identification of ceramic and metallic materials for service in the MHD-steam plant, and evaluation of seed regeneration processes. Progress is described.

  2. The use of mechanical ventilation with heat recovery for controlling radon and radondaughter concentrations in houses (United States)

    Nazaroff, W. W.; Boegel, M. L.; Hollowell, C. D.; Roseme, G. D.

    An energy research house in Maryland was found to have radon concentrations far in excess of recommended guidelines. A mechanical ventilation system with heat recovery was installed in this house to test its effectiveness as an energy-efficient control technique for indoor radon. Radon concentration was monitored continuously for 2 weeks under varying ventilation conditions [0.07-0.8 air changes per hour (ach)] and radondaughter concentrations were measured by grab-sample techniques about nine times daily during this period. At ventilation rates of 0.6 ach and higher, radon-daughter levels dropped below guidelines for indoor concentrations. Comparison with other studies indicates that indoor radon buildup may be a problem in a considerable portion of houses characterized by their low infiltration rates. The use of mechanical ventilation systems with air-to-air heat exchangers may offer a practical, cost-effective and energy-efficient means of alleviating not only the radon problem specifically but also the general deterioration of indoor air quality in many houses designed or retrofitted to achieve low infiltration.

  3. Final Scientific/Technical Report [Recovery Act: Districtwide Geothermal Heating Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterton, Mike [McKinstry, Meridian, ID (United States)


    The Recovery Act: Districtwide Geothermal Heating Conversion project performed by the Blaine County School District was part of a larger effort by the District to reduce operating costs, address deferred maintenance items, and to improve the learning environment of the students. This project evaluated three options for the ground source which were Open-Loop Extraction/Re-injection wells, Closed-Loop Vertical Boreholes, and Closed-Loop Horizontal Slinky approaches. In the end the Closed-Loop Horizontal Slinky approach had the lowest total cost of ownership but the majority of the sites associated with this project did not have enough available ground area to install the system so the second lowest option was used (Open-Loop). In addition to the ground source, this project looked at ways to retrofit existing HVAC systems with new high efficiency systems. The end result was the installation of distributed waterto- air heat pumps with water-to-water heat pumps installed to act as boilers/chillers for areas with a high ventilation demand such as they gymnasiums. A number of options were evaluated and the lowest total cost of ownership approach was implemented in the majority of the facilities. The facilities where the lowest total cost of ownership approaches was not selected were done to maintain consistency of the systems from facility to facility. This project had a number of other benefits to the Blaine County public. The project utilizes guaranteed energy savings to justify the levy funds expended. The project also developed an educational dashboard that can be used in the classrooms and to educate the community on the project and its performance. In addition, the majority of the installation work was performed by contractors local to Blaine County which acted as an economic stimulus to the area during a period of recession.

  4. [Recovery]. (United States)

    Estingoy, Pierrette; Gilliot, Élodie; Parisot, Clément


    The historical fatalism of the impossibility of recovering from psychosis eased from the 1970s with the shaping of the idea of a possible recovery. Recovery is today the objective for the patient and caregivers. The key to achieving this lies in the encounter with Others. A collective approach, on the level of the institution, must be established. The aim is to create opportunities for the patient to express their doubts and feelings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. A comparison study on energy savings and fungus growth control using heat recovery devices in a modern tropical operating theatre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yau, Y.H., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ng, W.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)


    Research highlights: {yields} The paper can be used as a comprehensive guide for building services engineers. {yields} Energy is wasted in overcooling and reheating processes in the reheat system. {yields} The recovery wheel integrated system is a good choice for heat recovery purpose. {yields} The heat pipe heat exchanger system is the best choice for energy saving purpose. -- Abstract: Fungus growth has always been a problem in hot and humid areas. This particular problem is crucial for operating theatre as it could affect the success rate of operations. Many postoperative fungus infection cases had occurred in the past, and it is generally agreed that air-conditioning system play a very important role in resolving the fungus growth problem. Besides air quality, the energy consumption level of air-conditioning system is also very important. In this study, the operating theatre 3 in Putrajaya Hospital, Malaysia was chosen as the research subject. The air-conditioning system for OT3 was redesigned with the energy recovery wheel, desiccant dehumidifier and heat pipe heat exchanger to achieve the objectives of this study. A computer program called Transient system simulation program (TRNSYS) was utilized for analysis in this research. From the outcome of simulations, it was found that the heat pipe heat exchanger could reduce the most energy consumed by the air-conditioning system. It managed to reduce the energy consumption by 57.85%. Moreover, the payback period of the device is only 0.95 years, which is the shortest among all the systems studied. Therefore, applying heat pipe heat exchanger is a good choice to save energy and resolve fungus growth problem in hot and humid areas.

  6. Enhanced convective heat transfer using graphene dispersed nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baby Tessy


    Full Text Available Abstract Nanofluids are having wide area of application in electronic and cooling industry. In the present work, hydrogen exfoliated graphene (HEG dispersed deionized (DI water, and ethylene glycol (EG based nanofluids were developed. Further, thermal conductivity and heat transfer properties of these nanofluids were systematically investigated. HEG was synthesized by exfoliating graphite oxide in H2 atmosphere at 200°C. The nanofluids were prepared by dispersing functionalized HEG (f-HEG in DI water and EG without the use of any surfactant. HEG and f-HEG were characterized by powder X-ray diffractometry, electron microscopy, Raman and FTIR spectroscopy. Thermal and electrical conductivities of f-HEG dispersed DI water and EG based nanofluids were measured for different volume fractions and at different temperatures. A 0.05% volume fraction of f-HEG dispersed DI water based nanofluid shows an enhancement in thermal conductivity of about 16% at 25°C and 75% at 50°C. The enhancement in Nusselts number for these nanofluids is more than that of thermal conductivity.

  7. High-efficient heat recovery at the Medical Centre Leeuwarden (MCL), Netherlands; HR-warmteterugwinning bij MCL (Medisch Centrum Leeuwarden)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuppen, F.M.M. [Energie Management Consult, Drachten (Netherlands)


    The title centre (MCL) is applying heat recovery technology to the air conditioning system in the pharmacy. Good ventilation using outside air, combined with a constant temperature in summer and winter are very important for the shelf life of the stored medicines and ensuring a healthy working climate for the personnel. The MCL opted for a so-called high-efficient Kantherm unit

  8. System analysis and optimisation of a Kalina split-cycle for waste heat recovery on large marine diesel engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Knudsen, Thomas


    change characteristics of the ammonia-water working fluid. The present study investigates a unique type of Kalina process called the Split-cycle, applied to the exhaust heat recovery from large marine engines. In the Split-cycle, the working fluid concentration can be changed during the evaporation...

  9. External muscle heating during warm-up does not provide added performance benefit above external heating in the recovery period alone. (United States)

    Faulkner, Steve H; Ferguson, Richard A; Hodder, Simon G; Havenith, George


    Having previously shown the use of passive external heating between warm-up completion and sprint cycling to have had a positive effect on muscle temperature (T m) and maximal sprint performance, we sought to determine whether adding passive heating during active warm up was of further benefit. Ten trained male cyclists completed a standardised 15 min sprint based warm-up on a cycle ergometer, followed by 30 min passive recovery before completing a 30 s maximal sprint test. Warm up was completed either with or without additional external passive heating. During recovery, external passive leg heating was used in both standard warm-up (CONHOT) and heated warm-up (HOTHOT) conditions, for control, a standard tracksuit was worn (CON). T m declined exponentially during CON, CONHOT and HOTHOT reduced the exponential decline during recovery. Peak (11.1 %, 1561 ± 258 W and 1542 ± 223 W), relative (10.6 % 21.0 ± 2.2 W kg(-1) and 20.9 ± 1.8 W kg(-1)) and mean (4.1 %, 734 ± 126 W and 729 ± 125 W) power were all improved with CONHOT and HOTHOT, respectively compared to CON (1,397 ± 239 W; 18.9 ± 3.0 W kg(-1) and 701 ± 109 W). There was no additional benefit of HOTHOT on T m or sprint performance compared to CONHOT. External heating during an active warm up does not provide additional physiological or performance benefit. As noted previously, external heating is capable of reducing the rate of decline in T m after an active warm-up, improving subsequent sprint cycling performance.

  10. Compound heat transfer enhancement for shell side of double-pipe heat exchanger by helical fins and vortex generators (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Guo, Hongmei; Wu, Jianhua; Du, Wenjuan


    To improve heat transfer performance of shell side of double-pipe heat exchanger with helical fins on its inner tube, some vortex generators (VGs) were installed along the centerline of the helical channel. Heat transfer performance and pressure drop characteristic of the enhanced heat exchangers were investigated using air as the working fluid and steam as the heating medium. The helical fins were in the annulus and span its full width at different helical pitch. Wing-type VGs (delta or rectangular wing) and winglet-type VGs (delta or rectangular winglet pair) were used to combine with helical fins. The friction factor and Nusselt number can be well correlated by power-law correlations in the Reynolds number range studied. In order to evaluate the thermal performance of the shell side enhanced over the shell side without enhancement, comparisons were made under three constraints: (1) identical mass flow rate, IMF; (2) identical pressure drop, IPD and (3) identical pumping power, IPP. The results show the shell side enhanced by the compound heat transfer enhancement has better performance than the shell side only enhanced by helical fins at shorter helical pitch under the three constraints.

  11. Enhanced heat transport in environmental systems using microencapsulated phase change materials (United States)

    Colvin, D. P.; Mulligan, J. C.; Bryant, Y. G.


    A methodology for enhanced heat transport and storage that uses a new two-component fluid mixture consisting of a microencapsulated phase change material (microPCM) for enhanced latent heat transport is outlined. SBIR investigations for NASA, USAF, SDIO, and NSF since 1983 have demonstrated the ability of the two-component microPCM coolants to provide enhancements in heat transport up to 40 times over that of the carrier fluid alone, enhancements of 50 to 100 percent in the heat transfer coefficient, practically isothermal operation when the coolant flow is circulated in an optimal manner, and significant reductions in pump work.

  12. Offsetting Water Requirements and Stress with Enhanced Water Recovery from CO2 Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, Kelsey Anne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) operations ultimately require injecting and storing CO2 into deep saline aquifers. Reservoir pressure typically rises as CO2 is injected increasing the cost and risk of CCUS and decreasing viable storage within the formation. Active management of the reservoir pressure through the extraction of brine can reduce the pressurization while providing a number of benefits including increased storage capacity for CO2, reduced risks linked to reservoir overpressure, and CO2 plume management. Through enhanced water recovery (EWR), brine within the saline aquifer can be extracted and treated through desalination technologies which could be used to offset the water requirements for thermoelectric power plants or local water needs such as agriculture, or produce a marketable such as lithium through mineral extraction. This paper discusses modeled scenarios of CO2 injection into the Rock Springs Uplift (RSU) formation in Wyoming with EWR. The Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer Code (FEHM), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), was used to model CO2 injection with brine extraction and the corresponding pressure tradeoffs. Scenarios were compared in order to analyze how pressure management through the quantity and location of brine extraction wells can increase CO2 storage capacity and brine extraction while reducing risks associated with over pressurization. Future research will couple a cost-benefit analysis to these simulations in order to determine if the benefit of subsurface pressure management and increase CO2 storage capacity can outweigh multiple extraction wells with increased cost of installation and maintenance as well as treatment and/or disposal of the extracted brine.

  13. Myocardial Late Gadolinium Enhancement : Accuracy of T1 Mapping-based Synthetic Inversion-Recovery Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varga-Szemes, Akos; van der Geest, Rob J.; Spottiswoode, Bruce S.; Suranyi, Pal; Ruzsics, Balazs; De Cecco, Carlo N.; Muscogiuri, Giuseppe; Cannao, Paola M.; Fox, Mary A.; Wichmann, Julian L.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Schoepf, U. Joseph

    Purpose: To compare the accuracy of detection and quantification of myocardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) with a synthetic inversion-recovery (IR) approach with that of conventional IR techniques. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board and

  14. Energy supply strategy: getting technology commercialized, shale oil and enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steger, J.E.; Sullo, P.; Michaelis, M.; Nason, H.K.


    Purpose is to identify factors inhibiting the near-term investment of industrial funds for producing oil from shale and through enhanced oil recovery, and to estimate the investment and production which would result if these deterrents were removed and suitable incentives provided. The barriers are discussed under the following categories: economic, environmental, institutional/regulatory, and technical. (DLC)

  15. 30 CFR 250.1165 - What must I do for enhanced recovery operations? (United States)


    ... Regional Supervisor. (c) You must report to Minerals Revenue Management the volumes of oil, gas, or other... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production... promptly initiate enhanced oil and gas recovery operations for all reservoirs where these operations would...

  16. Responsive copolymers for enhanced petroleum recovery. Quarterly technical progress report, March 22, 1994--June 21, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, C.; Hester, R.


    In this report, the authors consider the synthesis of copolymers of interest in the enhanced recovery of petroleum. Acrylamide and N,N-dimethyl-N-dodecyl-N-(2-amidoethyl) ammonium bromide copolymers were synthesized and characterized by various instrumental methods. The rheological properties of this copolymer were investigated using a porous media elongation rheometer.

  17. Reverse Electro-Enhanced Dialysis for lactate recovery from a fermentation broth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado Rubio, Oscar Andres; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil


    A model based investigation is performed on the potential lactate recovery under current reversal conditions in a dialytic module. This technology has been referred to as the Reverse Electro-Enhanced Dialysis (REED). A description of the process, operation modes and antifouling mechanism is prese...

  18. Towards the understanding of microbial metabolism in relation to microbial enhanced oil recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Nielsen, Kristian Fog


    In this study, Bacillus licheniformis 421 was used as a model organism to understand the effects of microbial cell growth and metabolite production under anaerobic conditions in relation to microbial enhanced oil recovery. The bacterium was able to grow anaerobically on different carbon compounds...

  19. Virtual nature environment with nature sound exposure induce stress recovery by enhanced parasympathetic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Annerstedt, Matilda; Jönsson, Peter; Wallergård, Mattias


    of nature) and in one control condition. Cardiovascular data and saliva cortisol were collected. Repeated ANOVA measurements indicated parasympathetic activation in the group subjected to sounds of nature in a virtual natural environment, suggesting enhanced stress recovery may occur in such surroundings...

  20. Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) versus conventional postoperative care in colorectal surgery.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeuwen, P.H.; Bleichrodt, R.P.; Strik, C.; Groenewoud, J.J.; Brinkert, W.; Laarhoven, C.J.H.M. van; Goor, H. van; Bremers, A.J.A.


    BACKGROUND: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programs are associated with reduced hospital morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the introduction of ERAS care improved the adverse events in colorectal surgery. In a cohort study, mortality, morbidity, and

  1. 26 CFR 1.43-1 - The enhanced oil recovery credit-general rules. (United States)


    ... mineral interest in a property, incurs $100 of qualified enhanced oil recovery costs. The reference price.... E's credit for 1992 determined without regard to the phase-out for crude oil price increases is $15... determined without regard to the phase-out for crude oil price increases is $15 ($100 × 15%). In determining...

  2. Prospects of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery  in Danish chalk rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudyk, Svetlana Nikolayevna; Jørgensen, Leif Wagner; Bah Awasi, Ismail

      Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) uses bacteria, producing gas (CO2), polymers or surfactants to help recover residual oil after the water injection depletes its possibilities. Two strains of Clostridia tyrobutiricum were investigated as possible candidates for MEOR  implementation in Danish...

  3. Role of nutrition in performance enhancement and postexercise recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck KL


    Full Text Available Kathryn L Beck,1 Jasmine S Thomson,2 Richard J Swift,1 Pamela R von Hurst11School of Food and Nutrition, Massey Institute of Food Science and Technology, College of Health, Massey University Albany, Auckland, 2School of Food and Nutrition, Massey Institute of Food Science and Technology, College of Health, Massey University Manawatu, Palmerston North, New ZealandAbstract: A number of factors contribute to success in sport, and diet is a key component. An athlete's dietary requirements depend on several aspects, including the sport, the athlete's goals, the environment, and practical issues. The importance of individualized dietary advice has been increasingly recognized, including day-to-day dietary advice and specific advice before, during, and after training and/or competition. Athletes use a range of dietary strategies to improve performance, with maximizing glycogen stores a key strategy for many. Carbohydrate intake during exercise maintains high levels of carbohydrate oxidation, prevents hypoglycemia, and has a positive effect on the central nervous system. Recent research has focused on athletes training with low carbohydrate availability to enhance metabolic adaptations, but whether this leads to an improvement in performance is unclear. The benefits of protein intake throughout the day following exercise are now well recognized. Athletes should aim to maintain adequate levels of hydration, and they should minimize fluid losses during exercise to no more than 2% of their body weight. Supplement use is widespread in athletes, with recent interest in the beneficial effects of nitrate, beta-alanine, and vitamin D on performance. However, an unregulated supplement industry and inadvertent contamination of supplements with banned substances increases the risk of a positive doping result. Although the availability of nutrition information for athletes varies, athletes will benefit from the advice of a registered dietician or nutritionist

  4. An LCA model for waste incineration enhanced with new technologies for metal recovery and application to the case of Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boesch, Michael E. [Aveny GmbH, Schwandenholzstr. 212, CH-8046 Zürich (Switzerland); Vadenbo, Carl, E-mail: [ETH Zurich, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Schafmattstrasse 6, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Saner, Dominik [Swiss Post, Communications, Politics and Social Responsibility, Viktoriastrasse 21, P.O. Box, CH-3030 Berne (Switzerland); Huter, Christoph [City of Zürich, ERZ Entsorgung - Recycling Zürich, Hagenholzstrasse 110, P.O. Box, CH-8050 Zürich (Switzerland); Hellweg, Stefanie [ETH Zurich, Institute of Environmental Engineering, Schafmattstrasse 6, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)


    Highlights: • An enhanced process-based LCA model for MSWI is featured and applied in case study. • LCA modeling of recent technological developments for metal recovery from fly ash. • Net release from Swiss MSWI 133 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/tonne waste from attributional LCA perspective. • Net savings from a consequential LCA perspective reach up to 303 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/tonne waste. • Impacts according to ReCiPe and CExD show similar pattern to climate change. - Abstract: A process model of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) and new technologies for metal recovery from combustion residues was developed. The environmental impact is modeled as a function of waste composition as well as waste treatment and material recovery technologies. The model includes combustion with a grate incinerator, several flue gas treatment technologies, electricity and steam production from waste heat recovery, metal recovery from slag and fly ash, and landfilling of residues and can be tailored to specific plants and sites (software tools can be downloaded free of charge). Application of the model to Switzerland shows that the treatment of one tonne of municipal solid waste results on average in 425 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. generated in the incineration process, and 54 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. accrue in upstream processes such as waste transport and the production of operating materials. Downstream processes, i.e. residue disposal, generates 5 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. Savings from energy recovery are in the range of 67 to 752 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. depending on the assumptions regarding the substituted energy production, while the recovery of metals from slag and fly ash currently results in a net saving of approximately 35 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. A similar impact pattern is observed when assessing the MSWI model for aggregated environmental impacts (ReCiPe) and for non-renewable resource consumption (cumulative exergy demand), except that direct emissions have less and no relevance, respectively, on the total

  5. Combustion testing and heat recovery study: Frank E. Van Lare Wastewater Treatment Plant, Monroe County. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The objectives of the study were to record and analyze sludge management operations data and sludge incinerator combustion data; ascertain instrumentation and control needs; calculate heat balances for the incineration system; and determine the feasibility of different waste-heat recovery technologies for the Frank E. Van Lare (FEV) Wastewater Treatment Plant. As an integral part of this study, current and pending federal and state regulations were evaluated to establish their impact on furnace operation and subsequent heat recovery. Of significance is the effect of the recently promulgated Federal 40 CFR Part 503 regulations on the FEV facility. Part 503 regulations were signed into law in November 1992, and, with some exceptions, affected facilities must be in compliance by February 19, 1994. Those facilities requiring modifications or upgrades to their incineration or air pollution control equipment to meet Part 503 regulations must be in compliance by February 19, 1995.

  6. Recovery Act: Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumps and Ground Source Water Loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrell, Mark


    Cedarville School District retrofitted the heating and cooling systems in three campus areas (High School, Middle School, and Upper Elementary School) with geothermal heat pumps and ground source water loops, as a demonstration project for the effective implementation of geothermal heat pump systems and other energy efficiency and air quality improvements.

  7. Oil recovery enhancement from fractured, low permeability reservoirs. Annual report 1990--1991, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, S.W.


    Joint funding by the Department of Energy and the State of Texas has Permitted a three year, multi-disciplinary investigation to enhance oil recovery from a dual porosity, fractured, low matrix permeability oil reservoir to be initiated. The Austin Chalk producing horizon trending thru the median of Texas has been identified as the candidate for analysis. Ultimate primary recovery of oil from the Austin Chalk is very low because of two major technological problems. The commercial oil producing rate is based on the wellbore encountering a significant number of natural fractures. The prediction of the location and frequency of natural fractures at any particular region in the subsurface is problematical at this time, unless extensive and expensive seismic work is conducted. A major portion of the oil remains in the low permeability matrix blocks after depletion because there are no methods currently available to the industry to mobilize this bypassed oil. The following multi-faceted study is aimed to develop new methods to increase oil and gas recovery from the Austin Chalk producing trend. These methods may involve new geological and geophysical interpretation methods, improved ways to study production decline curves or the application of a new enhanced oil recovery technique. The efforts for the second year may be summarized as one of coalescing the initial concepts developed during the initial phase to more in depth analyses. Accomplishments are predicting natural fractures; relating recovery to well-log signatures; development of the EOR imbibition process; mathematical modeling; and field test.

  8. Deprivation and Recovery of Sleep in Succession Enhances Reflexive Motor Behavior. (United States)

    Sprenger, Andreas; Weber, Frederik D; Machner, Bjoern; Talamo, Silke; Scheffelmeier, Sabine; Bethke, Judith; Helmchen, Christoph; Gais, Steffen; Kimmig, Hubert; Born, Jan


    Sleep deprivation impairs inhibitory control over reflexive behavior, and this impairment is commonly assumed to dissipate after recovery sleep. Contrary to this belief, here we show that fast reflexive behaviors, when practiced during sleep deprivation, is consolidated across recovery sleep and, thereby, becomes preserved. As a model for the study of sleep effects on prefrontal cortex-mediated inhibitory control in humans, we examined reflexive saccadic eye movements (express saccades), as well as speeded 2-choice finger motor responses. Different groups of subjects were trained on a standard prosaccade gap paradigm before periods of nocturnal sleep and sleep deprivation. Saccade performance was retested in the next morning and again 24 h later. The rate of express saccades was not affected by sleep after training, but slightly increased after sleep deprivation. Surprisingly, this increase augmented even further after recovery sleep and was still present 4 weeks later. Additional experiments revealed that the short testing after sleep deprivation was sufficient to increase express saccades across recovery sleep. An increase in speeded responses across recovery sleep was likewise found for finger motor responses. Our findings indicate that recovery sleep can consolidate motor disinhibition for behaviors practiced during prior sleep deprivation, thereby persistently enhancing response automatization. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Ketamine does not enhance the quality of recovery following laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Moro, E T; Feitosa, I M P S S; de Oliveira, R G; Saraiva, G F P; Rosalino, R; Marossi, V P; Bloomstone, J A; Navarro, L H C


    Ketamine has been used as part of the multimodal analgesia technique in the acute perioperative period. The effect of perioperative intravenous small-dose ketamine on the quality of recovery from the patient point-of-view has not been assessed. We hypothesized that low-dose ketamine would enhance recovery following laparoscopic cholecystectomy under total intravenous anesthesia. One hundred thirty five patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: saline, ketamine 0.2 mg/kg, or ketamine 0.4 mg/kg immediately following the induction of anesthesia and before skin incision. The primary endpoint was assessed using the Quality of Recovery Questionnaire (QoR-40), a 40-item quality of recovery scoring system. In addition, early clinical recovery variables, such as time to eye opening, occurrence of nausea and vomiting, pain score, analgesic use, and length of PACU stay were assessed. No differences were detected in the total or individual dimension scores of the QoR-40 questionnaire. The incidence of nausea, vomiting, and other complications did not differ among the three groups. Small doses of ketamine do not improve the quality of recovery after remifentanil-based anesthesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. © 2017 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Enhancing Patient Safety: Factors Influencing Medical Error Recovery Among Medical-Surgical Nurses (United States)

    Gaffney, Theresa A; Hatcher, Barbara J; Milligan, Renee; Trickey, Amber


    Keeping patients safe is a core nursing duty. The dynamic nature of the healthcare environment requires that nurses practice to the full extent of their education, experience, and role to keep patients safe. Research has focused on error causation rather than error recovery, a process that occurs before patient harm ensues. In addition, little is known about the role nurses play in error recovery. A descriptive cross-sectional, correlational study using a sample of 184 nurses examined relationships between nurse characteristics, organizational factors, and recovery of medical errors among medical-surgical nurses in hospitals. In this article, we provide background information to introduce the concept of error recovery, and present our study aims and methods. Study results suggested that medical-surgical nurses recovered on average 22 medical errors and error recovery was positively associated with education and expertise. The discussion section further considers the important role of medical-surgical nurses and error recovery to enhance patient safety. In conclusion, we suggest that creating a safer healthcare system will depend on the ability of nurses to fully use their education, expertise and role to identify, interrupt, and correct medical errors; thereby, preventing patient harm.

  11. 40 CFR 147.1953 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized... (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1953 Section 147.1953 Protection of... enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure...

  12. Electrophilic acid gas-reactive fluid, proppant, and process for enhanced fracturing and recovery of energy producing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Carlos A.; Heldebrant, David J.; Bonneville, Alain; Jung, Hun Bok; Carroll, Kenneth C.


    An electrophilic acid gas-reactive fracturing fluid, proppant, and process are detailed. The fluid expands in volume to provide rapid and controlled increases in pressure that enhances fracturing in subterranean bedrock for recovery of energy-producing materials. The proppant stabilizes fracture openings in the bedrock to enhance recovery of energy-producing materials.

  13. Performance experimental investigation of novel multifunctional nanohybrids on enhanced oil recovery (United States)

    Gharibshahi, Reza; Jafari, Arezou; Omidkhah, Mohammadreza; Nezhad, Javad Razavi


    The unique characteristics of materials at the nanoscale make them a good candidate to use in the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes. Therefore, in this study, the effect of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube/silica nanohybrids on the oil recovery factor is investigated experimentally and nanofluids were injected into a glass micromodel for the first time. The nanohybrids synthesized by using sol-gel method. Micromodels as microscale apparatuses considered as 2D porous medium. Because they enable visual observation of phase displacement behavior at the pore scale. Distillated water used as the dispersion medium of nanoparticles for nanofluids preparation. A series of runs designed for flooding operations included water injection, carbon nanotube/water injection and two nanohybrids with different weight of MWCNT to the overall weight of the nanohybrid structure (10% and 70%) into the distilled water. Also, the oil recovery factor was considered as the goal parameter to compare the results. It has been found that functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube/silica nanohybrids have a great potential in enhanced oil recovery processes. Results showed that addition of nanohybrids into distillate water causes enhancement of sweep efficiency. In other words, the fingering effect decreases and higher surface of porous medium is in contact with the injected fluid. So the higher amount of oil can produce from the porous medium consequently. By injecting nanofluid with 0.1 wt. % of carbon nanotube, the oil recovery factor increases about 11 % in comparison with water injection alone. Also by increasing the weight of MWCNT to the overall weight of the nanohybrid structure from 10% to 70%, the oil recovery factor increases from 35% to 39%.

  14. Music listening enhances cognitive recovery and mood after middle cerebral artery stroke. (United States)

    Särkämö, Teppo; Tervaniemi, Mari; Laitinen, Sari; Forsblom, Anita; Soinila, Seppo; Mikkonen, Mikko; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M; Erkkilä, Jaakko; Laine, Matti; Peretz, Isabelle; Hietanen, Marja


    We know from animal studies that a stimulating and enriched environment can enhance recovery after stroke, but little is known about the effects of an enriched sound environment on recovery from neural damage in humans. In humans, music listening activates a wide-spread bilateral network of brain regions related to attention, semantic processing, memory, motor functions, and emotional processing. Music exposure also enhances emotional and cognitive functioning in healthy subjects and in various clinical patient groups. The potential role of music in neurological rehabilitation, however, has not been systematically investigated. This single-blind, randomized, and controlled trial was designed to determine whether everyday music listening can facilitate the recovery of cognitive functions and mood after stroke. In the acute recovery phase, 60 patients with a left or right hemisphere middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke were randomly assigned to a music group, a language group, or a control group. During the following two months, the music and language groups listened daily to self-selected music or audio books, respectively, while the control group received no listening material. In addition, all patients received standard medical care and rehabilitation. All patients underwent an extensive neuropsychological assessment, which included a wide range of cognitive tests as well as mood and quality of life questionnaires, one week (baseline), 3 months, and 6 months after the stroke. Fifty-four patients completed the study. Results showed that recovery in the domains of verbal memory and focused attention improved significantly more in the music group than in the language and control groups. The music group also experienced less depressed and confused mood than the control group. These findings demonstrate for the first time that music listening during the early post-stroke stage can enhance cognitive recovery and prevent negative mood. The neural mechanisms potentially

  15. Experimental study of heat transfer enhancement due to the surface vibrations in a flexible double pipe heat exchanger (United States)

    Hosseinian, A.; Meghdadi Isfahani, A. H.


    In this study, the heat transfer enhancement due to the surface vibration for a double pipe heat exchanger, made of PVDF, is investigated. In order to create forced vibrations (3-9 m/s2, 100 Hz) on the outer surface of the heat exchanger electro-dynamic vibrators are used. Experiments were performed at inner Reynolds numbers ranging from 2533 to 9960. The effects of volume flow rate and temperature on heat transfer performance are evaluated. Results demonstrated that heat transfer coefficient increases by increasing vibration level and mass flow rate. The most increase in heat transfer coefficient is 97% which is obtained for the highest vibration level (9 m/s2) in the experiment range.

  16. Effect of Inhomogeneous Heat Flow on the Enhancement of Heat Capacity in Helium-II by Counterflow near Tλ (United States)

    Boyd, S. T. P.; Chatto, A. R.; Lee, R. A. M.; Duncan, R. V.; Goodstein, D. L.


    In 2000 Harter et al. reported the first measurements of the enhancement of the heat capacity ΔCQ≡C(Q)-C(Q=0) of helium-II transporting a heat flux density Q near Tλ. Surprisingly, their measured ΔCQ was ˜7-12 times larger than predicted, depending on which theory was assumed. In this report we present a candidate explanation for this discrepancy: unintended heat flux inhomogeneity. Because C(Q) should diverge at a critical heat flux density Qc, homogeneous heat flow is required for an accurate measurement. We present results from numerical analysis of the heat flow in the Harter et al. cell indicating that substantial inhomogeneity occurred. We determine the effect of the inhomogeneity on ΔCQ and find rough agreement with the observed disparity between prediction and measurement.

  17. Enhancement of heat transfer using varying width twisted tape inserts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    width twisted tape inserts, ASME Transactions, Vol. 122, pp. 143-149. Naphon P., 2006. Heat transfer and pressure drop in the horizontal double pipes with and without twisted tape insert, International communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 33, pp. 166-175. Promvonge P. and Eiamsa-ard S., 2007. Heat transfer ...

  18. [The future, in France, of enhanced recovery after surgery seen from the economical perspective]. (United States)

    Faujour, Véronique; Slim, Karem; Corond, Pascal


    The programmes of fast-track or enhanced recovery after surgery offer obvious advantages in terms of better postoperative outcomes and shorter hospital stay in many surgical specialties. However, the implementation of such programmes as strategic innovations has economic challenges that have not been well evaluated in a large scale, while they can influence the future of this innovation. Simulation study was performed in 5 surgical units of digestive surgery, orthopaedics, and urologic surgery in the aim to help them to implement programmes of enhanced recovery. Several types of surgery were considered: colorectal, pancreatic, hepatic, hip, knee, shoulder, and bladder. All costs related to the implementation, hospitalisation (pre-, per-, and postoperative courses), and support of the project on the long-term, were calculated. The fixed and variable costs varied according to the surgical specialities. The calculation method allowed us to find that the gained standard value for one hospital-day was 180 €. The residual credit was as high as 202 000 € per year at the effective end of implementation in all surgical units, i.e. within 2-3 years. Beyond all medical advantages (namely better recovery for the patients, less postoperative morbidity, and reinforcement of the teamwork), the implementation of enhanced recovery programmes for high volume surgery will be cost-effective for our care units also in terms of health care performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Carbon dioxide injection for enhanced gas recovery and storage (reservoir simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chawarwan Khan


    Full Text Available CO2 injection for enhanced oil recovery (EOR had been broadly investigated both physically and economically. The concept for enhanced gas recovery (EGR is a new area under discussion that had not been studied as comprehensively as EOR. In this paper, the “Tempest” simulation software was used to create a three-dimensional reservoir model. The simulation studies were investigated under different case scenarios by using experimental data produced by Clean Gas Technology Australia (CGTA. The main purpose of this study is to illustrate the potential of enhanced natural gas recovery and CO2 storage by re-injecting CO2 production from the natural gas reservoir. The simulation results outlined what factors are favourable for the CO2-EGR and storage as a function of CO2 breakthrough in terms of optimal timing of CO2 injection and different injection rates. After analysing the results for each case scenario, it had been concluded that CO2 injection can be applied to increase natural gas recovery simultaneously sequestering a large amount of the injected CO2 for this particular gas reservoir. In addition, various CO2 costs involved in the CO2-EGR and storage were investigated to determine whether this technique is feasible in terms of the CO2 content in the production as a preparation stage to achieve the economic analysis for the model.

  20. Enhanced recovery programme in colorectal surgery: Does one size fit all? (United States)

    Lyon, Alison; Payne, Christopher J; MacKay, Graham J


    Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) employs a multimodal perioperative care pathway with the aim of attenuating the stress response to surgery and accelerating recovery. It has been difficult to determine the relative importance of some of the individual components of these pathways such as epidural analgesia and laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Some argue that only a rigid adherence to the published ERAS protocol can achieve the proposed benefits of fast-track surgery. In this article, we explore some of the areas where the evidence base may be changing and ask whether a more flexible and individualised approach should be considered. PMID:23155304