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Sample records for enhanced cyanide toxicity

  1. Uncoupling protein-2 up-regulation and enhanced cyanide toxicity are mediated by PPARα activation and oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.; Li, L.; Prabhakaran, K.; Zhang, L.; Leavesley, H.B.; Borowitz, J.L.; Isom, G.E.

    2007-01-01

    Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2) is an inner mitochondrial membrane proton carrier that modulates mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ) and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. We have shown that up-regulation of UCP-2 by Wy14,643, a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) agonist, enhances cyanide cytotoxicity. The pathway by which Wy14,643 up-regulates UCP-2 was determined in a dopaminergic cell line (N27 cells). Since dopaminergic mesencephalic cells are a primary brain target of cyanide, the N27 immortalized mesencephalic cell was used in this study. Wy14,643 produced a concentration- and time-dependent up-regulation of UCP-2 that was linked to enhanced cyanide-induced cell death. MK886 (PPARα antagonist) or PPARα knock-down by RNA interference (RNAi) inhibited PPARα activity as shown by the peroxisome proliferator response element-luciferase reporter assay, but only partially decreased up-regulation of UCP-2. The role of oxidative stress as an alternative pathway to UCP-2 up-regulation was determined. Wy14,643 induced a rapid surge of ROS generation and loading cells with glutathione ethyl ester (GSH-EE) or pre-treatment with vitamin E attenuated up-regulation of UCP-2. On the other hand, RNAi knockdown of PPARα did not alter ROS generation, suggesting a PPARα-independent component to the response. Co-treatment with PPARα-RNAi and GSH-EE blocked both the up-regulation of UCP-2 by Wy14,643 and the cyanide-induced cell death. It was concluded that a PPARα-mediated pathway and an oxidative stress pathway independent of PPARα mediate the up-regulation of UCP-2 and subsequent increased vulnerability to cyanide-induced cytotoxicity

  2. Physician Beware: Severe Cyanide Toxicity from Amygdalin Tablets Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tam Dang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the risk of cyanide toxicity and lack of efficacy, amygdalin is still used as alternative cancer treatment. Due to the highly lethal nature of cyanide toxicity, many patients die before getting medical care. Herein, we describe the case of a 73-year-old female with metastatic pancreatic cancer who developed cyanide toxicity from taking amygdalin. Detailed history and physical examination prompted rapid clinical recognition and treatment with hydroxocobalamin, leading to resolution of her cyanide toxicity. Rapid clinical diagnosis and treatment of cyanide toxicity can rapidly improve patients’ clinical outcome and survival. Inquiries for any forms of ingestion should be attempted in patients with clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of poisoning.

  3. Enhancing public health preparedness for a terrorist attack involving cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Marc

    2008-07-01

    The US government considers cyanide to be among the most likely agents of chemical terrorism. Cyanide differs from many other biological or chemical agents for which little or no defense is available because its individual and public health effects are largely remediable through appropriate preparedness and response. Because the toxicity of the cyanide antidote currently available in the United States renders it ill-suited for use in terrorist incidents and other situations requiring rapid out-of-hospital treatment, hydroxocobalamin--an effective and safe cyanide antidote being used in other countries--has been introduced in the United States. Unlike the other available cyanide antidote, hydroxocobalamin can be administered at the scene of a cyanide disaster, and it need not be reserved for cases of confirmed cyanide poisoning but can be administered in cases of suspected poisoning. Both of these attributes facilitate the rapid intervention necessary for saving lives. To realize the potential benefits of hydroxocobalamin, progress also needs to be realized in other aspects of readiness, including but not limited to developing plans for ensuring local and regional availability of antidote, educating emergency responders and health care professionals in the recognition and management of cyanide poisoning, and raising public awareness of the potential for a chemical weapons attack and of how to respond.

  4. Intravenous Cobinamide, a Novel Cyanide Antidote, versus Hydroxocobalamin in the Treatment of Acute Cyanide Toxicity and Apnea in a Swine (Sus scrofa) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    and severe toxicity. Cobinamide was 5 times as potent as hydroxocobalamin. hydroxocobalamin, cobinamide, cyanide , poisoning , Vitamin B12a, Vit B12...treatment of acute, severe cyanide induced cardiotoxicity of severe hypotension and of cardiac arrest in a swine (Sus Scrofa) model Intravenous...cobinamide, a novel cyanide antidote, versus hydroxocobalamin in the treatment of acute cyanide toxicity and apnea in a swine (Sus Scrofa) model

  5. Intramuscular Cobinamide Sulfite in a Rabbit Model of Sub-Lethal Cyanide Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Matthew; Kim, Jae G.; Mahon, Sari B.; Lee, Jangwoen; Kreuter, Kelly A.; Blackledge, William; Mukai, David; Patterson, Steve; Mohammad, Othman; Sharma, Vijay S.; Boss, Gerry R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the ability of an intramuscular cobinamide sulfite injection to rapidly reverse the physiologic effects of cyanide toxicity. Background Exposure to cyanide in fires and industrial exposures and intentional cyanide poisoning by terrorists leading to mass casualties is an ongoing threat. Current treatments for cyanide poisoning must be administered intravenously, and no rapid treatment methods are available for mass casualty cyanide exposures. Cobinamide is a cobalamin (vitamin B12) analog with an extraordinarily high affinity for cyanide that is more water-soluble than cobalamin. We investigated the use of intramuscular cobinamide sulfite to reverse cyanide toxicity induced physiologic changes in a sublethal cyanide exposure animal model. Methods New Zealand white rabbits were given 10 mg sodium cyanide intravenously over 60 minutes. Quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy monitoring of tissue oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations were performed concurrently with blood cyanide level measurements and cobinamide levels. Immediately after completion of the cyanide infusion, the rabbits were injected intramuscularly with cobinamide sulfite (n=6) or inactive vehicle (controls, n=5). Results Intramuscular administration led to rapid mobilization of cobinamide and was extremely effective at reversing the physiologic effects of cyanide on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin extraction. Recovery time to 63% of their baseline values in the central nervous system was in a mean of 1032 minutes in the control group and 9 minutes in the cobinamide group with a difference of 1023 minutes (95% confidence interval [CI] 116, 1874 minutes). In muscle tissue, recovery times were 76 and 24 minutes with a difference of 52 minutes (95% CI 7, 98min). Red blood cell cyanide levels returned towards normal significantly faster in cobinamide sulfite-treated animals than in control animals. Conclusions Intramuscular

  6. The aquatic toxicity and chemical forms of coke plant effluent cyanide -- Implications for discharge limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibay, R.; Rupnow, M.; Godwin-Saad, E.; Hall, S.

    1995-01-01

    Cyanide is present in treated cokemaking process waters at concentrations as high as 8.0 mg/L. In assessing options for managing the discharge of a treated effluent, the development and implementation of discharge limits for cyanide became a critical issue. A study was initiated to evaluate possible alternatives to cyanide permit limits at the US Steel Gary Works Facility. The objectives of the study were to: (1) evaluation the forms of cyanide present in coke plant effluent; (2) determine whether these forms of cyanide are toxic to selected aquatic organisms; (3) compare the aquatic toxicity of various chemical forms of cyanide; (4) identify if the receiving water modifies cyanide bioavailability; and (5) confirm, with respect to water quality-based effluent limits, an appropriate analytical method for monitoring cyanide in a coke plant effluent. The results of aquatic toxicity tests and corresponding analytical data are presented. Toxicity tests were conducted with various pure chemical forms of cyanide as well as whole coke plant effluent (generated from a pilot-scale treatment system). Test species included the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia) and Daphnia magna (D. magna). Analytical measurements for cyanide included total, weak acid dissociable, diffusible cyanide and selected metal species of cyanide. The findings presented by the paper are relevant with respect to the application of cyanide water quality criteria for a coke plant effluent discharge, the translation of these water quality-based effluent limits to permit limits, and methods for compliance monitoring for cyanide

  7. Improving the cyanide toxicity tolerance of anaerobic reactor: Microbial interactions and toxin reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Pragya; Ahammad, S.Z.; Sreekrishnan, T.R., E-mail: sree@iitd.ac.in

    2016-09-05

    Highlights: • Anaerobic batch study of 110 days. • Acclimatization for cyanide biodegradation. • Understanding inhibitory effects of cyanide on methane generation and VFA production. • Identification of microorganisms tolerant to cyanide. • Community analysis using DGGE and qPCR analyses. - Abstract: Anaerobic biological treatment of high organics containing wastewater is amongst the preferred treatment options but poor tolerance to toxins makes its use prohibitive. In this study, efforts have been made to understand the key parameters for developing anaerobic reactor, resilient to cyanide toxicity. A laboratory scale anaerobic batch reactor was set up to treat cyanide containing wastewater. The reactor was inoculated with anaerobic sludge obtained from a wastewater treatment plant and fresh cow dung in the ratio of 3:1. The focus was on acclimatization and development of cyanide-degrading biomass and to understand the toxic effects of cyanide on the dynamic equilibrium between various microbial groups. The sludge exposed to cyanide was found to have higher bacterial diversity than the control. It was observed that certain hydrogenotrophic methanogens and bacterial groups were able to grow and produce methane in the presence of cyanide. Also, it was found that hydrogen utilizing methanogens were more cyanide tolerant than acetate utilizing methanogens. So, effluents from various industries like electroplating, coke oven plant, petroleum refining, explosive manufacturing, and pesticides industries which are having high concentrations of cyanide can be treated by favoring the growth of the tolerant microbes in the reactors. It will provide much better treatment efficiency by overcoming the inhibitory effects of cyanide to certain extent.

  8. Sulfanegen sodium treatment in a rabbit model of sub-lethal cyanide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, Matthew; Kim, Jae G.; Lee, Jangwoen; Mahon, Sari B.; Lemor, Daniel; Ahdout, Rebecca; Boss, Gerry R.; Blackledge, William; Jann, Lauren; Nagasawa, Herbert T.; Patterson, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment to reverse cyanide effects in a rabbit model as a potential treatment for mass casualty resulting from cyanide exposure. Cyanide poisoning is a serious chemical threat from accidental or intentional exposures. Current cyanide exposure treatments, including direct binding agents, methemoglobin donors, and sulfur donors, have several limitations. Non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways, including 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) catalyze the transfer of sulfur from 3-MP to cyanide, forming pyruvate and less toxic thiocyanate. We developed a water-soluble 3-MP prodrug, 3-mercaptopyruvatedithiane (sulfanegen sodium), with the potential to provide a continuous supply of substrate for CN detoxification. In addition to developing a mass casualty cyanide reversal agent, methods are needed to rapidly and reliably diagnose and monitor cyanide poisoning and reversal. We use non-invasive technology, diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CWNIRS) to monitor physiologic changes associated with cyanide exposure and reversal. A total of 35 animals were studied. Sulfanegen sodium was shown to reverse the effects of cyanide exposure on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin rapidly, significantly faster than control animals when administered by intravenous or intramuscular routes. RBC cyanide levels also returned to normal faster following both intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment than controls. These studies demonstrate the clinical potential for the novel approach of supplying substrate for non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways for cyanide detoxification. DOS and CWNIRS demonstrated their usefulness in optimizing the dose of sulfanegen sodium treatment.

  9. Sulfanegen Sodium Treatment in a Rabbit Model of Sub-Lethal Cyanide Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Matthew; Kim, Jae G.; Lee, Jangwoen; Mahon, Sari B.; Lemor, Daniel; Ahdout, Rebecca; Boss, Gerry R.; Blackledge, William; Jann, Lauren; Nagasawa, Herbert T.; Patterson, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment to reverse cyanide effects in a rabbit model as a potential treatment for mass casualty resulting from cyanide exposure. Cyanide poisoning is a serious chemical threat from accidental or intentional exposures. Current cyanide exposure treatments, including direct binding agents, methemoglobin donors, and sulfur donors, have several limitations. Non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways, including 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) catalyze the transfer of sulfur from 3-MP to cyanide, forming pyruvate and less toxic thiocyanate. We developed a water soluble 3-MP prodrug, 3-mercaptopyruvatedithiane (sulfanegen sodium), with the potential to provide a continuous supply of substrate for CN detoxification. In addition to developing a mass casualty cyanide reversal agent, methods are needed to rapidly and reliably diagnose and monitor cyanide poisoning and reversal. We use non-invasive technology, diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CWNIRS) to monitor physiologic changes associated with cyanide exposure and reversal. A total of 35 animals were studied. Sulfanegen sodium was shown to reverse the effects of cyanide exposure on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin rapidly, significantly faster than control animals when administered by intravenous or intramuscular routes. RBC cyanide levels also returned to normal faster following both intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment than controls. These studies demonstrate the clinical potential for the novel approach of supplying substrate for non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways for cyanide detoxification. DOS and CWNIRS demonstrated their usefulness in optimizing the dose of sulfanegen sodium treatment. PMID:20705081

  10. Antagonism of cyanide toxicity by isosorbide dinitrate: possible role of nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, P; Borowitz, J L; Kanthasamy, A G; Kane, M D; Gunasekar, P G; Isom, G E

    1995-12-15

    In a search for improved cyanide antidotes, the efficacy of isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), was compared with that of the known cyanide antidote, NaNO2. ISDN was as effective as an optimal dose of NaNO2 in protecting mice against cyanide lethality. To study the mechanism involved, the extent of formation of the cyanide scavenger, methemoglobin, in the action of ISDN was determined. ISDN (300 mg/kg, p.o.) increased methemoglobin from 5 to 10% of total hemoglobin, while, in contrast, NaNO2 (100 mg/kg, i.p.) increased methemoglobin levels to 50% of total hemoglobin. Lowering the dose of NaNO2 to 30 mg/kg reduced methemoglobin levels to approximately 10% of total hemoglobin and in turn nearly abolished its antidotal effect. Decreasing methemoglobin to less than control levels using methylene blue failed to abolish cyanide antagonism by ISDN. Thus, methemoglobin formation by ISDN does not account for its antidotal action. Further studies comparing the respiratory depressant effects of cyanide in the presence of ISDN or NaNO2 also indicated that these two antidotes have different mechanisms of action. Efforts to produce tolerance to the antidotal effect of ISDN against cyanide toxicity were unsuccessful. It is suggested that the well-known ability of ISDN to generate nitric oxide may account for the noted cyanide antagonism.

  11. Evaluation of acute toxicity of copper cyanide to freshwater fish, Catla catla (Hamilton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosetti BASALING

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxicity of copper cyanide to the juveniles of Indian major carp Catla catla (2±0.5 cm was evaluated under static renewal conditions. The concentrations of copper cyanide that killed 50% of the carp fingerlings within 96-h (96-h LC50 was found to be 0.76 ± 0.04 mg/L. Fishes exhibited abnormal swimming activity, followed by frequent gill flapping, loss of equilibrium, gulping of air, hyperactivity, convolutions. The respiratory rate of the fish got severely affected (-63.41%± 0.002 when exposed to copper cyanide.

  12. Acute oral toxicity of sodium cyanide in birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Hill, E.F.; Carpenter, J.W.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    Sensitivities of six avian species, black vulture (Coragyps atratus), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), eastern screech-owl (Otus asio), and European starling (Sturnus vulgaris), to acute poisoning by sodium cyanide (NaCN) were compared by single dose LD50's. Three species, domestic chickens, black vultures, and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), were dosed with NaCN to determine cyanide residues in those that died and also in survivors, in addition to postmortem fate. Three flesh-eating species (black vulture, American kestrel, and eastern screech-owl; LD50's 4.0-8.6 mg/kg) were more sensitive to NaCN than three species (Japanese quail, domestic chicken, and European starling; LD50's 9.4-21 mg/kg) that fed predominantly on plant material. Elevated concentrations of cyanide were found in the blood of birds that died of cyanide poisoning; however, concentrations in birds that died overlapped those in survivors. Blood was superior to liver as the tissue of choice for detecting cyanide exposure. No gross pathological changes related to dosing were observed at necropsy.

  13. Memory deficits associated with sublethal cyanide poisoning relative to cyanate toxicity in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimani, S; Sinei, K; Bukachi, F; Tshala-Katumbay, D; Maitai, C

    2014-03-01

    Food (cassava) linamarin is metabolized into neurotoxicants cyanide and cyanate, metabolites of which we sought to elucidate the differential toxicity effects on memory. Young 6-8 weeks old male rats were treated intraperitoneally with either 2.5 mg/kg body weight (bw) cyanide (NaCN), or 50 mg/kg bw cyanate (NaOCN), or 1 μl/g bw saline, daily for 6 weeks. Short-term and long-term memories were assessed using a radial arm maze (RAM) testing paradigm. Toxic exposures had an influence on short-term working memory with fewer correct arm entries (F(2, 19) = 4.57 p memory errors (WME) (F(2, 19) = 5.09, p RAM navigation time (F(2, 19) = 3.91, p memory was significantly impaired by cyanide with fewer correct arm entries (F(2, 19) = 7.45, p memory errors (F(2, 19) = 9.35 p memory was not affected by either cyanide or cyanate. Our study findings provide an experimental evidence for the biological plausibility that cassava cyanogens may induce cognition deficits. Differential patterns of memory deficits may reflect the differences in toxicity mechanisms of NaOCN relative to NaCN. Cognition deficits associated with cassava cyanogenesis may reflect a dual toxicity effect of cyanide and cyanate.

  14. Evaluation of acute toxicity of copper cyanide to freshwater fish, Catla catla (Hamilton)

    OpenAIRE

    BASALING, Hosetti; PRAVEEN, Dube

    2011-01-01

    The acute toxicity of copper cyanide to the juveniles of Indian major carp Catla catla (2±0.5 cm) was evaluated under static renewal conditions. The concentrations of copper cyanide that killed 50% of the carp fingerlings within 96-h (96-h LC50) was found to be 0.76 ± 0.04 mg/L. Fishes exhibited abnormal swimming activity, followed by frequent gill flapping, loss of equilibrium, gulping of air, hyperactivity, convolutions. The respiratory rate of the fish got severely affected ...

  15. A protein kinase C inhibitor attenuates cyanide toxicity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduh, E U; Nealley, E W; Song, H; Wang, P C; Baskin, S I

    1995-06-26

    We have examined the effect of pretreatment with a potent protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, 1-(5-isoquinoline-sulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H-7), against metabolic alterations induced by sodium cyanide (NaCN), 4.2 mg/kg, in brain of anesthetized male micropigs (6-10 kg). Brain high energy phosphates were analyzed using a 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic surface coil in a 4.7 Telsa horizontal bore magnet. H-7, 1 mg/kg, was given intravenously (i.v.) 30 min before NaCN challenge (H-7 + CN-). Prior to NaCN, H-7, or H-7 + CN- administration, baseline 31P resonance spectra of 1-min duration were acquired for 5-10 min, and continued for an additional 60 min following i.v. NaCN injection, each animal serving as its own control. Peaks were identified as phosphomonoester (PME), inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphodiester (PDE), phosphocreatine (PCr) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), based on their respective chemical shifts. Without H-7 pretreatment, NaCN effects were marked by a rising Pi and a declining PCr peak 2 min after injection, with only 2/5 of the animals surviving the 60 min experiment. Through a pretreatment period of 30 min, H-7 did not affect baseline cell energy profile as reflected by the 31P-NMR spectra, but in its presence, those changes (i.e. diminishing PCr and rising Pi peaks) elicited by NaCN were markedly blunted; 4/5 of the animals in this group survived the NaCN challenge. It is proposed that H-7, a pharmacologic inhibitor of PKC, may be useful in CN- antagonism, underscoring the role of PKC in cyanide intoxication.

  16. Carbon monoxide and cyanide toxicity: etiology, pathophysiology and treatment in inhalation injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzar, Todd F; George, Tonya; Cross, James M

    2013-04-01

    Inhalation injury is most commonly associated with damage to the mucosal surfaces of the small and large airways after exposure to smoke and other products of incomplete combustion. Yet, there are far deadlier things lurking within the smoke than just the heat and particulate matter: carbon monoxide and cyanide. These two toxic substances are found in varying concentrations within the fire room and are associated with early on-scene death and in-hospital morbidity and mortality. Patients suffering from carbon monoxide and/or cyanide poisoning present with vague symptoms requiring an astute physician to make the diagnosis. Fortunately, the toxic effects related to exposure to these agents can be reversed with readily available antidotes.

  17. Life-threatening interaction between complementary medicines: cyanide toxicity following ingestion of amygdalin and vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Jonathan; Hughes, Brett G M; Leong, David C S; Buckley, Nicholas A

    2005-09-01

    To describe a case of severe accidental cyanide poisoning following a single ingestion of amygdalin with therapeutic intent. A 68-year-old patient with cancer presented to the emergency department shortly after her first dose (3 g) of amygdalin with a reduced Glasgow Coma Score, seizures, and severe lactic acidosis requiring intubation and ventilation. The patient also ingested 4800 mg of vitamin C per day. She responded rapidly to hydroxocobalamin treatment. The adverse drug reaction was rated probable on the Naranjo probability scale. Amygdalin and laetrile (a synthetic form of amygdalin) are commonly used as complementary or alternative medicine (CAM) for the treatment of cancer. Vitamin C is known to increase the in vitro conversion of amygdalin to cyanide and reduce body stores of cysteine, which is used to detoxify cyanide. Amygdalin has been used for decades by patients with cancer who are seeking alternative therapies, and severe reactions have not been reported with this dose. An interaction with vitamin C is a plausible explanation for this life-threatening response. This case highlights the fact that CAMs can produce life-threatening toxicity. This case also adds a further note of caution, namely, the potential for serious interactions between CAMs, particularly where there is no tradition of concomitant use.

  18. Amygdalin Toxicity Studies in Rats Predict Chronic Cyanide Poisoning in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Newton, George W.; Schmidt, Eric S.; Lewis, Jerry P.; Lawrence, Ruth; Conn, Eric

    1981-01-01

    Significant amounts of cyanide are released when amygdalin (Laetrile), a cyanogenic glycoside, is given orally or intravenously to rats. The amount of cyanide liberated following oral administration is dependent in part on the bacterial flora of the gut and can be suppressed by antibiotic pretreatment of the animals. Bacteria from human feces likewise hydrolyze amygdalin with release of cyanide. Humans taking amygdalin orally in the hope of preventing cancer are likely to be exposed to levels...

  19. Acute Electrocardiographic ST Segment Elevation May Predict Hypotension in a Swine Model of Severe Cyanide Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-21

    exposure and intentional poisonings also occur. In addition, terrorist attempts have involved cyanide , as it is inexpensive, lethal, and easily obtained... poisoning in smoke inhalation. Ann Emerg Med 49(6):794 801, 801.e791 792 4. Fortin JL, Desmettre T, Manzon C et al (2010) Cyanide poisoning and cardiac...Kaminskis A, Brewer T (2000) A reproducible nonlethal animal model for studying cyanide poisoning . Mil Med 165(12):967 972 13. Borron SW, Stonerook M

  20. Amygdalin Toxicity Studies in Rats Predict Chronic Cyanide Poisoning in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, George W.; Schmidt, Eric S.; Lewis, Jerry P.; Lawrence, Ruth; Conn, Eric

    1981-01-01

    Significant amounts of cyanide are released when amygdalin (Laetrile), a cyanogenic glycoside, is given orally or intravenously to rats. The amount of cyanide liberated following oral administration is dependent in part on the bacterial flora of the gut and can be suppressed by antibiotic pretreatment of the animals. Bacteria from human feces likewise hydrolyze amygdalin with release of cyanide. Humans taking amygdalin orally in the hope of preventing cancer are likely to be exposed to levels of cyanide in excess of that associated with the development of tropical ataxic neuropathy in people of underdeveloped countries where food containing cyanogenic glycosides is a staple part of the diet. PMID:7222669

  1. Noninvasive monitoring of treatment response in a rabbit cyanide toxicity model reveals differences in brain and muscle metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae G.; Lee, Jangwoen; Mahon, Sari B.; Mukai, David; Patterson, Steven E.; Boss, Gerry R.; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Brenner, Matthew

    2012-10-01

    Noninvasive near infrared spectroscopy measurements were performed to monitor cyanide (CN) poisoning and recovery in the brain region and in foreleg muscle simultaneously, and the effects of a novel CN antidote, sulfanegen sodium, on tissue hemoglobin oxygenation changes were compared using a sub-lethal rabbit model. The results demonstrated that the brain region is more susceptible to CN poisoning and slower in endogenous CN detoxification following exposure than peripheral muscles. However, sulfanegen sodium rapidly reversed CN toxicity, with brain region effects reversing more quickly than muscle. In vivo monitoring of multiple organs may provide important clinical information regarding the extent of CN toxicity and subsequent recovery, and facilitate antidote drug development.

  2. Computer Simulation Lends New Insights Into Cyanide-Caused Cardiac Toxicity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zoltani, C. K; Platoff, G. E; Baskin, S. I

    2004-01-01

    The development of antidotes against cyanide (CN) poisoning for the protection of the warfighter is still hampered by a lack of detailed understanding of the modulation of CN-affected cellular processes...

  3. Toxicity and stability of sodium cyanide in fresh water fish Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas M. Ramzy

    2014-10-01

    In addition, the present result showed that the NaCN decreased the activities of ATPase within the investigated tissues during the exposure periods except for the 1st day. Furthermore, the present result showed that the mean concentration of cyanide gradually decreased within the frozen tissues and completely disappeared after 48 h within frozen liver and muscle. But, it disappeared after 72 h within frozen blood and gills.

  4. Cyanide toxicity to Burkholderia cenocepacia is modulated by polymicrobial communities and environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve P. Bernier

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbes within polymicrobial communities can establish positive and negative interactions that have the potential to influence the overall behaviour of the community. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and species of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc can co-exist in the lower airways, however several studies have shown that P. aeruginosa can effectively kill the Bcc in vitro, for which hydrogen cyanide was recently proposed to play a critical role. Here we show that modification of the environment (i.e. culture medium, long-term genetic adaptation of P. aeruginosa to the cystic fibrosis (CF lung, or the addition of another bacterial species to the community can alter the sensitivity of Burkholderia cenocepacia to P. aeruginosa toxins. We specifically demonstrate that undefined rich media leads to higher susceptibility of B. cenocepacia to P. aeruginosa toxins like cyanide as compared to a synthetic medium (SCFM, that mimics the CF lung nutritional content. Overall, our study shows that the polymicrobial environment can have profound effects on negative interactions mediated by P. aeruginosa against B. cenocepacia. In fact, evolved P. aeruginosa or the presence of other species such as Staphylococcus aureus can directly abolish the direct competition mediated by cyanide and consequently maintaining a higher level of species diversity within the community.

  5. Behaviour of cyanides in soil and groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    Most people associate the word cyanide with an extremely dangerous and fast-acting poison. However, there are several cyanide species, of varying toxicity, depending on the source to cyanide contamination. The most important cyanide compounds, as well as the most important sources of cyanide...... contamination in soils and groundwater are discussed. Toxicological and analytical aspects of cyanide containing compounds are briefly touched. The behaviour of cyanide compounds in soil and groundwater is governed by many interacting chemical and microbial processes. Redox conditions and pH are of importance...... for the leaching and degradation of iron cyanide complexes. Free cyanide is degraded under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, while documentation of the degradability of iron cyanide complexes only exists under aerobic conditions. The risk associated to the cyanide contained in the different types of sources...

  6. Acute Cyanide Poisoning from Jewelry Cleaning Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Bel Waer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyanide is one of the most lethal and devastating poisons. It causes acute toxicity through smoke inhalation simultaneously with carbon monoxide, or by ingestion of cyanide salts that are commonly used in metallurgy and in jewelry or textile industries. Cyanide intoxication is an extremely rare event; in the present study, we report a case of cyanide poisoning involving a 25-year-old jeweler, who ingested a jewelry cleaning solution containing potassium cyanide in a suicide attempt.

  7. Formation of highly toxic hydrogen cyanide upon ruby laser irradiation of the tattoo pigment phthalocyanine blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiver, Ines; Hutzler, Christoph; Laux, Peter; Berlien, Hans-Peter; Luch, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Since laser treatment of tattoos is the favored method for the removing of no longer wanted permanent skin paintings, analytical, biokinetics and toxicological data on the fragmentation pattern of commonly used pigments are urgently required for health safety reasons. Applying dynamic headspace—gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (DHS—GC/MS) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC—ToF-MS), we identified 1,2-benzene dicarbonitrile, benzonitrile, benzene, and the poisonous gas hydrogen cyanide (HCN) as main fragmentation products emerging dose-dependently upon ruby laser irradiation of the popular blue pigment copper phthalocyanine in suspension. Skin cell viability was found to be significantly compromised at cyanide levels of ≥1 mM liberated during ruby laser irradiation of >1.5 mg/ml phthalocyanine blue. Further, for the first time we introduce pyrolysis-GC/MS as method suitable to simulate pigment fragmentation that may occur spontaneously or during laser removal of organic pigments in the living skin of tattooed people. According to the literature such regular tattoos hold up to 9 mg pigment/cm2 skin.

  8. Aufnahme von Cyanid in Pflanzen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Koch, Ines; Christiansen, Helle

    2001-01-01

    Cyanides are waste products from the pyrolysis of coal and are frequent soil pollutants in cities nowadays. Prussic acid (HCN) is a fast acting, highly toxic poison, but iron-complexed cyanides in soil are far less toxic. The phytotoxicity of free CN to basket willows (Salix viminalis) was determ...

  9. Hydroxocobalamin Versus Sodium Thiosulfate for the Treatment of Acute Cyanide Toxicity in a Swine (Sus scrofa) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    and 12 with both. What this study adds to our knowledge Hydroxocobalamin alone reversed shock caused by cyanide poisoning . Sodium thiosulfate alone...loss of life that might be associated with the relatively uncontrolled absorption through an inhalational model of cyanide poisoning . We addressed this...al. Prehospital administration of hydroxocobalamin for smoke inhalation–associated cyanide poisoning : 8 years of experience in the Paris Fire Brigade

  10. Intraosseous Versus Intravenous Infusion of Hydroxocobalamin for the Treatment Of Acute Severe Cyanide Toxicity in a Swine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    needed for the acute treatment of cyanide poisoning . IO administration may be an option and is already recommended as a sec- ond line of drug...et al. Cyanide poisoning and cardiac disorders: 161 cases. J Emerg Med 2010;38:467–76. 2. Fortin JL, Giocanti JP, Ruttimann M, Kowalski JJ...Prehospital administration of hydroxocobalamin for smoke inhalation-associated cyanide poisoning : 8 years of experience in the Paris Fire Brigade. Clin

  11. Identification, solubility enhancement and in vivo testing of a cyanide antidote candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Kristof; Ancha, Madhuri; Jane, Mario; Lee, Stephen; Angalakurthi, Siva; Negrito, Maelani; Rasheed, Senan; Nwaneri, Assumpta; Petrikovics, Ilona

    2013-06-14

    Present studies focused on the in vitro testing, the solubility enhancement and the in vivo testing of methyl propyl trisulfide (MPTS), a newly identified sulfur donor to treat cyanide (CN) intoxication. To enhance the solubility of the lipophilic MPTS, various FDA approved co-solvents, surfactants and their combinations were applied. The order of MPTS solubility in the given co-solvents was found to be the following: ethanol > PEG 200 ≈ PEG400 ≈ PEG300 > PG. The maximum solubility of MPTS was found at 90% ethanol of 177.11 ± 12.17 mg/ml. The order of MPTS solubility in different surfactants is Cremophor EL>Cremophor RH40>polysorbate 80>sodium deoxycholate>sodium cholate. The maximum solubility of 40.99 mg/ml was achieved with 20% Cremophor EL. A synergistic solubilizing effect encountered with the combination of 20% Cremophor EL+75% ethanol lead to a 2900-fold increase (compared to water solubility) in solubility. The in vivo efficacy using intramuscular administration was determined on a therapeutic mice model and expressed as a ratio of CN LD50 with and without the test antidote(s) (APR). Intramuscular administration was shown to be effective and the therapeutic antidotal protection by MPTS alone and MPTS+thiosulfate (TS) was significantly higher than the present therapy of TS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Focus on smoke inhalation--the most common cause of acute cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Marc; Maniscalco, Paul M

    2006-01-01

    The contribution of smoke inhalation to cyanide-attributed morbidity and mortality arguably surpasses all other sources of acute cyanide poisoning. Research establishes that cyanide exposure is: (1) to be expected in those exposed to smoke in closed-space fires; (2) cyanide poisoning is an important cause of incapacitation and death in smoke-inhalation victims; and (3) that cyanide can act independently of, and perhaps synergistically with, carbon monoxide to cause morbidity and mortality. Effective prehospital management of smoke inhalation-associated cyanide poisoning is inhibited by: (1) a lack of awareness of fire smoke as an important cause of cyanide toxicity; (2) the absence of a rapidly returnable diagnostic test to facilitate its recognition; and (3) in the United States, the current unavailability of a cyanide antidote that can be used empirically with confidence outside of hospitals. Addressing the challenges of the prehospital management of smoke inhalation-associated cyanide poisoning entails: (1) enhancing the awareness of the problem among prehospital responders; (2) improving the ability to recognize cyanide poisoning on the basis of signs and symptoms; and (3) expanding the treatment options that are useful in the prehospital setting.

  13. Cyanide utilization and degradation by microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, C J

    1988-01-01

    Various microorganisms can produce (cyanogenesis) or degrade cyanide. They degrade cyanide either to detoxify it, or to use it as a source of nitrogen for growth. Significant amounts of cyanide are formed as a secondary metabolite by a wide range of fungi and a few bacteria by decarboxylation of glycine. When cyanide has been formed by the snow mould fungus it is degraded by conversion to carbon dioxide and ammonia via an unknown pathway. In contrast, cyanogenic bacteria either do not further catabolize cyanide or they convert it into beta-cyanoalanine by addition to cysteine or O-acetylserine. Several non-cyanogenic fungi that are pathogens of cyanogenic plants are known to degrade cyanide by hydration to formamide by the enzyme cyanide hydratase. Such fungi can be immobilized and used in packed-cell columns to continuously detoxify cyanide. ICI Biological Products Business market a preparation of spray-dried fungal mycelia, 'CYCLEAR', to detoxify industrial wastes. Novo Industri have also introduced a cyanidase preparation to convert cyanide directly into formate and ammonia. Bacteria have been isolated that use cyanide as a source of nitrogen for growth. Because cyanide, as KCN or NaCN, is toxic for growth, the bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) have to be grown in fed-batch culture with cyanide as the limiting nutrient. Cyanide is converted to carbon dioxide and ammonia (which is then assimilated) by an NADH-linked cyanide oxygenase system.

  14. International Symposium on Mechanism of Cyanide Toxicity and Antagonism (1st), Proceedings Held on 15-19 August 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    nitro - number of alternative, or additional, functions has been sug- gen hydrogen bond donors, ( iii ) two positively charged gested (Westley, 1973...compounds which bind or rate (Morgan et al., 1979; Morgan and Way, 1980; Sylvester et complex cyanide are the cobalt -containing compounds. Most al...a more efficacious cyanide antagonist. Cobalt EDTA would form a stable complex . Therefore cobalt The next class of compounds exerts their effect to

  15. Resistance to quinclorac caused by the enhanced ability to detoxify cyanide and its molecular mechanism in Echinochloa crus-galli var. zelayensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Pan, Lang; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Teng; Dong, Liyao; Li, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Quinclorac, an auxin-type herbicide, is widely used to control barnyardgrass and some dicotyledon weeds. Echinochloa crus-galli var. zelayensis, a variety of E. crus-galli (L.) Beauv., is widespread in China and some populations have resistance to quinclorac. E. crus-galli var. zelayensis seeds with varying sensitivity to quinclorac were used in the present study. The expression of the ADP/ATP carrier protein (ANT) gene, which plays an important role in the maintenance of cellular energy balance, dramatically rose in the S biotype after exposure to quinclorac, while no change was found in two R biotypes. The activity of β-cyanoalanine synthase (β-CAS), which is the key enzyme for cyanide degradation, was higher in two R biotypes than in the S biotype before and after treatment with quinclorac. One single-nucleotide difference was detected in the EcCAS gene of two R biotypes compared with the S biotype. The nucleotide change, which caused one amino acid substitution, replacing Methionine (Met)-295 with Lysine (Lys)-295 in the two R biotypes, which are same as the rice β-CAS gene at this position. In addition, EcCAS gene expression was higher in the two R biotypes than in the S biotype. In conclusion, β-CAS may play a crucial role in the resistance of E. crus-galli var. zelayensis to quinclorac. EcCAS gene mutation and higher gene expression may enhance the activity of β-CAS to avoid the accumulation of toxic cyanide in resistant populations, thus contributing to the resistance mechanism of E. crus-galli var. zelayensis. to quinclorac. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cyanide: critical issues in diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, F J

    2007-03-01

    The concern of a terrorist attack using cyanide, as well as the gradual awareness of cyanide poisoning in fire victims, has resulted in a renewed interest in the diagnosis and treatment of cyanide poisoning. The formerly academic presentation of cyanide poisoning must be replaced by more useful knowledge, which will allow emergency physicians and rescue workers to strongly suspect cyanide poisoning at the scene. Human cyanide poisonings may result from exposure to cyanide, its salts, or cyanogenic compounds, while residential fires are the most common condition of exposure. In fire victims, recognition of the cyanide toxidrome has been hampered by the short half-life in blood and poor stability of cyanide. In contrast, carboxyhemoglobin, as a marker of carbon monoxide poisoning, is easily measured and long-lasting. No evidence supports the assumption of the arbitrary fixed lethal thresholds of 50% for carboxyhemoglobin, and 3 mg/L for cyanide, in fire victims. Preliminary data, drawn when comparing pure carbon monoxide and pure cyanide poisonings, suggest that a cyanide toxidrome can be defined considering signs and symptoms induced by cyanide and carbon monoxide, respectively. Prospective studies in fire victims may provide value in clarifying signs and symptoms related to both toxicants. Cyanide can induce a life-threatening poisoning from which a full recovery is possible. A number of experimentally efficient antidotes to cyanide exist, whose clinical use has been hampered due to serious side effects. The availability of potentially safer antidotes unveils the possibility of their value as first-line treatment, even in a complex clinical situation, where diagnosis is rapid and presumptive.

  17. Endogenous thiols enhance thallium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Sergio; Rios, Camilo [Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia, ' ' Manuel Velasco Suarez' ' , Departamento de Neuroquimica, Mexico, D.F (Mexico); Soriano, Luz; Monroy-Noyola, Antonio [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Laboratorio de Neuroproteccion, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    Either L-methionine (L-met) or L-cysteine (L-cys), given alone and in combination with Prussian blue (PB) was characterized as treatment against acute thallium (Tl) toxicity in rats. Animals were intoxicated with 32 mg/kg Tl acetate corresponding to rat LD{sub 50}. Antidotal treatments were administered during 4 days, as follows: (1) vehicle, (2) L-met 100 mg/kg i.p. twice a day, (3) L-cys 100 mg/kg i.p. twice a day, (4) PB 50 mg/kg oral, twice a day, (5) L-met + PB and (6) L-cys + PB. Mortality was as follows: control 50%; L-met 80%; L-cys 80%; PB 20%; L-met + PB 90% and L-cys + PB 100%. In a different experiment, using 16 mg/kg of Tl, tissue levels of this metal were analyzed. PB treatment statistically diminished Tl content in body organs and brain regions (P < 0.01). Whereas, separate treatments of L-met and L-cys failed to decrease Tl content in organs and brain regions; while its administration in combination with PB (L-met + PB and L-cys + PB groups) lowered Tl levels in body organs in the same extent as PB group. Results indicate that L-met and L-cys administered alone or in combination with PB should not be considered suitable treatments against acute Tl toxic effects because this strategy failed to prevent mortality and Tl accumulation in brain. (orig.)

  18. Endogenous thiols enhance thallium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Sergio; Soriano, Luz; Ríos, Camilo; Monroy-Noyola, Antonio

    2007-10-01

    Either L-methionine (L-met) or L-cysteine (L-cys), given alone and in combination with Prussian blue (PB) was characterized as treatment against acute thallium (Tl) toxicity in rats. Animals were intoxicated with 32 mg/kg Tl acetate corresponding to rat LD(50). Antidotal treatments were administered during 4 days, as follows: (1) vehicle, (2) L-met 100 mg/kg i.p. twice a day, (3) L-cys 100 mg/kg i.p. twice a day, (4) PB 50 mg/kg oral, twice a day, (5) L-met + PB and (6) L-cys + PB. Mortality was as follows: control 50%; L-met 80%; L-cys 80%; PB 20%; L-met + PB 90% and L-cys + PB 100%. In a different experiment, using 16 mg/kg of Tl, tissue levels of this metal were analyzed. PB treatment statistically diminished Tl content in body organs and brain regions (P<0.01). Whereas, separate treatments of L-met and L-cys failed to decrease Tl content in organs and brain regions; while its administration in combination with PB (L-met + PB and L-cys + PB groups) lowered Tl levels in body organs in the same extent as PB group. Results indicate that L-met and L-cys administered alone or in combination with PB should not be considered suitable treatments against acute Tl toxic effects because this strategy failed to prevent mortality and Tl accumulation in brain.

  19. Delayed cyanide poisoning following acetonitrile ingestion.

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, M.; Borland, C.

    1997-01-01

    Acetonitrile (methyl cyanide) is a common industrial organic solvent but is a rare cause of poisoning. We report the first recorded UK case. Acetonitrile is slowly converted to cyanide, resulting in delayed toxicity. We describe a case of deliberate self-poisoning by a 39-year-old woman resulting in cyanide poisoning 11 hours later which was successfully treated by repeated boluses of sodium nitrite and thiosulphate. The half-life of conversion of acetonitrile was 40 hours and harmful blood c...

  20. Sodium nitroprusside-associated cyanide toxicity in adult patients – fact or fiction? A critical review of the evidence and clinical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa Lockwood

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Alissa Lockwood1, John Patka2, Marina Rabinovich2, Katleen Wyatt2, Prasad Abraham21Department of Pharmacy, Parkland Health System, Dallas, TX, USA; 2Department of Pharmacy and Drug Information, Grady Health System, Atlanta, GA, USAAbstract: Since its US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approval in 1974, sodium nitroprusside (SNP has been fraught with controversy in regards to its safety. Over the years, a growing concern related to SNPs propensity to cause cyanide (CN toxicity culminated into a series of case reports that led the FDA to develop a black-box warning with dose limitations of <2 µg/kg/min. These recommendations stemmed also from the reality of the difficulty of obtaining CN levels in a timely manner, as well as the presumed poor correlation of metabolic markers (lactate levels and pH as it related to the severity of CN toxicity. All these issues have driven practitioners to the use of alternative agents. In this paper, we critically review the cases and the data that led to the development of these restrictive dosing recommendations and reveal several limitations of the data and assumptions that led to these recommendations. We conclude that SNP is still a reasonable agent to use in the management of patients with hypertension today and can safely be used beyond doses of 2 µg/kg/min. Furthermore, in lieu of CN levels, monitoring of lactic acid levels is also a reasonable measure to ensure safety.Keywords: dose limits, monitoring, controversy, thiosulfate stores, cyanide levels

  1. Determination of the Concentration of Total Cyanide in Waste Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cyanide has been listed as one of the toxic pollutants that is usually released into the environment. Cyanide is said to be released during the processing of cyanogenic plant parts which tobacco plant is one of them. This work determines the concentration of total cyanide in waste water collected in and around a tobacco ...

  2. Antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J

    2012-08-01

    Cyanide poisoning can present in multiple ways, given its widespread industrial use, presence in combustion products, multiple physical forms, and chemical structures. The primary target of toxicity is mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The onset and severity of poisoning depend on the route, dose, physicochemical structure and other variables. Common poisoning features include dyspnea, altered respiratory patterns, abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, seizures, and lactic acidosis. Our present knowledge supports cyanide poisoning treatment based on excellent supportive care with adjunctive antidotal therapy. Multiple antidotes exist and vary in regional availability. All currently marketed antidotes appear to be effective. Antidotal mechanisms include chelation, formation of stable, less toxic complexes, methemoglobin induction, and sulfane sulfur supplementation for detoxification by endogenous rhodanese. Each antidote has advantages and disadvantages. For example, hydroxocobalamin is safer than the methemoglobin inducers in patients with smoke inhalation. Research for new, safer and more effective cyanide antidotes continues.

  3. Phytotoxicity of cyanide to weeping willow trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaozhang; Trapp, Stefan; Zhou, Puhua

    2005-01-01

    Cyanide is found predominantly in industrial effluents generated by metallurgical operations. It is an extremely toxic compound, so that problems and catastrophic accidents have recently occurred all around the globe. The goal of this study was to determine the toxicity of cyanide to a Chinese willow species, and to determine the removal capacity. The toxicity of potassium cyanide (KCN) to weeping willow trees (Salix babylonica L.) was tested. The normalized, relative transpiration of the plants was used to determine the phytotoxicity of cyanide. The cyanide removal capacity of weeping willows was also determined. In hydroponic solution, no chlorosis of leaves and only a small reduction in normalized relative transpiration was observed when weeping willows were exposed to low doses of cyanide ( or = 9.3 mg CN/L). Weeping willows grown in sandy soils survived the entire period (216 hours) without any toxic effect when irrigated with low doses of cyanide (3.72 mg CN/L). High doses of cyanide (> or = 18.6 mg CN/L) in irrigation water were fatal for the weeping willows within 216 hours. EC50 values for a 50% inhibition of the transpiration of the trees were estimated to be between 3.27 and 8.23 mg CN/L, depending on the duration of the exposure. The results obtained for the Chinese willow species Salix babylonica were very similar to those obtained for the European species S. viminalis in earlier studies. Phytotoxic effects were only found at high doses of cyanide. A large proportion of applied cyanide was removed from the contaminated media in the presence of weeping willows. This gives rise to the conclusion that the metabolism of cyanide by weeping willows is possible. Cyanide elimination with trees seems to be a feasible option for cleaning soils and water contaminated with cyanide. A full-scale treatment has been installed in Denmark. For phytoremediation projects in China, weeping willow could be a suitable species. The tree can tolerate and remove cyanide, and

  4. Field experiences in the prevention of toxic effects for cyanide and mercury in the Mining District of Vetas-California, Santander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaparro Garnica, Helkin Claudio Martin

    2004-01-01

    The problem of the mercury and their impact in the health acquired their maximum importance starting from the intoxications of Minamata and Niigata (Japan), because the children that were exposed to the methyl-mercury during their fetal development presented a neurological syndrome and they were born with cerebral paralysis. In Colombia according to the ministry of mines a pound of mercury is used by each pound of obtained gold what can give an idea of the quantity of waste that they take place and that directly they will contaminate the soil, the air and the water. Additionally, they use cyanide, of high to be able to toxic, for the separation process of the fraction of gold whose they discharge they also go to the hydraulic sources. In the human being the white organs of the mercury are the kidneys and the nervous system, causing deterioration that can arrive until the patient's death for renal inadequacy or moderate inability to severe for the caused neurological damages, and in the case of the cyanide whose dose lethal stocking is surpassed in several percentiles by the miners, that same lethality has made them to have him respect and that therefore, single cases accidentals (dogs that they drink water of the saturation tank), or of suicide in human, they have been reported with reference to this toxic that however, it is need to include in the activities of sensitization. In the Mining District of Vetas-California, Department of Santander, Colombia, exists around 25 mines that exploit the gold, there only are not plants, there are also miners handmade called barrileros y/o arrastreros whose benefit involves processes of having amalgamated in development of which it is highly possible the sharp and mainly chronic intoxication for mercury in the exposed population, but additionally in the population not directly related with the productive system because the mercury in its elementary state, or of inorganic salts or of mercurial organic, they can penetrate to the

  5. New fungal biomasses for cyanide biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Yasemin Kevser; Gedikli, Serap; Aytar, Pınar; Unal, Arzu; Yamaç, Mustafa; Cabuk, Ahmet; Kolankaya, Nazif

    2010-10-01

    Cyanide, a hazardous substance, is released into the environment as a result of natural processes of various industrial activities which is a toxic pollutant according to Environmental Protection Agency. In nature, some microorganisms are responsible for the degradation of cyanide, but there is only limited information about the degradation characteristics of Basidiomycetes for cyanide. The aim of the present study is to determine cyanide degradation characteristics in some Basidiomycetes strains including Polyporus arcularius (T 438), Schizophyllum commune (T 701), Clavariadelphus truncatus (T 192), Pleurotus eryngii (M 102), Ganoderma applanatum (M 105), Trametes versicolor (D 22), Cerrena unicolor (D 30), Schizophyllum commune (D 35) and Ganoderma lucidum (D 33). The cyanide degradation activities of P. arcularius S. commune and G. lucidum were found to be more than that of the other fungi examined. The parameters including incubation time, amount of biomass, initial cyanide concentration, temperature, pH and agitation rate were optimized for the selected three potential fungal strains. The maximum cyanide degradation was obtained after 48 h of incubation at 30°C by P. arcularius (T 438). The optimum pH and agitation rate were measured as 10.5 and 150 rev/min, respectively. The amount of biomass was found as 3.0 g for the maximum cyanide biodegradation with an initial cyanide concentration of 100mg/L. In this study, agar was chosen entrapment agent for the immobilization of effective biomass. We suggested that P. arcularius (T 438) could be effective in the treatment of contaminated sites with cyanide due to capability of degrading cyanide. Copyright © 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Physiologically available cyanide (PAC) in manufactured gas plant waste and soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, B.; Taft, A.; Ratliff, W.; Kelley, J.; Sullivan, J.; Pancorbo, O.

    1995-01-01

    Iron-complexed cyanide compounds, such as ferri-ferrocyanide (Prussian Blue), are wastes associated with former manufactured gas plant (MGP) facilities. When tested for total cyanide, these wastes often show a high total cyanide content. Because simple cyanide salts are acutely toxic, cyanide compounds can be the subject of concern. However, Prussian Blue and related species are known to have a low order of human and animal toxicity. Toxicology data on complexed cyanides will be presented. Another issue regarding Prussian Blue and related species is that the total cyanide method does not accurately represent the amount of free cyanide released from these cyanide species. The method involves boiling the sample in an acidic solution under vacuum to force the formation of HCN gas. Thus, Prussian Blue, which is known to be low in toxicity, cannot be properly evaluated with current methods. The Massachusetts Natural Gas Council initiated a program with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection to develop a method that would define the amount of cyanide that is able to be converted into hydrogen cyanide under the pH conditions of the stomach. It is demonstrated that less than 1% of the cyanide present in Prussian Blue samples and soils from MGP sites can be converted to HCN under the conditions of the human stomach. The physiologically available cyanide method has been designed to be executed at a higher temperature for one hour. It is shown that physiologically available cyanide in MGP samples is < 5--15% of total cyanide

  7. Delayed cyanide poisoning following acetonitrile ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, M.; Borland, C.

    1997-01-01

    Acetonitrile (methyl cyanide) is a common industrial organic solvent but is a rare cause of poisoning. We report the first recorded UK case. Acetonitrile is slowly converted to cyanide, resulting in delayed toxicity. We describe a case of deliberate self-poisoning by a 39-year-old woman resulting in cyanide poisoning 11 hours later which was successfully treated by repeated boluses of sodium nitrite and thiosulphate. The half-life of conversion of acetonitrile was 40 hours and harmful blood cyanide levels persisted for over 24 hours after ingestion. Departments treating or advising in cases of poisoning need to be aware of the delayed toxicity of acetonitrile. Monitoring in an intensive care unit of cases of acetonitrile poisoning should continue for 24-48 hours. PMID:9196706

  8. Cyanides in the environment-analysis-problems and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaszczak, Ewa; Polkowska, Żaneta; Narkowicz, Sylwia; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2017-07-01

    Cyanide toxicity and their environmental impact are well known. Nevertheless, they are still used in the mining, galvanic and chemical industries. As a result of industrial activities, cyanides are released in various forms to all elements of the environment. In a natural environment, cyanide exists as cyanogenic glycosides in plants seeds. Too much consumption can cause unpleasant side effects. However, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the most common source of cyanide. Live organisms have the ability to convert cyanide into less toxic compounds excreted with physiological fluids. The aim of this paper is to review the current state of knowledge on the behaviour of cyanide in the environment and its impact on the health and human life.

  9. Heap leach cyanide irrigation and risk to wildlife: Ramifications for the international cyanide management code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, D B; Madden-Hallett, D M; Smith, G B; Gursansky, W

    2017-06-01

    Exposed cyanide-bearing solutions associated with gold and silver recovery processes in the mining industry pose a risk to wildlife that interact with these solutions. This has been documented with cyanide-bearing tailings storage facilities, however risks associated with heap leach facilities are poorly documented, monitored and audited. Gold and silver leaching heap leach facilities use cyanide, pH-stabilised, at concentrations deemed toxic to wildlife. Their design and management are known to result in exposed cyanide-bearing solutions that are accessible to and present a risk to wildlife. Monitoring of the presence of exposed solutions, wildlife interaction, interpretation of risks and associated wildlife deaths are poorly documented. This paper provides a list of critical monitoring criteria and attempts to predict wildlife guilds most at risk. Understanding the significance of risks to wildlife from exposed cyanide solutions is complex, involving seasonality, relative position of ponding, temporal nature of ponding, solution palatability, environmental conditions, in situ wildlife species inventory and provision of alternative drinking sources for wildlife. Although a number of heap leach operations are certified as complaint with the International Cyanide Management Code (Cyanide Code), these criteria are not considered by auditors nor has systematic monitoring regime data been published. Without systematic monitoring and further knowledge, wildlife deaths on heap leach facilities are likely to remain largely unrecorded. This has ramifications for those operations certified as compliance with the Cyanide Code. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cataractogenic Potential Of Cyanide-Induced Oxidative Stress In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between chronic cyanide toxicity, oxidative stress and cataractogenesis was investigated in two groups of 4-month-old NewZealand White rabbits fed for 7 weeks on growers mash with or without 400ppm inorganic cyanide, after prior acclimatisation to chicken mash and laboratory conditions.

  11. Effect of GarriI processing effluents [waste water] on the cyanide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerous studies have described environmental exposure of humans to cyanide in African populations. Little is known about exposure to cyanide toxins from processed or unprocessed root tubers commonly consumed in Africa; and data on the food concentration of cyanide which is a potential poison and systemic toxicant ...

  12. Hydroxocobalamin and Epinephrine Both Improve Survival in a Swine Model of Cyanide-Induced Cardiac Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Cyanide is considered an uncommon cause of death, but in 2007 the American Association of Poison Centers reported 5 deaths from cyanide , similar to the...number of deaths reported for digoxin, -blockers, and pesticides and herbicides.1 In addition to intentional poisoning , cyanide can also cause toxicity...absorption through an inhalational model of cyanide poisoning . This limitation was minimized by establishing a clinical endpoint, cardiopulmonary

  13. Recent developments in cyanide detection: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jian; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

    2010-01-01

    The extreme toxicity of cyanide and environmental concerns from its continued industrial use continue to generate interest in facile and sensitive methods for cyanide detection. In recent years, there is also additional recognition of HCN toxicity from smoke inhalation and potential use of cyanide as a weapon of terrorism. This review summarizes the literature since 2005 on cyanide measurement in different matrices ranging from drinking water and wastewater, to cigarette smoke and exhaled breath to biological fluids like blood, urine and saliva. The dramatic increase in the number of publications on cyanide measurement is indicative of the great interest in this field not only from analytical chemists, but also researchers from diverse environmental, medical, forensic and clinical arena. The recent methods cover both established and emerging analytical disciplines and include naked eye visual detection, spectrophotometry/colorimetry, capillary electrophoresis with optical absorbance detection, fluorometry, chemiluminescence, near-infrared cavity ring down spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, electrochemical methods (potentiometry/amperometry/ion chromatography-pulsed amperometry), mass spectrometry (selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), gas chromatography (nitrogen phosphorus detector, electron capture detector) and quartz crystal mass monitors.

  14. Recent developments in cyanide detection: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Jian [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas, 700 Planetarium Place, Arlington, TX 76019-0065 (United States); Dasgupta, Purnendu K., E-mail: Dasgupta@uta.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas, 700 Planetarium Place, Arlington, TX 76019-0065 (United States)

    2010-07-19

    The extreme toxicity of cyanide and environmental concerns from its continued industrial use continue to generate interest in facile and sensitive methods for cyanide detection. In recent years, there is also additional recognition of HCN toxicity from smoke inhalation and potential use of cyanide as a weapon of terrorism. This review summarizes the literature since 2005 on cyanide measurement in different matrices ranging from drinking water and wastewater, to cigarette smoke and exhaled breath to biological fluids like blood, urine and saliva. The dramatic increase in the number of publications on cyanide measurement is indicative of the great interest in this field not only from analytical chemists, but also researchers from diverse environmental, medical, forensic and clinical arena. The recent methods cover both established and emerging analytical disciplines and include naked eye visual detection, spectrophotometry/colorimetry, capillary electrophoresis with optical absorbance detection, fluorometry, chemiluminescence, near-infrared cavity ring down spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, electrochemical methods (potentiometry/amperometry/ion chromatography-pulsed amperometry), mass spectrometry (selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), gas chromatography (nitrogen phosphorus detector, electron capture detector) and quartz crystal mass monitors.

  15. Chemical analysis of cyanide in cyanidation process: review of methods; Analisis quimico de cianuro en el proceso de cianuracion: revision de los principales metodos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nova-Alonso, F.; Elorza-Rodriguez, E.; Uribe-Salas, A.; Perez-Garibay, R.

    2007-07-01

    Cyanidation, the world wide method for precious metals recovery, the chemical analysis of cyanide, is a very important, but complex operation. Cyanide can be present forming different species, each of them with different stability, toxicity, analysis method and elimination technique. For cyanide analysis, there exists a wide selection of analytical methods but most of them present difficulties because of the interference of species present in the solution. This paper presents the different available methods for chemical analysis of cyanide: titration, specific electrode and distillation, giving special emphasis on the interferences problem, with the aim of helping in the interpretation of the results. (Author)

  16. Challenges in the diagnosis of acute cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker-Cote, J L; Rizer, J; Vakkalanka, J P; Rege, S V; Holstege, C P

    2018-02-08

    The aim of this systematic review was to identify isolated acute cyanide poison cases and to identify reported signs, symptoms, and laboratory findings. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Reviews, and Web of Science case reports and series using a number of MeSH descriptors pertaining to cyanide, toxicity, and poisonings. We excluded studies on plants, laboratory analyses, smoke inhalation poisonings, animals as well as non-English language articles and those in which data were not available. Data extracted included demographics, exposure characteristics, acute signs/symptoms, and medical management and outcome. From the initial 2976 articles retrieved, 65 articles (52 case reports, 13 case series) met inclusion criteria and described 102 patients. Most patients were unresponsive (78%), hypotensive (54%), or had respiratory failure (73%); other signs and symptoms included cardiac arrest (20%), seizures (20%), cyanosis (15%), cherry red skin (11%), and had an odor present (15%). Medical management included cyanide antidote kit (20%), sodium thiosulfate (40%), and hydroxocobalamin (29%). The majority of cases (66%) required intubation with mechanical ventilation and a substantial number (39%) developed refractory hypotension requiring vasopressor support. Contrary to general reviews published on cyanide toxicity, reports of cherry red skin and bitter almond odor were rare among published cyanide cases. Consistent with other studies, metabolic acidosis with significant lactic acidosis were the laboratory values consistently associated with cyanide toxicity. Healthcare providers may overlook cyanide toxicity in the differential diagnosis, if certain expected characteristics, such as the odor of almonds or a cherry red color of the skin are absent on physical examination.

  17. determination of free cyanide and total cyanide concentrations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Concentrations of free cyanide and total cyanide in water samples in Bogoso and its surrounding areas in Ghana have been measured in this study. Concentrations of free cyanide and total cyanide were found to be above the maximum permissible discharge limit of effluent from mining companies into natural ...

  18. Hydroxocobalamin in cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John P; Marrs, Timothy C

    2012-12-01

    On theoretical grounds, hydroxocobalamin is an attractive antidote for cyanide poisoning as cobalt compounds have the ability to bind and detoxify cyanide. This paper reviews the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of hydroxocobalamin, its efficacy in human cyanide poisoning and its adverse effects. PubMed was searched for the period 1952 to April 2012. A total of 71 papers were identified in this way; and none was excluded. PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS: Pharmacokinetic studies in dogs and humans suggest a two-compartment model, with first order elimination kinetics. Pharmacodynamic studies in animals suggest that hydroxocobalamin would be a satisfactory antidote for human cyanide poisoning. EFFICACY IN HUMAN POISONING: There is limited evidence that hydroxocobalamin alone is effective in severe poisoning by cyanide salts. The evidence for the efficacy of hydroxocobalamin in smoke inhalation is complicated by lack of evidence for the importance of cyanide exposure in fires and the effects of other chemicals as well as confounding effects of other therapeutic measures, including hyperbaric oxygen. Evidence that hydroxocobalamin is effective in poisoning due to hydrogen cyanide alone is lacking; extrapolation of efficacy from poisoning by ingested cyanide salts may not be valid. The rate of absorption may be greater with inhaled hydrogen cyanide and the recommended slow intravenous administration of hydroxocobalamin may severely limit its clinical effectiveness in these circumstances. Both animal and human data suggest that hydroxocobalamin is lacking in clinically significant adverse effects. However, in one human volunteer study, delayed but prolonged rashes were observed in one-sixth of subjects, appearing 7 to 25 days after administration of 5 g or more of hydroxocobalamin. Rare adverse effects have included dyspnoea, facial oedema, and urticaria. Limited data on human poisonings with cyanide salts suggest that hydroxocobalamin is an effective

  19. Cyanide toxicokinetics: the behavior of cyanide, thiocyanate and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid in multiple animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Raj K; Oda, Robert P; Petrikovics, Ilona; Thompson, David E; Brenner, Matthew; Mahon, Sari B; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2014-05-01

    Cyanide causes toxic effects by inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in cellular hypoxia and cytotoxic anoxia, and can eventually lead to death. Cyanide exposure can be verified by direct analysis of cyanide concentrations or analyzing its metabolites, including thiocyanate (SCN(-)) and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA) in blood. To determine the behavior of these markers following cyanide exposure, a toxicokinetics study was performed in three animal models: (i) rats (250-300 g), (ii) rabbits (3.5-4.2 kg) and (iii) swine (47-54 kg). Cyanide reached a maximum in blood and declined rapidly in each animal model as it was absorbed, distributed, metabolized and eliminated. Thiocyanate concentrations rose more slowly as cyanide was enzymatically converted to SCN(-). Concentrations of ATCA did not rise significantly above the baseline in the rat model, but rose quickly in rabbits (up to a 40-fold increase) and swine (up to a 3-fold increase) and then fell rapidly, generally following the relative behavior of cyanide. Rats were administered cyanide subcutaneously and the apparent half-life (t1/2) was determined to be 1,510 min. Rabbits were administered cyanide intravenously and the t1/2 was determined to be 177 min. Swine were administered cyanide intravenously and the t1/2 was determined to be 26.9 min. The SCN(-) t1/2 in rats was 3,010 min, but was not calculated in rabbits and swine because SCN(-) concentrations did not reach a maximum. The t1/2 of ATCA was 40.7 and 13.9 min in rabbits and swine, respectively, while it could not be determined in rats with confidence. The current study suggests that cyanide exposure may be verified shortly after exposure by determining significantly elevated cyanide and SCN(-) in each animal model and ATCA may be used when the ATCA detoxification pathway is significant.

  20. Cisplatin Analogs Confer Protection against Cyanide Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Anjali K; Shi, Xu; Harrison, Devin L; Morningstar, Jordan E; Mahon, Sari; Chan, Adriano; Sips, Patrick; Lee, Jangwoen; MacRae, Calum A; Boss, Gerry R; Brenner, Matthew; Gerszten, Robert E; Peterson, Randall T

    2017-05-18

    Cisplatin holds an illustrious position in the history of chemistry most notably for its role in the virtual cure of testicular cancer. Here we describe a role for this small molecule in cyanide detoxification in vivo. Cyanide kills organisms as diverse as insects, fish, and humans within seconds to hours. Current antidotes exhibit limited efficacy and are not amenable to mass distribution requiring the development of new classes of antidotes. The binding affinity of the cyanide anion for the positively charged metal platinum is known to create an extremely stable complex in vitro. We therefore screened a panel of diverse cisplatin analogs and identified compounds that conferred protection from cyanide poisoning in zebrafish, mice, and rabbits. Cumulatively, this discovery pipeline begins to establish the characteristics of platinum ligands that influence their solubility, toxicity, and efficacy, and provides proof of concept that platinum-based complexes are effective antidotes for cyanide poisoning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A review of acute cyanide poisoning with a treatment update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Jillian

    2011-02-01

    Cyanide causes intracellular hypoxia by reversibly binding to mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase a(3). Signs and symptoms of cyanide poisoning usually occur less than 1 minute after inhalation and within a few minutes after ingestion. Early manifestations include anxiety, headache, giddiness, inability to focus the eyes, and mydriasis. As hypoxia progresses, progressively lower levels of consciousness, seizures, and coma can occur. Skin may look normal or slightly ashen, and arterial oxygen saturation may be normal. Early respiratory signs include transient rapid and deep respirations. As poisoning progresses, hemodynamic status may become unstable. The key treatment is early administration of 1 of the 2 antidotes currently available in the United States: the well-known cyanide antidote kit and hydroxocobalamin. Hydroxocobalamin detoxifies cyanide by binding with it to form the renally excreted, non-toxic cyanocobalamin. Because it binds with cyanide without forming methemoglobin, hydroxocobalamin can be used to treat patients without compromising the oxygen-carrying capacity of hemoglobin.

  2. Cyanides: decomposition and determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilath, I.; Cohen, L.

    1977-08-01

    Different cyanide destruction methods such as electrolysis (with and without the addition of salt), hypochlorite treatment and ion exchange detoxication were evaluated on a laboratory scale using model solutions. Parameters were determined for the optimal operation of the investigated processes. Analytical methods were adapted for concentrations and compositions of interest. An easy and rapid method of complex cyanide breakdown by ion exchange treatment was developed for analytical purposes. (author)

  3. Pediatric cyanide poisoning: causes, manifestations, management, and unmet needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Robert J; Barthold, Claudia; Saiers, Jane A; Hall, Alan H

    2006-11-01

    Confirmed cases of childhood exposure to cyanide are rare despite multiple potential sources including inhalation of fire smoke, ingestion of toxic household and workplace substances, and ingestion of cyanogenic foods. Because of its infrequent occurrence, medical professionals may have difficulty recognizing cyanide poisoning, confirming its presence, and treating it in pediatric patients. The sources and manifestations of acute cyanide poisoning seem to be qualitatively similar between children and adults, but children may be more vulnerable than adults to poisoning from some sources. The only currently available antidote in the United States (the cyanide antidote kit) has been used successfully in children but has particular risks associated with its use in pediatric patients. Because hemoglobin kinetics vary with age, methemoglobinemia associated with nitrite-based antidotes may be excessive at standard adult dosing in children. A cyanide antidote with a better risk/benefit ratio than the current agent available in the United States is desirable. The vitamin B12 precursor hydroxocobalamin, which has been used in Europe, may prove to be an attractive alternative to the cyanide antidote kit for pediatric patients. In this article we review the available data on the sources, manifestations, and treatment of acute cyanide poisoning in children and discuss unmet needs in the management of pediatric cyanide poisoning.

  4. Development of a fluorescence-based sensor for rapid diagnosis of cyanide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Randy; Oda, Robert P; Bhandari, Raj K; Mahon, Sari B; Brenner, Matthew; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2014-02-04

    Although commonly known as a highly toxic chemical, cyanide is also an essential reagent for many industrial processes in areas such as mining, electroplating, and synthetic fiber production. The "heavy" use of cyanide in these industries, along with its necessary transportation, increases the possibility of human exposure. Because the onset of cyanide toxicity is fast, a rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure is necessary. Therefore, a field sensor for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure was developed based on the reaction of naphthalene dialdehyde, taurine, and cyanide, yielding a fluorescent β-isoindole. An integrated cyanide capture "apparatus", consisting of sample and cyanide capture chambers, allowed rapid separation of cyanide from blood samples. Rabbit whole blood was added to the sample chamber, acidified, and the HCN gas evolved was actively transferred through a stainless steel channel to the capture chamber containing a basic solution of naphthalene dialdehyde (NDA) and taurine. The overall analysis time (including the addition of the sample) was cyanide exposure. Most importantly, the sensor was 100% accurate in diagnosing cyanide poisoning for acutely exposed rabbits.

  5. A new PANI biosensor based on catalase for cyanide determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Hakkı Mevlüt; Aydin, Tuba

    2016-01-01

    Cyanide is one of the most widespread of compounds measured in environmental analysis due to their toxic effects on environment and health. We report a highly sensitive, reliable, selective amperometric sensor for determination of cyanide, using a polyaniline conductive polymer. The enzyme catalase was immobilized by electropolymerization. The steps during the immobilization were controlled by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Optimum pH, temperature, aniline concentration, enzyme concentration, and the number of scans obtained during electropolymerization, were investigated. In addition, the cyanide present in artificial waste water samples was determined. In the characterization studies of the biosensor, some parameters such as reproducibility and storage stability, were analyzed.

  6. An enhanced C. elegans based platform for toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Huajiang; Pears, Catherine; Woollard, Alison

    2017-08-29

    There is a well-defined regulatory framework governing the approval of chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals or release into the environment. Toxicity assessment is thus a major hurdle in the compound discovery pipeline, currently involving large scale animal testing. The search for alternative testing platforms is therefore an important priority. We have developed a convenient, low cost assay utilising the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, to rapidly assess both acute toxicity and developmental and reproductive toxicity (DART). However the worm is protected by a robust cuticle that forms a barrier to chemical uptake. We assessed mutants with altered cuticle properties to identify sensitized strains optimized for toxicity assays. Evaluating the trade-off between increased permeability and reduced fitness identifies bus-5(br19) as the most suitable strain for chemical exposure. We demonstrate the applicability of this assay for a range of chemicals with differing properties, including a modified exposure protocol for volatile or less soluble compounds. This work enhances the effectiveness of C. elegans for convenient toxicity assessment, which could contribute to a reduction in the use of vertebrates particularly at the crucial early stages of product development. Strains identified in this work will also enhance the sensitivity of C. elegans based drug discovery platforms.

  7. determination of free cyanide and total cyanide concentrations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    teaspoonful of cyanide solution containing 50 to 200 mg of cyanide ingested by an adult human .... HCl and 10 mL of 12 % w/v hydroxylamine hydrogen .... The acidic nature of the water from the borehole lowers the pH to 5.89, at low pH below 7.0, essentially all dissolved cyanide is present as HCN. Hydrogen cyanide ...

  8. Cyanide poisoning deaths in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruc, H H; Yilmaz, R; Bagdas, D; Ozyigit, M O

    2006-12-01

    In 2005, the deaths of three dogs were reported in Erdek, Turkey. Examining appropriate historical and clinical signs, postmortem findings and the discovery of cyanide in their stomachs and intestinal contents and livers supported a diagnosis of cyanide poisoning.

  9. Cyanide and the human brain: perspectives from a model of food (cassava) poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshala-Katumbay, Desire D; Ngombe, Nadege N; Okitundu, Daniel; David, Larry; Westaway, Shawn K; Boivin, Michael J; Mumba, Ngoyi D; Banea, Jean-Pierre

    2016-08-01

    Threats by fundamentalist leaders to use chemical weapons have resulted in renewed interest in cyanide toxicity. Relevant insights may be gained from studies on cyanide mass intoxication in populations relying on cyanogenic cassava as the main source of food. In these populations, sublethal concentrations (up to 80 μmol/l) of cyanide in the blood are commonplace and lead to signs of acute toxicity. Long-term toxicity signs include a distinct and irreversible spastic paralysis, known as konzo, and cognition deficits, mainly in sequential processing (visual-spatial analysis) domains. Toxic culprits include cyanide (mitochondrial toxicant), thiocyanate (AMPA-receptor chaotropic cyanide metabolite), cyanate (protein-carbamoylating cyanide metabolite), and 2-iminothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (seizure inducer). Factors of susceptibility include younger age, female gender, protein-deficient diet, and, possibly, the gut functional metagenome. The existence of uniquely exposed and neurologically affected populations offers invaluable research opportunities to develop a comprehensive understanding of cyanide toxicity and test or validate point-of-care diagnostic tools and treatment options to be included in preparedness kits in response to cyanide-related threats. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. The fate of cyanide in leach wastes at gold mines: An environmental perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper reviews the fate of cyanide in mineral processing wastes at gold mines. • Ore leaching produces numerous cyanide-containing species besides the gold complex. • Many cyanide species are eliminated or sequestered naturally over time. • Sequestered cyanide can be remobilized if conditions change. • Toxicity of released solutions can be reduced by photolytic reactions or offgassing. - Abstract: This paper reviews the basic chemistry of cyanide, methods by which cyanide can be analyzed, and aspects of cyanide behavior that are most relevant to environmental considerations at mineral processing operations associated with gold mines. The emphasis is on research results reported since 1999 and on data gathered for a series of U.S. Geological Survey studies that began in the late 1990s. Cyanide is added to process solutions as the CN − anion, but ore leaching produces numerous other cyanide-containing and cyanide-related species in addition to the desired cyanocomplex of gold. These can include hydrogen cyanide (HCN); cyanometallic complexes of iron, copper, zinc, nickel, and many other metals; cyanate (CNO − ); and thiocyanate (SCN − ). The fate of these species in solid wastes and residual process solutions that remain once gold recovery activities are terminated and in any water that moves beyond the ore processing facility dictates the degree to which cyanide poses a risk to aquatic organisms and aquatic-dependent organisms in the local environment. Cyanide-containing and cyanide-related species are subject to attenuation mechanisms that lead to dispersal to the atmosphere, chemical transformation to other carbon and nitrogen species, or sequestration as cyanometallic precipitates or adsorbed species on mineral surfaces. Dispersal to the atmosphere and chemical transformation amount to permanent elimination of cyanide, whereas sequestration amounts to storage of cyanide in locations from which it can potentially be remobilized by

  11. A Cyanide-Induced 3-Cyanoalanine Nitrilase in the Cyanide-Assimilating Bacterium Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes Strain CECT 5344.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acera, Felipe; Carmona, María Isabel; Castillo, Francisco; Quesada, Alberto; Blasco, Rafael

    2017-05-01

    Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT 5344 is a bacterium able to assimilate cyanide as a sole nitrogen source. Under this growth condition, a 3-cyanoalanine nitrilase enzymatic activity was induced. This activity was encoded by nit4 , one of the four nitrilase genes detected in the genome of this bacterium, and its expression in Escherichia coli enabled the recombinant strain to fully assimilate 3-cyanoalanine. P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT 5344 showed a weak growth level with 3-cyanoalanine as the N source, unless KCN was also added. Moreover, a nit4 knockout mutant of P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT 5344 became severely impaired in its ability to grow with 3-cyanoalanine and cyanide as nitrogen sources. The native enzyme expressed in E. coli was purified up to electrophoretic homogeneity and biochemically characterized. Nit4 seems to be specific for 3-cyanoalanine, and the amount of ammonium derived from the enzymatic activity doubled in the presence of exogenously added asparaginase activity, which demonstrated that the Nit4 enzyme had both 3-cyanoalanine nitrilase and hydratase activities. The nit4 gene is located downstream of the cyanide resistance transcriptional unit containing cio1 genes, whose expression levels are under the positive control of cyanide. Real-time PCR experiments revealed that nit4 expression was also positively regulated by cyanide in both minimal and LB media. These results suggest that this gene cluster including cio1 and nit4 could be involved both in cyanide resistance and in its assimilation by P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT 5344. IMPORTANCE Cyanide is a highly toxic molecule present in some industrial wastes due to its application in several manufacturing processes, such as gold mining and the electroplating industry. The biodegradation of cyanide from contaminated wastes could be an attractive alternative to physicochemical treatment. P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT 5344 is a bacterial strain able to assimilate cyanide under alkaline conditions, thus

  12. Ferrate(VI) and ferrate(V) oxidation of cyanide, thiocyanate, and copper(I) cyanide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Virender K. [Chemistry Department, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)], E-mail: vsharma@fit.edu; Yngard, Ria A. [Chemistry Department, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Cabelli, Diane E. [Department of Chemistry, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Long Island, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Clayton Baum, J. [Chemistry Department, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)

    2008-06-15

    Cyanide (CN{sup -}), thiocyanate (SCN{sup -}), and copper(I) cyanide (Cu(CN){sub 4}{sup 3-}) are common constituents in the wastes of many industrial processes such as metal finishing and gold mining, and their treatment is required before the safe discharge of effluent. The oxidation of CN{sup -}, SCN{sup -}, and Cu(CN){sub 4}{sup 3-} by ferrate(VI) (Fe{sup VI}O{sub 4}{sup 2-}; Fe(VI)) and ferrate(V) (Fe{sup V}O{sub 4}{sup 3-}; Fe(V)) has been studied using stopped-flow and premix pulse radiolysis techniques. The rate laws for the oxidation of cyanides were found to be first-order with respect to each reactant. The second-order rate constants decreased with increasing pH because the deprotonated species, FeO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, is less reactive than the protonated Fe(VI) species, HFeO{sub 4}{sup -}. Cyanides react 10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} times faster with Fe(V) than with Fe(VI). The Fe(V) reaction with CN{sup -} proceeds by sequential one-electron reductions from Fe(V) to Fe(IV) to Fe(III). However, a two-electron transfer process from Fe(V) to Fe(III) occurs in the reaction of Fe(V) with SCN{sup -} and Cu(CN){sub 4}{sup 3-}. The toxic CN{sup -} species of cyanide wastes is converted into relatively non-toxic cyanate (NCO{sup -}). Results indicate that Fe(VI) is highly efficient in removing cyanides from electroplating rinse water and gold mill effluent.

  13. TIE for cyanides in groundwater at a former coal gasification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLeay, M.; Cameron, M. [Hemmeram, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Elphick, J. [Nautilus Environmental Co., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Groundwater remediation efforts are underway at a former coal gasification plant site in British Columbia because the concentrations of cyanide and other substances were found to exceed aquatic life guidelines. Hemmera and Nautilus Environmental examined whether that groundwater was toxic to a variety of sensitive marine aquatic life species, and whether cyanide was the primary toxicant. Untreated groundwater containing cyanide, weak acid dissociable cyanide and free cyanide was tested for toxicity on bivalve larval survival, kelp zoospore germination, sea urchin gamete fertilization, and larval topsmelt survival and growth. The untreated groundwater was found to be toxic to kelp zoospores and sea urchin gametes, but relatively non-toxic to bivalve larvae and topsmelt. The following 4 toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) treatments were conducted on site groundwater: (1) acidification/aeration of the sample, (2) filtration of the sample through anion exchange media, (3) filtration of the sample through activated carbon, and (4) exposure of the sample to UV light. Both the cyanide concentration and the toxicity to kelp decreased considerably when the anion exchange treatment was applied. The results suggest that the toxicity may be attributed to cyanides in the groundwater. The information obtained from this study will be used to plan excavation water treatment strategies during site remediation as part of an ecological risk assessment for the site.

  14. Cyanide: an unreported cause of neurological complications following smoke inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, Frédéric; Boukobza, Monique; Borron, Stephen W

    2011-10-28

    Although the combustion of natural and synthetic products can yield cyanide, its toxic role in residential fires is unclear. This case concerns a woman aged over 50 years who presented comatose, pulseless and apnoeic after a domestic fire. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and on-site administration of 2.5 g hydroxocobalamin as an antidote to cyanide resulted in a return of spontaneous circulation. On admission to the intensive care unit, the patient was treated with hyperbaric oxygen for suspected carbon monoxide poisoning. In a blood specimen collected at the scene before hydroxocobalamin administration, blood cyanide and carbon monoxide levels were 68 µmol/l and 10.9%. On admission to hospital, plasma lactate was at 4.6 mmol/l. Brain scans revealed lesions which were confirmed 2 months later, consistent with the haemorrhagic necrosis often seen after poisoning by cyanide. These data suggest that smoke inhalation in a residential fire may cause cyanide poisoning. This case provides clinical, biological, analytical and brain imaging data supporting the hypothesis of the toxic role of smoke-induced cyanide poisoning which may result in neurological sequelae.

  15. Cyanide Suicide After Deep Web Shopping: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Garff, Erwan; Delannoy, Yann; Mesli, Vadim; Allorge, Delphine; Hédouin, Valéry; Tournel, Gilles

    2016-09-01

    Cyanide is a product that is known for its use in industrial or laboratory processes, as well as for intentional intoxication. The toxicity of cyanide is well described in humans with rapid inhibition of cellular aerobic metabolism after ingestion or inhalation, leading to severe clinical effects that are frequently lethal. We report the case of a young white man found dead in a hotel room after self-poisoning with cyanide ordered in the deep Web. This case shows a probable complex suicide kit use including cyanide, as a lethal tool, and dextromethorphan, as a sedative and anxiolytic substance. This case is an original example of the emerging deep Web shopping in illegal drug procurement.

  16. Plasmonic Interrogation of Biomimetic Systems for Enhanced Toxicity Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinman, Samuel Stuart

    In light of their escalating exposure to possible environmental toxicants, there are many biological systems that need to be evaluated in a resource and time efficient manner. Understanding how toxicants behave in relation to their physicochemical properties and within complex biological media is especially important toward developing a stronger scientific foundation of these systems so that adequate regulatory decisions may be made. While there are many emerging methods available for the detection and characterization of these chemicals, nanotechnology has presented itself as a promising alternative toward creating more efficient assays. In particular, metallic nanoparticles and thin films exhibit unique optical properties that allow for highly sensitive and multiplexed studies to be performed. These plasmonic materials often preclude the use of molecular tags and labels, enabling direct characterizations and enhancing the throughput of biomolecular studies. However, their lack of specificity toward certain targets and potential toxicity has thus far precluded their widespread use in toxicity testing. The cell membrane, a natural signal transducer, represents one of the fundamental structures for biological recognition and communication. These interfaces principally function as a selective barrier to exogenous materials, including ions, signaling molecules, growth factors, and toxins; therefore, understanding interactions at membrane interfaces is a vital step in elucidating how biological responses are effected. Supported lipid bilayers, which may easily be tailored in composition and complexity, are ideal interfaces for coupling to plasmonic assays since they may be supported in close proximity to metallic nanoparticles and thin films, where measurements are most sensitive. This research will focus on the coupling of plasmonic materials and biomimetic interfaces to increase the sensitivity, efficiency, and throughput of conventional toxicity assays. The

  17. [Suicidal poisoning with cyanide bought on the internet--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfeld, Karina; Łukasik-Głebocka, Magdalena; Górny, Jacek; Tobolski, Jarosław; Zielińska-Psuja, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Cyanides are relatively rare cause of acute poisonings. The majority of data on toxic effects of cyanide compounds on the human body, come from the experiences gained from accidental poisonings in the workplace, with fire smokes or during chemical incidents. However, from immemorial time, cyanides were also used in suicide attempts. The aim of this paper is to present the case of suicidal cyanide poisoning of 26-year-old woman, who was admitted to the toxicology department one hour after ingestion of unknown cyanogenic compound, probably bought on the Internet. Despite intensive symptomatic treatment and antidote administration (hydroxocobalamine), patient died after 78 hours of treatment.

  18. A review of rapid and field-portable analytical techniques for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Randy; Logue, Brian A

    2017-04-01

    Although commonly known as a highly toxic chemical, cyanide is also an essential reagent for many industrial processes in areas such as mining, electroplating and synthetic fiber production. The "heavy" use of cyanide in these industries, along with its necessary transportation, increases the possibility of human exposure. Another relatively common, but consistently overlooked, mode of cyanide exposure is inhalation of fire smoke. Both civilians and fire rescue personnel risk exposure during the unfortunate event of a structure fire. Additionally, fire rescue personnel risk long-term effects of habitual exposure throughout their careers in fire rescue. The relatively rapid onset of cyanide toxicity and the fact that cyanide exposure symptoms mimic other medical conditions necessitate a rapid, sensitive, portable, and accurate method for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure. This review focuses on the important issues concerning accurate point-of-care diagnosis of cyanide exposure and cyanide detection technologies that may allow a commercial cyanide exposure diagnostic to become a reality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Biodegradation of cyanide using Serratia sp. isolated from contaminated soil of gold mine in Takab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Mohseni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction : Cyanide is a toxic and hazardous compound for all organisms which is produced enormously by human being and causes the environment pollution. Biodegradation is the best method for cyanide elimination in industrial wastewater. The aims of this study were isolation of cyanide degrading bacteria from contaminated soil and investigation of their ability for cyanide degradation.   Materials and methods: After soil samples collection, enrichment of cyanide degrading bacteria was performed in a minimal medium containing 0.5 mM potassium cyanide. The ability of isolated bacterium to utilize the cyanide as sole carbon and nitrogen source was investigated. Cyanide degradation and ammonium production was determined in growth medium using picric acid and Nessler’s regent methods. Toxicity effect of different cyanide compounds on bacterial growth was determined using minimum inhibitory concentration. In addition, the ability of the isolated bacterium to utilize different cyanide compounds was investigated . Identification of the isolate was undertaken using morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics and molecular analysis .   Results : A bacterium with ability to degrade cyanide as sole carbon and nitrogen source was isolated from soil. This bacterium named as isolate MF1. MF1 degraded cyanide in growth medium in alkaline condition after 40 hours. Moreover this isolate tolerated more than 7 mM potassium cyanide. The results showed that there was a direct relation between decreasing of cyanide concentration, increasing of ammonia concentration and growth of MF1. In addition, the isolated bacterium demonstrated the ability to utilize different cyanide compounds as sole carbon and nitrogen source. The results of morphological and physiological characteristics showed that this bacterium belonged to the Serratia sp. Moreover, 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses exhibited that MF1 strain was similar to Serratia

  20. Hydroxocobalamin as a Cyanide Antidote: Empirical use , Safety, Efficacy, and Considerations for Stockpiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, A. H.

    2007-01-01

    Cyanide is a well-known toxic terrorism agent and is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in smoke inhalation victims. Terrorist attacks could start enclosed-space fires with cyanide-poisoned victims, even if cyanide itself was not utilized. Cyanide poisoning cannot be emergent confirmed by laboratory analysis and treatment with safe and efficacious antidotes must be administered empirically. Hydroxocobalamin has been recently approved by the US FDA and is a safe and efficacious antidote. Its efficacy is comparable to that of other, more toxic, cyanide antidotes. Its mechanism of action involves both direct cyanide chelation (forming non-toxic cyanocobalamin which is excreted in the urine) and nitric oxide scavenging. Adverse effects are usually limited to transient dark red-brown discoloration of urine, skin, sclera, and mucous membranes. Antidotal doses have not caused allergic reactions in cyanide-poisoned patients and only minor and easily-treated allergic reactions occurred in 2 of 136 normal volunteers. Transient, asymptomatic hypertension and reflex bradycardia have occurred in some normal volunteers, but not in seriously ill smoke inhalation victims not having significant cyanide poisoning. Hydroxocobalamin is a safe and efficacious antidote and can be empirically administered in pre-hospital or emergency department settings. It is therefore suitable for inclusion in national or multinational medication stockpiles and is already included in some national programs in the European Union.(author)

  1. Enhanced toxic cloud knockdown spray system for decontamination applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betty, Rita G [Rio Rancho, NM; Tucker, Mark D [Albuquerque, NM; Brockmann, John E [Albuquerque, NM; Lucero, Daniel A [Albuquerque, NM; Levin, Bruce L [Tijeras, NM; Leonard, Jonathan [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-09-06

    Methods and systems for knockdown and neutralization of toxic clouds of aerosolized chemical or biological warfare (CBW) agents and toxic industrial chemicals using a non-toxic, non-corrosive aqueous decontamination formulation.

  2. A mass cyanide poisoning from pickling bamboo shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang-A-Gad, Pensiriwan; Guharat, Suriya; Wananukul, Winai

    2011-11-01

    Bamboo shoots contain cyanogenic glycosides named taxiphyllin. Cyanide poisoning from cyanogenic glycosides commonly occurs following ingestion. However, toxicity caused by inhalation of hydrogen cyanide gas (HCN) produced from pickled shoots has never been reported. To describe cyanide poisoning in eight victims who were exposed to HCN produced in a well containing pickling bamboo shoots. Due to a series of botched rescue attempts, a total of eight patients entered into a 27 m(3) well containing pickled bamboo shoots and immediately lost consciousness. After rescue, two patients developed cardiac arrest, metabolic acidosis and died. Four other patients suffered metabolic acidosis, but recovered after supportive care. The remaining two regained consciousness and recovered soon after the event. Ambient air study and cyanide content of bamboo shoots helped confirm the diagnosis. All patients had high anion gap metabolic acidosis with normal oxygenation. Blood cyanide levels ranged from 2.66 to 3.30 mcg/ml (taken after about 18 h of incident). Ambient air study (21 h after incident) revealed oxygen 20.9%, and sulfur dioxide 19.4 ppm. The instrument was unfortunately not equipped to detect HCN. A simulation study revealed HCN and sulfur dioxide in the ambient air at 10 ppm and 7.5 ppm, respectively. Cyanide content in the bamboo shoots ranged from 39 to 434 mg/kg in the wet shoots. This series of patients developed sudden onset of alteration of consciousness and metabolic acidosis upon exposure, and cyanide was confirmed in all victims. The simulation study confirmed the presence of HCN in the ambient air of the well containing bamboo shoots. We have reported mass acute cyanide poisoning with two fatalities. The source of HCN was unusual as it was produced from pickling bamboo shoot.

  3. Acute cyanide poisoning in prehospital care: new challenges, new tools for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Tee

    2006-01-01

    Effective management of cyanide poisoning from chemical terrorism, inhalation of fire smoke, and other causes constitutes a critical challenge for the prehospital care provider. The ability to meet the challenge of managing cyanide poisoning in the prehospital setting may be enhanced by the availability of the cyanide antidote hydroxocobalamin, currently under development for potential introduction in the United States. This paper discusses the causes, recognition, and management of acute cyanide poisoning in the prehospital setting with emphasis on the emerging profile of hydroxocobalamin, an antidote that may have a risk:benefit ratio suitable for empiric, out-of-hospital treatment of the range of causes of cyanide poisoning. If introduced in the U.S., hydroxocobalamin may enhance the role of the U.S. prehospital responder in providing emergency care in a cyanide incident.

  4. A case of cyanide poisoning and the use of arterial blood gas analysis to direct therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstege, Christopher P; Forrester, Joseph D; Borek, Heather A; Lawrence, David T

    2010-11-01

    Cyanide poisoning is a difficult diagnosis for health care professionals. Existing reports clearly demonstrate that the initial diagnosis is often missed in surreptitious cases. The signs and symptoms can mimic numerous other disease processes. We report a case in which a suicidal patient ingested cyanide and was found unresponsive by 2 laboratory coworkers. The coworkers employed cardiopulmonary resuscitation with mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. The suicidal patient died shortly after arrival to the hospital, while the 2 coworkers who performed mouth-to-mouth resuscitation presented with signs and symptoms that mimicked early cyanide toxicity but were instead due to acute stress response. An arterial blood gas analysis may help aid in the diagnosis of cyanide toxicity. Electrocardiographic findings in a patient with cyanide poisoning range significantly, depending on the stage of the poisoning.

  5. Disulfiram inhibition of cyanide formation after acetonitrile poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paepe, Peter; Colin, Pieter; Depuydt, Pieter; Decavele, An-Sofie; De Smet, Julie; Boussery, Koen; Stove, Christophe; Benoit, Dominique; Verstraete, Alain; Van Bocxlaer, Jan; Buylaert, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Cyanide poisoning may be caused by acetonitrile, a common industrial organic solvent and laboratory agent. To describe the potential use of disulfiram in treating acetonitrile poisoning in a human clinical case and to further study its effect in human liver microsomes in vitro. A 30-year-old man initially presented with a cholinergic toxic syndrome following ingestion of aldicarb. Toxicological analysis revealed coingestion of ethanol. He subsequently developed severe metabolic acidosis caused by the cyanogenic compound acetonitrile which was erroneously interpreted as acetone in the chromatogram. After three treatments with hydroxocobalamin (5 g i.v.) and sodium thiosulfate (12.5 g i.v.) on days 2, 3, and 5, he had transient improvement but recurrent lactic acidosis. Treatment with disulfiram was associated on day 7 with resolution of metabolic acidosis and slowing of the decrease in acetonitrile concentration. He recovered from acetonitrile toxicity completely. The time course of acetonitrile, thiocyanate, and cyanide concentrations suggested that disulfiram inhibited cyanide formation. In vitro experiments with human liver microsomes showed the cyanide concentration was significantly lower after incubation with acetonitrile and disulfiram than acetonitrile alone (a mean 60% reduction in cyanide level). Although disulfiram was given late in the course of the poisoning it is possible that it contributed to the recovery.

  6. Transgenic plants for enhanced phytoremediation of toxic explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Aken, Benoit

    2009-04-01

    Phytoremediation of organic pollutants, such as explosives, is often a slow and incomplete process, potentially leading to the accumulation of toxic metabolites that can be further introduced into the food chain. During the past decade, plants have been genetically modified to overcome the inherent limitations of plant detoxification capabilities, following a strategy similar to the development of transgenic crop. Bacterial genes encoding enzymes involved in the breakdown of explosives, such as nitroreductase and cytochrome P450, have been introduced in higher plants, resulting in significant enhancement of plant tolerance, uptake, and detoxification performances. Transgenic plants exhibiting biodegradation capabilities of microorganisms bring the promise of an efficient and environmental-friendly technology for cleaning up polluted soils.

  7. Effect of acute and delayed hyperbaric oxygen therapy on cyanide whole blood levels during acute cyanide intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson-Smith, P; Jansen, E C; Hilsted, L; Johnsen, A H; Hyldegaard, O

    2011-01-01

    Cyanide and carbon monoxide, which are often found in fire victims, are toxic gases emitted from fires. Cyanide and carbon monoxide have similar molecular structure. Cyanide binds to the enzyme cytochrome oxidase a, a3 similar to carbon monoxide, thus blocking the mitochondrial respiration chain causing depletion of adenosine triphosphate. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) is recommended for treating carbon monoxide poisoning. The therapeutic effect is due to a high oxygen pressure removing carbon monoxide from the cells. We hypothesise that HBO2 induces changes in whole-blood-cyanide by a competitive mechanism forcing cyanide out of cellular tissues. A rat model was developed to study this effect. Female Sprague Dawley rats were anesthetized with a fentanyl + fluanizone combination and midazolam given subcutaneously (s.c.). Rats were poisoned with 5.4 mg/kg KCN injected intra-peritoneally in Group 1 and intra-arterially in Group 2. Blood samples were taken immediately after poisoning, and at one and a half, three and five hours. Blood was drawn from a jugular vein in Group 1 and from a femoral artery in Group 2. Group 1 rats were divided into a control group of 12 rats without HBO2, 10 rats had acute HBO2 immediately after poisoning and a group of 10 rats had HBO2 one and a half hours after poisoning. Group 2 rats were divided into a control group and an acute HBO2 group, with 10 rats in both groups. Whole-blood-cyanide concentrations were measured using the Conway method based on diffusion and the subsequent formation of cyanocobalamin measured by a spectrophotometer. Results showed that whole-blood-cyanide concentration in Group 1 controls and acute HBO2 initially rose and then fell towards zero. In rats treated with delayed HBO2, the reduction in whole-blood-cyanide concentration was significantly less as compared to controls and acute HBO2-treated rats. Group 2 controls whole-blood-cyanide concentration decreased towards zero throughout the observation period. However

  8. Studies on solvent extraction of free hydrogen cyanide from river water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Ojeka

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A method for free and strongly complexed cyanide measurement in river water was developed. Recovery tests from solution with and without river water, using various solvent combinations and background control were investigated to obtain an accurate and precise extraction method for the measurement of hydrogen cyanide in Kaduna River, Nigeria. The method enhanced the determination of undissociated hydrogen cyanide and the equilibria between hydrogen cyanide, cyanide ion and complex cyanides. A small portion of the hydrogen cyanide was extracted by equilibrating the sample with methylchloroform (1,1,1-trichloroethane, methanol, hexane and 2-octanol inclusions, respectively, in the solvent matrix with 2.5 M NaOH. The extracted hydrogen cyanide is transferred into tetrasodium pyrophosphate solution and determined colorimetrically. A total cyanide concentration of 0.03 mg/L in the river water and 0.40 mg/L in an effluent water sample, respectively, were obtained by the proposed method compared to 0.020 and 0.45 mg/L from the established diffusion method. The proposed method was sensitive and reproducible in the range of 0 to 5 mgL-1 of hydrogen cyanide with detectable limit of about 0.01 mgL-1.

  9. Cyanide Self-poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Jones, M.; Bennett, M. A.; Sherwell, Janet M.

    1970-01-01

    Four cases of cyanide self-poisoning were admitted to one hospital over a period of two years. Two of the patients died. The diagnosis in the unconscious patient may be suggested by the finding of bradycardia and the absence of cyanosis (despite inadequate ventilation). The diagnosis can be confirmed in 5 to 10 minutes by a simple test on gastric aspirate, performed by the casualty officer. Cardiac pacing was used in two patients and may have a place in the supportive management of severe cases. PMID:5497407

  10. Cyanide Degradation by Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes Strain W2 Isolated from Mining Effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belinda Tiong; Zaratulnur Mohd Bahari; Nor Sahslin Irwan Shah Lee; Jafariah Jaafar; Zaharah Ibrahim; Shafinaz Shahir

    2015-01-01

    Cyanide is highly toxic to the living organisms as it inhibits respiration system in the cell mitochondria. Cyanide is commonly used in gold extraction process and its discharge into the environment not only causes pollution but it also brings harm to the surrounding population. Chemical treatment is expensive and the use of hazardous compound can exacerbate the problem. Biodegradation offers cheap and safe alternative as it overcomes the problems faced by chemical treatment. In this study, indigenous bacteria from mining wastewater were isolated. Cyanide degradation was done via shake flask method. A bacterium, designated W2 was found able to grow in the mining wastewater. 16S rRNA analysis identified the strain as Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes which could tolerate up to 39 mg/L cyanide concentration and growth was depleted at 52 mg/L. 60 % cyanide degradation was achieved in wastewater containing medium. End-product analysis from high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) detected formamide implicating the role of cyanide hydratase in cyanide degradation. It can be concluded that P. pseudoalcaligenes is capable of biodegrading cyanide and its potential in wastewater treatment containing cyanide is feasible. (author)

  11. Studies on solvent extraction of copper and cyanide from waste cyanide solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Feng; Dreisinger, David

    2009-09-30

    The recovery of copper and cyanide from waste cyanide solution with the guanidine extractant (LIX 7950) and the modified amine extractant (LIX 7820) has been investigated. Copper can be effectively extracted from alkaline cyanide solutions by both extractants. The free cyanide remains in the aqueous phase due to the preferential extraction of Cu(CN)(3)(2-) over Cu(CN)(4)(3-) and CN(-) by the extractants. The selectivity of the metals with the extractants under different cyanide levels has been examined. High cyanide levels tend to depress extraction of copper and silver cyanides, but exhibit insignificant effect on extraction of gold, zinc, nickel and iron cyanides. A possible solution to the separation of copper cyanides and free cyanide in cyanide effluents has been suggested, by which copper can be concentrated into a small volume of solution and the barren cyanide solution recycled to the cyanidation process.

  12. Cyanide hydratases and cyanide dihydratases: emerging tools in the biodegradation and biodetection of cyanide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martínková, Ludmila; Veselá, Alicja Barbara; Rinágelová, Anna; Chmátal, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 21 (2015), s. 8875-8882 ISSN 0175-7598 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01021368; GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/0394 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Cyanide hydratase * Cyanide dihydratase * Enzyme production Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.376, year: 2015

  13. Prophylaxis and Treatment of Cyanide Intoxication Cyanide - Mechanism of Prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-15

    dog and man. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. and Med. 68, 507-511. Green, H. D. (1950). Circulatory system : physical principles. In Medical Physics (0...content. When known amounts of cyanide were passed through the collection system , 85% of the cyanide was recovered in the sodium hydroxide solution... thermodynamic data of rhodanese (Sorbo, 1953) and the role of thiocyanate oxidase (Goldstein and Rieders, 1951). The simulation also showed that most

  14. The Vitamin B12 Analog Cobinamide Is an Effective Antidote for Oral Cyanide Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jangwoen; Mahon, Sari B; Mukai, David; Burney, Tanya; Katebian, Behdod S; Chan, Adriano; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Yoon, David; Boss, Gerry R; Brenner, Matthew

    2016-12-01

    Cyanide is a major chemical threat, and cyanide ingestion carries a higher risk for a supra-lethal dose exposure compared to inhalation but provides an opportunity for effective treatment due to a longer treatment window and a gastrointestinal cyanide reservoir that could be neutralized prior to systemic absorption. We hypothesized that orally administered cobinamide may function as a high-binding affinity scavenger and that gastric alkalinization would reduce cyanide absorption and concurrently increase cobinamide binding, further enhancing antidote effectiveness. Thirty New Zealand white rabbits were divided into five groups and were given a lethal dose of oral cyanide poisoning (50 mg). The survival time of animals was monitored with oral cyanide alone, oral cyanide with gastric alkalinization with oral sodium bicarbonate buffer (500 mg), and in combination with either aquohydroxocobinamide or dinitrocobinamide (250 mM). Red blood cell cyanide concentration, plasma cobinamide, and thiocyanate concentrations were measured from blood samples. In cyanide ingested animals, oral sodium bicarbonate alone significantly prolonged survival time to 20.3 ± 8.6 min compared to 10.5 ± 4.3 min in saline-treated controls, but did not lead to overall survival. Aquohydroxocobinamide and dinitrocobinamide increased survival time to 64 ± 41 (p cyanide concentration. Under all conditions, the plasma thiocyanate concentration gradually increased with time. This study demonstrates a promising new approach to treat high-dose cyanide ingestion, with gastric alkalinization alone and in combination with oral cobinamide for treating a supra-lethal dose of orally administered cyanide in rabbits.

  15. Comparison of cobinamide to hydroxocobalamin in reversing cyanide physiologic effects in rabbits using diffuse optical spectroscopy monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Matthew; Mahon, Sari B.; Lee, Jangwoen; Kim, Jae; Mukai, David; Goodman, Seth; Kreuter, Kelly A.; Ahdout, Rebecca; Mohammad, Othman; Sharma, Vijay S.; Blackledge, William; Boss, Gerry R.

    2010-01-01

    Our purpose is to compare cobinamide to hydroxocobalamin in reversing cyanide (CN)-induced physiologic effects in an animal model using diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS). Cyanide poisoning is a major threat worldwide. Cobinamide is a novel molecule that can bind two molecules of cyanide, has a much higher binding affinity than hydroxocobalamin, and is more water soluble. We investigated the ability of equimolar doses of cobinamide and hydroxocobalamin to reverse the effects of cyanide exposure in an animal model monitored continuously by DOS. Cyanide toxicity was induced in 16 New Zealand white rabbits by intravenous infusion. Animals were divided into three groups: controls (n=5) received saline following cyanide, hydroxocobalamin (N=6) following cyanide, and cobinamide (N=5) following cyanide. Cobinamide caused significantly faster and more complete recovery of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations in cyanide-exposed animals than hydroxocobalamin- or saline-treated animals, with a recovery time constant of 13.8+/-7.1 min compared to 75.4+/-25.1 and 76.4+/-42.7 min, for hydroxocobalamin- and saline-treated animals, respectively (p<0.0001). This study indicates that cobinamide more rapidly and completely reverses the physiologic effects of cyanide than equimolar doses of cobalamin at the dose used in this study, and CN effects and response can be followed noninvasively using DOS.

  16. Cyanide wastes treatment by bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deloya Martinez, Alma

    2012-01-01

    The results of the development of an autochthonous consortium of degrader microorganisms of the cyanide for the application in the biological treatment of the dangerous wastes of cyanide, were presented. The autochthonous microorganisms obtained were lyophilized in different protective environments, such as gelatin and lactose broth at different temperatures (-35, -45, -55 and -65). A pretreatment method in slurry was applied for the preliminary treatment of the cyanide wastes: for the preliminary leaching of the waste, with periods between 3 and 5 days and a posterior treatment, by aerated lagoons, applying the consortium of lyophilized microorganisms. Eight different lyophilized were obtained in different temperature conditions and with two lyophilization protective media that have presented excellent recovery at six months of lyophilization. The consortium of lyophilized microorganisms has presented 70 to 80 percent of viability, with cyanide removal percentages higher than 95% and it can be conserved active for a prolonged time (for years). The lyophilized microorganisms can be applied in the biodegradation of the cyanide wastes from the gold mines or any other cyanide waste such as metal electroplanting baths, as well as from jewelry manufacturing. (author) [es

  17. Cyanide hazards to plants and animals from gold mining and related water issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    2004-01-01

    Highly toxic sodium cyanide (NaCN) is used by the international mining community to extract gold and other precious metals through milling of high-grade ores and heap leaching of low-grade ores (Korte et al. 2000). The process to concentrate gold using cyanide was developed in Scotland in 1887 and was used almost immediately in the Witwatersrand gold fields of the Republic of South Africa. Heap leaching with cyanide was proposed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines in 1969 as a means of extracting gold from low-grade ores. The gold industry adopted the technique in the 1970s, soon making heap leaching the dominant technology in gold extraction (Da Rosa and Lyon 1997). The heap leach and milling processes, which involve dewatering of gold-bearing ores, spraying of dilute cyanide solutions on extremely large heaps of ores containing low concentrations of gold, or the milling of ores with the use of cyanide and subsequent recovery of the gold-cyanide complex, have created a number of serious environmental problems affecting wildlife and water management. In this account, we review the history of cyanide use in gold mining with emphasis on heap leach gold mining, cyanide hazards to plants and animals, water management issues associated with gold mining, and proposed mitigation and research needs.

  18. Exploring anaerobic environments for cyanide and cyano-derivatives microbial degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Almagro, Víctor M; Cabello, Purificación; Sáez, Lara P; Olaya-Abril, Alfonso; Moreno-Vivián, Conrado; Roldán, María Dolores

    2018-02-01

    Cyanide is one of the most toxic chemicals for living organisms described so far. Its toxicity is mainly based on the high affinity that cyanide presents toward metals, provoking inhibition of essential metalloenzymes. Cyanide and its cyano-derivatives are produced in a large scale by many industrial activities related to recovering of precious metals in mining and jewelry, coke production, steel hardening, synthesis of organic chemicals, and food processing industries. As consequence, cyanide-containing wastes are accumulated in the environment becoming a risk to human health and ecosystems. Cyanide and related compounds, like nitriles and thiocyanate, are degraded aerobically by numerous bacteria, and therefore, biodegradation has been offered as a clean and cheap strategy to deal with these industrial wastes. Anaerobic biological treatments are often preferred options for wastewater biodegradation. However, at present very little is known about anaerobic degradation of these hazardous compounds. This review is focused on microbial degradation of cyanide and related compounds under anaerobiosis, exploring their potential application in bioremediation of industrial cyanide-containing wastes.

  19. Determination of cyanide and nitrate concentrations in drinking, irrigation, and wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyed Reza; Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad; Sadeghi, Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    The chemical contamination of water is a major concern for the environmental and health authorities globally. Some anions present in the water are required for human health, but some of them are harmful. Free cyanide and nitrate are amongst the toxic agents in the aquatic environment. Cyanide is highly toxic for human beings. Industrial plants could be attributed to a major source of these toxic agents. Therefore, cyanide and nitrate concentrations in the drinking and irrigation water wells in the high industrial plants were evaluated. The samples (57) were taken from drinking and irrigation water wells as well as from a wastewater refinery in north of Mashhad in three stages - March 2009, June 2010, and July 2010. Determination of cyanide and nitrate were performed by a spectrophotometer using commercially available kits according to the manufacturer's protocols. Cyanide and nitrate concentrations in the drinking water samples of the three stages were 0.0050 ± 0.0007, 0.0070 ± 0.0018, 0.0008 ± 0.0014 mg/L and 6.50 ± 2.80, 7.20 ± 1.80, 7.50 ± 1.90 mg/L, respectively. Cyanide mean concentration during March, June, and July was significant (P = 0.001), whereas nitrate mean concentration was not (P = 0.5). Cyanide and nitrate concentrations in the irrigation water samples of the three stages were 0.0140 ± 0.0130, 0.0077 ± 0.0025, 0.0087 ± 0.0047 mg/L and 12.37 ± 8.12, 8.04 ± 3.99, 8.40 ± 2.60 mg/L, respectively. Cyanide (P = 0.754) and nitrate (P = 0.705) concentrations were not significant during three occasions. Cyanide and nitrate concentrations in the wastewaters of the three stages were 0.1020 ± 0.033, 0.1180 ± 0.033, 0.1200 ± 0.035 mg/L and 1633.80 ± 40.74, 279.00 ± 152.17, 298.40 ± 304.74 mg/L, respectively. Cyanide (P = 0.731) and nitrate (P = 0.187) concentration in wastewaters were not significant during different months. Although nitrate and cyanide concentrations in the drinking and irrigation water were within the standard range (0.07 mg

  20. Cobinamide is superior to other treatments in a mouse model of cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Adriano; Balasubramanian, Maheswari; Blackledge, William; Mohammad, Othman M; Alvarez, Luis; Boss, Gerry R; Bigby, Timothy D

    2010-08-01

    Cyanide is a rapidly acting cellular poison, primarily targeting cytochrome c oxidase, and is a common occupational and residential toxin, mostly via smoke inhalation. Cyanide is also a potential weapon of mass destruction, with recent credible threats of attacks focusing the need for better treatments, as current cyanide antidotes are limited and impractical for rapid deployment in mass casualty settings. We have used mouse models of cyanide poisoning to compare the efficacy of cobinamide (Cbi), the precursor to cobalamin (vitamin B(12)), to currently approved cyanide antidotes. Cbi has extremely high affinity for cyanide and substantial solubility in water. We studied Cbi in both an inhaled and intraperitoneal model of cyanide poisoning in mice. We found Cbi more effective than hydroxocobalamin, sodium thiosulfate, sodium nitrite, and the combination of sodium thiosulfate-sodium nitrite in treating cyanide poisoning. Compared to hydroxocobalamin, Cbi was 3 and 11 times more potent in the intraperitoneal and inhalation models, respectively. Cobinamide sulfite (Cbi-SO(3)) was rapidly absorbed after intramuscular injection, and mice recovered from a lethal dose of cyanide even when given at a time when they had been apneic for over 2 min. In range-finding studies, Cbi-SO(3) at doses up to 2000 mg/kg exhibited no clinical toxicity. These studies demonstrate that Cbi is a highly effective cyanide antidote in mouse models, and suggest it could be used in a mass casualty setting, because it can be given rapidly as an intramuscular injection when administered as Cbi-SO(3). Based on these animal data Cbi-SO(3) appears to be an antidote worthy of further testing as a therapy for mass casualties.

  1. Protection from cyanide-induced brain injury by the Nrf2 transcriptional activator carnosic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongxian; Lee, Brian; Nutter, Anthony; Song, Paul; Dolatabadi, Nima; Parker, James; Sanz-Blasco, Sara; Newmeyer, Traci; Ambasudhan, Rajesh; McKercher, Scott R; Masliah, Eliezer; Lipton, Stuart A

    2015-06-01

    Cyanide is a life-threatening, bioterrorist agent, preventing cellular respiration by inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in cardiopulmonary failure, hypoxic brain injury, and death within minutes. However, even after treatment with various antidotes to protect cytochrome oxidase, cyanide intoxication in humans can induce a delayed-onset neurological syndrome that includes symptoms of Parkinsonism. Additional mechanisms are thought to underlie cyanide-induced neuronal damage, including generation of reactive oxygen species. This may account for the fact that antioxidants prevent some aspects of cyanide-induced neuronal damage. Here, as a potential preemptive countermeasure against a bioterrorist attack with cyanide, we tested the CNS protective effect of carnosic acid (CA), a pro-electrophilic compound found in the herb rosemary. CA crosses the blood-brain barrier to up-regulate endogenous antioxidant enzymes via activation of the Nrf2 transcriptional pathway. We demonstrate that CA exerts neuroprotective effects on cyanide-induced brain damage in cultured rodent and human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons in vitro, and in vivo in various brain areas of a non-Swiss albino mouse model of cyanide poisoning that simulates damage observed in the human brain. Cyanide, a potential bioterrorist agent, can produce a chronic delayed-onset neurological syndrome that includes symptoms of Parkinsonism. Here, cyanide poisoning treated with the proelectrophillic compound carnosic acid, results in reduced neuronal cell death in both in vitro and in vivo models through activation of the Nrf2/ARE transcriptional pathway. Carnosic acid is therefore a potential treatment for the toxic central nervous system (CNS) effects of cyanide poisoning. ARE, antioxidant responsive element; Nrf2 (NFE2L2, Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2). © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  2. CYANIDE HEAP BILOGICAL DETOXIFICATION - PHASE II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many active mine sites, mines in closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, soluble...

  3. Nitrocobinamide, a new cyanide antidote that can be administered by intramuscular injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Adriano; Jiang, Jingjing; Fridman, Alla; Guo, Ling T; Shelton, G Diane; Liu, Ming-Tao; Green, Carol; Haushalter, Kristofer J; Patel, Hemal H; Lee, Jangwoen; Yoon, David; Burney, Tanya; Mukai, David; Mahon, Sari B; Brenner, Matthew; Pilz, Renate B; Boss, Gerry R

    2015-02-26

    Currently available cyanide antidotes must be given by intravenous injection over 5-10 min, making them ill-suited for treating many people in the field, as could occur in a major fire, an industrial accident, or a terrorist attack. These scenarios call for a drug that can be given quickly, e.g., by intramuscular injection. We have shown that aquohydroxocobinamide is a potent cyanide antidote in animal models of cyanide poisoning, but it is unstable in solution and poorly absorbed after intramuscular injection. Here we show that adding sodium nitrite to cobinamide yields a stable derivative (referred to as nitrocobinamide) that rescues cyanide-poisoned mice and rabbits when given by intramuscular injection. We also show that the efficacy of nitrocobinamide is markedly enhanced by coadministering sodium thiosulfate (reducing the total injected volume), and we calculate that ∼1.4 mL each of nitrocobinamide and sodium thiosulfate should rescue a human from a lethal cyanide exposure.

  4. Enhancement of developmental toxicity effects of chemicals by gestational stress. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin S; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2007-01-01

    often enhanced chemical developmental toxicity at dose levels associated with severe maternal toxicity or where test agents were already above threshold for effect. Thus, LOAEL(chemical) was generally similar to LOAEL(chemical+stress), although not necessarily for the same endpoint. It should be noted...

  5. Carbon nanotubes enhanced the lead toxicity on the freshwater fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, D S T; Alves, O L; Barbieri, E

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are promising nanostructures for many applications in materials industry and biotechnology. However, it is mandatory to evaluate their toxicity and environmental implications. We evaluated nitric acid treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (HNO 3 -MWCNT) toxicity in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and also the lead (Pb) toxicity modulation after the nanotube interaction. Industrial grade multiwalled carbon nanotubes [Ctube 100, CNT Co. Ltd] were treated with 9M HNO 3 for 12h at 150°C to generate oxygenated groups on the nanotube surface, to improve water dispersion and heavy metal interaction. The HNO 3 -treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes were physico-chemically characterized by several techniques [e.g. TEM, FE-SEM, TGA, ζ-potential and Raman spectroscopy]. HNO 3 -MWCNT did not show toxicity on Nile tilapia when the concentration ranged from 0.1 to 3.0 mg/L, and the maximum exposure time was 96h. After 24, 48, 72 and 96h the LC50 values of Pb were 1.65, 1.32, 1.10 and 0.99 mg/L, respectively. To evaluate the Pb-nanotube interaction influence on the ecotoxicity, we submitted the Nile tilapia to different concentrations of Pb mixed with a non-toxic concentration of HNO 3 -MWCNT (1.0 mg/L). After 24, 48, 72, 96 h the LC50 values of Pb plus nanotubes were: 0.32, 0.25, 0.20, 0.18 mg/L, respectively. These values showed a synergistic effect after Pb-nanotube interaction since Pb toxicity increased over five times. X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used to confirm lead adsorption on the carbon nanotube oxidized surface. The exposure of Nile tilapia to Pb plus HNO 3 -MWCNT caused both oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion decrease, when compared to the control. Finally, our results show that carbon nanotubes interact with classical pollutants drawing attention to the environmental implications.

  6. Evaluation of non cyanide methods for hemoglobin estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaya B Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hemoglobincyanide method (HiCN method for measuring hemoglobin is used extensively worldwide; its advantages are the ready availability of a stable and internationally accepted reference standard calibrator. However, its use may create a problem, as the waste disposal of large volumes of reagent containing cyanide constitutes a potential toxic hazard. Aims and Objective: As an alternative to drabkin`s method of Hb estimation, we attempted to estimate hemoglobin by other non-cyanide methods: alkaline hematin detergent (AHD-575 using Triton X-100 as lyser and alkaline- borax method using quarternary ammonium detergents as lyser. Materials and Methods: The hemoglobin (Hb results on 200 samples of varying Hb concentrations obtained by these two cyanide free methods were compared with a cyanmethemoglobin method on a colorimeter which is light emitting diode (LED based. Hemoglobin was also estimated in one hundred blood donors and 25 blood samples of infants and compared by these methods. Statistical analysis used was Pearson`s correlation coefficient. Results: The response of the non cyanide method is linear for serially diluted blood samples over the Hb concentration range from 3gm/dl -20 gm/dl. The non cyanide methods has a precision of + 0.25g/dl (coefficient of variation= (2.34% and is suitable for use with fixed wavelength or with colorimeters at wavelength- 530 nm and 580 nm. Correlation of these two methods was excellent (r=0.98. The evaluation has shown it to be as reliable and reproducible as HiCN for measuring hemoglobin at all concentrations. The reagents used in non cyanide methods are non-biohazardous and did not affect the reliability of data determination and also the cost was less than HiCN method. Conclusions: Thus, non cyanide methods of Hb estimation offer possibility of safe and quality Hb estimation and should prove useful for routine laboratory use. Non cyanide methods is easily incorporated in hemobloginometers

  7. Toxicokinetic Profiles of Alpha-ketoglutarate Cyanohydrin, a Cyanide Detoxification Product, following Exposure to Potassium Cyanide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    cyanide poisoning with cobinamide renders -KgCN an ineffective diagnostic marker. a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 6 May...Toxicokinetics -Ketoglutarate a b s t r a c t Poisoning by cyanide can be verified by analysis of the cyanide detoxification product...potentially be used to verify cyanide exposure, limited toxicokinetic data in cyanide - poisoned animals are available. We, therefore

  8. Suicide by cyanide: 17 deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, James R; Marker, Elizabeth; Stajic, Marina

    2004-07-01

    We reviewed 17 intentional ingestions of cyanide that occurred in New York City over a ten-year interval. The toxicologic and postmortem findings were reviewed. Certain occupations and nationalities of the decedents predominated among this group of suicides. Scientists, jewelers. and metal workers were common occupations among the decedents. In addition, 8 of 17 fatalities were West Indian/Caribbean Island and South American decedents, including three decedents from Guyana. Fourteen of the 17 fatalities were male. Pink lividity, a "bitter-almond" smell. and a hemorrhagic gastric mucosa were not prevailing findings in these decedents. A color test was used for screening for cyanide with confirmation and quantitation using gas chromatography.

  9. Cyanide, gold and environment in the mining of antioqueno northeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya Ochoa, Carlos Arturo

    2001-01-01

    For 50 years cyanide of sodium has been used in the process of extraction of gold associated to minerals exploited in the Municipality of Segovia, Department of Antioquia. The extraction of the gold is made by leaching percolation in 72 of the 76 plants, and for agitation in 4. The sands are discharged to the floor in urban areas or to the gulches directly, with contents of sodium cyanide (NaCN) that overcome up to one thousand (1.000) times the quantity settled down by law of one (I) part by million (ppm); without any previous treatment, this generates a problem of contamination of the floor and the gulches. In this article an analysis of the problem is made, the methods are presented to determine content of cyanide of sodium (NaCN) in the sands, differentiating the three cyanide forms that are presented, a summary of the toxicity study in aquatic species and a proposal of detoxification of the sands by chemical and biological methods, is presented and a summary of a biological application

  10. The efficacy and adverse effects of dicobalt edetate in cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrs, Timothy Clive; Thompson, John Paul

    2016-09-01

    Dicobalt edetate is one of a number of cobalt compounds that have been studied in the treatment of cyanide poisoning, their efficacy being based upon the fact that cyanide combines with cobalt to form relatively non-toxic complexes. Inorganic cobalt salts are quite toxic (cyanide and cobalt antagonise one another's toxicity) and complexes such as dicobalt edetate were studied with the aim of identifying compounds that were less acutely toxic, but which retained the antidotal properties of cobalt salts. The proprietary preparation, Kelocyanor™, contains free cobalt and glucose as well as dicobalt edetate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the published evidence for the efficacy and adverse effects of dicobalt edetate. A Pubmed search was undertaken for the period 1961-September 2015. The search terms were "dicobalt edetate", "cobalt edetate" and "Kelocyanor", which produced 24 relevant citations. A review of the references in four relevant books (L'intoxication cyanhydrique et son traitement, Clinical and Experimental Toxicology of Cyanides, Antidotes for Poisoning by Cyanide and Antidotes) produced three further relevant papers, making a total of 27 papers. Efficacy of dicobalt edetate: There is evidence from animal pharmacodynamic studies that dicobalt edetate is an effective cyanide antidote in experimental animals. Some 39 cases of human poisoning treated with dicobalt edetate have been reported, but in only nine cases were blood cyanide concentrations measured, although administration of dicobalt edetate procured survival in four of the seven patients with concentrations in the lethal range (>3.0 mg/L). It is unlikely that death in any of the adequately documented fatal cases was attributable to treatment failure with dicobalt edetate, as it is probable that they all had suffered anoxic brain damage before treatment could be initiated. Furthermore, in one case, acute gold toxicity contributed substantially to death. Adverse effects of dicobalt edetate

  11. Therapeutic problems in cyanide poisoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heijst, A. N.; Douze, J. M.; van Kesteren, R. G.; van Bergen, J. E.; van Dijk, A.

    1987-01-01

    In three patients with severe acute cyanide poisoning, a cyanosis was observed instead of the bright pink skin coloration often mentioned as a sign in textbooks. Treatment of cardiopulmonary insufficiency is as essential as antidotal therapy and the use of sodium nitrite and 4-DMAP is not without

  12. Development of Biochemical Cyanide Antidotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    of sodium channels to inhibit high frequency discharges around epileptic foci (Willow et al., 1985). Minimal disruption of normal neuronal traffic is...549-558. Yamamoto, H. (1989). Hyperammonemia, increased brain neutral and aromauic amino acid levels and encephalopathy induced by cyanide in mice

  13. Exciton emissions in alkali cyanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weid, J.P. von der.

    1979-10-01

    The emissions of Alkali Cyanides X irradiated at low temperature were measured. In addition to the molecular (Frenkel Type) exciton emissions, another emitting centre was found and tentatively assigned to a charge transfer self trapped exciton. The nature of the molecular exciton emitting state is discussed. (Author) [pt

  14. An uncommon case of a suicide with inhalation of hydrogen cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musshoff, F; Kirschbaum, K M; Madea, B

    2011-01-30

    An uncommon suicide by oral ingestion of potassium cyanide salts and contemporaneous inhalation of hydrogen cyanide is presented. A 48-year-old tradesman was found dead sitting in his car. A penetrating odor of bitter almonds was noticed when opening the doors. A camping stove and a cooking pot containing large amounts of dark blue crystals were found in the footwell of the car. White powder adhered to his fingers and to the area around the mouth. Furthermore bottles containing potassium ferrocyanide and different kinds of acid and leach were found in the car together with internet information about, e.g. potassium ferrocyanide and potassium cyanide. At autopsy hemorrhages and erosions of the mucosa of the respiratory tract, esophagus and stomach were found. Concentrations of cyanide were 0.2mg/l in stomach contents, 0.96mg/kg in brain tissue, 2.79mg/kg in lungs, and 5.3mg/l in blood. The white and toxic powder potassium cyanide was formed by heating of the yellow crystals of potassium ferrocyanide on the camping stove. This powder was probably ingested orally. Addition of acid converted the salt into the highly toxic gas hydrogen cyanide. Oxidation with atmospheric oxygen built the dark blue ferrous compound Prussian blue. This case report of a person who was not familiar with chemicals demonstrates the acquisition of professional information via the internet, enabling a suicide with a complex procedure. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The visual pigment cyanide effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescitelli, F; Karvaly, B

    1989-12-01

    The visual pigment of the Tokay gecko (Gekko gekko) with its in situ absorption maximum at 521 nm has its spectral position at 500 to 505 nm when chloride-deficient digitonin is used for the extraction. In this case the addition of chloride or bromide to the extract restores the maximum to 521 nm. This property, characteristic of gecko pigments in general, does not occur with any of the rhodopsins that have been tested. Simple salts of cyanide, a pseudohalogenoid with an ionic radius close to those of chloride and bromide and/or its hydrolysis product attacks both this gecko pigment and rhodopsins in the dark. This is seen as a slow thermal loss of photopigment if (sodium) cyanide is present at concentrations above 40 mM for the gecko pigment and 150 mM for the rhodopsins of the midshipman (Porichthys notatus) and of the frog (Rana pipiens). In all cases the loss of the photopigment is accompanied by the appearance of a spectral product with maximum absorption at about 340 nm. Cyanide addition has no effect on the photosensitivity of the native pigments and neither does it alter, as do chloride, bromide and other anions, the spectral absorbance curve. The spectral product at 340 nm also appears when the visual pigments are photolyzed in the presence of cyanide salts below the threshold concentrations given above. Incubation of digitonin-solubilized all-trans-retinal with (sodium) cyanide leads to a reaction product with absorption spectrum similar to that obtained with visual pigments under comparable conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Acute effects of road salts and associated cyanide compounds on the early life stages of the unionid mussel Villosa iris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfo, Tamara J; Cope, W Gregory; Young, George B; Jones, Jess W; Hua, Dan; Lingenfelser, Susan F

    2012-08-01

    The toxicity of cyanide to the early life stages of freshwater mussels (order Unionida) has remained unexplored. Cyanide is known to be acutely toxic to other aquatic organisms. Cyanide-containing compounds, such as sodium ferrocyanide and ferric ferrocyanide, are commonly added to road deicing salts as anticaking agents. The purpose of the present study was to assess the acute toxicity of three cyanide compounds (sodium cyanide, sodium ferrocyanide, and ferric ferrocyanide), two road salts containing cyanide anticaking agents (Morton and Cargill brands), a brine deicing solution (Liquidow brand), and a reference salt (sodium chloride) on glochidia (larvae) and juveniles of the freshwater mussel Villosa iris. Sodium ferrocyanide and ferric ferrocyanide were not acutely toxic to glochidia and juvenile mussels at concentrations up to 1,000 mg/L and 100 mg/L, respectively. Lowest observed effect concentrations (LOECs) for these two chemicals ranged from 10 to >1,000 mg/L. Sodium cyanide was acutely toxic to juvenile mussels, with a 96-h median effective concentration (EC50) of 1.10 mg/L, although glochidia tolerated concentrations up to 10 mg/L. The EC50s for sodium chloride, Liquidow brine, Morton road salt, and Cargill road salt were not significantly different for tests within the same life stage and test duration (range, 1.66-4.92 g/L). These results indicate that cyanide-containing anticaking agents do not exacerbate the toxicity of road salts, but that the use of road salts and brine solutions for deicing or dust control on roads may warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  17. High levels of activity of bats at gold mining water bodies: implications for compliance with the International Cyanide Management Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Stephen R; Donato, David B; Coulson, Graeme; Lumsden, Linda F

    2014-06-01

    Wildlife and livestock are known to visit and interact with tailings dam and other wastewater impoundments at gold mines. When cyanide concentrations within these water bodies exceed a critical toxicity threshold, significant cyanide-related mortality events can occur in wildlife. Highly mobile taxa such as birds are particularly susceptible to cyanide toxicosis. Nocturnally active bats have similar access to uncovered wastewater impoundments as birds; however, cyanide toxicosis risks to bats remain ambiguous. This study investigated activity of bats in the airspace above two water bodies at an Australian gold mine, to assess the extent to which bats use these water bodies and hence are at potential risk of exposure to cyanide. Bat activity was present on most nights sampled during the 16-month survey period, although it was highly variable across nights and months. Therefore, despite the artificial nature of wastewater impoundments at gold mines, these structures present attractive habitats to bats. As tailings slurry and supernatant pooling within the tailings dam were consistently well below the industry protective concentration limit of 50 mg/L weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide, wastewater solutions stored within the tailings dam posed a minimal risk of cyanide toxicosis for wildlife, including bats. This study showed that passively recorded bat echolocation call data provides evidence of the presence and relative activity of bats above water bodies at mine sites. Furthermore, echolocation buzz calls recorded in the airspace directly above water provide indirect evidence of foraging and/or drinking. Both echolocation monitoring and systematic sampling of cyanide concentration in open wastewater impoundments can be incorporated into a gold mine risk-assessment model in order to evaluate the risk of bat exposure to cyanide. In relation to risk minimisation management practices, the most effective mechanism for preventing cyanide toxicosis to wildlife

  18. Intraosseous Hydroxocobalamin in the Treatment of Acute, Severe Cyanide Induced Cardiotoxicity in a Swine (Sus Scrofa) Model - An Alternate Administration Route for Chemical Mass Casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    Ut:IVI:I... I 11:111VI:> Hydroxocobalamin, hypotension, cyanide , poisoning , intraosseous, Vitamin B 12a, Vitamin B 12 I 1:). :>CI...U I111 T L.L~:>:>II...Il l Ll:. ~IIIU :>Utili I Ll: :>a. I...UIIIII1~1... I IIIVIVItll:l1 lntraosseous hydroxocobalamin in the treatment of acute, severe cyanide induced...between 2 groups of swine in acute cyanide toxicity and treated with IV HOC or 10 HOC. We also compared blood cyanide , lactate, pH, nitrotyrosine levels

  19. Cardiovascular toxicities of performance-enhancing substances in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Ritesh; Stout, C William; Link, Mark S; Homoud, Munther K; Weinstock, Jonathan; Estes, N A Mark

    2005-10-01

    Athletes commonly use drugs and dietary supplements to improve athletic performance or to assist with weight loss. Some of these substances are obtainable by prescription or by illegal means; others are marketed as supplements, vitamins, or minerals. Nutritional supplements are protected from Food and Drug Administration regulation by the 1994 US Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act, and manufacturers are not required to demonstrate proof of efficacy or safety. Furthermore, the Food and Drug Administration lacks a regulatory body to evaluate such products for purity. Existing scientific data, which consist of case reports and clinical observations, describe serious cardiovascular adverse effects from use of performance-enhancing substances, including sudden death. Although mounting evidence led to the recent ban of ephedra (ma huang), other performance-enhancing substances continue to be used frequently at all levels, from elementary school children to professional athletes. Thus, although the potential for cardiovascular injury is great, few appropriately designed studies have been conducted to assess the benefits and risks of using performance-enhancing substances. We performed an exhaustive OVID MEDLINE search to Identify all existing scientific data, review articles, case reports, and clinical observations that address this subject. In this review, we examine the current evidence regarding cardiovascular risk for persons using anabolic-androgenic steroids including 2 synthetic substances, tetrahydrogestrinone and androstenedione (andro), stimulants such as ephedra, and nonsteroidal agents such as recombinant human erythropoietin, human growth hormone, creatine, and beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate.

  20. Assay development status report for total cyanide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Jones, T.E.; Pool, K.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-02-01

    A validated cyanide assay that is applicable to a variety of tank waste matrices is necessary to resolve certain waste tank safety issues and for purposes of overall waste characterization. The target for this effort is an assay with an applicable range of greater than 1,000 ppM (0.10 wt%) total cyanide and a confidence level greater than 80%. Figure 1 illustrates the operating regime of the proposed cyanide assay method. The Assay Development Status Report for Total Cyanide will summarize the past experience with cyanide analyses on-tank waste matrices and will rate the status of the analytical methods used to assay total cyanide (CN{sup {minus}} ion) in the tank waste matrices as acceptable or unacceptable. This paper will also briefly describe the current efforts for improving analytical resolution of the assays and the attempts at speciation.

  1. Bats, cyanide, and gold mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Donald R.

    1991-01-01

    Although the boom days of prospectors and gold nuggets are long gone, modern technology enables gold to continue to be extracted from ore. Unfortunately, the extraction method has often been disastrous for bats and other wildlife, an issue I first became aware of in early 1989. Phone calls from Drs. Merlin Tuttle and Elizabeth Pierson, a BCI member and bat researcher from Berkeley, California, alerted me that bats were dying from apparent cyanide poisoning at gold mines in the western United States.

  2. Theanine enhanced both the toxicity of strychnine and anticonvulsion of pentobarbital sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xi-Chong; Wu, Bo-La; Gao, Jin-Chao; Yang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Theanine, an additive, holds several effects on the central nervous system without toxicity and affects CNS drugs. Theanine bilaterally alters β wave of the EEG with or without caffeine and pentobarbital-induced locomotor activity. Theanine also enhances hypnosis of pentobarbital sodium (PB) and antidepression of midazolam, suggesting there are complicated interactions between theanine and CNS drugs. On the other side, theanine induces glycine release. Glycine potentiates the strychnine toxicity via NMDA receptor activation. Moreover, PB facilitates GABAA receptor activation by GABA, and it is commonly prescribed for strychnine poison. However, what the role that theanine plays in the anticonvulsion of PB against strychnine poison is still unknown. Theanine, pentobarbital sodium or strychnine was injected intraperitoneally. EEG was monitored by BIOPAC 16 EEG amplifiers. LD50 of strychnine and hypnotic ED50 of pentobarbital sodium with or without theanine for mice were tested according to Bliss' case. (1) Theanine enhanced the strychnine toxicity. Both theanine and strychnine 1.0 mg/kg increased the power of the β wave. Theanine aggravated that of strychnine 1.0 mg/kg. Theanine attenuated the LD50 of strychnine. (2) Theanine enhanced the anticonvulsion of PB. Theanine increased the power of α, β wave and decreased hypnotic ED50 of PB; PB attenuated strychnine-induced EEG excitation and mortality with or without theanine, and theanine enhanced the effects of PB. Further, theanine enhanced the anticonvulsion of PB dose-dependently against the strychnine toxicity but not the lethal toxicity of strychnine. These results indicated theanine interacted with PB and strychnine. Theanine enhanced both the strychnine toxicity and anticonvulsion of PB against strychnine poison.

  3. Dinosaurs victims of cyanide poisoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Talbot A.

    The Eos article, Comets and Life (March 28, 1989), reports on the work of Paul Thomas, Christophere Chyba, Carl Sagan and Leigh Brookshaw on cometary impact production of cyanides and other organics that may have been precursors of life. The article was based on material presented at the 20th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference [Thomas et al, 1989].As pointed out in the article, comets may contain 20% organic matter in the form of a complex interbonded mass. This kerogen-like material contains CN bonds as well as CC and CO bonds. Evidence for cyanide protection from light-element “CHON” solids was observed in the recent Halley's comet encounter in the form of CN plumes [Eberhardt et al., 1986; Schlosser et al., 1986]. An additional, and possibly more important source of cyanide, is HCN, which was observed [Schloerb et al., 1986] to be emitted from Halley's comet as part of the normal neutral gas emission with an abundance equal to 10-3 that of H2O. H2O is the dominant volatile species in comets and appears to constitute 80% or more of the total molecular release [Mendis, 1986].

  4. Raman spectroscopic analysis of cyanogenic glucosides in plants: development of a Flow Injection Surface-Enhanced Raman Scatter (FI-SERS) method for determination of cyanide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2004-01-01

    -dried sorghum leaf was also obtained using this instrument. Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) was demonstrated to be a more sensitive method that enabled determination of the cyanogenic potential of plant tissue. The SERS method was optimized by flow injection (FI) using a colloidal gold dispersion...... as effluent. Potential problems and pitfalls of the method are discussed....

  5. Cyanide Production by Chromobacterium piscinae Shields It from Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100 Predation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonsik Mun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Predation of Chromobacterium piscinae by Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100 was inhibited in dilute nutrient broth (DNB but not in HEPES. Experiments showed that the effector responsible was present in the medium, as cell-free supernatants retained the ability to inhibit predation, and that the effector was not toxic to B. bacteriovorus. Violacein, a bisindole secondary metabolite produced by C. piscinae, was not responsible. Further characterization of C. piscinae found that this species produces sufficient concentrations of cyanide (202 µM when grown in DNB to inhibit the predatory activity of B. bacteriovorus, but that in HEPES, the cyanide concentrations were negligible (19 µM. The antagonistic role of cyanide was further confirmed, as the addition of hydroxocobalamin, which chelates cyanide, allowed predation to proceed. The activity of cyanide against B. bacteriovorus was found to be twofold, depending on the life cycle stage of this predator. For the attack-phase predatory cells, cyanide caused the cells to lose motility and tumble, while for intraperiplasmic predators, development and lysis of the prey cell were halted. These findings suggest that cyanogenesis in nature may be employed by the bacterial strains that produce this compound to prevent and reduce their predation by B. bacteriovorus.

  6. Dietary resources shape the adaptive changes of cyanide detoxification function in giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He; Yie, Shangmian; Liu, Yuliang; Wang, Chengdong; Cai, Zhigang; Zhang, Wenping; Lan, Jingchao; Huang, Xiangming; Luo, Li; Cai, Kailai; Hou, Rong; Zhang, Zhihe

    2016-10-05

    The functional adaptive changes in cyanide detoxification in giant panda appear to be response to dietary transition from typical carnivore to herbivorous bear. We tested the absorption of cyanide contained in bamboo/bamboo shoots with a feeding trial in 20 adult giant pandas. We determined total cyanide content in bamboo shoots and giant panda's feces, levels of urinary thiocyanate and tissue rhodanese activity using color reactions with a spectrophotometer. Rhodanese expression in liver and kidney at transcription and translation levels were measured using real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. We compared differences of rhodanese activity and gene expressions among giant panda, rabbit (herbivore) and cat (carnivore), and between newborn and adult giant pandas. Bamboo shoots contained 3.2 mg/kg of cyanide and giant pandas absorbed more than 65% of cyanide. However, approximately 80% of absorbed cyanide was metabolized to less toxic thiocyanate that was discharged in urine. Rhodanese expression and activity in liver and kidney of giant panda were significantly higher than in cat, but lower than in rabbit (all P pandas were higher than that in newborn cub. Phylogenetic analysis of both nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the rhodanese gene supported a closer relationship of giant panda with carnivores than with herbivores.

  7. Mthfr gene ablation enhances susceptibility to arsenic prenatal toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wlodarczyk, Bogdan J., E-mail: bwlodarczyk@austin.utexas.edu; Zhu, Huiping; Finnell, Richard H.

    2014-02-15

    Background: In utero exposure to arsenic is known to adversely affect reproductive outcomes. Evidence of arsenic teratogenicity varies widely and depends on individual genotypic differences in sensitivity to As. In this study, we investigated the potential interaction between 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (Mthfr) genotype and arsenic embryotoxicity using the Mthfr knockout mouse model. Methods: Pregnant dams were treated with sodium arsenate, and reproductive outcomes including: implantation, resorption, congenital malformation and fetal birth weight were recorded at E18.5. Results: When the dams in Mthfr{sup +/−} × Mthfr{sup +/−} matings were treated with 7.2 mg/kg As, the resorption rate increased to 43.4%, from a background frequency of 7.2%. The As treatment also induced external malformations (40.9%) and significantly lowered the average fetal birth weight among fetuses, without any obvious toxic effect on the dam. When comparing the pregnancy outcomes resulting from different mating scenarios (Mthfr{sup +/+} × Mthfr{sup +/−}, Mthfr{sup +/−} × Mthfr{sup +/−} and Mthfr{sup −/−} × {sup Mthfr+/−}) and arsenic exposure; the resorption rate showed a linear relationship with the number of null alleles (0, 1 or 2) in the Mthfr dams. Fetuses from nullizygous dams had the highest rate of external malformations (43%) and lowest average birth weight. When comparing the outcomes of reciprocal matings (nullizygote × wild-type versus wild-type × nullizygote) after As treatment, the null dams showed significantly higher rates of resorptions and malformations, along with lower fetal birth weights. Conclusions: Maternal genotype contributes to the sensitivity of As embryotoxicity in the Mthfr mouse model. The fetal genotype, however, does not appear to affect the reproductive outcome after in utero As exposure. - Highlights: • An interaction between Mthfr genotype and arsenic embryotoxicity is presented. • Maternal Mthfr genotype

  8. Directional growth of Ag nanorod from polymeric silver cyanide: A potential substrate for concentration dependent SERS signal enhancement leading to melamine detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anindita; Sahoo, Ramkrishna; Chowdhury, Joydeep; Bhattacharya, Tara Shankar; Agarwal, Ratnesh; Pal, Tarasankar

    2017-08-01

    Attention has been directed to prepare exclusive one-dimensional silver nanostructure from the linear inorganic polymer AgCN. Successive color change from yellow to orange, to red and finally to green reflects the evolution of high yielding Ag nanorods (NRs) from well-known -[Ag-CN]- chains of polymeric AgCN at room temperature. The parental 1D morphology of AgCN is retained within the as-synthesized Ag NRs. So we could successfully exploit the Ag NR for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies for sensing a popular milk adulterant melamine down to picomolar level. We observed interesting concentration dependent selective SERS band enhancement of melamine. The enhanced 1327 cm- 1 SERS signal intensity at lower concentration (10- 9 and 10- 12 M) of melamine speaks for the preferential participation of -C-N of melamine molecule with Ag surface. On the other hand, '-NH2' group together with ring 'N' participation of melamine molecule onto Ag surface suggested an adsorptive stance at higher (10- 3-10- 7 M) concentration range. Thus the binding modes of the molecule at the Ag surface justify its fluxional behavior.

  9. Cyanide does more to inhibit heme enzymes, than merely serving as an active-site ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parashar, Abhinav [Center for Biomedical Research, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, 632014 India (India); Venkatachalam, Avanthika [REDOx Lab, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Avinashi Road, Peelamedu, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, 641004 (India); Gideon, Daniel Andrew [Center for Biomedical Research, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, 632014 India (India); Manoj, Kelath Murali, E-mail: satyamjayatu@yahoo.com [REDOx Lab, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Avinashi Road, Peelamedu, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, 641004 (India)

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • Cyanide (CN) is a well-studied toxic principle, known to inhibit heme-enzymes. • Inhibition is supposed to result from CN binding at the active site as a ligand. • Diverse heme enzymes’ CN inhibition profiles challenge prevailing mechanism. • Poor binding efficiency of CN at low enzyme concentrations and ligand pressures. • CN-based diffusible radicals cause ‘non-productive electron transfers’ (inhibition). - Abstract: The toxicity of cyanide is hitherto attributed to its ability to bind to heme proteins’ active site and thereby inhibit their activity. It is shown herein that the long-held interpretation is inadequate to explain several observations in heme-enzyme reaction systems. Generation of cyanide-based diffusible radicals in heme-enzyme reaction milieu could shunt electron transfers (by non-active site processes), and thus be detrimental to the efficiency of oxidative outcomes.

  10. Magnetic hyperthermia enhances cell toxicity with respect to exogenous heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Beatriz; Calatayud, M Pilar; Torres, Teobaldo E; Fanarraga, Mónica L; Ibarra, M Ricardo; Goya, Gerardo F

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic hyperthermia is a new type of cancer treatment designed for overcoming resistance to chemotherapy during the treatment of solid, inaccessible human tumors. The main challenge of this technology is increasing the local tumoral temperature with minimal side effects on the surrounding healthy tissue. This work consists of an in vitro study that compared the effect of hyperthermia in response to the application of exogenous heating (EHT) sources with the corresponding effect produced by magnetic hyperthermia (MHT) at the same target temperatures. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were loaded with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and packed into dense pellets to generate an environment that is crudely similar to that expected in solid micro-tumors, and the above-mentioned protocols were applied to these cells. These experiments showed that for the same target temperatures, MHT induces a decrease in cell viability that is larger than the corresponding EHT, up to a maximum difference of approximately 45% at T = 46 °C. An analysis of the data in terms of temperature efficiency demonstrated that MHT requires an average temperature that is 6 °C lower than that required with EHT to produce a similar cytotoxic effect. An analysis of electron microscopy images of the cells after the EHT and MHT treatments indicated that the enhanced effectiveness observed with MHT is associated with local cell destruction triggered by the magnetic nano-heaters. The present study is an essential step toward the development of innovative adjuvant anti-cancer therapies based on local hyperthermia treatments using magnetic particles as nano-heaters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Absorption enhancement, mechanistic and toxicity studies of medium chain fatty acids, cyclodextrins and bile salts as peroral absorption enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pradeep; Varma, Manthena V S; Chawla, Harmander P S; Panchagnula, Ramesh

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate an oral 'drug delivery' approach, which involves co-administration of absorption enhancers (AEs). The representative low permeable hydrophilic (biopharmaceutic classification system (BCS) Class III) drugs used in the study comprised of cefotaxime sodium and ceftazidime pentahydrate, whereas low permeable lipophilic (BCS Class IV) drugs include cyclosporin A and lovastatin. AEs from three different chemical classes, namely, medium chain fatty acids (sodium caprylate and caprate), cyclodextrins (beta-cyclodextrin, hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin) and bile salts (sodium cholate and deoxycholate) were evaluated for absorption enhancement efficacy, mechanism of action and toxicity using in vitro everted intestinal sac model. These AEs were found to enhance intestinal permeability of drugs from 2- to 27-fold. Light microscopy studies of intestinal sac incubated with AEs for 120 min revealed morphological changes in absorptive mucosa and rank order of toxicity were cyclodextrins>bile salts congruent with medium chain fatty acids. Fluorescence polarization studies indicated that brush bordered membrane vesicles labeled with lipophilic (DPH, 12AS) and hydrophilic dyes (ANS), when treated with AEs exhibited concentration and time dependent decrease in fluorescence polarization. Total protein released in presence of AEs was more than control but considerably less than EDTA (0.58% w/v), which is known to cause toxic release of proteins from cell. Overall, AEs were found to significantly enhance drug permeability by decreasing lipid membrane fluidity and/or interacting with hydrophilic domains of membrane, and has the potential to improve oral delivery.

  12. Toxicological Investigation of Acute Cyanide Poisoning of a 29-year-old Man: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Anazodo Nnoli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cyanide poisoning is frequently lethal, Because of the early onset of severe symptoms and difficulty in the diagnosis. Case: The case was a 29-year-old boy who collapsed suddenly after taking a bottle of beer in a bar. Samples, such as peripheral blood, stomach contents, bile fluid, urine and mouth swabs, were prepared using standard autopsy procedure and were subjected to analysis for cyanide using visible spectrophotometric method. The cyanide contents in samples, included stomach content (260 ppm, bile fluid (272 ppm, blood (256 ppm, and mouth swab (265 ppm. Conclusion: The cause of death was acute myocardial infarction following acute poisoning from ingestion of cyanide salts. Its lethality was related to the rapid onset of toxicity, non-specific nature of the symptoms, and failure to consider the diagnosis. Regarding the absence of pathognomonic symptoms for its toxicity, delay in acquiring a full history and unexplained sudden collapse or acidosis which worsen the prognosis, cyanide intoxication needs to be expeditiously diagnosed and managed.

  13. Determination of cyanide concentration in blood and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were no clinical manifestation of cyanide poisoning in the animals and the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) shows that haematological and biochemical parameters were not significantly different (p<0.05) across the 4 diets. High concentration of cyanide (80 ppm) was observed in the blood of animals fed Diet 4.

  14. CYANIDE HEAP BIOLOGICAL DETOXIFICATION - PHASE II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many active mine sites, mines in the closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, solu...

  15. A gene horizontally transferred from bacteria protects arthropods from host plant cyanide poisoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wybouw, N.; Dermauw, W.; Tirry, L.; Stevens, C.; Grbić, M.; Feyereisen, R.; Van Leeuwen, T.

    2014-01-01

    Cyanogenic glucosides are among the most widespread defense chemicals of plants. Upon plant tissue disruption, these glucosides are hydrolyzed to a reactive hydroxynitrile that releases toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Yet many mite and lepidopteran species can thrive on plants defended by cyanogenic

  16. Comparison of brain mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity with cyanide LD(50) yields insight into the efficacy of prophylactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziaz, Mandy L; Frazier, Kathryn; Guidry, Paul B; Ruiz, Robyn A; Petrikovics, Ilona; Haines, Donovan C

    2013-01-01

    Cyanide inhibits cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase of the mitochondrial respiratory pathway, therefore inhibiting the cell oxygen utilization and resulting in the condition of histotoxic anoxia. The enzyme rhodanese detoxifies cyanide by utilizing sulfur donors to convert cyanide to thiocyanate, and new and improved sulfur donors are actively sought as researchers seek to improve cyanide prophylactics. We have determined brain cytochrome c oxidase activity as a marker for cyanide exposure for mice pre-treated with various cyanide poisoning prophylactics, including sulfur donors thiosulfate (TS) and thiotaurine (TT3). Brain mitochondria were isolated by differential centrifugation, the outer mitochondrial membrane was disrupted by a maltoside detergent, and the decrease in absorbance at 550 nm as horse heart ferrocytochrome c (generated by the dithiothreitol reduction of ferricytochrome c) was oxidized was monitored. Overall, the TS control prophylactic treatment provided significant protection of the cytochrome c oxidase activity. The TT3-treated mice showed reduced cytochrome c oxidase activity even in the absence of cyanide. In both treatment series, addition of exogenous Rh did not significantly enhance the prevention of cytochrome c oxidase inhibition, but the addition of sodium nitrite did. These findings can lead to a better understanding of the protection mechanism by various cyanide antidotal systems. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Non-ionic surfactant vesicles simultaneously enhance antitumor activity and reduce the toxicity of cantharidin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han W

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Wei Han,1,* Shengpeng Wang,2,* Rixin Liang,1 Lan Wang,1 Meiwan Chen,2 Hui Li,1 Yitao Wang1,2 1Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macau, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: The objective of the present study was to prepare cantharidin-entrapped non-ionic surfactant vesicles (CTD-NSVs and evaluate their potential in enhancing the antitumor activities and reducing CTD’s toxicity. Methods and results: CTD-NSVs were prepared by injection method. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and flow cytometry analysis showed that CTD-NSVs could significantly enhance in vitro toxicity against human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and induce more significant cell-cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. Moreover, Hoechst 33342 staining implicated that CTD-NSVs induced higher apoptotic rates in MCF-7 cells than free CTD solution. In vivo therapeutic efficacy was investigated in imprinting control region mice bearing mouse sarcoma S180. Mice treated with 1.0 mg/kg CTD-NSVs showed the most powerful antitumor activity, with an inhibition rate of 52.76%, which was significantly higher than that of cyclophosphamide (35 mg/kg, 40.23% and the same concentration of free CTD (1.0 mg/kg, 31.05%. In addition, the acute toxicity and liver toxicity of CTD were also distinctly decreased via encapsulating into NSVs. Conclusion: Our results revealed that NSVs could be a promising delivery system for enhancing the antitumor activity and simultaneously reducing the toxicity of CTD. Keywords: cantharidin, non-ionic surfactant vesicle, toxicity, antitumor activity

  18. Non-cancer health risk assessment from exposure to cyanide by resident adults from the mining operations of Bogoso Gold Limited in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri, S; Dodoo, D K; Okai-Sam, F; Essumang, D K

    2006-07-01

    Cyanide is a very toxic chemical that is used to extract gold from its ores. Wastewaters from gold mining companies such as Bogoso Gold Limited (BGL) contain cyanide and other potentially toxic chemicals that have adverse effects on human beings and aquatic organisms. This study was conducted to evaluate the human health risk assessment from exposure to free cyanide via oral and dermal contact of surface/underground water by resident adults within the concession of Bogoso Gold Limited. The chronic non-cancer health risk from exposure to cyanide in River Bogo Upstream is 230 and 43 (by Central Tendency Exposure (CTE) parameters respectively). This means that approximately 230 and 43 resident adults are likely to suffer diseases related to cyanide intoxication via oral and dermal contact respectively. For chronic exposure to River Bogo Downstream by resident adults, the non-cancer health risks are: 0.031 and 0.57 via oral and dermal contact for CTE parameters respectively, which also means that, the non-cancer health risks associated with cyanide intoxication is negligible as the hazard index is less than 1.0 via oral and dermal contacts respectively. The results showed that health risk for acute exposure to cyanide by the resident adults is very high. Hence the residents attribute most of the unexplained deaths in the communities to accidental ingestion and dermal contact of cyanide water.

  19. Role of hydroxocobalamin in acute cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Greene; Velez, Larissa I

    2008-05-01

    To review the recently approved cyanide antidote, hydroxocobalamin, and describe its role in therapy. Relevant publications were identified through a systematic search of PubMed using the MeSH terms and key words hydroxocobalamin and cyanide. This search was then limited to human studies published since 2000. Systematic searches were conducted through January 2008. References from identified articles were reviewed for additional pertinent human studies. The literature search retrieved 7 studies on the safety and/or efficacy of hydroxocobalamin in humans. Four new studies were identified by the search and 3 studies were identified from the references. Studies of antidote efficacy in humans are ethically and logistically difficult. A preclinical study demonstrated that intravenous doses of hydroxocobalamin 5 g are well tolerated by volunteer subjects. Hydroxocobalamin has been shown to reduce cyanide concentrations in controlled studies of nitroprusside therapy and in heavy smokers. A retrospective study of 14 acute cyanide poisonings also demonstrated hydroxocobalamin's safety and efficacy. Two studies examining hydroxocobalamin for smoke inhalation-associated cyanide poisoning indicated a possible benefit, but they are insufficient to establish definitive criteria for use in this setting. Randomized controlled trials of hydroxocobalamin and traditional cyanide antidotes (nitrites/thiosulfate) are lacking. Cyanide poisoning can rapidly cause death. Having an effective antidote readily available is essential for facilities that provide emergency care. In cases of cyanide ingestion, both the nitrite/thiosulfate combination and hydroxocobalamin are effective antidotes. Hydroxocobalamin offers an improved safety profile for children and pregnant women. Hydroxocobalamin also appears to have a better safety profile in the setting of cyanide poisoning in conjunction with smoke inhalation. However, current data are insufficient to recommend the empiric administration of

  20. Cyanide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marburg virus hemorrhagic fever Melioidosis ( Burkholderia pseudomallei ) Plague ( Yersinia pestis ) FAQ About Plague (as a bioweapon) Facts About ... Ebola, Marburg] and arenaviruses [e.g., Lassa, Machupo]) Yersinia pestis (plague) Fact Sheets Case Definitions Training Surveillance Preparation & ...

  1. Determination of cyanide and nitrate concentrations in drinking, irrigation, and wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Mousavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The chemical contamination of water is a major concern for the environmental and health authorities globally. Some anions present in the water are required for human health, but some of them are harmful. Free cyanide and nitrate are amongst the toxic agents in the aquatic environment. Cyanide is highly toxic for human beings. Industrial plants could be attributed to a major source of these toxic agents. Therefore, cyanide and nitrate concentrations in the drinking and irrigation water wells in the high industrial plants were evaluated. Materials and Methods: The samples (57 were taken from drinking and irrigation water wells as well as from a wastewater refinery in north of Mashhad in three stages - March 2009, June 2010, and July 2010. Determination of cyanide and nitrate were performed by a spectrophotometer using commercially available kits according to the manufacturer′s protocols. Results: Cyanide and nitrate concentrations in the drinking water samples of the three stages were 0.0050 ± 0.0007, 0.0070 ± 0.0018, 0.0008 ± 0.0014 mg/L and 6.50 ± 2.80, 7.20 ± 1.80, 7.50 ± 1.90 mg/L, respectively. Cyanide mean concentration during March, June, and July was significant (P = 0.001, whereas nitrate mean concentration was not (P = 0.5. Cyanide and nitrate concentrations in the irrigation water samples of the three stages were 0.0140 ± 0.0130, 0.0077 ± 0.0025, 0.0087 ± 0.0047 mg/L and 12.37 ± 8.12, 8.04 ± 3.99, 8.40 ± 2.60 mg/L, respectively. Cyanide (P = 0.754 and nitrate (P = 0.705 concentrations were not significant during three occasions. Cyanide and nitrate concentrations in the wastewaters of the three stages were 0.1020 ± 0.033, 0.1180 ± 0.033, 0.1200 ± 0.035 mg/L and 1633.80 ± 40.74, 279.00 ± 152.17, 298.40 ± 304.74 mg/L, respectively. Cyanide (P = 0.731 and nitrate (P = 0.187 concentration in wastewaters were not significant during different months. Conclusion: Although nitrate and cyanide concentrations in

  2. Toxicokinetic profiles of α-ketoglutarate cyanohydrin, a cyanide detoxification product, following exposure to potassium cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Brendan L; Bhandari, Raj K; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Rockwood, Gary A; Boss, Gerry R; Logue, Brian A

    2013-09-12

    Poisoning by cyanide can be verified by analysis of the cyanide detoxification product, α-ketoglutarate cyanohydrin (α-KgCN), which is produced from the reaction of cyanide and endogenous α-ketoglutarate. Although α-KgCN can potentially be used to verify cyanide exposure, limited toxicokinetic data in cyanide-poisoned animals are available. We, therefore, studied the toxicokinetics of α-KgCN and compared its behavior to other cyanide metabolites, thiocyanate and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA), in the plasma of 31 Yorkshire pigs that received KCN (4mg/mL) intravenously (IV) (0.17 mg/kg/min). α-KgCN concentrations rose rapidly during KCN administration until the onset of apnea, and then decreased over time in all groups with a half-life of 15 min. The maximum concentrations of α-KgCN and cyanide were 2.35 and 30.18 μM, respectively, suggesting that only a small fraction of the administered cyanide is converted to α-KgCN. Although this is the case, the α-KgCN concentration increased >100-fold over endogenous concentrations compared to only a three-fold increase for cyanide and ATCA. The plasma profile of α-KgCN was similar to that of cyanide, ATCA, and thiocyanate. The results of this study suggest that the use of α-KgCN as a biomarker for cyanide exposure is best suited immediately following exposure for instances of acute, high-dose cyanide poisoning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Poisoning and suicide by cyanide jewelry cleaner in the US Hmong community: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlich, Fiona M; Alsop, Judith Ann; Anderson, Deborah L; Geller, Richard J; Kalugdan, Theresa Thao; Roberts, David J; Thomas, Lindsey C

    2012-02-01

    Over 200 000 persons of Hmong ethnicity live in the United States. The majority of this Southeast Asian ethnic group live in California, Minnesota and Wisconsin. Tradition plays a strong role in the Hmong population, and difficulty in assimilation into "Western ways" has been reported to result in depression and suicide attempts. Some products sold at Southeast Asian ethnic markets are well-known within the Hmong community to be lethal but are essentially unknown to the outside community. We describe eight cases in which cyanide-containing products were ingested by Hmong patients. Seven cases were suicide attempts involving the ingestion of a locally-purchased substance intended for cleaning metal, coins, or jewelry. One case involved the fatal ingestion of a cyanide-containing "herbal" cure. In the majority of the cases, cyanide was not initially suspected, and treatment was delayed due to lack of information regarding the product ingested. In the two patients who survived, the cyanide antidote kit (sodium nitrite, amyl nitrite, and sodium thiosulfate) was administered early. Clinicians should be aware that unusual and potentially lethal products are easily available at ethnic markets. Cyanide toxicity should be suspected, and empiric antidote therapy initiated early, in patients of Hmong or Southeast Asian descent who present with sudden and unexplained cardiovascular collapse and metabolic acidosis, especially in the setting of a suspected suicidal ingestion.

  4. Process for the displacement of cyanide ions from metal-cyanide complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robinson, Thomas W.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to water-soluble polymers and the use of such water-soluble polymers in a process for the displacement of the cyanide ions from the metal ions within metal-cyanide complexes. The process waste streams can include metal-cyanide containing electroplating waste streams, mining leach waste streams, mineral processing waste streams, and related metal-cyanide containing waste streams. The metal ions of interest are metals that give very strong complexes with cyanide, mostly iron, nickel, and copper. The physical separation of the water-soluble polymer-metal complex from the cyanide ions can be accomplished through the use of ultrafiltration. Once the metal-cyanide complex is disrupted, the freed cyanide ions can be recovered for reuse or destroyed using available oxidative processes rendering the cyanide nonhazardous. The metal ions are released from the polymer, using dilute acid, metal ion oxidation state adjustment, or competing chelating agents, and collected and recovered or disposed of by appropriate waste management techniques. The water-soluble polymer can then be recycled. Preferred water-soluble polymers include polyethyleneimine and polyethyleneimine having a catechol or hydroxamate group.

  5. Encapsulation of teniposide into albumin nanoparticles with greatly lowered toxicity and enhanced antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinyi; Xiang, Nanxi; Zhang, Jinjie; Zhou, Jing; Fu, Yao; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Zhirong

    2015-06-20

    Teniposide (VM-26) is a semisynthetic derivative of podophyllotoxin effective for the treatment of many types of tumors. However, the poor water solubility and adverse effects restrict its clinical use. Our study aimed to develop a novel phospholipid complex albumin nanoparticle (VM-E80-AN) to reduce the systemic toxicity and enhance antitumor activity of VM-26. Egg yolk lecithin E80 and human serum albumin (HSA) were used as the main excipients to replace Cremophor EL in the commercial formulation. The physicochemical properties of VM-E80-AN were characterized to optimize the formulation. Cell and animal studies were further carried out to estimate its tumor inhibition efficacy, biodistribution, and toxicity. Comparison between VM-26 solution and VM-E80-AN showed that VM-E80-AN significantly reduced the toxicity of VM-26 and enhanced the anticancer efficacy of the drug. Thus, VM-E80-AN represents a safe and promising formulation of teniposide for clinical application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Structural mediation on polycation nanoparticles by sulfadiazine to enhance DNA transfection efficiency and reduce toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xingwen; Zhang, Zhihui; Han, Shangcong; Tang, Minjie; Zhou, Junhui; Zhang, Jianhua; Xue, Zhenyi; Li, Yan; Zhang, Rongxin; Deng, Liandong; Dong, Anjie

    2015-04-15

    Reducing the toxicity while maintaining high transfection efficiency is an important issue for cationic polymers as gene carriers in clinical application. In this paper, a new zwitterionic copolymer, polycaprolactone-g-poly(dimethylaminoethyl methyacrylate-co-sulfadiazine methacrylate) (PC-SDZ) with unique pH-sensitivity, was designed and prepared. The incorporation of sulfadiazine into poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) chains successfully mediates the surface properties including compacter shell structure, lower density of positive charges, stronger proton buffer capability, and enhanced hydrophobicity, which lead to reduction in toxicity and enhancements in stability, cellular uptake, endosome escape, and transfection efficiency for the PC-SDZ2 nanoparticles (NPs)/DNA complexes. Excellent transfection efficiency at the optimal N/P ratio of 10 was observed for PC-SDZ2 NPs/DNA complexes, which was higher than that of the commercial reagent-branched polyethylenimine (PEI). The cytotoxicity was evaluated by CCK8 measurement, and the results showed significant reduction in cytotoxicity even at high concentration of complexes after sulfadiazine modification. Therefore, this work may demonstrate a new way of structural mediation of cationic polymer carriers for gene delivery with high efficiency and low toxicity.

  7. Development of sulfanegen for mass cyanide casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Steven E; Moeller, Bryant; Nagasawa, Herbert T; Vince, Robert; Crankshaw, Daune L; Briggs, Jacquie; Stutelberg, Michael W; Vinnakota, Chakravarthy V; Logue, Brian A

    2016-06-01

    Cyanide is a metabolic poison that inhibits the utilization of oxygen to form ATP. The consequences of acute cyanide exposure are severe; exposure results in loss of consciousness, cardiac and respiratory failure, hypoxic brain injury, and dose-dependent death within minutes to hours. In a mass-casualty scenario, such as an industrial accident or terrorist attack, currently available cyanide antidotes would leave many victims untreated in the short time available for successful administration of a medical countermeasure. This restricted therapeutic window reflects the rate-limiting step of intravenous administration, which requires both time and trained medical personnel. Therefore, there is a need for rapidly acting antidotes that can be quickly administered to large numbers of people. To meet this need, our laboratory is developing sulfanegen, a potential antidote for cyanide poisoning with a novel mechanism based on 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) for the detoxification of cyanide. Additionally, sulfanegen can be rapidly administered by intramuscular injection and has shown efficacy in many species of animal models. This article summarizes the journey from concept to clinical leads for this promising cyanide antidote. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. Cyanide Toxidrome. A Cluster of Nonspecific Signs May Be a Clue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baud, F. J.; Megarbane, B.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: One of the major concerns regarding a mass disaster is to clarify the involved class of toxicant. Hydrocyanic acid and its derivatives are considered a likelihood threat. However, cyanide-induced signs and symptoms are described as nonspecific, precluding any characterization at the scene. Chemical disaster may result in the exposure, at the same time, of a large number of casualties. In such a condition, not only the nature of signs and symptoms (qualitative knowledge), but also their frequency and magnitude of occurrence (quantitative knowledge) would be of value for a presumptive diagnosis. Therefore, we attempted at quantifying signs and symptoms of cyanide poisoning at the time of presentation in order to improve its recognition and, therefore, the rapidity of antidote supply. Methods: cases of pure cyanide poisoning published in the medical literature and on which the authors consulted were reviewed. Smoke inhalations were excluded. Clinical data were collected before any antidotal treatment except for oxygen. Results are expressed as percentage or median [extremes] Results: Data on 149 acute pure cyanide poisonings described since 1950 were extracted and summarized. Cyanide poisonings primarily resulted from suicide attempts by ingestion. Median time between exposure and onset of symptoms was 30 minutes (1-1140). An abnormal odour was looked for in only 24 out of the 149 cases and was reported in 16 cases (67%). Acute cyanide poisoning was characterized by abnormal neurological status (82%) including coma (66%), dilated pupils (78%), and abnormal respiratory pattern (93%) including hyperpnoea, polypnea, and bradypnea. Muscular tone was nonspecific. Seizures were witnessed in only 26% of poisonings, premature ventricular contractions in 16%, and pulmonary edema in 5%. Median heart rate was 95 bpm [0-176], and median systolic blood pressure was 90 mmHg [0-168]. Arterial pH was 7.20 [6.40-7.60], PaCO2 was 25.2 mmHg [9-53.6], and plasma lactate was

  9. Influence of cyanide on diauxic oscillations in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Bjørn Olav; Smrcinova, Miroslava; Sørensen, Preben Graae

    2012-01-01

    H are taken into account. To our knowledge, use of a cyanide electrode to study cyanide dynamics in living biological systems is new. Cyanide was found to enter starving yeast cells in only negligible amounts, and did not react significantly with glucose. Thus, cyanide consumption must be explained...... by reactions with glycolytic intermediates and evaporation. Evaporation and reaction with the signalling substance, extracellular acetaldehyde (ACA(x)) only explains the observed cyanide removal if [ACA(x)] is improbably high. Furthermore, differences in NADH traces upon cyanide addition before or after...

  10. Quantitative proteomic analysis of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 in response to industrial cyanide-containing wastewaters using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Ibáñez

    Full Text Available Biological treatments to degrade cyanide are a powerful technology for cyanide removal from industrial wastewaters. It has been previously demonstrated that the alkaliphilic bacterium Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 is able to use free cyanide and several metal-cyanide complexes as the sole nitrogen source. In this work, the strain CECT5344 has been used for detoxification of the different chemical forms of cyanide that are present in alkaline wastewaters from the jewelry industry. This liquid residue also contains large concentrations of metals like iron, copper and zinc, making this wastewater even more toxic. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the bioremediation process, a quantitative proteomic analysis by LC-MS/MS has been carried out in P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 cells grown with the jewelry residue as sole nitrogen source. Different proteins related to cyanide and cyanate assimilation, as well as other proteins involved in transport and resistance to metals were induced by the cyanide-containing jewelry residue. GntR-like regulatory proteins were also induced by this industrial residue and mutational analysis revealed that GntR-like regulatory proteins may play a role in the regulation of cyanide assimilation in P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344. The strain CECT5344 has been used in a batch reactor to remove at pH 9 the different forms of cyanide present in industrial wastewaters from the jewelry industry (0.3 g/L, ca. 12 mM total cyanide, including both free cyanide and metal-cyanide complexes. This is the first report describing the biological removal at alkaline pH of such as elevated concentration of cyanide present in a heterogeneous mixture from an industrial source.

  11. Toxicity of Cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) effluent on the Nile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of cassava tuber was conducted to determine some of the active ingredients and the toxicity of cassava effluent on the fingerlings of the Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L). The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of hydrogen cyanide, oxalate and phytate. While hydrogen cyanide and oxalate ...

  12. Alkaline cyanide degradation by Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 in a batch reactor. Influence of pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huertas, M.J.; Saez, L.P.; Roldan, M.D.; Luque-Almagro, V.M.; Martinez-Luque, M.; Blasco, R.; Castillo, F.; Moreno-Vivian, C.; Garcia-Garcia, I.

    2010-01-01

    Water containing cyanide was biologically detoxified with the bacterial strain Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 in a batch reactor. Volatilization of toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) was avoided by using an alkaline medium for the treatment. The operational procedure was optimized to assess cyanide biodegradation at variable pH values and dissolved oxygen concentrations. Using an initial pH of 10 without subsequent adjustment allowed total cyanide to be consumed at a mean rate of approximately 2.81 mg CN - L -1 O.D. -1 h -1 ; however, these conditions posed a high risk of HCN formation. Cyanide consumption was found to be pH-dependent. Thus, no bacterial growth was observed with a controlled pH of 10; on the other hand, pH 9.5 allowed up to 2.31 mg CN - L -1 O.D. -1 h -1 to be converted. The combination of a high pH and a low dissolved oxygen saturation (10%) minimized the release of HCN. This study contributes new basic knowledge about this biological treatment, which constitutes an effective alternative to available physico-chemical methods for the purification of wastewater containing cyanide or cyano-metal complexes.

  13. Alkaline cyanide degradation by Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 in a batch reactor. Influence of pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huertas, M.J., E-mail: mjhuertas@us.es [Instituto de Bioquimica Vegetal y Fotosintesis, CSIC-Universidad de Sevilla Avda Americo Vespucio, 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Saez, L.P.; Roldan, M.D.; Luque-Almagro, V.M.; Martinez-Luque, M. [Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Edificio Severo Ochoa, 1a Planta, Campus de Rabanales, Universidad de Cordoba, 14071 Cordoba (Spain); Blasco, R. [Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular y Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Extremadura, 11071 Caceres (Spain); Castillo, F.; Moreno-Vivian, C. [Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Edificio Severo Ochoa, 1a Planta, Campus de Rabanales, Universidad de Cordoba, 14071 Cordoba (Spain); Garcia-Garcia, I. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Edificio Marie Curie, Campus de Rabanales, Universidad de Cordoba, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Water containing cyanide was biologically detoxified with the bacterial strain Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 in a batch reactor. Volatilization of toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) was avoided by using an alkaline medium for the treatment. The operational procedure was optimized to assess cyanide biodegradation at variable pH values and dissolved oxygen concentrations. Using an initial pH of 10 without subsequent adjustment allowed total cyanide to be consumed at a mean rate of approximately 2.81 mg CN{sup -} L{sup -1} O.D.{sup -1} h{sup -1}; however, these conditions posed a high risk of HCN formation. Cyanide consumption was found to be pH-dependent. Thus, no bacterial growth was observed with a controlled pH of 10; on the other hand, pH 9.5 allowed up to 2.31 mg CN{sup -} L{sup -1} O.D.{sup -1} h{sup -1} to be converted. The combination of a high pH and a low dissolved oxygen saturation (10%) minimized the release of HCN. This study contributes new basic knowledge about this biological treatment, which constitutes an effective alternative to available physico-chemical methods for the purification of wastewater containing cyanide or cyano-metal complexes.

  14. The Arctic Alzheimer mutation enhances sensitivity to toxic stress in human neuroblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennvik, Kristina; Nilsberth, Camilla; Stenh, Charlotte

    2002-01-01

    The E693G (Arctic) mutation of the amyloid precursor protein was recently found to lead to early-onset Alzheimer's disease in a Swedish family. In the present study, we report that the Arctic mutation decreases cell viability in human neuroblastoma cells. The cell viability, as measured by the MTT...... their secretion of beta-secretase cleaved amyloid precursor protein. The enhanced sensitivity to toxic stress in cells with the Arctic mutation most likely contributes to the pathogenic pathway leading to Alzheimer's disease....

  15. Hydrogen Cyanide In Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ashley L.; Oberg, Karin; Cleeves, L. Ilsedore

    2018-01-01

    The chemistry behind star and planet formation is extremely complex and important in the formation of habitable planets. Life requires molecules containing carbon, oxygen, and importantly, nitrogen. Hydrogen cyanide, or HCN, one of the main interstellar nitrogen carriers, is extremely dangerous here on Earth. However, it could be used as a vital tool for tracking the chemistry of potentially habitable planets. As we get closer to identifying other habitable planets, we must understand the beginnings of how those planets are formed in the early protoplanetary disk. This project investigates HCN chemistry in different locations in the disk, and what this might mean for forming planets at different distances from the star. HCN is a chemically diverse molecule. It is connected to the formation for other more complex molecules and is commonly used as a nitrogen tracer. Using computational chemical models we look at how the HCN abundance changes at different locations. We use realistic and physically motivated conditions for the gas in the protoplanetary disk: temperature, density, and radiation (UV flux). We analyze the reaction network, formation, and destruction of HCN molecules in the disk environment. The disk environment informs us about stability of habitable planets that are created based on HCN molecules. We reviewed and compared the difference in the molecules with a variety of locations in the disk and ultimately giving us a better understanding on how we view protoplanetary disks.

  16. C-11 cyanide production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyun; Alexoff, David; Kim, Sung Won; Hooker, Jacob M.; Ferrieri, Richard A.

    2017-11-21

    A method for providing .sup.11C-labeled cyanides from .sup.11C labeled oxides in a target gas stream retrieved from an irradiated high pressure gaseous target containing O.sub.2, wherein .sup.11C labeled oxides are reduced with H.sub.2 in the presence of a nickel catalyst under a pressure and a temperature sufficient to form a product stream comprising at least about 95% .sup.11CH.sub.4, the .sup.11CH.sub.4 is then combined with an excess of NH.sub.3 in a carrier/reaction stream flowing at an accelerated velocity and the combined .sup.11CH4 carrier/reaction stream is then contacted with a platinum (Pt) catalyst particulate supported on a substantially-chemically-nonreactive heat-stable support at a temperature of at least about 900.degree. C., whereby a product stream comprising at least about 60% H.sup.11CN is provided in less than 10 minutes from retrieval of the .sup.11C labeled oxide.

  17. Nano-TiO2 enhances the toxicity of copper in natural water to Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenhong; Cui, Minming; Liu, Hong; Wang, Chuan; Shi, Zhiwei; Tan, Cheng; Yang, Xiuping

    2011-03-01

    The acute toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in aquatic environments at high concentrations has been well-established. This study demonstrates that, at a concentration generally considered to be safe in the environment, nano-TiO(2) remarkably enhanced the toxicity of copper to Daphnia magna by increasing the copper bioaccumulation. Specifically, at 2 mg L(-1) nano-TiO(2), the (LC(50)) of Cu(2+) concentration observed to kill half the population, decreased from 111 μg L(-1) to 42 μg L(-1). Correspondingly, the level of metallothionein decreased from 135 μg g(-1) wet weight to 99 μg g(-1) wet weight at a Cu(2+) level of 100 μg L(-1). The copper was found to be adsorbed onto the nano-TiO(2), and ingested and accumulated in the animals, thereby causing toxic injury. The nano-TiO(2) may compete for free copper ions with sulfhydryl groups, causing the inhibition of the detoxification by metallothioneins. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Towards quantitative SERS detection of hydrogen cyanide at ppb level for human breath analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Rikke Kragh; Rindzevicius, Tomas; Molin, Søren

    2015-01-01

    ) at ppb level has been reported to be a PA biomarker. For early PA detection in CF children not yet chronically lung infected a non-invasive Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)-based breath nanosensor is being developed. The triple bond between C and N in cyanide, with its characteristic band......). Lower KCN concentrations of 10 and 100 nM (corresponding to 0.18 and 1.8 ppb) produced SERS intensities that were relatively similar to the reference signal. Since HCN concentration in the breath of PA colonized CF children is reported to be ∼13.5 ppb, the detection of cyanide is within the required...

  19. Cyanide poisoning and cardiac disorders: 161 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Jean-Luc; Desmettre, Thibault; Manzon, Cyril; Judic-Peureux, Virginie; Peugeot-Mortier, Caroline; Giocanti, Jean-Pascal; Hachelaf, Mohamed; Grangeon, Marie; Hostalek, Ulrike; Crouzet, Julien; Capellier, Gilles

    2010-05-01

    Inhalation of hydrogen cyanide from smoke in structural fires is common, but cardiovascular function in these patients is poorly documented. The objective was to study the cardiac complications of cyanide poisoning in patients who received early administration of a cyanide antidote, hydroxocobalamin (Cyanokit; Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany [in the United States, marketed by Meridian Medical Technologies, Bristol, TN]). The medical records of 161 fire survivors with suspected or confirmed cyanide poisoning were reviewed in an open, multicenter, retrospective review of cases from the Emergency Medical Assistance Unit (Service d'Aide Médical d'Urgence) in France. Cardiac arrest (61/161, 58 asystole, 3 ventricular fibrillation), cardiac rhythm disorders (57/161, 56 supraventricular tachycardia), repolarization disorders (12/161), and intracardiac conduction disorders (5/161) were observed. Of the total 161 patients studied, 26 displayed no cardiac disorder. All patients were given an initial dose of 5 g of hydroxocobalamin. Non-responders received a second dose of 5 g of hydroxocobalamin. Of the patients initially in cardiac arrest, 30 died at the scene, 24 died in hospital, and 5 survived without cardiovascular sequelae. Cardiac disorders improved with increasing doses of hydroxocobalamin, and higher doses of the antidote seem to be associated with a superior outcome in patients with initial cardiac arrest. Cardiac complications are common in cyanide poisoning in fire survivors. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A highly selective and turn-on fluorescence sensor for detection of cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhong, Yi; Hsieh, Wei Hsun; Chir, Jiun-Ly; Wu, An-Tai

    2014-11-01

    2-Hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde (receptor 1) serves as a selective chemosensor for cyanide anion (CN(-)). In the presence of CN(-), an enhanced fluorescent intensity and red shift were observed. The observed complexation between receptor 1 and CN(-) may cause from a formation of phenoxide anion by nucleophilic addition of the CN(-) to carbonyl group.

  1. Cyanide, Nitrates and Nitrite Contents of Livestock Feeds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cyanide nitrate and nitrite contents in pig feeds from six different farms in Umuahia, Nigeria were assayed using spectrophotometric and enzymatic methods. Enzymatic analysis of the feed samples indicated mean total cyanide level of 59.30 ± 3.72 – 361.90 ± 11.2mg-1 DM. The mean cyanide content of cyanogenic ...

  2. Rhodanese is a Possible Enzyme Marker for Cyanide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rhodanese is a cyanide detoxifying enzyme. The role of man through his anthropogenic activities in and around water bodies have increased in recent times. These have led to constant exposure of water body to cyanide and cyanide compounds with increase to loss of many aquatic lives. There are limited methods ...

  3. Cyanide speciation at four gold leach operations undergoing remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Craig A; Grimes, David J; Leinz, Reinhard W; Rye, Robert O

    2008-02-15

    Analyses have been made of 81 effluents from four gold leach operations in various stages of remediation to identify the most -persistent cyanide species. Total cyanide and weak acid-dissociable (WAD) cyanide were measured using improved methods, and metals known to form stable cyanocomplexes were also measured. Typically, total cyanide greatly exceeded WAD indicating that cyanide was predominantly in strong cyanometallic complexes. Iron was generally too low to accommodate the strongly complexed cyanide as Fe(CN)6s3- or Fe(CN)6(4-), but cobalt was abundant enough to implicate Co(CN)6(3-) or its dissociation products (Co(CN)(6-x)(H2O)x((3-x)-)). Supporting evidenceforcobalt-cyanide complexationwas found in tight correlations between cobalt and cyanide in some sample suites. Also, abundant free cyanide was produced upon UV illumination. Iron and cobalt cyanocomplexes both photodissociate; however, the iron concentration was insufficient to have carried the liberated cyanide, while the cobalt concentration was sufficient. Cobalt cyanocomplexes have not previously been recognized in cyanidation wastes. Their identification atfour separate operations, which had treated ores that were not especially rich in cobalt, suggests that cobalt complexation may be a common source of cyanide persistence. There is a need for more information on the importance and behavior of cobalt cyanocomplexes in ore-processing wastes at gold mines.

  4. A Biosensor for the Determination of Cyanide in Cassava

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    developed based on the use of a cyanide ion selective electrode made from AgI and Ag2S and the enzyme linamarase which was ... cyanide in solution over the 10-6 to 10-2 M concentration range as well as cyanide liberated as a result of the action of .... complexation reaction which liberates iodide at the membrane ...

  5. Metallization of cyanide-modified Pt(111) electrodes with copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escribano, Maria Escudero; Wildi, Christopher; Mwanda, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    provide evidence that the reduction of irreversibly adsorbed Cu2+ to Cu in Cu2+-free sulfuric acid solutions does not result in the stripping of the cyanide adlayer. This strongly suggests that the reduction process results in the metallization of the cyanide adlayer on Pt(111), yielding a platinum-cyanide-copper...

  6. Induction by ethylene of cyanide-resistant respiration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomos, T.; Laties, G.G.

    1976-05-17

    Ethylene and cyanide induce an increase in respiration in a variety of plant tissues, whereas ethylene has no effect on tissues whose respiration is strongly inhibited by cyanide. It is suggested that the existence of a cyanide-insensitive electron transport path is a prerequisite for stimulation of respiration by ethylene.

  7. Cyanide Content of Parts of Pride of Barbados ( Caesalpina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cyanide determined in the edible extra-cotyledonous deposit of this legume was minimal and equally very low in all other parts studied (p>0.05). Pride of Barbados is presumably among the legumes with the lowest cyanide content. Keywords: Cyanide content, Pride of Barbados. Journal of Medical Laboratory Science Vol ...

  8. Application of AOPs for Removal of Stable Cyanide Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsybikova, B.

    2017-11-01

    The main kinetic regularities of the photochemical oxidation of stable cyanide compounds (exemplified by hexacyanoferrates) by combined treatments involving direct photolysis and persulfate (oxidative system UV/S2O8 2‑) and direct photolysis and hydrogen peroxide (oxidative system UV/H2O2) were studied. The possibility to perform oxidation processes within a wide pH range was shown. Based on to the energy efficiency, the rate of reaction and duration of the treatment, the considered oxidative systems can be arranged in the following order: {UV/S2O8 2‑}>{UV/H2O2}>{UV}. The enhanced efficiency of hexacyanoferrates’ degradation by the combined system {UV/S2O8 2‑} is due to the high oxidative capacity of sulfate anion radicals SO4 ‑· formed as a result of persulfate photolysis and its further disproportionation by Fe3+ and Fe2+ released through the decomposition of [Fe(CN)6]3‑. Furthermore, the formation of ·OH radicals as a result of SO4 ‑· reacting with water also contributes to the enhanced oxidation efficiency. The combined method of {UV/S2O8 2‑} treatment could be applied for the treatment of cyanide-containing wastewater and recycled water of different industries.

  9. Treatment of cyanide-contained Waste Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheglov, M.Y.

    1999-01-01

    This work contains results of theoretical and experimental investigations of possibility to apply industrial ionites of different kinds for recovering complex cyanide of some d-elements (Cu, Zn, an dso on) and free CN-ions with purpose to develop technology and unit for plating plant waste water treatment. Finally, on basis of experimental data about equilibrium kinetic and dynamic characteristic of the sorption in model solutions, strong base anionite in CN- and OH-forms was chosen. This anionite has the best values of operational sorption uptake. Recommendations of using the anionite have been developed for real cyanide-contained wastewater treatment

  10. Uptake of wetting method in Africa to reduce cyanide poisoning and konzo from cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, J Howard; Cliff, Julie; Denton, Ian C

    2011-03-01

    Cassava contains cyanogenic glucosides which are hydrolysed by an enzyme linamarase to produce cyanohydrins which breakdown to toxic cyanide. Cyanide ingestion from bitter cassava can cause cyanide poisoning sometimes leading to death and also konzo, an irreversible paralysis of the legs which occurs mainly in children and young women. In 2005 we developed a simple wetting method that reduces the total cyanide content of cassava flour 3-6-fold. It involves wetting the flour, spreading it in a thin layer in the shade for 5h and using it the same day to make traditional thick porridge (ugali). The method was readily accepted by rural women and requires no additional equipment or water. Laminated, illustrated posters describing the method are available for free in ten languages, see http://online.anu.edu.au/BoZo/CCDN/. An equally effective treatment method is to expose wet flour in a thin layer in the sun for 2h. Projects for rehabilitation and prevention of konzo occurred in Mozambique in 2007 and in 2008-2009 in Tanzania, funded by AusAID. The Ministry of Health in Mozambique is now using our posters in Macua. In Uvira DRC, the wetting method has been taught in many villages and over 1200 posters distributed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Utilization of acetic acid-rich pyrolytic bio-oil by microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: reducing bio-oil toxicity and enhancing algal toxicity tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi; Zhao, Xuefei; Chi, Zhanyou; Rover, Marjorie; Johnston, Patrick; Brown, Robert; Jarboe, Laura; Wen, Zhiyou

    2013-04-01

    This work was to utilize acetic acid contained in bio-oil for growth and lipid production of the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The acetic acid-rich bio-oil fraction derived from fast pyrolysis of softwood contained 26% (w/w) acetic acid, formic acid, methanol, furfural, acetol, and phenolics as identified compounds, and 13% (w/w) unidentified compounds. Among those identified compounds, phenolics were most inhibitory to algal growth, followed by furfural and acetol. To enhance the fermentability of the bio-oil fraction, activated carbon was used to reduce the toxicity of the bio-oil, while metabolic evolution was used to enhance the toxicity tolerance of the microalgae. Combining activated carbon treatment and using evolved algal strain resulted in significant algal growth improvement. The results collectively showed that fast pyrolysis-fermentation process was a viable approach for converting biomass into fuels and chemicals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Acute cyanide poisoning due to apricot kernel ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Tatli

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cyanide is a toxin and one of the most rapidly acting fatal poisons that human being is aware. If it is not treated promptly, encountering to cyanide poison will lead to die in minutes. Cyanide avoids cellular oxygen usage by inactivating mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase thus inhibits cellular respiration. In this case, we represent a case report describing uncommon cyanide intoxication owing to consumption of a few portion of apricot kernels and its rapid treatment with dicobalt edetate after suspection of cyanide poisoning.

  13. Towards quantitative SERS detection of hydrogen cyanide at ppb level for human breath analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Kragh Lauridsen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lung infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF patients. Due to its ready adaptation to the dehydrated mucosa of CF airways, PA infections tend to become chronic, eventually killing the patient. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN at ppb level has been reported to be a PA biomarker. For early PA detection in CF children not yet chronically lung infected a non-invasive Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS-based breath nanosensor is being developed. The triple bond between C and N in cyanide, with its characteristic band at ∼2133 cm−1, is an excellent case for the SERS-based detection due to the infrequent occurrence of triple bonds in nature. For demonstration of direct HCN detection in the gas phase, a gold-coated silicon nanopillar substrate was exposed to 5 ppm HCN in N2. Results showed that HCN adsorbed on the SERS substrate can be consistently detected under different experimental conditions and up to 9 days after exposure. For detection of lower cyanide concentrations serial dilution experiments using potassium cyanide (KCN demonstrated cyanide quantification down to 1 μM in solution (corresponding to 18 ppb. Lower KCN concentrations of 10 and 100 nM (corresponding to 0.18 and 1.8 ppb produced SERS intensities that were relatively similar to the reference signal. Since HCN concentration in the breath of PA colonized CF children is reported to be ∼13.5 ppb, the detection of cyanide is within the required range.

  14. Chlorine and hydrogen cyanide gas interactions with human skin: in vitro studies to inform skin permeation and decontamination in HAZMAT incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Sharyn; Pisaniello, Dino; Edwards, John W; Bromwich, David; Reed, Sue; Logan, Michael; Baxter, Christina

    2013-11-15

    Accidental or intentional toxic gas releases may result in significant public health and psychological consequences. Management of exposed individuals during HAZMAT incidents should be risk-based and supported by a suitable scientific evidence base. There appear to be large evidence gaps in relation to dermal absorption of gases, as well as management advice for potentially exposed individuals. Chlorine and hydrogen cyanide are two common HAZMAT gases and this paper addresses the need for experimental data tailored to HAZMAT scenarios and first responders. In addition to time variations of gas concentration, the modifying effects of clothing, temperature, and oil-based sunscreen on epidermal absorption and penetration are assessed. Results for chlorine show little penetration up to 500 ppm but with small enhancing effects due to heavy cotton and oil-based sunscreen. Hydrogen cyanide up to 800 ppm shows minor penetration consistent with previous studies, with little variability in the presence of sunscreen and clothing. Practical guidelines to support the decision-making of emergency responders with regard to personal decontamination have been derived. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. SYNTHESES AND CHARACTERIZATIONS OF THE CYANIDE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    important place and they are known to be among the first coordination compounds that has been prepared, studied, described and used up to now. Therefore, they have still ... one, two or three dimensional structures in organometallic and coordination chemistry. Cyanometallate building blocks containing cyanide groups, ...

  16. The cyanide accident in Barskoon (Kyrgyzstan)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleven RFMJ; Bruggen M van; LAC

    2000-01-01

    On May 20, 1998, a truck with 20 tons of sodium cyanide crashed and fell into the Barskoon River (Kyrgyzstan). This small stream, used by the local population for irrigation and drinking water purposes, flows into Lake Issyk-Kul, a major tourist resort. As a result of the accident, some 1700 - 1800

  17. Review article: management of cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reade, Michael C; Davies, Suzanne R; Morley, Peter T; Dennett, Jennifer; Jacobs, Ian C

    2012-06-01

    Cyanide poisoning is uncommon, but generates interest because of the presumed utility of an antidote immediately available in those areas with a high risk of cyanide exposure. As part of its regular review of guidelines, the Australian Resuscitation Council conducted a systematic review of the human evidence for the use of various proposed cyanide antidotes, and a narrative review of the relevant pharmacological and animal studies. There have been no relevant comparative or placebo-controlled human trials. Nine case series were identified. Treatment with hydroxocobalamin was reported in a total of 361 cases. No serious adverse effects of hydroxocobalamin were reported, and many patients with otherwise presumably fatal poisoning survived. Sodium thiosulphate use was reported in two case series, similarly with no adverse effects. Treatment with a combination of sodium nitrite, amyl nitrite and sodium thiosulphate was reported in 74 patients, with results indistinguishable from those of hydroxocobalamin and sodium thiosulphate. No case series using dicobalt edetate or 4-dimethylaminophenol were identified, but successful use in single cases has been reported. Hydroxocobalamin and sodium thiosulphate differ from alternatives in having negligible adverse effects, and on the basis of current evidence are the antidotes of choice. The indications for the use of an antidote, the requirements for supportive care and a recommended approach for workplaces where there is a risk of cyanide poisoning are presented. © 2012 The Authors. EMA © 2012 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  18. Patterns of cyanide antidote use since regulatory approval of hydroxocobalamin in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streitz, Matthew J; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Borys, Douglas J; Morgan, David L

    2014-01-01

    Sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate are common cyanide antidotes. Hydroxocobalamin was approved for use in the United States in 2006. Our objective was to determine the frequency of antidote use as reported to the US poison centers from 2005 to 2009 and describe which antidotes were used in critically ill cyanide toxic patients. We performed a retrospective review over 5 years (2005-2009) from 61 US poison centers. We identified all cyanide-exposed cases that received a cyanide antidote. Variables collected included demographics, gastric decontamination, antidote used, predefined serious clinical effects (hypotension, cardiac arrest, respiratory arrest, and coma), and predefined serious therapies (cardiopulmonary resuscitation, vasopressors, atropine, anticonvulsant, antidysrhythmic, and intubation/ventilation). One trained abstractor abstracted each chart to a standardized electronic form. Another investigator audited 20% of the charts. Kappa values were calculated. One hundred sixty-five exposures were identified. Mean age was 42 years (range, 3-93 years). Seventy-one percent were male. Exposures were 27% ingestion and 53% inhalation. Thirty-two percent of the ingestions were suicide attempts. Twenty percent (32 of 157) of all cases died. Over all years reported, hydroxocobalamin was administered to 29% (45 of 157) of patients, sodium nitrite to 25%, and sodium thiosulfate to 46%. Hydroxocobalamin use increased from 24% to 54% from 2007 to 2009, respectively (P = 0.024). Sodium thiosulfate use decreased from 73% to 31% (P = 0.002) and sodium nitrite use decreased from 26% to 14% (P = 0.39). The proportion of cases with serious clinical effects that received hydroxocobalamin increased each year, and the proportion that received other antidotes decreased. Hydroxocobalamin was also administered more often in cases that required serious therapies and increased each year. Hydroxocobalamin use for cyanide toxicity increased each year as reported to the US poison

  19. Promotion of seed germination by cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylorson, R B; Hendricks, S B

    1973-07-01

    Potassium cyanide at 3 mum to 10 mm promotes germination of Amaranthus albus, Lactuca sativa, and Lepidium virginicum seeds. l-Cysteine hydrogen sulfide lyase, which catalyzes the reaction of HCN with l-cysteine to form beta-l cyanoalanine, is active in the seeds. beta-l-Cyanoalanine is the most effective of the 23 alpha-amino acids tested for promoting germination of A. albus seeds. Aspartate, which is produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of asparagine formed by hydrolysis from beta-cyanoalanine, is the second most effective of the 23 amino acids. Uptake of aspartate-4-(14)C is much lower than of cyanide.Radioactive tracer in K(14)CN shows uptake of about 1.5 mumoles of HCN per gram of A. albus and L. sativa seeds after 20 hours of imbibition. Extracts of the seeds gave high (14)C activity in beta-cyanoalanine, asparagine, and aspartate. The acid-hydrolyzed protein extract gave high activity only in aspartate. Tests were negative for free cyanide in the seed. Respiration of the seed is inhibited more than 75% by KCN and by KN(3) at 10 mm. Azide at greater than 1.0 mm inhibits the promotion of germination by cyanides. Neither 0.1 mm KCN nor KN(3) inhibit O(2) consumption, whereas lower concentrations promote germination. It is concluded that the high rate of utilization of cyanide in the reaction to form beta-l-cyanoalanine and the subsequent incorporation into protein limit any inhibition of oxygen consumption. The promotion of seed germination is substrate-limited by asparagine-aspartate, which is required for protein synthesis.

  20. Al toxicity leads to enhanced cell division and changed photosynthesis in Oryza rufipogon L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yingping; Lou, Yuxia; Han, Yingying; Shi, Jinlei; Wang, Yaofeng; Wang, Wei; Ming, Feng

    2011-11-01

    Oryza rufipogon L. (O. rufipogon) or a common wild rice, showed considerable aluminum (Al) tolerance. In this study, we examined the physiologic and genetic response of wild rice short term and long term to Al toxicity, respectively. In the short term study, morin staining, DAPI staining and aniline blue staining were used to detect Al distribution, cell division and callose production in the roots of O. rufipogon. The results indicated cell division could be enhanced by Al within low concentration range. In the long term study, we chose Oryza sativa L (O. sativa) (the close sib of O. rufipogon) as a reference. It showed that O. rufipogon grew better than O. sativa when treated with Al of 1.4 mmol/l concentration and also experienced a short period of root growth stimulation. This study gave some basic data to explain the mechanisms Oryza rufipogon L. developed to deal with Al and lay a good foundation to further study. SSH (suppression subtractive hybridization) proved that transcripts of the small subunit of Rubisco and a Photosystem I P700 apoprotein were enhanced under long term Al treatment in wild rice. Further investigation via the assessment of the content of chlorophyll a, b indicated that the content of chlorophyll a, b in the leaves of O. rufipogon generally rose after Al treatment for 15 days. This indicated that intake of Al can affect photosynthesis of plant.

  1. Reduction of cyanide levels in sweet cassava leaves grown in Busia County, Kenya based on different processing methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojiambo, O.C.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, is the third most important carbohydrate food source around the world and in particular in sub-Sahara Africa. Both the roots and leaves have dual antagonistic contribution of which; one being nutritional value and secondly, contain cyanogenic glycosides. The latter when hydrolyzed by linamarase produces poisonous hydrogen cyanide attributed to among other factors, the methods of processing. Little has been reported on processing methods and information downstream will be great given the toxicity. This report assessed the variation of cyanide levels following different processing methods of leaves of sweet cassava varieties. A number of conditions were varied to mimic affordable and as well sustainable processing methods. Processing prior to boiling for up to 25 minutes involved leaves being pounded and pounded then soaked in water. Determination of cyanide was done using picrate papers and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The cyanide levels ranged from 576.30 ± 0.32 - 128.34 ± 0.34 mg HCN Equivalence/Kg in raw cassava leaves that significantly reduced up to 88.45% with the processing’s (P< 0.001. Longer duration of boiling cassava leaves with prior processings’ of pounding and that of pounding and soaking is promoted to minimize the risks associated with cyanide poisoning.

  2. Effect of alpha-ketoglutarate on neurobehavioral, neurochemical and oxidative changes caused by sub-chronic cyanide poisoning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathangi, D C; Shyamala, R; Vijayashree, R; Rao, K R; Ruckmani, A; Vijayaraghavan, R; Bhattacharya, R

    2011-03-01

    Recent studies revealed that alpha-ketoglutarate (A-KG) alone or with sodium thiosulfate (STS) provide significant protection against acute and sub-acute cyanide poisoning in rodents. This study addresses the protective effect of A-KG and/or STS in sub-chronic (90 days) cyanide poisoning. Wistar rats were divided into seven groups (n = 10): Control animals, potassium cyanide (KCN) A-KG, STS, KCN + A-KG, KCN + STS and KCN + A-KG + STS. Spontaneous motor activity and motor coordination were recorded every 15th day. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in blood, brain, liver and kidney, and glutamate, aspartate and dopamine in discrete regions of brain were measured following 90 days exposure. Cyanide significantly decreased motor coordination, accompanied by increase in LPO (blood, brain and liver) and dopamine (corpus striatum and cerebral cortex) levels, and depletion in GSH (blood, brain and liver), GPx (brain and liver), SOD (brain and liver), and CAT (blood and brain) levels. Although treatment of A-KG and STS alone significantly blunted the toxicity of KCN, concomitant use of both afforded the maximum protection. This study shows a promising role of A-KG and STS as treatment regime for long term cyanide exposure.

  3. Minimally toxic approach for treatment of cutaneous breast cancer metastases: capecitabine-enhanced photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sanjay; Bullock, Taylor; Maytin, Edward V.

    2017-02-01

    Cutaneous metastasis (CM) occurs in 20% of patients with breast carcinoma (BCA), and is extremely difficult to treat. These CM are relatively resistant to chemotherapy, generally responding only to ionizing radiation (IR). Multiple rounds of IR, however, lead to debilitating fibrosis and radiation dermatitis. An alternative to IR is needed for better management of BCA/CM. In our laboratory, we have developed differentiation-enhanced combination PDT (cPDT), a concept in which a pro-differentiating agent (methotrexate; vitamin D; or 5-fluorouracil, 5FU) is used as a neoadjuvant prior to PDT. After using these neoadjuvants, levels of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) were elevated in animal tumor models of skin, prostate, and BCA, leading to better PDT efficacy. However, all the agents have toxicity issues. Here, we use a nontoxic 5FU precursor called Capecitabine (CPBN) for cPDT. CBPN is a standard chemotherapeutic for metastatic BCA, and is metabolized to 5FU specifically within tumor tissue. Murine (4T1) and human (MCF-7) BCA cell lines were injected into breast fat pads of nude mice. After tumor nodules appeared, CPBN (400-600 mg/kg/day) was administered by oral gavage for five days followed by intraperitoneal ALA administration on day 6. Mice were sacrificed and tumors harvested. CPBN pretreatment led to a 4-fold elevation of PpIX levels in tumors, relative to vehicle control. Not only did PpIX levels increase, but also PpIX distribution became more homogeneous after CPBN pretreatment. In summary, the use of non-toxic CPBN as a neoadjuvant prior to PDT is a combination approach with significant potential for translation into the clinic.

  4. Effects of enhanced bioturbation intensities on the toxicity assessment of legacy-contaminated sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remaili, Timothy M; Simpson, Stuart L; Jolley, Dianne F

    2017-07-01

    Many benthic communities within estuarine ecosystems are highly degraded due to the close proximity of urban and industrial contamination sources. The maintenance of recolonised, healthy ecosystems following remediation is a challenge, and better techniques are required for monitoring their progressive recovery. Rates of ecosystem recovery are influenced by the changes in the concentrations and forms of contaminants, the sensitivity of recolonising organisms to bioavailable contaminants, and a range of abiotic and biotic factors influencing the exposure of organisms to the contamination. Here we investigate the influence of bioturbation by an active amphipod (Victoriopisa australiensis) on the bioavailability of metals and hydrocarbons in highly contaminated sediments. Changes in contaminant bioavailability were evaluated by assessing sublethal effects to a smaller cohabiting amphipod (Melita plumulosa). For predominantly metal-contaminated sediments, the presence of V. australiensis generally increased survival and reproduction of M. plumulosa when compared to treatments with only M. plumulosa present (from 42 to 93% survival and 3-61% reproduction). The decrease in toxic effects to M. plumulosa corresponded with lower dissolved copper and zinc concentrations in the overlying waters (14-9 μg Cu L -1 , and 14 to 6 μg Zn L -1 for absence to presence of V. australiensis). For sediments contaminated with both hydrocarbons and metals, the increased bioturbation intensity by V. australiensis resulted in decreased reproduction of M. plumulosa, despite lower dissolved metal exposure, and indicated increased bioavailability of the hydrocarbon contaminants. Thus, the presence of a secondary active bioturbator can enhance or suppress toxicity to co-inhabiting organisms, and may depend on the contaminant class and form. The results highlight the need to consider both abiotic and biotic interactions when using laboratory studies to evaluate the ability of organisms

  5. Photo-enhanced toxicity of fluoranthene to Gulf of Mexico marine organisms at different larval ages and ultraviolet light intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Bryson E; Stubblefield, William A

    2016-05-01

    Significant increases in toxicity have been observed as a result of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in aquatic organisms. Early life stage aquatic organisms are predicted to be more susceptible to PAH photo-enhanced toxicity as a result of their translucence and tendency to inhabit shallow littoral or surface waters. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the sensitivity of varying ages of larval mysid shrimp (Americamysis bahia), inland silverside (Menidia beryllina), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), and Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) to photo-enhanced toxicity and to examine the correlation between photo-enhanced toxicity and organism pigmentation. Organisms were exposed to fluoranthene and artificial UV light at different larval ages and results were compared using median lethal concentrations (LC50s) and the lethal time-to-death (LT50s). In addition, a high UV light intensity, short-duration (4-h) experiment was conducted at approximately 24 W/m(2) of ultraviolet radiation A (UV-A) and compared with a low-intensity, long-duration (12-h) experiment at approximately 8 W/m(2) of UV-A. The results indicated decreased toxicity with increasing age for all larval organisms. The amount of organism pigmentation was correlated with observed LC50 and LT50 values. High-intensity short-duration exposure resulted in greater toxicity than low-intensity long-duration UV treatments for mysid shrimp, inland silverside, and sheepshead minnow. Data from these experiments suggest that toxicity is dependent on age, pigmentation, UV light intensity, and fluoranthene concentration. © 2015 SETAC.

  6. The potentiation effect makes the difference: Non-toxic concentrations of ZnO nanoparticles enhance Cu nanoparticle toxicity in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lingxiangyu [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Fernández-Cruz, María Luisa; Connolly, Mona [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Madrid 28040 (Spain); Conde, Estefanía; Fernández, Marta [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid 28040 (Spain); Schuster, Michael [Department of Chemistry, Technische Universität München, Garching 85747 (Germany); Navas, José María, E-mail: jmnavas@inia.es [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2015-02-01

    Here we examined whether the addition of a non-toxic concentration (6.25 μg/mL) of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs: 19, 35 and 57 nm, respectively) modulates the cytotoxicity of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs, 63 nm in size) in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. The cytotoxic effect of CuNPs on HepG2 cells was markedly enhanced by the ZnONPs, the largest ZnONPs causing the highest increase in toxicity. However, CuNPs cytotoxicity was not affected by co-incubation with medium containing only zinc ions, indicating the increase in toxicity might be attributed to the particle form of ZnONPs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the presence of CuNPs and ZnONPs inside the cells co-exposed to both types of NP and outflow of cytoplasm through the damaged cell membrane. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) determined an increase in the concentration of zinc and a decrease in that of copper in co-exposed cells. On the basis of these results, we propose that accumulation of large numbers of ZnONPs in the cells alters cellular membranes and the cytotoxicity of CuNPs is increased. - Highlights: • ZnONPs at non-toxic concentrations increased the toxicity of CuNPs in vitro. • ZnONPs of larger size provoked a stronger synergistic effect with CuNPs. • The synergistic effect was attributed to the particle fraction of ZnONPs.

  7. Acute, Sub-lethal Cyanide Poisoning in Mice is Ameliorated by Nitrite Alone: Complications Arising from Concomitant Administration of Nitrite and Thiosulfate as an Antidotal Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambal, Leah K.; Swanson, Megan R.; Yuan, Quan; Weitz, Andrew C.; Li, Hui-Hua; Pitt, Bruce R.; Pearce, Linda L.; Peterson, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Sodium nitrite alone is shown to ameliorate sub-lethal cyanide toxicity in mice when given from ~1 hour before until 20 minutes after the toxic dose as demonstrated by the recovery of righting ability. An optimum dose (12 mg/kg) was determined to significantly relieve cyanide toxicity (5.0 mg/kg) when administered to mice intraperitoneally. Nitrite so administered was shown to rapidly produce NO in the bloodsteam as judged by the dose dependent appearance of EPR signals attributable to nitrosylhemoglobin and methemoglobin. It is argued that antagonism of cyanide inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase by NO is the crucial antidotal activity rather than the methemoglobin-forming action of nitrite. Concomitant addition of sodium thiosulfate to nitrite-treated blood resulted in the detection of sulfidomethemoblobin by EPR spectroscopy. Sulfide is a product of thiosulfate hydrolysis and, like cyanide, is known to be a potent inhibitor of cytochrome c oxidase; the effects of the two inhibitors being essentially additive under standard assay conditions, rather than dominated by either one. The findings afford a plausible explanation for an observed detrimental effect in mice associated with the use of the standard nitrite-thiosulfate combination therapy at sub-lethal levels of cyanide intoxication. PMID:21534623

  8. Acute, sublethal cyanide poisoning in mice is ameliorated by nitrite alone: complications arising from concomitant administration of nitrite and thiosulfate as an antidotal combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambal, Leah K; Swanson, Megan R; Yuan, Quan; Weitz, Andrew C; Li, Hui-Hua; Pitt, Bruce R; Pearce, Linda L; Peterson, Jim

    2011-07-18

    Sodium nitrite alone is shown to ameliorate sublethal cyanide toxicity in mice when given from ∼1 h before until 20 min after the toxic dose as demonstrated by the recovery of righting ability. An optimum dose (12 mg/kg) was determined to significantly relieve cyanide toxicity (5.0 mg/kg) when administered to mice intraperitoneally. Nitrite so administered was shown to rapidly produce NO in the bloodsteam as judged by the dose-dependent appearance of EPR signals attributable to nitrosylhemoglobin and methemoglobin. It is argued that antagonism of cyanide inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase by NO is the crucial antidotal activity rather than the methemoglobin-forming action of nitrite. Concomitant addition of sodium thiosulfate to nitrite-treated blood resulted in the detection of sulfidomethemoblobin by EPR spectroscopy. Sulfide is a product of thiosulfate hydrolysis and, like cyanide, is known to be a potent inhibitor of cytochrome c oxidase, the effects of the two inhibitors being essentially additive under standard assay conditions rather than dominated by either one. The findings afford a plausible explanation for an observed detrimental effect in mice associated with the use of the standard nitrite-thiosulfate combination therapy at sublethal levels of cyanide intoxication. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  9. Bioanalytical Method to Determine the Effects of Cyanide, Cyanide Metabolites and Cyanide Antidotes on the Activity of Cytochrome C Oxidase Immobilized in an Electrode Supported Lipid Bilayer Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    cytochrome oxidase and its effect on glycolysis and on the high energy phosphorus compounds in the brain. J. Biol. Chem. 1946, 164, 45-51. 39...M.; Chen, K. K., Hydroxocobalamine and acute cyanide poisoning in dogs . Life Sci. 1965, 4, 1785-1789. 49. Way, J. L., Cyanide intoxication and its

  10. Revisión de la toxicocinética y la toxicodinamia del ácido cianhídrico y los cianuros Review of toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of cyanides and hydrogen cyanide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia N. Quiroga

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El cianuro es uno de los tóxicos más peligrosos por su rápida y potente acción, muchas veces letal. Los diferentes tratamientos de la intoxicación tienen su base o explicación en el conocimiento de la toxicocinética y la toxicodinamia. La revisión de la toxicocinética del cianuro muestra que, si bien la vía de la tiosulfato-cianuro sulfotransferasa (rodanasa es la principal vía metabólica, el complejo con albúmina sérica sería el primer proceso de detoxificación del cianuro en el metabolismo normal. El efecto protector de formadores de cianhidrinas en casos de intoxicación sigue siendo evaluado a nivel experimental. Los estudios actuales sobre la toxicodinamia del cianuro se enfocan en la afinidad de la unión del cianuro al centro binuclear hemo a3-CuB de la citocromo oxidasa en sus diferentes estados redox y en el mecanismo de inhibición de enzimas antioxidantes. Un mayor y mejor entendimiento de la detoxificación del cianuro así como de los mecanismos de acción tóxica podrían llevar al desarrollo de potenciales antídotos.Cyanide is one of the most dangerous poisons because of its rapid and potent toxicity, most times with lethal outcomes. Different poisoning treatments are based on knowledge of cyanide's toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic. The review of cyanide's toxicokinetics shows that, although thiosulfate-cyanide sulfotransferase (rhodanese is the major metabolic pathway, binding serum albumin would be the first process of detoxification of cyanide in normal metabolism. The protective effect of cyanohydrin formers in cases of poisoning remains experimentally evaluated. Cyanide's binding affinity to the binuclear center heme a3-CuB of cytochrome oxidase within their different redox states and cyanide's mechanism of inhibition of antioxidant enzymes are currently still being investigated. More and better understanding of cyanide's detoxification pathways and/or mechanisms of toxic action could lead to the development

  11. The metabolic effects of fatal cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B. M.; Coles, N.; Lewis, P.; Braithwaite, R. A.; Nattrass, M.; FitzGerald, M. G.

    1989-01-01

    Metabolic and toxicological data were obtained during the first 24 hours following severe and eventually fatal cyanide poisoning. Initial blood cyanide concentrations were 804 mumol/l but fell rapidly over 24 hours following cobalt edetate therapy to 15 mumol/l. However, plasma thiocyanate concentrations rose over 24 hours (147-267 mumol/l) suggesting continued tissue detoxification. The major metabolic abnormality was lactic acidosis (initial pH 7.21, blood lactate 17.5 mmol/l) which corrected over 12 hours. Despite high circulating insulin concentrations the responses of blood glucose, plasma non-esterified fatty acid, blood glycerol and 3-hydroxybutyrate suggested marked insulin resistance. PMID:2616434

  12. Insecticide mixtures could enhance the toxicity of insecticides in a resistant dairy population of Musca domestica L [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan

    Full Text Available House flies, Musca domestica L., are important pests of dairy operations worldwide, with the ability to adapt wide range of environmental conditions. There are a number of insecticides used for their management, but development of resistance is a serious problem. Insecticide mixtures could enhance the toxicity of insecticides in resistant insect pests, thus resulting as a potential resistance management tool. The toxicity of bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos, profenofos, emamectin benzoate and fipronil were assessed separately, and in mixtures against house flies. A field-collected population was significantly resistant to all the insecticides under investigation when compared with a laboratory susceptible strain. Most of the insecticide mixtures like one pyrethroid with other compounds evaluated under two conditions (1∶1-"A" and LC50: LC50-"B" significantly increased the toxicity of pyrethroids in the field population. Under both conditions, the combination indices of pyrethroids with other compounds, in most of the cases, were significantly below 1, suggesting synergism. The enzyme inhibitors, PBO and DEF, when used in combination with insecticides against the resistant population, toxicities of bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and emamectin were significantly increased, suggesting esterase and monooxygenase based resistance mechanism. The toxicities of bifenthrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin in the resistant population of house flies could be enhanced by the combination with chlorpyrifos, profenofos, emamectin and fipronil. The findings of the present study might have practical significance for resistance management in house flies.

  13. The protein transportation pathway from Golgi to vacuoles via endosomes plays a role in enhancement of methylmercury toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Gi-Wook; Murai, Yasutaka; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Naganuma, Akira

    2014-07-01

    Methylmercury causes serious damage to the central nervous system, but the molecular mechanisms of methylmercury toxicity are only marginally understood. In this study, we used a gene-deletion mutant library of budding yeast to conduct genome-wide screening for gene knockouts affecting the sensitivity of methylmercury toxicity. We successfully identified 31 genes whose deletions confer resistance to methylmercury in yeast, and 18 genes whose deletions confer hypersensitivity to methylmercury. Yeast genes whose deletions conferred resistance to methylmercury included many gene encoding factors involved in protein transport to vacuoles. Detailed examination of the relationship between the factors involved in this transport system and methylmercury toxicity revealed that mutants with loss of the factors involved in the transportation pathway from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the endosome, protein uptake into the endosome, and endosome-vacuole fusion showed higher methylmercury resistance than did wild-type yeast. The results of our genetic engineering study suggest that this vesicle transport system (proteins moving from the TGN to vacuole via endosome) is responsible for enhancing methylmercury toxicity due to the interrelationship between the pathways. There is a possibility that there may be proteins in the cell that enhance methylmercury toxicity through the protein transport system.

  14. The protein transportation pathway from Golgi to vacuoles via endosomes plays a role in enhancement of methylmercury toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Gi-Wook; Murai, Yasutaka; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Naganuma, Akira

    2014-07-30

    Methylmercury causes serious damage to the central nervous system, but the molecular mechanisms of methylmercury toxicity are only marginally understood. In this study, we used a gene-deletion mutant library of budding yeast to conduct genome-wide screening for gene knockouts affecting the sensitivity of methylmercury toxicity. We successfully identified 31 genes whose deletions confer resistance to methylmercury in yeast, and 18 genes whose deletions confer hypersensitivity to methylmercury. Yeast genes whose deletions conferred resistance to methylmercury included many gene encoding factors involved in protein transport to vacuoles. Detailed examination of the relationship between the factors involved in this transport system and methylmercury toxicity revealed that mutants with loss of the factors involved in the transportation pathway from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the endosome, protein uptake into the endosome, and endosome-vacuole fusion showed higher methylmercury resistance than did wild-type yeast. The results of our genetic engineering study suggest that this vesicle transport system (proteins moving from the TGN to vacuole via endosome) is responsible for enhancing methylmercury toxicity due to the interrelationship between the pathways. There is a possibility that there may be proteins in the cell that enhance methylmercury toxicity through the protein transport system.

  15. Insecticide Mixtures Could Enhance the Toxicity of Insecticides in a Resistant Dairy Population of Musca domestica L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Lee, Jong-Jin

    2013-01-01

    House flies, Musca domestica L., are important pests of dairy operations worldwide, with the ability to adapt wide range of environmental conditions. There are a number of insecticides used for their management, but development of resistance is a serious problem. Insecticide mixtures could enhance the toxicity of insecticides in resistant insect pests, thus resulting as a potential resistance management tool. The toxicity of bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos, profenofos, emamectin benzoate and fipronil were assessed separately, and in mixtures against house flies. A field-collected population was significantly resistant to all the insecticides under investigation when compared with a laboratory susceptible strain. Most of the insecticide mixtures like one pyrethroid with other compounds evaluated under two conditions (1∶1-“A” and LC50: LC50-“B”) significantly increased the toxicity of pyrethroids in the field population. Under both conditions, the combination indices of pyrethroids with other compounds, in most of the cases, were significantly below 1, suggesting synergism. The enzyme inhibitors, PBO and DEF, when used in combination with insecticides against the resistant population, toxicities of bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and emamectin were significantly increased, suggesting esterase and monooxygenase based resistance mechanism. The toxicities of bifenthrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin in the resistant population of house flies could be enhanced by the combination with chlorpyrifos, profenofos, emamectin and fipronil. The findings of the present study might have practical significance for resistance management in house flies. PMID:23613758

  16. Hydroxocobalamin for severe acute cyanide poisoning by ingestion or inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frédéric J; Mégarbane, Bruno; Bismuth, Chantal

    2007-06-01

    This chart review was undertaken to assess efficacy and safety of hydroxocobalamin for acute cyanide poisoning. Hospital records of the Fernand Widal and Lariboisière Hospitals were reviewed for intensive care unit admissions with cyanide poisoning for which hydroxocobalamin was used as first-line treatment from 1988 to 2003. Smoke inhalation cases were excluded. Hydroxocobalamin (5-20 g) was administered to 14 consecutive patients beginning a median 2.1 hours after cyanide ingestion or inhalation. Ten patients (71%) survived and were discharged. Of the 11 patients with blood cyanide exceeding the typically lethal threshold of 100 micromol/L, 7 survived. The most common hydroxocobalamin-attributed adverse events were chromaturia and pink skin discoloration. Severe cyanide poisoning of the nature observed in most patients in this study is frequently fatal. That 71% of patients survived after treatment with hydroxocobalamin suggests that hydroxocobalamin as first-line antidotal therapy is effective and safe in acute cyanide poisoning.

  17. Survival of fish upon removal of cyanide from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gacsi, Mariann; Czegeny, Ildiko; Nagy, Gabor; Banfalvi, Gaspar

    2005-01-01

    The effects of potassium cyanide and the removal of cyanide from water in vivo on the survival of fish were investigated. This research was initiated because of the catastrophe that took place at the end of January 2000 in the Carpathian basin, when an enormous amount of cyanide pollution swept through the Samos and Tisza rivers, and then to the Danube. Since nothing was done against the disaster, we have suggested a chemical solution to remove cyanide from waterways (Chem. Innovat. 30 (2000b) 53). Based on experiments, we describe that the most effective and harmless way to remove cyanide and to save the lives of fish from 40 to 160x the lethal doses of cyanide is to use carbogen gas containing 5% carbon dioxide and 95% oxygen followed by aeration with air

  18. Examination of Treatment Methods for Cyanide Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-15

    Treatment Ozonation and Electrolysis ", Metal Finishing, Metals and Plastics Publications, Inc., Hackensack, N.J., February 1958, pp. 71 - 74. 80. Serota, L...and Caldwell, M.R., "Destruction of Cyanide Copper Solutions by Hot Electrolysis ", Plating, American Electroplaters Society, Inc., East Orange, N.J...volume of 2,200 gallons. Salt was stored in a brine tank in liquid form and injected into the system. No caustic was necessary since the system is

  19. SYNTHESES AND CHARACTERIZATIONS OF THE CYANIDE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    suggest that the Ni(II) ion is four coordinate with four cyanide-carbon atoms in a square planar geometry, whereas the Cu(II) and the Zn(II) ions of the Cu–Ni–etim and the Zn–Ni–etim complexes are completed by nitrogen atoms of two cyano groups of [Ni(CN)4]2- coordinated to the adjacent M(II) ions and three nitrogen ...

  20. Yam bean seed poisoning mimicking cyanide intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Y-M; Hung, S-Y; Olson, K R; Chou, K-J; Lin, S-L; Chung, H-M; Tung, C-N; Chang, J-C

    2007-02-01

    Yam bean is a common food in southern Taiwan. However, its seeds are rarely consumed. We describe five patients of yam bean seed poisoning in Taiwan, one of them life-threatening. The five patients presented with perioral numbness, nausea and vomiting after eating a same soup made from yam bean seeds. One of them, a 54-year-old woman, had difficulty breathing and lost consciousness. Physical examination showed dilated pupils and coma with no focal neurological signs. The initial blood pressure was normal. Laboratory data showed a severe anion gap metabolic acidosis, with a serum lactate level of 185 mg/dL. An initial diagnosis of cyanide intoxication was considered and she was given sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate i.v. Hypotension ensued shortly afterwards and pulmonary artery catheterization showed a decreased cardiac index. Aggressive fluid and inotropic therapy were given and the patient eventually recovered. The other four patients suffered only minor gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms and received supportive treatment. Cyanide levels were negative in all five patients. Yam bean seed poisoning can cause acute metabolic acidosis and altered mental status, which could be confused with acute cyanide intoxication from a cyanogenic glycoside-containing plant. To our knowledge, this is the first outbreak of yam bean seed poisoning reported in the English published work.

  1. Metabolism of allylnitrile to cyanide: in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, M Y; Ybarra, B; Piper, J

    1993-09-01

    In liver fractions from male Sprague-Dawley rats, the metabolism of allylnitrile (ALN) to cyanide (CN-) was localized in the microsomal fraction and required NADPH and oxygen for maximal activity. The biotransformation of ALN to CN- was characterized with respect to time, microsomal protein concentration, pH and temperature. Metabolism of ALN was increased in microsomes obtained from phenobarbital-treated rats (160% of control) and decreased with cobaltous chloride and beta-diethyl aminoethyl-2,2-diphenyl pentanoate (SKF 525-A) treatments (48% of control). Addition of SKF 525-A to the incubation mixtures inhibited ALN metabolism to CN-. Addition of the epoxide hydrolase inhibitor, 1,1,1-trichloropropane 2,3-oxide, decreased the formation of CN- from ALN. Addition of glutathione, cysteine, D-penicillamine, and 2-mercaptoethanol enhanced the release of CN- from ALN. These findings indicate that ALN is metabolized to CN- via a cytochrome P-450-dependent mixed-function oxidase system.

  2. Hydrogen Cyanide Related Deaths and Detection in the Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Borron SW, Baud FJ, Barriot P, Imbert M, Bismuth C. 2007. Prospective study of hydroxocobalamin for acute cyanide poisoning in smoke inhalation...AUG 2015 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hydrogen cyanide related deaths and detection in the blood 5a...Stamyr K, Thelander G, Ernstgard L, Ahlner J, Johanson G. Swedish forensic data 1992–2009 suggest hydrogen cyanide as an impor- tant cause of death in

  3. Development and Efficacy Testing of Next Generation Cyanide Antidotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    LC-MS/MS Analysis of 2-Aminothiazoline-4-Carboxylic Acid as a Forensic Biomarker for Cyanide Poisoning . Journal of World Methodology, 26, 2(5),1-7...Generation Cyanide Antidotes PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ilona Petrikovics, Ph.D...Testing of Next Generation Cyanide Antidotes 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-2-0126 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Ilona

  4. High Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis after a Suicide Attempt with Cyanide: The Rebirth of Cyanide Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Po-Jen; Chang, Che-Fu; Chiu, Chih-Chien; Chan, Jenq-Shyong; Chiang, Wen-Fang; Wu, Chia-Chao; Lin, Shih-Hua; Chen, Jin-Shuen

    2015-01-01

    A 33-year-old woman was admitted to our emergency department in a state of unconsciousness after attempting suicide with unknown substances. Severe metabolic acidosis (pH: 6.81), with a high anion gap (36.2) and high lactate level (20.2 mmol/L), was observed. After four hours of intensive medical treatment, the patient regained consciousness, with a return of the arterial pH to 7.42. Finally, cyanide intoxication was diagnosed based on the detection of a serum cyanide level of 3.5 mg/L. The presence of a high anion gap associated with severe lactic acidosis is a clue for making a rapid differential diagnosis of acute cyanide intoxication. Providing intensive and immediate supportive management is also crucial, even in cases without obtainable specific antidotes.

  5. Cyanide metallocenes of trivalent f-elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maynadie, J.; Berthet, J.C.; Thuery, P.; Ephritikhine, M.

    2007-01-01

    Addition of N n Bu 4 CN to (C 5 Me 5 ) 2 UI(py), (C 5 Me 5 ) 2 CeI, or (C 5 Me 5 ) 2 M(OTf) (M = U, Ce) in acetonitrile led to the precipitation of the neutral mono-cyanide species [(C 5 Me 5 ) 2 M(μ-CN)] n [M = U (1), Ce (2)], which likely have an oligomeric structure, as shown by the tri-meric cyanide-bridged complex [(C 5 Me 5 ) 2 Ce(μ-CN)(CN t Bu)] 3 (3) obtained by addition of excess t BuNC into a suspension of 2 in acetonitrile. The structure of the U(III,IV) mixed valence compound [{(C 5 Me 5 ) 2 U} 2 (μ-CN){(μ-CN) 2 Na(thf)} 2 ] ∞ (4), which crystallized from a thf solution of (C 5 Me 5 ) 2 UI(py) in the presence of excess NaCN, reveals a unique example of an f-element-(μ-CN)-M interaction (M = main group or d transition metal). The anionic poly-cyanides [(C 5 Me 5 ) 2 M(CN) 3 ][N n Bu 4 ] 2 [M = U (5), Ce (6)] were synthesized by treatment of 1 and 2 with 2 equiv or an excess of N n Bu 4 CN in acetonitrile; they were also prepared in a one-pot procedure by stepwise addition of 1 equiv of KCN and 2 equiv of N n Bu 4 CN to the parent iodides in acetonitrile. The bent metallocenes 5 and 6 are unique low-valent molecular poly-cyanide compounds of an f-element that have been structurally identified, while 5 is the first fully characterized actinide(III) cyanide. Comparison of the crystal structures of 5 and 6 shows that the M-C(C 5 Me 5 ) and M-C(CN) distances are 0.02-0.03 Angstroms shorter for M = U than for M Ce, while the ionic radius of uranium(III) is 0.02 Angstroms larger than that of cerium(III). (authors)

  6. Enhanced toxicity of aerosol in fog conditions in the Po Valley, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decesari, Stefano; Sowlat, Mohammad Hossein; Hasheminassab, Sina; Sandrini, Silvia; Gilardoni, Stefania; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Fuzzi, Sandro; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2017-06-01

    While numerous studies have demonstrated the association between outdoor exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects, the actual chemical species responsible for PM toxicological properties remain a subject of investigation. We provide here reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity data for PM samples collected at a rural site in the Po Valley, Italy, during the fog season (i.e., November-March). We show that the intrinsic ROS activity of Po Valley PM, which is mainly composed of biomass burning and secondary aerosols, is comparable to that of traffic-related particles in urban areas. The airborne concentration of PM components responsible for the ROS activity decreases in fog conditions, when water-soluble species are scavenged within the droplets. Due to this partitioning effect of fog, the measured ROS activity of fog water was contributed mainly by water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and secondary inorganic ions rather than by transition metals. We found that the intrinsic ROS activity of fog droplets is even greater (> 2.5 times) than that of the PM on which droplets are formed, indicating that redox-active compounds are not only scavenged from the particulate phase, but are also produced within the droplets. Therefore, even if fog formation exerts a scavenging effect on PM mass and redox-active compounds, the aqueous-phase formation of reactive secondary organic compounds can eventually enhance ROS activity of PM when fog evaporates. These findings, based on a case study during a field campaign in November 2015, indicate that a significant portion of airborne toxicity in the Po Valley is largely produced by environmental conditions (fog formation and fog processing) and not simply by the emission and transport of pollutants.

  7. Enhanced toxicity of aerosol in fog conditions in the Po Valley, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Decesari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available While numerous studies have demonstrated the association between outdoor exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM and adverse health effects, the actual chemical species responsible for PM toxicological properties remain a subject of investigation. We provide here reactive oxygen species (ROS activity data for PM samples collected at a rural site in the Po Valley, Italy, during the fog season (i.e., November–March. We show that the intrinsic ROS activity of Po Valley PM, which is mainly composed of biomass burning and secondary aerosols, is comparable to that of traffic-related particles in urban areas. The airborne concentration of PM components responsible for the ROS activity decreases in fog conditions, when water-soluble species are scavenged within the droplets. Due to this partitioning effect of fog, the measured ROS activity of fog water was contributed mainly by water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC and secondary inorganic ions rather than by transition metals. We found that the intrinsic ROS activity of fog droplets is even greater (> 2.5 times than that of the PM on which droplets are formed, indicating that redox-active compounds are not only scavenged from the particulate phase, but are also produced within the droplets. Therefore, even if fog formation exerts a scavenging effect on PM mass and redox-active compounds, the aqueous-phase formation of reactive secondary organic compounds can eventually enhance ROS activity of PM when fog evaporates. These findings, based on a case study during a field campaign in November 2015, indicate that a significant portion of airborne toxicity in the Po Valley is largely produced by environmental conditions (fog formation and fog processing and not simply by the emission and transport of pollutants.

  8. TBT toxicity on a natural planktonic assemblage exposed to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargian, Peggy; Pelletier, Emilien; Mostajir, Behzad; Ferreyra, Gustavo A; Demers, Serge

    2005-07-01

    A microcosm approach was designed to study the combined effects of tributyltin (TBT) from antifouling paints and ultraviolet-B radiation (UVBR: 280-320 nm), on a natural planktonic assemblage (TBT (120 ng l -1) and enhanced UVBR (giving a biologically weighted UVBR 2.15-fold higher than natural light condition) were monitored in the samples coming from following treatments: (i) NUVBR light condition without TBT (NUVBR), (ii) NUVBR light condition with TBT-added (NUVBR+TBT), (iii) HUVBR light condition without TBT (HUVBR) and (iv) HUVBR light condition with TBT-added (HUVBR+TBT). Each treatment was conducted in triplicate microcosms. Different parameters were then measured during 5 days, including TBT analysis, bacterial abundance and productivity, phytoplankton abundance, cellular characteristics and growth rates, as well as in vivo chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence. Following TBT addition (NUVBR+TBT treatment), Chl a concentrations never exceeded 1 microg l-1 whereas final values as high as 54 microg l-1 were observed in TBT-free treatments (NUVBR and HUVBR). TBT addition resulted also in the lost of fluorescence signal of the maximum efficiency of the photosystem II in phytoplankton assemblage. TBT toxicity caused on phytoplankton TBT resulted in a final abundance of phytoplankton TBT relative to NUVBR treatment (i.e., 31,846+/-312 cells ml-1). Moreover, when cells were submitted to TBT under enhanced UVBR (HUVBR+TBT treatment), final abundance of phytoplankton TBT and UVBR during the last 2 days of the experiment. The same type of interaction was also observed for bacterial abundance in NUVBR+TBT and HUVBR+TBT with stimulation of 226 and of 403%, respectively due to TBT addition relative to NUVBR treatment. When considering bacterial productivity, TBT addition resulted in an inhibition of 32%, and this inhibition was significantly more pronounced under dual stresses (i.e., 77% in HUVBR+TBT). These results clearly demonstrate that the combination of TBT and UVBR

  9. TBT toxicity on a natural planktonic assemblage exposed to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargian, Peggy; Pelletier, Emilien; Mostajir, Behzad; Ferreyra, Gustavo A.; Demers, Serge

    2005-01-01

    A microcosm approach was designed to study the combined effects of tributyltin (TBT) from antifouling paints and ultraviolet-B radiation (UVBR: 280-320 nm), on a natural planktonic assemblage ( -1 ) and enhanced UVBR (giving a biologically weighted UVBR 2.15-fold higher than natural light condition) were monitored in the samples coming from following treatments: (i) NUVBR light condition without TBT (NUVBR) (ii) NUVBR light condition with TBT-added (NUVBR + TBT) (iii) HUVBR light condition without TBT (HUVBR) and (iv) HUVBR light condition with TBT-added (HUVBR + TBT). Each treatment was conducted in triplicate microcosms. Different parameters were then measured during 5 days, including TBT analysis, bacterial abundance and productivity, phytoplankton abundance, cellular characteristics and growth rates, as well as in vivo chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence. Following TBT addition (NUVBR + TBT treatment), Chl a concentrations never exceeded 1 μg l -1 whereas final values as high as 54 μg l -1 were observed in TBT-free treatments (NUVBR and HUVBR). TBT addition resulted also in the lost of fluorescence signal of the maximum efficiency of the photosystem II in phytoplankton assemblage. TBT toxicity caused on phytoplankton -1 in NUVBR + TBT relative to NUVBR treatment (i.e., 31,846 ± 312 cells ml -1 ). Moreover, when cells were submitted to TBT under enhanced UVBR (HUVBR + TBT treatment), final abundance of phytoplankton -1 , with a significant interaction between TBT and UVBR during the last 2 days of the experiment. The same type of interaction was also observed for bacterial abundance in NUVBR + TBT and HUVBR + TBT with stimulation of 226 and of 403%, respectively due to TBT addition relative to NUVBR treatment. When considering bacterial productivity, TBT addition resulted in an inhibition of 32%, and this inhibition was significantly more pronounced under dual stresses (i.e., 77% in HUVBR + TBT). These results clearly demonstrate that the combination of TBT

  10. Increased β-cyanoalanine nitrilase activity improves cyanide tolerance and assimilation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Brendan; Preston, Gail M; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2014-01-01

    Plants naturally produce cyanide (CN) which is maintained at low levels in their cells by a process of rapid assimilation. However, high concentrations of environmental CN associated with activities such as industrial pollution are toxic to plants. There is thus an interest in increasing the CN detoxification capacity of plants as a potential route to phytoremediation. Here, Arabidopsis seedlings overexpressing the Pseudomonas fluorescens β-cyanoalanine nitrilase pinA were compared with wild-type and a β-cyanoalanine nitrilase knockout line (ΔAtnit4) for growth in the presence of exogenous CN. After incubation with CN, +PfpinA seedlings had increased root length, increased fresh weight, and decreased leaf bleaching compared with wild-type, indicating increased CN tolerance. The increased tolerance was achieved without an increase in β-cyanoalanine synthase activity, the other enzyme in the cyanide assimilation pathway, suggesting that nitrilase activity is the limiting factor for cyanide detoxification. Labeling experiments with [¹³C]KCN demonstrated that the altered CN tolerance could be explained by differences in flux from CN to Asn caused by altered β-cyanoalanine nitrilase activity. Metabolite profiling after CN treatment provided new insight into downstream metabolism, revealing onward metabolism of Asn by the photorespiratory nitrogen cycle and accumulation of aromatic amino acids.

  11. Evaluation of different toxicity assays applied to proliferating cells and to stratified epithelium in relation to permeability enhancement with glycocholate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eirheim, Heidi Ugelstad; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate different toxicity assays for use on proliferating buccal TR146 cells and on stratified TR146 epithelium and to compare these results to the permeability enhancing effect of glycocholate (GC). Both the proliferating cells and the epithelium were...... across the epithelium concurrent with a decrease in the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was also determined. The robustness of the epithelium was significantly higher than that of the proliferating cells (P...

  12. Histomorphometric studies on the effect of cyanide consumption of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The density and size of the Purkinje cells were the same in both the control and experimental groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: Maternal consumption of 500 ppm cyanide in rats does not significantly affect light microscopic prenatal cerebellar development, but causes mild changes in the post-natal life. Maternal cyanide ...

  13. A Biosensor for the Determination of Cyanide in Cassava | Jasper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple biosensor for the determination of total cyanide in cassava is demonstrated. The biosensor was developed based on the use of a cyanide ion selective electrode made from AgI and Ag2S and the enzyme linamarase which was isolated from cassava root cortex. Results are reported on a sensing system which ...

  14. Simple picrate method for the determination of cyanide in cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The red coloured complex on the strips was extracted with 50% ethanol solution and the absorbance of the extract was measured at 510nm using a spectrophotometer. The method was reproducible and cyanide as low as 1 microgram could be determined. Cyanide levels of all the cassava varieties tested were higher than ...

  15. Determination of the Concentration of Total Cyanide in Waste Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    compound that can be determined as the cyanide ion,. CN- . Many chemical forms of ... used when dealing with HCN include titration of cyanides with silver nitrate , spectrophotometry methods, ion-selective electrodes, ion chromatography (Bradbury et al., 2009) etc. .... glycosides: a case study for evolution and application.

  16. Study of Chlorination Application in Tapioca Wastewater Cyanide Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Happy Mulyani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tapioca wastewater contains a high concentration of organic matter and cyanide. Chlorination has known as one of alternative cyanide removal methods. The fact that must be an attention is carcinogenic compound such as Tri Halo Methane could be produced as byproduct chlorination of organic waste. This research aimed to determine condition of chlorination application in tapioca wastewater cyanide removal especially calcium hypochlorite dosage and pH thus meeting the criteria of the quality standard of waste and Tri Halo Methane identification. Efluent of chlorination using calcium hypochlorite dosage based on stoichiometry reaction between chlor and cyanide (mole ratio chlor:cyanide = 1:1 which carried out at pH operation 8 for 60 minutes has observed for cyanide content and Tri Halo Methane identification. Other variation of calcium hypochlorite dosage applied until meet the standart quality or lower cyanide content of effluent with no Tri Halo Methane detected. pH optimum determined from comparation of quality effluent of chlorination using calcium hypochlorite optimum dosage with variation pH operation 6, 7, 8. The results showed that the optimum condition for chlorination application in tapioca wastewater removal was 5,986 mg/L for calcium hypochlorite dosage (1,75 stoichiometry reaction and 8 for pH operation. This chlorination condition able to reduce cyanide of 192 mg/L to 0,272 mg/L wuth no Tri Halo Methane detected in the effluent.

  17. Cyanide and migratory birds at gold mines in Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Hallock, R.J.; Hill, E.F.

    1994-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, cyanide in heap leach solutions and mill tailings ponds at gold mines in Nevada has killed a large but incompletely documented number of wildlife ( gt 9,500 individuals, primarily migratory birds). This field investigation documents the availability of cyanide at a variety of 'typical' Nevada gold mines during 1990 and 1991, describes wildlife reactions to cyanide solutions, and discusses procedures for eliminating wildlife loss from cyanide poisoning. Substantial progress has been made to reduce wildlife loss. About half of the mill tailings ponds (some up to 150 ha) in Nevada have been chemically treated to reduce cyanide concentrations (the number needing treatment is uncertain) and many of the smaller heap leach solution ponds and channels are now covered with netting to exclude birds and most mammals. The discovery of a cyanide gradient in mill tailings ponds (concentration usually 2-3 times higher at the inflow point than at reclaim point) provides new insight into wildlife responses (mortality) observed in different portions of the ponds. Finding dead birds on the tops of ore heaps and associated with solution puddling is a new problem, but management procedures for eliminating this source of mortality are available. A safe threshold concentration of cyanide to eliminate wildlife loss could not be determined from the field data and initial laboratory studies. New analytical methods may be required to assess further the wildlife hazard of cyanide in mining solutions.

  18. Biological removal of cyanide compounds from electroplating wastewater (EPWW) by sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud; Chairattanawan, Kanidta; Rarunroeng, Methinee

    2008-01-01

    Biological treatment system especially, sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system could not be applied to treat the raw electroplating wastewater (EPWW) due to the low organic matter concentration of 10 ± 3 mg-BOD 5 /L and toxic of high cyanide concentration of 23.0 ± 2.2 mg-CN/L. However, EPWW could be used as the nitrogen source for the bio-sludge of SBR system. And 10% of EPWW (the final cyanide concentration of 2.3 ± 0.2 mg/L) was most suitable to supplement into the wastewater as the nitrogen source. SBR system showed the highest COD, BOD 5 , TKN and cyanide removal efficiencies of 79 ± 2%, 85 ± 3%, 49.0 ± 2.1% and 97.7 ± 0.7%, respectively with 4-times diluted Thai-rice noodle wastewater (TRNWW) containing 10% EPWW and 138 mg/L NH 4 Cl (BOD 5 : TN of 100:10) at SRT of 72 ± 13 days (under organic and cyanide loadings of 0.40 kg-BOD 5 /m 3 d and 0.0023 kg-CN/m 3 d, respectively). However, the effluent ammonia was still high of 22.6 ± 0.4 mg-N/L while the effluent nitrate and nitrite was only 9.9 ± 0.4 and 1.2 ± 0.9 mg-N/L, respectively. And SVI and effluent SS of the system were higher than 95 and 75 mg/L, respectively

  19. Supramolecular ferric porphyrins and a cyclodextrin dimer as antidotes for cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagiwa, T; Kawaguchi, A T; Saito, T; Inoue, S; Morita, S; Watanabe, K; Kitagishi, H; Koji, K; Inokuchi, S

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the antidotal effect of a newly developed supramolecular complex, ferric porphyrins and a cyclodextrin dimer (Fe(III)PIm3CD), that possess a higher binding constant and quicker binding rate to cyanide ions than those of hydroxocobalamin (OHCbl) in the presence of serum protein. First, in vitro cytochrome activity and cell viability were evaluated in murine fibroblast cells cultured with various doses of Fe(III)PIm3CD and potassium cyanide (KCN). Next, BALB/c mice were pretreated with intravenous OHCbl (0.23 mmol/kg), Fe(III)PIm3CD (0.23 mmol/kg), or saline and then received KCN (lethal dose 100% (LD100): 0.23 mmol/kg) through a stomach tube. Finally, as a resuscitation model, KCN-induced apnea was treated with a bolus injection of an equimolar dose of antidotes followed by a slow infusion of the same reagent. Fe(III)PIm3CD showed dose-dependent antidotal effects in vitro. Pretreatment with Fe(III) PIm3CD prevented KCN-induced apnea significantly better than OHCbl. Resuscitation with Fe(III)PIm3CD resulted in an earlier resumption of respiration than that seen with OHCbl. However, 24-h survival was similar among the treatments (Fe(III)PIm3CD, nine of nine mice; OHCbl, eight of nine mice). Fe(III)PIm3CD exerted significant antidotal effects on cyanide toxicity in vitro and in vivo, with a potency equal in the mortality of cyanide-poisoned mice or superior in the respiratory status during an acute phase to those of OHCbl.

  20. Classification tree methods for development of decision rules for botulism and cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasser, Howell; Nussbaum, Marcy; Beuhler, Michael; Ford, Marsha

    2008-06-01

    Identification of predictors of potential mass poisonings may increase the speed and accuracy with which patients are recognized, potentially reducing the number ultimately exposed and the degree to which they are affected. This analysis used a decision-tree method to sort such potential predictors. Data from the Toxic Exposure Surveillance System were used to select cyanide and botulism cases from 1993 to 2005 for analysis. Cases of other poisonings from a single poison center were used as controls. After duplication was omitted and removal of cases from the control sample was completed, there remained 1,122 cyanide cases, 262 botulism cases, and 70,804 controls available for both analyses. Classification trees for each poisoning type were constructed, using 131 standardized clinical effects. These decision rules were compared with the current case surveillance definitions of one active poison center and the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC). The botulism analysis produced a 4-item decision rule with sensitivity (Se) of 68% and specificity (Sp) of 90%. Use of the single poison center and AAPCC definitions produced Se of 19.5% and 16.8%, and Sp of 99.5% and 83.2%, respectively. The cyanide analysis produced a 9-item decision rule with Se of 74% and Sp of 77%. The single poison center and AAPCC case definitions produced Se of 10.2% and 8.6%, and Sp of 99.8% and 99.8%, respectively. These results suggest the possibility of improved poisoning case surveillance sensitivity using classification trees. This method produced substantially higher sensitivities, but not specificities, for both cyanide and botulism. Despite limitations, these results show the potential of a classification-tree approach in the detection of poisoning events.

  1. Intravenous cobinamide versus hydroxocobalamin for acute treatment of severe cyanide poisoning in a swine (Sus scrofa) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Tanen, David A; Boudreau, Susan; Castaneda, Maria; Zarzabal, Lee A; Vargas, Toni; Boss, Gerry R

    2014-12-01

    Hydroxocobalamin is a Food and Drug Administration-approved antidote for cyanide poisoning. Cobinamide is a potential antidote that contains 2 cyanide-binding sites. To our knowledge, no study has directly compared hydroxocobalamin with cobinamide in a severe, cyanide-toxic large-animal model. Our objective is to compare the time to return of spontaneous breathing in swine with acute cyanide-induced apnea treated with intravenous hydroxocobalamin, intravenous cobinamide, or saline solution (control). Thirty-three swine (45 to 55 kg) were intubated, anesthetized, and instrumented (continuous mean arterial pressure and cardiac output monitoring). Anesthesia was adjusted to allow spontaneous breathing with FiO2 of 21% during the experiment. Cyanide was continuously infused intravenously until apnea occurred and lasted for 1 minute (time zero). Animals were then randomly assigned to receive intravenous hydroxocobalamin (65 mg/kg), cobinamide (12.5 mg/kg), or saline solution and monitored for 60 minutes. A sample size of 11 animals per group was selected according to obtaining a power of 80%, an α of .05, and an SD of 0.17 in mean time to detect a 20% difference in time to spontaneous breathing. We assessed differences in time to death among groups, using Kaplan-Meier estimation methods, and compared serum lactate, blood pH, cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, respiratory rate, and minute ventilation time curves with repeated-measures ANOVA. Baseline weights and vital signs were similar among groups. The time to apnea and cyanide dose required to achieve apnea were similar. At time zero, mean cyanide blood and lactate concentrations and reduction in mean arterial pressure from baseline were similar. In the saline solution group, 2 of 11 animals survived compared with 10 of 11 in the hydroxocobalamin and cobinamide groups (Pcyanide concentrations became undetectable at the end of the study in both antidote-treated groups, and no statistically significant differences

  2. Competing hydrostatic compression mechanisms in nickel cyanide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QR (United Kingdom); National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Lucas, T.C. [School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Cairns, A.B.; Funnell, N.P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QR (United Kingdom); Tucker, M.G. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source, Chilton, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Kleppe, A.K. [Diamond Light Source, Chilton, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Hriljac, J.A. [School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Goodwin, A.L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QR (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    We use variable-pressure neutron and X-ray diffraction measurements to determine the uniaxial and bulk compressibilities of nickel(II) cyanide, Ni(CN){sub 2}. Whereas other layered molecular framework materials are known to exhibit negative area compressibility, we find that Ni(CN){sub 2} does not. We attribute this difference to the existence of low-energy in-plane tilt modes that provide a pressure-activated mechanism for layer contraction. The experimental bulk modulus we measure is about four times lower than that reported elsewhere on the basis of density functional theory methods [Phys. Rev. B 83 (2011) 024301].

  3. Caffeine Enhances the Calcium-Dependent Cardiac Mitochondrial Permeability Transition: Relevance for Caffeine Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Sardão, Vilma A.; Oliveira, Paulo J.; Moreno, António J. M.

    2002-01-01

    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine), a compound present in beverages such as tea and coffee, is known to be toxic at high concentrations. Some of the observed clinical conditions include cardiovascular disease and reproductive disorders, among others. The possible toxic effects of caffeine on heart mitochondria are still poorly understood. The influence of caffeine on the mitochondrial permeability transition has not been clarified so far. The objective of this study was to investigate whether...

  4. Coumarin amide derivatives as fluorescence chemosensors for cyanide anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qianqian; Liu, Zhiqiang; Cao, Duxia; Guan, Ruifang; Wang, Kangnan; Shan, Yanyan; Xu, Yongxiao; Ma, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Four coumarin amide derivatives with 4-methyl coumarin or pyrene as terminal group have been synthesized. Their photophysical properties and recognition properties for cyanide anions have been examined. The results indicate that the compounds can recognize cyanide anions with obvious absorption and fluorescence spectra change, at the same time, obvious color and fluorescence change can be observed by naked eye. The in situ hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and photophysical properties change confirm that Michael additions between the chemosensors and cyanide anions take place at the 4-position of coumarin. - Highlights: • Four coumarin amide derivatives with 4-methyl coumarin or pyrene as terminal group were synthesized. • The compounds can recognize cyanide anions with obvious absorption and fluorescence spectra change. • Michael additions between the chemosensors and cyanide anions take place at the 4-position of coumarin

  5. The cyanide poisoning necropsy: an appraisal of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, A. R.; Galloway, J. H.; Slater, D. N.

    1992-01-01

    Blood cyanide concentrations were measured in samples obtained from a pathologist before and after carrying out a necropsy on the body of a victim of cyanide poisoning. There was no significant increase in his blood cyanide concentration after carrying out the procedure. It is suggested that an important factor in determining the risk to those carrying out necropsies of the bodies of victims of cyanide poisoning is the amount of cyanide remaining in the stomach. There are several ways in which the theoretical risk inherent in carrying out such necropsies could be reduced, such as the use of a full face respirator, or the removal, intact, of the upper gastrointestinal tract to a fume cupboard for examination. PMID:1624609

  6. Exogenous glutathione enhances cadmium accumulation and alleviates its toxicity in Populus × canescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shen; Ma, Chaofeng; Shi, Wenguang; Liu, Wenzhe; Lu, Yan; Liu, Qifeng; Luo, Zhi-Bin

    2017-12-01

    Glutathione (GSH) plays an important role in cadmium (Cd) tolerance in woody plants, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. To elucidate the physiological and transcriptional regulation mechanisms of GSH-mediated Cd tolerance in woody plants, we exposed Populus × canescens (Ait.) Smith saplings to either 0 or 75 μM Cd together with one of three external GSH levels. Glutathione treatments include buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, an inhibitor of GSH biosynthesis), no external GSH and exogenous GSH. External GSH resulted in higher Cd2+ uptake rate in the roots, greater Cd amount in poplars, lower Cd-induced H2O2 levels in the roots, and higher contents of endogenous GSH in Cd-treated roots and leaves. Furthermore, external GSH led to upregulated transcript levels of several genes including zinc/iron regulated transporter related protein 6.2 (ZIP6.2) and natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1.3 (NRAMP1.3), which probably take part in Cd uptake, glutathione synthetase 2 (GS2) implicated in Cd detoxification, metal tolerance protein 1 (MTP1) and ATP-binding cassette transporter C3 (ABCC3) involved in Cd vacuolar accumulation in the roots, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (ECS) and phytochelatin synthetase family protein 1 (PCS1) involved in Cd detoxification, and oligopeptide transporter 7 (OPT7) probably implicated in Cd detoxification in the leaves of Cd-exposed P. × canescens. In contrast, BSO often displayed the opposite effects on Cd-triggered physiological and transcriptional regulation responses in poplars. These results suggest that exogenous GSH can enhance Cd accumulation and alleviate its toxicity in poplars. This is probably attributed to external-GSH-induced higher net Cd2+ influx in the roots, greater Cd accumulation in aerial parts, stronger scavenging of reactive oxygen species, and transcriptional overexpression of several genes involved in Cd uptake, detoxification and accumulation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford

  7. The integration of cyanide hydratase and tyrosinase catalysts enables effective degradation of cyanide and phenol in coking wastewaters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martínková, Ludmila; Chmátal, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 102, October (2016), s. 90-95 ISSN 0043-1354 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01021368; GA TA ČR(CZ) TA04021212; GA MŠk(CZ) LD12049 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Cyanide hydratase * Tyrosinase * Cyanide Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 6.942, year: 2016

  8. Aflatoxin Toxicity Reduction in Feed by Enhanced Binding to Surface-Modified Clay Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaynes, William F.; Zartman, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Animal feeding studies have demonstrated that clay additives, such as bentonites, can bind aflatoxins in ingested feed and reduce or eliminate the toxicity. Bentonite deposits are found throughout the world and mostly consist of expandable smectite minerals, such as montmorillonite. The surfaces of smectite minerals can be treated with organic compounds to create surface-modified clays that more readily bind some contaminants than the untreated clay. Montmorillonites treated with organic cations, such as hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) and phenyltrimethylammonium (PTMA), more effectively remove organic contaminants, such as benzene and toluene, from water than untreated clay. Similarly, montmorillonite treated with PTMA (Kd = 24,100) retained more aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) from aqueous corn flour than untreated montmorillonite (Kd = 944). Feed additives that reduced aflatoxin toxicity in animal feeding studies adsorbed more AfB1 from aqueous corn flour than feed additives that were less effective. The organic cations HDTMA and PTMA are considered toxic and would not be suitable for clay additives used in feed or food, but other non-toxic or nutrient compounds can be used to prepare surface-modified clays. Montmorillonite (SWy) treated with choline (Kd = 13,800) and carnitine (Kd = 3960) adsorbed much more AfB1 from aqueous corn flour than the untreated clay (Kd = 944). A choline-treated clay prepared from a reduced-charge, high-charge montmorillonite (Kd = 20,100) adsorbed more AfB1 than the choline-treated high-charge montmorillonite (Kd = 1340) or the untreated montmorillonite (Kd = 293). Surface-modified clay additives prepared using low-charge smectites and nutrient or non-toxic organic compounds might be used to more effectively bind aflatoxins in contaminated feed or food and prevent toxicity. PMID:22069725

  9. Hydroxocobalamin for poisoning caused by ingestion of potassium cyanide: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Jean-Luc; Waroux, Stanislas; Giocanti, J P; Capellier, Gilles; Ruttimann, Michel; Kowalski, Jean-Jacques

    2010-09-01

    Hydroxocobalamin, a precursor of vitamin B12, has a history of use in the prehospital setting in France for cyanide poisoning, particularly that associated with smoke inhalation. Because cyanide poisoning by ingestion is less common than smoke inhalation-associated cyanide poisoning, less information is available on prehospital use of hydroxocobalamin to treat cyanide poisoning by ingestion. This report describes a case of prehospital use of hydroxocobalamin for poisoning by ingestion of cyanide. The case supports the efficacy of hydroxocobalamin for acute cyanide poisoning caused by ingestion of a cyanide salt. No adverse events attributed to hydroxocobalamin were observed. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Diuron sorbed to carbon nanotubes exhibits enhanced toxicity to Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Fabienne; Bucheli, Thomas D; Camenzuli, Louise; Magrez, Arnaud; Knauer, Katja; Sigg, Laura; Nowack, Bernd

    2013-07-02

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are more and more likely to be present in the environment, where they will associate with organic micropollutants due to strong sorption. The toxic effects of these CNT-micropollutant mixtures on aquatic organisms are poorly characterized. Here, we systematically quantified the effects of the herbicide diuron on the photosynthetic activity of the green alga Chlorella vulgaris in presence of different multiwalled CNT (industrial, purified, pristine, and oxidized) or soot. The presence of carbonaceous nanoparticles reduced the adverse effect of diuron maximally by diuron concentrations in the range 0.73-2990 μg/L. However, taking into account the measured dissolved instead of the nominal diuron concentration, the toxic effect of diuron was equal to or stronger in the presence of CNT by a factor of up to 5. Sorbed diuron consequently remained partially bioavailable. The most pronounced increase in toxicity occurred after a 24 h exposure of algae and CNT. All results point to locally elevated exposure concentration (LEEC) in the proximity of algal cells associated with CNT as the cause for the increase in diuron toxicity.

  11. Enhanced resistance to nanoparticle toxicity is conferred by overproduction of extracellular polymeric substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Nimisha; Ngwenya, Bryne T.; French, Christopher E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Demonstration that bacteria engineered for EPS overproduction have better survival against Ag nanotoxicity. ► EPS destabilises Ag nanoparticles and promotes their aggregation. ► TEM demonstration that EPS traps the Ag nanoparticles outside the cell. ► EPS from overexpressing strains offers protection to non-EPS strains of bacteria. ► EPS polymer analogues such as xanthan also produce a similar response. - Abstract: The increasing production and use of engineered nanoparticles, coupled with their demonstrated toxicity to different organisms, demands the development of a systematic understanding of how nanoparticle toxicity depends on important environmental parameters as well as surface properties of both cells and nanomaterials. We demonstrate that production of the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), colanic acid by engineered Escherichia coli protects the bacteria against silver nanoparticle toxicity. Moreover, exogenous addition of EPS to a control strain results in an increase in cell viability, as does the addition of commercial EPS polymer analogue xanthan. Furthermore, we have found that an EPS producing strain of Sinorhizobium meliloti shows higher survival upon exposure to silver nanoparticles than the parent strain. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations showed that EPS traps the nanoparticles outside the cells and reduces the exposed surface area of cells to incoming nanoparticles by inducing cell aggregation. Nanoparticle size characterization in the presence of EPS and xanthan indicated a marked tendency towards aggregation. Both are likely effective mechanisms for reducing nanoparticle toxicity in the natural environment.

  12. Enhanced resistance to nanoparticle toxicity is conferred by overproduction of extracellular polymeric substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Nimisha, E-mail: joshi.nimisha@gmail.com [School of GeoSciences, Microbial Geochemistry Laboratory, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JW (United Kingdom); Ngwenya, Bryne T. [School of GeoSciences, Microbial Geochemistry Laboratory, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JW (United Kingdom); French, Christopher E. [School of Biological Sciences, Institute of Cell Biology, Darwin Building, University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JR (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstration that bacteria engineered for EPS overproduction have better survival against Ag nanotoxicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPS destabilises Ag nanoparticles and promotes their aggregation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TEM demonstration that EPS traps the Ag nanoparticles outside the cell. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPS from overexpressing strains offers protection to non-EPS strains of bacteria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPS polymer analogues such as xanthan also produce a similar response. - Abstract: The increasing production and use of engineered nanoparticles, coupled with their demonstrated toxicity to different organisms, demands the development of a systematic understanding of how nanoparticle toxicity depends on important environmental parameters as well as surface properties of both cells and nanomaterials. We demonstrate that production of the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), colanic acid by engineered Escherichia coli protects the bacteria against silver nanoparticle toxicity. Moreover, exogenous addition of EPS to a control strain results in an increase in cell viability, as does the addition of commercial EPS polymer analogue xanthan. Furthermore, we have found that an EPS producing strain of Sinorhizobium meliloti shows higher survival upon exposure to silver nanoparticles than the parent strain. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations showed that EPS traps the nanoparticles outside the cells and reduces the exposed surface area of cells to incoming nanoparticles by inducing cell aggregation. Nanoparticle size characterization in the presence of EPS and xanthan indicated a marked tendency towards aggregation. Both are likely effective mechanisms for reducing nanoparticle toxicity in the natural environment.

  13. Use of controlled atmospheres to enhance essential oil fumigant toxicity against Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, E.J.; Janmaat, A.F.; Kogel, de W.J.; Oosterhaven, J.; Peppelenbos, H.W.

    2003-01-01

    The fumigant toxicity of selected essential oils was assessed against the Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. Adult females and larvae were exposed to combinations of essential oil doses and increased carbon dioxide and decreased oxygen levels. Application of such combinations were

  14. Enrichment of copper and recycling of cyanide from copper-cyanide waste by solvent extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Teng-yue; Liu, Kui-ren; Han, Qing; Xu, Bin-shi

    2016-11-01

    The enrichment of copper from copper-cyanide wastewater by solvent extraction was investigated using a quaternary ammonium salt as an extractant. The influences of important parameters, e.g., organic-phase components, aqueous pH values, temperature, inorganic anion impurities, CN/Cu molar ratio, and stripping reagents, were examined systematically, and the optimal conditions were determined. The results indicated that copper was effectively concentrated from low-concentration solutions using Aliquat 336 and that the extraction efficiency increased linearly with increasing temperature. The aqueous pH value and concentrations of inorganic anion impurities only weakly affected the extraction process when varied in appropriate ranges. The CN/Cu molar ratio affected the extraction efficiency by changing the distribution of copper-cyanide complexes. The difference in gold leaching efficiency between using raffinate and fresh water was negligible.

  15. A turn-on fluorescent sensor for detection of cyanide in aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shan-Teng; Chir, Jiun-Ly; Jhong, Yi; Wu, An-Tai, E-mail: antai@cc.ncue.edu.tw

    2015-11-15

    2-Hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde oxime (receptor 1) serves as a selective chemosensor for cyanide anion (CN{sup −}). In the presence of CN{sup −}, an enhanced fluorescent intensity and red-shift were observed. The observed complexation between receptor 1 and CN{sup −} may cause by a hydrogen bonding interaction between the OH group of receptor 1 and CN{sup −}. - Highlights: • 2-Hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde oxime serves as a selective chemosensor for CN{sup −}. • In the presence of CN{sup −}, an enhanced fluorescent and red-shift were observed.

  16. Evidence for cyanide and mercury inactivation of endogenous plastocyanin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selman, B.R.; Johnson, G.L.; Giaquinta, R.T.; Dilley, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    Cyanide and mercury treatment of chloroplast membranes inactivates plastocyanin as shown by the inability of the extracted plastocyanin to restore electron transport in a bioassay on chloroplasts depleted of their endogenous plastocyanin by digitonin treatment. The extraction procedure did remove the enzyme from cyanide and mercury treated chloroplasts as shown by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamine electrophoresis of the extracts. This procedure normally shows a plastocyanin band at 11,000 dalton molecular weight and the band was present in extracts from control and cyanide or mercury treated membranes. 22 references, 4 figures.

  17. Toxicity of 56 substances to trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lauge Peter Westergaard; Trapp, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    plants. The willow tree toxicity test uses inhibition of transpiration (aside of growth and water use efficiency) of willow cuttings grown in spiked solutions or soils as end point to quantify toxicity. This overview presents results from 60 studies including 24 new unpublished experiments for 56...... different chemicals or substrates. Highest toxicity (EC50 metals like copper and cadmium. Also, organotins and free cyanide showed very high toxicity. The toxic effect of chlorophenols on willows was comparable to that on duck weed (Lemna) and green algae, while...

  18. Hypersalinity reduces the risk of cyanide toxicosis to insectivorous bats interacting with wastewater impoundments at gold mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Stephen R; Donato, David B; Lumsden, Linda F; Coulson, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife and livestock that ingest bioavailable cyanide compounds in gold mining tailings dams are known to experience cyanide toxicosis. Elevated levels of salinity in open impoundments have been shown to prevent wildlife cyanide toxicosis by reducing drinking and foraging. This finding appears to be consistent for diurnal wildlife interacting with open impoundments, however the risks to nocturnal wildlife of cyanide exposure are unknown. We investigated the activity of insectivorous bats in the airspace above both fresh (potable to wildlife) and saline water bodies at two gold mines in the goldfields of Western Australian. During this study, cyanide-bearing solutions stored in open impoundments at both mine sites were hypersaline (range=57,000-295,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS)), well above known physiological tolerance of any terrestrial vertebrate. Bats used the airspace above each water body monitored, but were more active at fresh than saline water bodies. In addition, considerably more terminal echolocation buzz calls were recorded in the airspace above fresh than saline water bodies at both mine sites. However, it was not possible to determine whether these buzz calls corresponded to foraging or drinking bouts. No drinking bouts were observed in 33 h of thermal video footage recorded at one hypersaline tailings dam, suggesting that this water is not used for drinking. There is no information on salinity tolerances of bats, but it could be assumed that bats would not tolerate salinity in drinking water at concentrations greater than those documented as toxic for saline-adapted terrestrial wildlife. Therefore, when managing wastewater impoundments at gold mines to avoid wildlife mortalities, adopting a precautionary principle, bats are unlikely to drink solutions at salinity levels ≥50,000 mg/L TDS. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Simultaneous oxidation of cyanide and thiocyanate at high pressure and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oulego, Paula; Collado, Sergio; Laca, Adriana; Díaz, Mario, E-mail: mariodiaz@uniovi.es

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The oxidation rate of SCN{sup −} was greatly enhanced by the presence of CN{sup −}. • The degradation of mixtures was significantly affected by temperature and pressure. • A free-radical pathway was proposed, CN{sup −} and CNO{sup −} being the reaction intermediates. • The principal reaction products were found to be HCOO{sup −}, NH{sub 3} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}. • One of the parallel routes gives the found products and the other N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. - Abstract: Thiocyanate and cyanide are important contaminants that frequently appear mixed in industrial effluents. In this work the wet oxidation of mixtures of both compounds, simulating real compositions, was carried out in a semi-batch reactor at temperature between 393 K and 483 K and pressure in the range of 2.0–8.0 MPa. The presence of cyanide (3.85 mM) increased the kinetic constant of thiocyanate degradation by a factor of 1.6, in comparison to the value obtained for the individual degradation of thiocyanate, (5.95 ± 0.05) × 10{sup −5} s{sup −1}. On the other hand, the addition of thiocyanate (0.98 mM) decreased the degradation rate of cyanide by 16%. This revealed the existence of synergistic and inhibitory phenomena between these two species. Additionally, cyanide was identified as an intermediate in the oxidation of thiocyanate, and formate, ammonia and sulfate were found to be the main reaction products. Taking into account the experimental data, a reaction pathway for the simultaneous wet oxidation of both pollutants was proposed. Two parallel reactions beginning from cyanate as intermediate were considered, one yielding ammonia and formate and the other giving carbon dioxide and nitrogen as final products.

  20. Weeding the Astrophysical Garden: Ethyl Cyanide

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucia, F. C.; Fortman, S. M.; Medvedev, I. R.; Neese, C. F.

    2009-12-01

    It is well known that many, if not most, of the unidentified features in astrophysical spectra arise from relatively low lying excited vibrational and torsional states of a relatively small number of molecular species— the astrophysical weeds. It is also well known that the traditional quantum mechanical assignment and fitting of these excited state spectra is a formidable task, one that is made harder by the expected perturbations and interactions among these states. We have previously proposed an alternative fitting and analysis approach based on experimental, intensity calibrated spectra taken at many temperatures. In this paper we discuss the implementation of this approach and provide details in the context of one of these weeds, ethyl cyanide.

  1. Comparison of the relative propensities of isoamyl nitrite and sodium nitrite to ameliorate acute cyanide poisoning in mice and a novel antidotal effect arising from anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambal, Leah K; Weitz, Andrew C; Li, Hui-Hua; Zhang, Yang; Zheng, Xi; Pearce, Linda L; Peterson, Jim

    2013-05-20

    Isoamyl nitrite has previously been considered acceptable as an inhaled cyanide antidote; therefore, the antidotal utility of this organic nitrite compared with sodium nitrite was investigated. To facilitate a quantitative comparison, doses of both sodium nitrite and isoamyl nitrite were given intraperitoneally in equimolar amounts to sublethally cyanide-challenged mice. Righting recovery from the knockdown state was clearly compromised in the isoamyl nitrite-treated animals, the effect being attributable to the toxicity of the isoamyl alchol produced during hydrolysis of the isoamyl nitrite to release nitrite anion. Subsequently, inhaled aqueous sodium nitrite aerosol was demonstrated to ameliorate sublethal cyanide toxicity, when provided to mice after the toxic dose, by the more rapid recovery of righting ability compared to that of the control animals given only the toxicant. Aerosolized sodium nitrite has thus been shown by these experiments to have promise as a better alternative to organic nitrites for development as an inhaled cyanide antidote. The inhaled sodium nitrite led to the production of NO in the bloodstream as determined by the appearance of EPR signals attributable to nitrosylhemoglobin and methemoglobin. The aerosol delivery was performed in an unmetered inhalation chamber, and in this study, no attempt was made to optimize the procedure. It is argued that administration of an effective inhaled aqueous sodium nitrite dose in humans is possible, though just beyond the capability of current individual metered-dose inhaler designs, such as those used for asthma. Finally, working at slightly greater than LD50 NaCN doses, it was fortuitously discovered that (i) anesthesia leads to significantly prolonged survival compared to that of unanesthetized animals and that (ii) the antidotal activity of nitrite anion was completely abolished under anesthesia. Plausible explanations for these effects in mice and their practical consequences in relation to

  2. Cyclodextrin Enhances Corneal Tolerability and Reduces Ocular Toxicity Caused by Diclofenac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy Abdelkader

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With advances in refractive surgery and demand for cataract removal and lens replacement, the ocular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs has increased. One of the most commonly used NSAIDs is diclofenac (Diclo. In this study, cyclodextrins (CDs, α-, β-, γ-, and HP-β-CDs, were investigated with in vitro irritation and in vivo ulceration models in rabbits to reduce Diclo toxicity. Diclo-, α-, β-, γ-, and HP-β-CD inclusion complexes were prepared and characterized and Diclo-CD complexes were evaluated for corneal permeation, red blood cell (RBCs haemolysis, corneal opacity/permeability, and toxicity. Guest- (Diclo- host (CD solid inclusion complexes were formed only with β-, γ-, and HP-β-CDs. Amphipathic properties for Diclo were recorded and this surfactant-like functionality might contribute to the unwanted effects of Diclo on the surface of the eye. Contact angle and spreading coefficients were used to assess Diclo-CDs in solution. Reduction of ocular toxicity 3-fold to16-fold and comparable corneal permeability to free Diclo were recorded only with Diclo-γ-CD and Diclo-HP-β-CD complexes. These two complexes showed faster healing rates without scar formation compared with exposure to the Diclo solution and to untreated groups. This study also highlighted that Diclo-γ-CD and Diclo-HP-β-CD demonstrated fast healing without scar formation.

  3. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR study on cyanide induced biochemical and structural changes in rat sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiddappa Mallappa Shivanoor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, great attention had been focused on cyanide toxicity because of its widespread use in industries and considered to be a ubiquitous pollutant in the environment. Therefore, the current study aimed to evaluate the toxic effect of cyanide on rat sperms at molecular level by using FT-IR technique. For this purpose, rats were randomly divided into four groups and treated with 0.0, 0.64, 1.2 and 3.2 mg kg−1 body weight (BW for the period of 90 days. The group treated with lower dose (0.64 mg kg−1 BW showed an insignificant change in all the peaks, except the peaks assigned to olefinic CH, CH2 asymmetric and CH2 symmetric stretching vibration in the lipids. While, the groups treated with higher doses (1.2 and 3.2 mg kg−1 BW showed the significant decrease in the area under the peaks corresponds to different bio-molecules. In addition, spectral second derivative analysis showed the significant alteration in α-helix, turns, β-sheet, aggregated β-sheet and random coil structures in the proteins. In conclusion, the selected higher dosage of cyanide had caused significant decrease in the biochemical composition of rat sperms along with structural changes in the proteins. The FT-IR technique is an excellent tool used for the analysis of oxidative damage in the sperms.

  4. Is Hydrogen Cyanide a Marker of Burkholderia cepacia Complex?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gilchrist, F. J.; Sims, H.; Alcock, A.; Jones, A.M.; Bright-Thomas, R. J.; Smith, D.; Španěl, Patrik; Webb, A. K.; Lenney, W.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 11 (2013), s. 3849-3851 ISSN 0095-1137 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : acetone * alcohol * hydrogen cyanide Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.232, year: 2013

  5. Supraphysiological Doses of Performance Enhancing Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids Exert Direct Toxic Effects on Neuron-like Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Robert Basile

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS are lipophilic hormones often taken in excessive quantities by athletes and bodybuilders to enhance performance and increase muscle mass. AAS exert well known toxic effects on specific cell and tissue types and organ systems. The attention that androgen abuse has received lately should be used as an opportunity to educate both athletes and the general population regarding their adverse effects. Among numerous commercially available steroid hormones, very few have been specifically tested for direct neurotoxicity. We evaluated the effects of supraphysiological doses of methandienone and 17-α-methyltestosterone on sympathetic-like neuron cells. Vitality and apoptotic effects were analyzed, and immunofluorescence staining and western blot performed. In this study, we demonstrate that exposure of supraphysiological doses of methandienone and 17-α-methyltestosterone are toxic to the neuron-like differentiated pheochromocytoma cell line PC12, as confirmed by toxicity on neurite networks responding to nerve growth factor and the modulation of the survival and apoptosis-related proteins ERK, caspase-3, poly (ADP-ribose polymerase and heat-shock protein 90. We observe, in contrast to some previous reports but in accordance with others, expression of the androgen receptor (AR in neuron-like cells, which when inhibited mitigated the toxic effects of AAS tested, suggesting that the AR could be binding these steroid hormones to induce genomic effects. We also note elevated transcription of neuritin in treated cells, a neurotropic factor likely expressed in an attempt to resist neurotoxicity. Taken together, these results demonstrate that supraphysiological exposure to the AAS methandienone and 17-α-methyltestosterone exert neurotoxic effects by an increase in the activity of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and alterations in neurite networks.

  6. Mechanisms of toxicity and biomarkers of flavoring and flavor enhancing chemicals in emerging tobacco and non-tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurjot; Muthumalage, Thivanka; Rahman, Irfan

    2018-05-15

    Tobacco products containing flavorings, such as electronic nicotine delivery devices (ENDS) or e-cigarettes, cigars/cigarillos, waterpipes, and heat-not-burn devices (iQOS) are continuously evolving. In addition to increasing the exposure of teenagers and adults to nicotine containing flavoring products and flavoring enhancers, chances of nicotine addiction through chronic use and abuse also increase. These flavorings are believed to be safe for ingestion, but little information is available about their effects on the lungs. In this review, we have discussed the in vitro and in vivo data on toxicity of flavoring chemicals in lung cells. We have further discussed the common flavoring agents, such as diacetyl and menthol, currently available detection methods, and the toxicological mechanisms associated with oxidative stress, inflammation, mucociliary clearance, and DNA damage in cells, mice, and humans. Finally, we present potential biomarkers that could be utilized for future risk assessment. This review provides crucial parameters important for evaluation of risk associated with flavoring agents and flavoring enhancers used in tobacco products and ENDS. Future studies can be designed to address the potential toxicity of inhaled flavorings and their biomarkers in users as well as in chronic exposure studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Animal Models for Testing Antidotes Against an Oral Cyanide Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    stomach and the neutral environment of the small intestine (Newhouse, 2010). The cyanide ion also combines with sulfur to form thiocyanate (SCN). SCN...of KCN and 2 mmoles of HCl were administered via stomach tube to dogs (Christel et al. , 1977; ATSDR (2006), respiratory arrest occurred within 3...minutes with a plasma cyanide concentration of 40 µmol/mL. At a plasma concentration of 70 µmol/mL, cardiac arrest occurred 5 min after respiratory

  8. Enrofloxacin at environmentally relevant concentrations enhances uptake and toxicity of cadmium in the earthworm Eisenia fetida in farm soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yinsheng, E-mail: yinshengli@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Tang, Hao; Hu, Yingxiu; Wang, Xiuhong; Ai, Xiaojie; Tang, Li [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Matthew, Cory [Institute of Agriculture & Environment, Massey University, Private Bag 11-222, Palmerston North 4442 (New Zealand); Cavanagh, Jo [Landcare Research, PO Box 40, Lincoln 7640 (New Zealand); Qiu, Jiangping [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Enrofloxacin (EF) and cadmium (Cd) were independently adsorbed in soils. • EF accelerated and increased Cd bioaccumulation in earthworms. • At high concentration EF (10 mg kg{sup −1}) was toxic to earthworms. • EF enhanced Cd induced oxidative stress, and increased burrowing and respiration. • EF did not affect the Cd induced increase in metallothionein in earthworms. - Abstract: Individual and combined effects of enrofloxacin (EF) and cadmium (Cd) on the earthworm Eisenia fetida at environmentally relevant concentrations were investigated. EF is a veterinary antibiotic; Cd is an impurity in phosphatic fertiliser. For both, residues may accumulate in farm soils. In laboratory tests, over 98% of spiked EF was adsorbed by farm soils, with a half-life >8 weeks. However, earthworms absorbed less than 20% of spiked EF. Earthworms in soil with EF concentration 10 mg kg{sup −1} soil experienced transient oxidative stress and exhibited reduced burrowing activity and respiration after an 8-week exposure; EF at 0.1 and 1.0 mg kg{sup −1} soil did not elicit toxicity symptoms. When both were added, Cd did not affect EF uptake, but each increment of spiked EF increased Cd bioaccumulation and associated oxidative stress of earthworms, and also caused decreased burrow length and CO{sub 2} production. However, metallothionein induction was not affected. The enhanced toxicity of Cd to earthworms in the presence of EF at low environmental concentrations may have implications for the health and reproductive success of earthworm populations and highlights the importance of understanding effects of antibiotic contamination of farm soils, and of awareness of environmental effects from interaction between multiple contaminants.

  9. Enrofloxacin at environmentally relevant concentrations enhances uptake and toxicity of cadmium in the earthworm Eisenia fetida in farm soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yinsheng; Tang, Hao; Hu, Yingxiu; Wang, Xiuhong; Ai, Xiaojie; Tang, Li; Matthew, Cory; Cavanagh, Jo; Qiu, Jiangping

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Enrofloxacin (EF) and cadmium (Cd) were independently adsorbed in soils. • EF accelerated and increased Cd bioaccumulation in earthworms. • At high concentration EF (10 mg kg −1 ) was toxic to earthworms. • EF enhanced Cd induced oxidative stress, and increased burrowing and respiration. • EF did not affect the Cd induced increase in metallothionein in earthworms. - Abstract: Individual and combined effects of enrofloxacin (EF) and cadmium (Cd) on the earthworm Eisenia fetida at environmentally relevant concentrations were investigated. EF is a veterinary antibiotic; Cd is an impurity in phosphatic fertiliser. For both, residues may accumulate in farm soils. In laboratory tests, over 98% of spiked EF was adsorbed by farm soils, with a half-life >8 weeks. However, earthworms absorbed less than 20% of spiked EF. Earthworms in soil with EF concentration 10 mg kg −1 soil experienced transient oxidative stress and exhibited reduced burrowing activity and respiration after an 8-week exposure; EF at 0.1 and 1.0 mg kg −1 soil did not elicit toxicity symptoms. When both were added, Cd did not affect EF uptake, but each increment of spiked EF increased Cd bioaccumulation and associated oxidative stress of earthworms, and also caused decreased burrow length and CO 2 production. However, metallothionein induction was not affected. The enhanced toxicity of Cd to earthworms in the presence of EF at low environmental concentrations may have implications for the health and reproductive success of earthworm populations and highlights the importance of understanding effects of antibiotic contamination of farm soils, and of awareness of environmental effects from interaction between multiple contaminants.

  10. Graphene-Coupled ZnO: A Robust NIR-Induced Catalyst for Rapid Photo-Oxidation of Cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelgund, Gururaj M; Oki, Aderemi

    2017-12-31

    Herein, we report the modulation of ZnO for enhancement of its ability toward plasmonic absorption of near-infrared (NIR) photons through coupling of graphene (GR). The reported modification led GR-ZnO to be a promising photocatalyst by the complete removal of poisonous and nonvolatile potassium cyanide from water. The photocatalytic degradation of cyanide was revealed by exposing it to NIR laser and comparing with the rate of UV, visible, and sunlight using their apparent reaction rate constants derived from the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The heteronanostructured GR-ZnO promoted rapid photo-oxidation of cyanide under illumination with NIR laser rather than UV, visible, and sunlight. It was assessed that the photothermal effect (PTE) is the main cause for higher catalytic efficiency of GR-ZnO in the presence of NIR radiations. Except for the NIR radiations, GR-ZnO does not show any indication of PTE by irradiating with UV, visible, or sunlight. On account of its significance, the PTE of GR-ZnO in KCN solution was evaluated and compared with its individual components viz., GR and ZnO upon exposure to a 980 nm laser system. Furthermore, it has been revealed that the PTE of GR-ZnO was proportional to its concentration. In addition to its effectiveness in the degradation of cyanide, GR-ZnO retained its special structure and exhibited an outstanding photostability after its repeated use in three successive cycles.

  11. Intensification Behavior of Mercury Ions on Gold Cyanide Leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanidation is the main method used to extract gold from gold raw materials; however, a serious problem with this method is the low leaching rate. In order to improve gold leaching, the intensification behavior of mercury ions on gold cyanide leaching, for two types of materials, sulphide gold concentrate and oxide gold ore, was investigated. The results showed that mercury ions, with only a 10−5 M dosage, could significantly intensify leaching and gold recovery. The dissolution behavior of gold plate was also intensified by 10−5 M mercury ions. Microstructure analysis showed that mercury ions intensified the cyanidation corrosion of the gold surface, resulting in a loose structure, where a large number of deep ravines and raised particles were evident across the whole gold surface. The loose structure added contact surface between the gold and cyanide, and accelerated gold dissolution. Moreover, mercury ions obstructed the formation of insoluble products, such as AuCN, Au(OHCN, and Au(OHx, that lead to a passivation membrane on the gold surface, reducing contact between the gold and cyanide. These effects, brought about by mercury ions, change the structure and product of the gold surface during gold cyanidation and promote gold leaching.

  12. Acute cyanide poisoning among jewelry and textile industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coentrão, Luís; Moura, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Limited work has focused on occupational exposures that may increase the risk of cyanide poisoning by ingestion. A retrospective chart review of all admissions for acute cyanide poisoning by ingestion for the years 1988 to 2008 was conducted in a tertiary university hospital serving the largest population in the country working in jewelry and textile facilities. Of the 9 patients admitted to the hospital during the study period, 8 (7 males, 1 female; age 36 ± 11 years, mean ± SD) attempted suicide by ingestion of potassium cyanide used in their profession as goldsmiths or textile industry workers. Five patients had severe neurologic impairment and severe metabolic acidosis (pH 7.02 ± 0.08, mean ± SD) with high anion gap (23 ± 4 mmol/L, mean ± SD). Of the 5 severely intoxicated patients, 3 received antidote therapy (sodium thiosulfate or hydroxocobalamin) and resumed full consciousness in less than 8 hours. All patients survived without major sequelae. Cyanide intoxication by ingestion in our patients was mainly suicidal and occurred in specific jobs where potassium cyanide is used. Metabolic acidosis with high anion is a good surrogated marker of severe cyanide poisoning. Sodium thiosulfate and hydroxocobalamin are both safe and effective antidotes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Calorespirometric feeding control enhances bioproduction from toxic feedstocks-Demonstration for biopolymer production out of methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Maria-Teresa; Paufler, Sven; Harms, Hauke; Maskow, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The sustainable production of fuels and industrial bulk chemicals by microorganisms in biotechnological processes is promising but still facing various challenges. In particular, toxic substrates require an efficient process control strategy. Methanol, as an example, has the potential to become a major future feedstock due to its availability from fossil and renewable resources. However, besides being toxic, methanol is highly volatile. To optimize its dosage during microbial cultivations, an innovative, predictive process control strategy based on calorespirometry, i.e., simultaneous measurements of heat and CO2 emission rates, was developed. This rarely used technique allows an online-estimation of growth parameters such as the specific growth rate and substrate consumption rate as well as a detection of shifts in microbial metabolism thus enabling an adapted feeding for different phases of growth. The calorespirometric control strategy is demonstrated exemplarily for growth of the methylotrophic bacterium Methylobacterium extorquens on methanol and compared to alternative control strategies. Applying the new approach, the methanol concentration could be maintained far below a critical limit, while increased growth rates of M. extorquens and higher final contents of the biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate were obtained. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2113-2121. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Enhanced toxicity with concurrent cetuximab and radiotherapy in head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryor, David I.; Porceddu, Sandro V.; Burmeister, Bryan H.; Guminski, Alex; Thomson, Damien B.; Shepherdson, Kristine; Poulsen, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To report toxicity data from the first 13 consecutive patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (LAHNSCC), ineligible for cisplatin, treated with concurrent cetuximab and radiotherapy (RT) at our institution. Materials and methods: Data were collected prospectively between August 2007 and May 2008. Planned treatment consisted of a cetuximab loading dose (400 mg/m 2 ) via intravenous infusion 1 week prior and then weekly (250 mg/m 2 ) with 70 Gy in 35 daily fractions over 7 weeks. Results: Median age was 68 years (range 52-82 years). The predominant primary sites were hypopharyngeal (5) and oropharyngeal (5). Ineligibility for cisplatin consisted of renal impairment (5), hearing impairment (4) and of other major co-morbidities (4). Of the 13 patients, 10 (77%) had grade 3/4 skin reactions and 10 (77%) grade 3/4 mucositis. Six (46%) patients required admission for management of severe skin reactions and/or mucositis with 4 (31%) requiring a treatment break, median 10 days (9-15days). Only 4 (31%) patients managed to complete the planned 8 cycles of cetuximab. Of the 9 patients with 12-week post-therapy data, 7 (78%) achieved a complete response. Conclusions: Our early experience with cetuximab/RT has demonstrated a higher rate of toxicity compared with the recently reported randomised trial, resulting in low treatment compliance and delays in completing RT

  15. Enhancement of pigment concentrations in Dunaliella tertiolecta as a result of copper toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustigman, B.K.

    1986-11-01

    The addition of copper to coastal waters through the disposal of complex effluents has been increasing. Copper is a well known algicide. It binds to the cell membrane, effects permeability mechanisms and attaches to SH groups on vital enzymes. The ability of algae to withstand copper toxicity varies greatly. The green flagellate, Dunaliella tertiolecta has previously been shown to be highly resistant to copper. Its ability to withstand high concentrations of copper promotes growth of Dunaliella in coastal waters contaminated with increased copper concentrations. Dunaliella tertiolecta possesses chlorophylls a and b, small amounts of alpha- and greater amounts of beta-carotene as well as neoxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of lethal and sublethal concentrations of copper on the growth and production of chlorophyll and carotenoids in Dunaliella tertiolecta.

  16. Encapsulation and Nano-Encapsulation of Papain Active Sites to Enhance Radiolityc Stability and Decrease Toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugão, A.B.; Varca, G.H.C.; Mathor, M.B.; Santos Lopes, P.; Rogero, M.S.S.; Rogero, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Papain is used as an ingredient in various enzymatic debridement preparations. Those paste-like preparations are based on water solution and usually are sterilized by radiation. As a consequence, there is a major decrease in papain activity. Papain containing preparations are used in chronic wounds treatment in order to clean and remove the necrotic tissue. However FDA (2008) is taking an action against such products due to severe adverse events reported in patients submitted to papain treatments. Thus, the main goal of this proposal is to develop encapsulated papain containing membranes based on hydrogels and silicone rubber in an attempt to achieve a controllable distribution of size and delivery profile, a toxicity reduction and provide stability towards radiation processing through molecular encapsulation with β-cyclodextrin, which may also provide protection to the enzyme against radiation induced radiolysis. (author)

  17. Encapsulation and Nano-Encapsulation of Papain Active Sites to Enhance Radiolityc Stability and Decrease Toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugão, A.B.; Varca, G.H.C.; Paiffer, F.; Mathor, M.B.; Lopes, P.S.; Rogero, S.; Rogero, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Papain is used as an ingredient in various enzymatic debridement preparations. Those paste-like preparations are based on water solution and usually are sterilized by radiation. As a consequence, there is a major decrease in papain activity. Papain containing preparations are used in chronic wounds treatment in order to clean and remove the necrotic tissue. However FDA (2008) is taking an action against such products due to severe adverse events reported in patients which were submitted to papain treatments. Thus, the main goal of this proposal is to develop encapsulated papain containing membranes based on hydrogels and silicone rubber in an attempt to achieve a controllable distribution of size and delivery profile, a toxicity reduction and provide stability towards radiation processing through nanoencapsulation with cyclodextrins, which may also provide protection to the enzyme against radiation induced radiolysis. (author)

  18. Enhancement of toxic effects of phenanthrene to Daphnia magna due to the presence of suspended sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaotian; Xia, Xinghui; Dong, Jianwei; Bao, Yimeng; Li, Husheng

    2014-06-01

    In the present work, the influences of suspended sediment (SPS) on the toxic effects of phenanthrene (PHE), one kind of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, to Daphnia magna was studied using a dialysis bag simulation system, which equalized the freely dissolved concentration of PHE between outside the dialysis bag in the presence of SPS and inside the dialysis bag in the absence of SPS. The immobilization and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity of Daphnia magna caused by PHE (0-0.8 mg L(-1)) were investigated under the influence of different SPS concentrations (0, 1, 3, 5 g L(-1)) during a 96 h-exposure. The results showed that, compared to the absence of SPS, the presence of SPS (1-5 g L(-1)) increased the immobilization of Daphnia magna by 1.6-2.7 times when the freely dissolved concentration of PHE was identical in both systems. The inhibition of T-SOD activity of Daphnia magna by PHE was significantly greater in the presence of SPS than in the absence of SPS (pDaphnia magna. The bioavailable fraction of PHE sorbed on SPS ranged from 10.1% to 22.7%, and the contribution of PHE sorbed on SPS to the immobilization caused by total PHE in the exposure system increased with SPS concentration, with the contribution ratio increasing from 36.7% to 57.7% when SPS concentration increased from 1 to 5 g L(-1). This study suggests that only considering the concentrations of hydrophobic organic compounds in the water phase may underestimate their toxicity; and the hydrophobic organic compounds sorbed on SPS should not be ignored in assessment of water quality and the establishment of water quality standard in the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Uses of the potassium permanganate to eliminate copper cyanide from waste water resulting from a lixiviation plant in a gold mine (II): Pilot plant experiences; Aplicacion del permanganato potasico para la eliminacion de cianuros de cobre en aguas residuales de la planta de lixiviacion en una mina de oro (II): Ensayos en planta piloto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sancho, J. P.; Fernandez, B.; Ayala, J.; Gracia, M. P.; Lavandeira, A.

    2011-07-01

    The search for a detoxification treatment of the wastewater generated during industrial processes, has been a constant for all companies in general and for gold mining in particular, whose wastewater generally contains high concentrations of cyanide compounds with high toxicity. In the previous research work, developed in the laboratory, the efficacy of potassium permanganate as an oxidizing agent for cyanidic wastewater, from a gold hydrometallurgical plant, has been demonstrated, achieving the destruction of copper cyanide complexes present in solution and the subsequent metal removal by precipitation as hydroxide. This paper presents the conclusions obtained after the implementation of the process developed in the laboratory, at pilot-plant scale. (Author) 30 refs.

  20. Semiconductor surface and interface passivation by cyanide treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, H.; Takahashi, M.; Maida, O.; Asano, A.; Kubota, T.; Ivančo, J.; Nakajima, A.; Akimoto, K.

    2004-08-01

    Cyanide treatment which simply involves immersion of semiconductors in cyanide solutions can passivate interface states as well as surface states. When Si surfaces are treated with KCN solutions, a surface photovoltage greatly increases, and the surface recombination velocity is calculated to be decreased from ˜3000 cm/s to less than 200 cm/s. When the cyanide treatment is applied to ultrathin SiO 2/single-crystalline Si structure, interface states are passivated. The passivation of the SiO 2/Si interface states increases the energy conversion efficiency of MOS solar cells to 16.2% and decreases the leakage current density for MOS diodes to 1/3-1/8. When the cyanide treatment is performed on polycrystalline (poly-) Si, defect states in Si up to at least 0.5 μm depth from the surface are passivated, resulting in a vast increase in the energy conversion efficiency of solar cells and a decrease in the dark current density of MOS diodes to 1/100-1/15 that without cyanide treatment. The defect passivation is attributed to the formation of SiCN bonds from defect states. SiCN bonds are found not to be ruptured by heat treatment at 800 °C and AM 1.5 100 mW/cm 2 irradiation for more than 1000 h. Density functional calculations show that the thermal and irradiation stability results from strong SiCN bonds with the bond energy of 4.5 eV. When the cyanide treatment is performed on oxide/GaAs(1 0 0) structure, the interface state density decreases to ˜50%. The cyanide treatment can also passivate defect states in Cu 2O films, resulting in increases in the carrier density and the band-to-band photoluminescence intensity.

  1. Sequential application of chelating agents and innovative surfactants for the enhanced electroremediation of real sediments from toxic metals and PAHs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahladakis, John N; Lekkas, Nikolaos; Smponias, Andreas; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2014-06-01

    This study focused on the sequential application of a chelating agent (citric acid) followed by a surfactant in the simultaneous electroremediation of real contaminated sediments from toxic metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). Furthermore, the efficiency evaluation of two innovative non-ionic surfactants, commercially known as Poloxamer 407 and Nonidet P40, was investigated. The results indicated a removal efficacy of approximately 43% and 48% for the summation of PAHs (SUM PAHs), respectively for the aforementioned surfactants, much better than the one obtained by the use of Tween 80 (nearly 21%). Individual PAHs (e.g. fluorene) were removed in percentages that reached almost 84% and 92% in the respective electrokinetic experiments when these new surfactants were introduced. In addition, the combined-enhanced sequential electrokinetic treatment with citric acid improved dramatically the removal of Zn and As, compared to the unenhanced run, but did not favor the other toxic metals examined. Since no improvement in metal removal percentages occurred when Tween 80 was used, significant contribution to this matter should also be attributed to the solubilization capacity of these innovative, in electrokinetic remediation, non-ionic surfactants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Transient Transcriptional Regulation of the CYS-C1 Gene and Cyanide Accumulation upon Pathogen Infection in the Plant Immune Response1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Irene; Rosas, Tábata; Bejarano, Eduardo R.; Gotor, Cecilia; Romero, Luis C.

    2013-01-01

    Cyanide is produced concomitantly with ethylene biosynthesis. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) detoxifies cyanide primarily through the enzyme β-cyanoalanine synthase, mainly by the mitochondrial CYS-C1. CYS-C1 loss of function is not toxic for the plant and leads to an increased level of cyanide in cys-c1 mutants as well as a root hairless phenotype. The classification of genes differentially expressed in cys-c1 and wild-type plants reveals that the high endogenous cyanide content of the cys-c1 mutant is correlated with the biotic stress response. Cyanide accumulation and CYS-C1 gene expression are negatively correlated during compatible and incompatible plant-bacteria interactions. In addition, cys-c1 plants present an increased susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea and an increased tolerance to the biotrophic Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 bacterium and Beet curly top virus. The cys-c1 mutation produces a reduction in respiration rate in leaves, an accumulation of reactive oxygen species, and an induction of the alternative oxidase AOX1a and pathogenesis-related PR1 expression. We hypothesize that cyanide, which is transiently accumulated during avirulent bacterial infection and constitutively accumulated in the cys-c1 mutant, uncouples the respiratory electron chain dependent on the cytochrome c oxidase, and this uncoupling induces the alternative oxidase activity and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, which act by stimulating the salicylic acid-dependent signaling pathway of the plant immune system. PMID:23784464

  3. Enhancement of Hsp70 synthesis protects common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., against lethal ammonia toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Y Y; Roberts, R J; Bossier, P

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to TEX-OE®, a patented extract of the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) containing chaperone-stimulating factor, was shown to protect common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., fingerlings against acute ammonia stress. Survival was enhanced twofold from 50% to 95% after exposure to 5.92 mg L(-1) NH(3) , a level determined in the ammonia challenge bioassay as the 1-h LD50 concentration for this species. Survival of TEX-OE®-pre-exposed fish was enhanced by 20% over non-exposed controls during lethal ammonia challenge (14.21 mg L(-1)  NH(3) ). Increase in the levels of gill and muscle Hsp70 was evident in TEX-OE®-pre-exposed fish but not in the unexposed controls, indicating that application of TEX-OE® accelerated carp endogenous Hsp70 synthesis during ammonia perturbation. Protection against ammonia was correlated with Hsp70 accretion. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Dextromethorphan prevents the diethyldithiocarbamate enhancement of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaglini, Francesca; Pardini, Carla; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Maggio, Roberto; Corsini, Giovanni U

    2003-05-30

    In this report we show that dextromethorphan, a non-opioid cough suppressant, prevents the neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of mice treated with diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). This effect is further substantiated by the assessment of dopamine (DA) content in the striatum of these animals. Dextromethorphan does not attenuate the striatal DA fall induced by MPTP alone but completely prevents DDC-induced enhancement after the combined treatment. Moreover, a study of DA metabolites has confirmed this neuroprotective property. The striatal levels of serotonin, which were studied as a control neuronal marker, did not change with any of the treatments administered. Furthermore, we show that dextromethorphan reduces the toxicity of glutamate against dopamine neurons in mesencephalic cell cultures. In line with previous data suggesting that dextromethorphan can prevent neuronal damage, our observations supply new evidence regarding the possibility of this compound being of therapeutic use in neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. Dietary Lactobacillus plantarum supplementation enhances growth performance and alleviates aluminum toxicity in tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Leilei; Zhai, Qixiao; Zhu, Jiamin; Zhang, Chengcheng; Li, Tianqi; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Tian, Fengwei; Chen, Wei

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the protection offered by the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 against waterborne Al exposure in tilapia. Fish were allocated to control, CCFM639-only, Al-only or Al plus CCFM639 groups. The fish were exposed to 2.73mg/L Al ions for 4 weeks. The probiotic was incorporated into the fish diet at 10 8 CFU/g and provided twice daily. Our results showed that L. plantarum CCFM639 significantly enhanced feed utilization, growth performance and antioxidant ability in the absence of waterborne Al exposure. When fish were exposed to Al, dietary supplementation with the strain effectively decreased the death rate and accumulation of Al in tissues, and enhanced growth performance. Moreover, Al-induced changes in hematobiochemical parameters and hepatic oxidative stress and histopathology were also alleviated. Therefore, L. plantarum CCFM639 may be a novel dietary supplement for fish to enhance growth performance and prevent aquaculture and food safety problems induced by Al pollution. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Mitochondrial ascorbic acid is responsible for enhanced susceptibility of U937 cells to the toxic effects of peroxynitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidarelli, Andrea; Cerioni, Liana; Fiorani, Mara; Azzolini, Catia; Cantoni, Orazio

    2014-01-01

    Otherwise nontoxic levels of peroxynitrite promote toxicity in U937 cells pre-exposed to low micromolar concentrations of l-ascorbic acid (AA). This event was associated with the mitochondrial accumulation of the vitamin and with the early formation of secondary reactive oxygen species and DNA single-strand breaks. The same concentrations of peroxynitrite, however, failed to elicit detectable effects in cells pre-exposed to dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), in which mitochondrial accumulation of vitamin C did not occur despite the identical cytosolic levels. Coherently, oxidation of extracellular AA failed to affect the intracellular concentration of the vitamin, but nevertheless prevented its mitochondrial localization as well as the enhanced response to peroxynitrite. Furthermore, in cells postincubated in vitamin C-free medium, time-dependent loss of mitochondrial AA was paralleled by a progressive decline of susceptibility to peroxynitrite, under the same conditions in which cells retained about half of the initial AA. Using different experimental approaches, we finally showed that the enhancing effects of AA are mediated by events associated with peroxynitrite-dependent superoxide/H2 O2 formation in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Collectively, these results indicate that mitochondria actively take up vitamin C as AA and respond to otherwise inactive concentrations of peroxynitrite with the mitochondrial formation of secondary species responsible for DNA damage and toxicity. DHA preloading, while leading to the accumulation of identical levels of vitamin C, fails to produce these effects because of the poor mitochondrial accumulation of the vitamin. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Cholesterol Enhances the Toxic Effect of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Islas, Anayelly; Chagoya-Hazas, Victoria; Pérez-Aguilar, Benjamin; Palestino-Domínguez, Mayrel; Souza, Verónica; Miranda, Roxana U; Bucio, Leticia; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, María-Concepción

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and alcohol consumption are risk factors for hepatic steatosis, and both commonly coexist. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde on primary hepatocytes obtained from mice fed for two days with a high cholesterol (HC) diet. HC hepatocytes increased lipid and cholesterol content. HC diet sensitized hepatocytes to the toxic effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde. Cyp2E1 content increased with HC diet, as well as in those treated with ethanol or acetaldehyde, while the activity of this enzyme determined in microsomes increased in the HC and in all ethanol treated hepatocytes, HC and CW. Oxidized proteins were increased in the HC cultures treated or not with the toxins. Transmission electron microscopy showed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and megamitochondria in hepatocytes treated with ethanol as in HC and the ethanol HC treated hepatocytes. ER stress determined by PERK content was increased in ethanol treated hepatocytes from HC mice and CW. Nuclear translocation of ATF6 was observed in HC hepatocytes treated with ethanol, results that indicate that lipids overload and ethanol treatment favor ER stress. Oxidative stress, ER stress, and mitochondrial damage underlie potential mechanisms for increased damage in steatotic hepatocyte treated with ethanol.

  8. Cholesterol Enhances the Toxic Effect of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anayelly López-Islas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and alcohol consumption are risk factors for hepatic steatosis, and both commonly coexist. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde on primary hepatocytes obtained from mice fed for two days with a high cholesterol (HC diet. HC hepatocytes increased lipid and cholesterol content. HC diet sensitized hepatocytes to the toxic effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde. Cyp2E1 content increased with HC diet, as well as in those treated with ethanol or acetaldehyde, while the activity of this enzyme determined in microsomes increased in the HC and in all ethanol treated hepatocytes, HC and CW. Oxidized proteins were increased in the HC cultures treated or not with the toxins. Transmission electron microscopy showed endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and megamitochondria in hepatocytes treated with ethanol as in HC and the ethanol HC treated hepatocytes. ER stress determined by PERK content was increased in ethanol treated hepatocytes from HC mice and CW. Nuclear translocation of ATF6 was observed in HC hepatocytes treated with ethanol, results that indicate that lipids overload and ethanol treatment favor ER stress. Oxidative stress, ER stress, and mitochondrial damage underlie potential mechanisms for increased damage in steatotic hepatocyte treated with ethanol.

  9. Environmental conditions enhance toxicant effects in larvae of the ground beetle Pterostichus oblongopunctatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bednarska, Agnieszka J., E-mail: a.bednarska@uj.edu.p [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow (Poland); Laskowski, Ryszard, E-mail: ryszard.laskowski@uj.edu.p [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow (Poland)

    2009-05-15

    The wide geographical distribution of ground beetles Pterostichus oblongopunctatus makes them very likely to be exposed to several environmental stressors at the same time. These could include both climatic stress and exposure to chemicals. Our previous studies demonstrated that the combined effect of nickel (Ni) and chlorpyrifos (CHP) was temperature (T)-dependent in adult P. oblongopunctatus. Frequently the different developmental stages of an organism are differently sensitive to single stressors, and for a number of reasons, such as differences in exposure routes, their interactions may also take different forms. Because of this, we studied the effects of the same factors on the beetle larvae. The results showed that all factors, as well as their interactions, influenced larvae survival. The synergistic effect of Ni and CPF was temperature-dependent and the effect of Ni x T interaction on the proportion of emerged imagines indicated stronger toxicity of Ni at 25 deg. C than at 10 deg. C. - Combined negative effects of nickel and chlorpyrifos on carabid beetles depend on ambient temperature.

  10. Environmental conditions enhance toxicant effects in larvae of the ground beetle Pterostichus oblongopunctatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednarska, Agnieszka J.; Laskowski, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    The wide geographical distribution of ground beetles Pterostichus oblongopunctatus makes them very likely to be exposed to several environmental stressors at the same time. These could include both climatic stress and exposure to chemicals. Our previous studies demonstrated that the combined effect of nickel (Ni) and chlorpyrifos (CHP) was temperature (T)-dependent in adult P. oblongopunctatus. Frequently the different developmental stages of an organism are differently sensitive to single stressors, and for a number of reasons, such as differences in exposure routes, their interactions may also take different forms. Because of this, we studied the effects of the same factors on the beetle larvae. The results showed that all factors, as well as their interactions, influenced larvae survival. The synergistic effect of Ni and CPF was temperature-dependent and the effect of Ni x T interaction on the proportion of emerged imagines indicated stronger toxicity of Ni at 25 deg. C than at 10 deg. C. - Combined negative effects of nickel and chlorpyrifos on carabid beetles depend on ambient temperature.

  11. Resveratrol protects the ovary against chromium-toxicity by enhancing endogenous antioxidant enzymes and inhibiting metabolic clearance of estradiol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banu, Sakhila K.; Stanley, Jone A.; Sivakumar, Kirthiram K.; Arosh, Joe A.; Burghardt, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol (RVT), a polyphenolic component in grapes and red wine, has been known for its cytoprotective actions against several diseases. However, beneficial effects of RVT against early exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have not been understood. EDCs are linked to several ovarian diseases such as premature ovarian failure, polycystic ovary syndrome, early menopause and infertility in women. Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) is a heavy metal EDC, and widely used in > 50 industries. Environmental contamination with CrVI in the US is rapidly increasing, predisposing the human to several illnesses including cancers and still birth. Our lab has been involved in determining the molecular mechanism of CrVI-induced female infertility and intervention strategies to mitigate CrVI effects. Lactating mother rats were exposed to CrVI (50 ppm potassium dichromate) from postpartum days 1–21 through drinking water with or without RVT (10 mg/kg body wt., through oral gavage daily). During this time, F1 females received respective treatments through mother's milk. On postnatal day (PND) 25, blood and the ovary, kidney and liver were collected from the F1 females for analyses. CrVI increased atresia of follicles by increasing cytochrome C and cleaved caspase-3; decreasing antiapoptotic proteins; decreasing estradiol (E 2 ) biosynthesis and enhancing metabolic clearance of E 2 , increasing oxidative stress and decreasing endogenous antioxidants. RVT mitigated the effects of CrVI by upregulating cell survival proteins and AOXs; and restored E 2 levels by inhibiting hydroxylation, glucuronidation and sulphation of E 2 . This is the first study to report the protective effects of RVT against any toxicant in the ovary. - Highlights: • Resveratrol (RVT) protects the ovary against CrVI-toxicity. • RVT mitigated CrVI-induced apoptosis and follicle atresia. • RVT restored estradiol level against CrVI-toxicity. • RVT inhibited metabolic clearance of estradiol in the

  12. Modern toxic antipersonnel projectiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Yvan; Regenstreif, Philippe; Fanton, Laurent

    2014-12-01

    In the spring of 1944, Kurt von Gottberg, the SS police chief in Minsk, was shot and injured by 2 Soviet agents. Although he was only slightly injured, he died 6 hours later. The bullets were hollow and contained a crystalline white powder. They were 4-g bullets, semi-jacketed in cupronickel, containing 28 mg of aconitine. They were later known as akonitinnitratgeschosse. The Sipo (the Nazi security police) then ordered a trial with a 9-mm Parabellum cartridge containing Ditran, an anticholinergic drug with hallucinogenic properties causing intense mental confusion. In later years, QNB was used and given the NATO code BZ (3-quinuclidinyl-benzylate). It was proven that Saddam Hussein had this weapon (agent 15) manufactured and used it against the Kurds. Serbian forces used the same type of weapon in the Bosnian conflict, particularly in Srebrenica.The authors go on to list the Cold War toxic weapons developed by the KGB and the Warsaw pact countries for the discreet elimination of dissidents and proindependence leaders who had taken refuge in the West. These weapons include PSZh-13 launchers, the Troika electronic sequential pistol, and the ingenious 4-S110T captive piston system designed by the engineer Stechkin. Disguised as a cigarette case, it could fire a silent charge of potassium cyanide. This rogues gallery also includes the umbrella rigged to inject a pellet of ricin (or another phytalbumin of similar toxicity, such as abrin or crotin) that was used to assassinate the Bulgarian writer and journalist Georgi Markov on September 7, 1978, in London.During the autopsy, the discovery of a bullet burst into 4 or 5 parts has to make at once suspecting the use of a toxic substance. Toxicological analysis has to look for first and foremost aconitine, cyanide, suxamethonium, Ditran, BZ, or one of the toxic phytalbumins. The use of such complex weapons has to make suspect a powerful organization: army, secret service, terrorism. The existence of the Russian UDAR spray

  13. Cyanide poisoning caused by ingestion of apricot seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyildiz, B N; Kurtoğlu, S; Kondolot, M; Tunç, A

    2010-01-01

    To report diagnostic, clinical and therapeutic aspects of cyanide intoxication resulting from ingestion of cyanogenic glucoside-containing apricot seeds. Thirteen patients admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of Erciyes University between 2005 and 2009 with cyanide intoxication associated with ingestion of apricot seeds were reviewed retrospectively. Of the 13 patients, four were male. The mean time of onset of symptoms was 60 minutes (range 20 minutes to 3 hours). On admission, all patients underwent gastric lavage and received activated charcoal. In addition to signs of mild poisoning related to cyanide intoxication, there was severe intoxication requiring mechanical ventilation (in four cases), hypotension (in two), coma (in two) and convulsions (in one). Metabolic acidosis (lactic acidosis) was detected in nine patients and these were treated with sodium bicarbonate. Hyperglycaemia occurred in nine patients and blood glucose levels normalised spontaneously in six but three required insulin therapy for 3-6 hours. Six patients received antidote treatment: high-dose hydroxocobalamin in four and two were treated with a cyanide antidote kit in addition to high-dose hydroxocobalamin. One patient required anticonvulsive therapy. All patients recovered and were discharged from the PICU within a mean (SD, range) 3.1 (1.7, 2-6) days. Cyanide poisoning associated with ingestion of apricot seeds is an important poison in children, many of whom require intensive care.

  14. Non-toxic poly(ethylene terephthalate)/clay nanocomposites with enhanced barrier properties

    KAUST Repository

    Hayrapetyan, Suren

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the technological need for poly(ethylene terephthalate) materials with improved barrier properties together with the requirement for sustainability this study focuses on an eco-friendly sulfonated polyester as clay compatibilizer to facilitate polymer mixing during melt compounding. We demonstrate that the nanocomposites based on sulfonated polyester are a reliable alternative to their imidazolium counterparts, exhibiting enhanced properties (water vapor and UV transmission), without sacrificing the excellent transparency, clarity and mechanical strength of the matrix. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of total cyanide in soil by isotope dilution GC/MS following pentafluorobenzyl derivatization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campanella, Beatrice, E-mail: beatrice.campanella@pi.iccom.cnr.it [Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, via Moruzzi 13, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organometallici, UOS di Pisa, via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Biancalana, Lorenzo [Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, via Moruzzi 13, 56124 Pisa (Italy); D' Ulivo, Lucia [National Research Council of Canada, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, ON K1A 0R6 (Canada); Onor, Massimo; Bramanti, Emilia [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organometallici, UOS di Pisa, via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Mester, Zoltan; Pagliano, Enea [National Research Council of Canada, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, ON K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2017-04-08

    The high toxicity of cyanide, along with its widespread industrial use, has fuelled interest in the development of analytical methods for its determination in complex matrices. In this study, we propose a novel approach for the measurement of total cyanide in soil samples based on single-step derivatization with pentafluorobenzyl bromide (F{sub 5}Bn−Br) followed by quantitation with gas chromatography mass spectrometry in negative chemical ionization mode. The reaction between CN{sup −} and F{sub 5}Bn−Br resulted in the identification of several derivatives such as F{sub 5}Bn−CN, (F{sub 5}Bn)(F{sub 5}Ph)CH−CN, and (F{sub 5}Bn){sub 2}(F{sub 5}Ph)C−CN. The relative proportion between such compounds was dependent on experimental conditions. When a 100 μL aliquot of an alkaline-aqueous extract was reacted with 700 μL of 1.3% F{sub 5}Bn−Br in acetone, the tri-alkylated derivative was the most abundant. In such conditions a detection limit of 0.5 ng/g of CN{sup −} was attained. Soil samples were initially spiked with an alkaline solution of K{sup 13}C{sup 15}N internal standard and suspended in 7.5% aqueous NaOH. Determination of total cyanide was achieved by digestion of the alkaline extract with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} to produce HCN which was then trapped in 0.1% NaOH in a sealed double vial system, followed by reaction with F{sub 5}Bn−Br. Isotope dilution calibration was chosen for quantitation, and the validity of the novel method was demonstrated by analysis of soil Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) and by spike recovery tests. - Highlights: • A cost-effective, fast and simple method for determination of total cyanide in soil is presented. • A new micro-distillation strategy was developed overcoming the problems of a conventional distillation. • Negative chemical ionization-mass spectrometer has been exploited to obtain a high sensitivity and specificity. • High accuracy was attained for the analysis of certified reference materials with

  16. Recovery of cyanide in gold leach waste solution by volatilization and absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönen, N; Kabasakal, O S; Ozdil, G

    2004-09-10

    In this study, the effects of pH, time and temperature in regeneration of cyanide in the leaching waste solution of gold production from disseminated gold ore by cyanidation process were investigated and the optimum conditions, consumptions and cyanide recovery values were determined. The sample of waste solution containing 156 mg/l free CN- and 358 mg/l total CN-, that was obtained from Gümüşhane-Mastra/Turkey disseminated gold ores by cyanidation and carbon-in-pulp (CIP) process under laboratory conditions was used in the experiments. Acidification with H2SO4, volatilization of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) with air stripping and absorption of HCN in a basic solution stages were applied and under optimum conditions, 100% of free cyanide and 48% of complex cyanide and consequently 70% of the total cyanide in the liquid phase of gold leach effluent are recovered.

  17. Hydrogen peroxide as a new defensive compound in "benzoyl cyanide" producing polydesmid millipedes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Yasumasa; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Ichiki, Yayoi; Tanabe, Tsutomu; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2017-04-01

    Hydrogen peroxide was newly and simultaneously demonstrated with well-known hydrogen cyanide as a component of defensive secretions of "benzoyl cyanide" producing polydesmid millipedes. Presence of hydrogen peroxide was successively evidenced by Trinder reagent's spray with colorless as well as oily smears of defensive secretions containing benzoyl cyanide and hydrogen cyanide by alkaline picrate paper treatment. Linear correlation was demonstrated between quantities of hydrogen peroxide and benzoyl cyanide. By qualitative assay, seven benzoyl cyanide containing polydesmidans (six species of adults and one species of a nymph at stadium I) tested positive to Trinder reagent, indicative of the presence of hydrogen peroxide (together with hydrogen cyanide), while two cyanogenic species without benzoyl cyanide exhibited negative responses to the reagent. Two types of millipedes were elucidated as species of cyanogenic Polydesmida.

  18. Rapid Field-Usable Cyanide Sensor Development for Blood and Saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Cyanide is a deadly poison which may be ingested or inhaled and can cause severe incapacitation or death. The...biomarker and biological matrix for diagnosing cyanide poisoning is dependent on multiple factors. While definitive determination of cyanide exposure is...Spain. 2. Frankenberg L (1980) Enzyme therapy in cyanide poisoning : effect of rhodanese and sulfur compounds. ArchToxicol 45: 315-323. 3. Iciek M

  19. Application of 2-Aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic Acid as a Forensic Marker of Cyanide Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rużycka, Monika; Giebułtowicz, Joanna; Fudalej, Marcin; Krajewski, Paweł; Wroczyński, Piotr

    2017-02-20

    Cyanides are infamous for their highly poisonous properties. Accidental cyanide poisoning occurs frequently, but occasionally, intentional poisonings also occur. Inhalation of fumes generated by fire may also cause cyanide poisoning. There are many limitations in direct analysis of cyanide. 2-Aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA), a cyanide metabolite, seems to be the only surrogate that is being used in the detection of cyanide because of its stability and its cyanide-dependent quality in a biological matrix. Unfortunately, toxicokinetic studies on diverse animal models suggest significant interspecies differences; therefore, the attempt to extrapolate animal models to human models may be unsuccessful. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of ATCA as a forensic marker of cyanide exposure. For this purpose, post-mortem materials (blood and organs) from fire victims (n = 32) and cyanide-poisoned persons (n = 3) were collected. The distribution of ATCA in organs and its thermal stability were evaluated. The variability of cyanides in a putrid sample and in the context of their long-term and higher temperature stability was established. The presence of ATCA was detected by using an LC-MS/MS method and that of cyanide was detected spectrofluorimetrically. This is the first report on the endogenous ATCA concentrations and the determination of ATCA distribution in tissues of fire victims and cyanide-poisoned persons. It was found that blood and heart had the highest ATCA concentrations. ATCA was observed to be thermally stable even at 90 °C. Even though the cyanide concentration was not elevated in putrid samples, it was unstable during long-term storage and at higher temperature, as expected. The relationship between ATCA and cyanides was also observed. Higher ATCA concentrations were related to increased levels of cyanide in blood and organs (less prominent). ATCA seems to be a reliable forensic marker of exposure to lethal doses of cyanide.

  20. Coconut oil protects cortical neurons from amyloid beta toxicity by enhancing signaling of cell survival pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafar, F; Clarke, J P; Mearow, K M

    2017-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that has links with other conditions that can often be modified by dietary and life-style interventions. In particular, coconut oil has received attention as having potentially having benefits in lessening the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. In a recent report, we showed that neuron survival in cultures co-treated with coconut oil and Aβ was rescued compared to cultures exposed only to Aβ. Here we investigated treatment with Aβ for 1, 6 or 24 h followed by addition of coconut oil for a further 24 h, or treatment with coconut oil for 24 h followed by Aβ exposure for various periods. Neuronal survival and several cellular parameters (cleaved caspase 3, synaptophysin labeling and ROS) were assessed. In addition, the influence of these treatments on relevant signaling pathways was investigated with Western blotting. In terms of the treatment timing, our data indicated that coconut oil rescues cells pre-exposed to Aβ for 1 or 6 h, but is less effective when the pre-exposure has been 24 h. However, pretreatment with coconut oil prior to Aβ exposure showed the best outcomes. Treatment with octanoic or lauric acid also provided protection against Aβ, but was not as effective as the complete oil. The coconut oil treatment reduced the number of cells with cleaved caspase and ROS labeling, as well as rescuing the loss of synaptophysin labeling observed with Aβ treatment. Treatment with coconut oil, as well as octanoic, decanoic and lauric acids, resulted in a modest increase in ketone bodies compared to controls. The biochemical data suggest that Akt and ERK activation may contribute to the survival promoting influence of coconut oil. This was supported by observations that a PI3-Kinase inhibitor blocked the rescue effect of CoOil on Aβ amyloid toxicity. Further studies into the mechanisms of action of coconut oil and its constituent medium chain fatty acids are warranted

  1. Acrolein enhances epigenetic modifications, FasL expression and hepatocyte toxicity induced by anti-HIV drug Zidovudine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghare, Smita S; Donde, Hridgandh; Chen, Wei-Yang; Barker, David F; Gobejishvilli, Leila; McClain, Craig J; Barve, Shirish S; Joshi-Barve, Swati

    2016-09-01

    Zidovudine (AZT) remains the mainstay of antiretroviral therapy against HIV in resource-poor countries; however, its use is frequently associated with hepatotoxicity. Not all HIV patients on AZT develop hepatotoxicity, and the determining factors are unclear. Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are known risk factors for HIV hepatotoxicity, and both are significant sources of acrolein, a highly reactive and toxic aldehyde. This study examines the potential hepatotoxic interactions between acrolein and AZT. Our data demonstrate that acrolein markedly enhanced AZT-induced transcriptionally permissive histone modifications (H3K9Ac and H3K9Me3) allowing the recruitment of transcription factor NF-kB and RNA polymerase II at the FasL gene promoter, resulting in FasL upregulation and apoptosis in hepatocytes. Notably, the acrolein scavenger, hydralazine prevented these promoter-associated epigenetic changes and inhibited FasL upregulation and apoptosis induced by the combination of AZT and acrolein, as well as AZT alone. Our data strongly suggest that acrolein enhancement of promoter histone modifications and FasL upregulation are major pathogenic mechanisms driving AZT-induced hepatotoxicity. Moreover, these data also indicate the therapeutic potential of hydralazine in mitigating AZT hepatotoxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of toxic potential of Cerrado fruit seeds using Artemia salina bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raíza Cavalcante Fonseca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Artemia salina bioassay was used to assess toxicity of seeds and kernels of Brazilian fruits from cerrado (central high plains region and other inner regions of the country. Water extracts of the kernels were filtered and added to Artemia cultures containing ten individuals per mL. Dose - response curves were constructed, and LD50 values were calculated. Pure potassium cyanide standard was used to draw a calibration curve for comparison to detect the presence of cyanide in the samples tested. Extracts of the seeds of araticum, mangaba, cagaita, jatobá, and tucumã were found toxic to Artemia salina, and some of the dose - response curves were very similar in shape to those obtained with pure potassium cyanide standards, while the samples of baru, cajá-manga, siriguela, trauma, and veludo showed no toxicity at all. The Guignard test, specific for cyanide detection, showed negative results in all toxic samples, suggesting the presence of other toxic compounds rather than cyanide. The comparison of araticum dose - response curve with those of other annonaceous fruits suggests the presence acetogenins as the main toxic compounds in the seeds. These results could be useful to prevent poisoning by industrial derivatives of the fruits studied.

  3. Hydroxocobalamin treatment of acute cyanide poisoning from apricot kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigolini, Davide; Ricci, Giogio; Zannoni, Massimo; Codogni, Rosalia; De Luca, Manuela; Perfetti, Paola; Rocca, Giampaolo

    2011-05-24

    Clinical experience with hydroxocobalamin in acute cyanide poisoning via ingestion remains limited. This case concerns a 35-year-old mentally ill woman who consumed more than 20 apricot kernels. Published literature suggests each kernel would have contained cyanide concentrations ranging from 0.122 to 4.09 mg/g (average 2.92 mg/g). On arrival, the woman appeared asymptomatic with a raised pulse rate and slight metabolic acidosis. Forty minutes after admission (approximately 70 min postingestion), the patient experienced headache, nausea and dyspnoea, and was hypotensive, hypoxic and tachypnoeic. Following treatment with amyl nitrite and sodium thiosulphate, her methaemoglobin level was 10%. This prompted the administration of oxygen, which evoked a slight improvement in her vital signs. Hydroxocobalamin was then administered. After 24 h, she was completely asymptomatic with normalised blood pressure and other haemodynamic parameters. This case reinforces the safety and effectiveness of hydroxocobalamin in acute cyanide poisoning by ingestion.

  4. Visual loss caused by acute cyanide poisoning: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Jiang, Libin; Yang, Bentao

    2011-02-01

    Cyanide is considered one of the most lethal poisons, reports on visual changes after acute cyanide poisoning are rare due to a low rate of survival of those having committed suicides. A 30-year-old man developed visual loss in both eyes after inhaling sodium cyanide gas, but nothing abnormal was found in slit lamp microscope and indirect ophthalmoscope examinations 5 months later. In pattern visual evoked potential, the amplitude of P100 wave was apparently decreased. Humphrey perimetry examination and AccuMap multifocal visual evoked potentials objective perimetry showed severe defects of the central visual field. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed abnormal signal changes in bilateral putamen. Results of other examinations, including Farnsworth dichotomous color vision test, optical coherence tomography, retinal nerve fiber layer examination and flash electroretinography, were normal. Although magnetic resonance imaging showed no changes in the signal of the visual pathway, clinical features and our test results suggest a possible lesion in the posterior visual pathway.

  5. Eliminating Cyanide, Reducing Heavy Metals, and Harvesting Gold from Mining Waste with Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    Large amounts of cyanides are used in gold mining. The application is open and generates environmental problems. Regulators therefore insist on detoxifying cyanide-contaminated wastewater. There are existing technologies to remove cyanides, but none uses plants. Here, a new technology is introduced...

  6. Effect of temperature on the uptake and metabolism of cyanide by weeping willows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, X.-Z.; Trapp, Stefan; Zhou, P.-H.

    2007-01-01

    Plants’ uptake and metabolism of cyanide in response to changes in temperature was investigated. Pre-rooted weeping willows (Salix babylonica L.) were exposed to hydroponic solution spiked with potassium cyanide for 2–3 d. Ten different temperatures were used, ranging from 11◦C to 32◦C. Cyanide...

  7. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized... Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized, must be packed in...

  8. Cyanide Antidotes for Mass Casualties: Comparison of Intramuscular Injector by Autoinjector, Intraosseous Injection, and Inhalational Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Current antidotes for cyanide poisoning must be administered by intravenous... Cyanide Poisoning ; Intramuscular Injection; Intraosseous Injection; Inhalational Delivery 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT...required in cyanide - poisoned victims, since they may be hypotensive with collapsed peripheral veins. Thus, intravenous antidote administration would not

  9. INTEGRATED BIOREACTOR SYSTEM FOR THE TREATMENT OF CYANIDE, METALS AND NITRATES IN MINE PROCESS WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    An innovative biological process is described for the tratment of cyanide-, metals- and nitrate-contaminated mine process water. The technology was tested for its ability to detoxify cyanide and nitrate and to immobilize metals in wastewater from agitation cyanide leaching. A pil...

  10. Nitrite-induced enhancement of toxicity of phenanthrene in fish and its implications for coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shailaja, M. S.; Rodrigues, A.

    2003-04-01

    Coastal areas are prone to varying degrees of anthropogenic chemical contamination. In many coastal environments experiencing reducing conditions in the water column, nitrite is produced as a result of denitrification. With a view to determining the effect of a natural stress such as the presence of nitrite in water on the xenobiotic metabolism in fish, the euryhaline cichlid Oreochromis mossambicus was exposed for up to 9 days to environmentally relevant concentrations of water-borne nitrite and phenanthrene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Analyses of different biomarkers in the treated fish indicated significant increase in the metabolism of phenanthrene as a result of exposure to nitrite. For example, the activity of the biotransformation enzyme measured as 7-ethoxyresorufin- O-deethylase activity was, in the presence of 1 μM nitrite, nearly twice that produced by phenanthrene alone. Similarly, biliary fixed fluorescence values reflecting phenanthrene and its metabolites were rendered 1.7 times higher when exposed simultaneously to nitrite. Contact with nitrite and phenanthrene together also led to severe hepatic damage with possible cell death as inferred from the large enhancement in sorbitol dehydrogenase activity in the serum and reduced liver somatic index.

  11. History Matters: Pre-Exposure to Wastewater Enhances Pesticide Toxicity in Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrod, Jochen P; Englert, Dominic; Lüderwald, Simon; Poganiuch, Sandra; Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco

    2017-08-15

    Disturbance regimes determine communities' structure and functioning. Nonetheless, little effort has been undertaken to understand interactions of press and pulse disturbances. In this context, leaf-shredding macroinvertebrates can be chronically exposed to wastewater treatment plant effluents (i.e., press disturbance) before experiencing pesticide exposure following agricultural runoff (i.e., pulse disturbance). It is assumed that wastewater pre-exposure alters animals' sensitivity to pesticides. To test this hypothesis, we exposed model-populations of the shredder Gammarus fossarum to wastewater at three field-relevant dilution levels (i.e., 0%, 50%, and 100%). After 2, 4, and 6 weeks, survival, leaf consumption, dry weight, and energy reserves were monitored. Additionally, animals were assessed for their sensitivity toward the neonicotinoid insecticide thiacloprid using their feeding rate as response variable. Both wastewater treatments reduced gammarids' survival, leaf consumption, dry weight, and energy reserves. Moreover, both wastewater pre-exposure scenarios increased animals' sensitivity toward thiacloprid by up to 2.5 times compared to the control. Our results thus demonstrate that press disturbance as posed by wastewater pre-exposure can enhance susceptibility of key players in ecosystem functioning to further (pulse) disturbances. Therefore, applying mitigation measures such as advanced treatment technologies seems sensible to support functional integrity in the multiple-stress situation.

  12. Analytical assays based on chromogenic and fluorogenic chemosensors for the detection of cyanide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderléia Gava Marini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyanide (CN– is an anion well–known for its toxicity, being a chemical agent often related to cases of homicide and suicide. Despite being responsible for the toxicity of many animals and plants, it is used in several industrial activities, with innumerous implications in terms of the environment. Due to its high toxicity, the maximum level of CN– concentration allowed by the World Health Organization in potable water is 1.7 µmol/L. This low concentration limit requires methods of visual detection and quantitative determination which are ever more sensitive, simple, reliable, and economical. Advancements in the field of chromogenic and fluorogenic chemosensors for anionic analytes have led to the development of several methodologies for the detection of CN–. Therefore, this review aims to present the main strategies that have been used in the study of quantitative and naked–eye detection of CN– by means of chromogenic and fluorogenic chemosensors. Aspects related to CN–, such as its reactivity, toxicity, applications, and implications in different domains of knowledge, are presented. Recent work involving the development of chemosensors for CN– based on acid–base reactions, chemodosimeters, chromoreactands, and competition assays is also described. In addition, recent studies that make use of nanotechnology to develop strategies for the detection of CN– are also discussed, as well as the prospects envisioned in this field.

  13. On OMC-1 temperatures determined from methyl cyanide observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis is performed on the J(k) = 12(k)-11(k) and 13(k)-12(k) transitions of methyl cyanide detected by other investigators in the direction of OMC-1. The original interpretation of those observations argues for the presence of two distinct temperature regions or possibly a temperature gradient within the cloud. The analysis presented here demonstrates that the observations of these particular molecular transitions are consistent with a single methyl cyanide emission region with a source kinetic temperature of 121.2 + or - 8.2 K and a molecular rotational temperature of 16.6 + or - 1.8 K.

  14. Quantitative measurement of cyanide species in simulated ferrocyanide Hanford waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H.; Matheson, J.D.

    1993-02-01

    Analytical methods for the quantification of cyanide species in Hanford simulated high-level radioactive waste were pursued in this work. Methods studied include infrared spectroscopy (solid state and solution), Raman spectroscopy, Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy-electron dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and ion chromatography. Of these, infrared, Raman, X-ray diffraction, and ion chromatography techniques show promise in the concentration range of interest. Quantitation limits for these latter four techniques were demonstrated to be approximately 0.1 wt% (as cyanide) using simulated Hanford wastes

  15. Exposure to enhanced levels of radioactivity and toxic metals in uranium mining areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, F.P.; Madruga, M.J.; Alves, J.G.; Reis, M.C.; Oliveira, J.M. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Dept. de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear (Portugal); Leite, M.M.; Pinto, E.M. [Instituto Nacional de Engenharia, Tecnologia e Inovacao, Lab. o de S. Mamede de Infesta, Mamede de Infesta (Portugal); Falcao, J.M. [Instituto Nacional de Saude Dr Ricardo Jorg e, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2006-07-01

    areas of several former uranium mines in Portugal were investigated for concentrations of radionuclides belonging to the uranium and thorium series as well as for stable metals eventually present in the radioactive ore. Concentrations of radionuclides were determined by alpha and gamma spectrometry in mining and milling waste as well as in soils, water and vegetables grown in the area. Stable metals were determined by mass spectrometry in soils and waters from the mining regions. Concentrations of radionuclides, such as uranium isotopes, 226 Ra and 210 Po, were enhanced in mill tailings and in mine waters, as well as in surface waters near the facilities of uranium ore treatment. For instance, the concentrations of 226 Ra in mill tailings reached 25 kBq/kg whereas in mud from ponds used to treat acid mine water 238 U concentrations reach about 42 kBq/kg in radioactive equilibrium with 234 U. The areas receiving surface runoff and drainage from mill tailings display enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides. These concentrations in the most contaminated soils may be up to 200 times higher than concentrations in agriculture soils of the region. With increasing distance to the tailings and mining waste heaps, the concentrations of radionuclides decrease rapidly to background values. The same trend is observed with environment radiation doses that may reach values of 20 {mu}Sv/h on the tailings and decreasing to values near 0.2 {mu}Sv/h on agriculture fields. Radiation doses received by people living near the uranium mill tailings may be higher than the radiation dose from natural background. Results of external radiation dos e measurements are discussed in the light of recommended dose limits for members of the public. Regarding stable metals and other chemical contaminants present in the ore, the majority wmeasured in soils and underground waters in concentrations below the maximum permissible concentrations generally accepted, although more

  16. Effect of acute and delayed hyperbaric oxygen therapy on cyanide whole blood levels during acute cyanide intoxication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson-Smith, P; Jansen, E C; Hilsted, Linda Maria

    2011-01-01

    causing depletion of adenosine triphosphate. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) is recommended for treating carbon monoxide poisoning. The therapeutic effect is due to a high oxygen pressure removing carbon monoxide from the cells. We hypothesise that HBO2 induces changes in whole-blood-cyanide by a competitive...... mechanism forcing cyanide out of cellular tissues. A rat model was developed to study this effect. Female Sprague Dawley rats were anesthetized with a fentanyl + fluanizone combination and midazolam given subcutaneously (s.c.). Rats were poisoned with 5.4 mg/kg KCN injected intra-peritoneally in Group 1...... HBO2 immediately after poisoning and a group of 10 rats had HBO2 one and a half hours after poisoning. Group 2 rats were divided into a control group and an acute HBO2 group, with 10 rats in both groups. Whole-blood-cyanide concentrations were measured using the Conway method based on diffusion...

  17. Remediation of cyanide-contaminated industrial sites through woody biomass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Tsvetelina; Repmann, Frank; Freese, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    Due to the unfavourable chemical and physical soil quality parameters and the potential presence of contaminants, former industrial sites can hardly be utilized as arable land and can thus be classified as marginal areas. Still, as far as possible, they can effectively be used for the production of alternative energy, including the cultivation of fast growing trees. Apart from being a source of bioenergy, trees might facilitate the stabilization, remedation, contaminant extraction and degradation and, not on the last place, to enhance soil quality improvement on former industrial areas. This process is known as phytoremediation and has successfully been applied on industrial sites of various organic and inorganic contamination. The former manufactured gas plant site ( 2500 m2) "ehemalige Leuchtgasanstalt" Cottbus, contaminated, among others, with iron cyanides undergoes phytoremediation with simultaneous biomass production since 2011. The project "Biomass-Remediation" is fully financed by the German Railways JSC. A dense (23700 stems/ha), mixed cover of willow (Salix caprea), poplar (Populus maximowicii Henry x Populus trichocarpa Torr. et Gray (Hybrid 275)) and black locust (Robinia pseudoaccacia) trees has been planted on the site. Throughout the five years of remediation, a successful long-term stabilization of the site has been achieved as a result of the nearly outright established tree stock and the dense planting. Annual monitoring of the cyanide levels in the leaf tissue of the trees on the site and results from greenhouse experiments indicate the ability of all tree species to extract and transport the cyanide from the soil. Additonally, the greenhouse experiments suggest that the willows might be able, although not to a full extent, to detoxify the contaminant by splitting the CN moiety. The contaminated biomass material might easily be dealt with through regular harvests and subsequent incineration. Phytoremediation with simultaneous biomass production

  18. A 28-day oral dose toxicity study enhanced to detect endocrine effects of a purified technical pentabromodiphenyl ether (pentaBDE) mixture in Wistar rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ven, L.T.M.; van de Kuil, T.; Verhoef, A.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Slob, W.; Canton, R.F.; Germer, S.; Hamers, T.; Visser, T.J.; Litens, S.; Hakansson, H.; Fery, Y.; Schrenk, D.; van den Berg, M.; Piersma, A.H.; Vos, J.G.

    2008-01-01

    A 28-day subacute oral toxicity study was performed in Wistar rats with a purified preparation of the commercial pentabromodiphenyl ether (pentaBDE), DE-71. The applied OECD407 protocol was enhanced for endocrine and immune parameters, and to enable benchmark dose analysis. A vehicle control group

  19. Neurobehavioral and Cardiovascular Effects of Potassium Cyanide Administered Orally to Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Michael A; Ritchie, Glenn D; Henderson, Kim A; Knostman, Katherine A B; Roche, Brian M; Ma, Zhenxu J; Matthews, Claire M; Sabourin, Carol L; Wakayama, Edward J; Sabourin, Patrick J

    2016-09-01

    The Food and Drug Administration Animal Rule requires evaluation of cardiovascular and central nervous system (CNS) effects of new therapeutics. To characterize an adult and juvenile mouse model, neurobehavioral and cardiovascular effects and pathology of a single sublethal but toxic, 8 mg/kg, oral dose of potassium cyanide (KCN) for up to 41 days postdosing were investigated. This study describes the short- and long-term sensory, motor, cognitive, and behavioral changes associated with oral dosing of a sublethal but toxic dose of KCN utilizing functional observation battery and Tier II CNS testing in adult and juvenile mice of both sexes. Selected tissues (histopathology) were evaluated for changes associated with KCN exposure with special attention to brain regions. Telemetry (adult mice only) was used to evaluate cardiovascular and temperature changes. Neurobehavioral capacity, sensorimotor responsivity or spontaneous locomotor activity, and rectal temperature were significantly reduced in adult and juvenile mice at 30 minutes post-8 mg/kg KCN dose. Immediate effects of cyanide included bradycardia, adverse electrocardiogram arrhythmic events, hypotension, and hypothermia with recovery by approximately 1 hour for blood pressure and heart rate effects and by 2 hours for body temperature. Lesions consistent with hypoxia, such as mild acute tubular necrosis in the kidneys corticomedullary junction, were the only histopathological findings and occurred at a very low incidence. The mouse KCN intoxication model indicates rapid and completely reversible effects in adult and juvenile mice following a single oral 8 mg/kg dose. Neurobehavioral and cardiovascular measurements can be used in this animal model as a trigger for treatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. A Direct and Rapid Method to Determine Cyanide in Urine by Capillary Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiyang; Maddukuri, Naveen; Gong, Maojun

    2015-01-01

    Cyanides are poisonous chemicals that widely exist in nature and industrial processes as well as accidental fires. Rapid and accurate determination of cyanide exposure would facilitate forensic investigation, medical diagnosis, and chronic cyanide monitoring. Here, a rapid and direct method was developed for the determination of cyanide ions in urinary samples. This technique was based on an integrated capillary electrophoresis system coupled with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. Cyanide ions were derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA) and a primary amine (glycine) for LIF detection. Three separate reagents, NDA, glycine, and cyanide sample, were mixed online, which secured uniform conditions between samples for cyanide derivatization and reduced the risk of precipitation formation of mixtures. Conditions were optimized; the derivatization was completed in 2-4 minutes, and the separation was observed in 25 s. The limit of detection (LOD) was 4.0 nM at 3-fold signal-to-noise ratio for standard cyanide in buffer. The cyanide levels in urine samples from smokers and non-smokers were determined by using the method of standard addition, which demonstrated significant difference of cyanide levels in urinary samples from the two groups of people. The developed method was rapid and accurate, and is anticipated to be applicable to cyanide detection in waste water with appropriate modification. PMID:26342870

  1. Efficient continuous biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by activated sludge micromycetes with enhanced tolerance to metal ion toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyupa, Dmitry V; Kalenov, Sergei V; Baurina, Marina M; Yakubovich, Liubov M; Morozov, Alexander N; Zakalyukin, Ruslan M; Sorokin, Vladimir V; Skladnev, Dmitry A

    2016-12-01

    The method for producing AgNPs by granules of activated sludge micromycetes with enhanced tolerance to metal ion toxicity - Penicillium glabrum, Fusarium nivale and Fusarium oxysporum has been developed; the optimum conditions for AgNP biosynthesis being found: the Ag + ion concentration, duration of the contact of microbial cells with silver ions, a growth phase of microorganisms, medium composition, a рН value, mixing conditions, and also lighting intensity. The effect of Cl - , SO 4 2- and HPO 4 2- ions binding Ag + ions was eliminated, that brought to significant increase of the yield of NPs. Under batch conditions, silver particles of 60-110 nanometers in size were formed with a 65% yield. It was established that the nanoparticles were covered with microbial cell membrane proteins composed up to 70% by weight of the NPs that prevented their aggregation. In addition, it was the first time stable AgNPs had been formed by continuous AgNP biosynthesis by living cells of F. oxysporum with an 80% yield for a long time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhancing adsorption capacity of toxic malachite green dye through chemically modified breadnut peel: equilibrium, thermodynamics, kinetics and regeneration studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieng, Hei Ing; Lim, Linda B L; Priyantha, Namal

    2015-01-01

    Breadnut skin, in both its unmodified (KS) and base-modified (BM-KS) forms, was investigated for its potential use as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of toxic dye, malachite green (MG). Characterization of the adsorbents was carried out using scanning electron microscope, X-ray fluorescence and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Batch adsorption experiments, carried out under optimized conditions, for the adsorption of MG were fitted using five isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Temkin and Sips) and six error functions to determine the best-fit model. The adsorption capacity was greatly enhanced when breadnut skin was chemically modified with NaOH, leading to an adsorption capacity of 353.0 mg g(-1), that was far superior to most reported adsorbents for the removal of MG. Thermodynamics studies indicated that the adsorption of MG was spontaneous on KS and BM-KS, and the reactions were endothermic and exothermic, respectively. Kinetics studies showed that both followed the pseudo-second order. Regeneration experiments on BM-KS indicated that its adsorption capacity was still maintained at>90% even after five cycles. It can be concluded that NaOH-modified breadfruit skin has great potential to be utilized in real-life application as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of MG in wastewater treatment.

  3. cyanide cassava genotypes in acid ultisols of south eastern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ENGR C.J

    2014-01-29

    Jan 29, 2014 ... cyanide cassava genotypes (TMS 99/2123, TMS 96/1642, TMS 98/0068 and TMS 94/3200﴿ were outstanding in fresh root yield performance. To improve fresh root yield in cassava, the inter- relationships among the various agronomic character of the cassava genotypes demands appropriate attention.

  4. The oxidation of hydrogen cyanide and related chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dagaut, Philippe; Glarborg, Peter; Alzueta, Maria U.

    2008-01-01

    For modeling the formation of nitrogen oxides in combustion via both the prompt-NO and the fuel-NO mechanisms, as well as for modeling the reduction of nitrogen oxides via reburning, a good knowledge of the kinetics of oxidation of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is required. The formation routes to HCN...

  5. Electrochemical Oxidation of Cyanide Using Platinized Ti Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aušra VALIŪNIENĖ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The cyanide-containing effluents are dangerous ecological hazards and must be treated before discharging into the environment. Anodic oxidation is one of the best ways to degrade cyanides. Pt anodes as the most efficient material for the cyanide electrochemical degradation are widely used. However, these electrodes are too expensive for industrial purposes. In this work Ti electrodes covered with nano-sized Pt particle layer were prepared and used for the anodic oxidation of cyanide ions. Surface images of Ti electrodes and Ti electrodes covered with different thickness layer of Pt were compared and characterized by the atomic force microscopy (AFM. The products formed in the solution during the CN- ions electrooxidation were examined by the Raman spectroscopy. An electrochemical Fast Fourier transformation (FFT impedance spectroscopy was used to estimate the parameters that reflect real surface roughness of Pt-modified Ti electrodes.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.4.2514

  6. Integrated self-powered microchip biosensor for endogenous biological cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Liu; Chen, Chaogui; Zhou, Ming; Guo, Shaojun; Wang, Erkang; Dong, Shaojun

    2010-05-15

    In this work we developed a fully integrated biofuel cell on a microchip, which consisted of glucose dehydrogenase supported (carbon nanotubes/thionine/gold nanoparticles)(8) multilayer as the anode, and the (carbon nanotubes/polylysine/laccase)(15) multilayer as the cathode. The as-obtained biofuel cell produced open circuit potential 620 mV and power density 302 microW cm(-2), showing great potential as a small power resource of portable electronics. Most importantly, for the first time we demonstrated the feasibility of developing a self-powered biosensor based on the inhibitive effect on microchip enzyme biofuel cell. With cyanide employed as the model analyte, this method showed a linear range of 3.0 x 10(-7) to 5.0 x 10(-4) M and a detection limit with 1.0 x 10(-7) M under the optimal conditions. The detection limit was lower than the acceptable cyanide concentration in drinking water (1.9 x 10(-6) M) according to the World Health Organization (WHO). This self-powered sensor was successfully used to detect the cyanide concentration in a real sample, cassava, which is the main carbohydrate resource in South America and Africa. This presented biosensor combined with a resistor and a multimeter demonstrated the general applicability as a fast and simple detection method in the determination of endogenous biological cyanide.

  7. Reduction of the cyanide content during fermentation of cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reduction of the cyanide content during fermentation of cassava roots and leaves to produce bikedi and ntoba mbodi, two food products from Congo. ... the cassava roots is a lactic fermentation (pH 3.8) with Lactobacillus as dominant microflora whereas that of the cassava leaves is an alkaline fermentation (pH 8.5) where ...

  8. The Life Cycle Assessment of Cyanide Containers in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sodium cyanide is imported into Ghana in wooden intermediate bulk containers for further distribution to the mining companies. A life cycle assessment was completed to determine the burden that this packaging, which includes the wooden intermediate bulk container, a polyethylene liner and a polypropylene liner places ...

  9. Ferrocyanide Safety Program cyanide speciation studies. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H.; Bryan, S.L.

    1995-07-01

    This report summarizes Pacific Northwest Laboratory's fiscal year (FY) 1995 progress toward developing and implementing methods to identify and quantify cyanide species in ferrocyanide tank waste. This work was conducted for Westinghouse Hanfbrd Company's (WHC's) Ferrocyanide Safety Program. Currently, there are 18 high-level waste storage tanks at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site that are on a Ferrocyanide Tank Watchlist because they contain an estimated 1000 g-moles or more of precipitated ferrocyanide. In the presence of oxidizing material such as sodium nitrate or nitrite, ferrocyanide can be made to react exothermally by heating it to high temperatures or by applying an electrical spark of sufficient energy (Cady 1993). However, fuel, oxidizers, and temperature are all important parameters. If fuel, oxidizers, or high temperatures (initiators) are not present in sufficient amounts, then a runaway or propagating reaction cannot occur. To bound the safety concern, methods are needed to definitively measure and quantitate ferrocyanide concentration present within the actual waste. The target analyte concentration for cyanide in waste is approximately 0.1 to 15 wt % (as cyanide) in the original undiluted sample. After dissolution of the original sample and appropriate dilutions, the concentration range of interest in the analytical solutions can vary between 0.001 to 0.1 wt % (as cyanide). In FY 1992, 1993, and 1994, two solution (wet) methods were developed based on Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and ion chromatography (IC); these methods were chosen for further development activities. The results of these activities are described

  10. Determination of Anti-nutrients and Toxic Substances of Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ABSTRACT: Determination of antinutrients and toxic substances in leafy vegetables is an imperative facet in nutritional studies as it establishes the baseline concentrations index for phytotoxins in the vegetables. Concentrations of cyanide, nitrate, soluble and total oxalates were quantitatively determined in the common ...

  11. Effect of fruiting on micronutrients, antinutrients and toxic substances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    Cyanide is a potent respiratory poison (Ames et al., 1981, Ellenborn and Barcelonx, 1988) while nitrate causes methaemoglobinemia and cancer (Galler, 1997;. Waclaw and Stefan, 2004; Oyesom and Okoh, 2006;. Anjana et al., 2007). However, the content of nutrients and toxic substances in this vegetable like others are.

  12. The cyanide hydratase enzyme of Fusarium lateritium also has nitrilase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Linda M; Harnedy, Padraigin A; Turner, Peter; Hearne, Audrey B; O'Reilly, Catherine

    2003-04-25

    The filamentous fungus Fusarium lateritium produces cyanide hydratase when grown in the presence of cyanide. The cyanide hydratase protein produced at a high level in Escherichia coli shows a low but significant nitrilase activity with acetonitrile, propionitrile and benzonitrile. The nitrilase activity is sufficient for growth of the recombinant strain on acetonitrile, propionitrile or benzonitrile as the sole source of nitrogen. The recombinant enzyme shows highest nitrilase activity with benzonitrile. Site-directed mutagenesis of the F. lateritium cyanide hydratase gene indicates that mutations leading to a loss of cyanide hydratase activity also lead to a loss of nitrilase activity. This suggests that the active site for cyanide hydratase and nitrilase activity in the protein is the same. This is the first evidence of cyanide hydratase having nitrilase activity.

  13. Effect of long-term cyanide exposure on cyanide-sensitive respiration and phosphate metabolism in the fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanić Marina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of long-term exposure (5 h of Phycomyces blakesleeanus mycelium to 5 mM KCN on respiration and phosphate metabolites were tested. Exposure to cyanide, antimycin A and azide lead to a decrease in the activity of cyanide-sensitive respiration (CSR, and the ratio of core polyphosphates (PPc and inorganic phosphates (Pi, which is a good indicator of the metabolic state of a cell. After 5 h of incubation, the activity of CSR returned to control values. For this, the recovery of cytochrome c oxidase (COX was required. In addition, the PPc/Pi ratio started to recover shortly after initiation of COX recovery, but never reached control values. This led us to conclude that the regulation of polyphosphate (PPn levels in the cell is tightly coupled to respiratory chain functioning. In addition, acutely applied cyanide caused two different responses, observed by 31P NMR spectroscopy, that were probably mediated through the mechanism of glycolytic oscillations, triggered by the effect of cyanide on mitochondria. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173040

  14. Cyanide hydratase from Aspergillus niger K10: Overproduction in Escherichia coli, purification, characterization and use in continuous cyanide degradation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rinágelová, Anna; Kaplan, Ondřej; Veselá, Alicja Barbara; Chmátal, Martin; Křenková, Alena; Plíhal, Ondřej; Pasquarelli, Fabrizia; Cantarella, M.; Martínková, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 3 (2014), s. 445-450 ISSN 1359-5113 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/0394; GA TA ČR TA01021368 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Cyanide hydratase * Nitrilase * Aspergillus niger Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.516, year: 2014

  15. Toxicological Investigation of Acute Cyanide Poisoning Cases: Report of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humera Shafi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyanide is a deadly poison. Acute cyanide poisoning in humans is rare and is predominantly caused by smoke inhalation from fires and much more rarely by intentional ingestion of cyanide salts as in suicide or homicide attempts. The main objective of this report is to emphasize the need to consider cyanide poisoning, even if it is rare, in differential diagnosis while evaluating cases of sudden death and the significance of gastric content analysis in acute poisoning cases. The authors reported four cases of lethal cyanide poisoning. Autopsy specimens were submitted to the author’s laboratory for analysis. A presumptive test for cyanide using Vitamin B12 indicated the presence of cyanide. Confirmation and quantification of cyanide was performed using headspace gas chromatograph coupled to flame ionization detector technique. The toxicological analysis revealed lethal hydrogen cyanide concentrations in all postmortem specimens ranging from 24 to 2600 mg/L in gastric contents, 70 to 282 mg/kg in liver specimens, 11 to 12 mg/kg in a mixture of viscera (liver, spleen, kidney and 15 mg/L in blood. The cause of deaths in the reported cases was acute respiratory failure and cardiac arrest following cyanide intoxication.

  16. A field-deployable device for the rapid detection of cyanide poisoning in whole blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Hans; Tong, Winnie; Chung, Roy; Boss, Gerry; O'Farrell, Brendan

    2012-06-01

    Feasibility of a field-deployable device for the rapid and early diagnosis of cyanide poisoning in whole blood using the spectral shift of the vitamin B12 precursor cobinamide upon binding with cyanide as an indicator is being assessed. Cyanide is an extremely potent and rapid acting poison with as little as 50 mg fatal to humans. Cyanide poisoning has been recognized as a threat from smoke inhalation and potentially through weapons of mass destruction. Currently, no portable rapid tests for the detection of cyanide in whole blood are available. Cobinamide has an extremely high affinity for cyanide and captures hemoglobin associated cyanide from red blood cells. Upon binding of cyanide, cobinamide undergoes a spectral shift that can be measured with a spectrophotometer. We have combined the unique cyanide-binding properties of cobinamide with blood separation technology, sample transport and a detection system, and are developing a rapid, field deployable, disposable device which will deliver an intuitive result to a first responder, allowing for rapid response to exposure events. Feasibility of the cobinamide-Cyanide chemistry in a rapid test using a whole blood sample from a finger-stick has been demonstrated with an assay time from sample collection to a valid result of under 5 minutes. Data showing the efficacy of the diagnostic method and initial device design concepts will be shown.

  17. Thromboxane A{sub 2} receptor signaling promotes liver tissue repair after toxic injury through the enhancement of macrophage recruitment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minamino, Tsutomu [Departments of Pharmacology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Departments of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Ito, Yoshiya [Departments of Surgery, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Ohkubo, Hirotoki [Departments of Pharmacology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Departments of Surgery, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Hosono, Kanako; Suzuki, Tatsunori [Departments of Pharmacology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Sato, Takehito [Departments of Pharmacology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Departments of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Ae, Takako; Shibuya, Akitaka [Departments of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Sakagami, Hiroyuki [Departments of Anatomy, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Narumiya, Shuh [Department of Pharmacology, Kyoto University School of Medicine, Kyoto, 606-8315 (Japan); Koizumi, Wasaburo [Departments of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan); Majima, Masataka, E-mail: mmajima@med.kitasato-u.ac.jp [Departments of Pharmacology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa 252-0374 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    It is thought that thromboxane A{sub 2} (TxA{sub 2}) contributes to the progression of inflammation during acute hepatic injury; however, it is still unknown whether TxA{sub 2} is involved in liver repair. The objective of the present study was to examine the role of TxA{sub 2} receptor (TP) signaling in liver injury and repair in response to toxic injury. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) was used to induce liver injury in TP knockout (TP{sup −/−}) mice and wild-type (WT) mice. In WT mice, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and the size of the necrotic area peaked at 24 and 48 h, respectively, and then declined. In TP{sup −/−} mice, the changes in ALT levels were similar to WT mice, but liver regeneration was impaired as evidenced by remained elevated levels of hepatic necrosis and by delayed hepatocyte proliferation, which was associated with the reduced expression of growth factors including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). In TP{sup −/−} mice, the accumulation of hepatic CD11b{sup +}/F4/80{sup +} macrophages in injured livers was attenuated, and the hepatic expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) and its receptor, the C―C chemokine receptor (CCR2), was reduced compared to WT. Additionally, the application of the TP receptor agonist, U-46619, enhanced the expression of MCP-1/CCL2 and CCR2 in peritoneal macrophages, which was associated with increased levels of IL-6, TNFα and HGF. These results suggested that TP receptor signaling facilitates liver recovery following CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatotoxicity by affecting the expression of hepatotrophic growth factors, and through the recruitment of macrophages mediated by MCP-1/CCL2-CCR2 expression. -- Highlights: ► TP enhances liver regeneration by CCl{sub 4}. ► TP accumulates macrophages. ► TP up-regulates MCP-1.

  18. A possible new mechanism involved in ferro-cyanide metabolism by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Li, Fan; Li, Kun

    2011-09-01

    Ferro-cyanide is one of the commonly found species at cyanide-contaminated soils and groundwater. Unlike botanical metabolism of KCN via the β-cyanoalanine pathway, processes involved in the plant-mediated assimilation of ferro-cyanide are still unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate a possible mechanism involved in uptake and assimilation of ferro-cyanide by plants. Detached roots of plants were exposed to ferro-cyanide in a closed-dark hydroponic system amended with HgCl(2), AgNO(3), LaCl(3), tetraethylammonium chloride (TEACl), or Na(3)VO(4), respectively, at 25 ± 0.5°C for 24 h. Total CN, free CN(-), and dissolved Fe(2+) were analyzed spectrophotometrically. Activity of β-cyanoalanine synthase involved in cyanide assimilation was also assayed using detached roots of plants in vivo. Dissociation of ferro-cyanide [Fe(II)(CN)(6)](-4) to free CN(-) and Fe(2+) in solution was negligible. The applied inhibitors did not show any significant impact on the uptake of ferro-cyanide by soybean (Glycine max L. cv. JD 1) and hybrid willows (Salix matsudana Koidz × alba L.; p > 0.05), but rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. JY 98) was more susceptible to the inhibitors compared with the controls (p ferro-cyanide by soybean, hybrid willows, and maize (Zea mays L. cv. PA 78; p ferro-cyanide was observed compared with the control without any cyanides (p > 0.05), whereas roots exposed to KCN showed a considerable increase in enzyme activity (p ferro-cyanide. Ferro-cyanide is likely metabolized by plants directly through an unknown pathway rather than the β-cyanoalanine pathway.

  19. The combination of cobinamide and sulfanegen is highly effective in mouse models of cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Adriano; Crankshaw, Daune L; Monteil, Alexandre; Patterson, Steven E; Nagasawa, Herbert T; Briggs, Jackie E; Kozocas, Joseph A; Mahon, Sari B; Brenner, Matthew; Pilz, Renate B; Bigby, Timothy D; Boss, Gerry R

    2011-06-01

    Cyanide is a component of smoke in residential and industrial fires, and accidental exposure to cyanide occurs in a variety of industries. Moreover, cyanide has the potential to be used by terrorists, particularly in a closed space such as an airport or train station. Current therapies for cyanide poisoning must be given by intravenous administration, limiting their use in treating mass casualties. We are developing two new cyanide antidotes--cobinamide, a vitamin B(12) analog, and sulfanegen, a 3-mercaptopyruvate prodrug. Both drugs can be given by intramuscular administration, and therefore could be used to treat a large number of people quickly. We now asked if the two drugs would have an augmented effect when combined. We used a non-lethal and two different lethal models of cyanide poisoning in mice. The non-lethal model assesses neurologic recovery by quantitatively evaluating the innate righting reflex time of a mouse. The two lethal models are a cyanide injection and a cyanide inhalation model. We found that the two drugs are at least additive when used together in both the non-lethal and lethal models: at doses where all animals died with either drug alone, the combination yielded 80 and 40% survival in the injection and inhalation models, respectively. Similarly, drug doses that yielded 40% survival with either drug alone, yielded 80 and 100% survival in the injection and inhalation models, respectively. As part of the inhalation model, we developed a new paradigm in which animals are exposed to cyanide gas, injected intramuscularly with an antidote, and then re-exposed to cyanide gas. This simulates cyanide exposure of a large number of people in a closed space, because people would remain exposed to cyanide, even after receiving an antidote. The combination of cobinamide and sulfanegen shows great promise as a new approach to treating cyanide poisoning.

  20. Co-exposure to sunlight enhances the toxicity of naturally weathered Deepwater Horizon oil to early lifestage red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and speckled seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloy, Matthew; Garner, Thomas Ross; Bridges, Kristin; Mansfield, Charles; Carney, Michael; Forth, Heather; Krasnec, Michelle; Lay, Claire; Takeshita, Ryan; Morris, Jeffrey; Bonnot, Shane; Oris, James; Roberts, Aaron

    2017-03-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill resulted in the accidental release of millions of barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Photo-induced toxicity following co-exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is 1 mechanism by which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from oil spills may exert toxicity. Red drum and speckled seatrout are both important fishery resources in the Gulf of Mexico. They spawn near-shore and produce positively buoyant embryos that hatch into larvae in approximately 24 h. The goal of the present study was to determine whether exposure to UV as natural sunlight enhances the toxicity of crude oil to early lifestage red drum and speckled seatrout. Larval fish were exposed to several dilutions of high-energy water-accommodated fractions (HEWAFs) from 2 different oils collected in the field under chain of custody during the 2010 spill and 3 gradations of natural sunlight in a factorial design. Co-exposure to natural sunlight and oil significantly reduced larval survival compared with exposure to oil alone. Although both species were sensitive at PAH concentrations reported during the Deepwater Horizon spill, speckled seatrout demonstrated a greater sensitivity to photo-induced toxicity than red drum. These data demonstrate that even advanced weathering of slicks does not ameliorate the potential for photo-induced toxicity of oil to these species. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:780-785. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  1. Spatial separation of the cyanogenic β-glucosidase ZfBGD2 and cyanogenic glucosides in the haemolymph of Zygaena larvae facilitates cyanide release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pentzold, Stefan; Jensen, Mikael Kryger; Matthes, Annemarie

    2017-01-01

    Low molecular weight compounds are typically used by insects and plants for defence against predators. They are often stored as inactive β-glucosides and kept separate from activating β-glucosidases. When the two components are mixed, the β-glucosides are hydrolysed releasing toxic aglucones....... Cyanogenic plants contain cyanogenic glucosides and release hydrogen cyanide due to such a well-characterized two-component system. Some arthropods are also cyanogenic, but comparatively little is known about their system. Here, we identify a specific β-glucosidase (ZfBGD2) involved in cyanogenesis from......-glucosidases, and correspondingly, the ability to hydrolyse cyanogenic glucosides catalysed by a specific β-glucosidase evolved convergently in insects and plants. The spatial separation of the β-glucosidase ZfBGD2 and its cyanogenic substrates within the haemolymph provides the basis for cyanide release in Z. filipendulae...

  2. Monitoring of river water for free cyanide pollution from mining activity in Papua New Guinea and attenuation of cyanide by biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaraba, Ian; Rao, B K Rajashekhar

    2015-01-01

    Cyanide (CN) pollution was reported in the downstream areas of Watut and Markham Rivers due to effluent discharges from gold mining and processing activities of Hidden Valley mines in Morobe province of Papua New Guinea. We monitored free cyanide levels in Watut and Markham River waters randomly three times in years for 2 years (2012 and 2013). Besides, a short-term static laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the potential of river sediment to attenuate externally added cyanide, with and without the presence of biochar material. Results indicated that the free cyanide content ranged between 0.17 and 1.32 μg L(-1) in the river waters. The free cyanide content were found to be significantly (p pollution.

  3. Determination of free cyanide and total cyanide concentrations in surface and underground waters in Bogoso and its surrounding areas in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Obiri

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of free cyanide and total cyanide in water samples in Bogoso and its surrounding areas in Ghana have been measured in this study. Concentrations of free cyanide and total cyanide were found to be above the maximum permissible discharge limit of effluent from mining companies into natural waters set by Environmental Protection Agency, Ghana (GEPA. A comparison of the results obtained in this study with permissible levels set by US Environmental Protection Agency and the World Health Organization reveals that surface waters in the study areas are highly polluted with cyanide and it's not safe for human consumptions. This means that, the resident in and around Bogoso are at risk.

  4. [Biooxidation of gold-bearing sulfide ore and subsequent biological treatment of cyanidation residues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaev, A T; Bulaev, A G; Semenchenko, G V; Kanaeva, Z K; Shilmanova, A A

    2016-01-01

    The percolation biooxidation parameters of ore from the Bakyrchik deposit were studied. An investigation of the technological parameters (such as the concentration of leaching agents, irrigation intensity, and pauses at various stages of the leaching) revealed the optimal mode for precious metal extraction. The stages of the ore processing were biooxidation, gold extraction by cyanidation or thiosulfate leaching, and biological destruction of cyanide. The gold and silver recovery rates by cyanidation were 64.0 and 57.3%, respectively. The gold and silver recovery rates by thiosulfate leaching were 64.0 and 57.3%, respectively. Gold and silver recovery rates from unoxidized ore (control experiment) by cyanidation were 20.9 and 26.8%, respectively. Thiosulfate leaching of unoxidized ore allowed the extraction of 38.8 and 24.2% of the gold and silver, respectively. Cyanidation residues were treated with bacteria of the genus Alcaligenes in order to destruct cyanide.

  5. Determination of nitrate, nitrite, N- nitrosamines, cyanide and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nitrate, nitrite, N- nitrosamines and ascorbic acid content as well as the levels of cyanide in eight brands of fruit juices and twelve brands of sachet water commonly marketed and consumed in Nigeria were estimated. The mean values of nitrate ranged from 2.29±0.05 to 16.50±1.21 mg/L for the juices and 0.64±0.21 to ...

  6. Polynuclear and one-dimensional cyanide-bridged heterobimetallic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JINGWEN SHI

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... properties with the ultimate goal of obtaining molecular materials with new structures, properties and .... tonitrile and methanol with a ratio of 1:2:1 was carefully added. Then, [Mn(L2)(H2O)2]ClO4 (54 mg, 0.10 .... trans positions, and obtained two cyanide-bridged Ag-. Mn complexes with different structures, ...

  7. Cyanide - Mechanism of Prophylaxis and Effect on Cytochrome Oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-15

    protective effect of oxygen probably reflects the algebraic sum of multiple protective mechanisms rather than a single one. Also these different mechanisms...subsequently it was isolated from this cherry-laurel preparation. ii. SOURCE Cyanide-containing staple foods, such as cassava (B. Osuntokun. 1970) and forage...tropical neuropathies produced by cassava . One of these studies, by Osuntokun (1972), demonstrated the demyelination of peripheral nerves and the

  8. Syntheses and characterizations of the cyanide-bridged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spectral features of the complexes suggest that the Ni(II) ion is four coordinate with four cyanide-carbon atoms in a square planar geometry, whereas the Cu(II) and the Zn(II) ions of the Cu–Ni–etim and the Zn–Ni–etim complexes are completed by nitrogen atoms of two cyano groups of [Ni(CN)4]2- coordinated to the ...

  9. Methylmercury-induced toxicity is mediated by enhanced intracellular calcium through activation of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Mi Sun; Jeong, Ju Yeon; Seo, Ji Heui; Jeon, Hyung Jun; Jung, Kwang Mook; Chin, Mi-Reyoung; Moon, Chang-Kiu; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Jung, Sung Yun; Kim, Dae Kyong

    2006-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant to which humans can be exposed by ingestion of contaminated food. MeHg has been suggested to exert its toxicity through its high reactivity to thiols, generation of arachidonic acid and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and elevation of free intracellular Ca 2+ levels ([Ca 2+ ] i ). However, the precise mechanism has not been fully defined. Here we show that phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) is a critical pathway for MeHg-induced toxicity in MDCK cells. D609, an inhibitor of PC-PLC, significantly reversed the toxicity in a time- and dose-dependent manner with concomitant inhibition of the diacylglycerol (DAG) generation and the phosphatidylcholine (PC)-breakdown. MeHg activated the group IV cytosolic phospholipase A 2 (cPLA 2 ) and acidic form of sphingomyelinase (A-SMase) downstream of PC-PLC, but these enzymes as well as protein kinase C (PKC) were not linked to the toxicity by MeHg. Furthermore, MeHg produced ROS, which did not affect the toxicity. Addition of EGTA to culture media resulted in partial decrease of [Ca 2+ ] i and partially blocked the toxicity. In contrast, when the cells were treated with MeHg in the presence of Ca 2+ in the culture media, D609 completely prevented cell death with parallel decrease in [Ca 2+ ] i . Our results demonstrated that MeHg-induced toxicity was linked to elevation of [Ca 2+ ] i through activation of PC-PLC, but not attributable to the signaling pathways such as cPLA 2 , A-SMase, and PKC, or to the generation of ROS

  10. Bacillus Pumilus Cyanide Dihydratase Mutants with Higher Catalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary A Crum

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cyanide degrading nitrilases are noted for their potential to detoxify industrial wastewater contaminated with cyanide. However, such application would benefit from an improvement to characteristics such as their catalytic activity and stability. Following error-prone PCR for random mutagenesis, several cyanide dihydratases mutants from Bacillus pumilus were isolated based on improved catalysis. Four point mutations, K93R, D172N, A202T and E327K were characterized and their effects on kinetics, thermostability and pH tolerance were studied. K93R and D172N increased the enzyme’s thermostability whereas E327K mutation had a less pronounced effect on stability. The D172N mutation also increased the affinity of the enzyme for its substrate at pH 7.7 but lowered its kcat. However, the A202T mutation, located in the dimerization or the A surface, destabilized the protein and abolished its activity. No significant effect on activity at alkaline pH was observed for any of the purified mutants. These mutations help confirm the model of CynD and are discussed in the context of the protein-protein interfaces leading to the protein quaternary structure.

  11. Smoke Inhalation and Cyanide Poisoning: 20 Years of Paris Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baud, F. J.

    2007-01-01

    Hydroxocobalamin has been used as a cyanide poisoning antidote for many years in France. It has recently been approved by the US FDA. In Paris, hydroxocobalamin is carried by the Brigade de Sapeurs Pompiers (Paris Fire Brigade) in mobile intensive care vehicles and has been administered empirically to victims of enclosed-space fire smoke inhalation who meet the criteria of having soot in the nose, mouth, or throat, any alteration in mental status or disturbance in consciousness, and especially if any degree of hypotension is present (BP less than or equal to 100 mmHg systolic). The administration of hydroxocobalamin at the scene was shown to be safe. Hydroxocobalamin has also been efficacious and safe in 'pure' cyanide poisoning, as long as brain death has not already occurred. A 'toxidrome' of cyanide poisoning has been developed in our institution in Paris, and its application can assist in making the diagnosis of this life-threatening poisoning which cannot be emergent diagnosed by currently-available laboratory methods.(author)

  12. SERS spectroscopy for detection of hydrogen cyanide in breath from children colonised with P. aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Rikke Kragh; Skou, Peter Bæk; Rindzevicius, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    ) nanochip optimised for detection of trace amounts of the P. aeruginosa biomarker hydrogen cyanide (HCN) was mounted inside a Tedlar bag, which the patient breathed into. The SERS chip was then analysed in a Raman spectrometer, investigating the C≡N peak at 2131 cm-1 and correlated with sputum cultures. One...... new P. aeruginosa colonisation occurred during the trial period. The C≡N peak intensity was enhanced in this sample in contrast to the subject's 3 other samples. Three additional patients had intense C≡N SERS signals from their breath, but no P. aeruginosa was cultured from their sputum....... It is concluded that SERS spectroscopy can be developed into an easy to use hypersensitive clinical prescreening method for detection of HCN in human breath. ...

  13. Reciprocal enhancement of uptake and toxicity of cadmium and calcium in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adiele, Reginald C.; Stevens, Don; Kamunde, Collins

    2010-01-01

    The interactive effects of cadmium (Cd) and calcium (Ca) on energy metabolism in rainbow trout liver mitochondria were studied to test the prediction that Ca would protect against Cd-induced mitochondrial liability. Isolated rainbow trout liver mitochondria were energized with malate and glutamate and exposed to increasing concentrations (5-100 μM) of Cd and Ca singly and in combination at 15 o C. Accumulation of Cd and Ca in the mitochondria and mitochondrial respiration (oxygen consumption) rates were measured. Additionally, un-energized mitochondria were incubated with low doses (1 μM) of Cd and Ca singly and in combination, with time-course measurements of cation accumulation/binding and oxygen consumption rates. In energized actively phosphorylating mitochondria, the uptake rates of both Cd and Ca were dose-dependent and enhanced when administered concurrently. Upon low-dose incubation, Cd accumulation was rapid and peaked in 5 min, while no appreciable uptake of Ca occurred. Functionally, the resting (state 4, ADP-limited) respiration rate was not affected in the dose-response exposure, but it decreased remarkably on low-dose incubation. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-stimulated respiration (state 3) rate was impaired dose-dependently with maximal inhibitions (at the highest dose, 100 μM) of 32, 64 and 73% for Ca, Cd, and combined exposures, respectively. The combined effects of Ca and Cd suggested synergistic (more than additive) action and partial additivity of effects at low and higher doses of the two cations, respectively. Moreover, on a molar basis, Cd was twice as toxic as Ca to rainbow trout liver mitochondria and when combined, approximately 90% of the effects were attributable to Cd. The coupling efficiency, as measured by respiratory control ratio (RCR) and phosphorylation efficiency, measured as ADP/O ratio, both decreased as the exposure dosage and duration increased. In addition, Cd and Ca exposure decreased mitochondrial proton leak (state 4

  14. Packed bed reactor for degradation of simulated cyanide-containing wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Virender; Kumar, Vijay; Bhalla, Tek Chand

    2014-01-01

    The discharge of cyanide-containing effluents into the environment contaminates water bodies and soil. Effective methods of treatment which can detoxify cyanide are the need of the hour. The aim of the present study is to develop a bioreactor for complete degradation of cyanide using immobilized cells of Serratia marcescens RL2b. Alginate-entrapped cells of S. marcescens RL2b were used for complete degradation of cyanide in a packed bed reactor (PBR). Cells grown in minimal salt medium (pH 6....

  15. Physicochemical basis of the ion-exchange separation of gold cyanide complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononova, O. N.; Kononov, Yu. S.

    2014-10-01

    The mechanism of the separation of gold cyanide complexes is discussed, along with ion exchanger selection, selectivity, elution, and industrial applications. The ion-exchange mechanism for the sorption of gold cyanide complexes is established, and a criterion is suggested for selecting the anion exchanger for their extraction (specifically, the p K a of the anion exchanger). The selectivity of the sorption of gold cyanide complexes by anion exchangers with rarely distributed ionogenic groups is demonstrated. A procedure for the elution of gold cyanide complexes using alkaline solutions is developed.

  16. The Effect of Storage Longtime on Cyanide Production in Postmortem Stored Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeeid Gholamzadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Acute cyanide poisoning happens intentionally as suicide attempt or in accidental use. Interpretation of cyanide analysis results in postmortem samples is important in forensic medicine. Material & Methods: In this case-control study, the liver and the lung of 100 autopsy cases were collected during six months in Shiraz Forensic Medicine Department. Samples were divided into three parts and were examined as follow: one part of the liver and the lung was analyzed qualitatively to detect cyanide with Prussian blue test at first day of admission, the second and the third parts of the samples were stored at 0-4°C for one and two months, respectively. Then, liver and lung samples were analyzed to measure the amount of cyanide. Results: Cyanide was detected in only six cases in all three parts of the liver samples. Screening results for cyanide were negative for the remaining 94 liver samples. Conclusion: Endogenous cyanide production was not detected in liver and lung samples in this study. Therefore, cyanide detection was not affected by the time of the storage of the samples. The cyanide level changes in mentioned tissues were not significant. More importantly, our results would be more advantageous if we studied quantitatively on more samples to pave the way for future studies.

  17. Can’t take the heat: Temperature-enhanced toxicity in the mayfly Isonychia bicolor exposed to the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, A.A., E-mail: aacamp@ncsu.edu; Buchwalter, D.B., E-mail: dbbuchwa@ncsu.edu

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Temperature has a strong modulating influence on toxicity in aquatic insects. • Increasing temperature decreased the time to onset of imidacloprid toxicity. • Increasing temperature increased the uptake rates of imidacloprid in different taxa. • Sublethal behavioral effects of contaminants are important to assess in toxicology. - Abstract: Neonicotinoid insecticide usage has increased globally in recent decades. Neonicotinoids, such as imidacloprid, are potent insect neurotoxicants that may pose a threat to non-target aquatic organisms, such as aquatic insects. In nature, insects typically live in thermally fluctuating conditions, which may significantly alter both contaminant exposures and affects. Here we investigate the relationship between temperature and time-to-effect for imidacloprid toxicity with the aquatic insect Isonychia bicolor, a lotic mayfly. Additionally, we examined the mechanisms driving temperature-enhanced toxicity including metabolic rate, imidacloprid uptake rate, and tissue bioconcentration. Experiments included acute toxicity tests utilizing sublethal endpoints and mortality, as well as respirometry and radiotracer assays with [{sup 14}C] imidacloprid. Further, we conducted additional uptake experiments with a suite of aquatic invertebrates (including I. bicolor, Neocloeon triangulifer, Macaffertium modestum, Pteronarcys proteus, Acroneuria carolinensis, and Pleuroceridae sp) to confirm and contextualize our findings from initial experiments. The 96 h EC{sub 50} (immobility) for I. bicolor at 15 °C was 5.81 μg/L which was approximately 3.2 fold lower than concentrations associated with 50% mortality. Assays examining the impact of temperature were conducted at 15, 18, 21, and 24 °C and demonstrated that time-to-effect for sublethal impairment and immobility was significantly decreased with increasing temperature. Uptake experiments with [{sup 14}C] imidacloprid revealed that initial uptake rates were significantly

  18. Liquid chromatographic mass spectrometric (LC/MS/MS) determination of plasma hydroxocobalamin and cyanocobalamin concentrations after hydroxocobalamin antidote treatment for cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwertner, Harvey A; Valtier, Sandra; Bebarta, Vikhyat S

    2012-09-15

    Cyanide poisoning occurs in individuals after fire smoke inhalation and after oral ingestion of cyanide. Hydroxocobalamin (HOCbl), a hydroxylated form of vitamin B(12), is often used as an antidote to treat cyanide toxicity. It has a high affinity for cyanide and rapidly removes cyanide from tissue by forming cyanocobalamin (CNCbl). Little information is available on the pharmacokinetics of HOCbl and CNCbl largely because of the lack of analytical methods for analyzing HOCbl and CNCbl. In this study, we developed a new liquid chromatographic mass spectrometric (LC/MS/MS) method for the quantitative analysis of plasma HOCbl and CNCbl in the porcine (Sus scrofa) model. The method uses on-column extraction, reversed phase gradient chromatography, and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) for quantitation. MRM transitions monitored were 664.7→147.3 and 664.7→359.2 for HOCbl and 678.8→147.3, 678.8→359.1 678.8→457.1 for CNCbl. The limit of detection (LOD) and the lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) were 1.0 and 1.0 μmole/L, respectively, for plasma HOCbl and 0.1 and 0.5 μmole/L for plasma CNCbl. The within-day and between-day CVs were 4.3 and 6.4% for plasma HOCbl at 500.0 μmole/L and 5.5 and 5.7% for CNCbl at 100.0 μmole/L (n=6). The plasma HOCbl and CNCbl calibrations curves were linear from 100.0 to 2000.0 and 50.0 to 500.0 μmole/L, respectively. Based on 6 separate calibration curves the average linear regression coefficient (R(2)) for both HOCbl and CNCbl was 0.992. The LC/M/MS method was found to be accurate and precise and has been validated by determining the plasma HOCbl and CNCbl concentrations in 11 pigs that were treated with HOCbl for cyanide poisoning. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Application of carbon foam for heavy metal removal from industrial plating wastewater and toxicity evaluation of the adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Gu; Song, Mi-Kyung; Ryu, Jae-Chun; Park, Chanhyuk; Choi, Jae-Woo; Lee, Sang-Hyup

    2016-06-01

    Electroplating wastewater contains various types of toxic substances, such as heavy metals, solvents, and cleaning agents. Carbon foam was used as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from real industrial plating wastewater. Its sorption capacity was compared with those of a commercial ion-exchange resin (BC258) and a heavy metal adsorbent (CupriSorb™) in a batch system. The experimental carbon foam has a considerably higher sorption capacity for Cr and Cu than commercial adsorbents for acid/alkali wastewater and cyanide wastewater. Additionally, cytotoxicity test showed that the newly developed adsorbent has low cytotoxic effects on three kinds of human cells. In a pilot plant, the carbon foam had higher sorption capacity for Cr (73.64 g kg(-1)) than for Cu (14.86 g kg(-1)) and Ni (7.74 g kg(-1)) during 350 h of operation time. Oxidation pretreatments using UV/hydrogen peroxide enhance heavy metal removal from plating wastewater containing cyanide compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Physiopathological effects of the administration of chronic cyanide to growing goats--a model for ingestion of cyanogenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Blanco, B; Górniak, S L; Kimura, E T

    2001-07-01

    Ingestion of cyanogenic plants, such as cassava and sorghum, has been associated with goitre and tropical pancreatic diabetes in both humans and animals. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine the toxic effects on the thyroid and pancreas in growing goats of prolonged exposure to potassium cyanide (KCN). Thirty-four male goats were divided into five groups dosed with KCN at 0 (control). 0.3, 0.6, 1.2 or 3.0 mg/kg daily for 5 months. Blood samples were obtained in order to determine the glucose, cholesterol, thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and thiocyanate concentrations and for haematological studies; pancreas and thyroid gland were collected for histopathological study. The group receiving the highest dose of cyanide showed lower body weight gains and carcase weights and a decrease in plasma T3 concentrations compared to the control group. Reabsorption vacuoles in follicular colloid and normocytic normochromic anaemia were observed in the experimental animals. Inhibition of peripheral conversion of T4 to T3 is suggested. However, no diabetogenic effects were observed.

  1. Minimal levels of ultraviolet light enhance the toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to two representative organisms of aquatic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Z.; Castro, V. L.; Jonsson, C. M.; Fraceto, L. F.

    2014-08-01

    A number of studies have been published concerning the potential ecotoxicological risks of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2), but the results still remain inconclusive. The characteristics of the diverse types of nano-TiO2 must be considered in order to establish experimental models to study their toxicity. TiO2 has important photocatalytic properties, and its photoactivation occurs in the ultraviolet (UV) range. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of nano-TiO2 to indicators organisms of freshwater and saline aquatic systems, under different illumination conditions (visible light, with or without UV light). Daphnia similis and Artemia salina were co-exposed to a sublethal dose of UV light and different concentrations of nano-TiO2 in the form of anatase (TA) or an anatase/rutile mixture (TM). Both products were considered practically non-toxic under visible light to D. similis and A. salina (EC5048h > 100 mg/L). Exposure to nano-TiO2 under visible and UV light enhanced the toxicity of both products. In the case of D. similis, TM was more toxic than TA, showing values of EC5048h = 60.16 and 750.55 mg/L, respectively. A. salina was more sensitive than D. similis, with EC5048h = 4 mg/L for both products. Measurements were made of the growth rates of exposed organisms, together with biomarkers of oxidative stress and metabolism. The results showed that the effects of nano-TiO2 depended on the organism, exposure time, crystal phase, and illumination conditions, and emphasized the need for a full characterization of nanoparticles and their behavior when studying nanotoxicity.

  2. Fragments of Tenebrio molitor cadherin enhance Cry3Aa toxicity for the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moustafa, M.A.M.; Vlasák, Josef; Sehnal, František

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 140, č. 4 (2016), s. 277-286 ISSN 0931-2048 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa * biocontrol * toxicity modulation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.641, year: 2016

  3. Enhanced fumigant toxicity of p-cymene against Frankliniella occidentalis by simultaneous application of elevated levels of carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janmaat, A.F.; Kogel, de W.J.; Woltering, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    The fumigant toxicity of the essential oil component p-cymene was assessed against Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. F occidentalis adult females, first- and second-instar larvae and eggs were exposed for 2, 24 and 48h to combinations of three p-cymene doses and two carbon dioxide

  4. Inhibition of homologous recombination repair with Pentoxifylline targets G2 cells generated by radiotherapy and induces major enhancements of the toxicity of cisplatin and melphalan given after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, Lothar

    2006-01-01

    The presentation reviews the modus operandi of the dose modifying drug Pentoxifylline and the dose enhancement factors which can be achieved in different cell types. Preclinical and clinical data show that Pentoxifylline improves the oxygenation of hypoxic tumours and enhances tumour control by irradiation. In vitro experiments demonstrate that Pentoxifylline also operates when oxygen is not limiting and produces dose modifying factors in the region of 1.2 – 2.0. This oxygen independent effect is poorly understood. In p53 mutant cells irradiation induces a G2 block which is abrogated by Pentoxifylline. The enhancement of cell kill observed when Pentoxifylline and irradiation are given together could arise from rapid entry of damaged tumour cells into mitosis and propagation of DNA lesions as the result of curtailment of repair time. Recovery ratios and repair experiments using CFGE after high dose irradiation demonstrate that Pentoxifylline inhibits repair directly and that curtailment of repair time is not the explanation. Use of the repair defective xrs1 and the parental repair competent CHO-K1 cell line shows that Pentoxifylline inhibits homologous recombination repair which operates predominantly in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. When irradiated cells residing in G2 phase are exposed to very low doses of cisplatin at a toxic dose of 5 %. (TC: 0.05) massive toxicity enhancements up to a factor of 80 are observed in melanoma, squamous carcinoma and prostate tumour cell lines. Enhancements of radiotoxicity seen when Pentoxifylline and radiation are applied together are small and do not exceed a factor of 2.0. The capacity of Pentoxifyline to inhibit homologous recombination repair has not as yet been clinically utilized. A suitable application could be in the treatment of cervical carcinoma where irradiation and cisplatin are standard modality. In vitro data also strongly suggest that regimes where irradiation is used in combination with alkylating drugs may

  5. Hydrocyanation of sulfonylimines using potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) as an eco-friendly cyanide source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zheng; Li, Rongzhi; Zheng, Huanhuan; Wen, Fei; Li, Hongbo; Yin, Junjun; Yang, Jingya, E-mail: lizheng@nwnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Eco-Environment-Related Polymer Materials for Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Gansu (China)

    2013-11-15

    An efficient and eco-friendly method for hydrocyanation of sulfonylimines via one-pot two-step procedure using potassium hexacyanoferrate)II) as cyanide source, benzoyl chloride as a promoter, and potassium carbonate as a base is described. This protocol has the features of using nontoxic, nonvolatile and inexpensive cyanide source, high yield, and simple work-up procedure. (author)

  6. High proton conductivity in cyanide-bridged metal-organic frameworks: understanding the role of water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Y.; Broersen, R.; Hageman, W.; Yan, N.; Mittelmeijer-Hazeleger, M.; Rothenberg, G.; Tanase, S.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate and discuss the proton conductivity properties of the cyanide-bridged metal–organic framework (MOF) [Nd(mpca)2Nd(H2O)6Mo(CN)8]·nH2O (where mpca is 5-methyl-2-pyrazinecarboxylate). This MOF is one of an exciting class of cyanide-bridged materials that can combine porosity with

  7. The determination of cyanide in hydrometallurgical process solutions and effluents by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlandt, C.

    1984-01-01

    Three methods are described for the determination of cyanide species in hydrometallurgical process solutions and in effluents. The determination of excess cyanide in the presence of weak metal cyanide complexes was achieved by the use of a flow-injection system with 0,05mM sodium chloride as the carrier stream. The procedure was found to be fast, precise (S(sub r)0,0142), and reasonably accurate. Free cyanide and cyanide derived from weak metal cyanide complexes were determined by ion chromatography. This method is free from interferences and precise (s(sub r)0,0112), and has a limit of determination of 10μg0l. The 'total' cyanide content of solutions was determined by ion chromatography after the strong metal cyanide complexes had been dissociated in hypophosphorous acid by ultraviolet irradiation. The procedure (of 10 minutes duration) is faster than conventional distillation methods, and is accurate and precise (S(sub r)0,027)

  8. Predicting Cyanide Consumption in Gold Leaching: A Kinetic and Thermodynamic Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Kianinia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of cyanide during processing operations is a major economic cost in the extraction of gold from its ores, while the discharge of cyanide wastes may result in significant environmental pollution. Many factors influence the levels of consumption and discharge of cyanide, including ore mineralogy and lixiviant solution chemistry. This paper proposes a robust methodology to estimate leaching cyanide consumption due to oxidation and reactions with gold, chalcopyrite and pyrite minerals forming various cyanide complexes, cyanate, thiocyanate and hydroxide precipitates of copper and iron. The method involves concurrent modelling of both the oxidation and leaching kinetics of minerals and the chemical speciation of the lixiviant solutions. The model was calibrated by conducting cyanide leaching experiments on pyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrite + chalcopyrite, pyrite + chalcopyrite + gold and pyrite + chalcopyrite + gold + quartz systems and determining the total Cu, Fe, Au and CN− concentrations in solution. We show that this model can successfully estimate the formation of cyanide complexes and, hence, the consumption of cyanide.

  9. The fate of cyanide in leach wastes at gold mines: an environmental perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the basic chemistry of cyanide, methods by which cyanide can be analyzed, and aspects of cyanide behavior that are most relevant to environmental considerations at mineral processing operations associated with gold mines. The emphasis is on research results reported since 1999 and on data gathered for a series of U.S. Geological Survey studies that began in the late 1990s. Cyanide is added to process solutions as the CN− anion, but ore leaching produces numerous other cyanide-containing and cyanide-related species in addition to the desired cyanocomplex of gold. These can include hydrogen cyanide (HCN); cyanometallic complexes of iron, copper, zinc, nickel, and many other metals; cyanate (CNO−); and thiocyanate (SCN−). The fate of these species in solid wastes and residual process solutions that remain once gold recovery activities are terminated and in any water that moves beyond the ore processing facility dictates the degree to which cyanide poses a risk to aquatic organisms and aquatic-dependent organisms in the local environment.

  10. Cyanide Detoxifition in Cassava by-products by Fungal Solid State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated microbial detoxification of cyanide in cassava peels and leaves in solid state fermentation. Three microorganisms, Mucor Strictus, Rhizomucor miehei and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used to inoculate the cassava by-products. The levels of cyanide in the substrates after 4, 8 and 12 days on ...

  11. Spectroscopic detection and mapping of vinyl cyanide on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiner, Martin; Yukiko Palmer, Maureen; Lai, James; Nixon, Conor A.; Teanby, Nicholas; Charnley, Steven B.; Vuitton, Veronique; Kisiel, Zbigniew; Irwin, Patrick; Molter, Ned; Mumma, Michael J.

    2017-10-01

    The first spectroscopic detection of vinyl cyanide (otherwise known as acrylonitrile; C2H3CN) on Titan was obtained by Palmer et al. (2017), based on three rotational emission lines observed with ALMA at millimeter wavelengths (in receiver band 6). The astrobiological significance of this detection was highlighted due to the theorized ability of C2H3CN molecules to combine into cell membrane-like structures under the cold conditions found in Titan's hydrocarbon lakes. Here we report the detection of three additional C2H3CN transitions at higher frequencies (from ALMA band 7 flux calibration data). We present the first emission maps for this gas on Titan, and compare the molecular distribution with that of other nitriles observed with ALMA including HC3N, CH3CN, C2H5CN and HNC. The molecular abundance patterns are interpreted based on our understanding of Titan's high-altitude photochemistry and time-variable global circulation. Similar to the short-lived HC3N molecule, vinyl cyanide is found to be most abundant in the vicinity of the southern (winter) pole, whereas the longer-lived CH3CN is more concentrated in the north. The vertical abundance profile of C2H3CN (from radiative transfer modeling), as well as its latitudinal distribution, are consistent with a short photochemical lifetime for this species. Complementary results from our more recent (2017) nitrile mapping studies at higher spatial resolution will also be discussed.REFERENCES:Palmer, M. Y., Cordiner, M. A., Nixon, C. A. et al. "ALMA detection and astrobiological potential of vinyl cyanide on Titan", Sci. Adv. 2017, 3, e1700022

  12. Development of nano alpha-ketoglutarate nebulization formulation and its pharmacokinetic and safety evaluation in healthy human volunteers for cyanide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Shaheen; Singh, Thakuri; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees; Bhatnagar, Aseem; Mittal, Gaurav

    2011-05-01

    Development of nano alpha-ketoglutarate (A-KG) nebulization formulation for neutralization of inhaled cyanide ion toxicity. Objectives of the present study were to (a) develop a novel A-KG nebulization formulation against cyanide poisoning, particularly hydrogen cyanide gas (b) validate its respiratory fraction in vitro and in vivo, and (c) create its pharmacokinetic data in human volunteers. The formulation was optimized on the basis of particle size of aerosolized droplets after nebulization in 6 volunteers. Gamma scintigraphy was used to quantify total and regional lung deposition of nebulized A-KG after radiolabeling it with Technetium-99m. The formulation was optimized using 30% ethanol-saline with particle size in the range of 300-500 nm. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that drug nebulization resulted in a significant respirable fraction of 65 ± 0.6% with whole lung deposition of 13 ± 1%. Human pharmacokinetic data was derived in 6 healthy human volunteers with peak serum concentration (C(max)) of 39 ± 3 μg/ml, while the area under curve (AUC) after inhalation was 376 ± 23 μg × h/ml indicating that the drug was rapidly and completely absorbed when targeted directly to lungs. Significant lung deposition of A-KG was achieved with the developed formulation. The formulation appears to have several advantages, including the potential of neutralizing inhaled CN(-) ions in the lungs themselves. It is a safe and efficacious procedure, suitable for hospital or ambulance use in accidental cyanide poisoning cases, or as a preventive approach for fire-rescue teams. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Double Metal Cyanide Complex Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilin Guo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of double metal cyanide (DMC complex catalysts were prepared in two different methods by using ß-cyclodextrin, PEG-1000 and Tween-60 as an additional complex ligands respectively. It was showed that a mixture of crystalline and amorphous DMC was synthesized by using traditional method in which the additional complex ligand was added after the precipitation of DMC. Amorphous and dispersed DMC with higher activity could be obtained when the additional complex ligand was added in the reactant solution before reaction. The effect of additional complex ligand and preparation method on the crystalline state and catalytic property of DMC were also investigated.

  14. Cyanide poisoning of a Cooper's hawk ( Accipiter cooperii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J Christian

    2017-03-01

    A Cooper's hawk ( Accipiter cooperii) was found dead in a ditch leading from a heap leach pad at a gold mine in Nevada. Observations at autopsy included an absence of external lesions, traces of subcutaneous and coronary fat, no food in the upper gastrointestinal tract, and no lesions in the viscera. Cyanide concentrations (µg/g ww) were 5.04 in blood, 3.88 in liver, and 1.79 in brain. No bacteria or viruses were isolated from tissues, and brain cholinesterase activity was within the normal range for a Cooper's hawk.

  15. Cyanide poisoning of a Cooper’s hawk (Accipiter cooperii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian

    2017-01-01

    A Cooper’s hawk (Accipiter cooperii) was found dead in a ditch leading from a heap leach pad at a gold mine in Nevada. Observations at autopsy included an absence of external lesions, traces of subcutaneous and coronary fat, no food in the upper gastrointestinal tract, and no lesions in the viscera. Cyanide concentrations (µg/g ww) were 5.04 in blood, 3.88 in liver, and 1.79 in brain. No bacteria or viruses were isolated from tissues, and brain cholinesterase activity was within the normal range for a Cooper’s hawk.

  16. Ferrycyanide Safety Program cyanide speciation studies FY 1994 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H.; Bryan, S.L.; Sell, R.L.; Thomas, L.M.P.; Lerner, B.D.

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes Pacific Northwest Laboratories FY 1994 progress toward developing and implementing methods to identify and quantify cyanide species in ferrocyanide tank waste. Currently, there are 24 high-level waste storage tanks at the the US DOE's Hanford Site that have been placed on a Ferrocyanide Tank Watch list because they contain an estimated 1000 g-moles or more of precipitated ferrocyanide. This amount of ferrocyanide is of concern because the consequences of a potential explosion may exceed those reported previously

  17. Cyanide intoxication as part of smoke inhalation--a review on diagnosis and treatment from the emergency perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson-Smith, Pia; Jansen, Erik C; Hyldegaard, Ole

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the current literature on smoke inhalation injuries with special attention to the effects of hydrogen cyanide. It is assumed that cyanide poisoning is still an overlooked diagnosis in fire victims. Treatment against cyanide poisoning in the emergency setting should be given based...

  18. TiO2 Photocatalyzed Oxidation of Free and Complex Metallic Cyanides.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valladares, J. E.; Esteghamatdarsthad, B.; Renteria, J.

    2006-07-01

    The TiO2 photo catalyzed oxidation of free cyanide and transition metal cyanide complexes often found in industrial mining wastes were studied. The photoreactor system used was a UV illuminated and stirred tank with suspended particles of TiO2. After to determine the optimization parameters such as light intensity, concentration of complex and free cyanides, in ideal conditions, the effect of the presence of different type of anions was also studied. The model substances chosen were potassium cyanide and cyanides complexes of Iron, Cobalt and Copper in a strong alkaline solution (pH = 11.0 - 12.0). The experimental results indicate that in the case of the hexaferricyanide complex Fe(CN)6 3, the reaction occur in two steps. The first step is the breakdown of the metal-cyanide bond (photo-dissociation) forming free cyanide (CN-) and Fe3+ ions. The second step is the photo-oxidation of the free cyanides formed before. The ions Fe3+ and OH- present in the alkaline solution, precipitate as iron hydroxide Fe(OH)3. During the photo-dissociation step of the iron complex, free CN- ions produced reaches a maximum concentration before it is eliminated by photo-oxidation. The free cyanide produced from the hexaferricyanide complex disappears rapidly at a velocity of 64.6 + - 5.0 ?M/min. This rate of photo-oxidation is comparable with the experiments using just alkaline solutions of potassium cyanide ('free cyanides'). In contrast, in alkaline solutions of cyanide complexes of Cu and Co the rate of photo-oxidation was substantially reduced (6.17+ - 0.80 ?M/min and 0.04 + - 0.010 ?M/min, respectively) and do not show any initial increase of free cyanides in the suspension. The slower rate of photo-oxidation suggests the formation of very stable hydroxyl-cyanide polymeric metallic complexes in the reaction mix. The photo-oxidation pathway of the nitrogen oxide products was also investigated and found that the final product consists mainly of nitrate ions. (Author)

  19. Research on the compressive strength of basic magnesium salts and cyanide slag solidified body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yubo; Han, Peiwei; Ye, Shufeng; Wei, Lianqi; Zhang, Xiaomeng; Fu, Guoyan; Yu, Bo

    2018-02-01

    The solidification of cyanide slag by using basic magnesium salts could reduce pollution and protect the environment. Experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of age, mixing amount of cyanide slag, water cement ratio and molar ratio of MgO to MgSO4 on the compressive strength of basic magnesium salts and cyanide slag solidified body in the present paper. It was found that compressive strength of solidified body increased with the increase of age, and decreased with the increase of mixing amount of cyanide slag and water cement ratio. The molar ratio of MgO to MgSO4 should be controlled in the range from 9 to 11 when the mixing amount of cyanide slag was larger than 80 mass%.

  20. Enhanced skin toxicity with concomitant cetuximab and radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bujor, L.; Grillo, I.M.; Pimentel, N. [Hospital Santa Maria, Radioterapia, Lisboa (Portugal); Macor, C.; Catarina, M. [Hospital Santa Maria, ORL, Lisboa (Portugal); Ribeiro, L. [Hospital Santa Maria, Oncologia, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: When associated with radiotherapy the monoclonal antibodies such as cetuximab might be exacerbate skin toxicity. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze acute dermatological toxicity in ten consecutive patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma treated from march 2008 to May 2009 according to Bonner protocol. Patients and methods: We have treated with radiotherapy and cetuximab ten patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx or oral cavity, stage 3-4B and non metastatic. All our patients were 3D planned and scheduled for conventional fractionation 70 Gy/35 fractions over 47 days, five days weekly. Uninvolved neck received 50 Gy and gross nodal disease received 70 Gy as the primary tumor. Cetuximab was administered one week before radiotherapy at a loading dose of 400 mg per square meter of body surface area over 120 minutes, followed by weekly 60 minutes infusions at 250 mg per square meter for the duration of radiotherapy. Results: In eight patients (80%) grade 3 radiation dermatitis occurred as early as with 28 Gy at a median dose of 42 Gy (range 28-60 Gy). the median radiotherapy dose was 6 Gy with an overall treatment time of 57.7 days (range 41-70 days). were administered 78 cycles of cetuximab, one patient discontinued after five cycles due to infusion reactions. There was no correlation between toxicity and acne-like rash due to cetuximab. Conclusion: Our results albeit in disagreement with the original study are rather similar with the experience of other European centers that encounter grade 3-4 radiation dermatitis in 49% of their patients or Australian centers that reported 79% of same degree of toxicity. (authors)

  1. Enhanced antitumor efficacy and reduced systemic toxicity of sulfatide-containing nanoliposomal doxorubicin in a xenograft model of colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Lin

    Full Text Available Sulfatide is a glycosphingolipid known to interact with several extracellular matrix proteins, such as tenascin-C which is overexpressed in many types of cancer including that of the colon. In view of the limited success of chemotherapy in colorectal cancer and high toxicity of doxorubicin (DOX, a sulfatide-containing liposome (SCL encapsulation approach was taken to overcome these barriers. This study assessed the in vitro cytotoxicity, biodistribution, therapeutic efficacy and systemic toxicity in vivo of sulfatide-containing liposomal doxorubicin (SCL-DOX using human colonic adenocarcinoma HT-29 xenograft as the experimental model. In vitro, SCL-DOX was shown to be delivered into the nuclei and displayed prolonged retention compared with the free DOX. The use of this nanodrug delivery system to deliver DOX for treatment of tumor-bearing mice produced a much improved therapeutic efficacy in terms of tumor growth suppression and extended survival in contrast to the free drug. Furthermore, treatment of tumor-bearing mice with SCL-DOX resulted in a lower DOX uptake in the principal sites of toxicity of the free drug, namely the heart and skin, as well as reduced myelosuppression and diminished cardiotoxicity. Such natural lipid-guided nanodrug delivery systems may represent a new strategy for the development of effective anticancer chemotherapeutics targeting the tumor microenvironment for both primary tumor and micrometastases.

  2. Enhanced degradation of micropollutants by zero-valent aluminum activated persulfate: assessment of toxicity and genotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmez-Hanci, T; Arslan-Alaton, I; Doğan, M; Khoei, S; Fakhri, H; Korkmaz, G

    2017-12-01

    Advanced oxidation of the aqueous Triton™ X-45 (TX-45), iopamidol (IOPA), ciprofloxacin (CIP) and bisphenol A (BPA) solutions via activation of persulfate (PS) with zero-valent aluminum (ZVA) was investigated. The study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of the PS/ZVA process in terms of target micropollutants (MPs) and toxicity abatements in raw surface water (RSW) and distilled water (DW). TX-45, CIP and BPA were completely degraded after 90-minute, 120-minute and 40-minute treatment, respectively, with PS/ZVA in DW, whereas 95% IOPA removal was achieved after 120-minute (MPs = 2 mg/L; ZVA = 1 g/L; PS = 0.25 mM for CIP and BPA; PS = 0.50 mM for TX-45 and IOPA; pH = 3). TX-45 (59%), IOPA (29%), CIP (73%) and BPA (46%) removal efficiencies decreased after 120-minute PS/ZVA treatment in RSW. In DW, Vibrio fischeri toxicities of original (untreated) MPs were found as: CIP (51%) > BPA (40%) > TX-45 (15%) > IOPA (1%), and as BPA (100%) > CIP (66%) > IOPA (62%) > TX-45 (35%) in RSW. Acute toxicities of MPs and their degradation products fluctuated during PS/ZVA treatment both in DW and RSW samples and resulted in different relative inhibition values after 120-minute. The original and PS/ZVA-treated TX-45, IOPA and BPA in DW exhibited neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic effects, whereas CIP oxidation ended up in degradation products with genotoxic effects.

  3. Regulation of HA14-1 mediated oxidative stress, toxic response, and autophagy by curcumin to enhance apoptotic activity in human embryonic kidney cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Kishu; Sharma, Anupama; Surolia, Avadhesha; Pathak, Chandramani

    2014-01-01

    An alteration in susceptibility to apoptosis not only contributes to promotion of malignancy but can also enhance drug resistance in response to anticancer therapies. HA14-1 is a small molecule which has the potential of inducing apoptosis in cancerous cells. HA14-1 manifests an antagonistic effect on antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and consequently induces cell death in various cancerous cell lines. However, it is also known to generate ROS and toxic response in the cells upon decomposition. Elevated level of ROS is responsible for oxidative stress and other pathological consequences, if not metabolized properly. The aim of the present study was to examine the synergistic effect of curcumin in promoting apoptosis by regulating the HA14-1 mediated ROS generation, toxicity, oxidative stress, and autophagy in human embryonic kidney cells. Our study demonstrates that curcumin efficiently scavenges HA14-1 mediated generation of ROS and toxic response resulting in augmentation of apoptosis in HEK 293T cells by promoting inhibition of antiapoptotic proteins and process of autophagy. Thus curcumin along with HA14-1 regulates cell proliferation by disruption of the antiapoptotic signaling mechanism. This approach could serve as a promising strategy for therapeutic potential to overcome their adverse effects. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  4. Flame-retardant-wrapped polyphosphazene nanotubes: A novel strategy for enhancing the flame retardancy and smoke toxicity suppression of epoxy resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shuilai; Wang, Xin; Yu, Bin; Feng, Xiaming; Mu, Xiaowei; Yuen, Richard K K; Hu, Yuan

    2017-03-05

    The structure of polyphosphazene nanotubes (PZS) is similar to that of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) before modification. For applications of CNTs in polymer composites, surface wrapping is an economically attractive route to achieve functionalized nanotubes. Based on this idea, functionalized polyphosphazene nanotubes (FR@PZS) wrapped with a cross-linked DOPO-based flame retardant (FR) were synthesized via one-step strategy and well characterized. Then, the obtained FR@PZS was introduced into epoxy resin (EP) to investigate flame retardancy and smoke toxicity suppression performance. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that FR@PZS significantly enhanced the thermal stability of EP composites. Cone calorimeter results revealed that incorporation of FR@PZS obviously improved flame retardant performance of EP, for example, 46.0% decrease in peak heat release rate and 27.1% reduction in total heat release were observed in the case of epoxy composite with 3wt% FR@PZS. The evolution of toxic CO and other volatile products from the EP decomposition was significantly suppressed after the introduction of FR@PZS, Therefore, the smoke toxicity associates with burning EP was reduced. The presence of both PZS and a DOPO-based flame retardant was probably responsible for this substantial diminishment of fire hazard. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Transport and Fate of Cyanide in Soil : Case Study of Mooteh Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Taebi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanide, a generic term referring to all compounds containing the cyanide group –CN, is a highly potent and fast-acting poison to humans and other living organisms when exposed to high levels. Cyanide is a widely and essential chemical used in mining and minerals processing industries and many other industries such as metal processing and production of organic chemicals. While some industrial cyanide-containing wastes are treated or recovered, there are cases such as certain gold extraction plants where wastes are released in the environment. The objective of this research is to study the transport and fate of cyanide in soil in vicinity of a specific pollution source. For the purpose of this study, Mooteh valley, in the vicinity of Mooteh gold mine and factory, in the north of Isfahan province, Iran, was investigated. In Mooteh's Plant, the cyanide-containing waste (slurry tailings is discharged to tailings ponds and there is potential for cyanide to migrate from them. Eight boreholes with 6 m depth were dug and from every 0.5 m a soil sample was taken. Statistical analysis of the results show that soil cyanide concentration decreases with distance from the tailings ponds (as a pollution source and increases with depth. A regression model consisting of a power term for distance and an exponential term for soil depth can appropriately predict the soil cyanide concentration in the vicinity of a pollution source. As soil depth decreases, the rate of natural cyanide fate processes considerably increases. So, soil turn over practices is recommended to improve remediation of polluted sites

  6. Packed bed reactor for degradation of simulated cyanide-containing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Virender; Kumar, Vijay; Bhalla, Tek Chand

    2015-10-01

    The discharge of cyanide-containing effluents into the environment contaminates water bodies and soil. Effective methods of treatment which can detoxify cyanide are the need of the hour. The aim of the present study is to develop a bioreactor for complete degradation of cyanide using immobilized cells of Serratia marcescens RL2b. Alginate-entrapped cells of S. marcescens RL2b were used for complete degradation of cyanide in a packed bed reactor (PBR). Cells grown in minimal salt medium (pH 6.0) were harvested after 20 h and exhibited 0.4 U mg -1  dcw activity and 99 % cyanide degradation in 10 h. These resting cells were entrapped using 3 % alginate beads and packed in a column reactor (20 × 1.7 cm). Simulated cyanide (12 mmol l -1 )-containing wastewater was loaded and fractions were collected after different time intervals at various flow rates. Complete degradation of 12 m mmol l -1 (780 mg l -1 ) cyanide in 10 h was observed at a flow rate of 1.5 ml h -1 . The degradation of cyanide in PBR showed direct dependence on retention time. The retention time of cyanide in the reactor was 9.27 h. The PBR can degrade 1.2 g of cyanide completely in 1 day.

  7. Can't take the heat: Temperature-enhanced toxicity in the mayfly Isonychia bicolor exposed to the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, A A; Buchwalter, D B

    2016-09-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticide usage has increased globally in recent decades. Neonicotinoids, such as imidacloprid, are potent insect neurotoxicants that may pose a threat to non-target aquatic organisms, such as aquatic insects. In nature, insects typically live in thermally fluctuating conditions, which may significantly alter both contaminant exposures and affects. Here we investigate the relationship between temperature and time-to-effect for imidacloprid toxicity with the aquatic insect Isonychia bicolor, a lotic mayfly. Additionally, we examined the mechanisms driving temperature-enhanced toxicity including metabolic rate, imidacloprid uptake rate, and tissue bioconcentration. Experiments included acute toxicity tests utilizing sublethal endpoints and mortality, as well as respirometry and radiotracer assays with [(14)C] imidacloprid. Further, we conducted additional uptake experiments with a suite of aquatic invertebrates (including I. bicolor, Neocloeon triangulifer, Macaffertium modestum, Pteronarcys proteus, Acroneuria carolinensis, and Pleuroceridae sp) to confirm and contextualize our findings from initial experiments. The 96h EC50 (immobility) for I. bicolor at 15°C was 5.81μg/L which was approximately 3.2 fold lower than concentrations associated with 50% mortality. Assays examining the impact of temperature were conducted at 15, 18, 21, and 24°C and demonstrated that time-to-effect for sublethal impairment and immobility was significantly decreased with increasing temperature. Uptake experiments with [(14)C] imidacloprid revealed that initial uptake rates were significantly increased with increasing temperature for I. bicolor, as were oxygen consumption rates. Further, in the separate experiment with multiple species across temperatures 15, 20, and 25°C, we found that all the aquatic insects tested had significantly increased imidacloprid uptake with increasing temperatures, with N. triangulifer accumulating the most imidacloprid on a mass

  8. JS-K, a GST-activated nitric oxide donor prodrug, enhances chemo-sensitivity in renal carcinoma cells and prevents cardiac myocytes toxicity induced by Doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Mingning; Ke, Longzhi; Zhang, Sai; Zeng, Xin; Fang, Zesong; Liu, Jianjun

    2017-08-01

    Doxorubicin, a highly effective and widely used anthracycline antibiotic in multiple chemotherapy regimens, has been limited by its cardiotoxicity. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of nitric oxide donor prodrug JS-K on proliferation and apoptosis in renal carcinoma cells and cardiac myocytes toxicity induced by Doxorubicin and to explore possible p53-related mechanism in renal carcinoma cells. The effect of JS-K on anti-cancer activity of Doxorubicin was investigated in renal carcinoma cells via detecting cell proliferation, cytotoxicity, cell death and apoptosis and expressions of apoptotic-related proteins. Effect of p53 on the combination of JS-K and Doxorubicin was determined using p53 inhibitor Pifithrin-α and p53 activator III. Furthermore, the effect of JS-K on cardiac myocytes toxicity of Doxorubicin was investigated in H9c2 (2-1) cardiac myocytes via measuring cell growth, cell death and apoptosis, expressions of proteins involved in apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species. We demonstrated that JS-K could increase Doxorubicin-induced renal carcinoma cell growth suppression and apoptosis and could increase expressions of proteins that are involved in apoptosis. Additionally, Pifithrin-α reversed the promoting effect of JS-K on Doxorubicin-induced renal carcinoma cell apoptosis; conversely, the p53 activator III exacerbated the promoting effect of JS-K on Doxorubicin-induced renal carcinoma cell apoptosis. Furthermore, JS-K protected H9c2 (2-1) cardiac myocytes against Doxorubicin-induced toxicity and decreased Doxorubicin-induced reactive oxygen species production. JS-K enhances the anti-cancer activity of Doxorubicin in renal carcinoma cells by upregulating p53 expression and prevents cardiac myocytes toxicity of Doxorubicin by decreasing oxidative stress.

  9. Clearance and toxicity of recombinant methionyl human glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (r-metHu GDNF) following acute convection-enhanced delivery into the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Hannah; Barua, Neil; Bienemann, Alison; Wyatt, Marcella; Castrique, Emma; Foster, Rebecca; Luz, Matthias; Fibiger, Christian; Mohr, Erich; Gill, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Despite promising early results, clinical trials involving the continuous delivery of recombinant methionyl human glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (r-metHuGDNF) into the putamen for the treatment of Parkinson's disease have shown evidence of poor distribution and toxicity due to point-source accumulation. Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) has the potential to facilitate more widespread and clinically effective drug distribution. We investigated acute CED of r-metHuGDNF into the striatum of normal rats in order to assess tissue clearance, toxicity (neuron loss, gliosis, microglial activation, and decreases in synaptophysin), synaptogenesis and neurite-outgrowth. We investigated a range of clinically relevant infused concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.6 and 1.0 µg/µL) and time points (2 and 4 weeks) in order to rationalise a dosing regimen suitable for clinical translation. Two weeks after single dose CED, r-metHuGDNF was below the limit of detection by ELISA but detectable by immunohistochemistry when infused at low concentrations (0.1 and 0.2 µg/µL). At these concentrations, there was no associated neuronal loss (neuronal nuclei, NeuN, immunohistochemistry) or synaptic toxicity (synaptophysin ELISA). CED at an infused concentration of 0.2 µg/µL was associated with a significant increase in synaptogenesis (partificial cerebral spinal fluid (aCSF) control was observed with any infused concentration. The results of this study suggest that acute CED of low concentrations of GDNF, with dosing intervals determined by tissue clearance, has most potential for effective clinical translation by optimising distribution and minimising the risk of toxic accumulation.

  10. Biotic and abiotic processes contribute to successful anaerobic degradation of cyanide by UASB reactor biomass treating brewery waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Domen; Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H; Pirc, Elizabeta Tratar; Jerman, Vesna; Insam, Heribert; Logar, Romana Marinšek; Stres, Blaž

    2013-07-01

    In contrast to the general aerobic detoxification of industrial effluents containing cyanide, anaerobic cyanide degradation is not well understood, including the microbial communities involved. To address this knowledge gap, this study measured anaerobic cyanide degradation and the rearrangements in bacterial and archaeal microbial communities in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor biomass treating brewery waste water using bio-methane potential assays, molecular profiling, sequencing and microarray approaches. Successful biogas formation and cyanide removal without inhibition were observed at cyanide concentrations up to 5 mg l(-1). At 8.5 mg l(-1) cyanide, there was a 22 day lag phase in microbial activity, but subsequent methane production rates were equivalent to when 5 mg l(-1) was used. The higher cumulative methane production in cyanide-amended samples indicated that part of the biogas was derived from cyanide degradation. Anaerobic degradation of cyanide using autoclaved UASB biomass proceeded at a rate more than two times lower than when UASB biomass was not autoclaved, indicating that anaerobic cyanide degradation was in fact a combination of simultaneous abiotic and biotic processes. Phylogenetic analyses of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes for the first time identified and linked the bacterial phylum Firmicutes and the archaeal genus Methanosarcina sp. as important microbial groups involved in cyanide degradation. Methanogenic activity of unadapted granulated biomass was detected at higher cyanide concentrations than reported previously for the unadapted suspended biomass, making the aggregated structure and predominantly hydrogenotrophic nature of methanogenic community important features in cyanide degradation. The combination of brewery waste water and cyanide substrate was thus shown to be of high interest for industrial level anaerobic cyanide degradation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cross section data for ionization of important cyanides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby, E-mail: bka.ism@gmail.com

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Multi centre spherical complex optical potential formalism used to find the CS. • Effective method (CSP-ic) to derive ionization contribution from inelastic CS. • Result shows excellent accord with previous results and consistent behaviour. • Maiden attempt to find CS for many cyanide molecules. • Strong correlation observed between peak of ionization with target properties. - Abstract: This article presents cross section calculations for interactions of important cyanides with electrons possessing energies beginning from ionization threshold of the target molecule to 5 keV. These data are pursued to meet the ever increasing demand for cross sections by the relevant atomic and molecular community for modelling astrophysical, atmospheric and technological domains. The calculations have been executed using an amalgam of multi centre spherical complex optical potential (MSCOP) formalism and complex scattering potential-ionization contribution (CSP-ic) method. Cross sections are compared with experimental and theoretical data wherever available. Strong correlations are observed for the cross sections which affirms consistent and reliable cross sections. Isomeric effect has been interpreted using variation of cross section with structure and target properties. Our cross sections will be tabulated in atomic collision database for use in modelling various statistical and dynamical quantities.

  12. Ferrocyanide safety program cyanide speciation studies FY 1993 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H.; Bryan, S.L.; Sell, R.L.; Thomas, L.M.P.

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL) FY 1993 progress toward developing and implementing methods to identify and quantify cyanide species in ferrocyanide tank waste. Currently, there are 24 high-level waste storage tanks at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site that have been placed on a Ferrocyanide Tank Watchlist because they contain an estimated 1000 g-moles or more of precipitated ferrocyanide. This amount of ferrocyanide is of concern because the consequences of a potential explosion may exceed those reported previously in safety analyses. To bound the safety concern, methods are needed to definitively measure and quantitate the amount of ferrocyanides present within actual waste tanks to a lower limit of at least 0.1 wt % up to approximately 15 wt %. The target analyte concentration for cyanide in waste is approximately 0.1 to 15 wt % (as CN) in the original undiluted sample. After dissolution of the original sample and appropriate dilutions, the concentration range of interest in the analytical solutions can vary between 0.001 to 0.1 wt % (as CN).

  13. Ferrocyanide safety program cyanide speciation studies FY 1993 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H.; Bryan, S.L.; Sell, R.L.; Thomas, L.M.P.

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) FY 1993 progress toward developing and implementing methods to identify and quantify cyanide species in ferrocyanide tank waste. Currently, there are 24 high-level waste storage tanks at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site that have been placed on a Ferrocyanide Tank Watchlist because they contain an estimated 1000 g-moles or more of precipitated ferrocyanide. This amount of ferrocyanide is of concern because the consequences of a potential explosion may exceed those reported previously in safety analyses. To bound the safety concern, methods are needed to definitively measure and quantitate the amount of ferrocyanides present within actual waste tanks to a lower limit of at least 0.1 wt % up to approximately 15 wt %. The target analyte concentration for cyanide in waste is approximately 0.1 to 15 wt % (as CN) in the original undiluted sample. After dissolution of the original sample and appropriate dilutions, the concentration range of interest in the analytical solutions can vary between 0.001 to 0.1 wt % (as CN)

  14. Possible Roles of Plant Sulfurtransferases in Detoxification of Cyanide, Reactive Oxygen Species, Selected Heavy Metals and Arsenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Most

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants and animals have evolved various potential mechanisms to surmount the adverse effects of heavy metal toxicity. Plants possess low molecular weight compounds containing sulfhydryl groups (-SH that actively react with toxic metals. For instance, glutathione (γ-Glu-Cys-Gly is a sulfur-containing tripeptide thiol and a substrate of cysteine-rich phytochelatins (γ-Glu-Cys2–11-Gly (PCs. Phytochelatins react with heavy metal ions by glutathione S-transferase in the cytosol and afterwards they are sequestered into the vacuole for degradation. Furthermore, heavy metals induce reactive oxygen species (ROS, which directly or indirectly influence metabolic processes. Reduced glutathione (GSH attributes as an antioxidant and participates to control ROS during stress. Maintenance of the GSH/GSSG ratio is important for cellular redox balance, which is crucial for the survival of the plants. In this context, sulfurtransferases (Str, also called rhodaneses, comprise a group of enzymes widely distributed in all phyla, paving the way for the transfer of a sulfur atom from suitable sulfur donors to nucleophilic sulfur acceptors, at least in vitro. The best characterized in vitro reaction is the transfer of a sulfane sulfur atom from thiosulfate to cyanide, leading to the formation of sulfite and thiocyanate. Plants as well as other organisms have multi-protein families (MPF of Str. Despite the presence of Str activities in many living organisms, their physiological role has not been clarified unambiguously. In mammals, these proteins are involved in the elimination of cyanide released from cyanogenic compounds. However, their ubiquity suggests additional physiological functions. Furthermore, it is speculated that a member of the Str family acts as arsenate reductase (AR and is involved in arsenate detoxification. In summary, the role of Str in detoxification processes is still not well understood but seems to be a major function in the organism.

  15. Chimeric vip3Aa16TC Gene Encoding the Toxic Core of the Vegetative Insecticidal Protein Enhanced Bacillus thuringiensis Entomopathogenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Sameh Sellami; Maroua Cherif; Samir Jaoua; Kaïs Jamoussi

    2015-01-01

    Vip3 insecticidal protein is produced by Bacillus thuringiensis during the vegetative stage. Its proteolysis by the midgut juice of susceptible larvae formed four major products of approximately 66, 45, 33 and 22 kDa. In this study, we cloned the vip3Aa16TC DNA encoding the “Vip3Aa16 toxic core (TC)” of 33 kDa corresponding to the Vip3Aa16 region from amino acid 200 to 456. The vip3Aa16TC chimeric gene carried by the pHT-vip3Aa16TC plasmid was under the control of the sporulation ...

  16. Time-dependent comparative evaluation of some important biomarkers of acute cyanide poisoning in rats: an aid in diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Rahul; Singh, Poonam; Palit, Meehir; Waghmare, Chandrakant; Singh, Anil Kumar; Gopalan, Natarajan; Kumar, Deo

    2014-05-01

    The study focuses on time-dependent comparative evaluation of various biomarkers of acute cyanide poisoning in rats. Blood gas (analyzer), lactate, pyruvate, cyanide, thiocyanate (spectrophotometer) and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) in plasma or urine, and various physiological parameters (polygraph) were measured. Cyanide poisoning was characterized by elevated lactate, cyanide, thiocyanate and ATCA concentrations in plasma up to 15 min, 4, 16 and 24 h, respectively, while high urinary thiocyanate and ATCA levels were measured between 4 and 24 h. ATCA concentration in plasma and urine was found to be more reliable indicator of cyanide poisoning.

  17. Oleocanthal-rich extra-virgin olive oil enhances donepezil effect by reducing amyloid-β load and related toxicity in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batarseh, Yazan S; Kaddoumi, Amal

    2017-12-27

    Previous evidence suggested that extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) is linked to attenuating amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology and improving cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse models. In addition, we recently reported the beneficial effect of oleocanthal, a phenolic compound in EVOO, against AD pathology. Currently, medications available to target AD pathology are limited. Donepezil is an acetylcholine esterase inhibitor approved for use for all AD stages. Donepezil has been reported to have limited Aβ-targeting mechanisms beside its acetylcholine esterase inhibition. The aim of this study was to investigate the consumption of EVOO rich with oleocanthal (hereafter EVOO) as a medical food on enhancing the effect of donepezil on attenuating Aβ load and related toxicity in 5xFAD mouse model of AD. Our results showed that EVOO consumption in combination with donepezil significantly reduced Aβ load and related pathological changes. Reduced Aβ load could be explained, at least in part, by enhancing Aβ clearance pathways including blood-brain barrier (BBB) clearance and enzymatic degradation, and shifting amyloid precursor protein processing toward the nonamyloidogenic pathway. Furthermore, EVOO combination with donepezil up-regulated synaptic proteins, enhanced BBB tightness and reduced neuroinflammation associated with Aβ pathology. In conclusion, EVOO consumption as a medical food combined with donepezil offers an effective therapeutic approach by enhancing the noncholinergic mechanisms of donepezil and by providing additional mechanisms to attenuate Aβ-related pathology in AD patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Retardation of iron-cyanide complexes in the soil of a former manufactured gas plant site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sut, Magdalena; Repmann, Frank; Raab, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The soil in the vicinities of former Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) sites is commonly contaminated with iron-cyanide complexes (ferric ferrocyanide). The phenomenon of cyanide mobility in soil, according to the literature, is mainly governed by the dissolution and precipitation of ferric ferrocyanide, which is only slightly soluble (soil and the potential vertical movement of the solid iron-cyanide complexes, co-existing with the dissolution, sorption and precipitation reactions were investigated. Preliminary research conducted on a former MGP site implied colloidal transport of ferric ferricyanide from the initial deposition in the wastes layer towards the sandy loam material (secondary accumulation), which possibly retarded the mobility of cyanide (CN). A series of batch and column experiments were applied in order to investigate the retardation of iron-cyanide complexes by the sandy loam soil. Batch experiments revealed that in circumneutral pH conditions sandy loam material decreases the potassium ferro- and ferricyanide concentration. In column experiments a minor reduction in CN concentration was observed prior to addition of iron sulfide (FeS) layer, which induced the formation of the Prussian blue colloids in circumneutral pH conditions. Precipitated solid iron-cyanide complexes were mechanically filtered by the coherent structure of the investigated soil. Additionally, the reduction of the CN concentration of the percolation solutions by the sandy loam soil was presumably induced due to the formation of potassium manganese iron-cyanide (K2Mn[Fe(CN)6]).

  19. Technical activities of the Project Surata River for the handling of mercury and cyanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinzon, Juan Manuel; Ruiz, Jorge Nelson; Jaimes, Cristian Libardo

    2004-01-01

    The technical works executed by the project have been framed in the philosophy of reducing the contamination for mercury and cyanide in the operations of auriferous benefit, without causing detriment in the economic revenues of the miners, on the contrary, trying to carry out a better use of the auriferous mineral. In this sense, the project has toasted from simple solutions that allow to reduce the use of the pollutants mentioned a little until solutions more complex than they require introduction of gravimetric teams in pro of reducing the quantity of minerals amalgamated y/o cyanidates. This way an action plan was developed that contemplates a diagnosis stage, followed by a stage of executions in which has been worked in the modification of the systems of gravimetric concentration, process of amalgamation and in the cyanidation process. Particular emphasis has noticed to the cyanidation process for percolation, given its importance in the benefit and its degree of environmental affectation. Through a revision of the method used by the miners, it was possible to modify the technique and to reduce in 40% the global consumption of cyanide in the companies of the District Mining Vetas - California. Metallurgic studies in the advised companies allowed to verify that strengthening the gravimetric concentration is possible to gather 80% of the gold (heavy minerals) in 15% of the processed global material. Under these conditions the introduction of the cyanidation is facilitated by agitation, allowing to reduce the contamination for cyanide and to make a bigger use of the auriferous mineral

  20. Cyanide and sulfide interact with nitrogenous compounds to influence the relaxation of various smooth muscles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruszyna, H.; Kruszyna, R.; Smith, R.P.

    1985-05-01

    Sodium nitroprusside relaxed guinea pig ileum after the segment had been submaximally contracted by either histamine or acetylcholine, intact isolated rabbit gall bladder after submaximal contraction by either acetylcholine or cholecystokinin octapeptide, and rat pulmonary artery helical strips after submaximal contraction with norepinephrine. In each of these cases the relaxation produced by nitroprusside was at least partially reversed by the subsequent addition of excess sodium cyanide. Cyanide, however, in nontoxic concentrations did not reverse the spasmolytic effects of hydroxylamine hydrochloride, sodium azide, nitroglycerin, sodium nitrite, or nitric oxide hemoglobin on guinea pig ileum, nor did cyanide alone in the same concentrations have any effect. The similar interaction between nitroprusside and cyanide on rabbit aortic strips is not dependent on the presence of an intact endothelia cell layer. Also, on rabbit aortic strips and like cyanide, sodium sulfide reversed the spasmolytic effects of azide and hydroxylamine, but it had little or no effect on the relaxation induced by papaverine. Unlike cyanide, however, sulfide augmented the relaxation induced by nitroprusside, and it reversed the effects of nitric oxide hemoglobin, nitroglycerin, and nitrite. A direct chemical reaction between sulfide and nitroprusside may account for the difference between it and cyanide. Although evidence was obtained also for a direct chemical reaction between sulfide and norepinephrine, that reaction does not seem to have played a role in these results.

  1. Optimization of cyanide extraction from wastewater using emulsion liquid membrane system by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Juan Qin; Liu, Ni Na; Li, Guo Ping; Dang, Long Tao

    To solve the disposal problem of cyanide wastewater, removal of cyanide from wastewater using a water-in-oil emulsion type of emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) was studied in this work. Specifically, the effects of surfactant Span-80, carrier trioctylamine (TOA), stripping agent NaOH solution and the emulsion-to-external-phase-volume ratio on removal of cyanide were investigated. Removal of total cyanide was determined using the silver nitrate titration method. Regression analysis and optimization of the conditions were conducted using the Design-Expert software and response surface methodology (RSM). The actual cyanide removals and the removals predicted using RSM analysis were in close agreement, and the optimal conditions were determined to be as follows: the volume fraction of Span-80, 4% (v/v); the volume fraction of TOA, 4% (v/v); the concentration of NaOH, 1% (w/v); and the emulsion-to-external-phase volume ratio, 1:7. Under the optimum conditions, the removal of total cyanide was 95.07%, and the RSM predicted removal was 94.90%, with a small exception. The treatment of cyanide wastewater using an ELM is an effective technique for application in industry.

  2. Paper Strip-based Fluorometric Determination of Cyanide with an Internal Reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong-Nam; Hong, Jong-In [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyejin; Shin, Ik-Soo [Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    The rapid, selective, and sensitive determination of cyanide anion (CN{sup -}) using a simple paper strip is highly attractive because cyanide is acutely lethal to living organisms via all routes of administration, including alcohol consumption and inhaling cigarette smoke. Here, a synthetic probe (1) was designed for the selective determination of cyanide. The probe displays rapid and large blue spectral change (Δλ{sub abs}=148 nm, Δλ{sub em}= 165 nm) with respect to target recognition. Probe 1 exhibits a strong push-pull electronic effect and comprises a dimethylaminoaryl group as a donor and malononitrile as an acceptor; the π-conjugation system can be destroyed by the Michael-type addition of cyanide at the electrophilic β-positions of the nitrile groups, resulting in the marked emergence of a peak at λ{sub em}= 515 nm. The developed probe was successfully applied to a paper test strip because of its noticeable optical changes upon reaction with cyanide. The fabricated dumbbell-shaped paper strip with an internal reference allowed the cyanide detection, which is indispensable for quantitative analysis in point-of-care testing. The paper strip test showed selective response to cyanide, with a linear correlation in the range of 0-25 mM in a simple and cost-effective manner.

  3. Effect of Organic Matter on Cyanide Removal by Illuminated Titanium Dioxide or Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Shirzad-Siboni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Effect of different type of organic compounds (humic acid, oxalate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, nitrilotriacetic acid, phenol on the photocatalytic removal of cyanide with TiO2 or ZnO was studied in this work with variation of the solution pH, contact time, initial cyanide concentration and type of organic compounds. Photocatalytic oxidation efficiency of cyanide with TiO2 was greatly affected by the solution pH. It increased as the solution pH decreased. Also maximum removal of cyanide by ZnO was observed near at neutral pH because of the reduced photocatalytic activity of ZnO at exceedingly low and high pH values originated from either acidic/photochemical corrosion of the catalyst and/or surface passivation with Zn(OH2. Removal efficiency of cyanide greatly decreased in the presence of humic acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, nitrilotriacetic acid compared to that without presence of organic compound because of the competitive oxidation as well as surface blocking by relatively large organic compounds. The oxidation pattern of cyanide was better described by first-order kinetic model. Finally photocatalytic reaction with TiO2 or ZnO can be effectively applied to treat synthetic wastewater contaminated with cyanide.

  4. The role of intrahepatic CD3 +/CD4 −/CD8 − double negative T (DN T) cells in enhanced acetaminophen toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getachew, Yonas; Cusimano, Frank A.; James, Laura P.; Thiele, Dwain L.

    2014-01-01

    The role of the immune system, specifically NK, NKT and CD3 cells, in acetaminophen (APAP) induced liver injury remains inconsistently defined. In the present study, wild type (C57BL/6J) mice and granzyme B deficient (GrB −/−) mice were treated with acetaminophen to assess the role of the immune system in acute liver injury. Doses of acetaminophen that induced sub lethal liver injury in wild type mice unexpectedly produced fatal hepatotoxicity in granzyme B deficient (GrB −/−) mice. Analysis revealed that GrB −/− mice had an increased population of intrahepatic CD3 (+), CD4 (−), and CD8 (−) lymphocytes expressing the CD69 activation marker and Fas ligand. Depletion of these cells in the GrB −/− and wild type mice made them less susceptible to APAP injury, while depletion of NK1.1 (+) cells or both CD4 (+) and CD8 (+) T cells failed to provide the same hepatoprotection. Transfer of the GrB −/− IHLs further exacerbated liver injury and increased mortality in wild type mice but not in LRP/LPR mice, lacking fas expression. Conclusions: Acetaminophen toxicity is enhanced by the presence of activated, FasL expressing intrahepatic CD3 (+), CD4 (−), CD8 (−), NK1.1 (−) T cells. Depletion of these cells from GrB −/− mice and wild type mice greatly reduces mortality and improves the course of liver injury recovery. - Highlights: • Intrahepatic lymphocytes (IHLs) from GrB −/− mice harbor activated DNT cells. • IHLs from GrB −/− mice exhibit enhanced Fas ligand expression. • Acetaminophen toxicity is enhanced by activated, FasL expressing DNT cells

  5. The role of intrahepatic CD3 +/CD4 −/CD8 − double negative T (DN T) cells in enhanced acetaminophen toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getachew, Yonas, E-mail: yonas.getachew@utsouthwestern.edu [Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd., Dallas, TX 75390-9151 (United States); Cusimano, Frank A. [Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd., Dallas, TX 75390-9151 (United States); James, Laura P. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Thiele, Dwain L. [Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd., Dallas, TX 75390-9151 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    The role of the immune system, specifically NK, NKT and CD3 cells, in acetaminophen (APAP) induced liver injury remains inconsistently defined. In the present study, wild type (C57BL/6J) mice and granzyme B deficient (GrB −/−) mice were treated with acetaminophen to assess the role of the immune system in acute liver injury. Doses of acetaminophen that induced sub lethal liver injury in wild type mice unexpectedly produced fatal hepatotoxicity in granzyme B deficient (GrB −/−) mice. Analysis revealed that GrB −/− mice had an increased population of intrahepatic CD3 (+), CD4 (−), and CD8 (−) lymphocytes expressing the CD69 activation marker and Fas ligand. Depletion of these cells in the GrB −/− and wild type mice made them less susceptible to APAP injury, while depletion of NK1.1 (+) cells or both CD4 (+) and CD8 (+) T cells failed to provide the same hepatoprotection. Transfer of the GrB −/− IHLs further exacerbated liver injury and increased mortality in wild type mice but not in LRP/LPR mice, lacking fas expression. Conclusions: Acetaminophen toxicity is enhanced by the presence of activated, FasL expressing intrahepatic CD3 (+), CD4 (−), CD8 (−), NK1.1 (−) T cells. Depletion of these cells from GrB −/− mice and wild type mice greatly reduces mortality and improves the course of liver injury recovery. - Highlights: • Intrahepatic lymphocytes (IHLs) from GrB −/− mice harbor activated DNT cells. • IHLs from GrB −/− mice exhibit enhanced Fas ligand expression. • Acetaminophen toxicity is enhanced by activated, FasL expressing DNT cells.

  6. Development and activation of cyanide-resistant respiration in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medentsev, A G; Akimenko, V K

    1999-08-01

    Changes in respiratory activity and in the contents of adenine nucleotides (ATP, ADP, AMP) were studied in cells of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica during the development of cyanide-resistant respiration. The transition of the yeast from the logarithmic to the stationary growth phase due to exhaustion of glucose was associated with decreased endogenous respiration and with the activation of a cyanide-resistant oxidase. Cyanide activated cell respiration during the stationary growth phase. The cyanide-resistant respiration was inhibited by benzohydroxamic acid (BHA), an inhibitor of the alternative oxidase. In the absence of cyanide, BHA had no effect on the cells which had the cyanide-resistant oxidase. This indicates that the cells do not use the alternative pathway in vivo. The decreased endogenous respiration of the cells was accompanied by decreased contents of adenine nucleotides. Addition of cyanide resulted in a sharp decrease in the content of ATP, in a twofold increase in the content of ADP, and in a fivefold increase in the content of AMP. In the absence of cyanide, BHA had virtually no effect on the contents of adenine nucleotides. The decreased rate of oxygen consumption during the transition of the cells to the stationary growth phase was caused by the decreased activity of the main cytochrome-containing respiratory chain (2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) stimulated respiration). The alternative oxidase was synthesized in the cell but was inactive. Cyanide stimulated respiration due to activation of the alternative oxidase via the AMP produced. The decrease in the cell content of ATP is suggested to be a factor inducing the synthesis of the alternative oxidase.

  7. Cyanide Removal Efficiency of Photocatalytic Nanoparticles Stabilized on Glass Microbeads Under Sun Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Masoudipour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates cyanide photodestruction (at pH 9 using the S, N-TiO2 photocatalyst synthesized by the sol-gel method and stabilized on glass microbeads. The main raw materials were thiourea, as a source of N and S, and tetra butyl ortho titanate. The effects of S and N doses, visible light (a 400W light, sunlight, irradiation time, and different initial cyanide concentrations (50, 100, 200, and 300 ppm were studied on cyanide photodestruction. Cyanide concentration was measured by the titration method and the photocatalyst film was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, UV-Vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, and Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis. XRD patterns and SEM images were used to determine the nanoparticle size of the photocatalyst on glass microbeads. EDX and DRS analyses confirmed the presence of S and N as well as the activity of the photocatalyst in the visible region, respectively. The S, N-TiO2 film with 0.25 g Thiuourea proved to be the best cyanide photodestruction agent in the visible light. Based on the results obtained, S, N-TiO2/ glass microbead was capable of destroying cyanide (50 ppm by up to 94% in the visible light and by approximately 100% in the sunlight. The results also indicated that S, N-Tio2/scoria stone was capable of destroying cyanide by 85% in the visible light and by 94% in the sunlight within 4 h.  The reaction kinetic for all cyanide concentrations and two photocatalyst substrates were described by a first order equation. Finally, it was concluded that the S, N-TiO2 stabilized on glass microbeads could be effectively used as a new method for treating wastewater containing free cyanide under the sunlight.

  8. Validation of an in situ solidification/stabilization technique for hazardous barium and cyanide waste for safe disposal into a secured landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Rucha; Kodam, Kisan; Ghole, Vikram; Surya Mohan Rao, K

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to devise and validate an appropriate treatment process for disposal of hazardous barium and cyanide waste into a landfill at a Common Hazardous Waste Treatment Storage Disposal Facility (CHWTSDF). The waste was generated during the process of hardening of steel components and contains cyanide (reactive) and barium (toxic) as major contaminants. In the present study chemical fixation of the contaminants was carried out. The cyanide was treated by alkali chlorination with calcium hypochlorite and barium by precipitation with sodium sulfate as barium sulfate. The pretreated mixture was then solidified and stabilized by binding with a combination of slag cement, ordinary Portland cement and fly ash, molded into blocks (5 x 5 x 5 cm) and cured for a period of 3, 7 and 28 days. The final experiments were conducted with 18 recipe mixtures of waste + additive:binder (W:B) ratios. The W:B ratios were taken as 80:20, 70:30 and 50:50. The optimum proportions of additives and binders were finalized on the basis of the criteria of unconfined compressive strength and leachability. The leachability studies were conducted using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. The blocks were analyzed for various physical and leachable chemical parameters at the end of each curing period. Based on the results of the analysis, two recipe mixtures, with compositions - 50% of [waste + (120 g Ca(OCl)(2) + 290 g Na(2)SO(4)) kg(-1) of waste] + 50% of binders, were validated for in situ stabilization into a secured landfill of CHWTSDF. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Uses of the potassium permanganate to eliminate copper cyanide from waste water resulting from a lixiviation plant in a gold mine (I); Aplicacion del permanganato potasico para la eliminacion de cianuros de cobre en aguas residuales de la planta de lixiviacion en una mina de oro (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sancho, J. P.; Fernandez, B.; Ayala, J.; Garcia, M. P.; Lavandeira, A.

    2009-07-01

    The use of cyanide in the hydrometallurgical and chemical industries has led to the emergence of a major environmental problem due to its high toxicity. Te wastewater generated at these plants is hazardous to the environment and therefore must be managed properly. For this purpose, they undergo detoxification processes after lodes from the plant are accumulated in waste-resistant containment ponds that mast be waterproof to prevent environmental disasters from leakages or massive flood. This work shows the results obtained in laboratory tests carried out with plant waters and demonstrates the efficacy of potassium permanganate as an oxidant of cyanide wastewater from a gold hydrometallurgical plant. In the process the destruction of the copper cyanide complexes is solution is achieved and copper metal ions are eliminated through precipitation mostly as hydroxide. (Author) 28 refs.

  10. A spirooxazine derivative as a highly sensitive cyanide sensor by means of UV-visible difference spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shaoyin; Li, Minjie; Sheng, Lan; Chen, Peng; Zhang, Yumo; Zhang, Sean Xiao-An

    2012-12-07

    A spirooxazine derivative 2-nitro-5a-(2-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-ethylene)-6,6-dimethyl-5a,6-dihydro-12H-indolo[2,1-b][1,3]benzooxazine (P1) was explored as a sensitive cyanide probe. Different from conventional spiropyrans, P1 avoided locating the 3H-indolium cation and the 4-nitrophenolate anion in the same conjugated structure, which enhanced the positive charge of 3H-indolium cation so that the sensitivity and reaction speed were improved highly. UV-visible difference spectroscopy using P1 detection solution as a timely reference improved the measurement accuracy, prevented the error caused by the inherent absorption change of P1 solution with time. This enabled the "positive-negative alternative absorption peaks" in difference spectrum to be used as a finger-print to distinguish whether the spectral change was caused by cyanide. Benefiting from the special design of the molecular structure and the strategy of difference spectroscopy, P1 showed high selectivity and sensitivity for CN(-). A detection limit of 0.4 μM and a rate constant of 1.1 s(-1) were achieved.

  11. Lanthanide complexes that respond to changes in cyanide concentration in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Routledge, Jack D.; Zhang, Xuejian; Connolly, Michael; Tropiano, Manuel; Blackburn, Octavia A.; Beer, Paul D.; Aldridge, Simon; Faulkner, Stephen [Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Kenwright, Alan M. [Department of Chemistry, Durham University (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-26

    Cyanide ions are shown to interact with lanthanide complexes of phenacylDO3A derivatives in aqueous solution, giving rise to changes in the luminescence and NMR spectra. These changes are the consequence of cyanohydrin formation, which is favored by the coordination of the phenacyl carbonyl group to the lanthanide center. These complexes display minimal affinity for fluoride and can detect cyanide at concentrations less than 1 μm. By contrast, lanthanide complexes with DOTAM derivatives display no affinity for cyanide in water, but respond to changes in fluoride concentration. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Selection of a Commercial Anode Oxide Coating for Electro-oxidation of Cyanide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanza Marcos Roberto V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the performance of two commercial dimensionally stable anode (DSA® oxide coatings in the electrochemical process for cyanide oxidation. The coatings studied were 70TiO2/30RuO2 and 55Ta2O5/45IrO2, on Ti substrate. The efficiency of both materials in the electro-oxidation of free cyanide was compared using linear voltammetry and electrolysis at constant potential. The 70TiO2/30RuO2 electrode shows a better performance in the electro-oxidation of free cyanide.

  13. Acute Cyanide Poisoning: Hydroxocobalamin and Sodium Thiosulfate Treatments with Two Outcomes following One Exposure Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Meillier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanide is rapidly reacting and causes arrest of aerobic metabolism. The symptoms are diffuse and lethal and require high clinical suspicion. Remediation of symptoms and mortality is highly dependent on quick treatment with a cyanide antidote. Presently, there are two widely accepted antidotes: sodium thiosulfate and hydroxocobalamin. These treatments act on different components of cyanide’s metabolism. Here, we present two cases resulting from the same source of cyanide poisoning and the use of both antidotes separately used with differing outcomes.

  14. A new sensitive and selective fluorescence probe for detection of cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yi-Long; Zheng, Yan-Song

    2013-03-30

    A class of new fluorescence probe α-p-trifluoroacetamidophenyl-4-alkoxycinnamonitrile for detection of cyanide anion was synthesized by the trifluoroacetylation of the fluorophore α-p-aminophenyl-4-alkoxycinnamonitrile. It was found that the probe could selectively detect cyanide anions, even in the presence of hydrogen sulfite and dicarbonate anions which were reported to easily interfere with the detection. The concentration of the cyanide anions that could be detected was as low as 1.0 μM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cianeto na farinha e folhas de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz Cyanide in the leaves and cassava leaves flour (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Wobeto

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a farinha de folhas de mandioca (FFM vem sendo usada no combate à desnutrição, por ser fonte de vitaminas e minerais, além de ser um subproduto de ampla disponibilidade e baixo custo. Porém, a toxicidade, devido à presença de cianeto, pode restringir seu uso na alimentação humana. Determinaram-se os teores de cianeto nas folhas e nas FFM de cinco cultivares (Ouro do Vale, Maracanã, Mantiqueira IAC 24-2, IAC 289-70 e Mocotó, a fim de selecionar a cultivar com menores níveis desse antinutriente. Constatou-se que as cultivares apresentaram diferentes teores de cianeto e percentuais de perdas, destacando-se a IAC 289-70, com os níveis mais baixos e os maiores percentuais de perdas de cianeto. Portanto, antes de se indicar uma cultivar para a inclusão na dieta da população, faz-se necessário avaliar os teores de cianeto.In Brazil, cassava leaves flour (CLF has been used to combat undernourish, because it is a source of vitamins and minerals. Besides that, it is a sub-product of wide availability and low cost material. However, the toxicity, due to the presence of cyanide, can restrict its use for human feeding. The contents of cyanide in leaves and in CLF of five cultivars (Ouro do Vale, Maracanã, Mantiqueira IAC 24-2, IAC 289-70 and Mocotó, were determined, in order to select cultivars with smallest levels of these substance. It was verified that cultivars presented different levels of cyanide and percentile of losses, standing out the IAC 289-70 with the lowest levels and the largest losses of cyanide. Therefore, before indicating a cultivar for the inclusion in the population diet it is necessary to evaluate the contents of cyanide.

  16. Silicon-enhanced resistance to cadmium toxicity in Brassica chinensis L. is attributed to Si-suppressed cadmium uptake and transport and Si-enhanced antioxidant defense capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Alin [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li Zhaojun [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang Jie [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Xue Gaofeng; Fan Fenliang [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Liang Yongchao, E-mail: ycliang@caas.ac.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Key Laboratory of Oasis Eco-Agriculture, College of Agriculture, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003 (China)

    2009-12-15

    A series of hydroponics experiments were performed to investigate roles of silicon (Si) in enhancing cadmium (Cd) tolerance in two pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) cultivars: i.e. cv. Shanghaiqing, a Cd-sensitive cultivar, and cv. Hangyoudong, a Cd-tolerant cultivar. Plants were grown under 0.5 and 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} Cd stress without or with 1.5 mM Si. Plant growth of the Cd-tolerant cultivar was stimulated at the lower Cd level, but was decreased at the higher Cd level when plants were treated with Cd for one week. However, Plant growth was severely inhibited at both Cd levels as stress duration lasted for up to three weeks. Plant growth of the Cd-sensitive cultivar was severely inhibited at both Cd levels irrespective of Cd stress duration. Addition of Si increased shoot and root biomass of both cultivars at both Cd levels and decreased Cd uptake and root-to-shoot transport. Superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities decreased, but malondialdehyde and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations increased at the higher Cd level, which were counteracted by Si added. Ascorbic acid, glutathione and non-protein thiols concentrations increased at the higher Cd level, which were further intensified by addition of Si. The effects of Si and Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activity were further verified by isoenzyme analysis. Silicon was more effective in enhancing Cd tolerance in the Cd-tolerant cultivar than in the Cd-sensitive cultivar. It can be concluded that Si-enhanced Cd tolerance in B. chinensis is attributed mainly to Si-suppressed Cd uptake and root-to-shoot Cd transport and Si-enhanced antioxidant defense activity.

  17. Metagenomic data of free cyanide and thiocyanate degrading bacterial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukhanyo Mekuto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article contains the bacterial community structure of the free cyanide (CN- and thiocyanate (SCN- degrading organisms that were isolated from electroplating wastewater and synthetic SCN- containing wastewater. PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA V1-V3 regions was undertaken using the 27F and 518R oligonucleotide primers following the metacommunity DNA extraction procedure. The PCR amplicons were processed using the illumina® reaction kits as per manufacturer׳s instruction and sequenced using the illumina® MiSeq-2000, using the MiSeq V3 kit. The data was processed using bioinformatics tools such as QIIME and the raw sequence files are available via NCBI׳s Sequence Read Archive (SRA database.

  18. High-Throughput Screening for Identification of Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity Enhancers: A Drug Repurposing Opportunity to Rectify Vascular Amyloid Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qosa, Hisham; Mohamed, Loqman A; Al Rihani, Sweilem B; Batarseh, Yazan S; Duong, Quoc-Viet; Keller, Jeffrey N; Kaddoumi, Amal

    2016-07-06

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a dynamic interface that maintains brain homeostasis and protects it from free entry of chemicals, toxins, and drugs. The barrier function of the BBB is maintained mainly by capillary endothelial cells that physically separate brain from blood. Several neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), are known to disrupt BBB integrity. In this study, a high-throughput screening (HTS) was developed to identify drugs that rectify/protect BBB integrity from vascular amyloid toxicity associated with AD progression. Assessing Lucifer Yellow permeation across in-vitro BBB model composed from mouse brain endothelial cells (bEnd3) grown on 96-well plate inserts was used to screen 1280 compounds of Sigma LOPAC®1280 library for modulators of bEnd3 monolayer integrity. HTS identified 62 compounds as disruptors, and 50 compounds as enhancers of the endothelial barrier integrity. From these 50 enhancers, 7 FDA approved drugs were identified with EC50 values ranging from 0.76-4.56 μM. Of these 7 drugs, 5 were able to protect bEnd3-based BBB model integrity against amyloid toxicity. Furthermore, to test the translational potential to humans, the 7 drugs were tested for their ability to rectify the disruptive effect of Aβ in the human endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3. Only 3 (etodolac, granisetron, and beclomethasone) out of the 5 effective drugs in the bEnd3-based BBB model demonstrated a promising effect to protect the hCMEC/D3-based BBB model integrity. These drugs are compelling candidates for repurposing as therapeutic agents that could rectify dysfunctional BBB associated with AD.

  19. Enhanced removal of toxic Cr(VI) in tannery wastewater by photoelectrocatalysis with synthetic TiO2 hollow spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Chang, Wenkai; Huang, Zhiding; Feng, Xugen; Ma, Lin; Qi, Xiaoxia; Li, Zenghe

    2017-05-01

    Owing to the acute toxicity and mobility, the Cr(VI) in tannery wastewater is a huge threat to biological and environmental systems. Herein, an effective photoelectrocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) was carried out by applying electric field to photocatalysis of as-prepared TiO2 spheres. The synthesis of spherical TiO2 catalytic materials with hollow structure and high surface areas was based on a self-assembly process induced by a mixture of organic acetic acid and ethanol. The possible formation mechanism of TiO2 spheres was proposed and verified by acid concentration-dependent and temperature-dependent experiments. It was found that the reaction rate constant of photoelectrocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) exhibited an almost 3 fold improvement (0.0362 min-1) as compared to that of photocatalysis (0.0126 min-1). As a result, the mechanism of photoelectrocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) was described according to the simultaneous determination of Cr(VI), Cr(III) and total Cr in the system. In addition, the effect of pH value and voltage of potential were also discussed. Moreover, this photoelectrocatalysis with TiO2 hollow spheres exhibited excellent activity for reduction of Cr(VI) in actual tannery wastewater produced from three different tanning procedures. These attributes suggest that this photoelectrocatalysis has strong potential applications in the treatment of tannery pollutants.

  20. Cyanide poisoning is a possible cause of cardiac arrest among fire victims, and empiric antidote treatment may improve outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaita, Yasuhiko; Tarui, Takehiko; Shoji, Takahiro; Miyauchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro

    2018-01-22

    Carbon monoxide and cyanide poisoning are important causes of death due to fire. Carbon monoxide is more regularly assessed than cyanide at the site of burn or smoke inhalation treatment due to its ease in assessment and simplicity to treat. Although several forensic studies have demonstrated the significance of cyanide poisoning in fire victims using blood cyanide levels, the association between the cause of cardiac arrest and the concentration of cyanide among fire victims has not been sufficiently investigated. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of cyanide-induced cardiac arrest in fire victims and to assess the necessity of early empiric treatment for cyanide poisoning. This study was a retrospective analysis of fire victims with cardiac arrest at the scene who were transported to a trauma and critical care center, Kyorin University Hospital, from January 2014 to June 2017. Patients whose concentration of cyanide was measured were included. Five patients were included in the study; all died despite cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Three of these victims were later found to have lethal cyanide levels (>3 μg/ml). Two of the patients had non-lethal carboxyhemoglobin levels under 50% and might have been saved if hydroxocobalamin had been administered during resuscitation. According to our results, cyanide-induced cardiac arrest may be more frequently present among fire victims than previously believed, and early empiric treatment with hydroxocobalamin may improve outcomes for these victims in cases where cardiac arrest is of short duration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Removal of metal cyanides from aqueous solutions by suspended and immobilized cells of rhizopus oryzae (MTCC 2541)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roshan Dash, Rajesh; Kumar, Arvind [Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand (India); Balomajumder, Chandrajit [Department of Chemical Engineering, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand (India)

    2009-02-15

    This paper presents a study on biodegradation and simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation (SAB) of zinc and iron cyanides by Rhizopus oryzae (MTCC 2541), with a brief process review. Granular activated carbon was used for the immobilization of Rhizopus oryzae (MTCC 2541) for the SAB study. pH and temperature were optimized at an initial cyanide concentration of 100 mg/L for biodegradation and SAB. The microbes adapted to grow at maximum cyanide concentration were harvested and their ability to degrade cyanide was measured in both biodegradation and SAB. The removal efficiency of the SAB process was found to be better as compared to the biodegradation process. In the case of biodegradation, removal was found up to a maximum cyanide concentration of 250 mg CN{sup -}/L for zinc cyanide and 200 mg CN{sup -}/L for iron cyanide, whereas in the case of SAB, about 50% removal of cyanide at 400 mg CN{sup -}/L zinc cyanide and 300 mg CN{sup -}/L iron cyanide was possible. It was found that the SAB process is more effective than biodegradation. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Determination of total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, W.I. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Pool, K.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Nickel ferrocyanide compounds (Na{sub 2-x}Cs{sub x}NiFe (CN){sub 6}) were produced in a scavenging process to remove {sup 137}Cs from Hanford Site single-shell tank waste supernates. Methods for determining total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes are needed for the evaluation of potential exothermic reactions between cyanide and oxidizers such as nitrate and for safe storage, processing, and management of the wastes in compliance with regulatory requirements. Hanford Site laboratory experience in determining cyanide in high-level wastes is summarized. Modifications were made to standard cyanide methods to permit improved handling of high-level waste samples and to eliminate interferences found in Hanford Site waste matrices. Interferences and associated procedure modifications caused by high nitrates/nitrite concentrations, insoluble nickel ferrocyanides, and organic complexants are described.

  3. MLS/Aura Level 2 Methyl Cyanide (CH3CN) Mixing Ratio V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML2CH3CN is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) standard product for methyl cyanide derived from radiances measured by the 640 GHz radiometer. The current...

  4. MLS/Aura Level 2 Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) Mixing Ratio V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML2HCN is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) standard product for hydrogen cyanide derived from radiances measured primarily by the 190 GHz radiometer. The...

  5. MLS/Aura L2 Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) Mixing Ratio V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML2HCN is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) standard product for hydrogen cyanide derived from radiances measured primarily by the 190 GHz radiometer. The...

  6. MLS/Aura L2 Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) Mixing Ratio V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML2HCN is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) standard product for hydrogen cyanide derived from radiances measured primarily by the 190 GHz radiometer. The...

  7. Determination of total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, W.I.; Pool, K.H.

    1994-05-01

    Nickel ferrocyanide compounds (Na 2-x Cs x NiFe (CN) 6 ) were produced in a scavenging process to remove 137 Cs from Hanford Site single-shell tank waste supernates. Methods for determining total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes are needed for the evaluation of potential exothermic reactions between cyanide and oxidizers such as nitrate and for safe storage, processing, and management of the wastes in compliance with regulatory requirements. Hanford Site laboratory experience in determining cyanide in high-level wastes is summarized. Modifications were made to standard cyanide methods to permit improved handling of high-level waste samples and to eliminate interferences found in Hanford Site waste matrices. Interferences and associated procedure modifications caused by high nitrates/nitrite concentrations, insoluble nickel ferrocyanides, and organic complexants are described

  8. Determination of 15N/14N and 13C/12C in Solid and Aqueous Cyanides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The stable isotopic compositions of nitrogen and carbon in cyanide compounds can be determined by combusting aliquots in sealed tubes to form N2 gas and CO2 gas and analyzing the gases by mass spectrometry. Free cyanide (CN-aq + HCNaq) in simple solutions can also be analyzed by first precipitating the cyanide as copper(II) ferrocyanide and then combusting the precipitate. Reproducibility is ??0.5??? or better for both ??15N and ??13C. If empirical corrections are made on the basis of carbon yields, the reproducibility of ??13C can be improved to ??0.2???. The analytical methods described herein are sufficiently accurate and precise to apply stable isotope techniques to problems of cyanide degradation in natural waters and industrial process solutions.

  9. MLS/Aura L2 Methyl Cyanide (CH3CN) Mixing Ratio V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML2CH3CN is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) standard product for methyl cyanide derived from radiances measured by the 190 GHz radiometer. The current...

  10. MLS/Aura L2 Methyl Cyanide (CH3CN) Mixing Ratio V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML2CH3CN is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) standard product for methyl cyanide derived from radiances measured by the 640 GHz radiometer. The current...

  11. Computer Simulation Lends New Insights Into Cyanide-Caused Cardiac Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    glycolysis attempts to replenish the ATP, the energy source, but the replenishment is short lived. Substrate changes include formation of lactic acid and...Physiol. 284, H1087-1094. Kamalu, B. 1993: Pathological changes in growing dogs fed on a balanced cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) diet. Br. J

  12. Source Attribution of Cyanides using Anionic Impurity Profiling, Stable Isotope Ratios, Trace Elemental Analysis and Chemometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirjankar, Nikhil S.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Carman, April J.; Moran, James J.

    2016-01-08

    Chemical attribution signatures (CAS) for chemical threat agents (CTAs) are being investigated to provide an evidentiary link between CTAs and specific sources to support criminal investigations and prosecutions. In a previous study, anionic impurity profiles developed using high performance ion chromatography (HPIC) were demonstrated as CAS for matching samples from eight potassium cyanide (KCN) stocks to their reported countries of origin. Herein, a larger number of solid KCN stocks (n = 13) and, for the first time, solid sodium cyanide (NaCN) stocks (n = 15) were examined to determine what additional sourcing information can be obtained through anion, carbon stable isotope, and elemental analyses of cyanide stocks by HPIC, isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), respectively. The HPIC anion data was evaluated using the variable selection methods of Fisher-ratio (F-ratio), interval partial least squares (iPLS), and genetic algorithm-based partial least squares (GAPLS) and the classification methods of partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLSDA), K nearest neighbors (KNN), and support vector machines discriminate analysis (SVMDA). In summary, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of anion impurity profiles from multiple cyanide stocks from six reported country of origins resulted in cyanide samples clustering into three groups: Czech Republic, Germany, and United States, independent of the associated alkali metal (K or Na). The three country groups were independently corroborated by HCA of cyanide elemental profiles and corresponded to countries with known solid cyanide factories. Both the anion and elemental CAS are believed to originate from the aqueous alkali hydroxides used in cyanide manufacture. Carbon stable isotope measurements resulted in two clusters: Germany and United States (the single Czech stock grouped with United States stocks). The carbon isotope CAS is believed to

  13. Release of sunflower seed dormancy by cyanide: cross-talk with ethylene signalling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oracz, Krystyna; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Bogatek, Renata; Bailly, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    Freshly harvested sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds are considered to be dormant because they fail to germinate at relatively low temperatures (10 °C). This dormancy results mainly from an embryo dormancy and disappears during dry storage. Although endogenous ethylene is known to be involved in sunflower seed alleviation of dormancy, little attention had been paid to the possible role of cyanide, which is produced by the conversion of 1-aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylic acid to ethylene, in this process. The aims of this work were to investigate whether exogenous cyanide could improve the germination of dormant sunflower seeds and to elucidate its putative mechanisms of action. Naked dormant seeds became able to germinate at 10 °C when they were incubated in the presence of 1 mM gaseous cyanide. Other respiratory inhibitors showed that this effect did not result from an activation of the pentose phosphate pathway or the cyanide-insensitive pathway. Cyanide stimulated germination of dormant seeds in the presence of inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis, but its improving effect required functional ethylene receptors. It did not significantly affect ethylene production and the expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis or in the first steps of ethylene signalling pathway. However, the expression of the transcription factor Ethylene Response Factor 1 (ERF1) was markedly stimulated in the presence of gaseous cyanide. It is proposed that the mode of action of cyanide in sunflower seed dormancy alleviation does not involve ethylene production and that ERF1 is a common component of the ethylene and cyanide signalling pathways. PMID:18448476

  14. Effectiveness of isosorbide dinitrate in cyanide poisoning as a function of the administration timing

    OpenAIRE

    Lavon, Ophir; Avrahami, Amit; Eisenkraft, Arik

    2017-01-01

    Background Better and safer antidotes against cyanide poisoning are needed. Prior study has shown a favorable effect of isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) on the survival of cyanide-poisoned rabbits when administered as early as 1?min after poisoning. The aim of the current study was to further evaluate the efficacy of intravenous ISDN administered in clinically relevant timing for first responders. Methods A comparative animal study using 24 rabbits in 4 randomized study groups was performed. Anima...

  15. Paradoxical enhancement of the toxicity of 1,2-dibromoethane by O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liping; Pegg, Anthony E; Williams, Kevin M; Guengerich, F Peter

    2002-10-04

    The presence of the DNA repair protein O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) paradoxically increases the mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of 1,2-dibromoethane (DBE) in Escherichia coli. This enhancement of genotoxicity did not occur when the inactive C145A mutant of human AGT (hAGT) was used. Also, hAGT did not enhance the genotoxicity of S-(2-haloethyl)glutathiones that mimic the reactive product of the reaction of DBE with glutathione, which is catalyzed by glutathione S-transferase. These experiments support a mechanism by which hAGT activates DBE. Studies in vitro showed a direct reaction between purified recombinant hAGT and DBE resulting in a loss of AGT repair activity and a formation of an hAGT-DBE conjugate at Cys(145). A 2-hydroxyethyl adduct was found by mass spectrometry to be present in the Gly(136)-Arg(147) peptide from tryptic digests of AGT reacted with DBE. Incubation of AGT with DBE and oligodeoxyribonucleotides led to the formation of covalent AGT-oligonucleotide complexes. These results indicate that DBE reacts at the active site of AGT to generate an S-(2-bromoethyl) intermediate, which forms a highly reactive half-mustard at Cys(145). In the presence of DNA, the DNA-binding function of AGT facilitates formation of DNA adducts. In the absence of DNA, the intermediate undergoes hydrolytic decomposition to form AGT-Cys(145)-SCH(2)CH(2)OH.

  16. Enhanced anti-tumor activity and reduced toxicity by combination andrographolide and bleomycin in ascitic tumor-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huizhen; Zhang, Zhenbiao; Su, Zuqing; Sun, Chaoyue; Zhang, Xie; Zhao, Xiaoning; Lai, Xiaoping; Su, Ziren; Li, Yucui; Zhan, Janis Yaxian

    2016-04-05

    Bleomycin (BLM) is an effective anti-carcinogen. With the main detrimental effects of inducing pulmonary fibrosis on patients, its clinical use is limited. Developing agents that enhance the efficacy and attenuate the side effects of cancer chemotherapy are critical. Andrographolide (Andro), an active diterpenoid labdane component extracted from Andrographis panicula, is generally prescribed for treatment of inflammatory associated diseases. The study showed that BLM combined with Andro was significantly more effective than BLM alone on inhibiting the tumor growth, arresting the cell cycle at G0/G1 phase, promoting the capase-3 and capase-8 activity to induce cancer cell apoptosis. The underlying mechanisms may be related to the transcriptional regulation of P53/P21/Cyclin pathways. Moreover, BLM induced pulmonary fibrosis in tumor-bearing mice, but BLM combined with Andro dramatically alleviated the lesion in pulmonary fibrosis by activating the SOD, suppressing MDA and HYP production, in the meanwhile attenuating the IL-1β, TNF- α, IL-6 and TGF-β1 level. These mechanisms were associated with its effect on inhibition of protein expression of TGF-β, α-SMA, p-Smad2/3, enhanced expression of Smad7. Thus, it demonstrated that Andro might be a potential adjuvant therapeutic agent for BLM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sodium thiosulfate or hydroxocobalamin for the empiric treatment of cyanide poisoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alan H; Dart, Richard; Bogdan, Gregory

    2007-06-01

    Cyanide poisoning must be seriously considered in victims of smoke inhalation from enclosed space fires; it is also a credible terrorism threat agent. The treatment of cyanide poisoning is empiric because laboratory confirmation can take hours or days. Empiric treatment requires a safe and effective antidote that can be rapidly administered by either out-of-hospital or emergency department personnel. Among several cyanide antidotes available, sodium thiosulfate and hydroxocobalamin have been proposed for use in these circumstances. The evidence available to assess either sodium thiosulfate or hydroxocobalamin is incomplete. According to recent safety and efficacy studies in animals and human safety and uncontrolled efficacy studies, hydroxocobalamin seems to be an appropriate antidote for empiric treatment of smoke inhalation and other suspected cyanide poisoning victims in the out-of-hospital setting. Sodium thiosulfate can also be administered in the out-of-hospital setting. The efficacy of sodium thiosulfate is based on individual case studies, and there are contradictory conclusions about efficacy in animal models. The onset of antidotal action of sodium thiosulfate may be too slow for it to be the only cyanide antidote for emergency use. Hydroxocobalamin is being developed for potential introduction in the United States and may represent a new option for emergency personnel in cases of suspected or confirmed cyanide poisoning in the out-of-hospital setting.

  18. Cyclic Voltammetric Study of High Speed Silver Electrodeposition and Dissolution in Low Cyanide Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical processes in solutions with a much lower amount of free cyanide (<10 g/L KCN than the conventional alkaline silver electrolytes were first explored by using cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical behavior and the effect of KAg(CN2, KCN, and KNO3 electrolytes and solution pH on the electrodeposition and dissolution processes were investigated. Moreover, suitable working conditions for high speed, low cyanide silver electrodeposition were also proposed. Both silver and cyanide ions concentration had significant effects on the electrode polarization and deposition rate. The onset potential of silver electrodeposition could be shifted to more positive values by using solutions containing higher silver and lower KCN concentration. Higher silver concentration also led to higher deposition rate. Besides maintaining high conductivity of the solution, KNO3 might help reduce the operating current density required for silver electrodeposition at high silver concentration albeit at the expense of slowing down the electrodeposition rate. The silver dissolution consists of a limiting step and the reaction rate depends on the amount of free cyanide ions. The surface and material characteristics of Ag films deposited by low cyanide solution are also compared with those deposited by conventional high cyanide solution.

  19. Heavy metal pollution in soil associated with a large-scale cyanidation gold mining region in southeast of Jilin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mo; Lu, Wenxi; Hou, Zeyu; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Xue; Wu, Jichun

    2017-01-01

    Different gold mining and smelting processes can lead to distinctive heavy metal contamination patterns and results. This work examined heavy metal pollution from a large-scale cyanidation gold mining operation, which is distinguished from artisanal and small-scale amalgamation gold mining, in Jilin Province, China. A total of 20 samples including one background sample were collected from the surface of the mining area and the tailings pond in June 2013. These samples were analyzed for heavy metal concentrations and degree of pollution as well as sources of Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd, As, and Hg. The mean concentrations of Pb, Hg, and Cu (819.67, 0.12, and 46.92 mg kg -1 , respectively) in soil samples from the gold mine area exceeded local background values. The mean Hg content was less than the first-class standard of the Environmental Quality for Soils, which suggested that the cyanidation method is helpful for reducing Hg pollution. The geochemical accumulation index and enrichment factor results indicated clear signs that enrichment was present for Pb, Cu, and Hg, with the presence of serious Pb pollution and moderate presence to none of Hg and Cu pollution. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that there were three metal sources: (1) Pb, Cd, Cu, and As came from anthropogenic sources; (2) Cr and Zn were naturally occurring; whereas (3) Hg and Ni had a mix of anthropogenic and natural sources. Moreover, the tailings dam plays an important role in intercepting the tailings. Furthermore, the potential ecological risk assessment results showed that the study area poses a potentially strong risk to the ecological health. Furthermore, Pb and Hg (due to high concentration and high toxicity, respectively) are major pollutants on the risk index, and both Pb and Hg pollution should be of great concern at the Haigou gold mines in Jilin, China.

  20. Maternal aging affects oocyte resilience to carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone -induced mitochondrial dysfunction in cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Kansaku

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial quality control is important for maintaining cellular and oocyte viability. In addition, aging affects mitochondrial quality in many cell types. In the present study, we examined how aging affects oocyte mitochondrial biogenesis and degeneration in response to induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Cumulus oocyte complexes were harvested from the ovaries of young (21‒45 months and aged (≥120 months cows and treated for 2 hours with 10 μM carbonyl cyanide-m- chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP, or a vehicle control, after which cumulus oocyte complexes were subjected to in vitro fertilization and culture. CCCP treatment reduced ATP content and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS levels in the oocytes of both young and aged cows. When CCCP-treated cumulus oocyte complexes were subsequently cultured for 19 hours and/or subjected to fertilization, high ROS levels in oocytes and a low rate of blastocyst development was observed in oocytes derived from aged cows. In addition, we observed differential responses in mitochondrial biogenesis to CCCP treatment between young and aged cows. CCCP treatment enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis concomitant with upregulation of SIRT1 expression in oocytes of young, but not aged, cows. In conclusion, aging affects mitochondrial quality control and recuperation of oocytes following CCCP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction.

  1. Does the copolymer poly(vinylidene cyanide-tricyanoethylene) possess piezoelectricity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Yin; Su, Ke-He; Xu, Qiong

    2012-10-01

    The geometry, energy, internal rotation barrier, dipole moment, and molecular polarizability of the α- and β-chain models of poly(vinylidene cyanide-tricyanoethylene) [P(VDCN-TrCN)] were studied with density functional theory at the B3PW91/6-31G(d) level. The effects of the chain length and the TrCN content on the copolymer chain stability, the chain conformation, and the electrical properties of P(VDCN-TrCN) were examined and compared with those of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) and PVDCN to gauge whether P(VDCN-TrCN) would be expected to possess substantial piezoelectricity. The results of this study showed that the stability of the β conformation increases and the energy difference per monomer unit between the β- and α-chains decreases with increasing TrCN. However, introducing TrCN into VDCN will not significantly enhance the radius of curvature of the P(VDCN-TrCN) chains. The average dipole moment per monomer unit in the β-chain is affected by the chain curvature and the TrCN content. The amount of piezoelectricity present in P(VDCN-TrCN) is slightly smaller than that in PVDCN, and is less than that in poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene).

  2. Formation of Metal-Cyanide Complexes in Deliquescent Airborne Particles: A New Possible Sink for HCN in Urban Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorio, Chiara; Marton, Daniele; Formenton, Gianni; Tapparo, Andrea

    2017-12-19

    Hydrogen cyanide is a ubiquitous gas in the atmosphere and a biomass burning tracer. Reactive gases can be adsorbed onto aerosol particles where they can promote heterogeneous chemistry. In the present study, we report for the first time on the measurement and speciation of cyanides in atmospheric aerosol. Filter samples were collected at an urban background site in the city center of Padua (Italy), extracted and analyzed with headspace gas chromatography and nitrogen-phosphorus detection. The results showed that strongly bound cyanides were present in all aerosol samples at a concentration ranging between 0.3 and 6.5 ng/m 3 in the PM 2.5 fraction. The concentration of cyanides strongly correlates with concentration of total carbon and metals associated with combustion sources. The results obtained bring evidence that hydrogen cyanide can be adsorbed onto aerosol liquid water and can react with metal ions to form stable metal-cyanide complexes.

  3. Aceclofenac nanocrystals with enhanced in vitro, in vivo performance: formulation optimization, characterization, analgesic and acute toxicity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim H

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Haroon Rahim,1 Abdul Sadiq,1 Shahzeb Khan,1 Mir Azam Khan,1 Syed Muhammad Hassan Shah,2 Zahid Hussain,3 Riaz Ullah,4 Abdelaaty Abdelaziz Shahat,4,5 Khalid Ibrahim6 1Department of Pharmacy, University of Malakand, Chakdara, 2Department of Pharmacy, Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan; 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics, Universiti Teknologi, Mara, Selangor, Malaysia; 4Department of Pharmacognosy and Medicinal, Aromatic and Poisonous Plants Research Center, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 5Phytochemistry Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt; 6Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Al-Muzahmeiah Branch, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: This study was aimed to enhance the dissolution rate, oral bioavailability and analgesic potential of the aceclofenac (AC in the form of nanosuspension using cost-effective simple precipitation–ultrasonication approach. The nanocrystals were produced using the optimum conditions investigated for AC. The minimum particle size (PS and polydispersity index was found to be 112±2.01 nm and 0.165, respectively, using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (1%, w/w, polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (1%, w/w and sodium lauryl sulfate (0.12%, w/w. The characterization of AC was performed using zeta sizer, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The saturation solubility of the AC nanocrystals was substantially increased 2.6- and 4.5-fold compared to its unprocessed active pharmaceutical ingredient in stabilizer solution and unprocessed drug. Similarly, the dissolution rate of the AC nanocrystals was substantially enhanced compared to its other counterpart. The results showed that >88% of AC nanocrystals were dissolved in first 10 min compared to unprocessed AC (8.38%, microsuspension (66

  4. Bacillus thuringiensis bel protein enhances the toxicity of Cry1Ac protein to Helicoverpa armigera larvae by degrading insect intestinal mucin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shangling; Wang, Li; Guo, Wei; Zhang, Xia; Peng, Donghai; Luo, Chunping; Yu, Ziniu; Sun, Ming

    2009-08-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis has been used as a bioinsecticide to control agricultural insects. Bacillus cereus group genomes were found to have a Bacillus enhancin-like (bel) gene, encoding a peptide with 20 to 30% identity to viral enhancin protein, which can enhance viral infection by degradation of the peritrophic matrix (PM) of the insect midgut. In this study, the bel gene was found to have an activity similar to that of the viral enhancin gene. A bel knockout mutant was constructed by using a plasmid-free B. thuringiensis derivative, BMB171. The 50% lethal concentrations of this mutant plus the cry1Ac insecticidal protein gene were about 5.8-fold higher than those of the BMB171 strain. When purified Bel was mixed with the Cry1Ac protein and fed to Helicoverpa armigera larvae, 3 mug/ml Cry1Ac alone induced 34.2% mortality. Meanwhile, the mortality rate rose to 74.4% when the same amount of Cry1Ac was mixed with 0.8 mug/ml of Bel. Microscopic observation showed a significant disruption detected on the midgut PM of H. armigera larvae after they were fed Bel. In vitro degradation assays showed that Bel digested the intestinal mucin (IIM) of Trichoplusia ni and H. armigera larvae to various degrading products, similar to findings for viral enhancin. These results imply Bel toxicity enhancement depends on the destruction of midgut PM and IIM, similar to the case with viral enhancin. This discovery showed that Bel has the potential to enhance insecticidal activity of B. thuringiensis-based biopesticides and transgenic crops.

  5. Analytical methods for toxic gases from thermal degradation of polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, M.-T. S.

    1977-01-01

    Toxic gases evolved from the thermal oxidative degradation of synthetic or natural polymers in small laboratory chambers or in large scale fire tests are measured by several different analytical methods. Gas detector tubes are used for fast on-site detection of suspect toxic gases. The infrared spectroscopic method is an excellent qualitative and quantitative analysis for some toxic gases. Permanent gases such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and ethylene, can be quantitatively determined by gas chromatography. Highly toxic and corrosive gases such as nitrogen oxides, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen chloride and sulfur dioxide should be passed into a scrubbing solution for subsequent analysis by either specific ion electrodes or spectrophotometric methods. Low-concentration toxic organic vapors can be concentrated in a cold trap and then analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The limitations of different methods are discussed.

  6. Activation of RARα induces autophagy in SKBR3 breast cancer cells and depletion of key autophagy genes enhances ATRA toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigger, D; Schläfli, A M; Garattini, E; Tschan, M P

    2015-08-27

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), a pan-retinoic acid receptor (RAR) agonist, is, along with other retinoids, a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of a variety of solid tumors. On the one hand, preclinical studies have shown promising anticancer effects of ATRA in breast cancer; on the other hand, resistances occurred. Autophagy is a cellular recycling process that allows the degradation of bulk cellular contents. Tumor cells may take advantage of autophagy to cope with stress caused by anticancer drugs. We therefore wondered if autophagy is activated by ATRA in mammary tumor cells and if modulation of autophagy might be a potential novel treatment strategy. Indeed, ATRA induces autophagic flux in ATRA-sensitive but not in ATRA-resistant human breast cancer cells. Moreover, using different RAR agonists as well as RARα-knockdown breast cancer cells, we demonstrate that autophagy is dependent on RARα activation. Interestingly, inhibition of autophagy in breast cancer cells by either genetic or pharmacological approaches resulted in significantly increased apoptosis under ATRA treatment and attenuated epithelial differentiation. In summary, our findings demonstrate that ATRA-induced autophagy is mediated by RARα in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, inhibition of autophagy results in enhanced apoptosis. This points to a potential novel treatment strategy for a selected group of breast cancer patients where ATRA and autophagy inhibitors are applied simultaneously.

  7. Fate of process solution cyanide and nitrate at three nevada gold mines inferred from stable carbon and nitrogen isotope measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C.A.; Grimes, D.J.; Rye, R.O.

    2000-01-01

    Stable isotope methods have been used to identify the mechanisms responsible for cyanide consumption at three heap-leach operations that process Carlin-type gold ores in Nevada, U.S.A. The reagent cyanide had ??15N values ranging from -5 to -2??? and ??13C values from -60 to -35???. The wide ??13C range reflects the use by different suppliers of isotopically distinct natural-gas feedstocks and indicates that isotopes may be useful in environmental studies where there is a need to trace cyanide sources. In heap-leach circuits displaying from 5 to 98% consumption of cyanide, barren-solution and pregnant-solution cyanide were isotopically indistinguishable. The similarity is inconsistent with cyanide loss predominantly by HCN offgassing (a process that in laboratory experiments caused substantial isotopic changes), but it is consistent with cyanide retention within the heaps as solids, a process that caused minimal isotopic changes in laboratory simulations, or with cyanide oxidation, which also appears to cause minimal changes. In many pregnant solutions cyanide was carried entirely as metal complexes, which is consistent with ferrocyanides having precipitated or cyanocomplexes having been adsorbed within the heaps. It is inferred that gaseous cyanide emissions from operations of this type are less important than has generally been thought and that the dissolution or desorption kinetics of solid species is an important control on cyanide elution when the spent heaps undergo rinsing. Nitrate, nitrite and ammonium had ??15N values of 1-16???. The data reflect isotopic fractionation during ammonia offgassing or denitrification of nitrate - particularly in reclaim ponds - but do not indicate the extent to which nitrate is derived from cyanide or from explosive residues. ?? The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy 2000.

  8. Sensitivity to methylmercury toxicity is enhanced in oxoguanine glycosylase 1 knockout murine embryonic fibroblasts and is dependent on cellular proliferation capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ondovcik, Stephanie L. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3M2 (Canada); Tamblyn, Laura; McPherson, John Peter [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8 (Canada); Wells, Peter G., E-mail: pg.wells@utoronto.ca [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3M2 (Canada); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a persistent environmental contaminant with potent neurotoxic action for which the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be conclusively delineated. Our objectives herein were twofold: first, to corroborate our previous findings of an increased sensitivity of spontaneously-immortalized oxoguanine glycosylase 1-null (Ogg1{sup −/−}) murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to MeHg through generation of Simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen-immortalized wild-type and Ogg1{sup −/−} MEFs; and second, to determine whether MeHg toxicity is proliferation-dependent. As with the spontaneously-immortalized cells used previously, the SV40 large T antigen-immortalized cells exhibited similar tendencies to undergo MeHg-initiated cell cycle arrest, with increased sensitivity in the Ogg1{sup −/−} MEFs as measured by clonogenic survival and DNA damage. Compared to exponentially growing cells, those seeded at a higher density exhibited compromised proliferation, which proved protective against MeHg-mediated cell cycle arrest and induction of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), measured by phosphorylation of the core histone H2A variant (H2AX) on serine 139 (γH2AX), and by its functional confirmation by micronucleus assessment. This enhanced sensitivity of Ogg1{sup −/−} MEFs to MeHg toxicity using discrete SV40 immortalization corroborates our previous studies, and suggests a novel role for OGG1 in minimizing MeHg-initiated DNA lesions that trigger replication-associated DSBs. Furthermore, proliferative capacity may determine MeHg toxicity in vivo and in utero. Accordingly, variations in cellular proliferative capacity and interindividual variability in repair activity may modulate the risk of toxicological consequences following MeHg exposure. - Highlights: • SV40 large T antigen-immortalized Ogg1{sup −/−} cells are more sensitive to MeHg. • Sensitivity to MeHg is dependent on cellular proliferation capacity. • OGG1 maintains genomic

  9. Cerebellin 4, a synaptic protein, enhances inhibitory activity and resistance of neurons to amyloid-β toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Pedro J; del Marco, Ángel; Arévalo, Ángeles; Domínguez-Giménez, Paloma; García-Segura, Luis Miguel; Rodríguez-Tébar, Alfredo

    2015-02-01

    Imbalances between excitatory and inhibitory transmissions in the brain anticipate the neuronal damage and death that occur in the neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD). We previously showed that amyloid-β (Aß), a natural peptide involved in the onset and development of AD, counteracts the neurotrophic activity of the nerve growth factor (NGF) by dampening the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic connectivity of cultured hippocampal neurons. Neuronal plasticity is partly controlled by the NGF-promoted expression of the homologue of enhancer-of-split 1 (Hes1), a transcription factor that regulates the formation of GABAergic synapses. We now show that Hes1 controls the expression of cerebellin 4 (Cbln4), a member of a small family of secreted synaptic proteins, and we present the evidence that Cbln4 plays an essential role in the formation and maintenance of inhibitory GABAergic connections. Cbln4 immunoreactivity was found in the hippocampus, mostly in the dendrites and somata of pyramidal neurons. In the CA1, the hippocampal region where the first neurons degenerate in AD, Cbln4 immunoreactivity was associated with GABAergic synapses (detected by vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter [VGAT] immunostaining), which appear to surround and embrace the somata of CA1 pyramidal neurons (basket cells). Moreover, significant decreases of Hes1, Cbln4, and VGAT immunoreactivities and messenger RNA expression were found in the hippocampus of a mouse model of AD. We also found that either the overexpression of Cbln4 in cultured hippocampal neurons or the application of recombinant Cbln4 to the cultures increased the number of GABAergic varicosities, rescuing neurons from Aß-induced death. In contrast, knockdown of Cbln4 gene in cultured neurons was followed by a large reduction of GABAergic connections. Such an effect was reverted by exogenously added Cbln4. These findings suggest a therapeutic potential for Cbln4 in the treatment of AD. Copyright

  10. Cyanide intoxication as part of smoke inhalation - a review on diagnosis and treatment from the emergency perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyldegaard Ole

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reviews the current literature on smoke inhalation injuries with special attention to the effects of hydrogen cyanide. It is assumed that cyanide poisoning is still an overlooked diagnosis in fire victims. Treatment against cyanide poisoning in the emergency setting should be given based on the clinical diagnosis only. Oxygen in combination with a recommended antidote should be given immediately, the first to reduce cellular hypoxia and the second to eliminate cyanide. A specific antidote is hydroxycobalamin, which can be given iv. and has few side effects.

  11. Changes in zooxanthellae density, morphology, and mitotic index in hermatypic corals and anemones exposed to cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervino, J M; Hayes, R L; Honovich, M; Goreau, T J; Jones, S; Rubec, P J

    2003-05-01

    Sodium cyanide (NaCN) is widely used for the capture of reef fish throughout Southeast Asia and causes extensive fish mortality, but the effect of NaCN on reef corals remains debated. To document the impact of cyanide exposure on corals, the species Acropora millepora, Goniopora sp., Favites abdita, Trachyphyllia geoffrio, Plerogyra sp., Heliofungia actinformis, Euphyllia divisa, and Scarophyton sp., and the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida were exposed to varying concentrations of cyanide for varying time periods. Corals were exposed to 50, 100, 300, and 600 mg/l of cyanide ion (CN(-)) for 1-2 min (in seawater, the CN(-) forms hydrocyanic acid). These concentrations are much lower than those reportedly used by fish collectors. Exposed corals and anemones immediately retracted their tentacles and mesenterial filaments, and discharged copious amounts of mucus containing zooxanthellae. Gel electrophoreses techniques found changes in protein expression in both zooxanthellae and host tissue. Corals and anemones exposed to cyanide showed an immediate increase in mitotic cell division of their zooxenthellae, and a decrease in zooxanthellae density. In contrast, zooxanthellae cell division and density remained constant in controls. Histopathological changes included gastrodermal disruption, mesogleal degradation, and increased mucus in coral tissues. Zooxanthellae showed pigment loss, swelling, and deformation. Mortality occurred at all exposure levels. Exposed specimens experienced an increase in the ratio of gram-negative to gram-positive bacteria on the coral surface. The results demonstrate that exposure cyanide causes mortality to corals and anemones, even when applied at lower levels than that used by fish collectors. Even brief exposure to cyanide caused slow-acting and long-term damage to corals and their zooxanthellae.

  12. Hydrogen cyanide exhaust emissions from in-use motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Marc M; Moss, John A; Pastel, Stephen H; Poskrebyshev, Gregory A

    2007-02-01

    Motor vehicle exhaust emissions are known to contain hydrogen cyanide (HCN), but emission rate data are scarce and, in the case of idling vehicles, date back over 20 years. For the first time, vehicular HCN exhaust emissions from a modern, in-use fleet at idle have been measured. The 14 tested light duty motor vehicles were operating at idle as these conditions are associated with the highest risk exposure scenarios (i.e., enclosed spaces). Vehicular HCN was detected in 89% of the sampled exhaust streams and did not correlate with instantaneous air-fuel-ratio or with any single, coemitted pollutant. However, a moderate correlation between HCN emissions and the product of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide emissions was observed under cold-start conditions. Fleet average, cold-start, undiluted HCN emissions were 105 +/- 97 ppbV (maximum: 278 ppbV), whereas corresponding emissions from vehicles operating under stabilized conditions were 79 +/- 71 ppbV (maximum: 245 ppbV); mean idle fleet HCN emission rates were 39 +/- 35 and 21 +/- 18 microg-min(-1) for cold-start and stabilized vehicles, respectively. The significance of these results is discussed in terms of HCN emissions inventories in the South Coast Air Basin of California and of health risks due to exposure to vehicular HCN.

  13. Femtosecond probing of photodissociation dynamics in acyl cyanides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I.-Ren; Chung, Yu-Chieh; Chen, Wei-Kan; Hong, Xiu-Ping; Cheng, Po-Yuan

    2001-12-01

    The photodissociation of two acyl cyanide compounds, R-C(O)-CN, where R=methyl and tert-butyl groups, has been investigated using femtosecond time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy. Both compounds were excited by two-photon excitation at a total energy of ˜6.4 eV and the formation of the free CN(X) radical products was probed in real time by monitoring the CN X→B LIF signal. The results revealed that the temporal evolution of the CN(X) formation can be well characterized by delayed biexponential rise functions with time constants in the picosecond time scale, indicating that the dissociation occurs via a complex-mode mechanism. We proposed a dissociation mechanism involving two discernable stages to account for the observed temporal behaviors as well as previous photofragment translational spectroscopic results reported by other groups. Our analyses suggested that the selectivity between the C-CN and C-R bond cleavage is determined by the competition between the adiabatic and nonadiabatic dynamics of the S2 state. The results also indicated that the adiabatic dissociation process occurring on the S2 surface is not statistical. We speculate that this nonstatistical dissociation behavior is due to an initial nonuniform phase space distribution and a slow intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution process that prevents the system from sampling the entire phase space before the reaction completes.

  14. Dormancy removal in apple embryos by nitric oxide or cyanide involves modifications in ethylene biosynthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gniazdowska, Agnieszka; Krasuska, Urszula; Bogatek, Renata

    2010-11-01

    The connection between classical phytohormone-ethylene and two signaling molecules, nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN), was investigated in dormancy removal and germination "sensu stricto" of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) embryos. Deep dormancy of apple embryos was removed by short-term (3-6 h) pre-treatment with NO or HCN. NO- or HCN-mediated stimulation of germination was associated with enhanced emission of ethylene by the embryos, coupled with transient increase in ROS concentration in embryos. Ethylene vapors stimulated germination of dormant apple embryos and eliminated morphological anomalies characteristic for young seedlings developed from dormant embryos. Inhibitors of ethylene receptors completely impeded beneficial effect of NO and HCN on embryo germination. NO- and HCN-induced ethylene emission by apple embryo was only slightly reduced by inhibitor of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase activity during first 4 days of germination. Short-term pre-treatment of the embryos with NO and HCN modified activity of both key enzymes of ethylene biosynthetic pathway: ACC synthase and ACC oxidase. Activity of ACC synthase declined during first 4 days of germination, while activity of ACC oxidase increased markedly at that time. Additional experiments point to non-enzymatic conversion of ACC to ethylene in the presence of ROS (H(2)O(2)). The results indicate that NO and HCN may alleviate dormancy of apple embryos "via" transient accumulation of ROS, leading to enhanced ethylene emission which is required to terminate germination "sensu stricto". Therefore, ethylene seems to be a trigger factor in control of apple embryo dormancy removal and germination.

  15. Effects of aqueous stable fullerene nanocrystal (nC60) on copper (trace necessary nutrient metal): Enhanced toxicity and accumulation of copper in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xianji; He, Yiliang; Fortner, John D; Chen, Yongsheng; Hughes, Joseph B

    2013-08-01

    Our focus herein is to evaluate the potential interaction between nC60 and copper, a trace necessary metal, in light of the impact on toxicity. The non-observable effects concentration (NOEC) of nC60 was confirmed as 100μgL(-1) before. When Daphnia magna was exposed to the mixture of copper solution and nC60 suspension (100μgL(-1)), LC50 of 48h was lower than that when they were exposed to copper solution alone. This result clearly showed the decrease in NOEC of copper at the presence of nC60. Cu(2+)-ATPase activity was enhanced at the presence of nC60, indicating that copper transport involved with the uptake, distribution and depuration in body was increased. We further conducted experiments on accumulation of copper in D. magna. The observed equilibrium copper concentration in D. magna in the mixture of 100μgL(-1) nC60 and 1μgL(-1) copper solution reached 131μg (kg wet weight)(-1), which was more than twice that in copper solution only: 60μg (kg wet weight)(-1). This result demonstrated that the accumulation of copper in D. magna was significantly enhanced at the presence of even low nC60 concentration. Experiments also showed that copper was quickly adsorbed onto nC60. The absorption of copper onto D. magna was statistically correlated to the absorption of nC60 onto D. magna; this might be caused by nC60 facilitating the transfer of copper into D. magna. The absorption and desorption of copper to nC60 (pH=5.0) reached equilibrium quickly, which may be involved with the co-bioaccumulation and decrease in NOEC of Cu(2+) and nC60. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Highly Selective Chemosensor for Cyanide Derived from a Formyl-Functionalized Phosphorescent Iridium(III) Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejoymohandas, K S; Kumar, Ajay; Sreenadh, S; Varathan, E; Varughese, S; Subramanian, V; Reddy, M L P

    2016-04-04

    A new phosphorescent iridium(III) complex, bis[2',6'-difluorophenyl-4-formylpyridinato-N,C4']iridium(III) (picolinate) (IrC), was synthesized, fully characterized by various spectroscopic techniques, and utilized for the detection of CN(-) on the basis of the widely known hypothesis of the formation of cyanohydrins. The solid-state structure of the developed IrC was authenticated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Notably, the iridium(III) complex exhibits intense red phosphorescence in the solid state at 298 K (ΦPL = 0.16) and faint emission in acetonitrile solution (ΦPL = 0.02). The cyanide anion binding properties with IrC in pure and aqueous acetonitrile solutions were systematically investigated using two different channels: i.e., by means of UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence. The addition of 2.0 equiv of cyanide to a solution of the iridium(III) complex in acetonitrile (c = 20 μM) visibly changes the color from orange to yellow. On the other hand, the PL intensity of IrC at 480 nm was dramatically enhanced ∼5.36 × 10(2)-fold within 100 s along with a strong signature of a blue shift of the emission by ∼155 nm with a detection limit of 2.16 × 10(-8) M. The cyanohydrin formation mechanism is further supported by results of a (1)H NMR titration of IrC with CN(-). As an integral part of this work, phosphorescent test strips have been constructed by impregnating Whatman filter paper with IrC for the trace detection of CN(-) in the contact mode, exhibiting a detection limit at the nanogram level (∼265 ng/mL). Finally, density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations were performed to understand the electronic structure and the corresponding transitions involved in the designed phosphorescent iridium(III) complex probe and its cyanide adduct.

  17. Toxic Synovitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... substances made by the body's immune system to fight the infection. Toxic synovitis can happen at any age, but is most common in kids between 3 and 8 years old. It's also more common in boys. Sometimes toxic ...

  18. Toxic effects of prolonged administration of leaves of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) to goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Blanco, Benito; Górniak, Silvana Lima

    2010-07-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major source of dietary energy for humans and domestic animals in many tropical countries. However, consumption of cassava is limited by its characteristic content of cyanogenic glycosides. The present work aimed to evaluate the toxic effects of ingestion of cassava leaves by goats for 30 consecutive days, and to compare the results with the toxic effects of cyanide in goats, which have been described previously. Eight Alpine cross-bred female goats were divided into two equal groups, and were treated with ground frozen cassava leaves at a target dose of 6.0mg hydrogen cyanide (HCN)/kg/day (treated animals), or with ground hay and water only (control group) by gavage for 30 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 7, 15, 21, and 30 for biochemical panel and cyanide determination. At the end of the experiment, fragments of pancreas, thyroid gland, liver, kidney, lungs, heart, spleen, and the whole central nervous system were collected for histopathological examination. Clinical signs were observed in all goats treated with cassava on the first day of the experiment. From the second day the dose of cassava leaves was reduced to 4.5mgHCN/kg/day. No changes were found in the blood chemical panel. A mild increase in the number of resorption vacuoles in the thyroid follicular colloid, slight vacuolation of periportal hepatocytes, and spongiosis of the mesencephalon were found in goats treated with cassava. The pattern of lesions seen in the present goats was similar to what has been described previously in cyanide-dosed goats. Thus, the toxic effects of the ingestion of cassava leaves by goats can be attributed to the action of cyanide released from cyanogenic glycosides, and none of the effects was promoted by these glycosides directly.

  19. On the Hydrogen Cyanide Removal from Air using Metal loaded Polyacrylonitrile Composite Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozorgmehr Maddah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study highlights the potential application of electrospun polyacrylonitrile/metal salts (CrO3, CuCO3 nanofibrous filter media impregnated with TEDA (PAN-M-TEDA as an efficient adsorbent for hydrogen cyanide removal from air. The PAN-M-TEDA nanofiber before and after adsorption of hydrogen cyanide was characterized with Fourier transform infrared microscopy (FTIR. The concentration of hydrogen cyanide passes through the samples was determined by measuring the absorption of hydrogen cyanide in the solution containing indicator via UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results showed that introducing metal salts to PAN nanofiber along with their impregnation with TEDA, significantly increases the adsorption capacity of nanofibrous filter media. The adsorption of hydrogen cyanide over PAN-M-TEDA nanofiber was also studied as a function of thickness, PAN concentration and TEDA concentration by response surface methodology (RSM based on central composite design. It is found that the highest adsorption capacity can be achieved at thickness 28.42 mm, PAN concentration 16.19 w/v % and TEDA concentration 14.80 w/v %.

  20. Kinetics of Natural Detoxification of Hydrogen Cyanide Contained In Retted Cassava Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the kinetics of natural detoxification of hydrogen cyanide contained in retted cassava roots. Retting is traditional fermentation of cassava, performed to soften the roots. During retting, cyanide diffuses into water used for the retting. The fresh cassava roots (bitter and sweet varieties used for this experiment were separately retted at ambient 0 temperature of 30 C. The cyanide content and pH were monitored daily. From the analysis of the experimental results, a first order consecutive rate equation is an adequate tool for explaining the mechanism of HCN reduction (or decay in retted cassava roots. The detoxification constants for the bound cyanide in the bitter and sweet cassava roots were 0.378/day and 0.438/day respectively, while that of the free hydrogen cyanide were 0.63/day and 0.74/day for the bitter and sweet varieties respectively. Cassava tubers from different species cannot be fermented with the same retting condition unless they have same or close functional properties.

  1. Equilibrium and kinetic studies on free cyanide adsorption from aqueous solution by activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnamfard, Ali; Salarirad, Mohammad Mehdi

    2009-10-15

    Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of free cyanide onto activated carbon were investigated in the batch tests, and the effects of contact time (1-72 h) and initial cyanide concentrations in the range of 102-532 mg/L were studied. Linear regression was used to determine the best fit of equilibrium and kinetics expressions. The two-parameter models including Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Temkin and four different linearized forms of Langmuir and three-parameter models including Redlich-Peterson and Koble-Corrigan were employed for fitting the equilibrium data and it was found that, three-parameter models fitted the data better than the two-parameter models and among the three-parameter models the equilibrium data are best represented by Koble-Corrigan model. A number of kinetic models including fractional power, zero order, first order, pseudo-first order, Elovich, second order, intraparticle diffusion and four different linearized forms of pseudo-second order models were tested to fit the kinetic data. The latter was found to be consistent with the data. Intraparticle diffusion plots show that the adsorption process of free cyanide is a two steps process. In the first step, the adsorption of cyanide is fast while in the second step, cyanide adsorption slows down.

  2. Sodium Nitrite and Sodium Thiosulfate Are Effective Against Acute Cyanide Poisoning When Administered by Intramuscular Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Brittain, Matthew; Chan, Adriano; Garrett, Norma; Yoon, David; Burney, Tanya; Mukai, David; Babin, Michael; Pilz, Renate B; Mahon, Sari B; Brenner, Matthew; Boss, Gerry R

    2017-06-01

    The 2 antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning in the United States must be administered by intravenous injection. In the out-of-hospital setting, intravenous injection is not practical, particularly for mass casualties, and intramuscular injection would be preferred. The purpose of this study is to determine whether sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate are effective cyanide antidotes when administered by intramuscular injection. We used a randomized, nonblinded, parallel-group study design in 3 mammalian models: cyanide gas inhalation in mice, with treatment postexposure; intravenous sodium cyanide infusion in rabbits, with severe hypotension as the trigger for treatment; and intravenous potassium cyanide infusion in pigs, with apnea as the trigger for treatment. The drugs were administered by intramuscular injection, and all 3 models were lethal in the absence of therapy. We found that sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate individually rescued 100% of the mice, and that the combination of the 2 drugs rescued 73% of the rabbits and 80% of the pigs. In all 3 species, survival in treated animals was significantly better than in control animals (log rank test, Pcyanide poisoning in 3 clinically relevant animal models of out-of-hospital emergency care. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. QCM Real-Time Sensor for monitoring of Poisonous Cyanide from Drinking Water and Environmental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpoca, Gh. V.; Radulescu, C.; Popescu, I. V.; Dulama, I. D.; Bancuta, I.; Gheboianu, A. I.; Cimpoca, M.; Cernica, I.; Staicu, L.

    2010-01-01

    The paper present Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) used for monitoring of poisonous cyanide in real-time at both drinking water standard and environmental regulatory concentrations. Through the use of a flow cell, aqueous samples containing cyanide react with a gold electrode of a piezoelectric quartz crystal and extract the gold from electrode in solution. The dissolution of metallic gold depends by cyanide concentration, pH of solution, the flow debit and the time. The sensor is an AT-cut quartz crystal with CrAu or TiAu electrode metallization, 1.27 cm2 active areas and 5 MHz resonance frequency. We use QCM with the static liquid from 0.2 to 1 ml solution and dynamic liquid with flow debit from 0.2 to 1 mL/minute. The detection limits at pH 12 are about 5 ppb for analysis times of 10 min, and 2 ppb for analysis times of 20 minutes. The calibrations show excellent linearity over a variety of cyanide concentrations ranging from 50 ppb to hundreds of ppm. The ability to provide real-time monitoring of cyanide contaminants in water samples can be used for a variety of applications: on-line monitoring of contaminants in process, recycle, and waste water; groundwater quality monitoring; detection of contaminants in streams, lakes and water supplies; monitoring dumping in off-shore waterways.

  4. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors...... to human exposure. The occurrence of each element in food classes from different regions is presented. Some of the current toxicological risk assessments on toxic elements, the human health effect of each toxic element, and their contents in the food legislations are presented. An overview of analytical...... techniques and challenges for determination of toxic elements in food is also given....

  5. Synthesis of hydrogen cyanide under simulated hydrothermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo-González, Paulina

    Nitrogen is a fundamental element for life, where is present in structural (e.g., proteins), catalytic (e.g., enzymes and ribozymes), energy transfer (e.g., ATP) and information storage (RNA and DNA) biomolecules. Atmospheric and planetary models suggest that nitrogen was abundant in the early atmospheres of Earth as dinitrogen (N2 ), an inert gas under normal atmospheric conditions. To be available for prebiotic synthesis it must be converted into hydrogen cyanide (HCN), ammonia (NH3 ) and/or nitric oxide (NO), in a process referred to as nitrogen fixation. Due to the strength of the triple bond in N2 , nitrogen fixation, while thermodynamically favored is kinetically restricted. In a reducing atmosphere dominated by CH4 -N2 , thunderstorm lightning efficiently produces HCN and NH3 (Stribling and Miller, 1987). Nevertheless, photochemical and geochemical constraints strongly suggest that the early atmosphere was weakly reducing, dominated by CO2 and N2 with traces of CH4 , CO, and H2 (Kasting, 1993). Under these conditions, HCN is no longer synthesized in the lightning channel and instead NO is formed (Navarro-Gonźlez, et al., 2001). In volcanic plumes, where magmatic gases a were more reducing than in the atmosphere, NO can also be formed by the lava heat (Mather et al., 2004) or volcanic lightning (Navarro-Gonźlez et al., 1998). Surprisingly, dinitrogen can be a reduced to NH3 in hydrothermal systems (Brandes et al., 1998), but the formation of HCN and its derivates were not investigated. The present work explores the possibility of the formation of HCN as well as other nitrile derivatives catalyzed by mineral surfaces in hydrothermal vents. To simulate a hydrothermal atmosphere, the experiments were carried out in a stainless steel Parr R minireactor with a 0.1 M NH4 HCO3 solution (200 ml) with or without a mineral surface exposed at 1 bar at temperatures ranging from 100 to 375° C. Different mineral matrices are been investigated. Our preliminary results

  6. Study of cyanide wastewater treatment by dispersion supported liquid membrane using trioctylamine and kerosene as liquid membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo Ping; Xue, Juan Qin; Yu, Li Hua; Liu, Ni Na

    2015-01-01

    A certain amount of cyanide is present in wastewater of various industrial processes, such as wet extraction of gold, coal processing, electroplating and other industries. In this work, an experimental study regarding transport of cyanide through a dispersion supported liquid membrane was performed. A model was established to describe the reaction and transport of CN(I) in the supported liquid membrane and the mass transfer kinetics equations were deduced. Through mass transfer kinetic equation it was derived that, when the carrier concentration was under certain conditions, there was a linear relationship between the reciprocal of the permeability coefficient of CN(I) (1/Pc) and n-th power of the concentration of H+ (cnH+), and the parameters Δa(δa/da) and Δo(δ0/d0) could be obtained from the slope and intercept of the straight line. Then the diffusion coefficient do and the diffusion layer thickness δo of the phase interface between the feed phase and membrane phase could be calculated. Factors affecting migration of CN(I) were analyzed, and the stable removal rate of CN(I) was more than 90% with carrier concentration (%TOA) of 2%, feed phase pH of 4, initial CN(I) concentration of 30 mg/L, stirring time of 1 hour, volume ratio of membrane solution to NaOH solution of 2:1, strip phase concentration of 2 mol/L. The results showed that the overall mass transfer rate increased first and then decreased with an increase of TOA concentration, organic-to-strip volume ratio, and strip concentration. Furthermore, the transport percentage of CN(I) was increased, the stability of membrane was enhanced, and the lifetime of the membrane was extended.

  7. A stress-enhanced model for discovery of disease-modifying gene: Ece1-suppresses the toxicity of α-synuclein A30P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Alex Yen-Yu; Tully, Tim

    2018-03-07

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive motor neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The complexity of disease etiology includes both genetic and environmental factors. No effective drug that can modify disease progression and protect dopamine neurons from degeneration is presently available. Human α-Synuclein A30P (A30P) is a mutant gene identified in early onset PD and showed to result selective dopamine neuron loss in transgenic A30P flies and mice. Paraquat (PQ) is an herbicide and an oxidative stress generator, linked to sporadic PD. We hypothesized that vital PD modifier genes are conserved across species and would show unique transcriptional changes to oxidative stress in animals expressing a PD-associated gene, such as A30P. We also hypothesized that manipulation of PD modifier genes would provide neuroprotection across species. To identify disease modifier genes, we performed two independently-duplicated experiments of microarray, capturing genome-wide transcriptional changes in A30P flies, chronically fed with PQ-contaminated food. We hypothesized that the best time point of identifying a disease modifier gene is at time when flies showed maximal combined toxicity of A30P transgene and PQ treatment during an early stage of disease and that effective disease modifiers gene are those showing transcriptional changes to oxidative stress in A30P expressing and not in wild type animals. Fly Neprilysin3 (Nep3) is one identified gene that is highly conserved. Its mouse and human homolog is endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (Ece1). To investigate the neuroprotective effect of Ece1, we used NS1 cells and mouse midbrain neurons expressing A30P, treated with or without PQ. We found that ECE1 expression protected against A30P toxicity on cell viability, on neurite outgrowth and ameliorated A30P accumulation in vitro. Expression of ECE1 in vivo suppressed dopamine neuron loss and alleviated the

  8. ETHYL CYANIDE ON TITAN: SPECTROSCOPIC DETECTION AND MAPPING USING ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordiner, M. A.; Palmer, M. Y.; Nixon, C. A.; Charnley, S. B.; Mumma, M. J.; Serigano, J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Irwin, P. G. J. [Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Teanby, N. A. [School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Wills Memorial Building, Queen’s Road, Bristol, BS8 1RJ (United Kingdom); Kisiel, Z. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikøw 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Kuan, Y.-J.; Chuang, Y.-L. [National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Wang, K.-S., E-mail: martin.cordiner@nasa.gov [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2015-02-10

    We report the first spectroscopic detection of ethyl cyanide (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN) in Titan’s atmosphere, obtained using spectrally and spatially resolved observations of multiple emission lines with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The presence of C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN in Titan’s ionosphere was previously inferred from Cassini ion mass spectrometry measurements of C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CNH{sup +}. Here we report the detection of 27 rotational lines from C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN (in 19 separate emission features detected at >3σ confidence) in the frequency range 222–241 GHz. Simultaneous detections of multiple emission lines from HC{sub 3}N, CH{sub 3}CN, and CH{sub 3}CCH were also obtained. In contrast to HC{sub 3}N, CH{sub 3}CN, and CH{sub 3}CCH, which peak in Titan’s northern (spring) hemisphere, the emission from C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN is found to be concentrated in the southern (autumn) hemisphere, suggesting a distinctly different chemistry for this species, consistent with a relatively short chemical lifetime for C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN. Radiative transfer models show that C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN is most concentrated at altitudes ≳200 km, suggesting production predominantly in the stratosphere and above. Vertical column densities are found to be in the range (1–5) × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −2}.

  9. Lithium cyanide supported by O- and N-donors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budanow, Alexandra; Franz, Klaus-Dieter; Vitze, Hannes; Fink, Lothar; Alig, Edith; Bolte, Michael; Wagner, Matthias; Lerner, Hans-Wolfram [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Str. 7, 60438, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    A series of adducts of LiCN, namely [Li(Me{sub 2}CO{sub 3})CN], [Li(Et{sub 2}CO{sub 3})CN], and [Li(NMP)CN] (NMP = N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone) were prepared by treatment of solvent-free LiCN with the appropriate donor. The starting material for these approaches, donor-free LiCN, was quantitatively prepared from Me{sub 3}SiCN and Li[Me] in diethyl ether at 0 C. Alternatively, [Li(NMP)CN] was synthesized by metathesis reaction of LiCl with NaCN in the presence of stoichiometric amounts of NMP. Although [Li(Me{sub 2}CO{sub 3})CN] and [Li(Et{sub 2}CO{sub 3})CN] are water-sensitive compounds and decompose at the exposure to air, [Li(NMP)CN] is stable in air, even at elevated temperatures. The thermal stability of [Li(NMP)CN] was proven by differential thermal analysis (DTA). [Li(NMP)CN] shows thermal stability up to temperatures of about 132 C. To evaluate the cyanation ability the reactions of 1-bromooctane and 3-bromocyclohexene with unsupported LiCN, [Li(NMP)CN], and a mixture of NaCN/LiCl/NMP were investigated. We found that [Li(NMP)CN] as well as LiCl/NaCN/NMP are efficient cyanation reagents comparable to the expensive and air-sensitive, donor-free LiCN. A product of the chloride-cyanide-bromide exchange could be isolated and structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) Method Study 12, cyanide in water. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, J.; Britton, P.; Kroner, R.

    1984-05-01

    EPA Method Study 12, Cyanide in Water reports the results of a study by EMSL-Cincinnati for the parameters, Total Cyanide and Cyanides Amendable to Chlorination, present in water at microgram per liter levels. Four methods: pyridine-pyrazolone, pyridine-barbituric acid, electrode and Roberts-Jackson were used by 112 laboratories in Federal and State agencies, municipalities, universities, and the private/industrial sector. Sample concentrates were prepared in pairs with similar concentrations at each of three levels. Analysts diluted samples to volume with distilled and natural waters and analyzed them. Precision, accuracy, bias and the natural water interference were evaluated for each analytical method and comparisons were made between the four methods.

  11. Cyanide removal from industrial wastewater by cross-flow nanofiltration: transport modeling and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Parimal; Bhakta, Pamela; Kumar, Ramesh

    2014-08-01

    A modeling and simulation study, along with an economic analysis, was carried out for the separation of cyanide from industrial wastewater using a flat sheet cross-flow nanofiltration membrane module. With the addition of a pre-microfiltration step, nanofiltration was carried out using real coke wastewater under different operating conditions. Under the optimum operating pressure of 13 bars and a pH of 10.0, a rate of more than 95% separation of cyanide was achieved. That model predictions agreed very well with the experimental findings, as is evident in the Willmott d-index value (> 0.95) and relative error (industrial wastewater instead of a synthetic solution, and an economic analysis was also done, considering the capacity of a running coking plant. The findings are likely to be very useful in the scale-up and design of industrial plants for the treatment of cyanide-bearing wastewater.

  12. A new detection tube to detect hydrogen cyanide in the air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitschmann Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new simple and sensitive detection tube to detect hydrogen cyanide in the air has been developed. The detection tube is based on the reaction of hydrogen cyanide with 4-nitrobenzil to form a violet colored product. The reaction takes place on the carrier made of a composite material which was prepared by pelletization of a mixture of microcrystalline cellulose and MgO. The detection tube can detect hydrogen cyanide in the air in the range of concentrations 0.1-100 mg.m-3 based on visual evaluation (by naked eye of the change of indication layer coloring and comparison with etalon. The detection limit is 0.05 mg.m-3. The detection tube is highly selective and sufficiently stable during storage.

  13. Antidote treatment for cyanide poisoning with hydroxocobalamin causes bright pink discolouration and chemical-analytical interferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunel, C; Widmer, C; Augsburger, M; Dussy, F; Fracasso, T

    2012-11-30

    Here we report the case of a 70-year-old woman who committed suicide by cyanide poisoning. During resuscitation cares, she underwent an antidote treatment by hydroxocobalamin. Postmortem investigations showed marked bright pink discolouration of organs and fluids, and a lethal cyanide blood concentration of 43 mg/L was detected by toxicological investigation. Discolouration of hypostasis and organs has widely been studied in forensic literature. In our case, we interpreted the unusual pink coloration as the result of the presence of hydroxocobalamin. This substance is a known antidote against cyanide poisoning, indicated because of its efficiency and poor adverse effects. However, its main drawback is to interfere with measurements of many routine biochemical parameters. We have tested the potential influence of this molecule in some routine postmortem investigations. The results are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ozonation and sol-gel method to obtain Cu/Cu O nanoparticles from cyanidation wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soria A, M. J.; Puente S, D. M.; Carrillo P, F. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila, Facultad de Metalurgia, Carretera 57 Km 4.5, 25710 Monclova, Coahuila (Mexico); Garcia C, L. A. [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada, Blvd. Enrique Reyna No. 140, Col. Los Pinos, 25253 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico); Velazquez S, J., E-mail: frrcarrillo@yahoo.com.mx [University of Texas at San Antonio, Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Antonio TX 78249 (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The extraction process of gold and silver by cyanidation generates large amounts of effluent which also contain contaminants such as cyanide and significant metal values such as copper. This paper presents the results of the removal and recovery of copper from ozonation treatment of a residual aqueous cyanide. The residual solution was treated by ozonation-precipitation to obtain a precipitate of copper. From this, copper nano composites obtained by Pechini modified sol-gel method were obtained. The compounds obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction, showing a dependence of the type of compounds formed over time of ozonation and heat treatment of the gel. The particle size was measured by scanning electron microscopy and calculated by the Scherrer equation, being between 50 and 120 nm. (Author)

  15. Toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) of a petroleum refinery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daflon, Sarah D A; Guerra, Igor L; Reynier, Márcia V; Cerqueira, Ana C; Botta, Clarice R; Campos, Juacyara C

    2017-07-29

    Petroleum refineries generate large amounts of wastewaters, which can have acute/chronic toxicity toward aquatic organisms. Previous studies have shown that many contaminants can be responsible for this toxicity, among them ammonia, sulfide, cyanide, phenols and hydrocarbons. In the study reported herein, the cause of the chronic toxicity of a biotreated petroleum refinery wastewater was investigated by applying the TIE methodology using the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia. Five samples were analyzed, and the results suggest that copper is the primary toxicant, showing a strong correlation with wastewater toxicity in Phase III. Other metal contaminants, such as zinc and nickel, are present in the samples at toxic concentrations and these may also contribute (to a lesser degree) toward the toxicity. In the case of one sample, the toxicity was attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), possibly benzo(a)pyrene, which was present at a concentration toxic to C. dubia. Although the values for the physicochemical parameters of the samples were below Brazilian environmental regulation limits (CONAMA 430), this was not sufficient to prevent chronic toxicity toward aquatic life, indicating that these limits are relatively high.

  16. Cyanide and Aflatoxin Loads of Processed Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Tubers (Garri) in Njaba, Imo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikezie, Paul Chidoka; Ojiako, Okey A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The present study sought to investigate the role of palm oil, in conjunction with the duration of fermentation, on cyanide and aflatoxin (AFT) loads of processed cassava tubers (Garri). Materials and Methods: Matured cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tubers were harvested from three different locations (Akunna, Mkporo-Oji and Durungwu) in Njaba Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria. The cassava tubers were processed into Garri according to standard schemes with required modifications and measured for cyanide content using titrimetric methods. Samples of Garri for determination of AFT levels were stored for 30 days before the commencement of spectrophotometric analysis. Results: Cyanide content of peeled cassava tubers was within the range of 4.07 ± 0.16-5.20 ± 0.19 mg hydrocyanic acid (HCN) equivalent/100 g wet weight, whereas the various processed cassava tubers was within the range of 1.44 ± 0.34-3.95 ± 0.23 mg HCN equivalents/100 g. For the 48 h fermentation scheme, Garri treated with palm oil exhibited marginal reduction in cyanide contents by 0.96%, 3.52% and 3.69%, whereas 4 h fermentation scheme is in concurrence with palm oil treatment caused 4.42%, 7.47% and 5.15% elimination of cyanide contents compared with corresponding untreated Garri samples (P > 0.05). Levels of AFT of the various Garri samples ranged between 0.26 ± 0.07 and 0.55 ± 0.04 ppb/100 g. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in AFT levels among the various samples in relation to their corresponding sources. Conclusion: The present study showed that the 48 h fermentation scheme for Garri production caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction, but did not obliterate the cyanide content of cassava tubers. Conversely, the 48 h fermentation scheme promoted the elevation of AFT levels, but was relatively reduced in Garri samples treated with palm oil. PMID:24403736

  17. Ammonium boranes for the selective complexation of cyanide or fluoride ions in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudnall, Todd W; Gabbaï, François P

    2007-10-03

    With the recognition of aqueous fluoride and cyanide ions as an objective, we have investigated the anion binding properties of two isomeric ammonium boranes, namely [p-(Mes2B)C6H4(NMe3)]+ ([1]+) and [o-(Mes2B)C6H4(NMe3)]+ ([2]+). These cationic boranes, which could be obtained by reaction of the known 4- and 2-dimesitylboryl-N,N-dimethylaniline with MeOTf, have been investigated both experimentally and computationally. They both react with fluoride and cyanide ions in organic solvents to afford the corresponding fluoroborate/ or cyanoborate/ammonium zwitterions 1F, 1CN, 2F, and 2CN. In aqueous solution, however, these cationic boranes behave as remarkably selective receptors. Indeed, [1]+ only complexes cyanide ions while [2]+ only complexes fluoride ions. In H2O/DMSO 60:40 vol (HEPES 6 mM, pH 7), the cyanide binding constant of [1]+ and the fluoride binding constant of [2]+ are respectively equal to 3.9 (+/-0.1) x 108 and 910 (+/-50) M-1. Structural and computational studies indicate that both steric and electronic effects contribute to the unusual selectivity displayed by these cationic boranes. Owing to favorable Coulombic effects, the para-derivative [1]+ has a very high affinity for cyanide; yet these effects are not sufficiently intense to allow complexation of the more efficiently hydrated and less basic fluoride anion. In the case of the ortho-derivative [2]+, the proximity of the ammonium moiety leads to an increase in the Lewis acidity of the boron center thus making fluoride binding possible. However, steric effects prevent cyanide coordination to the boron center of [2]+. Finally, cation [1]+ and [2]+ bind their dedicated anions reversibly and show a negligible response in the presence of other common anions including Cl-, Br-, I-, NO3-, OAc-, H2PO4-, and HSO4-.

  18. Pure zinc sulfide quantum dot as highly selective luminescent probe for determination of hazardous cyanide ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba, E-mail: mshamsipur@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rajabi, Hamid Reza, E-mail: h.rajabi@mail.yu.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75918-74831 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-03-01

    A rapid and simple fluorescence method is presented for selective and sensitive determination of hazardous cyanide ion in aqueous solution based on functionalized zinc sulfide (ZnS) quantum dot (QD) as luminescent prob. The ultra-small ZnS QDs were synthesized using a chemical co-precipitation method in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol (ME) as an efficient capping agent. The prepared pure ZnS QDs was applied as an optical sensor for determination of cyanide ions in aqueous solutions. ZnS nanoparticles have exhibited a strong fluorescent emission at about 424 nm. The fluorescence intensity of QDs is linearly proportional to the cyanide ion concentration in the range 2.44 × 10{sup −6} to 2.59 × 10{sup −5} M with a detection limit of 1.70 × 10{sup −7} M at pH 11. The designed fluorescent sensor possesses remarkable selectivity for cyanide ion over other anions such as Cl{sup −}, Br{sup −}, F{sup −}, I{sup −}, IO{sub 3}{sup −}, ClO{sub 4}{sup −}, BrO{sub 3}{sup −}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2−}, NO{sub 2}{sup −}, NO{sub 3}{sup −}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, S{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup 2−}, C{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup 2−}, SCN{sup −}, N{sub 3}{sup −}, citrate and tartarate with negligible influences on the cyanide detection by fluorescence spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Preparation of functionalized ZnS quantum dots in aqueous media • Highly selective quantum dot based luminescent probe for determination of cyanide • Fast and sensitive determination of hazardous CN{sup −} by fluorescence quenching.

  19. Early administration of isosorbide dinitrate improves survival of cyanide-poisoned rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavon, Ophir

    2015-01-01

    More effective, rapidly delivered, safer antidotes are needed for cyanide poisoning. Previous study has demonstrated a beneficial effect of isosorbide dinitrate on the survival of cyanide-poisoned mice. To evaluate the effectiveness of isosorbide dinitrate compared with that of sodium nitrite in cyanide poisoning. A comparative animal study was performed using 18 rabbits, randomized into 3 study groups. Animals were poisoned intravenously with potassium cyanide (1 mg/kg). The first group was not given any further treatment. The second and third groups were treated intravenously 1 min after poisoning with sodium nitrite (6 mg/kg) and isosorbide dinitrate (50 μg/kg), respectively. The primary outcome was short-term survival of up to 30 min. Secondary outcomes included time to death, a clinical score, mean blood pressure, pulse, blood pH, and lactate and methemoglobin levels. Rabbits treated with isosorbide dinitrate or sodium nitrite survived while only one untreated rabbit survived. Median time to death of the 5 poisoned and untreated animals was 10 min. All the animals collapsed soon after poisoning, exhibiting rapidly disturbed vital signs and developed lactic metabolic acidosis; average peak blood lactate levels were 15.5-19.1 mmol/L at 10 min after poisoning. The treated animals improved gradually with practically full recovery of the clinical scores, vital signs, and blood gas levels. Sodium nitrite administration raised methemoglobin to an average peak of 7.9%, while isosorbide dinitrate did not change methemoglobin levels. Early administration of isosorbide dinitrate improved the short-term survival of cyanide-poisoned rabbits. Isosorbide dinitrate shows potential as an antidote for cyanide poisoning and may exert its effect using a nitric-oxide-dependent mechanism.

  20. Balance model of masses for mercury and cyanide in the Surata River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaya S, Cesar Jovane

    2004-01-01

    The pattern of masses balance consists of a comparison through the time of pollutants quantity (mercury and cyanide) poured in the mining region of Vetas and California, with the values of these same pollutants detected in the Bosconia plant of the metropolitan aqueduct of Bucaramanga. The mercury and the cyanide are used in the mining region for the gold benefit and they already arrive as residuals to the air sources and to the water that arrives to Surata River, one of the sources of supply of drinkable water of the aqueduct. In the gold benefit in the region, two different groups work:; the mining companies and the barrileros. The barrileros is particular people that work mainly the amalgamation of the mineral in barrels, and they discard their residuals to the environment, the same as the mining companies. The mining companies of California pour their residuals in the gulch La Baja, above of the monitoring point LB-01 (Round Hill) of the CDMB; as long as the mining companies of Vetas, pour them above of the monitoring point RV-05 (Borrero) also of the CDMB, to the River Vetas. Few data exist on the used of mercury and cyanide quantities through the time for the mining companies and the barrileros. In the monitored points of the CDMB, RV-02 and LB-01 (Round Hill), it is had temporary registrations of so much of concentrations of mercury and total cyanide in the water, as well as of flows. In the plant Bosconia registers concentrations of mercury and cyanide in the water of the Surata River every two hours daily, as long as the data of flows are measured in the point MA-01 (Majadas) By means of the flow multiplication and concentration they can register the masses of mercury and cyanide that happen at one time determined by the sampling points. A very simple balance of masses is obtained measuring in the different sampling points the masses of mercury and cyanide poured in the mining region. In the ideal case all the data required should exist in with a high

  1. THE CYANIDE LEACH TECHNOLOGY IN GOLD AND SILVER MINING HARMFUL EFFECTS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR REMEDYING

    OpenAIRE

    Judit PETRES

    2013-01-01

    The region named Roşia Montană became famous due to its rich mineral resources. The most precious treasure which has been found is the gold. A state-run gold mine functioned for many years and the continuous pollution due to the gold extraction became very dangerous. All these cyanide-containing waste are hazardous to wildlife, natural resources and human health if not properly managed. The consequences of cyanide hazards may be devastating, sometimes killing everything for several miles down...

  2. THE CYANIDE LEACH TECHNOLOGY IN GOLD AND SILVER MINING HARMFUL EFFECTS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR REMEDYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit PETRES

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The region named Roşia Montană became famous due to its rich mineral resources. The most precious treasure which has been found is the gold. A state-run gold mine functioned for many years and the continuous pollution due to the gold extraction became very dangerous. All these cyanide-containing waste are hazardous to wildlife, natural resources and human health if not properly managed. The consequences of cyanide hazards may be devastating, sometimes killing everything for several miles downstream. It has not yet been found a way of both taking advantages of the economic benefits of gold and maintaining a liveable habitat.

  3. Selective solvation extraction of gold from alkaline cyanide solution by alkyl phosphorus esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.D.; Wan, R.Y.; Mooiman, M.B.; Sibrell, P.L.

    1987-01-01

    Research efforts have shown that solvation extraction of gold from alkaline cyanide solution is possible by alkyl phosphorus esters. Both tributyl phosphate (TBP) and dibutyl butyl phosphonate (DBBP) appear to be effective extractants for gold and exhibit high loading capacities exceeding 30 gpl. Selective solvation extraction of gold from alkaline cyanide solution can be achieved with selectivity factors relative to other cyanoanions as high as 1000 under certain circumstances. Variables influencing the selectivity such as ionic strength, temperature, and extractant structure, are discussed in terms of the extraction chemistry, which seems to involve the solvation of a M dot, dot, dot Au(CN)2 ion pair.

  4. Surviving acute cyanide poisoning: a longitudinal neuropsychological investigation with interval MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Adith; Lee, Teresa; Sachdev, Perminder

    2014-03-19

    We report the case of a 22-year-old woman who presented with self-poisoning by cyanide ingestion. We have elected to pay particular attention to describing the neuropsychological sequelae of cyanide poisoning, and the evolution of these deficits over a 6-month period. Prominent deficits in episodic memory were noted from an early stage, which were consistent with the findings noted on structural neuroimaging. These deficits remained persistent, although improving in severity over the follow-up period. No focal neurological deficits or abnormal involuntary movements emerged, and the patient's overall functional status remained satisfactory. The patient's psychiatric presentation and background history are briefly discussed.

  5. Cerebral energy metabolism during mitochondrial dysfunction induced by cyanide in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Troels Halfeld; Olsen, N.V.; Toft, P

    2013-01-01

    infusion and returned to baseline afterwards. The lactate/pyruvate (LP) ratio increased significantly following cyanide infusion because of a marked increase in lactate level while pyruvate remained within normal limits. Glutamate and glycerol increased after cyanide infusion indicating insufficient energy...... metabolism and degradation of cellular membranes, respectively. CONCLUSION: Mitochondrial dysfunction is characterised by an increased LP ratio signifying a shift in cytoplasmatic redox state at normal or elevated PbtO2 . The condition is biochemically characterised by a marked increase in cerebral lactate...

  6. Accumulation of α-Keto Acids as Essential Components in Cyanide Assimilation by Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 11764

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Daniel A.; Chen, Jui-Lin; Pan, Guangliang

    1998-01-01

    Pyruvate (Pyr) and α-ketoglutarate (αKg) accumulated when cells of Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB 11764 were cultivated on growth-limiting amounts of ammonia or cyanide and were shown to be responsible for the nonenzymatic removal of cyanide from culture fluids as previously reported (J.-L. Chen and D. A. Kunz, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 156:61–67, 1997). The accumulation of keto acids in the medium paralleled the increase in cyanide-removing activity, with maximal activity (760 μmol of cyanide removed min−1 ml of culture fluid−1) being recovered after 72 h of cultivation, at which time the keto acid concentration was 23 mM. The reaction products that formed between the biologically formed keto acids and cyanide were unambiguously identified as the corresponding cyanohydrins by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Both the Pyr and α-Kg cyanohydrins were further metabolized by cell extracts and served also as nitrogenous growth substrates. Radiotracer experiments showed that CO2 (and NH3) were formed as enzymatic conversion products, with the keto acid being regenerated as a coproduct. Evidence that the enzyme responsible for cyanohydrin conversion is cyanide oxygenase, which was shown previously to be required for cyanide utilization, is based on results showing that (i) conversion occurred only when extracts were induced for the enzyme, (ii) conversion was oxygen and reduced-pyridine nucleotide dependent, and (iii) a mutant strain defective in the enzyme was unable to grow when it was provided with the cyanohydrins as a growth substrate. Pyr and αKg were further shown to protect cells from cyanide poisoning, and excretion of the two was directly linked to utilization of cyanide as a growth substrate. The results provide the basis for a new mechanism of cyanide detoxification and assimilation in which keto acids play an essential role. PMID:9797306

  7. Rifampicin pre-treatment inhibits the toxicity of rotenone-induced PC12 cells by enhancing sumoylation modification of α-synuclein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, D; Jing, X; Chen, Y; Liang, Y; Lei, M; Peng, S; Zhou, T; Zheng, D; Zeng, Z; Wu, X; Yang, L; Xiao, S; Liu, J; Tao, E

    2017-03-25

    Our previous research revealed that rifampicin could protect PC12 (pheochromocytoma 12) cells from rotenone-induced cytotoxicity by reversing the aggregation of α-synuclein. Furthermore, increasing evidence indicated that the misfolded α-synuclein with SUMOylation, an important protein posttranslational modification, was easier to solubilize and was less toxic. Here, we investigated whether rifampicin could stabilize α-synuclein and prevent rotenone-induced PC12 cells from undergoing apoptosis by enhancing SUMOylation of α-synuclein. The expression of SUMO1 and SUMO2/3, the two main proteins responsible for the SUMOylation modification in PC12 cells, were detected by western blotting. Co-immunoprecipitation was performed to compare qualitatively the SUMOylation modification of α-synuclein. The cell viability and apoptosis rate were measured by a CCK-8 assay kit and flow cytometry, respectively. We targeted Ubc9 as a key enzyme in the SUMOylation modification pathway and knocked down the UBC9 gene using a short interfering RNA. Treatment with 150 μmol/L rifampicin, increased the expressions of SUMO1 and SUMO2/3 in cells by 1.5 times compared with the control group; meanwhile, the cell viability of rotenone-induced cells increased from 20 to 80% (P cells stimulated by rifampicin was observed 18 h earlier compared with cells treated by rotenone alone. SUMOylation of α-synuclein was more significant in rifampicin-treated cells and Ubc9 upregulated cells. However, the same phenomenon and the protective effect of rifampicin were reversed after UBC9 knockout. In conclusion, rifampicin might reduce the cytotoxicity of rotenone-induced PC12 cells by promoting SUMOylation of α-synuclein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. TREATMENT OF CYANIDE SOLUTIONS AND SLURRIES USING AIR-SPARGED HYDROCYCLONE (ASH) TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan D. Miller; Terrence Chatwin; Jan Hupka; Doug Halbe; Tao Jiang; Bartosz Dabrowski; Lukasz Hupka

    2003-03-31

    The two-year Department of Energy (DOE) project ''Treatment of Cyanide Solutions and Slurries Using Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone (ASH) Technology'' (ASH/CN) has been completed. This project was also sponsored by industrial partners, ZPM Inc., Elbow Creek Engineering, Solvay Minerals, EIMCO-Baker Process, Newmont Mining Corporation, Cherokee Chemical Co., Placer Dome Inc., Earthworks Technology, Dawson Laboratories and Kennecott Minerals. Development of a new technology using the air-sparged hydrocyclone (ASH) as a reactor for either cyanide recovery or destruction was the research objective. It was expected that the ASH could potentially replace the conventional stripping tower presently used for HCN stripping and absorption with reduced power costs. The project was carried out in two phases. The first phase included calculation of basic processing parameters for ASH technology, development of the flowsheet, and design/adaptation of the ASH mobile system for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) recovery from cyanide solutions. This was necessary because the ASH was previously used for volatile organics removal from contaminated water. The design and modification of the ASH were performed with the help from ZPM Inc. personnel. Among the modifications, the system was adapted for operation under negative pressure to assure safe operating conditions. The research staff was trained in the safe use of cyanide and in hazardous material regulations. Cyanide chemistry was reviewed resulting in identification of proper chemical dosages for cyanide destruction, after completion of each pilot plant run. The second phase of the research consisted of three field tests that were performed at the Newmont Mining Corporation gold cyanidation plant near Midas, Nevada. The first field test was run between July 26 and August 2, 2002, and the objective was to demonstrate continuous operation of the modified ASH mobile system. ASH units were applied for both stripping and absorption

  9. The Quest for Complex Molecules in Space. Searches for Cyanides Related to n-PROPYL Cyanide in SGR B2(N)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Holger S. P.; Schlemmer, S.; Belloche, A.; Menten, K. M.; Coutens, A.; Walters, A.; Grabow, J.-U.

    2011-06-01

    A molecular line survey was carried out with the IRAM 30 m telescope toward the prolific hot core Sgr B2(N) in order to explore its molecular complexity. The entire 3 mm range as well as selected regions at 2 and 1.3 mm were covered. Notable results include the detections of aminoacetonitrile, ethyl formate, n-propyl cyanide,^b and the singly substituted 13C isotopologs of vinyl cyanide. There exists a branched isomer of n-propyl cyanide: iso-propyl cyanide. A search for this isomer in our line survey required a laboratory spectroscopic investigation beforehand. Even though promising emission features have been found for this as well as other, related molecules, there are rather few uncontaminated lines. Overlap by other emission or some absorption features occurs frequently, and uncertainties about the position of the baseline also contribute to considering detections to be inconclusive. Nevertheless, the determination of upper limits or abundances among isomers and related molecules will help to constrain astrochemical pathways. We will present our results and discuss promising strategies to search for complex molecules in space. A. Belloche, K. M. Menten, C. Comito, H. S. P. Müller, P. Schilke, J. Ott, S. Thorwirth, C. Hieret, Astron. Astrophys. 482 (2008) 179. A. Belloche, R. T. Garrod, H. S. P. Müller, K. M. Menten, C. Comito, P. Schilke, Astron. Astrophys. 499 (2009), 215. H. S. P. Müller, A. Belloche, K. M. Menten, C. Comito, P. Schilke, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 251 (2008) 319. H. S. P. Müller, A. Coutens, A. Walters, J.-U. Grabow, S. Schlemmer, submitted to J. Mol. Spectrosc.

  10. Ions, isotopes, and metal cyanides: Observational and laboratory studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Chandra Shannon

    2004-11-01

    Chemistry in the interstellar medium is very different from the processes which take place in terrestrial settings. Environments such as circumstellar envelopes, molecular clouds, and comets contain diverse and complex chemical networks. The low temperatures (10 50 K) and densities (1 10 6 cm-3) allow normally unstable molecules to exist in significant quantities. At these temperatures, the rotational energy levels of molecules are populated, and thus these species can be detected by millimeter-wave radio astronomy. The detection and quantification of interstellar molecules, including metal cyanides and molecular ions, is the basis of this dissertation work. While conducting observations of CN and 13CN to determine the 12C/13C ratio throughout the Galaxy, it was found that the ratios in photon- dominated regions (PDRs) were much higher than those in nearby molecular clouds. This can be explained by isotope-selective photodissociation, in which the 12CN molecules are self-shielded. However, the chemistry in these regions is poorly understood, and other processes may be occurring. In order to understand one of the chemical networks present in PDRs, observations of HCO+, HOC +, and CO+ were made toward several of these sources. Previous studies indicated that the HCO+/HOC+ ratio was much lower in PDRs, due to the presence of CO+. The new observations indicate that there is a strong correlation between CO + and HOC+ abundances, which suggests that other molecular ions which have not been detected in molecular clouds may be present in PDRs. There is a significant obstacle to the detection of new interstellar molecular ions, however. The laboratory spectra are virtually unknown for many of these species, due to their inherent instability. Thus, techniques which can selectively detect ionic spectra must be utilized. One such method is velocity modulation, which incorporates an AC electrical discharge to produce and detect ions. Previously, velocity modulation spectroscopy

  11. Assessment of carboxyhemoglobin, hydrogen cyanide and methemoglobin in fire victims: a novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Luis A; Giannuzzi, Leda

    2015-11-01

    To establish the cause of death, carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), total hemoglobin (tHb), methemoglobin (MetHb), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) were quantified in the blood of fire victims. We analyzed 32 out of 33 blood samples from forensic autopsy cases in a disastrous polyurethane mattress fire, which caused the deaths of 33 inmates at a prison in Argentina in 2006. The cadaveric blood samples were collected by femoral vein puncture. These samples were analyzed using the IL80 CO-oximeter system for tHb, MetHb, and COHb levels and by microdiffusion for HCN and COHb levels. Blood alcohol (ethanol) and drugs were examined by headspace gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (HS-GC-FID) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS), respectively. Polyurethane mattress samples were analyzed according to the California 117 protocol. The saturation of COHb ranged from 10% to 43%, tHb from 2% to 19.7%, MetHb from 0.10% to 35.7%, and HCN from 0.24 to 15mg/L. These HCN values are higher than the lethal levels reported in the literature. Other toxic components routinely measured (ethanol, methanol, aldehydes, and other volatile compounds) gave negative results in the 32 cases. Neither drugs of abuse nor psychotropic drugs were detected. The results indicate that death in the 32 fire victims was probably caused in part by HCN, generated during the extensive polyurethane decomposition stimulated by a rapid increase in temperature. We also considered the influence of oxygen depletion and the formation of other volatile compounds such as NOx in this disaster, as well as pathological evidence demonstrating that heat was not the cause of death in all victims. Furthermore, statistical analysis showed that the percentage values of COHb and MetHb in the blood were not independent variables, with χ(2)=11.12 (theoretical χ(2)=4.09, degrees of freedom=12, and α=0.05). However, no correlation was found between HCN and MetHb in the blood of the victims. This is the first report to assess the

  12. Solid, double-metal cyanide catalysts for synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sustainable process for glycerol utilization and its value-addition. Various ... of contemporary interest for sustainable development. CO2 is a non-toxic, ..... in the architecture. Fe–Zn-2 showed three times more specific surface area (SBET = 160 m2/g) than Fe–Zn-1. (SBET = 52 m2/g). The total pore volume and aver- age pore ...

  13. [Acute poisoning with carbon monoxide (CO) and cyanide (CN)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, Frédéric J

    2009-05-01

    A critical analysis of acute CO and CN poisonings evidences that the lone toxicological similarity between CO and CN is their ability to avidly bind iron ions in the different hemoproteins. Otherwise, CO is a stable not-metabolized molecule while CN is a highly reactive molecule with extensive metabolism. CO impairs the ability of erythrocytes to transfer oxygen while CN has no effect. Both toxicants act in the mitochondria with CN resulting in the complete and sustained blockade of cellular respiration inducing severe lactic acidosis while CO does not. Acute CO poisoning mostly alters neurological cognitive function and even consciousness without significant alteration of vital functions while CN primarily alters consciousness with early onset of severe alteration of vital functions. Severe CO poisonings requires hours of exposure while severe CN poisoning occurs within seconds or minutes of exposure. Both gases may result in brain damage and sequelae. Brain imaging clearly shows significant differences in the locations and types of CO- and CN-induced brain damages, further supporting different mechanisms of action. Oxygen is the lone treatment of CO poisoning while in CN poisonings antidotes associated to oxygen are more efficient than oxygen alone. Unfortunately, there are several conditions where the easily detected and potentially toxic CO still continues to mask other potent toxicants. The lack of awareness of emergency physicians, clinical toxicologists, and neuroradiologists regarding the role of other toxic gases whose important role is recognized in combustion toxicology or environmental medicine precludes any progress in the understanding of the mechanisms of toxicity and in the treatment of these poisonings resulting in a particularly high rate of morbi-mortality.

  14. Pd(OAc)2/DPPF-catalysed microwave-assisted cyanide-free ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pd(OAc)2/DPPF-catalysed microwave-assisted cyanide-free synthesis of aryl nitriles. DINESH N SAWANT and BHALCHANDRA M BHANAGE. ∗. Department of Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019, India e-mail: bhalchandra_bhanage@yahoo.com. MS received 13 April 2013; revised 27 ...

  15. Analysis of a MULE-cyanide hydratase gene fusion in Verticillium dahliae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genome of the phytopathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae encodes numerous Class II “cut-and-paste” transposable elements, including those of a small group of MULE transposons. We have previously identified a fusion event between a MULE transposon sequence and sequence encoding a cyanide hydrata...

  16. 2/DPPF-catalysed microwave-assisted cyanide-free synthesis of aryl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This study reports microwave-assisted cyanide-free synthesis of aryl nitriles from aryl halides using palladium ... protocol for cyanation of aryl halides using potas- .... eReaction by conventional heating. Figure 2. Structure of ligands from L1–L5. Table 2. Influence of Lewis acids.a. No. Lewis acids (mmol). Yield 3a (%)b. 1.

  17. Real-time monitoring of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and ammonia (NH3) emitted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerincx, A.H.; Mandon, J.; Ingen, J. van; Arslanov, D.D.; Mouton, J.W.; Harren, F.J.; Merkus, P.J.F.M.; Cristescu, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    We present the real-time monitoring of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) production from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) strains in vitro, using laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy. Simultaneously, the production of ammonia (NH3) was measured, and the influence of different factors (e.g. the medium,

  18. Cyanide poisoning: report of a case studied by CT and MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, S.; Barrena, R.; Guelbenzu, S.; Garcia, A.I.

    1997-01-01

    Attempted suicide by cyanide poisoning causes rapid death by inhibition of cell-mediated oxidation. There are few cases of survival and most reports on the victims involve postmortem pathological studies. We present the case of a long-term survivor who developed parkinson, focusing especially on the contribution of neuroimaging to the diagnosis and follow-up. (Author) 15 refs

  19. Linamarase Expression in Cassava Cultivars with Roots of Low- and High-Cyanide Content1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, María Angélica; Vásquez, Valeria; Matehus, Juan; Aldao, Rafael Rangel

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the expression and localization of linamarase in roots of two cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivars of low and high cyanide. Two different patterns of linamarase activity were observed. In the low-cyanide type, young leaves displayed very high enzyme activity during the early plant growing stage (3 months), whereas in root peel, the activity increased progressively to reach a peak in 11-month-old plants. Conversely, in the high-cyanide cultivar (HCV), root peel linamarase activity decreased during the growth cycle, whereas in expanded leaves linamarase activity peaked in 11-month-old plants. The accumulation of linamarin showed a similar pattern in both cultivars, although a higher concentration was always found in the HCV. Linamarase was found mainly in laticifer cells of petioles and roots of both cultivars with no significant differences between them. At the subcellular level, there were sharp differences because linamarase was found mainly in the cell walls of the HCV, whereas in the low-cyanide cultivar, the enzyme was present in vacuoles and cell wall of laticifer cells. Reverse transcriptase-PCR on cassava tissues showed no expression of linamarase in cassava roots, thus, the transport of linamarase from shoots to roots through laticifers is proposed. PMID:12177481

  20. studies on solvent extraction of free hydrogen cyanide from river water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A method for free and strongly complexed cyanide measurement in river water was developed. Recovery tests from solution with and without river water, using various solvent combinations and background control were investigated to obtain an accurate and precise extraction method for the measurement of hydrogen ...

  1. A new condensation product for zinc plating from non-cyanide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zinc electroplating from non-cyanide alkaline solution is carried out in the presence of condensation product formed between DL-alanine (DLA) and glutaraldehyde. The bath constituents and bath variables are optimized through standard Hull cell experiments. The current efficiency and the throwing power are measured.

  2. Anaerobic co-digestion of cyanide containing cassava pulp with pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanpracha, Naraporn; Annachhatre, Ajit P

    2016-08-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of cyanide-containing cassava pulp with pig manure was evaluated using laboratory scale mesophilic digester. The digester was operated in a semi-continuous mode with the mixed feedstock having C/N ratio of 35:1. Digester startup was accomplished in 60days with loading of 0.5-1kgVS/m(3)d. Subsequently, the loading to digester was increased step-wise from 2 to 9kgVS/m(3)d. Digester performance was stable at loading between 2 and 6kgVS/m(3)d with an average volatile solid removal and methane yield of 82% and 0.38m(3)/kgVSadded, respectively. However, beyond loading of 7kgVS/m(3)d, solubilization of particulate matter did not take place efficiently. Cyanide present in cassava pulp was successfully degraded indicating that anaerobic sludge in the digester was well acclimatized to cyanide. The results show that cassava pulp can be successfully digested anaerobically with pig manure as co-substrate without any inhibitory effect of cyanide present in the cassava pulp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cyanide profiles of some Nigerian edible mushrooms in the raw and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Slices of eight species of Nigerian edible mushrooms, namely, Volvorella vulvacaea, Marasmius spp., Coprinus comatus, Pleurotus squarulotus, Pleurotus ostreatus, Schizophyllum commune, Rigidiporus lignosus and Ganaderma oregonense were analysed for free and bound (glycosidic) cyanide in the raw state as well as ...

  4. Cyanide detoxification in an insect herbivore: Molecular identification of β-cyanoalanine synthases from Pieris rapae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ohlen, Maike; Herfurth, Anna-Maria; Kerbstadt, Henrike; Wittstock, Ute

    2016-03-01

    Cyanogenic compounds occur widely in the plant kingdom. Therefore, many herbivores are adapted to the presence of these compounds in their diet by either avoiding cyanide release or by efficient cyanide detoxification mechanisms. The mechanisms of adaptation are not fully understood. Larvae of Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) are specialist herbivores on glucosinolate-containing plants. They are exposed to cyanide during metabolism of phenylacetonitrile, a product of benzylglucosinolate breakdown catalyzed by plant myrosinases and larval nitrile-specifier protein (NSP) in the gut. Cyanide is metabolized to β-cyanoalanine and thiocyanate in the larvae. Here, we demonstrate that larvae of P. rapae possess β-cyanoalanine activity in their gut. We have identified three gut-expressed cDNAs designated PrBSAS1-PrBSAS3 which encode proteins with similarity to β-substituted alanine synthases (BSAS). Characterization of recombinant PrBSAS1-PrBSAS3 shows that they possess β-cyanoalanine activity. In phylogenetic trees, PrBSAS1-PrBSAS3, the first characterized insect BSAS, group together with a characterized mite β-cyanoalanine synthase and bacterial enzymes indicating a similar evolutionary history. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Dose and time-dependent effects of cyanide on thiosulfate sulfurtransferase, 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase, and cystathionine λ-lyase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Poonam; Rao, Pooja; Bhattacharya, Rahul

    2013-12-01

    We assessed the dose-dependent effect of potassium cyanide (KCN) on thiosulfate sulfurtransferase (TST), 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST), and cystathionine λ-lyase (CST) activities in mice. The time-dependent effect of 0.5 LD50 KCN on cyanide level and cytochrome c oxidase (CCO), TST, 3-MPST, and CST activities was also examined. Furthermore, TST, 3-MPST, and CST activities were measured in stored mice cadavers. Hepatic and renal TST activity increased by 0.5 LD50 KCN but diminished by ≥2.0 LD50. After 0.5 LD50 KCN, the elevated hepatic cyanide level was accompanied by increased TST, 3-MPST, and CST activities, and CCO inhibition. Elevated renal cyanide level was only accompanied by increased 3-MPST activity. No appreciable change in enzyme activities was observed in mice cadavers. The study concludes that high doses of cyanide exert saturating effects on its detoxification enzymes, indicating their exogenous use during cyanide poisoning. Also, these enzymes are not reliable markers of cyanide poisoning in autopsied samples. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Enhancing Signal Output and Avoiding BOD/Toxicity Combined Shock Interference by Operating a Microbial Fuel Cell Sensor with an Optimized Background Concentration of Organic Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the monitoring of pollutants in an aquatic environment, it is important to preserve water quality safety. Among the available analysis methods, the microbial fuel cell (MFC sensor has recently been used as a sustainable and on-line electrochemical microbial biosensor for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and toxicity, respectively. However, the effect of the background organic matter concentration on toxicity monitoring when using an MFC sensor is not clear and there is no effective strategy available to avoid the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity. Thus, the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity was systematically studied in this experiment. The background organic matter concentration was optimized in this study and it should be fixed at a high level of oversaturation for maximizing the signal output when the current change (ΔI is selected to correlate with the concentration of a toxic agent. When the inhibition ratio (IR is selected, on the other hand, it should be fixed as low as possible near the detection limit for maximizing the signal output. At least two MFC sensors operated with high and low organic matter concentrations and a response chart generated from pre-experiment data were both required to make qualitative distinctions of the four types of combined shock caused by a sudden change in BOD and toxicity.

  7. Use of cyanide antidotes in burn patients with suspected inhalation injuries in North America: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumestre, Danielle; Nickerson, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the use of cyanide antidotes and the determine the opinion on empiric administration of hydroxocobalamin in North American burn patients with suspected smoke inhalation injuries. An online cross-sectional survey was sent to directors of 90 major burn centers in North America, which were listed on the American Burn Association Web site. A multiple-choice format was used to determine the percentage of patients tested for cyanide poisoning on admission, the current administration of a cyanide antidote based solely on clinical suspicion of poisoning, and the antidote used. To ascertain views on immediate administration of hydroxocobalamin before confirmation of cyanide poisoning an option was included to expand the response in written format. Twenty-nine of 90 burn directors (32%) completed the survey. For the population of interest, the majority of burn centers (59%) do not test for cyanide poisoning on admission and do not administer an antidote based solely on clinical suspicion of cyanide poisoning (58%). The most commonly available antidote is hydroxocobalamin (50%), followed by the cyanide antidote kit (29%). The opinion regarding instant administration of hydroxocobalamin when inhalation injury is suspected is mixed: 31% support its empiric use, 17% do not, and the remaining 52% have varying degrees of confidence in its utility. In North America, most patients burnt in closed-space fires with inhalation injuries are neither tested for cyanide poisoning in a timely manner nor empirically treated with a cyanide antidote. Although studies have shown the safety and efficacy of empiric and immediate administration of hydroxocobalamin, most centers are not willing to do so.

  8. Cianeto em tiquiras: riscos e metodologia analítica Cyanide in "tiquira": risks and analytical methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jomar Livramento Barros Furtado

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Tiquira é o destilado alcoólico obtido a partir da sacarificação e fermentação da mandioca, e além de íons cianeto, contém na sua composição as demais espécies potencialmente tóxicas presentes nas aguardentes, tais como: carbamatos, metanol e alguns íons de metais. Neste trabalho, uma metodologia analítica para a determinação de cianeto em amostras de tiquira é proposta, empregando voltametria no modo pulso diferencial, após destilação da amostra em presença de ácido nítrico 0,1 mol.L-1. A metodologia desenvolvida foi comparada (teste t com um método padrão para a determinação de cianeto. Os resultados indicam que os métodos são equivalentes do ponto de vista estatístico, confirmando a viabilidade da metodologia proposta. As condições estabelecidas (volume da solução absorvedora = 100 mL; pH = 10; faixa de potencial = -0,5 a -0,1 V e velocidade de varredura = 20 mV.s-1 mostraram resultados reprodutíveis e permitiram a construção de curvas analíticas com valores de R da ordem de 0,999. O valor médio de cianeto encontrado em tiquira foi 2,8 x 10-5 mol.L-1 ± 2,4 x 10-6 mol.L-1, para n = 5, cerca de 150 vezes maior que o valor permitido para águas potáveis.Tiquira is an alcoholic beverage made of fermented and distilled manioc root (Manihot esculenta. The presence of toxic species such as carbamates, methanol, heavy metals and cyanide in this beverage is considered crucial to the quality of this important product of northern Brazil. This article proposes an analytical procedure involving the use of voltammetry in the differential mode after the sample is distilled in the presence of 0.1 mol.L-1 of nitric acid. The new methodology was compared (test T with a standard method for determining cyanide, indicating that the methods are equivalent from thee standpoint of statistics and thus confirming the viability of the proposed methodology. The conditions established (volume of the adsorbent solution = 100.0 m

  9. The determination of total cyanide in solutions containing uranium and gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomons, M.; Dixon, K.

    1983-01-01

    This report gives the results of a limited investigation of three distillation procedures and their variants for the separation of cyanide. The spectrophotometric measurement, which follows the distillation, uses either a mixture of pyridine and pyrazolone, or a mixture of pyridine and barbituric acid. It was found that the method published in the South Africa Government Gazette in 1969 gives quantitative recoveries from potassium cyanide solutions but not in the presence of gold. The ligand-displacement method did not give quantitative recoveries in the presence of gold, except when zinc was added to the distilland, and it then failed to give a quantitative recovery of cyanide from ferrocyanide. These two methods were therefore rejected as unsuitable for the determination of cyanide in solutions containing small amounts of uranium and gold. The procedure of the American Public Health Association (APHA) was found to give quantitative recoveries in the presence of gold, uranium, thiocyanate, and ferrocyanide when cuprous chloride, or cuprous chloride with magnesium chloride, are added to the distilland. The spectrophotometric measurement using a mixture of pyridine and barbituric acid is preferred. The calibration range of the method is 0,5 to 6μg of cyanide, and the limit of determination is 0,04μg/cm 3 . (The relative standard deviation of the method is 0,05.) The distillation time in the APHA method is approximately two and a half hours; with 3 distillation trains, up to 9 distillations can be made per day, plus a further 2 hours for the spectrophotometric determination. The preferred laboratory method is detailed in an appendix

  10. Recovery of iron from cyanide tailings with reduction roasting–water leaching followed by magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yali; Li, Huaimei; Yu, Xianjin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Using reduction roasting–water leaching–magnetic separation method, the recovery of iron from cyanide tailings was optimized. ► The recovery of iron was highly depended on the water-leaching process after reduction roasting. ► The results suggest that the method can be effectively used for iron recovery, and the grade of magnetic concentrate and recovery rate can reach 59.11% and 75.12%, respectively. - Abstract: Cyanide tailing is a kind of solid waste produced in the process of gold extraction from gold ore. In this paper, recovery of iron from cyanide tailings was studied with reduction roasting–water leaching process followed by magnetic separation. After analysis of chemical composition and crystalline phase, the effects of different parameters on recovery of iron were chiefly introduced. Systematic studies indicate that the high recovery rate and grade of magnetic concentrate of iron can be achieved under the following conditions: weight ratios of cyanide tailings/activated carbon/sodium carbonate/sodium sulfate, 100:10:3:10; temperature, 50 °C; time, 60 min at the reduction roasting stage; the liquid to solid ratio is 15:1 (ml/g), leaching at 60 °C for 5 min and stirring speed at 20 r/min at water-leaching; exciting current is 2 A at magnetic separation. The iron grade of magnetic concentrate was 59.11% and the recovery ratio was 75.12%. The mineralography of cyanide tailings, roasted product, water-leached sample, magnetic concentrate and magnetic tailings were studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) technique. The microstructures of above products except magnetic tailings were also analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) to help understand the mechanism.

  11. Effectiveness of isosorbide dinitrate in cyanide poisoning as a function of the administration timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavon, Ophir; Avrahami, Amit; Eisenkraft, Arik

    2017-03-14

    Better and safer antidotes against cyanide poisoning are needed. Prior study has shown a favorable effect of isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) on the survival of cyanide-poisoned rabbits when administered as early as 1 min after poisoning. The aim of the current study was to further evaluate the efficacy of intravenous ISDN administered in clinically relevant timing for first responders. A comparative animal study using 24 rabbits in 4 randomized study groups was performed. Animals were poisoned with intravenous potassium cyanide (1 mg/kg). Animals in Group 1 served as controls and received no treatment. Groups 2-4 animals were treated intravenously with ISDN (50 μg/kg) after poisoning; one group after 3 min, another group after 5 min and the last after 7 min. Animals were observed for 30 min after poisoning. The study endpoints included survival rate, clinical status, blood pressure, pulse per minute, blood lactate and pH. Five of 6 animals (83.3%) from every treatment group survived the whole observation period while all control untreated animals died. All the rabbits collapsed immediately after exposure, showing rapidly deteriorated vital signs with lactic metabolic acidosis (peak blood lactate levels of 18.1 to 19.0 mmol/L on average at 10 min post exposure). Vital signs, clinical scores, and blood gases of treated rabbits gradually improved. Poisoned rabbits showed improved short-term survival following the administration of ISDN up to 7 min after lethal cyanide poisoning of. We see a potential for ISDN as an antidote against cyanide poisoning.

  12. Introducing Toxics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Bellinger

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available With this inaugural issue, Toxics begins its life as a peer-reviewed, open access journal focusing on all aspects of toxic chemicals. We are interested in publishing papers that present a wide range of perspectives on toxicants and naturally occurring toxins, including exposure, biomarkers, kinetics, biological effects, fate and transport, treatment, and remediation. Toxics differs from many other journals in the absence of a page or word limit on contributions, permitting authors to present their work in as much detail as they wish. Toxics will publish original research papers, conventional reviews, meta-analyses, short communications, theoretical papers, case reports, commentaries and policy perspectives, and book reviews (Book reviews will be solicited and should not be submitted without invitation. Toxins and toxicants concern individuals from a wide range of disciplines, and Toxics is interested in receiving papers that represent the full range of approaches applied to their study, including in vitro studies, studies that use experimental animal or non-animal models, studies of humans or other biological populations, and mathematical modeling. We are excited to get underway and look forward to working with authors in the scientific and medical communities and providing them with a novel venue for sharing their work. [...

  13. Beryllium Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Beryllium Toxicity Patient Education Care Instruction Sheet ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Page last reviewed: May 23, 2008 Page ...

  14. Inhibitors of the mitochondrial cytochrome b-c1 complex inhibit the cyanide-insensitive respiration of Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrens, J F; Bickar, D; Lehninger, A L

    1986-06-01

    The cyanide-insensitive respiration of bloodstream trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma brucei (75 +/- 8 nmol O2 min-1(mg protein)-1) is completely inhibited by the mitochondrial ubiquinone-like inhibitors 2-hydroxy-3-undecyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (UHNQ) and 5-n-undecyl-6-hydroxy-4,7-dioxobenzothiazole (UHDBT). The Ki values for UHDBT (30 nM) and UHNQ (2 microM) are much lower than the reported Ki for salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) (5 microM), a widely used inhibitor of the cyanide-insensitive oxidase. UHNQ also stimulated the glycerol-3-phosphate-dependent reduction of phenazine methosulfate, demonstrating that the site of UHNQ inhibition is on the terminal oxidase of the cyanide-insensitive respiration of T. brucei. These results suggest that a ubiquinone-like compound may act as an electron carrier between the two enzymatic components of the cyanide-insensitive glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase.

  15. Fatal methane and cyanide poisoning as a result of handling industrial fish: a case report and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, M; Richmond, I

    2000-01-01

    The potential health hazards of handling industrial fish are well documented. Wet fish in storage consume oxygen and produce poisonous gases as they spoil. In addition to oxygen depletion, various noxious agents have been demonstrated in association with spoilage including carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and ammonia. A fatal case of methane and cyanide poisoning among a group of deep sea trawler men is described. Subsequent independent investigation as a result of this case led to the discovery of cyanides as a further potential noxious agent. This is thus the first case in which cyanide poisoning has been recognised as a potentially fatal complication of handling spoiled fish. The previous literature is reviewed and the implications of the current case are discussed. Key Words: industrial fish • methane • cyanide PMID:11064677

  16. Cyanide poisoning in Thailand before and after establishment of the National Antidote Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuma, Sahaphume; Pradoo, Aimon; Rittilert, Panee; Wongvisavakorn, Sunun; Tongpoo, Achara; Sriapha, Charuwan; Krairojananan, Wannapa; Suchonwanich, Netnapis; Khomvilai, Sumana; Wananukul, Winai

    2018-04-01

    Antidote shortage is a global problem. In Thailand, the National Antidote Project (NAP) has operated since November 2010 to manage the national antidote stockpile, educate the healthcare providers on appropriate antidote use, and evaluate antidote usage. To evaluate the effect of NAP implementation on mortality rate and antidote use in cyanide poisoning cases arising from ingestion of cyanide or cyanogenic glycoside. This is a retrospective cohort of poisoning cases involving cyanide or cyanogenic glycoside ingestion reported to Ramathibodi Poison Center from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2015. Mortality rate, antidote use, and appropriateness of antidote use (defined as correct indication, proper dosing regimen, and administration within 90 min) before and after NAP implementation were compared. Association between parameters and fatal outcomes was analyzed. A total of 343 cases involving cyanide or cyanogenic glycoside ingestion were reported to Ramathibodi Poison Center. There were 213 cases (62.1%) during NAP (Project group) and 130 cases (37.9%) pre-NAP implementation (Before group). Implementation of NAP led to increased antidote use (39.9% in Project group versus 24.6% in Before group) and a higher rate of appropriate antidote use (74.1% in Project group versus 50.0% in Before group). All 30 deaths were presented with initial severe symptoms. Cyanide chemical source and self-harm intent were associated with death (OR: 12.919, 95% CI: 4.863-39.761 and OR: 10.747, 95% CI: 3.884-28.514, respectively). No difference in overall mortality rate (13 [10.0%] deaths before versus 17 [8.0%] deaths after NAP) was found. In subgroup analysis of 80 cases with initial severe symptoms, NAP and appropriate antidote use reduced mortality (OR: 0.327, 95% CI: 0.106-0.997 and OR: 0.024, 95% CI: 0.004-0.122, respectively). In the multivariate analysis of the cases with initial severe symptoms, presence of the NAP and appropriate antidote use independently reduced the risk of

  17. DNA microarray analysis of the cyanotroph Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 in response to nitrogen starvation, cyanide and a jewelry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Almagro, V M; Escribano, M P; Manso, I; Sáez, L P; Cabello, P; Moreno-Vivián, C; Roldán, M D

    2015-11-20

    Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 is an alkaliphilic bacterium that can use cyanide as nitrogen source for growth, becoming a suitable candidate to be applied in biological treatment of cyanide-containing wastewaters. The assessment of the whole genome sequence of the strain CECT5344 has allowed the generation of DNA microarrays to analyze the response to different nitrogen sources. The mRNA of P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 cells grown under nitrogen limiting conditions showed considerable changes when compared against the transcripts from cells grown with ammonium; up-regulated genes were, among others, the glnK gene encoding the nitrogen regulatory protein PII, the two-component ntrBC system involved in global nitrogen regulation, and the ammonium transporter-encoding amtB gene. The protein coding transcripts of P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 cells grown with sodium cyanide or an industrial jewelry wastewater that contains high concentration of cyanide and metals like iron, copper and zinc, were also compared against the transcripts of cells grown with ammonium as nitrogen source. This analysis revealed the induction by cyanide and the cyanide-rich wastewater of four nitrilase-encoding genes, including the nitC gene that is essential for cyanide assimilation, the cyanase cynS gene involved in cyanate assimilation, the cioAB genes required for the cyanide-insensitive respiration, and the ahpC gene coding for an alkyl-hydroperoxide reductase that could be related with iron homeostasis and oxidative stress. The nitC and cynS genes were also induced in cells grown under nitrogen starvation conditions. In cells grown with the jewelry wastewater, a malate quinone:oxidoreductase mqoB gene and several genes coding for metal extrusion systems were specifically induced. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors influencing the risk of wildlife cyanide poisoning on a tailings storage facility in the Eastern Goldfields of Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Stephen R; Smith, Gregory B; Donato, David B; Gillespie, Craig G

    2009-07-01

    Patterns of wildlife visitation and interaction with cyanide-bearing tailings slurry and solutions at the Fimiston tailings storage facility (TSF) have been reported in a previously published ecological study. The above-mentioned findings are extended in this paper by the examination of additional wildlife survey data, along with process water chemistry data collected during the same study period. Analysis of the combined results revealed that the primary wildlife protective mechanism in operation was effective management of tailings cyanide concentration. Nevertheless, tailings discharge concentration exceeded the industry standard wildlife protective limit of 50mg/L weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide episodically during the study period. Wildlife that interacted with habitats close to the spigot outlet during brief periods of increased discharge concentration were likely to have been exposed to bioavailable cyanide at concentrations greater than the industry standard protective limit. However, no wildlife deaths were recorded. These results appear to support the hypothesis that hypersalinity of process solutions (unique to the Kalgoorlie district of Western Australia) and a lack of aquatic food resources represent secondary protective mechanisms that operated to prevent cyanide-related wildlife mortality during the project. The proposed protective mechanisms are discussed in the context of their potential application as proactive management procedures to minimise wildlife exposure to cyanide.

  19. Evaluation of some Enzymatic Changes in the Liver and Kidney of Rats Following Exposure to Sublethal Concentration of Potassium Cyanide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Baghshani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Besides acute lethal cyanide poisoning, its chronic intoxication may also produce some pathologic effects on different tissues that precedes alterations in biochemical parameters. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of sublethal cyanide exposure on some tissue enzyme activities in liver and kidney of rats. Methods: Twelve male rats were divided into two groups as follows: Group 1 rats served as control. Rats in group 2 received water containing 200 ppm inorganic cyanide. At the end of the experiment (42 days, hepatic and renal activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and rhodanese were measured. Results: Potassium cyanide administration caused elevation of all measured liver enzymes in group 2, although the increase was only significant for AST and ALT activities as compared to control values (P<0.05. Moreover, renal AST activity in rats from group 2 was significantly higher than those from controls. Conclusion: The altered tissue activities of some enzymes in the present study might reflect the metabolic disturbances due to cyanide intoxication in studied organs. However, further research should be focused on this issue for better understanding of the fine mechanism of cyanide effects upon metabolic enzyme activities.

  20. Seven years of cyanide ingestions in the USA: critically ill patients are common, but antidote use is not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Pitotti, Rebecca L; Borys, Doug J; Morgan, David L

    2011-02-01

    Cyanide is a common toxin in structural fires and a salt that is ingested for suicide. However, most studies have focused on the effects of inhaled cyanide. The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of cyanide ingestions, symptoms, cardiac arrest and antidotal therapy used as reported to all US poison centres over 7 years. A retrospective review of cases over 7 years as reported to 61 poison centres in the USA was performed. Sole ingestions of cyanide were identified. A trained reviewer used a standard data collection sheet within a secured electronic database. Age, intent, clinical effects, treatments, antidotes and outcomes were recorded. One investigator audited a random sample of charts. Out of 1741 exposures, 435 ingestions were identified. Most were male (68%) and the mean age was 34 years (range 1 month-83 years). 45% of cases were intentional, most commonly as a suicide attempt. 8.3% of cases died and 9% (38/435) of patients had cardiac arrest or hypotension. 13% of all cases and 26% of cases arriving at a healthcare facility received an antidote. In 35% of cases of cardiac arrest or hypotension, and in 74% of intentional ingestions, antidotes were not given. Suicide attempt was the most common reason for cyanide ingestion. Most of these patients died. Cardiac arrest or hypotension was common, but antidote use was not, particularly in critically ill patients. Research is needed to improve outcomes of cyanide-induced hypotension and cardiac arrest and to reduce barriers to antidote use.