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Sample records for enhanced coal bed

  1. Method for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindley, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600.degree. to 1800.degree. F. and are partially quenched with water to 1000.degree. to 1200.degree. F. before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime/limestone.

  2. Enhanced coal bed methane production and sequestration of CO2 in unmineable coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, James [CONSOL Energy Inc., South Park, PA (United States); Winschel, Richard [CONSOL Energy Inc., South Park, PA (United States)

    2005-03-01

    The Marshall County Project was undertaken by CONSOL Energy Inc. (CONSOL) with partial funding from the U. S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Carbon Storage Program (CSP). The project, initiated in October 2001, was conducted to evaluate opportunities for carbon dioxide CO2 sequestration in an unmineable coal seam in the Northern Appalachian Basin with simultaneous enhanced coal bed methane recovery. This report details the final results from the project that established a pilot test in Marshall County, West Virginia, USA, where a series of coal bed methane (CBM) production wells were developed in an unmineable coal seam (Upper Freeport (UF)) and the overlying mineable Pittsburgh (PIT) seam. The initial wells were drilled beginning in 2003, using slant-hole drilling procedures with a single production leg, in a down-dip orientation that provided limited success. Improved well design, implemented in the remaining wells, allowed for greater CBM production. The nearly-square-shaped project area was bounded by the perimeter production wells in the UF and PIT seams encompassing an area of 206 acres. Two CBM wells were drilled into the UF at the center of the project site, and these were later converted to serve as CO2 injection wells through which, 20,000 short tons of CO2 were planned to be injected at a maximum rate of 27 tons per day. A CO2 injection system comprised of a 50-ton liquid CO2 storage tank, a cryogenic pump, and vaporization system was installed in the center of the site and, after obtaining a Class II underground injection permit (UIC) permit from the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection (WVDEP), CO2 injection, through the two center wells, into the UF was initiated in September 2009. Numerous complications limited CO2 injection continuity, but CO2 was injected until breakthrough was encountered in September 2013, at which point the project had achieved an injection total of 4,968 tons of CO2. During the injection and post

  3. Microbially-Enhanced Coal Bed Methane: Strategies for Increased Biogenic Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, K.; Barhart, E. P.; Schweitzer, H. D.; Cunningham, A. B.; Gerlach, R.; Hiebert, R.; Fields, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    Coal is the largest fossil fuel resource in the United States. Most of this coal is deep in the subsurface making it costly and potentially dangerous to extract. However, in many of these deep coal seams, methane, the main component of natural gas, has been discovered and successfully harvested. Coal bed methane (CBM) currently accounts for approximately 7.5% of the natural gas produced in the U.S. Combustion of natural gas produces substantially less CO2 and toxic emissions (e.g. heavy metals) than combustion of coal or oil thereby making it a cleaner energy source. In the large coal seams of the Powder River Basin (PRB) in southeast Montana and northeast Wyoming, CBM is produced almost entirely by biogenic processes. The in situ conversion of coal to CBM by the native microbial community is of particular interest for present and future natural gas sources as it provides the potential to harvest energy from coal seams with lesser environmental impacts than mining and burning coal. Research at Montana State University has shown the potential for enhancing the subsurface microbial processes that produce CBM. Long-term batch enrichments have investigated the methane enhancement potential of yeast extract as well as algal and cyanobacterial biomass additions with increased methane production observed with all three additions when compared to no addition. Future work includes quantification of CBM enhancement and normalization of additions. This presentation addresses the options thus far investigated for increasing CBM production and the next steps for developing the enhanced in situ conversion of coal to CBM.

  4. Method and apparatus for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindley, T.

    1988-04-05

    A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier is described. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600 to 1800 F and are partially quenched with water to 1000 to 1200 F before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime /limestone. 1 fig.

  5. Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration in the Powder River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2010-06-01

    Unminable coal beds are potentially large storage reservoirs for the sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 and offer the benefit of enhanced methane production, which can offset some of the costs associated with CO2 sequestration. The objective of this report is to provide a final topical report on enhanced coal bed methane recovery and CO2 sequestration to the U.S. Department of Energy in fulfillment of a Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership milestone. This report summarizes work done at Idaho National Laboratory in support of Phase II of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership. Research that elucidates the interaction of CO2 and coal is discussed with work centering on the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. Sorption-induced strain, also referred to as coal swelling/shrinkage, was investigated. A new method of obtaining sorption-induced strain was developed that greatly decreases the time necessary for data collection and increases the reliability of the strain data. As coal permeability is a strong function of sorption-induced strain, common permeability models were used to fit measured permeability data, but were found inadequate. A new permeability model was developed that can be directly applied to coal permeability data obtained under laboratory stress conditions, which are different than field stress conditions. The coal permeability model can be used to obtain critical coal parameters that can be applied in field models. An economic feasibility study of CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming was done. Economic analyses of CO2 injection options are compared. Results show that injecting flue gas to recover methane from CBM fields is marginally economical; however, this method will not significantly contribute to the need to sequester large quantities of CO2. Separating CO2 from flue gas and injecting it into the unminable coal zones of the Powder River Basin seam is currently uneconomical, but can

  6. Optimal scheduling for enhanced coal bed methane production through CO2 injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yuping; Zheng, Qipeng P.; Fan, Neng; Aminian, Kashy

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel deterministic optimization model for CO 2 -ECBM production scheduling. • Maximize the total profit from both sales of natural gas and CO 2 credits trading in the carbon market. • A stochastic model incorporating uncertainties and dynamics of NG price and CO 2 credit. - Abstract: Enhanced coal bed methane production with CO 2 injection (CO 2 -ECBM) is an effective technology for accessing the natural gas embedded in the traditionally unmineable coal seams. The revenue via this production process is generated not only by the sales of coal bed methane, but also by trading CO 2 credits in the carbon market. As the technology of CO 2 -ECBM becomes mature, its commercialization opportunities are also springing up. This paper proposes applicable mathematical models for CO 2 -ECBM production and compares the impacts of their production schedules on the total profit. A novel basic deterministic model for CO 2 -ECBM production including the technical and chemical details is proposed and then a multistage stochastic programming model is formulated in order to address uncertainties of natural gas price and CO 2 credit. Both models are nonlinear programming problems, which are solved by commercial nonlinear programming software BARON via GAMS. Numerical experiments show the benefits (e.g., expected profit gain) of using stochastic models versus deterministic models

  7. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  8. Sequestration and Enhanced Coal Bed Methane: Tanquary Farms Test Site, Wabash County, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frailey, Scott; Parris, Thomas; Damico, James; Okwen, Roland; McKaskle, Ray; Monson, Charles; Goodwin, Jonathan; Beck, E; Berger, Peter; Butsch, Robert; Garner, Damon; Grube, John; Hackley, Keith; Hinton, Jessica; Iranmanesh, Abbas; Korose, Christopher; Mehnert, Edward; Monson, Charles; Roy, William; Sargent, Steven; Wimmer, Bracken

    2012-05-01

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) carried out a pilot project to test storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the Springfield Coal Member of the Carbondale Formation (Pennsylvanian System), in order to gauge the potential for large-scale CO{sub 2} sequestration and/or enhanced coal bed methane recovery from Illinois Basin coal beds. The pilot was conducted at the Tanquary Farms site in Wabash County, southeastern Illinois. A four-well design an injection well and three monitoring wells was developed and implemented, based on numerical modeling and permeability estimates from literature and field data. Coal cores were taken during the drilling process and were characterized in detail in the lab. Adsorption isotherms indicated that at least three molecules of CO{sub 2} can be stored for each displaced methane (CH{sub 4}) molecule. Microporosity contributes significantly to total porosity. Coal characteristics that affect sequestration potential vary laterally between wells at the site and vertically within a given seam, highlighting the importance of thorough characterization of injection site coals to best predict CO{sub 2} storage capacity. Injection of CO{sub 2} gas took place from June 25, 2008, to January 13, 2009. A continuous injection period ran from July 21, 2008, to December 23, 2008, but injection was suspended several times during this period due to equipment failures and other interruptions. Injection equipment and procedures were adjusted in response to these problems. Approximately 92.3 tonnes (101.7 tons) of CO{sub 2} were injected over the duration of the project, at an average rate of 0.93 tonne (1.02 tons) per day, and a mode injection rate of 0.6-0.7 tonne/day (0.66-0.77 ton/day). A Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) program was set up to detect CO{sub 2 leakage. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels were monitored as were indirect indicators of CO{sub 2} leakage such as plant stress, changes in gas composition at

  9. Reuse of Produced Water from CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery, Coal-Bed Methane, and Mine Pool Water by Coal-Based Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutson, Chad [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Dastgheib, Seyed A. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Yang, Yaning [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Ashraf, Ali [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Duckworth, Cole [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Sinata, Priscilla [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Sugiyono, Ivan [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Shannon, Mark A. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Werth, Charles J. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Power generation in the Illinois Basin is expected to increase by as much as 30% by the year 2030, and this would increase the cooling water consumption in the region by approximately 40%. This project investigated the potential use of produced water from CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) operations; coal-bed methane (CBM) recovery; and active and abandoned underground coal mines for power plant cooling in the Illinois Basin. Specific objectives of this project were: (1) to characterize the quantity, quality, and geographic distribution of produced water in the Illinois Basin; (2) to evaluate treatment options so that produced water may be used beneficially at power plants; and (3) to perform a techno-economic analysis of the treatment and transportation of produced water to thermoelectric power plants in the Illinois Basin. Current produced water availability within the basin is not large, but potential flow rates up to 257 million liters per day (68 million gallons per day (MGD)) are possible if CO2-enhanced oil recovery and coal bed methane recovery are implemented on a large scale. Produced water samples taken during the project tend to have dissolved solids concentrations between 10 and 100 g/L, and water from coal beds tends to have lower TDS values than water from oil fields. Current pretreatment and desalination technologies including filtration, adsorption, reverse osmosis (RO), and distillation can be used to treat produced water to a high quality level, with estimated costs ranging from $2.6 to $10.5 per cubic meter ($10 to $40 per 1000 gallons). Because of the distances between produced water sources and power plants, transportation costs tend to be greater than treatment costs. An optimization algorithm was developed to determine the lowest cost pipe network connecting sources and sinks. Total water costs increased with flow rate up to 26 million liters per day (7 MGD), and the range was from $4 to $16 per cubic meter

  10. Inclined fluidized bed system for drying fine coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Chang Y.; Merriam, Norman W.; Boysen, John E.

    1992-02-11

    Coal is processed in an inclined fluidized bed dryer operated in a plug-flow manner with zonal temperature and composition control, and an inert fluidizing gas, such as carbon dioxide or combustion gas. Recycled carbon dioxide, which is used for drying, pyrolysis, quenching, and cooling, is produced by partial decarboxylation of the coal. The coal is heated sufficiently to mobilize coal tar by further pyrolysis, which seals micropores upon quenching. Further cooling with carbon dioxide enhances stabilization.

  11. Cultivation-independent analysis of archaeal and bacterial communities of the formation water in an Indian coal bed to enhance biotransformation of coal into methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Durgesh Narain; Kumar, Ashok; Tripathi, Anil Kumar [Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India). School of Biotechnolgy; Sarbhai, Munish Prasad [Oil and Natural Gas Commission, Ahmedabad (India). Inst. of Reservoir Studies

    2012-02-15

    Biogenic origin of the significant proportion of coal bed methane has indicated the role of microbial communities in methanogenesis. By using cultivation-independent approach, we have analysed the archaeal and bacterial community present in the formation water of an Indian coal bed at 600-700 m depth to understand their role in methanogenesis. Presence of methanogens in the formation water was inferred by epifluorescence microscopy and PCR amplification of mcrA gene. Archaeal 16S rRNA gene clone library from the formation water metagenome was dominated by methanogens showing similarity to Methanobacterium, Methanothermobacter and Methanolinea whereas the clones of bacterial 16S rRNA gene library were closely related to Azonexus, Azospira, Dechloromonas and Thauera. Thus, microbial community of the formation water consisted of predominantly hydrogenotrophic methanogens and the proteobacteria capable of nitrogen fixation, nitrate reduction and polyaromatic compound degradation. Methanogenic potential of the microbial community present in the formation water was elucidated by the production of methane in the enrichment culture, which contained 16S rRNA gene sequences showing close relatedness to the genus Methanobacterium. Microcosm using formation water as medium as well as a source of inoculum and coal as carbon source produced significant amount of methane which increased considerably by the addition of nitrite. The dominance of Diaphorobacter sp. in nitrite amended microcosm indicated their important role in supporting methanogenesis in the coal bed. This is the first study indicating existence of methanogenic and bacterial community in an Indian coal bed that is capable of in situ biotransformation of coal into methane. (orig.)

  12. Conversion of metallurgical coke and coal using a Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) moving bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Siwei; Bayham, Samuel; Zeng, Liang; McGiveron, Omar; Chung, Elena; Majumder, Ankita; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Accumulated more than 300 operation hours were accomplished for the moving bed reducer reactor. • Different reactor operation variables were investigated with optimal conditions identified. • High conversions of sub-bituminous coal and bituminous coal were achieved without flow problems. • Co-current and counter-current contact modes were tested and their applicability was discussed. - Abstract: The CLC process has the potential to be a transformative commercial technology for a carbon-constrained economy. The Ohio State University Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) process directly converts coal, eliminating the need for a coal gasifier oran air separation unit (ASU). Compared to other solid-fuel CLC processes, the CDCL process is unique in that it consists of a countercurrent moving bed reducer reactor. In the proposed process, coal is injected into the middle of the moving bed, whereby the coal quickly heats up and devolatilizes, splitting the reactor roughly into two sections with no axial mixing. The top section consists of gaseous fuel produced from the coal volatiles, and the bottom section consists of the coal char mixed with the oxygen carrier. A bench-scale moving bed reactor was used to study the coal conversion with CO 2 as the enhancing gas. Initial tests using metallurgical cokefines as feedstock were conducted to test the effects of operational variables in the bottom section of the moving bed reducer, e.g., reactor temperature, oxygen carrier to char ratio, enhancer gas CO 2 flow rate, and oxygen carrier flow rates. Experiments directly using coal as the feedstock were subsequently carried out based on these test results. Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and Illinois #6 coal were tested as representative sub-bituminous and bituminous coals, respectively. Nearly complete coal conversion was achieved using composite iron oxide particles as the oxygen carriers without any flow problems. The operational results demonstrated that a

  13. Gas distributor for fluidized bed coal gasifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Arthur C.; Zboray, James A.

    1980-01-01

    A gas distributor for distributing high temperature reaction gases to a fluidized bed of coal particles in a coal gasification process. The distributor includes a pipe with a refractory reinforced lining and a plurality of openings in the lining through which gas is fed into the bed. These feed openings have an expanding tapered shape in the downstream or exhaust direction which aids in reducing the velocity of the gas jets as they enter the bed.

  14. Seal evaluation and confinement screening criteria for beneficial carbon dioxide storage with enhanced coal bed methane recovery in the Pocahontas Basin, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, R.P.; Eriksson, K.A.; Ripepi, N.; Eble, C.; Greb, S.F.

    2012-01-01

    The geological storage of carbon dioxide in Appalachian basin coal seams is one possible sink for sequestration of greenhouse gases, with the added benefit of enhanced-coal bed methane (ECBM) recovery. The Pocahontas Basin (part of the central Appalachian Basin) of southwestern Virginia is a major coal bed methane (CBM) province with production mostly from coal beds in the Lower Pennsylvanian Pocahontas and New River formations. As part of the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership's Phase II research program, a CO 2-injection demonstration well was installed into Lower Pennsylvanian coal bed-methane producing strata in southwest Virginia. Samples of siliciclastic lithologies above coal beds in this Oakwood Field well, and from several other cores in the Nora Field were taken to establish a baseline of the basic confinement properties of overlying strata to test seal competency at local and regional scales.Strata above CBM-producing coal beds in the Pocahontas and New River formations consist of dark-gray shales; silty gray shales; heterolithic siltstones, sandstones, and shales; lithic sandstones, and quartzose sandstones. Standard measurements of porosity, permeability and petrography were used to evaluate potential leakage hazards and any possible secondary storage potential for typical lithologies. Both lithic- and quartz-rich sandstones exhibit only minor porosity, with generally low permeability (Member. Analyses of 1500 geophysical logs in southwest Virginia indicate that this unit is moderately thick (>50ft, 15m), laterally continuous (>3000km 2), and a homogenous shale, which coarsens upward into siltstone and sandstone, or is truncated by sandstone. Calculations from two mercury injection capillary porosimetry tests of the shale indicate that a displacement entry pressure of 207psi (1427kPa) would generate an estimated seal capacity of 1365ft (416m) of CO 2 before buoyant leakage. Scanning electron microscopy indicates a microfabric of narrow

  15. Fluidized bed dry dense medium coal beneficiation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    North, Brian C

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available medium beneficiation using a fluidized bed was investigated. Bed materials of sand, magnetite and ilmenite were used in a laboratory sized cylindrical fluidized bed. The materials were individually tested, as were mixes of sand and heavy minerals. Coal...

  16. Bed retained products in swept fixed bed (SFB) coal hydropyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastral, A.M.; Perez-Surio, M.J. [CSIC, Zaragosa (Spain). Inst. de Carboquimica

    1997-12-31

    The hydropyrolysis of a low rank coal in a swept fixed bed (SFB) reactor is carried out by fixing the hydrogen pressure (40 kg/cm{sup 2}), the hydrogen flow (2 l/min) and the residence time (10 min) at increasing temperatures (400 C, 500 C and 600 C) and coal bed heights (h, 1.5h, 2h, 2.5h and 3h). It is shown that the percentages of tars and char directly depend on the coal bed height and that there is not only a quantitative dependence, but also the height of the coal bed is very important and plays a relevant role on the nature of the conversion products. (orig.)

  17. Enhanced removal of sulfonamide antibiotics by KOH-activated anthracite coal: Batch and fixed-bed studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Linzi; Ai, Jing; Fu, Heyun; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Shourong; Xu, Zhaoyi; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2016-01-01

    The presence of sulfonamide antibiotics in aquatic environments poses potential risks to human health and ecosystems. In the present study, a highly porous activated carbon was prepared by KOH activation of an anthracite coal (Anth-KOH), and its adsorption properties toward two sulfonamides (sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine) and three smaller-sized monoaromatics (phenol, 4-nitrophenol and 1,3-dinitrobenzene) were examined in both batch and fixed-bed adsorption experiments to probe the interplay between adsorbate molecular size and adsorbent pore structure. A commercial powder microporous activated carbon (PAC) and a commercial mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) possessing distinct pore properties were included as comparative adsorbents. Among the three adsorbents Anth-KOH exhibited the largest adsorption capacities for all test adsorbates (especially the two sulfonamides) in both batch mode and fixed-bed mode. After being normalized by the adsorbent surface area, the batch adsorption isotherms of sulfonamides on PAC and Anth-KOH were displaced upward relative to the isotherms on CMK-3, likely due to the micropore-filling effect facilitated by the microporosity of adsorbents. In the fixed-bed mode, the surface area-normalized adsorption capacities of Anth-KOH for sulfonamides were close to that of CMK-3, and higher than that of PAC. The irregular, closed micropores of PAC might impede the diffusion of the relatively large-sized sulfonamide molecules and in turn led to lowered fixed-bed adsorption capacities. The overall superior adsorption of sulfonamides on Anth-KOH can be attributed to its large specific surface area (2514 m"2/g), high pore volume (1.23 cm"3/g) and large micropore sizes (centered at 2.0 nm). These findings imply that KOH-activated anthracite coal is a promising adsorbent for the removal of sulfonamide antibiotics from aqueous solution. - Highlights: • A high efficiency adsorbent for sulfonamide removal is prepared from anthracite. • Effects of

  18. Enhanced removal of sulfonamide antibiotics by KOH-activated anthracite coal: Batch and fixed-bed studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Linzi; Ai, Jing; Fu, Heyun; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Shourong; Xu, Zhaoyi; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2016-04-01

    The presence of sulfonamide antibiotics in aquatic environments poses potential risks to human health and ecosystems. In the present study, a highly porous activated carbon was prepared by KOH activation of an anthracite coal (Anth-KOH), and its adsorption properties toward two sulfonamides (sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine) and three smaller-sized monoaromatics (phenol, 4-nitrophenol and 1,3-dinitrobenzene) were examined in both batch and fixed-bed adsorption experiments to probe the interplay between adsorbate molecular size and adsorbent pore structure. A commercial powder microporous activated carbon (PAC) and a commercial mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) possessing distinct pore properties were included as comparative adsorbents. Among the three adsorbents Anth-KOH exhibited the largest adsorption capacities for all test adsorbates (especially the two sulfonamides) in both batch mode and fixed-bed mode. After being normalized by the adsorbent surface area, the batch adsorption isotherms of sulfonamides on PAC and Anth-KOH were displaced upward relative to the isotherms on CMK-3, likely due to the micropore-filling effect facilitated by the microporosity of adsorbents. In the fixed-bed mode, the surface area-normalized adsorption capacities of Anth-KOH for sulfonamides were close to that of CMK-3, and higher than that of PAC. The irregular, closed micropores of PAC might impede the diffusion of the relatively large-sized sulfonamide molecules and in turn led to lowered fixed-bed adsorption capacities. The overall superior adsorption of sulfonamides on Anth-KOH can be attributed to its large specific surface area (2514 m(2)/g), high pore volume (1.23 cm(3)/g) and large micropore sizes (centered at 2.0 nm). These findings imply that KOH-activated anthracite coal is a promising adsorbent for the removal of sulfonamide antibiotics from aqueous solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fluidized bed selective pyrolysis of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jer Y.; Cha, Chang Y.; Merriam, Norman W.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention discloses a process for the pyrolysis of coal which comprises the effective utilization of two zonal inclined fluidized beds, where said zones can be selectively controlled as to temperature and heating rate. The first zonal inclined fluidized bed serves as a dryer for crushed coal and additionally is controlled to selectively pyrolyze said coal producing substantially carbon dioxide for recycle use. The second zonal inclined fluidized bed further pyrolyzes the coal to gaseous, liquid and char products under controlled temperature and heating rate zones designed to economically integrate the product mix. The gas and liquid products are recovered from the gaseous effluent stream while the char which remains can be further treated or utilized in a subsequent process step.

  20. Incipient motion of gravel and coal beds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    2. 1Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, ... the particle size distribution curve following the relationship by Christensen .... where f = friction factor, ρ = mass density of fluid, and V = mean velocity of flow. .... for the incipient motion of gravel and coal beds have been represented by simple empirical.

  1. Fluidised bed gasification of low grade South African coals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    North, BC

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available gasifiers. Fluidised bed Entrained flow Coal particle size 0.5 mm – 5 mm 0 – 0.5 mm Coal moisture Dry Dry/slurry Coal type Non-caking coals Any coal Ash in coal < 60% < 30% Gasification agents Air/steam/oxygen Steam/oxygen Gasification... properties important for fluidised bed gasification are: square4 Coal reactivity in atmospheres of CO2 and H2O square4 Caking index and free swelling index (FSI) square4 Ash fusion temperature (AFT) 5.1 Coal reactivity The gasifcation reactions (1...

  2. The Effect of Bedding Structure on Mechanical Property of Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zetian Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical property of coal, influencing mining activity considerably, is significantly determined by the natural fracture distributed within coal mass. In order to study the effecting mechanism of bedding structure on mechanical property of coal, a series of uniaxial compression tests and mesoscopic tests have been conducted. The experimental results show that the distribution characteristic of calcite particles, which significantly influences the growth of cracks and the macroscopic mechanical properties of coal, is obviously affected by the bedding structure. Specifically, the uniaxial compression strength of coal sample is mainly controlled by bedding structure, and the average peak stress of specimens with axes perpendicular to the bedding planes is 20.00 MPa, which is 2.88 times the average amount of parallel ones. The test results also show a close relationship between the bedding structure and the whole deformation process under uniaxial loading.

  3. Fungi solubilisation of low rank coal: performances of stirred tank, fluidised bed and packed bed reactors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal biosolubilisation was investigated in stirred tank reactor, fluidised bed and fixed bed bioreactors with a view to highlight the advantages and shortcomings of each of these reactor configurations. The stirred aerated bioreactor and fluidised...

  4. The upper pennsylvanian pittsburgh coal bed: Resources and mine models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, W.D.; Ruppert, L.F.; Tewalt, S.J.; Bragg, L.J.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey recently completed a digital coal resource assessment model of the Upper Pennsylvanian Pittsburgh coal bed, which indicates that after subtracting minedout coal, 16 billion short tons (14 billion tonnes) remain of the original 34 billion short tons (31 billion tonnes) of coal. When technical, environmental, and social restrictions are applied to the remaining Pittsburgh coal model, only 12 billion short tons (11 billion tonnes) are available for mining. Our assessment models estimate that up to 0.61 billion short tons (0.55 billion tonnes), 2.7 billion short tons (2.4 billion tonnes), and 8.5 billion short tons (7.7 billion tonnes) could be available for surface mining, continuous mining, and longwall mining, respectively. This analysis is an example of a second-generation regional coal availability study designed to model recoverability characteristics for all the major coal beds in the United States. ?? 2001 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  5. Microbial diversity of western Canadian subsurface coal beds and methanogenic coal enrichment cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, Tara J.; Foght, Julia M. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Budwill, Karen [Carbon and Energy Management, Alberta Innovates-Technology Futures, 250 Karl Clark Road, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2010-05-01

    Coalbed methane is an unconventional fuel source associated with certain coal seams. Biogenic methane can comprise a significant portion of the gas found in coal seams, yet the role of microbes in methanogenesis in situ is uncertain. The purpose of this study was to detect and identify major bacterial and archaeal species associated with coal sampled from sub-bituminous methane-producing coal beds in western Canada, and to examine the potential for methane biogenesis from coal. Enrichment cultures of coal samples were established to determine how nutrient amendment influenced the microbial community and methane production in the laboratory. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed using DNA extracted and amplified from uncultured coal samples and from methanogenic coal enrichment cultures. Libraries were screened using restriction fragment length polymorphism, and representative clones were sequenced. Most (> 50%) of the bacterial sequences amplified from uncultured coal samples were affiliated with Proteobacteria that exhibit nitrate reduction, nitrogen fixation and/or hydrogen utilization activities, including Pseudomonas, Thauera and Acidovorax spp., whereas enrichment cultures were dominated by Bacteroidetes, Clostridia and/or Lactobacillales. Archaeal 16S rRNA genes could not be amplified from uncultured coal, suggesting that methanogens are present in coal below the detection levels of our methods. However, enrichment cultures established with coal inocula produced significant volumes of methane and the archaeal clone libraries were dominated by sequences closely affiliated with Methanosarcina spp. Enrichment cultures incubated with coal plus organic nutrients produced more methane than either nutrient or coal supplements alone, implying that competent methanogenic consortia exist in coal beds but that nutrient limitations restrict their activity in situ. This report adds to the scant literature on coal bed microbiology and suggests how microbes may be

  6. Atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustion research, development and application

    CERN Document Server

    Valk, M

    1994-01-01

    The use of fluidized bed coal combustion technology has been developed in the past decade in The Netherlands with a view to expanding the industrial use of coal as an energy supply. Various research groups from universities, institutes for applied science and from boiler industries participated and contributed to this research area. Comprehensive results of such recent experimentation and development work on atmospheric fluidized bed combustion of coal are covered in this volume. Each chapter, written by an expert, treats one specific subject and gives both the theoretical background as well a

  7. Potential health impacts of burning coal beds and waste banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    Uncontrolled release of pollutants from burning coal beds and waste banks presents potential environmental and human health hazards. On a global scale, the emissions of large volumes of greenhouse gases from burning coal beds may contribute to climate change that alters ecosystems and patterns of disease occurrence. On regional and local scales, the emissions from burning coal beds and waste banks of acidic gases, particulates, organic compounds, and trace elements can contribute to a range of respiratory and other human health problems. Although there are few published reports of health problems caused by these emissions, the potential for problems can be significant. In India, large numbers of people have been displaced from their homes because of health problems caused by emissions from burning coal beds. Volatile elements such as arsenic, fluorine, mercury, and selenium are commonly enriched in coal deposits. Burning coal beds can volatilize these elements, which then can be inhaled, or adsorbed on crops and foods, taken up by livestock or bioaccumulated in birds and fish. Some of these elements can condense on dust particles that can be inhaled or ingested. In addition, selenium, arsenic, lead, tin, bismuth, fluorine, and other elements condense where the hot gaseous emissions come in contact with ambient air, forming mats of concentrated efflorescent minerals on the surface of the ground. These mats can be leached by rainwater and washed into local water bodies providing other potential routes of exposure. Although there are little data linking burning coal beds and waste banks to known health problems, a possibly analogous situation exists in rural China where mineralized coal burned in a residential environment has caused widespread and severe health problems such as fluorosis and arseniasis. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Bulgarian coal and the fluid bed technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinov, M.; Georgiev, J.; Lebedov, K.; Petrov, N.

    2000-01-01

    Because of low-quality of the most of Bulgarian coal and more rigorous ecological restrictions for decreasing of greenhouse gases the fluidized bed technology is the most appropriate combustion technology. A study with a pilot plant aiming to establish the values of technological parameters in view to maintain stable process of fluidized bed combustion at the specific burning characteristics of the Bulgarian coal was carried out. Coal of different quality and particle size production of 'Marbas' LTD mines were used. Series of experiments with batches of strictly determined content were carried out at minimal, average and maximal load. The technological factors as: layer's aerodynamics, layer's height, fuel's quantity and quantity of inert material were changed at each batch. The ecological factors were optimized considering coal's quality, plant's parameters, limestone's dosing and layer's aerodynamics. A regressive model for optimization of technological and ecological factors was created. An average coefficient of performance was achieved, resp. 82.27 % at combustion of coal from mines 'Maritsa-West' and 90 % from mine 'Lev'. A coefficient of sulfur oxides' capture 70 % was obtained at coal with sulfur content 3.1-3.9 %. In conclusion the fluidized bed technology is very suitable for combustion's characteristics of the Bulgarian coal

  9. Fluidized bed gasification of selected South African coals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, AD

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available that due to the good heat and mass transfer properties of fluidised beds, coal with ash contents up to 70% can be utilised. The CSIR’s research and development work resulted in the installation of five bubbling fluidised bed combustors (BFBCs) between... 1989 and 1999. Other companies, such as Babcock and Scientific Design, also installed a number of BFBC plants during this time. It was realised during the development of BFBC technology that due to the low lateral dispersion coefficient of coal...

  10. Hydrogeochemistry and coal-associated bacterial populations from a methanogenic coal bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, Elliott P.; Weeks, Edwin P.; Jones, Elizabeth J.P.; Ritter, Daniel J.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Clark, Arthur C.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Cunningham, Alfred B.; Vinson, David S.; Orem, William H.; Fields, Matthew W.

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic coalbed methane (CBM), a microbially-generated source of natural gas trapped within coal beds, is an important energy resource in many countries. Specific bacterial populations and enzymes involved in coal degradation, the potential rate-limiting step of CBM formation, are relatively unknown. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has established a field site, (Birney test site), in an undeveloped area of the Powder River Basin (PRB), with four wells completed in the Flowers-Goodale coal bed, one in the overlying sandstone formation, and four in overlying and underlying coal beds (Knoblach, Nance, and Terret). The nine wells were positioned to characterize the hydraulic conductivity of the Flowers-Goodale coal bed and were selectively cored to investigate the hydrogeochemistry and microbiology associated with CBM production at the Birney test site. Aquifer-test results indicated the Flowers-Goodale coal bed, in a zone from about 112 to 120 m below land surface at the test site, had very low hydraulic conductivity (0.005 m/d) compared to other PRB coal beds examined. Consistent with microbial methanogenesis, groundwater in the coal bed and overlying sandstone contain dissolved methane (46 mg/L average) with low δ13C values (−67‰ average), high alkalinity values (22 meq/kg average), relatively positive δ13C-DIC values (4‰ average), and no detectable higher chain hydrocarbons, NO3−, or SO42−. Bioassay methane production was greatest at the upper interface of the Flowers-Goodale coal bed near the overlying sandstone. Pyrotag analysis identified Aeribacillus as a dominant in situbacterial community member in the coal near the sandstone and statistical analysis indicated Actinobacteria predominated coal core samples compared to claystone or sandstone cores. These bacteria, which previously have been correlated with hydrocarbon-containing environments such as oil reservoirs, have demonstrated the ability to produce biosurfactants to break down

  11. 40 CFR 147.52 - State-administered program-Hydraulic Fracturing of Coal Beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Fracturing of Coal Beds. 147.52 Section 147.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... PROGRAMS Alabama § 147.52 State-administered program—Hydraulic Fracturing of Coal Beds. The UIC program for hydraulic fracturing of coal beds in the State of Alabama, except those on Indian lands, is the program...

  12. Pulverized coal vs. circulating fluidized bed: An economic comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    As the power industry looks to the 1990s for expanded steam generation capacity, boiler owners will continue on their long-standing assignment to evaluate and select the best, lowest cost alternative to meet their energy needs. For coal-fired plants, this evaluation process includes pulverized coal-fired boilers (PC) and circulating fluidized bed boilers (CFB). The cost difference between these products is site specific and depends on several variables, including: Boiler size, pressure, and temperature; Operating variables, such as the cost for fuel, auxiliary power, SO 2 reagent, and ash disposal; Capital cost; and Financial variables, such as evaluation period and interest rate. This paper provides a technical and economic comparison between a pulverized coal-fired boiler and circulating fluidized bed boiler

  13. Risk factors for the undermined coal bed mining method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arad, V. [Petrosani Univ., Petrosani (Romania). Dept. of Mining Engineering; Arad, S. [Petrosani Univ., Petrosani (Romania). Dept of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    The Romanian mining industry has been in a serious decline and is undergoing ample restructuring. Analyses of reliability and risk are most important during the early stages of a project in guiding the decision as to whether or not to proceed and in helping to establish design criteria. A technical accident occurred in 2008 at the Petrila coal mine involving an explosion during the exploitation of a coal seam. Over time a series of technical accidents, such as explosions and ignitions of methane gas, roof blowing phenomena or self-ignition of coal and hazard combustions have occurred. This paper presented an analysis of factors that led to this accident as well an analysis of factors related to the mining method. Specifically, the paper discussed the geomechanical characteristics of rocks and coal; the geodynamic phenomenon from working face 431; the spontaneous combustion phenomenon; gas accumulation; and the pressure and the height of the undermined coal bed. It was concluded that for the specific conditions encountered in Petrila colliery, the undermined bed height should be between 5 and 7 metres, depending on the geomechanic characteristics of coal and surrounding rocks. 8 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  14. Staged fluidized-bed coal combustor for boiler retrofit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehmat, A.; Dorfman, L.; Shibayama, G.; Waibel, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Staged Fluidized-Bed Coal Combustion System (ASC) is a novel clean coal technology for either coal-fired repowering of existing boilers or for incremental power generation using combined-cycle gas turbines. This new technology combines staged combustion for gaseous emission control, in-situ sulfur capture, and an ash agglomeration/vitrification process for the agglomeration/vitrification of ash and spent sorbent, thus rendering solid waste environmentally benign. The market for ASC is expected to be for clean coal-fired repowering of generating units up to 250 MW, especially for units where space is limited. The expected tightening of the environmental requirements on leachable solids residue by-products could considerably increase the marketability for ASC. ASC consists of modular low-pressure vessels in which coal is partially combusted and gasified using stacked fluidized-bed processes to produce low-to-medium-Btu, high-temperature gas. This relatively clean fuel gas is used to repower/refuel existing pulverized-coal, natural gas, or oil-fired boilers using bottom firing and reburning techniques. The benefits of ASC coal-fired repowering include the ability to repower boilers without obtaining additional space while meeting the more stringent environmental requirements of the future. Low NO x , SO x , and particulate levels are expected while a nonleachable solid residue with trace metal encapsulation is produced. ASC also minimizes boiler modification and life-extension expenditures. Repowered efficiencies can be restored to the initial operating plant efficiency, and the existing boiler capacity can be increased by 10%. Preliminary cost estimates indicate that ASC will have up to a $250/kW capital cost advantage over existing coal-fired repowering options. 4 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Steam gasification of coal using a pressurized circulating fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, K.F.J.

    1989-09-01

    Subject of this investigation is the process engineering of a coal gasification using nuclear heat. A special aspect is the efficiency. To this purpose a new method for calculating the kinetics of hard coal steam gasification in a fluidized bed is presented. It is used for evaluations of gasification kinetics in a large-scale process on the basis of laboratory-scale experiments. The method is verified by experimental data from a large-scale gasifier. The investment costs and the operating costs of the designed process are estimated. (orig.) [de

  16. Numerical simulation of coupled binary gas-solid interaction during carbon dioxide sequestration in a coal bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Qiyan; Zhou Lai; Chen Zhongwei; Liu Jishan

    2008-01-01

    Complicated coupled binary gas-solid interaction arises during carbon dioxide sequestration in a coal seam, which combines effects of CO 2 -CH 4 counter adsorption, CO 2 -CH 4 counter diffusion, binary gas flow and coal bed deformation. Through solving a set of coupled field governing equations, a novel full coupled Finite Element (FE) model was established by COMSOL Multiphysics. The new FE model was applied to the quantification of coal porous pressure, coal permeability, gas composition fraction and coal displacement when CO 2 was injected in a CH 4 saturated coal bed. Numerical results demonstrate that CH 4 is swept by the injected CO 2 accompanied by coal volumetric deformation. Compared to the single CH 4 in situ, CH 4 -CO 2 counter-diffusion induced coal swelling can make more compensation for coal shrinkage due to effective stress. Competing influences between the effective stress and the CH 4 -CO 2 counter-diffusion induced volume change governs the evolution of porous pressure and permeability, which is controlled by the porous pressure correspondingly. This achievement extends our ability to understand the coupled multi-physics of the CO 2 geological sequestration and CO 2 enhanced coal bed methane recovery under field conditions. (authors)

  17. Aerosol sampling of an experimental fluidized bed coal combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, G.J.; Peele, E.R.; Carpenter, R.L.; Yeh, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    Fluidized bed combustion of coal, lignite or other materials has a potential for widespread use in central electric generating stations in the near future. This technology may allow widespread use of low-grade and/or high sulfur fuels due to its high energy utilization at low combustion temperature and its ability to meet emission criteria by using limestone bed material. Particulate and gaseous products resulting from fuel combustion and fluidization of bed material are discharged and proceed out the exhaust clean-up system. Sampling philosophy, methodology and equipment used to obtain aerosol samples from the exhaust system of the 18-inch fluidized bed combustor (FBC) at the Morgantown Energy Research Center (MERC) are described. Identification of sampling sites led to design of an aerosol sampling train which allowed a known quantity of the effluent streams to be sampled. Depending on the position, a 15 to 25 l/min sample is extracted from the duct, immediately diluted and transferred to a sampling/aging chamber. Transmission and scanning electron microscope samples, two types of cascade impactor samples, vapor-phase and particulate-phase organic samples, spiral duct aerosol centrifuge samples, optical size measurements and filter samples were obtained. Samples are undergoing physical, chemical and biological tests to help establish human health risk estimates for fluidized bed coal combustion and to provide information for use in design and evaluation of control technologies

  18. Coal pyrolysis in a continuous fluidized bed - process development studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishnan, N N; Akmal, M A.K.; Vaidyeswaran, R

    1981-10-01

    The paper deals with the development of a process development unit (PDU) for the fluid bed pyrolysis of non-caking slack coal obtained from Singareni and Talcher coalfields. Preheated air is used as the fluidizing medium. It is necessary to avoid its maldistribution by a suitable design of the gas distributor. In this regard perforated conical distributors appear to play an important role. In the low temperature carbonization of coal an operation around 500 C gives optimum yields of char and tar of desirable quality. Carbonization reactions are generally completed within about 20 min of the feed entry into the fluidized bed and the char attains an equilibrium volatile matter content. Since air is used as the fluidizing medium carbonization gas is diluted with nitrogen and non-combustibles. The heating value of the gas is low. (5 refs.)

  19. Coal bed methane: current status and outlook - Panorama 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In many parts of the world, there is growing interest in coal bed methane (CBM), which has been exploited for years in the United States. One reason is undoubtedly that some new gas producing countries, including India and China, are seeking to limit the level of their gas dependence. Another is the need to control greenhouse gas emissions, especially using mechanisms set up under the Kyoto Protocol. Finally, the increase in gas prices on international markets also encourages this trend

  20. Fluidized bed and pulverized coal combustion residues for secondary pavements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoori, N.; Diawara, H.; Wang, L.

    2009-01-01

    The United States produced nearly 125 million tons of coal combustion products in 2006. These by-products include fly ash, flue gas desulphurization materials, bottom ash, boiler slag, and other power plant by-products. The expense associated with waste disposal, lack of disposal sites, and significant environmental damage linked with the disposal of coal combustion residues have encouraged innovative utilization strategies such as the fluidized bed combustion (FBC) unit. This paper presented the results of a laboratory investigation that examined the properties of composites developed with different proportions of pre-conditioned FBC spent bed, pulverized coal combustion fly ash, natural fine aggregate, and Portland cement. The purpose of the study was to examine the extent to which the by-product composites could replace currently used materials in secondary roads. The paper presented the research objectives and experimental programs, including matrix constituent and proportions; mixture proportions; and mixing, curing, sampling, and testing. The discussion of results centered around compressive strength and expansion by internal sulfate attack. It was concluded that with proper proportioning, by-products of pulverized and fluidized bed combustion promote binding of sand particles and provide adequate strength under various curing and moisture conditions 4 refs., 6 tabs.

  1. Picobubble enhanced fine coal flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Y.J.; Liu, J.T.; Yu, S.; Tao, D. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Froth flotation is widely used in the coal industry to clean -28 mesh fine coal. A successful recovery of particles by flotation depends on efficient particle-bubble collision and attachment with minimal subsequent particle detachment from bubble. Flotation is effective in a narrow size range beyond which the flotation efficiency drops drastically. It is now known that the low flotation recovery of particles in the finest size fractions is mainly due to a low probability of bubble-particle collision while the main reason for poor coarse particle flotation recovery is the high probability of detachment. A fundamental analysis has shown that use of picobubbles can significantly improve the flotation recovery of particles in a wide range of size by increasing the probability of collision and attachment and reducing the probability of detachment. A specially designed column with a picobubble generator has been developed for enhanced recovery of fine coal particles. Picobubbles were produced based on the hydrodynamic cavitation principle. They are characterized by a size distribution that is mostly below 1 {mu}m and adhere preferentially to the hydrophobic surfaces. The presence of picobubbles increases the probability of collision and attachment and decreases the probability of detachment, thus enhancing flotation recovery. Experimental results with the Coalberg seam coal in West Virginia, U.S.A. have shown that the use of picobubbles in a 2 in. column flotation increased fine coal recovery by 10-30%, depending on the feed rate, collector dosage, and other flotation conditions. Picobubbles also acted as a secondary collector and reduced the collector dosage by one third to one half.

  2. Variations in pore characteristics in high volatile bituminous coals: Implications for coal bed gas content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Drobniak, A.; Strapoc, D.; Solano-Acosta, W.; Rupp, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Seelyville Coal Member of the Linton Formation (Pennsylvanian) in Indiana was studied to: 1) understand variations in pore characteristics within a coal seam at a single location and compare these variations with changes occurring between the same coal at different locations, 2) elaborate on the influence of mineral-matter and maceral composition on mesopore and micropore characteristics, and 3) discuss implications of these variations for coal bed gas content. The coal is high volatile bituminous rank with R0 ranging from 0.57% to 0.60%. BET specific surface areas (determined by nitrogen adsorption) of the coals samples studied range from 1.8 to 22.9??m2/g, BJH adsorption mesopore volumes from 0.0041 to 0.0339??cm3/g, and micropore volumes (determined by carbon dioxide adsorption) from 0.0315 to 0.0540??cm3/g. The coals that had the largest specific surface areas and largest mesopore volumes occur at the shallowest depths, whereas the smallest values for these two parameters occur in the deepest coals. Micropore volumes, in contrast, are not depth-dependent. In the coal samples examined for this study, mineral-matter content influenced both specific surface area as well as mesopore and micropore volumes. It is especially clear in the case of micropores, where an increase in mineral-matter content parallels the decrease of micropore volume of the coal. No obvious relationships were observed between the total vitrinite content and pore characteristics but, after splitting vitrinite into individual macerals, we see that collotelinite influences both meso- and micropore volume positively, whereas collodetrinite contributes to the reduction of mesopore and micropore volumes. There are large variations in gas content within a single coal at a single location. Because of this variability, the entire thickness of the coal must be desorbed in order to determine gas content reliably and to accurately calculate the level of gas saturation. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All

  3. Coal-char combustion in a fluidised bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehrotra, S.P.; Pande, M. [Indian Institute of Technolgy, Kanpur (India)

    2001-12-01

    Combustion of bituminous coal chars ranging from 0.8 mm to 1.8 mm has been studied in a fluidised bed reactor at temperatures ranging from 500 to 850{sup o}C. The fluidised bed consists of inert sand particles of average size of 0.5 mm and reactive coal char particles. A heat balance has been worked out to calculate the rate of combustion of char from measured incremental changes in the bed temperature during combustion. Investigations on partially burnt particles suggest that the ash layer which builds up around the burning core of char particles is non-flaking and the particles burn in a shrinking core manner. Analysis of rate data indicates that the rate of combustion is controlled by chemical reaction kinetics, though diffusion of oxygen through the bundary layer begins to influence the overall reaction kinetics at higher temperatures. The burnt out time varies linearly with particle size. Activation energy for the chemical reaction control regime is found to be around 68 kJ/mole.

  4. Conversion of different ash content brown coal in fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipov, P.; Chernyavskiy, N.; Ryzhkov, A.; Remenuk, A. [Ural Federal Univ., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Dept. of Thermal Power Plants; Dulienko, S. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine). Coal Energy Technology Inst.

    2013-07-01

    Available equations used to determine combustion specific rate of coal-derived cokes describe the burning of carbon particles well enough but are not accurate in case of ash-containing coke particles combustion. This study is an attempt to account for the influence of both initial ash content and its increase in the course of carbon conversion in specific rate calculations. The results of experimental study of burn-out dynamics of Volchanskiy field (North Urals) brown coal and its coke with different ash content under conditions of fluidized bed combustion at impulse-type non-gradient reactor RSC-1 and dynamic installation Pyrolysis-M are summarized. Diffusion and heterogeneous (kinetic) components of carbon combustion rate are identified separately by using diffusion and kinetics equation with correction for carbon mass fraction in particles. Burning particle overheating values and heterogeneous combustion rate constants at different temperatures are estimated.

  5. Investigation of Adsorbed Gases Content in Coal Beds in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadadinovic, J.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the gas fraction in coal beds in Bosnia & Herzegovina has been performed systematically since 1988. Gas in coal beds can be present in free or adsorbed form, and dissolved in water. Methods of investigation are based on the direct approach, according to which the gas fraction is determined in the undisturbed coal bed.The quantity of the adsorbed and free gas in the coal bed is directly proportional to the gas pressure. Dependence is hyperbolic. The quantity of the free gas in mining conditions is being determined by measurement of the desorption index (Δp2. The desorption index for the Srednjobosanski coal basin ranges to 1571 Pa, and the free gas pressure in this coal basin amounts up to 3.75 MPa. The desorption index for coal beds in “Kreka” and “Banoviće” coal basins has negative values, which means that the free gas fraction within the coal beds is negligible, while separation of adsorbed gases is diffuse. The free gas pressure in the mentioned coal basins is below 0.1 MPa. Adsorbed gases within the coal are connected by physical adsorption according to Langmuir’s isothermal adsorption curve. Langmuir’s quantities, for coal bed conditions, ranges as follows: am from 0.826 to 9.52 m3 t–1 pcs, and b from 6.65 10–3 to 0.247 MPa–1. Adsorbed gas within Miocene coal beds contains methane in amounts of 1.49 m3 t–1 čus CH4 andcarbon(IVoxide in amounts of 0.15 m3 t–1 čus CO2. Adsorbed gas within Pliocene coal beds, without methane, dominant is content of carbon(IVoxide.The investigation of the gas content in coal beds of BiH conducted in this article reveal that the coal beds primarily contain methane, while others hydrocarbons such as ethane, ethene, propane, propene and butane are present sporadically in fraction below φ/10–6. Based on the investigation results conducted in this article, simple mathematical forms were obtained for quick calculation of the free gas quantity by measurement of the

  6. In situ and Enriched Microbial Community Composition and Function Associated with Coal Bed Methane from Powder River Basin Coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, Elliott; Davis, Katherine; Varonka, Matthew; Orem, William; Fields, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    Coal bed methane (CBM) is a relatively clean source of energy but current CBM production techniques have not sustained long-term production or produced enough methane to remain economically practical with lower natural gas prices. Enhancement of the in situ microbial community that actively generates CBM with the addition of specific nutrients could potentially sustain development. CBM production more than doubled from native microbial populations from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal beds, when yeast extract and several individual components of yeast extract (proteins and amino acids) were added to laboratory microcosms. Microbial populations capable of hydrogenotrophic (hydrogen production/utilization) methanogenesis were detected in situ and under non-stimulated conditions. Stimulation with yeast extract caused a shift in the community to microorganisms capable of acetoclastic (acetate production/utilization) methanogenesis. Previous isotope analysis from CBM production wells indicated a similar microbial community shift as observed in stimulation experiments: hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was found throughout the PRB, but acetoclastic methanogenesis dominated major recharge areas. In conjunction, a high proportion of cyanobacterial and algal SSU rRNA gene sequences were detected in a CBM well within a major recharge area, suggesting that these phototrophic organisms naturally stimulate methane production. In laboratory studies, adding phototrophic (algal) biomass stimulated CBM production by PRB microorganisms similarly to yeast extract (~40μg methane increase per gram of coal). Analysis of the British thermal unit (BTU) content of coal from long-term incubations indicated >99.5% of BTU content remained after CBM stimulation with either algae or yeast extract. Biomimicry of in situ algal CBM stimulation could lead to technologies that utilize coupled biological systems (photosynthesis and methane production) that sustainably enhance CBM production and generate

  7. Casing drilling TM : a viable technology for coal bed methane?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madell, G.; Muqeem, M. [Tesco Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This paper highlighted the experience that Tesco has gained by drilling more than 30 wells using only casings as the drill stem, suggesting that such technology could be advantageous for Coal Bed Methane (CBM) exploration and development. Tesco has manufactured a mobile and compact hydraulic drilling rig that is ideal to meet the great demand for CBM development in Canada. The Casing Drilling TM system, when used in conjunction with the drilling rig, could be very effective and efficient for exploration and development of CBM reserves which typically require extensive coring. Continuous coring while drilling ahead and wire line retrieval can offer time savings and quick core recovery of large diameter core required for exploration core desorption tests. The proposed system may also have the potential to core or drill typically tight gas sands or coal beds under balanced with air or foam. This would reduce drilling fluid damage while finding gas at the same time. Compared to conventional drill pipes, Casing Drilling TM could also be effective with water production from shallow sands because of the smaller annual clearance which requires less air volumes to lift any produced water. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  8. The combustion of coal blends in a fluidised bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boavida, Dulce; Abelha, Pedro; Gulyurtlu, Ibrahim; Cabrita, Isabel

    1999-07-01

    Combustion studies of five coals of different origin were carried out in a laboratory scale fluidised bed combustor. Five blends prepared by mixing two coals based on their petrological characterisation, in varying amounts, were selected to study the possibility of reduction NO{sub x}, N{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2} emissions. The results showed that some blends had the opposite behaviour concerning the release of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} in relation to parent coals, and the emissions were higher than expected. The N{sub 2}O amounts observed were, however, in almost all blends tested, lower than predicted values. With some blends, the mixing levels intended to reduce SO{sub 2} were not always found to correspond to those for simultaneous decrease of Nox. Most of the blends studied showed some evidence of interaction between them. Varying the proportion of the blend components was observed to alter the temperatures at which interactions were stronger.

  9. Coal-bed methane water: effects on soil properties and camelina productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every year the production of coal-bed natural gas in the Powder River Basin results in the discharge of large amounts of coal-bed methane water (CBMW) in Wyoming; however, no sustainable disposal methods for CBMW are currently available. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the potential to ...

  10. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) Extraction on Water Resources in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, David

    2017-04-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States, in Australia extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed 'coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus to date. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics including the potential requirement for hydraulic fracturing. However, as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas, the potential impacts of extraction on surface and groundwater resources may be of even greater concern. In Australia, an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) has been established to provide scientific advice to federal and state government regulators on the impact that coal seam gas and large coal mining developments may have on water resources. This advice is provided to enable decisions to be informed by the best available science about the potential water-related impacts associated with these developments. To support this advice, the Australian Government Department of the Environment has implemented a programme of research termed 'bioregional assessments' to investigate these potential impacts. A bioregional assessment is defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are currently being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia underlain by coal reserves. Further details of the programme and results to date can be found at http://www.bioregionalassessments.gov.au. The bioregional assessment programme has modelled the impacts of coal seam gas development on surface and groundwater resources in three regions of eastern Australia, namely the Clarence-Moreton, Gloucester, and Namoi regions. This presentation will discuss the

  11. 30 CFR 206.265 - Value enhancement of marketable coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Value enhancement of marketable coal. 206.265... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.265 Value enhancement of marketable coal. If, prior to use, sale, or other disposition, the lessee enhances the value of coal after the coal has been placed in...

  12. 30 CFR 206.464 - Value enhancement of marketable coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Value enhancement of marketable coal. 206.464... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.464 Value enhancement of marketable coal. If, prior to use, sale, or other disposition, the lessee enhances the value of coal after the coal has been placed in...

  13. Application of computer graphics to generate coal resources of the Cache coal bed, Recluse geologic model area, Campbell County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, G.B.; Crowley, S.S.; Carey, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    Low-sulfur subbituminous coal resources have been calculated, using both manual and computer methods, for the Cache coal bed in the Recluse Model Area, which covers the White Tail Butte, Pitch Draw, Recluse, and Homestead Draw SW 7 1/2 minute quadrangles, Campbell County, Wyoming. Approximately 275 coal thickness measurements obtained from drill hole data are evenly distributed throughout the area. The Cache coal and associated beds are in the Paleocene Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation. The depth from the surface to the Cache bed ranges from 269 to 1,257 feet. The thickness of the coal is as much as 31 feet, but in places the Cache coal bed is absent. Comparisons between hand-drawn and computer-generated isopach maps show minimal differences. Total coal resources calculated by computer show the bed to contain 2,316 million short tons or about 6.7 percent more than the hand-calculated figure of 2,160 million short tons.

  14. Nitrogen Chemistry in Fluidized Bed Combustion of Coal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker Degn

    and reduction by homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions. The data for the estimation of kinetics of the heterogeneous reactions were measured by one of the partners in the project for char and bed material sampled from a pressurized FBC pilot plant burning Kiveton Park coal. Experimental data from the pilot...... plant were used for model verification. The simulations of the NO emission during staged combustion and NH3 injection for NO reduction were in qualitative agreement with the experimental data. A parametric study of the influence of operating conditions on the conversion of fuel-N to NO showed......, the gas interchange coefficient, the bubble size and the bubble rise velocity. The most important combustion parameters were the rate of CO and CH4 combustion and the fraction of CO produced from char combustion. By using a rate of production analysis, the important reactions in the NO model were...

  15. Non-slag co-gasification of biomass and coal in entrained-bed furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaya, Yoshinori; Suami, Akira; Kobayashi, Nobusuke

    2018-02-01

    Gasification is a promising candidate of processes to upgrade biomass and to yield clean gaseous fuel for utilization of renewable energy resources. However, a sufficient amount of biomass is not always available to operate a large scale of the plant. Co-gasification of biomass with coal is proposed as a solution of the problem. Tar emission is another subject during operation in shaft or kiln type of gasifiers employed conventionally for biomass. The present authors proposed co-gasification of biomass and coal in entrained-bed furnace, which is a representative process without tar emission under high temperature, but operated so to collect dust as flyash without molten slag formation. This paper presents the works performed on co-gasification performance of biomass and pulverized coal to apply to entrained-bed type of furnaces. At first, co-gasification of woody powder and pulverized coal examined using the lab-scale test furnace of the down-flow entrained bed showed that the maximum temperatures in the furnace was over 1500 K and the carbon conversion to gas achieved at higher efficiency than 80-90 percent although the residence time in the furnace was as short as a few seconds. Non-slag co-gasification was carried out successfully without slag formation in the furnace if coal containing ash with high fusion temperature was employed. The trend suggesting the effect of reaction rate enhancement of co-gasification was also observed. Secondary, an innovative sewage sludge upgrading system consisting of self-energy recovery processes was proposed to yield bio-dried sludge and to sequentially produce char without adding auxiliary fuel. Carbonization behavior of bio-dried sludge was evaluated through pyrolysis examination in a lab-scale quartz tube reactor. The thermal treatment of pyrolysis of sludge contributed to decomposition and removal of contaminant components such as nitrogen and sulfur. The gasification kinetics of sludge and coal was also determined by a

  16. Conceptual designs of pressurized fluidized bed and pulverized coal fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doss, H.S.; Bezella, W.A.; Hamm, J.R.; Pietruszkiewicz, J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the major technical and economic characteristics of steam and air-cooled pressurized fluidized bed (PFB) power plant concepts, along with the characteristics of a pulverized coal fired power plant equipped with an adipic acid enhanced wet-limestone flue gas desulfurization system. Conceptual designs for the three plants were prepared to satisfy a set of common groundrules developed for the study. Grassroots plants, located on a generic plant site were assumed. The designs incorporate technologies projected to be commercial in the 1990 time frame. Power outputs, heat rates, and costs are presented

  17. Picobubble enhanced column flotation of fine coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, D.; Yu, S.; Parekh, B.K. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Mining Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The purpose is to study the effectiveness of picobubbles in the column flotation of -28 mesh fine coal particles. A flotation column with a picobubble generator was developed and tested for enhancing the recovery of ultrafine coal particles. The picobubble generator was designed using the hydrodynamic cavitation principle. A metallurgical and a steam coal were tested in the apparatus. The results show that the use of picobubbles in a 2in. flotation column increased the recovery of fine coal by 10 to 30%. The recovery rate varied with feed rate, collector dosage, and other column conditions. 40 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Comparison of coal/solid recovered fuel (SRF) with coal/refuse derived fuel (RDF) in a fluidised bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagland, S.T.; Kilgallon, P.; Coveney, R.; Garg, A.; Smith, R.; Longhurst, P.J.; Pollard, S.J.T.; Simms, N.

    2011-01-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to compare the differences between municipal solid waste (MSW) derived solid recovered fuel (SRF) (complying with CEN standards) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). Both fuels were co-combusted with coal in a 50 kW fluidised bed combustor and the metal emissions were compared. Synthetic SRF was prepared in the laboratory by grinding major constituents of MSW such as paper, plastic, textile and wood. RDF was obtained from a local mechanical treatment plant. Heavy metal emissions in flue gas and ash samples from the (coal + 10% SRF) fuel mixture were found to be within the acceptable range and were generally lower than that obtained for coal + 10% RDF fuel mixture. The relative distribution of heavy metals in ash components and the flue gas stream shows the presence of a large fraction (up to 98%) of most of the metals in the ash (except Hg and As). Thermo-gravimetric (TG) analysis of SRF constituents was performed to understand the behaviour of fuel mixtures in the absence and presence of air. The results obtained from the experimental study will enhance the confidence of fuel users towards using MSW-derived SRF as an alternative fuel.

  19. Factors affecting cleanup of exhaust gases from a pressurized, fluidized-bed coal combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollbuhler, R. J.; Kobak, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The cleanup of effluent gases from the fluidized-bed combustion of coal is examined. Testing conditions include the type and feed rate of the coal and the sulfur sorbent, the coal-sorbent ratio, the coal-combustion air ratio, the depth of the reactor fluidizing bed, and the technique used to physically remove fly ash from the reactor effluent gases. Tests reveal that the particulate loading matter in the effluent gases is a function not only of the reactor-bed surface gas velocity, but also of the type of coal being burnt and the time the bed is operating. At least 95 percent of the fly ash particules in the effluent gas are removed by using a gas-solids separator under controlled operating conditions. Gaseous pollutants in the effluent (nitrogen and sulfur oxides) are held within the proposed Federal limits by controlling the reactor operating conditions and the type and quantity of sorbent material.

  20. A depositional model for the Taylor coal bed, Martin and Johnson counties, eastern Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, W.M.; Hower, J.C.; Ferm, J.C.; Evans, S.D.; Sirek, N.S.; Warrell, M.; Eble, C.F.

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated the Taylor coal bed in Johnson and Martin counties, eastern Kentucky, using field and petrographic techniques to develop a depositional model of the coal bed. Petrography and chemistry of the coal bed were examined. Multiple benches of the Taylor coal bed were correlated over a 10 km distance. Three sites were studied in detail. The coal at the western and eastern sites were relatively thin and split by thick clastic partings. The coal at the central site was the thickest and unsplit. Two major clastic partings are included in the coal bed. Each represents a separate and distinct fluvial splay. The Taylor is interpreted to have developed on a coastal plain with periodic flooding from nearby, structurally-controlled fluvial systems. Doming is unlikely due to the petrographic and chemical trends, which are inconsistent with modern Indonesian models. The depositional history and structural and stratigraphic setting suggest contemporaneous structural influence on thickness and quality of the Taylor coal bed in this area.

  1. Co-combustion of risk husk with coal in a fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghani, A.K.; Alias, A.B.; Savory, R.M.; Cliffe, K.R.

    2006-01-01

    Power generation from biomass is an attractive technology which utilizes agricultural residue waste. In order to explain the behavior of biomass-fired fluidized bed incinerator, biomass sources from agricultural residues (rice husk) was co-fired with coal in a 0.15 m diameter and 2.3 m high fluidized bed combustor. The combustion efficiency and CO emissions were studied and compared with those for pure coal combustion. Biomass waste with up to 70% mass fraction can be co-combusted in a fluidized bed combustor designed for coal combustion with a maximum drop of efficiency of 20% depending upon excess air levels. CO levels fluctuated between 200-700 ppm were observed when coal is added. It is evident from this research that efficient co-firing of rice husk with coal can be achieved with minimum modification of existing coal-fired boilers. (Author)

  2. 3D Geological Modeling of CoalBed Methane (CBM) Resources in the Taldykuduk Block Karaganda Coal Basin, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadykov, Raman; Kiponievich Ogay, Evgeniy; Royer, Jean-Jacques; Zhapbasbayev, Uzak; Panfilova, Irina

    2015-04-01

    Coal Bed Methane (CBM) is gas stored in coal layers. It can be extracted from wells after hydraulic fracturing and/or solvent injection, and secondary recovery techniques such as CO2 injection. Karaganda Basin is a very favorable candidate region to develop CBM production for the following reasons: (i) Huge gas potential; (ii) Available technologies for extracting and commercializing the gas produced by CBM methods; (iii) Experience in degassing during underground mining operations for safety reasons; (iv) Local needs in energy for producing electricity for the industrial and domestic market. The objectives of this work are to model the Taldykuduk block coal layers and their properties focusing on Coal Bed Methane production. It is motivated by the availability of large coal bed methane resources in Karaganda coal basin which includes 4 300 Bm3 equivalent 2 billion tons of coal (B = billion = 109) with gas content 15-25 m3/t of coal (for comparison San Juan basin (USA) has production in a double porosity model considering two domains: the matrix (m) and the fracture (f) for which the initial and boundary conditions are different. The resulting comprehensive 3D models had helped in better understanding the tectonic structures of the region, especially the relationships between the fault systems.

  3. Drying kinetics characteristic of Indonesia lignite coal (IBC) using lab scale fixed bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, TaeJin; Jeon, DoMan; Namkung, Hueon; Jang, DongHa; Jeon, Youngshin; Kim, Hyungtaek [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Energy Systems Research

    2013-07-01

    Recent instability of energy market arouse a lot of interest about coal which has a tremendous amount of proven coal reserves worldwide. South Korea hold the second rank by importing 80 million tons of coal in 2007 following by Japan. Among various coals, there is disused coal. It's called Low Rank Coal (LRC). Drying process has to be preceded before being utilized as power plant. In this study, drying kinetics of LRC is induced by using a fixed bed reactor. The drying kinetics was deduced from particle size, the inlet gas temperature, the drying time, the gas velocity, and the L/D ratio. The consideration on Reynold's number was taken for correction of gas velocity, particle size, and the L/D ratio was taken for correction packing height of coal. It can be found that active drying of free water and phase boundary reaction is suitable mechanism through the fixed bed reactor experiments.

  4. Use of a fluidized bed combustor and thermogravimetric analyzer for the study of coal ignition temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ávila, Ivonete; Crnkovic, Paula M.; Luna, Carlos M.R.; Milioli, Fernando E.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Coal ignition tests were conducted in a fluidized bed and thermogravimetric conditions. • The use of two different ignition criteria showed a similar coal ignition temperature. • Coal ignition temperature was obtained by the changes of gas concentrations in FBC. • Ignition temperatures were associated with the activation energy of coal combustion. - Abstract: Ignition experiments with two bituminous coals were carried out in an atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed combustor (FBC) and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). In the FBC tests, the rapid increase in O_2, CO_2, and SO_2 concentrations is an indication of the coal ignition. In the TGA technique, the ignition temperature was determined by the evaluation of the TGA curves in both combustion and pyrolysis processes. Model-Free Kinetics was applied and the coal ignition temperatures were associated with changes in the activation energy values during the combustion process. The results show the coal with the lowest activation energy also showed the lowest ignition temperature, highest values of volatile content and a higher heating value. The application of two different ignition criteria (TGA and FBC) resulted in similar ignition temperatures. The FBC curves indicated the high volatile coal ignites in the freeboard, i.e. during the feeding in the reactor, whereas the low volatile coal ignites in the bed. Finally, the physicochemical characteristics of the investigated coal types were correlated with their reactivities for the prediction of the ignition temperatures behaviors under different operating conditions as those in FBC.

  5. The research and development of pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized bed coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Yitian; Wu Jinhu; Chen Hanshi [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Institute of Coal Chemistry

    1999-11-01

    Coal gasification tests in a pressurized ash agglomeration fluidized bed coal gasifier were carried out. The effects of pressure and temperature on the gasification capacity, carbon conversion, carbon content in discharged ash and gas composition were investigated. Gasification capacity was shown to be in direct proportion to operation pressure. Tests of hot gas dedusting using a moving granular bed were also carried out. 3 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Research on preventive technologies for bed-separation water hazard in China coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Herong; Tong, Shijie; Qiu, Weizhong; Lin, Manli

    2018-03-01

    Bed-separation water is one of the major water hazards in coal mines. Targeted researches on the preventive technologies are of paramount importance to safe mining. This article studied the restrictive effect of geological and mining factors, such as lithological properties of roof strata, coal seam inclination, water source to bed separations, roof management method, dimensions of mining working face, and mining progress, on the formation of bed-separation water hazard. The key techniques to prevent bed-separation water-related accidents include interception, diversion, destructing the buffer layer, grouting and backfilling, etc. The operation and efficiency of each technique are corroborated in field engineering cases. The results of this study will offer reference to countries with similar mining conditions in the researches on bed-separation water burst and hazard control in coal mines.

  7. Distribution of volatile sulphur containing products during fixed bed pyrolysis and gasification of coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.

    1991-08-01

    Various coals were used to study the evolution of H{sub 2}S COS, and SO{sub 2} in a fixed bed reactor. For all types of coal, most of H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} were released during the devolatilization stage. COS was formed only during the gasification stage in the presence of CO{sub 2}.

  8. Coal-bed methane water effects on dill and essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumping water from coal seams decreases the pressure in the seam and in turn releases trapped methane; this is the most common and economic way of methane extraction. The water that is pumped out is known as coal-bed methane water (CBMW), which is high in sodium and other salts. In past 25 years, th...

  9. Coal. Fluidized bed, a world record; Charbon. Lit fluidise: record mondial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    In April 1996, the `Societe Provencale du Lit Fluidise`, a subsidiary of Electricite de France (EDF) has put into service in Gardanne, the most powerful circulating fluidized bed boiler in the world, producing 600 MWt; it was constructed by GEC Alsthom Stein Industrie, and will strongly reduce the SO{sub 2} emissions from the coal power plant of Gardanne, which use a highly sulfurous coal. New regulations concerning the French coal industry are also introduced

  10. Coal. Fluidized bed, a world record; Charbon. Lit fluidise: record mondial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    In April 1996, the `Societe Provencale du Lit Fluidise`, a subsidiary of Electricite de France (EDF) has put into service in Gardanne, the most powerful circulating fluidized bed boiler in the world, producing 600 MWt; it was constructed by GEC Alsthom Stein Industrie, and will strongly reduce the SO{sub 2} emissions from the coal power plant of Gardanne, which use a highly sulfurous coal. New regulations concerning the French coal industry are also introduced

  11. Co-combustion of waste with coal in a circulating fluidised bed combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulyurtlu, I.; Boavida, D.; Abelha, P.; Lopes, H.; Cabrita, I. [DEECA-INETI, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2002-07-01

    The results of a study of cocombustion of waste with coal is described. Various wastes (biomass, sludge, and refuse derived fuel) were burned with coal in a circulating fluidised bed combustor. Conditions that prevent segregated combustion, reduce production of nitrogen oxides, and attain high combustion efficiency were studied. The effects of variations in air staging in the riser, mixing of air with volatiles, coal/biomass ratio, methods of feeding biomass, and temperature are described. 5 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Coal facies evolution of the main minable coal-bed in the Heidaigou Mine, Jungar Coalfield, Inner Mongolia, northern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, S.F.; Ren, D.Y.; Li, S.S.; Zhao, L.; Zhang, Y. [China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing (China)

    2007-11-15

    The No. 6 Coal-bed from the Heidaigou Mine, Jungar Coalfield, Inner Mongolia is a super-large Ga deposit. The dominant carrier of Ga is boehmite in coal. The study of coal facies may provide genetic enrichment information of Ga and its carrier (boehmite) in the Ga deposit. On the basis of study on coal petrology and mineralogy, it was found that the No. 6 Coal-bed from the Heidaigou Mine of Jungar was enriched in inertinites and the microlithotypes were dominated by clarodurite. The maceral morphological features and association indicate that the coal-bed was formed in a dry sedimentary environment or in a periodic dry sedimentary environment caused by the alternating variations of groundwater level. The optimum conditions for the enrichment of Ga and its particular carrier (boehmite) were dominated by four transitional conditions: (1) the upper delta plain which was the transitional zone between alluvial and lower delta plains, (2) the transitional zone between the dry and wet forest swamps, being slightly apt to the dry one, (3) the transitional tree density between the thick and loose ones, and (4) the low moor that was the transitional zone between two high moors during peat accumulation.

  13. Experimental investigation on a 0.35 MWth coal-fired horizontal circulating fluidized bed boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Aihong; Li, Qinghai; Zhang, Yanguo; Wang, Zhaojun; Dang, Wenda [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Ministry of Education, Beijing (China). Key Lab. for Thermal Science and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The capacities of industrial coal-fired boilers are normally less than 20-30 MWe. And these coal-fired boilers of low capacity are facing the severe situation of low efficiency and heavy environmental pollution. Hence, an innovative horizontal circulating fluidized bed (HCFB) boiler was developed to enhance heat efficiency and reduce pollutant emission of industrial boilers in China. The chamber in the HCFB boiler consists of primary combustion chamber, secondary combustion chamber and burnout chamber, which were combined horizontally side by side. To verify the conception of horizontal fluidized circulation and to obtain the characteristic data, a 0.35 MWth coal-combustion HCFB boiler was designed and installed to perform some experiments of combustion and mass circulation. In the boiler there were two mass circulating paths, one is inner circulating through the inertia separator and another was external circulating through the cyclone separator. The connection bottom of the secondary chamber and the burnout chamber was designed as an inertia separator, in which separated and collected solid materials were returned to the primary combustion. In fact the secondary separator was a small cyclone separator connecting to the exit of the burnout chamber. Heat efficiency and separating efficiency of the experimental boiler were measured and analyzed. Furthermore, mass and temperature distribution along the chambers height were also investigated. The results showed that the heat efficiency of the bare boiler was 82%. The mass balance based on ash content was measured and analyzed. Separating efficiency of the inertia separator and cyclone separator was 60 and 99.9%, respectively. It showed that the two stage material separation and circulation enhanced coal combustion in the HCFB boiler and help to minimize the height of the furnace.

  14. The identification of unusual microscopic features in coal and their derived chars: Influence on coal fluidized bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentim, B. [Centro de Geologia da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Lemos de Sousa, M.J. [Centro de Geologia da Universidade do Porto, Praca de Gomes Teixeira, 4099-002 Porto (Portugal); Abelha, P.; Boavida, D.; Gulyurtlu, I. [Departamento de Engenharia Energetica e Controlo Ambiental (DEECA), Instituto Nacional de Engenharia, Tecnologia e Inovacao (INETI), Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, Edif. J, 1649-038, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2006-06-06

    During the petrographic study of seven feed coals from different origins, it was found that these coals presented microfeatures such as: material size, shape, weathering, thermally affected particles and contamination. After devolatilization under fluidized bed conditions, some chars presented the consequences of the above mentioned microfeatures, i.e., unreacted coal, unswelled particles, coatings and microstratification. Since the amounts of the microfeatures observed were low (less than 1%), the present study is essentially observational/descriptional. However, it seems very likely, from the observations that were made, that the occurrence of one or more of these microfeatures in coal, depending on their kind and abundance, may have significant effect on the coal devolatilization. (author)

  15. Mathematical model for the technological system of working a thin coal bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isayev, V V

    1979-01-01

    The principle for constructing a mathematical model of working a thin coal bed using the adaptation criterion is examined. Intersecting parameters of the medium and the unit are presented. Based on these parameters, dependences are presented for the adaptation criterion and its maximization. A general mathematical model is presented for the technological system of unmanned extraction of a thin bed D/sub 5/ under conditions of the mine ''Dolinskaya'' of the Karaganda Basin. The work results can be used to plan technological systems for working thin coal beds.

  16. The study of partitioning of heavy metals during fluidized bed combustion of sewage sludge and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulyurtlu, I.; Lopes, M.H.; Abelha, P.; Cabrita, I.; Oliveira, J.F.S. [INETI, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2006-06-15

    The behavior of Cd, Cr, Cu, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Hg during the combustion tests of a dry granular sewage sludge on a fluidized bed combustor pilot (FBC) of about 0.3 MW was evaluated. The emissions of these heavy metals from mono-combustion were compared with those of co-combustion of the sludge with a bituminous coal. The effect of the addition of limestone was also studied in order to retain sulphur compounds and to verify its influence on the retention of heavy metals (HM). Heavy metals were collected and analyzed from different locations of the installation, which included the stack, the two cyclones, and the material removed from the bed. The results showed that the volatility of metals was rather low, resulting in emissions below the legal limits of the new directive on incineration, with the exception of Hg during the mono-combustion tests. The partitioning of metals, except for Hg, appeared to follow that of ashes, amounting to levels above 90% in the bed streams in the mono-combustion case. For co-combustion, there was a lower fixation of HM in the bed ashes, mostly originating essentially from the sewage sludge, ranging between 40% and 80%. It is believed that in this latter case, a slightly higher temperature could have enhanced the volatilization, especially of Cd and Pb. However these metals were then retained in fly ashes captured in the cyclones. In the case of Hg, the volatilisation was complete. The bed ashes were free of Hg and part of Hg was retained in the cyclones and the rest was emitted either with fine ash particles or in gaseous forms. In mono-combustion the Hg emissions from the stack (particles and gas) accounted, for about 50%. This appeared to have significantly decreased in the case of co-combustion, as only about 75% has been emitted, due to the retention effect of cyclone ashes.

  17. The study of partitioning of heavy metals during fluidized bed combustion of sewage sludge and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulyurtlu, Ibrahim; Lopes, M. Helena; Abelha, Pedro; Cabrita, Isabel; Oliveira, J.F. Santos

    2003-07-01

    The behaviour of Cd, Cr, Cu, Co, Mn, Pb, Zn and Hg during the combustion tests of granular dry sewage sludges on a pilot FBC of about 0,3 MW was evaluated. The emissions of these heavy metals from mono-combustion were compared with those of co-combustion of the sludge with a bituminous coal. The effect of the addition of limestone was also studied in order to retain sulphur compounds and to verify its influence on the retention of heavy metals. Heavy metals were collected and analysed from different locations of the installation, which included the stack, the two cyclones and the material removed from the bed. The results showed that the volatility of metals was rather low, resulting in emissions below the legal limits of the new directive on incineration, with the exception of Hg during the mono-combustion tests. The partitioning of metals, except for Hg, appeared to follow that of ashes, amounting to levels above 90% in the bed streams in the mono-combustion case. For co-combustion, there was a lower fixation of HM in the bed ashes, mostly originating essentially from the sewage sludge, ranging between 40 and 80%. It is believed that in this latter case, a slightly higher bed temperature could have enhanced the volatilisation, especially of Cd and Pb. However these metals were then retained in cyclone ashes. In the case of Hg, the volatilisation was complete. The bed ashes were free of Hg and part of it was retained in the cyclone and emitted as both fine ash particles and in gaseous forms. In mono-combustion the Hg emissions from the stack (particles and gas) accounted for about 50%, although there was a significant amount unaccounted for. This appeared to have significantly decreased in the case of co-combustion, as only about 15% has been emitted, due to the retention effect of cyclone ashes which presented high quantities of unburned carton and possibly condensed sulphur species.

  18. CO-COMBUSTION OF REFUSE DERIVED FUEL WITH COAL IN A FLUIDISED BED COMBUSTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. WAN AB KARIM GHANI

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Power generation from biomass is an attractive technology which utilizes municipal solid waste-based refused derived fuel. In order to explain the behavior of biomass-fired fluidized bed incinerator, biomass sources from refuse derived fuel was co-fired with coal in a 0.15 m diameter and 2.3 m high fluidized bed combustor. The combustion efficiency and carbon monoxide emissions were studied and compared with those from pure coal combustion. This study proved that the blending effect had increased the carbon combustion efficiency up to 12% as compared to single MSW-based RDF. Carbon monoxide levels fluctuated between 200-1600 ppm were observed when coal is added. It is evident from this research that efficient co-firing of biomass with coal can be achieved with minimum modification of existing coal-fired boilers.

  19. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for

  20. Seismic modelling of coal bed methane strata, Willow Creek, Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, S.E.; Mayer, R.; Lawton, D.C.; Langenberg, W. [Consortium for Research in Elastic Wave Exploration Seismology, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The purpose is to determine the feasibility of applying high- resolution reflection seismic surveying to coalbed methane (CBM) exploration and development. Numerical reflection seismic methods are examined for measuring the mapping continuity and coherence of coal zones. Numerical modelling of a coal zone in Upper Cretaceous sediments near Willow Creek, Alberta indicates that seismic data that is predominantly of 100 Hz is required to map the coal zone and lateral facies variations within the deposit. For resolution of individual coal seams, a central frequency >150 Hz would be needed. 26 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Damage Effects and Fractal Characteristics of Coal Pore Structure during Liquid CO2 Injection into a Coal Bed for E-CBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Pore structure has a significant influence on coal-bed methane (CBM enhancement. Injecting liquid CO2 into coal seams is an effective way to increase CBM recovery. However, there has been insufficient research regarding the damage effects and fractal characteristics of pore structure at low temperature induced by injecting liquid CO2 into coal samples. Therefore, the methods of low-pressure nitrogen adsorption-desorption (LP-N2-Ad and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP were used to investigate the damage effects and fractal characteristics of pore structure with full aperture as the specimens were frozen by liquid CO2. The adsorption isotherms revealed that the tested coal samples belonged to type B, indicating that they contained many bottle and narrow-slit shaped pores. The average pore diameter (APD; average growth rate of 18.20%, specific surface area (SSA; average growth rate of 7.38%, and total pore volume (TPV; average growth rate of 18.26% increased after the specimens were infiltrated by liquid CO2, which indicated the generation of new pores and the transformation of original pores. Fractal dimensions D1 (average of 2.58 and D2 (average of 2.90 of treated coal samples were both larger the raw coal (D1, average of 2.55 and D2, average of 2.87, which indicated that the treated specimens had more rough pore surfaces and complex internal pore structures than the raw coal samples. The seepage capacity was increased because D4 (average of 2.91 of the treated specimens was also higher than the raw specimens (D4, average of 2.86. The grey relational coefficient between the fractal dimension and pore structure parameters demonstrated that the SSA, APD, and porosity positively influenced the fractal features of the coal samples, whereas the TPV and permeability exerted negative influences.

  2. Dynamic behavior of tobacco waste in the coal-fired fluidized-bed boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kai; Chang, Jian; Chen, Honggang; Yang, Yongping [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). National Eng Lab for Biomass Power Generation Equipment; Yu, Bangting [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China). State Key Lab. of Heavy Oil Processing

    2013-07-01

    Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology is an advanced method for utilizing coal and other solid fuels in an environmentally acceptable manner. During the processing procedure in the nicotiana tabacum plants, lots of tobacco stem wastes are produced, which are normally being dumped to the landfill field. If this kind of waste can be used as a part of the fuel to be added into the coal in a CFB combustor, it will reduce the use of coal and then cut the net carbon emissions. To understand the complicated fluid dynamics of nicotiana tabacum wastes in the coal-fired CFB boiler, the mixing and segregation behavior of tobacco stalk are preliminary measured in a cylindrical fluidized bed. Obvious segregation behavior is found due to distinct differences in density and shape between tobacco stem and coal, which results in poor fluidization quality and bad combustion efficiency. To overcome this disadvantage, a jet with high gas velocity is introduced through the air distributor and a detailed experimental study is conducted in a fluidized bed made up of stem-sand mixture with different solid components at various jet velocities, which greatly improve the mixing performance of stem in the fluidized bed. The above findings are helpful for the technological upgrading of small- or middle-sized CFB boiler with adding tobacco stem into coal.

  3. Method of cutting steeply falling coal beds. [Bacteria, which only grow on methane, are injected into the coal bed and form low viscosity polysaccharides: as a result the coal collapses into the haulage gallery and is hauled away

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gretsinger, B Ye; Chernyshenko, D V; Levin, A D; Malashenko, Yu R; Shinkovskiy, V A; Shurova, Z P; Volkov, V I

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to reduce outlays for collapse and output of coal by creating artificial cavities of sliding along the coal bed in the surrounding rocks. This goal is achieved because in the well drilled in the bed for the entire height of the level, a suspension of cells of methane-oxidizing microorganisms is injected. The methane-oxidizing microorganisms used are, for example, the thermophilic culture Methylococcus thermophilus of strains ShP which grow at 45-65/sup 0/ C, or the mesophilic culture Methanomonas rubna of strains 15 Sh growing at 20-37/sup 0/ C. As a result of the vital activity of these cultures, polysaccharides are formed with viscosity of 5-7 and 3-4 St respectively. The mine pressure disrupts the blocks between the wells, and the outline section of the steeply dropping coal bed, being destroyed, slides on the products of vital activity of the microorganisms to the haulage gallery. Then the coal drops on cross cuts to the field gallery through which it is transported. Studies established that the only coal substrate which is suitable for growth of these microorganism cultures is methane. The synthesis of one g of absolutely dry substance of these microorganism requires 1.78 g of methane and 4.7 g of oxygen. The cultures are resistant to hydrostatic pressure from 20 to 150 atm and short-term pressure of gradient drops which occur during injection of the cellular suspension into the coal bed. They are filtered through the coal with preservation of the oxidizing and reproductive properties and are cultivated on the methane contained in the bed and form considerable number of exopolysaccarides. The polysaccarides weaken the bond between the bed and the surrounding rocks and serve as a unique lubricant promoting the sliding towards the haulage gallery of the coal blocks destroyed by mine pressure.

  4. Experimental investigations on drying behaviour of Bulgarian brown coal in steam fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buschsieweke, F.; Koenig, J.

    1999-01-01

    The main targets were: to investigate the parameters for optimizing the drying process as steam pressure, fluidization velocity and particle size; to identify the cost of drying and combustion processes considering the necessity of milling the coal (raw or dried). Test series with Bulgarian brown coal from Maritsa-East has been made. Two fractions with different particle size was got: A from 0 to 1.6 mm (0.5 mm average) and B, resp. 1.6 to 6.3 (1.7 mm). The particle size is depending on the coal moisture. The fluidized bed process with the both fractions was performed at variations of the following parameters: steam velocity (0.07 to 1.7 m/s); raw coal feed rate (4 to 16 kg/h); raw moisture (18 to 43 wt %) and pressure (1.3 and 5 bar). Also the shrinking behaviour of the coal in different pore sizes was tested. Comparing pore size of the oven dried coal to the fluidized bed dried coal, significantly higher inner surface for the oven dried coal was established. To indicate the pore size of raw coal samples were made by freeze drying. Ice expanding should cause higher inner surface compared to oven drying method but no significant difference was established. A significant increase of heat transfer of the particles from A fraction (300 to 350 W/m 2 K0 compared to B (200 to 230 W/m 2 K) was determined. The heat transfer coefficient increased at increasing of the raw coal feed rate, mostly significant for A, due to higher particle contact. In conclusion: the particle convective mechanism is predominant for the heat transfer; development of pressurized fluidized bed drying is not of interest and the question about the total expenditure for crushing and milling remains open

  5. Environmental impact assessment for steeply dipping coal beds: North Knobs site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-08

    The US Department of Energy is funding an underground coal gasification (UCG) project in steeply dipping coal beds (SDB), at North Knobs, about 8 miles west of Rawlins, Carbon County, Wyoming. The project is being conducted to determine the technical, economic and environmental viability of such a technology. The development of SDB is an interesting target for UCG since such beds contain coals not normally mineable economically by ordinary techniques. Although the underground gasification of SDB has not been attempted in the US, Soviet experience and theoretical work indicate that the gasification of SDB in place offers all the advantages of underground gasification of horizontal coal seams plus some unique characteristics. The steep angle of dip helps to channel the produced gases up dip to offtake holes and permits the ash and rubble to fall away from the reaction zone helping to mitigate the blocking of the reaction zone in swelling coals. The intersection of SDB with the surface makes the seam accessible for drilling and other preparation. The tests at the North Knobs site will consist of three tests, lasting 20, 80 and 80 days, respectively. A total of 9590 tons of coal is expected to be gasified, with surface facilities utilizing 15 acres of the total section of land. The environmental effects of the experiment are expected to be very small. The key environmental impact is potential groundwater contamination by reaction products from coal gasification. There is good evidence that the surrounding coal effectively blocks the migration of these contaminants.

  6. Determination of coal bed quality in wells by geophysical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, V.V.

    1974-01-01

    The dependence of the specific electric resistivity of coal and terrigenous material of the Donbass region on the degree of their metamorphism is discussed. From this dependence a method is derived to determine the metamorphism of coal from the effective specific resistivity of rocks by taking into account the self-polarisation and the density of the coal layers. The degree of metamorphism (from the coefficient of gas components in the heating mass of coal) is obtained with a standard deviation of 2.9%. Special physical properties of coal are related to its qualitative composition in a complex and very close way. With the whole complex of geophysical measurements the quality parameters can be estimated in more detail. For the Pavlogradsij-Petropavlovskij region of the Donbass non-linear mutli-dimensional relations between the quality parmaeters of coal are derived, and the measurements with standard geophysical methods (resistivity-, spontaneous-potential-, latero-, calibre- and gamma-gamma-log as well as cavernometry) are presented. The results obtained with these methods are tested by a comparison with 8 samples from mines. The standard deviation for the ash content is 3.73% (for core sampling 1.0%) and for the thickness of the plastic layer 3.63 mm (for core sampling 3.34mm)

  7. Fluidized bed combustion of low-grade coal and wastes: Research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borodulya, V.A.; Dikalenko, V.I.; Palchonok, G.I.; Vinogradov, L.M. [Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus). A.V. Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Inst.; Dobkin, S.M.; Telegin, E.M. [Special Design Office, Brest (Belarus)

    1994-12-31

    Experimental studies were carried out to investigate devolatilization of fuel as single spherical particles of wood, hydrolytic lignin, leather sewage sludge and Belarussian brown coals in a fluidized bed of sand. It is found that the devolatilization process depends on moisture and ash contents in fuel and on the external heat and mass transfer rate. The char combustion occurs largely in the intermediate region. Kinetic parameters of the devolatilization and char combustion are obtained. A low-capacity fluidized bed boiler suitable for combustion of coal and different wastes is described.

  8. Faciologic characterization of coal beds in the Cerquilho region, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagalli, J.T.; Consoni, J.O.C.

    1984-01-01

    Since 1981, NUCLEBRAS, researches the Tubarao group in the state of Sao Paulo, in order to evaluate the uraniferous potential of carbonaceous sediments in the Parana Basin. This work discusses geologic information concerning the Cerquilho area, where, the faciologic and structural characterization of the coal beds (or seams) were analyzed, and the main targets for uranium concentration were identified. Such study was performed through detailed field observations, imagery and aerial photograph interpretation as well as well logging analysis. Results suggested that the uraniferous anomalies are controlled by fluvial channels cutting the coal beds, with periglacial influence. (Author) [pt

  9. Measurement of alkali-vapor emission from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion of Illinois coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.H.D.; Teats, F.G.; Swift, W.M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Banerjee, D.D. (Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Two Illinois Herrin No. 6 coals and one Illinois Springfield No. 5 coal were separately combusted in a laboratory-scale (15-cm dia) pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) combined with an alkali sorber. These coals were combusted in a fluidized bed of Tymochtee dolomite at temperatures ranging from 910 to 950[degree]C and a system pressure of 9.2 atm absolute. Alkali-vapor emission (Na and K) in the PFBC flue gas was determined by the analytical activated-bauxite sorber bed technique developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The test results showed that sodium is the major alkali-vapor species present in the PFBC flue gas, and that the level of sodium-vapor emission increases linearly with both Na and Cl contents in the coals. This suggests that the sodium-vapor emission results from direct vaporization of NaCl present in the coals. The measured alkali-vapor concentration (Na + K), 67 to 190 ppbW, is more than 2.5 times greater than the allowable alkali limit of 24 ppb for an industrial gas turbine. Combusting these coals in a PFBC for power generation may require developing a method to control alkali vapors.

  10. Measurement of alkali-vapor emission from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion of Illinois coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.H.D.; Teats, F.G.; Swift, W.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Banerjee, D.D. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Two Illinois Herrin No. 6 coals and one Illinois Springfield No. 5 coal were separately combusted in a laboratory-scale (15-cm dia) pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) combined with an alkali sorber. These coals were combusted in a fluidized bed of Tymochtee dolomite at temperatures ranging from 910 to 950{degree}C and a system pressure of 9.2 atm absolute. Alkali-vapor emission (Na and K) in the PFBC flue gas was determined by the analytical activated-bauxite sorber bed technique developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The test results showed that sodium is the major alkali-vapor species present in the PFBC flue gas, and that the level of sodium-vapor emission increases linearly with both Na and Cl contents in the coals. This suggests that the sodium-vapor emission results from direct vaporization of NaCl present in the coals. The measured alkali-vapor concentration (Na + K), 67 to 190 ppbW, is more than 2.5 times greater than the allowable alkali limit of 24 ppb for an industrial gas turbine. Combusting these coals in a PFBC for power generation may require developing a method to control alkali vapors.

  11. The behavior of catalysts in hydrogasification of sub-bituminous coal in pressured fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Shuai; Bi, Jicheng; Qu, Xuan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •CCHG in a pressured fluidized bed achieved 77.3 wt.% of CH 4 yield in 30 min. •Co-Ca and Ni-Ca triggered catalytic coal pyrolysis and char hydrogasification. •The reason for better catalytic performance of 5%Co-1%Ca was elucidated. •Sintered catalyst blocked the reactive sites and suppressed coal conversion. •Co-Ca made the catalyzed coal char rich in mesopore structures and reactive sites. -- Abstract: The catalytic hydrogasification of the sub-bituminous coal was carried out in a lab-scale pressurized fluidized bed with the Co-Ca, Ni-Ca and Fe-Ca as catalysts at 850 °C and 3 MPa. The effect of different catalysts on the characteristics of gasification products was investigated, and the behavior of the catalysts was also explored by means of the X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-Raman, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), etc. Experiment results showed that all the catalysts promoted the carbon conversion in the coal catalytic hydrogasification (CCHG), and the catalytic activity was in the order: 5%Co-1%Ca > 5%Ni-1%Ca > 5%Fe-1%Ca. Compared with the raw coal hydrogasification, the carbon conversion increased from 43.4 wt.% to 91.3 wt.%, and the CH 4 yield increased from 23.7 wt.% to 77.3 wt.% within 30 min after adding the 5%Co-1%Ca catalyst into the coal. Co-Ca and Ni-Ca possessed catalytic effect on both processes of pyrolysis of coal and hydrogasification of coal char in CCHG, by which the graphitization of the coal was suppressed and methane formation rate was significantly accelerated. Fe/Co/Ni-Ca could penetrate into the interior of coal during CCHG, making the catalytic production of CH 4 conduct in the pore structures. The activity difference of the catalysts was owing to the different ability of rupturing the amorphous C−C bonds in coal structure. The incomplete carbon conversion of the 5%Co-1%Ca loaded coal was due to the agglomeration of the catalyst and the blockage of the reactive sites by the sintered catalyst. This work will provide

  12. Evaluation of coal bed methane potential of coal seams of Sawang ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This analysis shows that the maximum methane gas adsorbed in the coal sample CG-81 is 17 m3/t (Std. daf), at maximum pressure of 5.92 MPa ... vast coal reserves are ideal reservoirs for the gen- eration and accumulation of CBM. ... of gases in coal seams, such as, compression as free gas in the pore spaces, condensed ...

  13. Fluidised bed gasification of high-ash South African coals: An experimental and modelling study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, AS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available model (CeSFaMB). The predictive capability of the model was analysed in terms of the degree of variation between experimental and simulated results for each test. The calibrated model was used to design a 15 MW fluidised bed coal gasifier...-scale BFBG are given in Figure 1 and Table 1. Process description Coal, air, oxygen and steam are the input streams to the process which produce the output streams: gas and char (ash). Coal is fed to the gasifier by means of a screw conveyor at a...

  14. Temporal measurements and kinetics of selenium release during coal combustion and gasification in a fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Fenghua; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Yingju

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The temporal release of Se from coal combustion and gasification was measured. • Kinetic laws for Se release from coal combustion and gasification were determined. • The influences of temperature and chemical composition of flue gas were clarified. • The interactions of Se species with mineral affect the release kinetics of Se. - Abstract: The temporal release of selenium from coal during combustion and gasification in a fluidized bed was measured in situ by an on-line analysis system of trace elements in flue gas. The on-line analysis system is based on an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and can measure concentrations of trace elements in flue gas quantitatively and continuously. The results of on-line analysis suggest that the concentration of selenium in flue gas during coal gasification is higher than that during coal combustion. Based on the results of on-line analysis, a second-order kinetic law r(x) = 0.94e −26.58/RT (−0.56 x 2 −0.51 x + 1.05) was determined for selenium release during coal combustion, and r(x) = 11.96e −45.03/RT (−0.53 x 2 −0.56 x + 1.09) for selenium release during coal gasification. These two kinetic laws can predict respectively the temporal release of selenium during coal combustion and gasification with an acceptable accuracy. Thermodynamic calculations were conducted to predict selenium species during coal combustion and gasification. The speciation of selenium in flue gas during coal combustion differs from that during coal gasification, indicating that selenium volatilization is different. The gaseous selenium species can react with CaO during coal combustion, but it is not likely to interact with mineral during coal gasification.

  15. Modeling of carbon sequestration in coal-beds: A variable saturated simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guoxiang; Smirnov, Andrei V.

    2008-01-01

    Storage of carbon dioxide in deep coal seams is a profitable method to reduce the concentration of green house gases in the atmosphere while the methane as a byproduct can be extracted during carbon dioxide injection into the coal seam. In this procedure, the key element is to keep carbon dioxide in the coal seam without escaping for a long term. It is depended on many factors such as properties of coal basin, fracture state, phase equilibrium, etc., especially the porosity, permeability and saturation of the coal seam. In this paper, a variable saturation model was developed to predict the capacity of carbon dioxide sequestration and coal-bed methane recovery. This variable saturation model can be used to track the saturation variability with the partial pressures change caused by carbon dioxide injection. Saturation variability is a key factor to predict the capacity of carbon dioxide storage and methane recovery. Based on this variable saturation model, a set of related variables including capillary pressure, relative permeability, porosity, coupled adsorption model, concentration and temperature equations were solved. From results of the simulation, historical data agree with the variable saturation model as well as the adsorption model constructed by Langmuir equations. The Appalachian basin, as an example, modeled the carbon dioxide sequestration in this paper. The results of the study and the developed models can provide the projections for the CO 2 sequestration and methane recovery in coal-beds within different regional specifics

  16. Effect of coal blending on the leaching characteristics of arsenic and selenium in fly ash from fluidized bed coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, F.; Yamada, N.; Sato, A.; Ninomiya, Yoshihiko [Chubu Univ., Aichi (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry; Zhang, L. [Monash Univ., Clayton, VIC (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The capture ability of fly ash to arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) was investigated through the combustion of two single bituminous coals A and B and their mixture (blending ratio of 1:1, wt/wt) in a lab-scale fluidized bed reactor. The leaching characteristics of As and Se in corresponding fly ash were also conducted according to Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS). Speciation of As and Se during fly ash leaching test were predicted from the perspective of thermodynamic equilibrium. The results indicate that, combustion of coal B, containing abundant calcium, possesses a higher capture ability of As and Se than that of coal A through possible chemical reaction between As/Se with CaO. Leaching behavior of As and Se from fly ash is strongly dependent on the pH of the leachate. Free calcium in fly ash generates an alkaline leachate during leaching test and subsequently reduces As and Se leaching, which cause the leaching ratio of As and Se in fly ash derived from the combustion of coal B was much lower, relative to that in coal A. Combustion of blending coal promotes the overall capture ability of the fly ash to As/Se and reduces their leaching from fly ash through the synergy of free CaO between this two kind of fly ash.

  17. Carbon capture from coal fired power plant using pressurized fluid bed technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Dennis; Christensen, Tor

    2010-09-15

    This presentation will discuss the use of a pressurized fluid bed boiler system and specialized carbon capture system to burn coal and generagte clean electricity. The paper will present the existing boiler and carbon capture technology and present economics, thermal performance and emissions reduction for a 100Mw module.

  18. Sage-Grouse and Coal-Bed Methane: Can They Coexist within the Powder River Basin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Concerns are growing regarding the availability of sustainable energy sources due to a rapidly growing human population and a better understanding of climate change. In recent years, the United States has focused much attention on developing domestic energy sources, which include coal-bed methane (CBM). There are vast deposits of the natural gas…

  19. Depositional history of the Fire Clay coal bed (Late Duckmantian), Eastern Kentucky, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greb, S.F.; Eble, C.F.; Hower, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    More than 3800 coal thickness measurements, proximate analyses from 97 localities, and stratigraphic and sedimentological analyses from more than 300 outcrops and cores were used in conjunction with previously reported palynological and petrographic studies to map individual benches of the coal and document bench-scale variability in the Fire Clay (Hazard No. 4) coal bed across a 1860 km2 area of the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field. The bench architecture of the Fire Clay coal bed consists of uncommon leader benches, a persistent but variable lower bench, a widespread, and generally thick upper bench, and local, variable rider benches. Rheotrophic conditions are inferred for the leader benches and lower bench based on sedimentological associations, mixed palynomorph assemblages, locally common cannel coal layers, and generally high ash yields. The lower bench consistently exhibits vertical variability in petrography and palynology that reflects changing trophic conditions as topographic depressions infilled. Infilling also led to unconfined flooding and ultimately the drowning of the lower bench mire. The drowned mire was covered by an air-fall volcanic-ash deposit, which produced the characteristic flint clay parting. The extent and uniform thickness of the parting suggests that the ash layer was deposited in water on a relatively flat surface without a thick canopy or extensive standing vegetation across most of the study area. Ash deposits led to regional ponding and establishment of a second planar mire. Because the topography had become a broadly uniform, nutrient-rich surface, upper-bench peats became widespread with large areas of the mire distant to clastic sources. Vertical sections of thick (> 70 cm), low-ash yield, upper coal bench show a common palynomorph change from arborescent lycopod dominance upward to fern and densospore-producing, small lycopod dominance, inferred as a shift from planar to ombrotrophic mire phases. Domed mires appear to have been

  20. Simultaneous determination of devolatilization and char burnout times during fluidized bed combustion of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christofiedes, N.; Brown, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors investigate a method for simultaneous determination of devolatilization and char burnout times based on the analysis of CO 2 emissions from a fluidized bed combustor. The technique is non-intrusive and can be performed under realistic combustion conditions. The authors' method involves batching single-size coal samples in a fluidized bed combustor that is heated with propane gas or other fuel. Carbon dioxide profiles versus time for the batch tests are analyzed with a linear model to obtain characteristic time constants for coal devolatilization and char combustion which can be related to total devolatilization time and burnout time for a coal sample. The authors' approach does not require special sample preparation, can be performed in actual combustion equipment and employs standard boiler instrumentation

  1. N2 O A greenhouse gas released from the combustion of coals in fluidized beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boavida, D.; Lobo, L. S.; Gulyurtlu, I.; Cabrita, I.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of the experimental work investigating the formation of N-2 O and NO during fluidized bed combustion of coals, and of chars and volatiles produced from the pyrolysis of these coals. Ammonia (N H 3 ) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) are shown to play important roles as gas phase precursors of both NO and N 2 O. The conversion of fuel-N through N H 3 and HCN to N 2 O and NO was studied using a fluidized bed combustor in the temperature range between 973 K and 1273 K, for two different coals. The results suggest that the principal contribution to N 2 O emission Originated from volatile-N, however, char-N could also have an important role, depending upon the temperature. 1 fig., 8 tabs

  2. Application of wasted sea-shell to desulfurizer in fluidized bed coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naruse, Ichiro; Saito, Katsuhiro; Murakami, Takahiro

    1999-07-01

    Almost all wasted seashells consist of CaCo{sub 3}, and are similar to limestone. It would be proposed that the seashell could be applied as a desulfurizer. In this study, desulfurization characteristics of the seashell are fundamentally studied by using a thermobalance and a bubbling fluidized coal combustor with comparing the results obtained by limestone as a reference. Under the constant calcination temperature, the desulfurization efficiency for the seashells attains more than about 70% after the desulfurization period of 30 h. For the limestones, on the other hand, the desulfurization efficiency becomes only 38%. Under practical conditions of fluidized bed coal combustion, the desulfurization efficiency for the seashells also indicates higher value than that for the limestones. The desulfurization efficiency depends on the pore size distribution of CaO rather than its specific surface area. The mean pore size of the calcined seashell is about 10 times as large as that of the calcined limestones. from Scanning Electro-Microscope (SEM) photos of the surface of CaCO{sub 3}, CaO and the sulfurized particles of the seashells the large pores can be observed. In measuring cross-sectional distribution of sulfur inside the particles by using an Energy Dispersed X-ray (EDX) system, the sulfur in the sulfurized particle of limestone is only trapped near the particle surface. For the seashells, whereas, the sulfur is distributed over the whole body of particle. Desulfurization efficiency for the limestone, into which some alkali metal compounds are added, increases with increasing the concentration of alkali metal compounds added. In order of increasing effect the key elemental species to enhance the desulfurization activities are Cl, Na and K. Alkali metal compounds can enhance the desulfurization activities, due to solution of CaO in molten NaCl. This is one of the reasons why the desulfurization efficiency for the seashells improves.

  3. Coupled hydrology and biogeochemistry of Paleocene–Eocene coal beds, northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Warwick, Peter D.; Martini, Anna M.; Osborn, Stephen G.

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-six formation waters, gas, and microbial samples were collected and analyzed from natural gas and oil wells producing from the Paleocene to Eocene Wilcox Group coal beds and adjacent sandstones in north-central Louisiana, USA, to investigate the role hydrology plays on the generation and distribution of microbial methane. Major ion chemistry and Cl−Br relations of Wilcox Group formation waters suggest mixing of freshwater with halite-derived brines. High alkalinities (up to 47.8 meq/L), no detectable SO4, and elevated δ13C values of dissolved inorganic carbon (up to 20.5‰ Vienna Peedee belemnite [VPDB]) and CO2 (up to 17.67‰ VPDB) in the Wilcox Group coals and adjacent sandstones indicate the dominance of microbial methanogenesis. The δ13C and δD values of CH4, and carbon isotope fractionation of CO2 and CH4, suggest CO2 reduction is the major methanogenic pathway. Geochemical indicators for methanogenesis drop off significantly at chloride concentrations above ∼1.7 mol/L, suggesting that high salinities inhibit microbial activity at depths greater than ∼1.6 km. Formation waters in the Wilcox Group contain up to 1.6% modern carbon (A14C) to at least 1690 m depth; the covariance of δD values of co-produced H2O and CH4 indicate that the microbial methane was generated in situ with these Late Pleistocene or younger waters. The most enriched carbon isotope values for dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and CO2, and highest alkalinities, were detected in Wilcox Group sandstone reservoirs that were CO2 flooded in the 1980s for enhanced oil recovery, leading to the intriguing hypothesis that CO2 sequestration may actually enhance methanogenesis in organic-rich formations.

  4. Formation of N{sub 2} during the fixed-bed pyrolysis of coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhiheng; Ohtsuka, Yasuo [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Furimsky, E. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Research on the fate of the nitrogen in coal during pyrolysis has attracted increased attention, since it is related with the NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O emissions during subsequent combustion. It has been reported that coal nitrogen is initially released as tar, which is then converted to HCN and NH{sub 3} through secondary decomposition reactions. However, little attention to N{sub 2} has been paid so far. We have recently found that N{sub 2} is the dominant product in slow heating rate pyrolysis of a subbituminous coal, and that the finely dispersed iron catalyst promotes drastically the formation of N{sub 2} from a brown coal. If coal nitrogen can be removed efficiently as N{sub 2} during pyrolysis, this method would contribute to the reduction of the NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O emissions, since such pollutants originate mostly from coal nitrogen. Therefore the present study aims at making clear the influence of coal type, pyrolysis conditions, demineralization, and iron catalyst on the formation of N{sub 2} during the fix-bed pyrolysis of several coals with different ranks.

  5. Gasification of Coal and PET in Fluidized Bed Reactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pohořelý, Michael; Vosecký, Martin; Kameníková, Petra; Punčochář, Miroslav; Skoblia, Sergej; Staf, M.; Vošta, J.; Koutský, B.; Svoboda, Karel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 85, 17-18 (2006), s. 2458-2468 ISSN 0016-2361 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/04/0829 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : fludized bed * gasification * plastic waste Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.358, year: 2006

  6. Organic geochemical investigation and coal-bed methane characteristics of the Guasare coals (Paso Diablo mine, western Venezuela)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, K.; Martinez, M.; Hackley, P.; Marquez, G.; Garban, G.; Esteves, I.; Escobar, M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to carry out a geochemical study of channel samples collected from six coal beds in the Marcelina Formation (Zulia State, western Venezuela) and to determine experimentally the gas content of the coals from the Paso Diablo mine. Organic geochemical analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and isotopic analyses on-line in coalbed gas samples were performed. The results suggest that the Guasare coals were deposited in a continental environment under highly dysoxic and low salinity conditions. The non-detection of 18??(H)-oleanane does not preclude that the organic facies that gave rise to the coals were dominated by angiosperms. In addition, the presence of the sesquiterpenoid cadalene may indicate the subordinate contribution of gymnosperms (conifers) in the Paleocene Guasare mire. The average coalbed gas content obtained was 0.6 cm3/g. ??13C and D values indicate that thermogenic gas is prevalent in the studied coals. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  7. Reactivity of coal chars prepared in a fluidised bed reactor at different burn-off degrees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, A.H.; Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Fuente, E.; Pis, J.J. [Inst. Nacional del Carbon, Oviedo (Spain)

    1997-12-31

    The main goal of this work has been to study the effect of the textural properties of coal chars, obtained from partially burned coal, on their reactivity to oxygen. A low volatile bituminous coal was used to prepare chars, with different levels of burn-off, in a bench-scale fluidised bed reactor. Textural characterisation of the samples was accomplished by measuring true (helium) and apparent (mercury) densities, and mercury porosimetry. An increase in the burn-off degree gave rise to a densification of the chars. Porosity development greatly changed during progressive burning of the samples. DTG burning profiles and isothermal gasification were utilised to estimate the reactivities of the precursor coal and its partially burned chars. Reactivity reached a maximum value at an intermediate burn-off and strongly decreased at higher burn-off degrees. (orig.)

  8. Characterisation of coal and chars in fluidised bed gasification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available impact on the physical structure of the residual char. 4 In summary, the distinct burnout characteristics of coals could be attributed to the differences in the macerals and microlithotypes compositions, and mineral matter distribution....0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 REFLECTANCE % RE LA TIV E FR EQ UE NC Y % Increasing reflectance, decreasing volatiles, expected Increase in ignition temperature and time for burn-out Figure...

  9. DOLOMITE DESULFURIZATION BEHAVIOR IN A BUBBLING FLUIDIZED BED PILOT PLANT FOR HIGH ASH COAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. F. Gomes

    Full Text Available Abstract Although fluidized bed in situ desulphurization from coal combustion has been widely studied, there are aspects that remain under investigation. Additionally, few publications address Brazilian coal desulphurization via fluidized beds. This study used a 250 kWth bubbling fluidized bed pilot plant to analyze different aspects of the dolomite desulphurization of two Brazilian coals. Superficial velocities of 0.38 and 0.46 m/s, flue gas recycling, Ca/S molar ratios and elutriation were assessed. Results confirmed the influence of the Ca/S molar ratio and superficial velocity - SO2 conversion up to 60.5% was achieved for one coal type, and 70.9% was achieved for the other type. A recycling ratio of 54.6% could increase SO2 conversion up to 86.1%. Elutriation and collection of ashes and Ca-containing products did not present the same behavior because a lower wt. % of CaO was collected by the gas controlled mechanism compared to the ash.

  10. Characterization of coal-derived hydrocarbons and source-rock potential of coal beds, San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, D.D.; Clayton, J.L.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Coal beds are considered to be a major source of nonassociated gas in the Rocky Mountain basins of the United States. In the San Juan basin of northwestern New Mexico and southwestern Colorado, significant quantities of natural gas are being produced from coal beds of the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation and from adjacent sandstone reservoirs. Analysis of gas samples from the various gas-producing intervals provided a means of determining their origin and of evaluating coal beds as source rocks. The rank of coal beds in the Fruitland Formation in the central part of the San Juan basin, where major gas production occurs, increases to the northeast and ranges from high-volatile B bituminous coal to medium-volatile bituminous coal (Rm values range from 0.70 to 1.45%). On the basis of chemical, isotopic and coal-rank data, the gases are interpreted to be thermogenic. Gases from the coal beds show little isotopic variation (??13C1 values range -43.6 to -40.5 ppt), are chemically dry (C1/C1-5 values are > 0.99), and contain significant amounts of CO2 (as much as 6%). These gases are interpreted to have resulted from devolatilization of the humic-type bituminous coal that is composed mainly of vitrinite. The primary products of this process are CH4, CO2 and H2O. The coal-generated, methane-rich gas is usually contained in the coal beds of the Fruitland Formation, and has not been expelled and has not migrated into the adjacent sandstone reservoirs. In addition, the coal-bed reservoirs produce a distinctive bicarbonate-type connate water and have higher reservoir pressures than adjacent sandstones. The combination of these factors indicates that coal beds are a closed reservoir system created by the gases, waters, and associated pressures in the micropore coal structure. In contrast, gases produced from overlying sandstones in the Fruitland Formation and underlying Pictured Cliffs Sandstone have a wider range of isotopic values (??13C1 values range from -43.5 to -38

  11. Waste Water Treatment-Bed of Coal Fly Ash for Dyes and Pigments Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Farman Ali Shah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The highly porous power plant waste ashes have been utilized to treat toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. An attempt has been made for the first time in Pakistan, to generate an effective and economically sound treatment facility for the toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. This is an indigenous bed which could replace expensive treatment facilities, such as reverse osmosis (RO, granulated activated carbon (GAC bed, etc. The treatment efficiency was improved by coupling coagulants with fly ash adsorbent bed. The ash was collected from coal fired boilers of power plant at Lakhra Power Generation Company, Jamshoro, Pakistan. The use of this ash resolved the disposal and environmental issues by treating wastewater of chemical, dyes and pigment industry. The treatment bed comprised of briquettes of coal fly ash coupled with commercial coagulant ferrous sulfate-lime reduced COD, color, turbidity and TSS of effluent remarkably. An adsorption capacity and chemical behavior of fly ash bed was also studied. In coagulation treatment, coagulant FeSO4-lime influenced reduction of COD, color, turbidity and TSS by 32%, 48%, 50% and 51%, respectively. The CFAB coupled with coagulant, resulted an excessive removal of color, TSS, COD, and turbidity by 88%, 92%, 67% and89%, respectively.

  12. Waste Water Treatment-Bed of Coal Fly Ash for Dyes and Pigments Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.F.A.; Aftab, A.; Soomro, N.; Nawaz, M.S.; Vafai, K.

    2015-01-01

    The highly porous power plant waste ashes have been utilized to treat toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. An attempt has been made for the first time in Pakistan, to generate an effective and economically sound treatment facility for the toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. This is an indigenous bed which could replace expensive treatment facilities, such as reverse osmosis (RO), granulated activated carbon (GAC) bed, etc. The treatment efficiency was improved by coupling coagulants with fly ash adsorbent bed. The ash was collected from coal fired boilers of power plant at Lakhra Power Generation Company, Jamshoro, Pakistan. The use of this ash resolved the disposal and environmental issues by treating wastewater of chemical, dyes and pigment industry. The treatment bed comprised of briquettes of coal fly ash coupled with commercial coagulant ferrous sulfate-lime reduced COD, color, turbidity and TSS of effluent remarkably. An adsorption capacity and chemical behavior of fly ash bed was also studied. In coagulation treatment, coagulant FeSO/sun 4/-lime influenced reduction of COD, color, turbidity and TSS by 32 percentage, 48 percentage, 50 percentage and 51 percentage, respectively. The CFAB coupled with coagulant, resulted an excessive removal of color, TSS, COD, and turbidity by 88 percentage, 92 percentage, 67 percentage and 89 percentage, respectively. (author)

  13. Experience in a 6.2 MW{sub e} pressurized fluidized bed gasifier with high ash Indian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, G.; Rajasekaran, A.; Periyakaruppan, V.; Krishnamoorthy, S. [Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd., Tiruchirappalli (India)

    2006-07-01

    Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited has installed a 165 tons/day air-blown pressurized fluidized bed gasifier (PFBG) as an add-on to their 6.2 MW IGCC demonstration plant and has operated it for more than 4000 hours. Improvements in the gasifier refractory lining, ash extraction and cooling devices, air distribution and temperature measuring devices were incorporated to improve the reliability and performance. Coal with 30-42% ash and high calorific value in the range of 15-20 MJ/kg was used during these operations with crushed coal of 1-4 mm as well as -6 mm coal with fines. Tests were conducted at gasifier pressure of 0.3-1.0 MPa, fluidized bed temperature of 980-1050{sup o}C and at various fluidized velocities and air to steam ratios. Once through carbon conversion efficiency of 90%, cold gas efficiency of 69% and dry gas calorific value of 4.4-4.6 MJ/Nm{sup 3} were obtained. About 15% char in fly ash (with 40% ash coal) was established by TGA. Seal pot system was added for recyling fly ash from the first cyclone to enhance carbon conversion, other parameters and to reduce the char in fly ash to acceptable level. Trends and correlations were established for constituents of gas, carbon conversion efficiency, cold gas efficiency, calorific value of gas and gas yield. BHEL is currently working with a partner to install a 125 MW IGCC plant. The paper elaborates the schematic and constructional details of the PFBG, operating experience and performance. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  14. The relationship of fluidized bed technology to the U.S. Clean Coal Technology demonstration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weth, G.; Geffken, J.; Huber, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Fluidized Bed Combustion projects (both AFBCs and PFBCs) have a prominent role in the US DOE Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program. This program has the successful commercialization of these technologies as its primary objective and this is the basic criterion for government funding and participation in the development and demonstration of the technologies. Under the CCT program the US DOE is actively involved in the development and operation of three Fluidized Bed Technology projects, NUCLA, TIDD, and SPORN, and is in the negotiation stage on others, Dairyland, Nichols and Tallahassee. All of these projects, along with the operating information on fluidized beds in the industrial sector, will provide a basis for evaluating future utilization of Fluidized Bed Technology in the market place. Impacting upon further utilization will be the time-frame and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. This paper presents the results of a study to ascertain the commercial readiness of Fluidized Bed Technology to meet the emissions and time-frame requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Specifically addressed are: Commercialization criteria/factors which candidate and/or existing CCTs must achieve in order to gain market acceptance. The status of Fluidized Bed Technology in achieving these commercialization criteria for market acceptance (industrial and utility) consistent with the time frame of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Recommendations of commercialization criteria for future fluidized bed CCT demonstration projects

  15. Liquid hydrocarbons from coal beds – risk factor for the underground work environment - Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomescu Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid hydrocarbons from the coal bed and surrounding rocks, besides the stored gases, methane, carbon dioxide, carbon oxide, generate the increase of the risk factor from the occupational health and safety point of view. If for reducing the gas concentrations level and the methane emissions in order to increase the safety in exploitation exist well-known solutions and methods, the oxidation or self-oxidation of the hydrocarbons from the coal bed generate a series of compounds, reaction products over maximum admitted concentrations which give birth to a toxic atmosphere and which is hazardous for workers, at the same time inducing an error in noting the occurrence of a spontaneous combustion phenomena, a major risk for the workers and for the mineral resource. This paper represents a case study performed in one underground mine unit from Jiu Valley and presents the analysis for underground environment factors monitoring and for solutions for diminishing the OHS risk factors.

  16. Geospatial data for coal beds in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Scott A.; Scott, David C.; Osmonson, Lee M.; Luppens, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide geospatial data for various layers and themes in a Geographic Information System (GIS) format for the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. In 2015, as part of the U.S. Coal Resources and Reserves Assessment Project, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of coal resources and reserves within the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. This report is supplemental to USGS Professional Paper 1809 and contains GIS data that can be used to view digital layers or themes, including the Tertiary limit of the Powder River Basin boundary, locations of drill holes, clinker, mined coal, land use and technical restrictions, geology, mineral estate ownership, coal thickness, depth to the top of the coal bed (overburden), and coal reliability categories. Larger scale maps may be viewed using the GIS data provided in this report supplemental to the page-size maps provided in USGS Professional Paper 1809. Additionally, these GIS data can be exported to other digital applications as needed by the user. The database used for this report contains a total of 29,928 drill holes, of which 21,393 are in the public domain. The public domain database is linked to the geodatabase in this report so that the user can access the drill-hole data through GIS applications. Results of this report are available at the USGS Energy Resources Program Web site,http://energy.usgs.gov/RegionalStudies/PowderRiverBasin.aspx.

  17. Pressurized fluidized bed combustion combined cycle power plant with coal gasification: Second generation pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farina, G.L.; Bressan, L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the technical and economical background of a research and development program of a novel power generation scheme, which is based on coal gasification, pressurized fluid bed combustion and combined cycles. The participants in this program are: Foster Wheeler (project leader), Westinghouse, IGT and the USA Dept. of Energy. The paper describes the characteristics of the plant, the research program in course of implementation, the components of the pilot plant and the first results obtained

  18. Coal bed methane: current status and outlook - Panorama 2008; CBM: bilan et perspectives - Panorama 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    In many parts of the world, there is growing interest in coal bed methane (CBM), which has been exploited for years in the United States. One reason is undoubtedly that some new gas producing countries, including India and China, are seeking to limit the level of their gas dependence. Another is the need to control greenhouse gas emissions, especially using mechanisms set up under the Kyoto Protocol. Finally, the increase in gas prices on international markets also encourages this trend.

  19. A new model for coal gasification on pressurized bubbling fluidized bed gasifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez, Cristian; Arenas, Erika; Chejne, Farid; Londoño, Carlos A.; Cisneros, Sebastian; Quintana, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new model was proposed for the simulation of fluidized bed reactors. • The model was validated against experimental data found in the literature. • The model was compared and found to be superior to other models reported in the literature. • Effects of pressure, temperature, steam/coal and air/coal ratios over gas composition were studied. - Abstract: Many industries have taken interest in the use of coal gasification for the production of chemicals and fuels. This gasification can be carried out inside a fluidized bed reactor. This non-ideal reactor is difficult to predict due to the complex physical phenomena and the different chemical changes that the feedstock undergoes. The lack of a good model to simulate the reactor’s behavior produces less efficient processes and plant designs. Various approaches to the proper simulation of such reactor have been proposed. In this paper, a new model is developed for the simulation of a pressurized bubbling fluidized bed (PBFB) gasifier that rigorously models the physical phenomena and the chemical changes of the feedstock inside the reactor. In the model, the reactor is divided into three sections; devolatilization, volatile reactions and combustion-gasification. The simulation is validated against experimental data reported in the literature and compared with other models proposed by different authors; once the model is validated, the dependence of the syngas composition on operational pressure, temperature, steam/coal and air/coal ratios are studied. The results of this article show how this model satisfactorily predicts the performance of PBFB gasifiers.

  20. Trace elements partitioning during coal combustion in fluidized bed under O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Haixin; Zhao, Changsui; Liang, Cai; Duan, Lunbo; Chen, Huichao [Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). School of Energy and Environment

    2013-07-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of temperature and O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} atmosphere on trace elements (Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cd, Pb, Hg, As, Se) partitioning during combustion of Xuzhou bituminous coal in a 6 kWth fluidized bed. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) were used to determine trace elements contents in raw coal, bottom ash, fly ash and flue gas. The results indicate that with bed temperature increase, the relative enrichment of all the trace elements except Cr in bottom ash decreases suggesting that their volatility is enhanced. The relative enrichments of hardly volatile elements, like Cr and Mn in fly ash increase with bed temperature increase while those of partially volatile and highly volatile elements in fly ash are opposite. The relative enrichments of trace elements except Cr and Mn in fly ash are higher than those in bottom ash. Increasing bed temperature promotes elements like As, Se and Hg to migrate to vapor phase, Mn to migrate to fly ash and Cr to migrate to both bottom ash and fly ash. 21%O{sub 2}/79%CO{sub 2} atmosphere improves the volatility of Cr, Mn, Co, Se and their migration to fly ash, while restrains the volatility of As, Ni, Pb. It has little effect on the volatility of Hg but improves its migration to fly ash. Mass balance ratio was also calculated to observe trace elements distribution in bottom ash, fly ash and flue gas. There is no much difference in trace elements distribution between the two atmospheres. It can be seen that the trace elements proportion in fly ash is much greater, and more than 40% of Hg is distributed in the gas phase. Most of Hg and Se volatilize during combustion. The mass balance ratios are 87 {proportional_to} 129% which is considered acceptable.

  1. Co-gasification of Colombian coal and biomass in fluidized bed: An experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jhon F. Velez; Farid Chejne; Carlos F. Valdes; Eder J. Emery; Carlos A. Londono [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Antioquia (Colombia). Grupo de Termodinamica Aplicada y Energias Alternativas

    2009-03-15

    The main results of an experimental work on co-gasification of Colombian biomass/coal blends in a fluidized bed working at atmospheric pressure are reported in this paper. Several samples of blends were prepared by mixing 6-15wt% biomass (sawdust, rice or coffee husk) with coal. Experimental assays were carried out by using mixtures of different steams/blends (Rvc) and air/blend (Rac) ratios showing the feasibility to implement co-gasification as energetic alternative to produce fuel gas to heat and to generate electricity and the possibility of converting clean and efficiently the refuse coal to a low-heating value gas. 29 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Development and linearization of generalized material balance equation for coal bed methane reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penuela, G; Ordonez R, A; Bejarano, A

    1998-01-01

    A generalized material balance equation was presented at the Escuela de Petroleos de la Universidad Industrial de Santander for coal seam gas reservoirs based on Walsh's method, who worked in an analogous approach for oil and gas conventional reservoirs (Walsh, 1995). Our equation was based on twelve similar assumptions itemized by Walsh for his generalized expression for conventional reservoirs it was started from the same volume balance consideration and was finally reorganized like Walsh (1994) did. Because it is not expressed in terms of traditional (P/Z) plots, as proposed by King (1990), it allows to perform a lot of quantitative and qualitative analyses. It was also demonstrated that the existent equations are only particular cases of the generalized expression evaluated under certain restrictions. This equation is applicable to coal seam gas reservoirs in saturated, equilibrium and under saturated conditions, and to any type of coal beds without restriction on especial values of the constant diffusion

  3. Computational fluid dynamics simulation for chemical looping combustion of coal in a dual circulation fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Mingze; Zhao, Haibo; Ma, Jinchen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CFD simulation of a 5 kW_t_h CLC reactor of coal was conducted. • Gas leakage, flow pattern and combustion efficiency of the reactor was analyzed. • Optimal condition was achieved based on operation characteristics understanding. - Abstract: A dual circulation fluidized bed system is widely accepted for chemical looping combustion (CLC) for enriching CO_2 from the utilization of fossil fuels. Due to the limitations of the measurement, the details of multiphase reactive flows in the interconnected fluidized bed reactors are difficult to obtain. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation provides a promising method to understand the hydrodynamics, chemical reaction, and heat and mass transfers in CLC reactors, which are very important for the rational design, optimal operation, and scaling-up of the CLC system. In this work, a 5 kW_t_h coal-fired CLC dual circulation fluidized bed system, which was developed by our research group, was first simulated for understanding gas leakage, flow pattern and combustion efficiency. The simulation results achieved good agreement with the experimental measurements, which validates the simulation model. Subsequently, to improve the combustion efficiency, a new operation condition was simulated by increasing the reactor temperature and decreasing the coal feeding. An improvement in the combustion efficiency was attained, and the simulation results for the new operation condition were also validated by the experimental measurements in the same CLC combustor. All of the above processes demonstrated the validity and usefulness of the simulation results to improve the CLC reactor operation.

  4. Paleoecology of the Late Pennsylvanian-age Calhoun coal bed and implications for long-term dynamics of wetland ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Debra A. [US Geological Survey, 926A National Center, Reston (VA 20192 USA); Phillips, Tom L. [Department of Plant Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana (IL 61801 USA); Lesnikowska, Alicia D. [Box 24, Rt. 2, Vineyard Haven (MA 02568 USA); DiMichele, William A. [Department of Paleobiology, NMNH, Smithsonian Institution, Washington (DC 20560 USA)

    2007-01-02

    Quantitative plant assemblage data from coal balls, miospores, megaspores, and compression floras from the Calhoun coal bed (Missourian) of the Illinois Basin (USA) are used to interpret spatial and temporal changes in plant communities in the paleo-peat swamp. Coal-ball and miospore floras from the Calhoun coal bed are dominated strongly by tree ferns, and pteridosperms and sigillarian lycopsids are subdominant, depending on geographic location within the coal bed. Although the overall composition of Calhoun peat-swamp assemblages is consistent both temporally and spatially, site-to-site differences and short-term shifts in species dominance indicate local topographic and hydrologic control on species composition within the broader context of the swamp. Statistical comparison of the Calhoun miospore assemblages with those from other Late Pennsylvanian coal beds suggests that the same basic species pool was represented in each peat-swamp landscape and that the relative patterns of dominance and diversity were persistent from site to site. Therefore, it appears that the relative patterns of proportional dominance stayed roughly the same from one coal bed to the next during Late Pennsylvanian glacially-driven climatic oscillations. (author)

  5. Integration of coal gasification and packed bed CLC for high efficiency and near-zero emission power generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spallina, V.; Romano, M.C.; Chiesa, P.; Gallucci, F.; Sint Annaland, van M.; Lozza, G.

    2014-01-01

    A detailed thermodynamic analysis has been carried out of large-scale coal gasification-based power plant cycles with near zero CO2 emissions, integrated with chemical looping combustion (CLC). Syngas from coal gasification is oxidized in dynamically operated packed bed reactors (PBRs), generating a

  6. Gas generation by co-gasification of biomass and coal in an autothermal fluidized bed gasifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li-Qun; Chen, Zhao-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, thermochemical biomass and coal co-gasification were performed on an autothermal fluidized bed gasifier, with air and steam as oxidizing and gasifying media. The experiments were completed at reaction temperatures of 875 °C–975 °C, steam-to-biomass ratio of 1.2, and biomass-to-coal ratio of 4. This research aims to determine the effects of reaction temperature on gas composition, lower heating value (LHV), as well as energy and exergy efficiencies, of the product gas. Over the ranges of the test conditions used, the product gas LHV varies between 12 and 13.8 MJ/Nm 3 , and the exergy and energy efficiencies of the product gas are in the ranges of 50.7%–60.8% and 60.3%–85.1%, respectively. The results show that high reaction temperature leads to higher H 2 and CO contents, as well as higher exergy and energy efficiencies of the product gas. In addition, gas LHV decreases with temperature. The molar ratio of H 2 /CO is larger than 1 at temperatures above 925 °C. Our experimental analysis shows that co-gasification of biomass and coal in an autothermal fluidized bed gasifier for gas production is feasible and promising. -- Highlights: • An innovative steam co-gasification process for gas production was proposed. • Co-gasification of biomass and coal in an autothermal fluidized bed gasifier was tested. • High temperature favors H 2 production. • H 2 and CO contents increase, whereas CO 2 and CH 4 levels decrease with increase in T. • Exergy and energy efficiencies of gases increase with increase in T

  7. Considerations on valorization of biomass origin materials in co-combustion with coal in fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. Gulyurtlu; P. Abelha; H. Lopes; A. Crujeira; I. Cabrita [DEECA-INETI, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2007-07-01

    Co-combustion of biomass materials with coal is currently gaining increasing importance, in order to meet the targets on greenhouse gas emissions, defined in the Kyoto protocol. Co-firing of coal with biomass materials could be the short-term solution in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from power stations. The work undertaken studied co-firing of meat and bone meal (MBM), olive cake and straw pellets with bituminous coals from Colombia (CC) and Poland (PC), which are commonly used in European power stations. The co-combustion studies were carried out on the pilot fluidized bed installation of INETI. Gaseous pollutants and solid concentration in flue gases and ashes from different locations were monitored. Results obtained indicate that the co-feeding of biomass materials did not present any problem and ensured stable combustion conditions and high efficiency. However, for temperatures above 800{sup o}C, bed agglomeration could be observed for all biomass species studied. Most of the combustion of biomass material, contrary to that of coal, was observed to take place in the riser where the temperature was as high as 150-250{sup o}C above that of the bed. SO{sub 2} and NOx levels were found to be lower. The emissions of dioxins could be considerable with fuels with high Cl as is the case with straw. However, mixing of fuels with high S content could lead to a strong reduction in dioxin emissions. Ashes produced from biomass combustion may be considered for further reutilization or landfilling. Other options depend on their characteristics, chemical composition and leaching behaviour. This was evaluated in this study.

  8. Methodology for the exploration of coal bed methane (CBM in Colombia coal basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Mariño

    2013-07-01

    additional equipment have been adapted and improved in the UPTC by Geological Engineering research group during the last years. These CBM guides have been written following the current knowledge on CBM and propose additional recommendations for making the sampling and gas measuring more reliable and supportive of the CBM exploration projects that are taking place in the different coal basins in Colombia.

  9. Agglomeration and reaction characteristics of various coal chars in fluidized-bed coal gasifier; Ryudoso sekitan gas ka ronai deno sekitan no gyoshu tokusei to hanno tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemiya, S.; Aoki, K.; Mori, S.; Kojima, T. [Seikei University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    With relation to the coals delivered as common samples in the coal fundamental technology development project, an experimental study was conducted on agglomeration characteristics and reaction characteristics in the fluidized-bed coal gasifier. For the experiment, used was a fluidized bed gasifier inserted with a cone-shape dispersion plate with a nozzle in the center. After raising the temperature of the gasifier up to 773K, gasification was conducted sending to the gasifier air from the nozzle and steam from the dispersion plate. The mean particle diameter and gas concentration of chars were measured till the temperature reaches 1373K. As a result of the experiment, it was confirmed that the carbon conversion ratio increases with a decrease in coalification degree of the coal. Moreover, influence of the coal kind was markedly observed at the grid zone of the lower part of the bed, and it was clarified that the lower carbon content ratio the coal kind has, the faster the speed of CO formation and water gasification get. The agglomeration temperature of charcoal which is a product of the condensate is lower by as many as several hundred K than the point of softening, and it was considered to be necessary to study the relation with the temperature distribution in the bed. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. The correlation of coal beds in Squaw Basin and part of Eden Ridge, T. 33 S., R. 11 W., W. M., southwestern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayland, Russell Gibson

    1965-01-01

    A conflict in correlation of coal beds dating from 1914 is reexamined-with the aid of new. core hole data, photogeologic interpretation, a broader understanding of the stratigraphy, and brief field studies. It is concluded that the known coal beds in Squaw Basin area of limited lateral extent and are older than those exposed at Eden Ridge. Similar coal beds may be found in other rocks of the Tyee Formation in this area. More core drilling could be justified.

  11. Removing heavy metals from wastewaters with use of shales accompanying the coal beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłońska, Beata; Siedlecka, Ewa

    2015-05-15

    A possibility of using clay waste rocks (shales) from coal mines in the removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewaters is considered in this paper. Raw and calcined (600 °C) shales accompanying the coal beds in two Polish coal mines were examined with respect to their adsorptive capabilities for Pb, Ni and Cu ions. The mineralogical composition of the shales was determined and the TG/DTG analysis was carried out. The granulometric compositions of raw and calcined shales were compared. Tests of adsorption for various Pb(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) concentrations were conducted and the pH before and after adsorption was analyzed. The results indicate that the shales from both coal mines differ in adsorptive capabilities for particular metal ions. The calcination improved the adsorptive capabilities for lead, but worsened them for nickel. The examined shales have good adsorptive capabilities, and could be used as inexpensive adsorbents of heavy metal ions, especially in the regions where resources of shale are easy accessible in the form of spoil tips. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Entrained bed gasification of coal: prediction of contaminant levels using thermodynamic calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; Zheng, L.; Boudreau, F.; Kovacik, G. (CANMET, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Energy Research Labs.)

    1993-10-01

    The F.A.C.T. method was used for predicting the emissions of S-, Cl-, N-, Pb- and As-containing contaminants from entrained bed gasification of one bituminous coal and one subbituminous coal. When the effect of mineral matter was included, the emissions of H[sub 2]S, CS[sub 2], COS, HCl and HCN decreased substantially whereas the amount of predicted NH[sub 3] remained unaffected. The decrease was offset by increased formation of metal sulphides, chlorides and cyanides. Relatively large amounts of Na, K, Mg, Ca, Pb and As in the gas were predicted by the method. The chlorides of these metals are also rather volatile. The presence of steam increased the amount of H[sub 2]S and HCl and decreased the amount of HCN in the products. 8 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Investigation of combustion of coal briquettes in a fluidized bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boavida, Dulce; Abelha, Pedro; Gulyurtlu, Ibrahim; Cabrita, Isabel

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses the results obtained from an experimental combustion work undertaken to investigate the behaviour of multicomponent briquettes, prepared by mixing two different particle sizes of coal and two different types of binder species. single briquettes were burned over a wide range of temperatures in a laboratory scale fluidised bed combustor facility. Nitrogen (NO{sub x}, and N{sub 2}O) and Sulphur (SO{sub 2}) oxides emissions resulting from the combustion of these briquettes were constantly monitored during the time of burning. The levels of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and CO were also recorded during the same period. Experimental results showed that coal particle size influenced burn-out times and emissions levels of some of gaseous species. The hinder type was also found to have a major influence on the emissions of different pollutants.The temperature was observed to significantly influence the extent of the effects of the other operating parameters studied.

  14. Analysis of flammability limits for the liquefaction process of oxygen-bearing coal-bed methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Q.Y.; Wang, L.; Ju, Y.L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A novel liquefaction and distillation process is designed for oxygen bearing coal-bed methane. → Oxygen contained in coal-bed methane is removed in distillation process. → Flammability limits are analyzed for the whole operation process. → We find explosion hazard may exist in distillation tower. → Effective measures are proposed to ensure the operation safety in distillation tower. - Abstract: A novel liquefaction and distillation process has been proposed and designed for the typical oxygen-bearing coal-bed methane (CBM), in which the impurities of the oxygen and nitrogen components are removed in the distillation column. The flammability limit theory combining with HYSYS simulation results are employed to analyze and calculate the flammability limits and the results indicate that no flammability hazard exists in the stages of compression, liquefaction and throttling. However, flammability hazard exists at the top the distillation column because the methane mole fraction decreases to the value below the upper flammability limit (UFL). The safety measures of initially removing oxygen content from the feed gas combining with the control of the bottom flowrate (flowrate of the liquid product at column bottom) are proposed to ensure the operation safety of the liquefaction process. The results reveal that the operation safety of the whole process can be guaranteed, together with high methane recovery rate and high purity of the liquid product. The applicability of the liquefaction process has also been analyzed in this paper. The simulation results can offer references for the separation of oxygen from CBM, the analysis of flammability limits and the safety measures for the whole process.

  15. Enhanced coal-dependent methanogenesis coupled with algal biofuels: Potential water recycle and carbon capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, Elliott P.; Davis, Katherine J.; Varonka, Matthew; Orem, William H.; Cunningham, Alfred B.; Ramsay, Bradley D.; Fields, Matthew W.

    2017-01-01

    Many coal beds contain microbial communities that can convert coal to natural gas (coalbed methane). Native microorganisms were obtained from Powder River Basin (PRB) coal seams with a diffusive microbial sampler placed downhole and used as an inoculum for enrichments with different nutrients to investigate microbially-enhanced coalbed methane production (MECoM). Coal-dependent methanogenesis more than doubled when yeast extract (YE) and several less complex components (proteins and amino acids) were added to the laboratory microcosms. Stimulated coal-dependent methanogenesis with peptone was 86% of that with YE while glutamate-stimulated activity was 65% of that with YE, and a vitamin mix had only 33% of the YE stimulated activity. For field application of MECoM, there is interest in identifying cost-effective alternatives to YE and other expensive nutrients. In laboratory studies, adding algal extract (AE) with lipids removed stimulated coal-dependent methanogenesis and the activity was 60% of that with YE at 27 d and almost 90% of YE activity at 1406 d. Analysis of British Thermal Unit (BTU) content of coal (a measure of potential energy yield) from long-term incubations indicated > 99.5% of BTU content remained after coalbed methane (CBM) stimulation with either AE or YE. Thus, the coal resource remains largely unchanged following stimulated microbial methane production. Algal CBM stimulation could lead to technologies that utilize coupled biological systems (photosynthesis and methane production) that sustainably enhance CBM production and generate algal biofuels while also sequestering carbon dioxide (CO2).

  16. Gasification of biomass and coal in a pressurised fluidised bed gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andries, J; Jong, W de; Hein, K R.G. [Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands)

    1998-09-01

    During a 3 year (1996-1998) multinational JOULE project, partly funded by the EU, experimental and theoretical research is being done on co-gasification of biomass (pelletised straw and Miscanthus) and coal in a pressurised fluidised bed reactor. The influence of feedstock and operating conditions on gasification characteristics has been studied using a 1.5 MW{sub th} gasifier, which has been operated at a pressure of 5 bar and temperatures up to 900 C. The project and the test rig are described and results obtained in the first part of the project are presented and analysed. (orig.)

  17. Geology and coal-bed methane resources of the northern San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassett, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    This guidebook is the first of its kind: A focused look at coal-bed methane in a large Rocky Mountain Laramide basin. The papers in this volume cover every aspect of coal-bed methane in the San Juan Basin, including: The geology, environments of deposition, and geometry of the coal beds that contain the resource; the origin and migration history of the gas; basin-wide resource estimates; the engineering aspects of getting the gas out of the ground; the marketing and economics of producing coal-bed methane in the San Juan Basin; the legal ownership of the gas; state regulations governing well spacing and field rules; disposal of produced water; and land and mineral ownership patterns in the northern part of the basin. Also included are detailed papers on all of the major coal-bed methane fields in the basin, and in a paper on the history of Fruitland gas production, a discussion of most of the not-so-major fields. A small section of the book deals with geophysical methods, as yet still experimental, for surface detection of underground hydrocarbon resources. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  18. Release of nitrogen precursors from coal and biomass residues in a bubbling fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Abelha; I. Gulyurtlu; I. Cabrita [Instituto Nacional de Engenharia, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2008-01-15

    This work was undertaken with the aim of quantifying the relative amounts of NH{sub 3} and HCN released from different residues during their devolatilization under fluidized bed conditions. The results were compared with data collected for bituminous coals of different origin. The relation between amounts of HCN and NH{sub 3} released and the levels of NOX and N{sub 2}O formed during cocombustion was also addressed. The partitioning of nitrogen between volatiles and char was also quantified. The pyrolysis studies were undertaken in a small fluidized bed reactor of 80 mm of ID and 500 mm high using an inert atmosphere (N{sub 2}). The HCN and NH{sub 3} were quantified by bubbling the pyrolysis gases in absorbing solutions which were subsequently analyzed with selective electrodes. The combustion studies were carried out on a pilot installation. The fluidized bed combustor is square in cross section with each side being 300 mm long. There is secondary air supply to the freeboard at different heights to deal with high volatile fuels as almost all waste materials are. The temperatures in the bed and in the freeboard and that of the flue gases leaving the reactor were continuously monitored. The results obtained suggest that, while coal releases nitrogen mostly as HCN, residues like RDF and sewage sludge give out fuel-N in greater quantities as NH{sub 3}. Residues at fluidized bed combustion (FBC) temperatures release more than 80% of the fuel-N with the volatiles. The NH{sub 3} evolved during pyrolysis acted as a reducing agent on NOX emissions. The presence of calcium significantly reduces the emission of N{sub 2}O probably by interfering with HCN chemistry. With high amounts of residues in the fuel mixture, the relative importance of char on the nitrogen chemistry substantially decreases. By using cocombustion, it is possible to reduce fuel-N conversion to NOX and N{sub 2}O, by tuning the amounts of coal and residue in the mixture. 29 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Co-firing coal and hospital waste in a circulating fluidized bed boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulthard, E.J.; Korenberg, J.; Oswald, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy - Morgantown Energy Technology Center and the Pennsylvania Energy Development Authority are co-funding a project which will demonstrate the reduction of infectious hospital waste to an environmentally safe disposable ash by cofiring the waste with coal in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB). The main objective of this paper is increased utilization of coal but the project also provides a solution to a problem which has grown rapidly and become very visible in recent years (e.g., hospital waste washed up on beaches). The application of CFB boilers in hospitals introduces an economical clean coal technology into a size range and market dominated by gas and oil combustion systems. The use of CFB represents the utilization of state-of-the-art technology for burning coal in an environmentally benign manner. SO 2 , NO x , CO and particulate emissions lower than the latest New Source Performance Standards have proven to be achievable in CFB combustion systems. By processing the infectious waste in a steam generation system which operates continuously, the problem of creating excessive gaseous emissions during repeated start-ups (as is the case with current incinerator technology) is avoided. The operating conditions with respect to residence time, temperature and turbulence that are inherent to a CFB combustion system, provide an excellent environment for complete combustion and destruction of potentially hazardous solid and gaseous emissions (e.g., dioxins). The limestone, which is injected into the combustion system to reduce SO 2 emissions, will also react with chlorine. Thus chlorine compound emissions and the corrosive nature of the flue gas are reduced. The work efforts to date indicate that infectious waste thermal processing in a coal-fired CFB is a technically and economically viable on-site disposal option

  20. Technologically enhanced natural radioactivity around the coal fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, J.; Marovic, G.

    1997-01-01

    In some situations the exposure to natural radiation sources is enhanced as a result to technological developments. Burning of coal is one source of enhanced radiation exposure to naturally occurring elements, particularly radium, thorium and uranium. Most of the radioactive substances are concentrated in the ash and slag, which are heavy and drop to the bottom of a furnace. Lighter fly ash is carried up the chimney and into the atmosphere. The bottom ash and slag are usually deposited in a waste pile, from where some activity may leach into aquifers or be dispersed by wind.The main pathways through which the populations living around coal fired power plants are exposed to enhanced levels of natural radionuclides are inhalation and ingestion of the activity discharged into the Exosphere. For this reason, extensive investigations have been under way for several years in the coal fired power plant in Croatia, which uses an anthracite coal with a higher than usual uranium content. (authors)

  1. Electrodialysis reversal: Process and cost approximations for treating coal-bed methane waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajtar, E.T.; Bagley, D.M. [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Brackish waters with total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations less than 10,000 mg/L are extracted from coal-beds in the Wyoming Powder River basin to facilitate the production of coal-bed methane. These waters frequently require treatment before disposal or use. Electrodialysis reversal (EDR) has not yet been used to treat these waters but this technology should be suitable. The question is whether EDR would be cost-effective. The purpose of this work, then, was to develop models for predicting the cost of EDR for brackish waters. These models, developed from data available in the literature, were found to predict actual EDR costs as a function of TDS removal, influent flow rate, chemical rejection efficiency, water recovery, electricity use, and labor cost within 10% of reported values. The total amortized cost for removing 1,000 mg/L of TDS from 10,000 m{sup 3}/day of influent assuming no concentrate disposal costs was predicted to range from $0.23/m{sup 3} to $0.85/m{sup 3} and was highly dependent on capital cost and facility life. Concentrate disposal costs significantly affected total treatment cost, providing a total treatment cost range from $0.38/m{sup 3} to $6.38/m{sup 3}, depending on concentrate disposal cost and water recovery. Pilot demonstrations of EDR in the Powder River basin should be conducted to determine the achievable water recovery when treating these waters.

  2. Biochemically enhanced methane production from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Aleksandra

    For many years, biogas was connected mostly with the organic matter decomposition in shallow sediments (e.g., wetlands, landfill gas, etc.). Recently, it has been realized that biogenic methane production is ongoing in many hydrocarbon reservoirs. This research examined microbial methane and carbon dioxide generation from coal. As original contributions methane production from various coal materials was examined in classical and electro-biochemical bench-scale reactors using unique, developed facultative microbial consortia that generate methane under anaerobic conditions. Facultative methanogenic populations are important as all known methanogens are strict anaerobes and their application outside laboratory would be problematic. Additional testing examined the influence of environmental conditions, such as pH, salinity, and nutrient amendments on methane and carbon dioxide generation. In 44-day ex-situ bench-scale batch bioreactor tests, up to 300,000 and 250,000 ppm methane was generated from bituminous coal and bituminous coal waste respectively, a significant improvement over 20-40 ppm methane generated from control samples. Chemical degradation of complex hydrocarbons using environmentally benign reagents, prior to microbial biodegradation and methanogenesis, resulted in dissolution of up to 5% bituminous coal and bituminous coal waste and up to 25% lignite in samples tested. Research results confirm that coal waste may be a significant underutilized resource that could be converted to useful fuel. Rapid acidification of lignite samples resulted in low pH (below 4.0), regardless of chemical pretreatment applied, and did not generate significant methane amounts. These results confirmed the importance of monitoring and adjusting in situ and ex situ environmental conditions during methane production. A patented Electro-Biochemical Reactor technology was used to supply electrons and electron acceptor environments, but appeared to influence methane generation in a

  3. Co-combustion of peach and apricot stone with coal in a bubbling fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atimtay, Aysel T.; Kaynak, Burcak [Department of Environmental Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey)

    2008-02-15

    In this study a bubbling fluidized bed combustor (BFBC) having an inside diameter of 102 mm and a height of 900 mm was used to investigate the co-combustion characteristics of peach and apricot stones produced as a waste from the fruit juice industry with coal. A lignite coal was used for co-combustion. On-line concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X} and total hydrocarbons (C{sub m}H{sub n}) were measured in the flue gas during combustion experiments. Variations of emissions of various pollutants were studied by changing the operating parameters (excess air ratio, fluidization velocity, and fuel feed rate). Temperature distribution along the bed was measured with thermocouples. For co-combustion of apricot and peach fruit stones with a lignite coal, various ratios of biomass to coal ranging from 0 to 100 wt.% were tested. For the peach stone co-combustion tests, efficiencies are about 98% and for the apricot stone co-combustion tests, efficiencies ranged between 94.7% and 96.9% for 25%, 50% and 75% of apricot stone in the fuel mixture. The results of this study have shown that as the biomass ratio in the fuel mixture increases, the combustion takes place at the upper regions of the main column. This causes higher temperatures in the freeboard than the bed. Also the CO and hydrocarbon (C{sub m}H{sub n}) emissions increase as the biomass percentage increases in the fuel mixture. This causes decrease in the combustion efficiency. These results suggest that peach and apricot stones are potential fuels that can be utilized for clean energy production in small-scale fruit juice industries by using BFBC. The percentage of peach stones or apricot stones in the fuel mixture is suggested to be below 50 wt.% in order to obtain the emission limits of EU. During the design of the BFBC, one has to be careful about the volatile matter (VM) content of the biomass. For the complete combustion of the VM, longer freeboard or secondary air addition should be

  4. Axial concentration profiles and N{sub 2}O flue gas in a pilot scale bubbling fluidised bed coal combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarelho, L.A.C.; Matos, M.A.A.; Pereira, F.J.M.A. [Environment and Planning Department, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2005-05-15

    Atmospheric Bubbling Fluidised Bed Coal Combustion (ABFBCC) of a bituminous coal and anthracite with particle diameters in the range 500-4000 {mu}m was investigated in a pilot-plant facility (circular section with 0.25 m internal diameter and 3 m height). The experiments were conducted at steady-state conditions using three excess air levels (10%, 25% and 50%) and bed temperatures in the 750-900 {sup o}C range. Combustion air was staged, with primary air accounting for 100%, 80% and 60% of total combustion air. For both types of coal, virtually no N{sub 2}O was found in significant amounts inside the bed. However, just above the bed-freeboard interface, the N{sub 2}O concentration increased monotonically along the freeboard and towards the exit flue. The N{sub 2}O concentrations in the reactor ranged between 0-90 ppm during bituminous coal combustion and 0-30 ppm for anthracite. For both coals, the lowest values occurred at the higher bed temperature (900 {sup o}C) with low excess air (10%) and high air staging (60% primary air), whereas the highest occurred at the lower bed temperature (750 {sup o}C for bituminous, 825 {sup o}C for anthracite) with high excess air (50%) and single stage combustion. Most of the observed results could be qualitatively interpreted in terms of a set of homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions, where catalytic surfaces (such as char, sand and coal ash) can play an important role in the formation and destruction of N{sub 2}O and its precursors (such as HCN, NH{sub 3} and HCNO) by free radicals (O, H, OH) and reducing species (H{sub 2}, CO, HCs)

  5. Making the most of South Africa’s low-quality coal: Converting high-ash coal to fuel gas using bubbling fluidised bed gasifiers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, AD

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available for process heating or for power generation using the IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) process. A high-ash coal from the Waterberg coalfield was tested in a bubbling fluidised bed gasifier using various gasification agents and operating conditions...

  6. Methylotrophic methanogenesis governs the biogenic coal bed methane formation in Eastern Ordos Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Hongguang; Yu, Zhisheng; Liu, Ruyin [Graduate Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). College of Resources and Environment; Zhang, Hongxun [Graduate Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). College of Resources and Environment; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences; Zhong, Qiding; Xiong, Zhenghe [China National Research Institute of Food and Fermentation Industries, Beijing (China). Food Analysis using Isotope Technology Lab

    2012-12-15

    To identify the methanogenic pathways present in a deep coal bed methane (CBM) reservoir associated with Eastern Ordos Basin in China, a series of geochemical and microbiological studies was performed using gas and water samples produced from the Liulin CBM reservoir. The composition and stable isotopic ratios of CBM implied a mixed biogenic and thermogenic origin of the methane. Archaeal 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed the dominance of the methylotrophic methanogen Methanolobus in the water produced. The high potential of methane production by methylotrophic methanogens was found in the enrichments using the water samples amended with methanol and incubated at 25 and 35 C. Methylotrophic methanogens were the dominant archaea in both enrichments as shown by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that fermentative, sulfate-reducing, and nitrate-reducing bacteria inhabiting the water produced were a factor in coal biodegradation to fuel methanogens. These results suggested that past and ongoing biodegradation of coal by methylotrophic methanogens and syntrophic bacteria, as well as thermogenic CBM production, contributed to the Liulin CBM reserves associated with the Eastern Ordos Basin. (orig.)

  7. Fluidized-Bed Gasification of Plastic Waste, Wood, and Their Blends with Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Zaccariello

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fuel composition on gasification process performance was investigated by performing mass and energy balances on a pre-pilot scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor fed with mixtures of plastic waste, wood, and coal. The fuels containing plastic waste produced less H2, CO, and CO2 and more light hydrocarbons than the fuels including biomass. The lower heating value (LHV progressively increased from 5.1 to 7.9 MJ/Nm3 when the plastic waste fraction was moved from 0% to 100%. Higher carbonaceous fines production was associated with the fuel containing a large fraction of coal (60%, producing 87.5 g/kgFuel compared to only 1.0 g/kgFuel obtained during the gasification test with just plastic waste. Conversely, plastic waste gasification produced the highest tar yield, 161.9 g/kgFuel, while woody biomass generated only 13.4 g/kgFuel. Wood gasification showed a carbon conversion efficiency (CCE of 0.93, while the tests with two fuels containing coal showed lowest CCE values (0.78 and 0.70, respectively. Plastic waste and wood gasification presented similar cold gas efficiency (CGE values (0.75 and 0.76, respectively, while that obtained during the co-gasification tests varied from 0.53 to 0.73.

  8. Northern Cheyenne Reservation Coal Bed Natural Resource Assessment and Analysis of Produced Water Disposal Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaochang Wo; David A. Lopez; Jason Whiteman Sr.; Bruce A. Reynolds

    2004-07-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) development in the Powder River Basin (PRB) is currently one of the most active gas plays in the United States. Monthly production in 2002 reached about 26 BCF in the Wyoming portion of the basin. Coalbed methane reserves for the Wyoming portion of the basin are approximately 25 trillion cubic feet (TCF). Although coal beds in the Powder River Basin extend well into Montana, including the area of the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, the only CBM development in Montana is the CX Field, operated by the Fidelity Exploration, near the Wyoming border. The Northern Cheyenne Reservation is located on the northwest flank of the PRB in Montana with a total land of 445,000 acres. The Reservation consists of five districts, Lame Deer, Busby, Ashland, Birney, and Muddy Cluster and has a population of 4,470 according to the 2000 Census. The CBM resource represents a significant potential asset to the Northern Cheyenne Indian Tribe. Methane gas in coal beds is trapped by hydrodynamic pressure. Because the production of CBM involves the dewatering of coalbed to allow the release of methane gas from the coal matrix, the relatively large volume of the co-produced water and its potential environmental impacts are the primary concerns for the Tribe. Presented in this report is a study conducted by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology (MBMG) in partnership with the Northern Cheyenne Tribe to assess the Tribe’s CBM resources and evaluate applicable water handling options. The project was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Native American Initiative of the National Petroleum Technology Office, under contract DEAC07- 99ID13727. Matching funds were granted by the MBMG in supporting the work of geologic study and mapping conducted at MBMG.

  9. Combustion of agro-waste with coal in a fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atimtay, Aysel T. [Middle East Technical University, Department of Environmental Engineering, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-02-15

    In this study, a review of the studies done on the co-combustion of some agro-waste in a bubbling fluidized bed combustor (BFBC) having an inside diameter of 102 mm and a height of 900 mm is given. The agro-waste used to investigate the co-combustion characteristics were peach and apricot stones produced as a waste from the fruit juice industry, and olive cake produced as a waste from the olive oil industry. These are typical wastes for a Mediterranean country. A lignite coal was used for co-combustion. On-line concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and total hydrocarbons (C{sub m} H{sub n}) were measured in the flue gas during combustion experiments. Variations of emissions of various pollutants were studied by changing the operating parameters (excess air ratio, fluidization velocity and fuel feed rate). Temperature distribution along the bed was measured with thermocouples. Emissions were also monitored from the exhaust. Various combinations of coal and biomass mixtures were tested. During the combustion tests, it was observed that the volatile matter from the biomass quickly volatilizes and mostly burns in the freeboard. The temperature profiles along the bed and the freeboard also confirmed this phenomenon. It was found that as the volatile matter of the biomass increases, combustion takes place more in the freeboard region. Better combustion conditions occur at higher excess air ratios. The results showed that co-combustion with these three proposed biomasses lowers the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions considerably. CO and hydrocarbon emissions are lower at the higher excess air ratios. (orig.)

  10. The formation of impurities in fluidized-bed gasification of biomass, peat and coal; Epaepuhtauksien muodostuminen leijukerroskaasutuksessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Laatikainen-Luntama, J.; Kurkela, M.; Leppaelahti, J.; Koljonen, T.; Oesch, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Alen, R. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this three-year-long project was to study the effects of different process parameters and bed materials on the formation of impurities in pressurized fluidized-bed gasification. The main emphasis of the project was focused on the formation of tars and nitrogen compounds in wood, peat and coal gasification. The aims of the research were to find out such operating conditions, where the formation of problematic high-molecular-weight tars can be minimised and to create a better understanding on the fate of fuel nitrogen in fluidized-bed gasifiers. Main part of the research was carried out in a bench-scale pressurised fluidized-bed reactor (ID 30 mm), where the effects of pressure, temperature, gas atmosphere and bed material were studied with different feedstocks. Most of the test series were carried out using the same feedstocks as earlier used in the PDU-scale fluidized-bed gasification tests of VTT (pine wood, pine bark, wheat straw, two peats, Rhenish brown coal, Polish and Illinois No.6 bituminous coals). The effects of operating parameters on the product yields (gas components, tars, char) were first studied under inert nitrogen atmosphere. The conversion of fuel nitrogen into ammonia and HCN were also determined for the different feedstocks over the different operating conditions. These studies showed that ammonia is the main fixed nitrogen compound of fluidized-bed pyrolysis with all the feedstocks studied. The conversions of fuel nitrogen into ammonia and HCN was highest with the high volatile fuels and lowest with the two hard coals. Gas atmosphere had a dramatic effect on the conversion of fuel nitrogen; much higher ammonia yields were determined in real gasification gas atmosphere than in inert pyrolysis carried out in N{sub 2} or Argon atmosphere. In addition to the pressurised fluidized-bed pyrolysis tests, laboratory scale pyrolysis research was carried out in order to compare the pyrolysis behaviour of the different feedstocks

  11. A kinetic study of gaseous potassium capture by coal minerals in a high temperature fixed-bed reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2008-01-01

    The reactions between gaseous potassium chloride and coal minerals were investigated in a lab-scale high temperature fixed-bed reactor using single sorbent pellets. The applied coal minerals included kaolin, mullite, silica, alumina, bituminous coal ash, and lignite coal ash that were formed...... into long cylindrical pellets. Kaolin and bituminous coal ash that both have significant amounts of Si and Al show superior potassium capture characteristics. Experimental results show that capture of potassium by kaolin is independent of the gas oxygen content. Kaolin releases water and forms metakaolin...... when heated at temperatures above 450°C. The amounts of potassium captured by metakaolin pellet decreases with increasing reaction temperature in the range of 900-1300°C and increases again with further increasing the temperature up to 1500°C. There is no reaction of pre-made mullite with KCl...

  12. Relation between the petrographic composition of coal and the morphology of pyrolysis char produced in fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Valentim; M.J. Lemos de Sousa; P. Abelha; D. Boavida; I. Gulyurtlu [Centro de Geologia da Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal)

    2004-06-01

    Several previous studies have already established, for pulverized coal combustion conditions, global correlations between petrographic composition of the coal and those of char produced from the same coal. However, for fluidized bed combustion, there has not been much new work since the eighties. The results presented in this paper include the petrographic characterization of seven different coals from several origins and also of their respective chars produced at 700, 800, 900, and 1000{sup o}C in a laboratory fluidized bed reactor. The results show a marked predominance of tenuispheres as the trial temperatures increase. While vitrinite-rich coals essentially produced highly porous chars, the inertinite-rich coals produced large amounts of medium- and low-porous chars. Semi-anthracite vitrinite produced high-porous chars and thermal affected coal particles originated low-porous and angular char morphotypes. The analysis of the data obtained revealed that vitrinite + liptinite related well with the high-porous char (sum of cenospheres and tenuinetworks), classified as Group 1. The same trend, but with a weaker relation, was also observed between vitrinite and liptinite rich microlithotypes and Group 1. 32 refs., 17 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. Using simulated maps to interpret the geochemistry, formation and quality of the Blue Gem Coal Bed, Kentucky, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Olea, Ricardo A.; Engle, Mark A.; Martin-Fernandez, Jose Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This study presents geostatistical simulations of coal-quality parameters, major oxides and trace metals for an area covering roughly 812 km2 of the Blue Gem coal bed in southeastern Kentucky, USA. The Blue Gem, characterized by low ash yield and low sulfur content, is an important economic resource. Past studies have characterized the Blue Gem's geochemistry, palynology and petrography and inferred a depositional setting of a planar peat deposit that transitioned to slightly domed later in its development. These studies have focused primarily on vertical geochemical trends within the coal bed. Simulated maps of chemical elements derived from 45 measured sample locations across the study area provide an opportunity to observe changes in the horizontal direction within the coal bed. As the Blue Gem coal bed shows significant vertical chemical trends, care was taken in this study to try to select samples from a single, middle portion of the coal. By revealing spatial distribution patterns of elements across the middle of the bed, associations between different components of the coal can be seen. The maps therefore help to provide a picture of the coal-forming peat bog at an instant in geologic time and allow interpretation of a depositional setting in the horizontal direction. Results from this middle portion of the coal suggest an association of SiO2 with both K2O and TiO2 in different parts of the study area. Further, a pocket in the southeast of the study area shows elevated concentrations of elements attributable to observed carbonate-phase minerals (MgO, CaO, Ba and Sr) as well as elements commonly associated with sulfide-phase minerals (Cu, Mo and Ni). Areas of relatively high ash yield are observed in the north and south of the mapped area, in contrast to the low ash yields seen towards the east. Additionally, we present joint probability maps where multiple coal-quality parameters are plotted simultaneously on one figure. This application allows researchers

  14. Reactor design and operation strategies for a large-scale packed-bed CLC power plant with coal syngas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spallina, V.; Chiesa, P.; Martelli, E; Gallucci, F.; Romano, M.C.; Lozza, G.; Sint Annaland, van M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the design and operation strategies of dynamically operated packed-bed reactors (PBRs) of a chemical looping combustion (CLC) system included in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) for electric power generation with low CO2 emission from coal. The CLC reactors,

  15. Inhibition and recovery of nitrification in treating real coal gasification wastewater with moving bed biofilm reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiqiang Li; Hongjun Han; Maoan Du; Wei Wang

    2011-01-01

    Moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was used to treat real coal gasification wastewater.Nitrification of the MBBR was inhibited almost completely during start-up period.Sudden increase of influent total NH3 concentration was the main factor inducing nitrification inhibition.Increasing DO concentration in the bulk liquid (from 2 to 3 mg/L) had little effect on nitrification recovery.Nitrification of the MBBR recovered partially by the addition of nitrifying sludge into the reactor and almost ceased within 5 days.Nitrification ratio of the MBBR achieved 65% within 12 days by increasing dilute ratio of the influent wastewater with tap water.The ratio of nitrification decreased to 25% when infiuent COD concentration increased from 650 to 1000 mg/L after nitrification recovery and recovered 70%for another 4 days.

  16. A study of geochemical prospecting for uranium-bearing low grade coal beds in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, O.B.

    1980-01-01

    Trend surface analysis was applied in order to find the criteria for geochemcial prospecting of uranium bearing narrow coal bed in Ogcheon Group. Soil samples were taken from the Mogso-ri area, the Deogpyeong-ri area, and the Jeogum-ri area and were analyzed for U, V, Mo, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, and Cr by colorimetry and atomic absorption. All data were processed statistically by HP 3000 computer. The results were as follows: Molybdenium could be used as the best competent indicator element for uranium. Lead, Copper, Vanadium could be used as assistant indicator. The trend surface analysis and the residual map were very useful for statistical interpretation of analyzed data. Second or third degree trend surface analysis was sufficient for this work. The trend map revealed that the origin of uranium in these area was the same. (Author)

  17. Co-gasification of meat and bone meal with coal in a fluidised bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Cascarosa; L. Gasco; G. Gea; J.L. Sanchez; J. Arauzo [Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain). Thermochemical Processes Group

    2011-08-15

    After the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy illness appeared, the meat and bone meat (MBM) produced from animal residues became an important waste. In spite of being a possible fuel due to its heating value (around 21.4 MJ/kg), an important fraction of the meat and bone meal is being sent to landfills. The aim of this work is to evaluate the co-gasification of low percentages of meat and bone meal with coal in a fluidised bed reactor as a potential waste management alternative. The effect of the bed temperature (800-900{sup o}C), the equivalence ratio (0.25-0.35) and the percentage of MBM in the solid fed (0-1 wt.%) on the co-gasification product yields and properties is evaluated. The results show the addition of 1 wt.% of MBM in a coal gasification process increases the gas and the liquid yield and decreases the solid yield at 900{sup o}C and 0.35 of temperature and equivalence ratio operational conditions. At operational conditions of 900{sup o}C and equivalence ratio of 0.35, the specific yield to gas (y{sub gas}) increases from 3.18 m{sup 3}(STP)/kg to 4.47 m{sup 3}(STP)/kg. The gas energy yield decreased 24.1% and the lower heating value of the gas decreases from 3.36 MJ/m{sup 3}(STP) to 2.16 MJ/m{sup 3}(STP). The concentration of the main gas components (H{sub 2}, CO and CO{sub 2}) hardly varies with the addition of MBM, however the light hydrocarbon concentrations decrease and the H{sub 2}S concentration increases at the higher temperature (900{sup o}C). 32 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Co-combustion of coal and non-recyclable paper & plastic waste in a fluidised bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boavida, D.; Abelha, P.; Gulyurtlu, I.; Cabrita, I. [DEECA-INETI, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2002-07-01

    Co-combustion of waste with coal was carried out using a fluidised bed combustor with the aim of achieving a fuel mixture with little variations in its heating value and simultaneously reducing the accumulation of non-toxic waste material by upgrading them for energy purposes. Results obtained indicate that the feeding of waste materials could present serious problems which could render conditions for a stable combustion difficult to achieve. The waste was fed mixed with coal and there was some difference observed in results regarding the combustion efficiency and emissions. Part of the combustion of waste material, contrary to that of coal, was observed to take place in the freeboard where the temperature was as much as 150{degree}C above that of the bed. 6 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Co-combustion of coal and non-recyclable paper and plastic waste in a fluidised bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Boavida; P. Abelha; I. Gulyurtlu; I. Cabrita [DEECA-INETI, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2003-10-01

    Co-combustion of waste with coal was carried out using a fluidised bed combustor with the aim of achieving a fuel mixture with little variations in its heating value and simultaneously reducing the accumulation of non-toxic waste material by upgrading them for energy purposes. Results obtained indicate that the feeding of waste materials plays an important role to achieve conditions for a stable combustion. The form in which the fuel is fed to the combustor makes a significant contribution to achieve desirable combustion performance and differences were observed in results regarding the combustion efficiency and emissions when waste was fed densified or in a fluffy state when it was burned mixed with coal. Part of the combustion of waste material, contrary to that of coal, was observed to take place in the freeboard where the temperature was as much as 150{sup o}C above that of the bed. 15 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Hydrogen-rich gas production by cogasification of coal and biomass in an intermittent fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Qun; Chen, Zhao-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of cogasification of coal and biomass in an intermittent fluidized bed reactor, aiming to investigate the influences of operation parameters such as gasification temperature (T), steam to biomass mass ratio (SBMR), and biomass to coal mass ratio (BCMR) on hydrogen-rich (H2-rich) gas production. The results show that H2-rich gas free of N2 dilution is produced and the H2 yield is in the range of 18.25~68.13 g/kg. The increases of T, SBMR, and BCMR are all favorable for promoting the H2 production. Higher temperature contributes to higher CO and H2 contents, as well as H2 yield. The BCMR has a weak influence on gas composition, but the yield and content of H2 increase with BCMR, reaching a peak at the BCMR of 4. The H2 content and yield in the product gas increase with SBMR, whilst the content of CO increases first and then decreases correspondingly. At a typical case, the relative linear sensitivity coefficients of H2 production efficiency to T, SBMR, and BCMR were calculated. The results reveal that the order of the influence of the operation parameters on H2 production efficiency is T > SBMR > BCMR.

  1. Co-Combustion of Municipal Sewage Sludge and Hard Coal on Fluidized Bed Boiler WF-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajczyk Rafał

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available According to data of the Central Statistical Office, the amount of sludge produced in municipal wastewater treatment plants in 2010 amounted to 526000 Mg d.m. The forecast of municipal sewage sludge amount in 2015 according to KPGO2014 will reach 642400 Mg d.m. and is expected to increase in subsequent years. Significant amounts of sludge will create problems due to its utilization. In order to solve this problem the use of thermal methods for sludge utilization is expected. According to the National Waste Management Plan nearly 30% of sewage sludge mass should be thermally utilized by 2022. The article presents the results of co-combustion of coal and municipal sewage sludge in a bubbling fluidized bed boiler made by SEFAKO and located in the Municipal Heating Company in Morag. Four tests of hard coal and sewage sludge co-combustion have been conducted. Boiler performance, emissions and ash quality were investigated.

  2. Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC) co-firing of coal and hospital waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The proposed project involves co-firing of coal and medical waste (including infectious medical waste) in an atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC) to safely dispose of medical waste and produce steam for hospital needs. Combustion at the design temperature and residence time (duration) in the AFBC has been proven to render infectious medical waste free of disease producing organisms. The project would be located at the Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center in Lebanon, Pennsylvania. The estimated cost of the proposed AFBC facility is nearly $4 million. It would be jointly funded by DOE, Veterans Affairs, and Donlee Technologies, Inc., of York, Pennsylvania, under a cooperative agreement between DOE and Donlee. Under the terms of this agreement, $3.708 million in cost-shared financial assistance would be jointly provided by DOE and the Veterans Affairs (50/50), with $278,000 provided by Donlee. The purposes of the proposed project are to: (1) provide the VA Medical Center and the Good Samaritan Hospital (GSH), also of Lebanon, Pennsylvania, with a solution for disposal of their medical waste; and (2) demonstrate that a new coal-burning technology can safely incinerate infectious medical waste, produce steam to meet hospital needs, and comply with environmental regulations

  3. Fluidized bed combustion of single coal char particles at high CO{sub 2} concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scala, F.; Chirone, R. [CNR, Naples (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    Combustion of single coal char particles was studied at 850{sup o}C in a lab-scale fluidized bed at high CO{sub 2} concentration, typical of oxyfiring conditions. The burning rate of the particles was followed as a function of time by continuously measuring the outlet CO and O{sub 2} concentrations. Some preliminary evaluations on the significance of homogeneous CO oxidation in the reactor and of carbon gasification by CO{sub 2} in the char were also carried out. Results showed that the carbon burning rate increases with oxygen concentration and char particle size. The particle temperature is approximately equal to that of the bed up to an oxygen concentration of 2%, but it is considerably higher for larger oxygen concentrations. Both CO{sub 2} gasification of char and homogeneous CO oxidation are not negligible. The gasification reaction rate is slow and it is likely to be controlled by intrinsic kinetics. During purely gasification conditions the extent of carbon loss due to particle attrition by abrasion (estimated from the carbon mass balance) appears to be much more important than under combustion conditions.

  4. Co-firing a pressurized fluidized-bed combustion system with coal and refuse derived fuels and/or sludges. Task 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLallo, M.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1994-01-01

    The co-firing of waste materials with coal in utility scale power plants has emerged as an effective approach to produce energy and manage municipal waste. Leading this approach, the atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC) has demonstrated its commercial acceptance in the utility market as a reliable source of power burning a variety of waste and alternative fuels. The fluidized bed, with its stability of combustion, reduces the amount of thermochemical transients and provides for easier process control. The application of pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) technology, although relatively new, can provide significant enhancements to the efficient production of electricity while maintaining the waste management benefits of AFBC. A study was undertaken to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of co-firing a PFBC with coal and municipal and industrial wastes. Focus was placed on the production of electricity and the efficient disposal of wastes for application in central power station and distributed locations. Wastes considered for co-firing include municipal solid waste (MSW), tire-derived fuel (TDF), sewage sludge, and industrial de-inking sludge. Issues concerning waste material preparation and feed, PFBC operation, plant emissions, and regulations are addressed. This paper describes the results of this investigation, presents conclusions on the key issues, and provides recommendations for further evaluation.

  5. Release of alkali salts and coal volatiles affecting internal components in fluidized bed combustion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias del Campo, E.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the potential advantages of atmospheric fluidized bed systems, experience has proved that, under certain environments and operating conditions, a given material employed for internal components could lead to catastrophic events. In this study, an attempt is made to establish material selection and operational criteria that optimize performance and availability based on theoretical considerations of the bed hydrodynamics, thermodynamics and combustion process. The theoretical results may indicate that, for high-volatile coals with particle diameters (dc of 1-3 mm and sand particle size (ds of 0.674 mm, a considerable proportion of alkali chlorides may be transferred into the freeboard region of fluidized bed combustors as vapor phase, at bed temperatures (Tb < 840 °C, excess air (XSA ≤ 20 %, static bed height (Hs ≤ 0.2 m and fluidizing velocity (Uo < 1 m/s. Under these operating conditions, a high alkali deposition may be expected to occur in heat exchange tubes located above the bed. Conversely, when the combustors operate at Tb > 890 °C and XSA > 30 %, a high oxidation rate of the in-bed tubes may be present. Nevertheless, for these higher Tb values and XSA < 10 %, corrosion attack of metallic components, via sulfidation, would occur since the excessive gas-phase combustion within the bed induced a local oxygen depletion.

    A pesar de las ventajas potenciales de los sistemas atmosféricos de lecho fluidizado, la experiencia ha demostrado que, bajo ciertas atmósferas y condiciones de operación, un material que se emplea como componente interno podría experimentar una falla y conducir a eventos catastróficos. En este estudio, se intenta establecer un criterio tanto operativo como de selección del material que permita optimizar su disponibilidad y funcionalidad basados en consideraciones teóricas de la hidrodinámica del lecho, la termodin

  6. Methanogenic pathways of coal-bed gas in the Powder River Basin, United States: The geologic factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Romeo M.; Rice, Cynthia A.; Stricker, Gary D.; Warden, Augusta; Ellis, Margaret S. [U.S. Geological Survey, Box 25046, MS 939, Denver, Colorado 80225 (United States)

    2008-10-02

    Coal-bed gas of the Tertiary Fort Union and Wasatch Formations in the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana, U.S. was interpreted as microbial in origin by previous studies based on limited data on the gas and water composition and isotopes associated with the coal beds. To fully evaluate the microbial origin of the gas and mechanisms of methane generation, additional data for 165 gas and water samples from 7 different coal-bed methane-bearing coal-bed reservoirs were collected basinwide and correlated to the coal geology and stratigraphy. The C{sub 1}/(C{sub 2} + C{sub 3}) ratio and vitrinite reflectance of coal and organic shale permitted differentiation between microbial gas and transitional thermogenic gas in the central part of the basin. Analyses of methane {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}D, carbon dioxide {delta}{sup 13}C, and water {delta}D values indicate gas was generated primarily from microbial CO{sub 2} reduction, but with significant gas generated by microbial methyl-type fermentation (aceticlastic) in some areas of the basin. Microbial CO{sub 2} reduction occurs basinwide, but is generally dominant in Paleocene Fort Union Formation coals in the central part of the basin, whereas microbial methyl-type fermentation is common along the northwest and east margins. Isotopically light methane {delta}{sup 13}C is distributed along the basin margins where {delta}D is also depleted, indicating that both CO{sub 2}-reduction and methyl-type fermentation pathways played major roles in gas generation, but gas from the latter pathway overprinted gas from the former pathway. More specifically, along the northwest basin margin gas generation by methyl-type fermentation may have been stimulated by late-stage infiltration of groundwater recharge from clinker areas, which flowed through highly fractured and faulted coal aquifers. Also, groundwater recharge controlled a change in gas composition in the shallow Eocene Wasatch Formation with the increase of nitrogen and

  7. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND CLB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thein; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan; Senthil Arumugam; Kevin Heflin

    2003-08-28

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain-diet diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. The manure could be used as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in an existing coal suspension fired combustion systems. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Reburn is a process where a small percentage of fuel called reburn fuel is injected above the NO{sub x} producing, conventional coal fired burners in order to reduce NO{sub x}. The manure could also be used as reburn fuel for reducing NO{sub x} in coal fired plants. An alternate approach of using animal waste is to adopt the gasification process using a fixed bed gasifier and then use the gases for firing in gas turbine combustors. In this report, the cattle manure is referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) and chicken manure as litter biomass (LB). The report generates data on FB and LB fuel characteristics. Co-firing, reburn, and gasification tests of coal, FB, LB, coal: FB blends, and coal: LB blends and modeling on cofiring, reburn systems and economics of use of FB and LB have also been conducted. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, lower in heat content, higher in moisture, and higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution) compared to coal. Small-scale cofiring experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} emissions will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. Further experiments showed that biomass is twice or more effective than coal when

  8. Pilot-scale fluidized-bed combustor testing cofiring animal-tissue biomass with coal as a carcass disposal option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Elizabeth M. Fedorowicz; David W. Harlan; Linda A. Detwiler; Michelle L. Rossman [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). Energy Institute

    2006-10-15

    This study was performed to demonstrate the technical viability of cofiring animal-tissue biomass (ATB) in a coal-fired fluidized-bed combustor (FBC) as an option for disposing of specified risk materials (SRMs) and carcasses. The purpose of this study was to assess the technical issues of feeding/combusting ATB and not to investigate prion deactivation/pathogen destruction. Overall, the project successfully demonstrated that carcasses and SRMs can be cofired with coal in a bubbling FBC. Feeding ATB into the FBC did, however, present several challenges. Specifically, handling/feeding issues resulting from the small scale of the equipment and the extremely heterogeneous nature of the ATB were encountered during the testing. Feeder modifications and an overbed firing system were necessary. Through statistical analysis, it was shown that the ATB feed location had a greater effect on CO emissions, which were used as an indication of combustion performance, than the fuel type due to the feeding difficulties. Baseline coal tests and tests cofiring ATB into the bed were statistically indistinguishable. Fuel feeding issues would not be expected at the full scale since full-scale units routinely handle low-quality fuels. In a full-scale unit, the disproportionate ratio of feed line size to unit diameter would be eliminated thereby eliminating feed slugging. Also, the ATB would either be injected into the bed, thereby ensuring uniform mixing and complete combustion, or be injected directly above the bed with overfire air ports used to ensure complete combustion. Therefore, it is anticipated that a demonstration at the full scale, which is the next activity in demonstrating this concept, should be successful. As the statistical analysis shows, emissions cofiring ATB with coal would be expected to be similar to that when firing coal only. 14 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Temperature prediction in a coal fired boiler with a fixed bed by fuzzy logic based on numerical solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biyikoglu, A.; Akcayol, M.A.; Oezdemir, V.; Sivrioglu, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, steady state combustion in boilers with a fixed bed has been investigated. Temperature distributions in the combustion chamber of a coal fired boiler with a fixed bed are predicted using fuzzy logic based on data obtained from the numerical solution method for various coal and air feeding rates. The numerical solution method and the discretization of the governing equations of two dimensional turbulent flow in the combustion chamber and one dimensional coal combustion in the fixed bed are explained. Control Volume and Finite Difference Methods are used in the discretization of the equations in the combustion chamber and in the fixed bed, respectively. Results are presented as contours within the solution domain and compared with numerical ones. Comparison of the results shows that the difference between the numerical solution and fuzzy logic prediction throughout the computational domain is less than 1.5%. The statistical coefficient of multiple determinations for the investigated cases is about 0.9993 to 0.9998. This accuracy degree is acceptable in predicting the temperature values. So, it can be concluded that fuzzy logic provides a feasible method for defining the system properties

  10. Molecular biological enhancement of coal biodesulfurization. [Rhodococcus rhodochrous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilbane, J.J.; Bielaga, B.A.

    1990-07-01

    The overall objective of this project is to sue molecular genetics to develop strains of bacteria with enhanced ability to remove sulfur from coal and to obtain data that will allow the performance and economics of a coal biodesulfurization process to be predicted. The work planned for the current quarter (May 1990 to July 1990) includes the following activities: (1) Construct a cloning vector that can be used in Rhodococcus rhodochrous IGTS8 from the small cryptic plasmid found in Rhodococcus rhodochrous ATCC 190607; (2) Develop techniques for the genetic analysis of IGTS8; (3) Continue biochemical experiments, particularly those that may allow the identification of desulfurization-related enzymes; (4) Continue experiments with coal to determine the kinetics of organic sulfur removal.

  11. SHRIMP zircon U–Pb ages from coal beds across the Permian–Triassic boundary, eastern Yunnan, southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The first SHRIMP zircon U–Pb ages from coal beds close to the end-Permian mass extinction are reported from the C1 coal seam in the Yantang Mine in Laibin Town, Xuanwei County, eastern Yunnan Province. Zircons were extracted from kaolinite claystone layers, defined as tonsteins (volcanic ash deposits, in the sub-seam B1 and B3 of the coal seam C1. The U–Pb ages are 252.0 ± 2.3 Ma and 250.3 ± 2.1 Ma for the sub-seam B1 and B3, respectively. Within analytical uncertainties, these U–Pb ages include the time period of the onset of the mass extinction at 251.941 ± 0.037 Ma, which was obtained from the marine Meishan section in Zhejiang Province, ∼1600 km away from the Yantang Mine. These new ages represent not only the first and closest ages to the PTB mass extinction in terrestrial coal beds, but also ages from the nearest site to the Emeishan volcanoes investigated so far. Therefore these new data provide the most accurate stratigraphic horizon of terrestrial facies of the end-Permian extinction in South China. The Emeishan volcanoes were likely the source of volcanic ash in the coal seams at the Xuanwei County and broader areas in South China. Furthermore, the minerals and geochemistry characteristics of the C1 coal seam also implied the influences of contemporaneous volcanic activities. Keywords: PTB mass extinction, C1 coal seam, SHRIMP U–Pb isotope age, Xuanwei County, Yunnan Province

  12. Stratified Sampling to Define Levels of Petrographic Variation in Coal Beds: Examples from Indonesia and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim A. Moore

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.3.1.29-51Stratified sampling of coal seams for petrographic analysis using block samples is a viable alternative to standard methods of channel sampling and particulate pellet mounts. Although petrographic analysis of particulate pellets is employed widely, it is both time consuming and does not allow variation within sampling units to be assessed - an important measure in any study whether it be for paleoenvironmental reconstruction or in obtaining estimates of industrial attributes. Also, samples taken as intact blocks provide additional information, such as texture and botanical affinity that cannot be gained using particulate pellets. Stratified sampling can be employed both on ‘fine’ and ‘coarse’ grained coal units. Fine-grained coals are defined as those coal intervals that do not contain vitrain bands greater than approximately 1 mm in thickness (as measured perpendicular to bedding. In fine-grained coal seams, a reasonable sized block sample (with a polished surface area of ~3 cm2 can be taken that encapsulates the macroscopic variability. However, for coarse-grained coals (vitrain bands >1 mm a different system has to be employed in order to accurately account for the larger particles. Macroscopic point counting of vitrain bands can accurately account for those particles>1 mm within a coal interval. This point counting method is conducted using something as simple as string on a coal face with marked intervals greater than the largest particle expected to be encountered (although new technologies are being developed to capture this type of information digitally. Comparative analyses of particulate pellets and blocks on the same interval show less than 6% variation between the two sample types when blocks are recalculated to include macroscopic counts of vitrain. Therefore even in coarse-grained coals, stratified sampling can be used effectively and representatively.

  13. The quality of microorganism on coal bed methane processing with various livestock waste in laboratory scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlina, E. T.; Kurnani, Tb. B. A.; Hidayati, Y. A.; Rahmah, K. N.; Joni, I. M.; Harlia, E.

    2018-02-01

    Coal-bed Methane (CBM) is a form of natural gas extracted from coal and has been developed as future energy source. Organic materials are required as nutrition source for methanogenic microbes. The addition of cattle waste in the formation of CBM on coal media can be utilized as organic materials as well as methanogenic microbe sources. This research covered study of total amount of anaerobic microbes, methane production, protozoa, fungi and endoparasites. Descriptive approach is conducted for this study. Media used for culturing methanogens is Nutrient Agar in powder form and Lactose Broth with the addition of rumen fluid. The technique for counting microbes is through Total Plate Count in anaerobic Hungate tube, methane was analyzed using Gas Chromatography (GC), while identification of protozoa, fungi and endoparasites based on its morphology is conducted before and after anaerobic fermentation process. Incubation period is 30 days. The results showed that growth of anaerobic microbes from dairy cattle waste i.e. biogas sludge is 3.57×103 CFU/ml and fresh feces is 3.38 × 104 CFU/ml, growth of anaerobic microbes from beef cattle waste i.e. biogas sludge is 7.0 × 105 CFU/ml; fresh feces is 7.5 x 104 CFU/ml; and rumen contents of about 1.33 × 108 CFU/ml. Methane production in dairy cattle waste in sludge and fresh feces amounted to 10.57% and 2.39%, respectively. Methane production in beef cattle waste in sludge accounted for 5.95%; in fresh feces it is about 0.41%; and rumen contents of 4.92%. Decreasing of protozoa during fermentation to 84.27%, dominated by Eimeria sp. Decreasing of fungi to 16%, dominated by A. Niger, A. Flavus, A. Fumigatus and Monilia sitophila. Decreasing of endoparasitic worms to 15%, dominated by Strongylus sp. and Fasciola sp. The growth of anaerobic microbes and methane production indicated that dairy cattle waste and beef cattle waste have potential as source of methanogenic microbes, meanwhile the decreasing amount of protozoa

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organic matter associated to particulate matter emitted from atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastral, A.M.; Callen, M.S.; Garcia, T.

    1999-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and the organic matter (OM) content associated with particulate matter (PM) emissions from atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustion have been studied. The two main aims of the work have been (a) to study OM and PAH emissions as a function of the coal fluidized bed combustion (FBC) variables in solid phase and (b) to check if there is any correlation between OM and PAH contained in the PM. The combustion was carried out in a laboratory scale plant at different combustion conditions: temperature, percentage of oxygen excess, and total air flow. PAH associated on the particulate matter have been analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy in the synchronous mode (FS) after PM extraction by sonication with dimethylformamide (DMF). It can be concluded that there is not a direct relationship between the OM content and the PAH supported in the PM emitted. In addition, neither PM or OM show dependence between themselves

  15. Mineralogical anomalies and their influences on elemental geochemistry of the main workable coal beds from the Dafang Coalfield, Guizhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Ren, D.; Li, D.; Chou, C.-L.; Luo, K.

    2006-01-01

    Mineralogy and geochemistry of the No. 11 Coal bed were investigated by using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), sequential chemical extraction procedure (SCEP), and optical microscopy. The results show that the No. 11 Coal bed has very high contents of veined quartz (Vol. 11.4%) and veined ankerite (Vol. 10.2 %). The veined ankerite was generally coated by goethite and the veined quartz embraced chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and selenio-galena. In addition, a trace amount of kaolinite was filled in the veins. These seven minerals often occur in the same veins. The formation temperatures of the veined ankerite and quartz are 85??C and 180??C respectively, indicating their origins of iron-rich calcic and siliceous low-temperature hydrothermal fluids in different epigenetic periods. Studies have also found that the veined quartz probably formed earlier than the veined ankerite, and at least three distinct ankerite formation stages were observed by the ration of Ca/Sr and Fe/Mn of ankerite. The mineral formation from the early to late stage is in order of sulfide, quartz, kaolinite, ankerite, and goethite. The veined ankerite is the dominant source of Mn, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, which are as high as 0.09%, 74.0 ??g/g, 33.6 ??g/g, 185 ??g/g, and 289 ??g/g in this coal seam, respectively. However, the veined quartz is the main carrier of Pd, Pt, and Ir, which are 1.57 ??g/g, 0.15 ??g/g, and 0.007 ??g/g in this coal seam, respectively. In addition, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and selenio-galena of hydrothermal origin were determined in the veined quartz, and these three sulfide minerals are also important carriers of Cu, Zn and Pb in the No. 11 Coal bed.

  16. PROTON MICROPROBE ANALYSIS OF TRACE-ELEMENT VARIATIONS IN VITRINITES IN THE SAME AND DIFFERENT COAL BEDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkin, J.A.; Chao, E.C.T.; Blank, Herma; Dulong, F.T.

    1987-01-01

    The PIXE (proton-induced X-ray emission) microprobe can be used for nondestructive, in-situ analyses of areas as small as those analyzed by the electron microprobe, and has a sensitivity of detection as much as two orders of magnitude better than the electron microprobe. Preliminary studies demonstrated that PIXE provides a capability for quantitative determination of elemental concentrations in individual coal maceral grains with a detection limit of 1-10 ppm for most elements analyzed. Encouraged by the earlier results, we carried out the analyses reported below to examine trace element variations laterally (over a km range) as well as vertically (cm to m) in the I and J coal beds in the Upper Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale in central Utah, and to compare the data with the data from two samples of eastern coals of Pennsylvanian age.

  17. Pressurised fluidised-bed gasification experiments with biomass, peat and coal at VTT in 1991-1994. Gasification of Danish wheat, straw and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E; Laatikainen-Luntama, J; Staahlberg, P; Moilanen, A [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    Fluidised-bed air gasification of three different Danish straw feedstocks and Colombian bituminous coal was studied in the PDU-scale test facilities of VTT. The test programme was divided into two different modes of operation. First, the usability of straw as the only feedstock was investigated by operating the gasifier at relatively low temperature normally used in biomass gasifiers. In this operation mode the main aim was to find out the limits for gasification temperatures, set by the sintering behaviour of the straw. Secondly, the use of straw as an additional feedstock in a fluidised-bed coal gasifier was examined by operating the gasifier at about 1 000 deg C with different ratings of straw and coal feeding. The gasifier was operated at 5 bar pressure and at 80 990 deg C. The product gas was cleaned by ceramic candle filters operated at 465-540 deg C. Concentrations of tars, nitrogen com- pounds, sulphur gases, vapour-phase alkali metals as well as chlorine were determined in different operating conditions. (12 refs.)

  18. Organic geochemistry and petrology of subsurface Paleocene-Eocene Wilcox and Claiborne Group coal beds, Zavala County, Maverick Basin, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Warwick, Peter D.; Hook, Robert W.; Alimi, Hossein; Mastalerz, Maria; Swanson, Sharon M.

    2012-01-01

    Coal samples from a coalbed methane exploration well in northern Zavala County, Maverick Basin, Texas, were characterized through an integrated analytical program. The well was drilled in February, 2006 and shut in after coal core desorption indicated negligible gas content. Cuttings samples from two levels in the Eocene Claiborne Group were evaluated by way of petrographic techniques and Rock–Eval pyrolysis. Core samples from the Paleocene–Eocene Indio Formation (Wilcox Group) were characterized via proximate–ultimate analysis in addition to petrography and pyrolysis. Two Indio Formation coal samples were selected for detailed evaluation via gas chromatography, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy. Samples are subbituminous rank as determined from multiple thermal maturity parameters. Elevated rank (relative to similar age coal beds elsewhere in the Gulf Coast Basin) in the study area is interpreted to be a result of stratigraphic and/or structural thickening related to Laramide compression and construction of the Sierra Madre Oriental to the southwest. Vitrinite reflectance data, along with extant data, suggest the presence of an erosional unconformity or change in regional heat flow between the Cretaceous and Tertiary sections and erosion of up to >5 km over the Cretaceous. The presence of liptinite-rich coals in the Claiborne at the well site may indicate moderately persistent or recurring coal-forming paleoenvironments, interpreted as perennially submerged peat in shallow ephemeral lakes with herbaceous and/or flotant vegetation. However, significant continuity of individual Eocene coal beds in the subsurface is not suggested. Indio Formation coal samples contain abundant telovitrinite interpreted to be preserved from arborescent, above-ground woody vegetation that developed during the middle portion of mire development in forested swamps. Other petrographic criteria suggest enhanced biological, chemical and physical

  19. On changes in bed-material particles from a 550 MWth CFB boiler burning coal, bark and peat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesna Barisic; Mikko Hupa [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Turku (Finland). Combustion and Materials Chemistry

    2007-02-15

    This paper presents our observations on coating build up, morphology and the elemental composition of bed-material particles collected from a 550 MWth CFB boiler burning coal, bark and peat fuel/fuel mixture. The special focus was on the changes of the elemental composition of coating layer on bed-material particles when different fuels were burned. The results were obtained using a scanning electron microscope coupled with an energy depressive X-ray analyser (SEM/EDX). The results clearly show that properties of bed-material particles are a result of complex interaction between the fuels burned previously, and the fuels used at the time of sampling. Short communication. 8 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. Investigation of flow behaviour of coal particles in a pilot-scale fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) using radiotracer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, H J; Sharma, V K; Kamudu, M Vidya; Prakash, S G; Krishanamoorthy, S; Anandam, G; Rao, P Seshubabu; Ramani, N V S; Singh, Gursharan; Sonde, R R

    2009-09-01

    Knowledge of residence time distribution (RTD), mean residence time (MRT) and degree of axial mixing of solid phase is required for efficient operation of coal gasification process. Radiotracer technique was used to measure the RTD of coal particles in a pilot-scale fluidized bed gasifier (FBG). Two different radiotracers i.e. lanthanum-140 and gold-198 labeled coal particles (100 gm) were independently used as radiotracers. The radiotracer was instantaneously injected into the coal feed line and monitored at the ash extraction line at the bottom and gas outlet at the top of the gasifier using collimated scintillation detectors. The measured RTD data were treated and MRTs of coal/ash particles were determined. The treated data were simulated using tanks-in-series model. The simulation of RTD data indicated good degree of mixing with small fraction of the feed material bypassing/short-circuiting from the bottom of the gasifier. The results of the investigation were found useful for optimizing the design and operation of the FBG, and scale-up of the gasification process.

  1. Assessment of an atmospheric fluidized-bed coal-combustion gas-turbine cogeneration system for industrial application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, R. L.; Holcomb, R. S.; Tallackson, J. R.

    1979-10-01

    This study was initiated to provide information on the future potential industrial market for a cogeneration system consisting of a fluidized-bed coal combustor coupled to a gas-turbine (Brayton cycle) power system that uses air as the working fluid. In assessing the potential applications for the system, the process heat energy consumption by industry is identified, with special detail included on the six most energy-intensive industries. The potential impact on the nation's oil and natural gas consumption that would result from wide-spread utilization of coal for process heat is also estimated. The fraction of industrial process heat that the system could feasibly satisfy from a thermodynamic viewpoint is estimated, and the performance (potential fuel efficiency and heat/power ratio) of the atmospheric fluidized-bed gas-turbine system is calculated. Also treated are several specific case studies of industries in which the system could be incorporated. Major parameters are specified, and flow sheets are derived for systems that would satisfy the heat and power requirements of the process or industry. The overall fuel utilization efficiency, thermal power rating, and potential number of installations are specified for these case studies. The findings of the study indicate that there is a sizable potential market for the system, with over 1000 possible installations disclosed after reviewing only 8 specific industries from 6 major Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) groups. The potential displacement of oil and gas by coal in process heating is shown to be about 1.60 m/sup 3//sec (870,000 bbl/d) of oil and 4590 m/sup 3//sec (14.0 billion ft/sup 3//d) of natural gas for all industries combined. Continued development of the fluidized-bed coal combustor and power system is recommended so that this potential may be at least partially realized.

  2. Co-firing option of palm shell waste and Malaysian coal blends in a circulating fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Hussain; Farid Nasir Ani

    2010-01-01

    Palm oil shell waste is one of the main agriculture wastes in Malaysia. In order to utilize these wastes efficiently, pyrolysis of oil-palm shell waste was first carried out using Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effects of heating rate on the pyrolytic properties were investigated to evaluate its suitability for co-firing. The TGA analyses of oil palm shell waste and Malaysian coal blends suggests that there is an obvious lateral shift in the thermo grams for different heating rate. Kinetics calculations were also done using integral method. For palm shell waste powder it was found that the activation energies ranged from 112-119 kJ/mole and for the Mukah coal blends it ranged from 93.3 -100.8 kJ/mole. Combustion studies for palm shell wastes and coal blends were done in a hot circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) test rig. This is the first practical experience of using this type of rig in Malaysia. The temperature dependence on the combustion and emission behaviour were identified. The effects of variation of primary air and feed rate have also been analyzed and their influence on emissions has been established. The combustion studies of palm shell wastes were done and it was found that the emission of NO x ranged from 20-164 ppm while the CO emissions were high for some operating conditions. For the co-firing studies, the NO x and CO deceased with the percentage increase in the blending ratio of coal with palm shell waste.. The optimum blending ratio was found to be in a ratio of 40 percent coal and 60 percent Mukah coal. It was also found that Mukah coal show agglomeration behaviour with when it is blended in 80% ratio. (author)

  3. Coal and potash flotation enhancement using a clay binder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, D.; Chen, G.L.; Zhou, X.H.; Zhao, C.; Fan, M.M.; Aron, M.; Wright, J. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2007-07-15

    The adverse effects of clay particles on coal and mineral processing operations such as gravity separation, flotation, filtration and thickening are well known in the mining industry. In particular, the presence of ultra-fine clay particles deteriorates froth flotation performance, which has been attributed to slime coatings that inhibit bubble attachment and to adsorption of the frother and/or collector by the clay particles. The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a clay binding agent developed by Georgia-Pacific Resins, Inc. in enhancing coal and mineral flotation performance. Mechanical flotation tests were carried out using coal and potash samples. Process parameters investigated included slurry solids percentage, impeller rotation speed, binder dosage, etc. Flotation results show that the use of GP reagents significantly enhanced flotation efficiency under different conditions. The required binder dosage and conditioning time were about 0.45 kg/t and 0.5 to 1 minute, respectively. More significant improvements in process performance were observed at higher solids percentage and higher impeller rotation speed.

  4. Deep subsurface drip irrigation using coal-bed sodic water: part I. water and solute movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Breit, George N.; Healy, Richard W.; Zupancic, John W.; Hammack, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Water co-produced with coal-bed methane (CBM) in the semi-arid Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana commonly has relatively low salinity and high sodium adsorption ratios that can degrade soil permeability where used for irrigation. Nevertheless, a desire to derive beneficial use from the water and a need to dispose of large volumes of it have motivated the design of a deep subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system capable of utilizing that water. Drip tubing is buried 92 cm deep and irrigates at a relatively constant rate year-round, while evapotranspiration by the alfalfa and grass crops grown is seasonal. We use field data from two sites and computer simulations of unsaturated flow to understand water and solute movements in the SDI fields. Combined irrigation and precipitation exceed potential evapotranspiration by 300-480 mm annually. Initially, excess water contributes to increased storage in the unsaturated zone, and then drainage causes cyclical rises in the water table beneath the fields. Native chloride and nitrate below 200 cm depth are leached by the drainage. Some CBM water moves upward from the drip tubing, drawn by drier conditions above. Chloride from CBM water accumulates there as root uptake removes the water. Year over year accumulations indicated by computer simulations illustrate that infiltration of precipitation water from the surface only partially leaches such accumulations away. Field data show that 7% and 27% of added chloride has accumulated above the drip tubing in an alfalfa and grass field, respectively, following 6 years of irrigation. Maximum chloride concentrations in the alfalfa field are around 45 cm depth but reach the surface in parts of the grass field, illustrating differences driven by crop physiology. Deep SDI offers a means of utilizing marginal quality irrigation waters and managing the accumulation of their associated solutes in the crop rooting zone.

  5. Deep subsurface drip irrigation using coal-bed sodic water: part II. geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Breit, George N.; Healy, Richard W.; Zupancic, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Waters with low salinity and high sodium adsorption ratios (SARs) present a challenge to irrigation because they degrade soil structure and infiltration capacity. In the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, such low salinity (electrical conductivity, EC 2.1 mS cm-1) and high-SAR (54) waters are co-produced with coal-bed methane and some are used for subsurface drip irrigation(SDI). The SDI system studied mixes sulfuric acid with irrigation water and applies water year-round via drip tubing buried 92 cm deep. After six years of irrigation, SAR values between 0 and 30 cm depth (0.5-1.2) are only slightly increased over non-irrigated soils (0.1-0.5). Only 8-15% of added Na has accumulated above the drip tubing. Sodicity has increased in soil surrounding the drip tubing, and geochemical simulations show that two pathways can generate sodic conditions. In soil between 45-cm depth and the drip tubing, Na from the irrigation water accumulates as evapotranspiration concentrates solutes. SAR values >12, measured by 1:1 water-soil extracts, are caused by concentration of solutes by factors up to 13. Low-EC (-1) is caused by rain and snowmelt flushing the soil and displacing ions in soil solution. Soil below the drip tubing experiences lower solute concentration factors (1-1.65) due to excess irrigation water and also contains relatively abundant native gypsum (2.4 ± 1.7 wt.%). Geochemical simulations show gypsum dissolution decreases soil-water SAR to 14 and decreasing EC in soil water to 3.2 mS cm-1. Increased sodicity in the subsurface, rather than the surface, indicates that deep SDI can be a viable means of irrigating with sodic waters.

  6. Candidate for solar power: a novel desalination technology for coal bed methane produced water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, Allan; Hanley, Charles; Hightower, Michael; Wright, Emily; Wallace, Sam; Pohl, Phillip; Donahe, Ryan; Andelman, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory and field developments are underway to use solar energy to power a desalination technology - capacitive deionization - for water produced by remote Coal Bed Methane (CBM) natural gas wells. Due to the physical remoteness of many CBM wells throughout the Southwestern U>S> as shown in Figure 1, this approach may offer promise. This promise is not only from its effectiveness in removing salt from CBM water and allowing it to be utilized for various applications, but also for its potentially lower energy consumption compared Figure 1: Candidate remote well sites for planned field implementation of new PV-powered desalination process: (a) Raton Basin and (b) San Juan Basin, New Mexico to other technologies, such as reverse osmosis. This coupled with the remoteness (Figure 1) of thousands these wells, makes them more feasible for use with photovoltaic (solar, electric, PV) systems. Concurrent laboratory activities are providing information about the effectiveness of this technology and of the attender energy requirements of this technology under various produced water qualities and water reuse applications, such as salinity concentrations and water flows. These parameters are being used to drive the design of integrated PV-powered desalination systems. Full-scale field implementations are planned, with data collection and analysis designed to optimize the system design for practical remote applications. Earlier laboratory (and very recent laboratory) studies of capacitive deionization have shown promise at common CBM salinity levels. The technology may require less energy. be less susceptible to fouling and is more compact than equivalent reverse osmosis (RO) systems. The technology uses positively and negatively charged electrodes to attract charged ions in a liquid, such as dissolved salts, metals, and some organics, to the electrodes. This concentrates the ions at the electrodes and reduced the ion concentrations in the liquid. This paper discusses the

  7. The chronic toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Aïda M.; Harper, David D.

    2014-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is the principal salt in coal bed natural gas produced water from the Powder River Structural Basin, Wyoming, USA, and concentrations of up to 3000 mg NaHCO3/L have been documented at some locations. No adequate studies have been performed to assess the chronic effects of NaHCO3 exposure. The present study was initiated to investigate the chronic toxicity and define sublethal effects at the individual organism level to explain the mechanisms of NaHCO3 toxicity. Three chronic experiments were completed with fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), 1 with white suckers (Catostomus commersoni), 1 with Ceriodaphnia dubia, and 1 with a freshwater mussel, (Lampsilis siliquoidea). The data demonstrated that approximately 500 mg NaHCO3/L to 1000 mg NaHCO3/L affected all species of experimental aquatic animals in chronic exposure conditions. Freshwater mussels were the least sensitive to NaHCO3 exposure, with a 10-d inhibition concentration that affects 20% of the sample population (IC20) of 952 mg NaHCO3/L. The IC20 for C. dubia was the smallest, at 359 mg NaHCO3/L. A significant decrease in sodium–potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+ ATPase) together with the lack of growth effects suggests that Na+/K+ ATPase activity was shut down before the onset of death. Several histological anomalies, including increased incidence of necrotic cells, suggested that fish were adversely affected as a result of exposure to >450 mg NaHCO3/L.

  8. Thermal enhancement cartridge heater modified (TECH Mod) tritium hydride bed development, Part 1 - Design and fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J.E.; Estochen, E.G. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities have used first generation (Gen1) LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} (LANA0.75) metal hydride storage beds for tritium absorption, storage, and desorption. The Gen1 design utilizes hot and cold nitrogen supplies to thermally cycle these beds. Second and third generation (Gen2 and Gen3) storage bed designs include heat conducting foam and divider plates to spatially fix the hydride within the bed. For thermal cycling, the Gen2 and Gen3 beds utilize internal electric heaters and glovebox atmosphere flow over the bed inside the bed external jacket for cooling. The currently installed Gen1 beds require replacement due to tritium aging effects on the LANA0.75 material, and cannot be replaced with Gen2 or Gen3 beds due to different designs of these beds. At the end of service life, Gen1 bed desorption efficiencies are limited by the upper temperature of hot nitrogen supply. To increase end-of-life desorption efficiency, the Gen1 bed design was modified, and a Thermal Enhancement Cartridge Heater Modified (TECH Mod) bed was developed. Internal electric cartridge heaters in the new design to improve end-of-life desorption, and also permit in-bed tritium accountability (IBA) calibration measurements to be made without the use of process tritium. Additional enhancements implemented into the TECH Mod design are also discussed. (authors)

  9. In Developping a Bench-Scale Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor to Burn High Ash Brazilian Coal-Dolomites Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Behainne, Jhon Jairo; Hory, Rogério Ishikawa; Goldstein, Leonardo; Bernárdez Pécora, Araí Augusta

    This work considers some of the questions in burning high ash Brazilian coal-dolomite mixtures in a bench-scale circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC). Experimental tests were performed with the CE4500 coal from Santa Catarina State, in southern Brazil, with a Sauter mean diameter d p =43 μm. The coal particles were mixed with dolomite particles of d p = 111 μm and this fuel mixture was fed into the circulating fluidized reactor, previously loaded with quartz sand particles of d p =353 μm. This inert material was previously heated by the combustion of liquefied petroleum gas up to the ignition temperature of the fuel mixture. The CFBC unit has a 100mm internal diameter riser, 4.0m high, as well as a 62.8mm internal diameter downcomer. The loop has a cyclone, a sampling valve to collect particles and a 62.8mm internal diameter L-valve to recirculate the particles in the loop. A screw feeder with a rotation control system was used to feed the fuel mixture to the reactor. The operational conditions were monitored by pressure taps and thermocouples installed along the loop. A data acquisition system showed the main operational conditions to control. Experimental tests performed put in evidence the problems found during bed operation, with special attention to the solids feed device, to the L-valve operation, to particle size, solids inventory, fluidized gas velocity, fuel mixture and recirculated solids feeding positions.

  10. Forecast fire damp emission in thin, steep coal bed; Prevision de Desprendimiento de Grisu en Capas Estrechas e Inclindas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    A model to forecast fire damp emission in thin, steep coal bed, mining in advance and backfill works, has been developed and validated. The model estimates the amount of methane released towards the works, including fire damp proceeding from the actually mined seam, as well as methane coming from adjacent seams layers, depending on easy-to find parameters. Methane coming from the mined seam is determined as a function of the methane concentration in the seam and methane from adjacent seams is assessed by the degassification degree. This parameter depends also on the distance to the mined seam. The influence volume of a thin, steep mined coal bed has been determined, in order to study which seams and layers release methane towards the works. The works to develop the methane emission model were done in a coal face on Maria seam, in San Antonio mine, belonging to HUNOSA. The validation works were carried out in 24 left south seam, in the belonging to Minas de Figaredo, S. A. (Author)

  11. Phosphorite ash in coal of certain beds of the Orzeskich (Zaleskich) layers. [Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, J

    1982-01-01

    In ashes from coals of the Orzeskich (Zaleskich) layers, the variable content of P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ (0.4-1.15%) rises in an inverse proportion to the ash content of the coal. Chemical and mineral compositions of the ash in the coals of two levels of the mine ''Manifest Liptsovy'' are presented. The coal which yields phosphorite ash belongs to the type G. The phosphorus is mainly fruits and seeds of swamp plants. The smaller part of the phosphorus is formed by influx of terrigenous and volcanic material, as well as hydrothermal solutions.

  12. Investigation on catalytic gasification of high-ash coal with mixing-gas in a small-scale fluidised bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, X.; Zhang, J.; Lin, J. [Fuzhou University, Fuzhou (China)

    2005-10-15

    The experimental study on the Yangquan high-ash coal catalytic gasification with mixing gas by using solid alkali or waste liquid of viscose fiber as the catalyst in a small-scale fluidized bed with 28 mm i.d. was carried out. The loading saturation levels of two catalysts in Yangquan high-ash coal are about 6%. Under the gasification temperature ranging from 830 to 900{sup o}C and from 900 to 920{sup o}C, the apparent reaction order of Yangquan high-ash coal with respect to the unreacted carbon fraction approximates to 2.3 and 1/3 for the non-catalyst case, respectively. Also, the different values of apparent reaction order in the two temperature ranges are presented for the case with 3% solid alkali catalyst loaded. At the low temperature ranging from 830 to 860{sup o}C, the apparent reaction order of catalytic gasification is 1 since enough active carbon sites on the coal surface are formed during the catalytic gasification by solid alkali. But at the high temperature ranging from 860 to 920{sup o}C, the sodium carbonate produced by the reaction of solid alkali with carbon dioxide can be easily fused, transferred and re-distributed, which affects the gasification reaction rate, and the apparent reaction order of catalytic gasification is reduced to 1.3. 10 refs., 9 figs., 4 tab s.

  13. Avoidable and unavoidable exergy destructions of a fluidized bed coal combustor and a heat recovery steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callak, Meliha; Balkan, Firuz; Hepbasli, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Performing advanced exergy analysis of a fluidized-bed combustion for the first time. • Comparing conventional and modified exergy efficiencies of the subsystems. • Deducting inefficiencies of the system components for possible improvements. - Abstract: Advanced exergy analysis was performed using the actual operational data taken from a fluidized bed coal combustor (FBCC) and a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) in a textile plant located at Torbalı, Izmir. First, the conventional exergy analysis of the units was carried out. The exergetic efficiencies of the units were found to be 44.2% and 46.2%, respectively. Advanced exergy analysis was then performed by splitting the exergy destructions of the units into avoidable and unavoidable parts. The avoidable exergy destruction rates of the FBCC and the HRSG were determined to be 2999 kW and 760 kW according to the measurements. Correspondingly, the exergy efficiencies were modified to 53.1% and 48.1%, respectively

  14. The use of coal mining wastes in building road beds; Utilizacion de los Esteriles del Carbon como Materiales para Capas de Firmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This project was aimed at carrying out a study in order to determine the nature and characteristics of coal mining wastes for its possible use in building road beds and to establish the acceptance, implementation and quality control criteria, which can be included in the Spanish General Technical Standard of Road and Bridges Works (PG-3). With that aim, six types of coal mining wastes were selected out of an inventory and several tests were conducted and following the results, the most appropriate coal mining wastes, the acceptance limits and the quality control tests to be applied to the materials obtained from coal mining wastes to road beds were established. A grinding and classification plant was designed in order to obtain the necessary granular materials for conducting real scale compaction tests in road stages. Several types of coal mining wastes were tested: red, black, treated (in the above mentioned plant) untreated, with different bed thickness and runs in the compactors. Likewise, laboratory tests were carried out on black and red coal mining wastes by adding binder materials. The results proved that coal mining wastes can be used as granular material for building different road beds, such as bound with cement, gravel-emulsion or on their own. As a result of this study 53,000 tons of black coal mining wastes mixed with 6% of cement as binder were used for building a 5 km stage of the Highway Oviedo-Mieres, as well as 16,000 tons of red coal mining wastes in the Ujo-Caborana road, which is still being used in the works carried out a present. (Author)

  15. Fluidized bed combustion of refuse-derived fuel in presence of protective coal ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer, Eduardo [CIRCE, Universidad de Zaragoza, Maria de Luna, 3, Zaragoza (Spain); Aho, Martti [VTT Processes, P.O. Box 1603, 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Silvennoinen, Jaani; Nurminen, Riku-Ville [Kvaerner Power, P.O.Box 109, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2005-12-15

    Combustion of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) alone or together with other biomass leads to superheater fouling and corrosion in efficient power plants (with high steam values) due to vaporization and condensation of alkali chlorides. In this study, means were found to raise the portion of RDF to 40% enb without risk to boilers. This was done by co-firing RDF with coal and optimizing coal quality. Free aluminum silicate in coal captured alkalies from vaporized alkali chlorides preventing Cl condensation to superheaters. Strong fouling and corrosion were simultaneously averted. Results from 100 kW and 4 MW CFB reactors are reported. (author)

  16. Co-gasification of biomass and coal in a pressurised fluidised bed gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andries, L.; Hein, K.R.G. [Lab. for Thermal Power Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    The Laboratory for Thermal Power Engineering of the Delft University of Technology is participating in an EU funded, international, R + D project which is designed to aid European industry in addressing issues regarding co-utilisation of biomass and/or waste in advanced coal conversion processes. The project comprises three main programmes, each of which includes a number of smaller subprogrammes. The three main programmes are: Coal-biomass systems component development and design; Coal-biomass environmental studies; Techno-economic assessment studies. (orig)

  17. Co-gasification of biomass and coal in a pressurised fluidised bed gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andries, L; Hein, K R.G. [Lab. for Thermal Power Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Marine Technology, Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    The Laboratory for Thermal Power Engineering of the Delft University of Technology is participating in an EU funded, international, R + D project which is designed to aid European industry in addressing issues regarding co-utilisation of biomass and/or waste in advanced coal conversion processes. The project comprises three main programmes, each of which includes a number of smaller subprogrammes. The three main programmes are: Coal-biomass systems component development and design; Coal-biomass environmental studies; Techno-economic assessment studies. (orig)

  18. Fluidised bed combustion: a new route to power and heat from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, H D [Bergbau-Forschung G.m.b.H., Essen (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-02-01

    The functioning of fluidized-bed firings and their advantages with regard to SO/sub 2/ emissions are described. The principle of design of a fluidized-bed boiler and a gas/steam turbine power plant with fluidized-bed firing under pressure is outlined. The application and their economics in heat and power generation and marketing potential of fluidized-bed firings and their economics in heat and power generation is pointed out. The construction of waste-fired incinerators has already become possible, but there is still a lot of development work to be done until fluidized-bed firings can be used in central heatings, combined-cycle power plants, and large power plants.

  19. CO-FIRING COAL, FEEDLOT, AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND LFB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thien; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan

    2002-01-01

    result as the levels of N are higher in the biomass fuel than in coal. Further experiments showed that biomass is twice or more effective than coal when used in a reburning process to reduce NO(sub x) emissions. Since crushing costs of biomass fuels may be prohibitive, stoker firing may be cost effective; in order simulate such a firing, future work will investigate the performance of a gasifier when fired with larger sized coal and biomass. It will be a fixed bed gasifier, and will evaluate blends, coal, and biomass. Computer simulations were performed using the PCGC-2 code supplied by BYU and modified by A and M with three mixture fractions for handling animal based biomass fuels in order to include an improved moisture model for handling wet fuels and phosphorus oxidation. Finally the results of the economic analysis show that considerable savings can be achieved with the use of biomass. In the case of higher ash and moisture biomass, the fuel cost savings will be reduced, due to increased transportation costs. A spreadsheet program was created to analyze the fuel savings for a variety of different moisture levels, ash levels, and power plant operating parameters

  20. CO-FIRING COAL, FEEDLOT, AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND LFB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thien; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan

    2002-01-15

    result as the levels of N are higher in the biomass fuel than in coal. Further experiments showed that biomass is twice or more effective than coal when used in a reburning process to reduce NO{sub x} emissions. Since crushing costs of biomass fuels may be prohibitive, stoker firing may be cost effective; in order simulate such a firing, future work will investigate the performance of a gasifier when fired with larger sized coal and biomass. It will be a fixed bed gasifier, and will evaluate blends, coal, and biomass. Computer simulations were performed using the PCGC-2 code supplied by BYU and modified by A&M with three mixture fractions for handling animal based biomass fuels in order to include an improved moisture model for handling wet fuels and phosphorus oxidation. Finally the results of the economic analysis show that considerable savings can be achieved with the use of biomass. In the case of higher ash and moisture biomass, the fuel cost savings will be reduced, due to increased transportation costs. A spreadsheet program was created to analyze the fuel savings for a variety of different moisture levels, ash levels, and power plant operating parameters.

  1. Quantification of chlorine and alkali emissions from fluid bed combustion of coal by equilibrium calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, Edward [IMAF Group, 184 Marlborough Avenue, Ottawa, ON (Canada) K1N 8G4; Zheng, Ligang [Natural Resources Canada, CANMET Energy Technology Centre, 1 Haanel Drive, Nepean, ON (Canada) K1A 1M1

    2003-04-15

    A computer model based on the Gibbs energy minimization principle was used to identify and quantify chlorine (Cl)- and alkali-containing species formed in the temperature range from 1100 to 1200 K, air/coal ratio of 1.0 and 1.1 and Ca/S ratio varying from 0 to 2.5 using low and high Cl content coals. HCl, KCl and NaCl were the major Cl-containing volatile compounds. The amount of HCl in the vapor phase decreased and that of KCl and NaCl increased with increasing Ca/S ratio from 0 to 2.5, whereas the increase in the air/coal ratio from 1.0 to 1.1 had the opposite effect. KCl and NaCl were the major, and KOH, NaOH, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} the minor alkali-containing species in the vapor phase of all the cases analyzed. The amount of all alkali metal-containing compounds increased with increasing Ca/S ratio and decreased with increasing air/coal ratio from 1.0 to 1.1. For the low Cl coal, the relative contribution of KOH and NaOH to the overall alkali emissions was greater than that for the high Cl coal.

  2. Fluidized Bed Gasification of Coal-Oil and Coal-Water-Oil Slurries by Oxygen –Steam and Oxygen-CO2 Mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Karel; Pohořelý, Michael; Jeremiáš, Michal; Kameníková, Petra; Hartman, Miloslav; Skoblia, S.; Šyc, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 1 (2012), s. 16-26 ISSN 0378-3820 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08048; GA MŠk 7C08034 Grant - others:RFCR(XE) CT-2010-00009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : fluidized bed * gasification * coal slurries Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use Impact factor: 2.816, year: 2012 http://www.scopus.com/record/display.url?eid=2-s2.0-82455175439&origin=resultslist&sort=plf-f&src=s&st1=svoboda%2ck&sid=ikNGw6d45E-yyuMoDwlGiWn%3a420&sot=b&sdt=b&sl=22&s=AUTHOR-NAME%28svoboda%2ck%29&relpos=1&relpos=1&searchTerm=AUTHOR-NAME(svoboda,k)

  3. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F.

    2001-12-01

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  4. Enhanced E-bed bottoms upgrading using latest catalytic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toshima, H.; Mayo, S.; Sedlacek, Z.; Hughes, T.; De Wind, M. [Albermarle Corp., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    The profitability of refineries depends on heavy oil upgrading in terms of price, conversion, yields and quality of the product. The Ebullated-bed process represents a solution for the effective primary upgrading of heavy oils. Since the 1970s, Albemarle has commercialized several E-bed catalysts to upgrade the bottoms in low sediment and high hydrogenation operations. Although an E-bed is used to maximize the conversion of vacuum residuum (VR), it is often limited by fouling caused by sediment in the product. In order to reduce sedimentation in the product, Albemarle developed an improved E-bed catalytic technology by characterizing the asphaltenes and sediments in order to better understand the oil chemistry and compatibility. The most recent development involves the patented catalyst-staging technology and the improved single catalyst application. Both achieve very low sediment or higher hydrodesulphurization (HDS) and Conradson carbon (CCR) removal for improved bottom upgrading. tabs., figs.

  5. Waste Water Treatment-Bed of Coal Fly Ash for Dyes and Pigments Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Farman Ali Shah; Aziza Aftab; Noorullah Soomro; Mir Shah Nawaz; Kambiz Vafai

    2015-01-01

    The highly porous power plant waste ashes have been utilized to treat toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. An attempt has been made for the first time in Pakistan, to generate an effective and economically sound treatment facility for the toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. This is an indigenous bed which could replace expensive treatment facilities, such as reverse osmosis (RO), granulated activated carbon (GAC) bed, etc. The treatment efficiency was improved by coupling c...

  6. Sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming in fluidized bed reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, Kim

    2006-10-15

    Hydrogen is considered to be an important potential energy carrier; however, its advantages are unlikely to be realized unless efficient means can be found to produce it without generation of CO{sub 2}. Sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming (SE-SMR) represent a novel, energy-efficient hydrogen production route with in situ CO{sub 2} capture, shifting the reforming and water gas shift reactions beyond their conventional thermodynamic limits. The use of fluidized bed reactors for SE-SMR has been investigated. Arctic dolomite, a calcium-based natural sorbent, was chosen as the primary CO{sub 2}-acceptor in this study due to high absorption capacity, relatively high reaction rate and low cost. An experimental investigation was conducted in a bubbling fluidized bed reactor of diameter 0.1 m, which was operated cyclically and batch wise, alternating between reforming/carbonation conditions and higher-temperature calcination conditions. Hydrogen concentrations of >98 mole% on a dry basis were reached at 600 C and 1 atm, for superficial gas velocities in the range of {approx}0.03-0.1 m/s. Multiple reforming-regeneration cycles showed that the hydrogen concentration remained at {approx}98 mole% after four cycles. The total production time was reduced with an increasing number of cycles due to loss of CO{sub 2}-uptake capacity of the dolomite, but the reaction rates of steam reforming and carbonation seemed to be unaffected for the conditions investigated. A modified shrinking core model was applied for deriving carbonation kinetics of Arctic dolomite, using experimental data from a novel thermo gravimetric reactor. An apparent activation energy of 32.6 kj/mole was found from parameter fitting, which is in good agreement with previous reported results. The derived rate expression was able to predict experimental conversion up to {approx}30% very well, whereas the prediction of higher conversion levels was poorer. However, the residence time of sorbent in a continuous

  7. Toxicity of Sodium Bicarbonate to Fish from Coal-Bed Natural Gas Production in the Tongue and Powder River Drainages, Montana and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates the sensitivity of aquatic life to sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), a major constituent of coal-bed natural gas-produced water. Excessive amounts of sodium bicarbonate in the wastewater from coal-bed methane natural gas production released to freshwater streams and rivers may adversely affect the ability of fish to regulate their ion uptake. The collaborative study focuses on the acute and chronic toxicity of sodium bicarbonate on select fish species in the Tongue and Powder River drainages in southeastern Montana and northeastern Wyoming. Sodium bicarbonate is not naturally present in appreciable concentrations within the surface waters of the Tongue and Powder River drainages; however, the coal-bed natural gas wastewater can reach levels over 1,000 milligrams per liter. Large concentrations have been shown to be acutely toxic to native fish (Mount and others, 1997). In 2003, with funding and guidance provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Montana Fish, Wildlife, and Parks and the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a collaborative study on the potential effects of coal-bed natural gas wastewater on aquatic life. A major goal of the study is to provide information to the State of Montana Water Quality Program needed to develop an aquatic life standard for sodium bicarbonate. The standard would allow the State, if necessary, to establish targets for sodium bicarbonate load reductions.

  8. The emissions of VOCs during co-combustion of coal with different waste materials in a fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. Gulyurtlu; P. Abelha; A. Gregorio; A. Garcia-Garcia; D. Boavida; A. Crujeira; I. Cabrita [DEECA-INETI, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2004-06-01

    The combustion of different fuels gives rise to the formation of small but appreciable amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). They basically result from incomplete combustion and their emissions have negative repercussions on health and on the environment in general. As their measurement is difficult, costly, and very time-consuming, very little is reported on the emissions of VOCs from combustion installations. In this study, various blends of two different coals with several wastes were burned in a pilot-scale fluidized bed combustor and measurements of VOCs at several locations along the combustor height as well as just before the stack were carried out. The results demonstrate that the parameters important for the formation of VOCs are temperature, excess air levels, and the effectiveness of the mixing of air with fuel. Furthermore, it was observed that coal was the principal source of VOCs, but the combustion of volatiles from fuels such as biomass, occurring in the freeboard, was important in reducing the emissions of VOCs to almost zero. 8 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Study on multi-stage hydropyrolysis of coal in fixed-bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, N.; Li, W.; Li, B.-Q. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Lab of Coal Conversion

    1999-07-01

    The composition and quantity of the oil in hydropyrolysis (HyPy) and multi-stage HyPy with high and slow heating rate were compared and the effect of multistage HyPy process on desulfurization was investigated. Multistage HyPy of lignite and high sulphur coal were investigated and the effects of residence time, heating rate and pressure on product yields were studied. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Co-firing of oil sludge with coal-water slurry in an industrial internal circulating fluidized bed boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianguo; Jiang, Xiumin; Zhou, Lingsheng; Wang, Hui; Han, Xiangxin

    2009-08-15

    Incineration has been proven to be an alternative for disposal of sludge with its unique characteristics to minimize the volume and recover energy. In this paper, a new fluidized bed (FB) incineration system for treating oil sludge is presented. Co-firing of oil sludge with coal-water slurry (CWS) was investigated in the new incineration system to study combustion characteristics, gaseous pollutant emissions and ash management. The study results show the co-firing of oil sludge with CWS in FB has good operating characteristic. CWS as an auxiliary fuel can flexibly control the dense bed temperatures by adjusting its feeding rate. All emissions met the local environmental requirements. The CO emission was less than 1 ppm or essentially zero; the emissions of SO(2) and NO(x) were 120-220 and 120-160 mg/Nm(3), respectively. The heavy metal analyses of the bottom ash and the fly ash by ICP/AES show that the combustion ashes could be recycled as soil for farming.

  11. Enhanced Productivity of Chemical Processes Using Dense Fluidized Beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibashis Banerjee; Alvin Chen; Rutton Patel; Dale Snider; Ken Williams; Timothy O' Hern; Paul Tortora

    2008-02-29

    The work detailed in this report addresses Enabling Technologies within Computational Technology by integrating a “breakthrough” particle-fluid computational technology into traditional Process Science and Engineering Technology. The work completed under this DOE project addresses five major development areas 1) gas chemistry in dense fluidized beds 2) thermal cracking of liquid film on solids producing gas products 3) liquid injection in a fluidized bed with particle-to-particle liquid film transport 4) solid-gas chemistry and 5) first level validation of models. Because of the nature of the research using tightly coupled solids and fluid phases with a Lagrangian description of the solids and continuum description of fluid, the work provides ground-breaking advances in reactor prediction capability. This capability has been tested against experimental data where available. The commercial product arising out of this work is called Barracuda and is suitable for a wide (dense-to-dilute) range of industrial scale gas-solid flows with and without reactions. Commercial applications include dense gas-solid beds, gasifiers, riser reactors and cyclones.

  12. Use of black oil simulator for coal bed methane reservoir model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwa, R.; Enachescu, C.; Rohs, S. [Golder Associates GmbH, Celle (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    This paper starts from the work done by Seidle et al. (1990) and other authors on the topic of coal degasification and develops a more accurate representative naturally fractured CBM-reservoir by using a Discrete Fracture Network modeling approach. For this issue we firstly calibrate the reservoir simulator tNAVIGATOR by showing his ability to reproduce the work done by Seidle et al. and secondly generate a DFN model using FracMan in accordance with the distribution and orientation of the cleats. tNavigator was then used to simulate multiphase flow through the DFN- Model. (orig.)

  13. Enhanced stability of steep channel beds to mass failure and debris flow initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prancevic, J.; Lamb, M. P.; Ayoub, F.; Venditti, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    Debris flows dominate bedrock erosion and sediment transport in very steep mountain channels, and are often initiated from failure of channel-bed alluvium during storms. While several theoretical models exist to predict mass failures, few have been tested because observations of in-channel bed failures are extremely limited. To fill this gap in our understanding, we performed laboratory flume experiments to identify the conditions necessary to initiate bed failures in non-cohesive sediment of different sizes (D = 0.7 mm to 15 mm) on steep channel-bed slopes (S = 0.45 to 0.93) and in the presence of water flow. In beds composed of sand, failures occurred under sub-saturated conditions on steep bed slopes (S > 0.5) and under super-saturated conditions at lower slopes. In beds of gravel, however, failures occurred only under super-saturated conditions at all tested slopes, even those approaching the dry angle of repose. Consistent with theoretical models, mass failures under super-saturated conditions initiated along a failure plane approximately one grain-diameter below the bed surface, whereas the failure plane was located near the base of the bed under sub-saturated conditions. However, all experimental beds were more stable than predicted by 1-D infinite-slope stability models. In partially saturated sand, enhanced stability appears to result from suction stress. Enhanced stability in gravel may result from turbulent energy losses in pores or increased granular friction for failures that are shallow with respect to grain size. These grain-size dependent effects are not currently included in stability models for non-cohesive sediment, and they may help to explain better the timing and location of debris flow occurrence.

  14. Particulate and PCDD/F emissions from coal co-firing with solid biofuels in a bubbling fluidised bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Lopes; I. Gulyurtlu; P. Abelha; T. Crujeira; D. Salema; M. Freire; R. Pereira; I. Cabrita [INETI, Lisbon (Portugal). DEECA

    2009-12-15

    In the scope of the COPOWER project SES6-CT-2004 to investigate potential synergies of co-combustion of different biofuels with coal, a study of emissions of particulate matter and PCDD/F was carried out. The biofuels tested were meat and bone meal (MBM), sewage sludge biopellets (BP), straw pellets (SP), olive bagasse (OB) and wood pellets (WP). The tests performed include co-firing of 5%, 15% and 25% by weight of biofuels with coals of different origin. Both monocombustion and co-firing were carried out. Combustion tests were performed on a pilot fluidised bed, equipped with cyclones and air staging was used in order to achieve almost complete combustion of fuels with high volatile contents and to control gaseous emissions. Particulate matter emissions were isokinetically sampled in the stack and their particle size analysis was performed with a cascade impactor (Mark III). The results showed that most particles emitted were below 10 {mu}m (PM10) for all the tests, however, with the increasing share of biofuels and also during combustion of pure biofuels, especially olive bagasse, straw and MBM, very fine particles, below about 1 {mu}m were present. With the exception of sewage sludge, greater amounts of biofuels appeared to give rise to the decrease in particulate mean diameters and increase in PM percentages below 1 {mu}m. The formation of very fine particles could be related with the presence of aerosol forming elements such as K, Na (in the case of MBM) and Cl in biofuels, which even resulted in higher PM emissions when the ash content of fuels decreased. A correlation wasverified between the increase of PCDD/F with the decrease of PM mean diameter. This may be due to higher specific surface area and greater Cu concentration in the fly ashes. 33 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Green Algae from Coal Bed Methane Ponds as a Source of Fertilizer for Economically Important Plants of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsakin, O. R.; Apple, M. E.; Zhou, X.; Peyton, B.

    2016-12-01

    The Tongue River Basin of northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana is the location of natural gas reserves and coal bed methane (CBM) acreage. Although the water that emanates from CBM extraction varies with site, it is generally of higher quality than the waters produced by conventional oil and gas wells, in part because it is low in volatile organic compounds. However, since CBM water contains dissolved solids, including sodium (Na), bicarbonate (HCO3) and chloride (Cl) ions, the water must be treated before it can be discharged into the river or wetlands, or used for stock ponds or irrigation. Several ponds have been constructed to serve as a holding facility for CBM water. Algae from the CBM ponds of the Tongue River Basin have the potential to be utilized as fertilizer on economically important plants of Montana. Two very important crop plants of Montana are wheat, Triticum aestivum, and potatoes, Solanum tuberosum. To explore this potential, isolates of unicellular green algae (Chlorella sp.) from the CBM ponds were cultured in aerated vessels with Bold's Basic Growth Medium and natural and/or supplemental light. Algal biomass was condensed in and collected from a valved funnel, after which cell density was determined via light microscopy and a hemacytometer. Algal/water slurries with known nutrient contents were added to seedlings of hard winter wheat, T.aestivum, grown in a greenhouse for three months before harves. When compared to wheat provided with just water, or with water and a commercially available fertilizer, the wheat fertilized with algae had a higher chlorophyll content, more tillers (side shoots), and a higher ratio of influorescences (groups of flowers) per stem. In a related experiment, Ranger Russet seed potatoes, S. tuberosum were given just water, water and Hoagland's nutrient solution, or water with algae in order to compare aboveground growth and potato production among the treatments. The results of this study suggest that

  16. Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The findings in the first phase were as follows: 1. Both reductive (non-selective) alkylation and selective oxygen alkylation brought about an increase in liquefaction reactivity for both coals. 2. Selective oxygen alkylation is more effective in enhancing the reactivity of low rank coals. In the second phase of studies, the major findings were as follows: 1. Liquefaction reactivity increases with increasing level of alkylation for both hydroliquefaction and co-processing reaction conditions. 2. the increase in reactivity found for O-alkylated Wyodak subbituminous coal is caused by chemical changes at phenolic and carboxylic functional sites. 3. O-methylation of Wyodak subbituminous coal reduced the apparent activation energy for liquefaction of this coal.

  17. Formation of N2 in the fixed-bed pyrolysis of low rank coals and the mechanisms; Koteisho netsubunkai ni okeru teitankatan kara no N2 no sisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Z.; Otsuka, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    In order to establish coal NOx preventive measures, discussions were given on formation of N2 in the fixed-bed pyrolysis of low rank coals and the mechanisms thereof. Chinese ZN coal and German RB coal were used for the discussions. Both coals do not produce N2 at 600{degree}C, and the main product is volatile nitrogen. Conversion into N2 does not depend on heating rates, but increases linearly with increasing temperature, and reaches 65% to 70% at 1200{degree}C. In contrast, char nitrogen decreases linearly with the temperature. More specifically, these phenomena suggest that the char nitrogen or its precursor is the major supply source of N2. When mineral substances are removed by using hydrochloric acid, their catalytic action is lost, and conversion into N2 decreases remarkably. Iron existing in ion-exchanged condition in low-rank coal is reduced and finely diffused into metallic iron particles. The particles react with heterocyclic nitrogen compounds and turn into iron nitride. A solid phase reaction mechanism may be conceived, in which N2 is produced due to decomposition of the iron nitride. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. A comparison of circulating fluidised bed combustion and gasification power plant technologies for processing mixtures of coal, biomass and plastic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIlveen-Wright, D.R.; Huang, Y.; McMullan, J.T.; Pinto, F.; Franco, C.; Gulyurtlu, I.; Armesto, L.; Cabanillas, A.; Caballero, M.A.; Aznar, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental regulations concerning emission limitations from the use of fossil fuels in large combustion plants have stimulated interest in biomass for electricity generation. The main objective of the present study was to examine the technical and economic viability of using combustion and gasification of coal mixed with biomass and plastic wastes, with the aim of developing an environmentally acceptable process to decrease their amounts in the waste stream through energy recovery. Mixtures of a high ash coal with biomass and/or plastic using fluidised bed technologies (combustion and gasification) were considered. Experiments were carried out in laboratory and pilot plant fluidised bed systems on the combustion and air/catalyst and air/steam gasification of these feedstocks and the data obtained were used in the techno-economic analyses. The experimental results were used in simulations of medium to large-scale circulating fluidised bed (CFB) power generation plants. Techno-economic analysis of the modelled CFB combustion systems showed efficiencies of around 40.5% (and around 46.5% for the modelled CFB gasification systems) when fuelled solely by coal, which were only minimally affected by co-firing with up to 20% biomass and/or wastes. Specific investments were found to be around $2150/kWe to $2400/kWe ($1350/kWe to $1450/kWe) and break-even electricity selling prices to be around $68/MWh to $78/MWh ($49/MWh to $54/MWh). Their emissions were found to be within the emission limit values of the large combustion plant directive. Fluidised bed technologies were found to be very suitable for co-firing coal and biomass and/or plastic waste and to offer good options for the replacement of obsolete or polluting power plants. (author)

  19. Coal gasification by indirect heating in a single moving bed reactor: Process development & simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Akhlas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the development and simulation of a new coal gasification process with indirect heat supply is performed. In this way, the need of pure oxygen production as in a conventional gasification process is avoided. The feasibility and energetic self-sufficiency of the proposed processes are addressed. To avoid the need of Air Separation Unit, the heat required by gasification reactions is supplied by the combustion flue gases, and transferred to the reacting mixture through a bayonet heat exchanger installed inside the gasifier. Two alternatives for the flue gas generation have been investigated and compared. The proposed processes are modeled using chemical kinetics validated on experimental gasification data by means of a standard process simulator (Aspen PlusTM, integrated with a spreadsheet for the modeling of a special type of heat exchanger. Simulation results are presented and discussed for proposed integrated process schemes. It is shown that they do not need external energy supply and ensure overall efficiencies comparable to conventional processes while producing syngas with lower content of carbon dioxide.

  20. Nitrogen evolution during the co-combustion of hydrothermally treated municipal solid waste and coal in a bubbling fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liang; Jin, Yuqi; Liu, Hongmei; Ma, Xiaojun; Yoshikawa, Kunio

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen evolution was studied during the co-combustion of hydrothermally treated municipal solid wastes (HT MSW) and coal in a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB). HT MSW blending ratios as 10%, 20% and 30% (wt.%) were selected and tested at 700, 800, 900 °C. Emissions of NO and N2O from blends were measured and compared with the results of mono-combustion trials. Moreover, concentrations of precursors like NH3 and HCN were also quantified. The results are summarized as follows: NO emissions were predominant in all the cases, which rose with increasing temperature. The blending of HT MSW contributed to the NO reduction. N2O emissions decreased with temperature rising and the blending of HT MSW also presented positive effects. At 30% HT MSW addition, both NO and N2O emissions showed the lowest values (391.85 ppm and 55.33 ppm, respectively at 900 °C). For the precursors, more HCN was detected than NH3 and both played important roles on the gas side nitrogen evolution. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. The relative contribution of methanotrophs to microbial communities and carbon cycling in soil overlying a coal-bed methane seep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Christopher T.; Slater, Gregory F.; Dias, Robert F.; Carr, Stephanie A.; Reddy, Christopher M.; Schmidt, Raleigh; Mandernack, Kevin W.

    2013-01-01

    Seepage of coal-bed methane (CBM) through soils is a potential source of atmospheric CH4 and also a likely source of ancient (i.e. 14C-dead) carbon to soil microbial communities. Natural abundance 13C and 14C compositions of bacterial membrane phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and soil gas CO2 and CH4 were used to assess the incorporation of CBM-derived carbon into methanotrophs and other members of the soil microbial community. Concentrations of type I and type II methanotroph PLFA biomarkers (16:1ω8c and 18:1ω8c, respectively) were elevated in CBM-impacted soils compared with a control site. Comparison of PLFA and 16s rDNA data suggested type I and II methanotroph populations were well estimated and overestimated by their PLFA biomarkers, respectively. The δ13C values of PLFAs common in type I and II methanotrophs were as negative as −67‰ and consistent with the assimilation of CBM. PLFAs more indicative of nonmethanotrophic bacteria had δ13C values that were intermediate indicating assimilation of both plant- and CBM-derived carbon. Δ14C values of select PLFAs (−351 to −936‰) indicated similar patterns of CBM assimilation by methanotrophs and nonmethanotrophs and were used to estimate that 35–91% of carbon assimilated by nonmethanotrophs was derived from CBM depending on time of sampling and soil depth.

  2. Thermodynamic Analysis on of Skid-Mounted Coal-bed Methane Liquefaction Device using Cryogenic Turbo-Expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuangtao; Niu, Lu; Zeng, Qiang; Li, Xiaojiang; Lou, Fang; Chen, Liang; Hou, Yu

    2017-12-01

    Coal-bed methane (CBM) reserves are rich in Sinkiang of China, and liquefaction is a critical step for the CBM exploration and utilization. Different from other CBM gas fields in China, CBM distribution in Sinkiang is widespread but scattered, and the pressure, flow-rate and nitrogen content of CBM feed vary significantly. The skid-mounted liquefaction device is suggested as an efficient and economical way to recover methane. Turbo-expander is one of the most important parts which generates the cooling capacity for the cryogenic liquefaction system. Using turbo-expander, more cooling capacity and higher liquefied fraction can be achieved. In this study, skid-mounted CBM liquefaction processes based on Claude cycle are established. Cryogenic turbo-expander with high expansion ratio is employed to improve the efficiency of CBM liquefaction process. The unit power consumption per liquefaction mole flow-rate for CBM feed gas is used as the object function for process optimization, compressor discharge pressure, flow ratio of feed gas to turbo-expander and nitrogen friction are analyzed, and optimum operation range of the liquefaction processes are obtained.

  3. Survey of radionuclide emissions from coal-fired power plants and examination of impacts from a proposed circulating fluidized bed boiler power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, C.P.; Militana, L.M.; Harvey, K.A.; Kinsey, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a literature survey that examined radionuclide emissions from coal-fired power plants. Literature references from both the US and foreign countries are presented. Emphasis is placed on references from the US because the radionuclide emissions from coal-fired power plants are related to radionuclide concentrations in the coal, which vary widely throughout the world. The radionuclides were identified and quantified for various existing power plants reported in the literature. Applicable radionuclide emissions criteria discovered in the literature search were then applied to a proposed circulating fluidized bed boiler power plant. Based upon the derived radionuclide emission rates applied to the proposed power plant, an air quality modeling analysis was performed. The estimated ambient concentrations were compared to the most relevant existing regulatory ambient levels for radionuclides

  4. Utilization of coal ash from fluidized-bed combustion boilers as road base material; Sekitandaki ryudoso boiler kara no sekitanbai no robanzai to shite no riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Y. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Kozasa, K. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Tsuzura, K. [Naruto Salt Mfg. Co. Ltd., Tokushima (Japan); Izumi, H. [Nippon Hodo Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Coal ash from the fluidized bed boiler is evaluated for its properties as is, as solidified or granulated, and as the roadbed material. The coal ash tested in the experiment is a mixture of ash from the fluidized bed boiler bottom, ash from the cyclone separator, and ash from the bag filter. In the manufacture of solid or granulated bodies, coal ashes are kneaded in water whose amount puts the mixture near the plasticization limit, are pressed in a low-pressure press and made into solid bodies by a 15-hour curing in 60degC saturated steam, and the solid bodies are crushed into solid granules. A content release test is conducted about the release of dangerous substances, and road paving experiments are conducted to learn the workability and serviceability of the granulated material as a road paving material. A study of the experimental results discloses what is mentioned below. Coal ash containing 10-20vol% of CaO and 15vol% or less of unburnt carbon turns into a high-strength solid after curing in saturated steam whose temperature is not higher than 60degC. The granulated solid satisfies the standards that an upper subbase material is expected to satisfy. It also meets the environmental standards in a release content test for soil set forth by Environment Agency notification No.46. 8 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Evaluation criteria for enhanced solar–coal hybrid power plant performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yawen; Hong, Hui; Jin, Hongguang

    2014-01-01

    Attention has been directed toward hybridizing solar energy with fossil power plants since the 1990s to improve reliability and efficiency. Appropriate evaluation criteria were important in the design and optimization of solar–fossil hybrid systems. Two new criteria to evaluate the improved thermodynamic performances in a solar hybrid power plant were developed in this study. Correlations determined the main factors influencing the improved thermodynamic performances. The proposed criteria can be used to effectively integrate solar–coal hybridization systems. Typical 100 MW–1000 MW coal-fired power plants hybridized with solar heat at approximately 300 °C, which was used to preheat the feed water before entering the boiler, were evaluated using the criteria. The integration principle of solar–coal hybrid systems was also determined. The proposed evaluation criteria may be simple and reasonable for solar–coal hybrid systems with multi-energy input, thus directing system performance enhancement. - Highlights: • New criteria to evaluate the solar hybrid power plant were developed. • Typical solar–coal hybrid power plants were evaluated using the criteria. • The integration principle of solar–coal hybrid systems was determined. • The benefits of the solar–coal hybrid system are enhanced at lower solar radiation

  6. Leaching behavior of harmful components from cement solidities of fluidized-bed coal ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, T.; Fukuoka, H.; Shigemoto, N. [Fuji Clean Co., Kagawa (Japan)

    2008-07-15

    Solidifies of fluidized-bed fly ash with slag cement were prepared by hydrothermal treatment after adding gypsum, Na3PO{sub 4}, or Al2(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}. XRD analysis of the solidifies was performed and leaching behavior of Pb and F from the solidities was investigated. The fly ash-cement and fly ash-cement-gypsum solidifies showed rather high leaching concentration of F and Pb. The F leaching was explained by solubility products of a Ca(OH){sub 2} CaF2 system. The Pb leaching concentrations roughly agreed with the theoretical curve for hydroxo complexes of Pb, showing a strong dependence on pH. Addition of Na3PO{sub 4} and Al2(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, to cement solidities gave katoite and aluminium phosphate, and ettringite, respectively, and these solidities showed lower leaching concentrations of F and Pb than the fly ash-cement and fly ash-cement-gypsum solidifies. Capture of F and Pb in crystalline components such as ettringite probably accounts for such leaching suppression.

  7. Radioactivity levels in Indian coal and some technologically enhanced exposure to natural radiation environment of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, T.V.; Mishra, U.C.

    1988-01-01

    The summary of results of gamma-spectrometric measurements of natural radioactivity levels in coal from mines, coal, fly-ash, slag and soil samples from thermal power plants in India are presented. These constitute the sources of technologic ally enhanced exposures to natural radiation. Brief description of sampling and measurement procedure is given. Radiation dose to the population from coal fired power plants for electricity generation have been calculated using the model developed by UNSCEAR and ORNL reports with correction for local population density. (author). 13 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs

  8. Thermal enhancement cartridge heater modified tritium hydride bed development, Part 2 - Experimental validation of key conceptual design features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heroux, K.J.; Morgan, G.A. [Savannah River Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The Thermal Enhancement Cartridge Heater Modified (TECH Mod) tritium hydride bed is an interim replacement for the first generation (Gen1) process hydride beds currently in service in the Savannah River Site (SRS) Tritium Facilities. 3 new features are implemented in the TECH Mod hydride bed prototype: internal electric cartridge heaters, porous divider plates, and copper foam discs. These modifications will enhance bed performance and reduce costs by improving bed activation and installation processes, in-bed accountability measurements, end-of-life bed removal, and He-3 recovery. A full-scale hydride bed test station was constructed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in order to evaluate the performance of the prototype TECH Mod hydride bed. Controlled hydrogen (H{sub 2}) absorption/ desorption experiments were conducted to validate that the conceptual design changes have no adverse effects on the gas transfer kinetics or H{sub 2} storage/release properties compared to those of the Gen1 bed. Inert gas expansions before, during, and after H{sub 2} flow tests were used to monitor changes in gas transfer rates with repeated hydriding/de-hydriding of the hydride material. The gas flow rates significantly decreased after initial hydriding of the material; however, minimal changes were observed after repeated cycling. The data presented herein confirm that the TECH Mod hydride bed would be a suitable replacement for the Gen1 bed with the added enhancements expected from the advanced design features. (authors)

  9. Coal at the crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaroni, A.W.; Davis, A.; Schobert, H.; Gordon, R.L.; Ramani, R.V.; Frantz, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Worldwide coal reserves are very large but coal suffers from an image of being an environmentally unfriendly and inconvenient fuel. Aspects discussed in the article include: coal's poor image; techniques for coal analysis, in particular instrumented techniques; developments in clean coal technology e.g. coal liquefaction, fluidized bed combustion, co-generation and fuel slurries; the environmental impact of mining and land reclamation; and health aspects. It is considered that coal's future depends on overcoming its poor image. 6 photos

  10. The emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O during the combustion of coal blends in a fluidized bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abelha, P.; Boavida, D.; Gulyurtlu, I.; Cabrita, I.

    1999-07-01

    Combustion studies of five coals of different origins around the world (Colombia, Spain, South Africa and the US), were carried out in a laboratory scale fluidized bed combustor. Five blends prepared by mixing two coals, in three varying amounts, based on their petrological characterization, were selected to study the possibility of reduction NO{sub x}, N{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2} emissions. Temperature, fuel ratio and N/C ratio were found to be the most important parameters affecting NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O emissions among the single coals, while fuel-S content was the major factor in SO{sub 2} emissions. The results showed that some blends had the opposite behavior concerning the release of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} in relation to parent coals, and the emissions were higher than expected. The N{sub 2}O amounts observed were however, in almost all blends tested, lower than predicted values. With some blends, the mixing levels intended to reduce SO{sub 2} were not always found to correspond to those for simultaneous decrease of NO{sub x}, raising difficulties in the optimization of both emission levels. Most of the blends studied showed some evidence of interaction between the individual constituent coals. Varying the proportion of the blend components was observed to alter the temperatures at which interactions were stronger.

  11. Preliminary assessment of the health and environmental impacts of fluidized-bed combustion of coal as applied to electrical utility systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the health and environmental impacts of fluidized-bed combustion of coal (FBC), specifically as applied to base-load generation of electrical energy by utilities. The public health impacts of Fluidized-Bed Combustion (FBC) plants are expected to be quite similar to those for Low Sulfur Coal (LSC) and Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) plants because all appear to be able to meet Federal emission standards; however, there are emissions not covered by standards. Hydrocarbon emissions are higher and trace element emissions are lower for FBC than for conventional technologies. For FBC, based on an analytical model and a single emission data point, the polycyclic organic material decreases the anticipated lifespan of the highly exposed public very slightly. Added health protection due to lower trace element emissions is not known. Although there is a large quantity of solid wastes from the generating plant, the environmental impact of the FBC technology due to solid residue appears lower than for FGD, where sludge management requires larger land areas and presents problems due to the environmentally noxious calcium sulfite in the waste. Fixing the sludge may become a requirement that increases the cost of wet-limestone FGD but makes that system more acceptable. The potential for aquatic or terrestrial impacts from hydrocarbon emissions is low. If application of AFBC technology increases the use of local high-sulfur coals to the detriment of western low-sulfur coal, a sociological benefit could accrue to the FBC (or FGD) technology, because impacts caused by western boom towns would decrease. The infrastructure of areas that mine high-sulfur coal in the Midwest are better equipped to handle increased mining than the West.

  12. Dips, ramps, and rolls- Evidence for paleotopographic and syn-depositional fault control on the Western Kentucky No. 4 coal bed, tradewater formation (Bolsovian) Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greb, S.F.; Eble, C.F.; Williams, D.A.; Nelson, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Western Kentucky No. 4 coal is a high-volatile B to high-volatile C bituminous coal that has been heavily mined along the southern margin of the Western Kentucky Coal Field. The seam has a reputation for rolling floor elevation. Elongate trends of floor depressions are referred to as "dips" and "rolls" by miners. Some are relatively narrow and straight to slightly curvilinear in plan view, with generally symmetric to slightly asymmetric cross-sections. Others are broader and asymmetric in section, with sharp dips on one limb and gradual, ramp-like dips on the other. Some limbs change laterally from gradual dip, to sharp dip, to offset of the coal. Lateral changes in the rate of floor elevation dip are often associated with changes in coal thickness, and in underground mines, changes in floor elevation are sometimes associated with roof falls and haulage problems. In order to test if coal thickness changes within floor depressions were associated with changes in palynology, petrography and coal quality, the coal was sampled at a surface mine across a broad. ramp-like depression that showed down-dip coal thickening. Increment samples of coal from a thick (150 cm), down-ramp and thinner (127 cm), up-ramp position at one surface mine correlate well between sample sites (a distance of 60 m) except for a single increment. The anomalous increment (31 cm) in the lower-middle part of the thick coal bed contained 20% more Lycospora orbicula spores. The rolling floor elevations noted in the study mines are inferred to have been formed as a result of pre-peat paleotopographic depressions, syn-depositional faulting, fault-controlled pre-peat paleotopography, and from compaction beneath post-depositional channels and slumps. Although the association of thick coal with linear trends and inferred faults has been used in other basins to infer syn-depositional faulting, changes in palynology within increment samples of the seam along a structural ramp in this study provide

  13. Enhancing the Properties of Coal Briquette Using Spear Grass (Imperata Cylindrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adaora Stellamaris OGBUAGU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have been carried out on utilizing agricultural wastes (spear grass to enhance the properties of coal briquette. The proximate analysis of the plant material was carried out alongside with a sample of coal (sub-bituminous coal. Briquettes of different compositions were produced by blending the plant material with the coal at various concentrations: 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 100%, using cassava starch as a binder and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH2 as desulfurizing agent. The properties of the briquettes were compared. It was found that the ignition, burning rate and reduction in smoke emission showed improvement with increase in biomass concentration. Compressive strength and cooking efficiency (water boiling time and specific fuel consumption showed initial improvement and rendered to decrease with briquette containing 30% biomass.

  14. Thermodynamic comparison and efficiency enhancement mechanism of coal to alternative fuel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Xiaozhou; Li, Sheng; Gao, Lin; Jin, Hongguang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy and exergy analysis are presented to three coal-to-alternative-fuels systems. • Internal reasons for performance differences for different systems are disclosed. • The temperature and heat release of synthesis reactions are key to plant efficiency. • The distillation unit and purge gas recovery are important to efficiency enhancement. - Abstract: Coal to alternative fuels is an important path to enforce energy security and to provide clean energy. In this paper, we use exergy analysis and energy utilization diagram (EUD) methods to disclose the internal reasons for performance differences in typical coal to alternative fuel processes. ASPEN plus software is used to simulate the coal-based energy systems, and the simulation results are verified with engineering data. Results show that coal to substitute natural gas (SNG) process has a higher exergy efficiency of 56.56%, while the exergy efficiency of traditional coal to methanol process is 48.65%. It is indicated that three key factors impact the performance enhancement of coal to alternative fuel process: (1) whether the fuel is distillated, (2) the synthesis temperature and the amount of heat release from reactions, and (3) whether the chemical purge gases from synthesis and distillation units are recovered. Distillation unit is not recommended and synthesis at high temperature and with large heat release is preferable for coal to alternative fuel systems. Gasification is identified as the main source of exergy destruction, and thereby how to decrease its destruction is the key direction of plant efficiency improvement in the future. Also, decreasing the power consumption in air separation unit by seeking for advanced technologies, i.e. membrane, or using another kind of oxidant is another direction to improve plant performance.

  15. Chemical Oxygen Demand abatement in sewage using Micro-Aeration Enhanced Ecological Floating Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongle; Zhou, Gaofeng; Liu, Yiqing; Tan, Jiancong; Fu, Yongsheng

    2018-02-01

    The traditional ecological floating bed combined with micro-aeration system and artificial medium was developed for the removal of contaminants and remediation of surface water. This micro-aeration enhanced ecological floating bed (MAEEFB) consisted of aeration unit, microbial processing unit and aquatic plant unit. Batch experiments were conducted in different operating conditions on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the sewage using MAEEFB. The removal rate of COD by MAEEFB, enhanced ecological floating bed (EEFB) and traditional ecological floating bed (TEFB) in the same reaction conditions was 59.2%, 56.9% and 30.6%, respectively, indicating that the combination of micro-aeration system and artificial medium could enhance the removal efficiency of COD in TEFB. In MAEEFB, the aeration intensity should be designed reasonablely considering both treatment efficiency and operation cost. Only increasing the specific surface area of the packing cannot effectively improve the purification efficiency of water. Factors like packing material, ability of intercepting organics and complicated extent of microorganisms attaching on the packing should also be considered.

  16. Report on fundamental survey on developing coal resources in fiscal 1999 - summarized edition. Survey and development of new exploration technology (exploration of shallow land area beds); 1999 nendo shintansa gijutsu chosa kaihatsu (rikuiki senso tansa) hokokusho (yoyakuban)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Coal resource surveys have been performed using mainly the physical exploration method on the NSW State of Australia as the object. The Caroona area has a Permian period ground bed distributed, in which multiple number of coal layers exist. The ground bed is covered with sedimentary layers of the Triassic period inconsistently, and this Triassic period system is covered by volcanic rocks of the Jurassic period inconsistently. Faults are going through the coal beds in their upper or lower layers at locations having soft rock beds. The faults were identified by seismic exploration using the two-dimensional reflection method, assisted by the result of the physical logging. The results of pursuit on reflective events and the result of test drilling were unified to identify the summary of basset lines of the major coal beds. Furthermore, the seismic exploration using the three-dimensional reflective method capable of high-level imaging of underground structures was applied to coal beds existing in depths less than 480 m. Multiple number of local and small-scale sinking were detected with time difference of 5 ms and depth conversion to 7 m. Locations, runs, and inclination were interpreted also on faults having small fall whose details have been unclear in the exploration using the two-dimensional method. The seismic exploration using the three-dimensional reflective method was found capable of identifying micro structural changes and fault runs that cannot be tracked by the two-dimensional method. (NEDO)

  17. Effects of reduction temperature to Ni and Fe content and the morphology of agglomerate of reduced laterite limonitic nickel ore by coal-bed method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, Fakhreza; Pintowantoro, Sungging; Kawigraha, Adji; Nursidiq, Ahlidin

    2018-04-01

    As the current drop of nickel sulfide ore on earth, the attention to nickel laterite ore processing was inscreased in order to fulfill the future nickel demand needs. This research aims to optimized the process of nickel laterite ore extraction using coal bed method. This research was conducted by reducing low grade nickel laterite ore (limonitic) with nickel content of 1.25 %. The reduction process was carried out using CO gas which formed by the reaction of coal and dolomite. The Briquette of nickel ore, coal, Na2SO4 mixtures incorporated in the crucible with bed, then reduced for 6 hours at the temperature of 1200 °C. 1400 °C, and 1400 °C. The result of the research shown that the highest increase of Ni content and Ni recovery value was in the reduction temperature of 1400 °C with the increase of 3.44 %, and the recovery value of Ni equal to 86.75 %. While the highest increase of Fe content and Fe recovery value, respectively, was in the reduction temperature of 1300 °C with the increase of 22.67 % and 1200 °C with Fe recovery value of 89.41 %.

  18. Experimental on fly ash recirculation with bottom feeding to improve the performance of a circulating fluidized bed boiler co-burning coal sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Lunbo; Xu, Guiling; Liu, Daoyin; Chen, Xiaoping; Zhao, Changsui [Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). School of Energy and Environment

    2013-07-01

    With the aim of reducing carbon content in fly ash, fly ash recirculation with bottom feeding (FARBF) technology was applied to a 75 t/h Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler burning mixture of coal and coal sludge. And industrial experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of FARBF technology on the combustion performance and pollutant emission characteristics of the CFB boiler. Results show that as the recirculation rate of fly ash increases, the CFB dense bed temperature decreases while the furnace outlet temperature increases, and the temperature distribution in the furnace becomes uniform. Compared with the conditions without fly ash recirculation, the combustion efficiency increases from 92 to 95% when the recirculation rate increases to 8 t/h, and the desulfurization efficiency also increases significantly. As the recirculation rate increases, the emissions of NO and CO decrease, but the particulate emission increases. The present study indicates that FARBF technology can improve the combustion performance and desulfurization efficiency for the CFB boilers burning coal sludge, and this can bring large economical and environmental benefits in China.

  19. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Dale Lamke; Joseph J. Battista

    2001-01-01

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. Penn State currently operates an aging stoker-fired steam plant at its University Park campus and has spent considerable resources over the last ten to fifteen years investigating boiler replacements and performing life extension studies. This effort, in combination with a variety of agricultural and other wastes generated at the agricultural-based university and the surrounding rural community, has led Penn State to assemble a team of fluidized bed and cofiring experts to assess the feasibility of installing a CFB boiler for cofiring biomass and other wastes along with coal-based fuels. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute and the Office of Physical Plant, Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc., and Cofiring Alternatives

  20. Mathematical modeling of a fluidized bed gasifier for steam gasification of coal using high-temperature nuclear reactor heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubiak, H.; vanHeek, K.-H.; Juntgen, H.

    1986-01-01

    Coal gasification is a well-known technique and has already been developed and used since a long time. In the last few years, forced by the energy situation, new efforts have been made to improve known processes and to start new developments. Conventional gasification processes use coal not only as feedstock to be gasified but also for supply of energy for reaction heat, steam production, and other purposes. With a nuclear high temperature reactor (HTR) as a source for process heat, it is possible to transform the whole of the feed coal into gas. This concept offers advantages over existing gasification processes: saving of coal, as more gas can be produced from coal; less emission of pollutants, as the HTR is used for the production of steam and electricity instead of a coal-fired boiler; and lower production costs for the gas

  1. Use of nitrogen stable isotope analysis to understand char nitrogen evolution during the fluidized-bed co-combustion of coal and sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ana Arenillas; Roberto Garcia; Chenggong Sun; Colin E. Snape; Angel H. Moreno; Fernando Rubiera; Jose J. Pis [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre, School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2005-04-01

    NOx emissions from sewage sludge combustion are a concern, because of the usually high nitrogen content of this fuel. The interactions during co-combustion in a fluidized-bed reactor of sewage sludge and a bituminous coal were evaluated, in relation to the nitrogen evolution during the combustion process. The nitrogen stable isotope measurements provide novel results regarding the tracing of nitrogen during combustion. Our preliminary results show that the co-combustion chars retain more nitrogen than expected, with the additional nitrogen being mainly derived from the sludge. Additional measurements are planned on the resultant co-combustion gases, to aid source apportionment of the NOx arising from coal/sewage interactions. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Differentiation of volcanic ash-fall and water-borne detrital layers in the Eocene Senakin coal bed, Tanjung Formation, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, L.F.; Moore, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Sangsang deposit of the Eocene Senakin coal bed, Tanjung Formation, southeastern Kalimantan, Indonesia, contains 11 layers, which are thin ( 70%). These layers are characterized by their pelitic macroscopic texture. Examination of eight of the layers by scanning-electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, and X-ray diffraction analyses show that they are composed primarily of fairly well-crystallized kaolinite, much of which is vermicular. Accessory minerals include abundant Ti oxide, rare-earth element-rich Ca and A1 phosphates, quartz that luminescences in the blue color range, and euhedral to subhedral pyroxene, hornblende, zircon, and sanidine. Although this mineral suite is suggestive of volcanic ash-fall material, only the four pelitic layers in the middle of the bed are thought to be solely derived from volcanic ash-falls on the basis of diagnostic minerals, replaced glass shards, and lithostratigraphic relationships observed in core and outcrop. The three uppermost pelitic layers contain octahedral chromites, some quartz grains that luminesce in teh orange color range, and some quartz grains that contain two-phase fluid inclusions. These layers are interpreted to be derived from a combination of volcanic ash-fall material and hydrologic transport of volcaniclastic sediment. In contrast, the lowermost pelitic layer, which contains large, rounded FeMg-rich chromites, is thought to have been dominantly deposited by water. The source of the volcanic ash-fall material may have been middle Tertiary volcanism related to plate tectonic activity between Kalimantan and Sulawesi. The volcanic ash was deposited in sufficient amounts to be preserved as layers within the coal only in the northern portions of the Senakin region: the southern coal beds in the region do not contain pelitic layers. ?? 1993.

  3. Differentiation of volcanic ash-fall and water-borne detrital layers in the Eocene Senakin coal bed, Tanjung Formation, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, L F; Moore, T A [US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA). National Center

    1993-02-01

    The Sangsang deposit of the Eocene Senakin coal bed, Tanjung Formation, southeastern Kalimantan, Indonesia, contains 11 layers, which are thin ([lt] 5 cm) and high in ash ([gt] 70%). These layers are characterized by their pelitic macroscopic texture. Examination of eight of the layers by scanning-electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, and X-ray diffraction analyses show that they are composed primarily of fairly well-crystallized kaolinite, much of which is vermicular. Accessory minerals include abundant Ti oxide, rare-earth element-rich Ca and Al phosphates, quartz that luminesces in the blue colour range, and euhedral to subhedral pyrooxene, hornblende, zircon, and sanidine. Although this mineral suite is suggestive of volcanic ash-fall material, only the four pelitic layers in the middle of the bed are thought to be solely derived from volcanic ash-falls on the basis of diagnostic minerals, replaced glass shards, and lithostratigraphic relationships observed in core and outcrop. The three uppermost pelitic layers contain octahedral chromites, some quartz grains that luminesce in the organic colour range, and some quartz grains that contain two-phase fluid inclusions. These layers are interpreted to be derived from a combination of volcanic ash-fall material and hydrologic transport of volcaniclastic sediment. In contrast, the lowermost pelitic layer, which contains large, rounded FeMg-rich chromites, is thought to have been dominantly deposited by water. The source of the volcanic ash-fall material may have been middle Tertiary volcanism related to plate tectonic activity between Kalimantan and Sulawesi. The volcanic ash was deposited in sufficient amounts to be preserved as layers within the coal only in the northern portions of the Senakin region: the southern coal beds in the region do not contain pelitic layers. 29 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Report on fundamental survey on developing coal resources in fiscal 1999. Survey and development of new exploration technology (exploration of shallow land area beds); 1999 nendo sekitan shigen kaihatsu kiso chosa hokokusho. Shintansa gijutsu chosa kaihatsu (rikuiki senso tansa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes the survey and development of new coal exploration technology applied in the NSW State of Australia. It is intended to develop a coal resource assessment method with high accuracy using the reflection method seismic exploration, assisted by other physical exploration methods. The Caroona area has a Permian period ground bed distributed, in which multiple number of coal layers exist. The ground bed is covered with sedimentary layers of the Triassic period inconsistently, and this Triassic period system is covered by volcanic rocks of the Jurassic period inconsistently. Faults are going through the coal beds in their upper or lower layers at locations having soft rock beds. Existence of the faults was estimated by seismic exploration using the two-dimensional reflection method, assisted by the result of the physical logging. The results were unified with the result of test drilling to identify the summary of the latent basset lines. Furthermore, the seismic exploration using the three-dimensional reflective method capable of high-level imaging of underground structures was applied to coal beds existing in depths less than 480 m. Multiple number of local and small-scale sinking were detected with time difference of 5 ms and depth conversion to 7 m. Locations, runs, and inclination were interpreted also on faults having small fall which cannot be detected by the two-dimensional method. The three-dimensional method was found capable of identifying micro structural changes and fault runs that cannot be tracked by the two-dimensional method. (NEDO)

  5. Study on the influence of electromagnetic field on the property of coal combustion burnout in circulating fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Y. [Ruiping Coal and Electric Power Ltd. Co., Ruzhou (China)

    2008-08-15

    To study the influences of electromagnetism field pretreatment of pulverized Coal (EFPPC) on the properties of its combustion, thermogravimetric analysis, a Muffle furnace experiment and an X-ray diffraction experiment were carried out for three Coal banks. It was shown that EFPPC will induce the molecular structure of Coal to change into amorphous carbon, which causes an increase in the rate of oxygen absorption during the initial stages of Coal burning and reaction activity. It is also shown that the residual carbon of bituminous Coal would be increased by about 0.33% - 0.41%, i.e, the loss of standard Coal is about 3,000 t/a for double 480 t/h boilers, when applying EFPPC for 1 min at a temperature of 800 - 1,000 {sup o}C. When the temperature increases 200 {sup o}C, the residual carbon increases by about 2.07% but the effect of EFPPC is less than 0.21% for bituminous Coal and residual carbon is about 1.47% and the effect of EFPPC is less than 0.05% for lean Coal. Therefore the effect of increasing the temperature of EFPPC on residual carbon is less than that of increasing the time of EFPPC. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Enhanced efficiency steam turbine blading - for cleaner coal plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, A.; Bell, D.; Cao, C.; Fowler, R.; Oliver, P.; Greenough, C.; Timmis, P. [ALSTOM Power, Rugby (United Kingdom)

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this project was to increase the efficiency of the short height stages typically found in high pressure steam turbine cylinders. For coal fired power plant, this will directly lead to a reduction in the amount of fuel required to produce electrical power, resulting in lower power station emissions. The continual drive towards higher cycle efficiencies demands increased inlet steam temperatures and pressures, which necessarily leads to shorter blade heights. Further advances in blading for short height stages are required in order to maximise the benefit. To achieve this, an optimisation of existing 3 dimensional designs was carried out and a new 3 dimensional fixed blade for use in the early stages of the high pressure turbine was developed. 28 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Comparison of Australasian tertiary coals based on resolution- enhanced solid-state /sup 13/C NMR spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, R H; Davenport, S J

    1986-04-01

    /sup 13/C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to characterize 32 low-rank coals from New Zealand and Australia. A combination of high magnetic field (4.7 T) and resolution enhancement was used to extract spectral details beyond those seen in published spectra of coals of similar rank. Signal heights were used to characterize organic functional distributions. The spectra showed close similarities between Australian brown coals and low-rank New Zealand subbituminous coals, particularly those mined in the North Island. The spectra of New Zealand lignites all showed stronger signals from cellulose, methoxyl groups and phenols. Almost all of the New Zealand coals showed a relatively strong signal from polymethylene chains, compared with the Australian brown coals. This led to a prediction of higher alkene yields from pyrolysis of the New Zealand coals. Variations in phenolic substitution patterns were attributed to variations in the relative proportions of tannins and lignins in the depositional environments.

  8. Prospects for coal: technical developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, W G; Peirce, T J

    1983-07-01

    This article summarises the reasons for predicting an increase in the use of coal as an industrial energy source in the United Kingdom. The development of efficient and reliable coal-burning techniques is therefore of great importance. Various techniques are then discussed, including conventional combustion systems, fluidised bed combustion systems, fluidised bed boilers and furnaces, coal and ash handling, coal-liquid mixtures, coal gasification and coal liquefaction. (4 refs.)

  9. Molecular biological enhancement of coal biodesulfurization. Seventh quarter report, May--July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilbane, J.J.; Bielaga, B.A.

    1990-07-01

    The overall objective of this project is to sue molecular genetics to develop strains of bacteria with enhanced ability to remove sulfur from coal and to obtain data that will allow the performance and economics of a coal biodesulfurization process to be predicted. The work planned for the current quarter (May 1990 to July 1990) includes the following activities: (1) Construct a cloning vector that can be used in Rhodococcus rhodochrous IGTS8 from the small cryptic plasmid found in Rhodococcus rhodochrous ATCC 190607; (2) Develop techniques for the genetic analysis of IGTS8; (3) Continue biochemical experiments, particularly those that may allow the identification of desulfurization-related enzymes; (4) Continue experiments with coal to determine the kinetics of organic sulfur removal.

  10. Environmental Assessment for Lignite Fuel Enhancement Project, Coal Creek Station, Great River Energy, Underwood, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2004-01-16

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this EA to assess the environmental impacts of the commercial application of lignite fuel enhancement. The proposed demonstration project would be implemented at Great River Energy's Coal Creek Station near Underwood, North Dakota. The proposed project would demonstrate a technology to increase the heating value of lignite and other high-moisture coals by reducing the moisture in the fuels. Waste heat that would normally be sent to the cooling towers would be used to drive off a percentage of the moisture contained within the lignite. Application of this technology would be expected to boost power-generating efficiencies, provide economic cost savings for lignite and sub-bituminous power plants, and reduce air emissions. The proposed project would be constructed on a previously disturbed site within the Coal Creek Station and no negative impacts would occur in any environmental resource area.

  11. Phyto-bioconversion of hard coal in the Cynodon dactylon/coal rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbinigie, Eric E; Mutambanengwe, Cecil C Z; Rose, Peter D

    2010-03-01

    Fundamental processes involved in the microbial degradation of coal and its derivatives have been well documented. A mutualistic interaction between plant roots and certain microorganisms to aid growth of plants such as Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) on hard coal dumps has recently been suggested. In the present study coal bioconversion activity of nonmycorrhizal fungi was investigated in the C. dactylon/coal rhizosphere. Fungal growth on 2% Duff-agar, gutation formation on nitric acid treated coal and submerged culture activity in nitrogen-rich and -deficient broth formed part of the screening and selection of the fungi. The selected fungal isolates were confirmed to be found in pristine C. dactylon/coal rhizosphere. To simulate bioconversion, a fungal aliquot of this rhizosphere was used as inoculum for a Perfusate fixed bed bioreactor, packed with coal. The results demonstrate an enhanced coal bioconversion facilitated by low molecular weight organics and the bioconversion of coal may be initiated by an introduction of nitrogen moieties to the coal substrate. These findings suggest a phyto-bioconversion of hard coal involving plant and microbes occurring in the rhizosphere to promote the growth of C. dactylon. An understanding of this relationship can serve as a benchmark for coal dumps rehabilitation as well as for the industrial scale bioprocessing of hard coal.

  12. A model of the enhancement of coal combustion using high intensity acoustic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuzkurt, S.; Ha, M.Y.; Koopmann, G.H.; Scaroni, A.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper a model for the enhancement of coal combustion in the presence of high intensity acoustics is developed. A high intensity acoustic field induces an oscillating velocity over pulverized coal particles otherwise entrained in the main gas stream, resulting in increased heat and mass transfer. The augmented heat and mass transfer coefficients, expressed as space- and time-averaged Nusselt and Sherwood numbers for the oscillating flow, were implemented in an existing computer code (PCGC-2) capable of predicting various aspects of pulverized coal combustion and gasification. Increases in the Nusselt and Sherwood numbers of about 45, 60 and 82.5% at sound pressure levels of 160, 165, and 170 dB for 100 μm coal particles were obtained due to increases in the acoustic slop velocity associated with the increased sound pressure levels. The main effect of the acoustic field was observed during the char combustion phase in a diffusionally controlled situation. A decrease in the char burnout length (time) of 15.7% at 160 dB and 30.2% at 170 dB was obtained compared to the case with no sound for the 100 μm coal particles

  13. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; Rhett McLaren; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Tom Steitz; Joseph J. Battista

    2003-03-26

    The Pennsylvania State University, utilizing funds furnished by the U.S. Department of Energy's Biomass Power Program, investigated the installation of a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The study was performed using a team that included personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives. The activities included assessing potential feedstocks at the University Park campus and surrounding region with an emphasis on biomass materials, collecting and analyzing potential feedstocks, assessing agglomeration, deposition, and corrosion tendencies, identifying the optimum location for the boiler system through an internal site selection process, performing a three circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler design and a 15-year boiler plant transition plan, determining the costs associated with installing the boiler system, developing a preliminary test program, determining the associated costs for the test program, and exploring potential emissions credits when using the biomass CFB boiler.

  14. Composition and Structure of Microalgae Indicated in Raman and Hyperspectral Spectra and Scanning Electron Microscopy: from Cyanobacteria to Isolates from Coal-bed Methane Water Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Zhou, Z.; Apple, M. E.; Spangler, L.

    2017-12-01

    Microalgae can be used for many potential applications for human's benefits. These potential applications included biofuel production from microalgae, biofiltering to cleaning water, chemical extraction as nutrients, etc. However, exploration for such applications is still in the early stages. For instance, many species and strains of microalgae have been investigated for their lipid content and growing conditions for efficient productions of lipids, but no specific species have yet been chosen as a fuel source for commercial production because of the huge biodiversity and subsequently a wide range of species that can potentially be exploited for biodiesel production, the great variability between species in their fuel precursor producing capabilities. Numerous coal-bed methane water ponds were established in the world as a consequence of coal-bed methane production from deep coal seams. Microalgae were isolated from such ponds and potentially these ponds can be used as venues for algal production. In this study, we characterized chemical composition and structure of the Cyanobacteria Anabaena cylindrica (UTEX # 1611) and isolates from coal-bed methane ponds Nannochloropsis gaditana and PW95 using Laser Raman Spectroscopy (LRS), hyperspectral spectra, and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The objective is to seek bio-indicators for potential applications of these microalgae species. For instance, indicator of rich content lips shows the great potential for biofuel production. Fig.1 shows an example of the Raman spectra of the three species in desiccated form. The spectral peaks were isolated and the corresponding composition was identified. The insert at the right hand of the Raman spectrum of each species is the micrograph of the cell morphology under a microscope. The Raman spectra of cells in aquatic solutions were also obtained and compared with the desiccated form. The hyperspectral reflectances of the three species show quite different characteristics and

  15. Evaluation of Phytoremediation of Coal Bed Methane Product Water and Waters of Quality Similar to that Associated with Coal Bed Methane Reserves of the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Bauder

    2008-09-30

    U.S. emphasis on domestic energy independence, along with advances in knowledge of vast biogenically sourced coalbed methane reserves at relatively shallow sub-surface depths with the Powder River Basin, has resulted in rapid expansion of the coalbed methane industry in Wyoming and Montana. Techniques have recently been developed which constitute relatively efficient drilling and methane gas recovery and extraction techniques. However, this relatively efficient recovery requires aggressive reduction of hydrostatic pressure within water-saturated coal formations where the methane is trapped. Water removed from the coal formation during pumping is typically moderately saline and sodium-bicarbonate rich, and managed as an industrial waste product. Current approaches to coalbed methane product water management include: surface spreading on rangeland landscapes, managed irrigation of agricultural crop lands, direct discharge to ephermeral channels, permitted discharge of treated and untreated water to perennial streams, evaporation, subsurface injection at either shallow or deep depths. A Department of Energy-National Energy Technology Laboratory funded research award involved the investigation and assessment of: (1) phytoremediation as a water management technique for waste water produced in association with coalbed methane gas extraction; (2) feasibility of commercial-scale, low-impact industrial water treatment technologies for the reduction of salinity and sodicity in coalbed methane gas extraction by-product water; and (3) interactions of coalbed methane extraction by-product water with landscapes, vegetation, and water resources of the Powder River Basin. Prospective, greenhouse studies of salt tolerance and water use potential of indigenous, riparian vegetation species in saline-sodic environments confirmed the hypothesis that species such as Prairie cordgrass, Baltic rush, American bulrush, and Nuttall's alkaligrass will thrive in saline-sodic environments

  16. Study on the structure and gasification characteristics of selected South African bituminous coals in fluidised bed gasification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available . The microstructural characteristics of the parent coals and their resultant chars were determined using XRD, FT-IR, Raman and petrographic analysis. The microstructural changes that occurred in the organic (maceral) and the inorganic (mineral) fractions...

  17. Automation and control in industrial installations. Its application in pressurized fluidized bed plants, coal washeries etc. Automatizacion y control en instalaciones industriales. Su aplicacion en centrales de lecho fluido a presion, lavaderos de carbon etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo Tarifa, R. (ENDESA, Madrid (Spain))

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the automation and electronic control systems, based on the most advanced technologies on the market. The most recent techniques concerning industrial plant supervision and the processing of information obtained from the above mentioned systems are discussed. Intraplant communications between the control systems and the supervision computers as well as communications among cascade computers are described. These studies are applied to specific cases of pressurized fluidized bed plants, coal washing plants, coal yards, etc.

  18. Active methods of preventing bumps in situations where the longwall face advances to and crosses a roadway in thick coal beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loboda, C

    1978-01-01

    The method was analyzed in the Wujek coal mine, where the coal bed is located at 600 m and was 5.3 m to 5.7 m thick. The following situation is described: A longwall face had to pass through a ventilation tunnel. To reduce the inner stress of the coal mass above and below the ventilation tunnel infusion was used. Water was forced into the walls of the tunnel. The tunnel section was 200 m long, 28 holes were drilled, each 40 m deep, diameter of the bore 42 to 45 mm, water pressure 300 at. To prevent bumps the orientation of the longwall face, which had been parallel to the ventilation tunnel, was changed so that it was at the angle of 15 degrees to the ventilation tunnel. Experience showed that the most dangerous situation in the tunnel arises when the distance between a longwall face and a roadway is reduced to 45 m. At that moment pressure on the road support system is the greatest. The danger of bumps at a longwall face is the greatest when it is 25 m away from a roadway.

  19. Correlation chart of Pennsylvanian rocks in Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, and Pennsylvania showing approximate position of coal beds, coal zones, and key stratigraphic units: Chapter D.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Appalachian basin, one of the largest Pennsylvanian bituminous coal-producing regions in the world, currently contains nearly one-half of the top 15 coal-producing States in the United States (Energy Information Agency, 2006). Anthracite of Pennsylvanian age occurs in synclinal basins in eastern Pennsylvania, but production is minimal. A simplified correlation chart was compiled from published and unpublished sources as a means of visualizing currently accepted stratigraphic relations between the rock formations, coal beds, coal zones, and key stratigraphic units in Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. The thickness of each column is based on chronostratigraphic divisions (Lower, Middle, and Upper Pennsylvanian), not the thickness of strata. Researchers of Pennsylvanian strata in the Appalachian basin also use biostratigraphic markers and other relative and absolute geologic age associations between the rocks to better understand the spatial relations of the strata. Thus, the stratigraphic correlation data in this chart should be considered provisional and will be updated as coal-bearing rocks within the Appalachian coal regions continue to be evaluated.

  20. The enhancement of natural radiation dosage by coal-fired power generation in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.O.

    1980-02-01

    The total fuel cycle of electricity generation from coal is assessed as a source of enhanced exposure to natural radiation. The various routes by which such exposure can arise are discussed and the consequent individual and collective radiation doses in the United Kingdom are estimated on the basis of a critical review of published data augmented by the results of recent, hitherto unpublished work within the CEGB. Further work is in progress to clarify particular areas of uncertainty that have been identified. (author)

  1. Synthesis of zeolites coal ash in surfactant modified in application and removal of orange 8 acid solution: study in batch, fixed bed column and evaluation ecotoxicological

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magdalena, Carina Pitwak

    2015-01-01

    In this study, synthesized zeolitic material from coal ash and modified cationic surfactant was used for removing the acid dye Orange 8 (AL8) by adsorption process using moving bed and fixed-bed column. The raw material and adsorbents were characterized by different techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, among others. The adsorption of AL8 was performed by moving bed in order to optimize the results when they are launched in a fixed bed. The effects of adsorption on zeolite AL8 were compared: (1) Effect of counterions Br - and Cl - surfactant used in the modification of the zeolite; (2) effect of type of coal ash used as raw material in the synthesis of zeolites (fly and bottom). The following adsorbents were used in the study: fly and bottom zeolite modified by surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (ZLMS-Br-Br and ZPMS-Br) and fly zeolite modified by surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (ZLMS-Cl). The pseudo-second-order kinetic described the adsorption of the dye on all adsorbents. The equilibrium time was reached 40, 60 and 120 min for ZLMS-Br, ZLMS-Cl and ZPMS-Br, respectively. The adsorption equilibrium was analyzed by the equations of the models of linear and nonlinear isotherms of Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin- Radushkevivh (DR) and the criterion of best fit was evaluated using the error functions.The DR model was adjusted better to the experimental data for the system AL8 / ZLMS-Br, the Freundlich model for AL8 / ZLMS-Cl and Langmuir for AL8 / ZPMS. According to the Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity was 4.67, 1.48 and 1.38 mg g -1 for ZLMS-Br, ZLMS-Cl and ZPMS-Br, in order. In studies employing fixed bed columns, the effects of inlet concentration (20- 30 mg L -1 ), flow rate (4.0 -5.3 mL min -1 ) and the bed height (5, 5 - 6.5 cm) above the breakthrough curves characteristics in the adsorption system were determined. The Adams-Bohart, Thomas, Yoon-Nelson models were applied to experimental

  2. Fluidized bed boiler feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian C.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

  3. Enhancement of Operating Efficiency Of The Central Coal-Preparation Plant of "MMK - UGOL" Ltd. Under Current Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basarygin, Maksim

    2017-11-01

    In this article the subject of enhancement of operating efficiency of the central coal-preparation plant of OOO "MMK-UGOL" is encompassed. Modern trends in the development of technologies and equipment for coal beneficiation are due to the following requirements: improving competitiveness of coal products, improvement of quality of marketable products, reduction of coal production cost, environmental requirements: polluting emission abatement, prepared coal saving, improvement of the effectiveness of resource conservation; complex mechanization and beneficiation process automation. In the article the contemporary problems of raw coal benefication under current conditions of the increased dilution of withdrawable coals with rock fractions are considered. Comparative analysis of efficiency of application of modern concentrating equipment under the conditions of the CCPP of OOO "MMK-UGOL" is carried out on the basis of research works. Particular attention is paid to dehydration of produced coal concentrate with content of volatile agents of more than 35.0% and content of fine-dispersed particles in flotation concentrate of more than 50.0%. Comparative analysis of the coal concentrate dehydration technologies is conducted.

  4. Fiscal 1995 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system introduction support project. Verification project on the circulating fluidized bed boiler; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo. Junkan ryudosho boiler ni kakawaru jissho jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    In relation to the circulating fluidized bed boiler which reduces the amount of sulfur oxides emitted in coal utilization, a verification project was carried out on installation of the equipment and spread activity in China and the Philippines contributing to the control of environmental pollutant associated with coal utilization and the effective use of energy. At the Fanshan area, installed was a 10t/h internal circulating fluidized bed boiler. At the performance test, coal includes around 7% of impurities such as stone, and the impurities should be excluded continuously at the time of actual run. Therefore, the boiler efficiency had to be changed from 89.5% to 85.8%. Further, power generation facilities have not yet been finished, and the overall operation of boiler turbine has not been executed. At the Zibo area, a 30t/h external circulating fluidized bed boiler was installed. The boiler efficiency reached 86.1%, over the targeted value. At the Batangas area in the Philippines, a 10t/h internal circulating fluidized bed boiler was installed. The boiler efficiency reached 85.8%, over the designed value. About the coal produced in the Philippines, slagging was feared, but the combustion state was favorable. 82 figs., 21 tabs.

  5. Effect of Gas Recycling on the Performance of a Moving Bed Temperature-Swing (MBTSA Process for CO2 Capture in a Coal Fired Power Plant Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Mondino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of a continuous moving-bed temperature-swing adsorption (MBTSA process for post-combustion CO2 capture in a coal-fired power plant context has been developed. Process simulations have been done using single component isotherms and measured gas diffusion parameters of an activated carbon adsorbent. While a simple process configuration with no gas re-circulation gives quite low capture rate and CO2 purity, 86% and 65%, respectively, more advanced process configurations where some of the captured gas is recirculated to the incoming flue gas drastically increase both the capture rate and CO2 purity, the best configuration reaching capture rate of 86% and CO2 purity of 98%. Further improvements can be achieved by using adsorbents with higher CO2/N2 selectivity and/or higher temperature of the regeneration section.

  6. Testing of a new mining system performance at narrow coal bed; Ensayo de un sistema de arranque con cepillo mediante accionamiento hidraulico para capas estrechas de carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    This researching project had the aim of: Testing a new mining system performance at narrow coal bed, which uses plough equipment with hydraulic driving devices. Minimising driving power group size to avoid problems regarding with the wall mining-heading transition, decreasing the needed room to house it and thus, simplifying wall mining edge support. The expected goals were: Take advantage of hydraulic driving devices to obtain a good efficiency with a variable and discontinuous load, but without loosing the electric driving devices advantages, consisting on increase driving torque, being the engine blocked Lengthen the mechanical equipment life (chains, driving sprockets, etc) Reach an economic production rate Researching project was developed in El Bierzo basin (leon, Spain), in Grupo Ampliacion, a mining group belonged to Viloria Hnos, S. A. (Author)

  7. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources: Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System: Chapter G.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System, which lies within the central and southern Appalachian basin, consists of the following five assessment units (AUs): (1) the Pocahontas Basin AU in southern West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southwestern Virginia; (2) the Central Appalachian Shelf AU in Tennessee, eastern Kentucky, and southern West Virginia; (3) the East Dunkard (Folded) AU in western Pennsylvania and northern West Virginia; (4) the West Dunkard (Unfolded) AU in Ohio and adjacent parts of Pennsylvania and West Virginia; and (5) the Appalachian Anthracite and Semi-Anthracite AU in Pennsylvania and Virginia. Only two of these assessment units were assessed quantitatively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the National Oil and Gas Assessment in 2002. The USGS estimated the Pocahontas Basin AU and the East Dunkard (Folded) AU to contain a mean of about 3.6 and 4.8 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered, technically recoverable gas, respectively.

  8. Testing of marrow coal bed systems by hydraulic driving device for thin films of coal; Ensayo de un Sistema de Arranque con Cepillo mediante Accionamiento Hidraulico para Capas Estrechas de CArbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This researching project had the aim of: Testing a new mining system performance at narrow coal bed, which uses plough equipment with hydraulic driving devices. Minimising driving power group size to avoid problems regarding with the wall mining-heading transition, decreasing the needed room to house it and thus simplifying wall mining edge support The expected goals were: Take advantage of hydraulic driving devices to obtain a good efficiency with a variable and discontinuous load, bu t without loosing the electric driving devices advantages, consisting on increase driving torque, being the engine blocked Lengthen the mechanical equipment life (chains, driving sprockets, etc.) Reach and economic production rate Researching project was developed in El Bierzo basin (Leon, Spain), in Grupo Ampliacion, a mining group belonged to Viloria Hnos S. A.. (Author)

  9. Contribution to the combustion and emission of nitrogen oxides of Kosovo and Kolubara coals in fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radovanovic, M.; Savic, R.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, the results of combustion of different sizes of domestic lignites Kosovo and Kolubara are presented. Investigation has been carried on a laboratory experimental facility for combustion in fluidized bed, power 1 kW. Specified amount of fuel is put into fluidized bed and temperature and concentration of combustion products (O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO, NO{sub s} and SO{sub 2}) are recorded and produced. The emission of nitrogen oxides is specially treated in this paper. Also, the ignition delay of volatile matter, combustion of volatiles and total time of combustion are found. 25 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. FY 1989 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 1. Element study; 1989 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Yoso kenkyu hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, element study was conducted of a 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant, and the FY 1989 results were summarized. In the gasification test using 2t/d gasifier equipment, the following were carried out: test on gasification of the coal proposed for pilot plant, test on changes in coal feed ratio, analysis of trace gas elements in coal, study of the fixed bed gas refining system, etc. In the study of large gas turbine combustor for demonstration machine, development of combustor which makes stable combustion in the low load region possible, development of low NOx combustor which controls the conversion of nitrogen compounds such as ammonia in coal gasification gas to NOx, development of combustor which makes the optimum and effective cooling possible by combining film cooling, impingement cooling, etc. In the study of simulation of the combined power generation total system, verification tests on the control mode switching function of the general load pressure control system, movement to meet anomaly of the control system, integrated cooperation control system, etc. (NEDO)

  11. Analysis of holding time variations to Ni and Fe content and morphology in nickel laterite limonitic reduction process by using coal-dolomite bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, Fakhreza; Pintowantoro, Sungging; Yuwandono, Ridwan Bagus

    2018-04-01

    With the depletion of nickel sulfide ore resources, the nickel laterit processing become an attention to fulfill nickel world demans. Reducing laterite nickel by using a low cost carbonaceous reductan has proved produces high grade ferronickel alloy. In this research, reduction was carried out to low grade laterite nickel (limonite) with 1.25% nikel content by using CO gas reductant formed by reaction between coal and dolomite. Reduction process preceded by forming brickets mixture from limonit ore, coal, and Na2SO4, then the brickets placed inside crucible bed together with dolomit and reduced at temperature 1400 °C with holding time variations 4, 6, and 8 hours. EDX, XRD, and SEM test were carried out to find out the Ni and nickel grade after reduced, the phases that formed, and the morphology brickets after reduced. The reduction results shows that the highest increase on nickel grade was obtained by 8 hours holding time increasing 5.84 % from initial grade, and the highest recovery was obtained by 6 hours holding time with recovery 88.51 %. While the higest increase on Fe grade was obtained by 4 hours holding time, and the highest recovery Fe was obtained by 4 hours holding time with recovery 85.41%.

  12. Modelling of Effects of Operating Conditions and Coal Reactivity on Temperature of Burning Particles in Fluidized Bed Combustion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Karel; Hartman, Miloslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Trnka, Otakar

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2004), s. 261-274 ISSN 1211-1910 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072201; GA AV ČR IAA4072001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : fluidized bed combustion * char temperature * modelling Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality

  13. Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The findings in the first phase were as follows: 1. Both reductive (non-selective) alkylation and selective oxygen alkylation brought about an increase in liquefaction reactivity for both coals. 2. Selective oxygen alkylation is more effective in enhancing the reactivity of low rank coals. In the second phase of studies, the major findings were as follows: 1. Liquefaction reactivity increases with increasing level of alkylation for both hydroliquefaction and co-processing reaction conditions. 2. the increase in reactivity found for O-alkylated Wyodak subbituminous coal is caused by chemical changes at phenolic and carboxylic functional sites. 3. O-methylation of Wyodak subbituminous coal reduced the apparent activation energy for liquefaction of this coal.

  14. Basinal analysis of the Ecca and Lowermost Beaufort Beds and associated coal, uranium and heavy mineral beach sand occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, P.J.; Whitfield, G.G.

    1979-01-01

    The regional sediment transport directions, major provenance areas and the controlling palaeotectonic and palaeogeographic frameworks of sedimentation have been reconstructed for the Great Karoo Basin during the Permian. Analyses of this magnitude can be useful in regional exploration programmes for coal, uranium and fossil heavy mineral beach sand deposits. The strong palaeogeographic control on coal deposition is demonstrated by the fact that some of the most important deposits accumulated in topographically low lying areas on the pre-Karoo surface. Such areas formed sheltered environments ideal for the growth and accumulation of organic material. Elsewhere relatively slow rates of subsidence of a broad, protected, low lying delta plain controlled the deposition of coal. North of the main Karoo Basin many of the coal deposits are confined to structurally controlled linear basins. Hundreds of sedimentary uranium occurrences of varying grade and size occur within a broad, discontinuous belt in the Lower Beaufort of the southwestern portion of the Karoo Basin. The uranium mineralization occurs in a variety of fluvial deposits usually rich in carbonaceous material. Minute tuffaceous fragments, reflecting contemporaneous vulcanism, form a minor but significant constituent in some of the uraniferous sandstones. The uranium occurrences are confined largely to the Southern and Western Facies of the Lower Beaufort, and occur mainly within the confines of the Karoo Trough. Consolidated heavy mineral beach deposits have been found in the predominantly fluvio-deltaic Middle Ecca Group of the Northern Facies at a number of widely separated locations. These deposits were formed by shore line processes, such as the reworking of delta-front sands, during periods of temporary marine regression

  15. Effect of Amount of Carbon on the Reduction Efficiency of Iron Ore-Coal Composite Pellets in Multi-layer Bed Rotary Hearth Furnace (RHF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Srinibash; Roy, Gour Gopal

    2016-08-01

    The effect of carbon-to-hematite molar ratio has been studied on the reduction efficiency of iron ore-coal composite pellet reduced at 1523 K (1250 °C) for 20 minutes in a laboratory scale multi-layer bed rotary hearth furnace (RHF). Reduced pellets have been characterized through weight loss measurement, estimation of porosity, shrinkage, qualitative and quantitative phase analysis by XRD. Performance parameters such as the degree of reduction, metallization, carbon efficiency, productivity, and compressive strength have been calculated to compare the process efficacy at different carbon levels in the pellets. Pellets with optimum carbon-to-hematite ratio (C/Fe2O3 molar ratio = 1.66) that is much below the stoichiometric carbon required for direct reduction of hematite yielded maximum reduction, better carbon utilization, and productivity for all three layers. Top layer exhibited maximum reduction at comparatively lower carbon level (C/Fe2O3 molar ratio 2.33). Correlation between degree of reduction and metallization indicated non-isothermal kinetics influenced by heat and mass transfer in multi-layer bed RHF. Compressive strength of the partially reduced pellet with optimum carbon content (C/Fe2O3 molar ratio = 1.66) showed that they could be potentially used as an alternate feed in a blast furnace or any other smelting reactor.

  16. Coal option. [Shell Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This paper notes the necessity of developing an international coal trade on a very large scale. The role of Shell in the coal industry is examined; the regions in which Shell companies are most active are Australia, Southern Africa, Indonesia; Europe and North America. Research is being carried out on marketing and transportation, especially via slurry pipelines; coal-oil emulsions; briquets; fluidized-bed combustion; recovery of coal from potential waste material; upgrading of low-rank coals; unconventional forms of mining; coal conversion (the Shell/Koppers high-pressure coal gasification process). Techniques for cleaning flue gas (the Shell Flue Gas Desulfurization process) are being examined.

  17. Pressured fluidized-bed gasification experiments with wood, peat and coal at VTT in 1991-1992. Test facilities and gasification experiments with sawdust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E; Staahlberg, P; Laatikainen, J [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Fuel and Process Technology

    1994-12-31

    Fluidized-bed air gasification of Finnish pine saw dust was studied in the PDU-scale test facilities of VTT to support the development of simplified integrated gasification combined-cycle processes by providing new information on the formation and behaviour of different gas impurities in wood gasification. The gasifier was operated at 4-5 bar pressure and at 880-1 020 deg C Product gas was cleaned by ceramic candle filters operated at 490-715 deg C. Concentrations of tars, fixed nitrogen species and vapour-phase alkali metals were determined in different operating conditions. Carbon conversion exceeded 95 deg C in all test periods although the gasifier was operated without recycling the cyclone or filter fines back to the reactor. However, at the gasification temperature of 880-900 deg C more than 5 deg C of the wood carbon was converted to tars. The total concentration of tars (compounds heavier than benzene) was reduced from 6 000 to 3 000 mg/m{sup 3}n by increasing the gasification temperature from 880 deg C to 1 000 deg C. The expected catalytic effects of calcium on tar decomposition could not be achieved in these experiments by feeding coarse dolomite into the bed. The use of sand or aluminium oxide as an inert bed material did neither lead to any decrease in tar concentrations. However, the tar concentrations were dramatically reduced in the cogasification experiments, when a mixture of approximately 50 deg C/50 deg C wood and coal was used as the feed stock. Wood nitrogen was mainly converted into ammonia, while the concentrations of HCN and organic nitrogen containing compounds were very low

  18. Pressured fluidized-bed gasification experiments with wood, peat and coal at VTT in 1991-1992. Test facilities and gasification experiments with sawdust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Laatikainen, J. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Fuel and Process Technology

    1993-12-31

    Fluidized-bed air gasification of Finnish pine saw dust was studied in the PDU-scale test facilities of VTT to support the development of simplified integrated gasification combined-cycle processes by providing new information on the formation and behaviour of different gas impurities in wood gasification. The gasifier was operated at 4-5 bar pressure and at 880-1 020 deg C Product gas was cleaned by ceramic candle filters operated at 490-715 deg C. Concentrations of tars, fixed nitrogen species and vapour-phase alkali metals were determined in different operating conditions. Carbon conversion exceeded 95 deg C in all test periods although the gasifier was operated without recycling the cyclone or filter fines back to the reactor. However, at the gasification temperature of 880-900 deg C more than 5 deg C of the wood carbon was converted to tars. The total concentration of tars (compounds heavier than benzene) was reduced from 6 000 to 3 000 mg/m{sup 3}n by increasing the gasification temperature from 880 deg C to 1 000 deg C. The expected catalytic effects of calcium on tar decomposition could not be achieved in these experiments by feeding coarse dolomite into the bed. The use of sand or aluminium oxide as an inert bed material did neither lead to any decrease in tar concentrations. However, the tar concentrations were dramatically reduced in the cogasification experiments, when a mixture of approximately 50 deg C/50 deg C wood and coal was used as the feed stock. Wood nitrogen was mainly converted into ammonia, while the concentrations of HCN and organic nitrogen containing compounds were very low

  19. Microbial mechanisms of using enhanced ecological floating beds for eutrophic water improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing; Hu, Yue; Li, Shuqun; Peng, Sen; Zhao, Huabing

    2016-07-01

    Enhanced ecological floating beds were implemented to reduce nutrient quantity and improve the water quality of a eutrophic lake. The results showed that average removal efficiencies of CODCr, total nitrogen, NH3-N and total phosphorus for Canna indica L. set-up were 23.1%, 15.3%, 18.1% and 19.4% higher, respectively, than that of the setup with only substrate, and 14.2%, 12.8%, 7.9% and 11.9% higher than Iris pseudacorus L. ecological floating bed. The microbial community structure had obvious differences between devices and low similarity; bacteria were mainly attached on the fiber filling. The microbial population was abundant at the start and end of the experiment. Shannon index of samples selected ranged from 0.85 to 1.05. The sequencing results showed that fiber filling collected most uncultured bacteria species and the majority of bacteria on the plant roots were β-Proteobacteria and α-Proteobacteria. The co-dominant species attaching to the filling and plant was Nitrosomonadaceae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. FY 1991 report on the results of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 2. Support study for the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant (Summarization of the operation study); 1991 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu (Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu no shien kenkyu) - Sono 2. Unten kenkyu sokatsu hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-04-01

    The paper summarized the results of the following tests on a 40 t/d pilot plant which were conducted as the support study for the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant: dry desulfurization test, dry dedusting test, high-temperature NOx gas combustion test (gas turbine element test). In the dry desulfurization test, tested were the operational automation and monitoring technology, performance of desulfurization, characteristics of load response, sulfur recovery, etc. In the dry dedusting test, tested were the filter medium/dust separation, powder level meter, continuous dust densitometer, operational automation, characteristics of partial load/load response, improvement of filtration materials, test on characteristics of air conveyance, etc. In the high-temperature low-NOx gas combustion test (gas turbine element test), the following were conducted: examination of the test method of gas turbine materials, inspection/examination of the corrosion of gas turbine combustion test device, inspection/examination of the internal corrosion of the stationary blade for gas turbine deposit test, inspection/examination of gasification system. The results of these support studies were reflected one after another in the project on the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant. (NEDO)

  1. Enhanced model for integrated simulation of an entrained bed gasifier implemented as Aspen Hysys extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Fortes, M; Bojarski, A; Ferrer-Nadal, S; Kopanos, G; Mitta, N; Pinilla, C A; Nougues, J M; Velo, E; Puigjaner, L [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering-CEPIMA

    2007-07-01

    In this work an enhanced mathematical model of an entrained bed gasifier has been developed for improved synthesis gas production. The gasification model considers five stages: pyrolysis, volatiles combustion, char combustion, gasification and a final gas equilibrium zone. Mathematical simulations are carried out to help finding out feasible operating conditions of the process to achieve improved process performance. Visual Basic (VB) is tested as tool for modelling, by using the Aspen Hysys Extension (AHE) interface standards. This standard provides a suitable environment for this purpose, since it allows the creation of completely custom modules which are easy to plug and use thus facilitating the handling of complex models ready to interact with commercial simulation platforms. In this work, integration of different models is accomplished in Aspen Hysys (AH), which provides the basic connectivity within models components, and the thermodynamic framework needed. The integrated modules simulation environment platform uses data from ELCOGAS for validation purposes with excellent preliminary results. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  2. FY 1990 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 1. Element study; 1990 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Yoso kenkyu hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, element study was made for a pilot plant of 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification power generation, and the FY 1990 results were summarized. In the study by the gasification test on 2t/d furnace, gasification test was conducted for the OM coal newly selected as a coal proposed for the expansion of coal kind. As a result, the pulverized coal/char of OM coal have almost good handling property and showed favorable gasification performance. In the study of large gas turbine combustor for demonstrative machine, with the aim of developing a combustor that makes stable combustion also in the low load region possible, fabrication of the accessory equipment of combustor (choke mechanism, measuring use duct and heat insulating plate) was made for the actual-pressure/actual-size combustion test. In the study by simulation of the total system of combined cycle power generation, etc., the following were conducted: verification of characteristics of the integrated control (state of the ordinary operation, state of the mock load control, etc.), load dump simulation (state of the bleed cooperation, state of the bleed separation (state of the air booster operation, etc.)), etc. (NEDO)

  3. Coal combustion technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.X.

    1994-01-01

    Coal is the most important energy source in China, the environmental pollution problem derived from coal burning is rather serious in China. The present author discusses coal burning technologies both in boilers and industrial furnaces and their relations with environmental protection problems in China. The technological situations of Circulating Fluidized Bed Coal Combustor, Pulverized Coal Combustor with Aerodynamic Flame Holder and Coal Water Slurry Combustion have been discussed here as some of the interesting problems in China only. (author). 3 refs

  4. Fiscal 1995 achievement report. Development of entrained bed coal gasification power plant (Part 5 - Surveys and studies of demonstration plant); 1995 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 5. Jissho plant ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Surveys and studies were conducted concerning a demonstration plant for establishing the technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle, and the fiscal 1995 results are compiled. In this fiscal year, a demonstration plant conceptual design was prepared for assuring smooth transition from a pilot plant to a commercial plant. The design followed the system employed at the Nakoso pilot plant for its gasification power generation. It was decided that the gasification furnace be of the air-blown (oxygen enriched) 2-stage entrained bed type, that the desulfurization system be of the dry type 2-stage fluidized bed type, the dedusting system be of the dry type granular bed type (moving bed type), that the combined cycle power facility be derived from the commercialized gas turbine, and that the cycle of the steam system agree with the integrated coal gasification combined cycle system now under discussion. Studies were made, which covered heat efficiency (generating end/sending end), heat/matter balance, process flow, gas turbine/steam system optimization, comparison in performance with a pilot plant with its dimensions increased, estimation of the performance of each of the facilities, estimation of the construction cost, calculation of the generation cost, environmental friendliness, operating characteristics, acceptable coal types, and the like. (NEDO)

  5. Partial gasification of coal in a fluidized bed reactor: Comparison of a laboratory and pilot scale reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, R.; Shen, L.H.; Zhang, M.Y.; Jin, B.S.; Xiong, Y.Q.; Duan, Y.F.; Zhong, Z.P.; Zhou, H.C.; Chen, X.P.; Huang, Y.J. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China)

    2007-01-15

    A 0.1 MWth lab-scale and 2 MWth pilot-scale experimental rigs were constructed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of a new process. The aim of the lab-scale study is to optimize coal partial gasification reactions operating conditions, which were applied in the pilot-scale tests. A comparison between the laboratory and pilot scale experimental results is presented in this paper in order to provide valuable information for scaling-up of the PFB coal partial reactor to industrial applications. The results show that trends and phenomena obtained in the laboratory reactor are confirmed in a pilot plant operating at similar conditions. However, many differences are observed in the two reactors. The higher heat loss in the lab-scale reactor is responsible for higher equivalence ratio (ER) and lower gas heating value at the similar reactor temperature. With respect to the pilot-scale reactor, mass transfer limitation between bubbles and emulsion phase may become important. Hence, longer contact time is required to achieve the same conversions as in the lab-scale reactor. This difference is explained by a significant change of the hydrodynamic conditions due to the formation of larger bubbles.

  6. Effect of Heterogeneity in Coal Ash Chemical Composition on the Onset of Conditions Favorable for Agglomeration in Fluid Beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi B. Khadilkar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ash agglomeration issues that arise due to the sticking of slag-wetted, colliding particles have been creating operational difficulties and monetary losses for the fluidized bed combustion (FBC industry. Difficulties have been experienced in the detection of slag-liquid at the low operating temperatures in fluidized bed combustors (FBCs and predicting the agglomeration behavior of fuel. This study aims to study the effect of heterogeneity in ash composition on the detection of slag-liquid in FBCs. It quantifies the slag-liquid amounts at the particle-level, under oxidizing environments, by dividing the bulk fuel into density classes. FactSage™ thermodynamic simulations of each of the particle classes, along with experimental validation of the trends with thermo-mechanical analysis (TMA and high temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD were performed. The results obtained can be used to estimate the stickiness of particles in the development of ash agglomeration models based on particle collisions. The study of these particle classes shows that particle classes with specific minerals can form low temperature eutectics and lead to onset of slag-liquid formation at temperatures below those predicted by bulk analysis alone. Comparison of the differences in slag-liquid formation tendencies under reducing and oxidizing environments is also presented.

  7. Coal yearbook 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This book is the first coal yearbook published by ATIC (France). In a first chapter, economical context of coal worldwide market is analyzed: comparative evaluations on coal exports and imports, coal industry, prices, production in USA, Australia, South Africa, China, former USSR, Poland, Colombia, Venezuela and Indonesia are given. The second chapter describes the french energy context: national coal production, imports, sectorial analysis, maritime transport. The third chapter describes briefly the technologies of clean coal and energy saving developed by Charbonnages de France: fossil-fuel power plants with combined cycles and cogeneration, fluidized beds for the recovery of coal residues, recycling of agricultural wastes (sugar cane wastes) in thermal power plant, coal desulfurization for air pollution abatement. In the last chapter, statistical data on coal, natural gas and crude oil are offered: world production, world imports, world exports, french imports, deliveries to France, coal balance, french consumption of primary energy, power generation by fuel type

  8. Phytoestrogens Enhance the Vascular Actions of the Endocannabinoid Anandamide in Mesenteric Beds of Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana N. Peroni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In rat isolated mesenteric beds that were contracted with NA as an in vitro model of the vascular adrenergic hyperactivity that usually precedes the onset of primary hypertension, the oral administration (3 daily doses of either 10 mg/kg genistein or 20 mg/kg daidzein potentiated the anandamide-induced reduction of contractility to NA in female but not in male rats. Oral treatment with phytoestrogens also restored the vascular effects of anandamide as well as the mesenteric content of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP that were reduced after ovariectomy. The enhancement of anandamide effects caused by phytoestrogens was prevented by the concomitant administration of the estrogen receptor antagonist fulvestrant (2.5 mg/kg, s.c., 3 daily doses. It is concluded that, in the vasculature of female rats, phytoestrogens produced an estrogen-receptor-dependent enhancement of the anandamide-vascular actions that involves the modulation of CGRP levels and appears to be relevant whenever an adrenergic hyperactivity occurs.

  9. Carbon Dioxide Transport and Sorption Behavior in Confined Coal Cores for Enhanced Coalbed Methane and CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jikich, S.A.; McLendon, T.R.; Seshadri, K.S.; Irdi, G.A.; Smith, D.H.

    2007-11-01

    Measurements of sorption isotherms and transport properties of CO2 in coal cores are important for designing enhanced coalbed methane/CO2 sequestration field projects. Sorption isotherms measured in the lab can provide the upper limit on the amount of CO2 that might be sorbed in these projects. Because sequestration sites will most likely be in unmineable coals, many of the coals will be deep and under considerable lithostatic and hydrostatic pressures. These lithostatic pressures may significantly reduce the sorption capacities and/or transport rates. Consequently, we have studied apparent sorption and diffusion in a coal core under confining pressure. A core from the important bituminous coal Pittsburgh #8 was kept under a constant, three-dimensional external stress; the sample was scanned by X-ray computer tomography (CT) before, then while it sorbed, CO2. Increases in sample density due to sorption were calculated from the CT images. Moreover, density distributions for small volume elements inside the core were calculated and analyzed. Qualitatively, the computerized tomography showed that gas sorption advanced at different rates in different regions of the core, and that diffusion and sorption progressed slowly. The amounts of CO2 sorbed were plotted vs. position (at fixed times) and vs. time (for various locations in the sample). The resulting sorption isotherms were compared to isotherms obtained from powdered coal from the same Pittsburgh #8 extended sample. The results showed that for this single coal at specified times, the apparent sorption isotherms were dependent on position of the volume element in the core and the distance from the CO2 source. Also, the calculated isotherms showed that less CO2 was sorbed than by a powdered (and unconfined) sample of the coal. Changes in density distributions during the experiment were also observed. After desorption, the density distribution of calculated volume elements differed from the initial distribution

  10. Novel Magnetically Fluidized Bed Reactor Development for the Looping Process: Coal to Hydrogen Production R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Renwei; Hahn, David; Klausner, James; Petrasch, Jorg; Mehdizadeh, Ayyoub; Allen, Kyle; Rahmatian, Nima; Stehle, Richard; Bobek, Mike; Al-Raqom, Fotouh; Greek, Ben; Li, Like; Chen, Chen; Singh, Abhishek; Takagi, Midori; Barde, Amey; Nili, Saman

    2013-09-30

    The coal to hydrogen project utilizes the iron/iron oxide looping process to produce high purity hydrogen. The input energy for the process is provided by syngas coming from gasification process of coal. The reaction pathways for this process have been studied and favorable conditions for energy efficient operation have been identified. The Magnetically Stabilized Porous Structure (MSPS) is invented. It is fabricated from iron and silica particles and its repeatable high performance has been demonstrated through many experiments under various conditions in thermogravimetric analyzer, a lab-scale reactor, and a large scale reactor. The chemical reaction kinetics for both oxidation and reduction steps has been investigated thoroughly inside MSPS as well as on the surface of very smooth iron rod. Hydrogen, CO, and syngas have been tested individually as the reducing agent in reduction step and their performance is compared. Syngas is found to be the most pragmatic reducing agent for the two-step water splitting process. The transport properties of MSPS including porosity, permeability, and effective thermal conductivity are determined based on high resolution 3D CT x-ray images obtained at Argonne National Laboratory and pore-level simulations using a lattice Boltzmann Equation (LBE)-based mesoscopic model developed during this investigation. The results of those measurements and simulations provide necessary inputs to the development of a reliable volume-averaging-based continuum model that is used to simulate the dynamics of the redox process in MSPS. Extensive efforts have been devoted to simulate the redox process in MSPS by developing a continuum model consist of various modules for conductive and radiative heat transfer, fluid flow, species transport, and reaction kinetics. Both the Lagrangian and Eulerian approaches for species transport of chemically reacting flow in porous media have been investigated and verified numerically. Both approaches lead to correct

  11. Fluid-bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G.; Schoebotham, N.

    1981-02-01

    In Energy Equipment Company's two-stage fluidized bed system, partial combustion in a fluidized bed is followed by burn-off of the generated gases above the bed. The system can be retrofitted to existing boilers, and can burn small, high ash coal efficiently. It has advantages when used as a hot gas generator for process drying. Tests on a boiler at a Cadbury Schweppes plant are reported.

  12. On a clean power generation system with the co-gasification of biomass and coal in a quadruple fluidized bed gasifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Linbo; He, Boshu

    2017-07-01

    A clean power generation system was built based on the steam co-gasification of biomass and coal in a quadruple fluidized bed gasifier. The chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling technology was used to supply oxygen for the calciner. The solid oxide fuel cell and the steam turbine were combined to generate power. The calcium looping and mineral carbonation were used for CO 2 capture and sequestration. The aim of this work was to study the characteristics of this system. The effects of key operation parameters on the system total energy efficiency (ŋ ten ), total exergy efficiency (ŋ tex ) and carbon sequestration rate (R cs ) were detected. The energy and exergy balance calculations were implemented and the corresponding Sankey and Grassmann diagrams were drawn. It was found that the maximum energy and exergy losses occurred in the steam turbine. The system ŋ ten and ŋ tex could be ∼50% and ∼47%, and R cs could be over unit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal chemical industry wastewater using the catalytic ozonation process combined with a gas-liquid-solid internal circulating fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Liu, Feng; You, Hong; Ding, Yi; Yao, Jie; Jin, Chao

    2018-04-01

    This paper investigated the performance of the combined system of catalytic ozonation and the gas-liquid-solid internal circulating fluidized bed reactor for the advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal chemical industry wastewater (CCIW). The results indicated that with ozonation alone for 60min, the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) could reach 34%. The introduction of activated carbon, pumice, γ-Al 2 O 3 carriers improved the removal performance of COD, and the removal efficiency was increased by 8.6%, 4.2%, 2%, respectively. Supported with Mn, the catalytic performance of activated carbon and γ-Al 2 O 3 were improved significantly with COD removal efficiencies of 46.5% and 41.3%, respectively; however, the promotion effect of pumice supported with Mn was insignificant. Activated carbon supported with Mn had the best catalytic performance. The catalytic ozonation combined system of MnO X /activated carbon could keep ozone concentration at a lower level in the liquid phase, and promote the transfer of ozone from the gas phase to the liquid phase to improve ozonation efficiency.

  14. Coal chemistry and technology. Komur Kimyasi ve Teknolojisi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kural, O [ed.

    1988-01-01

    The 18 chapters cover the following topics: mining in Turkey; formation, petrography and classification of coal; chemical and physical properties of coal; mechanical properties of coal; spontaneous combustion of coal and the methods of prevention; sampling of coal; coal preparation and plants; desulfurization of coal; bituminous coal and its consumption; lignite and its consumption; world coal trade and transportation; other important carbon fuels; briquetting of coal; carbonization and coking formed coke; liquefaction of coal; gasification of coal; underground gasification of coal; and combustion models, fluidized-bed combustion, furnaces. An English-Turkish coal dictionary is included. 641 refs., 244 figs., 108 tabs.

  15. Résultats de recherches récentes sur la structure géologique des gîtes de houille de la Ruhr Results of Recent Research on the Geological Structure of Coal Beds in the Ruhr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaulfuss R.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Un inventaire exact des gîtes de houille était lié à la réorganisation des rapports de propriété dans la région de la Ruhr (Fondation de la Ruhrkohle AG. Du fait que dans les domaines de gîtes de houille en exploitation les réserves de houille ne suffiront pas à assurer à long terme un rendement d'extraction suffisant, on commença une vaste exploration dans des parties de quartier encore inconnues. Il fut ainsi possible d'élargir considérablement les connaissances sur la situation géologique des gîtes de houille grâce à des études par réflexion sismique, des forages profonds et des enregistrements de forages géophysiques. An accurate inventory of the coal beds was dependent upon the reorganization of property reports in the Ruhr region (Ruhrkohle Fondation AG. Because the working coal fields do not contain sufficient coal reserves to guarantee satisfactory productivity rates on a long-term basis, extensive exploration in previously unexplored parts of the area was undertaken. Thus, it became possible to extend considerably our knowledge of the geological structure of the coal beds through refraction shooting, deep drilling, and the well logging.

  16. Fluidized-bed gasification of plastics and baking coal; Vergasung von Kunststoffen und backender Steinkohle in der Wirbelschicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharpff, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    The applicability of fluidized-bed processes for recycling of plastics is investigated by experiments on a semi-industrial scale, and the particular characteristics and specific problems connected with the use of plastics are gone into. Apart from the technical aspects, the problem of organic pollutants produced in the process is investigated as well. The plastics used in the experiments were all chlorine-free; the report therefore contains an extra chapter on the chlorine problem caused by PVC in plastic fractions. Against the background of the current discussion of dioxin and furan emissions, the problem of efficient chlorine separation from the product gas is of topical interest which warrants a detailed theoretical analysis and experimental investigations in a laboratory system. (orig.) [Deutsch] In dieser Arbeit werden die Eignung des Wirbelschichtverfahrens fuer das Recycling von Kunststoffen durch experimentelle Versuche im Technikumsmassstab untersucht und die Besonderheiten sowie die spezifischen Probleme beim Einsatz von Kunststoffen in der Wirbelschicht behandelt. Neben verfahrenstechnischen Gesichtspunkten wird auch die Problematik der Entstehung organischer Schadstoffe beruecksichtigt. Da bei den in der Technikumsanlage eingesetzten Kunststoffen ausschliesslich chlorfreie Kunststoffkomponenten zum Einsatz kamen, widmet sich diese Arbeit gesondert der Chlorproblematik, die durch den PVC-Anteil in Kunststofffraktionen verursacht wird. Vor dem Hintergrund der aktuellen Diskussionen um Dioxin- und Furanemissionen erhaelt die Frage einer effizienten Chlorabscheidung aus dem Produktgas eine besondere Bedeutung, welcher durch eine ausfuehrliche theoretische Betrachtung sowie experimentelle Versuche in einer Laboranlage Rechnung getragen wird. (orig.)

  17. FY 1989 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Support study for the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant; 1989 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu (Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu no shien kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-05-01

    For the purpose of supplying the data necessary for construction/operation/maintenance of system, gas turbine, etc. of the desulfurization/dust removal process to be adopted to a pilot plant of 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification power generation, support study was made using the Yubari 40t/d test equipment, and the FY 1989 results were summarized. As to the operation of the 40t/d gasification system, operation was stably continued, and also the system was able to feed gas to the wake device. In the high temperature dry desulfurization test, test was made on the following: structure of the sampling system of the continuous analyzer installed in the coal gas system and circulation gas system, load response corresponding control system, sequence control of the system for supplying reducing agent to SO{sub 2} reduction tower and the system for ash discharge, back washing of D-42 lift gas filter, etc. In the high temperature dry dust removal test, improvement in filtration material/dust separation performance, sequence control of the filtration material supply/discharge system, continuous dust densitometer, operational automation, etc. Through the tests, obtained were the results that are useful for the 200t/d plant. (NEDO)

  18. Emission characteristics for gaseous- and size-segregated particulate PAHs in coal combustion flue gas from circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruwei; Liu, Guijian; Sun, Ruoyu; Yousaf, Balal; Wang, Jizhong; Liu, Rongqiong; Zhang, Hong

    2018-07-01

    The partitioning behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) between gaseous and particulate phases from coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) is critically important to predict PAH removal by dust control devices. In this study, 16 US-EPA priority PAHs in gaseous and size-segregated particulate phases at the inlet and outlet of the fabric filter unit (FFs) of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler were analyzed. The partitioning mechanisms of PAHs between gaseous and particulate phases and in particles of different size classes were investigated. We found that the removal efficiencies of PAHs are 45.59% and 70.67-89.06% for gaseous and particulate phases, respectively. The gaseous phase mainly contains low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs (2- and 3-ring PAHs), which is quite different from the particulate phase that mainly contains medium and high molecular weight (MMW and HMW) PAHs (4- to 6-ring PAHs). The fractions of LMW PAHs show a declining trend with the decrease of particle size. The gas-particle partitioning of PAHs is primarily controlled by organic carbon absorption, in addition, it has a clear dependence on the particle sizes. Plot of log (TPAH/PM) against logD p shows that all slope values were below -1, suggesting that PAHs were mainly adsorbed to particulates. The adsorption effect of PAHs in size-segregated PMs for HMW PAHs is more evident than LMW PAHs. The particle size distributions (PSDs) of individual PAHs show that most of PAHs exhibit bi-model structures, with one mode peaking in the accumulation size range (2.1-1.1 μm) and another mode peaking in coarse size range (5.8-4.7 μm). The intensities of these two peaks vary in function of ring number of PAHs, which is likely attributed to Kelvin effect that the less volatile HMW PAH species preferentially condense onto the finer particulates. The emission factor of PAHs was calculated as 3.53 mg/kg of coal burned, with overall mean EF PAH of 0.55 and 2.98 mg/kg for gaseous and particulate

  19. Bromine based mercury abatement in waste and coal combustion. Mercury retention in the catalyst bed of a tail-end-SCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vosteen, Bernhard W. [Vosteen Consulting GmbH, Koeln (Germany); Kanefke, Rico; Beyer, Joachim; Bonkhofer, Theodor Gerhard [CURRENTA GmbH und Co. OHG, Leverkusen (Germany); Ullrich, Rick [WastePro Engineering Inc., Kennett Square, PA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Observations and testing at a CURRENTA waste incineration plant and several coal fired power plants has derived the following aspects of mercury behavior in the plant's waste heat boiler and its gas cleaning train: - Hg{sub met} is oxidized to Hg{sub ion} most readily by bromine, and also by chlorine, - sulfur (SO{sub 2}) inhibit the Hg{sub met} chlorination but not the Hg{sub met} bromination, - Hg{sub met} passes through scrubbers and is adsorbed onto the catalyst bed of a tail-end SCR, slowly oxidized and finally elutes off as Hg{sub ion}, - sulfur (SO{sub 2}) impacts the reduction of molecular halogens in different ways; SO{sub 2} reduces Cl{sub 2} at elevated temperatures (boiler range), but reduces Br{sub 2} only at low temperatures (scrubber range) The operational tests and studies performed in the spring and summer of 2000 at this plant led to some specific knowledge about Hg{sub met} adsorption and also Hg{sub ion} desorption at the catalyst bed of a tail-end SCR. This knowledge, which was at that time in many respects novel, has provided more insight into the mercury oxidation behaviour. Today, process options derived from this knowledge could be implemented in hazardous waste incineration plants and also municipal solid waste incineration plants, to achieve complete mercury halogenation in the boiler flue gas, ahead of the scrubber system, at any time. This might prevent penetration of metallic mercury to the tail-end SCR and avoid the corresponding long time mercury elution. For effective prevention to be achieved in practice, it is strongly recommended to also install a continuously measuring (possibly uncalibrated) AAS mercury monitor for immediate detection of any unexpected Hg{sub met} breakthrough, for example caused by ''hidden mercury'' in the waste feed, and to initiate the rapid (preferably automized) injection of some bromine compound before even more mercury is transferred into the tail-end SCR, stored there as Hg

  20. Report on investigations in fiscal 2000 on the basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation. Project to utilize coal bed methane gas for power generation in Poland; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Poland tanko methane gas hatsuden riyo keikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Having the Mining Industry Restructuring Public Corporation located in the city of Katowice, Poland as the counterpart, a feasibility study has been executed on a project to utilize coal bed gas for power generation. Selected for the study are the 'Budryk coal mine' owned by KWK 'Budryk' Coal Company and the 'Pniowek coal mine' owned by Jastrzebie Coal Company. Since the Pniowek coal mine can utilize the whole quantity of recovered methane by 2001, the Budryk coal mine was selected as the object of the project. As a result of the trial calculation on the economy when the new gas power plant is installed in the Budryk coal mine, the energy substitution effect was found to equal to a power amount at transmission terminal of 6 MWh/year. Furthermore, when proliferation effect is taken into consideration, an enormous effect can be expected if new coal mines are developed and the existing cola mines will go further deeper, because the Silesian coal mine presently has the coal resource quantity of 57 billion tons and the annual gas discharge quantity of 750 million m{sup 3}. Therefore, if the technologies to recover, manage and utilize the gas are established at the Budryk coal mine, a large effect leading to an aspiration would be expected under the current situation of the structural reorganization under which the Polish coal companies are placed. (NEDO)

  1. Geochemistry of inorganic nitrogen in waters released from coal-bed natural gas production wells in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard L.; Repert, Deborah A.; Hart, Charles P.

    2009-01-01

    Water originating from coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) production wells typically contains ammonium and is often disposed via discharge to ephemeral channels. A study conducted in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, documented downstream changes in CBNG water composition, emphasizing nitrogen-cycling processes and the fate of ammonium. Dissolved ammonium concentrations from 19 CBNG discharge points ranged from 95 to 527 μM. Within specific channels, ammonium concentrations decreased with transport distance, with subsequent increases in nitrite and nitrate concentrations. Removal efficiency, or uptake, of total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) varied between channel types. DIN uptake was greater in the gentle-sloped, vegetated channel as compared to the incised, steep, and sparsely vegetated channel and was highly correlated with diel patterns of incident light and dissolved oxygen concentration. In a larger main channel with multiple discharge inputs (n = 13), DIN concentrations were >300 μM, with pH > 8.5, after 5 km of transport. Ammonium represented 25−30% of the large-channel DIN, and ammonium concentrations remained relatively constant with time, with only a weak diel pattern evident. In July 2003, the average daily large-channel DIN load was 23 kg N day−1entering the Powder River, an amount which substantially increased the total Powder River DIN load after the channel confluence. These results suggest that CBNG discharge may be an important source of DIN to western watersheds, at least at certain times of the year, and that net oxidation and/or removal is dependent upon the extent of contact with sediment and biomass, type of drainage channel, and time of day.

  2. Acute toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters, to 13 aquatic species as defined in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, David D.; Farag, Aïda M.; Skaar, Don

    2014-01-01

    Water produced during coal bed natural gas (CBNG) extraction in the Powder River Structural Basin of Wyoming and Montana (USA) may contain concentrations of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) of more than 3000 mg/L. The authors evaluated the acute toxicity of NaHCO3, also expressed as bicarbonate (HCO3−), to 13 aquatic organisms. Of the 13 species tested, 7 had a median lethal concentration (LC50) less than 2000 mg/L NaHCO3, or 1300 mg/L HCO3−. The most sensitive species were Ceriodaphnia dubia, freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea), pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus). The respective LC50s were 989 mg/L, 1120 mg/L, 1249 mg/L, and 1430 mg/L NaHCO3, or 699 mg/L, 844 mg/L, 831 mg/L, and 1038 mg/L HCO3−. Age affected the sensitivity of fathead minnows, even within life stage. Two days posthatch, fathead minnows were more sensitive to NaHCO3 and HCO3− compared with 4-d-old fish, even though fish up to 14 d old are commonly used for toxicity evaluations. The authors recommend that ion toxicity exposures be conducted with organisms less than 24 h posthatch to ensure that experiments document the most sensitive stage of development. The results of the present study, along with historical and current research regarding the toxicity of bicarbonate, may be useful to establish regulatory standards for HCO3−.

  3. Mechanism of Enhancing Extraction of Vanadium from Stone Coal by Roasting with MgO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the extraction of vanadium from stone coal by roasting with MgO and leaching with sulfuric acid has been investigated, and the mechanism analysis of stone coal roasting with MgO was studied. The results indicated that under the conditions that the mass fraction of the particles with grain size of 0–0.074 mm in raw ore was 75%, the roasting temperature was 500 °C, the roasting time was 1 h, MgO addition was 3 wt %, the sulfuric acid concentration was 20 vol %, the liquid-to-solid ratio was 1.5 mL/g, the leaching temperature was 95 °C, and leaching time was 2 h, resulting in a vanadium leaching efficiency of 86.63%, which increased by 7.73% compared with that of blank roasting. The mechanism analysis showed that the degree of calcite decomposition was low and, thus, magnesium vanadate was more easily formed than calcium vanadate below 500 °C. Moreover, magnesium vanadate was easier to dissolve than calcium vanadate during the sulfuric acid leaching process. Thus, the vanadium leaching efficiency was enhanced by using MgO as a roasting additive below 500 °C. Additionally, at high temperature the formation of tremolite would consume calcium oxide produced from the decomposition of calcite, thus, the formation of calcium vanadate was hindered, and V2O5 would react with MgO to form magnesium vanadate. Therefore, the vanadium leaching efficiency of roasting with MgO was higher than that of blank roasting at high temperature.

  4. The laser microprobe mass analyser for determining partitioning of minor and trace elements among intimately associated macerals: an example from the Swallow Wood coal bed, Yorkshire, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.C.; Morelli, J.J.; Hercules, D.M.; Lineman, D.; Thompson-Rizer, C. L.; Dulong, F.T.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the elemental composition of intimately associated coal macerals in the English Swallow Wood coal bed was conducted using a laser microprobe mass analyser, and indicated a similar trace and minor elemental chemistry in the vitrinite and cutinite and a different elemental signature in the fusinite. Three to six sites were analysed within each maceral during the study by laser micro mass spectrometry (LAMMS). Al, Ba, Ca, Cl, Cr, Dy, F, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Mg, Na, S, Si, Sr, Ti, V, and Y were detected by LAMMS in all three macerals but not necessarily at each site analysed. The signal intensities of major isotopic peaks were normalized to the signal intensity of the m z 85 peak (C7H) to determine the relative minor- and trace-element concentrations among the three dominant macerals. The vitrinite and the cutinite were depleted in Ba, Ca, Dy, Li, Mg, Sr, and Y relative to their concentrations observed in the fusinite. The cutinite was distinguished over vitrinite by less Ti, V, Cr and Ca, and K Ca $ ??1 (relative signal intensities). The fusinite, relative to the cutinite and vitrinite, was relatively depleted in Cr, Sc, Ti, and V. The fusinite, as compared with both the cutinite and vitrinite, was relatively enriched in Ba, Ca, Dy, Li, Mg, Sr, and Y, and also showed the most intense m z 64, 65, 66 signals (possibly S2+, HS2+, H2S2+, respectively). The LAMMS data indicate a common source for most elements and selective loss from the maceral precursors in the peat or entrapment of certain elements as mineral matter, most likely during the peat stage or during early diagenesis. The relatively high amounts of Ba, Ca, Dy, Li, Mg, Sr, and Y in the fusinite are consistent with micron and submicron mineral-matter inclusions such as carbonates and Ca-Al phosphates (probably crandallite group minerals). Mineralogical data on the whole coal, the LAMMS chemistry of the vitrinite and cutinite, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDAX) of

  5. Type and amount of organic amendments affect enhanced biogenic methane production from coal and microbial community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Katherine J.; Lu, Shipeng; Barnhart, Elliott P.; Parker, Albert E.; Fields, Matthew W.; Gerlach, Robin

    2018-01-01

    Slow rates of coal-to-methane conversion limit biogenic methane production from coalbeds. This study demonstrates that rates of coal-to-methane conversion can be increased by the addition of small amounts of organic amendments. Algae, cyanobacteria, yeast cells, and granulated yeast extract were tested at two concentrations (0.1 and 0.5 g/L), and similar increases in total methane produced and methane production rates were observed for all amendments at a given concentration. In 0.1 g/L amended systems, the amount of carbon converted to methane minus the amount produced in coal only systems exceeded the amount of carbon added in the form of amendment, suggesting enhanced coal-to-methane conversion through amendment addition. The amount of methane produced in the 0.5 g/L amended systems did not exceed the amount of carbon added. While the archaeal communities did not vary significantly, the bacterial populations appeared to be strongly influenced by the presence of coal when 0.1 g/L of amendment was added; at an amendment concentration of 0.5 g/L the bacterial community composition appeared to be affected most strongly by the amendment type. Overall, the results suggest that small amounts of amendment are not only sufficient but possibly advantageous if faster in situcoal-to-methane production is to be promoted.

  6. New insights into enhanced anaerobic degradation of coal gasification wastewater (CGW) with the assistance of graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hao; Han, Yuxing; Ma, Wencheng; Han, Hongjun; Ma, Weiwei; Xu, Chunyan

    2018-08-01

    The up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) system with graphene assisted was developed for coal gasification wastewater (CGW) treatment. Short-term results showed that optimal graphene addition (0.5 g/L) resulted in a more significant enhancement of methane production and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal compared with that of the optimal activated carbon addition (10.0 g/L). Long-term results demonstrated that COD removal efficiency and methane production rate with graphene assisted achieved 64.7% and 180.5 mL/d, respectively. In addition, graphene could promote microbes accumulation and enzymes activity, resulting in higher extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and coenzyme F 420 concentrations. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that chemical of graphene changed insignificantly during the experiment. Meanwhile, with graphene assisted, cells were attached together to form microbial aggregates to facilitate sludge granulation process. Furthermore, the enriched Geobacter and Pseudomonas might perform direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) with Methanosaeta via biological electrical connection, enhancing the anaerobic degradation of CGW. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 煤层气“解吸-扩散-渗流”串联传质的模型和方程%Coal-bed Methane’s“Desorption-Diffusion-Seepage”Tandem Mass Transfer Model and Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东; 魏亚玲; 马青华; 张大鹏

    2015-01-01

    According to the three processes that have been experienced successively by the output of coal-bed methane and withdrawal water from coal rock’s bedding, joint and fracture systems, this paper puts forward a“Desorption-Diffusion-Seepage”tandem mass transfer model and corresponding equations. When the three mass transfer processes are in a state of balance, according to the mass conservation law,it can be deduced that the interface radius r1 between the diffusion area and seepage area has nothing to do with coal-bed’s thickness.%根据煤层气和采出水在煤岩的层理、节理和裂缝系统中产出需先后经历的”解吸—扩散—渗流”3个过程,提出“解、扩、渗”串联传质模型和相应方程。3个传质过程处于平衡状态时,根据发生于扩散区与渗流区交界面处的质量守恒定律,可以推断扩散区与渗流区交界面半径r1与煤层厚度无关。

  8. Solid fuel feed system for a fluidized bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian C.

    1982-01-01

    A fluidized bed for the combustion of coal, with limestone, is replenished with crushed coal from a system discharging the coal laterally from a station below the surface level of the bed. A compartment, or feed box, is mounted at one side of the bed and its interior separated from the bed by a weir plate beneath which the coal flows laterally into the bed while bed material is received into the compartment above the plate to maintain a predetermined minimum level of material in the compartment.

  9. Formation and destruction mechanisms of nitrogen oxides during coal combustion in circulating fluidized beds; Mecanismes de formation et de destruction des oxydes d`azote lors de la combustion du charbon en lit fluidise circulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrel, G.; Lecuyer, I. [Universite du Haut-Rhin, 68 - Mulhouse (France)

    1997-01-01

    Formation and reduction of nitrogen oxides (NO and N{sub 2}O) during coal combustion in a circulating fluidized bed (CFBC) are very complicated and yet badly known. The aim of the present study was to better characterize these phenomena on a small-sized experimental unit (reactor diameter: 5 cm), with the possibility to re-inject the solids in the bottom of the furnace, as in a real industrial unit. This should allow then to develop a numerical set of chemical reactions involving the nitrogen oxides. The experimental results showed that coal ash plays a great role in reducing nitrogen oxides, the determining parameter being the quantity of unburnt carbon remaining in the ash. The study then detailed the interaction between nitrogen oxides and de-volatilized (char) according to the temperature, NO{sub x} concentration and the mass of solid. In the absence of oxygen small quantities of char can very significantly reduce NO as well as N{sub 2}O. It was possible to establish destruction kinetics on these particles, and orders of reaction could be determined versus the NO{sub x} concentration and the char particle mass (heterogeneous phase chemical reactions). Then, the coal pyrolysis study enabled to identify the products released during coal devolatilization and thermogravimetric analyses displayed several successive weight losses due CO, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} releases, during a linear temperature increase. Lastly coal combustion was studied in the small pilot with variable experimental conditions. Using the previous experimental was studied in the small pilot with variable experimental conditions. Using the previous experimental results, a model was developed to calculate NO{sub x} concentrations during the coal combustion and validated. The NO and N{sub 2}O contents calculated are thoroughly correlated with the experimental data whatever the injection carbon/oxygen ratio is. (author) 96 refs.

  10. Concerning coal: an anthology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, M.; Hawse, M.L.; Maloney, P.J. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    The anthology takes a humanistic look at coal mining in Illinois. One of its goals is to increase public awareness of coal in American society; it also seeks to enhance understanding of the historical aspects of coal and to study the impact of coal on mining families. Many of the 25 selections in the anthology come from Coal Research Center publications, `Concerning coal` and `Mineral matters`. Articles are arranged in three parts entitled: life in the mining community; mining in folklore, story telling, literature, art and music; and technology as it affected the people of the coal fields. 117 refs., 25 photos. 1 map.

  11. Coal combustion by-product quality at two stoker boilers: Coal source vs. fly ash collection system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardon, Sarah M. [Kentucky Department for Environmental Protection, Division of Water, Frankfort, KY 40601 (United States); Hower, James C. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); O' Keefe, Jennifer M.K. [Morehead State University, Department of Physical Sciences, Morehead, KY 40351 (United States); Marks, Maria N. [Environmental Consulting Services, Lexington, KY 40508 (United States); Hedges, Daniel H. [University of Kentucky, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Fly ashes from two stoker boilers burning Pennsylvanian Eastern Kentucky high volatile A bituminous coal blends were examined for their petrology and chemistry. The source coals have similar trace element contents. One of the ash collection systems was retrofitted with a baghouse (fabric filter) system, collecting a finer fly ash at a cooler flue gas temperature than the plant that has not been reconfigured. The baghouse ash has a markedly higher trace element content than the coarser fly ash from the other plant. The enhanced trace element content is most notable in the As concentration, reaching nearly 9000 ppm (ash basis) for one of the collection units. Differences in the ash chemistry are not due to any substantial differences in the coal source, even though the coal sources were from different counties and from different coal beds, but rather to the improved pollution control system in the steam plant with the higher trace element contents. (author)

  12. FY 1991 report on the results of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 4. Operation of pilot plant; 1991 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 4. Pilot plant unten sosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-01-01

    A record was summarized of the operation of the 200 t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant that was constructed with the aim of establishing technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation. As to the actual results of operation hours, the paper summarized the records of gasifier facilities, gas refining facilities, gas turbine facilities and safety environment facilities which were collected from April 1991 to January 1993. Relating to the actual results of start-up/stop, the paper summarized the records of gasifier facilities, gas refining facilities (desulfurization), gas refining facilities (dedusting), gas turbine facilities and safety environment facilities. Further, operation manuals were made for the schedule of plant start-up/stop, generalization, gasifier facilities, gas refining facilities (desulfurization), gas refining facilities (dedusting), gas turbine facilities, actual pressure/actual size combustor testing facilities and safety environment facilities. (NEDO)

  13. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    Pulsed atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (PAFBC) is a unique and innovative coal-fueled technology that has the potential to meet these conditions and provide heat and/or process steam to small industrial, commercial, institutional and residential complexes. The potential of Pulse Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (PAFBC) technology has been amply demonstrated under the sponsorship of a previous DOE/METC contract (DE-AC21-88MC25069). The environmental performance of a coal-fired laboratory-scale system (1.5 million British Thermal Units per hour) (MMBtu/hr) significantly surpassed that of conventional bubbling and circulating fluidized-bed combustion units (see Table 1 for performance comparison). Prompted by these encouraging results in combustion, sulfur capture, emissions control, and enhanced heat transfer, Island Creek Coal Company (ICC) and Baltimore Thermal Energy Corporation expressed interest in the technology and offered to participate by providing host sites for field testing. EA's have been submitted independently for each of these field test sites. This submission addresses the preliminary testing of the PAFBC unit at Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International's (MTCI) Baltimore, MD facility

  14. Kinetics of gasification and combustion of residues, biomass and coal in a bubbling fluidized bed; Die Kinetik der Vergasung und Verbrennung unterschiedlicher Abfaelle, Biomassen und Kohlen in der blasenbildenden Wirbelschicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamel, S; Krumm, W [Siegen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energie- und Umweltverfahrenstechnik

    1998-09-01

    The combustion and gasification characteristics of Rhenish brown coal, domestic waste, waste plastics, wood and sewage sludge were investigated in a bubbling atmospheric fluidized bed in the laboratory scale. The materials were pyrolyzed in the fluidized bed in a nitrogen atmosphere. The residual coke was combuted in the presence of oxygen with varying operating parameters or else gasified in the presence of carbon dioxide. The different materials were characterized by global combustion rates, and kinetic parameters were determined for residual coke combustion. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Verbrennungs- und Vergasungsverhalten von Rheinischer Braunkohle, Hausmuell, Restkunststoff, Holz und Klaerschlamm wurde in einer blasenbildenden, atmosphaerischen Laborwirbelschicht untersucht. Die Einsatzstoffe wurden in der mit Stickstoff fluidisierten Wirbelschicht pyrolysiert. Der verbleibende Restkoks wurde anschliessend unter Variation der Betriebsparameter mit Sauerstoff verbrannt oder mit Kohlendioxid vergast. Die unterschiedlichen Einsatzstoffe wurden durch globale Vebrennungsraten charakterisiert. Fuer die Restkoksverbrennung wurden kinetische Parameter ermittelt. (orig.)

  15. FY 1991 report on the results of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 1. Support study for the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant (Dismantling study); 1991 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu (Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu no shien kenkyu) - Sono 1. Kaitai kenkyu hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-04-01

    As a support study for the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant by a 200 t/d pilot plant, the dismantling study was made for gasifier facilities, desulfurization facilities, dedusting facilities at the existing 40 t/d testing facilities. In the results of the analysis of the specimens sampled from gasifier and peripheral facilities, the corrosion loss of thickness was great in carbon steel/low-alloy steel equipment, and the generation of intergranular corrosion/intergranular crack was recognized in stainless steel equipment. The loss of thickness caused by erosion was also recognized in carrier tubes, etc. As to the high-temperature dry desulfurization system, the damage was totally great, but the effect of taking measures for it was unclear because the loss of thickness by corrosion/abrasion had not been measured regularly. Relating to the high-temperature dry dedusting system, there used to be a lot of troubles from stress corrosion cracking and pitting corrosion, and the best measures for corrosion prevention were taken for each trouble. As to the Al thermal spraying, stabilized thermal treatment, shot-peening, etc., the excellent corrosion prevention effect was recognized on the austenite stainless steel. (NEDO)

  16. FY 1996 report on the results of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 2. Investigational study of verification plant; 1995 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 2. Jissho plant ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    For the purpose of developing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, an investigational study of verification plant was made, and the FY 1996 results were summarized. In this fiscal year, the conceptual design was made of the Nakoso method based on the method of Nakoso pilot plant, the fixed bed method in which fixed bed gas refining facilities tested in Nakoso pilot plant were adopted, and the packed bed method. In the Nakoso method, 5 cases were studied using the air blown two-stage entrained bed for gasifier, dry two-stage fluidized bed for desulfurization and dry granular bed packed bed for dust removal. In the fixed bed method, 2 cases were studied using the air blown two-stage entrained bed for gasifier and dry fixed bed for gas refining. In the packed bed method, 2 cases were studied using the air blown two-stage entrained bed for gasifier and dry packed bed for gas refining. As to gas turbine facilities, 5 cases were studied in which GT output is 115MW - 215MW (output of combined cycle power generation: 220MW - 420MW). (NEDO)

  17. Experimental study on coolability of particulate core-metal debris bed with oxidization, (2). Fragmentation and enhanced heat transfer in zircaloy debris bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Guanghui; Sugiyama, Ken-ichiro; Aoki, Hiroomi; Kimura, Iichi

    2006-01-01

    The oxidization and coolability characteristics of the particulate Zircaloy debris bed, which is deposited under the hard debris and through which first vapor penetrates and then water penetrates, are studied in the present paper. In the vapor penetration experiments, it is found that Zircaloy debris particles are effectively broken into small pieces after making thick oxidized layer with deep clacks by rapid oxidization under the condition that vapor with 20 cm/s penetrates for 30 to 70 min at an initial debris bed temperature of 1,030degC. It is also confirmed in the water penetration experiments that the oxidized particle debris bed has potentially of high coolability when water penetrates through the fully oxidized particle bed because of a high capillary force originating from those particles with deep cracks on their surfaces. Based on the present study, a new scenario for the appearance and disappearance of the hot spot in the TMI-2 accident is possible. The particulate core-metal core-metal debris bed is first heated up by rapid oxidization with heat generation when vapor can penetrate through the debris bed with porosities. This corresponds to the appearance of the hot spot. The resultant oxidized particulate debris bed causes a high coolability due to its high capillary force when the water can touch the debris bed at wet condition. This corresponds to the disappearance of the hot spot. (author)

  18. Coal: the future in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    The whole issue is devoted to the future of coal in South Africa, and includes articles on the Petrick report, coal conversion research in South Africa, the activities of the Fuel Research Institute (on beneficiation, briquetting, carbonization, fluidized bed combustion), Sasol's production of chemical feedstocks from coal, mining methods, and the coal requirements of the electric and chemical industries.

  19. Inhibition of IL-17A suppresses enhanced-tumor growth in low dose pre-irradiated tumor beds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jung Lee

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation induces modification of the tumor microenvironment such as tumor surrounding region, which is relevant to treatment outcome after radiotherapy. In this study, the effects of pre-irradiated tumor beds on the growth of subsequently implanted tumors were investigated as well as underlying mechanism. The experimental model was set up by irradiating the right thighs of C3H/HeN mice with 5 Gy, followed by the implantation of HCa-I and MIH-2. Both implanted tumors in the pre-irradiated bed showed accelerated-growth compared to the control. Tumor-infiltrated lymphocyte (TIL levels were increased, as well as pro-tumor factors such as IL-6 and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1 in the pre-irradiated group. In particular, the role of pro-tumor cytokine interleukin-17A (IL-17A was investigated as a possible target mechanism because IL-6 and TGF-β are key factors in Th17 cells differentiation from naïve T cells. IL-17A expression was increased not only in tumors, but also in CD4+ T cells isolated from the tumor draining lymph nodes. The effect of IL-17A on tumor growth was confirmed by treating tumors with IL-17A antibody, which abolished the acceleration of tumor growth. These results indicate that the upregulation of IL-17A seems to be a key factor for enhancing tumor growth in pre-irradiated tumor beds.

  20. Seismic characterization of CO{sub 2} in coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCrank, J.; Lawton, D.C. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geoscience, Consortium for Research in Elastic Wave Exploration Seismology

    2008-07-01

    The Mynheer coal seam was targeted for an enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) experiment. During initial testing of the reservoir permeability, 180 tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) was injected into the seam. The objective of the study was to characterize the coal zones and to determine if the small volume of CO{sub 2} in the thinly bedded and seismically tuned reservoir can be detected in the 3D surface seismic data. The multi-well pilot project took place in the Pembina Field of west-central Alberta. The Ardley coals were tested for CO{sub 2} injection, enhanced CBM production, and CO{sub 2} sequestration. The seismic survey captured the condition of the reservoir after formation permeability tests. It was concluded that the anomalies seen in the seismic data can be attributed to changes in the physical properties of the coal due to CO{sub 2} adsorption. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    According to the World Energy Council (WEC), at the beginning of the next century three main energy sources - coal, nuclear power and oil will have equal share in the world's total energy supply. This forecast is also valid for the USSR which possesses more than 40% of the world's coal resources and continuously increases its coal production (more than 700 million tons of coal are processed annually in the USSR). The stringent environmental regulations, coupled with the tendency to increase the use of coal are the reasons for developing different concepts for clean coal utilization. In this paper, the potential efficiency and environmental performance of different clean coal production cycles are considered, including technologies for coal clean-up at the pre-combustion stage, advanced clean combustion methods and flue gas cleaning systems. Integrated systems, such as combined gas-steam cycle and the pressurized fluidized bed boiler combined cycle, are also discussed. The Soviet National R and D program is studying new methods for coal utilization with high environmental performance. In this context, some basic research activities in the field of clean coal technology in the USSR are considered. Development of an efficient vortex combustor, a pressurized fluidized bed gasifier, advanced gas cleaning methods based on E-beam irradiation and plasma discharge, as well as new catalytic system, are are presented. In addition, implementation of technological innovations for retrofitting and re powering of existing power plants is discussed. (author)

  2. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  3. Flue Gas Emissions from Fluidized Bed Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bramer, E.A.; Valk, M.

    1995-01-01

    During the past decades fluidized bed coal combustion was developed as a technology for burning coal in an effective way meeting the standards for pollution control. During the earlier years of research on fluidized bed combustion, the potential for limiting the S02 emission by adding limestone to

  4. Research report of FY 1997 on the environmentally acceptable coal utilization system introduction support project. Demonstration project of circulating fluidized bed boiler (Jinzhou Coal-Thermal Power Corporation); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho (kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo). Junkan ryudosho boiler ni kakawaru jissho jigyo (Jinzhou netsuden sokoji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    To verify the clean coal technology to be diffused in China and consolidate its diffusion basis, demonstration project of circulating fluidized bed boiler was conducted through the cooperation with China which is positive in its introduction. This report describes its characteristics. Coal and limestone are supplied in a lower part of combustion chamber, and are mixed with circulating ash by fluidized air for combustion. Densely fluidized bed the same as the bubbling fluidized bed is formed in the lower part of combustion chamber, which provides excellent stability in ignition and combustion. Particles including ash, char and limestone formed during the combustion are discharged into the cyclone through the convection heat transfer part at the outlet of combustion chamber with the combustion gas flow. Since the gas temperature is lowered to 400 to 500degC at the convection heat transfer part, troubles of the ash circulating system can be prevented. The combustion gas separated from ash at the cyclone is discharged through the heat exchanger and precipitator, and the collected ash is returned to the lower part of combustion chamber. In FY 1997, design, fabrication, procurement/inspection, field survey/meeting, survey of visitors/meeting, and education were carried out. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Rosebud syncoal partnership SynCoal{sup {reg_sign}} demonstration technology development update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, R.W. [Rosebud SynCoal Company, Billings, MT (United States); Heintz, S.J. [Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Rosebud SynCoal{reg_sign} Partnership`s Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) is an advanced thermal coal upgrading process coupled with physical cleaning techniques to upgrade high moisture, low-rank coals to produce a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel. The coal is processed through two vibrating fluidized bed reactors where oxygen functional groups are destroyed removing chemically bound water, carboxyl and carbonyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the SynCoal{reg_sign} is cleaned using a deep-bed stratifier process to effectively separate the pyrite rich ash. The SynCoal{reg_sign} process enhances low-rank western coals with moisture contents ranging from 2555%, sulfur contents between 0.5 and 1.5 %, and heating values between 5,500 and 9,000 Btu/lb. The upgraded stable coal product has moisture contents as low as 1 %, sulfur contents as low as 0.3%, and heating values up to 12,000 Btu/lb.

  6. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  7. Combustion studies in a fluidised bed-The link between temperature, NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O formation, char morphology and coal type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentim, B.; Lemos de Sousa, M.J. [Centro de Geologia da Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Ciencias, Praca de Gomes Teixeira, 4099-002, Porto (Portugal); Abelha, P.; Boavida, D.; Gulyurtlu, I. [Departamento de Engenharia Energetica e Controlo Ambiental (DEECA), Instituto Nacional de Engenharia, Tecnologia e Inovacao (INETI), Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, Edif. J, 1649-038, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2006-06-06

    Five commercially available high volatile bituminous coals from different origins were studied with the objective of characterizing their petrographic nature with respect to emissions of NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O. The chars produced [at temperatures ranging from 700 to 1000 {sup o}C] from these coals were also petrographic ally analyzed to assess the contribution of char to NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O formation during combustion. Vitrinite-rich coals produced higher porous chars (cenospheres and tenuinetworks) than those that are rich in inertinite. The former coals were, however, found to release lower concentrations of NO. Consistent with previous works, N{sub 2}O emissions were observed to decrease significantly with temperature, however, on the whole, the N{sub 2}O emissions from vitrinite-rich high volatile coals were less than those from inertinite-rich coals. Additionally, high porous chars were found to give rise to lower emissions of NO and N{sub 2}O. (author)

  8. Coal background paper. Coal demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Statistical data are presented on coal demands in IEA and OECD member countries and in other countries. Coal coaking and coaking coal consumption data are tabulated, and IEA secretariat's coal demand projections are summarized. Coal supply and production data by countries are given. Finally, coal trade data are presented, broken down for hard coal, steam coal, coking coal (imports and export). (R.P.)

  9. Potential for CO2 sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane production in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamelinck, C.N.; Schreurs, H.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Ruijg, G.J.; Jansen, Daan; Pagnier, H.; Bergen, F. van; Wolf, K.-H.; Barzandji, O.; Bruining, H.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the technical and economic feasibility of using CO2 for the enhanced production of coal bed methane (ECBM) in the Netherlands. This concept could lead to both CO2 storage by adsorbing CO2 in deep coal layers that are not suitable for mining, as well as production of methane.

  10. FY 1991 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 1. Element study/investigational study of technology/study of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power system; 1991 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Youso kenkyu hen, gijutsu chosa hen, sekitan gaska fukugo hatsuden system kento hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-01-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, the following were conducted: element study of a 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant, survey of technology of the coal gasification power generation, study of the practical scale IGCC, etc. The FY 1991 results were summarized. In the gasification test using 2t/d furnace equipment, evaluation test on the test coal for pilot plant was made. In the study of gas turbine combustor for demonstration machine use, measuring duct was fabricated for measurement of combustion gas temperature/pressure, etc. In the simulational study of the total system of combined cycle power generation, review/modification of part of the simulation model and detailing of the model were conducted by comparison with the data on pilot plant operation. In the technology study, joint technology conferences were held for discussions between Japan and Australia, Japan and the U.S., and Japan and Canada. As to the practical scale IGCC, the initially planned output capacity and thermal efficiency were studied based on the knowledge/information obtained through the R and D on the 200t/d pilot plant. (NEDO)

  11. Potential water-quality effects of coal-bed methane production water discharged along the upper Tongue River, Wyoming and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, Stacy M.; Nimick, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Water quality in the upper Tongue River from Monarch, Wyoming, downstream to just upstream from the Tongue River Reservoir in Montana potentially could be affected by discharge of coal-bed methane (CBM) production water (hereinafter referred to as CBM discharge). CBM discharge typically contains high concentrations of sodium and other ions that could increase dissolved-solids (salt) concentrations, specific conductance (SC), and sodium-adsorption ratio (SAR) in the river. Increased inputs of sodium and other ions have the potential to alter the river's suitability for agricultural irrigation and aquatic ecosystems. Data from two large tributaries, Goose Creek and Prairie Dog Creek, indicate that these tributaries were large contributors to the increase in SC and SAR in the Tongue River. However, water-quality data were not available for most of the smaller inflows, such as small tributaries, irrigation-return flows, and CBM discharges. Thus, effects of these inflows on the water quality of the Tongue River were not well documented. Effects of these small inflows might be subtle and difficult to determine without more extensive data collection to describe spatial patterns. Therefore, synoptic water-quality sampling trips were conducted in September 2005 and April 2006 to provide a spatially detailed profile of the downstream changes in water quality in this reach of the Tongue River. The purpose of this report is to describe these downstream changes in water quality and to estimate the potential water-quality effects of CBM discharge in the upper Tongue River. Specific conductance of the Tongue River through the study reach increased from 420 to 625 microsiemens per centimeter (.μS/cm; or 49 percent) in the downstream direction in September 2005 and from 373 to 543 .μS/cm (46 percent) in April 2006. Large increases (12 to 24 percent) were measured immediately downstream from Goose Creek and Prairie Dog Creek during both sampling trips. Increases attributed to

  12. Non-polluting steam generators with fluidized-bed furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, H [Deutsche Babcock A.G., Oberhausen (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-07-01

    The author reports on a 35 MW steam generator with hard coal fluidized-bed furnace a planned 35 MW steam generator with flotation-dirt fluidized-bed furnace, and on planned steam generators for fluidized-bed firing of hard coal up to a steam power of about 200 MW.

  13. Interaction and the structures of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opaprakasit, Pakorn

    solvents, which in turn enhances the coal extraction yield. Finally, the evidence for the presence of a glass transition temperature in coal was examined. The results from Differential Scanning Calorimetry showed that no transition similar to the Tg can be observed in bulk coal or its low-molecular weight fraction, pyridine soluble extracted material, at a temperature near 110°C. In contrast, an irreversible transition that is due to water evaporation has been found. Thermomechanical measurements, which are very sensitive to the presence of a Tg in synthetic polymers, also provided no evidence for a Tg below temperatures where chemical reactions occur. Additionally, the results from Thermomechanical Analysis showed an expansion in size when the coal was heated to 300°C, which is associated with a "caking" process. The degree of expansion during this "caking" process is about five times greater in the direction perpendicular to the bedding plane than the parallel, indicating an accommodation of anisotropic strain relaxation, which was generated in the direction perpendicular to the bedding plane during the coalification process.

  14. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1993 on development of a jet flow bed gasification electric power plant. Investigative research on a technology to treat coals used for coal gasification (investigation for coal type selection); 1993 nendo funryusho gas ka hatsuden plant kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Sekitan gas kayotan no shori gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu (tanshu sentei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1993 in the investigation for coal type selection. The investigation is purposed to elucidate the status of existence and resources of coals as the raw material for coal gasification and liquefaction, the coal quality features, and the gasification and liquefaction characteristics. The results will be used as the fundamental materials for technological development. Discussions will also be given on the coal applicability to the composite gasification power generation system in which liquefied residue generated in the process are mixed with the supplied coal. Coal quality analysis and a liquefaction test under the standard condition were completed on 389 test samples composed of 136 kinds of coals produced in Canada, Australia, the U.S.A., China and Indonesia. Coal types were enumerated according to the oil yield. A gasification test was performed on the specific gravity separated coals of Chinese coals to discuss the effect of change in the ash amount on the gasification characteristics. A partial coal combustion test revealed that fuel ratio, oxygen partial pressure, and oxygen molar fraction parameters affect the combustion characteristics. The micro-gravity field is effective in discussing the combustion characteristics of particulate groups of dust coal. A coal oxidizing test was performed, wherein oxidizing characteristics and spontaneous ignition performance were estimated successfully from temperature rise of heat stored in coal. The coal type matrix data were prepared. (NEDO)

  15. Syngas fermentation by Clostridium carboxidivorans P7 in a horizontal rotating packed bed biofilm reactor with enhanced ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yanwen; Brown, Robert C.; Wen, Zhiyou

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel a horizontal rotating packed bed (h-RPB) reactor for syngas fermentation was reported. • The h-RPB reactor enhanced ethanol productivity by 3.3-folds compared to continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). • The h-RPB reactor has a unique feature of transfer gas from both bulk liquid phase and headspace phase. • The mass transfer in the headspace of h-PRB played an important role for enhanced ethanol production. - Abstract: Gasification of lignocellulosic biomass followed by syngas fermentation is a promising process for producing fuels and chemicals. Syngas fermentation, however, is commonly limited by low mass transfer rates. In this work, a horizontally oriented rotating packed bed (h-RPB) reactor was developed to improve mass transfer and enhance ethanol production. In the h-RPB reactor, cell attachment materials were packed in the reactor and half submerged in the liquid and half exposed to the headspace. With continuous rotation of the packing materials, the cells in biofilm were alternately in contact with liquid and headspace; thus, transport of syngas to the cells occurred in both the liquid phase and headspace. The volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k_La) of the h-RPB reactor was lower than that in a traditional continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), indicating the mass transfer in the liquid phase of h-PRB was lower than CSTR, and the mass transfer in the headspace phase played an important role in syngas fermentation. The syngas fermentation of Clostridium carboxidivorans P7 in h-RPB resulted in a 7.0 g/L titer and 6.7 g/L/day productivity of ethanol, respectively, 3.3 times higher than those obtained in a CSTR under the same operational conditions. The results demonstrate that the h-RPB reactor is an efficient system for syngas fermentation, making cellulosic ethanol biorefinery one step closer to technical and economic feasibility.

  16. CdS loaded on coal based activated carbon nanofibers with enhanced photocatalytic property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jixi; Guo, Mingxi; Jia, Dianzeng; Song, Xianli; Tong, Fenglian

    2016-08-01

    The coal based activated carbon nanofibers (CBACFs) were prepared by electrospinning a mixture of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and acid treated coal. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles loaded on CBACFs were fabricated by solvothermal method. The obtained samples were characterized by FESEM, TEM, and XRD. The results reveal that the CdS nanoparticles are homogeneously dispersed on the surfaces of CBACFs. The CdS/CBACFs nanocomposites exhibited higher photoactivity for photodegradation of methyl blue (MB) under visible light irradiation than pure CdS nanoparticles. CBACFs can be used as low cost support materials for the preparation of nanocomposites with high photocatalytic activity.

  17. High-rate wastewater treatment combining a moving bed biofilm reactor and enhanced particle separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helness, H; Melin, E; Ulgenes, Y; Järvinen, P; Rasmussen, V; Odegaard, H

    2005-01-01

    Many cities around the world are looking for compact wastewater treatment alternatives since space for treatment plants is becoming scarce. In this paper development of a new compact, high-rate treatment concept with results from experiments in lab-scale and pilot-scale are presented. The idea behind the treatment concept is that coagulation/floc separation may be used to separate suspended and colloidal matter (resulting in > 70% organic matter removal in normal wastewater) while a high-rate biofilm process (based on Moving Bed biofilm reactors) may be used for removing low molecular weight, easily biodegradable, soluble organic matter. By using flotation for floc/biomass separation, the total residence time for a plant according to this concept will normally be treatment) and sufficient P-removal.

  18. Coal -98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1998-01-01

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1997. Some information about technic, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1997 was 730 000 tons and about 500 000 tons lower than in 1996. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of hydro power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. Some foreign analysts, however, estimate a doubled use of coal for energy use after 2020 because of the plans to phase out the nuclear power. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1997 these figures are 2 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1997 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.5 Mill tons. 0.3 mill tons of coke were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has plans to build a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has taken a fluid bed boiler for different fuels in operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm

  19. Gas cleaning and hydrogen sulfide removal for COREX coal gas by sorption enhanced catalytic oxidation over recyclable activated carbon desulfurizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tonghua; Shen, Yafei; Jia, Jinping

    2014-02-18

    This paper proposes a novel self-developed JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 alkaline adsorbent for H2S removal and gas cleaning of the COREX coal gas in small-scale and commercial desulfurizing devices. JTS-01 desulfurizer was loaded with metal oxide (i.e., ferric oxides) catalysts on the surface of activated carbons (AC), and the catalyst capacity was improved dramatically by means of ultrasonically assisted impregnation. Consequently, the sulfur saturation capacity and sulfur capacity breakthrough increased by 30.3% and 27.9%, respectively. The whole desulfurizing process combined selective adsorption with catalytic oxidation. Moreover, JZC-80 adsorbent can effectively remove impurities such as HCl, HF, HCN, and ash in the COREX coal gas, stabilizing the system pressure drop. The JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 adsorbent have been successfully applied for the COREX coal gas cleaning in the commercial plant at Baosteel, Shanghai. The sulfur capacity of JTS-01 desulfurizer can reach more than 50% in industrial applications. Compared with the conventional dry desulfurization process, the modified AC desulfurizers have more merit, especially in terms of the JTS-01 desulfurizer with higher sulfur capacity and low pressure drop. Thus, this sorption enhanced catalytic desulfurization has promising prospects for H2S removal and other gas cleaning.

  20. Coal comes clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minchener, A.

    1991-01-01

    Coal's status as the dominant fuel for electricity generation is under threat because of concern over the environmental impacts of acid rain and the greenhouse effect. Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides cause acid rain and carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas. All are produced when coal is burnt. Governments are therefore tightening the emission limits for fossil-fuel power plants. In the United Kingdom phased reductions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions are planned. It will be the responsibility of the power generator to take the necessary steps to reduce the emissions. This will be done using a number of technologies which are explained and outlined briefly - flue gas desulfurization, separation of coal into high and low-sulphur coal, direct desulfurization of coal, circulating fluidised bed combustion, integrated-gasification combined cycle systems and topping cycles. All these technologies are aiming at cleaner, more efficient combustion of coal. (UK)

  1. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  2. Coal conversion. 1977 technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The status and progress in US DOE's projects in coal gasification, liquefaction, and fluidized-bed combustion are reviewed with financing, flowsheets, history, progress and status of each (57 projects). (LTN)

  3. Preliminary reservoir model of enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) in a subbituminous coal seam, Huntly Coalfield, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarrouk, Sadiq J. [Department of Engineering Science, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Moore, Tim A. [Solid Energy New Zealand Ltd, PO Box. 1303, Christchurch (New Zealand)]|[Department of Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2009-01-07

    The Huntly coalfield has significant coal deposits that contain biogenically-sourced methane. The coals are subbituminous in rank and Eocene in age and have been previously characterised with relatively low to moderate measured gas (CH{sub 4}) contents (2-4 m{sup 3}/ton). The CO{sub 2} holding capacity is relatively high (18.0 m{sup 3}/ton) compared with that of CH{sub 4} (2.6 m{sup 3}/ton) and N{sub 2} (0.7 m{sup 3}/ton) at the same pressure (4 MPa; all as received basis). The geothermal gradient is also quite high at 55 C/km. A study has been conducted which simulates enhancement of methane recovery (ECBM) from these deposits using a new version of the TOUGH2 (version 2) reservoir simulator (ECBM-TOUGH2) that can handle non-isothermal, multi-phase flows of mixtures of water, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}. The initial phase of the simulation is CH{sub 4} production for the first 5 years of the field history. The model indicates that methane production can be significantly improved (from less than 80% recovery to nearly 90%) through injection of CO{sub 2}. However, although an increase in the rate of CO{sub 2} injection increases the amount of CO{sub 2} sequestered, the methane recovery (because of earlier breakthrough with increasing injection rate) decreases. Modeling of pure N{sub 2} injection produced little enhanced CH{sub 4} production. The injection of a hypothetical flue gas mixture (CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}) also produced little increase in CH{sub 4} production. This is related to the low adsorption capacity of the Huntly coal to N{sub 2} which results in almost instantaneous breakthrough into the production well. (author)

  4. Comments on "Design of Entrained-Flow and Moving-, Packed-, and Fluidized-Bed Sorption Systems: Grain-Model Kinetics for Hot Coal-Gas Desulfurization with Limestone"

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Svoboda, Karel; Trnka, Otakar

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 41, - (2002), s. 1914-1915 ISSN 0888-5885 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : hydrogen sulfide * calcium oxide * coal gas Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.247, year: 2002

  5. Enhancing mercury removal across air pollution control devices for coal-fired power plants by desulfurization wastewater evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Hu; Yang, Yi; Cai, Liang; Yang, Linjun; Roszak, Szczepan

    2017-10-09

    Desulfurization wastewater evaporation technology is used to enhance the removal of gaseous mercury (Hg) in conventional air pollution control devices (APCDs) for coal-fired power plants. Studies have affirmed that gaseous Hg is oxidized and removed by selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) in a coal-fired thermal experiment platform with WFGD wastewater evaporation. Effects of desulfurization wastewater evaporation position, evaporation temperature and chlorine ion concentration on Hg oxidation were studied as well. The Hg 0 oxidation efficiency was increased ranging from 30% to 60%, and the gaseous Hg removal efficiency was 62.16% in APCDs when wastewater evaporated before SCR. However, the Hg 0 oxidation efficiency was 18.99% and the gaseous Hg removal efficiency was 40.19% in APCDs when wastewater evaporated before ESP. The results show that WFGD wastewater evaporation before SCR is beneficial to improve the efficiency of Hg oxidized and removed in APCDs. Because Hg 2+ can be easily removed in ACPDs and WFGD wastewater in power plants is enriched with chlorine ions, this method realizes WFGD wastewater zero discharge and simultaneously enhances Hg removal in APCDs.

  6. Geological storage of carbon dioxide in the coal seams: from material to the reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikoosokhan, S.

    2012-01-01

    CO 2 emissions into the atmosphere are recognized to have a significant effect on global warming. Geological storage of CO 2 is widely regarded as an essential approach to reduce the impact of such emissions on the environment. Moreover, injecting carbon dioxide in coal bed methane reservoirs facilitates the recovery of the methane naturally present, a process known as enhanced coal bed methane recovery (ECBM). But the swelling of the coal matrix induced by the preferential adsorption by coal of carbon dioxide over the methane in place leads to a closure of the cleat system (a set of small natural fractures) of the reservoir and therefore to a loss of injectivity. This PhD thesis is dedicated to a study of how this injectivity evolves in presence of fluids. We derive two poro-mechanical dual-porosity models for a coal bed reservoir saturated by a pure fluid. The resulting constitutive equations enable to better understand and model the link between the injectivity of a coal seam and the adsorption-induced swelling of coal. For both models, the pore space of the reservoir is considered to be divided into the macroporous cleats and the pores of the coal matrix. The two models differ by how adsorption of fluid is taken into account: the first model is restricted to surface adsorption, while the second model can be applied for adsorption in a medium with a generic pore size distribution and thus in a microporous medium such as coal, in which adsorption mostly occurs by micropore filling. The latter model is calibrated on two coals with different sorption and swelling properties. We then perform simulations at various scales (Representative Elementary Volume, coal sample, coal seam). In particular, we validate our model on experimental data of adsorption-induced variations of permeability of coal. We also perform simulations of seams from which methane would be produced (CBM) or of methane-free seams into which CO 2 would be injected. We study the effect of various

  7. An Improved Flexible Solar Thermal Energy Integration Process for Enhancing the Coal-Based Energy Efficiency and NOx Removal Effectiveness in Coal-Fired Power Plants under Different Load Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Han

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An improved flexible solar-aided power generation system (SAPG for enhancing both selective catalytic reduction (SCR de-NOx efficiency and coal-based energy efficiency of coal-fired power plants is proposed. In the proposed concept, the solar energy injection point is changed for different power plant loads, bringing about different benefits for coal-fired power generation. For partial/low load, solar energy is beneficially used to increase the flue gas temperature to guarantee the SCR de-NOx effectiveness as well as increase the boiler energy input by reheating the combustion air. For high power load, solar energy is used for saving steam bleeds from turbines by heating the feed water. A case study for a typical 1000 MW coal-fired power plant using the proposed concept has been performed and the results showed that, the SCR de-NOx efficiency of proposed SAPG could increase by 3.1% and 7.9% under medium load and low load conditions, respectively, as compared with the reference plant. The standard coal consumption rate of the proposed SAPG could decrease by 2.68 g/kWh, 4.05 g/kWh and 6.31 g/kWh for high, medium and low loads, respectively, with 0.040 USD/kWh of solar generated electricity cost. The proposed concept opens up a novel solar energy integration pattern in coal-fired power plants to improve the pollutant removal effectiveness and decrease the coal consumption of the power plant.

  8. Low-rank coal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  9. The unconstitutionality of the compensatory fee according to section 8 of the Third Act on Enhanced Use of Coal for Electricity Generation ('Coal Pfennig'). Federal Constitutional Court, judgment of 11 Oct. 1994 - 2BvR 633/86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haager, K.; Lauffer, P.

    1995-01-01

    In order to protect the financial system of the federation as well as the appropriations power of the Bundestag from interference, and in order to account for the requirement of individual protection of the tax payers with regard to equality of burdens, a special levy shall be permitted by constitutional law only under very stringent conditions, and in very exceptional cases. The compensatory fee according to section 8 of the Third Act on Enhanced Use of Coal for Electricity Generation ('Coal Pfennig') thus is unconstitutional, as it puts an additional burden on the body of tax payers who as such do not bear responsibility for the financing of the purpose, to subsidise the use of coal for electricity generation. (orig.) [de

  10. FY 1992 report on the results of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 3. Operation test of pilot plant (1/2); 1992 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 3. Pilot plant unten shiken hen (1/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-02-01

    The study of operation test was made of the 200 t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant that was constructed with the aim of establishing technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, and the details of the FY 1992 results were summarized. At RUN 10, conducted were the confirmation of the quantity of state of gasifier in the coal-fired high load operation and coal-fired constant load operation, and slagging survey. At RUN 11, the evaluation made after the work for prevention of slagging, and confirmation of the quantity of state of gasifier at a load of 80% heat input. At RUN 12, the evaluation of the measures taken against slagging, and test on the high load stable operation. At RUN 13, the evaluation of the measures taken against slagging, and large combustor response/total pressure control response tests. At RUN D1, test on the change of coal kind from A coal to D coal, and test on the initial adjusting operation of D coal. In the trial operation of these, the following were generated and the preventive measures were studied: impossibility of circulation of desulfurizing agent in gas refining facilities (dry desulfurizing system), bolt fracture of gas refining facilities (separator of dedusting facilities). (NEDO)

  11. Fiscal 1995 achievement report. Development of entrained bed coal gasification power plant (Part 4 - Pilot plant operation); 1995 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 4. Pilot plant unten sosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The 200 tons/day entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant constructed for establishing the technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle was subjected to operational tests, and the fiscal 1995 results are compiled. In fiscal 1995, 1328 hours and 3 minutes (8 gasification operations) was recorded with gasification furnace facility, 899 hours and 53 minutes with the gas clean-up facility, 831 hours and 27 minutes with the gas turbine facility (11 startups for the generation of 6657 MWh), and 1958 hours and 2 minutes with the treatment furnace and 1331 hours and 10 minutes with the denitration unit of the safety/environment-related facility. The details of starts and stops were described in graphs which covered Runs D13, D14-1, D14-2, E1, D15, and A14. Operating procedures were studied and compiled for the plant start/stop schedule, general guidelines, gasification furnace facility, gas clean-up facility (dry type desulfurization facility), gas clean-up facility (dry type dedusting facility), gas turbine facility, real-pressure natural-size combustor test facility, and the safety/environment-related facility. (NEDO)

  12. Fiscal 1994 achievement report. Development of entrained bed coal gasification power plant (Part 5 - Survey of demonstration plant); 1994 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 5. Jissho plant ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    A survey was conducted of a demonstration plant for developing the technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation. In fiscal 1994, based on the studies of pilot plant operation conducted up to the preceding fiscal year and on the studies of a demonstration plant (conceptual design of a demonstration plant), systems were examined for still higher performance and economical efficiency. For optimizing the heat source for pulverized coal drying air, an extracted air heat utilizing system was adopted, excellent in performance (approximately 0.5% improvement in absolute value) and in economical efficiency. For reducing the consumption of inert gas for the fluidized bed desulfurization facility, an approximately 30% reduction was found to be possible dependent on gas regeneration conditions in the regeneration tower. For performance improvement with the combined cycle equipment placed under a partial load, the generating-end efficiency was improved approximately 0.2% when only SGC (syngas cooler) was loaded 80% or less and kept at a constant pressure. Studies were also made about how to maintain a constant output with the equipment exposed to air temperature changes. (NEDO)

  13. FY 1992 report on the results of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 4. Operation of pilot plant; 1992 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 4. Pilot plant unten sosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-02-01

    A record was summarized of the operation test study in FY 1992 of the 200 t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant that was constructed with the aim of establishing technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation. The operating hour of gasifier facilities in FY 1992 was 635 hours 19 minutes, and the number of times of gasification operation was 9. The operating hour of letting gas through to gas refining facilities was 549 hours 14 minutes. The operating hour of gas turbine facilities was 310 hours 18 minutes, and the generated output was 1,366.2 MWh. The operating hour of treatment furnace of safety environment facilities was 1,401 hours 4 minutes, and that of the denitrification system was 621 hours 24 minutes. As to the actual results of the start-up/stop, the paper detailedly recorded those of RUNs 10, 11, 12, 13 and D1. Further, operation manuals were made for the schedule of plant start-up/stop, gasifier facilities, gas refining facilities (dry desulfurization facilities), gas refining facilities (dry dedusting facilities), actual pressure/actual size combustor testing facilities and safety environment facilities. (NEDO)

  14. Fiscal 1996 achievement report. Development of entrained bed coal gasification power plant (Part 1 - Studies of dismantling and surveys of techniques); 1995 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Kaitai kenkyu hen, gijutsu chosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    For the establishment of technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle, studies were made for the dismantling of the 200 tons/day entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant and surveys were conducted of overseas technologies. In the gasification furnace facility, 40 devices were selected, and dismantled, from the locations corresponding to the factors of damage expected to occur involving important equipment. Although no significant damage was detected in the gasification pressure vessel, peripheral walls, or the like, malfunctions due to corrosion or abrasion were discovered in some pipes and members. In the dry type gas clean-up facility (desulfurization facility), damage due to heat stress or corrosion was detected in the regeneration tower inner cyclone, regeneration tower filter flexible tubes, and in circulation gas cooler cooling tubes. In the dry type gas clean-up facility (dedusting facility), damage was found in the dust collector gas seal valve, dust collector filter materials cut valve, and in the separator A/B. In the gas turbine facility, no abnormality was discovered but for some damage in some initial stage static vanes. (NEDO)

  15. Achievement report for fiscal 1993 on developing entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 4. Pilot plant operation edition; 1993 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 4. Pilot plant unten sosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    Tests and researches have been carried out on operation of a 200-t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant built with an objective of establishing the coal gasification composite power generation technology. This paper summarizes the operation achievements in fiscal 1993. The plant operation record in fiscal 1993 was as follows: 430 hours 27 minutes in the gasification furnace (ten gasification operations), 233 hours 51 minutes in the gas refining facility, 140 hours 31 minutes in the gas turbine facility (power generation amount of 746.8 MWh with nine actuations), 1,263 hours 09 minutes in the processing furnace in the safety environment facility, and 427 hours 22 minutes in the NOx removal equipment. Descriptions were given with detailed graphs on the actuation and shutdown record with respect to the run D2, the run D3 (1 and 2), the run D4, the run D5, the run D6, and the run D7 (1 through 4). The operation procedures were prepared for the plant startup and shutdown schedule, the generalization report, the gasification furnace facility, the gas refining facility (dry type desulfurizing facility), the gas refining facility (dry type dust removing facility), the gas turbine facility, the combustor testing facility with actual pressure and size, and the safety environment facilities. (NEDO)

  16. Fiscal 1994 achievement report. Development of entrained bed coal gasification power plant (Part 4 - Pilot plant operation); 1994 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 4. Pilot plant unten sosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The 200 tons/day entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant constructed for the establishment of the technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation was operated for testing, and the results are put together. Operating hours recorded were 1347 hours and 7 minutes for the gasification furnace facility (7 gasification operations), 752 hours and 22 minutes for the gas clean-up facilities, 425 hours and 20 minutes for the gas turbine facility (6 startups for generating 2616.1 MWh), and 1852 hours for the treatment furnace and 1304 hours and 32 minutes for the denitration system in the safety/environment-related facility. Detailed graphs were drawn for the description of starts and stops in Run D8, Run D9 (1-3), Run D10, Run D11, and in Run D12. Operating procedures were studied and then compiled for the plant start-stop schedule, general guidelines, gasification furnace facility, gas clean-up facility (dry type desulfurization facility), gas clean-up facility (dry type dedusting facility), gas turbine facility, real-pressure natural-size combustor test facility, and for the safety/environment related facility. (NEDO)

  17. Fast fluid bed coal gasification for conversion of existing oil-fired boilers - an investigation of conditions precedent for commercial realization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1969-06-01

    The syndicate Nordisk Fluidbaeddfoergasning which is made up of the following Scandinavian companies. A. Ahlstroem o/y Burmeister and Wain AB, Svenska Maskinverken AB and Svenska Cellulosa AB has been working with the development of a gas generator which makes it possible for the oil-fired boilers to use coal. The report describes a pre-project and presents the calculation of costs and the estimation of the market potential. The following appraisements have been made: (i) a commercially functioning plant can be erected (ii) the energy cost can be lower than the corresponding cost of conversion to coal powder fuel or competing gasifiers, and (iii) the size of the market is sufficiently large.

  18. Clean coal technology challenges for China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, J. [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering

    2001-01-01

    China is rich in coal reserves and also the largest coal producer and consumer in the world. Coal constitutes over 70% of the total energy consumption, some 86% of coal production is burned directly, which causes serious air pollution problems. However, based on China's specific energy structure, coal utilisation will remain the dominant means of energy usage and clean coal technology must be the way forward if the environmental problems are to be resolved. This article discusses China's Clean Coal Technology Program, its implementation, including the clean coal technologies being developed and introduced, with reference to the key R & D institutes for each of the coal-using sectors. The article is an edited version of the 2000 Robens Coal Science Lecture, delivered in London in October 2000. The China Coal Technology Program for the 9th Five-Year Plan (1996-2000) was approved in 1997. The technologies included in the Program considered in this article are in: coal washing and grading, coal briquette, coal water slurry; circulating fluidised bed technology; pressurised fluidised bed combined cycle; integrated gasification combined cycle; coal gasification, coal liquefaction and flue gas desulfurisation. 4 tabs.

  19. Radiological Impact Associated to Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) from Coal-Fired Power Plants Emissions - 13436

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinis, Maria de Lurdes; Fiuza, Antonio; Soeiro de Carvalho, Jose; Gois, Joaquim; Meira Castro, Ana Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Certain materials used and produced in a wide range of non-nuclear industries contain enhanced activity concentrations of natural radionuclides. In particular, electricity production from coal is one of the major sources of increased human exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials. A methodology was developed to assess the radiological impact due to natural radiation background. The developed research was applied to a specific case study, the Sines coal-fired power plant, located in the southwest coastline of Portugal. Gamma radiation measurements were carried out with two different instruments: a sodium iodide scintillation detector counter (SPP2 NF, Saphymo) and a gamma ray spectrometer with energy discrimination (Falcon 5000, Canberra). Two circular survey areas were defined within 20 km of the power plant. Forty relevant measurements points were established within the sampling area: 15 urban and 25 suburban locations. Additionally, ten more measurements points were defined, mostly at the 20-km area. The registered gamma radiation varies from 20 to 98.33 counts per seconds (c.p.s.) corresponding to an external gamma exposure rate variable between 87.70 and 431.19 nGy/h. The highest values were measured at locations near the power plant and those located in an area within the 6 and 20 km from the stacks. In situ gamma radiation measurements with energy discrimination identified natural emitting nuclides as well as their decay products (Pb-212, Pb-2142, Ra-226, Th-232, Ac-228, Th-234, Pa-234, U- 235, etc.). According to the results, an influence from the stacks emissions has been identified both qualitatively and quantitatively. The developed methodology accomplished the lack of data in what concerns to radiation rate in the vicinity of Sines coal-fired power plant and consequently the resulting exposure to the nearby population. (authors)

  20. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  1. Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevent, identify, and treat bed bug infestations using EPA’s step-by-step guides, based on IPM principles. Find pesticides approved for bed bug control, check out the information clearinghouse, and dispel bed bug myths.

  2. Catalytic Enhancement of Carbon Black and Coal-Fueled Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Ippolito, Davide; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    , Ce1-xREExO2-δ (REE = Pr, Sm)) and metal oxides (LiMn2O4, Ag2O). Materials showing the highest activity in carbon black (Mn2O3, CeO2, Ce0.6Pr0.4O2-δ, Ag2O) were subsequently tested for catalytic activity toward bituminous coal, as revealed by both I-V-P curves and electrochemical impedance...... spectroscopy (EIS). Catalytic activity was evaluated as a function of various physical characteristics of doped ceria and manganese-based materials....

  3. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V., Herne (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    The year 2012 benefited from a growth of the consumption of hard coal at the national level as well as at the international level. Worldwide, the hard coal still is the number one energy source for power generation. This leads to an increasing demand for power plant coal. In this year, the conversion of hard coal into electricity also increases in this year. In contrast to this, the demand for coking coal as well as for coke of the steel industry is still declining depending on the market conditions. The enhanced utilization of coal for the domestic power generation is due to the reduction of the nuclear power from a relatively bad year for wind power as well as reduced import prices and low CO{sub 2} prices. Both justify a significant price advantage for coal in comparison to the utilisation of natural gas in power plants. This was mainly due to the price erosion of the inexpensive US coal which partly was replaced by the expansion of shale gas on the domestic market. As a result of this, the inexpensive US coal looked for an outlet for sales in Europe. The domestic hard coal has continued the process of adaptation and phase-out as scheduled. Two further hard coal mines were decommissioned in the year 2012. RAG Aktiengesellschaft (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany) running the hard coal mining in this country begins with the preparations for the activities after the time of mining.

  4. Coal geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.N.; Suissa, A.; Coiffard, J.; Cretin, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs [fr

  5. Combustion demonstration plant in circulant fluidized bed of residual coal; Planta de Demostracion de Combustion en Lecho Fluido Circulante de Carbones Residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This report incorporates a summary of the operation results during the period of demonstration after started up. The report pretend to give an overview of the operation conditions along of the first year: Running hours, availability, electricity production, shooting downs, incidences, efficiency, fuel characteristics influence, pollutants emissions and standards comparations, etc. The main operation conclusions are: High availability, great number of running hours at full equivalent load; some months even over 100% regarding time scheduled. High reduction of gaseous emissions, really very low respecting the required by the applicable standards. It has been developed the engineering of a prototype project, by 30MW, using mixtures of solid fuels, residues and coals. (Author)

  6. Large scale carbon dioxide production from coal-fired power stations for enhanced oil recovery: a new economic feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tontiwachwuthikul, P.; Chan, C. W.; Kritpiphat, W.; Demontigny, D.; Skoropad, D.; Gelowitz, D.; Aroonwilas, A.; Mourits, F.; Wilson, M.; Ward, L.

    1998-01-01

    The concept of capturing carbon dioxide from fossil-fuelled electric power generating plants and utilizing it as a flooding agent in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes, was explored. In this context, this paper describes how cogeneration concepts, together with process optimization strategies, help to reduce the carbon dioxide production cost by utilizing low-pressure steam and waste heat from various sections of the power generation process. Based on these optimization strategies, the recovery cost of carbon dioxide from coal-fired power stations is estimated to be in the range of $ 0.50 to $ 2.00/mscf. Assuming an average cost of $ 1.25/mscf, the production cost of incremental oil would be about $ 18.00. This means that even with today's modest oil prices, there is room for profit to be made operating a carbon dioxide flood with flue gas extracted carbon dioxide

  7. Large scale carbon dioxide production from coal-fired power stations for enhanced oil recovery : a new economic feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tontiwachwuthikul, P.; Chan, C.W.; Kritpiphat, W.; DeMontigny, D.; Skoropad, D.; Gelowitz, D.; Aroonwilas, A.; Mourits, F.; Wilson, M.; Ward, L.

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the economics of capturing carbon dioxide from coal-fired power plants to be subsequently used as a flooding agent for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technologies. It was shown that the production of CO 2 for EOR projects can be technically and economically feasible, particularly when the concepts of cogeneration and optimization are used to reduce steam and electricity expenditures. This is done by using low-pressure steam and waste heat from various sections of the power generation process. It was shown that recovery costs could range between $0.50 to $2.00 per mscf. This translates to a recovered oil price of in the range of $17.39 to $19.95 per bbl., suggesting that even at today's low oil prices there is room for CO 2 flooding with flue gas extracted CO 2 . Practical implications for Saskatchewan were examined. 15 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs

  8. Coal resources of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Frank Darwyn

    1953-01-01

    The Indiana coal field forms the eastern edge of the eastern interior coal basin, which is near some of the most densely populated and highly productive manufacturing areas of the United States. (See fig. 1. ) For this reason Indiana coal reserves are an important State and National asset. In dollar value the coal mining industry is the largest of Indiana's natural-resource-producing industries. The total value of coil production for the year 1950 was more than 100 million dollars, or more than that of all other natural-resource industries in the State combined. As estimated herein, the original coal reserves of Indiana total 37,293 million tons, of which 27,320 million tons is contained in beds more than 42 inches thick; 7,632 million tons in beds 28 to 49. inches thick; and 2,341 million tons in beds 14 to 28 inches thick. The remaining reserves as of January 1951, total 35,806 million tons, of which 18,779 million tons is believed to be recoverable. The distribution of the reserves in these several categories is summarized by counties in table 1. Of the total original reserves of 37,293 million tons, 6,355 million tons can be classified as measured; 8,657 million tons as indicated; and 22,281 million tons as inferred. Strippable reserves constitute 3,524 million tons, or 9.5 percent of the total original reserves. The distribution of the strippable and nonstrippable original reserves is summarized in tables 2 and 3 by counties and by several categories, according to the thickness of the beds and the relative abundance and reliability of the information available for preparing the estimates. The distribution of the estimated 18,779 million tons of recoverable strippable and nonstrippable reserves in Indiana is further summarized by counties in table 4, and the information is presented graphically in figures 2 and 3. The tables i to 4 and figures 2 and 3 include beds in the 14- to 28-inch category, because thin beds have been mined in many places. However, many

  9. Phosphate enhance recovery from wastewater by mechanism analysis and optimization of struvite settleability in fluidized bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ci; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Rongfeng; Ohtake, Hisao

    2016-08-01

    Since phosphorus, a non-renewable and non-substitutable resource, has become the principal contributor and limiting factor to water eutrophication, achieving phosphorus removal and recovery from wastewater is pretty essential. Even though struvite crystallization process has been widely used for phosphate (P) recovery in wastewater treatment, its application is hampered by difficulties controlling small particle size and crystal growth. This study was conducted to control the settleability of struvite by calculating and predicting the struvite-settling percentage (Ps), which is always affected by the initial concentration of P (CP), solution pH (pH), reaction time (t), reaction temperature (T), agitation rate (Ar), and inlet flow velocity (vf) of the fluidized bed reactor. The results showed that the settleability of struvite could be enhanced by increasing T and decreasing pH, Ar, or vf, and would perform worse with overlong t or excessive CP. The dynamic variation process of the solution supersaturated index (SI) combined with the phase equilibrium theory and Ostwald ripening mechanism explained the above results sufficiently. The logistic model was chosen to predict the Ps under multi-factors, but the accuracy needs to be improved.

  10. Mathematic modulation of a simulation program for a coal and wood counter-current moving bed gasifier, which includes pyrolysis and drying processes and processes alternatives; Modelagem matematica e simulacao em computador de gaseificador de leito fixo contra-corrente para carvoes e biomassa com inclusao de processos de pirolise, secagem e alternativas do processo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Santos, M.L. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1985-12-31

    A new version of a simulation program for coal and wood counter-current fixed bed gasifier has been completed and provides: all the principal information variables of the process throughout the bed as mass flow and composition for 13 gases and 6 solids, temperature of the gas and solid phases, reaction rates of combustion, gasification, pyrolysis and drying processes; composition, mass flow, temperature, combustion enthalpy and other produced gases physical and chemical properties; possibility of process alternatives analysis as volatiles recycling in order to eliminate tar, double withdrawn of gases and combinations. Comparisons between simulation and experimental results are presented. (author). 26 refs., 1 tab

  11. Hydrogen production by enhanced-sorption chemical looping steam reforming of glycerol in moving-bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou, Binlin; Song, Yongchen; Wang, Chao; Chen, Haisheng; Yang, Mingjun; Xu, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • New approach on continuous high-purity H 2 produced auto-thermally with long time. • Low-cost NiO/NiAl 2 O 4 exhibited high redox performance to H 2 from glycerol. • Oxidation, steam reforming, WSG and CO 2 capture were combined into a reactor. • H 2 purity of above 90% was produced without heating at 1.5–3.0 S/C and 500–600 °C. • Sorbent regeneration and catalyst oxidization achieved simultaneously in a reactor. - Abstract: The continuous high-purity hydrogen production by the enhanced-sorption chemical looping steam reforming of glycerol based on redox reactions integrated with in situ CO 2 removal has been experimentally studied. The process was carried out by a flow of catalyst and sorbent mixture using two moving-bed reactors. Various unit operations including oxidation, steam reforming, water gas shrift reaction and CO 2 removal were combined into a single reactor for hydrogen production in an overall economic and efficient process. The low-cost NiO/NiAl 2 O 4 catalyst efficiently converted glycerol and steam to H 2 by redox reactions and the CO 2 produced in the process was simultaneously removed by CaO sorbent. The best results with an enriched hydrogen product of above 90% in auto-thermal operation for reforming reactor were achieved at initial temperatures of 500–600 °C and ratios of steam to carbon (S/C) of 1.5–3.0. The results indicated also that not all of NiO in the catalyst can be reduced to Ni by the reaction with glycerol, and the reduced Ni can be oxidized to NiO by air at 900 °C. The catalyst oxidization and sorbent regeneration were achieved under the same conditions in air reactor

  12. Ninth annual coal-fueled heat engines, advanced pressurized fluidized bed combustion, and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Welcoming address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    The market for retrofit and new capacity in the electric utility is expected to be very large: 250 gigawatt (GW) and 500 GW by the year 2030--an amount which equals the presently installed capacity in the US Overseas, the market is even larger exclamation point This large market will be driven by a number of key ''drivers.'' In order for power generation systems to compete in this market, they will have to satisfy the market drivers. This will lead us inevitably to modular, low cost, super clean, efficient, and reliable products which are fuel flexible and can meet either retrofit, repowering, or new capacity applications. I believe clean coal technologies that we are developing will meet these market demands and will penetrate--and eventually dominate--the power generation market of the next century. But for this market penetration and widespread deployment to take place, the products we are jointly developing must be continuously improved. We must together set our goals on a rapid march down the learning curve from the present high ''projected costs'' of these systems to an acceptable market clearing price on the order of $1000 to $1200 per kilowatt (kw) and with heat rates approaching 7500 Btu per kilowatt-hour (kWh). The projected learning curve for integrated gasification combined cycle systems is a good illustration of the aggressive goals we need to achieve

  13. Lignite Fuel Enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Bullinger; Nenad Sarunac

    2010-03-31

    Pulverized coal power plants which fire lignites and other low-rank high-moisture coals generally operate with reduced efficiencies and increased stack emissions due to the impacts of high fuel moisture on stack heat loss and pulverizer and fan power. A process that uses plant waste heat sources to evaporate a portion of the fuel moisture from the lignite feedstock in a moving bed fluidized bed dryer (FBD) was developed in the U.S. by a team led by Great River Energy (GRE). The demonstration was conducted with Department of Energy (DOE) funding under DOE Award Number DE-FC26-04NT41763. The objectives of GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project were to demonstrate reduction in lignite moisture content by using heat rejected from the power plant, apply technology at full scale at Coal Creek Station (CCS), and commercialize it. The Coal Creek Project has involved several stages, beginning with lignite drying tests in a laboratory-scale FBD at the Energy Research Center (ERC) and development of theoretical models for predicting dryer performance. Using results from these early stage research efforts, GRE built a 2 ton/hour pilot-scale dryer, and a 75 ton/hour prototype drying system at Coal Creek Station. Operated over a range of drying conditions, the results from the pilot-scale and prototype-scale dryers confirmed the performance of the basic dryer design concept and provided the knowledge base needed to scale the process up to commercial size. Phase 2 of the GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project included design, construction and integration of a full-scale commercial coal drying system (four FBDs per unit) with Coal Creek Units 1 and 2 heat sources and coal handling system. Two series of controlled tests were conducted at Coal Creek Unit 1 with wet and dried lignite to determine effect of dried lignite on unit performance and emissions. Wet lignite was fired during the first, wet baseline, test series conducted in September 2009. The second test series was

  14. Clean coal technology: gasification of South African coals - 2nd CSIR Biennial Conference

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, AD

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available between climate change and the use of fossil fuels such as coal. The development of CCTs has therefore received increased attention worldwide. CCTs are defined as “Technologies designed to enhance both the efficiency and the environmental acceptability... be utilised • The heat and mass transfer rates are high • Good temperature control can be achieved • Lower temperature operation increases refractory life • Limestone can be added for in bed capture of hydrogen sulphide • As there are no moving parts...

  15. Economics of coal-based electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemming, D F; Johnston, R; Teper, M

    1979-01-01

    The report deals with base-load electricity generation from coal and compares the economics of four alternative technologies: conventional pulverised-fuel (PF) boiler with steam cycle; atmospheric fluidised-bed (AFB) boiler with steam cycle; pressurised fluidised-bed (PFB) boiler with combined cycle; and integrated air-blown coal gasification with combined cycle systems are compared for both a high sulphur (3.5%) coal with environmental regulations requiring 85% sulphur removal, and for a low sulphur coal without sulphur removal. The results indicate that there is no single clear 'winner' among the advanced technologies. The optimum system depends on coal price, required rate-of-return, sulphur content of the coal, taxation regime etc. (34 refs.) (Available from IEA Coal Research, Economic Assessment Service)

  16. Report on the results of the R and D of a 200 t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant. Summary - Part 2. Volume 3: Results of the study operation and the evaluation; 1986- 200t/nichi funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden pilot plant no kenkyu seika hokokusho (Matome). Sono 2. Dai 3 hen kenkyu unten seika to sono hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    A project was finished which had been carried out for 11 years since 1986 for technology of the entrained bed coal gasification power generation technology using a 200 t/d coal gasification combined cycle power generation pilot plant, and it was comprehensively summed up. In Volume 3: Results of the study operation and the evaluation, the following were summarized on gasifier: gasification performance of 200 t/d furnace, operation ability of the bituminous coal supply system, stability of char recovery, deposition of slag and char in furnace, discharge characteristics of molten slag, operation characteristics, etc. The following on gas refining facilities: dry desulfurizer, dust remover, new gas refining equipment (fixed bed dust removal/desulfurization system, packed bed desulfuriztion/dust removal system), etc. The following on gas turbine facilities: 12.5 MW gas turbine, large gas turbine, large gas turbine combustor, etc. Additionally, the paper summarized the control system and total function, operation characteristics of the whole pilot plant, relations of environmental preservation, study of the effective slag utilization, collection/study of unfavorable conditions/troubles and matters for the reflection, etc. (NEDO)

  17. FY 1992 report on the results of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 1. Element study/Technical survey; 1992 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Youso kenkyu hen, gijutsu chosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-02-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, element study of a 200 t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant was made, and the FY 1992 results were summarized. In the gasification test using a 2 t/d furnace equipment, study was made of the extraction of subjects on the operation, performance of gasification, slagging characteristics and characteristics of flux addition. In the study of slag utilization technology, chemical analysis, test on fine aggregate and test on fine particle were carried out to study applicability of the slag discharged from the entrained bed coal gasification power plant to various materials. In the study of a large gas turbine combustor for the demonstrative machine, the demonstrative machine use large gas turbine combustor testing equipment was installed at actual pressure/actual size combustion testing facilities in the pilot plant and further the test use combustor was integrated into them. By using them, the real gas combustion test was made using the adjusted coal for evaluation of combustion performance of the test use combustor. In the simulation study of the total pilot plant system, the comparative study was made between the data on the test using the actual machine and the results of the simulation. (NEDO)

  18. Fluidised bed heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, D.E.; Healey, E.M.; Roberts, A.G.

    1974-01-01

    Problems that have arisen during the initial stages of development of fluidised bed boilers in which heat transfer surfaces are immersed in fluidised solids are discussed. The very high heat transfer coefficients that are obtained under these conditions can be exploited to reduce the total heat transfer surface to a fraction of that in normal boilers. However, with the high heat flux levels involved, tube stressing becomes more important and it is advantageous to use smaller diameter tubes. One of the initial problems was that the pumping power absorbed by the fluidised bed appeared to be high. The relative influence of the fluidising velocity (and the corresponding bed area), tube diameter, tube spacing, heat transfer coefficient and bed temperature on pumping power and overall cost was determined. This showed the importance of close tube packing and research was undertaken to see if this would adversely affect the heat transfer coefficient. Pressure operation also reduces the pumping power. Fouling and corrosion tests in beds burning coal suggest that higher temperatures could be reached reliably and cost studies show that, provided the better refractory metals are used, the cost of achieving higher temperatures is not unduly high. It now remains to demonstrate at large scale that the proposed systems are viable and that the methods incorporated to overcome start up and part lead running problems are satisfactory. The promising role of these heat transfer techniques in other applications is briefly discussed

  19. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in investigations and studies on treatment technologies for coals used in coal gasification. A report on coal type investigation; Sekitan gas ka yotan no shori gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu. Tanshu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    This paper reports the investigation on coal types for coal gasification in the Sunshine Project. With regard to the status of existence, production and dressing of coals as the material for coal gasification and liquefaction, summarized site investigations and sampling were performed on underground mining coal mines being operated in Japan. Test sample coals are put into a data file as the important fundamental data for gasification and liquefaction characteristics tests at the Japan Coal Energy Center. The sampling investigation is planned to start in fiscal 1988. The coal mines having been investigated to date include: Taiheiyo Coal Mine (Kushiro), Mitsui Coal Mining Industry (Miike), Matsushima Coal Mine (Ikejima), Mitsubishi Coal Mining Industry (Minami O-Yubari), Sumitomo Coal Akabira Coal Mine (Akabira), Mitsui Coal Mining Industry (Ashibetsu), and Sorachi Coal Mine (Sorachi). Coal beds subjected to the sampling were selected upon carefully discussing with the site engineers on the current status of the coal mine, and the coal beds that could be operated in the future. The sampling method was such that the whole coal bed from the upper bed to the lower bed at the facing was sampled and put into vinyl sampling bags each at about 2 kg as the target. (NEDO)

  20. Effectiveness of Mathematics Teaching and Learning Experiences through Wireless Technology as Recent Style to Enhance B.Ed. Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joan, D. R. Robert

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to find out the effect of learning through Wireless technologies and the traditional method in teaching and learning Mathematics. The investigator adopted experimental research to find the effectiveness of implementing Wireless technologies in the population of B.Ed. trainees. The investigator selected 32 B.Ed.…

  1. Coupling membrane pervaporation with a fixed-bed reactor for enhanced esterification of oleic acid with ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Ying; Lv, Enmin; Ma, Lingling; Lu, Jie; Chen, Kexun; Ding, Jincheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The reactor coupling membrane pervaporation with a fixed-bed reactor was studied. • The factors effecting the esterification of oleic acid were investigated. • NaA zeolite membrane was used for dehydration in the coupled reactor. - Abstract: Process intensification through membrane pervaporation (PV) integrated with a fixed-bed reactor could be successfully applied to the esterification of oleic acid and ethanol, which is a crucial step in the biodiesel synthesis using waste oil and grease as resource. The properties of the NaA zeolite membrane such as structure, formulation and separation were investigated by scanning electronic microscopy–energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM–EDS), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and PV dehydration. Results showed that the NaA zeolite membrane had good separating property for removing water from the organics mixture. The operating conditions were optimized as the ethanol to oleic acid molar ratio of 15:1, feedstock flow rate of 1.0 ml/min, reaction temperature of 80.0 °C and catalyst bed height of 132 mm. The final conversion of oleic acid increased from 84.23% to 87.18% by PV using the NaA zeolite membrane at 24.0 h of operation. The membrane showed good PV performance after used for eight successive runs in the PV-assisted esterification. The resin exhibited a much high catalytic activity and operation stability after used for 100 h in the consecutive single pass fixed-bed esterification.

  2. Coal resources availability in Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modisi, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that Southern Africa, and Botswana in particular, is well-endowed with relatively large reserves of coal. The existence of coal in Botswana has been known since the end of the last century. Exploration activities by the Geological Survey and the private sector led to the discovery of major deposits and by the late 1960s reserves capable of supporting a mine at Morupule for the domestic market has been confirmed. The oil crises of 1973-74 and 1978-79 stimulated increased interest in coal exploration the world over and Botswana attracted several private sector companies looking for coal that could be traded on the international market. As a result vast resources and reserves of low to medium quality bituminous coal, suitable for the export market, were proved. Resources amounting to 21,680 million tonnes of in situ coal had been revealed by 1987. Reserves of possible economic exploitation are estimated at 10,180 million tonnes in two coal field areas, namely the Morupule Coal Field and the Mmamabula Coal Field. Since the collapse of oil prices and consequently coal prices in the mid-1980s, enthusiasm for coal exploration has plummeted and relatively little prospecting has taken place. The coal occurs within the Upper Carboniferous to Jurassic Karoo Supergroup which underlies some 60 percent of the country's land surface. The western part of the country is mantled by the Kalahari beds, a top layer of unconsolidated sands masking bedrock geology. Although coal seams have been intersected in boreholes in this western area, most exploration activity has taken place in the eastern part of the country where the Morupule and Mmamabula coal fields are located. It is in the east that most of the population is concentrated and infrastructure has been developed

  3. Achievement report for fiscal 1993 on developing entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 2. Summary of tests and researches on pilot plant operation; 1993 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 2. Pilot plant unten shiken kenkyu no gaiyo hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    Tests and researches have been carried out on operation of a 200-t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant built with an objective of establishing the coal gasification composite power generation technology. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1993. The current fiscal year has performed the test operation on the pilot plant as a whole by using the coal D in continuation from the previous fiscal year. For the gasification furnace facilities, an air variation test was conducted for charging coal into the gasification furnace by using recovered oxygen, wherein satisfactory control was verified on oxygen concentration in the air supplied into the gasification furnace. In the gas refining facilities (dry desulfurizing facilities), the total sulfur concentration at 300 to 650 ppm in the gas produced from the coal gasification furnace was refined to 30 to 100 ppm, having achieved the initial target value. The gas refining facilities (dry dust collecting facilities) have achieved satisfactory result that the entrance dust concentration at 66 to 270 mg/Nm{sup 3} was reduced to the exit dust concentration at 1 to 3 mg/Nm{sup 3}. With respect to the gas turbine facilities, the planned values of output and thermal efficiency were satisfied, having derived good performance characteristics. (NEDO)

  4. Microwave-assisted synthesis of geopolymers from fluidised bed gasifier bottom ash

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluidised bed gasification (FBG) is a clean coal technology suitable for power and fuel generation from low grade coals. However, the resulting bottom ash presents some disposal challenges to the power plants and the environment. The production...

  5. Modification of Coal Char-loaded TiO2 by Sulfonation and Alkylsilylation to Enhance Catalytic Activity in Styrene Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide as Oxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhamad Nurhadi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The modified coal char from low-rank coal by sulfonation, titanium impregnation and followed by alkyl silylation possesses high catalytic activity in styrene oxidation. The surface of coal char was undergone several steps as such: modification using concentrated sulfuric acid in the sulfonation process, impregnation of 500 mmol titanium(IV isopropoxide and followed by alkyl silylation of n-octadecyltriclorosilane (OTS. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, IR spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, and hydrophobicity. The catalytic activity of the catalysts has been examined in the liquid phase styrene oxidation by using aqueous hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. The catalytic study showed the alkyl silylation could enhance the catalytic activity of Ti-SO3H/CC-600(2.0. High catalytic activity and reusability of the o-Ti-SO3H/CC-600(2.0 were related to the modification of local environment of titanium active sites and the enhancement the hydrophobicity of catalyst particle by alkyl silylation. Copyright © 2017 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 24th May 2016; Revised: 11st October 2016; Accepted: 18th October 2016 How to Cite: Nurhadi, M. (2017. Modification of Coal Char-loaded TiO2 by Sulfonation and Alkylsilylation to Enhance Catalytic Activity in Styrene Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide as Oxidant. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (1: 55-61 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.1.501.55-61 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.12.1.501.55-61

  6. Solar Variability and the Near-Earth Environment: Mining Enhanced Low Dose Rate Sensitivity Data From the Microelectronics and Photonics Test Bed Space Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turflinger, T.; Schmeichel, W.; Krieg, J.; Titus, J.; Campbell, A.; Reeves, M.; Marshall (P.); Hardage, Donna (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    This effort is a detailed analysis of existing microelectronics and photonics test bed satellite data from one experiment, the bipolar test board, looking to improve our understanding of the enhanced low dose rate sensitivity (ELDRS) phenomenon. Over the past several years, extensive total dose irradiations of bipolar devices have demonstrated that many of these devices exhibited ELDRS. In sensitive bipolar transistors, ELDRS produced enhanced degradation of base current, resulting in enhanced gain degradation at dose rates 1 rd(Si)/s. This Technical Publication provides updated information about the test devices, the in-flight experiment, and both flight-and ground-based observations. Flight data are presented for the past 5 yr of the mission. These data are compared to ground-based data taken on devices from the same date code lots. Information about temperature fluctuations, power shutdowns, and other variables encountered during the space flight are documented.

  7. Quantification of Concentration of Microalgae Anabaena Cylindrica, Coal-bed Methane Water Isolates Nannochloropsis Gaditana and PW-95 in Aquatic Solutions through Hyperspectral Reflectance Measurement and Analytical Model Establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z.; Zhou, X.; Apple, M. E.; Spangler, L.

    2017-12-01

    Three species of microalgae, Anabaena cylindrica (UTEX # 1611), coal-bed methane water isolates Nannochloropsis gaditana and PW-95 were cultured for the measurements of their hyperspectral profiles in different concentrations. The hyperspectral data were measured by an Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) spectroradiomter with the spectral resolution of 1 nanometer over the wavelength ranges from 350nm to 1050 nm for samples of microalgae of different concentration. Concentration of microalgae was measured using a Hemocytometer under microscope. The objective of this study is to establish the relation between spectral reflectance and micro-algal concentration so that microalgae concentration can be measured remotely by space- or airborne hyperspectral or multispectral sensors. Two types of analytical models, linear reflectance-concentration model and Lamber-Beer reflectance-concentration model, were established for each species. For linear modeling, the wavelength with the maximum correlation coefficient between the reflectance and concentrations of algae was located and then selected for each species of algae. The results of the linear models for each species are shown in Fig.1(a), in which Refl_1, Refl_2, and Refl_3 represent the reflectance of Anabaena, N. Gaditana, and PW-95 respectively. C1, C2, and C3 represent the Concentrations of Anabaena, N. Gaditana, and PW-95 respectively. The Lamber-Beer models were based on the Lambert-Beer Law, which states that the intensity of light propagating in a substance dissolved in a fully transmitting solvent is directly proportional to the concentration of the substance and the path length of the light through the solution. Thus, for the Lamber-Beer modeling, a wavelength with large absorption in red band was selected for each species. The results of Lambert-Beer models for each species are shown in Fig.1(b). Based on the Lamber-Beer models, the absorption coefficient for the three different species will be quantified.

  8. Experimental investigation and mathematical modelling of the combustion of brown coal, refuse and mixed fuels in a circulating fluidized bed combustor; Experimentelle Untersuchung und mathematische Modellierung der Verbrennung von Braunkohle, Abfallstoffen und Mischbrennstoffen in einer zirkulierenden Wirbelschichtfeuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, W; Brunne, T; Hiller, A [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik; Albrecht, J [Lurgi Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Quang, N [Polytechnic Inst., Danang (Viet Nam)

    1998-09-01

    Extensive experiments on combustion of biological materials and residues in fluidized bed combustors and dust combustors have been carried out at the Department of Power Plant Engineering of Dresden University since the early nineties. Particular interest was taken in mixing brown coal with sewage sludge, sugar pulp and waste wood. The experiments were supplemented by modelling in a research project funded jointly by the BMBF and Messrs. Lurgi since early 1997. A combustion cell model designed by Siegen University is being modified for the new mixed fuels, and preliminary investigations were carried out on a batch reactor while the modelling work was continued. (orig.) [Deutsch] An dem Lehrstuhl fuer Kraftwerkstechnik der TU Dresden werden seit Anfang der 90-iger Jahre umfangreiche experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Verbrennung von Bio- und Reststoffen in Wirbelschicht- und Staubfeuerungen durchgefuehrt. Dabei war vor allem die Zufeuerung dieser Stoffe in Waermeerzeugeranlagen auf Braunkohlenbasis von besonderem Interesse. Experimentell konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass sowohl Biobrennstoffe als auch Abfaelle in zirkulierenden Wirbelschichtfeuerungen umweltschonend zur Waermeerzeugung eingesetzt werden koennen. Als Beispiel wird das an Hand von Braunkohle-Klaerschlammgemischen sowie Bagasse- und Holz-Braunkohlegemischen gezeigt. Neben den experimentellen Untersuchungen bietet die Modellierung der Verbrennungsvorgaenge ein geeignetes Mittel um Voraussagen zu anderen Mischungsanteilen sowie anderen geometrischen Abmessungen machen zu koennen. Seit Anfang 1997 wird dazu ein vom BMBF und der Firma Lurgi gefoerdertes Forschungsvorhaben bearbeitet. Ein von der Universitaet Gesamthochschule Siegen fuer die Braunkohleverbrennung konzipiertes Zellenmodell wird auf die neuen Brennstoffgemische erweitert. Da grundsaetzlich andere Stoffzusammensetzungen vorliegen, wurden an einem Batch-Reaktor Voruntersuchungen zum Pyrolyseverhalten der Brennstoffe durchgefuehrt. Erste

  9. New coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    Specially dedicated to coal, this edition comprises a series of articles of general interest dealing with the position of the French coalmining industry (interview with M.P. Gardent), the coal market in France, the work of CERCHAR, etc. New techniques, in-situ gasification of deep coal, gasification of coal by nuclear methods, the conversion of coal into petrol, the Emile Huchet power plant of Houilleres du Bassin de Lorraine, etc., are dealt with.

  10. Coal upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, S. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    This report examines current technologies and those likely to be used to produce cleaner coal and coal products, principally for use in power generation and metallurgical applications. Consideration is also given to coal production in the leading coal producing countries, both with developed and developing industries. A range of technologies are considered. These include the coal-based liquid fuel called coal water mixture (CWM) that may compete with diesel, the production of ultra-clean coal (UCC) and coal liquefaction which competes with oil and its products. Technologies for upgrading coal are considered, especially for low rank coals (LRC), since these have the potential to fill the gap generated by the increasing demand for coal that cannot be met by higher quality coals. Potential advantages and downsides of coal upgrading are outlined. Taking into account the environmental benefits of reduced pollution achieved through cleaner coal and reduced transport costs, as well as other positive aspects such as a predictable product leading to better boiler design, the advantages appear to be significant. The drying of low rank coals improves the energy productively released during combustion and may also be used as an adjunct or as part of other coal processing procedures. Coal washing technologies vary in different countries and the implications of this are outlined. Dry separation technologies, such as dry jigging and electrostatic separation, are also described. The demonstration of new technologies is key to their further development and demonstrations of various clean coal technologies are considered. A number of approaches to briquetting and pelletising are available and their use varies from country to country. Finally, developments in upgrading low rank coals are described in the leading coal producing countries. This is an area that is developing rapidly and in which there are significant corporate and state players. 81 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Induction of interleukin-6 by coal containing bioavailable iron is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Coal mining causes health problems, such as pneumoconiosis. We have ... levels. The enhancing effect on the IL-6 by the PA coal was similar to that caused by hydrogen peroxide. ..... stress: possible implications in coal workers' lung disease;.

  12. Coal preparation and coal cleaning in the dry process; Kanshiki sentaku to coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Z; Morikawa, M; Fujii, Y [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-09-01

    Because the wet process has a problem such as waste water treatment, coal cleaning in the dry process was discussed. When a fluidized bed (using glass beads and calcium carbonate) is utilized instead of the heavy liquid, the fluidized bed will have apparent density as the liquid does, whereas the relative relationship therewith determines whether a substance having been put into the fluidized bed will float or sink. This is utilized for coals. In addition, two powder constituents of A and B may be wanted to be separated using the fluidized extraction process (similar to the liquid-liquid extraction process). In such a case, a fluidized bed in which both constituents are mixed is added with a third constituent C (which will not mix with A, but mix well with B), where the constituents are separated into A and (B + C), and the (B + C) constituent is separated further by using a sieve. If coal has the coal content mixed with ash content and pulverized, it turns into particle groups which have distributions in grain size and density. Groups having higher density may contain more ash, and those having lower density less ash. In addition, the ash content depends also on the grain size. The ash content may be classified by using simultaneously wind classification (for density and grain size) and a sieve (for grain size). This inference may be expanded to consideration of constructing a multi-stage fluidized bed classification tower. 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Research report of FY 1997 on the environmentally acceptable coal utilization system introduction support project. Follow-up project on circulating fluidized bed boiler introduction (Calaca Batangas Thermal Power Station); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo (junkan ryudosho boiler ni kakawaru follow up jigyo (Calaca Batangas karyoku hatsudensho))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the follow-up project, to promote the diffusion of results of the clean coal technology (CCT) model projects, experts of circulating fluidized bed boilers were dispatched, to guide and advise for the operation of facilities introduced in these projects. The purpose of these projects is to diffuse the CCTs, and to support the promotion of environmental measures. Some guidance and advice about operation processes, data processing, operation regulation, maintenance, and boiler maintenance works were provided to the Ministry of Energy and Electric Power Corporation of the Philippines. Semirara, Malangas, and Samar coals in the Philippines were used for the tests. The boiler facilities could be operated by Philippine operators themselves. Based on the guidance and advice about operation processes, combustion tests using various Philippine coals were also planned and conducted by themselves. The maintenance techniques were transferred to Philippine operators through the inspection, repair and advice. The Philippine side understood the technologies well, and the circulating fluidized bed boiler technology was independently educated in the Philippines. 23 figs., 16 tabs.

  14. A newer concept of setting up coal refineries in coal utilising industries through environmentally sound clean coal technology of organosuper refining of coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    In order to reduce the losses of premium organic matter of coal and its immense potential energy which is present in the form of stronger interatomic and intramolecular bonding energies, a newer and convenient technique of recovering the premium organic matter from low grade coals by organosuper-refining technique which operates under ambient pressure conditions has been developed. The residual coal obtained can be used as environmentally clean fuel or as a feedstock for the industries based on carbonization and gasification. It is suggested that a beginning be made by setting up coal refineries in coal utilizing industries on the basis of the presently developed new technology of organosuper-refining of coals to recover premium grade organic chemical feed stocks from coals before utilizing coal by techniques such as bubble bed or recirculatory fluidized bed or pulverized coal combustion in thermal power stations, carbonization in steel plants or other carbonization units, gasification in fertilizer industries or in integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation. Thus, coal refineries may produce value added aromatic chemical feed stocks, formed coke or coke manufacturing; and carbon fillers for polymers. (author). 100 refs., 1 fig

  15. PROBLEMS AND METHODOLOGY OF THE PETROLOGIC ANALYSIS OF COAL FACIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Edward C.T.

    1983-01-01

    This condensed synthesis gives a broad outline of the methodology of coal facies analysis, procedures for constructing sedimentation and geochemical formation curves, and micro- and macrostratigraphic analysis. The hypothetical coal bed profile has a 3-fold cycle of material characteristics. Based on studies of other similar profiles of the same coal bed, and on field studies of the sedimentary rock types and their facies interpretation, one can assume that the 3-fold subdivision is of regional significance.

  16. Survey report for fiscal 1999 on advanced exploitation of coal overseas. Survey of coal exploitation enhancement overseas (Coal industry's measures for persistent low coal price); 1999 nendo kaigaitan kaihatsu kodoka nado chosa. Kaigaitan kaihatsu sokushin chosa (sekitan kakaku teimeika ni okeru sekitan sangyo no taiosaku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Surveys were conducted of the trends of coal companies in the U.S. and Australia and of the lookout for new coal field development in Australia for the purpose of contributing to the stable supply of coal in the future. In the U.S., the coal industry has experienced serious changes in these ten years, and various corporations, such as Peabody, Arch Coal, CONSOL, and Kennecott have come to resort to drastic measures for their survival. In Australia, coal price is lower and contract terms are shorter with less demand for coal supply thanks to the economic crisis in Asia. As for demand for coal in Asia, on the other hand, it is deemed that in 2010 there will be a 41% increase over the 1995 level and that, therefore, coal field preservation and new field exploitation are necessary. Since production by strip mining in New South Wales State is to decrease in 2012 and after, it is expected that new projects will start only after 2012. Comprehensive development projects are going to be launched in the areas surrounding the Surat district, Queensland State, and therefore new projects will be easier to start in this region. Since the Surat coal is to be collected after a little stripping, it is expected that it will be able to compete with the Indonesian coal. (NEDO)

  17. Coal-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Sparre, C.

    1992-11-01

    Swedish consumption of coal and coke during 1991 and trends in technology, environment and market aspects of coal use are reported. Steam coal use in the heating sector was unchanged from 1991, 1.2 Mtons. Reduced consumption in smaller district heating units (due to conversion to biofuels and gas) was compensated by increased use for power generation in cogeneration plants. Coal consumption in industry fell 0.10 Mton to 0.84 Mton due to lower production in one industry branch. Import of steam coal was 1.1 Mton (down 0.5 Mton from 1990) since new rules for strategic reserves allowed a reduction of stocks. During the last five years stocks have been reduced by 2 Mtons. Import of metallurgical coal was 1.6 Mton, unchanged from 1990. The report also gives statistics for the coal using plants in Sweden, on coal R and D, and on emission laws for coal firing. (9 tabs., 2 figs.)

  18. Anomalous capillary flow of coal tar pitches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint Romain, J.L.; Lahaye, J.; Ehrburger, P.; Couderc, P.

    1986-06-01

    Capillary flow of liquid coal tar pitch into a coke bed was studied. Anomalies in the flow could not be attributed to a plugging effect for mesophase content lower than 20 wt%. The flow behaviour of small pitch droplets can be correlated with the change in physicochemical properties, as measured by the glass transition temperature, on penetration into the coke bed. 4 references.

  19. Coal 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    ACR's Coal 1992, the successor to the ACR Coal Marketing Manual, contains a comprehensive set of data on many aspects of the Australian coal industry for several years leading up to 1992. Tables and text give details of coal production and consumption in New South Wales, Queensland and other states. Statistics of the Australian export industry are complemented by those of South Africa, USA, New Zealand, Canada, Indonesia, China, Colombia, Poland and ex-USSR. Also listed are prices of Australian coking and non-coking coal, Australian coal stocks (and those of other major countries), loading port capacities, freight rates and coal quality requirements (analysis of coals by brand and supplier). A listing of Australian coal exporting companies is provided. A description of the spot Coal Screen Dealing System is given. World hard coal imports are listed by country and coal imports by major Asian countries tabulated. A forecast of demand by coal type and country up to the year 2000 is included.

  20. FY 1989 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 3. Fabrication/installation of pilot plant (Fabrication/installation drawings and fabrication/installation pictures - 1/2); 1989 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 3. Pilot plant seisaku suetsuke hen (Seisaku suetsukezu oyobi seisaku suetsuke shashin) (1/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, the fabrication, installation work, etc. were conducted of a 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant, and drawings of fabrication/installation in the FY 1989 were summarized. In fabrication/installation drawings, drawings of the following were included: layout of the total system and the yard, gasifier facilities (assembly drawing of the pressure part of gasifier, drawing of machinery arrangement of gasifier facilities, system diagram of raw coal receiving device, system diagram of pulverized coal feed equipment, system diagram of char feed equipment, etc.), gas refining facilities - dry desulfurizer (assembly drawing of desulfurizing agent carrying filter, assembly drawing of regeneration tower filter, structural drawing of SO{sub 2} reduction tower filter, assembly drawing of start-up heater, etc.), gas refining facilities - dry dust removal system (assembly drawing of No.1 dust separation filter, installation drawing of elevator, etc.), gas turbine facilities (cross section of gas turbine, front view of gas turbine, structural cross section of gas turbogenerator, etc.), actual-pressure/actual-size combustor test equipment (structural drawing of test stand, structural drawing of exhaust temperature reduction device, assembly/sectioned drawing of low-pressure air compressor, etc.) (NEDO)

  1. FY 1992 report on the results of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 3. Operation test of pilot plant (2/2); 1992 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 3. Pilot plant unten shiken hen (2/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-02-01

    The study of operation test was made of the 200 t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant that was constructed with the aim of establishing technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, and the details of the FY 1992 results were summarized. As to the test of gas turbine facilities, at RUN 10, the scheduled test on coal gas mixed combustion continuous operation/coal gas fired operation was not carried out because of the worsening of the state of gasifier operation. The operation was just made for a short time. At RUN 11, it was confirmed that the motion of equipment in the bleeding system was good at the time of the bleeding cooperation test and there was no anomaly also in the state of gas turbine operation. At RUN 12, it was confirmed that the motion of load/pressure control functions was normal in the state of GT load of about 5MW. At RUN 13, it was confirmed that the control function of GT governor was confirmed in the total pressure control test. As a result of the operation test of these, items of improvement were extracted for actual pressure/actual size combustor facilities, safety environment facilities and electric/control facilities. The measures taken for each item were studied. (NEDO)

  2. Clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    One of the major technology challenges in the next decade will be to develop means of using coal imaginatively as a source of chemicals and in a more energy-efficient manner. The Clean Air Act will help to diminish the acid rain but will not reduce CO 2 emissions. The Department of Energy (DOE) is fostering many innovations that are likely to have a positive effect on coal usage. Of the different innovations in the use of coal fostered by DOE, two are of particular interest. One is the new pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC) combined-cycle demonstration. The PFBC plant now becoming operational can reduce SO 2 emissions by more than 90% and NO x emissions by 50-70%. A second new technology co-sponsored by DOE is the Encoal mild coal gasification project that will convert a sub-bituminous low-BTU coal into a useful higher BTU solid while producing significant amounts of a liquid fuel

  3. Coal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  4. Underground gasification of coal - possibilities and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dushanov, D.; Minkova, V.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed historical review is given on the problem of underground coal gasification (UCG) with emphasis on its physical, chemical, technological and financial aspects. The experience of USA, Japan, former USSR, Belgium, UK and France is described. The feasibility of UCG in the Dobrudzhan Coal Bed in Bulgaria is discussed. The deposit has reserves of about 1.5 billion tones at relatively shallow depths. Almost the whole scale from long flame to dry coal is covered. According to its coalification degree the bed belongs to gas coal - V daf 35-40%; C daf 80-83%, eruption index = 1. Enriched samples has low sulfur content - 0.6-1.5% and low mineral content - 6-12%. Having in mind the lack of domestic natural gas and petroleum resources, the authors state that the utilisation of the bed will alleviate the energy problems in Bulgaria. 24 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  5. Non-covalent associative structure of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, H. [Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2004-06-01

    The recent progress of non-covalent associative structure of coal and the mechanisms of the carbon disulphide-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (CS{sub 2}/NMP) are mixed solvent and the additive addition enhancing the extraction yield of coals are reviewed, and the aggregation behaviour of coal in solid and solution states are presented, and the aggregation behavior of coal in solid and solution states are introduced in this paper. Coal extraction and swelling in organic solvents at room temperature were the most useful methods to understand the associative structure of coal. CS{sub 2}/NMP is a unique solvent to give high extraction yields for some bituminous coals. Some additives such as tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) can dissociate the stronger interactions among coal molecules and enhance the extraction yields of coal in the mixed solvent. 37 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Environmental remediation with products of fluidized bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A.G.

    1999-07-01

    Commercialization of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) technology could be enhanced by increased utilization of FBC products (ash). In the US, coal combustion products (CCP) are not hazardous under RCRA and are regulated as residual waste by the states. The composition of CCP from fluidized beds is primarily determined by the inorganic constituents in coal, the sorbent reaction products and the unreacted sorbent. The combustion system and the inclusion of other fuels may also affect the chemical composition, physical properties and leaching behavior. The alkalinity of the FBC material, residual lime and pozzolanic properties are desirable characteristics for use in soil stabilization and mine reclamation. At reclaimed surface coal mines, placement of CCP is intended to reduce the amount of acid mine drainage (AMD) produced at such sites. Neutralization, inhibition of acid forming bacteria, encapsulation of the pyrite or water diversion are believed to be the mechanisms facilitated by the alkaline material. Comparison of water quality, before and after injection of a grout composed of FBC ash and water indicated small increases in pH and decreases in acidity at discharge points. The concentrations of calcium and magnesium in water samples generally increased compared to background levels. The average concentration of trace elements (arsenic, cobalt, copper, nickel and zinc) was slightly elevated in the injection areas, but in down dip and discharge water samples were comparable to background levels. Over a four year period, the average acidity in the injected area decreased by approximately 30%, a value similar to another site where a mixture of class F fly ash and cement was injected. Although coal mine remediation is a beneficial environmental use of FBC products, its effectiveness may be related to the amount of FBCB used and the method of emplacement.

  7. Environmental remediation with products of fluidized bed combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Commercialization of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) technology could be enhanced by increased utilization of FBC products (ash). In the US, coal combustion products (CCP) are not hazardous under RCRA and are regulated as residual waste by the states. The composition of CCP from fluidized beds is primarily determined by the inorganic constituents in coal, the sorbent reaction products and the unreacted sorbent. The combustion system and the inclusion of other fuels may also affect the chemical composition, physical properties and leaching behavior. The alkalinity of the FBC material, residual lime and pozzolanic properties are desirable characteristics for use in soil stabilization and mine reclamation. At reclaimed surface coal mines, placement of CCP is intended to reduce the amount of acid mine drainage (AMD) produced at such sites. Neutralization, inhibition of acid forming bacteria, encapsulation of the pyrite or water diversion are believed to be the mechanisms facilitated by the alkaline material. Comparison of water quality, before and after injection of a grout composed of FBC ash and water indicated small increases in pH and decreases in acidity at discharge points. The concentrations of calcium and magnesium in water samples generally increased compared to background levels. The average concentration of trace elements (arsenic, cobalt, copper, nickel and zinc) was slightly elevated in the injection areas, but in down dip and discharge water samples were comparable to background levels. Over a four year period, the average acidity in the injected area decreased by approximately 30%, a value similar to another site where a mixture of class F fly ash and cement was injected. Although coal mine remediation is a beneficial environmental use of FBC products, its effectiveness may be related to the amount of FBCB used and the method of emplacement

  8. Usage of waste products from thermal recycling of plastics waste in enhanced oil recovery or in-situ coal conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, M; Fink, J K [Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria)

    1998-09-01

    In this contribution a thermal method for crude oil mobilization and in-situ liquefaction of coal is discussed, which will finally yield more organic material, as which has been put in from plastics waste originally into the process. The conversion product from thermal treatment is pumped down into exhausted crude oil reservoirs, where the hydrogen can degrade the residual high viscous oil to cause it to become more prone to flow so that it can be recovered. Such a process will envision two goals: 1. more organic raw material (as crude oil) will be recovered than is initially put in as waste product. 2. atmospheric pollutants from the conversion plant will be trapped in the reservoir, which simplifies the construction of the plant. An analogous process may be performed with coal seams. Coal seams with their high porosity and large specific surface are believed to be in particular useful to filter atmospheric pollutants. Depending on the type of coal the mobilization of organic material by this process may be in the background. (orig./SR)

  9. Wettability determination by contact angle measurements: hvbB coal-water system with injection of synthetic flue gas and CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojai Kaveh, Narjes; Rudolph, E Susanne J; Wolf, Karl-Heinz A A; Ashrafizadeh, Seyed Nezameddin

    2011-12-01

    Geological sequestration of pure carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in coal is one of the methods to sequester CO(2). In addition, injection of CO(2) or flue gas into coal enhances coal bed methane production (ECBM). The success of this combined process depends strongly on the wetting behavior of the coal, which is function of coal rank, ash content, heterogeneity of the coal surface, pressure, temperature and composition of the gas. The wetting behavior can be evaluated from the contact angle of a gas bubble, CO(2) or flue gas, on a coal surface. In this study, contact angles of a synthetic flue gas, i.e. a 80/20 (mol%) N(2)/CO(2) mixture, and pure CO(2) on a Warndt Luisenthal (WL) coal have been determined using a modified pendant drop cell in a pressure range from atmospheric to 16 MPa and a constant temperature of 318 K. It was found that the contact angles of flue gas on WL coal were generally smaller than those of CO(2). The contact angle of CO(2) changes from water-wet to gas-wet by increasing pressure above 8.5 MPa while the one for the flue gas changes from water-wet to intermediate-wet by increasing pressure above 10 MPa. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Coal geology and assessment of coal resources and reserves in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppens, James A.; Scott, David C.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the final results of the first assessment of both coal resources and reserves for all significant coal beds in the entire Powder River Basin, northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. The basin covers about 19,500 square miles, exclusive of the part of the basin within the Crow and Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservations in Montana. The Powder River Basin, which contains the largest resources of low-sulfur, low-ash, subbituminous coal in the United States, is the single most important coal basin in the United States. The U.S. Geological Survey used a geology-based assessment methodology to estimate an original coal resource of about 1.16 trillion short tons for 47 coal beds in the Powder River Basin; in-place (remaining) resources are about 1.15 trillion short tons. This is the first time that all beds were mapped individually over the entire basin. A total of 162 billion short tons of recoverable coal resources (coal reserve base) are estimated at a 10:1 stripping ratio or less. An estimated 25 billion short tons of that coal reserve base met the definition of reserves, which are resources that can be economically produced at or below the current sales price at the time of the evaluation. The total underground coal resource in coal beds 10–20 feet thick is estimated at 304 billion short tons.

  11. Coal: Energy for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to a request by the US Department of energy (DOE). The principal objectives of the study were to assess the current DOE coal program vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), and to recommend the emphasis and priorities that DOE should consider in updating its strategic plan for coal. A strategic plan for research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD and C) activities for coal should be based on assumptions regarding the future supply and price of competing energy sources, the demand for products manufactured from these sources, technological opportunities, and the need to control the environmental impact of waste streams. These factors change with time. Accordingly, the committee generated strategic planning scenarios for three time periods: near-term, 1995--2005; mid-term, 2006--2020; and, long-term, 2021--2040. The report is divided into the following chapters: executive summary; introduction and scope of the study; overview of US DOE programs and planning; trends and issues for future coal use; the strategic planning framework; coal preparation, coal liquid mixtures, and coal bed methane recovery; clean fuels and specialty products from coal; electric power generation; technology demonstration and commercialization; advanced research programs; conclusions and recommendations; appendices; and glossary. 174 refs.

  12. China's coal export and inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaodong Li

    1993-01-01

    With the development of world's business and trade, coal has become a large part of the import and export goods in the international market. The total amount of coal trade has risen a lot. China is rich in coal resources. According to the estimate made by some experts, the reserve which has been explored recently could be exploited hundreds of years. China's output of raw coal has risen a lot during the past forty years. China coal industry has developed rapidly since the 1980s. It is possible for China to become a big coal export country since it has rich resources and increasing output. The paper suggests four steps which must be taken to expand coal exports in China: improve the level of management and administration of coal mines so as to raise the economic benefit; the follow-up production capacity of the present mines must be enhanced rapidly; step up construction of new large-scale mines; and China's coal washing capacity must be improved speedily since the low capacity has seriously influenced the improvement of coal quality. The paper describes the inspection bureaus and companies that have developed to perform inspection of exports in order to guarantee the quality of export coal

  13. Development of coal energy utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Coal liquefaction produces new and clean energy by performing hydrogenation, decomposition and liquefaction on coal under high temperatures and pressures. NEDO has been developing bituminous coal liquefaction technologies by using a 150-t/d pilot plant. It has also developed quality improving and utilization technologies for liquefied coal, whose practical use is expected. For developing coal gasification technologies, construction is in progress for a 200-t/d pilot plant for spouted bed gasification power generation. NEDO intends to develop coal gasification composite cycle power generation with high efficiency and of environment harmonious type. This paper summarizes the results obtained during fiscal 1994. It also dwells on technologies to manufacture hydrogen from coal. It further describes development of technologies to manufacture methane and substituting natural gas (SNG) by hydrogenating and gasifying coal. The ARCH process can select three operation modes depending on which of SNG yield, thermal efficiency or BTX yield is targeted. With respect to promotion of coal utilization technologies, description is given on surveys on development of next generation technologies for coal utilization, and clean coal technology promotion projects. International coal utilization and application projects are also described. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Report on Seminar on Clean Coal Technology '93; Clean coal technology kokusai seminar hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    The program of the above clean coal technology (CCT) event is composed of 1) Coal energy be friendly toward the earth, 2) Research on CCT in America (study of coal structure under electron microscope), and 3) Research on CCT in Australia (high intensity combustion of ultrafine coal particles in a clean way). Remarks under item 1) are mentioned below. As for SO{sub 2} emissions base unit, Japan's is 1 at its coal-fired thermal power station while that of America is 7.8. As for the level of SO{sub 2}/NOx reduction attributable to coal utilization technologies, it rises in the order of flue gas desulfurizer-aided pulverized coal combustion, normal pressure fluidized bed combustion, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, and integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation/fuel cell. As for the level of CO2 reduction attributable to power generation efficiency improvement, provided that Japan's average power generation efficiency is 39% and if China's efficiency which is now 28% is improved to be similar to that of Japan, there will be a 40% reduction in CO2 emissions. Under item 2) which involves America's CCT program, reference is made to efforts at eliminating unnecessary part from the catalytic process and at reducing surplus air, to the export of CCT technology, and so forth. Under item 3), it is stated that coal cleaning may govern reaction efficiency in a process of burning coal particles for gasification. (NEDO)

  15. Ninth annual international Pittsburgh coal conference - proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Over 200 papers are presented under the following headings: coal preparation; Clean Coal Technology Program status; pre- and post-utilization processing; advanced conversion technologies; integrated gasification combined cycle; indirect liquefaction; advanced liquefaction process development; conversion processes; coal - from a user's perspective; issues associated with coal use in heat engines; fundamentals of combustion; advanced combustion systems; low quality fuel applications/fluidised beds; combustion systems; ash and sludge disposal/utilization; developing SO 2 /NO x control technologies; technical overview of air toxics; scientific, economic and policy perspectives on global climate change; Clean Air Act compliance strategies; environmental policy/technology; spontaneous combustion; and special topics

  16. Method for increasing the calorific value of gas produced by the in situ combustion of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuck, Lowell Z.

    1978-01-01

    The present invention relates to the production of relatively high Btu gas by the in situ combustion of subterranean coal. The coal bed is penetrated with a horizontally-extending borehole and combustion is initiated in the coal bed contiguous to the borehole. The absolute pressure within the resulting combustion zone is then regulated at a desired value near the pore pressure within the coal bed so that selected quantities of water naturally present in the coal will flow into the combustion zone to effect a hydrogen and carbon monoxide-producing steam-carbon reaction with the hot carbon in the combustion zone for increasing the calorific value of the product gas.

  17. Industrial pressurized fluidized-bed combustors, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonk, D.; Hand, T.; Freier, M.

    1992-01-01

    Coal-fired Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems offer the advantages of high efficiency removal of sulfur during combustion, and inherently low NO x emissions; advantages which support the National Energy Strategy (NES). The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has recently completed studies of coal-fired PFBC in an industrial setting. In addition to in-house studies, interest in industrial sized PFBC's has emerged in the DOE's Clean Coal Technology demonstration program. Reviewing information from these two areas provides some insight into an industrial market for PFBCs

  18. Recovery, restoration, and development of an enhancement plan for the Leading Creek watershed after dewatering of the Meigs number-sign 31 coal mine in Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, D.S.; Hassel, J.H. Van; Yeager, M.M.; Babendreier, J.E.; Currie, R.J.; Astin, L.E.; Lynde, S.R.

    1995-01-01

    Following the flooding of the Meigs number-sign 31 deep coal mine in Meigs County, Ohio, a proactive plan was developed to evaluate effects of initial dewatering, recovery, and development of a watershed enhancement plan. Approximately half of the 31-mile Leading Creek mainstem received coal mine discharge of high conductivity, low pH, high metals and total suspended solids loading. Most forms of aquatic life were depleted in the impacted areas of the creek. After three years since the incident, many forms of benthic macroinvertebrates and fish have returned to the creek, and sediments have been purged of metal loading by storm water events. The enhancement plan involves a reconnaissance of the creek and tributaries pinpointing areas of agricultural sedimentation and abandoned mined land (AML) influences in the lower half. Research activities involved sampling water and sediment in 10 stations of the creek and 17 major tributaries. The tributaries were addressed as point source discharges with water/sediment toxicity testing conducted. In-situ testing included growth impairment evaluation of Asian clams at 27 stations in the watershed. Several tributaries were intermittently toxic depending upon rainfall and the degree of AML input. Benthic macroinvertebrate assembles in most tributaries were stressed and comprised 0--3 taxa. Erosion/sedimentation loading was being addressed by hydrological modeling of the creek, land use management/habitat assessment, and data management by geographic information systems

  19. Beyond lesbian bed death: enhancing our understanding of the sexuality of sexual-minority women in relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jacqueline N; Byers, E Sandra

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the sexuality of sexual-minority (i.e., lesbian, bisexual, queer, unlabeled, questioning) women. Participants were 586 women (87% White) in a same-sex relationship of 1 to 36 years in duration. They completed measures assessing their sexual behavior (frequency of nongenital and genital sexual activities), motivation (sexual desire), and cognitive-affective responses (sexual satisfaction, sexual esteem, sexual anxiety, negative automatic thoughts). On average, the women reported experiencing their sexuality positively across all domains. Regardless of relationship duration, most of the women reported engaging in both genital and nongenital sexual behaviors with their partner once a week or more; few reported that they had not engaged in sexual activity in the previous month. A multiple regression analysis indicated that frequency of genital sexual activity, sexual desire, sexual anxiety, and automatic thoughts contributed uniquely to the prediction of sexual satisfaction over and above the other sexuality variables. The findings are discussed in terms of the idea that lesbians have sex less frequently than other couple types and that sexual frequency declines rapidly in lesbian relationships (i.e., "lesbian bed death") and descriptions of sexual-minority women's sexuality that suggest that genital sexual activity is not important to sexual satisfaction.

  20. Oxy-coal Combustion Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Lighty, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ring, T. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Smith, P. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Thornock, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Y Jia, W. Morris [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Pedel, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Rezeai, D. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wang, L. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zhang, J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-01-06

    The objective of this project is to move toward the development of a predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. This validation research brings together multi-scale experimental measurements and computer simulations. The combination of simulation development and validation experiments is designed to lead to predictive tools for the performance of existing air fired pulverized coal boilers that have been retrofitted to various oxy-firing configurations. In addition, this report also describes novel research results related to oxy-combustion in circulating fluidized beds. For pulverized coal combustion configurations, particular attention is focused on the effect of oxy-firing on ignition and coal-flame stability, and on the subsequent partitioning mechanisms of the ash aerosol.

  1. Electroosmotically enhanced dewatering/deliquoring of fine-particle coal: Final report, January 1--December 31, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sami, Sedat [Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Davis, Philip K. [Department of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Smith, James G. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1989-03-01

    This research is an investigation of the use of electroosmosis to dewater/deliquor ultrafine coal. Post-beneficiation dewatering/deliquoring methods for ultrafine coal are inadequate and generally require subsequent thermal drying. Thermal drying is not only expensive and time consuming, it also does not recover liquids for reuse in beneficiation processes. The degree of difficulty associated with dewatering increases as surface forces become more important than gravimetric forces. Electroosmotic flow has advantages for dewatering because it is much less sensitive to pore size than hydraulic gradient flow for the 1 to 75 ..mu..m ultrafine size range. The first year of this project focused upon preparation of ultrafine coal samples, development of test equipment and test cells, identification of variables affecting electroosmosis, and trial runs. Techniques and procedures not previously used by researchers of electroosmotic dewatering have revealed important information about the dynamics of the electroosmosis process. The identification of the first few millimeters of the cathode region of the cell as the sink for most of the energy input into the process provides the potential for improving efficiency by concentrating the second year effort on intervention in that region. Information gathered about differences in FTIR spectra as a function of location in the dewatering cell will be investigated. Changes in pH with temperature and by the application of electroosmotic current flow will receive attention, as well. 178 refs., 16 figs.

  2. Recommended procedures and methodology of coal description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, E.C.; Minkin, J.A.; Thompson, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    This document is the result of a workshop on coal description held for the Branch of Coal Resources of the U.S. Geological Survey in March 1982. It has been prepared to aid and encourage the field-oriented coal scientist to participate directly in petrographic coal-description activities. The objectives and past and current practices of coal description vary widely. These are briefly reviewed and illustrated with examples. Sampling approaches and techniques for collecting columnar samples of fresh coal are also discussed. The recommended procedures and methodology emphasize the fact that obtaining a good megascopic description of a coal bed is much better done in the laboratory with a binocular microscope and under good lighting conditions after the samples have been cut and quickly prepared. For better observation and cross-checking using a petrographic microscope for identification purposes, an in-place polishing procedure (requiring less than 2 min) is routinely used. Methods for using both the petrographic microscope and an automated image analysis system are also included for geologists who have access to such instruments. To describe the material characteristics of a coal bed in terms of microlithotypes or lithotypes, a new nomenclature of (V), (E), (1), (M). (S). (X1). (X2) and so on is used. The microscopic description of the modal composition of a megascopically observed lithologic type is expressed in terms of (VEIM); subscripts are used to denote the volume percentage of each constituent present. To describe a coal-bed profile, semiquantitative data (without microscopic study) and quantitative data (with microscopic study) are presented in ready-to-understand form. The average total composition of any thickness interval or of the entire coal bed can be plotted on a triangular diagram having V, E, and I+ M +S as the apices. The modal composition of any mixed lithologies such as (X1), (X2), and so on can also be plotted on such a triangular ternary diagram

  3. Fiscal 1995 achievement report. Development of entrained bed coal gasification power plant (Part 3 - Pilot plant operational test - 2/2); 1995 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 3. Pilot plant unten shiken hen (2/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The 200 tons/day entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant constructed for establishing the technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle was subjected to operational tests, and the fiscal 1995 results are detailed. During Runs D13, D14, E1, D15, and A14 in the operational test of the gas clean-up facility (dry type dedusting facility), 10 troubles occurred, including damage of the separator screen, leak in the seal valve, and leak of the expansion gas, and measures were taken to deal with each of the troubles. The results of the gas turbine facility operational test were satisfactory, without any trouble worth discussion. In the operational test of the safety/environment-related facility, it was found that the produced gas was stably incinerated and that denitration performance during gas turbine operation roughly achieved the intended level. In the operational test of electric and control facilities, an overall test was conducted, inspection was made of the indoor switching facility, etc., and 13 improvements were made, which included the alteration of the high ANN setting in the water tank for slag, the alteration of the mill exit temperature setting for enabling the use of Taiheiyo coal, and proper methods for carrying out high-load operation. (NEDO)

  4. FY 1999 Feasibility study on the environmentally-friendly coal utilization systems. Green Helmet Project (Circulating fluidized bed boiler Zaozhuang, Shangdong Province, China); 1999 nendo kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa jigyo seika hokokusho. Green helmet jigyo (junkan ryudosho boiler Chugoku Shangdong sho Zaozhuang)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The demonstration project is carried out in at Chaili coal mine in Shangdong Province, China for installation of and dissemination activities for circulating fluidized bed boilers to abate sulfur oxide emissions associated with utilization of coal, and the FY 1999 results are reported. The operating conditions were reviewed, and some recommendations were made for improving the operation procedures. Limestone was not used for desulfurization, and furnace temperature tended to increase due to increased size of the fluidizing particles. Therefore, it was recommended to use limestone at the design rate. The boiler was operated at a load exceeding the design level, and it was recommended to limit the load viewed from extending serviceability. The boiler start-up procedure was concretely proposed to use a mixed fuel of wood and coal instead of distillate oil, in order to reduce the start-up cost. The recommendations and design support activities for improving facilities included early stage repair of the damaged refractories. For build up of the ashes in the horizontal heat transfer section, the investigated design charts for improvement by installation of ash-discharging hopper were drawn and proposed. Maintenance-related information was given, including Chinese agencies for obtaining auxiliary facilities. (NEDO)

  5. FY 1990 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 2. Fabrication/installation of pilot plant; 1990 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 2. Pilot plant seisaku suetsuke hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, fabrication/installation work, etc. were made for a pilot plant of 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification power generation, and the FY 1990 results were summarized. Construction work of a pilot plant of coal gasification power generation was at its peak in April 1990, and installation/piping work for each facility/equipment was carried out. In May, transportation/installation of gas turbine and generator were started. In June, installation of equipment of the 66kV special high voltage switching station was conducted, and the initial power receiving of 6.9kV was conducted. In August, inspection before use was made of the main piping of the gasifier equipment, gas refining equipment and gas turbine equipment. In December, trial unit operation of each equipment and interlock test were carried out. 'The integrated plant protection interlock test' was made from January 21 to February 21, 1991, and the favorable results were obtained. On February 28, a ceremony to celebrate the completion of all facilities of pilot plant was made. In March, drying of gasifier and initial firing by light oil were conducted, and all the work was completed on March 25. (NEDO)

  6. FY 1991 report on the results of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 3. Adjustment of the operation test of pilot plant (2/2); 1991 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 3. Pilot plant unten shiken chosei hen (2/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-01-01

    The adjustment was made of the operation test of the 200 t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant that was constructed with the aim of establishing technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, and the results were reported. As to the adjustment of the operation test of gas turbine facilities, the following were conducted: tests 1 and 2 on light-oil firing characteristics, test on coal gas ignition, tests on fuel change/gas firing, test on fuel change. And, 12 cases of troubles, the causes and measures against them were reported. Relating to the adjustment of the operation test of actual pressure/actual size combustor testing facilities, tests on hot air device/air heating device and tests 1-3 on light-oil firing were carried out, and 7 cases of troubles, the causes and measures against them were reported. Concerning the adjustment of the operation test of safety environment facilities, tests were made of RUN 3-6, RUN 7 (1 and 2), RUN 8 (1-4) and RUN 9 (1-3), and 20 cases of troubles, the causes and measures against them were reported. As to the adjustment of the operation test of electric/control facilities, items of improvement were reported of gasifier facilities, gas refining facilities, gas turbine facilities, actual pressure/actual size combustor testing facilities, safety environment facilities and total control facilities. (NEDO)

  7. FY 1989 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 2. Fabrication/installation of pilot plant; 1989 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 2. Pilot plant seisaku suetsuke hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, the fabrication, installation work, etc. were conducted of a 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant, and the FY 1989 results were summarized. As to the gasifier equipment, fabrication of a considerable number of the main equipment was finished. And, the equipment was sent into the coal gasification power plant and the installation work was done. Concerning gas refining facilities, fabrication of most of the components of the dry desulfurization system was finished, and further, fabrication of part of the piping prefabrication, disk and part of the disk fitting instrument was finished. The partial equipment of the dry dust removal system was also fabricated. About gas turbine facilities, the drawings necessary for each of the equipment fabricated/installed in this fiscal year were made, and at the same time a part of the technical data prepared so far was reviewed according to the progress of design. As to safety environmental facilities, installation work was done of gas treatment furnace, gas cooling system, buffer tank, desulfurizing tower, etc. Besides, design/technical study were made of the total control system, equipment of the indoor switching station, etc. (NEDO)

  8. FY 1990 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 2. Fabrication/installation of pilot plant; 1990 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 2. Pilot plant seisaku suetsuke hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, fabrication/installation work, etc. were made for a pilot plant of 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification power generation, and the FY 1990 results were summarized. Construction work of a pilot plant of coal gasification power generation was at its peak in April 1990, and installation/piping work for each facility/equipment was carried out. In May, transportation/installation of gas turbine and generator were started. In June, installation of equipment of the 66kV special high voltage switching station was conducted, and the initial power receiving of 6.9kV was conducted. In August, inspection before use was made of the main piping of the gasifier equipment, gas refining equipment and gas turbine equipment. In December, trial unit operation of each equipment and interlock test were carried out. 'The integrated plant protection interlock test' was made from January 21 to February 21, 1991, and the favorable results were obtained. On February 28, a ceremony to celebrate the completion of all facilities of pilot plant was made. In March, drying of gasifier and initial firing by light oil were conducted, and all the work was completed on March 25. (NEDO)

  9. The clean coal technologies for lignitic coal power generation in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, S.; Raza, Z.; Aziz-ur-Rehman, A.

    1995-01-01

    Pakistan contains huge reserves of lignitic coals. These are high sulphur, high ash coals. In spite of this unfortunate situation, the heavy demand for energy production, requires the development utilization of these indigenous coal reserves to enhance energy production. The central of the environmental pollution caused by the combustion of these coals has been a major hindrance in their utilization. Recently a substantial reduction in coal combustion emissions have been achieved through the development of clean coal technologies. Pakistan through the transfer and adaptation of the advanced clean coal technologies can utilize incurring the high sulphur coals for energy production without incurring the environmental effects that the developed countries have experienced in the past. The author discusses the recently developed clean coal utilization technologies, their applications economies and feasibility of utilization with specific reference to Pakistan''s coal. (author)

  10. Use of moist run-of-mine coal for gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowka, K.; Duerlich, M.; Rabe, W. (VEB Gaskombinat Fritz Selbmann, Schwarze Pumpe (German Democratic Republic))

    1988-01-01

    A Series of experiments was performed in 1982 and 1986 to assess the feasibility of substituting brown coal briquets by raw brown coal in the fixed bed gasification plant for producing town gas at Schwarze Pumpe, GDR. Raw brown coal (50% coal moisture, screened coal of fractions 20 to 80 mm) had to be mixed with dry briquets to maintain a maximum 35% coal charge moisture. Briquet substitution degree varied from 20 to 50%. Short-term gasification tests were also carried out at an experimental generator examining 80 to 100% substitution degrees. Parameters of generator operation that were achieved are provided. Experiments proved that 50% briquet substitution is technologically feasible in industrial plant operation employing unscreened coal containing all coal fines. An economic assessment is further made that shows substantial energy savings in coal drying and briquetting.

  11. Pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis performance of Shendong and Pingshuo coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiping Huang; Bo Wu; Yunpeng Zhao; Lijun Jin; Haoquan Hu [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China). Institute of Coal Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of Shendong (SD) and Pingshuo (PS) coal were performed from 500 to 700{sup o}C in a fixed-bed reactor and the product distribution and gas evolution of both processes were analyzed. The results show that, the tar yields of both PS coal and SD coal reach the highest value, about 17 wt% and 13 wt% respectively at temperature 650{sup o}C for pyrolysis. However, the tar yields of PS coal get to the highest value, about 20 wt% at temperature 650{sup o}C, and the tar yields of SD coal are improving with temperature increasing, about 12 wt% at temperature 700{sup o}C for hydropyrolysis. The tar yields of PS coal are higher than those of SD coal at the same conditions for both pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis. The total gas yield of PS coal is higher than that of SD coal for pyrolysis, but lower for hydropyrolysis.

  12. Australian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    Total export shipments of coal in Australia in the year ending June 30 1985 reached a record of 83.8 Mt. The export trade is expected to bring in an income of 4 billion Australian dollars in the current year making coal Australia's biggest revenue-earning export commodity. This article presents a brief overview of the Australian coal industry with production and export statistics and information on major open pit and underground mines.

  13. Thermodynamic analysis and conceptual design for partial coal gasification air preheating coal-fired combined cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Wu, Yining; Deng, Shimin; Wei, Shirang

    2004-02-01

    The partial coal gasification air pre-heating coal-fired combined cycle (PGACC) is a cleaning coal power system, which integrates the coal gasification technology, circulating fluidized bed technology, and combined cycle technology. It has high efficiency and simple construction, and is a new selection of the cleaning coal power systems. A thermodynamic analysis of the PGACC is carried out. The effects of coal gasifying rate, pre-heating air temperature, and coal gas temperature on the performances of the power system are studied. In order to repower the power plant rated 100 MW by using the PGACC, a conceptual design is suggested. The computational results show that the PGACC is feasible for modernizing the old steam power plants and building the new cleaning power plants.

  14. Coal 99; Kol 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparre, C

    2000-07-01

    The following report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1998. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from Statistics Sweden have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1998 was 680 000 tons and somewhat lower than in 1997. The extremely high figures of 1996 were due to twice the production of electricity because of lack of waterpower. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generating plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hot water plants and 11 co-generation plants. During 1998 these figures are 1 and 8. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. Steel-works, however, increase their use of steam coal in order to replace the more expensive coke. The import of metallurgical coal in 1998 was 1.6 mill tons like the year before. 1.1 mill tons of coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1.4 mill tons from which 0.3 mill tons were imported. Several other plants have plans to replace the coal with forest fuels, waste fuels and NG. Even the biggest plant, Vaesteraas, has ordered a block for bio fuels. Helsingborg has started to use wood pellets. The pellets replace most of the coal for the heat production in the co-generation plant. Norrkoeping Kraft AB has put a fluid bed boiler for various fuels into operation, leading to more than half the coal consumption compared with previous years. They have also rebuilt one of their travelling grates for bio fuels. Stockholm Energi, Haesselbyverket, has invested

  15. Coal - 96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1996-09-01

    The report deals mainly with coal consumption, but also gives some information about technology, environmental aspects and markets. Data have been collected by questionnaires or via telephone. The use of steam coal for heating was 0.8 Mtons (down 20% from 1994). Cogeneration plants were the main users. Taxes and environmental reasons cause a reduction of the coal use that will probably continue the next years. Use of steam coal in industry has been constant at a level of 0.7 Mtons. The import of metallurgical coal rests constant at a level of 1.6 Mtons. 1.2 Mtons of coke was produced, and 0.3 Mtons imported. The PFBC-plant at Vaertan, Stockholm used 0.13 Mtons of coal, while some coal fired power plants have been converted to peat and wood fuels. The average price of steam coal imported to Sweden in 1995 was 333 SEK/ton, 6% higher than in 1994. The contract prices for delivery 1996 are about the same as at the end of 1995. All cogeneration plants have some sort of SO 2 removal system, mostly wet-dry. The largest plant, at Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a SCR system for NO x removal. Most other plants are using low NO x burners or SNCR systems, based on ammonia or urea, which reduce the emissions 50 - 70%. Some statistic about the world coal market is also given in the report

  16. Venezuelan coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, L.U.

    1991-01-01

    The existence of coal deposits in Venezuela has been known since the early nineteenth century, when the Naricual Mines were discovered in the State of Anzoategui Eastern Venezuela. Through the years the Venezuelan coal business had its ups and downs, but it was not until 1988 that we could properly say that our coal began to play a role in the international market. This paper reports that it is only now, in the nineties, that Venezuelan coal projects have come under a planning, promotional and developmental policy preparing the ground for the great projects Venezuela will have in the not-too-distant future

  17. Experimental investigation of the oxy-fuel combustion of hard coal in a circulating fluidized-bed combustion; Experimentelle Untersuchung der Oxy-Fuel-Verbrennung von Steinkohle in einer zirkulierenden Wirbelschichtfeuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofbauer, Gerrit Arne

    2017-03-16

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992 first illustrated the social, economic and politic focus being placed on combating climate change caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gases. From there onwards research and development efforts have particularly centred on the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions in the production of electrical power through the use of carbonaceous fossil fuels. The long-term goal is a conversion to sustainable and CO{sub 2} free means of producing power, utilizing in the main part renewable forms of energy such as solar, wind and hydro power. Currently, such renewable ways of creating electricity only represent a small percentage of global energy production. The technological and economic hurdles that are associated with a substantial increase of renewable energy production have greatly slowed their increased implementation. However, the goal of keeping the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration below 450 ppm requires a significantly faster reduction in the amount of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, considerations are being given to bridge technologies which would be able to capture and store the CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fired power plants. These technologies are referred to as CCS (carbon capture and storage). Oxy-fuel combustion, combustion with pure oxygen instead of air, is one of those technologies and forms the focus of investigation of this work. The Institute of Combustion and Power Plant Technology in Stuttgart, Germany, have researched this matter, carrying out combustion experiments in its 150 kW{sub th} circulating fluidized bed pilot facility. The experiments were aimed at investigating the influence of excess oxygen, combustion temperature and inlet oxygen concentration on the combustion process and comparing air to oxy-fuel combustion. These results were compared to the results of fundamental investigations and combustion experiments carried out by other research groups. The relationship

  18. The development of clean coal technology is the main way to control of atmospheric pollution in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Lixin; Xu Hong [Clean Coal Engineering & Research Center of Coal Industry (China)

    1999-11-01

    Atmospheric pollution in China and its causes are analysed. Power stations, industrial boilers and kilns and domestic coal combustion are the main pollution sources. Clean coal technologies are urgently needed. Main clean coal technologies which can improve the present situation of industrial coal combustion are coal cleaning, blending and briquetting; boiler retrofitting; advanced technologies to improve combustion efficiency and reduce pollution - fluidized bed combustion and pulverized coal desulfurization; and advanced desulfurization and dedusting technologies and equipment.

  19. Mercury concentration in coal - Unraveling the puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toole-O'Neil, B.; Tewalt, S.J.; Finkelman, R.B.; Akers, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    Based on data from the US Geological Survey's COALQUAL database, the mean concentration of mercury in coal is approximately 0.2 ??gg-1. Assuming the database reflects in-ground US coal resources, values for conterminous US coal areas range from 0.08 ??gg-1 for coal in the San Juan and Uinta regions to 0.22 ??gg-1 for the Gulf Coast lignites. Recalculating the COALQUAL data to an equal energy basis unadjusted for moisture differences, the Gulf Coast lignites have the highest values (36.4 lb of Hg/1012 Btu) and the Hams Fork region coal has the lowest value (4.8 lb of Hg/1012Btu). Strong indirect geochemical evidence indicates that a substantial proportion of the mercury in coal is associated with pyrite occurrence. This association of mercury and pyrite probably accounts for the removal of mercury with the pyrite by physical coal cleaning procedures. Data from the literature indicate that conventional coal cleaning removes approximately 37% of the mercury on an equal energy basis, with a range of 0% to 78%. When the average mercury reduction value is applied to in-ground mercury values from the COALQUAL database, the resulting 'cleaned' mercury values are very close to mercury in 'as-shipped' coal from the same coal bed in the same county. Applying the reduction fact or for coal cleaning to eastern US bituminous coal, reduces the mercury input load compared to lower-rank non-deaned western US coal. In the absence of analytical data on as-shipped coal, the mercury data in the COALQUAL database, adjusted for deanability where appropriate, may be used as an estimator of mercury contents of as-shipped coal. ?? 1998 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Co-gasification of coal and biomass: Synergy, characterization and reactivity of the residual char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junhao; Shao, Jingai; Yang, Haiping; Lin, Guiying; Chen, Yingquan; Wang, Xianhua; Zhang, Wennan; Chen, Hanping

    2017-11-01

    The synergy effect between coal and biomass in their co-gasification was studied in a vertical fixed bed reactor, and the physic-chemical structural characteristics and gasification reactivity of the residual char obtained from co-gasification were also investigated. The results shows that, conversion of the residual char and tar into gas is enhanced due to the synergy effect between coal and biomass. The physical structure of residual char shows more pore on coal char when more biomass is added in the co-gasification. The migration of inorganic elements between coal and biomass was found, the formation and competitive role of K 2 SiO 3 , KAlSiO 4 , and Ca 3 Al 2 (SiO 4 ) 3 is a mechanism behind the synergy. The graphization degree is enhanced but size of graphite crystallite in the residual char decreases with biomass blending ratio increasing. TGA results strongly suggest the big difference in the reactivity of chars derived from coal and biomass in spite of influence from co-gasification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The mechanism of char ignition in fluidized bed combustors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemons, R.V.

    1987-01-01

    Knowledge about ignition processes of coal in fluidized beds is of importance for the start-up and dynamic control of these combustors. Initial experiments in a transparent fluidized bed scale model showed the existence of a considerable induction period for the ignition of char, especially at low

  2. Coal trends and prospects in Malaysia. Malaysia no sekitan doko to mitoshi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husin, T. (Tenaga Nasional Berhad (Malaysia))

    1993-03-01

    This paper describes problems in coal development and coal processing techniques used in Malaysia. Malaysia has a national organization placing importance on maximizing natural gas source development, but no such an organization is available for coal. Necessity exists in developing transportation infrastructures that can transport coal at a competitive price from coal mines to users inside and outside the country. Majority of the Merit Pila coal is produced in mines with relatively thin coal beds, which raise production cost higher. Coal resources are mostly of low calorific power. Since the coal resource development is a new economic activity, it requires training of people in related areas, and frameworks of legislative regulation. Important in coal development is to select technologies that can meet environmental requirements and stand with competitions in the world coal markets. New coal processing technologies available for discussion in coal refining processes include relaxed gasification or pyrolysis, coal liquefaction, coal-water mixture to mix coal powder and water with additives, coal pretreatment techniques, coal cleaning techniques, and fluidized bed combustion. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. Post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 using aerobic moving bed biofilm process: Enhanced removal of aromatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini Koupaie, E.; Alavi Moghaddam, M.R.; Hashemi, S.H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Biofilm process was applied as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded an azo dye. → More than 65% of the dye total metabolites was completely mineralized. → Based on HPLC analysis, more than 80% of 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was removed. → Inhibition of biofilm growth was increased with increasing the initial dye concentration. → Considerable porous morphology was observed in the SEM photographs of the biofilm. - Abstract: The application of aerobic moving bed biofilm process as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 was investigated in this study. The main objective of this work was to enhance removal of anaerobically formed the dye aromatic metabolites. Three separate sequential treatment systems were operated with different initial dye concentrations of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/L. Each treatment system consisted of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (An-SBR) followed by an aerobic moving bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (MB-SBBR). Up to 98% of the dye decolorization and more than 80% of the COD removal occurred anaerobically. The obtained results suggested no significant difference in COD removal as well as the dye decolorization efficiency using three An-SBRs receiving different initial dye concentrations. Monitoring the dye metabolites through HPLC suggested that more than 80% of anaerobically formed 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was completely removed in the aerobic biofilm reactors. Based on COD analysis results, at least 65-72% of the dye total metabolites were mineralized during the applied treatment systems. According to the measured biofilm mass and also based on respiration-inhibition test results, increasing the initial dye concentration inhibited the growth and final mass of the attached-growth biofilm in MB-SBBRs.

  4. Thermophilic two-phase anaerobic digestion using an innovative fixed-bed reactor for enhanced organic matter removal and bioenergy recovery from sugarcane vinasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuess, Lucas Tadeu; Kiyuna, Luma Sayuri Mazine; Ferraz, Antônio Djalma Nunes; Persinoti, Gabriela Felix

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An innovative fixed-film anaerobic reactor was applied to sugarcane vinasse. • Stable operation was observed for OLRs as high as 30 kg COD m"−"3 day"−"1. • Propionate buildup did not impact the stability of the structured-bed reactor. • Enhanced bioenergy recovery was estimated from biodigestion with phase separation. • Energy extraction was over 20% higher compared to single-phase systems. - Abstract: This study considered the application of anaerobic digestion (AD) with phase separation combined with the use of an anaerobic structured-bed reactor (ASTBR) as the methanogenic phase for the treatment of sugarcane vinasse, a high-strength wastewater resulting from ethanol production. Two combined thermophilic acidogenic-methanogenic systems formed by one single acidogenic reactor followed by two methanogenic reactors operated in parallel were compared, namely, a conventional UASB reactor and an upflow ASTBR reactor. Increasing organic loading rate (OLR) conditions (15–30 kg COD m"−"3 d"−"1) were applied to the methanogenic reactors. The results highlighted the feasibility of applying the ASTBR to vinasse, indicating a global COD removal higher than 80%. The ASTBR exhibited a stable long-term operation (240 days), even for OLR values as high as 30 kg COD m"−"3 d"−"1. The application of similar conditions to the UASB reactor indicated severe performance losses, leading to the accumulation of acids for every increase in the OLR. An energetic potential of 181.5 MJ for each cubic meter of vinasse was estimated from both hydrogen and methane. The provision of bicarbonate alkalinity proved to be a key factor in obtaining stable performance, offsetting the limitations of relatively low hydraulic retention times (<24 h).

  5. A spatial analysis of China's coal flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mou Dunguo; Li Zhi

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of China's energy structure and the distribution of its coal resources make coal transportation a very important component of the energy system; moreover, coal transportation acts as a bottleneck for the Chinese economy. To insure the security of the coal supply, China has begun to build regional strategic coal reserves at some locations, but transportation is still the fundamental way to guaranty supply security. Here, we study China's coal transportation quantitatively with a linear programming method that analyses the direction and volume of China's coal flows with the prerequisite that each province's supply and demand balance is guaranteed. First, we analyse the optimal coal transportation for the status quo coal supply and demand given the bottleneck effects that the Daqin Railway has on China's coal flow; second, we analyse the influence of future shifts in the coal supply zone in the future, finding that China's coal flows will also change, which will pressure China to construct railways and ports; and finally, we analyse the possibility of exploiting Yangtze River capacity for coal transportation. We conclude the paper with suggestions for enhancing China's coal transportation security. - Highlights: ► We use linear programming to study China's coal transportation. ► First, analyse the optimal coal flow under the status quo condition. ► Second, analyse influences of coal supply zone shifts to Neimeng and Xinjiang. ► Third, analyse the influence of using Yangtze River for coal transportation. ► At last, we give suggestions about infrastructure construction to guaranty China's long-run coal supply security.

  6. Environmental care in coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Kvaerner Power will supply a CYMIC{reg_sign} circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler with a 63 MW electricity capacity to Manitowoc Public Utilities, in Manitowoc, Wisconsin, USA in 2006. This boiler is designed to burn bituminous coal and petroleum coke, with minimised emissions of SO{sub 2} and NOx. Kvaerner Power CFBs are capable of burning either coal or biomass (eg paper pellets) in any combination. Recent deliveries, to Indonesia and China as well as the USA, are listed. 1 tab., 5 photos.

  7. Analysis of CO2 Separation from Flue Gas, Pipeline Transportation, and Sequestration in Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2007-09-01

    This report was written to satisfy a milestone of the Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration task of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration project. The report begins to assess the costs associated with separating the CO2 from flue gas and then injecting it into an unminable coal seam. The technical challenges and costs associated with CO2 separation from flue gas and transportation of the separated CO2 from the point source to an appropriate sequestration target was analyzed. The report includes the selection of a specific coal-fired power plant for the application of CO2 separation technology. An appropriate CO2 separation technology was identified from existing commercial technologies. The report also includes a process design for the chosen technology tailored to the selected power plant that used to obtain accurate costs of separating the CO2 from the flue gas. In addition, an analysis of the costs for compression and transportation of the CO2 from the point-source to an appropriate coal bed sequestration site was included in the report.

  8. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO(sub 3) and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, performance testing of flue gas conditioning was underway at the PacifiCorp Jim Bridger Power Plant. The product tested, ADA-43, was a combination resistivity modifier with cohesivity polymers. This represents the first long-term full-scale testing of this class of products. Modifications to the flue gas conditioning system at Jim Bridger, including development of alternate injection lances, was also undertaken to improve chemical spray distribution and to avoid spray deposition to duct interior surfaces. Also in this quarter, a firm commitment was received for another long-term test of the cohesivity additives. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity and particulate emissions performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Ammonia conditioning is employed here on one unit, but there is interest in liquid cohesivity additives as a safer alternative

  9. Fiscal 1995 achievement report. Development of entrained bed coal gasification power plant (Part 1 - Studies of key elements and techniques); 1995 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Youso kenkyu hen, gijutsu chosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Element techniques were studied and surveyed for establishing the technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle. In fiscal 1995, E coal (coal of high ash fluid point) gasification was tested in the 2 tons/day furnace for the effect of its properties on furnace operation and for its properties relating to gasification and slagging and for changes in such properties due to flux admixed with the E coal. It was then found that the ash fluid point was so high as 1500 degrees C and that flux admixing, recovered oxygen reinjection, etc., would be necessary for the assurance of stable slag discharge. In a study using combined cycle system simulation, a comparison was made between results from tests conducted on a real system and results from the simulation, based on the detailed model completed by the preceding fiscal year. The model was reviewed and improved, and simulations were conducted in the respective operating states and operating modes. In the survey of element techniques, information was gathered at a Japan-U.S. joint technical conference held in Japan in October this year. Studies were also made about technical guidelines, or the like, involving coal gasification power generation. (NEDO)

  10. Achievement report for fiscal 1994 on developing entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 1. Element research edition and technology survey edition; 1994 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Youso kenkyu hen, gijutsu chosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    With an objective of establishing the coal gasification composite power generation technology, R and D has been carried out on the elementary technologies. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1994. In the research on the large gas turbine combustor for the demonstration plant, combustion tests were carried out by using the actual gas from the designed coal (coal D). In addition, the minimum gas flow rate test, fuel calory change test, and fuel switching test were performed from the viewpoint of evaluating the low load stability. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the combustion performance of the tested combustor, such tests were conducted as the combustor pressure loss characteristics test, bypass valve flow rate characteristics test, light oil ignition and light oil combustion test, and tests on the characteristics to switch from light oil to coal gas and the coal gas combustion characteristics. Evaluations were given on the NOx conversion rate, CO, THC, combustion efficiency, metal temperatures, pattern factors, pressure loss, internal pressure variation, and vibration stress. In the simulation research of the composite power generation system, the simulation models were varied according to the actual plant requirements in association with the progress of the tests on the pilot plant. The results of the simulations were reflected to the general load pressure control equipment. (NEDO)

  11. Coal summit II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Various papers were presented on world coal trade. Papers include: Poland as a producer and exporter of coal; the dynamics of world coal trade; Cerrejon coal production perspectives; present state of the Australian coal industry; present state of the EC coal market and future prospects; prospects of US coal exports to Europe; forecast of Italian coal supply and demand through 1990; statistics from coal transportation outlook; status of world coal ports.

  12. Research of Heat Rates Effect on the Process Of Fuel-Bed Gasification Of “Balakhtinskoe”, “Osinnikovskoe”, “Krasnogorskoe” and “Borodinskoe” Coal Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenkov Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental research of fuel-bed gasification at different heating rates was conducted. Release of four gases (CO, NO, H2O, CO2 was determined. Optimal heating rate mode for this method of gasification was established.

  13. Development of a phenomenological model for coal slurry atomization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooher, J.P. [Adelphi Univ., Garden City, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Highly concentrated suspensions of coal particles in water or alternate fluids appear to have a wide range of applications for energy production. For enhanced implementation of coal slurry fuel technology, an understanding of coal slurry atomization as a function coal and slurry properties for specific mechanical configurations of nozzle atomizers should be developed.

  14. Biodegradation of phenolic waste liquors in stirred-tank, packed-bed, and fluidized-bed bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holladay, D W; Hancher, G W; Chilcote, D D; Scott, C D

    1978-11-01

    The biological degradation of phenolic scrub liquors similar to those that arise in coal conversion processes was studied for symbiotic bacterial populations contained in a continuously stirred tank bioreactor, a three-phase packed-bed bioreactor, and a three-phase, fluidized-bed bioreactor. The conversions of phenol compounds were comparable in the three-phase, packed-bed bioreactor and the continuously stirred tank bioreactor; however, the packed-bed bioreactor degradation rates were as much as twice those in the continuously stirred tank bioreactor, and packed-bed bioreactor retention times were as low as one- tenth those of the continuously stirred tank bioreactors (minimum time was 12 hours).

  15. Study on Gas Drainage by Pressure Relief for Floor Through Beds Holes in Far Distance Lower Protective Coal Seam%远距离下保护层底板穿层钻孔卸压瓦斯抽采研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军; 李生舟; 姚明柱

    2017-01-01

    This paper takes the remote lower protective layer 11# coal seam mining to protect main 3# coal seam as the research object in Songshuping Coal Mine.It is concluded that it is reasonable to arrange 3314 floor gas drainage roadway at the bottom 15 m of the 3# coal seam through arranging through beds grid format upholes in floor roadway to extract the protective layer and carry out pressure relief gas.The actual extraction data show that during the mining of the long-distance protective layer,the influence of the mining can effectively relieve the pressure and improve the permeability of the protective layer.The pre-pumping rate of the drainage area is about 65.6%.According to the effect analysis of pressure relief gas extraction,11# coal seam after the protection of the working layer in front of 10 m to the protective layer of the face of 60 m within the corresponding overlying 3# coal seam is the best pressure relief gas extraction area.%以桑树坪煤矿远距离下保护层11#煤层开采保护主采3#煤层为研究对象,利用底板巷布置上向穿层网格式钻孔抽采被保护层卸压瓦斯,研究得出将3314底板瓦斯抽放巷布置在3#煤层底部法距15 m处较为合理.实际抽采数据表明,在远距离下保护层开采期间,采动影响能够有效卸压,提高被保护层的透气性,底抽巷预抽区域瓦斯预抽率约为65.6%.从卸压瓦斯抽采效果分析,11#煤层回采后保护层工作面前方10m至保护层工作面后方60 m范围内对应的上覆3#煤层区域为最佳卸压瓦斯抽采区域.

  16. Bed agglomeration characteristics of palm shell and corncob combustion in fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaivatamaset, Pawin; Sricharoon, Panchan; Tia, Suvit

    2011-01-01

    Bed particle agglomeration was studied experimentally in an atmospheric laboratory scale fluidized bed combustor using quartz sand as bed material. Palm shell and corncob were tested. The objectives of the study were (i) to describe the contributions of the biomass ash properties and the operating conditions on the bed agglomeration tendency in term of the bed defluidization time (t def ) and the extent of potassium accumulation in the bed (K/Bed) and (ii) to further elucidate the ash inorganic behaviors and the governing bed agglomeration mechanisms. Defluidization caused by the bed agglomeration was experienced in all experiments during combustion of these biomasses, as a consequence of the presence of potassium in biomass. The experimental results indicated that biomass ash characteristics were the significant influence on the bed agglomeration. The increasing bed temperature, bed particle size and static bed height and the decreasing fluidizing air velocity enhanced the bed agglomeration tendency. The SEM/EDS analyses on the agglomerates confirmed that the agglomeration was attributed to the formation of potassium silicate liquid enriched on the surface of quartz sand particles in conjunction with the high surface temperature of the burning biomass char particles. Thermodynamic examination based on the phase diagram analysis confirmed that the molten phase formation was responsible for the agglomeration. In this study, the high molten ash fraction resulting from the high potassium content in biomass promoted the agglomeration and thus defluidization. - Highlights: → Palm shell and corncob of Thailand are tested their bed agglomeration behaviors during fluidized bed combustion. → The increase of bed temperature, bed particle size and static bed height and the decrease of air velocity enhance bed agglomeration. → The formation of ash derived potassium silicate melts enriched on sand surface is the key process. → The collision between char and sand

  17. Retrieval process development and enhancements: Hydraulic test bed integrated testing. Fiscal year 1995 technology development summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatchell, B.K.; Smalley, J.T.; Tucker, J.C.

    1996-02-01

    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements Program is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology to investigate waste dislodging and conveyance processes suitable for the retrieval of high-level radioactive waste. This program, represented by industry, national laboratories, and academia, is testing the performance of a technology of high-pressure waterjet dislodging and pneumatic conveyance integrated as a scarifier as a means of retrieval of waste inside waste storage tanks. Waste stimulants have been designed to challenge this retrieval process, and this technology has been shown to mobilize and convey the waste stimulants, at target retrieval rates while operating within the space envelope and the dynamic loading constraints of postulated deployment systems. The approach has been demonstrated to be versatile in dislodging and conveying a broad range of waste forms, from hard wastes to soft sludge wastes, through the use of simple and reliable in-tank components

  18. CoalVal-A coal resource valuation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbacher, Timothy J.; McIntosh, Gary E.

    2010-01-01

    CoalVal is a menu-driven Windows program that produces cost-of-mining analyses of mine-modeled coal resources. Geological modeling of the coal beds and some degree of mine planning, from basic prefeasibility to advanced, must already have been performed before this program can be used. United States Geological Survey mine planning is done from a very basic, prefeasibility standpoint, but the accuracy of CoalVal's output is a reflection of the accuracy of the data entered, both for mine costs and mine planning. The mining cost analysis is done by using mine cost models designed for the commonly employed, surface and underground mining methods utilized in the United States. CoalVal requires a Microsoft Windows? 98 or Windows? XP operating system and a minimum of 1 gigabyte of random access memory to perform operations. It will not operate on Microsoft Vista?, Windows? 7, or Macintosh? operating systems. The program will summarize the evaluation of an unlimited number of coal seams, haulage zones, tax entities, or other area delineations for a given coal property, coalfield, or basin. When the reader opens the CoalVal publication from the USGS website, options are provided to download the CoalVal publication manual and the CoalVal Program. The CoalVal report is divided into five specific areas relevant to the development and use of the CoalVal program: 1. Introduction to CoalVal Assumptions and Concepts. 2. Mine Model Assumption Details (appendix A). 3. CoalVal Project Tutorial (appendix B). 4. Program Description (appendix C). 5. Mine Model and Discounted Cash Flow Formulas (appendix D). The tutorial explains how to enter coal resource and quality data by mining method; program default values for production, operating, and cost variables; and ones own operating and cost variables into the program. Generated summary reports list the volume of resource in short tons available for mining, recoverable short tons by mining method; the seam or property being mined

  19. Synthesis of zeolites coal ash in surfactant modified in application and removal of orange 8 acid solution: study in batch, fixed bed column and evaluation ecotoxicological; Sintese de zeolitas de cinzas de carvao modificada por surfactante e aplicacao na remocao de acido laranja 8 de solucao aquosa: estudo em leito movel, coluna de leito fixo e avaliacao ecotoxicologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magdalena, Carina Pitwak

    2015-09-01

    In this study, synthesized zeolitic material from coal ash and modified cationic surfactant was used for removing the acid dye Orange 8 (AL8) by adsorption process using moving bed and fixed-bed column. The raw material and adsorbents were characterized by different techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, among others. The adsorption of AL8 was performed by moving bed in order to optimize the results when they are launched in a fixed bed. The effects of adsorption on zeolite AL8 were compared: (1) Effect of counterions Br{sup -} and Cl{sup -} surfactant used in the modification of the zeolite; (2) effect of type of coal ash used as raw material in the synthesis of zeolites (fly and bottom). The following adsorbents were used in the study: fly and bottom zeolite modified by surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (ZLMS-Br-Br and ZPMS-Br) and fly zeolite modified by surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (ZLMS-Cl). The pseudo-second-order kinetic described the adsorption of the dye on all adsorbents. The equilibrium time was reached 40, 60 and 120 min for ZLMS-Br, ZLMS-Cl and ZPMS-Br, respectively. The adsorption equilibrium was analyzed by the equations of the models of linear and nonlinear isotherms of Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin- Radushkevivh (DR) and the criterion of best fit was evaluated using the error functions.The DR model was adjusted better to the experimental data for the system AL8 / ZLMS-Br, the Freundlich model for AL8 / ZLMS-Cl and Langmuir for AL8 / ZPMS. According to the Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity was 4.67, 1.48 and 1.38 mg g{sup -1} for ZLMS-Br, ZLMS-Cl and ZPMS-Br, in order. In studies employing fixed bed columns, the effects of inlet concentration (20- 30 mg L{sup -1}), flow rate (4.0 -5.3 mL min{sup -1}) and the bed height (5, 5 - 6.5 cm) above the breakthrough curves characteristics in the adsorption system were determined. The Adams-Bohart, Thomas, Yoon-Nelson models were

  20. International Coal Report's coal year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCloskey, G [ed.

    1991-05-31

    Following introductory articles on factors affecting trade in coal and developments in the freight market, tables are given for coal exports and coal imports for major countries worldwide for 1989 and 1990. Figures are also included for coal consumption in Canada and the Eastern bloc,, power station consumption in Japan, coal supply and demand in the UK, electric utility coal consumption and stocks in the USA, coal production in Australia, Canada and USA by state, and world hard coal production. A final section gives electricity production and hard coal deliveries in the EEC, sales of imported and local coal and world production of pig iron and steel.

  1. Final Scientific/Technical Report for project “Increasing the Rate and Extent of Microbial Coal to Methane Conversion through Optimization of Microbial Activity, Thermodynamics, and Reactive Transport”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Matthew [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2018-01-17

    Currently, coal bed methane (CBM) wells have a limited lifetime since the rate of methane removal via the installed wells is much faster than the in situ methane production rates. Along with water issues created by large amounts of CBM production water, the short life span of CBM wells is a huge deterrent to the environmental and economic feasibility of CBM production. The process of biogenic methanogenesis can be enhanced via the stimulation of the associated microbial communities that can convert the organic fractions of coal to methane. This process is termed Microbially-Enhanced Coal Bed Methane (MECBM). However, the rates of methane production are still limited and long incubation times are necessary. We hypothesized that the elucidation of chemical and biological parameters that limited MECBM together with thermodynamic considerations would inform strategies to optimize the process under flow conditions. We incorporated microbiological, physicochemical, and engineering processes to develop a more sustainable CBM production scheme with native coal and native microorganisms. The proposed combination of microbial ecology and physiology as well as optimized engineering principles minimized key constraints that impact microbial coal conversion to methane under environmentally relevant conditions. The combined approach for bench-scale tests resulted in more effective and less environmentally burdensome coal-dependent methane production with the potential for H2O and CO2 management.

  2. Modelling Underground Coal Gasification—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md M. Khan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The technical feasibility of underground coal gasification (UCG has been established through many field trials and laboratory-scale experiments over the past decades. However, the UCG is site specific and the commercialization of UCG is being hindered due to the lack of complete information for a specific site of operation. Since conducting UCG trials and data extraction are costly and difficult, modeling has been an important part of UCG study to predict the effect of various physical and operating parameters on the performance of the process. Over the years, various models have been developed in order to improve the understanding of the UCG process. This article reviews the approaches, key concepts, assumptions, and limitations of various forward gasification UCG models for cavity growth and product gas recovery. However, emphasis is given to the most important models, such as packed bed models, the channel model, and the coal slab model. In addition, because of the integral part of the main models, various sub-models such as drying and pyrolysis are also included in this review. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the various simulation methodologies and sub-models in order to enhance the understanding of the critical aspects of the UCG process.

  3. Ergonomics - Using Ergonomics to Enhance Safe Production at a Surface Coal Mine - A Case Study with Powder Crews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torma-Krajewski, J.; Wiehagen, W.; Etcheverry, A.; Turin, F.; Unger, R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Job tasks that involve exposure to work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) risk factors may impact both the risk of injury and production downtime. Common WMSD risks factors associated with mining tasks include forceful exertions, awkward postures, repetitive motion, jolting and jarring, forceful gripping, contact stress, and whole body and segmental vibration. Mining environments that expose workers to temperature/humidity extremes, windy conditions, and slippery and uneven walking surfaces also contribute to injury risk. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) researchers worked with powder crew members from the Bridger Coal Company to identify and rank routine work tasks based on perceived exposure to WMSD risk factors. This article presents the process followed to identify tasks that workers believed involved the greatest exposure to risk factors and discusses risk reduction strategies. Specifically, the proposed prill truck design changes addressed cab ingress/egress, loading blast holes, and access to the upper deck of the prill truck.

  4. Uncertainty in coal property valuation in West Virginia: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohn, M.E.; McDowell, R.R.

    2001-01-01

    Interpolated grids of coal bed thickness are being considered for use in a proposed method for taxation of coal in the state of West Virginia (United States). To assess the origin and magnitude of possible inaccuracies in calculated coal tonnage, we used conditional simulation to generate equiprobable realizations of net coal thickness for two coals on a 7 1/2 min topographic quadrangle, and a third coal in a second quadrangle. Coals differed in average thickness and proportion of original coal that had been removed by erosion; all three coals crop out in the study area. Coal tonnage was calculated for each realization and for each interpolated grid for actual and artificial property parcels, and differences were summarized as graphs of percent difference between tonnage calculated from the grid and average tonnage from simulations. Coal in individual parcels was considered minable for valuation purposes if average thickness in each parcel exceeded 30 inches. Results of this study show that over 75% of the parcels are classified correctly as minable or unminable based on interpolation grids of coal bed thickness. Although between 80 and 90% of the tonnages differ by less than 20% between interpolated values and simulated values, a nonlinear conditional bias might exist in estimation of coal tonnage from interpolated thickness, such that tonnage is underestimated where coal is thin, and overestimated where coal is thick. The largest percent differences occur for parcels that are small in area, although because of the small quantities of coal in question, bias is small on an absolute scale for these parcels. For a given parcel size, maximum apparent overestimation of coal tonnage occurs in parcels with an average coal bed thickness near the minable cutoff of 30 in. Conditional bias in tonnage for parcels having a coal thickness exceeding the cutoff by 10 in. or more is constant for two of the three coals studied, and increases slightly with average thickness for the

  5. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. (Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States) Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is the development of predictive capability for the design, scale up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. This program will merge significant advances made in measuring and quantitatively describing the mechanisms in coal conversion behavior. Comprehensive computer codes for mechanistic modeling of entrained-bed gasification. Additional capabilities in predicting pollutant formation will be implemented and the technology will be expanded to fixed-bed reactors.

  6. Overview of current and future - clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darthenay, A.

    1995-01-01

    A new generation of advanced coal technology, environmentally cleaner and in many cases more efficient, has been developed: flue gas treatment of pulverized coal combustion, circulating fluidized bed (CFB), integrated gasification with combined cycle (IGCC) and pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC). These techniques are described, giving a balance of their references and of the steps which are still to be got over in order to have industrial processes applicable to large size power plants. 4 tabs

  7. Production of gasoline from coal or natural gas by the methanol-to-gasoline process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinritz-Adrian, M.; Brandl, A.; Zhoa, Xinjin; Tabak, S. [Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    After discussing the basis of the methanol-to-gas (MTG) process, the fixed bed and fluid bed versions are described. The Motunui and MTG complex near Montunui, New Zealand that methanol uses natural gas is briefly described. Shanxi Jincheng, Anthracite Coal Mining Co. is currently building its first coal-based MTG plant. 7 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. Ash transformation in suspension fired boilers co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    Appendix C: Paper in Fuel 87 (2008) 3304-3312: A kinetic study of gaseous potassium capture by coal minerals in a high temperature fixed-bed reactor......Appendix C: Paper in Fuel 87 (2008) 3304-3312: A kinetic study of gaseous potassium capture by coal minerals in a high temperature fixed-bed reactor...

  9. Converting coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avigliano, A. [Bedeschi (Italy)

    2006-10-15

    In September 2005, Bedeschi was commissioned to design and supply a coal unloading, conveying and storage facility for a new raw coal line system within Hatien II Cement Co. The new plant is composed of a grab unloader, a conveyor system, a storage shed with stacking and reclaiming facilities, a complete dedusting system and civil and steel structure engineering. The scope of supply includes a local fabrication portion; however, main components will be imported. The project will be completed in 21 months. The paper looks into the mechanics of loading and unloading coal. 4 figs., 4 photos.

  10. Management present situation and countermeasures of coal mines safety in production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shu-dong; YU Chang-wu

    2008-01-01

    Analyzed of the present situation of Chinese coal mines safety in production and the reasons for coal mining accident, and realized the coal mines safety in production,which should increase the legal safeguards of coal mine safety in production, and safety input, established the comprehensive coal mine safety evaluation system, comprehensively enhance quality of coal mine workers, established and improved early warning mechanism of safety production of coal mine.

  11. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, SynCoal{reg_sign} demonstration technology update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, R.W. [Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, Billings, MT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    An Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) technology being demonstrated in eastern Montana (USA) at the heart of one of the world`s largest coal deposits is providing evidence that the molecular structure of low-rank coals can be altered successfully to produce a unique product for a variety of utility and industrial applications. The product is called SynCoal{reg_sign} and the process has been developed by the Rosebud SynCoal Partnership (RSCP) through the US Department of Energy`s multi-million dollar Clean Coal Technology Program. The ACCP demonstration process uses low-pressure, superheated gases to process coal in vibrating fluidized beds. Two vibratory fluidized processing stages are used to heat and convert the coal. This is followed by a water spray quench and a vibratory fluidized stage to cool the coal. Pneumatic separators remove the solid impurities from the dried coal. There are three major steps to the SynCoal{reg_sign} process: (1) thermal treatment of the coal in an inert atmosphere, (2) inert gas cooling of the hot coal, and (3) removal of ash minerals. When operated continuously, the demonstration plant produces over 1,000 tons per day (up to 300,000 tons per year) of SynCoal{reg_sign} with a 2% moisture content, approximately 11,800b Btu/lb and less than 1.0 pound of SO{sub 2} per million Btu. This product is obtained from Rosebud Mine sub-bituminous coal which starts with 25% moisture, 8,600 Btu/lb and approximately 1.6 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million Btu.

  12. Bugs and coal: processing fuels with biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, M

    1987-06-01

    Bioprocessing of coal is developing along several fronts, each of potential significance to utilities. Researchers have found a fungus, polyporous versicolor, which can liquefy certain kinds of coal and scientists have genetically engineered bacteria that remove sulfur and ash-forming metal impurities from coal. Research programs are being undertaken to find organisms that will convert lignite into gaseous methane to produce gaseous fuel more economically than the current coal gasification methods. Researchers looking for ways to remove sulfur from coal before it is burned are evaluating the use of a bacterium called thiobacillus ferroxidans to enhance the physical removal of pyrite. 2 refs.

  13. Effect of microwave radiation on coal flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbayoglu, G.; Depci, T.; Ataman, N. [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department

    2009-07-01

    Most low-rank coals are high in moisture and acid functional groups, therefore showing poor floatability. Drying, which removes the water molecules trapped in the pores and adsorbed at the surface of coal, decreases the hydrophilic character and improves the floatability. Microwave heating, whose simplest application is drying, was applied at 0.9 kW power level for 60 sec exposure time in the experiments to decrease the moisture content of coal in order to enhance the hydrophobicity. The flotation tests of microwave-treated coal by using heptanol and octanol lead to a higher flotation yield and ash removal than original coal.

  14. Coal competitiveness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogeaux, B.

    2006-01-01

    Will coal electrical plants be more competitive in the coming years? Answering this one cannot be limited to merely comparing estimates based on reference electricity production costs. The competitiveness of coal will indeed depend on the final product marketed, as the MWhs are not equal: is the purpose to produce base, half-base MWh? Does the electrical equipment structure require flexible MWh (for instance in the event of significant intermittent renewable energy amounts), and therefore plants able to adjust their power rapidly? But the competitiveness of coal will also depend on many factors that will correct reference cost estimates: uncertainties, risks, externalities. These factors will need to be appreciated on a case by case basis. We introduce some of the reasoning used to better appreciate the future competitiveness of coal, and the main factors conditioning it in three contrasting regions of the world: Europe, USA, china. (author)

  15. Coal - 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, C.

    1997-01-01

    The report deals with the use of coal and coke during 1996. Some information about techniques, environmental questions and markets are also given. Data have been collected by questionnaires to major users and by telephone to minor users. Preliminary statistical data from SCB have also been used. The use of steam coal for heating purposes during 1996 was 1,2 mill tons and 50% higher than in 1995. The increase is probably temporary and due to high prices of electricity because of lack of water power. The co-generation plants were the main users of coal. The minor plants have increased their use of forest fuels. Probably the use of steam coal will go down in the immediate years both in the heat generating and the co-generation plants. During the top year 1987 coal was used in 18 hotwater plants and 11 co-generation plants. 1996 these figures are 3 and 12. Taxes and environmental reasons explain this trend. The use of steam coal in the industry has been constant at the level 700 000 tons. This level is supposed to be constant or to vary with business cycles. The import of metallurgical coal in 1996 was 1,6 mill tons like the year before. 1,2 mill tons coke were produced. The coke consumption in the industry was 1,5 mill tons. 0,3 mill tons of coke were imported. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1996 was 340 SEK/ton or 2% higher than in 1995. For the world, the average import price was 51,5 USD/ton, nearly the same as the year before. The contract prices for delivery during 1997 are about equal as the end of 1996. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO 2 and NO x given by county administrations or concession boards

  16. Health effects of coal technologies: research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    In this 1977 Environmental Message, President Carter directed the establishment of a joint program to identify the health and environmental problems associated with advanced energy technologies and to review the adequacy of present research programs. In response to the President's directive, representatives of three agencies formed the Federal Interagency Committee on the Health and Environmental Effects of Energy Technologies. This report was prepared by the Health Effects Working Group on Coal Technologies for the Committee. In this report, the major health-related problems associated with conventional coal mining, storage, transportation, and combustion, and with chemical coal cleaning, in situ gasification, fluidized bed combustion, magnetohydrodynamic combustion, cocombustion of coal-oil mixtures, and cocombustion of coal with municipal solid waste are identified. The report also contains recommended research required to address the identified problems.

  17. Study of coal flash hydropyrolysis denitrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Lihua; Zhu, Zibin; Zhu, Hongbin; Zhang, Chengfang [Research Institute of Inorganic Chemical Technology, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2003-05-15

    The hydrodenitrogenation efficiency of 14 types of coals and the reaction mechanism of Zalainouer coal were studied in an experimental entrained bed reactor by flash hydropyrolysis (FHP). The results showed that flash hydropyrolysis is an efficient method for denitrogenation, and that the denitrogenation percentage increases with an increase in temperature and hydrogen pressure. For example, the denitrogenation percentage can reach up to about 60% for Zalainouer coal at 700 C and 6.0 MPa hydrogen pressure. The denitrogenation efficiency of different coal types is related to H/C. According to the conclusion of the study, the denitrogenation percentage increases with the increase in H/C ratio, reaching about 12% when H/C is equal to 0.6, and 40-55% when H/C is above 1.0. The results indicate that FHP is an efficient technique for removing nitrogen in coal.

  18. FY 1991 report on the results of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 3. Adjustment of the operation test of pilot plant (1/2); 1991 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 3. Pilot plant unten shiken chosei hen (1/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-01-01

    The adjustment was made of the operation test of the 200 t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant that was constructed with the aim of establishing technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, and the results were reported. As to the adjustment of the operation test of gasifier facilities, the light-oil firing test and tests of RUN 1-9 were conducted, and the paper reported cases of 49-item troubles, the causes, measures against them, improvement of facilities, etc. For slagging, operation conditions, improvement of various facilities, etc. were studied. Relating to the adjustment of the operation test of gas refining facilities (dry desulfurization facilities), the following were carried out: test on empty column gas circulation, test on desulfurizer circulation characteristics, test on SO2 reduction tower, test on warming-up characteristics, tests 1-3 on initial performance, tests on change in gas turbine fuel and loads. And, 21 cases of troubles, the causes and measures against them were reported. Concerning the adjustment of the operation test of gas refining facilities (dry dedusting facilities), the following were conducted: test on non-load sequence, test on confirmation prior to letting gas through, tests 1-3 on initial performance, test on dedusting characteristics. And, 22 cases of troubles, the causes and measures against them were reported. (NEDO)

  19. FY 1989 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 3. Fabrication/installation of pilot plant (Fabrication/installation drawings and fabrication/installation pictures - 2/2); 1989 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 3. Pilot plant seisaku suetsuke hen (Seisaku suetsukezu oyobi seisaku suetsuke shashin) (2/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, the fabrication, installation work, etc. were conducted of a 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant, and fabrication/installation drawings and fabrication/installation pictures were summarized. In fabrication/installation drawings, drawings of the following were included: safety environmental equipment (total system diagram, layout scheme drawing, layout of electric room equipment, layout of control equipment room, etc.), total control system (structural drawing of the total control system, outline drawing of operation control panel, operator console of the integrated load pressure control system, operator console of the integrated sequential control system, central control panel, etc.), 66kV/6.9kV indoor switching station facilities (layout of equipment of indoor switching station facilities, outline drawing of the main transformer, outline drawing of cooler control panel of the main transformer, etc.), common facilities (total layout, diagram of the equipment cooling water pipe system, diagram of the fire-extinguishing water pipe system, etc.) In pictures of fabrication/installation, pictures of the following were included: gasifier equipment, gas refining facilities, gas turbine facilities, actual-pressure/actual-size combustor test equipment, safety environmental equipment, total control system, common facilities, etc. (NEDO)

  20. FY 1990 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 3. Fabrication/installation of pilot plant (Fabrication/installation drawings and fabrication/installation pictures - 2/2); 1990 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 3. Pilot plant seisaku suetsuke hen (Seisaku suetsukezu oyobi seisaku suetsuke shashin) (2/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, the fabrication, installation work, etc. were conducted of a 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant, and fabrication/installation drawings and fabrication/i