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Sample records for enhanced anti-tumor activity

  1. Enhancement of hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302 anti-tumor activity by Chk1 inhibition.

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    Meng, Fanying; Bhupathi, Deepthi; Sun, Jessica D; Liu, Qian; Ahluwalia, Dharmendra; Wang, Yan; Matteucci, Mark D; Hart, Charles P

    2015-05-21

    The hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302 is reduced at its nitroimidazole group and selectively under hypoxic conditions releases the DNA cross-linker bromo-isophosphoramide mustard (Br-IPM). Here, we have explored the effect of Chk1 inhibition on TH-302-mediated pharmacological activities. We employed in vitro cell viability, DNA damage, cellular signaling assays and the in vivo HT29 human tumor xenograft model to study the effect of Chk1inhibition on TH-302 antitumor activities. TH-302 cytotoxicity is greatly enhanced by Chk1 inhibition in p53-deficient but not in p53-proficient human cancer cell lines. Chk1 inhibitors reduced TH-302-induced cell cycle arrest via blocking TH-302-induced decrease of phosphorylation of histone H3 and increasing Cdc2-Y15 phosphorylation. Employing the single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay, we observed a potentiation of the TH-302 dependent tail moment. TH-302 induced γH2AX and apoptosis were also increased upon the addition of Chk1 inhibitor. Potentiation of TH-302 cytotoxicity by Chk1 inhibitor was only observed in cell lines proficient in, but not deficient in homology-directed DNA repair. We also show that combination treatment led to lowering of Rad51 expression levels as compared to either agent alone. In vivo data demonstrate that Chk1 inhibitor enhances TH-302 anti-tumor activity in p53 mutant HT-29 human tumor xenografts, supporting the hypothesis that these in vitro results can translate to enhanced in vivo efficacy of the combination. TH-302-mediated in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activities were greatly enhanced by the addition of Chk1 inhibitors. The preclinical data presented in this study support a new approach for the treatment of p53-deficient hypoxic cancers by combining Chk1 inhibitors with the hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302.

  2. Poly (I:C) enhances the anti-tumor activity of canine parvovirus NS1 protein by inducing a potent anti-tumor immune response.

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    Gupta, Shishir Kumar; Yadav, Pavan Kumar; Tiwari, A K; Gandham, Ravi Kumar; Sahoo, A P

    2016-09-01

    The canine parvovirus NS1 (CPV2.NS1) protein selectively induces apoptosis in the malignant cells. However, for an effective in vivo tumor treatment strategy, an oncolytic agent also needs to induce a potent anti-tumor immune response. In the present study, we used poly (I:C), a TLR3 ligand, as an adjuvant along with CPV2.NS1 to find out if the combination can enhance the oncolytic activity by inducing a potent anti-tumor immune response. The 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells were used to induce mammary tumor in Balb/c mice. The results suggested that poly (I:C), when given along with CPV2.NS1, not only significantly reduced the tumor growth but also augmented the immune response against tumor antigen(s) as indicated by the increase in blood CD4+ and CD8+ counts and infiltration of immune cells in the tumor tissue. Further, blood serum analysis of the cytokines revealed that Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2) were significantly upregulated in the treatment group indicating activation of cell-mediated immune response. The present study reports the efficacy of CPV2.NS1 along with poly (I:C) not only in inhibiting the mammary tumor growth but also in generating an active anti-tumor immune response without any visible toxicity. The results of our study may help in developing CPV2.NS1 and poly (I: C) combination as a cancer therapeutic regime to treat various malignancies.

  3. Pyrvinium targets the unfolded protein response to hypoglycemia and its anti-tumor activity is enhanced by combination therapy.

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    De-Hua Yu

    Full Text Available We identified pyrvinium pamoate, an old anthelminthic medicine, which preferentially inhibits anchorage-independent growth of cancer cells over anchorage-dependent growth (approximately 10 fold. It was also reported by others to have anti-tumor activity in vivo and selective toxicity against cancer cells under glucose starvation in vitro, but with unknown mechanism. Here, we provide evidence that pyrvinium suppresses the transcriptional activation of GRP78 and GRP94 induced by glucose deprivation or 2-deoxyglucose (2DG, a glycolysis inhibitor, but not by tunicamycin or A23187. Other UPR pathways induced by glucose starvation, e.g. XBP-1, ATF4, were also found suppressed by pyrvinium. Constitutive expression of GRP78 via transgene partially protected cells from pyrvinium induced cell death under glucose starvation, suggesting that suppression of the UPR is involved in pyrvinium mediated cytotoxicity under glucose starvation. Xenograft experiments showed rather marginal overall anti-tumor activity for pyrvinium as a monotherapy. However, the combination of pyrvinium and Doxorubicin demonstrated significantly enhanced efficacy in vivo, supporting a mechanistic treatment concept based on tumor hypoglycemia and UPR.

  4. Intratumoral delivery of CpG-conjugated anti-MUC1 antibody enhances NK cell anti-tumor activity.

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    Schettini, Jorge; Kidiyoor, Amritha; Besmer, Dahlia M; Tinder, Teresa L; Roy, Lopamudra Das; Lustgarten, Joseph; Gendler, Sandra J; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2012-11-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against tumor-associated antigens are useful anticancer agents. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is one of the major mechanisms responsible for initiating natural killer cell (NK)-mediated killing of tumors. However, the regulation of ADCC via NK cells is poorly understood. We have investigated the cytolytic activity of NK cells against pancreatic cancer cells that were coated with an antibody directed against the human tumor antigen, Mucin-1 designated HMFG-2, either alone or conjugated to CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN). Conjugated antibodies were tested for their ability to elicit ADCC in vitro and in vivo against pancreatic cancer cells. NK cells cultured in the presence of immobilized CpG ODN, HMFG-2 Ab, or CpG ODN-conjugated HMFG-2 Ab were able to up-regulate perforin similarly. Interestingly, a significant higher ADCC was observed when CpG ODN-conjugated HMFG-2-coated tumor cells were co-cultured with NK cells compared to unconjugated HMFG-2 Ab or CpG ODN alone. Moreover, MyD88-deficient NK cells can perform ADCC in vitro. Furthermore, intratumoral injections of CpG ODN-conjugated HMFG-2 induced a significant reduction in tumor burden in vivo in an established model of pancreatic tumor in nude mice compared to CpG ODN or the HMFG-2 alone. Depletion of macrophages or NK cells before treatment confirmed that both cells were required for the anti-tumor response in vivo. Results also suggest that CpG ODN and HMFG-2 Ab could be sensed by NK cells on the mAb-coated tumor cells triggering enhanced ADCC in vitro and in vivo.

  5. Enhancement of anti-tumor activity of hybrid peptide in conjugation with carboxymethyl dextran via disulfide linkers.

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    Gaowa, Arong; Horibe, Tomohisa; Kohno, Masayuki; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Harada, Hiroshi; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Kawakami, Koji

    2015-05-01

    To improve the anti-tumor activity of EGFR2R-lytic hybrid peptide, we prepared peptide-modified dextran conjugates with the disulfide bonds between thiolated carboxymethyl dextran (CMD-Cys) and cysteine-conjugated peptide (EGFR2R-lytic-Cys). In vitro release studies showed that the peptide was released from the CMD-s-s-peptide conjugate in a concentration-dependent manner in the presence of glutathione (GSH, 2μM-2mM). The CMD-s-s-peptide conjugate exhibited a similar cytotoxic activity with free peptide alone against human pancreatic cancer BxPC-3 cells in vitro. Furthermore, it was shown that the CMD-s-s-peptide conjugates were highly accumulated in tumor tissue in a mouse xenograft model using BxPC-3 cells, and the anti-tumor activity of the conjugate was more effective than that of the free peptide. In addition, the plasma concentrations of peptide were moderately increased and the elimination half-life of the peptide was prolonged after intravenous injection of CMD-s-s-peptide conjugates. These results demonstrated that the conjugate based on thiolated CMD polymer would be potentially useful carriers for the sustained release of the hybrid peptide in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Nanoparticle Delivery of Artesunate Enhances the Anti-tumor Efficiency by Activating Mitochondria-Mediated Cell Apoptosis

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    Liu, Rui; Yu, Xiwei; Su, Chang; Shi, Yijie; Zhao, Liang

    2017-06-01

    Artemisinin and its derivatives were considered to exert a broad spectrum of anti-cancer activities, and they induced significant anti-cancer effects in tumor cells. Artemisinin and its derivatives could be absorbed quickly, and they were widely distributed, selectively killing tumor cells. Since low concentrations of artesunate primarily depended on oncosis to induce cell death in tumor cells, its anti-tumor effects were undesirable and limited. To obtain better anti-tumor effects, in this study, we took advantage of a new nanotechnology to design novel artesunate-loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles to achieve the mitochondrial accumulation of artesunate and induce mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. The results showed that when compared with free artesunate's reliance on oncotic death, artesunate-loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles showed higher cytotoxicity and their significant apoptotic effects were induced through the distribution of artesunate in the mitochondria. This finding indicated that artesunate-loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles damaged the mitochondrial integrity and activated mitochondrial-mediated cell apoptosis by upregulating apoptosis-related proteins and facilitating the rapid release of cytochrome C.

  7. Enhanced anti-tumor activity of a new curcumin-related compound against melanoma and neuroblastoma cells

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    Pastorino Fabio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sharing the common neuroectodermal origin, melanoma and neuroblastoma are tumors widely diffused among adult and children, respectively. Clinical prognosis of aggressive neuroectodermal cancers remains dismal, therefore the search for novel therapies against such tumors is warranted. Curcumin is a phytochemical compound widely studied for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Recently, we have synthesized and tested in vitro various curcumin-related compounds in order to select new anti-tumor agents displaying stronger and selective growth inhibition activity on neuroectodermal tumors. Results In this work, we have demonstrated that the new α,β-unsaturated ketone D6 was more effective in inhibiting tumor cells growth when compared to curcumin. Normal fibroblasts proliferation was not affected by this treatment. Clonogenic assay showed a significant dose-dependent reduction in both melanoma and neuroblastoma colony formation only after D6 treatment. TUNEL assay, Annexin-V staining, caspases activation and PARP cleavage unveiled the ability of D6 to cause tumor cell death by triggering apoptosis, similarly to curcumin, but with a stronger and quicker extent. These apoptotic features appear to be associated with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release. In vivo anti-tumor activity of curcumin and D6 was surveyed using sub-cutaneous melanoma and orthotopic neuroblastoma xenograft models. D6 treated mice exhibited significantly reduced tumor growth compared to both control and curcumin treated ones (Melanoma: D6 vs control: P and D6 vs curcumin P Neuroblastoma: D6 vs both control and curcumin: P . Conclusions Our data indicate D6 as a good candidate to develop new therapies against neural crest-derived tumors.

  8. Pyruvate induces transient tumor hypoxia by enhancing mitochondrial oxygen consumption and potentiates the anti-tumor effect of a hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302.

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    Yoichi Takakusagi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: TH-302 is a hypoxia-activated prodrug (HAP of bromo isophosphoramide mustard that is selectively activated within hypoxic regions in solid tumors. Our recent study showed that intravenously administered bolus pyruvate can transiently induce hypoxia in tumors. We investigated the mechanism underlying the induction of transient hypoxia and the combination use of pyruvate to potentiate the anti-tumor effect of TH-302. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: The hypoxia-dependent cytotoxicity of TH-302 was evaluated by a viability assay in murine SCCVII and human HT29 cells. Modulation in cellular oxygen consumption and in vivo tumor oxygenation by the pyruvate treatment was monitored by extracellular flux analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR oxygen imaging, respectively. The enhancement of the anti-tumor effect of TH-302 by pyruvate treatment was evaluated by monitoring the growth suppression of the tumor xenografts inoculated subcutaneously in mice. TH-302 preferentially inhibited the growth of both SCCVII and HT29 cells under hypoxic conditions (0.1% O2, with minimal effect under aerobic conditions (21% O2. Basal oxygen consumption rates increased after the pyruvate treatment in SCCVII cells in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that pyruvate enhances the mitochondrial respiration to consume excess cellular oxygen. In vivo EPR oxygen imaging showed that the intravenous administration of pyruvate globally induced the transient hypoxia 30 min after the injection in SCCVII and HT29 tumors at the size of 500-1500 mm(3. Pretreatment of SCCVII tumor bearing mice with pyruvate 30 min prior to TH-302 administration, initiated with small tumors (∼ 550 mm(3, significantly delayed tumor growth. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our in vitro and in vivo studies showed that pyruvate induces transient hypoxia by enhancing mitochondrial oxygen consumption in tumor cells. TH-302 therapy can be potentiated by pyruvate pretreatment if started at the

  9. Pyruvate induces transient tumor hypoxia by enhancing mitochondrial oxygen consumption and potentiates the anti-tumor effect of a hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakusagi, Yoichi; Matsumoto, Shingo; Saito, Keita; Matsuo, Masayuki; Kishimoto, Shun; Wojtkowiak, Jonathan W; DeGraff, William; Kesarwala, Aparna H; Choudhuri, Rajani; Devasahayam, Nallathamby; Subramanian, Sankaran; Munasinghe, Jeeva P; Gillies, Robert J; Mitchell, James B; Hart, Charles P; Krishna, Murali C

    2014-01-01

    TH-302 is a hypoxia-activated prodrug (HAP) of bromo isophosphoramide mustard that is selectively activated within hypoxic regions in solid tumors. Our recent study showed that intravenously administered bolus pyruvate can transiently induce hypoxia in tumors. We investigated the mechanism underlying the induction of transient hypoxia and the combination use of pyruvate to potentiate the anti-tumor effect of TH-302. The hypoxia-dependent cytotoxicity of TH-302 was evaluated by a viability assay in murine SCCVII and human HT29 cells. Modulation in cellular oxygen consumption and in vivo tumor oxygenation by the pyruvate treatment was monitored by extracellular flux analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oxygen imaging, respectively. The enhancement of the anti-tumor effect of TH-302 by pyruvate treatment was evaluated by monitoring the growth suppression of the tumor xenografts inoculated subcutaneously in mice. TH-302 preferentially inhibited the growth of both SCCVII and HT29 cells under hypoxic conditions (0.1% O2), with minimal effect under aerobic conditions (21% O2). Basal oxygen consumption rates increased after the pyruvate treatment in SCCVII cells in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that pyruvate enhances the mitochondrial respiration to consume excess cellular oxygen. In vivo EPR oxygen imaging showed that the intravenous administration of pyruvate globally induced the transient hypoxia 30 min after the injection in SCCVII and HT29 tumors at the size of 500-1500 mm(3). Pretreatment of SCCVII tumor bearing mice with pyruvate 30 min prior to TH-302 administration, initiated with small tumors (∼ 550 mm(3)), significantly delayed tumor growth. Our in vitro and in vivo studies showed that pyruvate induces transient hypoxia by enhancing mitochondrial oxygen consumption in tumor cells. TH-302 therapy can be potentiated by pyruvate pretreatment if started at the appropriate tumor size and oxygen concentration.

  10. Equol enhances tamoxifen’s anti-tumor activity by induction of caspase-mediated apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charalambous, Christiana; Pitta, Chara A; Constantinou, Andreas I

    2013-01-01

    Soy phytoestrogens, such as daidzein and its metabolite equol, have been proposed to be responsible for the low breast cancer rate in Asian women. Since the majority of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer patients are treated with tamoxifen, the basic objective of this study is to determine whether equol enhances tamoxifen’s anti-tumor effect, and to identify the molecular mechanisms involved. For this purpose, we examined the individual and combined effects of equol and tamoxifen on the estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells using viability assays, annexin-V/PI staining, cell cycle and western blot analysis. We found that equol (>50 μM) and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen (4-OHT; >100 nM) significantly reduced the MCF-7 cell viability. Furthermore, the combination of equol (100 μM) and 4-OHT (10 μM) induced apoptosis more effectively than each compound alone. Subsequent treatment of MCF-7 cells with the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK inhibited equol- and 4-OHT-mediated apoptosis, which was accompanied by PARP and α-fodrin cleavage, indicating that apoptosis is mainly caspase-mediated. These compounds also induced a marked reduction in the bcl-2:bax ratio, which was accompanied by caspase-9 and caspase-7 activation and cytochrome-c release to the cytosol. Taken together, these data support the notion that the combination of equol and tamoxifen activates the intrinsic apoptotic pathway more efficiently than each compound alone. Consequently, equol may be used therapeutically in combination treatments and clinical studies to enhance tamoxifen’s effect by providing additional protection against estrogen-responsive breast cancers

  11. GU81, a VEGFR2 antagonist peptoid, enhances the anti-tumor activity of doxorubicin in the murine MMTV-PyMT transgenic model of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, Kristi D; Udugamasooriya, D Gomika; Roland, Christina L; Castrillon, Diego H; Kodadek, Thomas J; Brekken, Rolf A

    2010-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a primary stimulant of angiogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions. Anti-VEGF therapy is a clinically proven strategy for the treatment of a variety of cancers including colon, breast, lung, and renal cell carcinoma. Since VEGFR2 is the dominant angiogenic signaling receptor, it has become an important target in the development of novel anti-angiogenic therapies. We have reported previously the development of an antagonistic VEGFR2 peptoid (GU40C4) that has promising anti-angiogenic activity in vitro and in vivo. In the current study, we utilize a derivative of GU40C4, termed GU81 in therapy studies. GU81 was tested alone or in combination with doxorubicin for in vivo efficacy in the MMTV-PyMT transgenic model of breast cancer. The derivative GU81 has increased in vitro efficacy compared to GU40C4. Single agent therapy (doxorubicin or GU81 alone) had no effect on tumor weight, histology, tumor fat content, or tumor growth index. However, GU81 is able to significantly to reduce total vascular area as a single agent. GU81 used in combination with doxorubicin significantly reduced tumor weight and growth index compared to all other treatment groups. Furthermore, treatment with combination therapy significantly arrested tumor progression at the premalignant stage, resulting in increased tumor fat content. Interestingly, treatment with GU81 alone increased tumor-VEGF levels and macrophage infiltration, an effect that was abrogated when used in combination with doxorubicin. This study demonstrates the VEGFR2 antagonist peptoid, GU81, enhances the anti-tumor activity of doxorubicin in spontaneous murine MMTV-PyMT breast tumors

  12. Experimental study of anti-tumor activity of direct current

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    Ito, Hisao; Hashimoto, Shozo

    1989-01-01

    The anti-tumor activity of direct current combined with radiation was studied. The experiments were performed with fibrosarcomas (FSA, NFSA) syngenetic to C3H mice. Direct current (0.6mA, 120min) alone was effective to reduce the tumor sizes, but could not cure the tumors. When the direct current therapy (DC therapy) was combined with radiation the DC therapy following radiation was more effective than that before radiation. Using TCD 50 assay, the DC therapy enhanced the effect of a single dose of radiation with the dose-modifying factor of 1.2. However, tumor control rates by the combination therapy were more improved at the smaller doses of radiation than at the larger ones. When the single DC therapy (0.6mA, 120min) was applied immediately after the first radiation of fractionated one the combination therapy still showed the enhanced effect. However, both DC therapy and the radiation therapy were divided in three fractions, and the DC therapy (0.6mA, 40min) was applied after each radiation. Tumor growth retardation by the combination therapy was no different from that by radiation alone. This result suggests that there might be a minimum required dose of coulombs to show the effect of the combination therapy. (author)

  13. The anti-tumor effect and biological activities of the extract JMM6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juglans mandshurica Maxim is a traditional herbal medicines in China, and its anti-tumor bioactivities are of research interest. Bioassay-guided fractionation method was employed to isolate anti-tumor compounds from the stem barks of the Juglans mandshurica Maxim. The anti-tumor effect and biological activities of the ...

  14. Inhibition of protein kinase CK2 reduces CYP24A1 expression and enhances 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 anti-tumor activity in human prostate cancer cells

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    Luo, Wei; Yu, Wei-Dong; Ma, Yingyu; Chernov, Mikhail; Trump, Donald L.; Johnson, Candace S.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D has broad range of physiological functions and anti-tumor effects. 24-hydroxylase, encoded by the CYP24A1 gene, is the key enzyme for degrading many forms of vitamin D including the most active form, 1,25D3. Inhibition of CYP24A1 enhances 1,25D3 anti-tumor activity. In order to isolate regulators of CYP24A1 expression in prostate cancer cells, we established a stable prostate cancer cell line PC3 with CYP24A1 promoter driving luciferase expression to screen a small molecular library for compounds that inhibit CYP24A1 promoter activity. From this screening, we identified, 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzimidazole (TBBz), a protein kinase CK2 selective inhibitor as a disruptor of CYP24A1 promoter activity. We show that TBBz inhibits CYP24A1 promoter activity induced by 1,25D3 in prostate cancer cells. In addition, TBBz downregulates endogenous CYP24A1 mRNA level in TBBz treated PC3 cells. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated CK2 knockdown reduces 1,25D3 induced CYP24A1 mRNA expression in PC3 cells. These results suggest that CK2 contributes to 1,25D3 mediated target gene expression. Lastly, inhibition of CK2 by TBBz or CK2 siRNA significantly enhanced 1,25D3 mediated anti-proliferative effect in vitro and in vivo in a xenograft model. In summary, our findings reveal that protein kinase CK2 is involved in the regulation of CYP24A1 expression by 1,25D3 and CK2 inhibitor enhances 1,25D3 mediated anti-tumor effect. PMID:23358686

  15. Enhanced Anti-Tumoral Activity of Methotrexate-Human Serum Albumin Conjugated Nanoparticles by Targeting with Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH) Peptide

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    Taheri, Azade; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Ahadi, Fatemeh; Nouri, Farank Salman; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Borougeni, Atefeh Taheri; Mansoori, Pooria

    2011-01-01

    Active targeting could increase the efficacy of anticancer drugs. Methotrexate-human serum albumin (MTX-HSA) conjugates, functionalized by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) as targeting moieties, with the aim of specifically targeting the cancer cells, were prepared. Owing to the high expression of LHRH receptors in many cancer cells as compared to normal cells, LHRH was used as the targeting ligand in this study. LHRH was conjugated to MTX-HSA nanoparticles via a cross-linker. Three types of LHRH targeted nanoparticles with a mean particle size between 120–138 nm were prepared. The cytotoxicity of LHRH targeted and non-targeted nanoparticles were determined on the LHRH positive and negative cell lines. The internalization of the targeted and non-targeted nanoparticles in LHRH receptor positive and negative cells was investigated using flow cytometry analysis and fluorescence microscopy. The cytotoxicity of the LHRH targeted nanoparticles on the LHRH receptor positive cells were significantly more than non-targeted nanoparticles. LHRH targeted nanoparticles were also internalized by LHRH receptor positive cells significantly more than non-targeted nanoparticles. There were no significant differences between the uptake of targeted and non-targeted nanoparticles to the LHRH receptor negative cells. The active targeting procedure using LHRH targeted MTX-HSA nanoparticles could increase the anti-tumoral activity of MTX. PMID:21845098

  16. Systemic treatment with n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids attenuates EL4 thymoma growth and metastasis through enhancing specific and non-specific anti-tumor cytolytic activities and production of TH1 cytokines.

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    Salem, Mohamed Labib

    2005-06-01

    Recently, there has been a great interest in the effects of different types of n-6 polyunsaturated acids (n-6 PUFAs) upon the immune system and cancer development. However, the effects of n-6 PUFAs are still controversial and as yet undefined. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-tumor effects of n-6 PUFAs against EL4 thymoma and the associated immune mechanisms. To this, sesame oil, a vegetable oil enriched with n-6 PUFAs, or free linoleic acid (LA) were administered intraperitoneally into C57BL/6 mice before and after challenge with EL4 lymphoma cells. Treatment with either sesame oil or LA attenuated the growth and metastasis of EL4 lymphoma. The anti-tumor effect of LA was superior to that of sesame oil, and associated with an increase in the survival rate of the tumor-bearing mice. In addition, both sesame oil and LA showed dose-dependent anti-lymphoma growth in vitro. Treatment with LA generated significant increases in the anti-lymphoma cytolytic and cytostatic activities of T cells and macrophages, respectively, and enhanced production of IL-2 and IFN-gamma while decreased production of IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10. In summation, the results suggest that n-6 PUFAs, represented by LA, can attenuate EL4 lymphoma growth and metastasis through enhancing the specific and non-specific anti-tumor cytolytic activities and production of TH1 cytokines. These findings might be of great importance for a proper design of systemic nourishment with PUFAs emulsions for cancer patients.

  17. Novel T cells with improved in vivo anti-tumor activity generated by RNA electroporation

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    Xiaojun Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The generation of T cells with maximal anti-tumor activities will significantly impact the field of T-cell-based adoptive immunotherapy. In this report, we found that OKT3/IL-2-stimulated T cells were phenotypically more heterogeneous, with enhanced anti-tumor activity in vitro and when locally administered in a solid tumor mouse model. To further improve the OKT3/IL-2-based T cell manufacturing procedure, we developed a novel T cell stimulation and expansion method in which peripheral blood mononuclear cells were electroporated with mRNA encoding a chimeric membrane protein consisting of a single-chain variable fragment against CD3 and the intracellular domains of CD28 and 4-1BB (OKT3-28BB. The expanded T cells were phenotypically and functionally similar to T cells expanded by OKT3/IL-2. Moreover, co-electroporation of CD86 and 4-1BBL could further change the phenotype and enhance the in vivo anti-tumor activity. Although T cells expanded by the co-electroporation of OKT3-28BB with CD86 and 4-1BBL showed an increased central memory phenotype, the T cells still maintained tumor lytic activities as potent as those of OKT3/IL-2 or OKT3-28BB-stimulated T cells. In different tumor mouse models, T cells expanded by OKT3-28BB RNA electroporation showed anti-tumor activities superior to those of OKT3/IL-2 T cells. Hence, T cells with both a less differentiated phenotype and potent tumor killing ability can be generated by RNA electroporation, and this T cell manufacturing procedure can be further optimized by simply co-delivering other splices of RNA, thus providing a simple and cost-effective method for generating high-quality T cells for adoptive immunotherapy.

  18. Anti-Tumor Activity of a Polysaccharide from Blueberry

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    Xiyun Sun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Blueberries (Vaccinium spp. are rich in bioactive compounds. However, the biological activity of polysaccharides from blueberry has not been reported so far. This study evaluated the anti-tumor and immunological activities of a polysaccharide (BBP3-1 from blueberry in S180-bearing mice. The experimental results indicated that BBP3-1 (100 mg·kg−1·d−1 inhibited the tumor growth rate by 73.4%. Moreover, this group, compared with the model control, had shown an effect of increasing both the spleen and thymus indices (p < 0.05, increasing phagocytosis by macrophages (p < 0.05, boosting the proliferation and transformation of lymphocytes (p < 0.01, promoting the secretion of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-2 (p < 0.05 and improving NK cell activity (p < 0.01. From this study, we could easily conclude that BBP3-1 has the ability to inhibit tumor progression and could act as a good immunomodulator.

  19. Anti-tumor activity of polysaccharides extracted from Senecio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To optimize the extraction conditions of polysaccharides from the root of Senecio scandens Buch,-Ham. (PRS) and evaluate its anti-tumor effect on hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: Response surface methodology (RSM) applied with a Box-Behnken design (BBD, three levels and three factors) was employed to ...

  20. The vitamin E analog, alpha-tocopheryloxyacetic acid enhances the anti-tumor activity of trastuzumab against HER2/neu-expressing breast cancer

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    Penichet Manuel L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HER2/neu is an oncogene that facilitates neoplastic transformation due to its ability to transduce growth signals in a ligand-independent manner, is over-expressed in 20-30% of human breast cancers correlating with aggressive disease and has been successfully targeted with trastuzumab (Herceptin®. Because trastuzumab alone achieves only a 15-30% response rate, it is now commonly combined with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs. While the combination of trastuzumab plus chemotherapy has greatly improved response rates and increased survival, these conventional chemotherapy drugs are frequently associated with gastrointestinal and cardiac toxicity, bone marrow and immune suppression. These drawbacks necessitate the development of new, less toxic drugs that can be combined with trastuzumab. Recently, we reported that orally administered alpha-tocopheryloxyacetic acid (α-TEA, a novel ether derivative of alpha-tocopherol, dramatically suppressed primary tumor growth and reduced the incidence of lung metastases both in a transplanted and a spontaneous mouse model of breast cancer without discernable toxicity. Methods In this study we examined the effect of α-TEA plus HER2/neu-specific antibody treatment on HER2/neu-expressing breast cancer cells in vitro and in a HER2/neu positive human xenograft tumor model in vivo. Results We show in vitro that α-TEA plus anti-HER2/neu antibody has an increased cytotoxic effect against murine mammary tumor cells and human breast cancer cells and that the anti-tumor effect of α-TEA is independent of HER2/neu status. More importantly, in a human breast cancer xenograft model, the combination of α-TEA plus trastuzumab resulted in faster tumor regression and more tumor-free animals than trastuzumab alone. Conclusion Due to the cancer cell selectivity of α-TEA, and because α-TEA kills both HER2/neu positive and HER2/neu negative breast cancer cells, it has the potential to be effective and

  1. PEGylation of α-momorcharin retained its anti-tumor activity with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    the anti-tumor activity of α-MMC-PEG decreased by about 30% in vitro. This sensitivity increase of 50 ... experiments and were acclimatized in the animal room. They were housed on aspen ..... PEGylation, successful approach to drug delivery.

  2. Focal Adhesion Kinase Inhibitors in Combination with Erlotinib Demonstrate Enhanced Anti-Tumor Activity in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant A Howe

    Full Text Available Blockade of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR activity has been a primary therapeutic target for non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC. As patients with wild-type EGFR have demonstrated only modest benefit from EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs, there is a need for additional therapeutic approaches in patients with wild-type EGFR. As a key component of downstream integrin signalling and known receptor cross-talk with EGFR, we hypothesized that targeting focal adhesion kinase (FAK activity, which has also been shown to correlate with aggressive stage in NSCLC, would lead to enhanced activity of EGFR TKIs. As such, EGFR TKI-resistant NSCLC cells (A549, H1299, H1975 were treated with the EGFR TKI erlotinib and FAK inhibitors (PF-573,228 or PF-562,271 both as single agents and in combination. We determined cell viability, apoptosis and 3-dimensional growth in vitro and assessed tumor growth in vivo. Treatment of EGFR TKI-resistant NSCLC cells with FAK inhibitor alone effectively inhibited cell viability in all cell lines tested; however, its use in combination with the EGFR TKI erlotinib was more effective at reducing cell viability than either treatment alone when tested in both 2- and 3-dimensional assays in vitro, with enhanced benefit seen in A549 cells. This increased efficacy may be due in part to the observed inhibition of Akt phosphorylation when the drugs were used in combination, where again A549 cells demonstrated the most inhibition following treatment with the drug combination. Combining erlotinib with FAK inhibitor was also potent in vivo as evidenced by reduced tumor growth in the A549 mouse xenograft model. We further ascertained that the enhanced sensitivity was irrespective of the LKB1 mutational status. In summary, we demonstrate the effectiveness of combining erlotinib and FAK inhibitors for use in known EGFR wild-type, EGFR TKI resistant cells, with the potential that a subset of cell types, which includes A549, could be

  3. Study on the Immunomodulation Effect of Isodon japonicus Extract via Splenocyte Function and NK Anti-Tumor Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-A Hwang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Here we investigated the potential immune-enhancing activity of Isodon japonicus on murine splenocyte and natural-killer (NK cells in vitro. The ethanol extract of I. japonicus significantly enhanced the proliferation of splenocyte and induced the significant enhancement of NK cells’ activity against tumor cells (YAC-1. In addition, I. japonicus increased the production of interferon (IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, suggesting that the increase in NK cell cytotoxicity could be due to the enhancement of the NK cell production of both cytokines. Taken together, I. japonicus extract inhibited the growth of human leukemia cells (K562 by 74%. Our observation indicated that the anti-tumor effects of I. japonicus may be attributed to its ability to serve as a stimulant of NK anti-tumor activity. In addition, our results support the development of functional food studies on I. japonicus.

  4. Anti-tumor activity of tetrodotoxin extracted from the Masked Puffer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-tumor activity of tetrodotoxins extracted from the skin of the Masked Puffer fish (Arothron diadematus) from the Red Sea was evaluated using the Ehrlich ascite carcinoma tumor model in mice. Activity was assessed using a variety of cellular and liver biochemical parameters. Experimental mice were divided into 4 equal ...

  5. Oligodeoxynucleotides Expressing Polyguanosine Motifs Promote Anti-Tumor Activity through the Up-Regulation of IL-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Hong, Choongman; Klinman, Dennis M.; Shirota, Hidekazu

    2012-01-01

    The primary goal of cancer immunotherapy is to elicit an immune response capable of eliminating the tumor. One approach towards accomplishing that goal utilizes general (rather than tumor-specific) immunomodulatory agents to boost the number and activity of pre-existing cytotoxic T lymphocytes. We find that the intra-tumoral injection of poly-G ODN has such an effect, boosting anti-tumor immunity and promoting tumor regression. The anti-tumor activity of polyguanosine (poly-G) oligonucleotides (ODN) was mediated through CD8 T cells in a TLR9 independent manner. Mechanistically, poly-G ODN directly induced the phosphorylation of Lck (an essential element of the T cell signaling pathway), thereby enhancing the production of IL-2 and CD8 T cell proliferation. These findings establish poly-G ODN as a novel type of cancer immunotherapy. PMID:23296706

  6. In vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-tumor activities of total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-tumor activities of total flavonoids from Elsholtzia densa Benth of Sichuan Province, China. Methods: The total flavonoids of Elsholtzia densa Bent were extracted utilizing the ultrasonic extraction method, and purified by D101 macroporous adsorption resin ...

  7. Study on in vitro anti-tumor activity of Bidens bipinnata L. extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied the in vitro anti-tumor activity of Bidens Bipinnata L. extract. MTT assay was used to investigate the inhibitory effect of different concentrations of the extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines and human cervical carcinoma (Hela) cell lines, and the IC50 values were calculated. The Bidens ...

  8. Anti-tumor activity of polysaccharides extracted from Senecio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *, Bao Zhang, Mingming Han, Xin Jin, Liyuan Sun and Tao Li. Department of ..... Yang J, Li X, Xue Y, Wang N, Liu W. Anti-hepatoma activity and mechanism of corn ... Peng W, Wu JG, Jiang YB, Liu YJ, Sun T, Wu N, Wu CJ. Antitumor activity of ...

  9. Anti-tumor Activity of Toll-Like Receptor 7 Agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huju Chi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs are a class of pattern recognition receptors that play a bridging role in innate immunity and adaptive immunity. The activated TLRs not only induce inflammatory responses, but also elicit the development of antigen specific immunity. TLR7, a member of TLR family, is an intracellular receptor expressed on the membrane of endosomes. TLR7 can be triggered not only by ssRNA during viral infections, but also by immune modifiers that share a similar structure to nucleosides. Its powerful immune stimulatory action can be potentially used in the anti-tumor therapy. This article reviewed the anti-tumor activity and mechanism of TLR7 agonists that are frequently applied in preclinical and clinical investigations, and mainly focused on small synthetic molecules, including imiquimod, resiquimod, gardiquimod, and 852A, etc.

  10. Comparative toxicity and efficacy of engineered anthrax lethal toxin variants with broad anti-tumor activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Diane E.; Hoover, Benjamin; Cloud, Loretta Grey; Liu, Shihui; Molinolo, Alfredo A.; Leppla, Stephen H.; Bugge, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously designed and characterized versions of anthrax lethal toxin that are selectively cytotoxic in the tumor microenvironment and which display broad and potent anti-tumor activities in vivo. Here, we have performed the first direct comparison of the safety and efficacy of three engineered anthrax lethal toxin variants requiring activation by either matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs), urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) or co-localized MMP/uPA activities. C57BL/6J mice were challenged with six doses of engineered toxins via intraperitoneal (I.P.) or intravenous (I.V.) dose routes to determine the maximum tolerated dose for six administrations (MTD6) and dose-limiting toxicities. Efficacy was evaluated using the B16-BL6 syngraft model of melanoma; mice bearing established tumors were treated with six I.P. doses of toxin and tumor measurements and immunohistochemistry, paired with terminal blood work, were used to elaborate upon the anti-tumor mechanism and relative efficacy of each variant. We found that MMP-, uPA- and dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxins exhibited the same dose-limiting toxicity; dose-dependent GI toxicity. In terms of efficacy, all three toxins significantly reduced primary B16-BL6 tumor burden, ranging from 32% to 87% reduction, and they also delayed disease progression as evidenced by dose-dependent normalization of blood work values. While target organ toxicity and effective doses were similar amongst the variants, the dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxin exhibited the highest I.P. MTD6 and was 1.5–3-fold better tolerated than the single MMP- and uPA-activated toxins. Overall, we demonstrate that this dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxin can be administered safely and is highly effective in a preclinical model of melanoma. This modified bacterial cytotoxin is thus a promising candidate for further clinical development and evaluation for use in treating human cancers. - Highlights: • Toxicity and anti-tumor

  11. Comparative toxicity and efficacy of engineered anthrax lethal toxin variants with broad anti-tumor activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Diane E. [Proteases and Tissue Remodeling Section, Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Program of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Hoover, Benjamin [Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Cloud, Loretta Grey [Proteases and Tissue Remodeling Section, Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Liu, Shihui [Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Molinolo, Alfredo A. [Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Leppla, Stephen H. [Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Bugge, Thomas H., E-mail: thomas.bugge@nih.go [Proteases and Tissue Remodeling Section, Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We have previously designed and characterized versions of anthrax lethal toxin that are selectively cytotoxic in the tumor microenvironment and which display broad and potent anti-tumor activities in vivo. Here, we have performed the first direct comparison of the safety and efficacy of three engineered anthrax lethal toxin variants requiring activation by either matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs), urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) or co-localized MMP/uPA activities. C57BL/6J mice were challenged with six doses of engineered toxins via intraperitoneal (I.P.) or intravenous (I.V.) dose routes to determine the maximum tolerated dose for six administrations (MTD6) and dose-limiting toxicities. Efficacy was evaluated using the B16-BL6 syngraft model of melanoma; mice bearing established tumors were treated with six I.P. doses of toxin and tumor measurements and immunohistochemistry, paired with terminal blood work, were used to elaborate upon the anti-tumor mechanism and relative efficacy of each variant. We found that MMP-, uPA- and dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxins exhibited the same dose-limiting toxicity; dose-dependent GI toxicity. In terms of efficacy, all three toxins significantly reduced primary B16-BL6 tumor burden, ranging from 32% to 87% reduction, and they also delayed disease progression as evidenced by dose-dependent normalization of blood work values. While target organ toxicity and effective doses were similar amongst the variants, the dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxin exhibited the highest I.P. MTD6 and was 1.5–3-fold better tolerated than the single MMP- and uPA-activated toxins. Overall, we demonstrate that this dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxin can be administered safely and is highly effective in a preclinical model of melanoma. This modified bacterial cytotoxin is thus a promising candidate for further clinical development and evaluation for use in treating human cancers. - Highlights: • Toxicity and anti-tumor

  12. Gold namoprtices enhance anti-tumor effect of radiotherapy to hypoxic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Sun; Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Jae Won; Keum, Ki Chang; Koom, Woong Sub; Chung, Ui Seok; Koh, Won Gun

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia can impair the therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy (RT). Therefore, a new strategy is necessary for enhancing the response to RT. In this study, we investigated whether the combination of nanoparticles and RT is effective in eliminating the radioresistance of hypoxic tumors. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) consisting of a silica core with a gold shell were used. CT26 colon cancer mouse model was developed to study whether the combination of RT and GNPs reduced hypoxia-induced radioresistance. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) was used as a hypoxia marker. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining were conducted to evaluate cell death. Hypoxic tumor cells had an impaired response to RT. GNPs combined with RT enhanced anti-tumor effect in hypoxic tumor compared with RT alone. The combination of GNPs and RT decreased tumor cell viability compare to RT alone in vitro. Under hypoxia, tumors treated with GNPs + RT showed a higher response than that shown by tumors treated with RT alone. When a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger was added, the enhanced antitumor effect of GNPs + RT was diminished. In the present study, hypoxic tumors treated with GNPs + RT showed favorable responses, which might be attributable to the ROS production induced by GNPs + RT. Taken together, GNPs combined with RT seems to be potential modality for enhancing the response to RT in hypoxic tumors

  13. Gold namoprtices enhance anti-tumor effect of radiotherapy to hypoxic tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Sun; Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Jae Won; Keum, Ki Chang; Koom, Woong Sub [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Ui Seok; Koh, Won Gun [Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Hypoxia can impair the therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy (RT). Therefore, a new strategy is necessary for enhancing the response to RT. In this study, we investigated whether the combination of nanoparticles and RT is effective in eliminating the radioresistance of hypoxic tumors. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) consisting of a silica core with a gold shell were used. CT26 colon cancer mouse model was developed to study whether the combination of RT and GNPs reduced hypoxia-induced radioresistance. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) was used as a hypoxia marker. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining were conducted to evaluate cell death. Hypoxic tumor cells had an impaired response to RT. GNPs combined with RT enhanced anti-tumor effect in hypoxic tumor compared with RT alone. The combination of GNPs and RT decreased tumor cell viability compare to RT alone in vitro. Under hypoxia, tumors treated with GNPs + RT showed a higher response than that shown by tumors treated with RT alone. When a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger was added, the enhanced antitumor effect of GNPs + RT was diminished. In the present study, hypoxic tumors treated with GNPs + RT showed favorable responses, which might be attributable to the ROS production induced by GNPs + RT. Taken together, GNPs combined with RT seems to be potential modality for enhancing the response to RT in hypoxic tumors.

  14. Porritoxins, metabolites of Alternaria porri, as anti-tumor-promoting active compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Masayuki; Tokuda, Harukuni; Ohnishi, Keiichiro; Yamashita, Masakazu; Nishino, Hoyoku; Maoka, Takashi

    2006-02-01

    To search for possible cancer chemopreventive agents from natural sources, we performed primary screening of metabolites of Alternaria porri by examining their possible inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells. The ethyl acetate extract of A. porri showed the inhibitory effect on EBV-EA activation. Three porritoxins (1-3) were obtained as inhibitory active compounds for EBV-EA from ethyl acetate extract. 6-(3',3'-Dimethylallyloxy)-4-methoxy-5-methylphthalide (2) showed the strongest activity among them. Inhibitory effect of porritoxin (1) and (2) was superior to that of beta-carotene, a well-known anti-tumor promoter. Furthermore, the structure-activity correlation of porritoxins and their related compounds were discussed.

  15. Oral JS-38, a metabolite from Xenorhabdus sp., has both anti-tumor activity and the ability to elevate peripheral neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min-Yu; Xiao, Lin; Chen, Geng-Hui; Wang, Yong-Xiang; Xiong, Wei-Xia; Li, Fei; Liu, Ying; Huang, Xiao-Ling; Deng, Yi-Fang; Zhang, Zhen; Sun, Hai-Yan; Liu, Quan-Hai; Yin, Ming

    2014-10-01

    JS-38 (mitothiolore), a synthetic version of a metabolite isolated from Xenorhabdus sp., was evaluated for its anti-tumor and white blood cell (WBC) elevating activities. These anti-proliferative activities were assessed in vitro using a panel of ten cell lines. The anti-tumor activities were tested in vivo using B16 allograft mouse models and xenograft models of A549 human lung carcinoma and QGY human hepatoma in nude mice. The anti-tumor interactions of JS-38 and cyclophosphamide (CTX) or 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) were studied in a S180 sarcoma model in ICR mice. Specific stimulatory effects were determined on peripheral neutrophils in normal and CTX- and 5-Fu-induced neutropenic mice. The IC50 values ranged from 0.1 to 2.0 μmol·L(-1). JS-38 (1 μmol·L(-1)) caused an increase in A549 tumor cell apoptosis. Multi-daily gavage of JS-38 (15, 30, and 60 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) inhibited in vivo tumor progression without a significant effect on body weight. JS-38 additively enhanced the in vivo anti-tumor effects of CTX or 5-Fu. JS-38 increased peripheral neutrophil counts and neutrophil rates in normal BALB/c mice almost as effectively as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). In mice with neutropenia induced by CTX or 5-Fu, JS-38 rapidly restored neutrophil counts. These results suggest that JS-38 has anti-tumor activity, and also has the ability to increase peripheral blood neutrophils. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ganoderma lucidum exerts anti-tumor effects on ovarian cancer cells and enhances their sensitivity to cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sufen; Ye, Gang; Fu, Guodong; Cheng, Jian-Xin; Yang, Burton B; Peng, Chun

    2011-05-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a herbal mushroom known to have many health benefits, including the inhibition of tumor cell growth. However, the effect of Ganoderma lucidum on epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), the most fatal gynecological malignancy, has not yet been reported. In this study, we determined whether Ganoderma lucidum regulates EOC cell activity. Using several cell lines derived from EOC, we found that Ganoderma lucidum strongly decreased cell numbers in a dose-dependent manner. Ganoderma lucidum also inhibited colony formation, cell migration and spheroid formation. In particular, Ganoderma lucidum was effective in inhibiting cell growth in both chemosensitive and chemoresistant cells and the treatment with Ganoderma lucidum significantly enhanced the effect of cisplatin on EOC cells. Furthermore, Ganoderma lucidum induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and also induced apoptosis by activating caspase 3. Finally, Ganoderma lucidum increased p53 but inhibited Akt expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that Ganoderma lucidum exerts multiple anti-tumor effects on ovarian cancer cells and can enhance the sensitivity of EOC cells to cisplatin.

  17. Polaprezinc reduces paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy in rats without affecting anti-tumor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuniaki Tsutsumi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Paclitaxel, an anticancer drug, frequently causes painful peripheral neuropathy. In this study, we investigated the preventive effect of polaprezinc on paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy in rats. Polaprezinc (3 mg/kg, p.o., once daily inhibited the development of mechanical allodynia induced by paclitaxel (4 mg/kg, i.p., on days 1, 3, 5 and 7 and suppressed the paclitaxel-induced increase in macrophage migration in dorsal root ganglion cells. In addition, polaprezinc did not affect the anti-tumor activity of paclitaxel in cultured cell lines or tumor-bearing mice. These results suggest a clinical indication for polaprezinc in the prevention of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy.

  18. Anti-tumor effect of cisplatin in human oral squamous cell carcinoma was enhanced by andrographolide via upregulation of phospho-p53 in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Songjie; Hu, Hui; Miao, Shushu; Zheng, Jiayong; Xie, Zhijian; Zhao, Hui

    2017-05-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common neoplasm in the world. Despite the improvements in diagnosis and treatment, the outcome is still poor now. Thus, the development of novel therapeuticapproaches is needed. The aim of this study is to assess the synergistic anti-tumor effect of andrographolide with cisplatin (DDP) in oral squamous cell carcinoma CAL-27 cells in vitro and in vivo. We performed Cell Counting Kit-8 proliferation assay, apoptosis assay, and western blotting on CAL-27 cells treated with andrographolide, DDP or the combination in vitro. In vivo, we also treated CAL-27 xenografts with andrographolide or the combination, and performed terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling assay and immunohistochemical analysis of Ki-67. The results showed the combination of andrographolide and DDP synergistically inhibited CAL-27 cell proliferation in vitro and caused tumor regression in vivo in the CAL-27 xenografts. In addition, the synergistic anti-tumor effect of andrographolide with synergistic was due to an enhanced apoptosis. Moreover, the combination therapy upregulated the expression level of p-p53 in vitro and decreased Ki-67 expression in vivo. Our data indicate that the combination treatment of andrographolide and DDP results in synergistic anti-tumor growth activity against oral squamous cell carcinoma CAL-27 in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrated that combination of andrographolide with DDP was likely to represent a potential therapeutic strategy for oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  19. A novel immunomodulatory hemocyanin from the limpet Fissurella latimarginata promotes potent anti-tumor activity in melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Arancibia

    Full Text Available Hemocyanins, the huge oxygen-transporting glycoproteins of some mollusks, are used as immunomodulatory proteins with proven anti-cancer properties. The biodiversity of hemocyanins has promoted interest in identifying new anti-cancer candidates with improved immunological properties. Hemocyanins promote Th1 responses without known side effects, which make them ideal for long-term sustained treatment of cancer. In this study, we evaluated a novel hemocyanin from the limpet/gastropod Fissurella latimarginata (FLH. This protein has the typical hollow, cylindrical structure of other known hemocyanins, such as the keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH and the Concholepas hemocyanin (CCH. FLH, like the KLH isoforms, is composed of a single type of polypeptide with exposed N- and O-linked oligosaccharides. However, its immunogenicity was significantly greater than that of KLH and CCH, as FLH induced a stronger humoral immune response and had more potent anti-tumor activity, delaying tumor growth and increasing the survival of mice challenged with B16F10 melanoma cells, in prophylactic and therapeutic settings. Additionally, FLH-treated mice demonstrated increased IFN-γ production and higher numbers of tumor-infiltrating CD4(+ lymphocytes. Furthermore, in vitro assays demonstrated that FLH, but not CCH or KLH, stimulated the rapid production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-12, IL-23 and TNF-α by dendritic cells, triggering a pro-inflammatory milieu that may explain its enhanced immunological activity. Moreover, this effect was abolished when deglycosylated FLH was used, suggesting that carbohydrates play a crucial role in the innate immune recognition of this protein. Altogether, our data demonstrate that FLH possesses increased anti-tumor activity in part because it activates a more potent innate immune response in comparison to other known hemocyanins. In conclusion, FLH is a potential new marine adjuvant for immunization and possible cancer

  20. A novel immunomodulatory hemocyanin from the limpet Fissurella latimarginata promotes potent anti-tumor activity in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arancibia, Sergio; Espinoza, Cecilia; Salazar, Fabián; Del Campo, Miguel; Tampe, Ricardo; Zhong, Ta-Ying; De Ioannes, Pablo; Moltedo, Bruno; Ferreira, Jorge; Lavelle, Ed C; Manubens, Augusto; De Ioannes, Alfredo E; Becker, María Inés

    2014-01-01

    Hemocyanins, the huge oxygen-transporting glycoproteins of some mollusks, are used as immunomodulatory proteins with proven anti-cancer properties. The biodiversity of hemocyanins has promoted interest in identifying new anti-cancer candidates with improved immunological properties. Hemocyanins promote Th1 responses without known side effects, which make them ideal for long-term sustained treatment of cancer. In this study, we evaluated a novel hemocyanin from the limpet/gastropod Fissurella latimarginata (FLH). This protein has the typical hollow, cylindrical structure of other known hemocyanins, such as the keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and the Concholepas hemocyanin (CCH). FLH, like the KLH isoforms, is composed of a single type of polypeptide with exposed N- and O-linked oligosaccharides. However, its immunogenicity was significantly greater than that of KLH and CCH, as FLH induced a stronger humoral immune response and had more potent anti-tumor activity, delaying tumor growth and increasing the survival of mice challenged with B16F10 melanoma cells, in prophylactic and therapeutic settings. Additionally, FLH-treated mice demonstrated increased IFN-γ production and higher numbers of tumor-infiltrating CD4(+) lymphocytes. Furthermore, in vitro assays demonstrated that FLH, but not CCH or KLH, stimulated the rapid production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-12, IL-23 and TNF-α) by dendritic cells, triggering a pro-inflammatory milieu that may explain its enhanced immunological activity. Moreover, this effect was abolished when deglycosylated FLH was used, suggesting that carbohydrates play a crucial role in the innate immune recognition of this protein. Altogether, our data demonstrate that FLH possesses increased anti-tumor activity in part because it activates a more potent innate immune response in comparison to other known hemocyanins. In conclusion, FLH is a potential new marine adjuvant for immunization and possible cancer immunotherapy.

  1. Dual antibody therapy to harness the innate anti-tumor immune response to enhance antibody targeting of tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Cariad; Marabelle, Aurelien; Houot, Roch; Kohrt, Holbrook E

    2015-04-01

    Cancer immunotherapy is a rapidly evolving field that offers a novel paradigm for cancer treatment: therapies focus on enhancing the immune system's innate and adaptive anti-tumor response. Early immunotherapeutics have achieved impressive clinical outcomes and monoclonal antibodies are now integral to therapeutic strategies in a variety of cancers. However, only recently have antibodies targeting innate immune cells entered clinical development. Innate immune effector cells play important roles in generating and maintaining antitumor immunity. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) are important innate immune mechanisms for tumor eradication. These cytolytic processes are initiated by the detection of a tumor-targeting antibody and can be augmented by activating co-stimulatory pathways or blocking inhibitory signals on innate immune cells. The combination of FDA-approved monoclonal antibodies with innate effector-targeting antibodies has demonstrated potent preclinical therapeutic synergy and early-phase combinatorial clinical trials are ongoing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative toxicity and efficacy of engineered anthrax lethal toxin variants with broad anti-tumor activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Diane E; Hoover, Benjamin; Cloud, Loretta Grey; Liu, Shihui; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Leppla, Stephen H; Bugge, Thomas H

    2014-09-01

    We have previously designed and characterized versions of anthrax lethal toxin that are selectively cytotoxic in the tumor microenvironment and which display broad and potent anti-tumor activities in vivo. Here, we have performed the first direct comparison of the safety and efficacy of three engineered anthrax lethal toxin variants requiring activation by either matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs), urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) or co-localized MMP/uPA activities. C57BL/6J mice were challenged with six doses of engineered toxins via intraperitoneal (I.P.) or intravenous (I.V.) dose routes to determine the maximum tolerated dose for six administrations (MTD6) and dose-limiting toxicities. Efficacy was evaluated using the B16-BL6 syngraft model of melanoma; mice bearing established tumors were treated with six I.P. doses of toxin and tumor measurements and immunohistochemistry, paired with terminal blood work, were used to elaborate upon the anti-tumor mechanism and relative efficacy of each variant. We found that MMP-, uPA- and dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxins exhibited the same dose-limiting toxicity; dose-dependent GI toxicity. In terms of efficacy, all three toxins significantly reduced primary B16-BL6 tumor burden, ranging from 32% to 87% reduction, and they also delayed disease progression as evidenced by dose-dependent normalization of blood work values. While target organ toxicity and effective doses were similar amongst the variants, the dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxin exhibited the highest I.P. MTD6 and was 1.5-3-fold better tolerated than the single MMP- and uPA-activated toxins. Overall, we demonstrate that this dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxin can be administered safely and is highly effective in a preclinical model of melanoma. This modified bacterial cytotoxin is thus a promising candidate for further clinical development and evaluation for use in treating human cancers. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. A novel engineered VEGF blocker with an excellent pharmacokinetic profile and robust anti-tumor activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Lily; Yu, Haijia; Huang, Xin; Tan, Hongzhi; Li, Song; Luo, Yan; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Sumei; Jia, Huifeng; Xiong, Yao; Zhang, Ruliang; Huang, Yi; Chu, Charles C; Tian, Wenzhi

    2015-01-01

    Relatively poor penetration and retention in tumor tissue has been documented for large molecule drugs including therapeutic antibodies and recombinant immunoglobulin constant region (Fc)-fusion proteins due to their large size, positive charge, and strong target binding affinity. Therefore, when designing a large molecular drug candidate, smaller size, neutral charge, and optimal affinity should be considered. We engineered a recombinant protein by molecular engineering the second domain of VEGFR1 and a few flanking residues fused with the Fc fragment of human IgG1, which we named HB-002.1. This recombinant protein was extensively characterized both in vitro and in vivo for its target-binding and target-blocking activities, pharmacokinetic profile, angiogenesis inhibition activity, and anti-tumor therapeutic efficacy. HB-002.1 has a molecular weight of ~80 kDa, isoelectric point of ~6.7, and an optimal target binding affinity of <1 nM. The pharmacokinetic profile was excellent with a half-life of 5 days, maximal concentration of 20.27 μg/ml, and area under the curve of 81.46 μg · days/ml. When tested in a transgenic zebrafish embryonic angiogenesis model, dramatic inhibition in angiogenesis was exhibited by a markedly reduced number of subintestinal vessels. When tested for anti-tumor efficacy, HB-002.1 was confirmed in two xenograft tumor models (A549 and Colo-205) to have a robust tumor killing activity, showing a percentage of inhibition over 90% at the dose of 20 mg/kg. Most promisingly, HB-002.1 showed a superior therapeutic efficacy compared to bevacizumab in the A549 xenograft model (tumor inhibition: 84.7% for HB-002.1 versus 67.6% for bevacizumab, P < 0.0001). HB-002.1 is a strong angiogenesis inhibitor that has the potential to be a novel promising drug for angiogenesis-related diseases such as tumor neoplasms and age-related macular degeneration

  4. Optimizing the dosing schedule of l-asparaginase improves its anti-tumor activity in breast tumor-bearing mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoya Shiromizu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Proliferation of acute lymphoblastic leukemic cells is nutritionally dependent on the external supply of asparagine. l-asparaginase, an enzyme hydrolyzing l-asparagine in blood, is used for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemic and other related blood cancers. Although previous studies demonstrated that l-asparaginase suppresses the proliferation of cultured solid tumor cells, it remains unclear whether this enzyme prevents the growth of solid tumors in vivo. In this study, we demonstrated the importance of optimizing dosing schedules for the anti-tumor activity of l-asparaginase in 4T1 breast tumor-bearing mice. Cultures of several types of murine solid tumor cells were dependent on the external supply of asparagine. Among them, we selected murine 4T1 breast cancer cells and implanted them into BALB/c female mice kept under standardized light/dark cycle conditions. The growth of 4T1 tumor cells implanted in mice was significantly suppressed by intravenous administration of l-asparaginase during the light phase, whereas its administration during the dark phase failed to show significant anti-tumor activity. Decreases in plasma asparagine levels due to the administration of l-asparaginase were closely related to the dosing time-dependency of its anti-tumor effects. These results suggest that the anti-tumor efficacy of l-asparaginase in breast tumor-bearing mice is improved by optimizing the dosing schedule. Keywords: l-asparaginase, Asparagine, Solid tumor, Chrono-pharmacotherapy

  5. Optimizing the dosing schedule of l-asparaginase improves its anti-tumor activity in breast tumor-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiromizu, Shoya; Kusunose, Naoki; Matsunaga, Naoya; Koyanagi, Satoru; Ohdo, Shigehiro

    2018-04-01

    Proliferation of acute lymphoblastic leukemic cells is nutritionally dependent on the external supply of asparagine. l-asparaginase, an enzyme hydrolyzing l-asparagine in blood, is used for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemic and other related blood cancers. Although previous studies demonstrated that l-asparaginase suppresses the proliferation of cultured solid tumor cells, it remains unclear whether this enzyme prevents the growth of solid tumors in vivo. In this study, we demonstrated the importance of optimizing dosing schedules for the anti-tumor activity of l-asparaginase in 4T1 breast tumor-bearing mice. Cultures of several types of murine solid tumor cells were dependent on the external supply of asparagine. Among them, we selected murine 4T1 breast cancer cells and implanted them into BALB/c female mice kept under standardized light/dark cycle conditions. The growth of 4T1 tumor cells implanted in mice was significantly suppressed by intravenous administration of l-asparaginase during the light phase, whereas its administration during the dark phase failed to show significant anti-tumor activity. Decreases in plasma asparagine levels due to the administration of l-asparaginase were closely related to the dosing time-dependency of its anti-tumor effects. These results suggest that the anti-tumor efficacy of l-asparaginase in breast tumor-bearing mice is improved by optimizing the dosing schedule. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Functional characterization of a chimeric soluble Fas ligand polymer with in vivo anti-tumor activity.

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    Sophie Daburon

    Full Text Available Binding of ligand FasL to its receptor Fas triggers apoptosis via the caspase cascade. FasL itself is homotrimeric, and a productive apoptotic signal requires that FasL be oligomerized beyond the homotrimeric state. We generated a series of FasL chimeras by fusing FasL to domains of the Leukemia Inhibitory Factor receptor gp190 which confer homotypic oligomerization, and analyzed the capacity of these soluble chimeras to trigger cell death. We observed that the most efficient FasL chimera, called pFasL, was also the most polymeric, as it reached the size of a dodecamer. Using a cellular model, we investigated the structure-function relationships of the FasL/Fas interactions for our chimeras, and we demonstrated that the Fas-mediated apoptotic signal did not solely rely on ligand-mediated receptor aggregation, but also required a conformational adaptation of the Fas receptor. When injected into mice, pFasL did not trigger liver injury at a dose which displayed anti-tumor activity in a model of human tumor transplanted to immunodeficient animals, suggesting a potential therapeutic use. Therefore, the optimization of the FasL conformation has to be considered for the development of efficient FasL-derived anti-cancer drugs targeting Fas.

  7. Anti-tumor Effects of Plasma Activated Media and Correlation with Hydrogen Peroxide Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroussi, Mounir; Mohades, Soheila; Barekzi, Nazir; Maruthamuthu, Venkat; Razavi, Hamid

    2016-09-01

    Plasma activated media (PAM) can induce death in cancer cells. In our research, PAM is produced by exposing liquid culture medium to a helium plasma pencil. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the aqueous state are known factors in anti-tumor effects of PAM. The duration of plasma exposure determines the concentrations of reactive species produced in PAM. Stability of the plasma generated reactive species and their lifetime depend on parameters such as the chemical composition of the medium. Here, a complete cell culture medium was employed to make PAM. Later, PAM was used to treat SCaBER cancer cells either as an immediate PAM (right after exposure) or as an aged-PAM (after storage). SCaBER (ATCC®HTB-3™) is an epithelial cell line from a human bladder with the squamous carcinoma disease. A normal epithelial cell line from a kidney tissue of a dog - MDCK (ATCC®CCL-34™) - was used to analyze the selective effect of PAM. Correspondingly, we measured the concentration of hydrogen peroxide- as a stable species with biological impact on cell viability- in both immediate PAM and aged-PAM. In addition, we report on the effect of serum supplemented in PAM on the H2O2 concentration measured by Amplex red assay kit. Finally, we evaluate the effects of PAM on growth and morphological changes in MDCK cells using fluorescence microscopy.

  8. Anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor activity of recombinant anginex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandwijk, Ricardo J.M.G.E.; Dings, Ruud P.M.; Linden, Edith van der; Mayo, Kevin H.; Thijssen, Victor L.J.L.; Griffioen, Arjan W.

    2006-01-01

    Anginex, a synthetic 33-mer angiostatic peptide, specifically inhibits vascular endothelial cell proliferation and migration along with induction of apoptosis in endothelial cells. Here we report on the in vivo characterization of recombinant anginex and use of the artificial anginex gene for gene therapy approaches. Tumor growth of human MA148 ovarian carcinoma in athymic mice was inhibited by 80% when treated with recombinant anginex. Histological analysis of the tumors showed an approximate 2.5-fold reduction of microvessel density, suggesting that angiogenesis inhibition is the cause of the anti-tumor effect. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between the gene expression patterns of 16 angiogenesis-related factors after treatment with both recombinant and synthetic anginex. To validate the applicability of the anginex gene for gene therapy, stable transfectants of murine B16F10 melanoma cells expressing recombinant anginex were made. Supernatants of these cells inhibited endothelial cell proliferation in vitro. Furthermore, after subcutaneous injection of these cells in C57BL/6 mice, an extensive delay in tumor growth was observed. These data show that the artificial anginex gene can be used to produce a recombinant protein with similar activity as its synthetic counterpart and that the gene can be applied in gene therapy approaches for cancer treatment

  9. Anti-tumor activity of N-hydroxy-7-(2-naphthylthio) heptanomide, a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Hoon; Lee, Jiyong; Kim, Kyung Noo; Kim, Hye Jin; Jeung, Hei Cheul; Chung, Hyun Cheol; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2007-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC), a key enzyme in gene expression and carcinogenesis, is considered an attractive target molecule for cancer therapy. Here, we report a new synthetic small molecule, N-hydroxy-7-(2-naphthylthio) heptanomide (HNHA), as a HDAC inhibitor with anti-tumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. The compound inhibited HDAC enzyme activity as well as proliferation of human fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080) in vitro. Treatment of cells with HNHA elicited histone hyperacetylation leading to an up-regulation of p21 transcription, cell cycle arrest, and an inhibition of HT1080 cell invasion. Moreover, HNHA effectively inhibited the growth of tumor tissue in a mouse xenograph assay in vivo. Together, these data demonstrate that this novel HDAC inhibitor could be developed as a potential anti-tumor agent targeting HDAC

  10. HDAC inhibitor L-carnitine and proteasome inhibitor bortezomib synergistically exert anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbiao Huang

    Full Text Available Combinations of proteasome inhibitors and histone deacetylases (HDAC inhibitors appear to be the most potent to produce synergistic cytotoxicity in preclinical trials. We have recently confirmed that L-carnitine (LC is an endogenous HDAC inhibitor. In the current study, the anti-tumor effect of LC plus proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (velcade, Vel was investigated both in cultured hepatoma cancer cells and in Balb/c mice bearing HepG2 tumor. Cell death and cell viability were assayed by flow cytometry and MTS, respectively. Gene, mRNA expression and protein levels were detected by gene microarray, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. The effect of Vel on the acetylation of histone H3 associated with the p21(cip1 gene promoter was examined by using ChIP assay and proteasome peptidase activity was detected by cell-based chymotrypsin-like (CT-like activity assay. Here we report that (i the combination of LC and Vel synergistically induces cytotoxicity in vitro; (ii the combination also synergistically inhibits tumor growth in vivo; (iii two major pathways are involved in the synergistical effects of the combinational treatment: increased p21(cip1 expression and histone acetylation in vitro and in vivo and enhanced Vel-induced proteasome inhibition by LC. The synergistic effect of LC and Vel in cancer therapy should have great potential in the future clinical trials.

  11. Selective anti-tumor activity of the novel fluoropyrimidine polymer F10 towards G48a orthotopic GBM tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmeiner, William H; Lema-Tome, Carla; Gibo, Denise; Jennings-Gee, Jamie; Milligan, Carol; Debinski, Waldemar

    2014-02-01

    F10 is a novel anti-tumor agent with minimal systemic toxicity in vivo and which displays strong cytotoxicity towards glioblastoma (GBM) cells in vitro. Here we investigate the cytotoxicity of F10 towards GBM cells and evaluate the anti-tumor activity of locally-administered F10 towards an orthotopic xenograft model of GBM. The effects of F10 on thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibition and Topoisomerase 1 (Top1) cleavage complex formation were evaluated using TS activity assays and in vivo complex of enzyme bioassays. Cytotoxicity of F10 towards normal brain was evaluated using cortices from embryonic (day 18) mice. F10 displays minimal penetrance of the blood-brain barrier and was delivered by intra-cerebral (i.c.) administration and prospective anti-tumor response towards luciferase-expressing G48a human GBM tumors in nude mice was evaluated using IVIS imaging. Histological examination of tumor and normal brain tissue was used to assess the selectivity of anti-tumor activity. F10 is cytotoxic towards G48a, SNB-19, and U-251 MG GBM cells through dual targeting of TS and Top1. F10 is not toxic to murine primary neuronal cultures. F10 is well-tolerated upon i.c. administration and induces significant regression of G48a tumors that is dose-dependent. Histological analysis from F10-treated mice revealed tumors were essentially completely eradicated in F10-treated mice while vehicle-treated mice displayed substantial infiltration into normal tissue. F10 displays strong efficacy for GBM treatment with minimal toxicity upon i.c. administration establishing F10 as a promising drug-candidate for treating GBM in human patients.

  12. Co-delivery of antigen and IL-12 by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles enhances antigen-specific immune responses and anti-tumor effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Takuya; Berglund, Peter; Morse, Michael A.; Hubby, Bolyn; Lewis, Whitney; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Hobeika, Amy; Burnett, Bruce; Devi, Gayathri R.; Clay, Timothy M.; Smith, Jonathan; Lyerly, H. Kim

    2013-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus-based replicon particles (VRP) encoding tumor antigens could break tolerance in the immunomodulatory environment of advanced cancer. We hypothesized that local injection of VRP expressing Interleukin-12 (IL-12) at the site of injections of VRP-based cancer vaccines would enhance the tumor-antigen-specific T cell and antibody responses and anti-tumor efficacy. Mice were immunized with VRP encoding the human tumor-associated antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (VRP-CEA(6D)) and VRP-IL-12 was also administered at the same site or at a distant location. CEA-specific T cell and antibody responses were measured. To determine antitumor activity, mice were implanted with MC38-CEA-2 cells and immunized with VRP-CEA with and without VRP-IL-12 and tumor growth and mouse survival were measured. VRP-IL-12 greatly enhanced CEA-specific T cell and antibody responses when combined with VRP-CEA(6D) vaccination. VRP IL-12 was superior to IL-12 protein at enhancing immune responses. Vaccination with VRP-CEA(6D) plus VRP-IL-12 was superior to VRP-CEA(6D) or VRP-IL-12 alone in inducing anti-tumor activity and prolonging survival in tumor-bearing mice. Importantly, local injection of VRP-IL-12 at the VRP-CEA(6D) injection site provided more potent activation of CEA-specific immune responses than VRP-IL-12 injected at a distant site from the VRP-CEA injections. Together, this study shows that VRP-IL-12 enhances vaccination with VRP-CEA(6D) and was more effective at activating CEA-specific T cell responses when locally expressed at the vaccine site. Clinical trials evaluating the adjuvant effect of VRP-IL-12 at enhancing the immunogenicity of cancer vaccines are warranted. PMID:22488274

  13. Activation of Anti-tumor Immune Response by Ablation of HCC with Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaobo; Chen, Yiling; Zhang, Ruiqing; Miao, Xudong; Chen, Xinhua

    2018-03-28

    Locoregional therapy is playing an increasingly important role in the non-surgical management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The novel technique of non-thermal electric ablation by nanosecond pulsed electric field has been recognized as a potential locoregional methodology for indicated HCC. This manuscript explores the most recent studies to indicate its unique anti-tumor immune response. The possible immune mechanism, termed as nano-pulse stimulation, was also analyzed.

  14. The anti-tumor drug bleomycin preferentially cleaves at the transcription start sites of actively transcribed genes in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Vincent; Chen, Jon K; Galea, Anne M

    2014-04-01

    The genome-wide pattern of DNA cleavage at transcription start sites (TSSs) for the anti-tumor drug bleomycin was examined in human HeLa cells using next-generation DNA sequencing. It was found that actively transcribed genes were preferentially cleaved compared with non-transcribed genes. The 143,600 identified human TSSs were split into non-transcribed genes (82,596) and transcribed genes (61,004) for HeLa cells. These transcribed genes were further split into quintiles of 12,201 genes comprising the top 20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, and 80-100 % of expressed genes. The bleomycin cleavage pattern at highly transcribed gene TSSs was greatly enhanced compared with purified DNA and non-transcribed gene TSSs. The top 20 and 20-40 % quintiles had a very similar enhanced cleavage pattern, the 40-60 % quintile was intermediate, while the 60-80 and 80-100 % quintiles were close to the non-transcribed and purified DNA profiles. The pattern of bleomycin enhanced cleavage had peaks that were approximately 200 bp apart, and this indicated that bleomycin was identifying the presence of phased nucleosomes at TSSs. Hence bleomycin can be utilized to detect chromatin structures that are present at actively transcribed genes. In this study, for the first time, the pattern of DNA damage by a clinically utilized cancer chemotherapeutic agent was performed on a human genome-wide scale at the nucleotide level.

  15. Scoparone exerts anti-tumor activity against DU145 prostate cancer cells via inhibition of STAT3 activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Kook Kim

    Full Text Available Scoparone, a natural compound isolated from Artemisia capillaris, has been used in Chinese herbal medicine to treat neonatal jaundice. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 contributes to the growth and survival of many human tumors. This study was undertaken to investigate the anti-tumor activity of scoparone against DU145 prostate cancer cells and to determine whether its effects are mediated by inhibition of STAT3 activity. Scoparone inhibited proliferation of DU145 cells via cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. Transient transfection assays showed that scoparone repressed both constitutive and IL-6-induced transcriptional activity of STAT3. Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR analyses demonstrated that scoparone suppressed the transcription of STAT3 target genes such as cyclin D1, c-Myc, survivin, Bcl-2, and Socs3. Consistent with this, scoparone decreased phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation of STAT3, but did not reduce phosphorylation of janus kinase 2 (JAK2 or Src, the major upstream kinases responsible for STAT3 activation. Moreover, transcriptional activity of a constitutively active mutant of STAT3 (STAT3C was inhibited by scoparone, but not by AG490, a JAK2 inhibitor. Furthermore, scoparone treatment suppressed anchorage-independent growth in soft agar and tumor growth of DU145 xenografts in nude mice, concomitant with a reduction in STAT3 phosphorylation. Computational modeling suggested that scoparone might bind the SH2 domain of STAT3. Our findings suggest that scoparone elicits an anti-tumor effect against DU145 prostate cancer cells in part through inhibition of STAT3 activity.

  16. Low dose radiation enhance the anti-tumor effect of high dose radiation on human glioma cell U251

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chang; Wang Guanjun; Tan Yehui; Jiang Hongyu; Li Wei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To detect the effect on the growth of human glioma cell U251 induced by low dose irradiation and low dose irradiation combined with large dose irradiation. Methods: Human glioma cell line U251 and nude mice carried with human glioma were used. The tumor cells and the mice were treated with low dose, high dose, and low dose combined high dose radiation. Cells growth curve, MTT and flow cytometry were used to detect the proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of the cells; and the tumor inhibition rate was used to assess the growth of tumor in vivo. Results: After low dose irradiation, there was no difference between experimental group and control group in cell count, MTT and flow cytometry. Single high dose group and low dose combined high dose group both show significantly the suppressing effect on tumor cells, the apoptosis increased and there was cell cycle blocked in G 2 period, but there was no difference between two groups. In vivo apparent anti-tumor effect in high dose radiation group and the combining group was observed, and that was more significant in the combining group; the prior low dose radiation alleviated the injury of hematological system. There was no difference between single low dose radiation group and control. Conclusions: There is no significant effect on human glioma cell induced by low dose radiation, and low dose radiation could not induce adaptive response. But in vivo experience, low dose radiation could enhance the anti-tumor effect of high dose radiation and alleviated the injury of hematological system. (authors)

  17. Combination of Vorinostat and caspase-8 inhibition exhibits high anti-tumoral activity on endometrial cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergadà, Laura; Sorolla, Annabel; Yeramian, Andree; Eritja, Nuria; Mirantes, Cristina; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Dolcet, Xavier

    2013-08-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors such as Vorinostat display anti-neoplastic activity against a variety of solid tumors. Here, we have investigated the anti-tumoral activity of Vorinostat on endometrial cancer cells. We have found that Vorinostat caused cell growth arrest, loss of clonogenic growth and apoptosis of endometrial cancer cells. Vorinostat-induced the activation of caspase-8 and -9, the initiators caspases of the extrinsic and the intrinsic apoptotic pathways, respectively. Next, we investigated the role of the extrinsic pathway in apoptosis triggered by Vorinostat. We found that Vorinostat caused a dramatic decrease of FLIP mRNA and protein levels. However, overexpression of the long from of FLIP did not block Vorinostat-induced apoptosis. To further investigate the role of extrinsic apoptotic pathway in Vorinostat-induced apoptosis, we performed an shRNA-mediated knock-down of caspase-8. Surprisingly, downregulation of caspase-8 alone caused a marked decrease in clonogenic ability and reduced the growth of endometrial cancer xenografts in vivo, revealing that targeting caspase-8 may be an attractive target for anticancer therapy on endometrial tumors. Furthermore, combination of caspase-8 inhibition and Vorinostat treatment caused an enhancement of apoptotic cell death and a further decrease of clonogenic growth of endometrial cancer cells. More importantly, combination of Vorinostat and caspase-8 inhibition caused a nearly complete inhibition of tumor xenograft growth. Finally, we demonstrate that cell death triggered by Vorinostat alone or in combination with caspase-8 shRNAs was inhibited by the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-XL. Our results suggest that combinatory therapies using Vorinostat treatment and caspase-8 inhibition can be an effective treatment for endometrial carcinomas. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Supercritical-Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extract from Chrysanthemum indicum Enhances Anti-Tumor Effect and Reduces Toxicity of Bleomycin in Tumor-Bearing Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Mei Yang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bleomycin (BLM, a family of anti-tumor drugs, was reported to exhibit severe side effects limiting its usage in clinical treatment. Therefore, finding adjuvants that enhance the anti-tumor effect and reduce the detrimental effect of BLM is a prerequisite. Chrysanthemum indicum, an edible flower, possesses abundant bioactivities; the supercritical-carbon dioxide fluid extract from flowers and buds of C. indicum (CISCFE have strong anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and lung protective effects. However, the role of CISCFE combined with BLM treatment on tumor-bearing mice remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the potential synergistic effect and the underlying mechanism of CISCFE combined with BLM in the treatment of hepatoma 22 (H22 tumor-bearing mice. The results suggested that the oral administration of CISCFE combined with BLM could markedly prolong the life span, attenuate the BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis, suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, activities of myeloperoxidase, and malondiadehyde. Moreover, CISCFE combined with BLM promoted the ascites cell apoptosis, the activities of caspases 3 and 8, and up-regulated the protein expression of p53 and down-regulated the transforming growth factor-β1 by activating the gene expression of miR-29b. Taken together, these results indicated that CISCFE could enhance the anti-cancer activity of BLM and reduce the BLM-induced pulmonary injury in H22 tumor-bearing mice, rendering it as a potential adjuvant drug with chemotherapy after further investigation in the future.

  19. A new extract of the plant calendula officinalis produces a dual in vitro effect: cytotoxic anti-tumor activity and lymphocyte activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez-Medina, Eva; Garcia-Lora, Angel; Paco, Laura; Algarra, Ignacio; Collado, Antonia; Garrido, Federico

    2006-01-01

    Phytopharmacological studies of different Calendula extracts have shown anti-inflamatory, anti-viral and anti-genotoxic properties of therapeutic interest. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro cytotoxic anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities and in vivo anti-tumor effect of Laser Activated Calendula Extract (LACE), a novel extract of the plant Calendula Officinalis (Asteraceae). An aqueous extract of Calendula Officinalis was obtained by a novel extraction method in order to measure its anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities in vitro. Tumor cell lines derived from leukemias, melanomas, fibrosarcomas and cancers of breast, prostate, cervix, lung, pancreas and colorectal were used and tumor cell proliferation in vitro was measured by BrdU incorporation and viable cell count. Effect of LACE on human peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) proliferation in vitro was also analyzed. Studies of cell cycle and apoptosis were performed in LACE-treated cells. In vivo anti-tumor activity was evaluated in nude mice bearing subcutaneously human Ando-2 melanoma cells. The LACE extract showed a potent in vitro inhibition of tumor cell proliferation when tested on a wide variety of human and murine tumor cell lines. The inhibition ranged from 70 to 100%. Mechanisms of inhibition were identified as cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and Caspase-3-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, the same extract showed an opposite effect when tested on PBLs and NKL cell line, in which in vitro induction of proliferation and activation of these cells was observed. The intraperitoneal injection or oral administration of LACE extract in nude mice inhibits in vivo tumor growth of Ando-2 melanoma cells and prolongs the survival day of the mice. These results indicate that LACE aqueous extract has two complementary activities in vitro with potential anti-tumor therapeutic effect: cytotoxic tumor cell activity and lymphocyte activation. The LACE extract presented in vivo anti-tumoral activity in nude

  20. The preparation of three selenium-containing Cordyceps militaris polysaccharides: Characterization and anti-tumor activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Sun, Xiaoli; Gao, Hui; Zhang, Yong-Min

    2017-06-01

    In the present work, three fractions of selenized Cordyceps militaris polysaccharides (SeCPS) named SeCPS- I, SeCPS- II and SeCPS- III were isolated and purified by ultra-filtration. Their selenium content were measured as 541.3, 863.7 and 623.3μg/g respectively by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. The monosaccharide comformation analysis showed that they were mainly consisted of D-Mannose, D-Glucose, and D-Galactose in mole ratios of 1:7.63:0.83, 1:1.34:0.31 and 1:3.77:0.41 respectively. Their structure characteristics were compared by IFR and NMR spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Congo red (CR) spectrophotometric method were used to investigate their morphological characteristics and conformational transition. SeCPS-II showed the strongest anti-tumor effects judging from the result of in vitro anti-tumor assays against two tumor cell lines (hepatocellular carcinoma HepG-2 cells and lung adenocarcinom A549 cells). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Promotion of Tumor Invasion by Cooperation of Granulocytes and Macrophages Activated by Anti-tumor Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Barbera-Guillem

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the potential role of anti-tumor antibodies and tumor antigens in the formation of immune complexes which promote matrix degradation and angiogenesis. B-cell deficient or B-cell depleted mice showed a reduction in tumor invasion and metastasis. In vitro invasion assays and in vivo models of metastasis showed that anti-sTn antibodies and sTn tumor antigens form complexes which induce granulocytes and macrophages together to mediate tumor invasion and metastasis by processes including extracellular matrix degradation and angiogenesis. These results suggest the existence of a tumor promoting role of a B-cell immune response induced by shed tumor associated antigens of solid, nonlymphoid tumors.

  2. Anti-tumor activity of metformin: from metabolic and epigenetic perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yansheng; Tong, Chong; Liu, Min; Ma, Lixin; Yu, Xiaolan; Li, Shanshan

    2017-01-01

    Metformin has been used to treat type 2 diabetes for over 50 years. Epidemiological, preclinical and clinical studies suggest that metformin treatment reduces cancer incidence in diabetes patients. Due to its potential as an anti-cancer agent and its low cost, metformin has gained intense research interest. Its traditional anti-cancer mechanisms involve both indirect and direct insulin-dependent pathways. Here, we discussed the anti-tumor mechanism of metformin from the aspects of cell metabolism and epigenetic modifications. The effects of metformin on anti-cancer immunity and apoptosis were also described. Understanding these mechanisms will shed lights on application of metformin in clinical trials and development of anti-cancer therapy. PMID:27902459

  3. Tivantinib (ARQ-197) exhibits anti-tumor activity with down-regulation of FAK in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, Wei-Hong; Yang, Li-Yun; Cao, Zhong-Yi; Qian, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and the 5 years survival rate of the patients is about 60% in the USA, due to acquired chemotherapeutic resistance and metastasis of the disease. In this study, we found that tivantinib, a selective MET inhibitor, suppresses OCSS cell proliferation and colony formation, however, anti-tumor activities induced by tivantinib are independent of the inhibition of MET signaling pathway. In addition, tivantinib cause G2/M cell cycle arrest and caspases-dependent apoptosis in OSCC cell lines. We also found that tivantinib dose-dependently suppressed the activation and expression of FAK. In all, these data suggested that tivantinib may be developed as a chemotherapeutic agent to effectively treat certain cancers including OSCC. - Highlights: • Tivantinib suppresses OSCC cell growth independent of the inhibition of HGF/MET signaling pathway. • Tivantinib blocks cell cycle and induces caspases-mediated apoptosis. • Tivantinib elicits its anti-tumor activity with the inhibition of FAK signaling pathway

  4. Tivantinib (ARQ-197) exhibits anti-tumor activity with down-regulation of FAK in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Wei-Hong [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Yang, Li-Yun [Department of Blood Transfusion, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Cao, Zhong-Yi, E-mail: m18070383032@163.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Qian, Yong, E-mail: yfykqkqy@163.com [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China)

    2015-02-20

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and the 5 years survival rate of the patients is about 60% in the USA, due to acquired chemotherapeutic resistance and metastasis of the disease. In this study, we found that tivantinib, a selective MET inhibitor, suppresses OCSS cell proliferation and colony formation, however, anti-tumor activities induced by tivantinib are independent of the inhibition of MET signaling pathway. In addition, tivantinib cause G2/M cell cycle arrest and caspases-dependent apoptosis in OSCC cell lines. We also found that tivantinib dose-dependently suppressed the activation and expression of FAK. In all, these data suggested that tivantinib may be developed as a chemotherapeutic agent to effectively treat certain cancers including OSCC. - Highlights: • Tivantinib suppresses OSCC cell growth independent of the inhibition of HGF/MET signaling pathway. • Tivantinib blocks cell cycle and induces caspases-mediated apoptosis. • Tivantinib elicits its anti-tumor activity with the inhibition of FAK signaling pathway.

  5. R-2HG Exhibits Anti-tumor Activity by Targeting FTO/m6A/MYC/CEBPA Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Rui; Dong, Lei; Li, Chenying; Nachtergaele, Sigrid; Wunderlich, Mark; Qing, Ying; Deng, Xiaolan; Wang, Yungui; Weng, Xiaocheng; Hu, Chao; Yu, Mengxia; Skibbe, Jennifer; Dai, Qing; Zou, Dongling; Wu, Tong; Yu, Kangkang; Weng, Hengyou; Huang, Huilin; Ferchen, Kyle; Qin, Xi; Zhang, Bin; Qi, Jun; Sasaki, Atsuo T; Plas, David R; Bradner, James E; Wei, Minjie; Marcucci, Guido; Jiang, Xi; Mulloy, James C; Jin, Jie; He, Chuan; Chen, Jianjun

    2018-01-11

    R-2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2HG), produced at high levels by mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 (IDH1/2) enzymes, was reported as an oncometabolite. We show here that R-2HG also exerts a broad anti-leukemic activity in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting leukemia cell proliferation/viability and by promoting cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Mechanistically, R-2HG inhibits fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) activity, thereby increasing global N 6 -methyladenosine (m 6 A) RNA modification in R-2HG-sensitive leukemia cells, which in turn decreases the stability of MYC/CEBPA transcripts, leading to the suppression of relevant pathways. Ectopically expressed mutant IDH1 and S-2HG recapitulate the effects of R-2HG. High levels of FTO sensitize leukemic cells to R-2HG, whereas hyperactivation of MYC signaling confers resistance that can be reversed by the inhibition of MYC signaling. R-2HG also displays anti-tumor activity in glioma. Collectively, while R-2HG accumulated in IDH1/2 mutant cancers contributes to cancer initiation, our work demonstrates anti-tumor effects of 2HG in inhibiting proliferation/survival of FTO-high cancer cells via targeting FTO/m 6 A/MYC/CEBPA signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Anti-tumor activities of luteolin and silibinin in glioblastoma cells: overexpression of miR-7-1-3p augmented luteolin and silibinin to inhibit autophagy and induce apoptosis in glioblastoma in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Mrinmay; Ray, Swapan K

    2016-03-01

    Glioblastoma is the deadliest brain tumor in humans. High systemic toxicity of conventional chemotherapies prompted the search for natural compounds for controlling glioblastoma. The natural flavonoids luteolin (LUT) and silibinin (SIL) have anti-tumor activities. LUT inhibits autophagy, cell proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis and induces apoptosis; while SIL activates caspase-8 cascades to induce apoptosis. However, synergistic anti-tumor effects of LUT and SIL in glioblastoma remain unknown. Overexpression of tumor suppressor microRNA (miR) could enhance the anti-tumor effects of LUT and SIL. Here, we showed that 20 µM LUT and 50 µM SIL worked synergistically for inhibiting growth of two different human glioblastoma U87MG (wild-type p53) and T98G (mutant p53) cell lines and natural combination therapy was more effective than conventional chemotherapy (10 µM BCNU or 100 µM TMZ). Combination of LUT and SIL caused inhibition of growth of glioblastoma cells due to induction of significant amounts of apoptosis and complete inhibition of invasion and migration. Further, combination of LUT and SIL inhibited rapamycin (RAPA)-induced autophagy, a survival mechanism, with suppression of PKCα and promotion of apoptosis through down regulation of iNOS and significant increase in expression of the tumor suppressor miR-7-1-3p in glioblastoma cells. Our in vivo studies confirmed that overexpression of miR-7-1-3p augmented anti-tumor activities of LUT and SIL in RAPA pre-treated both U87MG and T98G tumors. In conclusion, our results clearly demonstrated that overexpression of miR-7-1-3p augmented the anti-tumor activities of LUT and SIL to inhibit autophagy and induce apoptosis for controlling growth of different human glioblastomas in vivo.

  7. Anti-tumor efficacy of lymphokine-activated killer cells and recombinant interleukin 2 in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mule, J.J.; Shu, S.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    The authors showed previously that adoptive immunotherapy with the combination of LAK cells and recombinant IL 2 (RIL 2) can markedly reduce pulmonary micrometastases from multiple sarcomas established 3 days after the i.v. injection of syngeneic tumor cells in C57BL/6 mice. In this report, they analyzed the factors required for successful therapy. Titration analysis in vivo revealed an inverse relationship between the number of pulmonary metastases remaining after treatment and both the number of LAK cells and the amount of RIL 2 administered. Fresh or unstimulated splenocytes had no anti-tumor effect; a 2- to 3-day incubation of splenocytes in RIL 2 was required. LAK cells generated from allogeneic DBA (H-2d) splenocytes were as effective in vivo as syngeneic, C57BL/6 (H-2b) LAK cells. The anti-metastatic capacity of LAK cells was significantly reduced or eliminated when irradiated with 3000 rad before adoptive transfer. The combined therapy of LAK cells plus RIL 2 was shown to be highly effective in mice immunosuppressed by 500 rad total body irradiation and in treating macrometastases established in the lung 10 days after the i.v. injection of sarcoma cells. Further, reduction of both micrometastases and macrometastases could also be achieved by RIL 2 alone when administered at higher levels than were required with LAK cells. The value of LAK cell transfer and of IL 2 administration for the treatment of tumors established at other sites is currently under investigation

  8. Pharmacogenomics and the Yin/Yang actions of ginseng: anti-tumor, angiomodulating and steroid-like activities of ginsenosides

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    Yeung Hin

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Chinese medicine, ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer has long been used as a general tonic or an adaptogen to promote longevity and enhance bodily functions. It has also been claimed to be effective in combating stress, fatigue, oxidants, cancer and diabetes mellitus. Most of the pharmacological actions of ginseng are attributed to one type of its constituents, namely the ginsenosides. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in the study of ginsenosides on angiogenesis which is related to many pathological conditions including tumor progression and cardiovascular dysfunctions. Angiogenesis in the human body is regulated by two sets of counteracting factors, angiogenic stimulators and inhibitors. The 'Yin and Yang' action of ginseng on angiomodulation was paralleled by the experimental data showing angiogenesis was indeed related to the compositional ratio between ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1. Rg1 was later found to stimulate angiogenesis through augmenting the production of nitric oxide (NO and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Mechanistic studies revealed that such responses were mediated through the PI3K→Akt pathway. By means of DNA microarray, a group of genes related to cell adhesion, migration and cytoskeleton were found to be up-regulated in endothelial cells. These gene products may interact in a hierarchical cascade pattern to modulate cell architectural dynamics which is concomitant to the observed phenomena in angiogenesis. By contrast, the anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic effects of ginsenosides (e.g. Rg3 and Rh2 have been demonstrated in various models of tumor and endothelial cells, indicating that ginsenosides with opposing activities are present in ginseng. Ginsenosides and Panax ginseng extracts have been shown to exert protective effects on vascular dysfunctions, such as hypertension, atherosclerotic disorders and ischemic injury. Recent work has demonstrates the target molecules of ginsenosides to be a

  9. Enhanced anti-tumor effect of a gene gun-delivered DNA vaccine encoding the human papillomavirus type 16 oncoproteins genetically fused to the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D

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    M.O. Diniz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Anti-cancer DNA vaccines have attracted growing interest as a simple and non-invasive method for both the treatment and prevention of tumors induced by human papillomaviruses. Nonetheless, the low immunogenicity of parenterally administered vaccines, particularly regarding the activation of cytotoxic CD8+ T cell responses, suggests that further improvements in both vaccine composition and administration routes are still required. In the present study, we report the immune responses and anti-tumor effects of a DNA vaccine (pgD-E7E6E5 expressing three proteins (E7, E6, and E5 of the human papillomavirus type 16 genetically fused to the glycoprotein D of the human herpes simplex virus type 1, which was administered to mice by the intradermal (id route using a gene gun. A single id dose of pgD-E7E6E5 (2 µg/dose induced a strong activation of E7-specific interferon-γ (INF-γ-producing CD8+ T cells and full prophylactic anti-tumor effects in the vaccinated mice. Three vaccine doses inhibited tumor growth in 70% of the mice with established tumors. In addition, a single vaccine dose consisting of the co-administration of pgD-E7E6E5 and the vector encoding interleukin-12 or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor further enhanced the therapeutic anti-tumor effects and conferred protection to 60 and 50% of the vaccinated mice, respectively. In conclusion, id administration of pgD-E7E6E5 significantly enhanced the immunogenicity and anti-tumor effects of the DNA vaccine, representing a promising administration route for future clinical trials.

  10. Transgenic expression of soluble human CD5 enhances experimentally-induced autoimmune and anti-tumoral immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fenutría

    Full Text Available CD5 is a lymphoid-specific transmembrane glycoprotein constitutively expressed on thymocytes and mature T and B1a lymphocytes. Current data support the view that CD5 is a negative regulator of antigen-specific receptor-mediated signaling in these cells, and that this would likely be achieved through interaction with CD5 ligand/s (CD5L of still undefined nature expressed on immune or accessory cells. To determine the functional consequence of loss of CD5/CD5L interaction in vivo, a new transgenic mouse line was generated (shCD5EμTg, expressing a circulating soluble form of human CD5 (shCD5 as a decoy to impair membrane-bound CD5 function. These shCD5EμTg mice showed an enhanced response to autologous antigens, as deduced from the presentation of more severe forms of experimentally inducible autoimmune disease (collagen-induced arthritis, CIA; and experimental autoimmune encephalitis, EAE, as well as an increased anti-tumoral response in non-orthotopic cancer models (B16 melanoma. This enhancement of the immune response was in agreement with the finding of significantly reduced proportions of spleen and lymph node Treg cells (CD4+CD25+FoxP3+, and of peritoneal IL-10-producing and CD5+ B cells, as well as an increased proportion of spleen NKT cells in shCD5EμTg mice. Similar changes in lymphocyte subpopulations were observed in wild-type mice following repeated administration of exogenous recombinant shCD5 protein. These data reveal the relevant role played by CD5/CD5L interactions on the homeostasis of some functionally relevant lymphocyte subpopulations and the modulation of immune responses to autologous antigens.

  11. Anti-tumor activity of self-charged (Eu,Ca):WO3 and Eu:CaWO4 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Cao; Cong, Wang; De'An, Pan; Jiexin, Cao; Ping, Che; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2012-01-01

    Non-stoichiometric (Eu,Ca):WO 3 and Eu:CaWO 4 nanoparticles with anti-tumor activity are synthesized in a sol-gel method by adding excessive Eu 3+ and Ca 2+ ions to tungsten oxide crystal structure. Colorimetric assay shows that 10 nm (Eu,Ca):WO 3 and Eu:CaWO 4 nanoparticles can effectively inhibit growth of mammary cancer cells without any harm to normal cells. Nanoparticles are characterized by X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence optical spectrometry. Nanomaterials, insoluble in synthesized water, have complicated self-charging surfaces that trap mammary cancer cells. Surface self-charging effect is suggested as the inhibition mechanism. (author)

  12. [Imiquimod combined with dendritic cell vaccine decreases Treg proportion and enhances anti-tumor responses in mice bearing melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shurong; Wang, Qiubo; Zhang, Yanli; Lu, Cuixiu; Li, Ping; Li, Yumei

    2017-02-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonist imiquimod combined with dendritic cell (DC)-based tumor vaccine on melanoma in mice and the potential mechanism. Methods Melanoma-bearing mouse models were established by subcutanous injection of B16-OVA cells into C57BL/6 mice. DCs were isolated from mouse bone marrow and propagated in culture medium with recombinant mouse granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rmGM-CSF) and recombinant mouse interleukin-4 (rmIL-4). DC vaccine (OVA-DC) was prepared by overnight incubation of DCs added with chicken ovalbumin. C57BL/6 mice were separated into four groups which were treated with PBS, topical imiquimod application, OVA-DC intradermal injection and imiquimod plus OVA-DC, respectively. The tumor size was calculated by digital vernier caliper. Peripheral blood CD4 + FOXP3 + Tregs of the tumor-bearing mice was detected by flow cytometry. The cytotoxicity of splenic lymphocyte against B16-OVA was assessed in vitro by CCK-8 assay. Results Compared with the other three groups, B16-OVA-bearing mice treated with imiquimod plus DC vaccine had the smallest tumor volume. The percentage of CD4 + FOXP3 + Tregs decreased significantly in the combined treated mice. The combined treatment enhanced significantly cytotoxicity of splenic lymphocytes against B16-OVA cells. Conclusion Imiquimod combined with antigen-pulsed-DC vaccine could reduce CD4 + FOXP3 + Treg proportion and promote anti-tumor effect in mice with melanoma.

  13. A new extract of the plant calendula officinalis produces a dual in vitro effect: cytotoxic anti-tumor activity and lymphocyte activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collado Antonia

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytopharmacological studies of different Calendula extracts have shown anti-inflamatory, anti-viral and anti-genotoxic properties of therapeutic interest. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro cytotoxic anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities and in vivo anti-tumor effect of Laser Activated Calendula Extract (LACE, a novel extract of the plant Calendula Officinalis (Asteraceae. Methods An aqueous extract of Calendula Officinalis was obtained by a novel extraction method in order to measure its anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities in vitro. Tumor cell lines derived from leukemias, melanomas, fibrosarcomas and cancers of breast, prostate, cervix, lung, pancreas and colorectal were used and tumor cell proliferation in vitro was measured by BrdU incorporation and viable cell count. Effect of LACE on human peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL proliferation in vitro was also analyzed. Studies of cell cycle and apoptosis were performed in LACE-treated cells. In vivo anti-tumor activity was evaluated in nude mice bearing subcutaneously human Ando-2 melanoma cells. Results The LACE extract showed a potent in vitro inhibition of tumor cell proliferation when tested on a wide variety of human and murine tumor cell lines. The inhibition ranged from 70 to 100%. Mechanisms of inhibition were identified as cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and Caspase-3-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, the same extract showed an opposite effect when tested on PBLs and NKL cell line, in which in vitro induction of proliferation and activation of these cells was observed. The intraperitoneal injection or oral administration of LACE extract in nude mice inhibits in vivo tumor growth of Ando-2 melanoma cells and prolongs the survival day of the mice. Conclusion These results indicate that LACE aqueous extract has two complementary activities in vitro with potential anti-tumor therapeutic effect: cytotoxic tumor cell activity and lymphocyte activation

  14. Multivalent presentation of MPL by porous silicon microparticles favors T helper 1 polarization enhancing the anti-tumor efficacy of doxorubicin nanoliposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraz, Ismail M; Hearnden, Claire H; Liu, Xuewu; Yang, Marie; Williams, Laura; Savage, David J; Gu, Jianhua; Rhudy, Jessica R; Yokoi, Kenji; Lavelle, Ed C; Serda, Rita E

    2014-01-01

    Porous silicon (pSi) microparticles, in diverse sizes and shapes, can be functionalized to present pathogen-associated molecular patterns that activate dendritic cells. Intraperitoneal injection of MPL-adsorbed pSi microparticles, in contrast to free MPL, resulted in the induction of local inflammation, reflected in the recruitment of neutrophils, eosinophils and proinflammatory monocytes, and the depletion of resident macrophages and mast cells at the injection site. Injection of microparticle-bound MPL resulted in enhanced secretion of the T helper 1 associated cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α by peritoneal exudate and lymph node cells in response to secondary stimuli while decreasing the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. MPL-pSi microparticles independently exhibited anti-tumor effects and enhanced tumor suppression by low dose doxorubicin nanoliposomes. Intravascular injection of the MPL-bound microparticles increased serum IL-1β levels, which was blocked by the IL-1 receptor antagonist Anakinra. The microparticles also potentiated tumor infiltration by dendritic cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and F4/80+ macrophages, however, a specific reduction was observed in CD204+ macrophages.

  15. Sunitinib indirectly enhanced anti-tumor cytotoxicity of cytokine-induced killer cells and CD3⁺CD56⁺ subset through the co-culturing dendritic cells.

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    Adisak Wongkajornsilp

    Full Text Available Cytokine-induced killer (CIK cells have reached clinical trials for leukemia and solid tumors. Their anti-tumor cytotoxicity had earlier been shown to be intensified after the co-culture with dendritic cells (DCs. We observed markedly enhanced anti-tumor cytotoxicity activity of CIK cells after the co-culture with sunitinib-pretreated DCs over that of untreated DCs. This cytotoxicity was reliant upon DC modulation by sunitinib because the direct exposure of CIK cells to sunitinib had no significant effect. Sunitinib promoted Th1-inducing and pro-inflammatory phenotypes (IL-12, IFN-γ and IL-6 in DCs at the expense of Th2 inducing phenotype (IL-13 and regulatory phenotype (PD-L1, IDO. Sunitinib-treated DCs subsequently induced the upregulation of Th1 phenotypic markers (IFN-γ and T-bet and the downregulation of the Th2 signature (GATA-3 and the Th17 marker (RORC on the CD3⁺CD56⁺ subset of CIK cells. It concluded that sunitinib-pretreated DCs drove the CD3⁺CD56⁺ subset toward Th1 phenotype with increased anti-tumor cytotoxicity.

  16. Melatonin enhances the anti-tumor effect of fisetin by inhibiting COX-2/iNOS and NF-κB/p300 signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canhui Yi

    Full Text Available Melatonin is a hormone identified in plants and pineal glands of mammals and possesses diverse physiological functions. Fisetin is a bio-flavonoid widely found in plants and exerts antitumor activity in several types of human cancers. However, the combinational effect of melatonin and fisetin on antitumor activity, especially in melanoma treatment, remains unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that melatonin could enhance the antitumor activity of fisetin in melanoma cells and identified the underlying molecular mechanisms. The combinational treatment of melanoma cells with fisetin and melatonin significantly enhanced the inhibitions of cell viability, cell migration and clone formation, and the induction of apoptosis when compared with the treatment of fisetin alone. Moreover, such enhancement of antitumor effect by melatonin was found to be mediated through the modulation of the multiply signaling pathways in melanoma cells. The combinational treatment of fisetin with melatonin increased the cleavage of PARP proteins, triggered more release of cytochrome-c from the mitochondrial inter-membrane, enhanced the inhibition of COX-2 and iNOS expression, repressed the nuclear localization of p300 and NF-κB proteins, and abrogated the binding of NF-κB on COX-2 promoter. Thus, these results demonstrated that melatonin potentiated the anti-tumor effect of fisetin in melanoma cells by activating cytochrome-c-dependent apoptotic pathway and inhibiting COX-2/iNOS and NF-κB/p300 signaling pathways, and our study suggests the potential of such a combinational treatment of natural products in melanoma therapy.

  17. Melatonin Enhances the Anti-Tumor Effect of Fisetin by Inhibiting COX-2/iNOS and NF-κB/p300 Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhenlong; Xiao, Yao; Wang, Jingshu; Qiu, Huijuan; Yu, Wendan; Tang, Ranran; Yuan, Yuhui; Guo, Wei; Deng, Wuguo

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin is a hormone identified in plants and pineal glands of mammals and possesses diverse physiological functions. Fisetin is a bio-flavonoid widely found in plants and exerts antitumor activity in several types of human cancers. However, the combinational effect of melatonin and fisetin on antitumor activity, especially in melanoma treatment, remains unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that melatonin could enhance the antitumor activity of fisetin in melanoma cells and identified the underlying molecular mechanisms. The combinational treatment of melanoma cells with fisetin and melatonin significantly enhanced the inhibitions of cell viability, cell migration and clone formation, and the induction of apoptosis when compared with the treatment of fisetin alone. Moreover, such enhancement of antitumor effect by melatonin was found to be mediated through the modulation of the multiply signaling pathways in melanoma cells. The combinational treatment of fisetin with melatonin increased the cleavage of PARP proteins, triggered more release of cytochrome-c from the mitochondrial inter-membrane, enhanced the inhibition of COX-2 and iNOS expression, repressed the nuclear localization of p300 and NF-κB proteins, and abrogated the binding of NF-κB on COX-2 promoter. Thus, these results demonstrated that melatonin potentiated the anti-tumor effect of fisetin in melanoma cells by activating cytochrome-c-dependent apoptotic pathway and inhibiting COX-2/iNOS and NF-κB/p300 signaling pathways, and our study suggests the potential of such a combinational treatment of natural products in melanoma therapy. PMID:25000190

  18. Effects of extraction methods on the yield, chemical structure and anti-tumor activity of polysaccharides from Cordyceps gunnii mycelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Dong, Fengying; Liu, Xiaocui; Lv, Qian; YingYang; Liu, Fei; Chen, Ling; Wang, Tiantian; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Yongmin

    2016-04-20

    This study was to investigate the effects of different extraction methods on the yield, chemical structure and antitumor activity of polysaccharides from Cordyceps gunnii (C. gunnii) mycelia. Five extraction methods were used to extract crude polysaccharides (CPS), which include room-temperature water extraction (RWE), hot-water extraction (HWE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and cellulase-assisted extraction (CAE). Then Sephadex G-100 was used for purification of CPS. As a result, the antitumor activities of CPS and PPS on S180 cells were evaluated. Five CPS and purified polysaccharides (PPS) were obtained. The yield of CPS by microwave-assisted extraction (CPSMAE) was the highest and its anti-tumor activity was the best and its macromolecular polysaccharide (3000-1000kDa) ratio was the largest. The PPS had the same monosaccharide composition, but their obvious difference was in the antitumor activity and the physicochemical characteristics, such as intrinsic viscosity, specific rotation, scanning electron microscopy and circular dichroism spectra. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Salinomycin possesses anti-tumor activity and inhibits breast cancer stem-like cells via an apoptosis-independent pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Hyunsook; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Nahyun; Cho, Youngkwan; Oh, Eunhye [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 152-703 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Program for Biomedicine Science, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 152-703 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Jae Hong, E-mail: cancer@korea.ac.kr [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 152-703 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Program for Biomedicine Science, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 152-703 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-30

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play important roles in the formation, growth and recurrence of tumors, particularly following therapeutic intervention. Salinomycin has received recent attention for its ability to target breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), but the mechanisms of action involved are not fully understood. In the present study, we sought to investigate the mechanisms responsible for salinomycin's selective targeting of BCSCs and its anti-tumor activity. Salinomycin suppressed cell viability, concomitant with the downregulation of cyclin D1 and increased p27{sup kip1} nuclear accumulation. Mammosphere formation assays revealed that salinomycin suppresses self-renewal of ALDH1-positive BCSCs and downregulates the transcription factors Nanog, Oct4 and Sox2. TUNEL analysis of MDA-MB-231-derived xenografts revealed that salinomycin administration elicited a significant reduction in tumor growth with a marked downregulation of ALDH1 and CD44 levels, but seemingly without the induction of apoptosis. Our findings shed further light on the mechanisms responsible for salinomycin's effects on BCSCs. - Highlights: • Salinomycin suppresses mammosphere formation. • Salinomycin reduces ALDH1 activity and downregulates Nanog, Oct4 and Sox2. • Salinomycin targets BCSCs via an apoptosis-independent pathway.

  20. Increased Tumor Oxygenation and Drug Uptake During Anti-Angiogenic Weekly Low Dose Cyclophosphamide Enhances the Anti-Tumor Effect of Weekly Tirapazamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doloff, J.C.; Khan, N.; Ma, J.; Demidenko, E.; Swartz, H.M.; Jounaidi, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Metronomic cyclophosphamide treatment is associated with anti-angiogenic activity and is anticipated to generate exploitable hypoxia using hypoxia-activated prodrugs. Weekly administration of tirapazamine (TPZ; 5 mg/kg body weight i.p.) failed to inhibit the growth of 9L gliosarcoma tumors grown s.c. in scid mice. However, the anti-tumor effect of weekly cyclophosphamide (CPA) treatment (140 mg/kg BW i.p.) was substantially enhanced by weekly TPZ administration. An extended tumor free period and increased frequency of tumor eradication without overt toxicity were observed when TPZ was given 3, 4 or 5 days after each weekly CPA treatment. Following the 2nd CPA injection, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Oximetry indicated significant increases in tumor pO2, starting at 48 hr, which further increased after the 3rd CPA injection. pO2 levels were, however, stable in growing untreated tumors. A strong negative correlation (−0.81) between tumor pO2 and tumor volume during 21 days of weekly CPA chemotherapy was observed, indicating increasing tumor pO2 with decreasing tumor volume. Furthermore, CPA treatment resulted in increased tumor uptake of activated CPA. CPA induced increases in VEGF RNA, which reached a maximum on day 1, and in PLGF RNA which was sustained throughout the treatment, while anti-angiogenic host thrombospondin-1 increased dramatically through day 7 post-CPA treatment. Weekly cyclophosphamide treatment was anticipated to generate exploitable hypoxia. However, our findings suggest that weekly CPA treatment induces a functional improvement of tumor vasculature, which is characterized by increased tumor oxygenation and drug uptake in tumors, thus counter-intuitively, benefiting intratumoral activation of TPZ and perhaps other bioreductive drugs. PMID:19754361

  1. Colloidally stable surface-modified iron oxide nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization and anti-tumor activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macková, Hana [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, AS CR, Heyrovsky Sq. 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Horák, Daniel, E-mail: horak@imc.cas.cz [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, AS CR, Heyrovsky Sq. 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Donchenko, Georgiy Viktorovich; Andriyaka, Vadim Ivanovich; Palyvoda, Olga Mikhailovna; Chernishov, Vladimir Ivanovich [Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, NASU, 9 Leontovich St., 01601 Kiev (Ukraine); Chekhun, Vasyl Fedorovich; Todor, Igor Nikolaevich [R. E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology, NASU, 45 Vasylkivska St., 03022 Kiev (Ukraine); Kuzmenko, Oleksandr Ivanovich [Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, NASU, 9 Leontovich St., 01601 Kiev (Ukraine)

    2015-04-15

    Maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles were obtained by co-precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) chlorides and subsequent oxidation with sodium hypochlorite and coated with poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) [P(DMAAm-AA)]. They were characterized by a range of methods including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), elemental analysis, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurements. The effect of superparamagnetic P(DMAAm-AA)-γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles on oxidation of blood lipids, glutathione and proteins in blood serum was detected using 2-thiobarbituric acid and the ThioGlo fluorophore. Finally, mice received magnetic nanoparticles administered per os and the antitumor activity of the particles was tested on Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in male mice line C57BL/6 as an experimental in vivo metastatic tumor model; the tumor size was measured and the number of metastases in lungs was determined. Surface-modified γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles showed higher antitumor and antimetastatic activities than commercial CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles and the conventional antitumor agent cisplatin. - Highlights: • Maghemite nanoparticles were prepared and characterized. • Poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) coating was synthetized. • Blood lipid, glutathione and protein peroxidation/oxidation was determined. • Antitumor effect of coated particles on Lewis lung carcinoma in mice was observed.

  2. Oleuropein potentiates anti-tumor activity of cisplatin against HepG2 through affecting proNGF/NGF balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, Iman O; Al-Gayyar, Mohammed M H

    2018-04-01

    Oleuropein is considered as a new chemotherapeutic agent in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) while, its exact underlying molecular mechanism still not yet explored. In addition, cisplatin is a standard anticancer drug against solid tumors with toxic side effects. Therefore, we conducted this study to assess antitumor activity of oleuropein either alone or in combination with cisplatin against HepG2, human HCC cell lines, via targeting pro-NGF/NGF signaling pathway. HepG2 cells were treated with cisplatin (20, 50, 100 μM) and oleuropein (100, 200, 300 and 400 μM) as well as some of the cells were treated with 50 μM cisplatin and different concentrations of oleuropein. Gene expressions of nerve growth factor (NGF), matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) and caspase-3 were evaluated by real time-PCR. In addition, protein levels of NGF and pro-form of NGF (pro-NGF) were measured by ELISA while, nitric oxide (NO) content was determined colorimetrically. Cisplatin treatment showed a significant elevation of NO content and pro-NGF protein level with a marked reduction of NGF protein level in addition to the upregulation of caspase-3 along with downregulation of MMP-7 gene expressions in a dose-dependent manner. However, the combination of 50 μM cisplatin and 200 μM oleuropein showed the most potent effect on the molecular level when compared with oleuropein or cisplatin alone. Our results showed for the first time that the anti-tumor activity of oleuropein against HCC could be attributed to influencing the pro-NGF/NGF balance via affecting MMP-7 activity without affecting the gene expression of NGF. Concurrent treatment with both oleuropein and cisplatin could lead to more effective chemotherapeutic combination against HCC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ghrelin levels in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: relation to anti-tumor necrosis factor treatment and disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, Thomais; Trachana, Maria; Agakidis, Charalampos; Pratsidou-Gertsi, Polyxeni; Taparkou, Anna; Lampoudi, Sotiria; Kanakoudi-Tsakalidou, Florentia

    2011-10-01

    Studies in adults with rheumatoid arthritis reported low serum ghrelin that increased following anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) infusion. Data on juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are lacking. The aim of this pilot study was to explore serum ghrelin levels in patients with JIA and the possible association with anti-TNF treatment, disease activity, and nutritional status. Fifty-two patients with JIA (14/52 on anti-TNF treatment) were studied. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis was inactive in 3 of 14 anti-TNF-treated patients and in 11 of 38 non-anti-TNF-treated patients. The nutritional status, energy intake/requirements, appetite, and fasting serum ghrelin levels were assessed. Ghrelin control values were obtained from 50 individuals with minor illness matched for age, sex, and body mass index. Ghrelin levels in patients with JIA were significantly lower than in controls (P ghrelin levels were comparable to control values only in 3 patients with anti-TNF-induced remission. Ghrelin in non-anti-TNF-treated patients in remission was low. Multiple regression analysis showed that disease activity (P = .002, CI = -84.16 to -20.01) and anti-TNF treatment (P = .003, CI = -82.51 to -18.33) were significant independent predictors of ghrelin after adjusting for other potential confounders. Ghrelin did not correlate with nutritional status, energy balance, and appetite. Serum ghrelin is low in patients with JIA and is restored to values similar to those in controls following anti-TNF-induced remission. Our study provides evidence that TNF blockade is independently associated with serum ghrelin, which possibly contributes to anti-TNF-induced remission. These preliminary results could form the basis for future research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells are essential for CD8+ T cell activation and anti-tumor responses after local immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eKuhn

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tumors harbor several populations of dendritic cells with the ability to prime tumor-specific T cells. However, these T cells mostly fail to differentiate into armed effectors and are unable to control tumor growth. We have previously shown that treatment with immunostimulatory agents at the tumor site can activate anti-tumor immune responses, and is associated with the appearance of a population of monocyte-derived dendritic cells in the tumor and tumor-draining lymph node. Here we use dendritic cell or monocyte depletion and monocyte transfer to show that these monocyte-derived dendritic cells are critical to the activation of anti-tumor immune responses. Treatment with the immunostimulatory agents Monosodium Urate crystals and Mycobacterium smegmatis induced the accumulation of monocytes in the draining lymph node, their upregulation of CD11c and MHCII, and expression of iNOS, TNFα and IL12p40. Blocking monocyte entry into the lymph node and tumor through neutralization of the chemokine CCL2 or inhibition of Colony Stimulating Factor-1 receptor signaling prevented the generation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells, the infiltration of tumor-specific T cells into the tumor, and anti-tumor responses. In a reciprocal fashion, monocytes transferred into mice depleted of CD11c+ cells were sufficient to rescue CD8+ T cell priming in lymph node and delay tumor growth. Thus monocytes exposed to the appropriate conditions become powerful activators of tumor-specific CD8+ T cells and anti-tumor immunity.

  5. Anti-tumor effects of novel 5-O-acyl plumbagins based on the inhibition of mammalian DNA replicative polymerase activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moe Kawamura

    Full Text Available We previously found that vitamin K3 (menadione, 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone inhibits the activity of human mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (pol γ. In this study, we focused on plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, and chemically synthesized novel plumbagins conjugated with C2:0 to C22:6 fatty acids (5-O-acyl plumbagins. These chemically modified plumbagins enhanced mammalian pol inhibition and their cytotoxic activity. Plumbagin conjugated with chains consisting of more than C18-unsaturated fatty acids strongly inhibited the activities of calf pol α and human pol γ. Plumbagin conjugated with oleic acid (C18:1-acyl plumbagin showed the strongest suppression of human colon carcinoma (HCT116 cell proliferation among the ten synthesized 5-O-acyl plumbagins. The inhibitory activity on pol α, a DNA replicative pol, by these compounds showed high correlation with their cancer cell proliferation suppressive activity. C18:1-Acyl plumbagin selectively inhibited the activities of mammalian pol species, but did not influence the activities of other pols and DNA metabolic enzymes tested. This compound inhibited the proliferation of various human cancer cell lines, and was the cytotoxic inhibitor showing strongest inhibition towards HT-29 colon cancer cells (LD50 = 2.9 µM among the nine cell lines tested. In an in vivo anti-tumor assay conducted on nude mice bearing solid tumors of HT-29 cells, C18:1-acyl plumbagin was shown to be a promising tumor suppressor. These data indicate that novel 5-O-acyl plumbagins act as anti-cancer agents based on mammalian DNA replicative pol α inhibition. Moreover, the results suggest that acylation of plumbagin is an effective chemical modification to improve the anti-cancer activity of vitamin K3 derivatives, such as plumbagin.

  6. Anti-tumor activities of a novel chlorin derivative for photodynamic therapy in vitro and in vivo

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    Li-Jun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel photosensitizer meso-tetra (3-pyrrolidinomethyl-4-methoxyphenyl chlorin (TPMC was reported. It displays a characteristic long wavelength absorption peak at 656 nm and it shows a singlet oxygen quantum yield of 0.48. After light irradiation with 650 nm laser, it can kill Eca-109 and SMMC-7721 cells in vitro (25 mW/cm2, 1.2 to 3.6 J/cm2 and destroy Eca-109 tumor in nude mice (50 mW/cm2, 90 J/cm2. It has the perspective to be developed as a new anti-tumor drug in photodynamic therapy (PDT photodiagnosis, and deserves further investigation.

  7. Chimeric antigen receptors with human scFvs preferentially induce T cell anti-tumor activity against tumors with high B7H6 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacerez, Albert T; Hua, Casey K; Ackerman, Margaret E; Sentman, Charles L

    2018-05-01

    B7H6 is emerging as a promising tumor antigen that is known to be expressed on a wide array of tumors and is reported to stimulate anti-tumor responses from the immune system. As such, B7H6 presents a good target for tumor-specific immunotherapies. B7H6-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) based on a murine antibody showed successful targeting and elimination of tumors expressing B7H6. However, mouse single chain variable fragments (scFvs) have the potential to induce host anti-CAR responses that may limit efficacy, so human scFvs specific for B7H6 were selected by yeast surface display. In this study, we validate the functionality of these human scFvs when formatted into chimeric antigen receptors. The data indicate that T cells expressing these B7H6-specific human scFvs as CARs induced potent anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo against tumors expressing high amounts of B7H6. Importantly, these human scFv-based CARs are sensitive to changes in B7H6 expression which may potentially spare non-tumor cells that express B7H6 and provides the foundation for future clinical development.

  8. A new activity of anti-HIV and anti-tumor protein GAP31: DNA adenosine glycosidase - Structural and modeling insight into its functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui-Guang [Department of Biochemistry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Huang, Philip L. [American Biosciences, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Zhang, Dawei; Sun, Yongtao [Department of Biochemistry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Chen, Hao-Chia [Endocrinology and Reproduction Research Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Zhang, John [Department of Chemistry, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Huang, Paul L. [Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Kong, Xiang-Peng, E-mail: xiangpeng.kong@med.nyu.edu [Department of Biochemistry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Lee-Huang, Sylvia, E-mail: sylvia.lee-huang@med.nyu.edu [Department of Biochemistry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016 (United States)

    2010-01-01

    We report here the high-resolution atomic structures of GAP31 crystallized in the presence of HIV-LTR DNA oligonucleotides systematically designed to examine the adenosine glycosidase activity of this anti-HIV and anti-tumor plant protein. Structural analysis and molecular modeling lead to several novel findings. First, adenine is bound at the active site in the crystal structures of GAP31 to HIV-LTR duplex DNA with 5' overhanging adenosine ends, such as the 3'-processed HIV-LTR DNA but not to DNA duplex with blunt ends. Second, the active site pocket of GAP31 is ideally suited to accommodate the 5' overhanging adenosine of the 3'-processed HIV-LTR DNA and the active site residues are positioned to perform the adenosine glycosidase activity. Third, GAP31 also removes the 5'-end adenine from single-stranded HIV-LTR DNA oligonucleotide as well as any exposed adenosine, including that of single nucleotide dAMP but not from AMP. Fourth, GAP31 does not de-purinate guanosine from di-nucleotide GT. These results suggest that GAP31 has DNA adenosine glycosidase activity against accessible adenosine. This activity is distinct from the generally known RNA N-glycosidase activity toward the 28S rRNA. It may be an alternative function that contributes to the antiviral and anti-tumor activities of GAP31. These results provide molecular insights consistent with the anti-HIV mechanisms of GAP31 in its inhibition on the integration of viral DNA into the host genome by HIV-integrase as well as irreversible topological relaxation of the supercoiled viral DNA.

  9. [Structural analysis and anti-tumor activity in vivo of polysaccharide APS-2a from Angelica sinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei; Li, Xiao-Qiang; Hou, Ying; Fan, Hui-Ting; Zhang, Xiao-Nan; Mei, Qi-Bing

    2008-02-01

    The polysaccharide APS-2a was isolated from Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels through water extraction, deprotein, ethanol precipitation and DEAE-sephades A-25 column chromatography respectively,and was further purified by Sephacryl S-400 and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The phenol-sulfuric acid assay and Bradford method were used to determine the contents of carbohydrate and protein, respectively. The molecular weight was carried out with high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) combined with a differential refractometer detector. The monosaccharide compositions were determined by gas chromatography after complete hydrolysis with acid. The models of mice transplanted sarcoma S-180 were used to study the anti-tumor effects in vivo. Thymus indexes, spleen indexes were determined. The HPSEC result showed the APS-2a was a single homogeneous component and its weight average molecular weight was 7.4 x 10(5) Da. The monosaccharide composition of APS-2a was glucose, galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, galcturonic acid. Furthermore, APS-2a (20.50 mg/kg) could inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells in mice transplanted S-180. The thymus indexes and spleen indexes in the groups treated with APS-2a were higher than control group.

  10. Cytomegalovirus vector expressing RAE-1γ induces enhanced anti-tumor capacity of murine CD8+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tršan, Tihana; Vuković, Kristina; Filipović, Petra; Brizić, Ana Lesac; Lemmermann, Niels A W; Schober, Kilian; Busch, Dirk H; Britt, William J; Messerle, Martin; Krmpotić, Astrid; Jonjić, Stipan

    2017-08-01

    Designing CD8 + T-cell vaccines, which would provide protection against tumors is still considered a great challenge in immunotherapy. Here we show the robust potential of cytomegalovirus (CMV) vector expressing the NKG2D ligand RAE-1γ as CD8 + T cell-based vaccine against malignant tumors. Immunization with the CMV vector expressing RAE-1γ, delayed tumor growth or even provided complete protection against tumor challenge in both prophylactic and therapeutic settings. Moreover, a potent tumor control in mice vaccinated with this vector can be further enhanced by blocking the immune checkpoints TIGIT and PD-1. CMV vector expressing RAE-1γ potentiated expansion of KLRG1 + CD8 + T cells with enhanced effector properties. This vaccination was even more efficient in neonatal mice, resulting in the expansion and long-term maintenance of epitope-specific CD8 + T cells conferring robust resistance against tumor challenge. Our data show that immunomodulation of CD8 + T-cell responses promoted by herpesvirus expressing a ligand for NKG2D receptor can provide a powerful platform for the prevention and treatment of CD8 + T-cell sensitive tumors. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Arctigenin anti-tumor activity in bladder cancer T24 cell line through induction of cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shucai; Ma, Jing; Xiao, Jianbing; Lv, Xiaohong; Li, Xinlei; Yang, Huike; Liu, Ying; Feng, Sijia; Zhang, Yafang

    2012-08-01

    Bladder cancer is the most common neoplasm in the urinary system. This study assesses arctigenin anti-tumor activity in human bladder cancer T24 cells in vitro and the underlying molecular events. The flow cytometry analysis was used to detect cell-cycle distribution and apoptosis. Western blotting was used to detect changes in protein expression. The data showed that arctigenin treatment reduced viability of bladder cancer T24 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner after treatment with arctigenin (10, 20, 40, 80, and 100 μmol/L) for 24 hr and 48 hr. Arctigenin treatment clearly arrested tumor cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Apoptosis was detected by hoechst stain and flow cytometry after Annexin-V-FITC/PI double staining. Early and late apoptotic cells were accounted for 2.32-7.01% and 3.07-7.35%, respectively. At the molecular level, arctigenin treatment decreased cyclin D1 expression, whereas CDK4 and CDK6 expression levels were unaffected. Moreover, arctigenin selectively altered the phosphorylation of members of the MAPK superfamily, decreasing phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and activated phosphorylation of p38 significantly in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that arctigenin may inhibit cell viability and induce apoptosis by direct activation of the mitochondrial pathway, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway may play an important role in the anti-tumor effect of arctigenin. The data from the current study demonstrate the usefulness of arctigenin in bladder cancer T24 cells, which should further be evaluated in vivo before translation into clinical trials for the chemoprevention of bladder cancer. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Antibody-mediated phagocytosis contributes to the anti-tumor activity of the therapeutic antibody daratumumab in lymphoma and multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overdijk, M. B.; Verploegen, S.; Bogels, M.

    2015-01-01

    Daratumumab (DARA) is a human CD38-specific IgG1 antibody that is in clinical development for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). The potential for IgG1 antibodies to induce macrophage-mediated phagocytosis, in combination with the known presence of macrophages in the tumor microenvironment...... in MM and other hematological tumors, led us to investigate the contribution of antibody-dependent, macrophage-mediated phagocytosis to DARA's mechanism of action. Live cell imaging revealed that DARA efficiently induced macrophage-mediated phagocytosis, in which individual macrophages rapidly...... and sequentially engulfed multiple tumor cells. DARA-dependent phagocytosis by mouse and human macrophages was also observed in an in vitro flow cytometry assay, using a range of MM and Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines. Phagocytosis contributed to DARA's anti-tumor activity in vivo, in both a subcutaneous...

  13. 1.2.2.Synthesis, crystal structure and in vitro anti-tumor activity of dibutyltin complex of 2,4-dichloro-5-fluorobenzoic acid

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    Ming Li, Liqin Wang, Zhenlei Zhang, Yue Xin, Laijin Tian*

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The dibutyltin complex of 2,4-dichloro-5- fluorobenzoic acid, [(2,4-Cl2 -5-FC6 H2 C(OOSnBu2 2 O]2 (Bu = CH2 CH2 CH2 CH3 (1 , has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 119 Sn NMR spectroscopy, and Xray single crystal diffraction. Compound 1 is a centrosymmetric dimmer with two distinct types of carboxylate moieties and tin atoms with distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometries. The in vitro  anti-tumor activity of 1 against two human tumor cell lines was found to be higher than that for cis-platin [cis diaminedichloroplatinum( II] used clinically. Supporting information : FT-IR, 119 Sn NMR, X-Ray, Proliferation inhibitory rate, Cif file.

  14. Characterization of a Novel Humanized Anti-CD20 Antibody with Potent Anti-Tumor Activity against Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

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    Haifeng Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rituximab, a mouse Fab and human Fc chimeric antibody, has been widely used to treat Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL. However, only 48% of patients respond to the treatment and complete response rate is below 10%. Also, immunogenicity was reported in 17-20% patients receiving the treatment, making it unsuitable for long term diseases such as autoimmune disorders. It has been a hot research field to “humanize” rituximab toward improved efficacy and reduced immunogenicity. Methods: In this study, an advanced antibody humanization technology was applied to the sequence of the anti-CD20 antibody 2B8, its sequence of which was based on the original murine monoclonal antibody of rituximab in Roche. The complementarity-determining regions (CDRs of the humanized antibodies were further optimized through computer-aided molecular dock. Results: Five novel humanized anti-CD20 antibodies 1-5(1635, 1534, 3637, 1634 and 1536 were generated and their immunogenicity was significantly decreased when compared to rituximab. The novel humanized anti-CD20 antibodies 1-5 retained the binding activity of their murine counterpart, as demonstrated by the fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis (FACS. When compared to rituximab, the humanized antibodies still have the similar properties on both complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC. Furthermore, its anti-tumor efficacy in xenograft model is comparable to that of rituximab. Conclusion: The humanized anti-CD20 antibodies 1-5 have lower immunogenicity than rituximab. And at the same time, they still retain the anti-tumor effect both in vitro and vivo.

  15. Telmisartan Exerts Anti-Tumor Effects by Activating Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells

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    Juan Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Telmisartan, a member of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers, is usually used for cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies have showed that telmisartan has the property of PPARγ activation. Meanwhile, PPARγ is essential for tumor proliferation, invasion and metastasis. In this work we explore whether telmisartan could exert anti-tumor effects through PPARγ activation in A549 cells. MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays were included to determine the survival rates and cell viabilities. RT-PCR and western blotting were used to analyze the expression of ICAM-1, MMP-9 and PPARγ. DNA binding activity of PPARγ was evaluated by EMSA. Our data showed that the survival rates and cell viabilities of A549 cells were all reduced by telmisartan in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Meanwhile, our results also demonstrated that telmisartan dose-dependently inhibited the expression of ICAM-1 and MMP-9. Moreover, the cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects, ICAM-1 and MMP-9 inhibitive properties of telmisartan were totally blunted by the PPARγ antagonist GW9662. Our findings also showed that the expression of PPARγ was up-regulated by telmisartan in a dose dependent manner. And, the EMSA results also figured out that DNA binding activity of PPARγ was dose-dependently increased by telmisartan. Additionally, our data also revealed that telmisartan-induced PPARγ activation was abrogated by GW9662. Taken together, our results indicated that telmisartan inhibited the expression of ICAM-1 and MMP-9 in A549 cells, very likely through the up-regulation of PPARγ synthesis.

  16. Effects of Androgen Ablation on Anti-Tumor Immunity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kast, Martin

    2004-01-01

    .... This AA induced autoimmune-like response exerts limited anti-tumor activity in a murine prostate cancer model, but could be synergistic with CTLA-4 blockade that promotes the development of autoreactive T cell...

  17. miR-133b down-regulates ABCC1 and enhances the sensitivity of CRC to anti-tumor drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Miao; Li, Daojiang; Gong, Ni; Wu, Hao; Su, Chen; Xie, Canbin; Xiang, Hong; Lin, Changwei; Li, Xiaorong

    2017-08-08

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the main cause of failed chemotherapy treatments. Therefore, preventing MDR is pivotal in treating colorectal cancer (CRC). In a previous study miR-133b was shown to be a tumor suppressor. Additionally, in CRC cells transfected with miR-133b, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) subfamily C member 1(ABCC1) was shown to be significantly down regulated. Whether miR-133b also enhances the chemosensitivity of drugs used to treat CRC by targeting ABCC1 is still unclear. Here, we utilized flow cytometry and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis to identify the ability of miR-133b to reserve MDR in CRC. We then used a dual-luciferase reporter assay to validate that miR-133b targets ABCC1. Further in vivo experiments were designed to validate the method in which miR-133b reversed MDR in CRC cells. The results demonstrated that the level of miR-133b was down-regulated and the expression of ABCC1 was up-regulated in drug-resistant CRC cells compared to non-drug-resistant CRC cells. The restoration of miR-133b expression in CRC drug-resistant cells in vitro resulted in reduced IC50s to chemotherapeutic drugs, significantly induced G1 accumulation, inhibited growth and promoted necrosis in combination with either 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or vincristine (VCR), and decreased the expression of ABCC1. The dual-luciferase assay demonstrated that miR-133b directly targets ABCC1. The combination of agomiRNA-133b with chemotherapeutic drugs in vivo inhibited tumor growth induced by CRC drug-resistant cells. A xenograft from the in vivo model resulted in up-regulated levels of miR-133b and down-regulated levels of ABCC1. Therefore, miR-133b enhances the chemosensitivity of CRC cells to anti-tumor drugs by directly down-regulating ABCC1. This discovery provides a therapeutic strategy in which miR-133b is used as a potential sensitizer for drug-resistant CRC.

  18. Superior anti-tumor activity of the MDM2 antagonist idasanutlin and the Bcl-2 inhibitor venetoclax in p53 wild-type acute myeloid leukemia models

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    Christian Lehmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Venetoclax, a small molecule BH3 mimetic which inhibits the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, and idasanutlin, a selective MDM2 antagonist, have both shown activity as single-agent treatments in pre-clinical and clinical studies in acute myeloid leukemia (AML. In this study, we deliver the rationale and molecular basis for the combination of idasanutlin and venetoclax for treatment of p53 wild-type AML. Methods The effect of idasanutlin and venetoclax combination on cell viability, apoptosis, and cell cycle progression was investigated in vitro using established AML cell lines. In vivo efficacy was demonstrated in subcutaneous and orthotopic xenograft models generated in female nude or non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID mice. Mode-of-action analyses were performed by means of cell cycle kinetic studies, RNA sequencing as well as western blotting experiments. Results Combination treatment with venetoclax and idasanutlin results in synergistic anti-tumor activity compared with the respective single-agent treatments in vitro, in p53 wild-type AML cell lines, and leads to strongly superior efficacy in vivo, in subcutaneous and orthotopic AML models. The inhibitory effects of idasanutlin were cell-cycle dependent, with cells arresting in G1 in consecutive cycles and the induction of apoptosis only evident after cells had gone through at least two cell cycles. Combination treatment with venetoclax removed this dependency, resulting in an acceleration of cell death kinetics. As expected, gene expression studies using RNA sequencing showed significant alterations to pathways associated with p53 signaling and cell cycle arrest (CCND1 pathway in response to idasanutlin treatment. Only few gene expression changes were observed for venetoclax treatment and combination treatment, indicating that their effects are mediated mainly at the post-transcriptional level. Protein expression studies demonstrated that

  19. Inhibition of heat-shock protein 90 sensitizes liver cancer stem-like cells to magnetic hyperthermia and enhances anti-tumor effect on hepatocellular carcinoma-burdened nude mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Tang, Qiusha; Miao, Fengqin; An, Yanli; Li, Mengfei; Han, Yong; Wang, Xihui; Wang, Juan; Liu, Peidang; Chen, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To explore the thermoresistance and expression of heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) in magnetic hyperthermia-treated human liver cancer stem-like cells (LCSCs) and the effects of a heat-shock protein HSP90 inhibitor 17-allylamino-17-demethoxgeldanamycin (17-AAG) on hepatocellular carcinoma-burdened nude mice. Methods CD90+ LCSCs were isolated by magnetic-activated cell sorting from BEL-7404. Spheroid formation, proliferation, differentiation, drug resistance, and tumor formation assays were performed to identify stem cell characteristics. CD90-targeted thermosensitive magnetoliposomes (TMs)-encapsulated 17-AAG (CD90@17-AAG/TMs) was prepared by reverse-phase evaporation and its characteristics were studied. Heat tolerance in CD90+ LCSCs and the effect of CD90@17-AAG/TMs-mediated heat sensitivity were examined in vitro and in vivo. Results CD90+ LCSCs showed significant stem cell-like properties. The 17-AAG/TMs were successfully prepared and were spherical in shape with an average size of 128.9±7.7 nm. When exposed to magnetic hyperthermia, HSP90 was up-regulated in CD90+ LCSCs. CD90@17-AAG/TMs inhibited the activity of HSP90 and increased the sensitivity of CD90+ LCSCs to magnetic hyperthermia. Conclusion The inhibition of HSP90 could sensitize CD90+ LCSCs to magnetic hyperthermia and enhance its anti-tumor effects in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26677324

  20. Synergistic anti-tumor therapy by a comb-like multifunctional antibody nanoarray with exceptionally potent activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huafei; Sun, Yun; Chen, Di; Zhao, He; Zhao, Mengxin; Zhu, Xiandi; Ke, Changhong; Zhang, Ge; Jiang, Cheng; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Fulei; Wei, Huafeng; Li, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Simultaneously blocking multiple mediators offers new hope for the treatment of complex diseases. However, the curative potential of current combination therapy by chronological administration of separate monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) or multi-specific mAbs is still moderate due to inconvenient manipulation, low cooperative effectors, poor pharmacokinetics and insufficient tumor accumulation. Here, we describe a facile strategy that arms distinct mAbs with cooperative effectors onto a long chain to form a multicomponent comb-like nano mAb. Unlike dissociative parental mAbs, the multifunctional mAb nanoarray (PL-RB) constructed from type I/II anti-CD20 mAbs shows good pharmacokinetics. This PL-RB simultaneously targets distinct epitopes on a single antigen (Ag) and neighboring Ags on different lymphocytes. This unique intra- and intercellular Ag cross-linking endows the multifunctional mAb nanoarray with potent apoptosis activity. The exceptional apoptosis, complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) that are synchronously evoked by the nano PL-RB are further synergistically promoted via enhanced permeability and retention (EPR), which resulted in high intratumor accumulation and excellent anti-lymphoma efficiency.

  1. Novel biotransformation process of podophyllotoxin to 4 β-sulfur-substituted podophyllum derivates with anti-tumor activity by Penicillium purpurogenum Y.J. Tang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, J-K; Zhao, W; Li, H-M; Tang, Y-J

    2012-01-01

    According to the structure-function relationship of podophyllotoxin (PTOX) and its analogue of 4'- demethylepipodophyllotoxin (DMEP), the 4 β-substitution of sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds with a carbon-sulfur bond at 4 position of PTOX or DMEP is an essential modification direction for improving the anti-tumor activity. So, four novel 4 β-sulfursubstituted podophyllum derivatives (i.e., 4β -(1,2,4-triazole-3-yl)sulfanyl-4-deoxy-podophyllotoxin (4-MT-PTOX), 4β-(1,3,4- thiadiazole-2-yl)sulfanyl-4-deoxy-podophyllotoxin (4-MTD-PTOX), 4β-(1,2,4-triazole-3-yl)sulfanyl-4-deoxy-4' -demethylepipodophyllotoxin (4-MT-DMEP), and 4β-(1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-yl)sulfanyl-4-deoxy-4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin (4-MTD-DMEP)) were designed and then successfully biosynthesized in this work. In the novel sulfur-substituted biotransformation processes, PTOX and DMEP was linked with sulfur-containing compounds (i.e., 3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (MT) and 2-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (MTD)) at 4 position of cycloparaffin to produce 4-MT-PTOX (1), 4-MTD-PTOX (2), 4-MT-DMEP (3), and 4-MTD-DMEP (4) by Penicillium purpurogenum Y.J. Tang, respectively, which was screened out from Diphylleia sinensis Li (Hubei, China). All the novel compounds exhibited promising in vitro bioactivity, especially 4-MT-PTOX (1). Compared with etoposide (i.e., a 50 % effective concentration [EC(50)] of 25.72, 167.97, and 1.15 M), the EC(50) values of 4-MT-PTOX (1) against tumor cell line BGC-823, A549 and HepG2 (i.e., 0.28, 0.76, and 0.42 M) were significantly improved by 91, 221 and 2.73 times, respectively. Moreover, the EC(50) value of 4-MT-PTOX (1) against the normal human cell line HK-2 (i.e., 182.4 μM) was 19 times higher than that of etoposide (i.e., 9.17 μM). Based on the rational design, four novel 4 β-sulfur-substituted podophyllum derivatives with superior in vitro anti-tumor activity were obtained for the first time. The correctness of structure-function relationship and rational drug

  2. The HDAC Inhibitors Scriptaid and LBH589 Combined with the Oncolytic Virus Delta24-RGD Exert Enhanced Anti-Tumor Efficacy in Patient-Derived Glioblastoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte M E Berghauser Pont

    Full Text Available A phase I/II trial for glioblastoma with the oncolytic adenovirus Delta24-RGD was recently completed. Delta24-RGD conditionally replicates in cells with a disrupted retinoblastoma-pathway and enters cells via αvβ3/5 integrins. Glioblastomas are differentially sensitive to Delta24-RGD. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi affect integrins and share common cell death pathways with Delta24-RGD. We studied the combination treatment effects of HDACi and Delta24-RGD in patient-derived glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSC, and we determined the most effective HDACi.SAHA, Valproic Acid, Scriptaid, MS275 and LBH589 were combined with Delta24-RGD in fourteen distinct GSCs. Synergy was determined by Chou Talalay method. Viral infection and replication were assessed using luciferase and GFP encoding vectors and hexon-titration assays. Coxsackie adenovirus receptor and αvβ3 integrin levels were determined by flow cytometry. Oncolysis and mechanisms of cell death were studied by viability, caspase-3/7, LDH and LC3B/p62, phospho-p70S6K. Toxicity was studied on normal human astrocytes. MGMT promotor methylation status, TCGA classification, Rb-pathway and integrin gene expression levels were assessed as markers of responsiveness.Scriptaid and LBH589 acted synergistically with Delta24-RGD in approximately 50% of the GSCs. Both drugs moderately increased αvβ3 integrin levels and viral infection in responding but not in non-responding GSCs. LBH589 moderately increased late viral gene expression, however, virus titration revealed diminished viral progeny production by both HDACi, Scriptaid augmented caspase-3/7 activity, LC3B conversion, p62 and phospho-p70S6K consumption, as well as LDH levels. LBH589 increased LDH and phospho-p70S6K consumption. Responsiveness correlated with expression of various Rb-pathway genes and integrins. Combination treatments induced limited toxicity to human astrocytes.LBH589 and Scriptaid combined with Delta24-RGD revealed synergistic anti-tumor

  3. The anti-tumor effect and biological activities of the extract JMM6 from the stem-barks of the Chinese Juglans mandshurica Maxim on human hepatoma cell line BEL-7402.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongli; Cui, Yuqiang; Zhu, Jiayong; Li, Hongzhi; Mao, Jianwen; Jin, Xiaobao; Wang, Xiangsheng; Du, Yifan; Lu, Jiazheng

    2013-01-01

    Juglans mandshurica Maxim is a traditional herbal medicines in China, and its anti-tumor bioactivities are of research interest. Bioassay-guided fractionation method was employed to isolate anti-tumor compounds from the stem barks of the Juglans mandshurica Maxim. The anti-tumor effect and biological activities of the extracted compound JMM6 were studied in BEL-7402 cells by MTT, Cell cycle analysis, Hoechst 33342 staining, Annexin V-FITC/PI assay and Detection of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). After treatment with the JMM6, the growth of BEL-7402 cells was inhibited and cells displayed typical morphological apoptotic characteristics. Further investigations revealed that treatment with JMM6 mainly caused G2/M cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in BEL-7402 cells. To evaluate the alteration of mitochondria in JMM6 induced apoptosis. The data showed that JMM6 decreased significantly the ΔΨm, causing the depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane. Our results show that the JMM6 will have a potential advantage of anti-tumor, less harmful to normal cells. This paper not only summarized the JMM6 pick-up technology from Juglans mandshurica Maxim and biological characteristic, but also may provide further evidence to exploit the potential medicine compounds from the stem-barks of the Chinese Juglans mandshurica Maxim.

  4. Mono-PEGylation of Alpha-MMC and MAP30 from Momordica charantia L.: Production, Identification and Anti-Tumor Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yun; Sun, Fenghui; Li, Jianlong; Wu, Minlu; Fan, Xiang; Meng, Yanfa; Meng, Yao

    2016-10-31

    PEGylation is a well-established and effective strategy to decrease immunogenicity, which can increase the stability and in vivo half-life time. However, the generation of multi-site modified products is inevitable due to the lysine chemistry, which will bring difficulties in subsequent research, such as purification and quantification. Site-specific modification by mPEG-succinimidyl carbonate (mPEG-SC) is a widely used method for N -terminal conjugation. In this study, we used it for site-directed modification on two ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC) and momordica anti-HIV protein (MAP30), from Momordica charantia L. According to the optimization of previous modification conditions, we compared Macro-Cap SP with SP-Sepharose FF chromatography for separating the final mPEGylated RIPs. Two kinds of methods both can obtain homogenous mPEGylated RIPs which were identified by sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), isoelectric focusing electrophoresis (IEF), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) analysis. We also used iodine staining method to detect the amount of unmodified PEG. Furthermore, the inhibition activity of both mPEGylated and non-PEGylated RIPs against human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial A549 cells was detected. All of the results suggested that the mPEGylated α-MMC/MAP30 might be potentially developed as new anti-tumor drugs.

  5. Anti-tumor promoting potential of selected spice ingredients with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surh, Young-Joon

    2002-08-01

    A wide variety of phenolic substances derived from spice possess potent antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities. Examples are curcumin, a yellow colouring agent, contained in turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae), [6]-gingerol, a pungent ingredient present in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae) and capsaicin, a principal pungent principle of hot chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L, Solanaceae). The chemopreventive effects exerted by these phytochemicals are often associated with their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been recognized as a molecular target of many chemopreventive as well as anti-inflammatory agents. Recent studies have shown that COX-2 is regulated by the eukaryotic transcription factor NF-kappaB. This short review summarizes the molecular mechanisms underlying chemopreventive effects of the aforementioned spice ingredients in terms of their effects on intracellular signaling cascades, particularly those involving NF-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinases.

  6. Preclinical Evidence of Anti-Tumor Activity Induced by EZH2 Inhibition in Human Models of Synovial Sarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Kawano

    Full Text Available The catalytic activities of covalent and ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling are central to regulating the conformational state of chromatin and the resultant transcriptional output. The enzymes that catalyze these activities are often contained within multiprotein complexes in nature. Two such multiprotein complexes, the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2 methyltransferase and the SWItch/Sucrose Non-Fermentable (SWI/SNF chromatin remodeler have been reported to act in opposition to each other during development and homeostasis. An imbalance in their activities induced by mutations/deletions in complex members (e.g. SMARCB1 has been suggested to be a pathogenic mechanism in certain human cancers. Here we show that preclinical models of synovial sarcoma-a cancer characterized by functional SMARCB1 loss via its displacement from the SWI/SNF complex through the pathognomonic SS18-SSX fusion protein-display sensitivity to pharmacologic inhibition of EZH2, the catalytic subunit of PRC2. Treatment with tazemetostat, a clinical-stage, selective and orally bioavailable small-molecule inhibitor of EZH2 enzymatic activity reverses a subset of synovial sarcoma gene expression and results in concentration-dependent cell growth inhibition and cell death specifically in SS18-SSX fusion-positive cells in vitro. Treatment of mice bearing either a cell line or two patient-derived xenograft models of synovial sarcoma leads to dose-dependent tumor growth inhibition with correlative inhibition of trimethylation levels of the EZH2-specific substrate, lysine 27 on histone H3. These data demonstrate a dependency of SS18-SSX-positive, SMARCB1-deficient synovial sarcomas on EZH2 enzymatic activity and suggests the potential utility of EZH2-targeted drugs in these genetically defined cancers.

  7. Ibrutinib interferes with the cell-mediated anti-tumor activities of therapeutic CD20 antibodies: implications for combination therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Roit, F.; Engelberts, P. J.; Taylor, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    The novel Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib and phosphatidyl-4-5-biphosphate 3-kinase-delta inhibitor idelalisib are promising drugs for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, either alone or in combination with anti-CD20 antibodies. We investigated...... the possible positive or negative impact of these drugs on all known mechanisms of action of both type I and type II anti-CD20 antibodies. Pretreatment with ibrutinib for 1 hour did not increase direct cell death of cell lines or chronic lymphocytic leukemia samples mediated by anti-CD20 antibodies. Pre......-treatment with ibrutinib did not inhibit complement activation or complement-mediated lysis. In contrast, ibrutinib strongly inhibited all cell-mediated mechanisms induced by anti-CD20 antibodies rituximab, ofatumumab or obinutuzumab, either in purified systems or whole blood assays. Activation of natural killer cells...

  8. A novel immunomodulatory hemocyanin from the limpet Fissurella latimarginata promotes potent anti-tumor activity in melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    LAVELLE, EDWARD

    2014-01-01

    PUBLISHED Porous silicon (pSi) microparticles, in diverse sizes and shapes, can be functionalized to present pathogen-associated molecular patterns that activate dendritic cells. Intraperitoneal injection of MPL-adsorbed pSi microparticles, in contrast to free MPL, resulted in the induction of local inflammation, reflected in the recruitment of neutrophils, eosinophils and proinflammatory monocytes, and the depletion of resident macrophages and mast cells at the injection site. Injection o...

  9. Immune response to uv-induced tumors: transplantation immunity and lymphocyte populations exhibiting anti-tumor activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streeter, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    Ultraviolet light-induced murine skin tumors were analyzed for their ability to induce tumor-specific and cross-protective transplantation immunity in immunocompetent syngeneic mice. These studies revealed that progressor UV-tumors, like regressor UV-tumors, possess tumor-specific transplantation antigens. Cross-protective transplantation immunity to UV-tumors, however, was associated with sensitization to the serum used to culture the tumor lines rather than to cross-reactive or common determinants on UV-tumors. An analysis of the cytolytic activity of lymphocytes from the spleens of mice immunized with either regressor or progressor UV-tumors revealed a striking difference between the two immune splenocyte populations. From regressor tumor-immune animals, cytolytic T (Tc) lymphocytes with specificity for the immunizing tumor were found. However, the analysis of splenic lymphocytes from progressor tumor immune animals revealed no such effector cells. To more effectively examine those lymphocytes exhibiting cytolytic activity in vitro, T lymphocyte cloning technology was used as a means of isolating homogeneous lymphocyte populations with the effector activities described above. The mechanisms where NK cells and other nonspecific effector cells could be induced in tumor-immune animals are discussed in the context of class II restricted immune responses

  10. Structural modification of resveratrol leads to increased anti-tumor activity, but causes profound changes in the mode of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherzberg, Maria-Christina; Kiehl, Andreas; Zivkovic, Aleksandra; Stark, Holger; Stein, Jürgen; Fürst, Robert; Steinhilber, Dieter; Ulrich-Rückert, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    (Z)-3,5,4′-Trimethoxystilbene (Z-TMS) is a resveratrol analog with increased antiproliferative activity towards a number of cancer cell lines compared to resveratrol, which has been shown to inhibit tubulin polymerization in vitro. The purpose of this study was to investigate if Z-TMS still shows potential for the prevention of metabolic diseases as known for resveratrol. Cell growth inhibition was determined with IC 50 values for Z-TMS between 0.115 μM and 0.473 μM (resveratrol: 110.7 μM to 190.2 μM). Flow cytometric analysis revealed a G 2 /M arrest after Z-TMS treatment, whereas resveratrol caused S phase arrest. Furthermore, Z-TMS was shown to impair microtubule polymerization. Beneficial effects on lipid accumulation were observed for resveratrol, but not for Z-TMS in an in vitro steatosis model. (E)-Resveratrol was confirmed to elevate cAMP levels, and knockdown of AMPK attenuated the antiproliferative activity, while Z-TMS did not show significant effects in these experiments. SIRT1 and AMPK activities were further measured indirectly via induction of the target gene small heterodimer partner (SHP). Thereby, (E)-resveratrol, but not Z-TMS, showed potent induction of SHP mRNA levels in an AMPK- and SIRT1-dependent manner, as confirmed by knockdown experiments. We provide evidence that Z-TMS does not show beneficial metabolic effects, probably due to loss of activity towards resveratrol target genes. Moreover, our data support previous findings that Z-TMS acts as an inhibitor of tubulin polymerization. These findings confirm that the methylation of resveratrol leads to profound changes in the mode of action, which should be taken into consideration when conducting lead structure optimization approaches. - Highlights: • Methylation of resveratrol leads to profound changes in biologic activity. • Z-TMS does not prevent hepatic steatosis, but inhibits tubulin polymerization. • Resveratrol analog Z-TMS does not influence known targets like PDEs, SIRT1

  11. Structural modification of resveratrol leads to increased anti-tumor activity, but causes profound changes in the mode of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherzberg, Maria-Christina; Kiehl, Andreas; Zivkovic, Aleksandra; Stark, Holger [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Stein, Jürgen [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Department of Internal Medicine, Sachsenhausen Hospital, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Fürst, Robert [Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Steinhilber, Dieter [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Ulrich-Rückert, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.ulrich@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    (Z)-3,5,4′-Trimethoxystilbene (Z-TMS) is a resveratrol analog with increased antiproliferative activity towards a number of cancer cell lines compared to resveratrol, which has been shown to inhibit tubulin polymerization in vitro. The purpose of this study was to investigate if Z-TMS still shows potential for the prevention of metabolic diseases as known for resveratrol. Cell growth inhibition was determined with IC{sub 50} values for Z-TMS between 0.115 μM and 0.473 μM (resveratrol: 110.7 μM to 190.2 μM). Flow cytometric analysis revealed a G{sub 2}/M arrest after Z-TMS treatment, whereas resveratrol caused S phase arrest. Furthermore, Z-TMS was shown to impair microtubule polymerization. Beneficial effects on lipid accumulation were observed for resveratrol, but not for Z-TMS in an in vitro steatosis model. (E)-Resveratrol was confirmed to elevate cAMP levels, and knockdown of AMPK attenuated the antiproliferative activity, while Z-TMS did not show significant effects in these experiments. SIRT1 and AMPK activities were further measured indirectly via induction of the target gene small heterodimer partner (SHP). Thereby, (E)-resveratrol, but not Z-TMS, showed potent induction of SHP mRNA levels in an AMPK- and SIRT1-dependent manner, as confirmed by knockdown experiments. We provide evidence that Z-TMS does not show beneficial metabolic effects, probably due to loss of activity towards resveratrol target genes. Moreover, our data support previous findings that Z-TMS acts as an inhibitor of tubulin polymerization. These findings confirm that the methylation of resveratrol leads to profound changes in the mode of action, which should be taken into consideration when conducting lead structure optimization approaches. - Highlights: • Methylation of resveratrol leads to profound changes in biologic activity. • Z-TMS does not prevent hepatic steatosis, but inhibits tubulin polymerization. • Resveratrol analog Z-TMS does not influence known targets like

  12. Ibrutinib interferes with the cell-mediated anti-tumor activities of therapeutic CD20 antibodies: implications for combination therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roit, Fabio Da; Engelberts, Patrick J.; Taylor, Ronald P.; Breij, Esther C.W.; Gritti, Giuseppe; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Introna, Martino; Parren, Paul W.H.I.; Beurskens, Frank J.; Golay, Josée

    2015-01-01

    The novel Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib and phosphatidyl-4-5-biphosphate 3-kinase-δ inhibitor idelalisib are promising drugs for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, either alone or in combination with anti-CD20 antibodies. We investigated the possible positive or negative impact of these drugs on all known mechanisms of action of both type I and type II anti-CD20 antibodies. Pretreatment with ibrutinib for 1 hour did not increase direct cell death of cell lines or chronic lymphocytic leukemia samples mediated by anti-CD20 antibodies. Pre-treatment with ibrutinib did not inhibit complement activation or complement-mediated lysis. In contrast, ibrutinib strongly inhibited all cell-mediated mechanisms induced by anti-CD20 antibodies rituximab, ofatumumab or obinutuzumab, either in purified systems or whole blood assays. Activation of natural killer cells, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity by these cells, as well as phagocytosis by macrophages or neutrophils were inhibited by ibrutinib with a half maximal effective concentration of 0.3–3 μM. Analysis of anti-CD20 mediated activation of natural killer cells isolated from patients on continued oral ibrutinib treatment suggested that repeated drug dosing inhibits these cells in vivo. Finally we show that the phosphatidyl-4-5-biphosphate 3-kinase-δ inhibitor idelalisib similarly inhibited the immune cell-mediated mechanisms induced by anti-CD20 antibodies, although the effects of this drug at 10 μM were weaker than those observed with ibrutinib at the same concentration. We conclude that the design of combined treatment schedules of anti-CD20 antibodies with these kinase inhibitors should consider the multiple negative interactions between these two classes of drugs. PMID:25344523

  13. Structure, anti-Phytophthora and anti-tumor activities of a nortriterpenoid from the rhizome of Phlomis purpurea (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus, Maria C; Neves, Dina; Dacunha, Bruno; Laczko, Endre; Maia, Cristiana; Teixeira, Rúben; Cravador, Alfredo

    2016-11-01

    To investigate bioactive compounds potentially involved in the biotic interactions exhibited by Phlomis purpurea (Lamiaceae) in rhizospheres infested with Phytophthora cinnamomi, the plant rhizome was chemically analysed. The nortriterpenoid (17S)-2α,3α,11α,23,24-pentahydroxy-19(18 → 17)-abeo-28-norolean-12-en-18-one, was isolated and its structure was elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, chiefly using 2D NMR experiments, and X-ray analysis. It was shown to be exuded by roots and to exhibit anti-Phytophthora and antitumor activities. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Origin of anti-tumor activity of the cysteine-containing GO peptides and further optimization of their cytotoxic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyuryaeva, Irina I.; Lyublinskaya, Olga G.; Podkorytov, Ivan S.; Skrynnikov, Nikolai R.

    2017-01-01

    Antitumor GO peptides have been designed as dimerization inhibitors of prominent oncoprotein mucin 1. In this study we demonstrate that activity of GO peptides is independent of the level of cellular expression of mucin 1. Furthermore, these peptides prove to be broadly cytotoxic, causing cell death also in normal cells such as dermal fibroblasts and endometrial mesenchymal stem cells. To explore molecular mechanism of their cytotoxicity, we have designed and tested a number of new peptide sequences containing the key CxC or CxxC motifs. Of note, these sequences bear no similarity to mucin 1 except that they also contain a pair of proximal cysteines. Several of the new peptides turned out to be significantly more potent than their GO prototypes. The results suggest that cytotoxicity of these peptides stems from their (moderate) activity as disulfide oxidoreductases. It is expected that such peptides, which we have termed DO peptides, are involved in disulfide-dithiol exchange reaction, resulting in formation of adventitious disulfide bridges in cell proteins. In turn, this leads to a partial loss of protein function and rapid onset of apoptosis. We anticipate that coupling DO sequences with tumor-homing transduction domains can create a potentially valuable new class of tumoricidal peptides.

  15. Cisplatin as an Anti-Tumor Drug: Cellular Mechanisms of Activity, Drug Resistance and Induced Side Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florea, Ana-Maria; Büsselberg, Dietrich

    2011-01-01

    Platinum complexes are clinically used as adjuvant therapy of cancers aiming to induce tumor cell death. Depending on cell type and concentration, cisplatin induces cytotoxicity, e.g., by interference with transcription and/or DNA replication mechanisms. Additionally, cisplatin damages tumors via induction of apoptosis, mediated by the activation of various signal transduction pathways, including calcium signaling, death receptor signaling, and the activation of mitochondrial pathways. Unfortunately, neither cytotoxicity nor apoptosis are exclusively induced in cancer cells, thus, cisplatin might also lead to diverse side-effects such as neuro- and/or renal-toxicity or bone marrow-suppression. Moreover, the binding of cisplatin to proteins and enzymes may modulate its biochemical mechanism of action. While a combination-chemotherapy with cisplatin is a cornerstone for the treatment of multiple cancers, the challenge is that cancer cells could become cisplatin-resistant. Numerous mechanisms of cisplatin resistance were described including changes in cellular uptake, drug efflux, increased detoxification, inhibition of apoptosis and increased DNA repair. To minimize cisplatin resistance, combinatorial therapies were developed and have proven more effective to defeat cancers. Thus, understanding of the biochemical mechanisms triggered by cisplatin in tumor cells may lead to the design of more efficient platinum derivates (or other drugs) and might provide new therapeutic strategies and reduce side effects

  16. Cisplatin as an Anti-Tumor Drug: Cellular Mechanisms of Activity, Drug Resistance and Induced Side Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florea, Ana-Maria [Department of Neuropathology, Heinrich-Heine University, Düsseldorf (Germany); Büsselberg, Dietrich, E-mail: dib2015@qatar-med.cornell.edu [Weil Cornell Medical College in Qatar, Qatar Foundation-Education City, P.O. Box 24144, Doha (Qatar)

    2011-03-15

    Platinum complexes are clinically used as adjuvant therapy of cancers aiming to induce tumor cell death. Depending on cell type and concentration, cisplatin induces cytotoxicity, e.g., by interference with transcription and/or DNA replication mechanisms. Additionally, cisplatin damages tumors via induction of apoptosis, mediated by the activation of various signal transduction pathways, including calcium signaling, death receptor signaling, and the activation of mitochondrial pathways. Unfortunately, neither cytotoxicity nor apoptosis are exclusively induced in cancer cells, thus, cisplatin might also lead to diverse side-effects such as neuro- and/or renal-toxicity or bone marrow-suppression. Moreover, the binding of cisplatin to proteins and enzymes may modulate its biochemical mechanism of action. While a combination-chemotherapy with cisplatin is a cornerstone for the treatment of multiple cancers, the challenge is that cancer cells could become cisplatin-resistant. Numerous mechanisms of cisplatin resistance were described including changes in cellular uptake, drug efflux, increased detoxification, inhibition of apoptosis and increased DNA repair. To minimize cisplatin resistance, combinatorial therapies were developed and have proven more effective to defeat cancers. Thus, understanding of the biochemical mechanisms triggered by cisplatin in tumor cells may lead to the design of more efficient platinum derivates (or other drugs) and might provide new therapeutic strategies and reduce side effects.

  17. Chemical Constituents and Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Tumor Activities of Melilotus officinalis (Linn. Pall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new p-hydroxybenzoic acid glycosides, namely p-hydroxybenzoic acid-4-O-α-d-manopyranosyl-(1 → 3-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (compound 1 and 4-O-α-l-rhamnopyran-osyl-(1 → 6-α-d-manopyranosyl-(1 → 3-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (compound 2, and seven known compounds, compound 3, 6, 7 (acid components, compound 8, 9 (flavonoids, compound 4 (a coumarin and compound 5 (an alkaloid, were isolated from the 70% ethanol aqueous extract of the aerial parts of Melilotus officinalis (Linn. Pall. The structures of all compounds were elucidated by use of extensive spectroscopic methods Infrared Spectroscopy (IR, High resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS, and 1H and 13C-NMR. Sugar residues obtained after acid hydrolysis were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The antioxidant activity of all the compounds was evaluated by 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS+ and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. The anti-inflammatory effects of the compounds were also evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. All compounds were shown to inhibit LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 production by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, respectively, in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The inhibitory effect of all the compounds on MCF-7 cells was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 method. The results showed that compounds 1, 2, 7, 8, 9 exhibited better antioxidant activity compared to the other compounds. compounds 1–9 had different inhibitory effects on the release of NO, TNF-α and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells by LPS, of which compound 7 was the most effective against inflammatory factors. compounds 1 and 2 have better antitumor activity compared to other compounds. Further research to elucidate the chemical composition and pharmacological effects of Melilotus officinalis (Linn. Pall is

  18. The anti-tumor activity of a neutralizing nanobody targeting leptin receptor in a mouse model of melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis McMurphy

    Full Text Available Environmental and genetic activation of a brain-adipocyte axis inhibits cancer progression. Leptin is the primary peripheral mediator of this anticancer effect in a mouse model of melanoma. In this study we assessed the effect of a leptin receptor antagonist on melanoma progression. Local administration of a neutralizing nanobody targeting the leptin receptor at low dose adjacent to tumor decreased tumor mass with no effects on body weight or food intake. In contrast, systemic administration of the nanobody failed to suppress tumor growth. Daily intraperitoneal injection of high-dose nanobody led to weight gain, hyperphagia, increased adiposity, hyperleptinemia, and hyperinsulinemia, and central effects mimicking leptin deficiency. The blockade of central actions of leptin by systemic delivery of nanobody may compromise its anticancer effect, underscoring the need to develop peripherally acting leptin antagonists coupled with efficient cancer-targeting delivery.

  19. The anti-tumor activity of a neutralizing nanobody targeting leptin receptor in a mouse model of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurphy, Travis; Xiao, Run; Magee, Daniel; Slater, Andrew; Zabeau, Lennart; Tavernier, Jan; Cao, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Environmental and genetic activation of a brain-adipocyte axis inhibits cancer progression. Leptin is the primary peripheral mediator of this anticancer effect in a mouse model of melanoma. In this study we assessed the effect of a leptin receptor antagonist on melanoma progression. Local administration of a neutralizing nanobody targeting the leptin receptor at low dose adjacent to tumor decreased tumor mass with no effects on body weight or food intake. In contrast, systemic administration of the nanobody failed to suppress tumor growth. Daily intraperitoneal injection of high-dose nanobody led to weight gain, hyperphagia, increased adiposity, hyperleptinemia, and hyperinsulinemia, and central effects mimicking leptin deficiency. The blockade of central actions of leptin by systemic delivery of nanobody may compromise its anticancer effect, underscoring the need to develop peripherally acting leptin antagonists coupled with efficient cancer-targeting delivery.

  20. Dysregulation of TGFβ1 Activity in Cancer and Its Influence on the Quality of Anti-Tumor Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian M. Hargadon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available TGFβ1 is a pleiotropic cytokine that exhibits a variety of physiologic and immune regulatory functions. Although its influence on multiple cell types is critical for the regulation of numerous biologic processes in the host, dysregulation of both TGFβ1 expression and activity is frequently observed in cancer and contributes to various aspects of cancer progression. This review focuses on TGFβ1’s contribution to tumor immune suppression and escape, with emphasis on the influence of this regulatory cytokine on the differentiation and function of dendritic cells and T cells. Clinical trials targeting TGFβ1 in cancer patients are also reviewed, and strategies for future therapeutic interventions that build on our current understanding of immune regulation by TGFβ1 are discussed.

  1. Anti-tumor activity of Aloe vera against DMBA/croton oil-induced skin papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, M; Goyal, Pradeep Kumar; Chaudhary, Geeta

    2010-01-01

    Human populations are increasingly exposed to various carcinogens such as chemicals, radiation, and viruses in the environment. Chemopreventive drugs of plant origin are a promising strategy for cancer control because they are generally nontoxic or less toxic than synthetic che-mopreventive agents, and can be effective at different stages of carcinogenesis. The present investigation was undertaken to explore the antitumor activity of topical treatment with aloe vera (Aloe vera) gel, oral treatment with aloe vera extract, and topical and oral treatment with both gel and extract in stage-2 skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice induced by 7,12-dim ethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and promoted croton (Croton tiglium) oil. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups and treated as follows: Group I, DMBA + croton oil only (controls); Group II, DMBA + croton oil + topical aloe vera gel; Group III, DMBA + croton oil + oral aloe vera extract; Group I V, DMBA + croton oil + topical aloe vera gel + oral aloe vera extract. Results showed that body weight was significantly increased from 78.6% in the control group (Group I) to 92.5%, 87.5%, and 90.0% in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. A 100% incidence of tumor development was noted in Group I, which was decreased to 50%, 60%, and 40% in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. Also in Groups II, III, and IV, the cumulative number of papillomas was reduced significantly from 36 to 12, 15, and 11; tumor yield from 3.6 to 1.2, 1.5, and 1.1; and tumor burden from 3.6 to 2.4, 2.50, and 2.75, respectively, after treatment with aloe vera. Conversely, the average latent period increased significantly from 4.9 (Group I) to 5.23, 5.0, and 6.01 weeks in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. We conclude that aloe vera protects mice against DMBA/croton oil-induced skin papillomagenesis, likely due to the chemopreventive activity of high concentrations of antioxidants such as vitamins A, C, and E; glutathione peroxidase; several

  2. Anti-tumor activity of cabozantinib by FAK down-regulation in human oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Lu Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cabozantinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor involved in inhibition of cell proliferation and colony formation. We studied anti-cancer properties of cabozantinib in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. The viability of BHY and HSC-3 cells decreased with increase in cabozantinib concentration and time. The proliferation of cell lines was affected by increasing concentration of cabozantinib from 0.3 to 1.2 μM after 48 hours of treatment. The expression of MET and phosphorylated MET was not affected by cabozantinib treatment. Cabozantinib-treated cells when compared to control, showed concentration-dependent increase in BHY and HSC-3 cells during G2/M phase and decrease in S phase with increase in cabozantinib concentration. Annexin-V/propidium iodide double staining showed that cells with annexin-V increased with the increase in cabozantinib concentration. The expression of apoptosis related proteins cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved-PARP were increased with increase in cabozantinib concentration. It was also found that suppression of FAK activation and expression was dose dependent. The results from this study revealed that cabozantinib can be useful in developing a drug for effective treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.

  3. Conversion of adipose-derived stem cells into natural killer-like cells with anti-tumor activities in nude mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiu Ning

    Full Text Available Efforts to develop peripheral blood-derived nature killer (NK cells into therapeutic products have been hampered by these cells' low abundance and histoincompatibility. On the other hand, derivation of NK-like cells from more abundant cell sources such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs and umbilical cord blood (UCB requires the selection of rare CD34+ cells. Thus, we sought to convert adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs, which are abundant and natively CD34+, into NK-like cells. When grown in hematopoietic induction medium, ADSCs formed sphere clusters and expressed hematopoietic markers CD34, CD45, and KDR. Further induction in NK cell-specific medium resulted in a population of cells that expressed NK cell marker CD56, and thus termed ADSC-NK. Alternatively, the hematopoietically induced ADSCs were transduced with NK cell-specific transcription factor E4BP4 prior to induction in NK cell-specific medium. This latter population of cells, termed ADSC-NKE, expressed CD56 and additional NK cell markers such as CD16, CD94, CD158, CD314, FasL, and NKp46. ADSC-NKE was as potent as NK leukemia cell NKL in killing breast cancer cell MCF7 and prostate cancer cells DU145, PC3, LnCap, DuPro, C4-2 and CWR22, but exhibited no killing activity toward normal endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In nude mice test ADSC-NKE was able to significantly delay the progression of tumors formed by MCF7 and PC3. When injected into immunocompetent rats, ADSC-NKE was detectable in bone marrow and spleen for at least 5 weeks. Together, these results suggest that ADSCs can be converted into NK-like cells with anti-tumor activities.

  4. DMPD: Distinct functions of IRF-3 and IRF-7 in IFN-alpha gene regulation and controlof anti-tumor activity in primary macrophages. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16846591 Distinct functions of IRF-3 and IRF-7 in IFN-alpha gene regulation and con...cott J. Biochem Pharmacol. 2006 Nov 30;72(11):1469-76. Epub 2006 Jul 17. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Distinct function...anti-tumor activity in primary macrophages. PubmedID 16846591 Title Distinct functions of IRF-3 and IRF-7 in

  5. Anti-tumor efficacy of lymphokine-activated killer cells and recombinant interleukin 2 in vivo: direct correlation between reduction of established metastases and cytolytic activity of lymphokine-activated killer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mule, J.J.; Yang, J.; Shu, S.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that the incubation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes or murine splenocytes in recombinant interleukin 2 (RIL 2) resulted in the generation of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells capable of lysing a broad spectrum of fresh tumors in short-term chromium-release assays. Moreover, injections of LAK cells plus RIL 2 were highly effective in eliminating established 3 day metastases in the lung and liver. We have examined several parameters to define whether or not the cytolytic activity of LAK cells as measured in vitro correlated directly with the in vivo anti-tumor efficacy of adoptively transferred LAK cells. LAK cells plus RIL 2 could mediate marked reductions of established pulmonary metastases in mice rendered T cell deficient by adult thymectomy and lethal, total body irradiation followed by reconstitution with T cell-depleted bone marrow and spleen cells. Thus there was no requirement for additional T lymphocytes of host origin for successful therapy with adoptively transferred LAK cells plus RIL 2. Fresh splenocytes depleted of T cells by anti-Thy-1.2 monoclonal antibody plus complement generated LAK cells that were as highly lytic to fresh tumor in vitro and were as effective in reducing established pulmonary metastases as those generated from untreated or complement-treated splenocytes. Thus, the precursor to LAK cells with anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo did not express the Thy-1 antigenic marker. In contrast, treatment of LAK effector cells (those generated from a 3-day incubation of fresh, normal splenocytes in RIL 2) with anti-Thy-1.2 antibody plus complement reduced or abolished their in vitro cytolytic activity

  6. IL-12 Expressing oncolytic herpes simplex virus promotes anti-tumor activity and immunologic control of metastatic ovarian cancer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Eric D; Meza-Perez, Selene; Bevis, Kerri S; Randall, Troy D; Gillespie, G Yancey; Langford, Catherine; Alvarez, Ronald D

    2016-10-27

    Despite advances in surgical aggressiveness and conventional chemotherapy, ovarian cancer remains the most lethal cause of gynecologic cancer mortality; consequently there is a need for new therapeutic agents and innovative treatment paradigms for the treatment of ovarian cancer. Several studies have demonstrated that ovarian cancer is an immunogenic disease and immunotherapy represents a promising and novel approach that has not been completely evaluated in ovarian cancer. Our objective was to evaluate the anti-tumor activity of an oncolytic herpes simplex virus "armed" with murine interleukin-12 and its ability to elicit tumor-specific immune responses. We evaluated the ability of interleukin-12-expressing and control oncolytic herpes simplex virus to kill murine and human ovarian cancer cell lines in vitro. We also administered interleukin-12-expressing oncolytic herpes simplex virus to the peritoneal cavity of mice that had developed spontaneous, metastatic ovarian cancer and determined overall survival and tumor burden at 95 days. We used flow cytometry to quantify the tumor antigen-specific CD8 + T cell response in the omentum and peritoneal cavity. All ovarian cancer cell lines demonstrated susceptibility to oncolytic herpes simplex virus in vitro. Compared to controls, mice treated with interleukin-12-expressing oncolytic herpes simplex virus demonstrated a more robust tumor antigen-specific CD8 + T-cell immune response in the omentum (471.6 cells vs 33.1 cells; p = 0.02) and peritoneal cavity (962.3 cells vs 179.5 cells; p = 0.05). Compared to controls, mice treated with interleukin-12-expressing oncolytic herpes simplex virus were more likely to control ovarian cancer metastases (81.2 % vs 18.2 %; p = 0.008) and had a significantly longer overall survival (p = 0.02). Finally, five of 6 mice treated with interleukin-12-expressing oHSV had no evidence of metastatic tumor when euthanized at 6 months, compared to two of 4 mice treated with

  7. Chimeric peptide containing both B and T cells epitope of tumor-associated antigen L6 enhances anti-tumor effects in HLA-A2 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Su-I; Huang, Ming-Hsi; Chang, Yu-Wen; Chen, I-Hua; Roffler, Steve; Chen, Bing-Mae; Sher, Yuh-Pyng; Liu, Shih-Jen

    2016-07-28

    Synthetic peptides are attractive for cancer immunotherapy because of their safety and flexibility. In this report, we identified a new B cell epitope of tumor-associated antigen L6 (TAL6) that could induce antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in vivo. We incorporated the B cell epitope with a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and a helper T (Th) epitope to form a chimeric long peptide. We formulated the chimeric peptide with different adjuvants to immunize HLA-A2 transgenic mice and evaluate their immunogenicity. The chimeric peptide formulated with an emulsion type nanoparticle (PELC) adjuvant and a toll-like receptor 9 agonist (CpG ODN) (PELC/CpG) induced the greatest ADCC and CTL responses. The induced anti-tumor immunity inhibited the growth of TAL6-positive cancer cells. Moreover, we observed that immunization with the chimeric peptide inhibited cancer cell migration in vitro and metastasis in vivo. These data suggest that a chimeric peptide containing both B and T cell epitopes of TAL6 formulated with PELC/CpG adjuvant is feasible for cancer immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 明党参根皮中异欧前胡素的体内抗肿瘤活性研究%Study on Anti-tumor Activity of Isoimperatorin in the Root Bark of Changium Smyrnioides Wolff in Vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萌

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study anti-tumor activity of isoimperatorin in the root bark of Changium smyrnioides Wolff in vivo. Methods:There are three dose groups of isoimperatorin, low dose group (0.2mg·kg-1), middle dose group (0.4mg·kg-1), high dose group (0.8mg·kg-1);Positive drug group (cyclophosphamide 30mg·kg-1). This research uses the method of transplanted tumor model, to observe the growth of solid tumor, and calculate the anti-tumor rate of each group. Results:The anti-tumor rates of isoimperatorin in low, middle, high dose group are 28.67%, 59.29%, 66.38%; anti-tumor rate of the positive drug group is 66.93%, but the immune organs of mice are damaged. Conclusion:Isoimperatorin has obvious anti-tumor effect on liver cancer transplanted tumor in mice, and has a protective effect on immune organs.%目的:研究明党参根皮中异欧前胡素的体内抗肿瘤作用.方法:异欧前胡素设三个剂量组,低剂量组(0.2mg·kg-1)、中剂量组(0.4mg·kg-1)、高剂量组(0.8mg·kg-1),阳性药物组(环磷酰胺30mg·kg-1),采用移植性肿瘤模型的方法,观察实体瘤生长情况,并计算各组抑瘤率.结果:异欧前胡素低、中、高剂量组的抑瘤率分别为28.67%、59.29%、66.38%,阳性药物组的抑瘤率为66.93%,但对小鼠免疫器官有损伤.结论:异欧前胡素对小鼠肝癌移植瘤有明显的抗肿瘤作用,并对机体免疫器官有保护作用.

  9. Homologous recombination deficiency and host anti-tumor immunity in triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telli, M L; Stover, D G; Loi, S; Aparicio, S; Carey, L A; Domchek, S M; Newman, L; Sledge, G W; Winer, E P

    2018-05-07

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is associated with worse outcomes relative to other breast cancer subtypes. Chemotherapy remains the standard-of-care systemic therapy for patients with localized or metastatic disease, with few biomarkers to guide benefit. We will discuss recent advances in our understanding of two key biological processes in TNBC, homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair deficiency and host anti-tumor immunity, and their intersection. Recent advances in our understanding of homologous recombination (HR) deficiency, including FDA approval of PARP inhibitor olaparib for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, and host anti-tumor immunity in TNBC offer potential for new and biomarker-driven approaches to treat TNBC. Assays interrogating HR DNA repair capacity may guide treatment with agents inducing or targeting DNA damage repair. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are associated with improved prognosis in TNBC and recent efforts to characterize infiltrating immune cell subsets and activate host anti-tumor immunity offer promise, yet challenges remain particularly in tumors lacking pre-existing immune infiltrates. Advances in these fields provide potential biomarkers to stratify patients with TNBC and guide therapy: induction of DNA damage in HR-deficient tumors and activation of existing or recruitment of host anti-tumor immune cells. Importantly, these advances provide an opportunity to guide use of existing therapies and development of novel therapies for TNBC. Efforts to combine therapies that exploit HR deficiency to enhance the activity of immune-directed therapies offer promise. HR deficiency remains an important biomarker target and potentially effective adjunct to enhance immunogenicity of 'immune cold' TNBCs.

  10. Highly active microbial phosphoantigen induces rapid yet sustained MEK/Erk- and PI-3K/Akt-mediated signal transduction in anti-tumor human gammadelta T-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel V Correia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The unique responsiveness of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T-cells, the major gammadelta subset of human peripheral blood, to non-peptidic prenyl pyrophosphate antigens constitutes the basis of current gammadelta T-cell-based cancer immunotherapy strategies. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for phosphoantigen-mediated activation of human gammadelta T-cells remain unclear. In particular, previous reports have described a very slow kinetics of activation of T-cell receptor (TCR-associated signal transduction pathways by isopentenyl pyrophosphate and bromohydrin pyrophosphate, seemingly incompatible with direct binding of these antigens to the Vgamma9Vdelta2 TCR. Here we have studied the most potent natural phosphoantigen yet identified, (E-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMB-PP, produced by Eubacteria and Protozoa, and examined its gammadelta T-cell activation and anti-tumor properties. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have performed a comparative study between HMB-PP and the anti-CD3epsilon monoclonal antibody OKT3, used as a reference inducer of bona fide TCR signaling, and followed multiple cellular and molecular gammadelta T-cell activation events. We show that HMB-PP activates MEK/Erk and PI-3K/Akt pathways as rapidly as OKT3, and induces an almost identical transcriptional profile in Vgamma9(+ T-cells. Moreover, MEK/Erk and PI-3K/Akt activities are indispensable for the cellular effects of HMB-PP, including gammadelta T-cell activation, proliferation and anti-tumor cytotoxicity, which are also abolished upon antibody blockade of the Vgamma9(+ TCR Surprisingly, HMB-PP treatment does not induce down-modulation of surface TCR levels, and thereby sustains gammadelta T-cell activation upon re-stimulation. This ultimately translates in potent human gammadelta T-cell anti-tumor function both in vitro and in vivo upon transplantation of human leukemia cells into lymphopenic mice, CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The development of

  11. 桑黄子实体与菌丝多糖抗肿瘤活性研究%Anti-tumor activity of polysaccharides from Phellinus igniarius fruiting body and mycelium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应瑞峰; 吴彩娥; 黄梅桂; 王耀松

    2017-01-01

    Polysaccharides are the main bioactive components of Phellinus igniarius,it exists in Phellinus igniarius fruiting body,fermentation broth and mycelium of Phellinus igniarius.In this experiment,the extraction,molecular structure and anti-tumor activity of polysaccharides from fruiting body and two growth phase of mycelium were studied.The composition of polysaccharides monosaccharide of fruiting body are:galactose,glucose,xylose and mannose;polysaccharides monosaccharide composition of phellinus igniarius mycelial are:galactose,glucose and mannose.Two polysaccharides had different structure.The anti-tumor experiments showed that the IC5o values of inhibition rate of fruiting body polysaccharide on hepatoma carcinoma cell (HepG2),lung cancer cell (A549),hepatoma carcinoma cell (Hela) were 0.34 mg/mL,0.65 mg/mL,0.95mg/mL.The anti-tumor effect of Phellinus igniarius polysaccharide was significantly higher than that of mycelium polysaccharide;different growth period of polysaccharides mycelium had different anti-tumor activity,polysaccharides of mycelium within short growing period exhibited stronger anti-tumor activity.The experimental results provided an important theoretical basis for industrial of Phellinus igniarius in the future.%多糖是桑黄的主要生物活性物质之一,存在于桑黄子实体,发酵液以及其菌丝体中.本试验提取了桑黄子实体多糖和二种不同生长期的桑黄菌丝多糖,研究其分子结构,并且对其抗肿瘤活性进行了研究.试验结果表明,桑黄子实体多糖单糖组成为:半乳糖、葡萄糖、木糖和甘露糖;桑黄菌丝多糖的单糖组成为:半乳糖、葡萄糖和甘露糖,桑黄子实体多糖和桑黄菌丝多糖结构存在较大差异.桑黄子实体多糖对人肝癌细胞、人肺癌细胞和人官颈癌细胞的抑制率IC50值分别为:0.34 mg/mL、0.65 mg/mL、0.95mg/mL,表现出很强的抗肿瘤活性.体内和体外试验表明,桑黄子实体多糖抗肿瘤效果显著高于

  12. Improved anti-tumor activity of a therapeutic melanoma vaccine through the use of the dual COX-2/5-LO inhibitor licofelone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Neumann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Immune-suppressive cell populations impair anti-tumor immunity and can contribute to the failure of immune therapeutic approaches. We hypothesized that the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID licofelone, a dual COX-2/5-LO inhibitor, would improve therapeutic melanoma vaccination by reducing immune-suppressive cell populations. Therefore, licofelone was administered after tumor implantation, either alone or in combination with a peptide vaccine containing a long tyrosinase-related protein (TRP2-peptide and the adjuvant α-galactosylceramide, all formulated into cationic liposomes. Mice immunized with the long-peptide vaccine and licofelone showed delayed tumor growth compared to mice given the vaccine alone. This protection was associated with a lower frequency of immature myeloid cells (IMCs in the bone marrow (BM and spleen of tumor-inoculated mice. When investigating the effect of licofelone on IMCs in vitro, we found that the prostaglandin E2-induced generation of IMCs was decreased in the presence of licofelone. Furthermore, pre-incubation of BM cells differentiated under IMC-inducing conditions with licofelone reduced the secretion of cytokines interleukin (IL-10 and -6 upon LPS stimulation as compared to untreated cells. Interestingly, licofelone increased IL-6 and IL-10 secretion when administered after the LPS stimulus, demonstrating an environment-dependent effect of licofelone. Our findings support the use of licofelone to reduce tumor-promoting cell populations.

  13. Characterization of the anti tumoral activity of the thiosemicarbazones derived from N(4)-methyl-tolyl-2acetylpyridine And 2-pyridinoformamide and its metal complex: evaluation of the radiopharmaceutical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Paulo Roberto Ornelas da

    2008-01-01

    Thiosemicarbazones have attracted great pharmacological interest because of their biological properties, such as cytotoxic activity against multiple strains of human tumors. The most studied compounds are pyridine-based because of their resemblance to pyridoxal metabolites that attach to co-enzyme B 6 -dependant enzymes. This work aimed the characterization of the anti tumoral effect of N(4)-methyl-tolyl-2-acetylpyridine and 2-pyridinoformamide-derived thiosemicarbazones and the development of a radiopharmaceutical based on a thiosemicarbazone metal complex for positron emission tomography. In the first phase of this study were synthesized twenty-one thiosemicarbazones, derived from N(4)methyl-2 acetylpyridine and 2-pyridine formamide, as well as their metal complexes (Sn, Ga and Cu). Their cytotoxic potential were evaluated against brain and breast tumor cells in vitro. Our results showed all of them presented powerful cytotoxic and antiproliferative activities against glioblastoma multiform and breast adenocarcinoma at very low concentrations (nanomolar range). Morphological alterations characteristic of apoptosis, such as cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation were observed. Copper chloride was used as control and has presented IC50 at millimolar range suggesting that copper complexation with thiosemicarbazone significantly increases (more than 1 million) the anti tumoral effect of this metal. Due to the potent anti tumoral activity of N(4)-methyl-tolyl-2-acetylpyridine derived thiosemicarbazones and the excellent properties of 64 Cu (T 1/2 = 12.7 hours, β + , β - , and EC decay), at the second part for this work it was developed a new imaging agent (radiopharmaceutical) for tumor detection by positron emission tomography (PET). The radiopharmaceuticals were produced in the nuclear reactor TRIGA-IPR-R1 from CDTN, via neutron capture reaction 63 Cu (n,γ) 64 Cu, of the copper complex N(4)-ortho-toluyl-2-acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazone (Culac). The induced

  14. Studies on anti-tumor effect of electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadota, Ikuhito; Wakabayashi, Toshio; Ogoshi, Kyoji; Kamijo, Akemi

    1995-01-01

    Hyperthermia have treated cancer with thermal effect of electromagnetic waves for biological systems, but the expected effect is not shown. Also non-thermal effect of electromagnetic waves is out of consideration. If irradiation conditions of electromagnetic waves with non-thermal anti-tumor effect are obtained, we can expect newly spread in cancer therapy. We had in vivo experiments that electromagnetic waves were irradiated to mice. In some irradiation conditions, the non-thermal anti-tumor effect of electromagnetic waves showed. In order to specify the irradiation conditions, we had in vitro experiments. We found that activity ratio of tumor cells which was measured by MTT method depended on irradiation time and power of electromagnetic waves. These results are useful for the cancer therapy. (author)

  15. Tumor-targeted delivery of IL-2 by NKG2D leads to accumulation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in the tumor loci and enhanced anti-tumor effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Heung Kang

    Full Text Available Interleukin-2 (IL-2 has been shown to promote tumor-specific T-cell proliferation and differentiation but systemic administration of IL-2 results in significant toxicity. Therefore, a strategy that can specifically deliver IL-2 to the tumor location may alleviate concerns of toxicity. Because NKG2D ligands have been shown to be highly expressed in many cancer cells but not in healthy cells, we reason that a chimeric protein consisting of NKG2D linked to IL-2 will lead to the specific targeting of IL-2 to the tumor location. Therefore, we created chimeric proteins consisting of NKG2D linked to Gaussia luciferase (GLuc; a marker protein or IL-2 to form NKG2D-Fc-GLuc and NKG2D-Fc-IL2, respectively. We demonstrated that NKG2D linked to GLuc was able to deliver GLuc to the tumor location in vivo. Furthermore, we showed that TC-1 tumor-bearing mice intramuscularly injected with DNA encoding NKG2D-Fc-IL2, followed by electroporation, exhibited an increased number of luciferase-expressing E7-specific CD8+ T cells at the tumor location. More importantly, treatment with the DNA construct encoding NKG2D-Fc-IL2 significantly enhanced the therapeutic anti-tumor effects generated by intradermal vaccination with therapeutic HPV DNA in tumor-bearing mice. Therefore, by linking NKG2D to IL2, we are able to specifically deliver IL-2 to the tumor location, enhancing antigen-specific T-cell immune response and controlling tumor growth. Our approach represents a platform technology to specifically deliver proteins of interest to tumor loci.

  16. 6-Shogaol induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and exhibits anti-tumor activity in vivo through endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Hu

    Full Text Available 6-Shogaol is an active compound isolated from Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc. In this work, we demonstrated that 6-shogaol induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in relation to caspase activation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress signaling. Proteomic analysis revealed that ER stress was accompanied by 6-shogaol-induced apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. 6-shogaol affected the ER stress signaling by regulating unfolded protein response (UPR sensor PERK and its downstream target eIF2α. However, the effect on the other two UPR sensors IRE1 and ATF6 was not obvious. In prolonged ER stress, 6-shogaol inhibited the phosphorylation of eIF2α and triggered apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells. Salubrinal, an activator of the PERK/eIF2α pathway, strikingly enhanced the phosphorylation of eIF2α in SMMC-7721 cells with no toxicity. However, combined treatment with 6-shogaol and salubrinal resulted in significantly increase of apoptosis and dephosphorylation of eIF2α. Overexpression of eIF2α prevented 6-shogaol-mediated apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells, whereas inhibition of eIF2α by small interfering RNA markedly enhanced 6-shogaol-mediated cell death. Furthermore, 6-shogaol-mediated inhibition of tumor growth of mouse SMMC-7721 xenograft was associated with induction of apoptosis, activation of caspase-3, and inactivation of eIF2α. Altogether our results indicate that the PERK/eIF2α pathway plays an important role in 6-shogaol-mediated ER stress and apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells in vitro and in vivo.

  17. Structure/activity of Pt{sup II}/N,N-disubstituted-N'-acylthiourea complexes: Anti-tumor and anti-mycobacterium tuberculosis activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plutín, Ana M.; Alvarez, Anislay; Mocelo, Raúl; Ramos, Raúl; Sánchez, Osmar C. [Laboratorio de Síntesis Orgánica, Facultad de Química, Universidad de La Habana (Cuba); Castellano, Euardo E. [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Silva, Monize M. da; Villarreal, Wilmer; Colina-Vegas, Legna; Batista, Alzir A. [Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil); Pavan, Fernando R., E-mail: anap@fq.uh.cu, E-mail: daab@ufscar.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas

    2018-05-01

    The syntheses, characterization, cytotoxicity against tumor cells and anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity assays of Pt{sup II}/PPh{sub 3}/N,N-disubstituted-N'-acylthioureas complexes with general formulae [Pt(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}(L)]PF{sub 6}, PPh{sub 3} = triphenylphosphine; L = N,N-disubstituted-N'-acylthiourea, are here reported. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) ({sup 1} H, {sup 13}C{1 H} and {sup 31}P{"1 H}) spectroscopy. The {sup 31}P{"1 H} NMR data are consistent with the presence of two PPh{sup 3} ligands cis to each other position, and one N,N-disubstituted-N'-acylthiourea coordinated to the metal through O and S, in a chelate form. The structures of the complexes were determined by X-ray crystallography, forming distorted square-planar structures. The complexes were tested in human cell lines carcinomas and also screened with respect to their anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity (H37RvATCC 27294). It was found that complexes with N,N-disubstituted-N'-acylthiourea containing open and small chains as R2 groups show higher cytotoxic and higher anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity than those containing rings in this position. (author)

  18. Rational design of a comprehensive cancer therapy platform using temperature-sensitive polymer grafted hollow gold nanospheres: simultaneous chemo/photothermal/photodynamic therapy triggered by a 650 nm laser with enhanced anti-tumor efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaoran; Chen, Yinyin; Cheng, Ziyong; Deng, Kerong; Ma, Ping'an; Hou, Zhiyao; Liu, Bei; Huang, Shanshan; Jin, Dayong; Lin, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Combining multi-model treatments within one single system has attracted great interest for the purpose of synergistic therapy. In this paper, hollow gold nanospheres (HAuNs) coated with a temperature-sensitive polymer, poly(oligo(ethylene oxide) methacrylate-co-2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl methacrylate) (p(OEGMA-co-MEMA)), co-loaded with DOX and a photosensitizer Chlorin e6 (Ce6) were successfully synthesized. As high as 58% DOX and 6% Ce6 by weight could be loaded onto the HAuNs-p(OEGMA-co-MEMA) nanocomposites. The grafting polymer brushes outside the HAuNs play the role of ``gate molecules'' for controlled drug release by 650 nm laser radiation owing to the temperature-sensitive property of the polymer and the photothermal effect of HAuNs. The HAuNs-p(OEGMA-co-MEMA)-Ce6-DOX nanocomposites with 650 nm laser radiation show effective inhibition of cancer cells in vitro and enhanced anti-tumor efficacy in vivo. In contrast, control groups without laser radiation show little cytotoxicity. The nanocomposite demonstrates a way of ``killing three birds with one stone'', that is, chemotherapy, photothermal and photodynamic therapy are triggered simultaneously by the 650 nm laser stimulation. Therefore, the nanocomposites show the great advantages of multi-modal synergistic effects for cancer therapy by a remote-controlled laser stimulus.Combining multi-model treatments within one single system has attracted great interest for the purpose of synergistic therapy. In this paper, hollow gold nanospheres (HAuNs) coated with a temperature-sensitive polymer, poly(oligo(ethylene oxide) methacrylate-co-2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl methacrylate) (p(OEGMA-co-MEMA)), co-loaded with DOX and a photosensitizer Chlorin e6 (Ce6) were successfully synthesized. As high as 58% DOX and 6% Ce6 by weight could be loaded onto the HAuNs-p(OEGMA-co-MEMA) nanocomposites. The grafting polymer brushes outside the HAuNs play the role of ``gate molecules'' for controlled drug release by 650 nm laser radiation

  19. Dll4 blockade potentiates the anti-tumor effects of VEGF inhibition in renal cell carcinoma patient-derived xenografts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiersten Marie Miles

    Full Text Available The Notch ligand Delta-like 4 (Dll4 is highly expressed in vascular endothelium and has been shown to play a pivotal role in regulating tumor angiogenesis. Blockade of the Dll4-Notch pathway in preclinical cancer models has been associated with non-productive angiogenesis and reduced tumor growth. Given the cross-talk between the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and Delta-Notch pathways in tumor angiogenesis, we examined the activity of a function-blocking Dll4 antibody, REGN1035, alone and in combination with anti-VEGF therapy in renal cell carcinoma (RCC.Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice bearing patient-derived clear cell RCC xenografts were treated with REGN1035 and in combination with the multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib or the VEGF blocker ziv-aflibercept. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent analyses were carried out, as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI examinations pre and 24 hours and 2 weeks post treatment. Single agent treatment with REGN1035 resulted in significant tumor growth inhibition (36-62% that was equivalent to or exceeded the single agent anti-tumor activity of the VEGF pathway inhibitors sunitinib (38-54% and ziv-aflibercept (46%. Importantly, combination treatments with REGN1035 plus VEGF inhibitors resulted in enhanced anti-tumor effects (72-80% growth inhibition, including some tumor regression. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a marked decrease in tumor perfusion in all treatment groups. Interestingly, anti-tumor efficacy of the combination of REGN1035 and ziv-aflibercept was also observed in a sunitinib resistant ccRCC model.Overall, these findings demonstrate the potent anti-tumor activity of Dll4 blockade in RCC patient-derived tumors and a combination benefit for the simultaneous targeting of the Dll4 and VEGF signaling pathways, highlighting the therapeutic potential of this treatment modality in RCC.

  20. Selected anti-tumor vaccines merit a place in multimodal tumor therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Eva-Maria; Wunderlich, Roland [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Ebel, Nina [Department of Process Technology and Machinery, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Rubner, Yvonne [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Schlücker, Eberhard [Department of Process Technology and Machinery, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Meyer-Pittroff, Roland [Competence Pool Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, Freising (Germany); Ott, Oliver J.; Fietkau, Rainer; Gaipl, Udo S.; Frey, Benjamin, E-mail: benjamin.frey@uk-erlangen.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-10-09

    Multimodal approaches are nowadays successfully applied in cancer therapy. Primary locally acting therapies such as radiotherapy (RT) and surgery are combined with systemic administration of chemotherapeutics. Nevertheless, the therapy of cancer is still a big challenge in medicine. The treatments often fail to induce long-lasting anti-tumor responses. Tumor recurrences and metastases result. Immunotherapies are therefore ideal adjuncts to standard tumor therapies since they aim to activate the patient's immune system against malignant cells even outside the primary treatment areas (abscopal effects). Especially cancer vaccines may have the potential both to train the immune system against cancer cells and to generate an immunological memory, resulting in long-lasting anti-tumor effects. However, despite promising results in phase I and II studies, most of the concepts finally failed. There are some critical aspects in development and application of cancer vaccines that may decide on their efficiency. The time point and frequency of medication, usage of an adequate immune adjuvant, the vaccine's immunogenic potential, and the tumor burden of the patient are crucial. Whole tumor cell vaccines have advantages compared to peptide-based ones since a variety of tumor antigens (TAs) are present. The master requirements of cell-based, therapeutic tumor vaccines are the complete inactivation of the tumor cells and the increase of their immunogenicity. Since the latter is highly connected with the cell death modality, the inactivation procedure of the tumor cell material may significantly influence the vaccine's efficiency. We therefore also introduce high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) as an innovative inactivation technology for tumor cell-based vaccines and outline that HHP efficiently inactivates tumor cells by enhancing their immunogenicity. Finally studies are presented proving that anti-tumor immune responses can be triggered by combining RT with selected

  1. Anti-tumor Study of Chondroitin Sulfate-Methotrexate Nanogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinyu; Zhao, Weibo; Chen, Haixiao; Qin, An; Zhu, Peizhi

    2017-10-01

    Self-assembly nanogels (NGs) were formed by bioconjugating methotrexate (MTX) with chondroitin sulfate (CS). MTX-CS NGs can greatly enhance the solubility and improve the delivery efficacy of MTX due to the CD44 binding property of CS. Vivo experiments revealed that MTX-CS NGs showed less toxicity than MTX. MTX-CS NGs can improve the anti-tumor effect while reducing the side effects of MTX. Due to their CD44 binding property, chondroitin sulfate-drug conjugates could be a promising and efficient platform for improving the solubility of sparingly soluble drug molecules as well as targeted delivery to cancer cells and tumor tissues.

  2. Macrophage PPARγ inhibits Gpr132 to mediate the anti-tumor effects of rosiglitazone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wing Yin; Huynh, HoangDinh; Chen, Peiwen; Peña-Llopis, Samuel; Wan, Yihong

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) significantly contributes to cancer progression. Human cancer is enhanced by PPARγ loss-of-function mutations, but inhibited by PPARγ agonists such as TZD diabetes drugs including rosiglitazone. However, it remains enigmatic whether and how macrophage contributes to PPARγ tumor-suppressive functions. Here we report that macrophage PPARγ deletion in mice not only exacerbates mammary tumor development but also impairs the anti-tumor effects of rosiglitazone. Mechanistically, we identify Gpr132 as a novel direct PPARγ target in macrophage whose expression is enhanced by PPARγ loss but repressed by PPARγ activation. Functionally, macrophage Gpr132 is pro-inflammatory and pro-tumor. Genetic Gpr132 deletion not only retards inflammation and cancer growth but also abrogates the anti-tumor effects of PPARγ and rosiglitazone. Pharmacological Gpr132 inhibition significantly impedes mammary tumor malignancy. These findings uncover macrophage PPARγ and Gpr132 as critical TAM modulators, new cancer therapeutic targets, and essential mediators of TZD anti-cancer effects. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18501.001 PMID:27692066

  3. Identification of danthron as an isoform-specific inhibitor of HEME OXYGENASE-1/cytochrome P450 reductase interaction with anti-tumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yi-Tai; Hsu, Fu-Fei; Hu, Dun-Yao; Chen, Ying-Chih; Hsu, Yuan-Hao; Hsu, John T-A; Chau, Lee-Young

    2018-01-23

    Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes NADPH-dependent degradation of heme to liberate iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin. The interaction between HO and cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR), an electron donor, is essential for HO activity. HO-1 is a stress-inducible isoform whereas HO-2 is constitutively expressed. HO-1 induction is commonly seen in cancers and impacts disease progression, supporting the possibility of targeting HO-1 for cancer therapy. We employed a cell-based bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assay to screen compounds with ability to inhibit HO-1/CPR interaction. The effect of the identified compound on HO-1/CPR interaction was confirmed by pull down assay. Moreover, the anti-tumorigenic activity of the identified compound on HO-1-enhanced tumor growth and migration was assessed by trypan blue exclusion method and wound healing assay. Danthron was identified as an effective small molecule able to interfere with the interaction between HO-1 and CPR but not HO-2 and CPR. Additional experiments with structural analogues of danthron revealed that the positions of hydroxyl moieties significantly affected the potency of inhibition on HO-1/CPR interaction. Pull-down assay confirmed that danthron inhibited the interaction of CPR with HO-1 but not HO-2. Danthron suppressed growth and migration of HeLa cells with stable HO-1 overexpression but not mock cells. In contrast, anthrarufin, a structural analog with no ability to interfere HO-1/CPR interaction, exhibited no significant effect on HO-1-overexpressing HeLa cells. These findings demonstrate that danthron is an isoform-specific inhibitor for HO-1/CPR interaction and may serve as a lead compound for novel anticancer drug.

  4. Epigenetic regulation of cancer biology and anti-tumor immunity by EZH2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofides, Anthos; Karantanos, Theodoros; Bardhan, Kankana; Boussiotis, Vassiliki A

    2016-12-20

    Polycomb group proteins regulate chromatin structure and have an important regulatory role on gene expression in various cell types. Two polycomb group complexes (Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and 2 (PRC2)) have been identified in mammalian cells. Both PRC1 and PRC2 compact chromatin, and also catalyze histone modifications. PRC1 mediates monoubiquitination of histone H2A, whereas PRC2 catalyzes methylation of histone H3 on lysine 27. These alterations of histones can lead to altered gene expression patterns by regulating chromatin structure. Numerous studies have highlighted the role of the PRC2 catalytic component enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) in neoplastic development and progression, and EZH2 mutations have been identified in various malignancies. Through modulating the expression of critical genes, EZH2 is actively involved in fundamental cellular processes such as cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. In addition to cancer cells, EZH2 also has a decisive role in the differentiation and function of T effector and T regulatory cells. In this review we summarize the recent progress regarding the role of EZH2 in human malignancies, highlight the molecular mechanisms by which EZH2 aberrations promote the pathogenesis of cancer, and discuss the anti-tumor effects of EZH2 targeting via activating direct anti-cancer mechanisms and anti-tumor immunity.

  5. Fluorescent nanodiamonds engage innate immune effector cells: A potential vehicle for targeted anti-tumor immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Kelly, Lorena P; Campbell, Amanda R; Rampersaud, Isaac V; Bumb, Ambika; Wang, Min S; Butchar, Jonathan P; Tridandapani, Susheela; Yu, Lianbo; Rampersaud, Arfaan A; Carson, William E

    2017-04-01

    Fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) are nontoxic, infinitely photostable, and emit fluorescence in the near infrared region. Natural killer (NK) cells and monocytes are part of the innate immune system and are crucial to the control of carcinogenesis. FND-mediated stimulation of these cells may serve as a strategy to enhance anti-tumor activity. FNDs were fabricated with a diameter of 70±28 nm. Innate immune cell FND uptake, viability, surface marker expression, and cytokine production were evaluated in vitro. Evaluation of fluorescence emission from the FNDs was conducted in an animal model. In vitro results demonstrated that treatment of immune cells with FNDs resulted in significant dose-dependent FND uptake, no compromise in cell viability, and immune cell activation. FNDs were visualized in an animal model. Hence, FNDs may serve as novel agents with "track and trace" capabilities to stimulate innate immune cell anti-tumor responses, especially as FNDs are amenable to surface-conjugation with immunomodulatory molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Complimentary mechanisms of dual checkpoint blockade expand unique T-cell repertoires and activate adaptive anti-tumor immunity in triple-negative breast tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junping; Yang, Xiao Yi; Lei, Gangjun; Wang, Tao; Liu, Cong-Xiao; Morse, Michael A.; Gouin, Kenneth; Knott, Simon R. V.; Hartman, Zachary C.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive and molecularly diverse breast cancer subtype typified by the presence of p53 mutations (∼80%), elevated immune gene signatures and neoantigen expression, as well as the presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). As these factors are hypothesized to be strong immunologic prerequisites for the use of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) antibodies, multiple clinical trials testing single ICBs have advanced to Phase III, with early indications of heterogeneous response rates of <20% to anti-PD1 and anti-PDL1 ICB. While promising, these modest response rates highlight the need for mechanistic studies to understand how different ICBs function, how their combination impacts functionality and efficacy, as well as what immunologic parameters predict efficacy to different ICBs regimens in TNBC. To address these issues, we tested anti-PD1 and anti-CTLA4 in multiple models of TNBC and found that their combination profoundly enhanced the efficacy of either treatment alone. We demonstrate that this efficacy is due to anti-CTLA4-driven expansion of an individually unique T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire whose functionality is enhanced by both intratumoral Treg suppression and anti-PD1 blockade of tumor expressed PDL1. Notably, the individuality of the TCR repertoire was observed regardless of whether the tumor cells expressed a nonself antigen (ovalbumin) or if tumor-specific transgenic T-cells were transferred prior to sequencing. However, responsiveness was strongly correlated with systemic measures of tumor-specific T-cell and B-cell responses, which along with systemic assessment of TCR expansion, may serve as the most useful predictors for clinical responsiveness in future clinical trials of TNBC utilizing anti-PD1/anti-CTLA4 ICB. PMID:29721371

  7. Complimentary mechanisms of dual checkpoint blockade expand unique T-cell repertoires and activate adaptive anti-tumor immunity in triple-negative breast tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Erika J; Wei, Junping; Yang, Xiao Yi; Lei, Gangjun; Wang, Tao; Liu, Cong-Xiao; Agarwal, Pankaj; Korman, Alan J; Morse, Michael A; Gouin, Kenneth; Knott, Simon R V; Lyerly, H Kim; Hartman, Zachary C

    2018-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive and molecularly diverse breast cancer subtype typified by the presence of p53 mutations (∼80%), elevated immune gene signatures and neoantigen expression, as well as the presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). As these factors are hypothesized to be strong immunologic prerequisites for the use of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) antibodies, multiple clinical trials testing single ICBs have advanced to Phase III, with early indications of heterogeneous response rates of <20% to anti-PD1 and anti-PDL1 ICB. While promising, these modest response rates highlight the need for mechanistic studies to understand how different ICBs function, how their combination impacts functionality and efficacy, as well as what immunologic parameters predict efficacy to different ICBs regimens in TNBC. To address these issues, we tested anti-PD1 and anti-CTLA4 in multiple models of TNBC and found that their combination profoundly enhanced the efficacy of either treatment alone. We demonstrate that this efficacy is due to anti-CTLA4-driven expansion of an individually unique T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire whose functionality is enhanced by both intratumoral Treg suppression and anti-PD1 blockade of tumor expressed PDL1. Notably, the individuality of the TCR repertoire was observed regardless of whether the tumor cells expressed a nonself antigen (ovalbumin) or if tumor-specific transgenic T-cells were transferred prior to sequencing. However, responsiveness was strongly correlated with systemic measures of tumor-specific T-cell and B-cell responses, which along with systemic assessment of TCR expansion, may serve as the most useful predictors for clinical responsiveness in future clinical trials of TNBC utilizing anti-PD1/anti-CTLA4 ICB.

  8. Synthesis and SAR of 1-acetanilide-4-aminopyrazole-substituted quinazolines: selective inhibitors of Aurora B kinase with potent anti-tumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Kevin M; Mortlock, Andrew A; Heron, Nicola M; Jung, Frédéric H; Hill, George B; Pasquet, Georges; Brady, Madeleine C; Green, Stephen; Heaton, Simon P; Kearney, Sarah; Keen, Nicholas J; Odedra, Rajesh; Wedge, Stephen R; Wilkinson, Robert W

    2008-03-15

    A new class of 1-acetanilide-4-aminopyrazole-substituted quinazoline Aurora kinase inhibitors has been discovered possessing highly potent cellular activity. Continuous infusion into athymic mice bearing SW620 tumors of the soluble phosphate derivative 2 led to dose-proportional exposure of the des-phosphate compound 8 with a high-unbound fraction. The combination of potent cell activity and high free-drug exposure led to pharmacodynamic changes in the tumor at low doses, indicative of Aurora B-kinase inhibition and a reduction in tumor volume.

  9. Investigation of HIFU-induced anti-tumor immunity in a murine tumor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyerly H Kim

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU is an emerging non-invasive treatment modality for localized treatment of cancers. While current clinical strategies employ HIFU exclusively for thermal ablation of the target sites, biological responses associated with both thermal and mechanical damage from focused ultrasound have not been thoroughly investigated. In particular, endogenous danger signals from HIFU-damaged tumor cells may trigger the activation of dendritic cells. This response may play a critical role in a HIFU-elicited anti-tumor immune response which can be harnessed for more effective treatment. Methods Mice bearing MC-38 colon adenocarcinoma tumors were treated with thermal and mechanical HIFU exposure settings in order to independently observe HIFU-induced effects on the host's immunological response. In vivo dendritic cell activity was assessed along with the host's response to challenge tumor growth. Results Thermal and mechanical HIFU were found to increase CD11c+ cells 3.1-fold and 4-fold, respectively, as compared to 1.5-fold observed for DC injection alone. In addition, thermal and mechanical HIFU increased CFSE+ DC accumulation in draining lymph nodes 5-fold and 10-fold, respectively. Moreover, focused ultrasound treatments not only caused a reduction in the growth of primary tumors, with tumor volume decreasing by 85% for thermal HIFU and 43% for mechanical HIFU, but they also provided protection against subcutaneous tumor re-challenge. Further immunological assays confirmed an enhanced CTL activity and increased tumor-specific IFN-γ-secreting cells in the mice treated by focused ultrasound, with cytotoxicity induced by mechanical HIFU reaching as high as 27% at a 10:1 effector:target ratio. Conclusion These studies present initial encouraging results confirming that focused ultrasound treatment can elicit a systemic anti-tumor immune response, and they suggest that this immunity is closely related to

  10. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppresses the expression of HSP70 and HSP90 and exhibits anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Phan LCHB; Kim, Soo-A; Choi, Hong Seok; Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Ahn, Sang-Gun

    2010-01-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), one of the major catechins in green tea, is a potential chemopreventive agent for various cancers. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of EGCG on the expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and tumor suppression. Cell colony formation was evaluated by a soft agar assay. Transcriptional activity of HSP70 and HSP90 was determined by luciferase reporter assay. An EGCG-HSPs complex was prepared using EGCG attached to the cyanogen bromide (CNBr)-activated Sepharose 4B. In vivo effect of EGCG on tumor growth was examined in a xenograft model. Treatment with EGCG decreased cell proliferation and colony formation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. EGCG specifically inhibited the expression of HSP70 and HSP90 by inhibiting the promoter activity of HSP70 and HSP90. Pretreatment with EGCG increased the stress sensitivity of MCF-7 cells upon heat shock (44°C for 1 h) or oxidative stress (H 2 O 2 , 500 μM for 24 h). Moreover, treatment with EGCG (10 mg/kg) in a xenograft model resulted in delayed tumor incidence and reduced tumor size, as well as the inhibition of HSP70 and HSP90 expression. Overall, these findings demonstrate that HSP70 and HSP90 are potent molecular targets of EGCG and suggest EGCG as a drug candidate for the treatment of human cancer

  11. Addition of 2-(ethylamino)acetonitrile group to nitroxoline results in significantly improved anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, Ana; Sosič, Izidor; Kos, Špela; Tratar, Urša Lampreht; Breznik, Barbara; Kranjc, Simona; Mirković, Bojana; Gobec, Stanislav; Lah, Tamara; Serša, Gregor; Kos, Janko

    2017-08-29

    Lysosomal cysteine peptidase cathepsin B, involved in multiple processes associated with tumor progression, is validated as a target for anti-cancer therapy. Nitroxoline, a known antimicrobial agent, is a potent and selective inhibitor of cathepsin B, hence reducing tumor progression in vitro and in vivo . In order to further improve its anti-cancer properties we developed a number of derivatives using structure-based chemical synthesis. Of these, the 7-aminomethylated derivative (compound 17 ) exhibited significantly improved kinetic properties over nitroxoline, inhibiting cathepsin B endopeptidase activity selectively. In the present study, we have evaluated its anti-cancer properties. It was more effective than nitroxoline in reducing tumor cell invasion and migration, as determined in vitro on two-dimensional cell models and tumor spheroids, under either endpoint or real time conditions. Moreover, it exhibited improved action over nitroxoline in impairing tumor growth in vivo in LPB mouse fibrosarcoma tumors in C57Bl/6 mice. Taken together, the addition of a 2-(ethylamino)acetonitrile group to nitroxoline at position 7 significantly improves its pharmacological characteristics and its potential for use as an anti-cancer drug.

  12. Lack of anti-tumor activity with the β-catenin expression inhibitor EZN-3892 in the C57BL/6J Min/+ model of intestinal carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasson, Rian M.; Briggs, Alexandra; Rizvi, Hira; Carothers, Adelaide M.; Davids, Jennifer S.; Bertagnolli, Monica M.; Cho, Nancy L., E-mail: nlcho@partners.org

    2014-02-14

    Highlights: • Wnt/β-catenin signaling is aberrantly activated in most colorectal cancers. • Locked nucleic acid (LNA)-based antisense is a novel tool for cancer therapy. • β-Catenin inhibition was observed in mature intestinal tissue of LNA-treated mice. • Further investigation of Wnt/β-catenin targeted therapies is warranted. - Abstract: Background: Previously, we showed that short-term inhibition of β-catenin expression and reversal of aberrant β-catenin subcellular localization by the selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib is associated with adenoma regression in the C57BL/6J Min/+ mouse. Conversly, long-term administration resulted in tumor resistance, leading us to investigate alternative methods for selective β-catenin chemoprevention. In this study, we hypothesized that disruption of β-catenin expression by EZN-3892, a selective locked nucleic acid (LNA)-based β-catenin inhibitor, would counteract the tumorigenic effect of Apc loss in Min/+ adenomas while preserving normal intestinal function. Materials and methods: C57BL/6J Apc{sup +/+} wild-type (WT) and Min/+ mice were treated with the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of EZN-3892 (30 mg/kg). Drug effect on tumor numbers, β-catenin protein expression, and nuclear β-catenin localization were determined. Results: Although the tumor phenotype and β-catenin nuclear localization in Min/+ mice did not change following drug administration, we observed a decrease in β-catenin expression levels in the mature intestinal tissue of treated Min/+ and WT mice, providing proof of principle regarding successful delivery of the LNA-based antisense vehicle. Higher doses of EZN-3892 resulted in fatal outcomes in Min/+ mice, likely due to β-catenin ablation in the intestinal tissue and loss of function. Conclusions: Our data support the critical role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in maintaining intestinal homeostasis and highlight the challenges of effective drug delivery to target disease without permanent

  13. The human CD38 monoclonal antibody daratumumab shows anti-tumor activity and hampers leukemia-microenvironment interactions in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matas-Céspedes, Alba; Vidal-Crespo, Anna; Rodriguez, Vanina; Villamor, Neus; Delgado, Julio; Giné, Eva; Roca-Ho, Heleia; Menéndez, Pablo; Campo, Elías; López-Guillermo, Armando; Colomer, Dolors; Roué, Gaël; Wiestner, Adrian; Parren, Paul W.H.I.; Doshi, Parul; van Bueren, Jeroen Lammerts; Pérez-Galán, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To establish a proof-of-concept for the efficacy of the anti-CD38 antibody daratumumab in the poor prognosis CD38+ CLL subtype. Experimental design The mechanism of action of daratumumab was assessed in CLL primary cells and cell lines using peripheral blood mononuclear cells to analyze antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC), murine and human macrophages to study antibody-dependent cell phagocytosis (ADCP) or human serum to analyze complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). The effect of daratumumab on CLL cell migration and adhesion to extracellular matrix was characterized. Daratumumab activity was validated in two in vivo models. Results Daratumumab demonstrated efficient lysis of patient-derived CLL cells and cell lines by ADCC in vitro and ADCP both in vitro and in vivo, while exhibited negligible CDC in these cells. To demonstrate the therapeutic effect of daratumumab in CLL, we generated a disseminated CLL mouse model with the CD38+ MEC2 cell line and CLL patient derived xenografts (CLL-PDX). Daratumumab significantly prolonged overall survival of MEC2 mice, completely eliminated cells from the infiltrated organs and significantly reduced disease burden in the spleen of CLL-PDX. The effect of daratumumab on patient-derived CLL cell dissemination was demonstrated in vitro by its effect on CXCL12-induced migration and in vivo by interfering with CLL cell homing to spleen in NSG mice. Daratumumab also reduced adhesion of CLL cells to VCAM-1, accompanied by down-regulation of the matrix metalloproteinase MMP9. Conclusions These unique and substantial effects of daratumumab on CLL viability and dissemination support the investigation of its use in a clinical setting of CLL. PMID:27637890

  14. Anti-tumor effect of polysaccharides from rhizome of Curculigo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-tumor effect of PDC on cervical cancer was investigated in vivo in mice injected with Hela cells. The parameters measured were tumor volume and weight. In vitro anti-tumor effects of PDC were assessed by measuring expressions of caspase-3, caspase-9 and P53 proteins in Hela cells via ELISA assay. Thymus ...

  15. Antioxidants Impair Anti-Tumoral Effects of Vorinostat, but Not Anti-Neoplastic Effects of Vorinostat and Caspase-8 Downregulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bergadà, Laura; Yeramian, Andree; Sorolla, Annabel; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Dolcet, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitor, Vorinostat, applied as a single therapy or in combination with caspase-8 downregulation exhibits high anti-tumoral activity on endometrial carcinoma cell lines. In the present study, we have assessed the signalling processes underlying anti-tumoral effects of Vorinostat. Increasing evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species are responsible for histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced cell killing. We have found that Vorinostat...

  16. OFFICIAL MEDICATIONS FOR ANTI-TUMOR GENE THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Nemtsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of modern literature data of official medications for anti-tumor gene therapy as well as of medications that finished clinical trials.The article discusses the concept of gene therapy, the statistical analysis results of initiated clinical trials of gene products, the most actively developing directions of anticancer gene therapy, and the characteristics of anti-tumor gene medications.Various delivery systems for gene material are being examined, including viruses that are defective in  replication (Gendicine™ and Advexin and oncolytic (tumor specific conditionally replicating viruses (Oncorine™, ONYX-015, Imlygic®.By now three preparations for intra-tumor injection have been introduced into oncology clinical practice: two of them – Gendicine™ and Oncorine™ have been registered in China, and one of them – Imlygic® has been registered in the USA. Gendicine™ and Oncorine™ are based on the wild type p53 gene and are designed for treatment of patients with head and neck malignancies. Replicating adenovirus is the delivery system in Gendicine™, whereas oncolytic adenovirus is the vector for gene material in Oncorine™. Imlygic® is based on the  recombinant replicating HSV1 virus with an introduced GM–CSF gene and is designed for treatment of  melanoma patients. These medications are well tolerated and do not cause any serious adverse events. Gendicine™ and Oncorine™ are not effective in monotherapy but demonstrate pronounced synergism with chemoand radiation therapy. Imlygic® has just started the post marketing trials.

  17. Anti-tumor effect of a recombinant plasmid expressing human interleukin-12: an initial research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Chuansheng; Xia Xiangwen; Feng Gansheng; Li Xin; Liang Huimin; Liang Bin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the anti-tumor effect of a recombinant plasmid expressing human interleukin-12 (pEGFP-CI I L- 12) in vivo and in vitro. Methods: We transduct the recombinant gene (pEGFP-CI I L-12) to liver cancer cell HepG 2 in vitro, and detect reproductive activity of the cell using MTT and the activity of expressing vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) using semiquantitative PCR. And then, we deliver the gene to rabbit liver tumor tissue intraarterial and combine with chemoembolization to observe the anti- tumor effect to VX 2 tumor in vivo. Results: There are no statistical difference compared With control group in activity of reproductive and expressing VEGF in vitro. In vivo, tumor growth rate significantly reduce in gene therapy combined with chemoembolization group. Conclusion: Recombinant gene (pEGFP-Cl I L-12) exhibit significant anti-tumor effect in vivo but not in vitro, perhaps the anti-tumor effect is associated with an indirect pathway instead of a direct pathway. (authors)

  18. Anti-tumor immunotherapy by blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway with recombinant human PD-1-IgV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Wu, S; Xue, X; Li, M; Qin, X; Li, W; Han, W; Zhang, Y

    2008-01-01

    Blockade of the programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway can delay tumor growth and prolong the survival of tumor-bearing mice. The extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig) V domain of PD-1 is important for the interaction between PD-1 and PD-L1, suggesting that PD-1-IgV may be a potential target for anti-tumor immunotherapy. The extracellular sequence of human PD-1-IgV (hPD-1-IgV) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The anti-tumor effect of hPD-1-IgV on tumor-bearing mice was tested. hPD-1-IgV recombinant protein could bind PD-L1 at molecular and cellular levels and enhance Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte (CTL) activity and anti-tumor effect on tumor-bearing mice in vivo. The percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells in tumor-bearing mice was decreased compared with control mice after administration of the recombinant protein. Our results suggest that inhibition of the interaction between PD-1 and PD-L1 by hPD-1-IgV may be a promising strategy for specific tumor immunotherapy.

  19. Tumor-altered dendritic cell function: implications for anti-tumor immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Michael Hargadon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells are key regulators of both innate and adaptive immunity, and the array of immunoregulatory functions exhibited by these cells is dictated by their differentiation, maturation, and activation status. Although a major role for these cells in the induction of immunity to pathogens has long been appreciated, data accumulated over the last several years has demonstrated that DC are also critical regulators of anti-tumor immune responses. However, despite the potential for stimulation of robust anti-tumor immunity by DC, tumor-altered DC function has been observed in many cancer patients and tumor-bearing animals and is often associated with tumor immune escape. Such dysfunction has significant implications for both the induction of natural anti-tumor immune responses as well as the efficacy of immunotherapeutic strategies that target endogenous DC in situ or that employ exogenous DC as part of anti-cancer immunization maneuvers. In this review, the major types of tumor-altered DC function will be described, with emphasis on recent insights into the mechanistic bases for the inhibition of DC differentiation from hematopoietic precursors, the altered programming of DC precursors to differentiate into myeloid-derived suppressor cells or tumor-associated macrophages, the suppression of DC maturation and activation, and the induction of immunoregulatory DC by tumors, tumor-derived factors, and tumor-associated cells within the milieu of the tumor microenvironment. The impact of these tumor-altered cells on the quality of the overall anti-tumor immune response will also be discussed. Finally, this review will also highlight questions concerning tumor-altered DC function that remain unanswered, and it will address factors that have limited advances in the study of this phenomenon in order to focus future research efforts in the field on identifying strategies for interfering with tumor-associated DC dysfunction and improving DC-mediated anti-tumor

  20. Ten tandem repeats of β-hCG 109-118 enhance immunogenicity and anti-tumor effects of β-hCG C-terminal peptide carried by mycobacterial heat-shock protein HSP65

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yankai; Yan Rong; He Yi; Liu Wentao; Cao Rongyue; Yan Ming; Li Taiming; Liu Jingjing; Wu Jie

    2006-01-01

    The β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) is secreted by many kinds of tumors and it has been used as an ideal target antigen to develop vaccines against tumors. In view of the low immunogenicity of this self-peptide,we designed a method based on isocaudamer technique to repeat tandemly the 10-residue sequence X of β-hCG (109-118), then 10 tandemly repeated copies of the 10-residue sequence combined with β-hCG C-terminal 37 peptides were fused to mycobacterial heat-shock protein 65 to construct a fusion protein HSP65-X10-βhCGCTP37 as an immunogen. In this study, we examined the effect of the tandem repeats of this 10-residue sequence in eliciting an immune by comparing the immunogenicity and anti-tumor effects of the two immunogens, HSP65-X10-βhCGCTP37 and HSP65-βhCGCTP37 (without the 10 tandem repeats). Immunization of mice with the fusion protein HSP65-X10-βhCGCTP37 elicited much higher levels of specific anti-β-hCG antibodies and more effectively inhibited the growth of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in vivo than with HSP65-βhCGCTP37, which should suggest that HSP65-X10-βhCGCTP37 may be an effective protein vaccine for the treatment of β-hCG-dependent tumors and multiple tandem repeats of a certain epitope are an efficient method to overcome the low immunogenicity of self-peptide antigens

  1. Induction of anti-tumor immunity by trifunctional antibodies in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindhofer Horst

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC from epithelial tumors is a fatal diagnosis without efficient treatment. Trifunctional antibodies (trAb are novel therapeutic approaches leading to a concerted anti-tumor activity resulting in tumor cell destruction. In addition, preclinical data in mouse tumor models demonstrated the induction of long lasting tumor immunity after treatment with trAb. We describe the induction of anti-tumor specific T-lymphocytes after intraperitoneal administration of trAb in patients with PC. 9 patients with progressive PC from gastric (n = 6 and ovarian cancer (n = 2, and cancer of unknown primary (n = 1 received 3 escalating doses of trAb after surgery and/or ineffective chemotherapy. The trAb EpCAM × CD3 (10, 20, 40 μg or HER2/neu × CD3 (10, 40, 80 μg were applicated by intraperitoneal infusion. Four weeks after the last trAb application, all patients were restimulated by subdermal injection of trAb + autologous PBMC + irradiated autologous tumor cells. Immunological reactivity was tested by analyzing PBMC for specific tumor reactive CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes using an IFN-γ secretion assay. In 5 of 9 patients, tumor reactive CD4+/CD8+ T-lymphocytes increased significantly, indicating specific anti-tumor immunity. A clinical response (stable disease, partial regression has been observed in 5 of 9 patients, with a mean time to progression of 3.6 months. Follow-up showed a mean survival of 11.8 months (median 8.0 months after trAb therapy. TrAb are able to induce anti-tumor immunity after intraperitoneal application and restimulation. The induction of long-lasting anti-tumor immunity may provide an additional benefit of the intraperitoneal therapy with trAb and should be further elevated in larger clinical trials.

  2. The anti-tumor effect of ACNU and x-irradiation on mouse glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Hidemitsu; Hori, Masaharu; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Mogami, Heitaro; Hayakawa, Toru.

    1979-01-01

    Anti-tumor activities of 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl-3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea hydrochloride (ACNU) and x-irradiation on methylcholanthrene induced glioma in C 57 BL mice were studied in vitro and in vivo. In vitro experiments using cultured glioma cells (MGB cells), the synchronization of cell cycle was done by excess addition of thymidine, and the anti-tumor cell effect were investigated by mean of determinations of DNA synthesis, mitotic index and the number of the living cells following the treatments. As the results, it appeared obvious that ACNU was most effective on MGB cells in S phase and x-irradiation in M phase. As to the combined therapy of ACNU and x-irradiation, the anti-tumor effect was most remarkable when the cells were treated by x-irradiation in the G 2 , M phase, which were hervested by addition of ACNU 44 hours before irradiation. However simultaneous treatment of ACNU and x-irradiation on the cells in G 1 phase was not so remarkable. In vivo experiments the anti-tumor effect of ACNU and x-irradiation on subcutaneously or intracranially transplanted glioma in mice was investigated. Either ACNU 10 mg/kg or local x-irradiation 1240 rads showed inhibitory effect on the tumor growth and prolonged the survival time of the tumor bearing mice. The combination therapy was more effective than ACNU or x-irradiation alone, particularly combination therapy of ACNU and repeated small doses irradiation of x-ray was remarkably effective. Evidence obtained indicated that the combination therapy of ACNU and x-irradiation have synergistic anti-tumor effect on experimental mouse glioma. (author)

  3. An evaluation of anti-tumor effect and toxicity of PEGylated ursolic acid liposomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qianqian; Zhao, Tingting; Liu, Yanping; Xing, Shanshan; Li, Lei; Gao, Dawei, E-mail: dwgao@ysu.edu.cn [Yanshan University, Applying Chemistry Key Lab of Hebei Province, Department of Bioengineer (China)

    2016-02-15

    Therapy of solid tumors mediated by nano-drug delivery has attracted considerable interest. In our previous study, ursolic acid (UA) was successfully encapsulated into PEGylated liposomes. The study aimed to evaluate the tumor inhibition effect and cytotoxicity of the PEGylated UA liposomes by U14 cervical carcinoma-bearing mice. The liposomes were spherical particles with mean particle diameters of 127.2 nm. The tumor inhibition rate of PEGylated UA liposomes was 53.60 % on U14 cervical carcinoma-bearing mice, which was greater than those of the UA solution (18.25 %) and traditional UA liposome groups (40.75 %). The tumor cells apoptosis rate of PEGylated UA liposomes was 25.81 %, which was significantly higher than that of the traditional UA liposomes (13.37 %). Moreover, the kidney and liver did not emerge the pathological changes in UA therapeutic mice by histopathological analysis, while there were significant differences on tumor tissues among three UA formulation groups. The PEGylated UA liposomes exhibited higher anti-tumor activity and lower cytotoxicity, and the main reason was that the coating PEG layer improved UA liposome properties, such as enhancing the stability of liposomes, promoting the effect of slow release, and prolonging the time of blood circulation. This may shed light on the development of PEGylated nano-vehicles.

  4. The anti-tumor efficacy of nanoparticulate form of ICD-85 versus free form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zare Mirakabadi, A.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs have been intensively studied as a possible way to enhance anti-tumor efficacy while reducing side effects. ICD-85, derived from the venom of two separate species of venomous animals, has been shown to exhibit anti-cancer activity. In this report polymer based sodium alginate nanoparticles of ICD-85 was used to enhance its therapeutic effects and reduce its side effects. The inhibitory effect was evaluated by MTT assay. The necrotic effect was assessed using LDH assay. The induction of apoptosis was analyzed by caspase-8 colorimetric assay kit. Cytotoxicity assay in HeLa cells demonstrated enhanced efficacy of ICD-85 loaded NPs compared to the free ICD-85. The IC50 values obtained in HeLa cells after 48 h, for free ICD-85 and ICD-85 loaded NPs were 26±2.9μg ml-1 and 18±2.5μg ml-1, respectively. While it was observed that free ICD-85 exhibits mild cytotoxicity towards normal MRC-5 cells (IC50>60μg ml-1, ICD-85 loaded NPs was found to have higher efficacy in anti-proliferative activity on HeLa cells in vitro without any significant cytotoxic effect on normal MRC-5 cells. The apoptosis-induction mechanism by both form of ICD-85 on HeLa cells was found to be through activation of caspase-8 with approximately 2 fold greater of ICD-85 loaded NPs as compared to free ICD-85. Our work reveals that although ICD-85 in free form is relatively selective to inhibit the growth of cancer cells via apoptosis as compared to normal cells, but nanoparticulate form increases its selectivity towards cancer cells.

  5. Regulatory T cells as suppressors of anti-tumor immunity: Role of metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, Veronica; Di Rella, Francesca; Di Giacomo, Antonio; Matarese, Giuseppe

    2017-06-01

    Novel concepts in immunometabolism support the hypothesis that glucose consumption is also used to modulate anti-tumor immune responses, favoring growth and expansion of specific cellular subsets defined in the past as suppressor T cells and currently reborn as regulatory T (Treg) cells. During the 1920s, Otto Warburg and colleagues observed that tumors consumed high amounts of glucose compared to normal tissues, even in the presence of oxygen and completely functioning mitochondria. However, the role of the Warburg Effect is still not completely understood, particularly in the context of an ongoing anti-tumor immune response. Current experimental evidence suggests that tumor-derived metabolic restrictions can drive T cell hyporesponsiveness and immune tolerance. For example, several glycolytic enzymes, deregulated in cancer, contribute to tumor progression independently from their canonical metabolic activity. Indeed, they can control apoptosis, gene expression and activation of specific intracellular pathways, thus suggesting a direct link between metabolic switches and pro-tumorigenic transcriptional programs. Focus of this review is to define the specific metabolic pathways controlling Treg cell immunobiology in the context of anti-tumor immunity and tumor progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anti-tumor effect of polysaccharides isolated from Taraxacum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of extraction temperature, liquid-solid ratio and extraction time on the yield of PTM were investigated using a Box-Behnken design (BBD). The in vitro anti-tumor effect of PTM on MCF-7 cells was investigated by methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, while the mechanism of PTM-induced ...

  7. Anti-tumor bioactivities of curcumin on mice loaded with gastric carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Qiao-Xia; Lin, Huan-Ping; Chang, Na

    2017-09-20

    Curcumin, a derivative from the dried rhizome of curcuma longa, has been proven to possess anti-tumor effects. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to explore the anti-tumor mechanisms of curcumin in treating gastric cancer. BALB/C mice grafted with a mouse gastric adenocarcinoma cell line (MFC) were used as the experimental model. Mice received different doses of curcumin after grafting. Tumor size was measured and tumor weight was determined after tumor inoculation. TUNEL assay and flow cytometric analysis were applied to evaluate the apoptosis of the cancer cells. Serum cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, granzyme B and perforin were detected by ELISA assay. The anti-tumor effect was determined using cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) assays and in vivo tumor prevention tests. The expression of DEC1, HIF-1α, STAT3 and VEGF in tumor tissues was examined by immunostaining and analyzed using an Image J analysis system. Compared with controls, tumor growth (size and weight) was significantly inhibited by curcumin treatment (P curcumin treatment group. Splenocyte cells from mice treated with curcumin exhibited higher cytolytic effects on MFC cancer cells than those from mice treated with saline (P curcumin treatment. Our results indicate that curcumin inhibits the proliferation of gastric carcinoma by inducing the apoptosis of tumor cells, activating immune cells to secrete a large amount of cytokines, and down-regulating the DEC1, HIF-1α, VEGF and STAT3 signal transduction pathways.

  8. Nanovectorized radiotherapy: a new strategy to induce anti-tumor immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanpouille-Box, Claire; Hindré, François

    2012-01-01

    Recent experimental findings show that activation of the host immune system is required for the success of chemo- and radiotherapy. However, clinically apparent tumors have already developed multiple mechanisms to escape anti-tumor immunity. The fact that tumors are able to induce a state of tolerance and immunosuppression is a major obstacle in immunotherapy. Hence, there is an overwhelming need to develop new strategies that overcome this state of immune tolerance and induce an anti-tumor immune response both at primary and metastatic sites. Nanovectorized radiotherapy that combines ionizing radiation and nanodevices, is one strategy that could boost the quality and magnitude of an immune response in a predictable and designable fashion. The potential benefits of this emerging treatment may be based on the unique combination of immunostimulatory properties of nanoparticles with the ability of ionizing radiation to induce immunogenic tumor cell death. In this review, we will discuss available data and propose that the nanovectorized radiotherapy could be a powerful new strategy to induce anti-tumor immunity required for positive patient outcome.

  9. Nanovectorized radiotherapy, a new strategy to induce anti-tumor immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eVanpouille-Box

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental findings show that activation of the host immune system is required for the success of chemo- and radio-therapy. However, clinically-apparent tumors have already developed multiple mechanisms to escape anti-tumor immunity. The fact that tumors are able to induce a state of tolerance and immunosuppression is a major obstacle in immunotherapy. Hence, there is an overwhelming need to develop new strategies that overcome this state of immune tolerance and induce an anti-tumor immune response both at primary and metastatic sites. Nanovectorized radiotherapy that combines ionizing radiation and nano-devices, is one strategy that could boost the quality and magnitude of an immune response in a predictable and designable fashion. The potential benefits of this emerging treatment may be based on the unique combination of immuno-stimulatory properties of nanoparticles with the ability of ionizing radiation to induce immunogenic tumor cell death. In this review, we will discuss available data and propose that the nanovectorized radiotherapy could be a powerful new strategy to induce anti-tumor immunity required for positive patient outcome.

  10. Characterization and anti-tumor effects of chondroitin sulfate-chitosan nanoparticles delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chieh-Shen; Tang, Sung-Ling; Chiang, Chiao-Hsi; Hosseinkhani, Hossein; Hong, Po-Da; Yeh, Ming-Kung

    2014-11-01

    We prepared chondroitin sulfate (ChS)-chitosan (CS) nanoparticles (NPs) as a delivery carrier, and doxorubicin (Dox) was used as a model drug. The physicochemical properties and biological activities of the Dox-ChS-CS NPs including the release profile, cell cytotoxicity, cellular internalization, and in vivo anti-tumor effects were evaluated. The ChS-CS NPs and Dox-ChS-CS NPs had a mean size of 262.0 ± 15.0 and 369.4 ± 77.4 nm, and a zeta potential of 30.2 ± 0.9 and 20.6 ± 3.1 mV, respectively. In vitro release tests showed that the 50 % release time for the Dox-ChS-CS NPs was 20 h. Two hepatoma cell models, HepG2 and HuH6, were used for evaluating the cytotoxicity and cell uptake efficiency of the Dox-ChS-CS NPs. A significant difference was observed between doxorubicin solution and the Dox-ChS-CS NPs in the cellular uptake within 60 min ( p < 0.01). For the in vivo human xenograft-nude mouse model, the Dox-ChS-CS NPs were more effective with less body weight loss and anti-tumor growth suppression in comparison with the Dox solution. The prepared Dox-ChS-CS NPs offer a new effective targeting nanoparticle delivery system platform for anti-tumor therapy.

  11. Characterization of the anti tumoral activity of the thiosemicarbazones derived from N(4)-methyl-tolyl-2acetylpyridine And 2-pyridinoformamide and its metal complex: evaluation of the radiopharmaceutical potential; Caracterizacao da atividade antitumoral das tiossemicarbazonas derivadas de N(4)-metil-toluil-2-acetilpiridina e 2-piridinoformamida e seus complexos metalicos: avaliacao do potencial radiofarmaceutico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Paulo Roberto Ornelas da

    2008-07-01

    Thiosemicarbazones have attracted great pharmacological interest because of their biological properties, such as cytotoxic activity against multiple strains of human tumors. The most studied compounds are pyridine-based because of their resemblance to pyridoxal metabolites that attach to co-enzyme B{sub 6}-dependant enzymes. This work aimed the characterization of the anti tumoral effect of N(4)-methyl-tolyl-2-acetylpyridine and 2-pyridinoformamide-derived thiosemicarbazones and the development of a radiopharmaceutical based on a thiosemicarbazone metal complex for positron emission tomography. In the first phase of this study were synthesized twenty-one thiosemicarbazones, derived from N(4)methyl-2 acetylpyridine and 2-pyridine formamide, as well as their metal complexes (Sn, Ga and Cu). Their cytotoxic potential were evaluated against brain and breast tumor cells in vitro. Our results showed all of them presented powerful cytotoxic and antiproliferative activities against glioblastoma multiform and breast adenocarcinoma at very low concentrations (nanomolar range). Morphological alterations characteristic of apoptosis, such as cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation were observed. Copper chloride was used as control and has presented IC50 at millimolar range suggesting that copper complexation with thiosemicarbazone significantly increases (more than 1 million) the anti tumoral effect of this metal. Due to the potent anti tumoral activity of N(4)-methyl-tolyl-2-acetylpyridine derived thiosemicarbazones and the excellent properties of {sup 64}Cu (T{sub 1/2} = 12.7 hours, {beta}{sup +}, {beta}{sup -}, and EC decay), at the second part for this work it was developed a new imaging agent (radiopharmaceutical) for tumor detection by positron emission tomography (PET). The radiopharmaceuticals were produced in the nuclear reactor TRIGA-IPR-R1 from CDTN, via neutron capture reaction {sup 63}Cu (n,{gamma}) {sup 64}Cu, of the copper complex N(4)-ortho-toluyl-2

  12. Combination of Vaccine-Strain Measles and Mumps Viruses Enhances Oncolytic Activity against Human Solid Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ho Anh; Zhang, LiFeng; Cuong, Bui Khac; Van Tong, Hoang; Cuong, Le Duy; Hang, Ngo Thu; Nhung, Hoang Thi My; Yamamoto, Naoki; Toan, Nguyen Linh

    2018-02-07

    Oncolytic measles and mumps viruses (MeV, MuV) have a potential for anti-cancer treatment. We examined the anti-tumor activity of MeV, MuV, and MeV-MuV combination (MM) against human solid malignancies (HSM). MeV, MuV, and MM targeted and significantly killed various cancer cell lines of HSM but not normal cells. MM demonstrated a greater anti-tumor effect and prolonged survival in a human prostate cancer xenograft tumor model compared to MeV and MuV. MeV, MuV, and MM significantly induced the expression of immunogenic cell death markers and enhanced spleen-infiltrating immune cells. In conclusion, MM combination significantly improves the treatment of human solid malignancies.

  13. Homeostatic T Cell Expansion to Induce Anti-Tumor Autoimmunity in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baccala, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    ... that (a) homeostatic T-cell proliferation consistently elicits anti-tumor responses; (b) irradiation is more effective than Tcell depletion by antibodies in inducing anti-tumor responses mediated by homeostatic T-cell proliferation...

  14. Antioxidants impair anti-tumoral effects of Vorinostat, but not anti-neoplastic effects of Vorinostat and caspase-8 downregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergadà, Laura; Yeramian, Andree; Sorolla, Annabel; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Dolcet, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitor, Vorinostat, applied as a single therapy or in combination with caspase-8 downregulation exhibits high anti-tumoral activity on endometrial carcinoma cell lines. In the present study, we have assessed the signalling processes underlying anti-tumoral effects of Vorinostat. Increasing evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species are responsible for histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced cell killing. We have found that Vorinostat induces formation of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage. To investigate the role of oxidative stress as anti-neoplastic mechanism, we have evaluated the effects of different antioxidants (Bha, Nac and Tiron) on endometrial carcinoma cell line Ishikawa treated with Vorinostat. We show that Bha, Nac and Tiron markedly inhibited the cytotoxic effects of Vorinostat, increasing cell viability in vitro. We found that all three antioxidants did not inhibited accumulation of acetyl Histone H4, so that antioxidants did not inhibit Vorinostat activity. Finally, we have evaluated the effects of antioxidants on anti-tumoral activity of Vorinostat as monotherapy or in combination with caspase-8 downregulation in vivo. Interestingly, antioxidants blocked the reduction of tumour growth caused by Vorinostat, but they were unable to inhibit anti-tumoral activity of Vorinostat plus caspase-8 inhibition.

  15. NKT cells as an ideal anti-tumor immunotherapeutic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Shin-Ichiro; Shimizu, Kanako; Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Kunii, Naoki; Nakayama, Toshinori; Motohashi, Shinichiro; Taniguchi, Masaru

    2013-12-02

    Human natural killer T (NKT) cells are characterized by their expression of an invariant T cell antigen receptor α chain variable region encoded by a Vα24Jα18 rearrangement. These NKT cells recognize α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) in conjunction with the MHC class I-like CD1d molecule and bridge the innate and acquired immune systems to mediate efficient and augmented immune responses. A prime example of one such function is adjuvant activity: NKT cells augment anti-tumor responses because they can rapidly produce large amounts of IFN-γ, which acts on NK cells to eliminate MHC negative tumors and also on CD8 cytotoxic T cells to kill MHC positive tumors. Thus, upon administration of α-GalCer-pulsed DCs, both MHC negative and positive tumor cells can be effectively eliminated, resulting in complete tumor eradication without tumor recurrence. Clinical trials have been completed in a cohort of 17 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancers and 10 cases of head and neck tumors. Sixty percent of advanced lung cancer patients with high IFN-γ production had significantly prolonged median survival times of 29.3 months with only the primary treatment. In the case of head and neck tumors, 10 patients who completed the trial all had stable disease or partial responses 5 weeks after the combination therapy of α-GalCer-DCs and activated NKT cells. We now focus on two potential powerful treatment options for the future. One is to establish artificial adjuvant vector cells containing tumor mRNA and α-GalCer/CD1d. This stimulates host NKT cells followed by DC maturation and NK cell activation but also induces tumor-specific long-term memory CD8 killer T cell responses, suppressing tumor metastasis even 1 year after the initial single injection. The other approach is to establish induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells that can generate unlimited numbers of NKT cells with adjuvant activity. Such iPS-derived NKT cells produce IFN-γ in vitro and in vivo upon

  16. The orally active and bioavailable ATR kinase inhibitor AZD6738 potentiates the anti-tumor effects of cisplatin to resolve ATM-deficient non-small cell lung cancer in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendetti, Frank P; Lau, Alan; Schamus, Sandra; Conrads, Thomas P; O'Connor, Mark J; Bakkenist, Christopher J

    2015-12-29

    ATR and ATM are DNA damage signaling kinases that phosphorylate several thousand substrates. ATR kinase activity is increased at damaged replication forks and resected DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). ATM kinase activity is increased at DSBs. ATM has been widely studied since ataxia telangiectasia individuals who express no ATM protein are the most radiosensitive patients identified. Since ATM is not an essential protein, it is widely believed that ATM kinase inhibitors will be well-tolerated in the clinic. ATR has been widely studied, but advances have been complicated by the finding that ATR is an essential protein and it is widely believed that ATR kinase inhibitors will be toxic in the clinic. We describe AZD6738, an orally active and bioavailable ATR kinase inhibitor. AZD6738 induces cell death and senescence in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. AZD6738 potentiates the cytotoxicity of cisplatin and gemcitabine in NSCLC cell lines with intact ATM kinase signaling, and potently synergizes with cisplatin in ATM-deficient NSCLC cells. In contrast to expectations, daily administration of AZD6738 and ATR kinase inhibition for 14 consecutive days is tolerated in mice and enhances the therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin in xenograft models. Remarkably, the combination of cisplatin and AZD6738 resolves ATM-deficient lung cancer xenografts.

  17. 2-methoxyestradiol-mediated anti-tumor effect increases osteoprotegerin expression in osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedikt, Michaela B; Mahlum, Eric W; Shogren, Kristen L; Subramaniam, Malayannan; Spelsberg, Thomas C; Yaszemski, Michael J; Maran, Avudaiappan

    2010-04-01

    Osteosarcoma is a bone tumor that frequently develops during adolescence. 2-Methoxyestradiol (2-ME), a naturally occurring metabolite of 17beta-estradiol, induces cell cycle arrest and cell death in human osteosarcoma cells. To investigate whether the osteoprotegrin (OPG) protein plays a role in 2-ME actions, we studied the effect of 2-ME treatment on OPG gene expression in human osteosarcoma cells. 2-ME treatment induced OPG gene promoter activity and mRNA levels. Also, Western blot analysis showed that 2-ME treatment increased OPG protein levels in MG63, KHOS, 143B and LM7 osteosarcoma cells by 3-, 1.9-, 2.8-, and 2.5-fold, respectively, but did not affect OPG expression in normal bone cells. In addition, increases in OPG protein levels were observed in osteosarcoma cell culture media after 3 days of 2-ME treatment. The effect of 2-ME on osteosarcoma cells was ligand-specific as parent estrogen, 17beta-estradiol and a tumorigenic estrogen metabolite, 16alpha-hydroxyestradiol, which do not affect osteosarcoma cell cycle and cell death, had no effect on OPG protein expression. Furthermore, co-treating osteosarcoma cells with OPG protein did not further enhance 2-ME-mediated anti-tumor effects. OPG-released in 2-ME-treated cultures led to an increase in osteoblastic activity and a decrease in osteoclast number, respectively. These findings suggest that OPG is not directly involved in 2-ME-mediated anti-proliferative effects in osteosarcoma cells, but rather participates in anti-resorptive functions of 2-ME in bone tumor environment. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Bovine lactoferrin binds oleic acid to form an anti-tumor complex similar to HAMLET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Bing; Zhang, Ming; Tian, Mai; Jiang, Lu; Guo, Hui Yuan; Ren, Fa Zheng

    2014-04-04

    α-Lactalbumin (α-LA) can bind oleic acid (OA) to form HAMLET-like complexes, which exhibited highly selective anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Considering the structural similarity to α-LA, we conjectured that lactoferrin (LF) could also bind OA to obtain a complex with anti-tumor activity. In this study, LF-OA was prepared and its activity and structural changes were compared with α-LA-OA. The anti-tumor activity was evaluated by methylene blue assay, while the apoptosis mechanism was analyzed using flow cytometry and Western blot. Structural changes of LF-OA were measured by fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism. The interactions of OA with LF and α-LA were evaluated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). LF-OA was obtained by heat-treatment at pH8.0 with LD50 of 4.88, 4.95 and 4.62μM for HepG2, HT29, and MCF-7 cells, respectively, all of which were 10 times higher than those of α-LA-OA. Similar to HAMLET, LF-OA induced apoptosis in tumor cells through both death receptor- and mitochondrial-mediated pathways. Exposure of tryptophan residues and the hydrophobic regions as well as the loss of tertiary structure were observed in LF-OA. Besides these similarities, LF showed different secondary structure changes when compared with α-LA, with a decrease of α-helix and β-turn and an increase of β-sheet and random coil. ITC results showed that there was a higher binding number of OA to LF than to α-LA, while both of the proteins interacted with OA through van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds. This study provides a theoretical basis for further exploration of protein-OA complexes. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Two photon microscopy intravital study of DC-mediated anti-tumor response of NK cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccia, Michele; Gorletta, Tatiana; Sironi, Laura; Zanoni, Ivan; Salvetti, Cristina; Collini, Maddalena; Granucci, Francesca; Chirico, Giuseppe

    2010-02-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that dendritic cells (DCs) play a crucial role in the activation of Natural Killer cells (NKs) that are responsible for anti-tumor innate immune responses. The focus of this report is on the role of pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) activated-DCs in inducing NK cell-mediated anti-tumor responses. Mice transplanted sub-cute (s.c.) with AK7 cells, a mesothelioma cell line sensitive to NK cell responses, are injected with fluorescent NK cells and DC activation is then induced by s.c. injection of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Using 4 dimensional tracking we follow the kinetic behavior of NK cells at the Draining Lymph-Node (DLN). As control, noninflammatory conditions are also evaluated. Our data suggest that NK cells are recruited to the DLN where they can interact with activated-DCs with a peculiar kinetic behavior: short lived interactions interleaved by rarer longer ones. We also found that the changes in the NK dynamic behavior in inflammatory conditions clearly affect relevant motility parameters such as the instantaneous and average velocity and the effective diffusion coefficient. This observation suggests that NK cells and activated-DCs might efficiently interact in the DLN, where cells could be activated. Therefore the interaction between activated-DCs and NK cells in DLN is not only a reality but it may be also crucial for the start of the immune response of the NKs.

  20. 13-methyltetradecanoic acid exhibits anti-tumor activity on T-cell lymphomas in vitro and in vivo by down-regulating p-AKT and activating caspase-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Cai

    Full Text Available 13-Methyltetradecanoic acid (13-MTD, a saturated branched-chain fatty acid purified from soy fermentation products, induces apoptosis in human cancer cells. We investigated the inhibitory effects and mechanism of action of 13-MTD on T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (T-NHL cell lines both in vitro and in vivo. Growth inhibition in response to 13-MTD was evaluated by the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8 assay in three T-NHL cell lines (Jurkat, Hut78, EL4 cells. Flow cytometry analyses were used to monitor the cell cycle and apoptosis. Proteins involved in 13-MTD-induced apoptosis were examined in Jurkat cells by western blotting. We found that 13-MTD inhibited proliferation and induced the apoptosis of T-NHL cell lines. 13-MTD treatment also induced a concentration-dependent arrest of Jurkat cells in the G1-phase. During 13-MTD-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells, the cleavage of caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, a caspase enzymolysis product were detected after incubation for 2 h, and increased after extending the incubation time. However, there was no change in the expression of Bcl-2 or c-myc proteins. The appearance of apoptotic Jurkat cells was accompanied by the inhibition of AKT and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB phosphorylation. In addition, 13-MTD could also effectively inhibit the growth of T-NHL tumors in vivo in a xenograft model. The tumor inhibition rate in the experimental group was 40%. These data indicate that 13-MTD inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis through the down-regulation of AKT phosphorylation followed by caspase activation, which may provide a new approach for treating T-cell lymphomas.

  1. How Does Ionizing Irradiation Contribute to the Induction of Anti-Tumor Immunity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubner, Yvonne; Wunderlich, Roland; Rühle, Paul-Friedrich; Kulzer, Lorenz; Werthmöller, Nina; Frey, Benjamin; Weiss, Eva-Maria; Keilholz, Ludwig; Fietkau, Rainer; Gaipl, Udo S.

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) with ionizing irradiation is commonly used to locally attack tumors. It induces a stop of cancer cell proliferation and finally leads to tumor cell death. During the last years it has become more and more evident that besides a timely and locally restricted radiation-induced immune suppression, a specific immune activation against the tumor and its metastases is achievable by rendering the tumor cells visible for immune attack. The immune system is involved in tumor control and we here outline how RT induces anti-inflammation when applied in low doses and contributes in higher doses to the induction of anti-tumor immunity. We especially focus on how local irradiation induces abscopal effects. The latter are partly mediated by a systemic activation of the immune system against the individual tumor cells. Dendritic cells are the key players in the initiation and regulation of adaptive anti-tumor immune responses. They have to take up tumor antigens and consecutively present tumor peptides in the presence of appropriate co-stimulation. We review how combinations of RT with further immune stimulators such as AnnexinA5 and hyperthermia foster the dendritic cell-mediated induction of anti-tumor immune responses and present reasonable combination schemes of standard tumor therapies with immune therapies. It can be concluded that RT leads to targeted killing of the tumor cells and additionally induces non-targeted systemic immune effects. Multimodal tumor treatments should therefore tend to induce immunogenic tumor cell death forms within a tumor microenvironment that stimulates immune cells.

  2. How does ionizing irradiation contribute to the induction of anti-tumor immunity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne eRubner

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy (RT with ionizing irradiation is commonly used to locally attack tumors. It induces a stop of cancer cell proliferation and finally leads to tumor cell death. During the last years it has become more and more evident that besides a timely and locally restricted radiation-induced immune suppression, a specific immune activation against the tumor and its metastases is achievable by rendering the tumor cells visible for immune attack. The immune system is involved in tumor control and we here outline how RT induces anti-inflammation when applied in low doses and contributes in higher doses to the induction of anti-tumor immunity. We especially focus on how local irradiation induces abscopal effects. The latter are partly mediated by a systemic activation of the immune system against the individual tumor cells. Dendritic cells are the key players in the initiation and regulation of adaptive anti-tumor immune responses. They have to take up tumor antigens and consecutively present tumor peptides in the presence of appropriate co-stimulation. We review how combinations of RT with further immune stimulators such as AnnexinA5 and hyperthermia foster the dendritic cell-mediated induction of anti-tumor immune responses and present reasonable combination schemes of standard tumor therapies with immune therapies. It can be concluded that RT leads to targeted killing of the tumor cells and additionally induces non-targeted systemic immune effects. Multimodal tumor treatments should therefore tend to induce immunogenic tumor cell death forms within a tumor microenvironment that stimulates immune cells.

  3. Enhancing the Anti-tumor Activity of ErbB Blockers with Histone Deaccetylase(HDAC)Inhibition in Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chinnaiyan, Prakash; Harari, Paul M

    2007-01-01

    .... Continuing work with additional prostate cancer cell lines and examining other biologic end-points, including cell cycle kinetics, angiogenesis, and invasion. Promising results will then be evaluated in vivo.

  4. Anti-tumor effects of an engineered 'killer' transfer RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Dong-hui [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Lee, Jiyoung; Frankenberger, Casey [Ben May Department for Cancer Research, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Geslain, Renaud, E-mail: rgeslain@depaul.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Department of Biology, DePaul University, Chicago, IL 60614 (United States); Rosner, Marsha, E-mail: m-rosner@uchicago.edu [Ben May Department for Cancer Research, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Pan, Tao, E-mail: taopan@uchicago.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNA with anti-cancer effects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNA induced protein misfolding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNA as anti-tumor agent. -- Abstract: A hallmark of cancer cells is their ability to continuously divide; and rapid proliferation requires increased protein translation. Elevating levels of misfolded proteins can elicit growth arrest due to ER stress and decreased global translation. Failure to correct prolonged ER stress eventually results in cell death via apoptosis. tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) is an engineered human tRNA{sup Ser} with an anticodon coding for isoleucine. Here we test the possibility that tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) can be an effective killing agent of breast cancer cells and can effectively inhibit tumor-formation in mice. We found that tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) exert strong effects on breast cancer translation activity, cell viability, and tumor formation. Translation is strongly inhibited by tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) in both tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells. tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) significantly decreased the number of viable cells over time. A short time treatment with tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) was sufficient to eliminate breast tumor formation in a xenograft mouse model. Our results indicate that tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) can inhibit breast cancer metabolism, growth and tumor formation. This RNA has strong anti-cancer effects and presents an opportunity for its development into an anti-tumor agent. Because tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) corrupts the protein synthesis mechanism that is an integral component of the cell, it would be extremely difficult for tumor cells to evolve and develop resistance against this anti-tumor agent.

  5. Anti-tumor effects of an engineered “killer” transfer RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Dong-hui; Lee, Jiyoung; Frankenberger, Casey; Geslain, Renaud; Rosner, Marsha; Pan, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► tRNA with anti-cancer effects. ► tRNA induced protein misfolding. ► tRNA as anti-tumor agent. -- Abstract: A hallmark of cancer cells is their ability to continuously divide; and rapid proliferation requires increased protein translation. Elevating levels of misfolded proteins can elicit growth arrest due to ER stress and decreased global translation. Failure to correct prolonged ER stress eventually results in cell death via apoptosis. tRNA Ser (AAU) is an engineered human tRNA Ser with an anticodon coding for isoleucine. Here we test the possibility that tRNA Ser (AAU) can be an effective killing agent of breast cancer cells and can effectively inhibit tumor-formation in mice. We found that tRNA Ser (AAU) exert strong effects on breast cancer translation activity, cell viability, and tumor formation. Translation is strongly inhibited by tRNA Ser (AAU) in both tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells. tRNA Ser (AAU) significantly decreased the number of viable cells over time. A short time treatment with tRNA Ser (AAU) was sufficient to eliminate breast tumor formation in a xenograft mouse model. Our results indicate that tRNA Ser (AAU) can inhibit breast cancer metabolism, growth and tumor formation. This RNA has strong anti-cancer effects and presents an opportunity for its development into an anti-tumor agent. Because tRNA Ser (AAU) corrupts the protein synthesis mechanism that is an integral component of the cell, it would be extremely difficult for tumor cells to evolve and develop resistance against this anti-tumor agent.

  6. CYP24A1 inhibition facilitates the anti-tumor effect of vitamin D3 on colorectal cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kósa, János P; Horváth, Péter; Wölfling, János; Kovács, Dóra; Balla, Bernadett; Mátyus, Péter; Horváth, Evelin; Speer, Gábor; Takács, István; Nagy, Zsolt; Horváth, Henrik; Lakatos, Péter

    2013-01-01

    AIM: The effects of vitamin D3 have been investigated on various tumors, including colorectal cancer (CRC). 25-hydroxyvitamin-D3-24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1), the enzyme that inactivates the active vitamin D3 metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-D3), is considered to be the main enzyme determining the biological half-life of 1,25-D3. During colorectal carcinogenesis, the expression and concentration of CYP24A1 increases significantly, suggesting that this phenomenon could be responsible for the proposed efficacy of 1,25-D3 in the treatment of CRC. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-tumor effects of vitamin D3 on the human CRC cell line Caco-2 after inhibition of the cytochrome P450 component of CYP24A1 activity. METHODS: We examined the expression of CYP24A1 mRNA and the effects of 1,25-D3 on the cell line Caco-2 after inhibition of CYP24A1. Cell viability and proliferation were determined by means of sulforhodamine-B staining and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, respectively, while cytotoxicity was estimated via the lactate dehydrogenase content of the cell culture supernatant. CYP24A1 expression was measured by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. A number of tetralone compounds were synthesized to investigate their CP24A1 inhibitory activity. RESULTS: In response to 1,25-D3, CYP24A1 mRNA expression was enhanced significantly, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Caco-2 cell viability and proliferation were not influenced by the administration of 1,25-D3 alone, but were markedly reduced by co-administration of 1,25-D3 and KD-35, a CYP24A1-inhibiting tetralone. Our data suggest that the mechanism of action of co-administered KD-35 and 1,25-D3 does not involve a direct cytotoxic effect, but rather the inhibition of cell proliferation. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that the selective inhibition of CYP24A1 by compounds such as KD-35 may be a new approach for enhancement of the anti-tumor effect of 1,25-D3 on CRC. PMID

  7. Experimental study on anti-tumor effect of pcEgr-IFNγ gene-radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Congmei; Li Xiuyi; Liu Shuzheng

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the anti-tumor effect of IFN γ gene-radiotherapy to murine melanoma and its immunologic mechanism. Methods: pcEgr-IFNγ plasmids were injected locally into tumor, and 36 hours later, the tumors were given 20 Gy X-ray irradiation. Tumor growth at different time, IFN γ expression 3 days later and immunologic indexes 15 days later were detected. Results: At 3-15 days after pcEgr-IFNγ gene-radiotherapy, the tumor growth rate was lower than that of irradiation alone group. It was also lower than that of gene therapy alone group and control plasmid combined with X-ray irradiation group significantly. Day 3 tumor IFN γ expression was higher than that of plasmid treatment alone group. NK activity, IL-2 and IFN γ secretion activities were higher than those of gene therapy alone and irradiation alone groups significantly. Conclusion: The antitumor effect of IFN γ gene-radiotherapy is better than that of either of them applied solely. Its mechanism might be concerned with the higher expression of IFN γ induced by irradiation in tumors and activation of anti-tumor immunologic functions

  8. Development and Characterization of a Humanized Anti-HER2 Antibody HuA21 with Potent Anti-Tumor Properties in Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruilin Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 is one of the most studied tumor-associated antigens for cancer immunotherapy. An engineered anti-HER-2 chimeric A21 antibody (chA21 is a chimeric antibody targeted to subdomain I of the HER2 extracellular domain. Here, we report the anti-tumor activity of the novel engineered monoclonal antibody humanized chA21 (HuA21 that targets HER2 on the basis of chA21, and we describe the underlying mechanisms. Our results reveal that HuA21 markedly inhibits the proliferation and migration of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells and causes enhanced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity potency against HER2-overexpressing tumor cells. In particular, HuA21, but not trastuzumab (Tra, markedly suppresses growth and enhances the internalization of the antibody in Tra-resistant BT-474 breast cancer cells. These characteristics are highly associated with the intrinsic ability of HuA21 to down-regulate HER2 activation and inhibit the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 and protein kinase B (Akt signaling pathways. Furthermore, the combination of HuA21 with Tra synergistically enhances the anti-tumor effects in vitro and in vivo and inhibits HER2 activation and the ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways. Altogether, our results suggest that HuA21 may represent a unique anti-HER2 antibody with potential as a therapeutic candidate alone or in combination with other anti-HER2 reagents in cancer therapy.

  9. Possible stimulation of anti-tumor immunity using repeated cold stress: a hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoja Sasa

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phenomenon of hormesis, whereby small amounts of seemingly harmful or stressful agents can be beneficial for the health and lifespan of laboratory animals has been reported in literature. In particular, there is accumulating evidence that daily brief cold stress can increase both numbers and activity of peripheral cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells, the major effectors of adaptive and innate tumor immunity, respectively. This type of regimen (for 8 days has been shown to improve survival of mice infected with intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which would also be consistent with enhanced cell-mediated immunity. Presentation of the hypothesis This paper hypothesizes that brief cold-water stress repeated daily over many months could enhance anti-tumor immunity and improve survival rate of a non-lymphoid cancer. The possible mechanism of the non-specific stimulation of cellular immunity by repeated cold stress appears to involve transient activation of the sympathetic nervous system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axes, as described in more detail in the text. Daily moderate cold hydrotherapy is known to reduce pain and does not appear to have noticeable adverse effects on normal test subjects, although some studies have shown that it can cause transient arrhythmias in patients with heart problems and can also inhibit humoral immunity. Sudden immersion in ice-cold water can cause transient pulmonary edema and increase permeability of the blood-brain barrier, thereby increasing mortality of neurovirulent infections. Testing the hypothesis The proposed procedure is an adapted cold swim (5–7 minutes at 20 degrees Celsius, includes gradual adaptation to be tested on a mouse tumor model. Mortality, tumor size, and measurements of cellular immunity (numbers and activity of peripheral CD8+ T lymphocytes and natural killer cells of the cold-exposed group would be compared to

  10. Strategies to Genetically Modulate Dendritic Cells to Potentiate Anti-Tumor Responses in Hematologic Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelisa M. Cornel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cell (DC vaccination has been investigated as a potential strategy to target hematologic malignancies, while generating sustained immunological responses to control potential future relapse. Nonetheless, few clinical trials have shown robust long-term efficacy. It has been suggested that a combination of surmountable shortcomings, such as selection of utilized DC subsets, DC loading and maturation strategies, as well as tumor-induced immunosuppression may be targeted to maximize anti-tumor responses of DC vaccines. Generation of DC from CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs may provide potential in patients undergoing allogeneic HSPC transplantations for hematologic malignancies. CD34+ HSPC from the graft can be genetically modified to optimize antigen presentation and to provide sufficient T cell stimulatory signals. We here describe beneficial (gene-modifications that can be implemented in various processes in T cell activation by DC, among which major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I and MHC class II presentation, DC maturation and migration, cross-presentation, co-stimulation, and immunosuppression to improve anti-tumor responses.

  11. MicroRNA-22 impairs anti-tumor ability of dendritic cells by targeting p38.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Liang

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs play a critical role in triggering anti-tumor immune responses. Their intracellular p38 signaling is of great importance in controlling DC activity. In this study, we identified microRNA-22 (miR-22 as a microRNA inhibiting p38 protein expression by directly binding to the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR of its mRNA. The p38 down-regulation further interfered with the synthesis of DC-derived IL-6 and the differentiation of DC-driven Th17 cells. Moreover, overexpression of miR-22 in DCs impaired their tumor-suppressing ability while miR-22 inhibitor could reverse this phenomenon and improve the curative effect of DC-based immunotherapy. Thus, our results highlight a suppressive role for miR-22 in the process of DC-invoked anti-tumor immunity and that blocking this microRNA provides a new strategy for generating potent DC vaccines for patients with cancer.

  12. Optimization of production of anti-tumor l-asparaginase by free and immobilized marine Aspergillus terreus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida M. Farag

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available l-asparaginase plays a vital role in medical application, particularly in treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia as an effective anti-tumor agent. In the present study, twenty-one fungal strains were isolated from marine environment of the Red Sea coasts of Egypt. Screening for fungal l-asparaginase production was done, and only five fungal strains were selected and identified as Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. The most potent fungal isolate was Aspergillus terreus which yielded the highest l-asparaginase specific activity (4.81 U/mg protein. The highest enzyme productivity was observed on the 5th day and the optimized fermentation parameters were pH 6.0, temperature 35 °C. The yield was also high up on using dextrose and asparagine (8.26 U/mg protein as carbon and nitrogen sources. The cultural conditions were studied using the Plackett–Burman experimental design. Immobilization using A. terreus adsorbed on sponge enhanced the enzyme production by 1.33-fold compared to the conventional free-cells. Repeated reuse of the adsorbed cells achieved the maximum enzyme specific activity after three cycles (33.86 U/mg protein.

  13. Exceptionally potent anti-tumor bystander activity of an scFv : sTRAIL fusion protein with specificity for EGP2 toward target antigen-negative tumor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, E; Samplonius, D; Kroesen, BJ; van Genne, L; de Leij, L; Helfrich, W

    2004-01-01

    Previously, we reported on the target cell-restricted fratricide apoptotic activity of scFvC54:sTRAIL, a fusion protein comprising human-soluble tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) genetically linked to the antibody fragment scFvC54 specific for the cell surface target

  14. Antisense oligonucleotides and all-trans retinoic acid have a synergistic anti-tumor effect on oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Qin; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Wantao

    2008-01-01

    Antisense oligonucleotides against hTR (As-ODN-hTR) have shown promising results as treatment strategies for various human malignancies. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a signalling molecule with important roles in differentiation and apoptosis. Biological responses to ATRA are currently used therapeutically in various human cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-tumor effects of As-ODN-hTR combined with ATRA in vivo. In situ human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) models were established by subcutaneous injection of Tca8113 cells. Mice were treated with sense oligonucleotides against hTR(S-ODN-hTR) alone, As-ODN-hTR alone, ATRA alone, As-ODN-hTR plus ATRA, or S-ODN-hTR plus ATRA. Tumor size and weight were assessed in the mice. Telomerase activity was detected by a TRAP assay, apoptotic cells were evaluated with a Tunel assay, the expression of apoptosis-related proteins (Bcl-2 and Bax) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural morphological changes in the tumor specimen were examined. Both As-ODN-hTR and ATRA can significantly inhibit tumor growth in this OSCC xenograft solid-tumor model, and the combination of the two agents had a synergistic anti-tumorogenic effect. We also demonstrated that this anti-tumor effect correlated with inhibition of telomerase activity. Furthermore, significant increases in the number of apoptotic cells, typical apoptotic morphology and a downregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein, bcl-2 were observed in the treated tissues. The combination of As-ODN-hTR and ATRA has a synergistic anti-tumor effect. This anti-tumor effect can be mainly attributed to apoptosis induced by a decrease in telomerase activity. Bcl-2 plays an important role in this process. Therefore, combining As-ODN-hTR and ATRA may be an approach for the treatment of human oral squamous cell carcinoma

  15. Anti-tumor activity of high-dose EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor and sequential docetaxel in wild type EGFR non-small cell lung cancer cell nude mouse xenografts

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Ning; Zhang, Qianqian; Fang, Shu; Han, Xiao; Wang, Zhehai

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is still a challenge. This study explored antitumor activity of high-dose icotinib (an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor) plus sequential docetaxel against wild-type EGFR NSCLC cells-generated nude mouse xenografts. Nude mice were subcutaneously injected with wild-type EGFR NSCLC A549 cells and divided into different groups for 3-week treatment. Tumor xenograft volumes were monitored and record...

  16. Isolation and Assessment of the in Vitro Anti-Tumor Activity of Smenothiazole A and B, Chlorinated Thiazole-Containing Peptide/Polyketides from the Caribbean Sponge, Smenospongia aurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana Esposito

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the secondary metabolites contained in the organic extract of Caribbean sponge Smenospongia aurea led to the isolation of smenothiazole A (3 and B (4, hybrid peptide/polyketide compounds. Assays performed using four solid tumor cell lines showed that smenothiazoles exert a potent cytotoxic activity at nanomolar levels, with selectivity over ovarian cancer cells and a pro-apoptotic mechanism.

  17. IB-11PSEUDO-PROGRESSION (PsdPg) IS A HARBINGER OF A MORE EFFECTIVE ANTI-TUMOR RESPONSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturla, Lisa; Donahue, John; Machan, Jason; Delamonte, Suzanne; Jeyapalan, Suriya

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: PsdPg is the increased contrast enhancement, high choline/creatine ratio and increased perfusion observed in the residual tumor bed of high-grade glioma patients after completion of temozolomide/radiation. It resolves within 3-6 months and incidence ranges from 10 - 31%. Though correlated with longer patient survival, its pathological basis is unclear. We used a cytokine/chemokine focused approach to compare the tumor microenvironment in pre- and post-treatment tumor tissue from patients with PsdPg to patients with true progression (TP). METHODS: We obtained pre-treatment formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue from 35 GBM patients and post-treatment FFPE tissue from five patients with PsdPg and TP. A quantitative PCR array and custom Quantigene 2.0 multiplex was used to quantify gene expression corresponding to major cytokines/chemokines. An 18-gene signature was used to determine the macrophage polarization score (cumulative M2-associated cytokine expression - cumulative M1-associated cytokine expression). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to confirm significantly different targets at the protein level. RESULTS: IHC revealed 7-fold higher B-cell infiltration in TP patients as compared to patients with PsdPg (p = 0.003). Macrophage and T-cell infiltration were not significantly different between the two groups. Nevertheless, the cytokines associated with macrophage polarization indicated pro-tumorigenic (M2) polarization in TP patients while PsdPg patients exhibited classical anti-tumorigenic (M1) polarization. TP patients had a 10-fold higher M2 score (p = 0.03) compared to PsdPg patients. The M1 score of tissue from PsdPg patients post-treatment was 25-fold higher than their pre-treatment tissue (p = 0.01). Analysis of a 7-gene signature associated with natural killer (NK) cell recruitment and activation showed a 8-fold higher expression in pre-treatment tissue from PsdPg patients compared to TP patients (p = 0.009) suggesting that NK cells

  18. Anti-tumor activity of high-dose EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor and sequential docetaxel in wild type EGFR non-small cell lung cancer cell nude mouse xenografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Zhang, Qianqian; Fang, Shu; Han, Xiao; Wang, Zhehai

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is still a challenge. This study explored antitumor activity of high-dose icotinib (an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor) plus sequential docetaxel against wild-type EGFR NSCLC cells-generated nude mouse xenografts. Nude mice were subcutaneously injected with wild-type EGFR NSCLC A549 cells and divided into different groups for 3-week treatment. Tumor xenograft volumes were monitored and recorded, and at the end of experiments, tumor xenografts were removed for Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. Compared to control groups (negative control, regular-dose icotinib [IcoR], high-dose icotinib [IcoH], and docetaxel [DTX]) and regular icotinib dose (60 mg/kg) with docetaxel, treatment of mice with a high-dose (1200 mg/kg) of icotinib plus sequential docetaxel for 3 weeks (IcoH-DTX) had an additive effect on suppression of tumor xenograft size and volume (P Icotinib-containing treatments markedly reduced phosphorylation of EGFR, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), and protein kinase B (Akt), but only the high-dose icotinib-containing treatments showed an additive effect on CD34 inhibition (P icotinib plus docetaxel had a similar effect on mouse weight loss (a common way to measure adverse reactions in mice), compared to the other treatment combinations. The study indicate that the high dose of icotinib plus sequential docetaxel (IcoH-DTX) have an additive effect on suppressing the growth of wild-type EGFR NSCLC cell nude mouse xenografts, possibly through microvessel density reduction. Future clinical trials are needed to confirm the findings of this study. PMID:27852073

  19. Polypeptide-based nanogels co-encapsulating a synergistic combination of doxorubicin with 17-AAG show potent anti-tumor activity in ErbB2-driven breast cancer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desale, Swapnil S; Raja, Srikumar M; Kim, Jong Oh; Mohapatra, Bhopal; Soni, Kruti S; Luan, Haitao; Williams, Stetson H; Bielecki, Timothy A; Feng, Dan; Storck, Matthew; Band, Vimla; Cohen, Samuel M; Band, Hamid; Bronich, Tatiana K

    2015-06-28

    ErbB2-driven breast cancers constitute 20-25% of the cases diagnosed within the USA. The humanized anti-ErbB2 monoclonal antibody, Trastuzumab (Herceptin™; Genentech), with chemotherapy is the current standard of treatment. Novel agents and strategies continue to be explored, given the challenges posed by Trastuzumab-resistance development in most patients. The HSP90 inhibitor, 17-allylaminodemethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), which induces ErbB2 degradation and attenuates downstream oncogenic signaling, is one such agent that showed significant promise in early phase I and II clinical trials. Its low water solubility, potential toxicities and undesirable side effects observed in patients, partly due to the Cremophor-based formulation, have been discouraging factors in the advancement of this promising drug into clinical use. Encapsulation of 17-AAG into polymeric nanoparticle formulations, particularly in synergistic combination with conventional chemotherapeutics, represents an alternative approach to overcome these problems. Herein, we report an efficient co-encapsulation of 17-AAG and doxorubicin, a clinically well-established and effective modality in breast cancer treatment, into biodegradable and biocompatible polypeptide-based nanogels. Dual drug-loaded nanogels displayed potent cytotoxicity in a breast cancer cell panel and exerted selective synergistic anticancer activity against ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancer cell lines. Analysis of ErbB2 degradation confirmed efficient 17-AAG release from nanogels with activity comparable to free 17-AAG. Furthermore, nanogels containing both 17-AAG and doxorubicin exhibited superior antitumor efficacy in vivo in an ErbB2-driven xenograft model compared to the combination of free drugs. These studies demonstrate that polypeptide-based nanogels can serve as novel nanocarriers for encapsulating 17-AAG along with other chemotherapeutics, providing an opportunity to overcome solubility issues and thereby exploit its full

  20. 磷脂组成对马钱子碱隐形脂质体药剂学性质与抗肿瘤作用的影响%Effect of phospholipid composition on pharmaceutical properties and anti-tumor activity of stealth liposomes containing brucine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明磊; 陈军; 侯婷; 方芸; 孙巍巍; 胡蓉蓉; 蔡宝昌

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the pharmaceutical properties and the anti-tumor activities of three kinds of stealth liposomes prepared with different phospholipid composition containing brucine.Method: Stealth liposomes with different phospholipids composition, such as soybean phosphatidycholine (SPC) ,hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine (HSPC) and the complex of SPC and HSPC, were prepared by ammonium sulfate transmembrane gradient method.Pharmaceutical properties such as shape, encapsulation efficiency and size of three stealth liposomes were compared intensively.Anti-tumor activity of SPC, HSPC and novel stealth liposomes composed of both SPC and HSPC were compared by established mouse liver cancer H22 model.Meanwhile, the mice body weight and immune organ weight were also compared.Result: The encapsulation efficiency of novel, SPC and HSPC stealth liposomes were 77.7% ,64.8%and 74.8% ,respectively.The mean diameters of them were less than 100 nm.The tumor inhibition rate of novel,HSPC and SPC stealth liposomes were 57.88% ,49.15%, 23.37% ,respectively.The mice body weight,thymns gland index of three stealth liposomes group and spleen index of novel stealth liposomes group had no significant difference with the negative group while SPC and HSPC stealth liposomes group increased the spleen index.Conclusion: Phospholipids composition is the key factor which determines the antitumor activity of brucine-loaded stealth liposomes.%目的:比较3种不同磷脂组成的马钱子碱隐形脂质体的药剂学性质以及抗肿瘤作用.方法:采用硫酸铵梯度法和隐形脂质体技术制备马钱子碱氢化大豆磷脂(hydrogenated soybean phoaphatidylcholine,HSPC)、大豆磷脂(soybean phosphati-dylcholine,SPC)、复合磷脂(SPC-HSPC 3:1)隐形脂质体,考察其形态学、粒径、包封率等药剂学性质.建立小鼠移植性肝癌H22模型,测定3种不同磷脂组成马钱子碱隐形脂质体的抑瘤率,并比较各组荷瘤小鼠的体重

  1. Plasticity of gamma delta T cells: impact on the anti-tumor response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie eLafont

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The tumor immune microenvironment contributes to tumor initiation, progression and response to therapy. Among the immune cell subsets that play a role in the tumor microenvironment, innate-like T cells that express T cell receptors composed of gamma and delta chains (gamma delta T cells are of particular interest. gamma delta T cells can contribute to the immune response against many tumor types (lymphoma, myeloma, melanoma, breast, colon, lung, ovary and prostate cancer directly through their cytotoxic activity and indirectly by stimulating or regulating the biological functions of other cell types required for the initiation and establishment of the anti-tumor immune response, such as dendritic cells and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. However, the notion that tumor-infiltrating gamma delta T cells are a good prognostic marker in cancer was recently challenged by studies showing that the presence of these cells in the tumor microenvironment was associated with poor prognosis in both breast and colon cancer. These findings suggest that gamma delta T cells may also display pro-tumor activities. Indeed, breast tumor-infiltrating gamma deltaT cells could exert an immunosuppressive activity by negatively regulating DC maturation. Furthermore, recent studies demonstrated that signals from the microenvironment, particularly cytokines, can confer some plasticity to gamma delta T cells and promote their differentiation into gamma delta T cells with regulatory functions. This review focuses on the current knowledge on the functional plasticity of gamma delta T cells and its effect on their anti-tumor activities. It also discusses the putative mechanisms underlying gamma delta T cell expansion, differentiation and recruitment in the tumor microenvironment.

  2. Culture of Dendritic Cells in vitro and Its Anti-tumor Immonotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwen ZHOU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Immunocompromised patients with malignant tumor always lack of strong anti-tumor immune response, because the antigenicity of tumor cells is weak, and antigen-presenting cell function is low, so that can not be effectively presenting tumor antigens to the lymphocytes. Therefore, how to effectively induce anti-tumor immune response is the key issue. Through the study on establishing a method to culture dendritic cells (DC in vitro and to observe the anti-lung cancer immunological effect induced by DC, we provided definite experiment basis for the clinic application of vaccine based on DC. Methods Through the experiment we get the soluble antigen polypeptide from lung cancer cells GLC-82 by 3 mol/L potassium chloride. DCs are cultured and obtained from peripheral blood mononuclear cell by GM-CSF, IL-4 and TNF-a. DCs are identified by flow cytometer (FCM and immunostaining. DCs modified by lung cancer tumor soluble antigen (TSA and staphylococcal enterotox in A (SEA, DCs modified by TSA or DCs modified by SEA or DCs modified by nothing were cultivated together with T lymphocyte, and the obtained cells are named TSA-SEA-DCL or TSA-DCL or SEA-DCL or DCL as effector cells. The anti-tumor activity of every effector cells against target cells was assayed with MTT method. Shape of DCs and effector cells, and the process of killing target cells were observed in microscope. Results Induced DCs expressed more CD1a, CD80 and HLA-DR, which had typical cell traits such as tree branch. The killing ratio of the TSA-SEA-DCL in vitro to GLC-82 is larger than TSA-DCL, SEA-DCL and DCL, also larger than to K562. When the effector cells cultivate with target cells, we can observe the CTL approach and gather to the cancer cell, induce it necrosis and apoptosis. Conclusion Ripe DCs that have typical characteristic and phenotype could be induced successfully. High potency and relatively specific antilung caner effect can be prepared in virtue of

  3. The Pig as a Large Animal Model for Studying Anti-Tumor Immune Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Nana Haahr

    but also generates a selective pressure, which may lead to selection of tumor cell variants with reduced immunogenicity; thereby, increasing the risk of tumor escape. Cancer immunotherapy includes treatment strategies aimed at activating anti-tumor immune responses or inhibiting suppressive and tumor......-favorable immune mechanisms. One of the promising arms of cancer immunotherapy is peptide-based therapeutic vaccines; yet, no such vaccine has been approved for use in human oncology. For many years, mouse models have provided invaluable understanding of complex immunological pathways; however, the majority...... tolerance towards IDO and the establishment of an antigen-specific cell-mediated immune (CMI) response. When comparing the different CAF09-formulated antigen doses, we demonstrate the induction of a CMI-dominant response upon exposure to a low endogenous peptide dose. In contrast, a mixed CMI and humoral...

  4. Enhancement of immunological activity after mild hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Kenichi; Hasegawa, Takeo; Takahashi, Tohru

    2002-01-01

    At present, hyperthermia is clinically very important as interdisciplinary therapeutic method, and studies are being performed on combined effects with surgical treatment, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and gene therapy for the treatment of malignant tumors. We evaluated the effects of hyperthermia under temperature of 42.5C and demonstrated that the activation of immunological response is increased and anti-tumor effect cabn be obtained in this studies. We used animals were C3H mice (male,7W) bearing SCC-VII tumor on femur skin. Then, the mice were divided to 10 mice in each group, and only femur region was immersed in warm water for thermal treatment. Also we measured the tumor growth, changes of blood cell fraction and NK cell activity. The results of the present study confirmed: (1) Anti-tumor effect can be given by thermal treatment at relatively mild temperature (mild temperature at 39C-42C); (2) The increase of neutrophils is dependent on the quantity of heat added; (3) Immunological response of monocytes and lymphocytes is associated with it; (4) Activity of the immunological potency as a whole such as activation of NK cells was also confirmed

  5. Amplexicaule A exerts anti-tumor effects by inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Guangwen; Wan, Dingrong; He, Feng; Loaec, Morgann; Ding, Yali; Li, Jun; Dovat, Sinisa; Yang, Gaungzhong; Song, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy is the main treatment for patients with breast cancer metastases, but natural alternatives have been receiving attention for their potential as novel anti-tumor reagents. Amplexicaule A (APA) is a flavonoid glucoside isolated from rhizomes of Polygonum amplexicaule D. Don var. sinense Forb (PADF). We found that APA has anti-tumor effects in a breast cancer xenograft mouse model and induces apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. APA increased levels of cleaved caspase-3,-8,-9 and PARP, which resulted from suppression of MCL-1 and BCL-2 expression in the cells. APA also inactivated the Akt/mTOR pathway in breast cancer cells. Thus, APA exerts a strong anti-tumor effect on breast cancer cells, most likely through induction of apoptosis. Our study is the first to identify this novel anti-tumor compound and provides a new strategy for isolation and separation of single compounds from herbs. PMID:26943775

  6. Amplexicaule A exerts anti-tumor effects by inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Meixian; Su, Hanwen; Shu, Guangwen; Wan, Dingrong; He, Feng; Loaec, Morgann; Ding, Yali; Li, Jun; Dovat, Sinisa; Yang, Gaungzhong; Song, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy is the main treatment for patients with breast cancer metastases, but natural alternatives have been receiving attention for their potential as novel anti-tumor reagents. Amplexicaule A (APA) is a flavonoid glucoside isolated from rhizomes of Polygonum amplexicaule D. Don var. sinense Forb (PADF). We found that APA has anti-tumor effects in a breast cancer xenograft mouse model and induces apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. APA increased levels of cleaved caspase-3,-8,-9 and ...

  7. Anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic ergosterols from Ganoderma lucidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaodan; Yong, Tianqiao; Zhang, Yifang; Su, Jiyan; Jiao, Chunwei; Xie, Yizhen

    2017-10-01

    This study was carried out to isolate chemical constituents from the lipid enriched fraction of Ganoderma lucidum extract and to evaluate their anti-proliferative effect on cancer cell lines and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Ergosterol derivatives (1-14) were isolated from the lipid enriched fraction of G. lucidum. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analyses or by comparison of mass and NMR spectral data with those reported previously. Amongst, compound 1 was isolated and identified as a new compound. All the compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effect on tumor cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro. Compounds 9-13 displayed inhibitory activity against two tumor cell lines and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, which indicated that these four compounds had both anti-tumor and anti-angiogenesis activities. Compound 2 had significant selective inhibition against two tumor cell lines, while 3 exhibited selective inhibition against human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The structure–activity relationships for inhibiting human HepG2 cells were revealed by 3D-QASR. Ergosterol content in different parts of the raw material and products of G. lucidum was quantified. This study provides a basis for further development and utilization of ergosterol derivatives as natural nutraceuticals and functional food ingredients, or as source of new potential antitumor or anti-angiogenesis chemotherapy agent.

  8. Anti-tumor effects of dehydroaltenusin, a specific inhibitor of mammalian DNA polymerase α

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Naoki; Kokai, Yasuo; Ohtani, Seiji; Sahara, Hiroeki; Kuriyama, Isoko; Kamisuki, Shinji; Takahashi, Shunya; Sakaguchi, Kengo; Sugawara, Fumio; Yoshida, Hiromi; Sato, Noriyuki; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2007-01-01

    In the screening of selective inhibitors of eukaryotic DNA polymerases (pols), dehydroaltenusin was found to be an inhibitor of pol α from a fungus (Alternaria tennuis). We succeeded in chemically synthesizing dehydroaltenusin, and the compound inhibited only mammalian pol α with IC 50 value of 0.5 μM, and did not influence the activities of other replicative pols such as pols δ and ε, but also showed no effect on pol α activity from another vertebrate, fish, or from a plant species. Dehydroaltenusin also had no influence on the other pols and DNA metabolic enzymes tested. The compound also inhibited the proliferation of human cancer cells with LD 50 values of 38.0-44.4 μM. In an in vivo anti-tumor assay on nude mice bearing solid tumors of HeLa cells, dehydroaltenusin was shown to be a promising suppressor of solid tumors. Histopathological examination revealed that increased tumor necrosis and decreased mitotic index were apparently detected by the compound in vivo. Therefore, dehydroaltenusin could be of interest as not only a mammalian pol α-specific inhibitor, but also as a candidate drug for anti-cancer treatment

  9. Zoledronic acid produces combinatory anti-tumor effects with cisplatin on mesothelioma by increasing p53 expression levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Okamoto

    Full Text Available We examined anti-tumor effects of zoledronic acid (ZOL, one of the bisphosphonates agents clinically used for preventing loss of bone mass, on human mesothelioma cells bearing the wild-type p53 gene. ZOL-treated cells showed activation of caspase-3/7, -8 and -9, and increased sub-G1 phase fractions. A combinatory use of ZOL and cisplatin (CDDP, one of the first-line anti-cancer agents for mesothelioma, synergistically or additively produced the cytotoxicity on mesothelioma cells. Moreover, the combination achieved greater anti-tumor effects on mesothelioma developed in the pleural cavity than administration of either ZOL or CDDP alone. ZOL-treated cells as well as CDDP-treated cells induced p53 phosphorylation at Ser 15, a marker of p53 activation, and up-regulated p53 protein expression levels. Down-regulation of p53 levels with siRNA however did not influence the ZOL-mediated cytotoxicity but negated the combinatory effects by ZOL and CDDP. In addition, ZOL treatments augmented cytotoxicity of adenoviruses expressing the p53 gene on mesothelioma. These data demonstrated that ZOL-mediated augmentation of p53, which was not linked with ZOL-induced cytotoxicity, played a role in the combinatory effects with a p53 up-regulating agent, and suggests a possible clinical use of ZOL to mesothelioma with anti-cancer agents.

  10. Beneficial Phytochemicals with Anti-Tumor Potential Revealed through Metabolic Profiling of New Red Pigmented Lettuces (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xiao Qin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to compare polyphenols among red lettuce cultivars and identify suitable cultivars for the development and utilization of healthy vegetables. Polyphenols, mineral elements, and antioxidant activity were analyzed in the leaves of six red pigmented lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cultivars; thereafter, we assessed the anti-tumor effects of cultivar B-2, which displayed the highest antioxidant activity. Quadrupole–Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis revealed four classes of polyphenols in these cultivars. The composition and contents of these metabolites varied significantly among cultivars and primarily depended on leaf color. The B-2 cultivar had the highest antioxidant potential than others because it contained the highest levels of polyphenols, especially anthocyanin, flavone, and phenolic acid; furthermore, this cultivar displayed anti-tumor effects against the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549, human hepatoma cell line Bel7402, human cancer colorectal adenoma cell line HCT-8, and HT-29 human colon cancer cell line. Hence, the new red-leaf lettuce cultivar B-2 has a distinct metabolite profile, with high potential for development and utilization of natural phytochemical and mineral resources in lettuces and can be used as a nutrient-dense food product.

  11. Beneficial Phytochemicals with Anti-Tumor Potential Revealed through Metabolic Profiling of New Red Pigmented Lettuces (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Ming-Yue; Han, Ying-Yan; Hao, Jing-Hong; Liu, Chao-Jie; Fan, Shuang-Xi

    2018-04-11

    The present study aimed to compare polyphenols among red lettuce cultivars and identify suitable cultivars for the development and utilization of healthy vegetables. Polyphenols, mineral elements, and antioxidant activity were analyzed in the leaves of six red pigmented lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) cultivars; thereafter, we assessed the anti-tumor effects of cultivar B-2, which displayed the highest antioxidant activity. Quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis revealed four classes of polyphenols in these cultivars. The composition and contents of these metabolites varied significantly among cultivars and primarily depended on leaf color. The B-2 cultivar had the highest antioxidant potential than others because it contained the highest levels of polyphenols, especially anthocyanin, flavone, and phenolic acid; furthermore, this cultivar displayed anti-tumor effects against the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549, human hepatoma cell line Bel7402, human cancer colorectal adenoma cell line HCT-8, and HT-29 human colon cancer cell line. Hence, the new red-leaf lettuce cultivar B-2 has a distinct metabolite profile, with high potential for development and utilization of natural phytochemical and mineral resources in lettuces and can be used as a nutrient-dense food product.

  12. An evaluation of the anti-tumor efficacy of oleanolic acid-loaded PEGylated liposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Shengnan; Gao, Dawei; Zhao, Tingting; Zhou, Jing; Zhao, Xiaoning

    2013-01-01

    The effective delivery of oleanolic acid (OA) to the target site has several benefits in therapy for different pathologies. However, the delivery of OA is challenging due to its poor aqueous solubility. The study aims to evaluate the tumor inhibition effect of the PEGylated OA nanoliposome on the U14 cervical carcinoma cell line. In our previous study, OA was successfully encapsulated into PEGylated liposome with the modified ethanol injection method. Oral administration of PEGylated OA liposome was demonstrated to be more efficient in inhibiting xenograft tumors. The results of organ index indicated that PEG liposome exhibited higher anti-tumor activity and lower cytotoxicity. It was also found that OA and OA liposomes induced tumor cell apoptosis detected by flow cytometry. Furthermore, effects of OA on the morphology of tumor and other tissues were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The histopathology sections did not show pathological changes in kidney or liver in tested mice. In contrast, there was a significant difference in tumor tissues between treatment groups and the negative control group. These observations imply that PEGylated liposomes seem to have advantages for cancer therapy in terms of effective delivery of OA. (paper)

  13. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Furozan-Based Nitric Oxide-Releasing Derivatives of Oridonin as Potential Anti-Tumor Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Cai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To search for novel nitric oxide (NO releasing anti-tumor agents, a series of novel furoxan/oridonin hybrids were designed and synthesized. Firstly, the nitrate/nitrite levels in the cell lysates were tested by a Griess assay and the results showed that these furoxan-based NO-releasing derivatives could produce high levels of NO in vitro. Then the anti-proliferative activity of these hybrids against four human cancer cell lines was also determined, among which, 9h exhibited the most potential anti-tumor activity with IC50 values of 1.82 µM against K562, 1.81 µM against MGC-803 and 0.86 µM against Bel-7402, respectively. Preliminary structure-activity relationship was concluded based on the experimental data obtained. These results suggested that NO-donor/natural product hybrids may provide a promising approach for the discovery of novel anti-tumor agents.

  14. Role of Tertiary Lymphoid Structures (TLS) in Anti-Tumor Immunity: Potential Tumor-Induced Cytokines/Chemokines that Regulate TLS Formation in Epithelial-Derived Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenta, Erica M. [Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences, New Jersey Medical School-Cancer Center, Newark, NJ 07103 (United States); Barnes, Betsy J., E-mail: barnesbe@njms.rutgers.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences, New Jersey Medical School-Cancer Center, Newark, NJ 07103 (United States)

    2014-04-23

    Following the successes of monoclonal antibody immunotherapies (trastuzumab (Herceptin{sup ®}) and rituximab (Rituxan{sup ®})) and the first approved cancer vaccine, Provenge{sup ®} (sipuleucel-T), investigations into the immune system and how it can be modified by a tumor has become an exciting and promising new field of cancer research. Dozens of clinical trials for new antibodies, cancer and adjuvant vaccines, and autologous T and dendritic cell transfers are ongoing in hopes of identifying ways to re-awaken the immune system and force an anti-tumor response. To date, however, few consistent, reproducible, or clinically-relevant effects have been shown using vaccine or autologous cell transfers due in part to the fact that the immunosuppressive mechanisms of the tumor have not been overcome. Much of the research focus has been on re-activating or priming cytotoxic T cells to recognize tumor, in some cases completely disregarding the potential roles that B cells play in immune surveillance or how a solid tumor should be treated to maximize immunogenicity. Here, we will summarize what is currently known about the induction or evasion of humoral immunity via tumor-induced cytokine/chemokine expression and how formation of tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) within the tumor microenvironment may be used to enhance immunotherapy response.

  15. Role of Tertiary Lymphoid Structures (TLS in Anti-Tumor Immunity: Potential Tumor-Induced Cytokines/Chemokines that Regulate TLS Formation in Epithelial-Derived Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica M. Pimenta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Following the successes of monoclonal antibody immunotherapies (trastuzumab (Herceptin® and rituximab (Rituxan® and the first approved cancer vaccine, Provenge® (sipuleucel-T, investigations into the immune system and how it can be modified by a tumor has become an exciting and promising new field of cancer research. Dozens of clinical trials for new antibodies, cancer and adjuvant vaccines, and autologous T and dendritic cell transfers are ongoing in hopes of identifying ways to re-awaken the immune system and force an anti-tumor response. To date, however, few consistent, reproducible, or clinically-relevant effects have been shown using vaccine or autologous cell transfers due in part to the fact that the immunosuppressive mechanisms of the tumor have not been overcome. Much of the research focus has been on re-activating or priming cytotoxic T cells to recognize tumor, in some cases completely disregarding the potential roles that B cells play in immune surveillance or how a solid tumor should be treated to maximize immunogenicity. Here, we will summarize what is currently known about the induction or evasion of humoral immunity via tumor-induced cytokine/chemokine expression and how formation of tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS within the tumor microenvironment may be used to enhance immunotherapy response.

  16. The Elastin Receptor Complex: a unique matricellular receptor with high anti-tumoral potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine eScandolera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Elastin, one of the longest-lived proteins, confers elasticity to tissues with high mechanical constraints. During aging or pathophysiological conditions such as cancer progression, this insoluble polymer of tropoelastin undergoes an important degradation leading to the release of bioactive elastin-derived peptides (EDP, named elastokines. EDP exhibit several biological functions able to drive tumor development by regulating cell proliferation, invasion, survival, angiogenesis, and matrix metalloproteinase expression in various tumor and stromal cells. Although several receptors have been suggested to bind elastokines (αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins, galectin-3, their main receptor remains the Elastin Receptor Complex (ERC. This heterotrimer comprises a peripheral subunit, named Elastin Binding Protein (EBP, associated to the Protective Protein/Cathepsin A (PPCA. The latter is bound to a membrane-associated protein called Neuraminidase-1 (Neu-1. The pro-tumoral effects of elastokines have been linked to their binding onto EBP. Additionally, Neu-1 sialidase activity is essential for their signal transduction. Consistently, EDP-EBP interaction and Neu-1 activity emerge as original anti-tumoral targets. Interestingly, besides its direct involvement in cancer progression, the ERC also regulates diabetes outcome and thrombosis, an important risk factor for cancer development and a vascular process highly increased in patients suffering from cancer. In this review, we will describe ERC and elastokines involvement in cancer development suggesting that this unique receptor would be a promising therapeutic target. We will also discuss the pharmacological concepts aiming at blocking its pro-tumoral activities. Finally, its emerging role in cancer-associated complications and pathologies such as diabetes and thrombotic events will be also considered.

  17. Evaluation of Anti-tumor and Chemoresistance-lowering Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Anti-tumor and Chemoresistance-lowering Effects of Pectolinarigenin from Cirsium japonicum Fisch ex DC in Breast Cancer. Mingqian Lu, Xinhua Xu, Hongda Lu, Zhongxin Lu, Bingqing Xu, Chao Tan, Kezhi Shi, Rong Guo, Qingzhi Kong ...

  18. Anti-tumor potential of total alkaloid extract of Prosopis juliflora DC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total alkaloid extract from Prosopis juliflora DC. leaves was obtained using acid/base modified extraction method. The in vitro anti-tumor potential of the extract was evaluated using MTT (3-(4,5- dimethythiazol-2yl)2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) based cytotoxicity monitoring after 24, 48 and 72 h exposure of the ...

  19. The effect of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents on postoperative anastomotic complications in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Hussuna, Alaa Abdul-Hussein H; Krag, Aleksander; Olaison, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Patients with Crohn's disease treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents may have an increased risk of surgical complications.......Patients with Crohn's disease treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents may have an increased risk of surgical complications....

  20. Anti-tumor effect of low dose radiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Zhengping; Lu Jiaben; Zhu Bingchai

    1997-01-01

    The author reports the effects of the total body irradiation of low dose radiation (LDR) and/or the local irradiation of large dose on average tumor weights and tumor inhibitory rates in 170 mice inoculated S 180 sarcoma cell, and the influence of LDR on average longevity in 40 tumor-bearing animals. Results show (1) LDR in the range of 75∼250 mGy can inhibit tumor growth to some extent; (2) fractionated irradiation of 75 mGy and local irradiation of 10 Gy may produce a synergism in tumor growth inhibition; and (3)LDR may enhance average longevity in ascitic tumor-bearing mice

  1. Multiseed liposomal drug delivery system using micelle gradient as driving force to improve amphiphilic drug retention and its anti-tumor efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenli; Li, Caibin; Jin, Ya; Liu, Xinyue; Wang, Zhiyu; Shaw, John P; Baguley, Bruce C; Wu, Zimei; Liu, Jianping

    2018-11-01

    To improve drug retention in carriers for amphiphilic asulacrine (ASL), a novel active loading method using micelle gradient was developed to fabricate the ASL-loaded multiseed liposomes (ASL-ML). The empty ML were prepared by hydrating a thin film with empty micelles. Then the micelles in liposomal compartment acting as 'micelle pool' drove the drug to be loaded after the outer micelles were removed. Some reasoning studies including critical micelle concentration (CMC) determination, influencing factors tests on entrapment efficiency (EE), structure visualization, and drug release were carried out to explore the mechanism of active loading, ASL location, and the structure of ASL-ML. Comparisons were made between pre-loading and active loading method. Finally, the extended drug retention capacity of ML was evaluated through pharmacokinetic, drug tissue irritancy, and in vivo anti-tumor activity studies. Comprehensive results from fluorescent and transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation, encapsulation efficiency (EE) comparison, and release studies demonstrated the formation of ML-shell structure for ASL-ML without inter-carrier fusion. The location of drug mainly in inner micelles as well as the superiority of post-loading to the pre-loading method , in which drug in micelles shifted onto the bilayer membrane was an additional positive of this delivery system. It was observed that the drug amphiphilicity and interaction of micelles with drug were the two prerequisites for this active loading method. The extended retention capacity of ML has been verified through the prolonged half-life, reduced paw-lick responses in rats, and enhanced tumor inhibition in model mice. In conclusion, ASL-ML prepared by active loading method can effectively load drug into micelles with expected structure and improve drug retention.

  2. Repeated cycles of 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy impaired anti-tumor functions of cytotoxic T cells in a CT26 tumor-bearing mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanhong; Deng, Zhenling; Wang, Huiru; Ma, Wenbo; Zhou, Chunxia; Zhang, Shuren

    2016-09-20

    Recently, the immunostimulatory roles of chemotherapeutics have been increasingly revealed, although bone marrow suppression is still a common toxicity of chemotherapy. While the numbers and ratios of different immune subpopulations are analyzed after chemotherapy, changes to immune status after each cycle of treatment are less studied and remain unclear. To determine the tumor-specific immune status and functions after different cycles of chemotherapy, we treated CT26 tumor-bearing mice with one to four cycles of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Overall survival was not improved when more than one cycle of 5-FU was administered. Here we present data concerning the immune statuses after one and three cycles of chemotherapy. We analyzed the amount of spleen cells from mice treated with one and three cycles of 5-FU as well as assayed their proliferation and cytotoxicity against the CT26 tumor cell line. We found that the absolute numbers of CD8 T-cells and NK cells were not influenced significantly after either one or three cycles of chemotherapy. However, after three cycles of 5-FU, proliferated CD8 T-cells were decreased, and CT26-specific cytotoxicity and IFN-γ secretion of spleen cells were impaired in vitro. After one cycle of 5-FU, there was a greater percentage of tumor infiltrating CD8 T-cells. In addition, more proliferated CD8 T-cells, enhanced tumor-specific cytotoxicity as well as IFN-γ secretion of spleen cells against CT26 in vitro were observed. Given the increased expression of immunosuppressive factors, such as PD-L1 and TGF-β, we assessed the effect of early introduction of immunotherapy in combination with chemotherapy. We found that mice treated with cytokine induced killer cells and PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies after one cycle of 5-FU had a better anti-tumor performance than those treated with chemotherapy or immunotherapy alone. These data suggest that a single cycle of 5-FU treatment promoted an anti-tumor immune response, whereas repeated chemotherapy

  3. Anti-tumor effects of flavonoids from the ethnic medicine Docynia delavayi (Franch.) Schneid. and its possible mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xukun; Zhao, Xiangpei; Lan, Zhou; Jiang, Jie; Yin, Wu; Chen, Lvyi

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the active components and the anti-tumor efficacy and mechanisms of the flavonoids from Docynia delavayi (Franch.) Schneid. (DDS). MTT assay was used to examine the growth inhibitory effects of the four flavonoids, including chrysin, quercetin, naringenin, and avicularin that were isolated from the rhizome of DDS, on human hematomas cell (HepG2), esophageal carcinoma cell (EC109), human cervical adenocarcinoma cell (Hela), human colon adenocarcinoma cell (SW480), and African green monkey kidney cell (Vero cells). The anti-tumor mechanism of chrysin on HepG2 was further investigated by the methods of fluorescence staining, flow cytometry, and immunoblotting. The results showed that the inhibitory activity of chrysin was much stronger than the other three flavonoids on HepG2, EC109, Hela, and SW480 cells for 48 h treatment in vitro. Moreover, no inhibiting effect of chrysin on the proliferation of normal cells (Vero cells) was observed. Further study revealed that chrysin caused HepG2 cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, and apoptotic body formation, all of which were typical characteristics of apoptosis programmed cell death. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that chrysin increased the sub G0/G1 population, which indicated the increased cell apoptosis, thus preventing cells from entering the S phase as the population in G2/M or S phase declined; whereas in G0/G1 phase, it increased. In addition, immunoblot results showed that chrysin significantly increased the expression levels of caspase-3 and Bax proteins, and it decreased the expression level of B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (Bcl-2) protein. These findings indicate that chrysin is the major flavonoid present in DDS, and it induces HepG2 cell death via apoptosis, probably through the participation of caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 proteins.

  4. Predictive Biomarkers for Bevacizumab in Anti-tumor Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing PAN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Bevacizumab, the monoclonal antibody of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF has been applied to the therapy of several neoplasms, but an appropriate biomarker to predict the efficacy has not been found. Those markers can originate from peripheral circulation, tumor tissue and genes. Some researches have found that low level of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, E-selectin, angiopoietin 2 (Ang-2 in circulation or carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9, CD31-microvessel density (CD31-MVD in tumor tissue can predict better activity of bevacizumab. Moreover, high level of soluble VEGFR2 (sVEGFR2 in circulation or the ratio of phosphorylated-VEGFR2 (p-VEGFR2 and VEGFR2 in tumor tissue increasing has the same predictive function. As to the gene, VEGF-634 CC, VEGF-1498 TT and VEGFR2 H472Q are only related to the side effct. Thus more clinical tirals and basic researches should be performed to find out effective biomarkers in bevacizumab’s therapy.

  5. Anti-tumor effects of a novel chimeric peptide on S180 and H22 xenografts bearing nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongdong; Gao, Yanfeng; Chen, Lixiang; Qi, Yuanming; Kang, Qiaozhen; Wang, Haili; Zhu, Linyu; Ye, Yong; Zhai, Mingxia

    2010-05-01

    In recent years, many endogenous peptides have been identified by screening combinatory phage display peptide library, which play important roles in the process of angiogenesis. A heptapeptide, ATWLPPR, binds specifically to NRP-1 and selectively inhibits VEGF165 binding to VEGFR-2. Another heptapeptide, NLLMAAS, blocks both Ang-1 and Ang-2 binding to Tie-2 in a dose-dependent manner. In the present study, we aimed to connect ATWLPPR (V1) with NLLMAAS (V2) via a flexible linker, Ala-Ala, to reconstruct a novel peptide ATWLPPRAANLLMAAS (V3). We firstly investigated the anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic effects of peptide V3 on sarcoma S180 and hepatoma H22 bearing BALB/c nude mice. Mice were continuously subcutaneously administrated with normal saline, V1 (320microg/kg/d), V2 (320microg/kg/d), V1+V2 (320microg/kg/d), and V3 (160, 320 and 480microg/kg/d), for 7 days. Treatment with peptide V3 could significantly reduce the tumor weight and volume. Pathological examination showed that the tumors treated with peptide V3 had a larger region of necrosis than that of peptide V1, V2, and V1+V2 at the same dose. A significant decrease of microvessel density (MVD) in a dose-dependent manner was observed in each group of peptide V3. The results of pathological examination on normal tissue, lung, heart, liver, spleen, kidney and white blood cells showed that peptide V3 might have no significant toxicity. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that peptide V3 could be more effective on inhibiting tumor growth and angiogenesis than that of V1, V2, and V1+V2. Peptide V3 could be considered as a novel chimeric peptide with potent anti-tumor activity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Depletion of tumor-associated macrophages switches the epigenetic profile of pancreatic cancer infiltrating T cells and restores their anti-tumor phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgoni, Simone; Iannello, Andrea; Cutrupi, Santina; Allavena, Paola; D'Incalci, Maurizio; Novelli, Francesco; Cappello, Paola

    2018-01-01

    Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDA) is characterized by a complex tumor microenvironment that supports its progression, aggressiveness and resistance to therapies. The delicate interplay between cancer and immune cells creates the conditions for PDA development, particularly due to the functional suppression of T cell anti-tumor effector activity. However, some of the mechanisms involved in this process are still poorly understood. In this study, we analyze whether the functional and epigenetic profile of T cells that infiltrate PDA is modulated by the microenvironment, and in particular by tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). CD4 and CD8 T cells obtained from mice orthotopically injected with syngeneic PDA cells, and untreated or treated with Trabectedin, a cytotoxic drug that specifically targets TAMs, were sorted and analyzed by flow cytometry and characterized for their epigenetic profile. Assessment of cytokine production and the epigenetic profile of genes coding for IL10, T-bet and PD1 revealed that T cells that infiltrated PDA displayed activated Il10 promoter and repressed T-bet activity, in agreement with their regulatory phenotype (IL10 high /IFNγ low , PD1 high ). By contrast, in Trabectedin-treated mice, PDA-infiltrating T cells displayed repressed Il10 and Pdcd1 and activated T-bet promoter activity, in accordance with their anti-tumor effector phenotype (IL10 low /IFNγ high ), indicating a key role of TAMs in orchestrating functions of PDA-infiltrating T cells by modulating their epigenetic profile towards a pro-tumoral phenotype. These results suggest the targeting of TAMs as an efficient strategy to obtain an appropriate T cell anti-tumor immune response and open new potential combinations for PDA treatment.

  7. Proton pump inhibitors while belonging to the same family of generic drugs show different anti-tumor effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugini, Luana; Federici, Cristina; Borghi, Martina; Azzarito, Tommaso; Marino, Maria Lucia; Cesolini, Albino; Spugnini, Enrico Pierluigi; Fais, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    Tumor acidity represents a major cause of chemoresistance. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) can neutralize tumor acidity, sensitizing cancer cells to chemotherapy. To compare the anti-tumor efficacy of different PPIs in vitro and in vivo. In vitro experiments PPIs anti-tumor efficacy in terms of cell proliferation and cell death/apoptosis/necrosis evaluation were performed. In vivo PPIs efficacy experiments were carried out using melanoma xenograft model in SCID mice. Lansoprazole showed higher anti-tumor effect when compared to the other PPIs. The lansoprazole effect lasted even upon drug removal from the cell culture medium and it was independent from the lipophilicity of the PPIs formulation. These PPIs have shown different anti-tumoral efficacy, and the most effective at low dose was lansoprazole. The possibility to contrast tumor acidity by off-label using PPIs opens a new field of oncology investigation.

  8. Anti-tumor effects of (1→3)-β-d-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in S180 tumor-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Li; Chen, Yafei; Li, Wenjian; Guo, Shuai; Wang, Xuzhao; An, Hailong; Zhan, Yong

    2017-02-01

    (1→3)-β-d-Glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a typical polysaccharide with various biological effects and is considered a candidate for the prevention and treatment of cancer in vitro. Research into the function of (1→3)-β-d-glucan in tumor-bearing animals in vivo, however, is limited. Here, we investigated the effects of (1→3)-β-d-glucan from S. cerevisiae on S180 tumor-bearing mice and on the immunity of the tumor-bearing host. The molecular mechanisms underlying the observed effects were investigated. (1→3)-β-d-Glucan was shown to exert anti-tumor effects without toxicity in normal mouse cells. The volume and weight of S180 tumors decreased dramatically following treatment with (1→3)-β-d-glucan, and treatment with the polysaccharide was furthermore shown to increase the tumor inhibition rate in a dose-dependent manner. Spleen index, T lymphocyte subsets (CD 4 and CD 8 ), as well as interleukins (IL)-2, (IL-2, IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α were assayed to detect the immunoregulatory and anti-tumor effects after (1→3)-β-d-glucan intragastrical administration. (1→3)-β-d-Glucan was shown to significantly potentiate the mouse immune responses by, among other effects, decreasing the ratio of CD 4 to CD 8 . The expression levels of IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α were also significantly increased by (1→3)-β-d-glucan. These results suggest that (1→3)-β-d-glucan enhances the host's immune function during the tumor inhibition process. S180 tumor cells treated with (1→3)-β-d-glucan also exhibited significant apoptotic characteristics. (1→3)-β-d-glucan increased the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 at the translation level by up-regulating Bax expression and down-regulating Bcl-2 expression, resulting in the initiation of cell apoptosis in S180 tumor-bearing mice. Taken together, these results indicate that the anti-tumor effects exerted by (1→3)-β-d-glucan may be attributed to the polysaccharide's immunostimulating properties and apoptosis

  9. A New in Vitro Anti-Tumor Polypeptide Isolated from Arca inflata

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    Jian Xu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A new in vitro anti-tumor polypeptide, coded as J2-C3, was isolated from Arca inflata Reeve and purified by diethyl-aminoethanol (DEAE-sepharose Fast Flow anion exchange and phenyl sepharose CL-4B hydrophobic chromatography. J2-C3 was identified to be a homogeneous compound by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Native-PAGE. The purity of J2-C3 was over 99% in reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. The molecular weight was determined as 20,538.0 Da by electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS. J2-C3 was rich in Glx (Gln + Glu, Lys, and Asx (Asp + Asn according to amino acid analysis. Four partial amino acid sequences of this peptide were determined as L/ISMEDVEESR, KNGMHSI/LDVNHDGR, AMKI/LI/LNPKKGI/LVPR and AMGAHKPPKGNEL/IGHR via MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and de novo sequencing. Secondary structural analysis by CD spectroscopy revealed that J2-C3 had the α-helix (45.2%, β-sheet (2.9%, β-turn (26.0% and random coil (25.9%. The anti-tumor effect of J2-C3 against human tumor cells was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay, and the IC50 values of J2-C3 were 65.57, 93.33 and 122.95 µg/mL against A549, HT-29 and HepG2 cell lines, respectively. Therefore, J2-C3 might be developed as a potential anti-tumor agent.

  10. Mechanical disruption of tumors by iron particles and magnetic field application results in increased anti-tumor immune responses.

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    Myriam N Bouchlaka

    Full Text Available The primary tumor represents a potential source of antigens for priming immune responses for disseminated disease. Current means of debulking tumors involves the use of cytoreductive conditioning that impairs immune cells or removal by surgery. We hypothesized that activation of the immune system could occur through the localized release of tumor antigens and induction of tumor death due to physical disruption of tumor architecture and destruction of the primary tumor in situ. This was accomplished by intratumor injection of magneto-rheological fluid (MRF consisting of iron microparticles, in Balb/c mice bearing orthotopic 4T1 breast cancer, followed by local application of a magnetic field resulting in immediate coalescence of the particles, tumor cell death, slower growth of primary tumors as well as decreased tumor progression in distant sites and metastatic spread. This treatment was associated with increased activation of DCs in the draining lymph nodes and recruitment of both DCs and CD8(+T cells to the tumor. The particles remained within the tumor and no toxicities were observed. The immune induction observed was significantly greater compared to cryoablation. Further anti-tumor effects were observed when MRF/magnet therapy was combined with systemic low dose immunotherapy. Thus, mechanical disruption of the primary tumor with MRF/magnetic field application represents a novel means to induce systemic immune activation in cancer.

  11. STING activation enhances cetuximab-mediated NK cell activation and DC maturation and correlates with HPV+ status in head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shanhong; Concha-Benavente, Fernando; Shayan, Gulidanna; Srivastava, Raghvendra M; Gibson, Sandra P; Wang, Lin; Gooding, William E; Ferris, Robert L

    2018-03-01

    The intracellular DNA sensor stimulator of interferon genes (STING) has recently been shown to play a vital role in anti-viral and anti-tumor immune responses stimulating cytokine production. While human papillomavirus (HPV) is a causative agent for a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with unique etiology and clinical outcome, how the STING pathway is regulated in a virus-induced tumor microenvironment is not well understood. Since STING inactivation likely reflects immunoescape via innate immunity, we hypothesized that its restoration would improve efficacy of the immune modulatory monoclonal antibody (mAb), cetuximab. We correlated STING protein expression with clinical parameters by immunohistochemistry (n = 106) and its mRNA expression from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) in HNSCC tissue specimens. STING protein expression was tested for association with cancer-specific survival (CSS). We further examined the impact of STING activation on cetuximab-mediated immunity using an in vitro NK:DC:tumor cells co-culture system. In this study, we found that expression of STING both at the protein and mRNA level was higher in HPV positive (HPV + ) specimens but unrelated to TNM stage or cancer-specific survival. Our in vitro studies verified that STING activation enhanced cetuximab mediated NK cell activation and DC maturation. Our findings suggest a novel role of STING in HPV-related carcinogenesis, in which activation of the STING signaling pathway may facilitate anti-tumor response in HNSCC patients, particularly in combination with therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) such as cetuximab, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhanced NIF neutron activation diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeamans, C B; Bleuel, D L; Bernstein, L A

    2012-10-01

    The NIF neutron activation diagnostic suite relies on removable activation samples, leading to operational inefficiencies and a fundamental lower limit on the half-life of the activated product that can be observed. A neutron diagnostic system measuring activation of permanently installed samples could remove these limitations and significantly enhance overall neutron diagnostic capabilities. The physics and engineering aspects of two proposed systems are considered: one measuring the (89)Zr/(89 m)Zr isomer ratio in the existing Zr activation medium and the other using potassium zirconate as the activation medium. Both proposed systems could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the current system by at least a factor of 5 and would allow independent measurement of fusion core velocity and fuel areal density.

  13. Microencapsulation of anti-tumor, antibiotic and thrombolytic drugs in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R.; Mosier, Benjamin; Cassanto, John

    1994-01-01

    Encapsulation of cytotoxic or labile drugs enables targeted delivery and sustained release kinetics that are not available with intravenous injection. A new liquid-liquid diffusion process has been developed for forming unique microcapsules that contain both aqueous and hydrocarbon soluble drugs. Microgravity experiments, on sounding rockets (1989-92) and Shuttle missions STS-52 (1992) and STS-56 (1993) using an automated Materials Dispersion Apparatus, produced multi-lamellar microcapsules containing both Cis-platinum (anti-tumor drug) and iodinated poppy seed oil (a radiocontrast medium), surrounded by a polyglyceride skin. Microcapsules formed with amoxicillin (antibiotic) or urokinase (a clot dissolving enzyme), co-encapsulated with IPO, are still intact after two years. Microcapsules were formed with the drug so concentrated that crystals formed inside. Multi-layered microspheres, with both hydrophobic drug compartments, can enable diffusion of complementary drugs from the same microcapsule, e.g. antibiotics and immuno-stimulants to treat resistant infections or multiple fibrinolytic drugs to dissolve emboli. Co-encapsulation of enough radio-contrast medium enables oncologists to monitor the delivery of anti-tumor microcapsules to target tumors using computerized tomography and radiography that would track the distribution of microcapsules after release from the intra-arterial catheter. These microcapsules could have important applications in chemotheraphy of certain liver, kidney, brain and other tumors.

  14. Type I interferons as stimulators of DC-mediated cross-priming: impact on anti-tumor response

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    Giovanna eSchiavoni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Induction of potent tumor-specific cytotoxic T-cell responses is a fundamental objective in anticancer therapeutic strategies. This event requires that antigen-presenting cells (APC present tumor-associated antigens (Ag on their MHC class-I molecule, in a process termed cross-presentation. Dendritic cells (DC are particularly keen on this task and can induce the cross-priming of CD8+ T cells, when exposed to danger or inflammatory signals that stimulate their activation. Type I interferons (IFN-I, a family of long-known immunostimulatory cytokines, have been proven to produce optimal activation signal for DC-induced cross-priming. Recent in vitro and in vivo evidences have suggested that IFN-I -stimulated cross-priming by DC against tumor-associated Ag is a key mechanism for cancer immunosurveillance and may be usefully exploited to boost anti-tumor CD8+ T-cell responses. Here, we will review the cross-presentation properties of different DC subsets, with special focus on cell-associated and tumor Ag, and discuss how IFN-I can modify this function, with the aim of identifying more specific and effective strategies for improving anticancer responses.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Some New Bis-Pyrazolyl-Thiazoles Incorporating the Thiophene Moiety as Potent Anti-Tumor Agents

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    Sobhi M. Gomha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new series of 1,4-bis(1-(5-(aryldiazenylthiazol-2-yl-5-(thiophen-2-yl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-3-ylbenzenes 3a–i were synthesized via reaction of 5,5′-(1,4-phenylenebis(3-(thiophen-2-yl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carbothioamide (1 with hydrazonoyl halides 2a–i. In addition, reaction of 1 with ethyl chloroacetate afforded bis-thiazolone derivative 8 as the end product. Reaction of compound 8 with methyl glyoxalate gave bis-thiazolone derivative 10. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic evidences and their alternative syntheses. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their anti-tumor activities against hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 cell lines, and the results revealed promising activities of compounds 3g, 5e, 3e, 10, 5f, 3i, and 3f with IC50 equal 1.37 ± 0.15, 1.41 ± 0.17, 1.62 ± 0.20, 1.86 ± 0.20, 1.93 ± 0.08, 2.03 ± 0.25, and 2.09 ± 0.19 μM, respectively.

  16. Anti-tumor effects of Egr-IFN γ gene therapy combined with 125I-UdR radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jingguo; Ni Yanjun; Song Xiangfu; Li Yanyi; Yang Wei; Sun Ting; Ma Qingjie; Gao Fengtong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the anti-tumor effects of Egr-IFNγ gene therapy combined with 125 I-UdR radionuclide therapy in mice bearing H22 hepatocarcinoma and its mechanism. Methods: The recombinant plasmid pcDNAEgr-IFNγ mixed with liposome was injected into tumor. 48 h later, 370 kBq 125 I-UdR was injected into tumor. The tumor growth rates at different times were observed. After 3 d gene-radionuclide therapy, the concentration of IFNγ in cytoplasm of H22 cells and cytotoxic activities of splenic CTL of the mice in different groups were examined. Results: The tumor growth rates of pcDNAEgr-IFNγ + 125 I-UdR group were obviously lower than those of control group, 125 I-UdR group and pcDNAEgr-1 + 125 I-UdR group 6-15 d after gene-radionuclide therapy. IFNγ protein was found in cytoplasm of H22 cells in pcDNAEgr-IFNγ + 125 I-UdR group after 3 d gene-radionuclide therapy. Cytotoxic activity of splenic CTL in pcDNAEgr-IFNγ + 125 I-UdR group was significantly higher than that in the other groups (P 125 I-UdR radionuclide therapy are better than those of 125 I-UdR therapy. (authors)

  17. Lym-1 Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells Exhibit Potent Anti-Tumor Effects against B-Cell Lymphoma

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    Long Zheng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs recognizing CD19 epitopes have produced remarkable anti-tumor effects in patients with B-cell malignancies. However, cancer cells lacking recognized epitopes can emerge, leading to relapse and death. Thus, CAR T cells targeting different epitopes on different antigens could improve immunotherapy. The Lym-1 antibody targets a conformational epitope of Human Leukocyte Antigen-antigen D Related (HLA-DR on the surface of human B-cell lymphomas. Lym-1 CAR T cells were thus generated for evaluation of cytotoxic activity towards lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Human T cells from healthy donors were transduced to express a Lym-1 CAR, and assessed for epitope-driven function in culture and towards Raji xenografts in NOD-scidIL2Rgammanull (NSG mice. Lym-1 CAR T cells exhibited epitope-driven activation and lytic function against human B-cell lymphoma cell lines in culture and mediated complete regression of Raji/Luciferase-Green fluorescent protein (Raji/Luc-GFP in NSG mice with similar or better reactivity than CD19 CAR T cells. Lym-1 CAR transduction of T cells is a promising immunotherapy for patients with Lym-1 epitope positive B-cell malignancies.

  18. Anti-tumor effects of Egr-IFN gamma gene therapy combined with {sup 125}I-UdR radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jingguo, Zhao [No.403 Hospital of PLA, Dalian (China); Yanjun, Ni; Xiangfu, Song; Yanyi, Li; Wei, Yang; Ting, Sun; Qingjie, Ma; Fengtong, Gao

    2008-12-15

    Objective: To explore the anti-tumor effects of Egr-IFNgamma gene therapy combined with {sup 125}I-UdR radionuclide therapy in mice bearing H22 hepatocarcinoma and its mechanism. Methods: The recombinant plasmid pcDNAEgr-IFNgamma mixed with liposome was injected into tumor. 48 h later, 370 kBq {sup 125}I-UdR was injected into tumor. The tumor growth rates at different times were observed. After 3 d gene-radionuclide therapy, the concentration of IFNgamma in cytoplasm of H22 cells and cytotoxic activities of splenic CTL of the mice in different groups were examined. Results: The tumor growth rates of pcDNAEgr-IFNgamma + {sup 125}I-UdR group were obviously lower than those of control group, {sup 125}I-UdR group and pcDNAEgr-1 + {sup 125}I-UdR group 6-15 d after gene-radionuclide therapy. IFNgamma protein was found in cytoplasm of H22 cells in pcDNAEgr-IFNgamma + {sup 125}I-UdR group after 3 d gene-radionuclide therapy. Cytotoxic activity of splenic CTL in pcDNAEgr-IFNgamma + {sup 125}I-UdR group was significantly higher than that in the other groups (P<0.01). Conclusions: The anti-tumor effects in vivo of pcDNAEgr-IFNgamma gene therapy combined with {sup 125}I-UdR radionuclide therapy are better than those of {sup 125}I-UdR therapy. (authors)

  19. Anti-tumoral effect of the mitochondrial target domain of Noxa delivered by an engineered Salmonella typhimurium.

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    Jae-Ho Jeong

    Full Text Available Bacterial cancer therapy relies on the fact that several bacterial species are capable of targeting tumor tissue and that bacteria can be genetically engineered to selectively deliver therapeutic proteins of interest to the targeted tumors. However, the challenge of bacterial cancer therapy is the release of the therapeutic proteins from the bacteria and entry of the proteins into tumor cells. This study employed an attenuated Salmonella typhimurium to selectively deliver the mitochondrial targeting domain of Noxa (MTD as a potential therapeutic cargo protein, and examined its anti-cancer effect. To release MTD from the bacteria, a novel bacterial lysis system of phage origin was deployed. To facilitate the entry of MTD into the tumor cells, the MTD was fused to DS4.3, a novel cell-penetrating peptide (CPP derived from a voltage-gated potassium channel (Kv2.1. The gene encoding DS4.3-MTD and the phage lysis genes were placed under the control of PBAD , a promoter activated by L-arabinose. We demonstrated that DS4.3-MTD chimeric molecules expressed by the Salmonellae were anti-tumoral in cultured tumor cells and in mice with CT26 colon carcinoma.

  20. Hydrogel-PLGA delivery system prolongs 2-methoxyestradiol-mediated anti-tumor effects in osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maran, Avudaiappan; Dadsetan, Mahrokh; Buenz, Colleen M; Shogren, Kristen L; Lu, Lichun; Yaszemski, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    Osteosarcoma is a bone tumor that affects children and young adults. 2-Methoxyestradiol (2-ME), a naturally occurring estrogen metabolite, kills osteosarcoma cells, but does not affect normal osteoblasts. In order to effectively target osteosarcoma and improve the therapeutic index of the drug 2-ME, we have encapsulated 2-ME in a composite of oligo-(polyethylene glycol) fumarate (OPF) hydrogel and poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres and investigated the effect of polymer composition on 2-ME release kinetics and osteosarcoma cell survival. The in vitro study shows that 2-ME can be released in a controlled manner over 21-days. The initial burst releases observed on day 1 were 50% and 32% for OPF and OPF/PLGA composites, respectively. The extended release kinetics show that 100% of the encapsulated 2-ME is released by day 12 from OPF, whereas the OPF/PLGA composites showed a release of 85% on day 21. 2-ME released from the polymers was biologically active and blocked osteosarcoma cell proliferation in vitro. Also, comparison of 2-ME delivery in osteosarcoma cells in culture, shows that direct treatment has no effect after 3 days, whereas polymer-mediated delivery produces anti-tumor effects that could be sustained for 21 days. These findings show that the OPF and PLGA polymeric system may prove to be useful in controlled and sustained delivery of 2-ME and could be further explored in the treatment of osteosarcoma. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A novel compound NSC745885 exerts an anti-tumor effect on tongue cancer SAS cells in vitro and in vivo.

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    Yuan-Wu Chen

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is a prevalent cancer, especially in developing countries. Anthracyclines and their anthraquinone derivatives, such as doxorubicin, exhibit a cell growth inhibitory effect and have been used as anti-cancer drugs for many years. However, the cardiotoxicity of anthracycline antibiotics is a major concern in their clinical application. NSC745885 is a novel compound synthesized from 1,2-diaminoanthraquinone, which subsequently reacts with thionyl chloride and triethylamine. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-oral cancer potential and the safety of NSC745885.We investigated the anti-cancer potential of NSC745885 in oral squamous carcinoma cell lines and in an in vivo oral cancer xenograft mouse model. The expression of apoptotic related genes were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR and western bloting, and the in vivo assessment of apoptotic marker were measured by immunohistochemical staining. The anti-tumor efficiency and safety between doxorubicin and NSC745885 were also compared.Our results demonstrated that NSC745885 exhibits anti-oral cancer activity through the induction of apoptosis in cancer cells and in tumor-bearing mice, and this treatment did not induce marked toxicity in experimental mice. This compound also exhibits a comparable anti-tumor efficiency and a higher safety in experimental mice when compared to doxorubicin.The data of this study provide evidence for NSC745885 as a potential novel therapeutic drug for the treatment of human OSCC.

  2. Fatal infections in older patients with inflammatory bowel disease on anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy

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    Way-Seah Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF is highly effective in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; however, it is associated with an increased risk of infections, particularly in older adults. We reviewed 349 patients with IBD, who were observed over a 12-month period, 74 of whom had received anti-TNF therapy (71 patients were aged <60 years and 3 were aged ≥60 years. All the 3 older patients developed serious infectious complications after receiving anti-TNFs, although all of them were also on concomitant immunosuppressive therapy. One patient developed disseminated tuberculosis, another patient developed cholera diarrhea followed by nosocomial pneumonia, while the third patient developed multiple opportunistic infections (Pneumocystis pneumonia, cryptococcal septicemia and meningitis, Klebsiella septicemia. All 3 patients died within 1 year from the onset of the infection(s. We recommend that anti-TNF, especially when combined with other immunosuppressive therapy, should be used with extreme caution in older adult patients with IBD.

  3. Mechanisms Underlying the Anti-Aging and Anti-Tumor Effects of Lithocholic Bile Acid

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    Anthony Arlia-Ciommo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bile acids are cholesterol-derived bioactive lipids that play essential roles in the maintenance of a heathy lifespan. These amphipathic molecules with detergent-like properties display numerous beneficial effects on various longevity- and healthspan-promoting processes in evolutionarily distant organisms. Recent studies revealed that lithocholic bile acid not only causes a considerable lifespan extension in yeast, but also exhibits a substantial cytotoxic effect in cultured cancer cells derived from different tissues and organisms. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the robust anti-aging and anti-tumor effects of lithocholic acid have emerged. This review summarizes the current knowledge of these mechanisms, outlines the most important unanswered questions and suggests directions for future research.

  4. Vaccination with Necroptotic Cancer Cells Induces Efficient Anti-tumor Immunity

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    Tania Løve Aaes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful immunogenic apoptosis in experimental cancer therapy depends on the induction of strong host anti-tumor responses. Given that tumors are often resistant to apoptosis, it is important to identify alternative molecular mechanisms that elicit immunogenic cell death. We have developed a genetic model in which direct dimerization of FADD combined with inducible expression of RIPK3 promotes necroptosis. We report that necroptotic cancer cells release damage-associated molecular patterns and promote maturation of dendritic cells, the cross-priming of cytotoxic T cells, and the production of IFN-γ in response to tumor antigen stimulation. Using both FADD-dependent and FADD-independent RIPK3 induction systems, we demonstrate the efficient vaccination potential of immunogenic necroptotic cells. Our study broadens the current concept of immunogenic cell death and opens doors for the development of new strategies in cancer therapy.

  5. Saponin-based adjuvants create a highly effective anti-tumor vaccine when combined with in situ tumor destruction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brok, M.H.M.G.M. den; Nierkens, S.; Wagenaars, J.A.L.; Ruers, T.J.M.; Schrier, C.C.; Rijke, E.O.; Adema, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Today's most commonly used microbial vaccines are essentially composed of antigenic elements and a non-microbial adjuvant, and induce solid amounts of antibodies. Cancer vaccines mostly aim to induce anti-tumor CTL-responses, which require cross-presentation of tumor-derived antigens by dendritic

  6. GADD45ß, an anti-tumor gene, inhibits avian leukosis virus subgroup J replication in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is a retrovirus that induces neoplasia, hepatomegaly, immunosuppression and poor performance in chickens. The tumorigenic and pathogenic mechanisms of ALV-J remain a hot topic. To explore anti-tumor genes that confer genetic resistance to ALV-J infection in ch...

  7. Rheumatoid arthritis risk allele PTPRC is also associated with response to anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cui, Jing; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Thomson, Brian; Padyukov, Leonid; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H. M.; Nititham, Joanne; Hughes, Laura B.; de Vries, Niek; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Alfredsson, Lars; Askling, Johan; Wedrén, Sara; Ding, Bo; Guiducci, Candace; Wolbink, Gert Jan; Crusius, J. Bart A.; van der Horst-Bruinsma, Irene E.; Herenius, Marieke; Weinblatt, Michael E.; Shadick, Nancy A.; Worthington, Jane; Batliwalla, Franak; Kern, Marlena; Morgan, Ann W.; Wilson, Anthony G.; Isaacs, John D.; Hyrich, Kimme; Seldin, Michael F.; Moreland, Larry W.; Behrens, Timothy W.; Allaart, Cornelia F.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Huizinga, Tom W. J.; Tak, Paul P.; Bridges, S. Louis; Toes, Rene E. M.; Barton, Anne; Klareskog, Lars; Gregersen, Peter K.; Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Plenge, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF) therapy is a mainstay of treatment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of the present study was to test established RA genetic risk factors to determine whether the same alleles also influence the response to anti-TNF therapy. METHODS: A total

  8. Composition and mechanism of anti-tumor effects of Hericium erinaceus mushroom extracts in tumor-bearing mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated anti-tumor effects of the following four extracts of freeze-dried Hericium erinaceus mushrooms in Balb/c mice intracutaneously transplanted on the backs with CT-26 colon cancer cells: HWE, hot-water extraction by boiling in water for 3 h; MWE, microwaving in 50% ethanol/water at 60 W...

  9. CS2164, a novel multi-target inhibitor against tumor angiogenesis, mitosis and chronic inflammation with anti-tumor potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You; Shan, Song; Li, Zhi-Bin; Xin, Li-Jun; Pan, De-Si; Yang, Qian-Jiao; Liu, Ying-Ping; Yue, Xu-Peng; Liu, Xiao-Rong; Gao, Ji-Zhou; Zhang, Jin-Wen; Ning, Zhi-Qiang; Lu, Xian-Ping

    2017-03-01

    Although inhibitors targeting tumor angiogenic pathway have provided improvement for clinical treatment in patients with various solid tumors, the still very limited anti-cancer efficacy and acquired drug resistance demand new agents that may offer better clinical benefits. In the effort to find a small molecule potentially targeting several key pathways for tumor development, we designed, discovered and evaluated a novel multi-kinase inhibitor, CS2164. CS2164 inhibited the angiogenesis-related kinases (VEGFR2, VEGFR1, VEGFR3, PDGFRα and c-Kit), mitosis-related kinase Aurora B and chronic inflammation-related kinase CSF-1R in a high potency manner with the IC 50 at a single-digit nanomolar range. Consequently, CS2164 displayed anti-angiogenic activities through suppression of VEGFR/PDGFR phosphorylation, inhibition of ligand-dependent cell proliferation and capillary tube formation, and prevention of vasculature formation in tumor tissues. CS2164 also showed induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest and suppression of cell proliferation in tumor tissues through the inhibition of Aurora B-mediated H3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, CS2164 demonstrated the inhibitory effect on CSF-1R phosphorylation that led to the suppression of ligand-stimulated monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation and reduced CSF-1R + cells in tumor tissues. The in vivo animal efficacy studies revealed that CS2164 induced remarkable regression or complete inhibition of tumor growth at well-tolerated oral doses in several human tumor xenograft models. Collectively, these results indicate that CS2164 is a highly selective multi-kinase inhibitor with potent anti-tumor activities against tumor angiogenesis, mitosis and chronic inflammation, which may provide the rationale for further clinical assessment of CS2164 as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of cancer. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  10. Maspin Enhances the Anticancer Activity of Curcumin in Hormone-refractory Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wan-Li; Huang, Chien-Yu; Tai, Cheng-Jeng; Chang, Yu-Jia; Hung, Chin-Sheng

    2018-02-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy remains the principal treatment for patients with advanced prostate cancer, though, most patients will eventually develop hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). Androgen ablation mediated maspin-induction has been identified in cancer patients. However, the role of maspin on the anticancer activity of curcumin derived from turmeric (Curcuma longa) in HRPC cells has not been elucidated. The anticancer action of curcumin in hormone-independent prostate cancer cells (DU145, and PC-3) was determined by measures of cell survival rate. The cause of maspin silencing on the anti-tumor abilities of curcumin in PC-3 cells was evaluated by measures of cell survival rate, cell-cycle distribution, and apoptosis signaling analysis. Our present study showed that PC-3 cells (with higher maspin expression) were more sensitive than DU145 cells to curcumin treatment (with lower maspin expression). RNA interference-mediated maspin silencing reduced curcumin sensitivity of PC-3 cells, as evidenced by reduced apoptotic cell death. After exposure to curcumin, maspin-knockdown cells showed lower expression levels of pro-apoptotic proteins, Bad and Bax, as compared with control cells. Maspin can enhance the sensitivity of HRPC cells to curcumin treatment. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-tumor effects of brucine immuno-nanoparticles on hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin JM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Jian-Min Qin1, Pei-Hao Yin1, Qi Li1, Zhong-Qiu Sa1, Xia Sheng1, Lin Yang1, Tao Huang1, Min Zhang1, Ke-Pan Gao2, Qing-Hua Chen2, Jing-Wei Ma3, He-Bai Shen31Department of General Surgery, Putuo Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2National Pharmaceutical Engineering Research Center; Shanghai Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry, 3Department of Physical Chemistry, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: Hepatocellular carcinoma is difficult to diagnose early, and most patients are already in the late stages of the disease when they are admitted to hospital. The total 5-year survival rate is less than 5%. Recent studies have showed that brucine has a good anti-tumor effect, but high toxicity, poor water solubility, short half-life, narrow therapeutic window, and a toxic dose that is close to the therapeutic dose, which all limit its clinical application. This study evaluated the effects of brucine immuno-nanoparticles (BIN on hepatocellular carcinoma.Materials and methods: Anionic polymerization, chemical modification technology, and phacoemulsification technology were used to prepare a carboxylated polyethylene glycol-polylactic acid copolymer carrier material. Chemical coupling technology was utilized to develop anti-human AFP McAb-polyethylene glycol-polylactic acid copolymer BIN. The size, shape, zeta potential, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, and release of these immune-nanoparticles were studied in vitro. The targeting, and growth, invasion, and metastasis inhibitory effects of this treatment on liver cancer SMMC-7721 cells were tested.Results: BIN were of uniform size with an average particle size of 249 ± 77 nm and zeta potential of -18.7 ± 4.19 mV. The encapsulation efficiency was 76.0% ± 2.3% and the drug load was 5.6% ± 0.2%. Complete uptake and even distribution around the liver cancer cell membrane were observed.Conclusion: BIN had even size distribution, was

  12. Synergistic anti-tumor effects of melatonin and PUFAs from walnuts in a murine mammary adenocarcinoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carolina P; Lamarque, Alicia L; Comba, Andrea; Berra, María A; Silva, Renata A; Labuckas, Diana O; Das, Undurti N; Eynard, Aldo R; Pasqualini, Maria E

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of some polyunsaturated fatty acids plus phytomelatonin from walnuts in the development of mammary gland adenocarcinoma. BALB/c mice were fed a semisynthetic diet supplemented with either 6% walnut oil and 8% walnut flour containing phytomelatonin (walnut diet: WD); or 6% corn oil plus commercial melatonin (melatonin diet: MD), or the control group (CD), which received only 6% of corn oil. Membrane fatty acids of tumor cells (TCs) were analyzed by gas liquid chromatography, cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) derivatives, and plasma melatonin by high-performance liquid chromatography; apoptosis and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes by flow cytometry. TCs from the MD and WD mice showed significant decreases in linoleic acid compared with the CD group (P < 0.05). Significantly lower levels of LOX-[13(S)-HODE] were found in TCs from the MD and WD group than in CD (P < 0.0001). COX-[12(S)-HHT] was lower and 12 LOX-[12(S)-HETE] was higher in TCs from the MD group than form the WD and CD arms (P < 0.05). Plasma melatonin, apoptosis, tumor infiltration, and survival time were significantly lower in CD mice than in MD and WD mice (P < 0.05). This study shows that melatonin, along with polyunsaturated fatty acids, exerts a selective inhibition of some COX and LOX activities and has a synergistic anti-tumor effect on a mammary gland adenocarcinoma model. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Anti-tumor effect of hot aqueous extracts from Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L. and Juniperus sabina L - Two traditional medicinal plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyan, Ting; Li, Qi; Wang, Yi-Lin; Li, Jing; Zhang, Jian-Yang; Liu, Ya-Xiong; Shahid, Muhammad Riaz; Yang, Hui; Li, Huan-Qing

    2016-06-05

    Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L (SO) and Juniperus sabina L (JS) are traditional medicinal plants in China. And the aqueous extracts of them have been used to treat tumor, inflammatory diseases, infection and so on in Chinese folk culture. However, the underlying mechanisms of their anti-tumor activities have not been illustrated yet. This study aims to evaluate the inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts from SO and JS on tumor cells. The prepared aqueous extracts of SO and JS were used to treat HepG-2 and K562 tumor cells, while the human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were set as normal control. The viabilities, cell cycle and apoptosis of tumor cells after extracts treatment were assessed, in addition the expression of apoptosis-related genes (FasL, caspase 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10) were analyzed. Meanwhile, the adherence and migration of HepG-2 were tested, and the expression levels of MMPs and ICAM-1 were analyzed. On top of that, the pSTAT in the two cells were also analyzed and suggested the related signaling pathway that the extracts acted on with in these tumor cells. Results showed that aqueous extracts of SO and JS have inhibitory effects on HepG-2 and K562 cells by decreasing cell viability and inducing apoptosis via up-regulation of the expression of the apoptosis-related genes FasL, caspase 3 and caspase 9. The extracts had different IC50 on tumor cells and PBMCs, which could block the tumor cell cycle at the G(0)/G(1) stage and significantly inhibit the adherence of HepG-2 cells. The extracts inhibited migration of these cells by inhibiting the expression of ICAM-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9. Further study indicated that the inhibition of pSTAT1 and 3 might be responsible for the inhibitory effects of the extracts on tumor cells. The results of this study indicated that SO and JS extracts had the anti-tumor effects, which may be developed as novel anti-tumor drugs and used in cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Golimumab and certolizumab: The two new anti-tumor necrosis factor kids on the block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal Mohit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF agents have revolutionized treatment of psoriasis and many other inflammatory diseases of autoimmune origin. They have considerable advantages over the existing immunomodulators. Anti-TNF agents are designed to target a very specific component of the immune-mediated inflammatory cascades. Thus, they have lower risks of systemic side-effects. In a brief period of 10 years, a growing number of biological therapies are entering the clinical arena while many more biologicals remain on the horizon. With time, the long-term side-effects and efficacies of these individual agents will become clearer and help to determine which ones are the most suitable for long-term care. Golimumab (a human monoclonal anti-TNF-α antibody and Certolizumab (a PEGylated Fab fragment of humanized monoclonal TNF-α antibody are the two latest additions to the anti-TNF regimen. Here, we are providing a brief description about these two drugs and their uses.

  15. Oleuropein, a non-toxic olive iridoid, is an anti-tumor agent and cytoskeleton disruptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdi, Hamdi K.; Castellon, Raquel

    2005-01-01

    Oleuropein, a non-toxic secoiridoid derived from the olive tree, is a powerful antioxidant and anti-angiogenic agent. Here, we show it to be a potent anti-cancer compound, directly disrupting actin filaments in cells and in a cell-free assay. Oleuropein inhibited the proliferation and migration of advanced-grade tumor cell lines in a dose-responsive manner. In a novel tube-disruption assay, Oleuropein irreversibly rounded cancer cells, preventing their replication, motility, and invasiveness; these effects were reversible in normal cells. When administered orally to mice that developed spontaneous tumors, Oleuropein completely regressed tumors in 9-12 days. When tumors were resected prior to complete regression, they lacked cohesiveness and had a crumbly consistency. No viable cells could be recovered from these tumors. These observations elevate Oleuropein from a non-toxic antioxidant into a potent anti-tumor agent with direct effects against tumor cells. Our data may also explain the cancer-protective effects of the olive-rich Mediterranean diet

  16. Extracellular vesicles as shuttles of tumor biomarkers and anti-tumor drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocco, Davide; Ferruzzi, Pietro; Cappello, Francesco; Kuo, Winston Patrick; Fais, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EV) include vesicles released by either normal or tumor cells. EV may exceed the nanometric scale (microvesicles), or to be within the nanoscale, also called exosomes. Thus, it appears that only exosomes and larger vesicles may have the size for potential applications in nanomedicine, in either disease diagnosis or therapy. This is of particular interest for research in cancer, also because the vast majority of existing data on EV are coming from pre-clinical and clinical oncology. We know that the microenvironmental features of cancer may favor cell-to-cell paracrine communication through EV, but EV have been purified, characterized, and quantified from plasma of tumor patients as well, thus suggesting that EV may have a role in promoting and maintaining cancer dissemination and progression. These observations are prompting research efforts to evaluate the use of nanovesicles as tumor biomarkers. Moreover, EVs are emerging as natural delivery systems and in particular, exosomes may represent the ideal natural nanoshuttles for new and old anti-tumor drugs. However, much is yet to be understood about the role of EV in oncology and this article aims to discuss the future of EV in cancer on the basis of current knowledge.

  17. New Onset Autoimmune Hepatitis during Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Treatment in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciuto, Amanda; Kamath, Binita M; Walters, Thomas D; Frost, Karen; Carman, Nicholas; Church, Peter C; Ling, Simon C; Griffiths, Anne M

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate a large anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-treated pediatric inflammatory bowel disease cohort for drug-induced liver injury (DILI) following presentation of an index case with suspected DILI with autoimmune features after infliximab exposure. To characterize the incidence, natural history, and risk factors for liver enzyme elevation with anti-TNF use. We reviewed the index case and performed a retrospective cohort study of 659 children receiving anti-TNF therapy between 2000 and 2015 at a tertiary pediatric inflammatory bowel disease center. Patients with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ≥×2 the upper limit of normal were included. The incidence, evolution, and risk factors for liver injury were examined with univariate and multivariable proportional hazards regression. Causality was assessed using the Roussel-Uclaf Causality Assessment Method. The index case, a teenage girl with Crohn's disease, developed elevated liver enzymes and features of autoimmune hepatitis on liver biopsy 23 weeks after starting infliximab. The injury resolved entirely within 4 months of withdrawing infliximab without additional therapy. Overall, 7.7% of our cohort developed new ALT elevations while on anti-TNF. Most ALT elevations were mild and transient and attributable to alternate etiologies. No additional clear cases of autoimmune hepatitis were identified. Transient liver enzyme abnormalities are relatively common among anti-TNF-treated children. Anti-TNF-related DILI with autoimmune features is rare but must be recognized so that therapy can be stopped. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Potent anti-tumor effect generated by a novel human papillomavirus (HPV antagonist peptide reactivating the pRb/E2F pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-ping Guo

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16 E7 is a viral oncoprotein believed to play a major role in cervical cancer. In this study, an antagonist peptide against HPV16E7 protein was first identified from screening the c7c phage display peptide library. The binding specificity and affinity of the selected peptide to HPV16E7 were tested by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The antagonist peptide showed obvious anti-tumor efficacy both in cell lines and animal tumor models. Significant cell proliferation inhibition with high specificity was noted when HPV16-positive cells were treated with the peptide. This anti-tumor efficacy was resulted from overriding the activities of HPV16E7 and reactivating the pRb/E2F pathway, as shown by a series of experiments. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the selected peptide induced G1 arrest in a dose-dependent manner. Competitive ELISA, pull down, and Co-IP experiments indicated that the selected peptide disrupted the interaction between HPV16E7 and pRb proteins both in vitro and in vivo. Luciferase reporter assay verified that transcription activities of E2F were suppressed by the peptide through restoration of pRb. RT-PCR and Western blot revealed that it reduced cyclins A, D1, and E1 expression, and led to HPV16E7 protein degradation, but pRb protein stabilization. The current study suggests that this specific peptide may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for HPV16-positive cervical cancer.

  19. Screening anti-tumor compounds from Ligusticum wallichii using cell membrane chromatography combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Ding, Yuanyuan; An, Hongli; Feng, Liuxin; Wang, Sicen

    2015-07-14

    Tyrosine 367 Cysteine-fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 cell membrane chromatography combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry was developed. Tyrosine 367 Cysteine-HEK293 cells were used as cell membrane stationary phase. Specificity and reproducibility of the cell membrane chromatography was evaluated using 1-tert-butyl-3-{2-[4-(diethylamino)butylamino]-6-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-yl}urea, Nimodipine and dexamethasone acetate. Then, anti-tumor components acting on Tyrosine 367 Cysteine-fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 were screened and identified from extracts of Ligusticum wallichii. Components from the extract were retained on the cell membrane chromatographic column. The retained fraction was directly eluted into high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry system for separation and identification. Finally, Levistolide A was identified as an active component from Ligusticum wallichii extracts. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide-formazan colorimetric assay revealed that Levistolide A inhibits proliferation of overexpressing the mutated receptor cells with dose-dependent manner. Phosphorylation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 was also decrease under Levistolide A treatment. Flex dock simulation verified that Levistolide A could bind with the tyrosine kinase domain of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4. Therefore, Levistolide A screened by the cell membrane chromatography combined with high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry can arrest cell growth. In conclusion, the two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography method can screen and identify potential anti-tumor ingredients which specifically act on the tyrosine kinase domain of the mutated fibroblast growth factor receptor 4. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Anti-tumor effects of nitrosylcobalamin against spontaneous tumors in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Joseph A; Frye, Gerald; Bahr, Anne; Gieg, Jennifer; Brofman, Peter

    2010-10-01

    Given the limited options available to treat canine cancers, the use of companion animals for evaluating new drugs may identify better therapies for veterinary and human oncology. The anti-tumor effects of nitrosylcobalamin (NO-Cbl), an apoptosis-inducing, vitamin B12-based carrier of nitric oxide (NO), was evaluated in four dogs with spontaneous cancer. (1) A 13 year-old female spayed Giant Schnauzer with inoperable thyroid carcinoma and hypercalcemia. (2) A 6 year-old male neutered Golden Retriever with a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST). (3) A ten yr-old neutered male Bichon Frise with apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma (AGACA). (4) A 7 year-old female spayed Labrador mix with spinal meningioma following partial surgical resection. Tumor regression was measured by physical exam and verified using ultrasound (case 1) and MRI (case 2-4). Serum chemistries and hematologic parameters were monitored throughout the studies. (1) The Giant Schnauzer demonstrated a 77% reduction in tumor volume after ten weeks of daily NO-Cbl treatment. (2) The Golden Retriever demonstrated a 53% reduction in tumor volume after 15 months of daily NO-Cbl therapy. (3) The Bichon Frise demonstrated a 43% regression of the primary tumor and a 90% regression of an iliac lymph node measured by MRI after 15 months of treatment. After 61 months, the dog currently has stable disease, normal liver enzymes, CBC analysis, and no evidence of toxicity. (4) The Labrador demonstrated complete regression of the residual tumor after 6 months of treatment. We have shown previously that NO-Cbl is endocytosed by malignant cells, resulting in intra-tumoral NO release. In this study, we have shown that daily long-term use of NO-Cbl induced responses in all dogs without any signs of toxicity. The use of NO-Cbl capitalizes on the tumor-specific properties of the vitamin B12 receptor and represents a promising anti-cancer therapy.

  1. Anti-Tumor Effects of Ketogenic Diets in Mice: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer J Klement

    Full Text Available Currently ketogenic diets (KDs are hyped as an anti-tumor intervention aimed at exploiting the metabolic abnormalities of cancer cells. However, while data in humans is sparse, translation of murine tumor models to the clinic is further hampered by small sample sizes, heterogeneous settings and mixed results concerning tumor growth retardation. The aim was therefore to synthesize the evidence for a growth inhibiting effect of KDs when used as a monotherapy in mice.We conducted a Bayesian random effects meta-analysis on all studies assessing the survival (defined as the time to reach a pre-defined endpoint such as tumor volume of mice on an unrestricted KD compared to a high carbohydrate standard diet (SD. For 12 studies meeting the inclusion criteria either a mean survival time ratio (MR or hazard ratio (HR between the KD and SD groups could be obtained. The posterior estimates for the MR and HR averaged over four priors on the between-study heterogeneity τ2 were MR = 0.85 (95% highest posterior density interval (HPDI = [0.73, 0.97] and HR = 0.55 (95% HPDI = [0.26, 0.87], indicating a significant overall benefit of the KD in terms of prolonged mean survival times and reduced hazard rate. All studies that used a brain tumor model also chose a late starting point for the KD (at least one day after tumor initiation which accounted for 26% of the heterogeneity. In this subgroup the KD was less effective (MR = 0.89, 95% HPDI = [0.76, 1.04].There was an overall tumor growth delaying effect of unrestricted KDs in mice. Future experiments should aim at differentiating the effects of KD timing versus tumor location, since external evidence is currently consistent with an influence of both of these factors.

  2. Effectiveness and Safety of Immunomodulators With Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Therapy in Crohn's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, Mark T; Haynes, Kevin; Delzell, Elizabeth; Zhang, Jie; Bewtra, Meenakshi; Brensinger, Colleen M; Chen, Lang; Xie, Fenglong; Curtis, Jeffrey R; Lewis, James D

    2015-07-01

    The benefit of continuing immunomodulators when "stepping up" to anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy for Crohn's disease (CD) is uncertain. This study assessed the effectiveness and safety of immunomodulators with anti-TNF therapy in CD. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of new users of anti-TNF therapy for CD in Medicare. Users of anti-TNF combination therapy with immunomodulators were matched to up to 3 users of anti-TNF monotherapy via propensity score and compared by using 3 metrics of effectiveness-surgery, hospitalization, and discontinuation of anti-TNF therapy or surgery-and 2 metrics of safety-serious infection and non-Candida opportunistic infection. Cox regression was used for all analyses. Among new users of infliximab, we matched 381 users of combination therapy to 912 users of monotherapy; among new users of adalimumab, we matched 196 users of combination therapy to 505 users of monotherapy. Combination therapy occurred predominantly as "step up" after thiopurine therapy. The rates of surgery (hazard ratio [HR], 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 0.73-1.96), hospitalization (HR, 0.82; 0.57-1.19), discontinuation of anti-TNF therapy or surgery (HR, 1.09; 0.88-1.34), and serious infection (HR, 0.93; 0.88-1.34) did not differ between users of anti-TNF combination therapy and monotherapy. However, the risks of opportunistic infection (HR, 2.64; 1.21-5.73) and herpes zoster (HR, 3.16; 1.25-7.97) were increased with combination therapy. We found that continuation of immunomodulators after "stepping up" to anti-TNF therapy did not improve outcomes but was associated with an increased risk of opportunistic infection. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Enzymatic pre-treatment of microalgae extracts on their anti-tumor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Jabeen

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions: The results of this work provide important information and could provide the foundation for further research to incorporate MA constituents into pharmaceutical anti-cancer therapeutic formulations.

  4. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus salivarius Ren, a probiotic strain with anti-tumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Erna; Ren, Fazheng; Liu, Songling; Ge, Shaoyang; Zhang, Ming; Guo, Huiyuan; Jiang, Lu; Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Liang

    2015-09-20

    Lactobacillus salivarius Ren (LsR) (CGMCC No. 3606) is a probiotic strain that was isolated from the feces of a healthy centenarian living in Bama, Guangxi, China. Previous studies have shown that this strain decreases 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO)-induced genotoxicity in vitro. It also suppresses 4-NQO-induced oral carcinogenesis and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colorectal carcinogenesis, and therefore may be used as an adjuvant therapeutic agent for cancer. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of LsR that consists of a circular chromosome of 1751,565 bp and two plasmids (pR1, 176,951 bp; pR2, 49,848 bp). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Anti-tumor activity of triterpenoid-rich extract from bamboo shavings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-20

    Sep 20, 2010 ... temperature at 280°C. The column temperature was held at 100°C for 2 min and then ... 10% freshly inactivated fetal calf serum (FCS) and antibiotics. The ... dissolved in DMSO in advance and then in the culture medium with.

  6. Polaprezinc reduces paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy in rats without affecting anti-tumor activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kuniaki Tsutsumi; Takanori Kaname; Haruka Shiraishi; Takehiro Kawashiri; Nobuaki Egashira

    2016-01-01

    Paclitaxel, an anticancer drug, frequently causes painful peripheral neuropathy. In this study, we investigated the preventive effect of polaprezinc on paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy in rats. Polaprezinc (3 mg/kg, p.o., once daily) inhibited the development of mechanical allodynia induced by paclitaxel (4 mg/kg, i.p., on days 1, 3, 5 and 7) and suppressed the paclitaxel-induced increase in macrophage migration in dorsal root ganglion cells. In addition, polaprezinc did not affect th...

  7. In vitro anti-tumor activity in SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The results suggest that dandelion extract is a potent gastric cancer cell proliferation, survival, and migration inhibitor ... This is an Open Access article that uses a funding model which does not charge readers or their institutions for access and ..... Feki A. Spirulina or dandelion-enriched diet of mothers alleviates ...

  8. RITA displays anti-tumor activity in medulloblastomas independent of TP53 status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Aline; Althoff, Kristina; Grunewald, Laura; Thor, Theresa; Odersky, Andrea; Schulte, Marc; Deubzer, Hedwig E; Heukamp, Lukas; Eggert, Angelika; Schramm, Alexander; Schulte, Johannes H; Künkele, Annette

    2017-04-25

    Current therapy of medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood, achieves 40-70% survival. Secondary chemotherapy resistance contributes to treatment failure, where TP53 pathway dysfunction plays a key role. MDM2 interaction with TP53 leads to its degradation. Reactivating TP53 functionality using small-molecule inhibitors, such as RITA, to disrupt TP53-MDM2 binding may have therapeutic potential. We show here that RITA decreased viability of all 4 analyzed medulloblastoma cell lines, regardless of TP53 functional status. The decrease in cell viability was accompanied in 3 of the 4 medulloblastoma cell lines by accumulation of TP53 protein in the cells and increased CDKN1A expression. RITA treatment in mouse models inhibited medulloblastoma xenograft tumor growth. These data demonstrate that RITA treatment reduces medulloblastoma cell viability in both in vitro and in vivo models, and acts independently of cellular TP53 status, identifying RITA as a potential therapeutic agent to treat medulloblastoma.

  9. Anti-tumor activity of tetrodotoxin extracted from the Masked Puffer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as demonstrated by trypan blue stain (d and f) and after treatment with Annexin V stain (e & g) (X1000). Notice ... hair erection and loss of appetite. ..... effect of vitamin A against carcinogenic effect of 7, 12- DMBA on the liver of albino rat. Egypt.

  10. In vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-tumor activities of total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is an Open Access article that uses a funding model which does not charge readers or their institutions ... Index Medicus, JournalSeek, Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, Directory of Open Access Journals ..... 1999; (S1): 39. 4.

  11. Colloidally stable surface-modified iron oxide nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and anti-tumor activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macková, Hana; Horák, Daniel; Donchenko, G. V.; Andriyaka, V. I.; Palyvoda, O. M.; Chernishov, V. I.; Chekhun, V. F.; Todor, I. N.; Kuzmenko, O. I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 380, 15 April (2015), s. 125-131 ISSN 0304-8853. [International Conference on the Scientific and Clinical Applications of Magnetic Carriers /10./. Dresden, 10.06.2014-14.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E12054; GA MŠk(CZ) LH14318; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 259796 - DIATOOLS Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : iron oxide nanoparticle * poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) * protein oxidation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.357, year: 2015

  12. Anti-tumor effect of bisphosphonate (YM529 on non-small cell lung cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Date Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background YM529 is a newly developed nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate (BP classified as a third-generation BP that shows a 100-fold greater potency against bone resorption than pamidronate, a second-generation BP. This agent is, therefore expected to be extremely useful clinically for the treatment of osteoporosis and hypercalcemia. Recently, YM529 as well as other third-generation BPs have also been shown to exert anti-tumor effects against various types of cancer cells both in vitro or/and in vivo. In this study, we investigate the anti-tumor effect of YM529 on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods Direct anti-tumor effect of YM529 against 8 NSCLC cell lines (adenocarcinoma: H23, H1299, NCI-H1819, NCI-H2009, H44, A549, adenosquamous cell carcinoma: NCI-H125, squamous cell carcinoma: NCI-H157 were measured by MTS assay and calculated inhibition concentration 50 % (IC50 values. YM529 induced apoptosis of NCI-H1819 was examined by DNA fragmentation of 2 % agarose gel electrophoresis and flowcytometric analysis (sub-G1 method. We examined where YM529 given effect to apoptosis of NSCLC cells in signaling pathway of the mevalonate pathway by western blotting analysis. Results We found that there was direct anti-tumor effect of YM529 on 8 NSCLC cell lines in a dose-dependent manner and their IC50 values were 2.1 to 7.9 μM and YM529 induced apoptosis and G1 arrest cell cycle with dose-dependent manner and YM529 caused down regulation of phospholyration of ERK1/2 in signaling pathways of NSCLC cell line (NCI-H1819. Conclusion Our study demonstrate that YM529 showed direct anti-tumor effect on NSCLC cell lines in vitro, which supports the possibility that third-generation BPs including YM529 can be one of therapeutic options for NSCLC.

  13. Macrophages inhibit human osteosarcoma cell growth after activation with the bacterial cell wall derivative liposomal muramyl tripeptide in combination with interferon-γ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Jens H W; Kwappenberg, Kitty M C; Varypataki, Eleni M; Santos, Susy J; Kuijjer, Marieke L; Mohamed, Susan; Wijnen, Juul T; van Tol, Maarten J D; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Egeler, R Maarten; Jiskoot, Wim; Lankester, Arjan C; Schilham, Marco W

    2014-03-10

    In osteosarcoma, the presence of tumor-infiltrating macrophages positively correlates with patient survival in contrast to the negative effect of tumor-associated macrophages in patients with other tumors. Liposome-encapsulated muramyl tripeptide (L-MTP-PE) has been introduced in the treatment of osteosarcoma patients, which may enhance the potential anti-tumor activity of macrophages. Direct anti-tumor activity of human macrophages against human osteosarcoma cells has not been described so far. Hence, we assessed osteosarcoma cell growth after co-culture with human macrophages. Monocyte-derived M1-like and M2-like macrophages were polarized with LPS + IFN-γ, L-MTP-PE +/- IFN-γ or IL-10 and incubated with osteosarcoma cells. Two days later, viable tumor cell numbers were analyzed. Antibody-dependent effects were investigated using the therapeutic anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab. M1-like macrophages inhibited osteosarcoma cell growth when activated with LPS + IFN-γ. Likewise, stimulation of M1-like macrophages with liposomal muramyl tripeptide (L-MTP-PE) inhibited tumor growth, but only when combined with IFN-γ. Addition of the tumor-reactive anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab did not further improve the anti-tumor activity of activated M1-like macrophages. The inhibition was mediated by supernatants of activated M1-like macrophages, containing TNF-α and IL-1β. However, specific blockage of these cytokines, nitric oxide or reactive oxygen species did not inhibit the anti-tumor effect, suggesting the involvement of other soluble factors released upon macrophage activation. While LPS + IFN-γ-activated M2-like macrophages had low anti-tumor activity, IL-10-polarized M2-like macrophages were able to reduce osteosarcoma cell growth in the presence of the anti-EGFR cetuximab involving antibody-dependent tumor cell phagocytosis. This study demonstrates that human macrophages can be induced to exert direct anti-tumor activity against osteosarcoma cells. Our

  14. Genetic associations with adverse events from anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy in inflammatory bowel disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Daniel; Yoon, Soon Man; Yan, Xiaofei; Robbins, Lori; Haritunians, Talin; Liu, Zhenqiu; Li, Dalin; McGovern, Dermot Pb

    2017-10-28

    To study the type and frequency of adverse events associated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy and evaluate for any serologic and genetic associations. This study was a retrospective review of patients attending the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) centers at Cedars-Sinai IBD Center from 2005-2016. Adverse events were identified via chart review. IBD serologies were measured by ELISA. DNA samples were genotyped at Cedars-Sinai using Illumina Infinium Immunochipv1 array per manufacturer's protocol. SNPs underwent methodological review and were evaluated using several SNP statistic parameters to ensure optimal allele-calling. Standard and rigorous QC criteria were applied to the genetic data, which was generated using immunochip. Genetic association was assessed by logistic regression after correcting for population structure. Altogether we identified 1258 IBD subjects exposed to anti-TNF agents in whom Immunochip data were available. 269/1258 patients (21%) were found to have adverse events to an anti-TNF-α agent that required the therapy to be discontinued. 25% of women compared to 17% of men experienced an adverse event. All adverse events resolved after discontinuing the anti-TNF agent. In total: n = 66 (5%) infusion reactions; n = 49 (4%) allergic/serum sickness reactions; n = 19 (1.5%) lupus-like reactions, n = 52 (4%) rash, n = 18 (1.4%) infections. In Crohn's disease, IgA ASCA ( P = 0.04) and IgG-ASCA ( P = 0.02) levels were also lower in patients with any adverse events, and anti-I2 level in ulcerative colitis was significantly associated with infusion reactions ( P = 0.008). The logistic regression/human annotation and network analyses performed on the Immunochip data implicated the following five signaling pathways: JAK-STAT (Janus Kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription), measles, IBD, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, and toxoplasmosis for any adverse event. Our study shows 1 in 5 IBD patients experience an adverse

  15. Trastuzumab anti-tumor efficacy in patient-derived esophageal squamous cell carcinoma xenograft (PDECX mouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xianhua

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trastuzumab is currently approved for the clinical treatment of breast and gastric cancer patients with HER-2 positive tumors, but not yet for the treatment of esophageal carcinoma patients, whose tumors typically show 5 ~ 35% HER-2 gene amplification and 0 ~ 56% HER-2 protein expression. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of Trastuzumab in patient-derived esophageal squamous cell carcinoma xenograft (PDECX mouse models. Methods PDECX models were established by implanting patient esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC tissues into immunodeficient (SCID/nude mice. HER-2 gene copy number (GCN and protein expression were determined in xenograft tissues and corresponding patient EC samples by FISH and IHC analysis. Trastuzumab anti-tumor efficacy was evaluated within these PDECX models (n = 8 animals/group. Furthermore, hotspot mutations of EGFR, K-ras, B-raf and PIK3CA genes were screened for in the PDECX models and their corresponding patient’s ESCC tissues. Similarity between the PDECX models and their corresponding patient’s ESCC tissue was confirmed by histology, morphology, HER-2 GCN and mutation. Results None of the PDECX models (or their corresponding patient’s ESCC tissues harbored HER-2 gene amplification. IHC staining showed HER-2 positivity (IHC 2+ in 2 PDECX models and negativity in 3 PDECX models. Significant tumor regression was observed in the Trastuzumab-treated EC044 HER-2 positive model (IHC 2+. A second HER-2 positive (IHC 2+ model, EC039, harbored a known PIK3CA mutation and showed strong activation of the AKT signaling pathway and was insensitive to Trastuzumab treatment, but could be resensitised using a combination of Trastuzumab and AKT inhibitor AZD5363. In summary, we established 5 PDECX mouse models and demonstrated tumor regression in response to Trastuzumab treatment in a HER-2 IHC 2+ model, but resistance in a HER-2 IHC 2+/PIK3CA mutated model. Conclusions

  16. Anti-tumor response with immunologically modified carbon nanotubes and phototherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquaviva, Joseph T.; Zhou, Feifan; Boarman, Ellen; Chen, Wei R.

    2013-02-01

    While successes of different cancer therapies have been achieved in various degrees a systemic immune response is needed to effectively treat late-stage, metastatic cancers, and to establish long-term tumor resistance in the patients. A novel method for combating metastatic cancers has been developed using immunologically modified carbon nanotubes in conjunction with phototherapy. Glycated chitosan (GC) is a potent immunological adjuvant capable of increasing host immune responses, including antigen presentation by activation of dendritic cells (DCs) and causing T cell proliferation. GC is also an effective surfactant for nanomaterials. By combining single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and GC, immunologically modified carbon nanotubes (SWNT-GC) were constructed. The SWNT-GC suspension retains the enhanced light absorption properties in the near infrared (NIR) region and the ability to enter cells, which are characteristic of SWNTs. The SWNT-GC also retains the immunological properties of GC. Cellular SWNT-GC treatments increased macrophage activity, DC activation and T cell proliferation. When cellular SWNT-GC was irradiated with a laser of an appropriate wavelength, these immune activities could be enhanced. The combination of laser irradiation and SWNT-GC induced cellular toxicity in targeted tumor cells, leading to a systemic antitumor response. Immunologically modified carbon nanotubes in conjunction with phototherapy is a novel and promising method to produce a systemic immune response for the treatment of metastatic cancers.

  17. Resveratrol enhances radiosensitivity of human non-small cell lung cancer NCI-H838 cells accompanied by inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Hui-Fen; Kuo Cheng-Deng; Yang, Yuh-Cheng; Lin, Chin-Ping; Tai, Hung-Chi; Chen, Yu-Jen; Chen, Yu-Yawn

    2005-01-01

    Resveratrol, a polyphenol in red wine, possesses many pharmacological activities including cardio-protection, chemoprevention, anti-tumor effects, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) inactivation. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects and possible mechanism of resveratrol in enhancing radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells. Human non-small cell lung cancer NCI-H838 cells were irradiated with or without resveratrol pretreatment. The surviving fraction and sensitizer enhancement ratio (SER) were estimated by using a colony formation assay and linear-quadratic model. The cell-cycle distribution was evaluated by using prospidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based assay with immobilized oligonucleotide was performed to assess the DNA binding activity of NF-κB. Resveratrol had no direct growth-inhibitory effect on NCI-H838 cells treated for 24 hours with doses up to 25 μM. Pretreatment with resveratrol significantly enhanced cell killing by radiation, with an SER up to 2.2. Radiation activated NF-κB, an effect reversed by resveratrol pretreatment. Resveratrol resulted in a decrease of cells in the G 0 /G 1 phase and an increase in the S phase. Our results demonstrate that resveratrol enhances the radiosensitivity of NCI-H838 cells accompanied by NF-κB inhibition and S-phase arrest. (author)

  18. The anti-tumor efficacy of 3C23K, a glyco-engineered humanized anti-MISRII antibody, in an ovarian cancer model is mainly mediated by engagement of immune effector cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estupina, Pauline; Fontayne, Alexandre; Barret, Jean-Marc; Kersual, Nathalie; Dubreuil, Olivier; Le Blay, Marion; Pichard, Alexandre; Jarlier, Marta; Pugnière, Martine; Chauvin, Maëva; Chardès, Thierry; Pouget, Jean-Pierre; Deshayes, Emmanuel; Rossignol, Alexis; Abache, Toufik; de Romeuf, Christophe; Terrier, Aurélie; Verhaeghe, Lucie; Gaucher, Christine; Prost, Jean-François; Pèlegrin, André; Navarro-Teulon, Isabelle

    2017-06-06

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death in women with gynecological cancers and despite recent advances, new and more efficient therapies are crucially needed. Müllerian Inhibiting Substance type II Receptor (MISRII, also named AMHRII) is expressed in most ovarian cancer subtypes and is a novel potential target for ovarian cancer immunotherapy. We previously developed and tested 12G4, the first murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) against human MISRII. Here, we report the humanization, affinity maturation and glyco-engineering steps of 12G4 to generate the Fc-optimized 3C23K MAb, and the evaluation of its in vivo anti-tumor activity. The epitopes of 3C23K and 12G4 were strictly identical and 3C23K affinity for MISRII was enhanced by a factor of about 14 (KD = 5.5 × 10-11 M vs 7.9 × 10-10 M), while the use of the EMABling® platform allowed the production of a low-fucosylated 3C23K antibody with a 30-fold KD improvement of its affinity to FcγRIIIa. In COV434-MISRII tumor-bearing mice, 3C23K reduced tumor growth more efficiently than 12G4 and its combination with carboplatin was more efficient than each monotherapy with a mean tumor size of 500, 1100 and 100 mm3 at the end of treatment with 3C23K (10 mg/kg, Q3-4D12), carboplatin (60 mg/kg, Q7D4) and 3C23K+carboplatin, respectively. Conversely, 3C23K-FcKO, a 3C23K form without affinity for the FcγRIIIa receptor, did not display any anti-tumor effect in vivo. These results strongly suggested that 3C23K mechanisms of action are mainly Fc-related. In vitro, antibody-dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cell phagocytosis (ADCP) were induced by 3C23K, as demonstrated with human effector cells. Using human NK cells, 50% of the maximal lysis was obtained with a 46-fold lower concentration of low-fucosylated 3C23K (2.9 ng/ml) than of 3C23K expressed in CHO cells (133.35 ng/ml). As 3C23K induced strong ADCC with human PBMC but almost none with murine PBMC, antibody-dependent cell phagocytosis (ADCP) was

  19. Fractional laser exposure induces neutrophil infiltration (N1 phenotype into the tumor and stimulates systemic anti-tumor immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayoshi Kawakubo

    Full Text Available Ablative fractional photothermolysis (aFP using a CO2 laser generates multiple small diameter tissue lesions within the irradiation field. aFP is commonly used for a wide variety of dermatological indications, including treatment of photodamaged skin and dyschromia, drug delivery and modification of scars due to acne, surgical procedures and burns. In this study we explore the utility of aFP for treating oncological indications, including induction of local tumor regression and inducing anti-tumor immunity, which is in marked contrast to current indications of aFP.We used a fractional CO2 laser to treat a tumor established by BALB/c colon carcinoma cell line (CT26.CL25, which expressed a tumor antigen, beta-galactosidase (beta-gal. aFP treated tumors grew significantly slower as compared to untreated controls. Complete remission after a single aFP treatment was observed in 47% of the mice. All survival mice from the tumor inoculation rejected re-inoculation of the CT26.CL25 colon carcinoma cells and moreover 80% of the survival mice rejected CT26 wild type colon carcinoma cells, which are parental cells of CT26.CL25 cells. Histologic section of the FP-treated tumors showed infiltrating neutrophil in the tumor early after aFP treatment. Flow cytometric analysis of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes showed aFP treatment abrogated the increase in regulatory T lymphocyte (Treg, which suppresses anti-tumor immunity and elicited the expansion of epitope-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes, which were required to mediate the tumor-suppressing effect of aFP.We have demonstrated that aFP is able to induce a systemic anti-tumor adaptive immunity preventing tumor recurrence in a murine colon carcinoma in a mouse model. This study demonstrates a potential role of aFP treatments in oncology and further studies should be performed.

  20. HDAC inhibitors enhance neratinib activity and when combined enhance the actions of an anti-PD-1 immunomodulatory antibody in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Laurence; Roberts, Jane L; Poklepovic, Andrew; Avogadri-Connors, Francesca; Cutler, Richard E; Lalani, Alshad S; Dent, Paul

    2017-10-27

    Patients whose NSCLC tumors become afatinib resistant presently have few effective therapeutic options to extend their survival. Afatinib resistant NSCLC cells were sensitive to clinically relevant concentrations of the irreversible pan-HER inhibitor neratinib, but not by the first generation ERBB1/2/4 inhibitor lapatinib. In multiple afatinib resistant NSCLC clones, HDAC inhibitors reduced the expression of ERBB1/3/4, but activated c-SRC, which resulted in higher total levels of ERBB1/3 phosphorylation. Neratinib also rapidly reduced the expression of ERBB1/2/3/4, c-MET and of mutant K-/N-RAS; K-RAS co-localized with phosphorylated ATG13 and with cathepsin B in vesicles. Combined exposure of cells to [neratinib + HDAC inhibitors] caused inactivation of mTORC1 and mTORC2, enhanced autophagosome and subsequently autolysosome formation, and caused an additive to greater than additive induction of cell death. Knock down of Beclin1 or ATG5 prevented HDAC inhibitors or neratinib from reducing ERBB1/3/4 and K-/N-RAS expression and reduced [neratinib + HDAC inhibitor] lethality. Neratinib and HDAC inhibitors reduced the expression of multiple HDAC proteins via autophagy that was causal in the reduced expression of PD-L1, PD-L2 and ornithine decarboxylase, and increased expression of Class I MHCA. In vivo , neratinib and HDAC inhibitors interacted to suppress the growth of 4T1 mammary tumors, an effect that was enhanced by an anti-PD-1 antibody. Our data support the premises that neratinib lethality can be enhanced by HDAC inhibitors, that neratinib may be a useful therapeutic tool in afatinib resistant NSCLC, and that [neratinib + HDAC inhibitor] exposure facilitates anti-tumor immune responses.

  1. Expression of a Recombinant Anti-HIV and Anti-Tumor Protein, MAP30, in Nicotiana tobacum Hairy Roots: A pH-Stable and Thermophilic Antimicrobial Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moghadam

    Full Text Available In contrast to conventional antibiotics, which microorganisms can readily evade, it is nearly impossible for a microbial strain that is sensitive to antimicrobial proteins to convert to a resistant strain. Therefore, antimicrobial proteins and peptides that are promising alternative candidates for the control of bacterial infections are under investigation. The MAP30 protein of Momordica charantia is a valuable type I ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP with anti-HIV and anti-tumor activities. Whereas the antimicrobial activity of some type I RIPs has been confirmed, less attention has been paid to the antimicrobial activity of MAP30 produced in a stable, easily handled, and extremely cost-effective protein-expression system. rMAP30-KDEL was expressed in Nicotiana tobacum hairy roots, and its effect on different microorganisms was investigated. Analysis of the extracted total proteins of transgenic hairy roots showed that rMAP30-KDEL was expressed effectively and that this protein exhibited significant antibacterial activity in a dose-dependent manner. rMAP30-KDEL also possessed thermal and pH stability. Bioinformatic analysis of MAP30 and other RIPs regarding their conserved motifs, amino-acid contents, charge, aliphatic index, GRAVY value, and secondary structures demonstrated that these factors accounted for their thermophilicity. Therefore, RIPs such as MAP30 and its derived peptides might have promising applications as food preservatives, and their analysis might provide useful insights into designing clinically applicable antibiotic agents.

  2. Interference with PSMB4 Expression Exerts an Anti-Tumor Effect by Decreasing the Invasion and Proliferation of Human Glioblastoma Cells

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    Yu-Chen Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Glioblastoma (GBM is a malignant brain tumor with a poor prognosis. Proteasome subunit beta type-4 (PSMB4 is an essential subunit that contributes to the assembly of the 20S proteasome complex. However, the role of PSMB4 in glioblastomas remains to be clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PSMB4 in GBM tumor progression. Methods: We first analyzed the PSMB4 protein and mRNA expression in 80 clinical brain specimens and 77 datasets from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database. Next, we inhibited the PSMB4 expression by siRNA in cellular and animal models to explore PSMB4’s underlying mechanisms. The cell survival after siPSMB4 transfection was assayed by MTT assay. Annexin V and propidium iodide staining was used to monitor the apoptosis by flow cytometric analysis. Moreover, the migration and invasion were evaluated by wound healing and Transwell assays. The expression of migration-related and invasion-related proteins after PSMB4 inhibition was detected by Western blotting. In addition, an orthotropic xenograft mouse model was used to assay the effect of PSMB4 knockdown in the in vivo study. Results: Basis on the results of bioinformatics study, glioma patients with higher PSMB4 expression had a shorter survival time than those with lower PSMB4 expression. The staining of clinical brain tissues showed elevated PSMB4 expression in GBM tissues compared with normal brain tissues. The PSMB4 inhibition decreased proliferation, migration and invasion abilities in human GBM cells. Downregulated PSMB4 resulted in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in vitro. In an orthotropic xenograft mouse model, the glioma tumors progression was reduced when PSMB4 was down-regulated. The decreased PSMB4 enhanced the anti-tumor effect of temozolomide (TMZ on tumor growth. In addition, the absence of PSMB4 decreased the expression of phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase and

  3. Tumor-associated antigens identified by mRNA expression profiling induce protective anti-tumor immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiassen, S; Lauemøller, S L; Ruhwald, M

    2001-01-01

    Defined tumor-associated antigens (TAA) are attractive targets for anti-tumor immunotherapy. Here, we describe a novel genome-wide approach to identify multiple TAA from any given tumor. A panel of transplantable thymomas was established from an inbred p53-/- mouse strain. The resulting tumors were...... of autoimmune reactions were observed. Thus, it appears possible to evaluate the entire metabolism of any given tumor and use this information rationally to identify multiple epitopes of value in the generation of tumor-specific immunotherapy. We expect that human tumors express similar tumor-specific metabolic...

  4. Risk of Lymphoma in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease Treated With Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Agents: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Huang, Junlin; Huang, Xiaowen; Huang, Shaozhuo; Cheng, Jiaxin; Liao, Weixin; Chen, Xuewen; Wang, Xueyi; Dai, Shixue

    2018-05-12

    The association between anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents and the risk of lymphoma in patients with inflammatory bowel disease has already been sufficiently reported. However, the results of these studies are inconsistent. Hence, this analysis was conducted to investigate whether anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents can increase the risk of lymphoma in inflammatory bowel disease patients. MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify relevant studies which evaluated the risk of lymphoma in inflammatory bowel disease patients treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed to calculate the pooled incidence rate ratios as well as risk ratios. Twelve studies comprising 285811 participants were included. The result showed that there was no significantly increased risk of lymphoma between anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents exposed and anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents unexposed groups (random effects: incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.43 95%CI, 0.91-2.25, p= 0.116; random effects: risk ratio [RR], 0.83 95%CI, 0.47-1.48, p=0.534). However, monotherapy of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents (random effects: IRR=1.65, 95%CI, 1.16-2.35; p=0.006; random effects: RR=1.00, 95%CI, 0.39-2.59; p=0.996) or combination therapy (random effects: IRR=3.36, 95%CI, 2.23-5.05; ptumor necrosis factor alpha agents in patients with inflammatory bowel disease is not associated with a higher risk of lymphoma. Combination therapy and anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents monotherapy can significantly increase the risk of lymphoma in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

  5. Radiotherapy-induced anti-tumor immunity contributes to the therapeutic efficacy of irradiation and can be augmented by CTLA-4 blockade in a mouse model.

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    Yuya Yoshimoto

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: There is growing evidence that tumor-specific immune responses play an important role in anti-cancer therapy, including radiotherapy. Using mouse tumor models we demonstrate that irradiation-induced anti-tumor immunity is essential for the therapeutic efficacy of irradiation and can be augmented by modulation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL activity. METHODS AND MATERIALS: C57BL/6 mice, syngeneic EL4 lymphoma cells, and Lewis lung carcinoma (LL/C cells were used. Cells were injected into the right femurs of mice. Ten days after inoculation, tumors were treated with 30 Gy of local X-ray irradiation and their growth was subsequently measured. The effect of irradiation on tumor growth delay (TGD was defined as the time (in days for tumors to grow to 500 mm3 in the treated group minus that of the untreated group. Cytokine production and serum antibodies were measured by ELISA and flow cytometry. RESULTS: In the EL4 tumor model, tumors were locally controlled by X-ray irradiation and re-introduced EL4 cells were completely rejected. Mouse EL4-specific systemic immunity was confirmed by splenocyte cytokine production and detection of tumor-specific IgG1 antibodies. In the LL/C tumor model, X-ray irradiation also significantly delayed tumor growth (TGD: 15.4 days and prolonged median survival time (MST to 59 days (versus 28 days in the non-irradiated group. CD8(+ cell depletion using an anti-CD8 antibody significantly decreased the therapeutic efficacy of irradiation (TGD, 8.7 days; MST, 49 days. Next, we examined whether T cell modulation affected the efficacy of radiotherapy. An anti-CTLA-4 antibody significantly increased the anti-tumor activity of radiotherapy (TGD was prolonged from 13.1 to 19.5 days, while anti-FR4 and anti-GITR antibodies did not affect efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that tumor-specific immune responses play an important role in the therapeutic efficacy of irradiation. Immunomodulation, including CTLA-4

  6. Radiotherapy-Induced Anti-Tumor Immunity Contributes to the Therapeutic Efficacy of Irradiation and Can Be Augmented by CTLA-4 Blockade in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Yuya; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Mimura, Kousaku; Ando, Ken; Oike, Takahiro; Sato, Hiro; Okonogi, Noriyuki; Maruyama, Takanori; Izawa, Shinichiro; Noda, Shin-ei; Fujii, Hideki; Kono, Koji; Nakano, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose There is growing evidence that tumor-specific immune responses play an important role in anti-cancer therapy, including radiotherapy. Using mouse tumor models we demonstrate that irradiation-induced anti-tumor immunity is essential for the therapeutic efficacy of irradiation and can be augmented by modulation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity. Methods and Materials C57BL/6 mice, syngeneic EL4 lymphoma cells, and Lewis lung carcinoma (LL/C) cells were used. Cells were injected into the right femurs of mice. Ten days after inoculation, tumors were treated with 30 Gy of local X-ray irradiation and their growth was subsequently measured. The effect of irradiation on tumor growth delay (TGD) was defined as the time (in days) for tumors to grow to 500 mm3 in the treated group minus that of the untreated group. Cytokine production and serum antibodies were measured by ELISA and flow cytometry. Results In the EL4 tumor model, tumors were locally controlled by X-ray irradiation and re-introduced EL4 cells were completely rejected. Mouse EL4-specific systemic immunity was confirmed by splenocyte cytokine production and detection of tumor-specific IgG1 antibodies. In the LL/C tumor model, X-ray irradiation also significantly delayed tumor growth (TGD: 15.4 days) and prolonged median survival time (MST) to 59 days (versus 28 days in the non-irradiated group). CD8(+) cell depletion using an anti-CD8 antibody significantly decreased the therapeutic efficacy of irradiation (TGD, 8.7 days; MST, 49 days). Next, we examined whether T cell modulation affected the efficacy of radiotherapy. An anti-CTLA-4 antibody significantly increased the anti-tumor activity of radiotherapy (TGD was prolonged from 13.1 to 19.5 days), while anti-FR4 and anti-GITR antibodies did not affect efficacy. Conclusions Our results indicate that tumor-specific immune responses play an important role in the therapeutic efficacy of irradiation. Immunomodulation, including CTLA-4 blockade, may be a

  7. The enhancement of immunological activity by mild hypothermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawal, Takeo; Gu, Yeun Hwa; Miyata, Katuyuki

    2004-01-01

    In general, the term hypothermia is applied for the therapeutic method for the treatment of cancer using micro wave, RF wave thermal system or intra-tissue thermal device. It was found to be a tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which is one of cytokines secreted by macrophages 'P'j. With remarkable progress in the instruments and technique in recent years, fundamental and clinical research showed extensive development 'Q'j. At present, hypothermia is clinically very important as inter- disciplinary therapeutic method, and studies are being performed on combined effects with surgical treatment, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and gene therapy for the treatment of malignant tumor 'R'j. Also, hypothermia is characterized by its selective thermal effect on tumor 'S'j. In this sense, it is called mild hypothermia. There have been not many reports, which described mild hypothermia for the purpose of treating the cases with cancer. This suggests the possibility of immunological response by heating relatively mild temperature (39-42). In this respect, by experiments using mouse as model, we evaluated the effects of hypothermia under temperature of 42.5 and lower and demonstrated that the activation of immunological response is increased and anti-tumor effect can be obtained

  8. The enhancement of immunological activity by mild hypothermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawal, Takeo; Gu, Yeun Hwa; Miyata, Katuyuki [Graduate School of Suzuka Univ. of Med Sci. Master, Suzuka (Japan)] (and others)

    2004-11-15

    In general, the term hypothermia is applied for the therapeutic method for the treatment of cancer using micro wave, RF wave thermal system or intra-tissue thermal device. It was found to be a tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which is one of cytokines secreted by macrophages 'P'j. With remarkable progress in the instruments and technique in recent years, fundamental and clinical research showed extensive development 'Q'j. At present, hypothermia is clinically very important as inter- disciplinary therapeutic method, and studies are being performed on combined effects with surgical treatment, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and gene therapy for the treatment of malignant tumor 'R'j. Also, hypothermia is characterized by its selective thermal effect on tumor 'S'j. In this sense, it is called mild hypothermia. There have been not many reports, which described mild hypothermia for the purpose of treating the cases with cancer. This suggests the possibility of immunological response by heating relatively mild temperature (39-42). In this respect, by experiments using mouse as model, we evaluated the effects of hypothermia under temperature of 42.5 and lower and demonstrated that the activation of immunological response is increased and anti-tumor effect can be obtained.

  9. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Modeling of the Anti-Tumor Effect of Sunitinib Combined with Dopamine in the Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Xenograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Fangran; Wang, Siyuan; Zhu, Xiao; Xue, Junsheng; Li, Jingyun; Wang, Lijie; Li, Jian; Lu, Wei; Zhou, Tianyan

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the anti-tumor effect of sunitinib in combination with dopamine in the treatment of nu/nu nude mice bearing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cells and to develop the combination PK/PD model. Further, simulations were conducted to optimize the administration regimens. A PK/PD model was developed based on our preclinical experiment to explore the relationship between plasma concentration and drug effect quantitatively. Further, the model was evaluated and validated. By fixing the parameters obtained from the PK/PD model, simulations were built to predict the tumor suppression under various regimens. The synergistic effect was observed between sunitinib and dopamine in the study, which was confirmed by the effect constant (GAMA, estimated as 2.49). The enhanced potency of dopamine on sunitinib was exerted by on/off effect in the PK/PD model. The optimal dose regimen was selected as sunitinib (120 mg/kg, q3d) in combination with dopamine (2 mg/kg, q3d) based on the simulation study. The synergistic effect of sunitinib and dopamine was demonstrated by the preclinical experiment and confirmed by the developed PK/PD model. In addition, the regimens were optimized by means of modeling as well as simulation, which may be conducive to clinical study.

  10. Impediments to Enhancement of CPT-11 Anticancer Activity by E. coli Directed Beta-Glucuronidase Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yuan-Ting; Chen, Kai-Chuan; Cheng, Chiu-Min; Cheng, Tian-Lu; Tao, Mi-Hua; Roffler, Steve R.

    2015-01-01

    CPT-11 is a camptothecin analog used for the clinical treatment of colorectal adenocarcinoma. CPT-11 is converted into the therapeutic anti-cancer agent SN-38 by liver enzymes and can be further metabolized to a non-toxic glucuronide SN-38G, resulting in low SN-38 but high SN-38G concentrations in the circulation. We previously demonstrated that adenoviral expression of membrane-anchored beta-glucuronidase could promote conversion of SN-38G to SN-38 in tumors and increase the anticancer activity of CPT-11. Here, we identified impediments to effective tumor therapy with E. coli that were engineered to constitutively express highly active E. coli beta-glucuronidase intracellularly to enhance the anticancer activity of CPT-11. The engineered bacteria, E. coli (lux/βG), could hydrolyze SN-38G to SN-38, increased the sensitivity of cultured tumor cells to SN-38G by about 100 fold and selectively accumulated in tumors. However, E. coli (lux/βG) did not more effectively increase CPT-11 anticancer activity in human tumor xenografts as compared to non-engineered E. coli. SN-38G conversion to SN-38 by E. coli (lux/βG) appeared to be limited by slow uptake into bacteria as well as by segregation of E. coli in necrotic regions of tumors that may be relatively inaccessible to systemically-administered drug molecules. Studies using a fluorescent glucuronide probe showed that significantly greater glucuronide hydrolysis could be achieved in mice pretreated with E. coli (lux/βG) by direct intratumoral injection of the glucuronide probe or by intratumoral lysis of bacteria to release intracellular beta-glucuronidase. Our study suggests that the distribution of beta-glucuronidase, and possibly other therapeutic proteins, in the tumor microenvironment might be an important barrier for effective bacterial-based tumor therapy. Expression of secreted therapeutic proteins or induction of therapeutic protein release from bacteria might therefore be a promising strategy to enhance anti-tumor

  11. Anti-tumor effect and mechanism of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor through matrix metalloproteinase 14 pathway in PANC-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siyuan; Gu, Zhuoyu; Xiao, Zhiwei; Zhou, Ting; Li, Jun; Sun, Kan

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, can attenuate proliferation, migration, invasion and MMP-14 expression in pancreatic cancer cells PANC-1 and the possible anti-tumor mechanism of celecoxib. Human pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1 cells were treated with diverse concentrations of celecoxib (20, 60, 100 μmol/L). Cell proliferation, invasion and migration capabilities were measured by MTT colorimetry, transwell invasion assay, and scratch assay separately. At the same time, the protein expression of COX-2 and MMP-14 was assessed by ELISA. The capabilities of proliferation, invasion and migration in PANC-1 cells were attenuated in a concentration-dependent manner after treated with celecoxib, followed by the down-regulation of the protein expression of COX-2 and MMP-14. In addition, MMP-14 expression was significantly positively correlated with COX-2 expression. COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib can inhibit the proliferation, invasion and migration of PANC-1 cells via down-regulating the expression of MMP-14 in a concentration-dependent manner, thus contributing to its anti-tumor effect in pancreatic cancer.

  12. Scaling dynamic response and destructive metabolism in an immunosurveillant anti-tumor system modulated by different external periodic interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhi Shao

    Full Text Available On the basis of two universal power-law scaling laws, i.e. the scaling dynamic hysteresis in physics and the allometric scaling metabolism in biosystem, we studied the dynamic response and the evolution of an immunosurveillant anti-tumor system subjected to a periodic external intervention, which is equivalent to the scheme of a radiotherapy or chemotherapy, within the framework of the growth dynamics of tumor. Under the modulation of either an abrupt or a gradual change external intervention, the population density of tumors exhibits a dynamic hysteresis to the intervention. The area of dynamic hysteresis loop characterizes a sort of dissipative-therapeutic relationship of the dynamic responding of treated tumors with the dose consumption of accumulated external intervention per cycle of therapy. Scaling the area of dynamic hysteresis loops against the intensity of an external intervention, we deduced a characteristic quantity which was defined as the theoretical therapeutic effectiveness of treated tumor and related with the destructive metabolism of tumor under treatment. The calculated dose-effectiveness profiles, namely the dose cumulant per cycle of intervention versus the therapeutic effectiveness, could be well scaled into a universal quadratic formula regardless of either an abrupt or a gradual change intervention involved. We present a new concept, i.e., the therapy-effect matrix and the dose cumulant matrix, to expound the new finding observed in the growth and regression dynamics of a modulated anti-tumor system.

  13. Cigarette smoke alters the invariant natural killer T cell function and may inhibit anti-tumor responses.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Andrew E

    2011-09-01

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a minor subset of human T cells which express the invariant T cell receptor Vα24 Jα18 and recognize glycolipids presented on CD1d. Invariant NKT cells are important immune regulators and can initiate anti-tumor responses through early potent cytokine production. Studies show that iNKT cells are defective in certain cancers. Cigarette smoke contains many carcinogens and is implicated directly and indirectly in many cancers. We investigated the effects of cigarette smoke on the circulating iNKT cell number and function. We found that the iNKT cell frequency is significantly reduced in cigarette smoking subjects. Invariant NKT cells exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) showed significant defects in cytokine production and the ability to kill target cells. CSE inhibits the upregulation of CD107 but not CD69 or CD56 on iNKT cells. These findings suggest that CSE has a specific effect on iNKT cell anti-tumor responses, which may contribute to the role of smoking in the development of cancer.

  14. Characterization of a Newly Isolated Marine Fungus Aspergillus dimorphicus for Optimized Production of the Anti-Tumor Agent Wentilactones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential anti-tumor agent wentilactones were produced by a newly isolated marine fungus Aspergillus dimorphicus. This fungus was derived from deep-sea sediment and identified by polyphasic approach, combining phenotypic, molecular, and extrolite profiles. However, wentilactone production was detected only under static cultures with very low yields. In order to improve wentilactone production, culture conditions were optimized using the response surface methodology. Under the optimal static fermentation conditions, the experimental values were closely consistent with the prediction model. The yields of wentilactone A and B were increased about 11-fold to 13.4 and 6.5 mg/L, respectively. The result was further verified by fermentation scale-up for wentilactone production. Moreover, some small-molecule elicitors were found to have capacity of stimulating wentilactone production. To our knowledge, this is first report of optimized production of tetranorlabdane diterpenoids by a deep-sea derived marine fungus. The present study might be valuable for efficient production of wentilactones and fundamental investigation of the anti-tumor mechanism of norditerpenoids.

  15. In vivo prediction of anti-tumor effect of 3-bromopyruvate in hepatocellular carcinoma using Tc-99m labeled annexin-v imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won; Yoon, Jung Hwan; Kim, Chung Yang [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Gi Jeoog; Lee, Tae Sup; Woo, Kwang Sun; Chung, Wee Sup [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    We have recently demonstrated that hypoxia stimulates hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell growth through hexokinase II induction, and its inhibition induces apoptotic cell death through activating mitochondrial apoptotic signaling cascades. In this study, we were apt to evaluate the antitumoral effect of 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) on in vivo model of HCC by apoptotic imaging using Tc-99m labeled annexin V. In vivo model of HCC was established in C3H mice intradermally implanted with MH134 cells, a mouse HCC cell line, and 3-BP (0, 5, 10 mg/kg) was subsequently administered intraperitoneally. Tc-99m-HYNIC-annexin V (185 KBq) was injected via tail vein at one and three days after the 3-BP treatment, planar scan was acquired at a hour after the injection using gamma camera. The anti-tumor effect was evaluated by measuring tumor volumes and quantification of apoptotic cells using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Tumor volume was significantly reduced in mice treated with 3-BP in a dose-dependent manner (mean tumor volume 1.07 vs. 0.58 vs. 0.39 cm{sup 3} in 3-BP 0, 5, 10 mg/kg, respectively: p=0.047). The percentage of TUNEL staining-positive cells was significantly increased in 3-BP-treated mice (0.53 vs. 1.40 vs. 1.84% in 3-BP 0, 5, 10 mg/kg, respectively; p=0.018). On Tc-99m-HYNIC annexin V imaging, tumor-to-background uptake ratio (UR) was 1.92 at one day and 4.23 at three days after 3-BP treatment of 5 mg/kg (non-treated tumor showed UR of 2.93). Apoptosis-inducing anti-tumor effect of 3-BP was able to be demonstrated in in vivo model of HCC by apoptotic in vivo imaging using Tc-99m-HYNIC annexin V.

  16. In vivo prediction of anti-tumor effect of 3-bromopyruvate in hepatocellular carcinoma using Tc-99m labeled annexin-v imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won; Yoon, Jung Hwan; Kim, Chung Yang; Cheon, Gi Jeoog; Lee, Tae Sup; Woo, Kwang Sun; Chung, Wee Sup

    2005-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that hypoxia stimulates hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell growth through hexokinase II induction, and its inhibition induces apoptotic cell death through activating mitochondrial apoptotic signaling cascades. In this study, we were apt to evaluate the antitumoral effect of 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) on in vivo model of HCC by apoptotic imaging using Tc-99m labeled annexin V. In vivo model of HCC was established in C3H mice intradermally implanted with MH134 cells, a mouse HCC cell line, and 3-BP (0, 5, 10 mg/kg) was subsequently administered intraperitoneally. Tc-99m-HYNIC-annexin V (185 KBq) was injected via tail vein at one and three days after the 3-BP treatment, planar scan was acquired at a hour after the injection using gamma camera. The anti-tumor effect was evaluated by measuring tumor volumes and quantification of apoptotic cells using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Tumor volume was significantly reduced in mice treated with 3-BP in a dose-dependent manner (mean tumor volume 1.07 vs. 0.58 vs. 0.39 cm 3 in 3-BP 0, 5, 10 mg/kg, respectively: p=0.047). The percentage of TUNEL staining-positive cells was significantly increased in 3-BP-treated mice (0.53 vs. 1.40 vs. 1.84% in 3-BP 0, 5, 10 mg/kg, respectively; p=0.018). On Tc-99m-HYNIC annexin V imaging, tumor-to-background uptake ratio (UR) was 1.92 at one day and 4.23 at three days after 3-BP treatment of 5 mg/kg (non-treated tumor showed UR of 2.93). Apoptosis-inducing anti-tumor effect of 3-BP was able to be demonstrated in in vivo model of HCC by apoptotic in vivo imaging using Tc-99m-HYNIC annexin V

  17. Supporting Data for Multifunctional all-in-one drug delivery systems for tumor targeting and sequential release of three different anti-tumor drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowei Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although nanoparticulate drug delivery systems (NDDSs can preferentially accumulate in tumors, active targeting by targeting ligands (e.g. monoclonal antibody is necessary for increasing its targeting efficacy in vivo. We conjugated mAb198.3 on the SiO2@AuNP system surface to make it obtain active targeting efficacy. The FAT1 targeting capability of SiO2@AuNP system is the first issue to be solved. Thus, flow cytometry analysis was attempted to demonstrate that the SiO2@AuNP system could bind to native FAT1 molecules on the surface of Colo205 cells. Also, together with the drug release behavior study of self-decomposable SiO2 NPs, the continuous morphological evolution needed to be clarified. Therefore, to characterize the morphological evolution in vitro, we analyzed the morphology of inner self-decomposable NPs in different time intervals using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. A more comprehensive analysis of this data may be obtained from the article “Multifunctional all-in-one drug delivery systems for tumor targeting and sequential release of three different anti-tumor drugs” in Biomaterials.

  18. Anti-tumor effect in human breast cancer by TAE226, a dual inhibitor for FAK and IGF-IR in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurio, Naito [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, 700-8525 (Japan); Shimo, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: shimotsu@md.okayama-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, 700-8525 (Japan); Fukazawa, Takuya; Takaoka, Munenori [Department of General Surgery, Kawasaki Medical School, Okayama, 700-0821 (Japan); Okui, Tatsuo; Hassan, Nur Mohammad Monsur; Honami, Tatsuki [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, 700-8525 (Japan); Hatakeyama, Shinji [Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Basel (Switzerland); Ikeda, Masahiko [Department of Surgery, Fukuyama City Hospital, Fukuyama, 720-8511 (Japan); Naomoto, Yoshio [Department of General Surgery, Kawasaki Medical School, Okayama, 700-0821 (Japan); Sasaki, Akira [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, 700-8525 (Japan)

    2011-05-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a 125-kDa non-receptor type tyrosine kinase that localizes to focal adhesions. FAK overexpression is frequently found in invasive and metastatic cancers of the breast, colon, thyroid, and prostate, but its role in osteolytic metastasis is not well understood. In this study, we have analyzed anti-tumor effects of the novel FAK Tyr{sup 397} inhibitor TAE226 against bone metastasis in breast cancer by using TAE226. Oral administration of TAE226 in mice significantly decreased bone metastasis and osteoclasts involved which were induced by MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and increased the survival rate of the mouse models of bone metastasis. TAE226 also suppressed the growth of subcutaneous tumors in vivo and the proliferation and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro. Significantly, TAE226 inhibited the osteoclast formation in murine pre-osteoclastic RAW264.7 cells, and actin ring and pit formation in mature osteoclasts. Moreover, TAE226 inhibited the receptor activator for nuclear factor {kappa} B Ligand (RANKL) gene expression induced by parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in bone stromal ST2 cells and blood free calcium concentration induced by PTHrP administration in vivo. These findings suggest that FAK was critically involved in osteolytic metastasis and activated in tumors, pre-osteoclasts, mature osteoclasts, and bone stromal cells and TAE226 can be effectively used for the treatment of cancer induced bone metastasis and other bone diseases.

  19. Enhancement in in vitro anti-angiogenesis activity and cytotoxicity in lung cancer cell by pectin-PVP based curcumin particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Dinanath; Shewale, Rajnita; Patil, Vinit; Mali, Dipak; Gaikwad, Uday; Jadhav, Namdeo

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this work was to prepare pectin-poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) [PVP] based curcumin particulates to enhance the anticancer potential of curcumin, solubility and allow its localized controlled release. Pectin-PVP based curcumin particulates (PECTIN-PVP CUR) were prepared by spray drying technique in different ratios and were evaluated for surface morphology, micromeritics, flowability, particle size, drug content, in vitro dissolution, inhalable fraction, anti-angiogenesis/angiolysis and cytotoxicity. Results of micromeritic properties, Carr's index, Hausner's ratio and angle of repose were satisfactory. The batch CP3 was considered as optimum, due to excellent flowability, acceptable aggregation and enhanced solubility. The particle size and size distribution data of selected batch CP3 showed 90% of curcumin particulates having size less than 2.74μm, which may deposit to lungs. Twin Impinger studies showed that 29% of respirable fraction was generated, which could be directly delivered to lungs. The in vitro dissolution data showed many fold increase in dissolution rate. Angiolytic activity and MTT assay of PECTIN-PVP CUR have demonstrated enhancement in the anti-tumor potential, compared to curcumin alone. Altogether, PECTIN-PVP CUR were found suitable for local delivery and enhance its anticancer potential of curcumin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, George; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Chapman, Kent; Faure, Lionel; Koulen, Peter

    2016-10-25

    A method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) is disclosed. The method comprising administering a phenoxyacylethanolamide that causes the enhanced activity. The enhanced activity can have numerous effects on biological organisms including, for example, enhancing the growth of certain seedlings. The subject matter disclosed herein relates to enhancers of amidohydrolase activity.

  1. Long-term survival of subcutaneous anti-tumor necrosis factor biological drugs administered between 2008 and 2012 in a cohort of rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Rivas, Noelia; Vazquez Rodriguez, Tomas R; Miranda Filloy, Jose A; Garcia-Porrua, Carlos; Sanchez-Andrade Fernández, Amalia

    2017-05-25

    To compare the survival of subcutaneous anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) drugs used between 2008 and 2012 prescribed in accordance with clinical practice. Retrospective, observational study of the patients in our center diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We included patients who had received a subcutaneous anti-TNF agent for at least 6 months. The data were analyzed using the SPSS V17.0 statistical package. Forty-nine RA patients started subcutaneous biological treatment with an anti-TNF agent (32 with etanercept and 17 with adalimumab). The mean age was 45.94 years (75.5% female). The mean disease duration prior to starting anti-TNF administration was 2.67 years. The mean age at the start of treatment was 51.84 years, and the average Disease Activity Score 28 was 4.93. The median survival of the anti-TNF treatment was 8.40 years; the survival of etanercept was the longer of the two. The main reason for discontinuation was secondary failure (90.9%). In routine clinical practice, the survival of subcutaneous anti-TNF treatment was extensive and was independent of whether or not the patients received concomitant immunosuppressive therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of anti-tumor necrosis factor biologics in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis does not change human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 markers: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umekita, Kunihiko; Umeki, Kazumi; Miyauchi, Shunichi; Ueno, Shiro; Kubo, Kazuyoshi; Kusumoto, Norio; Takajo, Ichiro; Nagatomo, Yasuhiro; Okayama, Akihiko

    2015-09-01

    Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) biologics are effective in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, it is still not clear whether this treatment promotes the development of malignancies such as lymphoma. Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), which is a causative agent of adult T-cell lymphoma (ATL), is prevalent in Japan. Many HTLV-1-positive patients with RA are assumed to exist; however, there have thus far been no reports on the effect of anti-TNF biologics on HTLV-1-positive patients. We analyzed the response to treatment with anti-TNF biologics and change of HTLV-1 markers in two cases of RA. The two cases showed no response based on the European League Against of Rheumatism response criteria 60-96 weeks after administration of anti-TNF biologics (infliximab and etanercept). No signs of ATL were observed and HTLV-1 markers, such as proviral load and clonality of HTLV-1-infected cells, showed no significant change in either of two cases. Therefore, treatment with anti-TNF biologics did not induce activation of HTLV-1, although the effect on RA was not as effective as in HTLV-1-negative patients in this limited study. Further long-term study with a greater number of patients is necessary to clarify the safety and efficacy of anti-TNF biologics in HTLV-1-positive patients with RA.

  3. Regorafenib inhibited gastric cancer cells growth and invasion via CXCR4 activated Wnt pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Xiao-Lin; Xu, Qi; Tang, Lei; Sun, Li; Han, Ting; Wang, Li-Wei; Xiao, Xiu-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Aim Regorafenib is an oral small-molecule multi kinase inhibitor. Recently, several clinical trials have revealed that regorafenib has an anti-tumor activity in gastric cancer. However, only part of patients benefit from regorafenib, and the mechanisms of regorafenib?s anti-tumor effect need further demonstrating. In this study, we would assess the potential anti-tumor effects and the underlying mechanisms of regorafenib in gastric cancer cells, and explore novel biomarkers for patients selec...

  4. POLE proofreading mutations elicit an anti-tumor immune response in endometrial cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gool, Inge C; Eggink, Florine A; Freeman-Mills, Luke; Stelloo, Ellen; Marchi, Emanuele; de Bruyn, Marco; Palles, Claire; Nout, Remi A; de Kroon, Cor D; Osse, Elisabeth M; Klenerman, Paul; Creutzberg, Carien L; Tomlinson, Ian PM; Smit, Vincent THBM; Nijman, Hans W

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies have shown that 7-12% of endometrial cancers (ECs) are ultramutated due to somatic mutation in the proofreading exonuclease domain of the DNA replicase POLE. Interestingly, these tumors have an excellent prognosis. In view of the emerging data linking mutation burden, immune response and clinical outcome in cancer, we investigated whether POLE-mutant ECs showed evidence of increased immunogenicity. Experimental design We examined immune infiltration and activation according to tumor POLE proofreading mutation in a molecularly defined EC cohort including 47 POLE-mutant tumors. We sought to confirm our results by analysis of RNAseq data from the TCGA EC series and used the same series to examine whether differences in immune infiltration could be explained by an enrichment of immunogenic neoepitopes in POLE-mutant ECs. Results Compared to other ECs, POLE-mutants displayed an enhanced cytotoxic T cell response, evidenced by increased numbers of CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and CD8A expression, enrichment for a tumor-infiltrating T cell gene signature, and strong upregulation of the T cell cytotoxic differentiation and effector markers T-bet, Eomes, IFNG, PRF and granzyme B. This was accompanied by upregulation of T cell exhaustion markers, consistent with chronic antigen exposure. In-silico analysis confirmed that POLE-mutant cancers are predicted to display more antigenic neo-epitopes than other ECs, providing a potential explanation for our findings. Conclusions Ultramutated POLE proofreading-mutant ECs are characterized by a robust intratumoral T cell response, which correlates with, and may be caused by an enrichment of antigenic neo-peptides. Our study provides a plausible mechanism for the excellent prognosis of these cancers. PMID:25878334

  5. MUC1-specific immune therapy generates a strong anti-tumor response in a MUC1-tolerant colon cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, P; Pathangey, L B; Bradley, J B; Tinder, T L; Basu, G D; Akporiaye, E T; Gendler, S J

    2007-02-19

    A MUC1-based vaccine was used in a preclinical model of colon cancer. The trial was conducted in a MUC1-tolerant immune competent host injected with MC38 colon cancer cells expressing MUC1. The vaccine included: MHC class I-restricted MUC1 peptides, MHC class II-restricted pan-helper-peptide, unmethylated CpG oligodeoxynucleotide, and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor. Immunization was successful in breaking MUC1 self-tolerance, and in eliciting a robust anti-tumor response. The vaccine stimulated IFN-gamma-producing CD4(+) helper and CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells against MUC1 and other undefined MC38 tumor antigens. In the prophylactic setting, immunization caused complete rejection of tumor cells, while in the therapeutic regimen, tumor burden was significantly reduced.

  6. Constructing TC-1-GLUC-LMP2 Model Tumor Cells to Evaluate the Anti-Tumor Effects of LMP2-Related Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liying; Hao, Yanzhe; Wang, Zhan; Zeng, Yi

    2018-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is related to a variety of malignant tumors, and its encoded protein, latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2), is an effective target antigen that is widely used to construct vector vaccines. However, the model cells carrying LMP2 have still not been established to assess the oncolytic effect of LMP2-related vaccines at present. In this study, TC-1-GLUC-LMP2 tumor cells were constructed as target cells to evaluate the anti-tumor effects of LMP2-assosiated vaccines. The results showed that both LMP2 and Gaussia luciferase (GLuc) genes could be detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in TC-1-GLUC-LMP2 cells. Western blot results showed that the LMP2 and Gaussia luciferase proteins were stably expressed in tumor cells for at least 30 generations. We mixed 5 × 104 LMP2-specific mouse splenic lymphocytes with 5 × 103 TC-1-GLUC-LMP2 target cells and found that the target cells were killed as the specific killing effect was obviously enhanced by the increased quantities of LMP2-peptide stimulated spleens. Furthermore, the tumor cells could not be observed in the mice inoculated TC-1-GLUC-LMP2 cells after being immunized with vaccine-LMP2, while the vaccine-NULL immunized mice showed that tumor volume gradually grew with increased inoculation time. These results indicated that the TC-1-GLUC-LMP2 cells stably expressing LMP2 and GLuc produced tumors in mice, and that the LMP2-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) effectively killed the cells in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that TC-1-GLUC-LMP2 cells can be used as model cells to assess the immune and antitumor effects of LMP2-related vaccines. PMID:29570629

  7. Properties of a non-bioactive fluorescent derivative of differentiation-inducing factor-3, an anti-tumor agent found in Dictyostelium discoideum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzuru Kubohara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Differentiation-inducing factor-3 (DIF-3, found in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, and its derivatives, such as butoxy-DIF-3 (Bu-DIF-3, are potent anti-tumor agents. To investigate the activity of DIF-like molecules in tumor cells, we recently synthesized a green fluorescent DIF-3 derivative, BODIPY-DIF-3G, and analyzed its bioactivity and cellular localization. In this study, we synthesized a red (orange fluorescent DIF-3 derivative, BODIPY-DIF-3R, and compared the cellular localization and bioactivities of the two BODIPY-DIF-3s in HeLa human cervical cancer cells. Both fluorescent compounds penetrated the extracellular membrane within 0.5 h and localized mainly to the mitochondria. In formalin-fixed cells, the two BODIPY-DIF-3s also localized to the mitochondria, indicating that the BODIPY-DIF-3s were incorporated into mitochondria independently of the mitochondrial membrane potential. After treatment for 3 days, BODIPY-DIF-3G, but not BODIPY-DIF-3R, induced mitochondrial swelling and suppressed cell proliferation. Interestingly, the swollen mitochondria were stainable with BODIPY-DIF-3G but not with BODIPY-DIF-3R. When added to isolated mitochondria in vitro, BODIPY-DIF-3G increased dose-dependently the rate of O2 consumption, but BODIPY-DIF-3R did not. These results suggest that the bioactive BODIPY-DIF-3G suppresses cell proliferation, at least in part, by altering mitochondrial activity, whereas the non-bioactive BODIPY-DIF-3R localizes to the mitochondria but does not affect mitochondrial activity or cell proliferation.

  8. Recognition of melanoma-derived antigens by CTL: possible mechanisms involved in down-regulating anti-tumor T-cell reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivoltini, L; Loftus, D J; Squarcina, P

    1998-01-01

    Several T cell-recognized epitopes presented by melanoma cells have been identified recently. Despite the large array of epitopes potentially available for clinical use, it is still unclear which of these antigens could be effective in mediating anti-tumor responses when used as a vaccine...

  9. Granulomatous salmonella osteomyelitis associated with anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy in a non-sickle cell patient: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, Elaine S.; Gilet, Anthony G. [State University of New York at Stony Brook, Department of Radiology, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Vigorita, Vincent J. [SUNY Health Sciences Center Brooklyn, Department of Pathology and Orthopedics, Brooklyn, NY (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Salmonella osteomyelitis is seen most commonly in patients with sickle cell disease and in those with compromised immune systems. We report on the clinical, histological and imaging findings of salmonella osteomyelitis with intraosseous abscess formation occurring in a non-sickle cell patient receiving anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha therapy. (orig.)

  10. Granulomatous salmonella osteomyelitis associated with anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy in a non-sickle cell patient: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, Elaine S.; Gilet, Anthony G.; Vigorita, Vincent J.

    2010-01-01

    Salmonella osteomyelitis is seen most commonly in patients with sickle cell disease and in those with compromised immune systems. We report on the clinical, histological and imaging findings of salmonella osteomyelitis with intraosseous abscess formation occurring in a non-sickle cell patient receiving anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha therapy. (orig.)

  11. Research Progress of the Anti-Tumor Effect of Camellia Nitidissima%金花茶抗肿瘤作用的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵元华; 刘会芳(综述); 何荣霞(审校)

    2015-01-01

    金花茶属于山茶科,富含400多种化学成分以及多种对人体有重要保健作用的微量元素和维生素等,具有抗癌、防癌、抗氧化等功能。其主要活性物质通过抑制部分肿瘤细胞的增殖和转移、阻滞某些肿瘤细胞周期、诱导肿瘤细胞凋亡和分化而发挥抗肿瘤作用。该文通过检索国内外有关金花茶化学成分、药理活性和抗肿瘤作用等方面的文献,对金花茶抗肿瘤作用的研究进展予以综述。%Camellia nitidissima belongs to theaceae ,containing more than 400 kinds of chemical compo-nents,including multiple body trace elements and vitamins which have functions of cancer prevention ,anti-cancer,and anti-oxidation.The main active substances take effect by inhibiting proliferation and metastasis of tumor cells,blocking certain cell cycle,inducing tumor cell apoptosis and differentiation.Through retrieving relevant literature of the chemical composition ,pharmacological activity and anti-tumor effect of camellia nit-idissima,we summarize its therapeutic effects and mechanisms in all kinds of tumors.

  12. Metformin anti-tumor effect via disruption of the MID1 translational regulator complex and AR downregulation in prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, Ummuhan; Koehler, Andrea; Schneider, Rainer; Schweiger, Susann; Klocker, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Metformin is an approved drug prescribed for diabetes. Its role as an anti-cancer agent has drawn significant attention because of its minimal side effects and low cost. However, its mechanism of anti-tumour action has not yet been fully clarified. The effect on cell growth was assessed by cell counting. Western blot was used for analysis of protein levels, Boyden chamber assays for analyses of cell migration and co-immunoprecipitation (CoIP) followed by western blot, PCR or qPCR for analysis of protein-protein and protein-mRNA interactions. Metformin showed an anti-proliferative effect on a wide range of prostate cancer cells. It disrupted the AR translational MID1 regulator complex leading to release of the associated AR mRNA and subsequently to downregulation of AR protein in AR positive cell lines. Inhibition of AR positive and negative prostate cancer cells by metformin suggests involvement of additional targets. The inhibitory effect of metformin was mimicked by disruption of the MID1-α4/PP2A protein complex by siRNA knockdown of MID1 or α4 whereas AMPK activation was not required. Findings reported herein uncover a mechanism for the anti-tumor activity of metformin in prostate cancer, which is independent of its anti-diabetic effects. These data provide a rationale for the use of metformin in the treatment of hormone naïve and castration-resistant prostate cancer and suggest AR is an important indirect target of metformin

  13. Method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, George; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Chapman, Kent; Faure, Lionel; Koulen, Peter

    2017-12-26

    A method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) is disclosed. The method comprising administering a phenoxyacyl-ethanolamide that causes the enhanced activity. The enhanced activity can have numerous effects on biological organisms including, for example, enhancing the growth of certain seedlings.

  14. Molecularly characterized solvent extracts and saponins from Polygonum hydropiper L show high anti-angiogenic, anti-tumor, brine shrimp and fibroblast NIH/3T3 cell line cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad eAyaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum hydropiper is used as anti-cancer and anti-rheumatic agent in folk medicine. This study was designed to investigate the anti-angiogenic, anti-tumor and cytotoxic potentials of different solvent extracts and isolated saponins. Samples were analyzed using GC, GC-MS to identify major and bioactive compounds. Quantitation of antiangiogenesis for the plant's samples including methanolic extract (Ph.Cr, its subsequent fractions; n-hexane (Ph.Hex, chloroform (Ph.Chf, ethyl acetate (Ph.EtAc, n-Butanol (Ph.Bt, aqueous (Ph.Aq, saponins (Ph.Sp were performed using the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM assay. Potato disc anti-tumor assay was performed on Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing tumor inducing plasmid. Cytotoxicity was performed on Artemia salina and mouse embryonic fibroblast NIH/3T3 cell line using brine shrimps and MTT cells viability assays. The GC-MS analysis of Ph.Cr, Ph.Hex, Ph.Chf, Ph.Bt and Ph.EtAc identified 126, 124, 153, 131 and 164 compounds respectively. In anti-angiogenic assay, Ph.Chf, Ph.Sp, Ph.EtAc and Ph.Cr exhibited highest activity with IC50 of 28.65, 19.21, 88.75 and 461.53 µg/ml respectively. In anti-tumor assay, Ph.Sp, Ph.Chf, Ph.EtAc and Ph.Cr were most potent with IC50 of 18.39, 73.81, 217.19 and 342.53 µg/ml respectively. In MTT cells viability assay, Ph.Chf, Ph.EtAc, Ph.Sp were most active causing 79.00, 72.50 and 71.50% cytotoxicity respectively at 1000 µg/ml with the LD50 of 140, 160 and 175 µg/ml respectively. In overall study, Ph.Chf and Ph.Sp have shown overwhelming results which signifies their potentials as sources of therapeutic agents against cancer.

  15. Migration of dendritic cells to the lymph nodes and its enhancement to drive anti-tumor responses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seyfizadeh, N; Muthuswamy, Ravikumar; Mitchell, Duane; Nierkens, S; Seyfizadeh, Nayer

    2016-01-01

    Better prognoses associated with increased T cell infiltration of tumors, as seen with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors, portray the importance and potential of the immune system in controlling tumors. This has rejuvenated the field of cancer

  16. Mitochondria are the target organelle of differentiation-inducing factor-3, an anti-tumor agent isolated from Dictyostelium discoideum [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzuru Kubohara

    Full Text Available Differentiation-inducing factor-3 (DIF-3, found in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, and its derivatives such as butoxy-DIF-3 (Bu-DIF-3 are potent anti-tumor agents. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the actions of DIF-3 remain to be elucidated. In this study, we synthesized a green fluorescent derivative of DIF-3, BODIPY-DIF-3, and a control fluorescent compound, Bu-BODIPY (butyl-BODIPY, and investigated how DIF-like molecules behave in human cervical cancer HeLa cells by using both fluorescence and electron microscopy. BODIPY-DIF-3 at 5-20 µ M suppressed cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, whereas Bu-BODIPY had minimal effect on cell growth. When cells were incubated with BODIPY-DIF-3 at 20 µM, it penetrated cell membranes within 0.5 h and localized mainly in mitochondria, while Bu-BODIPY did not stain the cells. Exposure of cells for 1-3 days to DIF-3, Bu-DIF-3, BODIPY-DIF-3, or CCCP (a mitochondrial uncoupler induced substantial mitochondrial swelling, suppressing cell growth. When added to isolated mitochondria, DIF-3, Bu-DIF-3, and BOIDPY-DIF-3, like CCCP, dose-dependently promoted the rate of oxygen consumption, but Bu-BODIPY did not. Our results suggest that these bioactive DIF-like molecules suppress cell growth, at least in part, by disturbing mitochondrial activity. This is the first report showing the cellular localization and behavior of DIF-like molecules in mammalian tumor cells.

  17. Anti-thrombotic and anti-tumor effect of water extract of caulis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dysmenorrhea [8]. Several kinds of compounds such as lignans, triterpenes, anthraquinones, phenolic acids, and phenylpropanoids have been previously isolated from SRW [7,9]. However, to the best of our knowledge, only a few researches reported the pharmacological activities of SRW. The present research was aimed ...

  18. Hydrolytic enzyme activity enhanced by Barium supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Muñoz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of polymers is a first and often limiting step during the degradation of plant residues. Plant biomass is generally a major component of waste residues and a major renewable resource to obtain a variety of secondary products including biofuels. Improving the performance of enzymatic hydrolysis of plant material with minimum costs and limiting the use of additional microbial biomass or hydrolytic enzymes directly influences competitiveness of these green biotechnological processes. In this study, we cloned and expressed a cellulase and two esterases recovered from environmental thermophilic soil bacterial communities and characterize their optimum activity conditions including the effect of several metal ions. Results showed that supplementing these hydrolytic reactions with Barium increases the activity of these extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. This observation represents a simple but major improvement to enhance the efficiency and competitiveness of this process within an increasingly important biotechnological sector.

  19. Risk factors for tuberculosis in inflammatory bowel disease: anti-tumor necrosis factor and hospitalization

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    Sabino Riestra

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine risk factors for active tuberculosis in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. Methods: Retrospective, case-control study at 4 referral hospitals in Spain. Cases developed tuberculosis after a diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. Controls were inflammatory bowel disease patients who did not develop tuberculosis. For each case, we randomly selected 3 controls matched for sex, age (within 5 years and time of inflammatory bowel disease diagnosis (within 3 years. Inflammatory bowel disease characteristics, candidate risk factors for tuberculosis and information about the tuberculosis episode were recorded. Multivariate analysis and a Chi-squared automatic interaction detector were used. Results: Thirty-four cases and 102 controls were included. Nine of the 34 cases developed active tuberculosis between 1989 and 1999, and 25 became ill between 2000 and 2012. Multivariate regression showed an association between active tuberculosis and anti-TNF (tumor necrosis factor therapy in the previous 12 months (OR 7.45; 95% CI, 2.39-23.12; p = 0.001; hospitalization in the previous 6 months (OR 4.38; 95% CI, 1.18-16.20; p = 0.027; and albumin levels (OR 0.88; 95% CI, 0.81-0.95; p = 0.001. The median time between the start of biologic therapy and the onset of active tuberculosis was 13 (interquartile range, 1-58 months. Tuberculosis developed after a year of anti-TNF therapy in 53%, and late reactivation occurred in at least 3 of 8 patients. Conclusions: The main risks factors for developing tuberculosis were anti-TNF therapy and hospitalization. Over half the cases related to anti-TNF treatment occurred after a year.

  20. Anti-tumor effect of total body irradiation of low doses on WHT/Ht mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Miyako; Sakamoto, Kiyohiko

    1987-01-01

    The effect of low dose (0.05 - 1.0 Gy) of total body irradiation (TBI) on non-tumor bearing and tumor bearing mice were investigated. Mice received TBI of 0.1 Gy during 6 - 12 hours before tumor cell inoculation demonstrated to need larger number of tumor cells (approximately 2.5 times) for 50 per cent tumor incidence, compared to recipient mice not to receive TBI. On the other hand, in tumor bearing mice given 0.1 Gy of TBI only tumor cell killing effect was not detected, however enhancement of tumor cell killing effect and prolonged growth delay were observed when tumor bearing mice were treated with 0.1 Gy of TBI in combined with local irradiation on tumors, especially cell killing effect was remarkable in dose range over 6 Gy of local exposure. The mechanism of the effect of 0.1 Gy TBI is considered to be host mediated reactions from the other our experimental results. (author)

  1. Intravenous microemulsion of docetaxel containing an anti-tumor synergistic ingredient (Brucea javanica oil): formulation and pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shilin; Chen, Fen; Ye, Xiaohui; Dong, Yingjie; Xue, Yingna; Xu, Heming; Zhang, Wenji; Song, Shuangshuang; Ai, Li; Zhang, Naixian; Pan, Weisan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a docetaxel microemulsion containing an anti-tumor synergistic ingredient (Brucea javanica oil) and to investigate the characteristics of the microemulsion. Brucea javanica oil contains oleic acid and linoleic acids that have been shown by animal and human studies to inhibit tumor formation. The microemulsion containing Brucea javanica oil, medium-chain triglyceride, soybean lecithin, Solutol®HS 15, PEG 400, and water was developed for docetaxel intravenous administration. A formulation with higher drug content, lower viscosity, and smaller particle size was developed. The droplet size distribution of the dispersed phase of the optimized microemulsion was 13.5 nm, determined using a dynamic light scattering technique. The small droplet size enabled the microemulsion droplets to escape from uptake and phagocytosis by the reticuloendothelial system and increased the circulation time of the drug. The zeta potential was -41.3 mV. The optimized microemulsion was pale yellow, transparent, and non-opalescent in appearance. The value of the combination index was 0.58, showing that there was a synergistic effect when docetaxel was combined with Brucea javanica oil. After a single intravenous infusion dose (10 mg/kg) in male Sprague Dawley rats, the area under the curve of the microemulsion was higher and the half-time was longer compared with that of docetaxel solution alone, and showed superior pharmacokinetic characteristics. These results indicate that this preparation of docetaxel in emulsion is likely to provide an excellent prospect for clinical tumor treatment.

  2. Surgical Stress Abrogates Pre-Existing Protective T Cell Mediated Anti-Tumor Immunity Leading to Postoperative Cancer Recurrence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhirami A Ananth

    Full Text Available Anti-tumor CD8+ T cells are a key determinant for overall survival in patients following surgical resection for solid malignancies. Using a mouse model of cancer vaccination (adenovirus expressing melanoma tumor-associated antigen (TAA-dopachrome tautomerase (AdDCT and resection resulting in major surgical stress (abdominal nephrectomy, we demonstrate that surgical stress results in a reduction in the number of CD8+ T cell that produce cytokines (IFNγ, TNFα, Granzyme B in response to TAA. This effect is secondary to both reduced proliferation and impaired T cell function following antigen binding. In a prophylactic model, surgical stress completely abrogates tumor protection conferred by vaccination in the immediate postoperative period. In a clinically relevant surgical resection model, vaccinated mice undergoing a positive margin resection with surgical stress had decreased survival compared to mice with positive margin resection alone. Preoperative immunotherapy with IFNα significantly extends survival in surgically stressed mice. Importantly, myeloid derived suppressor cell (MDSC population numbers and functional impairment of TAA-specific CD8+ T cell were altered in surgically stressed mice. Our observations suggest that cancer progression may result from surgery-induced suppression of tumor-specific CD8+ T cells. Preoperative immunotherapies aimed at targeting the prometastatic effects of cancer surgery will reduce recurrence and improve survival in cancer surgery patients.

  3. Studies on Preparation of Photosensitizer Loaded Magnetic Silica Nanoparticles and Their Anti-Tumor Effects for Targeting Photodynamic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhi-Long

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As a fast developing alternative of traditional therapeutics, photodynamic therapy (PDT is an effective, noninvasive, nontoxic therapeutics for cancer, senile macular degeneration, and so on. But the efficacy of PDT was compromised by insufficient selectivity and low solubility. In this study, novel multifunctional silica-based magnetic nanoparticles (SMNPs were strategically designed and prepared as targeting drug delivery system to achieve higher specificity and better solubility. 2,7,12,18-Tetramethyl-3,8-di-(1-propoxyethyl-13,17-bis-(3-hydroxypropyl porphyrin, shorted as PHPP, was used as photosensitizer, which was first synthesized by our lab with good PDT effects. Magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 and PHPP were incorporated into silica nanoparticles by microemulsion and sol–gel methods. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. The nanoparticles were approximately spherical with 20–30 nm diameter. Intense fluorescence of PHPP was monitored in the cytoplasm of SW480 cells. The nanoparticles possessed good biocompatibility and could generate singlet oxygen to cause remarkable photodynamic anti-tumor effects. These suggested that PHPP-SMNPs had great potential as effective drug delivery system in targeting photodynamic therapy, diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic hyperthermia therapy.

  4. Lenalidomide, an anti-tumor drug, regulates retinal endothelial cell function: Implication for treating ocular neovascular disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Ling-Feng; Yao, Jin; Wang, Xiao-Qun; Shan, Kun; Yang, Hong; Yan, Biao; Jiang, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Ocular angiogenesis is an important pathologic character of several ocular diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Inhibition of ocular angiogenesis has great therapeutic value for treating these dieses. Here we show that lenalidomide, an anti-tumor drug, has great anti-angiogenic potential in ocular diseases. Lenalidomide inhibits retinal endothelial cell viability in normal and pathological condition, and inhibits VEGF-induced endothelial cell migration and tube formation in vitro. Moreover, lenalidomide inhibits ocular angiogenesis in vivo through the reduction of angiogenesis- and inflammation-related protein expression. Collectively, lenalidomide is a promising drug for treating ocular angiogenesis through its anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory property. - Highlights: • Lenalidomide inhibits retinal endothelial cell viability in vitro. • Lenalidomide inhibits retinal endothelial cell migration and tube formation. • Lenalidomide inhibits pathological ocular angiogenesis in vivo. • Lenalidomide inhibits angiogenesis- and inflammation-related protein expression.

  5. Lenalidomide, an anti-tumor drug, regulates retinal endothelial cell function: Implication for treating ocular neovascular disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Ling-Feng; Yao, Jin; Wang, Xiao-Qun; Shan, Kun; Yang, Hong [Eye Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); The Fourth School of Clinical Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Yan, Biao, E-mail: yanbiao1982@hotmail.com [Eye Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); The Fourth School of Clinical Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Jiang, Qin, E-mail: jiangqin710@126.com [Eye Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); The Fourth School of Clinical Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China)

    2015-10-02

    Ocular angiogenesis is an important pathologic character of several ocular diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Inhibition of ocular angiogenesis has great therapeutic value for treating these dieses. Here we show that lenalidomide, an anti-tumor drug, has great anti-angiogenic potential in ocular diseases. Lenalidomide inhibits retinal endothelial cell viability in normal and pathological condition, and inhibits VEGF-induced endothelial cell migration and tube formation in vitro. Moreover, lenalidomide inhibits ocular angiogenesis in vivo through the reduction of angiogenesis- and inflammation-related protein expression. Collectively, lenalidomide is a promising drug for treating ocular angiogenesis through its anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory property. - Highlights: • Lenalidomide inhibits retinal endothelial cell viability in vitro. • Lenalidomide inhibits retinal endothelial cell migration and tube formation. • Lenalidomide inhibits pathological ocular angiogenesis in vivo. • Lenalidomide inhibits angiogenesis- and inflammation-related protein expression.

  6. Structure and Functional Characterization of Human Aspartate Transcarbamoylase, the Target of the Anti-tumoral Drug PALA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Alba; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Grande-García, Araceli; Moreno-Morcillo, María; Ramón-Maiques, Santiago

    2016-07-06

    CAD, the multienzymatic protein that initiates and controls de novo synthesis of pyrimidines in animals, associates through its aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) domain into particles of 1.5 MDa. Despite numerous structures of prokaryotic ATCases, we lack structural information on the ATCase domain of CAD. Here, we report the structure and functional characterization of human ATCase, confirming the overall similarity with bacterial homologs. Unexpectedly, human ATCase exhibits cooperativity effects that reduce the affinity for the anti-tumoral drug PALA. Combining structural, mutagenic, and biochemical analysis, we identified key elements for the necessary regulation and transmission of conformational changes leading to cooperativity between subunits. Mutation of one of these elements, R2024, was recently found to cause the first non-lethal CAD deficit. We reproduced this mutation in human ATCase and measured its effect, demonstrating that this arginine is part of a molecular switch that regulates the equilibrium between low- and high-affinity states for the ligands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An effective tumor-targeting strategy utilizing hypoxia-sensitive siRNA delivery system for improved anti-tumor outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Lin; Fan, Bo; Sun, Ping; Huang, Wei; Jin, Mingji; Wang, Qiming; Gao, Zhonggao

    2016-10-15

    Hypoxia is a feature of most solid tumors, targeting hypoxia is considered as the best validated yet not extensively exploited strategy in cancer therapy. Here, we reported a novel tumor-targeting strategy using a hypoxia-sensitive siRNA delivery system. In the study, 2-nitroimidazole (NI), a hydrophobic component that can be converted to hydrophilic 2-aminoimidazole (AI) through bioreduction under hypoxic conditions, was conjugated to the alkylated polyethyleneimine (bPEI1.8k-C6) to form amphiphilic bPEI1.8k-C6-NI polycations. bPEI1.8k-C6-NI could self-assemble into micelle-like aggregations in aqueous, which contributed to the improved stability of the bPEI1.8k-C6-NI/siRNA polyplexes, resulted in increased cellular uptake. After being transported into the hypoxic tumor cells, the selective nitro-to-amino reduction would cause structural change and elicit a relatively loose structure to facilitate the siRNA dissociation in the cytoplasm, for enhanced gene silencing efficiency ultimately. Therefore, the conflict between the extracellular stability and the intracellular siRNA release ability of the polyplexes was solved by introducing the hypoxia-responsive unit. Consequently, the survivin-targeted siRNA loaded polyplexes shown remarkable anti-tumor effect not only in hypoxic cells, but also in tumor spheroids and tumor-bearing mice, indicating that the hypoxia-sensitive siRNA delivery system had great potential for tumor-targeted therapy. Hypoxia is one of the most remarkable features of most solid tumors, and targeting hypoxia is considered as the best validated strategy in cancer therapy. However, in the past decades, there were few reports about using this strategy in the drug delivery system, especially in siRNA delivery system. Therefore, we constructed a hypoxia-sensitive siRNA delivery system utilizing a hypoxia-responsive unit, 2-nitroimidazole, by which the unavoidable conflict between improved extracellular stability and promoted intracellular si

  8. Anti-tumor and Chemoprotective Effect of Bauhinia tomentosa by Regulating Growth Factors and Inflammatory Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Narayanan; Sakthivel, Kunnathur Murugesan; Guruvayoorappan, Chandrasekaran

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Due to the toxic side effects of the commonly used chemotherapeutic drug cyclophosphamide (CTX), the use of herbal medicines with fewer side effects but having potential use as inducing anti-cancer outcomes in situ has become increasingly popular. The present study sought to investigate the effects of a methanolic extract of Bauhinia tomentosa against Dalton's ascites lymphoma (DAL) induced ascites as well as solid tumors in BALB/c mice. Specifically, B. tomentosa extract was administered intraperitonealy (IP) at 10 mg/kg. BW body weight starting just after tumor cell implantation and thereafter for 10 consecutive days. In the ascites tumor model hosts, administration of extract resulted in a 52% increase in the life span. In solid tumor models, co-administration of extract and CTX significantly reduced tumor volume (relative to in untreated hosts) by 73% compared to just by 52% when the extract alone was provided. Co-administration of the extract also mitigated CTX-induced toxicity, including decreases in WBC count, and in bone marrow cellularity and α-esterase activity. Extract treatment also attenuated any increases in serum levels of TNFα, iNOS, IL-1β, IL-6, GM-CSF, and VEGF seen in tumor-bearing hosts. This study confirmed that, the potent antitumor activity of B.tomentosa extract may be associated with immune modulatory effects by regulating anti-oxidants and cytokine levels.

  9. Is the anti-tumor property of Trypanosoma cruzi infection mediated by its Calreticulin?

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    Galia Andrea Ramírez-Toloza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Eight to 10 million people in 21 endemic countries are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. However, only 30% of those infected develop symptoms of Chagas’ disease, a chronic, neglected tropical disease worldwide. Similar to other pathogens, T. cruzi has evolved to resist the host immune response. Studies, performed 80 years ago in the Soviet Union, proposed that T. cruzi infects tumor cells with similar capacity to that displayed for target tissues such as cardiac, aortic or digestive. An antagonistic relationship between T. cruzi infection and cancer development was also proposed, but the molecular mechanisms involved have remained largely unknown. Probably, a variety of T. cruzi molecules is involved. This review focuses on how T. cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT, exteriorized from the endoplasmic reticulum, targets the first classical complement component C1 and negatively regulates the Classical Complement activation cascade, promoting parasite infectivity. We propose that this C1-dependent TcCRT-mediated virulence is critical to explain, at least an important part, of the parasite capacity to inhibit tumor development. We will discuss how TcCRT, by directly interacting with venous and arterial endothelial cells, inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth. Thus, these TcCRT functions not only illustrate T. cruzi interactions with the host immune defensive strategies, but also illustrate a possible co-evolutionary adaptation to privilege a prolonged interaction with its host.

  10. [Circadian rhythm in susceptibility of mice to the anti-tumor drug carboplatin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, X H; Yin, L J

    1994-12-01

    The platinum-containing compounds has become a major chemical agent in the treatment of cancer. A circadian rhythm in the susceptibility of rodents and human being to cisplatin has been demonstrated, the maximal tolerance being found in the animal's active phase. Carboplatin is a second generation analog. Two studies were performed on mice with carboplatin under 12:12 light dark cycle to study its chronotoxicity and chronoeffectiveness. In study I, single intraperitoneal injection of 192mg/kg (LD50) carboplatin was given to four groups of mice at four different circadian stage. It was found that at 50% the overall mortality of mice, there was a mortality difference of 28% for mice receiving the drug at 9 a.m. to 71% for mice receiving drug at 9 p.m. It demonstrated that carboplatin was better tolerated in the animal's early sleep phase. In study II, S180 tumor-bearing mice were treated with 50mg/kg of carboplatin. The longest mean survival time and the lowest marrow toxicity occurred in the group which received the drug at the beginning of the sleep phase. It showed that the susceptibility of mice to carboplatin is circadian stage dependent. These data clearly demonstrate that, by timing the administration of drugs according to body rhythms, such as the host susceptibility-resistance rhythm to a drug, one can gain a therapeutic advantage over an approach which ignores such rhythms.

  11. A ternary-complex of a suicide gene, a RAGE-binding peptide, and polyethylenimine as a gene delivery system with anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic dual effects in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunji; Oh, Jungju; Lee, Dahee; Lee, Jaewon; Tan, Xiaonan; Kim, Minkyung; Kim, Gyeungyun; Piao, Chunxian; Lee, Minhyung

    2018-04-13

    The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is involved in tumor angiogenesis. Inhibition of RAGE might be an effective anti-angiogenic therapy for cancer. In this study, a cationic RAGE-binding peptide (RBP) was produced as an antagonist of RAGE, and a ternary-complex consisting of RBP, polyethylenimine (2 kDa, PEI2k), and a suicide gene (pHSVtk) was developed as a gene delivery system with dual functions: the anti-tumor effect of pHSVtk and anti-angiogenic effect of RBP. As an antagonist of RAGE, RBP decreased the secretion of vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in activated macrophages and reduced the tube-formation of endothelial cells in vitro. In in vitro transfection assays, the RBP/PEI2k/plasmid DNA (pDNA) ternary-complex had higher transfection efficiency than the PEI2k/pDNA binary-complex. In an intracranial glioblastoma animal model, the RBP/PEI2k/pHSVtk ternary-complex reduced α-smooth muscle actin expression, suggesting that the complex has an anti-angiogenic effect. In addition, the ternary-complex had higher pHSVtk delivery efficiency than the PEI2k/pHSVtk and PEI25k/pHSVtk binary-complexes in an animal model. As a result, the ternary-complex induced apoptosis and reduced tumor volume more effectively than the PEI2k/pHSVtk and PEI25k/pHSVtk binary-complexes. In conclusion, due to its dual anti-tumor and anti-angiogenesis effects, the RBP/PEI2k/pHSVtk ternary-complex might be an efficient gene delivery system for the treatment of glioblastoma. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cytotoxicity and anti-tumor effects of new ruthenium complexes on triple negative breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília P Popolin

    Full Text Available Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is a highly aggressive breast cancer subtype. The high rate of metastasis associated to the fact that these cells frequently display multidrug resistance, make the treatment of metastatic disease difficult. Development of antitumor metal-based drugs was started with the discovery of cisplatin, however, the severe side effects represent a limitation for its clinical use. Ruthenium (Ru complexes with different ligands have been successfully studied as prospective antitumor drugs. In this work, we demonstrated the activity of a series of biphosphine bipyridine Ru complexes (1 [Ru(SO4(dppb(bipy], (2 [Ru(CO3(dppb(bipy], (3 [Ru(C2O4(dppb(bipy] and (4 [Ru(CH3CO2(dppb(bipy]PF6 [where dppb = 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphinobutane and bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine], on proliferation of TNBC (MDA-MB-231, estrogen-dependent breast tumor cells (MCF-7 and a non-tumor breast cell line (MCF-10A. Complex (4 was most effective among the complexes and was selected to be further investigated on effects on tumor cell adhesion, migration, invasion and in apoptosis. Moreover, DNA and HSA binding properties of this complex were also investigated. Results show that complex (4 was more efficient inhibiting proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells over non-tumor cells. In addition, complex (4 was able to inhibit MDA-MB231 cells adhesion, migration and invasion and to induce apoptosis and inhibit MMP-9 secretion in TNBC cells. Complex (4 should be further investigated in vivo in order to stablish its potential to improve breast cancer treatment.

  13. Novel Imidazopyridine Derivatives Possess Anti-Tumor Effect on Human Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Ingersoll

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is the second leading cause of cancer-related death afflicting United States males. Most treatments to-date for metastatic PCa include androgen-deprivation therapy and second-generation anti-androgens such as abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide. However, a majority of patients eventually develop resistance to these therapies and relapse into the lethal, castration-resistant form of PCa to which no adequate treatment option remains. Hence, there is an immediate need to develop effective therapeutic agents toward this patient population. Imidazopyridines have recently been shown to possess Akt kinase inhibitory activity; thus in this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of novel imidazopyridine derivatives HIMP, M-MeI, OMP, and EtOP on different human castration-resistant PCa cells. Among these compounds, HIMP and M-MeI were found to possess selective dose- and time-dependent growth inhibition: they reduced castration-resistant PCa cell proliferation and spared benign prostate epithelial cells. Using LNCaP C-81 cells as the model system, these compounds also reduced colony formation as well as cell adhesion and migration, and M-MeI was the most potent in all studies. Further investigation revealed that while HIMP primarily inhibits PCa cell growth via suppression of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, M-MeI can inhibit both PI3K/Akt and androgen receptor pathways and arrest cell growth in the G2 phase. Thus, our results indicate the novel compound M-MeI to be a promising candidate for castration-resistant PCa therapy, and future studies investigating the mechanism of imidazopyridine inhibition may aid to the development of effective anti-PCa agents.

  14. Novel Imidazopyridine Derivatives Possess Anti-Tumor Effect on Human Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Matthew A; Lyons, Anastesia S; Muniyan, Sakthivel; D'Cunha, Napoleon; Robinson, Tashika; Hoelting, Kyle; Dwyer, Jennifer G; Bu, Xiu R; Batra, Surinder K; Lin, Ming-Fong

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death afflicting United States males. Most treatments to-date for metastatic PCa include androgen-deprivation therapy and second-generation anti-androgens such as abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide. However, a majority of patients eventually develop resistance to these therapies and relapse into the lethal, castration-resistant form of PCa to which no adequate treatment option remains. Hence, there is an immediate need to develop effective therapeutic agents toward this patient population. Imidazopyridines have recently been shown to possess Akt kinase inhibitory activity; thus in this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of novel imidazopyridine derivatives HIMP, M-MeI, OMP, and EtOP on different human castration-resistant PCa cells. Among these compounds, HIMP and M-MeI were found to possess selective dose- and time-dependent growth inhibition: they reduced castration-resistant PCa cell proliferation and spared benign prostate epithelial cells. Using LNCaP C-81 cells as the model system, these compounds also reduced colony formation as well as cell adhesion and migration, and M-MeI was the most potent in all studies. Further investigation revealed that while HIMP primarily inhibits PCa cell growth via suppression of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, M-MeI can inhibit both PI3K/Akt and androgen receptor pathways and arrest cell growth in the G2 phase. Thus, our results indicate the novel compound M-MeI to be a promising candidate for castration-resistant PCa therapy, and future studies investigating the mechanism of imidazopyridine inhibition may aid to the development of effective anti-PCa agents.

  15. Blockade of Wnt-1 signaling leads to anti-tumor effects in hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grepper Susan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is an aggressive cancer, and is the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Standard therapy is ineffective partly because HCC is intrinsically resistant to conventional chemotherapy. Its poor prognosis and limited treatment options make it critical to develop novel and selective chemotherapeutic agents. Since the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is essential in HCC carcinogenesis, we studied the inhibition of Wnt-1-mediated signaling as a potential molecular target in HCC. Results We demonstrated that Wnt-1 is highly expressed in human hepatoma cell lines and a subgroup of human HCC tissues compared to paired adjacent non-tumor tissues. An anti-Wnt-1 antibody dose-dependently decreased viability and proliferation of Huh7 and Hep40 cells over-expressing Wnt-1 and harboring wild type β-catenin, but did not affect normal hepatocytes with undetectable Wnt-1 expression. Apoptosis was also observed in Huh7 and Hep40 cells after treatment with anti-Wnt-1 antibody. In these two cell lines, the anti-Wnt-1 antibody decreased β-catenin/Tcf4 transcriptional activities, which were associated with down-regulation of the endogenous β-catenin/Tcf4 target genes c-Myc, cyclin D1, and survivin. Intratumoral injection of anti-Wnt-1 antibody suppressed in vivo tumor growth in a Huh7 xenograft model, which was also associated with apoptosis and reduced c-Myc, cyclin D1, and survivin expressions. Conclusion Our results suggest that Wnt-1 is a survival factor for HCC cells, and that the blockade of Wnt-1-mediated signaling may offer a potential pathway-specific therapeutic strategy for the treatment of a subgroup of HCC that over-expresses Wnt-1.

  16. Alkaloid-rich fraction of Himatanthus lancifolius contains anti-tumor agents against leukemic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Pires de Lima

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the alkaloid-rich fraction of Himatanthus lancifolius (Müll. Arg Woodson on normal marrow cells and leukemic cell lines were investigated. After 48 h exposure, the proliferation assay showed significant cell growth inhibition for Daudi (0.1-10 µg/mL, K-562 (1-10 µg/mL, and REH cells (10-100 µg/mL, yet was inert for normal marrow cells. A similar inhibition profile was observed in clonogenic assays. This alkaloid-rich fraction, in which uleine is the main compound, showed no signs of toxicity to any cells up to 10 µg/mL. Cell feature analyses after induction of differentiation showed maintenance of the initial phenotype. Flow cytometric expression of Annexin-V and 7-AAD in K-562 and Daudi cells has indicated that the cells were not undergoing apoptosis or necrosis, suggesting cytostatic activity for tumor cellsOs efeitos da fração rica em alcalóides indólicos de Himatanthus lancifolius (Müll. Arg Woodson sobre células normais de medula óssea e linhagens celulares leucêmicas foram investigados. Após 48 horas de exposição, os ensaios de proliferação demonstraram efeitos inibitórios significativos para as linhagens Daudi (0,1-10 µg/mL, K-562 (1-10 µg/mL e REH (10-100 µg/mL, enquanto mostrou-se inerte sobre células normais de medula óssea. Os perfis de inibição se repetiram nos ensaios clonogênicos. A fração rica em alcalóides, na qual a uleína é a substância majoritária, não demonstrou toxicidade até a dose de 10 µg/mL para nenhuma das células incluídas no estudo. Da mesma forma, não se observou influência dessa fração sobre a diferenciação celular dessas linhagens, mas manutenção de seu estado maturacional inicial. O conjunto de dados descritos associado à baixa co-expressão de anexina-V e 7-AAD sugerem que esta fração exerce atividade citostática para células tumorais.

  17. 17-AAG enhances the cytotoxicity of flavopiridol in mantle cell lymphoma via autophagy suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Y; Guan, J

    2015-01-01

    Flavopiridol, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI), shows promising anti-tumor activity in hematologic malignancies. However, Flavopiridol-induced protective autophagy may lead to drug resistance. Here we found that Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG can sensitize mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cells to flavopiridol by suppressing flavopiridol-triggered protective autophagy. The suppressing effect of 17-AAG on autophgy was mediated by Beclin1 degradation and ERK inactivation. Furthermore, 17-AAG enhanced flavopiridol-induced apoptosis and growth suppression in MCL cells. Our study may provide some insights into CDKI -targeted chemotherapies.

  18. The novel fusion proteins, GnRH-p53 and GnRHIII-p53, expression and their anti-tumor effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiyuan Jia

    Full Text Available p53, one of the most well studied tumor suppressor factor, is responsible to a variety of damage owing to the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the tumor cells. More than 50% of human tumors contain mutation or deletion of p53. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH, as the ligand of Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRH-R, was used to deliver p53 into tumor cells. The p53 fusion proteins GnRH-p53 and GnRH iii-p53 were expressed and their targeted anti-tumor effects were determined. GnRH mediates its fusion proteins transformation into cancer cells. The intracellular delivery of p53 fusion proteins exerted the inhibition of the growth of H1299 cells in vitro and the reduction of tumor volume in vivo. Their anti-tumor effect was functioned by the apoptosis and cell cycle arrest induced by p53. Hence, the fusion protein could be a novel protein drug for anti-tumor therapy.

  19. In vitro and in vivo anti-tumor effect of metformin as a novel therapeutic agent in human oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Qingqiong; Hu, Dan; Hu, Shuiqing; Yan, Ming; Sun, Zujun; Chen, Fuxiang

    2012-01-01

    Metformin, which is widely used as an antidiabetic agent, has recently been reported to reduce cancer risk and improve prognosis in certain malignancies. However, the specific mechanisms underlying the effect of metformin on the development and progression of several cancers including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of metformin on OSCC cells in vitro and in vivo. OSCC cells treated with or without metformin were counted using a hemocytometer. The clonogenic ability of OSCC cells after metformin treatment was determined by colony formation assay. Cell cycle progression and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry, and the activation of related signaling pathways was examined by immunoblotting. The in vivo anti-tumor effect of metformin was examined using a xenograft mouse model. Immunohistochemistry and TUNEL staining were used to determine the expression of cyclin D1 and the presence of apoptotic cells in tumors from mice treated with or without metformin. Metformin inhibited proliferation in the OSCC cell lines CAL27, WSU-HN6 and SCC25 in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and significantly reduced the colony formation of OSCC cells in vitro. Metformin induced an apparent cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, which was accompanied by an obvious activation of the AMP kinase pathway and a strongly decreased activation of mammalian target of rapamycin and S6 kinase. Metformin treatment led to a remarkable decrease of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 and CDK6 protein levels and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein, but did not affect p21 or p27 protein expression in OSCC cells. In addition, metformin induced apoptosis in OSCC cells, significantly down-regulating the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and up-regulating the pro-apoptotic protein Bax. Metformin also markedly reduced the expression of cyclin D1 and increased the numbers of apoptotic cells in vivo, thus inhibiting

  20. Quantitative determination of the anti-tumor agent tasquinimod in human urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Merbel, Nico C; Walland, Peter; Tiensuu, Mikael; Sennbro, Carl J

    2014-06-15

    Tasquinimod is an anti-tumor drug that is currently in clinical development for the treatment of solid cancers. After oral administration, tasquinimod and a number of its metabolites are excreted in the urine. The quantitative determination of tasquinimod in urine is challenging because of the required sensitivity (down to 0.1nM or 40pg/mL), the highly variable nature of this biological matrix and the presence of potentially unstable metabolites, which may convert back to the parent drug. In this article, an LC-MS/MS method is described for the determination of tasquinimod in human urine in the concentration range 0.1-200nM. Liquid-liquid extraction with n-chlorobutane was used to extract tasquinimod from 100μL human urine and to remove interfering endogenous urinary constituents. Reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an ESI source was used for quantification of tasquinimod in a 2.5-min run. A stable-isotope labeled internal standard was used for response normalization. The intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation (precision) as well as the bias (accuracy) of the method were below 7%. Although considerable conversion of conjugated tasquinimod metabolites back to parent drug was observed when incurred samples were stored at 37°C for a prolonged time, tasquinimod as well as its metabolites were sufficiently stable under all relevant sampling, storage and analysis conditions. The method was successfully applied to determine the urinary excretion of tasquinimod in healthy volunteers and patients with renal impairment after a 0.5-mg oral dose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents on the outcome in pediatric uveitis of diverse etiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitch, Iris; Amer, Radgonde; Tomkins-Netzer, Oren; Habot-Wilner, Zohar; Friling, Ronit; Neumann, Ron; Kramer, Michal

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to report the clinical outcome of children with uveitis treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) agents. This included a retrospective cohort study. Children with uveitis treated with infliximab or adalimumab in 2008-2014 at five dedicated uveitis clinics were identified by database search. Their medical records were reviewed for demographic data, clinical presentation, ocular complications, and visual outcome. Systemic side effects and the steroid-sparing effect of treatment were documented. The cohort included 24 patients (43 eyes) of whom 14 received infliximab and 10 received adalimumab after failing conventional immunosuppression therapy. Mean age was 9.3 ± 4.0 years. The most common diagnosis was juvenile idiopathic arthritis-related uveitis (n = 10), followed by Behçet's disease (n = 4), sarcoidosis (n = 1), and ankylosing spondylitis (n = 1); eight had idiopathic uveitis. Ocular manifestations included panuveitis in 20 eyes (46.5%), chronic anterior uveitis in 19 (44.2%), and intermediate uveitis in 4 (9.3%). The duration of biologic treatment ranged from 6 to 72 months. During the 12 months prior to biologic treatment, while on conventional immunosuppressive therapy, mean visual acuity deteriorated from 0.22 to 0.45 logMAR, with a trend of recovery to 0.25 at 3 months after initiation of biologic treatment, remaining stable thereafter. A full corticosteroid-sparing effect was demonstrated in 16 of the 19 patients (84.2%) for whom data were available. Treatment was well tolerated. Treatment of pediatric uveitis with anti-TNF-α agents may improve outcome while providing steroid-sparing effect, when conventional immunosuppression fails. The role of anti-TNF-α agents as first-line treatment should be further investigated in controlled prospective clinical trials.

  2. Intravenous microemulsion of docetaxel containing an anti-tumor synergistic ingredient (Brucea javanica oil: formulation and pharmacokinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Shilin Ma,1 Fen Chen,1 Xiaohui Ye,2 Yingjie Dong,2 Yingna Xue,1 Heming Xu,1 Wenji Zhang,1 Shuangshuang Song,1 Li Ai,2 Naixian Zhang,2 Weisan Pan1 1School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, 2Liaoning Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry, Liaoning, The People's Republic of China Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop a docetaxel microemulsion containing an anti-tumor synergistic ingredient (Brucea javanica oil and to investigate the characteristics of the microemulsion. Brucea javanica oil contains oleic acid and linoleic acids that have been shown by animal and human studies to inhibit tumor formation. The microemulsion containing Brucea javanica oil, medium-chain triglyceride, soybean lecithin, Solutol®HS 15, PEG 400, and water was developed for docetaxel intravenous administration. A formulation with higher drug content, lower viscosity, and smaller particle size was developed. The droplet size distribution of the dispersed phase of the optimized microemulsion was 13.5 nm, determined using a dynamic light scattering technique. The small droplet size enabled the microemulsion droplets to escape from uptake and phagocytosis by the reticuloendothelial system and increased the circulation time of the drug. The zeta potential was -41.3 mV. The optimized microemulsion was pale yellow, transparent, and non-opalescent in appearance. The value of the combination index was 0.58, showing that there was a synergistic effect when docetaxel was combined with Brucea javanica oil. After a single intravenous infusion dose (10 mg/kg in male Sprague Dawley rats, the area under the curve of the microemulsion was higher and the half-time was longer compared with that of docetaxel solution alone, and showed superior pharmacokinetic characteristics. These results indicate that this preparation of docetaxel in emulsion is likely to provide an excellent prospect for clinical tumor treatment. Keywords: microemulsion, docetaxel

  3. Intravenous microemulsion of docetaxel containing an anti-tumor synergistic ingredient (Brucea javanica oil): formulation and pharmacokinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shilin; Chen, Fen; Ye, Xiaohui; Dong, Yingjie; Xue, Yingna; Xu, Heming; Zhang, Wenji; Song, Shuangshuang; Ai, Li; Zhang, Naixian; Pan, Weisan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a docetaxel microemulsion containing an anti-tumor synergistic ingredient (Brucea javanica oil) and to investigate the characteristics of the microemulsion. Brucea javanica oil contains oleic acid and linoleic acids that have been shown by animal and human studies to inhibit tumor formation. The microemulsion containing Brucea javanica oil, medium-chain triglyceride, soybean lecithin, Solutol®HS 15, PEG 400, and water was developed for docetaxel intravenous administration. A formulation with higher drug content, lower viscosity, and smaller particle size was developed. The droplet size distribution of the dispersed phase of the optimized microemulsion was 13.5 nm, determined using a dynamic light scattering technique. The small droplet size enabled the microemulsion droplets to escape from uptake and phagocytosis by the reticuloendothelial system and increased the circulation time of the drug. The zeta potential was −41.3 mV. The optimized microemulsion was pale yellow, transparent, and non-opalescent in appearance. The value of the combination index was 0.58, showing that there was a synergistic effect when docetaxel was combined with Brucea javanica oil. After a single intravenous infusion dose (10 mg/kg) in male Sprague Dawley rats, the area under the curve of the microemulsion was higher and the half-time was longer compared with that of docetaxel solution alone, and showed superior pharmacokinetic characteristics. These results indicate that this preparation of docetaxel in emulsion is likely to provide an excellent prospect for clinical tumor treatment. PMID:24179332

  4. Phanerochaete mutants with enhanced ligninolytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakar, S.N.; Perez, A.; Gonzales, J.

    1994-01-01

    In addition to lignin, the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide spectrum of recalcitrant organo pollutants in soils and aqueous media. Most of the organic compounds are degraded under ligninolytic conditions with the involvement of the extracellular enzymes, lignin peroxidases, and manganese-dependent peroxidases, which are produced as secondary metabolites triggered by conditions of nutrient starvation (e.g., nitrogen limitation). The fungus and its enzymes can thus provide alternative technologies for bioremediation, bio pulping, bio bleaching, and other industrial applications. The efficiency and effectiveness of the fungus can be enhanced by increasing production and secretion of the important enzymes in large quantities and as primary metabolites under enriched conditions. One way this can be achieved is through isolation of mutants that are deregulated, or are hyper producers or super secretors of key enzymes under enriched conditions. Through UV-light and γ-ray mutagenesis, we have isolated a variety of mutants, some of which produce key enzymes of the ligninolytic system under high-nitrogen growth conditions. One of the mutants, 76UV, produced 272 U of lignin peroxidases enzyme activity/L after 9 d under high nitrogen (although the parent strain does not produce this enzyme under these conditions). The mutant and the parent strains produced up to 54 and 62 U/L, respectively, of the enzyme activity under low nitrogen growth conditions during this period. In some experiments, the mutant showed 281 U/L of enzyme activity under high nitrogen after 17 d

  5. B cells and ectopic follicular structures: novel players in anti-tumor programming with prognostic power for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Meshcheryakova

    novel prognostic marker which is superior to clinicopathological parameters. Findings emphasize anti-tumoral role of B cell-driven mechanism(s and thus indicate a new way of thinking about potential treatment strategies for CRCLM patients.

  6. DOTA-functionalized polylysine: a high number of DOTA chelates positively influences the biodistribution of enzymatic conjugated anti-tumor antibody chCE7agl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünberg, Jürgen; Jeger, Simone; Sarko, Dikran; Dennler, Patrick; Zimmermann, Kurt; Mier, Walter; Schibli, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Site-specific enzymatic reactions with microbial transglutaminase (mTGase) lead to a homogenous species of immunoconjugates with a defined ligand/antibody ratio. In the present study, we have investigated the influence of different numbers of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N-N'-N''-N'''-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) chelats coupled to a decalysine backbone on the in vivo behavior of the chimeric monoclonal anti-L1CAM antibody chCE7agl. The enzymatic conjugation of (DOTA)1-decalysine, (DOTA)3-decalysine or (DOTA)5-decalysine to the antibody heavy chain (via Gln295/297) gave rise to immunoconjugates containing two, six or ten DOTA moieties respectively. Radiolabeling of the immunoconjugates with (177)Lu yielded specific activities of approximately 70 MBq/mg, 400 MBq/mg and 700 MBq/mg with increasing numbers of DOTA chelates. Biodistribution experiments in SKOV3ip human ovarian cancer cell xenografts demonstrated a high and specific accumulation of radioactivity at the tumor site for all antibody derivatives with a maximal tumor accumulation of 43.6±4.3% ID/g at 24 h for chCE7agl-[(DOTA)-decalysine]2, 30.6±12.0% ID/g at 24 h for chCE7agl-[(DOTA)3-decalysine]2 and 49.9±3.1% ID/g at 48 h for chCE7agl-[(DOTA)5-decalysine)]2. The rapid elimination from the blood of chCE7agl-[(DOTA)-decalysine]2 (1.0±0.1% ID/g at 24 h) is associated with a high liver accumulation (23.2±4.6% ID/g at 24 h). This behavior changed depending on the numbers of DOTA moieties coupled to the decalysine peptide with a slower blood clearance (5.1±1.0 (DOTA)3 versus 11.7±1.4% ID/g (DOTA)5, pDOTA)3 versus 5.8±0.7 (DOTA)5, pDOTA-substituted decalysine ((DOTA)5-decalysine) to an anti-tumor antibody leads to the formation of immunoconjugates with high specific activity and excellent in vivo behavior and is a valuable option for radioimmunotherapy and potentially antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs).

  7. DOTA-functionalized polylysine: a high number of DOTA chelates positively influences the biodistribution of enzymatic conjugated anti-tumor antibody chCE7agl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Grünberg

    Full Text Available Site-specific enzymatic reactions with microbial transglutaminase (mTGase lead to a homogenous species of immunoconjugates with a defined ligand/antibody ratio. In the present study, we have investigated the influence of different numbers of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N-N'-N''-N'''-tetraacetic acid (DOTA chelats coupled to a decalysine backbone on the in vivo behavior of the chimeric monoclonal anti-L1CAM antibody chCE7agl. The enzymatic conjugation of (DOTA1-decalysine, (DOTA3-decalysine or (DOTA5-decalysine to the antibody heavy chain (via Gln295/297 gave rise to immunoconjugates containing two, six or ten DOTA moieties respectively. Radiolabeling of the immunoconjugates with (177Lu yielded specific activities of approximately 70 MBq/mg, 400 MBq/mg and 700 MBq/mg with increasing numbers of DOTA chelates. Biodistribution experiments in SKOV3ip human ovarian cancer cell xenografts demonstrated a high and specific accumulation of radioactivity at the tumor site for all antibody derivatives with a maximal tumor accumulation of 43.6±4.3% ID/g at 24 h for chCE7agl-[(DOTA-decalysine]2, 30.6±12.0% ID/g at 24 h for chCE7agl-[(DOTA3-decalysine]2 and 49.9±3.1% ID/g at 48 h for chCE7agl-[(DOTA5-decalysine]2. The rapid elimination from the blood of chCE7agl-[(DOTA-decalysine]2 (1.0±0.1% ID/g at 24 h is associated with a high liver accumulation (23.2±4.6% ID/g at 24 h. This behavior changed depending on the numbers of DOTA moieties coupled to the decalysine peptide with a slower blood clearance (5.1±1.0 (DOTA3 versus 11.7±1.4% ID/g (DOTA5, p<0.005 at 24 h and lower radioactivity levels in the liver (21.4±3.4 (DOTA3 versus 5.8±0.7 (DOTA5, p<0.005 at 24 h. We conclude that the site-specific and stoichiometric uniform conjugation of the highly DOTA-substituted decalysine ((DOTA5-decalysine to an anti-tumor antibody leads to the formation of immunoconjugates with high specific activity and excellent in vivo behavior and is a valuable option for

  8. Regional and systemic distribution of anti-tumor x anti-CD3 heteroaggregate antibodies and cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes in a human colon cancer xenograft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, H.; Ramsey, P.S.; Kerr, L.A.; McKean, D.J.; Donohue, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    Anti-tumor antibody (317G5) covalently coupled to an anti-CD3 antibody (OKT3) produces a heteroaggregate (HA) antibody that can target PBL to lyse tumor cells expressing the appropriate tumor Ag. The i.v. and i.p. distribution of radiolabeled HA antibody 317G5 x OKT3 and of radiolabeled cultured human PBL were studied in athymic nude mice bearing solid intraperitoneal tumor established from the human colon tumor line, LS174T. Mice were injected with 125I-labeled HA antibody, 125I-labeled anti-tumor mAb, or 111In-labeled PBL, and at designated timepoints tissues were harvested and measured for radioactivity. 125I-317G5 x OKT3 localized specifically to tumor sites. Tumor radioactivity levels (percent injected dose/gram) were lower with 125I-317G5 x OKT3 HA antibody than with 125I-317G5 anti-tumor mAb, but were similar to levels reported for other anti-tumor mAb. The major difference in radioactivity levels observed between i.v. and i.p. administration of 125I-317G5 x OKT3 was an increase in hepatic radioactivity after i.v. HA antibody administration. HA antibodies produced from F(ab')2 fragments, which exhibit decreased m. w. and decreased Fc receptor-mediated binding, demonstrated improved tumor:tissue ratios as compared to intact antibody HA. 125I-317G5 F(ab')2 x OKT3 F(ab')2 antibody levels were equivalent to intact HA antibody levels in tumor, but were lower than intact HA antibody levels in the blood, bowel, and liver. Tumor:bowel ratios (20:1 at 48 h) were highest when 317G5 F(ab')2 x OKT3 F(ab')2 was injected i.p. Autoradiography confirmed that anti-tumor x anti-CD3 HA antibodies localized specifically to intraperitoneal tumor; that i.p. administered HA antibodies penetrated tumor directly; and that i.v. administered HA antibodies distributed along tumor vasculature

  9. The L-arginine/asymmetric dimethylarginine ratio is improved by anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy in inflammatory arthropathies. Associations with aortic stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Kristin; Provan, Sella Aarrestad; Mowinckel, Petter; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Kvien, Tore Kristian; Atar, Dan

    2012-11-01

    Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α therapy improves vascular pathology in inflammatory arthropathies such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis. The l-arginine/ADMA ratio is important for modulation of the nitric oxide synthase activity. We examined the effect of TNF-α antagonists on ADMA and l-arginine/ADMA, and associations between ADMA, L-arginine/ADMA, aortic stiffness and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) in patients with inflammatory arthropathies. Forty-eight patients who started with anti-TNF-α therapy were compared with a non-treated group of 32 patients. Plasma ADMA and L-arginine were assessed at baseline, 3 and 12 months. In a subgroup of 55 patients, aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) was measured at baseline, 3 and 12 moths, and CIMT was examined at baseline and 12 months. Anti-TNF-α therapy increased the L-arginine/ADMA ratio (mean [SD]) in the treatment group compared to the control group after 3 months (12 [29] vs. -13 [20], P < 0.001) and 12 months (7 [27] vs. -8 [19], P = 0.008), but did not affect ADMA (3 months: 0.00 [0.09] μmol/L vs. 0.02 [0.07] μmol/L, P = 0.42, 12 months: 0.01 [0.08] μmol/L vs. 0.01 [0.09] μmol/L, P = 0.88). Baseline aPWV was associated with ADMA (P = 0.02) and L-arginine/ADMA (P = 0.02) in multiple regression analyses, and the L-arginine/ADMA ratio was continuously associated with aPWV after initiation of anti-TNF-α therapy (P = 0.03). ADMA and L-arginine/ADMA were not correlated with CIMT. Anti-TNF-α therapy improved the L-arginine/ADMA ratio in patients with inflammatory arthropathies. ADMA and the L-arginine/ADMA ratio were associated with aPWV, and might have a mechanistic role in the aortic stiffening observed in these patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anti-tumor effect of 131I labeled 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin on human non-small cell lung cancer in xenograft-bearing nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jin; Liu Lu; Zhu Xiaoli; Chen Daozhen; Gao Wen; Jiang Xinyu; Huang Ying

    2008-01-01

    Objective: 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) has been developed as a novel heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitor being used in clinical trials. HSP90 is known as a molecular target for tumor therapy. The goal of this study was to investigate the inhibitive effects of 131 I labeled 17-AAG on human non-small cell lung cancer in xenograft-bearing nude mice. Methods: 17-AAG was labeled with 131 I. Twenty-eight BALB/c nude mice bearing H460 human non-small cell lung carcinoma tumor xenograft were randomly divided into seven groups, one control group and six treatment groups according to the route of administration (via tail vein injection or intratumoral injection) and the doses of injected radio-activity (5.5 MBq x 2 with 8 d interval, 11.0 MBq and 5.5 MBq). Two additional mice were treated with intratumoral injection of Na 131 I solution that was served as seintigraphic imaging controls. In each group two mice underwent scintigraphy at 2 h, 6 h, 24 h, 2 d, 3 d, 7 d, 10 d and 16 d. After 16 d the tumor inhibition rate was calculated. Then all of the mice were sacrificed and the tumor tissues were obtained for histological examination and immunohistochemical assay. Results: Persistent accumulation of 131 I-17-AAG in the tumors was seen on seintigraphic images. Tumor inhibiting effect was demonstrated in all treatment groups with varying degrees. The highest tumor inhibition rate (86.77 ± 4.57)% was shown in the group with interval intratumoral injection (5.5 MBq x 2). There was no significant difference of tumor inhibition rates between 5.5 MBq x 2 group (via tail vein injection) and 11.0 MBq group( via tail vein injection, q=1.67, P>0.05). While among the other treatment groups, there was significant difference in tumor inhibition rates( q=3.16-24.34, all P 131 I-17-AAG may effectively inhibit the tumor growth and expression of HSP90α antigen expression in non-small cell lung cancer bearing nude mice. The more prominent anti-tumor effect may be

  11. [Anti-tumor effect of 5-FU-PLLA-CNTs on human gastric carcinoma cell lines in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jun; Li, Maolan; Wu, Xiangsong; Wu, Wenguang; Zhang, Lin; Ding, Qichen; Yang, Jiahua; Weng, Hao; Ding, Qian; Bao, Runfa; Shu, Yijun; Liu, Yingbin

    2014-04-01

    To prepare cisPLLAtin-loaded polylactic acid/cnts, and to study the anti-tumor effect of 5-FU-PLLA-CNTs on human gastric carcinoma cell lines(MGC803 and MNK45). 5-FU-PLLA-CNTs were prepared with ultrasound emulsification. The morphology of 5-FU-PLLA-CNTs was determined by scanning electron microscope(SEM), and its drug loading and drug release curve in vitro were detected by UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer. Cells were divided into experiment, positive control and negative control groups. CCK8 method was used to test the cytotoxic effect of 5-FU-PLLA-CNTs in different concentrations on MGC803 and MNK45 cell proliferation. Flow cytometry was employed to measure the apoptotic rate of MGC803 and MNK45 cells before and after the intervention of 5-FU-PLLA-CNTs. Deep layer film of 5-FU-PLLA-CNTs was successfully established, whose drug-load rate was(4.54±0.43)%, entrapment rate was(21.56±2.36)%. In vitro release test showed release rate within 24 h of 5-FU-PLLA-CNTs was 23.9% in a as lowly increasing manner, and accumulating release rate was 85.3% at day 31. CCk8 experiment revealed, as compared to control group, 5-FU-PLLA-CNTs significantly inhibited the proliferation of two cell lines in dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. The best 5-FU-PLLA-CNTs concentration of inhibition for human gastric cancer cell lines was 1 mg/well. Flow cytometry indicated the apoptotic rate of MGC803 and MNK45 cells in experiment group treated by 1 mg/well 5-FU-PLLA-CNTs significantly increased as compared to negative control group (P0.05). The 5-FU-PLLA-CNTs has good drug sustained-release capacity, and can significantly kill and inhibit the proliferation of MGC803 and MNK45 cell lines.

  12. A Novel Immunomodulatory Hemocyanin from the Limpet Fissurella latimarginata Promotes Potent Anti-Tumor Activity in Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Arancibia, Sergio; Espinoza, Cecilia; Salazar, Fabián; Del Campo, Miguel; Tampe, Ricardo; Zhong, Ta-Ying; De Ioannes, Pablo; Moltedo, Bruno; Ferreira, Jorge; Lavelle, Ed C.; Manubens, Augusto; De Ioannes, Alfredo E.; Becker, María Inés

    2014-01-01

    PUBLISHED Hemocyanins, the huge oxygen-transporting glycoproteins of some mollusks, are used as immunomodulatory proteins with proven anti-cancer properties. The biodiversity of hemocyanins has promoted interest in identifying new anti-cancer candidates with improved immunological properties. Hemocyanins promote Th1 responses without known side effects, which make them ideal for long-term sustained treatment of cancer. In this study, we evaluated a novel hemocyanin from the limpet/gastropo...

  13. Administration of liposomal muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine (MTP-PE) and diclofenac in the combination attenuates their anti-tumor activities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fedoročko, P.; Hoferová, Zuzana; Hofer, Michal; Brezáni, P.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2003), s. 176-184 ISSN 0028-2685 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5004009; GA AV ČR KSK5011112 Grant - others:VEGA MŠ SR(SK) 1/9211/02 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : muramyl tripeptide * diclofenac * NSAIDs Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.782, year: 2003

  14. Novel anti-Sialyl-Tn monoclonal antibodies and antibody-drug conjugates demonstrate tumor specificity and anti-tumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Jillian M; Galvao da Silva, Ana Paula; Eavarone, David A; Ghaderi, Darius; Zhang, Mai; Brady, Dane; Wicks, Joan; DeSander, Julie; Behrens, Jeff; Rueda, Bo R

    Targeted therapeutics that can differentiate between normal and malignant tumor cells represent the ideal standard for the development of a successful anti-cancer strategy. The Sialyl-Thomsen-nouveau antigen (STn or Sialyl-Tn, also known as CD175s) is rarely seen in normal adult tissues, but it is abundantly expressed in many types of human epithelial cancers. We have identified novel antibodies that specifically target with high affinity the STn glycan independent of its carrier protein, affording the potential to recognize a wider array of cancer-specific sialylated proteins. A panel of murine monoclonal anti-STn therapeutic antibodies were generated and their binding specificity and efficacy were characterized in vitro and in in vivo murine cancer models. A subset of these antibodies were conjugated to monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) to generate antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs). These ADCs demonstrated in vitro efficacy in STn-expressing cell lines and significant tumor growth inhibition in STn-expressing tumor xenograft cancer models with no evidence of overt toxicity.

  15. The In Vitro Anti-Tumor Activity of Phycocyanin against Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Hao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Phycocyanin, a type of functional food colorant, is shown to have a potent anti-cancer property. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC is one of the most aggressive form of cancers with few effective therapeutic options. Previous studies have demonstrated that phycocyanin exerts a growth inhibitory effect on NSCLC A549 cells. However, its biological function and underlying regulatory mechanism on other cells still remain unknown. Here, we investigated the in vitro function of phycocyanin on three typical NSCLC cell lines, NCI-H1299, NCI-H460, and LTEP-A2, for the first time. The results showed that phycocyanin could significantly induce apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, as well as suppress cell migration, proliferation, and the colony formation ability of NSCLC cells through regulating multiple key genes. Strikingly, phycocyanin was discovered to affect the cell phenotype through regulating the NF-κB signaling of NSCLC cells. Our findings demonstrated the anti-neoplastic function of phycocyanin and provided valuable information for the regulation of phycocyanin in NSCLC cells.

  16. Anti-tumor activity of a novel HS-mimetic-vascular endothelial growth factor binding small molecule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyuki Sugahara

    Full Text Available The angiogenic process is controlled by variety of factors of which the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF pathway plays a major role. A series of heparan sulfate mimetic small molecules targeting VEGF/VEGFR pathway has been synthesized. Among them, compound 8 (2-butyl-5-chloro-3-(4-nitro-benzyl-3H-imidazole-4-carbaldehyde was identified as a significant binding molecule for the heparin-binding domain of VEGF, determined by high-throughput-surface plasmon resonance assay. The data predicted strong binding of compound 8 with VEGF which may prevent the binding of VEGF to its receptor. We compared the structure of compound 8 with heparan sulfate (HS, which have in common the functional ionic groups such as sulfate, nitro and carbaldehyde that can be located in similar positions of the disaccharide structure of HS. Molecular docking studies predicted that compound 8 binds at the heparin binding domain of VEGF through strong hydrogen bonding with Lys-30 and Gln-20 amino acid residues, and consistent with the prediction, compound 8 inhibited binding of VEGF to immobilized heparin. In vitro studies showed that compound 8 inhibits the VEGF-induced proliferation migration and tube formation of mouse vascular endothelial cells, and finally the invasion of a murine osteosarcoma cell line (LM8G7 which secrets high levels of VEGF. In vivo, these effects produce significant decrease of tumor burden in an experimental model of liver metastasis. Collectively, these data indicate that compound 8 may prevent tumor growth through a direct effect on tumor cell proliferation and by inhibition of endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis mediated by VEGF. In conclusion, compound 8 may normalize the tumor vasculature and microenvironment in tumors probably by inhibiting the binding of VEGF to its receptor.

  17. High-molecular weight star conjugates containing docetaxel with high anti-tumor activity and low systemic toxicity in vivo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Etrych, Tomáš; Strohalm, Jiří; Šírová, Milada; Tomalová, Barbora; Rossmann, Pavel; Říhová, Blanka; Ulbrich, Karel; Kovář, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2015), s. 160-170 ISSN 1759-9954 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP301/11/0325; GA ČR GCP207/12/J030; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0055 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : star polymer * HPMA copolymers * docetaxel Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry ; EC - Immunology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 5.687, year: 2015

  18. Enhancing production and cytotoxic activity of polymeric soluble FasL-based chimeric proteins by concomitant expression of soluble FasL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Morello

    Full Text Available Membrane FasL is the natural trigger of Fas-mediated apoptosis. A soluble homotrimeric counterpart (sFasL also exists which is very weakly active, and needs oligomerization beyond its trimeric state to induce apoptosis. We recently generated a soluble FasL chimera by fusing the immunoglobulin-like domain of the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor gp190 to the extracellular region of human FasL, which enabled spontaneous dodecameric homotypic polymerization of FasL. This polymeric soluble human FasL (pFasL displayed anti-tumoral activity in vitro and in vivo without systemic cytotoxicity in mouse. In the present work, we focused on the improvement of pFasL, with two complementary objectives. First, we developed more complex pFasL-based chimeras that contained a cell-targeting module. Secondly, we attempted to improve the production and/or the specific activity of pFasL and of the cell-targeting chimeras. We designed two chimeras by fusing to pFasL the extracellular portions of the HLA-A2 molecule or of a human gamma-delta TCR, and analyzed the consequences of co-expressing these molecules or pFasL together with sFasL on their heterotopic cell production. This strategy significantly enhanced the production of pFasL and of the two chimeras, as well as the cytotoxic activity of the two chimeras but not of pFasL. These results provide the proof of concept for an optimization of FasL-based chimeric proteins for a therapeutic use.

  19. The anti-tumor effect of the quinoline-3-carboxamide tasquinimod: blockade of recruitment of CD11b+ Ly6Chi cells to tumor tissue reduces tumor growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deronic, Adnan; Leanderson, Tomas; Ivars, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated immunomodulatory, anti-tumor, anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic effects of the small molecule quinoline-3-carboxamide tasquinimod in pre-clinical cancer models. To better understand the anti-tumor effects of tasquinimod in transplantable tumor models, we have evaluated the impact of the compound both on recruitment of myeloid cells to tumor tissue and on tumor-induced myeloid cell expansion as these cells are known to promote tumor development. Mice bearing subcutaneous 4 T1 mammary carcinoma tumors were treated with tasquinimod in the drinking water. A BrdU-based flow cytometry assay was utilized to assess the impact of short-term tasquinimod treatment on myeloid cell recruitment to tumors. Additionally, long-term treatment was performed to study the anti-tumor effect of tasquinimod as well as its effects on splenic myeloid cells and their progenitors. Myeloid cell populations were also immune-depleted by in vivo antibody treatment. Short-term tasquinimod treatment did not influence the proliferation of splenic Ly6C hi and Ly6G hi cells, but instead reduced the influx of Ly6C hi cells to the tumor. Treatment with tasquinimod for various periods of time after tumor inoculation revealed that the anti-tumor effect of this compound mainly operated during the first few days of tumor growth. Similar to tasquinimod treatment, antibody-mediated depletion of Ly6C hi cells within that same time frame, caused reduced tumor growth, thereby confirming a significant role for these cells in tumor development. Additionally, long-term tasquinimod treatment reduced the splenomegaly and expansion of splenic myeloid cells during a later phase of tumor development. In this phase, tasquinimod normalized the tumor-induced alterations in myeloerythroid progenitor cells in the spleen but had only limited impact on the same populations in the bone marrow. Our results indicate that tasquinimod treatment reduces tumor growth by operating early after tumor

  20. Memory enhancing activity of Spondias mombin Anarcadiaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In traditional medical practices, several plants have been used to treat cognitive disorders associated with aging as well as neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. Spondias mombin and Pycnanthus angolensis were found among recipes used ethnomedicine in Nigeria as memory enhancer.

  1. Asian Organization for Crohn's and Colitis and Asia Pacific Association of Gastroenterology consensus on tuberculosis infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease receiving anti-tumor necrosis factor treatment. Part 2: management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Il Park

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Because anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF therapy has become increasingly popular in many Asian countries, the risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB among anti-TNF users may raise serious health problems in this region. Thus, the Asian Organization for Crohn's and Colitis and the Asia Pacific Association of Gastroenterology have developed a set of consensus statements about risk assessment, detection and prevention of latent TB infection, and management of active TB infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD receiving anti-TNF treatment. Twenty-three consensus statements were initially drafted and then discussed by the committee members. The quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations were assessed by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology. Web-based consensus voting was performed by 211 IBD specialists from 9 Asian countries concerning each statement. A consensus statement was accepted if at least 75% of the participants agreed. Part 2 of the statements comprised 3 parts: management of latent TB in preparation for anti-TNF therapy, monitoring during anti-TNF therapy, and management of an active TB infection after anti-TNF therapy. These consensus statements will help clinicians optimize patient outcomes by reducing the morbidity and mortality related to TB infections in patients with IBD receiving anti-TNF treatment.

  2. Enhanced activation of the left hemisphere promotes normative decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corser, Ryan; Jasper, John D

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that enhanced activation of the left cerebral hemisphere reduces risky-choice, attribute, and goal-framing effects relative to enhanced activation of the right cerebral hemisphere. The present study sought to extend these findings and show that enhanced activation of the left hemisphere also reduces violations of other normative principles, besides the invariance principle. Participants completed ratio bias (Experiment 1, N = 296) and base rate neglect problems (Experiment 2, N = 145) under normal (control) viewing or with the right or left hemisphere primarily activated by imposing a unidirectional gaze. In Experiment 1 we found that enhanced left hemispheric activation reduced the ratio bias relative to normal viewing and a group experiencing enhanced right hemispheric activation. In Experiment 2 enhanced left hemispheric activation resulted in using base rates more than normal viewing, but not significantly more than enhanced right hemispheric activation. Results suggest that hemispheric asymmetries can affect higher-order cognitive processes, such as decision-making biases. Possible theoretical accounts are discussed as well as implications for dual-process theories.

  3. Enhancement of the Electrocatalytic Activity of Gold Nanoparticles via Anodic Treatment and the Decrease of the Enhanced Activity with Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Kyung Min; Kang, Hyun Ju; Yang, Hae Sik

    2011-01-01

    We have recently shown that the electrocatalytic activity of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) can be enhanced via NaBH 4 treatment and cathodic treatment and that the enhanced activity slowly decreases with aging. We have also demonstrated that the electrocatalytic activity of the AuNPs freshly prepared by electrochemical or chemical reduction slowly decreases with aging in both air and solution. Likewise, the electrocatalytic activity of anodically treated Au electrodes or AuNPs might change with aging. Herein, we report that the electrocatalytic activity of long-aged AuNPs can be enhanced via anodic treatment and that the enhanced electrocatalytic activity decreases with aging in air. The change in the electrocatalytic activity of AuNPs was evaluated by comparing cyclic voltammograms for the electrooxi-dation of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and formic acid

  4. Suspected de novo Hepatitis B in a Patient Receiving Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Therapy for the Treatment of Crohn's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Ishida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 45-year-old female patient who developed acute hepatic disorder during anti-tumor necrosis factor α therapy for the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD. She was diagnosed as colonic CD and placed on infliximab (IFX. She was negative for hepatitis B surface antigen at the initiation of IFX therapy, but developed acute hepatitis after the 30th administration of IFX 4 years and 1 month after the first administration. She was suspected to have had occult hepatitis B virus infection before IFX therapy, and de novo hepatitis B was considered the most likely diagnosis. Hepatitis subsided after discontinuation of anti-tumor necrosis factor α therapy and initiation of treatment with entecavir. She started to receive adalimumab to prevent relapse of CD. She has continued maintenance therapy with entecavir and adalimumab and has since been asymptomatic. As de novo hepatitis B may be fatal, virological testing for hepatitis B is essential for patients who are being considered for treatment that may weaken the immune system.

  5. Drainage alone or combined with anti-tumor therapy for treatment of obstructive jaundice caused by recurrence and metastasis after primary tumor resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuan; Huang, Xin-En; Wang, Shu-Xiang; Lv, Peng-Hua; Sun, Ling; Wang, Fu-An; Wang, Li-Fu

    2014-01-01

    To compare drainage alone or combined with anti-tumor therapy for treatment of obstructive jaundice caused by recurrence and metastasis after primary tumor resection. We collect 42 patients with obstructive jaundice caused by recurrence and metastasis after tumor resection from January 2008 - August 2012, for which percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage (pTCD)/ percutaneous transhepatic biliary stenting (pTBS) were performed. In 25 patients drainage was combined with anti-tumor treatment, antineoplastic therapy including intra/postprodure local treatment and postoperative systemic chemotherapy, the other 17 undergoing drainage only. We assessed the two kinds of treatment with regard to patient prognosis. Both treatments demonstrated good effects in reducing bilirubin levels in the short term and promoting liver function. The time to reobstruction was 125 days in the combined group and 89 days in the drainage only group; the mean survival times were 185 and 128 days, the differences being significant. Interventional drainage in the treatment of the obstructive jaundice caused by recurrence and metastasis after tumor resection can decrease bilirubin level quickly in a short term and promote the liver function recovery. Combined treatment prolongs the survival time and period before reobstruction as compared to drainage only.

  6. Anti-tumor effects of 125I radioactive particles implantation on transplantated tumor model of human breast cancer cells in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zhongdi; Liang Chunlin; Zhang Guoli; Jing Yue; Zhang Yucheng; Gai Baodong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the anti-tumor effects of 125 I radioactive particles implantation on transplantated tumor model of human breast cancer cells in nude mice and clarify their anti-tumor mechanisms. Methods 120 nude mice transplantated with human breast cancer cells MCF-7 were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=40): 125 I radioactive particles implanted group, non-radioactive particles implanted group and non-particles implanted group. The articles were implanted into mice according to Pairs system principle. The expressions of Fas mRNA and protein and the activaties of caspase-3 and caspase-8 enzyme were detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The changes of cell cycle were detected by flow cytometry. Results: Compared with non-radioactive particles implanted group and non-particles implanted group, the size of cancer tissues in 125 I radioactive particles implanted group was reduced significantly (P 0 /G 1 phase was significantly increased (P 125 I radioactive particles into transplantated tumor model of human breast cancer cells can kill tumor cells, inhibit the growth cycle of tumor cells and induce the apoptosis of tumor cells in nude mice. (authors)

  7. Modeling cancer registration processes with an enhanced activity diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyalin, D; Williams, W

    2005-01-01

    Adequate instruments are needed to reflect the complexity of routine cancer registry operations properly in a business model. The activity diagram is a key instrument of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) for the modeling of business processes. The authors aim to improve descriptions of processes in cancer registration, as well as in other public health domains, through the enhancements of an activity diagram notation within the standard semantics of UML. The authors introduced the practical approach to enhance a conventional UML activity diagram, complementing it with the following business process concepts: timeline, duration for individual activities, responsibilities for individual activities within swimlanes, and descriptive text. The authors used an enhanced activity diagram for modeling surveillance processes in the cancer registration domain. Specific example illustrates the use of an enhanced activity diagram to visualize a process of linking cancer registry records with external mortality files. Enhanced activity diagram allows for the addition of more business concepts to a single diagram and can improve descriptions of processes in cancer registration, as well as in other domains. Additional features of an enhanced activity diagram allow to advance the visualization of cancer registration processes. That, in turn, promotes the clarification of issues related to the process timeline, responsibilities for particular operations, and collaborations among process participants. Our first experiences in a cancer registry best practices development workshop setting support the usefulness of such an approach.

  8. Enhancing Activity for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendal, Rasmus; Busch, Michael; Halck, Niels Bendtsen

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical production of hydrogen, facilitated in electrolyzers, holds great promise for energy storage and solar fuel production. A bottleneck in the process is the catalysis of the oxygen evolution reaction, involving the transfer of four electrons. The challenge is that the binding energies...... of all reaction intermediates cannot be optimized individually. However, experimental investigations have shown that drastic improvements can be realized for manganese and cobalt-based oxides if gold is added to the surface or used as substrate. We propose an explanation for these enhancements based...... that the oxygen evolution reaction overpotential decreases by 100–300 mV for manganese oxides and 100 mV for cobalt oxides....

  9. Splenectomy inhibits non-small cell lung cancer growth by modulating anti-tumor adaptive and innate immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Liran; Mishalian, Inbal; Bayuch, Rachel; Zolotarov, Lida; Michaeli, Janna; Fridlender, Zvi G

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that inhibitors of the immune system reside in the spleen and inhibit the endogenous antitumor effects of the immune system. We hypothesized that splenectomy would inhibit the growth of relatively large non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors by modulating the systemic inhibition of the immune system, and in particular Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells (MDSC). The effect of splenectomy was evaluated in several murine lung cancer models. We found that splenectomy reduces tumor growth and the development of lung metastases, but only in advanced tumors. In immune-deficient NOD-SCID mice the effect of splenectomy on tumor growth and metastatic spread disappeared. Splenectomy significantly reduced the presence of MDSC, and especially monocytic-MDSC in the circulation and inside the tumor. Specific reduction of the CCR2+ subset of monocytic MDSC was demonstrated, and the importance of the CCL2-CCR2 axis was further shown by a marked reduction in CCL2 following splenectomy. These changes were followed by changes in the macrophages contents of the tumors to become more antitumorigenic, and by increased activation of CD8+ Cytotoxic T-cells (CTL). By MDSC depletion, and adoptive transfer of MDSCs, we demonstrated that the effect of splenectomy on tumor growth was substantially mediated by MDSC cells. We conclude that the spleen is an important contributor to tumor growth and metastases, and that splenectomy can blunt this effect by depletion of MDSC, changing the amount and characteristics of myeloid cells and enhancing activation of CTL. PMID:26137413

  10. Asian Organization for Crohn's and Colitis and Asia Pacific Association of Gastroenterology consensus on tuberculosis infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease receiving anti-tumor necrosis factor treatment. Part 1: risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Il Park

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Because anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF therapy has become increasingly popular in many Asian countries, the risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB among anti-TNF users may raise serious health problems in this region. Thus, the Asian Organization for Crohn's and Colitis and the Asia Pacific Association of Gastroenterology have developed a set of consensus statements about risk assessment, detection and prevention of latent TB infection, and management of active TB infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD receiving anti-TNF treatment. Twenty-three consensus statements were initially drafted and then discussed by the committee members. The quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations were assessed by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology. Web-based consensus voting was performed by 211 IBD specialists from 9 Asian countries concerning each statement. A consensus statement was accepted if at least 75% of the participants agreed. Part 1 of the statements comprised 2 parts: risk of TB infection Recommendaduring anti-TNF therapy, and screening for TB infection prior to commencing anti-TNF therapy. These consensus statements will help clinicians optimize patient outcomes by reducing the morbidity and mortality related to TB infections in patients with IBD receiving anti-TNF treatment.

  11. Discovery of stimulation-responsive immune enhancers with CRISPR activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonov, Dimitre R.; Gowen, Benjamin G.; Boontanrart, Mandy; Roth, Theodore L.; Gagnon, John D.; Mumbach, Maxwell R.; Satpathy, Ansuman T.; Lee, Youjin; Bray, Nicolas L.; Chan, Alice Y.; Lituiev, Dmytro S.; Nguyen, Michelle L.; Gate, Rachel E.; Subramaniam, Meena; Li, Zhongmei; Woo, Jonathan M.; Mitros, Therese; Ray, Graham J.; Curie, Gemma L.; Naddaf, Nicki; Chu, Julia S.; Ma, Hong; Boyer, Eric; van Gool, Frederic; Huang, Hailiang; Liu, Ruize; Tobin, Victoria R.; Schumann, Kathrin; Daly, Mark J.; Farh, Kyle K.; Ansel, K. Mark; Ye, Chun J.; Greenleaf, William J.; Anderson, Mark S.; Bluestone, Jeffrey A.; Chang, Howard Y.; Corn, Jacob E.; Marson, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    The majority of genetic variants associated with common human diseases map to enhancers, non-coding elements that shape cell-type-specific transcriptional programs and responses to extracellular cues. Systematic mapping of functional enhancers and their biological contexts is required to understand the mechanisms by which variation in non-coding genetic sequences contributes to disease. Functional enhancers can be mapped by genomic sequence disruption, but this approach is limited to the subset of enhancers that are necessary in the particular cellular context being studied. We hypothesized that recruitment of a strong transcriptional activator to an enhancer would be sufficient to drive target gene expression, even if that enhancer was not currently active in the assayed cells. Here we describe a discovery platform that can identify stimulus-responsive enhancers for a target gene independent of stimulus exposure. We used tiled CRISPR activation (CRISPRa) to synthetically recruit a transcriptional activator to sites across large genomic regions (more than 100 kilobases) surrounding two key autoimmunity risk loci, CD69 and IL2RA. We identified several CRISPRa-responsive elements with chromatin features of stimulus-responsive enhancers, including an IL2RA enhancer that harbours an autoimmunity risk variant. Using engineered mouse models, we found that sequence perturbation of the disease-associated Il2ra enhancer did not entirely block Il2ra expression, but rather delayed the timing of gene activation in response to specific extracellular signals. Enhancer deletion skewed polarization of naive T cells towards a pro-inflammatory T helper (TH17) cell state and away from a regulatory T cell state. This integrated approach identifies functional enhancers and reveals how non-coding variation associated with human immune dysfunction alters context-specific gene programs.

  12. Discovery of stimulation-responsive immune enhancers with CRISPR activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonov, Dimitre R.; Gowen, Benjamin G.; Boontanrart, Mandy; Roth, Theodore L.; Gagnon, John D.; Mumbach, Maxwell R.; Satpathy, Ansuman T.; Lee, Youjin; Bray, Nicolas L.; Chan, Alice Y.; Lituiev, Dmytro S.; Nguyen, Michelle L.; Gate, Rachel E.; Subramaniam, Meena; Li, Zhongmei; Woo, Jonathan M.; Mitros, Therese; Ray, Graham J.; Curie, Gemma L.; Naddaf, Nicki; Chu, Julia S.; Ma, Hong; Boyer, Eric; Van Gool, Frederic; Huang, Hailiang; Liu, Ruize; Tobin, Victoria R.; Schumann, Kathrin; Daly, Mark J.; Farh, Kyle K; Ansel, K. Mark; Ye, Chun J.; Greenleaf, William J.; Anderson, Mark S.; Bluestone, Jeffrey A.; Chang, Howard Y.; Corn, Jacob E.; Marson, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The majority of genetic variants associated with common human diseases map to enhancers, non-coding elements that shape cell-type-specific transcriptional programs and responses to extracellular cues1–3. Systematic mapping of functional enhancers and their biological contexts is required to understand the mechanisms by which variation in non-coding genetic sequences contributes to disease. Functional enhancers can be mapped by genomic sequence disruption4–6, but this approach is limited to the subset of enhancers that are necessary in the particular cellular context being studied. We hypothesized that recruitment of a strong transcriptional activator to an enhancer would be sufficient to drive target gene expression, even if that enhancer was not currently active in the assayed cells. Here we describe a discovery platform that can identify stimulus-responsive enhancers for a target gene independent of stimulus exposure. We used tiled CRISPR activation (CRISPRa)7 to synthetically recruit a transcriptional activator to sites across large genomic regions (more than 100 kilobases) surrounding two key autoimmunity risk loci, CD69 and IL2RA. We identified several CRISPRa-responsive elements with chromatin features of stimulus-responsive enhancers, including an IL2RA enhancer that harbours an autoimmunity risk variant. Using engineered mouse models, we found that sequence perturbation of the disease-associated Il2ra enhancer did not entirely block Il2ra expression, but rather delayed the timing of gene activation in response to specific extracellular signals. Enhancer deletion skewed polarization of naive T cells towards a pro-inflammatory T helper (TH17) cell state and away from a regulatory T cell state. This integrated approach identifies functional enhancers and reveals how non-coding variation associated with human immune dysfunction alters context-specific gene programs. PMID:28854172

  13. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-06-01

    Our research indicated that 10-12-year-old children receiving two active Wii ™ (Nintendo ® ; Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  14. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    OpenAIRE

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-01-01

    Our research indicated that 10–12-year-old children receiving two active Wii™ (Nintendo®; Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  15. Surface enhanced Raman optical activity (SEROA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdali, Salim; Blanch, E.W.

    2008-01-01

    Raman optical activity (ROA) directly monitors the stereochemistry of chiral molecules and is now an incisive probe of biomolecular structure. ROA spectra contain a wealth of information on tertiary folding, secondary structure and even the orientation of individual residues in proteins and nucleic...

  16. Enhanced casein kinase II activity in human tumour cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowald, K; Fischer, H; Issinger, O G

    1984-01-01

    Casein kinase II (CKII) activity is enhanced as much as 2-3 fold in established and 4-5-fold in transformed human cell lines when compared to that of fibroblasts and primary human tumour cell cultures where CKII activity never exceeded a basic level. The high activity of CKII in transformed cells...

  17. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flôres, Danilo E F L; Bettilyon, Crystal N; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity, which is also rewarding to rodents, modulated the robustness of FAA. We found that access to a freely rotating wheel enhanced the robustness of FAA. This enhancement was lost when the wheel was removed. In addition, while prior exposure to a running wheel alone did not enhance FAA, the presence of a locked wheel did enhance FAA as long as mice had previously run in the wheel. Together, these data suggest that FAA, like wheel-running activity, is influenced by reward signaling.

  18. Targeted Therapy of Cancer Using Photodynamic Therapy in Combination with Multi-faceted Anti-Tumor Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malini Olivo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT has emerged as one of the important therapeutic options in the management of cancer and other diseases. PDT involves a tumor-localized photosensitizer (PS, which when appropriately illuminated by visible light converts oxygen into cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS, that attack key structural entities within the targeted cells, ultimately resulting in necrosis or apoptosis. Though PDT is a selective modality, it can be further enhanced by combining other targeted therapeutic strategies that include the use of synthetic peptides and nanoparticles for selective delivery of photosensitizers. Another potentially promising strategy is the application of targeted therapeutics that exploit a myriad of critical pathways involved in tumorigenesis and metastasis. Vascular disrupting agents that eradicate tumor vasculature during PDT and anti-angiogenic agents that targets specific molecular pathways and prevent the formation of new blood vessels are novel therapeutic approaches that have been shown to improve treatment outcome. In addition to the well-documented mechanisms of direct cell killing and damage to the tumor vasculature, PDT can also activate the body’s immune response against tumors. Numerous pre-clinical studies and clinical observations have demonstrated the immuno-stimulatory capability of PDT. Herein, we aim to integrate the most important findings with regard to the combination of PDT and other novel targeted therapy approaches, detailing its potential in cancer photomedicine.

  19. Is enhanced physical activity possible using active videogames?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our research indicated that 10– to 12-year-old children receiving two active Wii (TM)(Nintendo (R); Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase phys...

  20. Activation of immune functions via induction of glutathione of lymphocytes by low-dose, whole-body irradiation with gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuji Kojima; Hisatake Hayase; Mareyuki Takahashi

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. We have recently found that low doses of radiation, unlike higher doses, do not always cause a decrease of cellular glutathione, but they can increase it, leading to an elevation of Con A-induced proliferation of splenocytes. In this study, we first examined whether the increase of glutathione level induced by low-dose gamma-ray irradiation is involved in the appearance of enhanced natural killer (NK) activity and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), leading to delayed tumor growth in Ehrlich solid tumor (EST)-bearing mice. NK activity in ICR mouse splenocytes was significantly increased from 4 h to 6 h after a single whole-body gamma-ray irradiation at 0.5 Gy, and thereafter decreased almost to the zero-time level by 24 h post-irradiation. ADCC was also increased significantly in a similar way. Reduced glutathione exogenously added to splenocytes obtained from normal mice enhanced both NK activity and ADCC in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of the radiation on tumor growth was then examined in EST-bearing mice. Repeated low-dose irradiation (0.5 Gy, four times, before and within an early time after the inoculation) significantly delayed the tumor growth. Finally, the effect of single low-dose (0.5 Gy), whole-body gamma-ray irradiation on immune balance (Th1/Th2) was examined in order to elucidate the mechanism underlying the anti-tumor immunity. Recent studies indicate that Th1/Th2 balance plays an important role in the immune responses involved in anti-tumor immunity. The activity of NK is hallmarks of cell-mediated immunity, and play key roles in anti-tumor immunity. The percentage of B cells in blood lymphocytes was selectively decreased after the radiation, concomitantly with an increase in that of helper T cell population, favoring Th1 polarization. The IFN-gamma level in splenocyte culture prepared from EST-bearing mice was significantly increased 48 h after the radiation, though the level of

  1. [Establishment of EL4 tumor-bearing mouse models and investigation on immunological mechanisms of anti-tumor effect of melphalan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo-lin; Li, Chuan-gang; Shu, Xiao-hong; Jia, Yu-jie; Qin, Zhi-hai

    2006-03-01

    To establish mouse lymphoma EL4 tumor-bearing mouse models in wild type C57BL/6 mice and nude C57BL/6 mice respectively, and to further investigate the immunological mechanisms of anti-tumor effect of melphalan. Mouse lymphoma EL4 cells were inoculated subcutaneously into wild type C57BL/6 mice (immune-competent mice). Twelve days later, melphalan of different doses were administered intraperitoneally to treat these wild type C57BL/6 tuomr-bearing mice. Tumor sizes were observed and recorded subsequently to find out the minimal dose of melphalan that could cure the tuomr-bearing mice. Then the same amount of EL4 tumor cells were inoculated subcutaneously into wild type C57BL/6 mice and nude C57BL/6 mice (T cell-deficient mice) simultaneously, which had the same genetic background of C57BL/6. Twelve days later, melphalan of the minimal dose was given intraperitoneally to treat both the wild type and nude C57BL/6 tuomr-bearing mice. Tumor sizes were observed and recorded in these two different types of mice subsequently. A single dose of melphalan (7.5 mg/kg) could cure EL4 tumor-bearing wild type C57BL/6 mice, but could not induce tumor regression in EL4 tumor-bearing nude C57BL/6 mice. A single dose of melphalan has obvious anti-tumor effect on mouse lymphoma EL4 tumor-bearing wild type C57BL/6mice, which requires the involvement of T lymphocytes in the host probably related to their killing functions.

  2. [Study of the immunological mechanism of anti-tumor effects of 5-FU by establishing EL4 tumor-bearing mouse models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo-Lin; Li, Chuan-Gang; Shu, Xiao-Hong; Li, Ming-Xia; Jia, Yu-Jie; Qin, Zhi-Hai

    2007-11-01

    To investigate the immunological mechanism of anti-tumor effect of 5-FU by establishing lymphoma EL4 tumor-bearing mouse models in wild type C57BL/6 mice and nude C57BL/6 mice, respectively. The mouse lymphoma EL4 cells were inoculated subcutaneously into wild type C57BL/6 mice (immune-competent mice). Twelve days later, 5-FU of different doses was administered intraperitoneally to treat these wild type C57BL/6 tumor-bearing mice. The size of tumors in the wild type C57BL/6 mice was observed and recorded to explore the minimal dose of 5-FU that could cure the tumor-bearing mice. Then the same amount of EL4 tumor cells was inoculated subcutaneously into wild type C57BL/6 mice and nude C57BL/6 mice (T cell-deficient mice) simultaneously, which had the same genetic background of C57BL/6. Twelve days later, 5-FU of the minimal dose was given intraperitoneally to treat both the wild type and nude C57BL/6 tumor-bearing mice. The size of tumors in the two different types of mice was observed and recorded. A single dose of 5-FU (75 mg/kg) cured both the EL4 tumor-bearing wild type C57BL/6 mice and the EL4 tumor-bearing nude C57BL/6 mice in the first week. Two weeks after 5-FU treatment, all of the nude mice died of tumor relapse while most of the wild type C57BL/6 mice were fully recovered. A single dose of 5-FU has marked anti-tumor effects on lymphoma EL4 tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice with or without T lymphocytes. The relapse of tumors after 5-FU treatment might be related to the function of T lymphocytes.

  3. Environmental Education Activities to Enhance Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yambert, Paul A.; And Others

    This document contains a set of 10 activities that teachers may use with students (ages 10 to adult) to enhance environmental knowledge and environmentally responsible behavior. Sample worksheets are included when applicable. The activities focus on: renewable and nonrenewable resources; recycling; population growth; wildlife; recycling in a…

  4. Activity of the kinesin spindle protein inhibitor ispinesib (SB-715992) in models of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purcell, James W; Davis, Jefferson; Reddy, Mamatha; Martin, Shamra; Samayoa, Kimberly; Vo, Hung; Thomsen, Karen; Bean, Peter; Kuo, Wen Lin; Ziyad, Safiyyah; Billig, Jessica; Feiler, Heidi S; Gray, Joe W; Wood, Kenneth W; Cases, Sylvaine

    2009-06-10

    Ispinesib (SB-715992) is a potent inhibitor of kinesin spindle protein (KSP), a kinesin motor protein essential for the formation of a bipolar mitotic spindle and cell cycle progression through mitosis. Clinical studies of ispinesib have demonstrated a 9% response rate in patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer, and a favorable safety profile without significant neurotoxicities, gastrointestinal toxicities or hair loss. To better understand the potential of ispinesib in the treatment of breast cancer we explored the activity of ispinesib alone and in combination several therapies approved for the treatment of breast cancer. We measured the ispinesib sensitivity and pharmacodynamic response of breast cancer cell lines representative of various subtypes in vitro and as xenografts in vivo, and tested the ability of ispinesib to enhance the anti-tumor activity of approved therapies. In vitro, ispinesib displayed broad anti-proliferative activity against a panel of 53 breast cell-lines. In vivo, ispinesib produced regressions in each of five breast cancer models, and tumor free survivors in three of these models. The effects of ispinesib treatment on pharmacodynamic markers of mitosis and apoptosis were examined in vitro and in vivo, revealing a greater increase in both mitotic and apoptotic markers in the MDA-MB-468 model than in the less sensitive BT-474 model. In vivo, ispinesib enhanced the anti-tumor activity of trastuzumab, lapatinib, doxorubicin, and capecitabine, and exhibited activity comparable to paclitaxel and ixabepilone. These findings support further clinical exploration of KSP inhibitors for the treatment of breast cancer.

  5. Macrophage Polarization Contributes to the Anti-Tumoral Efficacy of Mesoporous Nanovectors Loaded with Albumin-Bound Paclitaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fransisca Leonard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Therapies targeted to the immune system, such as immunotherapy, are currently shaping a new, rapidly developing branch of promising cancer treatments, offering the potential to change the prognosis of previously non-responding patients. Macrophages comprise the most abundant population of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME and can undergo differentiation into functional phenotypes depending on the local tissue environment. Based on these functional phenotypes, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs can either aid tumor progression (M2 phenotype or inhibit it (M1 phenotype. Presence of M2 macrophages and a high ratio of M2/M1 macrophages in the TME are clinically associated with poor prognosis in many types of cancers. Herein, we evaluate the effect of macrophage phenotype on the transport and anti-cancer efficacy of albumin-bound paclitaxel (nAb-PTX loaded into porous silicon multistage nanovectors (MSV. Studies in a coculture of breast cancer cells (3D-spheroid with macrophages and in vivo models were conducted to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of MSV-nAb-PTX as a function of macrophage phenotype. Association with MSV increased drug accumulation within the macrophages and the tumor spheroids, shifting the inflammation state of the TME toward the pro-inflammatory, anti-tumorigenic milieu. Additionally, the treatment increased macrophage motility toward cancer cells, promoting the active transport of therapeutic nanovectors into the tumor lesion. Consequently, apoptosis of cancer cells was increased and proliferation decreased in the MSV-nAb-PTX-treated group as compared to controls. The results also confirmed that the tested system shifts the macrophage differentiation toward an M1 phenotype, possessing an anti-proliferative effect toward the breast cancer cells. These factors were further incorporated into a mathematical model to help analyze the synergistic effect of the macrophage polarization state on the efficacy of MSV

  6. Gramicidin D enhances the antibacterial activity of fluoride

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, James W.; Zhou, Zhiyuan; Breaker, Ronald R.

    2014-01-01

    Fluoride is a toxic anion found in many natural environments. One of the major bacterial defenses against fluoride is the cell envelope, which limits passage of the membrane-impermeant fluoride anion. Accordingly, compounds that enhance the permeability of bacterial membranes to fluoride should also enhance fluoride toxicity. In this study, we demonstrate that the pore-forming antibiotic gramicidin D increases fluoride uptake in B. subtilis and that the antibacterial activity of this compound...

  7. Ficus Deltoidea Enhance Glucose Uptake Activity in Cultured Muscle Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainah Adam; Shafii Khamis; Amin Ismail; Muhajir Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Ficus deltoidea or locally known as Mas cotek is one of the common medicinal plants used in Malaysia. Our previous studies showed that this plant have blood glucose lowering effect. Glucose uptake into muscle and adipocytes cells is one of the known mechanisms of blood glucose lowering effect. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of Ficus deltoidea on glucose uptake activity into muscle cells. The cells were incubated with Ficus deltoidea extracts either alone or combination with insulin. Amount of glucose uptake by L6 myotubes was determined using glucose tracer, 2-deoxy-(1- 3 H 1 )-glucose. The results showed that Ficus deltoidea extracts at particular doses enhanced basal or insulin-mediated glucose uptake into muscle cells significantly. Hot aqueous extract enhanced glucose uptake at the low concentration (10 μg/ ml) whereas methanolic extract enhanced glucose uptake at low and high concentrations. Methanolic extract also mimicked insulin activity during enhancing glucose uptake into L^ muscle cells. Glucose uptake activity of Ficus deltoidea could be attributed by the phenolic compound presence in the plant. This study had shown that Ficus deltoidea has the ability to enhance glucose uptake into muscle cells which is partly contributed the antidiabetic activity of this plant. (author)

  8. Anti-tumor effects of everolimus and metformin are complementary and glucose-dependent in breast cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariaans, Gerke; Jalving, Mathilde; de Vries, Emma Geertruida Elisabeth; de Jong, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Background: Clinical efficacy of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus is limited in breast cancer and regularly leads to side-effects including hyperglycemia. The AMPK inhibitor and anti-diabetic drug metformin may counteract everolimus-induced hyperglycemia, as well as enhancing anti-cancer efficacy. We

  9. Oxaliplatin immuno hybrid nanoparticles for active targeting: an approach for enhanced apoptotic activity and drug delivery to colorectal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala, Shashank; Gowthamarajan, K; Satish Kumar, M N; Wadhwani, Ashish

    2016-06-01

    Tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) proved to be a promising new target for colorectal cancer treatment. Elevated expression of TRAIL protein in tumor cells distinguishes it from healthy cells, thereby delivering the drug at the specific site. Here, we formulated oxaliplatin immunohybrid nanoparticles (OIHNPs) to deliver oxaliplatin and anti-TRAIL for colorectal cancer treatment in xenograft tumor models. The polymeric chitosan layer binds to the lipid film with the mixture of phospholipids by an ultra sound method followed by conjugating with thiolated antibody using DSPE-PEG-mal3400, resulting in the formation of OIHNPs. The polymer layer helps in more encapsulation of the drug (71 ± 0.09%) with appreciable particle size (95 ± 0.01 nm), and lipid layer prevents degradation of the drug in serum by preventing nanoparticle aggregation. OIHNPs have shown a 4-fold decrease in the IC50 value compared to oxaliplatin in HT-29 cells by the MTT assay. These immuno-nanoparticles represent the successful uptake and internalization of oxaliplatin in HT-29 cells rather than in MCF-7 cells determined by triple fluorescence method. Apoptotic activity in vitro of OIHNPs was determined by the change in the mitochondria membrane potential that further elevates its anti-tumor property. Furthermore, the conjugated nanoparticles can effectively deliver the drug to the tumor sites, which can be attributed to its ability in reducing tumor mass and tumor volume in xenograft tumor models in vivo along with sustaining its release in vitro. These findings indicated that the oxaliplatin immuno-hybrid nanoparticles would be a promising nano-sized active targeted formulation for colorectal-tumor targeted therapy.

  10. CpG Oligodeoxynucleotides Enhance the Efficacy of Adoptive Cell Transfer Using Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes by Modifying the Th1 Polarization and Local Infiltration of Th17 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adoptive cell transfer immunotherapy using tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs was an important therapeutic strategy against tumors. But the efficacy remains limited and development of new strategies is urgent. Recent evidence suggested that CpG-ODNs might be a potent candidate for tumor immunotherapy. Here we firstly reported that CpG-ODNs could significantly enhance the antitumor efficacy of adoptively transferred TILs in vivo accompanied by enhanced activity capacity and proliferation of CD8+ T cells and CD8+ T cells, as well as a Th1 polarization immune response. Most importantly, we found that CpG-ODNs could significantly elevate the infiltration of Th17 cells in tumor mass, which contributed to anti-tumor efficacy of TILs in vivo. Our findings suggested that CpG ODNs could enhance the anti-tumor efficacy of adoptively transferred TILs through modifying Th1 polarization and local infiltration of Th17 cells, which might provide a clue for developing a new strategy for ACT based on TILs.

  11. Chimeric polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogulis, Mark; Sweeney, Matthew; Heu, Tia

    2017-06-14

    The present invention relates to chimeric GH61 polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the chimeric GH61 polypeptides; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the chimeric GH61 polypeptides.

  12. Activity enhancement of ligninolytic enzymes of Trametes versicolor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suspended cultures of white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor, supplemented with bagasse powder showed a concentration dependent enhancement in the ligninolytic enzymes activity in liquid shake cultures. 2% (w/v) bagasse powder improved greater stability to the enzymes. The optimum pH is 3.5 and the optimum ...

  13. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiyuran, Suchindra; Kramer, Randall; Harris, Paul

    2013-10-29

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  14. Can aquatic worms enhance methane production from waste activated sludge?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, Antonio; Hendrickx, Tim L.G.; Elissen, Hellen; Laarhoven, Bob; Buisman, Cees J.N.; Temmink, Hardy

    2016-01-01

    Although literature suggests that aquatic worms can help to enhance the methane production from excess activated sludge, clear evidence for this is missing. Therefore, anaerobic digestion tests were performed at 20 and at 30 °C with sludge from a high-loaded membrane bioreactor, the aquatic worm

  15. Anti-tumor Effect of Rhaponticum uniflorum Ethyl Acetate Extract by Regulation of Peroxiredoxin1 and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore whether Rhaponticum uniflorum (R. uniflorum had anti-tumor effects in oral cancer and investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in these anti-tumor effects.Methods: Chemical compositions of R. uniflorum ethyl acetate (RUEA extracts were detected by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-Q/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS, followed by pharmacology-based network prediction analysis. The effects of RUEA extracts on proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion ability of human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC cell line SCC15 were evaluated by CCK8 assay, Annexin V- fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, wound healing assay, and Matrigel invasion assay, respectively. The mRNA and protein expression of peroxiredoxin1 (Prx1, the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT marker E-cadherin, vimentin, and Snail were determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. A mouse xenograft model of SCC15 cells was established to further evaluate the effect of RUEA extracts in vivo. Immunohistochemical assessment of Ki67 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling staining of apoptotic cells were performed on the tumor tissues to assess the effects of RUEA extracts on proliferation and apoptosis.Results: Fourteen compounds were identified from RUEA extracts by UPLC-Q/TOF-MS. The pharmacology-based network prediction analysis showed that Prx1 could be a potential binder of RUEA extracts. In SCC15 cells, RUEA extracts inhibited cell viability, induced apoptosis, and suppressed cell invasion and migration in a concentration-dependent manner. After treatment with RUEA extracts, the mRNA and protein expression of E-cadherin increased, whereas those of Prx1, vimentin, and Snail decreased. RUEA extracts also affected the EMT program and suppressed cell invasion and migration in Prx1 knockdown SCC15 cells. In an OSCC mouse

  16. Gramicidin D enhances the antibacterial activity of fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, James W; Zhou, Zhiyuan; Breaker, Ronald R

    2014-07-01

    Fluoride is a toxic anion found in many natural environments. One of the major bacterial defenses against fluoride is the cell envelope, which limits passage of the membrane-impermeant fluoride anion. Accordingly, compounds that enhance the permeability of bacterial membranes to fluoride should also enhance fluoride toxicity. In this study, we demonstrate that the pore-forming antibiotic gramicidin D increases fluoride uptake in Bacillus subtilis and that the antibacterial activity of this compound is potentiated by fluoride. Polymyxin B, another membrane-targeting antibiotic with a different mechanism of action, shows no such improvement. These results, along with previous findings, indicate that certain compounds that destabilize bacterial cell envelopes can enhance the toxicity of fluoride. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. "A Separation Theorem of Active Management and Synthetic Enhanced Active Strategies"(in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Takao Kobayashi; Seiji Minami

    2008-01-01

    We propose a Separation Theorem of Active Management. It asserts that in the so-called Enhanced Active Portfolio framework the efficient frontier is linear in the active return/active risk space, and one can separate the determination of optimal active portfolio weights from the determination of optimal leverage ratio. The risk preference of investors does not play any role in the former decision. The theorem holds under a fairly general set of conditions on portfolio restrictions. As such it...

  18. Andrographis paniculata elicits anti-invasion activities by suppressing TM4SF3 gene expression and by anoikis-sensitization in esophageal cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Grace Gar-Lee; Lee, Julia Kin-Ming; Li, Lin; Chan, Kar-Man; Wong, Eric Chun-Wai; Chan, Judy Yuet-Wah; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Lui, Vivian Wai Yan; Chiu, Philip Wai-Yan; Lau, Clara Bik-San

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is the sixth most common cancer in male causing death worldwide. It is usually diagnosed at advanced stage with high postoperative recurrence and systemic metastasis, which leads to poor prognosis. The potential inhibitory effect of herbal medicines on metastasis of esophageal cancer has drawn researchers’ great attention. In the present study, the anti-invasion activities of Andrographis paniculata (AP) have been evaluated in two esophageal cancer cell lines, EC-109 and KYSE-520, as well as human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1). The anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities of AP were also evaluated in human esophageal xenograft-bearing mouse models. Our results demonstrated for the first time that aqueous extract of AP inhibited the motility and invasion of esophageal cancer cells, which is the initial step of metastasis, without cytotoxicity. Anoikis resistance has also been reversed in AP-treated cancer cells. Besides, the expression of metastasis-related gene TM4SF3 in EC-109 cells was significantly decreased in AP extract-treated cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, the anti-tumor and anti-metastatic efficacies in subcutaneous and intraperitoneal esophageal xenograft-bearing mice were demonstrated after oral administration of AP aqueous extract for 3 weeks. Last but not least, the active component, isoandrographolide, responsible for the anti-migratory activity was firstly revealed here. In conclusion, the AP aqueous extract exerted inhibitory activities on the migration and anoikis resistance of esophageal cancer cells EC-109 and KYSE-520, as well as suppressed the proliferation and motility of endothelial cells. Combining the mentioned effects may account for the anti-tumor and anti-metastasis effects of AP aqueous extract in xenograft-bearing mice. The findings in the present study further enhance the understanding of the therapeutic mechanisms of the herb AP, which may lead to clinical applications. PMID

  19. Recombinant heat shock protein 70 functional peptide and alpha-fetoprotein epitope peptide vaccine elicits specific anti-tumor immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Qiao-Xia; Lin, Huan-Ping; Xu, Bing; Zhao, Qian; Chen, Kun

    2016-11-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a marker of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and serves as a target for immunotherapy. However, current treatments targeting AFP are not reproducible and do not provide complete protection against cancer. This issue may be solved by developing novel therapeutic vaccines with enhanced immunogenicity that could effectively target AFP-expressing tumors. In this study, we report construction of a therapeutic peptide vaccine by linking heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) functional peptide to the AFP epitope to obtain HSP70-P/AFP-P. This novel peptide was administered into BALB/c mice to observe the effects. Quantification of AFP-specific CD8 + T cells that secrete IFN-γ in these mice via ELISPOT revealed the synergistic effects of HSP70-P/AFP-P with increased numbers of AFP-specific CD8 + T cells. Similarly, ELISA analysis showed increased granzyme B and perforin released by natural killer cells. Moreover, in vitro cytotoxic T-lymphocyte assays and in vivo tumor preventive experiments clearly showed the higher antitumor effects of HSP70-P/AFP-P against AFP-expressing tumors. These results show that treatment of BALB/c mice with HSP70-P/AFP-P induced stronger T-cells responses and improved protective immunity. Our data suggest that HSP70-P/AFP-P may be used as a therapeutic approach in the treatment of AFP-expressing cancers.

  20. Preparation and anti-tumor efficiency evaluation of doxorubicin-loaded bacterial magnetosomes: magnetic nanoparticles as drug carriers isolated from Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian-Bo; Duan, Jin-Hong; Dai, Shun-Ling; Ren, Jun; Guo, Lin; Jiang, Wei; Li, Ying

    2008-12-15

    Bacterial magnetosomes (BMs) are commonly used as vehicles for certain enzymes, nucleic acids and antibodies, although they have never been considered drug carriers. To evaluate the clinical potential of BMs extracted from Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense in cancer therapy, doxorubicin (DOX) was loaded onto the purified BMs at a ratio of 0.87 +/- 0.08 mg/mg using glutaraldehyde. The DOX-coupled BMs (DBMs) and BMs exhibited uniform sizes and morphology evaluated by TEM. The diameters of DBMs and BMs obtained by AFM were 71.02 +/- 6.73 and 34.93 +/- 8.24 nm, respectively. The DBMs released DOX slowly into serum and maintained at least 80% stability following 48 h of incubation. In vitro cytotoxic tests showed that the DBMs were cytotoxic to HL60 and EMT-6 cells, manifested as inhibition of cell proliferation and suppression in c-myc expression, consistent with DOX. These observations depicted in vitro antitumor property of DBMs similar to DOX. The approach of coupling DOX to magnetosomes may have clinical potential in anti-tumor drug delivery.

  1. Enhancing learning in geosciences and water engineering via lab activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Cheng, Ming

    2016-04-01

    This study focuses on the utilisation of lab based activities to enhance the learning experience of engineering students studying Water Engineering and Geosciences. In particular, the use of modern highly visual and tangible presentation techniques within an appropriate laboratory based space are used to introduce undergraduate students to advanced engineering concepts. A specific lab activity, namely "Flood-City", is presented as a case study to enhance the active engagement rate, improve the learning experience of the students and better achieve the intended learning objectives of the course within a broad context of the engineering and geosciences curriculum. Such activities, have been used over the last few years from the Water Engineering group @ Glasgow, with success for outreach purposes (e.g. Glasgow Science Festival and demos at the Glasgow Science Centre and Kelvingrove museum). The activity involves a specific setup of the demonstration flume in a sand-box configuration, with elements and activities designed so as to gamely the overall learning activity. Social media platforms can also be used effectively to the same goals, particularly in cases were the students already engage in these online media. To assess the effectiveness of this activity a purpose designed questionnaire is offered to the students. Specifically, the questionnaire covers several aspects that may affect student learning, performance and satisfaction, such as students' motivation, factors to effective learning (also assessed by follow-up quizzes), and methods of communication and assessment. The results, analysed to assess the effectiveness of the learning activity as the students perceive it, offer a promising potential for the use of such activities in outreach and learning.

  2. Enhanced supercapacitance of activated vertical graphene nanosheets in hybrid electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subrata; Sahoo, Gopinath; Polaki, S. R.; Krishna, Nanda Gopala; Kamruddin, M.; Mathews, Tom

    2017-12-01

    Supercapacitors are becoming the workhorse for emerging energy storage applications due to their higher power density and superior cycle life compared to conventional batteries. The performance of supercapacitors depends on the electrode material, type of electrolyte, and interaction between them. Owing to the beneficial interconnected porous structure with multiple conducting channels, vertical graphene nanosheets (VGN) have proved to be leading supercapacitor electrode materials. Herein, we demonstrate a novel approach based on the combination of surface activation and a new organo-aqueous hybrid electrolyte, tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate in H2SO4, to achieve significant enhancement in supercapacitor performance of VGN. As-synthesized VGN exhibits an excellent supercapacitance of 0.64 mF/cm2 in H2SO4. However, identification of a novel electrolyte for performance enhancement is the subject of current research. The present manuscript demonstrates the potential of the hybrid electrolyte in enhancing the areal capacitance (1.99 mF/cm2) with excellent retention (only 5.4% loss after 5000 cycles) and Coulombic efficiency (93.1%). In addition, a five-fold enhancement in the capacitance of VGNs (0.64 to 3.31 mF/cm2) with a reduced internal resistance is achieved by the combination of KOH activation and the hybrid electrolyte.

  3. A novel anti-tumor inhibitor identified by virtual screen with PLK1 structure and zebrafish assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lu

    Full Text Available Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1, one of the key regulators of mitosis, is a target for cancer therapy due to its abnormally high activity in several tumors. Plk1 is highly conserved and shares a nearly identical 3-D structure between zebrafish and humans. The initial 10 mitoses of zebrafish embryonic cleavages occur every∼30 minutes, and therefore provide a rapid assay to evaluate mitosis inhibitors including those targeting Plk1. To increase efficiency and specificity, we first performed a computational virtual screen of∼60000 compounds against the human Plk1 3-D structure docked to both its kinase and Polo box domain. 370 candidates with the top free-energy scores were subjected to zebrafish assay and 3 were shown to inhibit cell division. Compared to general screen for compounds inhibiting zebrafish embryonic cleavage, computation increased the efficiency by 11 folds. One of the 3 compounds, named I2, was further demonstrated to effectively inhibit multiple tumor cell proliferation in vitro and PC3 prostate cancer growth in Xenograft mouse model in vivo. Furthermore, I2 inhibited Plk1 enzyme activity in a dose dependent manner. The IC50 values of I2 in these assays are compatible to those of ON-01910, a Plk1 inhibitor currently in Phase III clinic trials. Our studies demonstrate that zebrafish assays coupled with computational screening significantly improves the efficiency of identifying specific regulators of biological targets. The PLK1 inhibitor I2, and its analogs, may have potential in cancer therapeutics.

  4. Acquired IFNγ resistance impairs anti-tumor immunity and gives rise to T-cell-resistant melanoma lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucker, Antje; Zhao, Fang; Pieper, Natalia; Heeke, Christina; Maltaner, Raffaela; Stadtler, Nadine; Real, Birgit; Bielefeld, Nicola; Howe, Sebastian; Weide, Benjamin; Gutzmer, Ralf; Utikal, Jochen; Loquai, Carmen; Gogas, Helen; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Zeschnigk, Michael; Westendorf, Astrid M.; Trilling, Mirko; Horn, Susanne; Schilling, Bastian; Schadendorf, Dirk; Griewank, Klaus G.; Paschen, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Melanoma treatment has been revolutionized by antibody-based immunotherapies. IFNγ secretion by CD8+ T cells is critical for therapy efficacy having anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on tumour cells. Our study demonstrates a genetic evolution of IFNγ resistance in different melanoma patient models. Chromosomal alterations and subsequent inactivating mutations in genes of the IFNγ signalling cascade, most often JAK1 or JAK2, protect melanoma cells from anti-tumour IFNγ activity. JAK1/2 mutants further evolve into T-cell-resistant HLA class I-negative lesions with genes involved in antigen presentation silenced and no longer inducible by IFNγ. Allelic JAK1/2 losses predisposing to IFNγ resistance development are frequent in melanoma. Subclones harbouring inactivating mutations emerge under various immunotherapies but are also detectable in pre-treatment biopsies. Our data demonstrate that JAK1/2 deficiency protects melanoma from anti-tumour IFNγ activity and results in T-cell-resistant HLA class I-negative lesions. Screening for mechanisms of IFNγ resistance should be considered in therapeutic decision-making. PMID:28561041

  5. Modafinil enhances thalamocortical activity by increasing neuronal electrotonic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbano, Francisco J.; Leznik, Elena; Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    2007-01-01

    Modafinil (Provigil, Modiodal), an antinarcoleptic and mood-enhancing drug, is shown here to sharpen thalamocortical activity and to increase electrical coupling between cortical interneurons and between nerve cells in the inferior olivary nucleus. After irreversible pharmacological block of connexin permeability (i.e., by using either 18β-glycyrrhetinic derivatives or mefloquine), modafinil restored electrotonic coupling within 30 min. It was further established that this restoration is implemented through a Ca2+/calmodulin protein kinase II-dependent step. PMID:17640897

  6. Enhanced natural radiation exposure enhanced by human activity: the largest contributor to the Chinese population dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang; Liu Yanyang

    2011-01-01

    For the radiation exposure caused by human activities, the enhanced natural radiation exposure is the largest contributor to Chinese population dose. This problem has attracted social attention in recent years. Efforts have been made in several fields, such as radon indoors and in workplace, environmental problems associated with NORMs, occupational radiation hazards of non-uranium mine, and radiation dose evaluation for energy chain, but there are still many problems to be solved. In order to protect the health of workers and the public, while ensuring industrial production and economic development, it is also necessary to continue to strengthen research in all aspects above mentioned, and gradually promote the control of natural radiation exposure enhanced by human activities. (authors)

  7. Intelligent Architecture for Enhanced Observability for Active Distribution System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Nainar, Karthikeyan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    There is a rapid increase of renewable energy resources (RE) and demand response resources (DRR) in the distribution networks. This is challenging for the reliable and stable operation of the grid. So, to ensure secure, optimized and economical operation in such active distribution grids they need...... for active distribution network which satisfies the need for higher observability reach with less field observation. Improved state estimation with composite load forecasting model is aimed for enhanced observability. This paper also summarizes the application of intelligent architecture in the operation...

  8. Fermentative preparation of functional drink from Punica granatum using lactic acid bacteria and exploring its anti-tumor potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Shruthi N.; Patnaik, Amie; Srinivasan, Nandini; Selvarajan, E.; Nivetha, A.; Mohanasrinivasan, V.

    2017-11-01

    In the present research work probiotic pomegranate juice production by fermentation was carried out using two different strains such as Lactobacillus plantarum VITES07 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCIM2903 (Lactic acid bacteria). Fermented pomegranate juice was carried out at room temperature for 72h. During the fermentation period at regular intervals viable cells was determined. Efficiency of the fermented juice was analysed for 4 weeks under refrigerated condition at 4˚C. Total phenolics, sugar concentration, antioxidant potential, and antibacterial activity were determined. Organic acid concentration was determined by HPLC with retention time of a compound at 9.1 can be suspected to be Kaempferol hexoside and functional group was determined by FTIR also LCMS analysis was carried out to enumerate the chemical composition of the fermented juice.

  9. Extraction and purification of total flavonoids from pine needles of Cedrus deodara contribute to anti-tumor in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaofeng; Liu, Dongyan; Zhang, Junmin; Hu, Pengbin; Shen, Wei; Fan, Bin; Ma, Quhuan; Wang, Xindi

    2016-07-26

    Cedrus deodara is one of the traditional Chinese medicinal herbs that exhibits a line of biological activities. The current study extracted the total flavonoids from the pine needles of Cedrus deodara (TFPNCD), and investigated its anti-cancer effects in tumor cell lines. The total flavonoids was extracted from pine needles of Cedrus deodara by ethanol hot refluxing and purified by HPD722 macroporous resin. The contents of total flavonoids and the active ingredients of TFPNCD were analyzed through UV and HPLC. MTT assay was used to investigate its inhibitory effect on tumor cell lines. The flow cytometry was employed to determine the apoptosis and cell cycle distribution after treated TFPNCD on HepG2 cells. The TFPNCD, in which the contents of total flavonoid reached up to 54.28 %, and the major ingredients of myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin in TFPNCD were 1.89, 2.01, 2.94 and 1.22 mg/g, respectively. The MTT assays demonstrated that TFPNCD inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner, with the IC50 values of 114.12 μg/mL. By comparison, TFPNCD inhibited the proliferation to a less extent in human cervical carcinoma HeLa, gastric cancer MKN28 cells, glioma SHG-44 cells and lung carcinoma A549 than HepG2 cells. We found that even at the lower doses, the total flavonoids effectively inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells. Comparison of IC50 values implicated that HepG2 cells might be more sensitive to the treatment with total flavonoids. TFPNCD was able to increase the population of HepG2 cells in G0 /G1 phase. Meanwhile, TFPNCD treatment increased the percentage of apoptotic HepG2 cells. These data suggested that TFPNCD might have therapeutic potential in cancer through the regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis.

  10. Immunogenic Cell Death Induced by Ginsenoside Rg3: Significance in Dendritic Cell-based Anti-tumor Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Keum-Joo; Choi, Ki Ryung; Lee, Seog Jae; Lee, Hyunah

    2016-02-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide; therefore there is a need to discover new therapeutic modules with improved efficacy and safety. Immune-(cell) therapy is a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of intractable cancers. The effectiveness of certain chemotherapeutics in inducing immunogenic tumor cell death thus promoting cancer eradication has been reported. Ginsenoside Rg3 is a ginseng saponin that has antitumor and immunomodulatory activity. In this study, we treated tumor cells with Rg3 to verify the significance of inducing immunogenic tumor cell death in antitumor therapy, especially in DC-based immunotherapy. Rg3 killed the both immunogenic (B16F10 melanoma cells) and non-immunogenic (LLC: Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells) tumor cells by inducing apoptosis. Surface expression of immunogenic death markers including calreticulin and heat shock proteins and the transcription of relevant genes were increased in the Rg3-dying tumor. Increased calreticulin expression was directly related to the uptake of dying tumor cells by dendritic cells (DCs): the proportion of CRT(+) CD11c(+) cells was increased in the Rg3-treated group. Interestingly, tumor cells dying by immunogenic cell death secreted IFN-γ, an effector molecule for antitumor activity in T cells. Along with the Rg3-induced suppression of pro-angiogenic (TNF-α) and immunosuppressive cytokine (TGF-β) secretion, IFN-γ production from the Rg3-treated tumor cells may also indicate Rg3 as an effective anticancer immunotherapeutic strategy. The data clearly suggests that Rg3-induced immunogenic tumor cell death due its cytotoxic effect and its ability to induce DC function. This indicates that Rg3 may be an effective immunotherapeutic strategy.

  11. Mechanisms of morphine enhancement of spontaneous seizure activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboory, Ehsan; Derchansky, Miron; Ismaili, Mohammed; Jahromi, Shokrollah S; Brull, Richard; Carlen, Peter L; El Beheiry, Hossam

    2007-12-01

    High-dose opioid therapy can precipitate seizures; however, the mechanism of such a dangerous adverse effect remains poorly understood. The aim of our study was to determine whether the neuroexcitatory activity of high-dose morphine is mediated by selective stimulation of opioid receptors. Mice hippocampi were resected intact and bathed in low magnesium artificial cerebrospinal fluid to induce spontaneous seizure-like events recorded from CA1 neurons. Application of morphine had a biphasic effect on the recorded spontaneous seizure-like events. In a low concentration (10 microM), morphine depressed electrographic seizure activity. Higher morphine concentrations (30 and 100 microM) enhanced seizure activity in an apparent dose-dependent manner. Naloxone, a nonselective opiate antagonist blocked the proconvulsant action of morphine. Selective mu and kappa opiate receptor agonists and antagonists enhanced and suppressed the spontaneous seizure activity, respectively. On the contrary, delta opioid receptor ligands did not have an effect. The proseizure effect of morphine is mediated through selective stimulation of mu and kappa opiate receptors but not the activation of the delta receptor system. The observed dose-dependent mechanism of morphine neuroexcitation underscores careful adjustment and individualized opioid dosing in the clinical setting.

  12. Psychosocial Practices that Enhance Cognitive Activity in Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Lok

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The daily lives of individuals with dementia, cognitive aspects need to be strengthened in order to maintain the quality. For this reason, dementia, cognitive, psycho-social applications there is a need to increase activity. Dementia drug treatment interventions used as an aid to increase cognitive activity. These interventions, behavior, emotion, perception and stimulation-oriented approaches can be classified into four groups. Dementia cognitive enhancer activity and an older group, this intervention and dissemination practices for selecting the most appropriate method to be applied. All psychosocial practices to increase cognitive activity psychiatrist, psychiatric nurse specialists, psychologists, social workers, occupational therapists can with the condition to study the relevant therapy. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(3.000: 210-216

  13. Anti-tumor effects of Ganoderma lucidum (reishi in inflammatory breast cancer in in vivo and in vitro models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivette J Suarez-Arroyo

    Full Text Available The medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi was tested as a potential therapeutic for Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC using in vivo and in vitro IBC models. IBC is a lethal and aggressive form of breast cancer that manifests itself without a typical tumor mass. Studies show that IBC tissue biopsies overexpress E-cadherin and the eukaryotic initiation factor 4GI (eIF4GI, two proteins that are partially responsible for the unique pathological properties of this disease. IBC is treated with a multimodal approach that includes non-targeted systemic chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation. Because of its non-toxic and selective anti-cancer activity, medicinal mushroom extracts have received attention for their use in cancer therapy. Our previous studies demonstrate these selective anti-cancer effects of Reishi, where IBC cell viability and invasion, as well as the expression of key IBC molecules, including eIF4G is compromised. Thus, herein we define the mechanistic effects of Reishi focusing on the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway, a regulator of cell survival and growth. The present study demonstrates that Reishi treated IBC SUM-149 cells have reduced expression of mTOR downstream effectors at early treatment times, as we observe reduced eIF4G levels coupled with increased levels of eIF4E bound to 4E-BP, with consequential protein synthesis reduction. Severe combined immunodeficient mice injected with IBC cells treated with Reishi for 13 weeks show reduced tumor growth and weight by ∼50%, and Reishi treated tumors showed reduced expression of E-cadherin, mTOR, eIF4G, and p70S6K, and activity of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK1/2. Our results provide evidence that Reishi suppresses protein synthesis and tumor growth by affecting survival and proliferative signaling pathways that act on translation, suggesting that Reishi is a potential natural therapeutic for breast and other cancers.

  14. Dendritic-cell-based immunotherapy evokes potent anti-tumor immune responses in CD105+ human renal cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Weng, De-Sheng; Pan, Ke; Zhou, Zi-Qi; Pan, Qiu-Zhong; Zhao, Jing-Jing; Tang, Yan; Jiang, Shan-Shan; Chen, Chang-Long; Li, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Hong-Xia; Chang, Alfred E; Wicha, Max S; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Li, Qiao; Xia, Jian-Chuan

    2017-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumor initiation, progression, and resistance to therapeutic agents; they are usually less sensitive to conventional cancer therapies, and could cause tumor relapse. An ideal therapeutic strategy would therefore be to selectively target and destroy CSCs, thereby preventing tumor relapse. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with antigen derived from CD105+ human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) CSCs against renal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We identified "stem-like" characteristics of CD105+ cells in two human RCC cell lines: A498 and SK-RC-39. Loading with cell lysates did not change the characteristics of the DCs. However, DCs loaded with lysates derived from CD105+ CSCs induced more functionally specific active T cells and specific antibodies against CSCs, and clearly depressed the tumor growth in mice. Our results could form the basis for a novel strategy to improve the efficacy of DC-based immunotherapy for human RCC. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Monitoring the systemic human memory B cell compartment of melanoma patients for anti-tumor IgG antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E Gilbert

    Full Text Available Melanoma, a potentially lethal skin cancer, is widely thought to be immunogenic in nature. While there has been much focus on T cell-mediated immune responses, limited knowledge exists on the role of mature B cells. We describe an approach, including a cell-based ELISA, to evaluate mature IgG antibody responses to melanoma from human peripheral blood B cells. We observed a significant increase in antibody responses from melanoma patients (n = 10 to primary and metastatic melanoma cells compared to healthy volunteers (n = 10 (P<0.0001. Interestingly, we detected a significant reduction in antibody responses to melanoma with advancing disease stage in our patient cohort (n = 21 (P<0.0001. Overall, 28% of melanoma patient-derived B cell cultures (n = 1,800 compared to 2% of cultures from healthy controls (n = 600 produced antibodies that recognized melanoma cells. Lastly, a patient-derived melanoma-specific monoclonal antibody was selected for further study. This antibody effectively killed melanoma cells in vitro via antibody-mediated cellular cytotoxicity. These data demonstrate the presence of a mature systemic B cell response in melanoma patients, which is reduced with disease progression, adding to previous reports of tumor-reactive antibodies in patient sera, and suggesting the merit of future work to elucidate the clinical relevance of activating humoral immune responses to cancer.

  16. Monitoring the Systemic Human Memory B Cell Compartment of Melanoma Patients for Anti-Tumor IgG Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Amy E.; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Dodev, Tihomir; Koers, Alexander; Lacy, Katie; Josephs, Debra H.; Takhar, Pooja; Geh, Jenny L. C.; Healy, Ciaran; Harries, Mark; Acland, Katharine M.; Rudman, Sarah M.; Beavil, Rebecca L.; Blower, Philip J.; Beavil, Andrew J.; Gould, Hannah J.; Spicer, James; Nestle, Frank O.; Karagiannis, Sophia N.

    2011-01-01

    Melanoma, a potentially lethal skin cancer, is widely thought to be immunogenic in nature. While there has been much focus on T cell-mediated immune responses, limited knowledge exists on the role of mature B cells. We describe an approach, including a cell-based ELISA, to evaluate mature IgG antibody responses to melanoma from human peripheral blood B cells. We observed a significant increase in antibody responses from melanoma patients (n = 10) to primary and metastatic melanoma cells compared to healthy volunteers (n = 10) (P<0.0001). Interestingly, we detected a significant reduction in antibody responses to melanoma with advancing disease stage in our patient cohort (n = 21) (P<0.0001). Overall, 28% of melanoma patient-derived B cell cultures (n = 1,800) compared to 2% of cultures from healthy controls (n = 600) produced antibodies that recognized melanoma cells. Lastly, a patient-derived melanoma-specific monoclonal antibody was selected for further study. This antibody effectively killed melanoma cells in vitro via antibody-mediated cellular cytotoxicity. These data demonstrate the presence of a mature systemic B cell response in melanoma patients, which is reduced with disease progression, adding to previous reports of tumor-reactive antibodies in patient sera, and suggesting the merit of future work to elucidate the clinical relevance of activating humoral immune responses to cancer. PMID:21559411

  17. Sulfamic and succinic acid derivatives of 25-OH-PPD and their activities to MCF-7, A-549, HCT-116, and BGC-823 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wu-Xi; Cao, Jia-Qing; Wang, Xu-De; Guo, Jun-Hui; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2017-02-15

    In the search for new anti-tumor agents with higher potency than our previously identified compound 1 (25-OH-PPD, 25-hydroxyprotopanaxadiol), 12 novel sulfamic and succinic acid derivatives that could improve water solubility and contribute to good drug potency and pharmacokinetic profiles were designed and synthesized. Their in vitro anti-tumor activities in MCF-7, A-549, HCT-116, and BGC-823 cell lines and one normal cell line were tested by standard MTT assay. Results showed that compared with compound 1, compounds 2, 3, and 7 exhibited higher cytotoxic activity on A-549 and BGC-823 cell lines, together with lower toxicity in the normal cell. In particular, compound 2 exhibited the best anti-tumor activity in the in vitro assays, which may provide valuable data for the research and development of new anti-tumor agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of an anti-tumor necrosis factor therapeutic in a mouse model of Niemann-Pick C liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Vincent

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick type C (NPC disease is a lysosomal storage disease characterized by the accumulation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids. The majority of NPC patients die in their teen years due to progressive neurodegeneration; however, half of NPC patients also suffer from cholestasis, prolonged jaundice, and hepatosplenomegaly. We previously showed that a key mediator of NPC liver disease is tumor necrosis factor (TNF α, which is involved in both proinflammatory and apoptotic signaling cascades. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that blocking TNF action with an anti-TNF monoclonal antibody (CNTO5048 will slow the progression of NPC liver disease.Treatment of wild-type C57BL/6 mice with NPC1-specific antisense oligonucleotides led to knockdown of NPC1 protein expression in the liver. This caused classical symptoms of NPC liver disease, including hepatic cholesterol accumulation, hepatomegaly, elevated serum liver enzymes, and lipid laden macrophage accumulation. In addition, there was a significant increase in the number of apoptotic cells and a proliferation of stellate cells. Concurrent treatment of NPC1 knockdown mice with anti-TNF had no effect on the primary lipid storage or accumulation of lipid-laden macrophages. However, anti-TNF treatment slightly blunted the increase in hepatic apoptosis and stellate cell activation that was seen with NPC1 knockdown.Current therapeutic options for NPC disease are limited. Our results provide proof of principle that pharmacologically blocking the TNF-α inflammatory cascade can slightly reduce certain markers of NPC disease. Small molecule inhibitors of TNF that penetrate tissues and cross the blood-brain barrier may prove even more beneficial.

  19. A new anti-tumor strategy based on in vivo tumstatin overexpression after plasmid electrotransfer in muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thevenard, Jessica, E-mail: jessica.thevenard@univ-reims.fr [FRE CNRS/URCA 3481, University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 51 rue Cognacq Jay, F-51095 Reims (France); Ramont, Laurent, E-mail: lramont@chu-reims.fr [FRE CNRS/URCA 3481, University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 51 rue Cognacq Jay, F-51095 Reims (France); CHU de Reims, Avenue du Général Koenig, F-51092 Reims (France); Mir, Lluis M., E-mail: luis.mir@igr.fr [CNRS, UMR 8203, Institut Gustave Roussy, 114, Rue Edouard Vaillant, F-94805 Villejuif Cedex (France); Université Paris-Sud, UMR 8203, Institut Gustave Roussy, 114, Rue Edouard Vaillant, F-94405 Orsay Cedex (France); Dupont-Deshorgue, Aurélie, E-mail: aurelie.dupont@univ-reims.fr [FRE CNRS/URCA 3481, University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 51 rue Cognacq Jay, F-51095 Reims (France); Maquart, François-Xavier, E-mail: fmaquart@chu-reims.fr [FRE CNRS/URCA 3481, University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 51 rue Cognacq Jay, F-51095 Reims (France); CHU de Reims, Avenue du Général Koenig, F-51092 Reims (France); Monboisse, Jean-Claude, E-mail: jc.monboisse@univ-reims.fr [FRE CNRS/URCA 3481, University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 51 rue Cognacq Jay, F-51095 Reims (France); CHU de Reims, Avenue du Général Koenig, F-51092 Reims (France); Brassart-Pasco, Sylvie, E-mail: sylvie.brassart-pasco@univ-reims.fr [FRE CNRS/URCA 3481, University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne, 51 rue Cognacq Jay, F-51095 Reims (France)

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► A new therapeutic strategy based on tumstatin in vivo overexpression is proposed. ► pVAX1©–tumstatin electrotransfer in muscle mediates protein expression in muscle. ► A substantial expression of tumstatin is detected in the serum of electrotransfected mice. ► Tumstatin overexpression decreases tumor growth and increases mouse survival. -- Abstract: The NC1 domains from the different α(IV) collagen chains were found to exert anti-tumorigenic and/or anti-angiogenic activities. A limitation to the therapeutic use of these matrikines is the large amount of purified recombinant proteins, in the milligram range in mice that should be administered daily throughout the experimental procedures. In the current study, we developed a new therapeutic approach based on tumstatin (NC1α3(IV)) overexpression in vivo in a mouse melanoma model. Gene electrotransfer of naked plasmid DNA (pDNA) is particularly attractive because of its simplicity, its lack of immune responsiveness and its safety. The pDNA electrotransfer in muscle mediates a substantial gene expression that lasts several months. A pVAX1© vector containing the tumstatin cDNA was injected into the legs of C57BL/6 mice and submitted to electrotranfer. Sera were collected at different times and tumstatin was quantified by ELISA. Tumstatin secretion reached a plateau at day 21 with an expression level of 12 μg/mL. For testing the effects of tumstatin expression on tumor growth in vivo, B16F1 melanoma cells were subcutaneously injected in mice 7 days after empty pVAX1© (Mock) or pVAX1©–tumstatin electrotransfer. Tumstatin expression triggered a large decrease in tumor growth and an increase in mouse survival. This new therapeutic approach seems promising to inhibit tumor progression in vivo.

  20. Anti-tumor necrosis factor treatment in cherubism--clinical, radiological and histological findings in two children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hero, M; Suomalainen, A; Hagström, J; Stoor, P; Kontio, R; Alapulli, H; Arte, S; Toiviainen-Salo, S; Lahdenne, P; Mäkitie, O

    2013-01-01

    Cherubism is a rare and disfiguring genetic disorder with excessive bone resorption and multilocular lesions in the mandible and/or maxilla. The disease-causing gain-of-function mutations in the SH3-binding protein 2 (SH3BP2) gene result in increased myeloid cell responses to macrophage colony stimulating factor and RANK ligand, formation of hyperactive osteoclasts (giant cells), and hyper-reactive macrophages that produce excessive amounts of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Recent findings in the cherubism mouse model suggest that TNF-α plays a major role in disease pathogenesis and that removal of TNF-α prevents development of the bone phenotype. We treated two children with cherubism with the TNF-α antagonist adalimumab for approximately 2.5 years and collected extensive clinical, radiological and histological follow-up data during the treatment. Histologically the treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the number of multinucleated giant cells and TNF-α staining positivity in both patients. As evaluated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, the lesions in Patient 1 showed either moderate enlargement (mandibular symphysis) or remained stable (mandibular rami and body, the maxilla). In Patient 2, the lesions in mandibular symphysis showed enlargement during the first 8 months of treatment, and thereafter the lesions remained unchanged. Bone formation and resorption markers remained unaffected. The treatment was well tolerated. Based on our findings, TNF-α antagonist may decrease the formation of pathogenic giant cells, but does not result in lesion regression or prevent lesion expansion in active cherubism. TNF-α modulator treatment thus does not appear to provide sufficient amelioration for patients suffering from cherubism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A new anti-tumor strategy based on in vivo tumstatin overexpression after plasmid electrotransfer in muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thevenard, Jessica; Ramont, Laurent; Mir, Lluis M.; Dupont-Deshorgue, Aurélie; Maquart, François-Xavier; Monboisse, Jean-Claude; Brassart-Pasco, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new therapeutic strategy based on tumstatin in vivo overexpression is proposed. ► pVAX1©–tumstatin electrotransfer in muscle mediates protein expression in muscle. ► A substantial expression of tumstatin is detected in the serum of electrotransfected mice. ► Tumstatin overexpression decreases tumor growth and increases mouse survival. -- Abstract: The NC1 domains from the different α(IV) collagen chains were found to exert anti-tumorigenic and/or anti-angiogenic activities. A limitation to the therapeutic use of these matrikines is the large amount of purified recombinant proteins, in the milligram range in mice that should be administered daily throughout the experimental procedures. In the current study, we developed a new therapeutic approach based on tumstatin (NC1α3(IV)) overexpression in vivo in a mouse melanoma model. Gene electrotransfer of naked plasmid DNA (pDNA) is particularly attractive because of its simplicity, its lack of immune responsiveness and its safety. The pDNA electrotransfer in muscle mediates a substantial gene expression that lasts several months. A pVAX1© vector containing the tumstatin cDNA was injected into the legs of C57BL/6 mice and submitted to electrotranfer. Sera were collected at different times and tumstatin was quantified by ELISA. Tumstatin secretion reached a plateau at day 21 with an expression level of 12 μg/mL. For testing the effects of tumstatin expression on tumor growth in vivo, B16F1 melanoma cells were subcutaneously injected in mice 7 days after empty pVAX1© (Mock) or pVAX1©–tumstatin electrotransfer. Tumstatin expression triggered a large decrease in tumor growth and an increase in mouse survival. This new therapeutic approach seems promising to inhibit tumor progression in vivo

  2. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α mediates the toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway leading to anti-tumor effects in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells under hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Li, Shuchen; Li, Mingrong; Huang, Haiying; Li, Jingyuan; Zhou, Changwei

    2016-08-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) are involved in numerous mechanisms of cancer biology, including cell proliferation and survival; however the interaction of the two factors under hypoxic conditions remains unclear. The present study investigated the in vitro mechanism that results in the suppression of tumor cell growth and cellular functions when HIF-1α is silenced. In the present study, the human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line was transfected with short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against HIF-1α and cultured under hypoxic conditions (1% O 2 for 24 h). The expression of HIF-1α and various growth factors, including epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), were examined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting. Tumor growth was measured using a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and tumor activity was measured using tumor cell invasion and migration assays. Lipopolysaccharide and TAK-242 were used to activate and inhibit TLR4, respectively, to observe the role of TLR4 in the HIF-1α silenced tumor cells. The expression of TLR4 signaling pathway associates, including myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases and HIF-1α, were analyzed by western blot assay. Under hypoxic conditions, silencing of HIF-1α expression suppressed tumor cell growth and regulated the expression of tumor growth-associated genes, including EGF, HGF, VEGF and FG2. Suppression of tumor cell invasion and migration was also observed in the HIF-1α silenced HepG2 cell line. In addition, TLR4 was identified to be involved in HIF-1α and MyD88 accumulation, and activation of ASK1 and p38 were demonstrated to be critical for TLR4-mediated HIF-1α pathway. In conclusion, silencing of HIF-1α expression may induce anti-tumor effects under hypoxic

  3. Thrombopoietin contributes to enhanced platelet activation in cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupia, Enrico; Bosco, Ornella; Goffi, Alberto; Poletto, Cesare; Locatelli, Stefania; Spatola, Tiziana; Cuccurullo, Alessandra; Montrucchio, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) is a humoral growth factor that primes platelet activation in response to several agonists. We recently showed that TPO enhances platelet activation in unstable angina and sepsis. Aim of this study was to investigate the role of TPO in platelet function abnormalities described in cigarette smokers. In a case-control study we enrolled 20 healthy cigarette smokers and 20 nonsmokers, and measured TPO and C-reactive protein (CRP), as well as platelet-leukocyte binding and P-selectin expression. In vitro we evaluated the priming activity of smoker or control plasma on platelet activation, and the role of TPO in this effect. We then studied the effects of acute smoking and smoking cessation on TPO levels and platelet activation indices. Chronic cigarette smokers had higher circulating TPO levels than nonsmoking controls, as well as increased platelet-leukocyte binding, P-selectin expression, and CRP levels. Serum cotinine concentrations correlated with TPO concentrations, platelet-monocyte aggregates and P-selectin expression. In addition, TPO levels significantly correlated with ex vivo platelet-monocyte aggregation and P-selectin expression. In vitro, the plasma from cigarette smokers, but not from nonsmoking controls, primed platelet-monocyte binding, which was reduced when an inhibitor of TPO was used. We also found that acute smoking slightly increased TPO levels, but did not affect platelet-leukocyte binding, whereas smoking cessation induced a significant decrease in both circulating TPO and platelet-leukocyte aggregation. Elevated TPO contributes to enhance platelet activation and platelet-monocyte cross-talk in cigarette smokers. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Current evidence of anti-tumor necrosis factor α treatment efficacy in childhood chronic uveitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis approach of individual drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonini, Gabriele; Druce, Katie; Cimaz, Rolando; Macfarlane, Gary J; Jones, Gareth T

    2014-07-01

    To summarize evidence regarding the effectiveness of anti-tumor necrosis factor α (anti-TNFα) treatments in childhood autoimmune chronic uveitis (ACU), refractory to previous disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). A systematic search between January 2000 and October 2012 was conducted using EMBase, Ovid Medline, Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) Reviews: American College of Physicians Journal Club, Cochrane libraries, and EBM Reviews. Studies investigating the efficacy of anti-TNFα therapy, in children ages ≤16 years, as the first treatment with a biologic agent for ACU, refractory to topical and/or systemic steroid therapy and at least 1 DMARD, were eligible for inclusion. The primary outcome measure was the improvement of intraocular inflammation, as defined by the Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature Working Group criteria. We determined a combined estimate of the proportion of children responding to anti-TNFα treatment, including etanercept (ETA), infliximab (INF), or adalimumab (ADA). We initially identified 989 articles, of which 148 were potentially eligible. In total, 22 retrospective chart reviews and 1 randomized clinical trial were deemed eligible, thus including 229 children (ADA: n = 31, ETA: n = 54, and INF: n = 144). On pooled analysis of observational studies, the proportion of responding children was 87% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 75-98%) for ADA, 72% (95% CI 64-79%) for INF, and 33% (95% CI 19-47%) for ETA. There was no difference in the proportion of responders between ADA and INF (χ(2) = 3.06, P = 0.08), although both showed superior efficacy compared with ETA (ADA versus ETA: χ(2) = 20.9, P < 0.001 and INF versus ETA: χ(2) = 20.9, P < 0.001). Although randomized controlled trials are needed, the available evidence suggests that INF and ADA provide proven similar benefits in the treatment of childhood ACU, and they are both superior to ETA. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  5. Changes of serum endocrine hormone levels in patients with cancerrelated fatigue and their correlation with anti-tumor immune response and tumor load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the changes of serum endocrine hormone levels in patients with cancerrelated fatigue (CRF and their correlation with anti-tumor immune response and tumor load. Methods: A total of 137 patients who were diagnosed with primary lung cancer in West China Hospital, Sichuan University between June 2014 and November 2016 were selected and then divided into CRF group and control group according to their self-reported symptoms, serum was collected to determine the levels of endocrine hormones and tumor markers, and peripheral blood was collected to detect the levels of immune cells. Results: Serum ACTH and TSH levels of CRF group were significantly higher than those of control group while Cor, FT3 and FT4 levels were significantly lower than those of control group; peripheral blood CD11b+ CD15 - CD33+ CD14+ M-MDSC, CD11b+ CD15-CD33+ CD14- G-MDSC, CD4+ CD25+ CD127lowTreg and CD19+ CD5+ CD1d+ Breg levels as well as serum CEA, Cyfra21-1, SCC-Ag, HE4, GDF- 15 and PCNA levels of CRF group were significantly higher than those of control group, positively correlated with serum ACTH and TSH levels, and negatively correlated with Cor, FT3 and FT4 levels. Conclusion: The changes of thyroid hormone and adrenal cortical hormone levels in patients with cancer-related fatigue are closely related to the inhibited antitumor immune response and increased tumor load.

  6. The anti-tumor histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA and the natural flavonoid curcumin exhibit synergistic neuroprotection against amyloid-beta toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Meng

    Full Text Available With the trend of an increasing aged population worldwide, Alzheimer's disease (AD, an age-related neurodegenerative disorder, as one of the major causes of dementia in elderly people is of growing concern. Despite the many hard efforts attempted during the past several decades in trying to elucidate the pathological mechanisms underlying AD and putting forward potential therapeutic strategies, there is still a lack of effective treatments for AD. The efficacy of many potential therapeutic drugs for AD is of main concern in clinical practice. For example, large bodies of evidence show that the anti-tumor histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor, suberoylanilidehydroxamic acid (SAHA, may be of benefit for the treatment of AD; however, its extensive inhibition of HDACs makes it a poor therapeutic. Moreover, the natural flavonoid, curcumin, may also have a potential therapeutic benefit against AD; however, it is plagued by low bioavailability. Therefore, the integrative effects of SAHA and curcumin were investigated as a protection against amyloid-beta neurotoxicity in vitro. We hypothesized that at low doses their synergistic effect would improve therapeutic selectivity, based on experiments that showed that at low concentrations SAHA and curcumin could provide comprehensive protection against Aβ25-35-induced neuronal damage in PC12 cells, strongly implying potent synergism. Furthermore, network analysis suggested that the possible mechanism underlying their synergistic action might be derived from restoration of the damaged functional link between Akt and the CBP/p300 pathway, which plays a crucial role in the pathological development of AD. Thus, our findings provided a feasible avenue for the application of a synergistic drug combination, SAHA and curcumin, in the treatment of AD.

  7. Liver myeloid-derived suppressor cells expand in response to liver metastases in mice and inhibit the anti-tumor efficacy of anti-CEA CAR-T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burga, Rachel A.; Thorn, Mitchell; Point, Gary R.; Guha, Prajna; Nguyen, Cang T.; Licata, Lauren A.; DeMatteo, Ronald P.; Ayala, Alfred; Espat, N. Joseph; Junghans, Richard P.; Katz, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor modified T cell (CAR-T) technology, a promising immunotherapeutic tool, has not been applied specifically to treat liver metastases (LM). While CAR-T delivery to LM can be optimized by regional intrahepatic infusion, we propose that liver CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (L-MDSC) will inhibit the efficacy of CAR-T in the intrahepatic space. We studied anti-CEA CAR-T in a murine model of CEA+ LM and identified mechanisms through which L-MDSC expand and inhibit CAR-T function. We established CEA+ LM in mice and studied purified L-MDSC and responses to treatment with intrahepatic anti-CEA CAR-T infusions. L-MDSC expanded three-fold in response to LM and their expansion was dependent on GM-CSF, which was produced by tumor cells. L-MDSC utilized PD-L1 to suppress anti-tumor responses through engagement of PD-1 on CAR-T. GM-CSF, in cooperation with STAT3, promoted L-MDSC PD-L1 expression. CAR-T efficacy was rescued when mice received CAR-T in combination with MDSC depletion, GM-CSF neutralization to prevent MDSC expansion, or PD-L1 blockade. As L-MDSC suppressed anti-CEA CAR-T, infusion of anti-CEA CAR-T in tandem with agents targeting L-MDSC is a rational strategy for future clinical trials. PMID:25850344

  8. Anti-tumor effects of ONC201 in combination with VEGF-inhibitors significantly impacts colorectal cancer growth and survival in vivo through complementary non-overlapping mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jessica; Kline, C Leah; Zhou, Lanlan; Khazak, Vladimir; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2018-01-22

    Small molecule ONC201 is an investigational anti-tumor agent that upregulates intra-tumoral TRAIL expression and the integrated stress response pathway. A Phase I clinical trial using ONC201 therapy in advanced cancer patients has been completed and the drug has progressed into Phase II trials in several cancer types. Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains one of the leading causes of cancer worldwide and metastatic disease has a poor prognosis. Clinical trials in CRC and other tumor types have demonstrated that therapeutics targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway, such as bevacizumab, are effective in combination with certain chemotherapeutic agents. We investigated the potential combination of VEGF inhibitors such as bevacizumab and its murine-counterpart; along with other anti-angiogenic agents and ONC201 in both CRC xenograft and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. We utilized non-invasive imaging and immunohistochemistry to determine potential mechanisms of action. Our results demonstrate significant tumor regression or complete tumor ablation in human xenografts with the combination of ONC201 with bevacizumab, and in syngeneic MC38 colorectal cancer xenografts using a murine VEGF-A inhibitor. Imaging demonstrated the impact of this combination on decreasing tumor growth and tumor metastasis. Our results indicate that ONC201 and anti-angiogenic agents act through distinct mechanisms while increasing tumor cell death and inhibiting proliferation. With the use of both a murine VEGF inhibitor in syngeneic models, and bevacizumab in human cell line-derived xenografts, we demonstrate that ONC201 in combination with anti-angiogenic therapies such as bevacizumab represents a promising approach for further testing in the clinic for the treatment of CRC.

  9. How should immunomodulators be optimized when used as combination therapy with anti-tumor necrosis factor agents in the management of inflammatory bowel disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Mark G; Irving, Peter M; Sparrow, Miles P

    2015-10-28

    In the last 15 years the management of inflammatory bowel disease has evolved greatly, largely through the increased use of immunomodulators and, especially, anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) biologic agents. Within this time period, confidence in the use of anti-TNFs has increased, whilst, especially in recent years, the efficacy and safety of thiopurines has been questioned. Yet despite recent concerns regarding the risk: benefit profile of thiopurines, combination therapy with an immunomodulator and an anti-TNF has emerged as the recommended treatment strategy for the majority of patients with moderate-severe disease, especially those who are recently diagnosed. Concurrently, therapeutic drug monitoring has emerged as a means of optimizing the dosage of both immunomodulators and anti-TNFs. However the recommended therapeutic target levels for both drug classes were largely derived from studies of monotherapy with either agent, or studies underpowered to analyze outcomes in combination therapy patients. It has been assumed that these target levels are applicable to patients on combination therapy also, however there are few data to support this. Similarly, the timing and duration of treatment with immunomodulators when used in combination therapy remains unknown. Recent attention, including post hoc analyses of the pivotal registration trials, has focused on the optimization of anti-TNF agents, when used as either monotherapy or combination therapy. This review will instead focus on how best to optimize immunomodulators when used in combination therapy, including an evaluation of recent data addressing unanswered questions regarding the optimal timing, dosage and duration of immunomodulator therapy in combination therapy patients.

  10. Chicago section activities to enhance public acceptance of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, T.L.; Keffer, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The Chicago section of the American Nuclear Society (ANS) is an active organization with ∼450 members. The local section territory encompasses northern Illinois and includes in its territory all six of Commonwealth Edison Company's (CECo's) nuclear generating stations as well as Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Included in the territory are several large engineering firms - ABB Impell, Bechtel, Fluor Daniel, and Sargent ampersand Lundy. The national headquarters of the ANS is also located within the local section boundaries. All these organizations are represented in the local section membership and provide access to abundant technical resources that can be used to enhance public acceptance of nuclear power. An important attribute of any local section that enables it to perform interesting programs and be active in the community is its financial resources. The Chicago section has a strong financial base because of its ability to raise funds by participating in and sponsoring ANS topical and other meetings. For instance, in 1991, they sponsored and were actively involved in the Emergency Preparedness Topical Meeting held in Chicago. In 1992, they were actively involved in sponsoring the organizational activities of the ANS/ENS International Meeting, which will celebrate the 50th year of nuclear fission. The financial and technical resources of the Chicago section continue to contribute to a successful program of public education and public acceptance activities regarding the nuclear industry

  11. Enhancement of DNA polymerase activity in potato tuber slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Akira; Imaseki, Hidemasa

    1977-01-01

    DNA polymerase was extracted from potato (Soleum tuberosum L.) tuber discs and the temporal correlation of its activity change to DNA synthesis in vivo was examined during aging of the discs. Most of the DNA polymerase was recovered as a bound form in the 18,000 x g precipitate. Reaction with the bound-form enzyme was dependent on the presence of four deoxynucleoside triphosphates, Mg 2+ , and a template. ''Activated'' DNA and heat-denatured DNA, but not native DNA, were utilized as templates. The polymerase activity was sensitive to SH reagents. Fresh discs, which do not synthesize DNA in vivo, contained a significant amount of DNA polymerase and its activity increased linearly with time until 48 hr after slicing and became four times that of fresh discs after 72 hr, whereas the activity of DNA synthesis in vivo increased with time and decreased after reaching a maximum at 30 hr. Cycloheximide inhibited the enhancement of polymerase activity. DNA polymerase from aged and fresh discs had identical requirements for deoxynucleotides and a template in their reactions, sensitivity to SH reagent, and affinity to thymidine triphosphate. (auth.)

  12. Resonance Raman Optical Activity and Surface Enhanced Resonance Raman Optical Activity analysis of Cytochrome C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Christian; Abdali, Salim; White, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    High quality Resonance Raman (RR) and resonance Raman Optical Activity (ROA) spectra of cytochrome c were obtained in order to perform full assignment of spectral features of the resonance ROA spectrum. The resonance ROA spectrum of cytochrome c revealed a distinct spectral signature pattern due...... to resonance enhanced skeletal porphyrin vibrations, more pronounced than any contribution from the protein back-bone. Combining the intrinsic resonance enhancement of cytochrome c with surface plasmon enhancement by colloidal silver particles, the Surface Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering (SERRS) and Chiral...... Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (ChERS) spectra of the protein were successfully obtained at very low concentration (as low as 1 µM). The assignment of spectral features was based on the information obtained from the RR and resonance ROA spectra. Excellent agreement between RR and SERRS spectra is reported...

  13. Psychosocial Pain Management Moderation: The Limit, Activate, and Enhance Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Melissa A; Ehde, Dawn M; Jensen, Mark P

    2015-10-01

    There is a growing emphasis in the pain literature on understanding the following second-order research questions: Why do psychosocial pain treatments work? For whom do various treatments work? This critical review summarizes research that addresses the latter question and proposes a moderation model to help guide future research. A theoretical moderation framework for matching individuals to specific psychosocial pain interventions has been lacking. However, several such frameworks have been proposed in the broad psychotherapy and implementation science literature. Drawing on these theories and adapting them specifically for psychosocial pain treatment, here we propose a Limit, Activate, and Enhance model of pain treatment moderation. This model is unique in that it includes algorithms not only for matching treatments on the basis of patient weaknesses but also for directing patients to interventions that build on their strengths. Critically, this model provides a basis for specific a priori hypothesis generation, and a selection of the possible hypotheses drawn from the model are proposed and discussed. Future research considerations are presented that could refine and expand the model based on theoretically driven empirical evidence. The Limit, Activate, and Enhance model presented here is a theoretically derived framework that provides an a priori basis for hypothesis generation regarding psychosocial pain treatment moderators. The model will advance moderation research via its unique focus on matching patients to specific treatments that (1) limit maladaptive responses, (2) activate adaptive responses, and (3) enhance treatment outcomes based on patient strengths and resources. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hyperbaric Oxygen Environment Can Enhance Brain Activity and Multitasking Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dor Vadas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Brain uses 20% of the total oxygen supply consumed by the entire body. Even though, <10% of the brain is active at any given time, it utilizes almost all the oxygen delivered. In order to perform complex tasks or more than one task (multitasking, the oxygen supply is shifted from one brain region to another, via blood perfusion modulation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether a hyperbaric oxygen (HBO environment, with increased oxygen supply to the brain, will enhance the performance of complex and/or multiple activities.Methods: A prospective, double-blind randomized control, crossover trial including 22 healthy volunteers. Participants were asked to perform a cognitive task, a motor task and a simultaneous cognitive-motor task (multitasking. Participants were randomized to perform the tasks in two environments: (a normobaric air (1 ATA 21% oxygen (b HBO (2 ATA 100% oxygen. Two weeks later participants were crossed to the alternative environment. Blinding of the normobaric environment was achieved in the same chamber with masks on while hyperbaric sensation was simulated by increasing pressure in the first minute and gradually decreasing to normobaric environment prior to tasks performance.Results: Compared to the performance at normobaric conditions, both cognitive and motor single tasks scores were significantly enhanced by HBO environment (p < 0.001 for both. Multitasking performance was also significantly enhanced in HBO environment (p = 0.006 for the cognitive part and p = 0.02 for the motor part.Conclusions: The improvement in performance of both single and multi-tasking while in an HBO environment supports the hypothesis which according to, oxygen is indeed a rate limiting factor for brain activity. Hyperbaric oxygenation can serve as an environment for brain performance. Further studies are needed to evaluate the optimal oxygen levels for maximal brain performance.

  15. Gene activation regresses atherosclerosis, promotes health, and enhances longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luoma Pauli V

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifestyle factors and pharmacological compounds activate genetic mechanisms that influence the development of atherosclerotic and other diseases. This article reviews studies on natural and pharmacological gene activation that promotes health and enhances longevity. Results Living habits including healthy diet and regular physical activity, and pharmacotherapy, upregulate genes encoding enzymes and apolipoprotein and ATP-binding cassette transporters, acting in metabolic processes that promote health and increase survival. Cytochrome P450-enzymes, physiological factors in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis, generate oxysterols for the elimination of surplus cholesterol. Hepatic CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase-α is an important regulator of plasma HDL-C level. Gene-activators produce plasma lipoprotein profile, high HDL-C, HDL2-C and HDL-C/cholesterol ratio, which is typical of low risk of atherosclerotic disease, and also of exceptional longevity together with reduced prevalence of cardiovascular, metabolic and other diseases. High HDL contributes to protection against inflammation, oxidation and thrombosis, and associates with good cognitive function in very old people. Avoiding unhealthy stress and managing it properly promotes health and increases life expectancy. Conclusions Healthy living habits and gene-activating xenobiotics upregulate mechanisms that produce lipoprotein pattern typical of very old people and enhance longevity. Lipoprotein metabolism and large HDL2 associate with the process of living a very long life. Major future goals for health promotion are the improving of commitment to both wise lifestyle choices and drug therapy, and further the developing of new and more effective and well tolerated drugs and treatments.

  16. Synthesis and pharmacological activity evaluation of arctigenin monoester derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiulian; Yang, Limin; Han, Mei; Cai, Enbo; Zhao, Yan

    2016-12-01

    Arctigenin (ARG), a nature medicine with many pharmacological activities, was poorly soluble in water and placed restriction on practical usage. Six novel arctigenin monoester derivatives were obtained from the reflux reaction with arctigenin, carboxylic acids (crotonic acid, furoic acid, 2-naphthalene acid and indol-3-acetic acid), EDCI and DMAP in dichloromethane at 60°C for 4-6h and their properties on nitrite scavenging assay were investigated in vitro. Based on the results, the one of the most effective derivatives, arctigenin β-indolylacetate (ARG6), was selected to study anti-tumor activity in vivo at doses of 20 and 40mg/kg. The results showed that comparison with ARG group, ARG6 exhibited more anti-tumor activity in H22 tumor-bearing mice. Furthermore, ARG6 exhibited less damage to the liver, kidney, spleen and thymus when compared with those in positive group. Biochemical parameters of ALT, AST, BUN and Cre showed ARG6 had little toxicity to mice as well. ARG6 significantly improved serum cytokine levels of IL-2, IL-6, IFN-γ and TNF-α, and decreased VEGF compared with ARG. Moreover, H & E staining, TUNEL assay and immunohistochemical of tumor issues also indicated that ARG6 exhibited anti-tumor activity in vivo. In brief, the present study provide a method to improve ARG anti-tumor activity and provide a reference for new anti-tumor agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychopaths show enhanced amygdala activation during fear conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas eSchultz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by emotional deficits and a failure to inhibit impulsive behavior and is often subdivided into primary and secondary psychopathic subtypes. The maladaptive behavior related to primary psychopathy is thought to reflect constitutional fearlessness, while the problematic behavior related to secondary psychopathy is motivated by other factors. The fearlessness observed in psychopathy has often been interpreted as reflecting a fundamental deficit in amygdala function, and previous studies have provided support for a low-fear model of psychopathy. However, many of these studies fail to use appropriate screening procedures, use liberal inclusion criteria, or have used unconventional approaches to assay amygdala function. We measured brain activity with BOLD imaging in primary and secondary psychopaths and non-psychopathic control subjects during Pavlovian fear conditioning. In contrast to the low-fear model, we observed normal fear expression in primary psychopaths. Psychopaths also displayed greater differential BOLD activity in the amygdala relative to matched controls. Inverse patterns of activity were observed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC for primary versus secondary psychopaths. Primary psychopaths exhibited a pattern of activity in the dorsal and ventral ACC consistent with enhanced fear expression, while secondary psychopaths exhibited a pattern of activity in these regions consistent with fear inhibition. These results contradict the low-fear model of psychopathy and suggest that the low fear observed for psychopaths in previous studies may be specific to secondary psychopaths.

  18. Enhancement of activated sludge disintegration and dewaterability by Fenton process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, G. C.; Isa, M. H.

    2016-06-01

    Municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants produce large amounts of sludge. This excess sludge is an inevitable drawback inherent to the activated sludge process. In this study, the waste activated sludge was obtained from the campus wastewater treatment plant at Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), Malaysia. Fenton pretreatment was optimized by using the response surface methodology (RSM) to study the effects of three operating conditions including the dosage of H2O2 (g H2O2/kg TS), the molar ratio of H2O2/Fe2+ and reaction time. The optimum operating variables to achieve MLVSS removal 65%, CST reduction 28%, sCOD 11000 mg/L and EPS 500 mg/L were: 1000 g H2O2/kg TS, H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio 70 and reaction time 45 min. Fenton process was proved to be able to enhance the sludge disintegration and dewaterability.

  19. MWCNT/CdS hybrid nanocomposite for enhanced photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, Deepti; Khare, Neeraj; Vankar, V. D.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)/CdS hybrid nanocomposite were synthesized by one step hydrothermal method. MWCNTs were used as a substrate for the growth of CdS nanoparticles. MWCNT/CdS nanocomposite and pure CdS were characterized by XRD, TEM, UV-vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy. HRTEM study confirms the intimate contact of CdS with MWCNT. The photocatalytic activity of nanocomposite was studied for the degradation of methylene blue dye under UV irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of MWCNT/CdS nanocomposite as compared to pure CdS has been attributed to reduced recombination of photogenerated charge carriers due to interfacial electron transfer from CdS to MWCNT.

  20. Gamma irradiation enhances biological activities of mulberry leaf extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Byoung-Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Yin, Hong-Hua; Jang, Seon-Il

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of irradiation on the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and whitening effects of mulberry leaf extract. This was done by comparing the phenolic contents; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effects; 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) (ABTS) radical scavenging effects; in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects and the production of IL-6, TNF-α, PGE 2 , and NO in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated HMC-1 cells, respectively. The results showed that irradiated mulberry leaf extract possesses more anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activities than their non-irradiated counterpart, probably due to increase in phenolic contents induced by gamma irradiation at dose of 10kGy. This research stresses on the importance of irradiation in functional foods. - Highlights: • Gamma-irradiated mulberry leaf extract enhanced in vitro antioxidant activities. • Gamma-irradiated mulberry leaf extract enhanced in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects. • Gamma-irradiated mulberry leaf extract treatment reduced the production of IL-6, TNF-α, PGE 2 , and NO.

  1. Silver enhances antibiotic activity against gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morones-Ramirez, J Ruben; Winkler, Jonathan A; Spina, Catherine S; Collins, James J

    2013-06-19

    A declining pipeline of clinically useful antibiotics has made it imperative to develop more effective antimicrobial therapies, particularly against difficult-to-treat Gram-negative pathogens. Silver has been used as an antimicrobial since antiquity, yet its mechanism of action remains unclear. We show that silver disrupts multiple bacterial cellular processes, including disulfide bond formation, metabolism, and iron homeostasis. These changes lead to increased production of reactive oxygen species and increased membrane permeability of Gram-negative bacteria that can potentiate the activity of a broad range of antibiotics against Gram-negative bacteria in different metabolic states, as well as restore antibiotic susceptibility to a resistant bacterial strain. We show both in vitro and in a mouse model of urinary tract infection that the ability of silver to induce oxidative stress can be harnessed to potentiate antibiotic activity. Additionally, we demonstrate in vitro and in two different mouse models of peritonitis that silver sensitizes Gram-negative bacteria to the Gram-positive-specific antibiotic vancomycin, thereby expanding the antibacterial spectrum of this drug. Finally, we used silver and antibiotic combinations in vitro to eradicate bacterial persister cells, and show both in vitro and in a mouse biofilm infection model that silver can enhance antibacterial action against bacteria that produce biofilms. This work shows that silver can be used to enhance the action of existing antibiotics against Gram-negative bacteria, thus strengthening the antibiotic arsenal for fighting bacterial infections.

  2. Hyperbaric Oxygen Environment Can Enhance Brain Activity and Multitasking Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadas, Dor; Kalichman, Leonid; Hadanny, Amir; Efrati, Shai

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Brain uses 20% of the total oxygen supply consumed by the entire body. Even though, multitasking), the oxygen supply is shifted from one brain region to another, via blood perfusion modulation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether a hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) environment, with increased oxygen supply to the brain, will enhance the performance of complex and/or multiple activities. Methods: A prospective, double-blind randomized control, crossover trial including 22 healthy volunteers. Participants were asked to perform a cognitive task, a motor task and a simultaneous cognitive-motor task (multitasking). Participants were randomized to perform the tasks in two environments: (a) normobaric air (1 ATA 21% oxygen) (b) HBO (2 ATA 100% oxygen). Two weeks later participants were crossed to the alternative environment. Blinding of the normobaric environment was achieved in the same chamber with masks on while hyperbaric sensation was simulated by increasing pressure in the first minute and gradually decreasing to normobaric environment prior to tasks performance. Results: Compared to the performance at normobaric conditions, both cognitive and motor single tasks scores were significantly enhanced by HBO environment ( p Multitasking performance was also significantly enhanced in HBO environment ( p = 0.006 for the cognitive part and p = 0.02 for the motor part). Conclusions: The improvement in performance of both single and multi-tasking while in an HBO environment supports the hypothesis which according to, oxygen is indeed a rate limiting factor for brain activity. Hyperbaric oxygenation can serve as an environment for brain performance. Further studies are needed to evaluate the optimal oxygen levels for maximal brain performance.

  3. Sports activities enhance the prevalence of rhinitis symptoms in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusunoki, Takashi; Takeuchi, Jiro; Morimoto, Takeshi; Sakuma, Mio; Mukaida, Kumiko; Yasumi, Takahiro; Nishikomori, Ryuta; Heike, Toshio

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the association between sports activities and allergic symptoms, especially rhinitis, among schoolchildren. This longitudinal survey of schoolchildren collected data from questionnaires regarding allergic symptoms based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) program and sports participation that were distributed to the parents of children at all 12 public primary schools in Ohmi-Hachiman City, Shiga Prefecture, Japan. Data were collected annually from 2011 until 2014, when the children reached 10 years of age. Blood samples were obtained in 2014, and the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)E specific to four inhalant allergens were measured. Data from 558 children were analyzed. At 10 years of age, prevalence of asthma and eczema did not differ significantly, while rhinitis was significantly higher (p = 0.009) among children who participated in sports. Prevalence of rhinitis increased as the frequency or duration of sports participation increased (p sports (p = 0.03). Among those who participated in continuous sports activities, the prevalence of rhinitis was significantly higher with prolonged eczema (p = 0.006). Sports activities did not increase sensitization to inhalant allergens. Sports activities enhance the prevalence of rhinitis in schoolchildren. Prolonged eczema, together with sports participation, further promotes the symptoms. The mechanisms of these novel findings warrant further investigation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. PERSPECTIVE: Electrical activity enhances neuronal survival and regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredor, Raul G.; Goldberg, Jeffrey L.

    2009-10-01

    The failure of regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) remains an enormous scientific and clinical challenge. After injury or in degenerative diseases, neurons in the adult mammalian CNS fail to regrow their axons and reconnect with their normal targets, and furthermore the neurons frequently die and are not normally replaced. While significant progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis for this lack of regenerative ability, a second approach has gained momentum: replacing lost neurons or lost connections with artificial electrical circuits that interface with the nervous system. In the visual system, gene therapy-based 'optogenetics' prostheses represent a competing technology. Now, the two approaches are converging, as recent data suggest that electrical activity itself, via the molecular signaling pathways such activity stimulates, is sufficient to induce neuronal survival and regeneration, particularly in retinal ganglion cells. Here, we review these data, discuss the effects of electrical activity on neurons' molecular signaling pathways and propose specific mechanisms by which exogenous electrical activity may be acting to enhance survival and regeneration.

  5. Enhanced multimaterial 4D printing with active hinges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Saeed; Hosein Sakhaei, Amir; Kowsari, Kavin; Yang, Bill; Serjouei, Ahmad; Yuanfang, Zhang; Ge, Qi

    2018-06-01

    Despite great progress in four-dimensional (4D) printing, i.e. three-dimensional (3D) printing of active (stimuli-responsive) materials, the relatively low actuation force of the 4D printed structures often impedes their engineering applications. In this study, we use multimaterial inkjet 3D printing technology to fabricate shape memory structures, including a morphing wing flap and a deployable structure, which consist of active and flexible hinges joining rigid (non-active) parts. The active hinges, printed from a shape memory polymer (SMP), lock the structure into a second temporary shape during a thermomechanical programming process, while the flexible hinges, printed from an elastomer, effectively increase the actuation force and the load-bearing capacity of the printed structure as reflected in the recovery ratio. A broad range of mechanical properties such as modulus and failure strain can be achieved for both active and flexible hinges by varying the composition of the two base materials, i.e. the SMP and the elastomer, to accommodate large deformation induced during programming step, and enhance the recovery in the actuating step. To find the important design parameters, including local deformation, shape fixity and recovery ratio, we conduct high fidelity finite element simulations, which are able to accurately predict the nonlinear deformation of the printed structures. In addition, a coupled thermal-electrical finite element analysis was performed to model the heat transfer within the active hinges during the localized Joule heating process. The model predictions showed good agreement with the measured temperature data and were used to find the major parameters affecting temperature distribution including the applied voltage and the convection rate.

  6. Evaluation of biodistribution and anti-tumor effect of a dimeric RGD peptide-paclitaxel conjugate in mice with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Qizhen; Li, Zi-Bo; Chen, Kai; Wu, Zhanhong; He, Lina; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Neamati, Nouri

    2008-01-01

    Targeting drugs to receptors involved in tumor angiogenesis has been demonstrated as a novel and promising approach to improve cancer treatment. In this study, we evaluated the anti-tumor efficacy of a dimeric RGD peptide-paclitaxel conjugate (RGD2-PTX) in an orthotopic MDA-MB-435 breast cancer model. To assess the effect of conjugation and the presence of drug moiety on the MDA-MB-435 tumor and normal tissue uptake, the biodistribution of 3 H-RGD2-PTX was compared with that of 3 H-PTX. The treatment effect of RGD2-PTX and RGD2+PTX was measured by tumor size, 18 F-FDG/PET, 18 F-FLT/PET, and postmortem histopathology. By comparing the biodistribution of 3 H-RGD2-PTX and 3 H-PTX, we found that 3 H-RGD2-PTX had higher initial tumor exposure dose and prolonged tumor retention than 3 H-PTX. Metronomic low-dose treatment of breast cancer indicated that RGD2-PTX is significantly more effective than PTX+RGD2 combination and solvent control. Although in vivo 18 F-FLT/PET imaging and ex vivo Ki67 staining indicated little effect of the PTX-based drug on cell proliferation, 18 F-FDG/PET imaging showed significantly reduced tumor metabolism in the RGD2-PTX-treated mice versus those treated with RGD2+PTX and solvent control. Terminal uridine deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining also showed that RGD2-PTX treatment also had significantly higher cell apoptosis ratio than the other two groups. Moreover, the microvessel density was significantly reduced after RGD2-PTX treatment as determined by CD31 staining. Our results demonstrate that integrin-targeted delivery of paclitaxel allows preferential cytotoxicity to integrin-expressing tumor cells and tumor vasculature. The targeted delivery strategies developed in this study may also be applied to other chemotherapeutics for selective tumor killing. (orig.)

  7. Anti-tumoral effect of recombinant vaccinia virus through US guided injection in a rabbit model of hepatic VX2 carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jong Young; Park, Byeong Ho; Kang, Myong Jin; Cho, Jin Han; Choi, Jong Cheol; Choi, Sun Seob; Nam, Kyung Jin; Hwang, Tae Ho; Jeong, Jin Sook [College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-tumoral effect of recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV) (Thymidine kinase (-)/GM-CSF (+)) that was administered as a US guided intratumoral injection in a rabbit model of hepatic VX2 carcinoma. VX2 carcinoma was implanted in the livers of 12 rabbits. US was performed at every week interval to detect hepatic mass after the implantation of VX2 carcinoma. The accurate tumor size and volume was evaluated with CT when the tumor was detected on US. US guided injection of rVV (10{sup 9} pfu/ml) was preformed in three rabbits, intravenous injection of the same dose of rVV was done in two rabbits and another seven rabbits that were without any treatment were selected as a control group. We evaluated the change of the hepatic tumor size and extrahepatic metastasis on serial CT. Tumor specimens were harvested from rabbits that were killed at 8 weeks after VX2 implantation. These tissues were histoimmuopathologically compared to each other (the virus injection group and the control group). The differences between these groups were statistically assessed with student t-tests. Tumor growth was significantly suppressed in the US guided injection group compared with the intravenous injection group or the control group ({rho} < 0.01). The intravenous injection group showed statistically significant tumor suppression compared to the control group ({rho} < 0.01) until 2 weeks after virus injection. Quantification of the pulmonary metastatic nodules was performed in view of both the number and volume. The average number or volume of the pulmonary metastatic nodules in the US injection group was much smaller than these in the control group. Histopathologically, the tumors of the US guided injection group showed less extensive necrosis than those of the control group. Immunohistochemically, the tumor of the US guided injection group showed more prominent infiltration of CD4 (+) and CD8 (+) lymphocytes than did the tumors of the other group

  8. Aged refuse enhances anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianwei; Gui, Lin; Wang, Qilin; Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Dongbo; Ni, Bing-Jie; Li, Xiaoming; Xu, Rui; Zeng, Guangming; Yang, Qi

    2017-10-15

    In this work, a low-cost alternative approach (i.e., adding aged refuse (AR) into waste activated sludge) to significantly enhance anaerobic digestion of sludge was reported. Experimental results showed that with the addition dosage of AR increasing from 0 to 400 mg/g dry sludge soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) increased from 1150 to 5240 mg/L at the digestion time of 5 d, while the maximal production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) increased from 82.6 to 183.9 mg COD/g volatile suspended solids. Although further increase of AR addition decreased the concentrations of both soluble COD and VFA, their contents in these systems with AR addition at any concentration investigated were still higher than those in the blank, which resulted in higher methane yields in these systems. Mechanism studies revealed that pertinent addition of AR promoted solubilization, hydrolysis, and acidogenesis processes and did not affect methanogenesis significantly. It was found that varieties of enzymes and anaerobes in AR were primary reason for the enhancement of anaerobic digestion. Humic substances in AR benefited hydrolysis and acidogenesis but inhibited methanogenesis. The effect of heavy metals in AR on sludge anaerobic digestion was dosage dependent. Sludge anaerobic digestion was enhanced by appropriate amounts of heavy metals but inhibited by excessive amounts of heavy metals. The relative abundances of microorganisms responsible for sludge hydrolysis and acidogenesis were also observed to be improved in the system with AR addition, which was consistent with the performance of anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Soluble ICAM-1 activates lung macrophages and enhances lung injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, H; Czermak, B J; Lentsch, A B

    1998-01-01

    production of TNF-alpha and the CXC chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2). Alveolar macrophages exhibited cytokine responses to both sICAM-1 and immobilized sICAM-1, while rat PBMCs failed to demonstrate similar responses. Exposure of alveolar macrophages to sICAM-1 resulted in NFkappa......B activation (which was blocked by the presence of the aldehyde peptide inhibitor of 28S proteosome and by genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor). As expected, cross-linking of CD18 on macrophages with Ab resulted in generation of TNF-alpha and MIP-2. This response was also inhibited in the presence...... of TNF-alpha and MIP-2 and increased neutrophil recruitment. Therefore, through engagement of beta2 integrins, sICAM-1 enhances alveolar macrophage production of MIP-2 and TNF-alpha, the result of which is intensified lung injury after intrapulmonary disposition of immune complexes....

  10. Slow-light-enhanced gain in active photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara; Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Chen, Yaohui

    2014-01-01

    Passive photonic crystals have been shown to exhibit a multitude of interesting phenomena, including slow-light propagation in line-defect waveguides. It was suggested that by incorporating an active material in the waveguide, slow light could be used to enhance the effective gain of the material......, which would have interesting application prospects, for example enabling ultra-compact optical amplifiers for integration in photonic chips. Here we experi- mentally investigate the gain of a photonic crystal membrane structure with embedded quantum wells. We find that by solely changing the photonic...... crystal structural parameters, the maximum value of the gain coefficient can be increased compared with a ridge waveguide structure and at the same time the spectral position of the peak gain be controlled. The experimental results are in qualitative agreement with theory and show that gain values similar...

  11. Autophagic machinery activated by dengue virus enhances virus replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.-R.; Lei, H.-Y.; Liu, M.-T.; Wang, J.-R.; Chen, S.-H.; Jiang-Shieh, Y.-F.; Lin, Y.-S.; Yeh, T.-M.; Liu, C.-C.; Liu, H.-S.

    2008-01-01

    Autophagy is a cellular response against stresses which include the infection of viruses and bacteria. We unravel that Dengue virus-2 (DV2) can trigger autophagic process in various infected cell lines demonstrated by GFP-LC3 dot formation and increased LC3-II formation. Autophagosome formation was also observed under the transmission electron microscope. DV2-induced autophagy further enhances the titers of extracellular and intracellular viruses indicating that autophagy can promote viral replication in the infected cells. Moreover, our data show that ATG5 protein is required to execute DV2-induced autophagy. All together, we are the first to demonstrate that DV can activate autophagic machinery that is favorable for viral replication

  12. Ultrasound enhanced activation of peroxydisulfate by activated carbon fiber for decolorization of azo dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tianyin; Zhang, Ke; Qian, Yajie; Fang, Cong; Chen, Jiabin

    2018-02-20

    Activated carbon fiber (ACF) has become an emerging activator for peroxydisulfate (PDS) to generate sulfate radical (SO 4 •- ). However, the relative low activation efficiency and poor contaminant mineralization limited its widespread application. Herein, ultrasound (US) was introduced to the ACF activated PDS system, and the synergistic effect of US and ACF in PDS activation and the enhancement of contaminant mineralization were investigated. The synergistic effect of US and ACF was observed in the PDS activation to decolorize orange G (OG). The decolorization efficiency increased with increasing ACF loading and US power, and PDS/OG ratio from 1 to 40. The activation energy was determined to be 24.065 kJ/mol. The radical-induced decolorization of OG took place on the surface of ACF, and both SO 4 •- and hydroxyl radical ( • OH) contributed to OG decolorization. The azo bond and naphthalene ring on OG were destructed to other aromatic intermediates and finally mineralized to CO 2 and H 2 O. The introduction of US in the ACF/PDS system significantly enhanced the mineralization of OG. The combination of US and PDS was highly efficient to activate PDS to decolorize azo dyes. Moreover, the introduction of US remarkably improved the contaminant mineralization.

  13. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of poultry blood using activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Cuetos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The potential of using anaerobic digestion for the treatment of poultry blood has been evaluated in batch assays at the laboratory scale and in a mesophilic semi-continuous reactor. The biodegradability test performed on residual poultry blood was carried out in spite of high inhibitory levels of acid intermediaries. The use of activated carbon as a way to prevent inhibitory conditions demonstrated the feasibility of attaining anaerobic digestion under extreme ammonium and acid conditions. Batch assays with higher carbon content presented higher methane production rates, although the difference in the final cumulative biogas production was not as sharp. The digestion of residual blood was also studied under semi-continuous operation using granular and powdered activated carbon. The average specific methane production was 216 ± 12 mL CH4/g VS. This result was obtained in spite of a strong volatile fatty acid (VFA accumulation, reaching values around 6 g/L, along with high ammonium concentrations (in the range of 6–8 g/L. The use of powdered activated carbon resulted in a better assimilation of C3-C5 acid forms, indicating that an enhancement in syntrophic metabolism may have taken place. Thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were applied as analytical tools for measuring the presence of organic material in the final digestate and evidencing modifications on the carbon surface. The addition of activated carbon for the digestion of residual blood highly improved the digestion process. The adsorption capacity of ammonium, the protection this carrier may offer by limiting mass transfer of toxic compounds, and its capacity to act as a conductive material may explain the successful digestion of residual blood as the sole substrate.

  14. Dihydroartemisinin Accentuates the Anti-Tumor Effects of Photodynamic Therapy via Inactivation of NF-κB in Eca109 and Ec9706 Esophageal Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jing Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a new treatment for esophageal cancer which has been shown to be effective in the elimination of tumor. However, PDT could induce the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB in many photosensitizers based PDT, which plays a negative role in PDT. In addition, our previous results have shown that dihydroartemisinin (DHA, which was the most potent one of artemisinin derivatives, has anticancer activity in esophageal cancer cells. Methods: Cell viability was determined by MTT analysis, and apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry. Nuclear extract was obtained for determining NF-κB DNA-binding activity, while total protein extract obtained for downstream gene expression by western blot. Results: We demonstrated DHA enhanced PDT-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in both human esophageal cancer cell lines Eca109 and Ec9706 in vitro. The mechanism was at least partially due to DHA deactivated PDT-induced NF-κB activation, so as to decrease tremendously the expression of its target gene Bcl-2. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that DHA augments PDT-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells, and that inactivation of NF-κB activity is a potential mechanism by which DHA sensitizes esophageal cancer cells to PDT-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis.

  15. Human PrimPol activity is enhanced by RPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Jiménez, María I; Lahera, Antonio; Blanco, Luis

    2017-04-10

    Human PrimPol is a primase belonging to the AEP superfamily with the unique ability to synthesize DNA primers de novo, and a non-processive DNA polymerase able to bypass certain DNA lesions. PrimPol facilitates both mitochondrial and nuclear replication fork progression either acting as a conventional TLS polymerase, or repriming downstream of blocking lesions. In vivo assays have shown that PrimPol is rapidly recruited to sites of DNA damage by interaction with the human replication protein A (RPA). In agreement with previous findings, we show here that the higher affinity of RPA for ssDNA inhibits PrimPol activities in short ssDNA templates. In contrast, once the amount of ssDNA increases up to a length in which both proteins can simultaneously bind ssDNA, as expected during replicative stress conditions, PrimPol and RPA functionally interact, and their binding capacities are mutually enhanced. When using M13 ssDNA as template, RPA stimulated both the primase and polymerase activities of PrimPol, either alone or in synergy with Polε. These new findings supports the existence of a functional PrimPol/RPA association that allows repriming at the exposed ssDNA regions formed in the leading strand upon replicase stalling.

  16. Active screen plasma nitriding enhances cell attachment to polymer surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaklamani, Georgia; Bowen, James; Mehrban, Nazia; Dong, Hanshan; Grover, Liam M.; Stamboulis, Artemis

    2013-01-01

    Active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) is a well-established technique used for the surface modification of materials, the result of which is often a product with enhanced functional performance. Here we report the modification of the chemical and mechanical properties of ultra-high molecular weight poly(ethylene) (UHMWPE) using 80:20 (v/v) N 2 /H 2 ASPN, followed by growth of 3T3 fibroblasts on the treated and untreated polymer surfaces. ASPN-treated UHMWPE showed extensive fibroblast attachment within 3 h of seeding, whereas fibroblasts did not successfully attach to untreated UHMWPE. Fibroblast-coated surfaces were maintained for up to 28 days, monitoring their metabolic activity and morphology throughout. The chemical properties of the ASPN-treated UHMWPE surface were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, revealing the presence of C-N, C=N, and C≡N chemical bonds. The elastic modulus, surface topography, and adhesion properties of the ASPN-treated UHMWPE surface were studied over 28 days during sample storage under ambient conditions and during immersion in two commonly used cell culture media.

  17. Vaccination efficacy with marrow mesenchymal stem cell against cancer was enhanced under simulated microgravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; Chen, Jun; Li, Xiuyu; Qian, Yanfang

    2017-01-01

    Stem cell vaccination can induce consistent and strong anti-tumor immunity against cancer in mice model. The antigenic similarity between tumors and embryos has been appreciated for many years and reflects the expression of embryonic gene products by cancer cells and/or cancer-initiating stem cells. Taking advantage of this similarity, we have tested a prophylactic lung cancer vaccine composed of allogeneic murine MSCs. Based on this conception, we first compared their tumor vaccines intervention effects of adult MSCs and MSCs under simulated microgravity (MSC/SMG). In this study, BALB/c mice were vaccinated with MSCs or MSC/SMG, compared with mice vaccinated with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) as negative controls. We then subcutaneously implanted the A549 human lung cancer cell line into vaccinated mice and monitored tumor growth potential in vivo. The smaller tumor size and less tumor weight were observed in mice vaccinated with MSCs or MSC/SMG, compared with that of the Control group. Particularly, it was much more significant in the group of MSC/SMG than that group of the MSCs. Vaccination with SMG treated MSCs inhibited proliferation and promoted apoptosis of tumor tissue. SMG/MSC vaccination induced bothTh1-mediated cytokine response; CD8-dependent cytotoxic response which reduced the proportion of Treg cells. Furthermore, SMG/MSC vaccination significantly increased MHC1 and HSPs proteins expression. In conclusion, we demonstrated the SMG could improve tumor-suppressive activity of MSC. The enhanced anti-tumor immune response of MSCs/SMG was strongly associated with the higher expression of MHC class I molecule on DCs, and the abundance of HSPs in the SMG treated MSCs may make antigens in the MSC more cross-presentable to the host DCs for generating protective antitumor activity. This study gains an insight into the mechanism of MSCs anti-tumor efficacy and gives a new strategy for cancer therapies in the future. - Highlights: • Vaccination with SMG

  18. Porous platinum mesoflowers with enhanced activity for methanol oxidation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang Lina; Wang Wenjin; Hong Feng [School of Science, MOE Key Laboratory for Non-equilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Yang Shengchun, E-mail: ysch1209@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Science, MOE Key Laboratory for Non-equilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); You Hongjun, E-mail: hjyou@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Science, MOE Key Laboratory for Non-equilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Fang Jixiang; Ding Bingjun [School of Science, MOE Key Laboratory for Non-equilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2012-07-15

    Porous Pt and Pt-Ag alloy mesoflowers (MFs) with about 2 {mu}m in diameter and high porosity were synthesized using Ag mesoflowers as sacrificial template by galvanic reaction. The silver content in Pt-Ag alloys can be facilely controlled by nitric acid treatment. And the pure Pt MFs can be obtained by selective removal of silver element from Pt{sub 72}Ag{sub 28} MFs electrochemically. Both Pt{sub 45}Ag{sub 55}, Pt{sub 72}Ag{sub 28} and pure Pt show a high catalytic performance in methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). Especially, pure Pt MFs exhibited a 2 to 3 times current density enhancement in MOR compared with the commercial used Pt black, which can be attributed to their porous nanostructure with 3-dimentional nature and small crystal sizes. - Graphical Abstract: The CVs of MOR on Pt (red) and Pt black (green) catalysts in 0.1 M HClO{sub 4} and 0.5 M CH{sub 3}OH for specific mass current. The insert shows the SEM images of two porous Pt MFs. Platinum mesoflowers (MFs) with about 2 {mu}m in diameter and high porosity were synthesised with Ag mesoflowers as sacrificial template by galvanic replacement. The porous Pt MFs exhibited a more than 3 times enhancement in electrocatalytic performance for methanol oxidation reaction compared the commercial used Pt black. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Porous Pt and Pt-Ag mesoflowers (MFs) were synthesized using