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Sample records for enhance non-invasive radiofrequency

  1. From mini-invasive to non-invasive treatment using monopolar radiofrequency: the next orthopaedic frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Terry L

    2009-10-01

    Tendinopathy arises from a failed tendon healing process. Current non-invasive therapeutic alternatives are anti-inflammatory in nature, and outcomes are unpredictable. The benefit of invasive alternatives resides in the induction of the healing response. A new technology that uses non-invasive monopolar capacitive coupled radiofrequency has demonstrated the ability to raise temperatures in tendons and ligaments above 50 degrees C, the threshold for collagen modulation, tissue shrinkage and recruitment of macrophages, fibroblasts, and heat shock protein factors, without damaging the overlying structures, resulting in activation of the wound healing response. Monopolar capacitive-coupled radiofrequency offers a new non-invasive choice for tendinopathies and sprained ligaments. It does not interfere with subsequent surgical procedures should they become necessary.

  2. Non-Invasive Radiofrequency-Induced Targeted Hyperthermia for the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Raoof

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeted biological therapies for hepatocellular cancer have shown minimal improvements in median survival. Multiple pathways to oncogenesis leading to rapid development of resistance to such therapies is a concern. Non-invasive radiofrequency field-induced targeted hyperthermia using nanoparticles is a radical departure from conventional modalities. In this paper we underscore the need for innovative strategies for the treatment of hepatocellular cancer, describe the central paradigm of targeted hyperthermia using non-invasive electromagnetic energy, review the process of characterization and modification of nanoparticles for the task, and summarize data from cell-based and animal-based models of hepatocellular cancer treated with non-invasive RF energy. Finally, future strategies and challenges in bringing this modality from bench to clinic are discussed.

  3. Non-Invasive Radiofrequency Field Treatment to Produce Hepatic Hyperthermia: Efficacy and Safety in Swine

    OpenAIRE

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    2017-01-01

    The Kanzius non-invasive radio-frequency hyperthermia system (KNiRFH) has been investigated as a treatment option for hepatic hyperthermia cancer therapy. The treatment involves exposing the patient to an external high-power RF (13.56 MHz) electric field, whereby the propagating waves penetrate deep into the tumor causing targeted heating based on differential tissue dielectric properties. However, a comprehensive examination of the Kanzius system alongside any associated toxicities and its a...

  4. Multifunctional fluorescent iron quantum clusters for non-invasive radiofrequency ablationof cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Akhila; Surendran, Mrudula; Fazal, Sajid; Prasanth, Bindhu-Paul; Menon, Deepthy

    2018-05-01

    This work reports the potential of iron quantum clusters (FeQCs) as a hyperthermia agent for cancer, by testing its in-vitro response to shortwave (MHz range), radiofrequency (RF) waves non-invasively. Stable, fluorescent FeQCs of size ∼1 nm prepared by facile aqueous chemistry from endogenous protein haemoglobin were found to give a high thermal response, with a ΔT ∼50 °C at concentrationsas low as165 μg/mL. The as-prepared nanoclusters purified by lyophilization as well as dialysis showed a concentration, power and time-dependent RF response, with the lyophilized FeQCs exhibiting pronounced heating effects. FeQCs were found to be cytocompatible to NIH-3T3 fibroblast and 4T1 cancer cells treated at concentrations upto 1000 μg/mL for 24 h. Upon incubation with FeQCs and exposure to RF waves, significant cancer cell death was observed which proves its therapeutic ability. The fluorescent ability of the clusters could additionally be utilized for imaging cancer cells upon excitation at ∼450 nm. Further, to demonstrate the feasibility of imparting additional functionality such as drug/biomolecule/dye loading to FeQCs, they were self assembled with cationic polymers to form nanoparticles. Self assembly did not alter the RF heating potential of FeQCs and additionally enhanced its fluorescence. The multifunctional fluorescent FeQCs therefore show good promise as a novel therapeutic agent for RF hyperthermia and drug loading. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Non-Invasive Radiofrequency Field Treatment of 4T1 Breast Tumors Induces T-cell Dependent Inflammatory Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Jared M; Flores-Arredondo, Jose H; Suki, Sarah; Ware, Matthew J; Krzykawska-Serda, Martyna; Agha, Mahdi; Law, Justin J; Sikora, Andrew G; Curley, Steven A; Corr, Stuart J

    2018-02-22

    Previous work using non-invasive radiofrequency field treatment (RFT) in cancer has demonstrated its therapeutic potential as it can increase intratumoral blood perfusion, localization of intravenously delivered drugs, and promote a hyperthermic intratumoral state. Despite the well-known immunologic benefits that febrile hyperthermia can induce, an investigation of how RFT could modulate the intra-tumoral immune microenvironment had not been studied. Thus, using an established 4T1 breast cancer model in immune competent mice, we demonstrate that RFT induces a transient, localized, and T-cell dependent intratumoral inflammatory response. More specifically we show that multi- and singlet-dose RFT promote an increase in tumor volume in immune competent Balb/c mice, which does not occur in athymic nude models. Further leukocyte subset analysis at 24, 48, and 120 hours after a single RFT show a rapid increase in tumoral trafficking of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells 24 hours post-treatment. Additional serum cytokine analysis reveals an increase in numerous pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines associated with enhanced T-cell trafficking. Overall, these data demonstrate that non-invasive RFT could be an effective immunomodulatory strategy in solid tumors, especially for enhancing the tumoral trafficking of lymphocytes, which is currently a major hindrance of numerous cancer immunotherapeutic strategies.

  6. NON-INVASIVE RADIOFREQUENCY ABLATION OF CANCER TARGETED BY GOLD NANOPARTICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Jon; Klune, John Robert; Chory, Eamon; Jeyabalan, Geetha; Kanzius, John S.; Nalesnik, Michael; Geller, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Current radiofrequency ablation (RFA) techniques require invasive needle placement and are limited by accuracy of targeting. The purpose of this study was to test a novel non-invasive radiowave machine that uses RF energy to thermally destroy tissue. Gold nanoparticles were designed and produced to facilitate tissue heating by the radiowaves. Methods A solid state radiowave machine consisting of a power generator and transmitting/receiving couplers which transmit radiowaves at 13.56 MHz was used. Gold nanoparticles were produced by citrate reduction and exposed to the RF field either in solutions testing or after incubation with HepG2 cells. A rat hepatoma model using JM-1 cells and Fisher rats was employed using direct injection of nanoparticles into the tumor to focus the radiowaves for select heating. Temperatures were measured using a fiber-optic thermometer for real-time data. Results Solutions containing gold nanoparticles heated in a time- and power-dependent manner. HepG2 liver cancer cells cultured in the presence of gold nanoparticles achieved adequate heating to cause cell death upon exposure to the RF field with no cytotoxicity attributable to the gold nanoparticles themselves. In vivo rat exposures at 35W using gold nanoparticles for tissue injection resulted in significant temperature increases and thermal injury at subcutaneous injection sites as compared to vehicle (water) injected controls. Discussion These data show that non-invasive radiowave thermal ablation of cancer cells is feasible when facilitated by gold nanoparticles. Future studies will focus on tumor selective targeting of nanoparticles for in vivo tumor destruction. PMID:18656617

  7. Non-invasive ultrasound-based temperature imaging for monitoring radiofrequency heating-phantom results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, M J; Varghese, T; Madsen, E L; Zagzebski, J A

    2007-01-01

    Minimally invasive therapies (such as radiofrequency ablation) are becoming more commonly used in the United States for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinomas and liver metastases. Unfortunately, these procedures suffer from high recurrence rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (∼34-55%) or metastases following ablation therapy. The ability to perform real-time temperature imaging while a patient is undergoing radiofrequency ablation could provide a significant reduction in these recurrence rates. In this paper, we demonstrate the feasibility of ultrasound-based temperature imaging on a tissue-mimicking phantom undergoing radiofrequency heating. Ultrasound echo signals undergo time shifts with increasing temperature, which are tracked using 2D correlation-based speckle tracking methods. Time shifts or displacements in the echo signal are accumulated, and the gradient of these time shifts are related to changes in the temperature of the tissue-mimicking phantom material using a calibration curve generated from experimental data. A tissue-mimicking phantom was developed that can undergo repeated radiofrequency heating procedures. Both sound speed and thermal expansion changes of the tissue-mimicking material were measured experimentally and utilized to generate the calibration curve relating temperature to the displacement gradient. Temperature maps were obtained, and specific regions-of-interest on the temperature maps were compared to invasive temperatures obtained using fiber-optic temperature probes at the same location. Temperature elevation during a radiofrequency ablation procedure on the phantom was successfully tracked to within ±0.5 0 C

  8. A novel non-invasive radiofrequency dermal heating device for skin tightening of the face and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andrew A; Beynet, David; Lask, Gary P

    2015-01-01

    Loose, lax skin is a common cosmetic complaint. Previous non-invasive skin tightening devices had modest efficacy and were associated with pain or downtime. New technologies may allow for effective skin tightening with a series of radiofrequency (RF) treatments with no downtime. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a novel bipolar RF device for skin tightening. Fifteen consecutive female patients were enrolled in the case series; 14 completed the study and were included in the analysis. The device under investigation is a novel, bipolar RF device allowing for achievement and maintenance of optimal dermal temperatures to stimulate collagen remodeling and skin tightening. Patients underwent a series of 4-6 weekly treatments. Three blinded, experienced cosmetic physicians evaluated paired pre-treatment and post-treatment photographs and determined the associated improvement, if any. All patients (14/14) were determined to have a clinical improvement, as the pre-treatment and post-treatment photographs were correctly identified by the evaluators. It was observed that 21% (3/14) of patients had significant improvement, 50% (7/14) had moderate improvement, and 29% (4/14) had mild improvement. No pain, side effects, or adverse events were observed. This novel bipolar RF device represents a safe, effective treatment option for non-invasive skin tightening.

  9. Non invasive brain stimulation to enhance post-stroke recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Kubis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Brain plasticity after stroke remains poorly understood. Patients may improve spontaneously within the first 3 months and then more slowly in the coming year. The first days, decreased edema and reperfusion of the ischemic penumbra may possibly account for these phenomena, but the improvement during the next weeks suggests plasticity phenomena and cortical reorganization of the brain ischemic areas and of more remote areas. Indeed, the injured ischemic motor cortex has a reduced cortical excitability at the acute phase and a suspension of the topographic representation of affected muscles, whereas the contralateral motor cortex has an increased excitability and an enlarged somatomotor representation; furthermore, contralateral cortex exerts a transcallosal interhemispheric inhibition on the ischemic cortex. This results from the imbalance of the physiological reciprocal interhemispheric inhibition of each hemisphere on the other, contributing to worsening of neurological deficit. Cortical excitability is measurable through transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS and prognosis has been established according to the presence of motor evoked potentials (MEP at the acute phase of stroke, which is predictive of better recovery. Conversely, the lack of response to early stimulation is associated with a poor functional outcome. Non-invasive stimulation techniques such as repetitive TMS (rTMS or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS have the potential to modulate brain cortical excitability with long lasting effects. In the setting of cerebrovascular disease, around 1000 stroke subjects have been included in placebo-controlled trials so far, most often with an objective of promoting motor recovery of the upper limb. High frequency repetitive stimulation (> 3 Hz rTMS, aiming to increase excitability of the ischemic cortex, or low frequency repetitive stimulation (≤ 1 Hz, aiming to reduce excitability of the contralateral homonymous cortex, or

  10. Non invasive radiofrequency diagnostics of cancer. The Bioscanner — Trimprob technology and clinical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedruccio, Clarbruno; Ricci Vedruccio, Carla

    2011-12-01

    A new paper by Pokorny, Vedruccio, Cifra, Kucera, titled Cancer physics: Diagnostics based on damped cellular elasto-electrical vibrations in microtubules, recently available on Eur. Biophys. J., discloses the mechanism of active grown cancer tissues interaction with a Non- Linear Resonance Interaction (NLRI) Bioscanner Trimprob diagnostic device that is certified and ready to be used to investigate suspected cases of disease and cancer. This technology spreads early capabilities of cancer detection by means of low level radiofrequency oscillations in UHF band. The system is based on an unique and extremely innovative non- linear radiofrequency oscillator working on 462-465 MHz plus the harmonics. The diseased tissues suspected of cancer, are irradiated by means of a handy probe near field emission, while a spectrum analyzer placed in the far field detects by means of a small antenna, the oscillator interaction within the tissues. The Bioscanner is characterized by a high dynamic range, in the order of 30 or more decibel, and is useful for detection of small cancer agglomerates, if used by a well trained operator. At the resonance, the free running oscillator locks-in on the specific interaction frequency, in a sharp frequency window centered on 462 MHz; the resulting effect is evidenced by a deep decrease of the 462 MHz spectral line propagation in the far field around the oscillator probe. The NLRI provides a selective characterization, like a sort of a electronic biopsy response of biologic tissues in support of modern imaging diagnostics. Further to existing literature describing methods for cancer detections by means of electromagnetic fields this paper shows this innovative in vivo medical diagnostic equipment and some clinical applications.

  11. Non invasive radiofrequency diagnostics of cancer. The Bioscanner — Trimprob technology and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedruccio, Clarbruno; Vedruccio, Carla Ricci

    2011-01-01

    A new paper by Pokorny, Vedruccio, Cifra, Kucera, titled Cancer physics: Diagnostics based on damped cellular elasto-electrical vibrations in microtubules, recently available on Eur. Biophys. J., discloses the mechanism of active grown cancer tissues interaction with a Non- Linear Resonance Interaction (NLRI) Bioscanner Trimprob diagnostic device that is certified and ready to be used to investigate suspected cases of disease and cancer. This technology spreads early capabilities of cancer detection by means of low level radiofrequency oscillations in UHF band. The system is based on an unique and extremely innovative non- linear radiofrequency oscillator working on 462-465 MHz plus the harmonics. The diseased tissues suspected of cancer, are irradiated by means of a handy probe near field emission, while a spectrum analyzer placed in the far field detects by means of a small antenna, the oscillator interaction within the tissues. The Bioscanner is characterized by a high dynamic range, in the order of 30 or more decibel, and is useful for detection of small cancer agglomerates, if used by a well trained operator. At the resonance, the free running oscillator locks-in on the specific interaction frequency, in a sharp frequency window centered on 462 MHz; the resulting effect is evidenced by a deep decrease of the 462 MHz spectral line propagation in the far field around the oscillator probe. The NLRI provides a selective characterization, like a sort of a electronic biopsy response of biologic tissues in support of modern imaging diagnostics. Further to existing literature describing methods for cancer detections by means of electromagnetic fields this paper shows this innovative in vivo medical diagnostic equipment and some clinical applications.

  12. Split-face histological and biochemical evaluation of tightening efficacy using temperature- and impedance-controlled continuous non-invasive radiofrequency energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisnic, Sylvie; Divaris, Marc; Branchet, Marie-Christine; Nelson, Andrew A

    2017-06-01

    Bipolar radiofrequency (RF) is capable of heating dermal collagen fibers and inducing skin tightening by collagen remodeling. To substantiate safety and improvement of skin laxity following skin heating with a novel temperature- and impedance-controlled non-invasive radiofrequency (RF) device by histological and biochemical evaluations. A split-face study was performed on 4 subjects who underwent 8 weekly RF sessions on one side of their face, leaving the other side an untreated control and then underwent facelift procedure. Clinical evaluation by photographs was done prior to the surgical procedure. Ex vivo fragments were harvested from both sides and compared. Morphometric analysis of dermal collagen fibers, collagen synthesis, and elastin synthesis evaluations were compared in triplicates. Facial skin tightening was apparent in split-face photographs. A significant increase of 7.9% in dermal collagen content, and a significant increase of 34.7% in collagen synthesis were demonstrated in the treated samples. No statistically significant effect on elastin synthesis was detected. Skin tightening following treatment with non-invasive RF has proven histologically and biochemically to derive from increase in dermal collagen synthesis and content.

  13. Non-invasive optical detection of HBV based on serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zuci; Wang, Qiwen; Weng, Cuncheng; Lin, Xueliang; Lin, Yao; Feng, Shangyuan

    2016-10-01

    An optical method of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was developed for non-invasive detection of hepatitis B surface virus (HBV). Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) is an established serological marker that is routinely used for the diagnosis of acute or chronic hepatitis B virus(HBV) infection. Utilizing SERS to analyze blood serum for detecting HBV has not been reported in previous literature. SERS measurements were performed on two groups of serum samples: one group for 50 HBV patients and the other group for 50 healthy volunteers. Blood serum samples are collected from healthy control subjects and patients diagnosed with HBV. Furthermore, principal components analysis (PCA) combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were employed to differentiate HBV patients from healthy volunteer and achieved sensitivity of 80.0% and specificity of 74.0%. This exploratory work demonstrates that SERS serum analysis combined with PCA-LDA has tremendous potential for the non-invasive detection of HBV.

  14. Potential of non-invasive esophagus cancer detection based on urine surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaohua; Wang, Lan; Chen, Weisheng; Feng, Shangyuan; Lin, Juqiang; Huang, Zufang; Chen, Guannan; Li, Buhong; Chen, Rong

    2014-11-01

    Non-invasive esophagus cancer detection based on urine surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) analysis was presented. Urine SERS spectra were measured on esophagus cancer patients (n = 56) and healthy volunteers (n = 36) for control analysis. Tentative assignments of the urine SERS spectra indicated some interesting esophagus cancer-specific biomolecular changes, including a decrease in the relative content of urea and an increase in the percentage of uric acid in the urine of esophagus cancer patients compared to that of healthy subjects. Principal component analysis (PCA) combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was employed to analyze and differentiate the SERS spectra between normal and esophagus cancer urine. The diagnostic algorithms utilizing a multivariate analysis method achieved a diagnostic sensitivity of 89.3% and specificity of 83.3% for separating esophagus cancer samples from normal urine samples. These results from the explorative work suggested that silver nano particle-based urine SERS analysis coupled with PCA-LDA multivariate analysis has potential for non-invasive detection of esophagus cancer.

  15. Potential of non-invasive esophagus cancer detection based on urine surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Shaohua; Wang, Lan; Feng, Shangyuan; Lin, Juqiang; Huang, Zufang; Chen, Guannan; Li, Buhong; Chen, Rong; Chen, Weisheng

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive esophagus cancer detection based on urine surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) analysis was presented. Urine SERS spectra were measured on esophagus cancer patients (n = 56) and healthy volunteers (n = 36) for control analysis. Tentative assignments of the urine SERS spectra indicated some interesting esophagus cancer-specific biomolecular changes, including a decrease in the relative content of urea and an increase in the percentage of uric acid in the urine of esophagus cancer patients compared to that of healthy subjects. Principal component analysis (PCA) combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was employed to analyze and differentiate the SERS spectra between normal and esophagus cancer urine. The diagnostic algorithms utilizing a multivariate analysis method achieved a diagnostic sensitivity of 89.3% and specificity of 83.3% for separating esophagus cancer samples from normal urine samples. These results from the explorative work suggested that silver nano particle-based urine SERS analysis coupled with PCA–LDA multivariate analysis has potential for non-invasive detection of esophagus cancer. (letter)

  16. Non-invasive brain stimulation: an interventional tool for enhancing behavioral training after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Jonas Wessel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is the leading cause of disability among adults. Motor deficit is the most common impairment after stroke. Especially, deficits in fine motor skills impair numerous activities of daily life. Re-acquisition of motor skills resulting in improved or more accurate motor performance is paramount to regain function, and is the basis of behavioral motor therapy after stroke. Within the past years, there has been a rapid technological and methodological development in neuroimaging leading to a significant progress in the understanding of the neural substrates that underlie motor skill acquisition and functional recovery in stroke patients. Based on this and the development of novel non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, new adjuvant interventional approaches that augment the response to behavioral training have been proposed. Transcranial direct current (tDCS, transcranial magnetic (TMS and paired associative (PAS stimulation are noninvasive brain stimulation techniques that can modulate cortical excitability, neuronal plasticity and interact with learning and memory in both healthy individuals and stroke patients. These techniques can enhance the effect of practice and facilitate the retention of tasks that mimic daily life activities. The purpose of the present review is to provide a comprehensive overview of neuroplastic phenomena in the motor system during learning of a motor skill, recovery after brain injury, and of interventional strategies to enhance the beneficial effects of customarily used neurorehabilitation after stroke.

  17. Non-invasive brain stimulation: an interventional tool for enhancing behavioral training after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Maximilian J; Zimerman, Máximo; Hummel, Friedhelm C

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of disability among adults. Motor deficit is the most common impairment after stroke. Especially, deficits in fine motor skills impair numerous activities of daily life. Re-acquisition of motor skills resulting in improved or more accurate motor performance is paramount to regain function, and is the basis of behavioral motor therapy after stroke. Within the past years, there has been a rapid technological and methodological development in neuroimaging leading to a significant progress in the understanding of the neural substrates that underlie motor skill acquisition and functional recovery in stroke patients. Based on this and the development of novel non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques, new adjuvant interventional approaches that augment the response to behavioral training have been proposed. Transcranial direct current, transcranial magnetic, and paired associative (PAS) stimulation are NIBS techniques that can modulate cortical excitability, neuronal plasticity and interact with learning and memory in both healthy individuals and stroke patients. These techniques can enhance the effect of practice and facilitate the retention of tasks that mimic daily life activities. The purpose of the present review is to provide a comprehensive overview of neuroplastic phenomena in the motor system during learning of a motor skill, recovery after brain injury, and of interventional strategies to enhance the beneficial effects of customarily used neurorehabilitation after stroke.

  18. Non-invasive optical detection of esophagus cancer based on urine surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaohua; Wang, Lan; Chen, Weiwei; Lin, Duo; Huang, Lingling; Wu, Shanshan; Feng, Shangyuan; Chen, Rong

    2014-09-01

    A surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) approach was utilized for urine biochemical analysis with the aim to develop a label-free and non-invasive optical diagnostic method for esophagus cancer detection. SERS spectrums were acquired from 31 normal urine samples and 47 malignant esophagus cancer (EC) urine samples. Tentative assignments of urine SERS bands demonstrated esophagus cancer specific changes, including an increase in the relative amounts of urea and a decrease in the percentage of uric acid in the urine of normal compared with EC. The empirical algorithm integrated with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were employed to identify some important urine SERS bands for differentiation between healthy subjects and EC urine. The empirical diagnostic approach based on the ratio of the SERS peak intensity at 527 to 1002 cm-1 and 725 to 1002 cm-1 coupled with LDA yielded a diagnostic sensitivity of 72.3% and specificity of 96.8%, respectively. The area under the receive operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.954, which further evaluate the performance of the diagnostic algorithm based on the ratio of the SERS peak intensity combined with LDA analysis. This work demonstrated that the urine SERS spectra associated with empirical algorithm has potential for noninvasive diagnosis of esophagus cancer.

  19. Non-invasive brain stimulation enhances the effects of Melodic Intonation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley W. Vines

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Research has suggested that a fronto-temporal network in the right hemisphere may be responsible for mediating Melodic Intonation Therapy’s positive effects on speech recovery. We investigated the potential for a non-invasive brain stimulation technique, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, to augment the benefits of MIT in patients with non-fluent aphasia by modulating neural activity in the brain during treatment with MIT. The polarity of the current applied to the scalp determines the effects of tDCS on the underlying tissue: anodal tDCS increases excitability, whereas cathodal tDCS decreases excitability. We applied anodal tDCS to the posterior inferior frontal gyrus (IFG of the right hemisphere, an area that has been shown to both contribute to singing through the mapping of sounds to ariculatory actions and serve as a key region in the process of recovery from aphasia, particularly in patients with large left hemispheric lesions. The stimulation was applied while patients were treated with MIT by a trained therapist. Six patients with moderate to severe non-fluent aphasia underwent three consecutive days of anodal-tDCS+MIT, and an equivalent series of sham-tDCS+MIT. The two treatment series were separated by one week, and the order in which the treatments were administered was randomized. Compared to the effects of sham-tDCS+MIT, anodal-tDCS+MIT led to significant improvements in fluency of speech. These results support the hypothesis that, as the brain seeks to reorganize and compensate for damage to left-hemisphere language centers, combining anodal-tDCS with MIT may further recovery from post-stroke aphasia by enhancing activity in a right-hemisphere sensorimotor network for articulation.

  20. Enhancement of the non-invasive electroenterogram to identify intestinal pacemaker activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye-Lin, Y; Garcia-Casado, J; Prats-Boluda, G; Martinez-de-Juan, J L; Ponce, J L

    2009-01-01

    Surface recording of electroenterogram (EEnG) is a non-invasive method for monitoring intestinal myoelectrical activity. However, surface EEnG is seriously affected by a variety of interferences: cardiac activity, respiration, very low frequency components and movement artefacts. The aim of this study is to eliminate respiratory interference and very low frequency components from external EEnG recording by means of empirical mode decomposition (EMD), so as to obtain more robust indicators of intestinal pacemaker activity from the external EEnG signal. For this purpose, 11 recording sessions were performed in an animal model under fasting conditions and in each individual session the myoelectrical signal was recorded simultaneously in the intestinal serosa and the external abdominal surface in physiological states. Various parameters have been proposed for evaluating the efficacy of the method in reducing interferences: the signal-to-interference ratio (S/I ratio), attenuation of the target and interference signals, the normal slow wave percentage and the stability of the dominant frequency (DF) of the signal. The results show that the S/I ratio of the processed signals is significantly greater than the original values (9.66 ± 4.44 dB versus 1.23 ± 5.13 dB), while the target signal was barely attenuated (−0.63 ± 1.02 dB). The application of the EMD method also increased the percentage of the normal slow wave to 100% in each individual session and enabled the stability of the DF of the external signal to be increased considerably. Furthermore, the variation coefficient of the DF derived from the external processed signals is comparable to the coefficient obtained using internal recordings. Therefore, the EMD method could be a very useful tool to improve the quality of external EEnG recording in the low frequency range and therefore to obtain more robust indicators of the intestinal pacemaker activity from non-invasive EEnG recordings

  1. A Non-invasive Real-time Localization System for Enhanced Efficacy in Nasogastric Intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhenglong; Foong, Shaohui; Maréchal, Luc; Tan, U-Xuan; Teo, Tee Hui; Shabbir, Asim

    2015-12-01

    Nasogastric (NG) intubation is one of the most commonly performed clinical procedures. Real-time localization and tracking of the NG tube passage at the larynx region into the esophagus is crucial for safety, but is lacking in current practice. In this paper, we present the design, analysis and evaluation of a non-invasive real-time localization system using passive magnetic tracking techniques to improve efficacy of the clinical NG intubation process. By embedding a small permanent magnet at the insertion tip of the NG tube, a wearable system containing embedded sensors around the neck can determine the absolute position of the NG tube inside the body in real-time to assist in insertion. In order to validate the feasibility of the proposed system in detecting erroneous tube placement, typical reference intubation trajectories are first analyzed using anatomically correct models and localization accuracy of the system are evaluated using a precise robotic platform. It is found that the root-mean-squared tracking accuracy is within 5.3 mm for both the esophagus and trachea intubation pathways. Experiments were also designed and performed to demonstrate that the system is capable of tracking the NG tube accurately in biological environments even in presence of stationary ferromagnetic objects (such as clinical instruments). With minimal physical modification to the NG tube and clinical process, this system allows accurate and efficient localization and confirmation of correct NG tube placement without supplemental radiographic methods which is considered the current clinical standard.

  2. Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation to Enhance Post-Stroke Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Brain plasticity after stroke remains poorly understood. Patients may improve spontaneously within the first 3 months and then more slowly in the coming year. The first day, decreased edema and reperfusion of the ischemic penumbra may possibly account for these phenomena, but the improvement during the next weeks suggests plasticity phenomena and cortical reorganization of the brain ischemic areas and of more remote areas. Indeed, the injured ischemic motor cortex has a reduced cortical excitability at the acute phase and a suspension of the topographic representation of affected muscles, whereas the contralateral motor cortex has an increased excitability and an enlarged somatomotor representation; furthermore, contralateral cortex exerts a transcallosal interhemispheric inhibition on the ischemic cortex. This results from the imbalance of the physiological reciprocal interhemispheric inhibition of each hemisphere on the other, contributing to worsening of neurological deficit. Cortical excitability is measurable through transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and prognosis has been established according to the presence of motor evoked potentials (MEP) at the acute phase of stroke, which is predictive of better recovery. Conversely, the lack of response to early stimulation is associated with a poor functional outcome. Non-invasive stimulation techniques such as repetitive TMS (rTMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have the potential to modulate brain cortical excitability with long lasting effects. In the setting of cerebrovascular disease, around 1000 stroke subjects have been included in placebo-controlled trials so far, most often with an objective of promoting motor recovery of the upper limb. High frequency repetitive stimulation (>3 Hz) rTMS, aiming to increase excitability of the ischemic cortex, or low frequency repetitive stimulation (≤1 Hz), aiming to reduce excitability of the contralateral homonymous cortex, or combined therapies

  3. Diagnostic value of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR cholangiography in non-invasive detection of postoperative bile leakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kul, Melahat; Erden, Ayşe; Düşünceli Atman, Ebru

    2017-04-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of dynamic T 1 weighted (T1w) gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced MR cholangiography (MRC) for the detection of active bile leaks. A total of 28 patients with suspected biliary leakage who underwent routine T 2 weighted (T2w) MRC and T1w GD-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRC at our institution from February 2013 to June 2016 were included in this study. The image sets were retrospectively analyzed in consensus by three radiologists. T1w Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRC findings were correlated with clinical data, follow-up examinations and findings of invasive/surgical procedures. Patients with positive bile leak findings in Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRC were divided into hepatobiliary phase (HBP) (20-30 min) and delayed phase (DP) (60-390 min) group according to elapsed time between Gd-EOB-DTPA injection and initial bile leak findings in MRC images. These groups were compared in terms of laboratory test results (total bilirubin, liver enzymes) and the presence of bile duct dilatation in T2w MRC images. In each patient, visualization of bile ducts was sufficient in the HBP. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of dynamic Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced T1w MRC in the detection of biliary leaks were 92.9%, 90.5% and 100%, respectively (p  0.05). Three patients, each of them in DP group, showed normal laboratory test results and bile duct diameters. Dynamic T1w Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRC is a useful non-invasive diagnostic tool to detect bile leak. Advances in knowledge: Prolonged DP imaging may be required for bile leak detection even if visualization of biliary tree is sufficient in HBP and liver function tests, total bilirubin levels and bile duct diameters are normal.

  4. Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation to Enhance Upper Limb Motor Practice Poststroke: A Model for Selection of Cortical Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L. Harris-Love

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Motor practice is an essential part of upper limb motor recovery following stroke. To be effective, it must be intensive with a high number of repetitions. Despite the time and effort required, gains made from practice alone are often relatively limited, and substantial residual impairment remains. Using non-invasive brain stimulation to modulate cortical excitability prior to practice could enhance the effects of practice and provide greater returns on the investment of time and effort. However, determining which cortical area to target is not trivial. The implications of relevant conceptual frameworks such as Interhemispheric Competition and Bimodal Balance Recovery are discussed. In addition, we introduce the STAC (Structural reserve, Task Attributes, Connectivity framework, which incorporates patient-, site-, and task-specific factors. An example is provided of how this framework can assist in selecting a cortical region to target for priming prior to reaching practice poststroke. We suggest that this expanded patient-, site-, and task-specific approach provides a useful model for guiding the development of more successful approaches to neuromodulation for enhancing motor recovery after stroke.

  5. Radio-frequency wave enhanced runaway production rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, V.S.; McClain, F.W.

    1983-01-01

    Enhancement of runaway electron production (over that of an Ohmic discharge) can be achieved by the addition of radio-frequency waves. This effect is studied analytically and numerically using a two-dimensional Fokker--Planck quasilinear equation

  6. Saline-enhanced radiofrequency electrocoagulation in bovine liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hong Seop; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Yoon, Yup; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Ko, Young Tae; Choi, Woo Suk; Lim, Joo Won; Kim, Eui Jong

    1997-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of saline-enhanced radiofrequency electrocoagulation in bovine liver tissue Saline-enhanced radiofrequency electrocoagulation (group I), hot saline injection induced by radiofrequency electrocoagulation (group II), and radiofrequency electrocoagulation (group III) were performed in ex vivo bovine liver. Radiofrequency power was 100 and 200 watts, and current was applied for 10, 20, and 30 seconds. Tissue was histopathologically examined for thermal injury. The largest diameter of thermal injury was about 41.0 mm in group I, 12.3 mm in group II and 9.3 mm in group III. The mean diameter of the injury increased with higher wattage in group I and II and with longer procedure time in group I (p<0.05). At corresponding wattage and times, group I showed a larger diameter of thermal injury and more increase in than group II or III (p<0.05). The degree of carbonization was more severe in group III than in groups I and II. Grossly, thermal injury showed a well-defined, relatively spherical configuration without extension along parenchymal interstitium. In an animal model, saline-enhanced radiofrequency electrocoagulation may effectively induce thermal injury, and may thus be another effective tool for use in the treatment of hepatic tumors. Further clinical experience is needed

  7. Saline-enhanced radiofrequency electrocoagulation in bovine liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hong Seop; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Yoon, Yup; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Ko, Young Tae; Choi, Woo Suk; Lim, Joo Won; Kim, Eui Jong [Kyunghee Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    To determine the effectiveness of saline-enhanced radiofrequency electrocoagulation in bovine liver tissue Saline-enhanced radiofrequency electrocoagulation (group I), hot saline injection induced by radiofrequency electrocoagulation (group II), and radiofrequency electrocoagulation (group III) were performed in ex vivo bovine liver. Radiofrequency power was 100 and 200 watts, and current was applied for 10, 20, and 30 seconds. Tissue was histopathologically examined for thermal injury. The largest diameter of thermal injury was about 41.0 mm in group I, 12.3 mm in group II and 9.3 mm in group III. The mean diameter of the injury increased with higher wattage in group I and II and with longer procedure time in group I (p<0.05). At corresponding wattage and times, group I showed a larger diameter of thermal injury and more increase in than group II or III (p<0.05). The degree of carbonization was more severe in group III than in groups I and II. Grossly, thermal injury showed a well-defined, relatively spherical configuration without extension along parenchymal interstitium. In an animal model, saline-enhanced radiofrequency electrocoagulation may effectively induce thermal injury, and may thus be another effective tool for use in the treatment of hepatic tumors. Further clinical experience is needed.

  8. Non-invasive neural stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, William J.; Sanguinetti, Joseph L.; Fini, Maria; Hool, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    Neurotechnologies for non-invasively interfacing with neural circuits have been evolving from those capable of sensing neural activity to those capable of restoring and enhancing human brain function. Generally referred to as non-invasive neural stimulation (NINS) methods, these neuromodulation approaches rely on electrical, magnetic, photonic, and acoustic or ultrasonic energy to influence nervous system activity, brain function, and behavior. Evidence that has been surmounting for decades shows that advanced neural engineering of NINS technologies will indeed transform the way humans treat diseases, interact with information, communicate, and learn. The physics underlying the ability of various NINS methods to modulate nervous system activity can be quite different from one another depending on the energy modality used as we briefly discuss. For members of commercial and defense industry sectors that have not traditionally engaged in neuroscience research and development, the science, engineering and technology required to advance NINS methods beyond the state-of-the-art presents tremendous opportunities. Within the past few years alone there have been large increases in global investments made by federal agencies, foundations, private investors and multinational corporations to develop advanced applications of NINS technologies. Driven by these efforts NINS methods and devices have recently been introduced to mass markets via the consumer electronics industry. Further, NINS continues to be explored in a growing number of defense applications focused on enhancing human dimensions. The present paper provides a brief introduction to the field of non-invasive neural stimulation by highlighting some of the more common methods in use or under current development today.

  9. Impact of gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance on the non-invasive diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinoma: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, A; Galassi, M; Piscaglia, F; Romanini, L; Lucidi, V; Renzulli, M; Borghi, A; Grazioli, L; Golfieri, R; Bolondi, L

    2013-02-01

    Gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) is a 'hepatocyte-specific' contrast agent for magnetic resonance (MR) in both the vascular and the hepatobiliary phases. To evaluate the contribution of the hepatobiliary phase of Gd-EOB-DTPA MR in the diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in cirrhotic patients under surveillance. Between 2008 and 2011, 48 consecutive small (10-30 mm) liver nodules were detected in 33 patients, who prospectively underwent contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR and helical-computed tomography (CT) in a blind study. The diagnosis of HCC was established according to AASLD 2005 criteria. Of the 48 nodules, 38 (79%) were diagnosed as HCC, 24 (63%) of them based on AASLD non-invasive criteria, 11 diagnosed at histology and 3 during follow-up. The typical vascular pattern (arterial hypervascularisation and venous/late washout) was detected in 30 (79%) HCC nodules by MR, in 22 (58%) by CT and in 17 (45%) by CEUS. Hypointensity during the MR hepatobiliary phase was observed in all HCC nodules and in 3 nonmalignant nodules (sensitivity 100%, specificity 70%, positive predictive value 93%, negative predictive value 100%, positive likelihood ratio 3.33, negative likelihood ratio 0). Eight (21%) of the 38 HCC nodules, 7 of which lacked the typical vascular features at any of the imaging modalities, showed washout in the portal/venous phase and hypointensity in the hepatobiliary phase at MRI, while this pattern was not detected in any nonmalignant lesion. Gadoxetic acid magnetic resonance may enhance the sensitivity of the non-invasive diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinoma nodules in cirrhotic patients under surveillance. Double hypointensity in the portal/venous and hepatobiliary phases could be considered a new magnetic resonance pattern, highly suggestive of hypovascular hepatocellular carcinoma. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Application of non-invasive low strength pulsed electric field to EGCG treatment synergistically enhanced the inhibition effect on PANC-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chih-Hsiung; Lu, Chueh-Hsuan; Chen, Wei-Ting; Ma, Bo-Lun; Chao, Chih-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Traditional therapies for pancreatic cancer are usually expensive and likely to cause side effects, and most patients have the risk of recurrence and suffering pain. Here, we investigated combination treatment of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and non-invasive low strength pulsed electric field (PEF) on the human pancreatic cell line PANC-1. Cells were cultured in various concentrations of EGCG and exposed to trains of PEF. The results showed that the low strength PEF alone or single treatment with low concentration of EGCG did not obviously affect the cell proliferation and migration in PANC-1. However, the EGCG-induced inhibitions of cell viability and migration ability in PANC-1 were dramatically enhanced by the further exposure of low strength PEF (60 V/cm). In particular, the same combination treatment caused less inhibition of cell viability in non-malignant HEK293 cells. We also found the combination treatment significantly decreased the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax protein and increased caspase activity in PANC-1 cells, resulting in the promotion of apoptotic responses, evidenced by chromatin condensation. The findings of the present study reveal the synergistic reactions in the combination treatment may severely disturb mitochondria, enhance the intrinsic pathway transduction, and effectively induce apoptosis; moreover, the migration and invasion of PANC-1 cancer cells were also significantly suppressed. Since normal cells are less sensitive to this combination treatment, and the non-invasive PEF could be modified to focus on a specific location, this treatment may serve as a promising method for anti-cancer therapy.

  11. Non-invasive determination of pulmonary hypertension with dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pienn, Michael; Balint, Zoltan [Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Lung Vascular Research, Graz (Austria); Kovacs, Gabor; Tscherner, Maria; Olschewski, Horst [Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Lung Vascular Research, Graz (Austria); Medical University of Graz, Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Graz (Austria); Avian, Alexander [Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Lung Vascular Research, Graz (Austria); Medical University of Graz, Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Documentation, Graz (Austria); Johnson, Thorsten R. [Ludwig Maximilians University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Kullnig, Peter [DiagnostikZentrum Graz, Graz (Austria); Stollberger, Rudolf [Graz University of Technology, Institute for Medical Engineering, Graz (Austria); Olschewski, Andrea [Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Lung Vascular Research, Graz (Austria); Medical University of Graz, Experimental Anesthesiology, Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Graz (Austria)

    2014-03-15

    In this pilot study we explored whether contrast-material bolus propagation time and speed in the pulmonary arteries (PAs) determined by dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) can distinguish between patients with and without pulmonary hypertension (PH). Twenty-three patients (18 with and 5 without PH) were examined with a DCE-CT sequence following their diagnostic or follow-up right-sided heart catheterisation (RHC). X-ray attenuation over time curves were recorded for regions of interest in the main, right and left PA and fitted with a spline fit. Contrast material bolus propagation speeds and time differences between the peak concentrations were compared with haemodynamic parameters from RHC. Bolus speed correlated (ρ = -0.55) with mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) and showed a good discriminative power between patients with and without PH (cut-off speed 317 mm/s; sensitivity 100 %/specificity 100 %). Additionally, time differences between peaks correlated with mPAP (ρ = 0.64 and 0.49 for right and left PA, respectively) and discrimination was achieved with sensitivity 100 %/specificity 100 % (cut-off time 0.15 s) and sensitivity 93 %/specificity 80 % (cut-off time 0.45 s), respectively. Bolus propagation speed and time differences between contrast material peaks in the PA can identify PH. This method could be used to confirm the indication for RHC in patients screened for pulmonary hypertension. (orig.)

  12. Non-invasive determination of pulmonary hypertension with dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pienn, Michael; Balint, Zoltan; Kovacs, Gabor; Tscherner, Maria; Olschewski, Horst; Avian, Alexander; Johnson, Thorsten R.; Kullnig, Peter; Stollberger, Rudolf; Olschewski, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In this pilot study we explored whether contrast-material bolus propagation time and speed in the pulmonary arteries (PAs) determined by dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) can distinguish between patients with and without pulmonary hypertension (PH). Twenty-three patients (18 with and 5 without PH) were examined with a DCE-CT sequence following their diagnostic or follow-up right-sided heart catheterisation (RHC). X-ray attenuation over time curves were recorded for regions of interest in the main, right and left PA and fitted with a spline fit. Contrast material bolus propagation speeds and time differences between the peak concentrations were compared with haemodynamic parameters from RHC. Bolus speed correlated (ρ = -0.55) with mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) and showed a good discriminative power between patients with and without PH (cut-off speed 317 mm/s; sensitivity 100 %/specificity 100 %). Additionally, time differences between peaks correlated with mPAP (ρ = 0.64 and 0.49 for right and left PA, respectively) and discrimination was achieved with sensitivity 100 %/specificity 100 % (cut-off time 0.15 s) and sensitivity 93 %/specificity 80 % (cut-off time 0.45 s), respectively. Bolus propagation speed and time differences between contrast material peaks in the PA can identify PH. This method could be used to confirm the indication for RHC in patients screened for pulmonary hypertension. (orig.)

  13. Filling the gap: using non-invasive geophysical methods to monitor the processes leading to enhanced carbon turnover induced by periodic water table fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellage, A.; Pronk, G.; Atekwana, E. A.; Furman, A.; Rezanezhad, F.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2017-12-01

    Subsurface transition environments such as the capillary fringe are characterized by steep gradients in redox conditions. Spatial and temporal variations in electron acceptor and donor availability - driven by hydrological changes - may enhance carbon turnover, in some cases resulting in pulses of CO2-respiration. Filling the mechanistic knowledge gap between the hydrological driver and its biogeochemical effects hinges on our ability to monitor microbial activity and key geochemical markers at a high spatial and temporal resolution. However, direct access to subsurface biogeochemical processes is logistically difficult, invasive and usually expensive. In-line, non-invasive geophysical techniques - Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) and Electrodic Potential (EP), specifically - offer a comparatively inexpensive alternative and can provide data with high spatial and temporal resolution. The challenge lies in linking electrical responses to specific changes in biogeochemical processes. We conducted SIP and EP measurements on a soil column experiment where an artificial soil mixture was subjected to monthly drainage and imbibition cycles. SIP responses showed a clear dependence on redox zonation and microbial abundance. Temporally variable responses exhibited no direct moisture dependence suggesting that the measured responses recorded changes in microbial activity and coincided with the depth interval over which enhanced carbon turnover was observed. EP measurements detected the onset of sulfate mineralization and mapped its depth zonation. SIP and EP signals thus detected enhanced microbial activity within the water table fluctuation zone as well as the timing of the development of specific reactive processes. These findings can be used to relate measured electrical signals to specific reaction pathways and help inform reactive transport models, increasing their predictive capabilities.

  14. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: a non-invasive method to evaluate significant differences between malignant and normal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudisch, Ansgar; Kremser, Christian; Judmaier, Werner; Zunterer, Hildegard; DeVries, Alexander F.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: An ever recurring challenge in diagnostic radiology is the differentiation between non-malignant and malignant tissue. Based on evidence that microcirculation of normal, non-malignant tissue differs from that of malignant tissue, the goal of this study was to assess the reliability of dynamic contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dcMRI) for differentiating these two entities. Materials and methods: DcMRI data of rectum carcinoma and gluteus maximus muscles were acquired in 41 patients. Using an fast T1-mapping sequence on a 1.5-T whole body scanner, T1-maps were dynamically retrieved before, during and after constant rate i.v. infusion of a contrast medium (CM). On the basis of the acquired data sets, PI-values were calculated on a pixel-by-pixel basis. The relevance of spatial heterogeneities of microcirculation was investigated by relative frequency histograms of the PI-values. Results: A statistically significant difference between malignant and normal tissue was found for the mean PI-value (P < 0.001; 8.95 ml/min/100 g ± 2.45 versus 3.56 ml/min/100 g ± 1.20). Additionally relative frequency distributions of PI-values with equal class intervals of 2.5 ml/min/100 g revealed significant differences between the histograms of muscles and rectum carcinoma. Conclusion: We could show that microcirculation differences between malignant and normal, non-malignant tissue can be reliably assessed by non-invasive dcMRI. Therefore, dcMRI holds great promise in the aid of cancer assessment, especially in patients where biopsy is contraindicated

  15. Non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bellal; Haider, Ansab; Rhee, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Technology has transformed the practice of medicine and surgery in particular over the last several decades. This change in practice has allowed diagnostic and therapeutic tests to be performed less invasively. Hemoglobin monitoring remains one of the most commonly performed diagnostic tests in the United States. Recently, non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring technology has gained popularity. The aim of this article is to review the principles of how this technology works, pros and cons, and the implications of non-invasive hemoglobin technology particularly in trauma surgery. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhanced Radiofrequency Ablation With Magnetically Directed Metallic Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duy T; Tzou, Wendy S; Zheng, Lijun; Barham, Waseem; Schuller, Joseph L; Shillinglaw, Benjamin; Quaife, Robert A; Sauer, William H

    2016-05-01

    Remote heating of metal located near a radiofrequency ablation source has been previously demonstrated. Therefore, ablation of cardiac tissue treated with metallic nanoparticles may improve local radiofrequency heating and lead to larger ablation lesions. We sought to evaluate the effect of magnetic nanoparticles on tissue sensitivity to radiofrequency energy. Ablation was performed using an ablation catheter positioned with 10 g of force over prepared ex vivo specimens. Tissue temperatures were measured and lesion volumes were acquired. An in vivo porcine thigh model was used to study systemically delivered magnetically guided iron oxide (FeO) nanoparticles during radiofrequency application. Magnetic resonance imaging and histological staining of ablated tissue were subsequently performed as a part of ablation lesion analysis. Ablation of ex vivo myocardial tissue treated with metallic nanoparticles resulted in significantly larger lesions with greater impedance changes and evidence of increased thermal conductivity within the tissue. Magnet-guided localization of FeO nanoparticles within porcine thigh preps was demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging and iron staining. Irrigated ablation in the regions with greater FeO, after FeO infusion and magnetic guidance, created larger lesions without a greater incidence of steam pops. Metal nanoparticle infiltration resulted in significantly larger ablation lesions with altered electric and thermal conductivity. In vivo magnetic guidance of FeO nanoparticles allowed for facilitated radiofrequency ablation without direct infiltration into the targeted tissue. Further research is needed to assess the clinical applicability of this ablation strategy using metallic nanoparticles for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Non-invasive terahertz field imaging inside parallel plate waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    We present a non-invasive broadband air photonic method of imaging of the electric field of THz pulses propagating inside a tapered parallel plate waveguide. The method is based on field-enhanced second harmonic generation of the fundamental laser beam in an external electric field. We apply...

  18. Remote non-invasive stereoscopic imaging of blood vessels: first in-vivo results of a new multispectral contrast enhancement technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, F.P.; Mastik, F.; Cate, F.J. ten; Neumann, H.A.M.; Steen, A.F.W. van der

    2006-01-01

    We describe a contactless optical technique selectively enhancing superficial blood vessels below variously pigmented intact human skin by combining images in different spectral bands. Two CMOS-cameras, with apochromatic lenses and dual-band LED-arrays, simultaneously streamed Left (L) and Right (R)

  19. Non-invasive breast biopsy method using GD-DTPA contrast enhanced MRI series and F-18-FDG PET/CT dynamic image series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, Alphonso William

    This study was undertaken to develop a nonsurgical breast biopsy from Gd-DTPA Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance (CE-MR) images and F-18-FDG PET/CT dynamic image series. A five-step process was developed to accomplish this. (1) Dynamic PET series were nonrigidly registered to the initial frame using a finite element method (FEM) based registration that requires fiducial skin markers to sample the displacement field between image frames. A commercial FEM package (ANSYS) was used for meshing and FEM calculations. Dynamic PET image series registrations were evaluated using similarity measurements SAVD and NCC. (2) Dynamic CE-MR series were nonrigidly registered to the initial frame using two registration methods: a multi-resolution free-form deformation (FFD) registration driven by normalized mutual information, and a FEM-based registration method. Dynamic CE-MR image series registrations were evaluated using similarity measurements, localization measurements, and qualitative comparison of motion artifacts. FFD registration was found to be superior to FEM-based registration. (3) Nonlinear curve fitting was performed for each voxel of the PET/CT volume of activity versus time, based on a realistic two-compartmental Patlak model. Three parameters for this model were fitted; two of them describe the activity levels in the blood and in the cellular compartment, while the third characterizes the washout rate of F-18-FDG from the cellular compartment. (4) Nonlinear curve fitting was performed for each voxel of the MR volume of signal intensity versus time, based on a realistic two-compartment Brix model. Three parameters for this model were fitted: rate of Gd exiting the compartment, representing the extracellular space of a lesion; rate of Gd exiting a blood compartment; and a parameter that characterizes the strength of signal intensities. Curve fitting used for PET/CT and MR series was accomplished by application of the Levenburg-Marquardt nonlinear regression

  20. Engraftment and bone mass are enhanced by PTHrP 1-34 in ectopically transplanted vertebrae (vossicle model) and can be non-invasively monitored with bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, Blake Eason; Williams, Michelle M; Dembek, Katarzyna A; Hernon, Krista M; Rosol, Thomas J; Toribio, Ramiro E

    2015-12-01

    Evidence exists that parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) 1-34 may be more anabolic in bone than parathyroid hormone 1-34. While optical imaging is growing in popularity, scant information exists on the relationships between traditional bone imaging and histology and bioluminescence (BLI) and fluorescence (FLI) imaging. We aimed to evaluate the effects of PTHrP 1-34 on bone mass and determine if relationships existed between radiographic and histologic findings in bone and BLI and FLI indices. Vertebrae (vossicles) from mice coexpressing luciferase and green fluorescent protein were implanted subcutaneously into allogenic nude mice. Transplant recipients were treated daily with saline or PTHrP 1-34 for 4 weeks. BLI, FLI, radiography, histology, and µCT of the vossicles were performed over time. PTHrP 1-34 increased bioluminescence the most after 2 weeks, fluorescence at all time points, and decreased the time to peak bioluminescence at 4 weeks (P ≤ 0.027), the latter of which suggesting enhanced engraftment. PTHrP 1-34 maximized vertebral body volume at 4 weeks (P bone observed histologically increased in both groups at 2 and 4 weeks (P ≤ 0.002); however, PTHrP 1-34 exceeded time-matched controls (P ≤ 0.044). A positive linear relationship existed between the percentage of trabecular bone and (1) total bioluminescence (r = 0.595; P = 0.019); (2) total fluorescence (r = 0.474; P = 0.074); and (3) max fluorescence (r = 0.587; P = 0.021). In conclusion, PTHrP 1-34 enhances engraftment and bone mass, which can be monitored non-invasively by BLI and FLI.

  1. [Non-invasive assessment of fatty liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egresi, Anna; Lengyel, Gabriella; Hagymási, Krisztina

    2015-04-05

    As the result of various harmful effects (infectious agents, metabolic diseases, unhealthy diet, obesity, toxic agents, autoimmune processes) hepatic damage may develop, which can progress towards liver steatosis, and fibrosis as well. The most common etiological factors of liver damages are hepatitis B and C infection, alcohol consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Liver biopsy is considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of chronic liver diseases. Due to the dangers and complications of liver biopsy, studies are focused on non-invasive markers and radiological imaging for liver steatosis, progression of fatty liver, activity of the necroinflammation and the severity of the fibrosis. Authors review the possibilities of non-invasive assessment of liver steatosis. The statistical features of the probes (positive, negative predictive values, sensitivity, specificity) are reviewed. The role of radiological imaging is also discussed. Although the non-invasive methods discussed in this article are useful to assess liver steatosis, further studies are needed to validate to follow progression of the diseases and to control therapeutic response.

  2. TH-C-17A-11: Hyperthermia-Driven Immunotherapy Using Non-Invasive Radiowaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serda, R; Savage, D; Corr, S; Curley, S [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The sad truth is that cancer is blamed for the death of nearly one in four people in the US. Immunotherapy offers hope for stimulating cancer immunity leading to targeted killing of cancer cells and a preventative measure for cancer recurrence. Unfortunately, the clinical efficacy of immunotherapy has not yet been established, however novel approaches are being developed, including combining immunotherapy with traditional chemotherapy, radiotherapy or thermal therapy. Therapeutics such as radiofrequency (RF) ablation and select chemotherapeutics induce mild anticancer immune responses. This project seeks to enhance the immune responses stimulated by these agents by co-delivery of nanoparticle-based chemotherapeutics and immune modulators in the presence of RF induced hyperthermia. Methods: A 4T1 mouse model of breast cancer is used to test the ability of RF waves to enhance accumulation of nanoparticles in tumor tissue by increasing blood flow and extravation of nanoparticles from hyperpermeable vessels. Images of particle and cell trafficking in the tumor are captured using an integrated RF and confocal imaging system, and tumor growth is monitored by tumor bioluminescence and caliper measurements. Results: Here we demonstrate enhanced intratumoral blood flow induced by non-invasive RF waves and an increase in nanoparticle accumulation in the tumor. IL-12 is shown to have powerful anti-tumor effects leading to tumor regression and the release of Th1-biased cytokines. Doxorubicin nanoparticles combined with adjuvant nanoparticles exhibited superior antitumor effects to single agent therapy. Conclusion: RF therapy combined with nanotherapeutics is a promising approach to enhance the delivery of therapeutics to the tumor and to stimulate a tumor microenvironment that supports the development of cancer-specific immune responses. This research was supported by the National Institute of Health grant numbers U54 CA143837 and U54 CA151668, and the Kanzius

  3. TH-C-17A-11: Hyperthermia-Driven Immunotherapy Using Non-Invasive Radiowaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serda, R; Savage, D; Corr, S; Curley, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The sad truth is that cancer is blamed for the death of nearly one in four people in the US. Immunotherapy offers hope for stimulating cancer immunity leading to targeted killing of cancer cells and a preventative measure for cancer recurrence. Unfortunately, the clinical efficacy of immunotherapy has not yet been established, however novel approaches are being developed, including combining immunotherapy with traditional chemotherapy, radiotherapy or thermal therapy. Therapeutics such as radiofrequency (RF) ablation and select chemotherapeutics induce mild anticancer immune responses. This project seeks to enhance the immune responses stimulated by these agents by co-delivery of nanoparticle-based chemotherapeutics and immune modulators in the presence of RF induced hyperthermia. Methods: A 4T1 mouse model of breast cancer is used to test the ability of RF waves to enhance accumulation of nanoparticles in tumor tissue by increasing blood flow and extravation of nanoparticles from hyperpermeable vessels. Images of particle and cell trafficking in the tumor are captured using an integrated RF and confocal imaging system, and tumor growth is monitored by tumor bioluminescence and caliper measurements. Results: Here we demonstrate enhanced intratumoral blood flow induced by non-invasive RF waves and an increase in nanoparticle accumulation in the tumor. IL-12 is shown to have powerful anti-tumor effects leading to tumor regression and the release of Th1-biased cytokines. Doxorubicin nanoparticles combined with adjuvant nanoparticles exhibited superior antitumor effects to single agent therapy. Conclusion: RF therapy combined with nanotherapeutics is a promising approach to enhance the delivery of therapeutics to the tumor and to stimulate a tumor microenvironment that supports the development of cancer-specific immune responses. This research was supported by the National Institute of Health grant numbers U54 CA143837 and U54 CA151668, and the Kanzius

  4. Non-invasive assessment of gastric activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallwood, R.H.; Brown, B.H.

    1983-01-01

    There have been many suggestions for the routine clinical use of the electro-enterogram, but with the exception of the reported usage in the USSR no significant penetration into medical practice has been reported elsewhere. Amongst the many suggestions have been the possible application of electrical stimulation via surface electrodes to overcome post-operative inhibition of intestinal electrical activity, which can be recorded via surface electrodes. Gastric emptying studies have shown that duodenal ulceration is associated with changes in the rate and pattern of emptying of solid meals. Identifiable patterns in the electro-gastrogram following a metal might have diagnostic application. There is some evidence of correlations of electrical activity and pathology in the large intestine. In the colon diverticular disease has been shown to change the frequency content of the slow wave electrical activity and there is some evidence that this might be recorded from surface electrodes. A major obstacle to progress remains the inability to relate non-invasive recordings to intestinal motility. The best hope may be the use of direct and yet non-invasive methods of obtaining motility and in this context real-time ultrasound imaging is probably the most promising technique. The electro-gastrogram has certainly been shown to allow recording of gastric slow wave activity and there is a reasonable hope that further methods of analysis will allow inferential information on motility to be obtained. The following section makes brief mention of these techniques

  5. Radiofrequency ablation of liver cancer: early evaluation of therapeutic response with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dong Gil; Lim, Hyo K.; Lee, Won Jae; Kim, Seung Hoon; Kim, Min Ju; Kim, Seung Kwon; Jang, Kyung Mi; Lee, Ji Yeon; Lim, Jae Hoon

    2004-01-01

    The early assessment of the therapeutic response after percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation is important, in order to correctly decide whether further treatment is necessary. The residual unablated tumor is usually depicted on contrast-enhanced multiphase helical computed tomography (CT) as a focal enhancing structure during the arterial and portal venous phases. Contrast-enhanced color Doppler and power Doppler ultrasonography (US) have also been used to detect residual tumors. Contrast-enhanced gray-scale US, using a harmonic technology which has recently been introduced, allows for the detection of residual tumors after ablation, without any of the blooming or motion artifacts usually seen on contrast-enhanced color or power Doppler US. Based on our experience and reports in the literature, we consider that contrast-enhanced gray-scale harmonic US constitutes a reliable alternative to contrast-enhanced multiphase CT for the early evaluation of the therapeutic response to RF ablation for liver cancer. This technique was also useful in targeting any residual unablated tumors encountered during additional ablation

  6. Clinical role of non-invasive assessment of portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognesi, Massimo; Di Pascoli, Marco; Sacerdoti, David

    2017-01-07

    Measurement of portal pressure is pivotal in the evaluation of patients with liver cirrhosis. The measurement of the hepatic venous pressure gradient represents the reference method by which portal pressure is estimated. However, it is an invasive procedure that requires significant hospital resources, including experienced staff, and is associated with considerable cost. Non-invasive methods that can be reliably used to estimate the presence and the degree of portal hypertension are urgently needed in clinical practice. Biochemical and morphological parameters have been proposed for this purpose, but have shown disappointing results overall. Splanchnic Doppler ultrasonography and the analysis of microbubble contrast agent kinetics with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography have shown better accuracy for the evaluation of patients with portal hypertension. A key advancement in the non-invasive evaluation of portal hypertension has been the introduction in clinical practice of methods able to measure stiffness in the liver, as well as stiffness/congestion in the spleen. According to the data published to date, it appears to be possible to rule out clinically significant portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis ( i.e ., hepatic venous pressure gradient ≥ 10 mmHg) with a level of clinically-acceptable accuracy by combining measurements of liver stiffness and spleen stiffness along with Doppler ultrasound evaluation. It is probable that the combination of these methods may also allow for the identification of patients with the most serious degree of portal hypertension, and ongoing research is helping to ensure progress in this field.

  7. Non-invasive assessment of coronary calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oei, Hok-Hay S.; Hofman, Albert; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Witteman, Jackqueline C. M.

    2004-01-01

    Electron-beam tomography (EBT) and multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) enable the noninvasive assessment of coronary calcification. The amount of coronary calcification, as detected by EBT, has a close relation with the amount of coronary atherosclerosis, which is the substrate for the occurrence of myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death. Calcification of the coronary arteries can be seen as a cumulative measure of life-time exposure to cardiovascular risk factors. Several studies have shown that the amount of coronary calcification is associated with the risk of coronary heart disease. Therefore, coronary calcification is a promising method for non-invasive detection of asymptomatic subjects at high risk of developing coronary heart disease. Whether measurement of coronary calcification also increases the predictive power of coronary events based on cardiovascular risk factors is topic of current research

  8. Prospective Internally Controlled Blind Reviewed Clinical Evaluation of Cryolipolysis Combined With Multipolar Radiofrequency andVaripulseTechnology for Enhanced Subject Results in Circumferential Fat Reduction and Skin Laxity of the Flanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, Julius; Gold, Michael; Sadick, Neil

    2016-11-01

    Increasing demand for non-invasive skin tightening and body contouring procedures has led to several technological in- novations in energy-based devices such as ultrasound, radiofrequency and cryolipolysis. An emerging trend in the eld is to evaluate whether combination therapies for skin laxity/body contouring using energy-based devices can deliver superior clinical results and patient satisfaction. As such, the objective of this prospective, internal-controlled, blind clinical study was to assess the safety and efficacy of cryolipolysis followed by multipolar radiofrequency with pulsed electromagnetic elds (PEMF) and adjustable pulsed suction for the treatment of skin laxity in the flanks. Ten subjects with focal adiposities in the anks were enrolled in the study. All subjects received one session of cryolipolysis treatment and after randomization received two sessions of radiofrequency with PEMF (spaced two weeks apart), followed by another two sessions of radiofrequency with PEMF and adjustable pulsed suction (spaced two weeks apart). Clinical photography was used to monitor the subject's results at baseline, one week, three, and six months post treatment. Blinded reviewers and the treating inves- tigator assessed the clinical outcomes using the Global Aesthetic Improvement (GAI) scale. Side effects were recorded at every visit and patient satisfaction was noted at the one week, three and six-month follow-up using a 5-scale subject satisfaction assessment questionnaire. Analysis of the blinded investigator ratings demonstrated statistical significant enhanced skin laxity mean improvement of 1 grade on the GAI scale in subject treated with the combination treatment (cryolipolysis+RF/PEMF/suction) compared with the cryolipolysis treatment alone. The unblinded investigator GAI ratings also showed enhanced (20%) mean improvement of laxity in the combination treated subjects versus those receiving cryolipolysis alone. Over half of the participants reported

  9. Recent research findings on non-invasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Qiong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of liver fibrosis and dynamic monitoring of relevant changes have great implications for the treatment and prognosis improvement of chronic liver diseases. So far, liver biopsy remains the “golden standard” for the diagnosis and staging of liver fibrosis. However, due to its inherent limitations, a great effort has been made to develop more accurate non-invasive diagnostic methods, including serum fibrosis markers and mathematical models, ultrasound, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, ultrasonic elastography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and nuclear medicine. The advantages and disadvantages of relevant methods are discussed. Furthermore, proper selection of the non-invasive diagnostic methods for clinical application and the means for mutual verification are analyzed. As for the future direction, it is expected to employ the above methods for combined analysis and comprehensive assessment, in order to enhance the clinical value of non-invasive liver fibrosis diagnosis.

  10. Radiofrequency-heated enhanced confinement modes in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Y.; Boivin, R.L.; Bombarda, F.; Bonoli, P.T.; Christensen, C.; Fiore, C.; Garnier, D.; Goetz, J.A.; Golovato, S.N.; Granetz, R.; Greenwald, M.; Horne, S.F.; Hubbard, A.; Hutchinson, I.H.; Irby, J.; LaBombard, B.; Lipschultz, B.; Marmar, E.; May, M.; Mazurenko, A.; McCracken, G.; OShea, P.; Porkolab, M.; Reardon, J.; Rice, J.; Rost, C.; Schachter, J.; Snipes, J.A.; Stek, P.; Terry, J.; Watterson, R.; Welch, B.; Wolfe, S.

    1997-01-01

    Enhanced confinement modes up to a toroidal field of B T =8T have been studied with up to 3.5 MW of radiofrequency (rf) heating power in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) at 80 MHz. H-mode is observed when the edge temperature exceeds a threshold value. The high confinement mode (H-mode) with higher confinement enhancement factors (H) and longer duration became possible after boronization by reducing the radiated power from the main plasma. A quasi-steady state with high confinement (H=2.0), high normalized beta (β N =1.5), low radiated power fraction (P rad main /P loss =0.3), and low effective charge (Z eff =1.5) has been obtained in Enhanced D α H-mode. This type of H-mode has enhanced levels of continuous D α emission and very little or no edge localized mode (ELM) activity, and reduced core particle confinement time relative to ELM-free H-mode. The pellet enhanced performance (PEP) mode is obtained by combining core fueling with pellet injection and core heating. A highly peaked pressure profile with a central value of 8 atmospheres was observed. The steep pressure gradient drives off-axis bootstrap current, resulting in a shear reversed safety factor (q) profile. Suppression of sawteeth appears to be important in maintaining the highly peaked pressure profile. Lithium pellets were found to be more effective than deuterium pellets in raising q 0 . copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  11. Radio-frequency oxygen-plasma-enhanced pulsed laser deposition of IGZO films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Man Chou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the crystalline structures, optical transmittance, surface and cross-sectional morphologies, chemical compositions, and electrical properties of indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO-based thin films deposited on glass and silicon substrates through pulsed laser deposition (PLD incorporated with radio-frequency (r.f.-generated oxygen plasma. The plasma-enhanced pulsed laser deposition (PEPLD-based IGZO thin films exhibited a c-axis-aligned crystalline (CAAC structure, which was attributed to the increase in Zn-O under high oxygen vapor pressure (150 mTorr. High oxygen vapor pressure (150 mTorr and low r.f. power (10 W are the optimal deposition conditions for fabricating IGZO thin films with improved electrical properties.

  12. Radio-frequency oxygen-plasma-enhanced pulsed laser deposition of IGZO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Man; Lai, Chih-Chang; Chang, Chih-Wei; Wen, Kai-Shin; Hsiao, Vincent K. S.

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate the crystalline structures, optical transmittance, surface and cross-sectional morphologies, chemical compositions, and electrical properties of indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO)-based thin films deposited on glass and silicon substrates through pulsed laser deposition (PLD) incorporated with radio-frequency (r.f.)-generated oxygen plasma. The plasma-enhanced pulsed laser deposition (PEPLD)-based IGZO thin films exhibited a c-axis-aligned crystalline (CAAC) structure, which was attributed to the increase in Zn-O under high oxygen vapor pressure (150 mTorr). High oxygen vapor pressure (150 mTorr) and low r.f. power (10 W) are the optimal deposition conditions for fabricating IGZO thin films with improved electrical properties.

  13. Comparative study of conventional US, contrast enhanced US and enhanced MR for the follow-up of prostatic radiofrequency ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chao; Hu, Bin; Hu, Bing; Chen, Lei; Li, Jia; Huang, Jin

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of different imaging methods during follow-up of prostatic radiofrequency ablation. Prostatic radiofrequency ablation (RFA) was performed in 20 healthy beagle dogs. Various imaging examinations were used to monitor the results of RFA, including conventional ultrasound (US), contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and enhanced magnetic resonance (MR). Imaging exams were performed at five phases: Immediately following RFA, one week later, one month later, three months later and six months later. The morphology for each imaging test and histological results were recorded and compared in each phase. Based on the actual results from autopsy, the accuracy of those imaging exams was evaluated. The canine prostate gland demonstrated typical coagulative necrosis immediately following RFA. The lesion would develop into stable cyst if no other complications occurred within the six-month follow-up. Regarding the RFA lesion volume measurement and the reflection of pathological changes, conventional US was not able to accurately measure the volume of RFA lesion and missed many more details concerning the RFA-treated area than CEUS and MR during the three months. The results from CEUS exhibited comparable accuracy to those from enhanced MR at each phase. However, there were no significant differences in the results from US, CEUS and MR at six months, which may contribute to the complete formation of lesion cyst. In the early phase, conventional US was not sufficient for evaluating the efficacy of RFA. Enhanced US and MR provided clear images and accurate information. However, CEUS has the advantage of being more economical, using more convenient equipment and faster scanning, thus identifying it as the more feasible choice. Furthermore, no notable advantages were observed among any image examinations in the long-term follow-up.

  14. A new apatinib microcrystal formulation enhances the effect of radiofrequency ablation treatment on hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie H

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Hui Xie,1,2 Shengtao Tian,2 Haipeng Yu,1 Xueling Yang,1 Jia Liu,3 Huaming Wang,2 Fan Feng,2 Zhi Guo1 1Department of Interventional Therapy, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin’s Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Interventional Therapy, 302nd Hospital of People’s Liberation Army, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Blood Transfusion, 302nd Hospital of People’s Liberation Army, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Introduction: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA is the foremost treatment option for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, however, rapid and aggressive recurrence of HCC often occurs after RFA due to epithelial–mesenchymal transition process. Although combination of RFA with sorafenib, a molecular targeted agent, could attenuate the recurrence of HCC, application of this molecular targeted agent poses a heavy medical burden and oral administration of sorafenib also brings severe side effects. Materials and methods: In this study, we prepared an apatinib microcrystal formulation (Apa-MS that sustainably releases apatinib, a novel molecular targeted agent, for advanced HCC treatment. We injected apatinib solution or Apa-MS into subcutaneous HCC tumors. Results: It was found that Apa-MS exhibited slow apatinib release in vivo and in turn inhibited the epithelial–mesenchymal transition of HCC cells for extended time. Moreover, in rodent HCC model, Apa-MS enhanced the antitumor effect of RFA treatment. Conclusion: Based on these results, we conclude that Apa-MS, a slow releasing system of apatinib, allows apatinib to remain effective in tumor tissues for a long time and could enhance the antitumor effect of RFA on HCC. Keywords: apatinib microcrystals, radiofrequency ablation, sustained releasing behavior, long-acting efficiency

  15. Radiofrequency ablation guided by contrast-enhanced ultrasound for hepatic malignancies: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Y.; Wang, W.-P.; Gan, Y.-H.; Huang, B.-J.; Ding, H.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate whether contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS)-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) can be performed effectively in small hepatic malignancies that are invisible or poorly visualized at traditional grey-scale ultrasonography (US). Materials and methods: The institutional ethics committee approved the study, and all patients provided written informed consent before their enrolment. The study focused on 55 patients (43 men, 12 women, age 57.4 ± 10.9 years) with 60 hepatic lesions from May 2010 to March 2011. All lesions were treated with multipolar radiofrequency ablation (RFA). During the RFA procedure, with the injection of ultrasound contrast agent (sulphur hexafluoride; SonoVue, Bracco Imaging Spa, Milan, Italy), RFA was conducted under CEUS guidance when the optimal depiction of a lesion was obtained. Artificial pleural effusions were used in those cases obstructed by the lungs. Twenty-four hours after RFA, contrast-enhanced MRI was used as the reference standard to evaluate the primary effectiveness rate and complete tumour necrosis. The follow-up time was 12–24 months (median 15 months). Results: Among 60 hepatic malignancies, CEUS detected 57 lesions (95%), which was higher than that at US (26.6%). Artificial pleural effusions were performed in three cases, resulting in the detection of three additional lesions. The insertion of RFA electrodes was monitored by CEUS in all lesions. Immediately after RFA, complete tumour necrosis were achieved in all 60 lesions as apparent at MRI, for a primary effectiveness rate of 100%. Conclusion: CEUS-guided RFA is a promising technique for targeting and improving the efficiency of treatment of hepatic malignancies. - Highlights: • CEUS guided RFA improved the detectability of hepatic malignancies indistinctive on gray-scale ultrasound. • Pre-operation CEUS helped localization of indistinctive hepatic malignancies. • CEUS guided RFA of hepatic malignancies achieved a more complete ablation

  16. Non-invasive diagnostic methods in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todea, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    The paper, will present the most important non-invasive methods for diagnostic, in different fields of dentistry. Moreover, the laser-based methods will be emphasis. In orthodontics, 3D laser scanners are increasingly being used to establish database for normative population and cross-sectional growth changes but also to asses clinical outcomes in orthognatic surgical and non-surgical treatments. In prevention the main methods for diagnostic of demineralization and caries detection in early stages are represented by laser fluorescence - Quantitative Light Florescence (QLF); DiagnoDent-system-655nm; FOTI-Fiberoptic transillumination; DIFOTI-Digital Imaging Fiberoptic transillumination; and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). In odontology, Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) is a noninvasive real time method used for determining the tooth vitality by monitoring the pulp microcirculation in traumatized teeth, fractured teeth, and teeth undergoing different conservative treatments. In periodontology, recently study shows the ability of LDF to evaluate the health of gingival tissue in periodontal tissue diseases but also after different periodontal treatments.

  17. Non-invasive measurement and imaging of tissue iron oxide nanoparticle concentrations in vivo using proton relaxometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Pierre, T G; Clark, P R; Chua-anusorn, W; Fleming, A; Pardoe, H; Jeffrey, G P; Olynyk, J K; Pootrakul, P; Jones, S; Moroz, P

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles and microparticles can be found in biological tissues for a variety of reasons including pathological deposition of biogenic particles, administration of synthetic particles for scientific or clinical reasons, and the inclusion of biogenic magnetic particles for the sensing of the geomagnetic field. In applied magnetic fields, the magnetisation of tissue protons can be manipulated with radiofrequency radiation such that the macroscopic magnetisation of the protons precesses freely in the plane perpendicular to the applied static field. The presence of magnetic particles within tissue enhances the rate of dephasing of proton precession with higher concentrations of particles resulting in higher dephasing rates. Magnetic resonance imaging instruments can be used to measure and image the rate of decay of spin echo recoverable proton transverse magnetisation (R 2 ) within tissues enabling the measurement and imaging of magnetic particle concentrations with the aid of suitable calibration curves. Applications include the non-invasive measurement of liver iron concentrations in iron-overload disorders and measurement and imaging of magnetic particle concentrations used in magnetic hyperthermia therapy. Future applications may include the tracking of magnetically labelled drugs or biomolecules and the measurement of fibrotic liver damage

  18. Non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headache

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brønfort, Gert; Haas, Mitchell; Evans, Roni L.; Goldsmith, Charles H.; Assendelft, Willem J.J.; Bouter, Lex M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Non-invasive physical treatments are often used to treat common types of chronic/recurrent headache. Objectives: To quantify and compare the magnitude of short- and long-term effects of non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headaches. Search methods: We searched the

  19. Non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headache.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronfort, G.; Nilsson, N.; Haas, M.; Evans, R.; Goldsmith, C. H.; Assendelft, W. J.; Bouter, L. M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-invasive physical treatments are often used to treat common types of chronic/recurrent headache. OBJECTIVES: To quantify and compare the magnitude of short- and long-term effects of non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headaches. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the

  20. Techniques for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Arterial Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes S. Meidert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since both, hypotension and hypertension, can potentially impair the function of vital organs such as heart, brain, or kidneys, monitoring of arterial blood pressure (BP is a mainstay of hemodynamic monitoring in acutely or critically ill patients. Arterial BP can either be obtained invasively via an arterial catheter or non-invasively. Non-invasive BP measurement provides either intermittent or continuous readings. Most commonly, an occluding upper arm cuff is used for intermittent non-invasive monitoring. BP values are then obtained either manually (by auscultation of Korotkoff sounds or palpation or automatically (e.g., by oscillometry. For continuous non-invasive BP monitoring, the volume clamp method or arterial applanation tonometry can be used. Both techniques enable the arterial waveform and BP values to be obtained continuously. This article describes the different techniques for non-invasive BP measurement, their advantages and limitations, and their clinical applicability.

  1. Saline-enhanced radiofrequency thermal ablation of the lung: a feasibility study in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Sang Won; Li, Chun Ai; Youk, Ji Hyun; Kim, Young Kon; Jin, Zhewu; Chung, Myoung Ja [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mi Suk [Yangi Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-01

    To assess the feasibility and safety of CT-guided percutaneous transthoracic radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with saline infusion of pulmonary tissue in rabbits. Twenty-eight New Zealand White rabbits were divided into two groups: an RFA group (n=10) and a saline-enhanced RFA (SRFA) group (n=18). In the RFA group, percutaneous RFA of the lung was performed under CT guidance and using a 17-gauge internally cooled electrode. In the SRFA group, 1.5 ml of 0.9% saline was infused slowly through a 21-gauge, polyteflon-coated Chiba needle prior to and during RFA. Lesion size and the healing process were studied in rabbits sacrificed at times from the day following treatment to three weeks after, and any complications were noted. In the SRFA group, the mean diameter (12.5{+-}1.6 mm) of acute RF lesions was greater than that of RFA lesions (8.5{+-}1.4 mm) (p < .05). The complications arising in 12 cases were pneumothorax (n=8), thermal injury to the chest wall (n=2), hemothorax (n=1), and lung abscess (n=1). Although procedure-related complications tended to occur more frequently in the SRFA group (55.6%) than in the RFA group (20%), the difference was not statistically significant (p .11). Saline-enhanced RFA of pulmonary tissue in rabbits produces more extensive coagulation necrosis than conventional RFA procedures, without adding substantial risk of serious complications.

  2. Radiofrequency Neurotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your specific symptoms. What you can expect Before radiofrequency neurotomy Let your doctor know if you take ... tobacco products the day of your procedure. During radiofrequency neurotomy Radiofrequency neurotomy is an outpatient procedure, so ...

  3. Alteration of political belief by non- invasive brain stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eChawke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available People generally have imperfect introspective access to the mechanisms underlying their political beliefs, yet can confidently communicate the reasoning that goes into their decision making process. An innate desire for certainty and security in ones beliefs may play an important and somewhat automatic role in motivating the maintenance or rejection of partisan support. The aim of the current study was to clarify the role of the DLPFC in the alteration of political beliefs. Recent neuroimaging studies have focused on the association between the DLPFC (a region involved in the regulation of cognitive conflict and error feedback processing and reduced affiliation with opposing political candidates. As such, this study used a method of non- invasive brain simulation (tRNS to enhance activity of the bilateral DLPFC during the incorporation of political campaign information. These findings indicate a crucial role for this region in political belief formation. However, enhanced activation of DLPFC does not necessarily result in the specific rejection of political beliefs. In contrast to the hypothesis the results appear to indicate a significant increase in conservative values regardless of participant’s initial political orientation and the political campaign advertisement they were exposed to.

  4. Alteration of Political Belief by Non-invasive Brain Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawke, Caroline; Kanai, Ryota

    2016-01-01

    People generally have imperfect introspective access to the mechanisms underlying their political beliefs, yet can confidently communicate the reasoning that goes into their decision making process. An innate desire for certainty and security in ones beliefs may play an important and somewhat automatic role in motivating the maintenance or rejection of partisan support. The aim of the current study was to clarify the role of the DLPFC in the alteration of political beliefs. Recent neuroimaging studies have focused on the association between the DLPFC (a region involved in the regulation of cognitive conflict and error feedback processing) and reduced affiliation with opposing political candidates. As such, this study used a method of non-invasive brain simulation (tRNS) to enhance activity of the bilateral DLPFC during the incorporation of political campaign information. These findings indicate a crucial role for this region in political belief formation. However, enhanced activation of DLPFC does not necessarily result in the specific rejection of political beliefs. In contrast to the hypothesis the results appear to indicate a significant increase in conservative values regardless of participant's initial political orientation and the political campaign advertisement they were exposed to. PMID:26834603

  5. Superselective Particle Embolization Enhances Efficacy of Radiofrequency Ablation: Effects of Particle Size and Sequence of Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Toshihiro; Isfort, Peter; Braunschweig, Till; Westphal, Saskia; Woitok, Anna; Penzkofer, Tobias; Bruners, Philipp; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the effects of particle size and course of action of superselective bland transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) on the efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Methods. Twenty pigs were divided into five groups: group 1a, 40-μm bland TAE before RFA; group 1b, 40-μm bland TAE after RFA; group 2a, 250-μm bland TAE before RFA; group 2b, 250-μm bland TAE after RFA and group 3, RFA alone. A total of 40 treatments were performed with a combined CT and angiography system. The sizes of the treated zones were measured from contrast-enhanced CTs on days 1 and 28. Animals were humanely killed, and the treated zones were examined pathologically. Results. There were no complications during procedures and follow-up. The short-axis diameter of the ablation zone in group 1a (mean ± standard deviation, 3.19 ± 0.39 cm) was significantly larger than in group 1b (2.44 ± 0.52 cm; P = 0.021), group 2a (2.51 ± 0.32 cm; P = 0.048), group 2b (2.19 ± 0.44 cm; P = 0.02), and group 3 (1.91 ± 0.55 cm; P 3 ). At histology, 40-μm microspheres were observed to occlude smaller and more distal arteries than 250-μm microspheres. Conclusion. Bland TAE is more effective before RFA than postablation embolization. The use of very small 40-μm microspheres enhances the efficacy of RFA more than the use of larger particles.

  6. Non-invasive markers of atherosclerosis and their correlation with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2014-07-26

    Jul 26, 2014 ... Study of non- invasive markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Int J Med Biomed Res ... hypertension, smoking, and alcohol intake were documented for .... The risk of general CVD and hard CVD was significantly ...

  7. Non-invasive beamforming add-on module

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    An embodiment of a non-invasive beamforming add-on apparatus couples to an existing antenna port and rectifies the beam azimuth in the upstream and downstream directions. The apparatus comprises input circuitry that is configured to receive one

  8. Elastography methods for the non-invasive assessment of portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccarina, Davide; Rosselli, Matteo; Genesca, Joan; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel A

    2018-02-01

    The gold standard to assess the presence and severity of portal hypertension remains the hepatic vein pressure gradient, however the recent development of non-invasive assessment using elastography techniques offers valuable alternatives. In this review, we discuss the diagnostic accuracy and utility of such techniques in patients with portal hypertension due to cirrhosis. Areas covered: A literature search focused on liver and spleen stiffness measurement with different elastographic techniques for the assessment of the presence and severity of portal hypertension and oesophageal varices in people with chronic liver disease. The combination of elastography with parameters such as platelet count and spleen size is also discussed. Expert commentary: Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis and portal hypertension is a validated tool for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients. Baveno VI recommended the combination of transient elastography and platelet count for ruling out varices needing treatment in patients with compensated advanced chronic liver disease. Assessment of aetiology specific cut-offs for ruling in and ruling out clinically significant portal hypertension is an unmet clinical need. The incorporation of spleen stiffness measurements in non-invasive algorithms using validated software and improved measuring scales might enhance the non-invasive diagnosis of portal hypertension in the next 5 years.

  9. Facilitate insight by non-invasive brain stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P Chi

    Full Text Available Our experiences can blind us. Once we have learned to solve problems by one method, we often have difficulties in generating solutions involving a different kind of insight. Yet there is evidence that people with brain lesions are sometimes more resistant to this so-called mental set effect. This inspired us to investigate whether the mental set effect can be reduced by non-invasive brain stimulation. 60 healthy right-handed participants were asked to take an insight problem solving task while receiving transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to the anterior temporal lobes (ATL. Only 20% of participants solved an insight problem with sham stimulation (control, whereas 3 times as many participants did so (p = 0.011 with cathodal stimulation (decreased excitability of the left ATL together with anodal stimulation (increased excitability of the right ATL. We found hemispheric differences in that a stimulation montage involving the opposite polarities did not facilitate performance. Our findings are consistent with the theory that inhibition to the left ATL can lead to a cognitive style that is less influenced by mental templates and that the right ATL may be associated with insight or novel meaning. Further studies including neurophysiological imaging are needed to elucidate the specific mechanisms leading to the enhancement.

  10. Non-invasive vascular imaging: assessing tumour vascularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, S.; Knopp, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    Non-invasive assessment of vascularity is a new diagnostic approach to characterise tumours. Vascular assessment is based on the pathophysiology of tumour angiogenesis and its diagnostic implications for tumour biology, prognosis and therapy response. Two current techniques investigating vascular features in addition to morphology are Doppler ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced MRI. Diagnostic differentiation has been shown to be possible with Doppler, and a high degree of observed vascularity could be linked to an aggressive course of the disease. Dynamic MRI using gadolinium chelates is already used clinically to detect and differentiate tumours. The histological correlation shows that capillary permeability is increased in malignant tumours and is the best criterion for differentiation from benign processes. Permeability and perfusion factors seem to be more diagnostic than overall vessel density. New clinical applications are currently being established for therapy monitoring. Further instrumental developments will bring harmonic imaging in Doppler, and faster imaging techniques, higher spatial resolution and novel pharmacokinetic concepts in MRI. Upcoming contrast agents for both Doppler and MRI will further improve estimation of intratumoural blood volume and vascular permeability. (orig.)

  11. Non-invasive Assessments of Adipose Tissue Metabolism In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rosalyn D; Borowsky, Francis E; Quinn, Kyle P; Bernstein, David L; Georgakoudi, Irene; Kaplan, David L

    2016-03-01

    Adipose tissue engineering is a diverse area of research where the developed tissues can be used to study normal adipose tissue functions, create disease models in vitro, and replace soft tissue defects in vivo. Increasing attention has been focused on the highly specialized metabolic pathways that regulate energy storage and release in adipose tissues which affect local and systemic outcomes. Non-invasive, dynamic measurement systems are useful to track these metabolic pathways in the same tissue model over time to evaluate long term cell growth, differentiation, and development within tissue engineering constructs. This approach reduces costs and time in comparison to more traditional destructive methods such as biochemical and immunochemistry assays and proteomics assessments. Towards this goal, this review will focus on important metabolic functions of adipose tissues and strategies to evaluate them with non-invasive in vitro methods. Current non-invasive methods, such as measuring key metabolic markers and endogenous contrast imaging will be explored.

  12. Enhanced Field Emission Studies on Niobium Surfaces Relevant to High Field Superconducting Radio-Frequency Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tong [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2002-09-18

    Enhanced field emission (EFE) presents the main impediment to higher acceleration gradients in superconducting niobium (Nb) radiofrequency cavities for particle accelerators. The strength, number and sources of EFE sites strongly depend on surface preparation and handling. The main objective of this thesis project is to systematically investigate the sources of EFE from Nb, to evaluate the best available surface preparation techniques with respect to resulting field emission, and to establish an optimized process to minimize or eliminate EFE. To achieve these goals, a scanning field emission microscope (SFEM) was designed and built as an extension to an existing commercial scanning electron microscope (SEM). In the SFEM chamber of ultra high vacuum, a sample is moved laterally in a raster pattern under a high voltage anode tip for EFE detection and localization. The sample is then transferred under vacuum to the SEM chamber equipped with an energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer for individual emitting site characterization. Compared to other systems built for similar purposes, this apparatus has low cost and maintenance, high operational flexibility, considerably bigger scan area, as well as reliable performance. EFE sources from planar Nb have been studied after various surface preparation, including chemical etching and electropolishing, combined with ultrasonic or high-pressure water rinse. Emitters have been identified, analyzed and the preparation process has been examined and improved based on EFE results. As a result, field-emission-free or near field-emission-free surfaces at ~140 MV/m have been consistently achieved with the above techniques. Characterization on the remaining emitters leads to the conclusion that no evidence of intrinsic emitters, i.e., no fundamental electric field limit induced by EFE, has been observed up to ~140 MV/m. Chemically etched and electropolished Nb are compared and no significant difference is observed up to ~140 MV/m. To

  13. Time-Resolved 3D Contrast-Enhanced MRA on 3.0T: a Non-Invasive Follow-Up Technique after Stent-Assisted Coil Embolization of the Intracranial Aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Roh, Hong Gee; Moon, Won Jin; Kim, Na Ra; Moon, Sung Gyu; Kang, Chung Hwan; Chun, Young Il; Kang, Hyun Seung

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of time-resolved contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (4D MRA) after stent-assisted coil embolization by comparing it with time of flight (TOF)-MRA. TOF-MRA and 4D MRA were obtained by 3T MRI in 26 patients treated with stent-assisted coil embolization (Enterprise:Neuroform = 7:19). The qualities of the MRA were rated on a graded scale of 0 to 4. We classified completeness of endovascular treatment into three categories. The degree of quality of visualization of the stented artery was compared between TOF and 4D MRA by the Wilcoxon signed rank test. We used the Mann-Whitney U test for comparing the quality of the visualization of the stented artery according to the stent type in each MRA method. The quality in terms of the visualization of the stented arteries in 4D MRA was significantly superior to that in 3D TOF-MRA, regardless of type of the stent (p < 0.001). The quality of the arteries which were stented with Neuroform was superior to that of the arteries stented with Enterprise in 3D TOF (p < 0.001) and 4D MRA (p = 0.008), respectively. 4D MRA provides a higher quality view of the stented parent arteries when compared with TOF.

  14. Statistical clustering of parametric maps from dynamic contrast enhanced MRI and an associated decision tree model for non-invasive tumour grading of T1b solid clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Yin; Yuan, Qing; Zhang, Yue; Fulkerson, Michael [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Madhuranthakam, Ananth J. [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); UT Southwestern Medical Center, Advanced Imaging Research Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Margulis, Vitaly; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A. [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Urology, Dallas, TX (United States); UT Southwestern Medical Center, Kidney Cancer Program, Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Brugarolas, James [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Kidney Cancer Program, Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, Dallas, TX (United States); UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Dallas, TX (United States); Kapur, Payal [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Urology, Dallas, TX (United States); UT Southwestern Medical Center, Kidney Cancer Program, Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, Dallas, TX (United States); UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Dallas, Texas (United States); Pedrosa, Ivan [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); UT Southwestern Medical Center, Advanced Imaging Research Center, Dallas, TX (United States); UT Southwestern Medical Center, Kidney Cancer Program, Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2018-01-15

    To apply a statistical clustering algorithm to combine information from dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) into a single tumour map to distinguish high-grade from low-grade T1b clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). This prospective, Institutional Review Board -approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act -compliant study included 18 patients with solid T1b ccRCC who underwent pre-surgical DCE MRI. After statistical clustering of the parametric maps of the transfer constant between the intravascular and extravascular space (K{sup trans}), rate constant (K{sub ep}) and initial area under the concentration curve (iAUC) with a fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm, each tumour was segmented into three regions (low/medium/high active areas). Percentages of each region and tumour size were compared to tumour grade at histopathology. A decision-tree model was constructed to select the best parameter(s) to predict high-grade ccRCC. Seven high-grade and 11 low-grade T1b ccRCCs were included. High-grade histology was associated with higher percent high active areas (p = 0.0154) and this was the only feature selected by the decision tree model, which had a diagnostic performance of 78% accuracy, 86% sensitivity, 73% specificity, 67% positive predictive value and 89% negative predictive value. The FCM integrates multiple DCE-derived parameter maps and identifies tumour regions with unique pharmacokinetic characteristics. Using this approach, a decision tree model using criteria beyond size to predict tumour grade in T1b ccRCCs is proposed. (orig.)

  15. Statistical clustering of parametric maps from dynamic contrast enhanced MRI and an associated decision tree model for non-invasive tumour grading of T1b solid clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, Yin; Yuan, Qing; Zhang, Yue; Fulkerson, Michael; Madhuranthakam, Ananth J.; Margulis, Vitaly; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A.; Brugarolas, James; Kapur, Payal; Pedrosa, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    To apply a statistical clustering algorithm to combine information from dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) into a single tumour map to distinguish high-grade from low-grade T1b clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). This prospective, Institutional Review Board -approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act -compliant study included 18 patients with solid T1b ccRCC who underwent pre-surgical DCE MRI. After statistical clustering of the parametric maps of the transfer constant between the intravascular and extravascular space (K trans ), rate constant (K ep ) and initial area under the concentration curve (iAUC) with a fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm, each tumour was segmented into three regions (low/medium/high active areas). Percentages of each region and tumour size were compared to tumour grade at histopathology. A decision-tree model was constructed to select the best parameter(s) to predict high-grade ccRCC. Seven high-grade and 11 low-grade T1b ccRCCs were included. High-grade histology was associated with higher percent high active areas (p = 0.0154) and this was the only feature selected by the decision tree model, which had a diagnostic performance of 78% accuracy, 86% sensitivity, 73% specificity, 67% positive predictive value and 89% negative predictive value. The FCM integrates multiple DCE-derived parameter maps and identifies tumour regions with unique pharmacokinetic characteristics. Using this approach, a decision tree model using criteria beyond size to predict tumour grade in T1b ccRCCs is proposed. (orig.)

  16. Biliary peritonitis after radiofrequency ablation diagnosed by gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Akihiro; Isoda, Hiroyoshi; Togashi, Kaori [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Koyama, Takashi; Todo, Giro; Osaki, Yukio [Osaka Red Cross Hospital, Osaka (Japan)

    2013-12-15

    This study describes the first case of biliary peritonitis after radiofrequency ablation diagnosed by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA), a hepatocyte-specific MR imaging contrast agent. The image acquired 300 minutes after the administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA was useful to make a definite diagnosis and to identify the pathway of bile leakage. It is important to decide on the acquisition timing with consideration of the predicted location of bile duct injury.

  17. Urinary biomarkers for the non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Emily; Nisenblat, Vicki; Farquhar, Cindy; Fraser, Ian; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Johnson, Neil; Hull, M. Louise

    2015-01-01

    About 10% of reproductive-aged women suffer from endometriosis which is a costly chronic disease that causes pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopy is the 'gold standard' diagnostic test for endometriosis, but it is expensive and carries surgical risks. Currently, there are no simple non-invasive

  18. Blood biomarkers for the non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nisenblat, Vicki; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Shaikh, Rabia; Farquhar, Cindy; Jordan, Vanessa; Scheffers, Carola S.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Johnson, Neil; Hull, M. Louise

    2016-01-01

    About 10% of reproductive-aged women suffer from endometriosis, a costly chronic disease causing pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopy is the gold standard diagnostic test for endometriosis, but is expensive and carries surgical risks. Currently, there are no non-invasive or minimally invasive

  19. A comparison of non-invasive versus invasive methods of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Puneet Khanna

    for Hb estimation from the laboratory [total haemoglobin mass (tHb)] and arterial blood gas (ABG) machine (aHb), using ... A comparison of non-invasive versus invasive methods of haemoglobin estimation in patients undergoing intracranial surgery. 161 .... making decisions for blood transfusions based on these results.

  20. Non-invasive measurement of adrenocortical activity in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measuring physiological stress reactions through the quantification of plasma cortisol often involves physical restraint, which acts as a stressor itself. Here, we present the validation of a non-invasive method for assessing adrenocortical activity as an indicator of stress in the bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis). By conducting ...

  1. Eyeblink Conditioning: A Non-Invasive Biomarker for Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Eyeblink conditioning (EBC) is a classical conditioning paradigm typically used to study the underlying neural processes of learning and memory. EBC has a well-defined neural circuitry, is non-invasive, and can be employed in human infants shortly after birth making it an ideal tool to use in both developing and special populations. In addition,…

  2. Non-invasive diagnosis and management of ectopic pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mello, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis begins with a focus on non-invasive diagnostic methods for ectopic pregnancy. The heterogeneity found in studies on diagnostic tests for ectopic pregnancy has led to an international recommendation on uniform definitions of early pregnancy complications. Hereafter,

  3. Comparison of non-invasive tear film stability measurement techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michael Tm; Murphy, Paul J; Blades, Kenneth J; Craig, Jennifer P

    2018-01-01

    Measurement of tear film stability is commonly used to give an indication of tear film quality but a number of non-invasive techniques exists within the clinical setting. This study sought to compare three non-invasive tear film stability measurement techniques: instrument-mounted wide-field white light clinical interferometry, instrument-mounted keratoscopy and hand-held keratoscopy. Twenty-two subjects were recruited in a prospective, randomised, masked, cross-over study. Tear film break-up or thinning time was measured non-invasively by independent experienced examiners, with each of the three devices, in a randomised order, within an hour. Significant correlation was observed between instrument-mounted interferometric and keratoscopic measurements (p 0.05). Tear film stability values obtained from the hand-held device were significantly shorter and demonstrated narrower spread than the other two instruments (all p 0.05). Good clinical agreement exists between the instrument-mounted interferometric and keratoscopic measurements but not between the hand-held device and either of the instrument-mounted techniques. The results highlight the importance of specifying the instrument employed to record non-invasive tear film stability. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  4. Non-invasive technology to determine the haemoglobin level of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Predonation haemoglobin (Hb) check has been done traditionally by the copper sulphate (CuSO4), or the haemocue haemoglobinometer methods. Both of these require a fingerprick of the donor to obtain capillary blood samples. It is thought that a non-invasive, but accurate method of Hb check will reduce ...

  5. Imaging modalities for the non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nisenblat, Vicki; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Farquhar, Cindy; Johnson, Neil; Hull, M. Louise

    2016-01-01

    About 10% of women of reproductive age suffer from endometriosis. Endometriosis is a costly chronic disease that causes pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopy, the gold standard diagnostic test for endometriosis, is expensive and carries surgical risks. Currently, no non-invasive tests that can

  6. Plasma Atrial Natriuretic Peptide as a non-invasive biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasma Atrial Natriuretic Peptide as a non-invasive biochemical marker of dyspnoea in congestive heart failure patients. ... University of Mauritius Research Journal ... score assessed by a 10 graded visual analogue scale in the control group (mean score = 1) and an increased from 1.6 to 6.4 in the heart failure patients.

  7. Non-invasive in vivo measurement of macular carotenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A non-invasive in vivo method for assessing macular carotenoids includes performing Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) on a retina of a subject. A spatial representation of carotenoid levels in the macula based on data from the OCT of the retina can be generated.

  8. Endometrial biomarkers for the non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, Devashana; Hull, M. Louise; Fraser, Ian; Miller, Laura; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Johnson, Neil; Nisenblat, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    About 10% of reproductive-aged women suffer from endometriosis, which is a costly, chronic disease that causes pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopy is the gold standard diagnostic test for endometriosis, but it is expensive and carries surgical risks. Currently, there are no non-invasive tests

  9. Blood biomarkers for the non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nisenblat, Vicki; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Shaikh, Rabia; Farquhar, Cindy; Jordan, Vanessa; Scheffers, Carola S.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Johnson, Neil; Hull, M. Louise

    2016-01-01

    Background About 10% of reproductive-aged women suffer from endometriosis, a costly chronic disease causing pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopy is the gold standard diagnostic test for endometriosis, but is expensive and carries surgical risks. Currently, there are no non-invasive or minimally

  10. Non-invasive Markers of Liver Fibrosis: Adjuncts or Alternatives to Liver Biopsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jun L.; Pavlides, Michael; Moolla, Ahmad; Ryan, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Liver fibrosis reflects sustained liver injury often from multiple, simultaneous factors. Whilst the presence of mild fibrosis on biopsy can be a reassuring finding, the identification of advanced fibrosis is critical to the management of patients with chronic liver disease. This necessity has lead to a reliance on liver biopsy which itself is an imperfect test and poorly accepted by patients. The development of robust tools to non-invasively assess liver fibrosis has dramatically enhanced clinical decision making in patients with chronic liver disease, allowing a rapid and informed judgment of disease stage and prognosis. Should a liver biopsy be required, the appropriateness is clearer and the diagnostic yield is greater with the use of these adjuncts. While a number of non-invasive liver fibrosis markers are now used in routine practice, a steady stream of innovative approaches exists. With improvement in the reliability, reproducibility and feasibility of these markers, their potential role in disease management is increasing. Moreover, their adoption into clinical trials as outcome measures reflects their validity and dynamic nature. This review will summarize and appraise the current and novel non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis, both blood and imaging based, and look at their prospective application in everyday clinical care. PMID:27378924

  11. Recording human cortical population spikes non-invasively--An EEG tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterstraat, Gunnar; Fedele, Tommaso; Burghoff, Martin; Scheer, Hans-Jürgen; Curio, Gabriel

    2015-07-30

    Non-invasively recorded somatosensory high-frequency oscillations (sHFOs) evoked by electric nerve stimulation are markers of human cortical population spikes. Previously, their analysis was based on massive averaging of EEG responses. Advanced neurotechnology and optimized off-line analysis can enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of sHFOs, eventually enabling single-trial analysis. The rationale for developing dedicated low-noise EEG technology for sHFOs is unfolded. Detailed recording procedures and tailored analysis principles are explained step-by-step. Source codes in Matlab and Python are provided as supplementary material online. Combining synergistic hardware and analysis improvements, evoked sHFOs at around 600 Hz ('σ-bursts') can be studied in single-trials. Additionally, optimized spatial filters increase the signal-to-noise ratio of components at about 1 kHz ('κ-bursts') enabling their detection in non-invasive surface EEG. sHFOs offer a unique possibility to record evoked human cortical population spikes non-invasively. The experimental approaches and algorithms presented here enable also non-specialized EEG laboratories to combine measurements of conventional low-frequency EEG with the analysis of concomitant cortical population spike responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Non invasive brain stimulation to enhance post-stroke recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Kubis; Nathalie Kubis

    2016-01-01

    Brain plasticity after stroke remains poorly understood. Patients may improve spontaneously within the first 3 months and then more slowly in the coming year. The first days, decreased edema and reperfusion of the ischemic penumbra may possibly account for these phenomena, but the improvement during the next weeks suggests plasticity phenomena and cortical reorganization of the brain ischemic areas and of more remote areas. Indeed, the injured ischemic motor cortex has a reduced cortical exci...

  13. Renal Cell Carcinoma Perfusion before and after Radiofrequency Ablation Measured with Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wah, Tze Min; Sourbron, Steven; Wilson, Daniel Jonathan; Magee, Derek; Gregory, Walter Martin; Selby, Peter John; Buckley, David L

    2018-01-08

    To investigate if the early treatment effects of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) can be detected with dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)-MRI and to correlate RCC perfusion with RFA treatment time. 20 patients undergoing RFA of their 21 RCCs were evaluated with DCE-MRI before and at one month after RFA treatment. Perfusion was estimated using the maximum slope technique at two independent sittings. Total RCC blood flow was correlated with total RFA treatment time, tumour location, size and histology. DCE-MRI examinations were successfully evaluated for 21 RCCs (size from 1.3 to 4 cm). Perfusion of the RCCs decreased significantly ( p measuring RCC perfusion before and after RFA. Perfusion significantly decreases in the zone of ablation, suggesting that it may be useful for the assessment of treatment efficacy. Pre-RFA RCC blood flow may be used to predict RFA treatment time.

  14. New trend in non-invasive prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, M; Carrera, P; Lampasona, V; Galbiati, S

    2015-12-07

    The presence of fetal DNA in maternal plasma represents a source of genetic material which can be obtained non-invasively. To date, the translation of noninvasive prenatal diagnosis from research into clinical practice has been rather fragmented, and despite the advances in improving the analytical sensitivity of methods, distinguishing between fetal and maternal sequences remains very challenging. Thus, the field of noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of genetic diseases has yet to attain a routine application in clinical diagnostics. On the contrary, fetal sex determination in pregnancies at high risk of sex-linked disorders, tests for fetal RHD genotyping and non-invasive assessment of chromosomal aneuploidies are now available worldwide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Skin Rejuvenation with Non-Invasive Pulsed Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golberg, Alexander; Khan, Saiqa; Belov, Vasily; Quinn, Kyle P.; Albadawi, Hassan; Felix Broelsch, G.; Watkins, Michael T.; Georgakoudi, Irene; Papisov, Mikhail; Mihm, Martin C., Jr.; Austen, William G., Jr.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2015-05-01

    Degenerative skin diseases affect one third of individuals over the age of sixty. Current therapies use various physical and chemical methods to rejuvenate skin; but since the therapies affect many tissue components including cells and extracellular matrix, they may also induce significant side effects, such as scarring. Here we report on a new, non-invasive, non-thermal technique to rejuvenate skin with pulsed electric fields. The fields destroy cells while simultaneously completely preserving the extracellular matrix architecture and releasing multiple growth factors locally that induce new cells and tissue growth. We have identified the specific pulsed electric field parameters in rats that lead to prominent proliferation of the epidermis, formation of microvasculature, and secretion of new collagen at treated areas without scarring. Our results suggest that pulsed electric fields can improve skin function and thus can potentially serve as a novel non-invasive skin therapy for multiple degenerative skin diseases.

  16. Skin Rejuvenation with Non-Invasive Pulsed Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golberg, Alexander; Khan, Saiqa; Belov, Vasily; Quinn, Kyle P.; Albadawi, Hassan; Felix Broelsch, G.; Watkins, Michael T.; Georgakoudi, Irene; Papisov, Mikhail; Mihm Jr., Martin C.; Austen Jr., William G.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative skin diseases affect one third of individuals over the age of sixty. Current therapies use various physical and chemical methods to rejuvenate skin; but since the therapies affect many tissue components including cells and extracellular matrix, they may also induce significant side effects, such as scarring. Here we report on a new, non-invasive, non-thermal technique to rejuvenate skin with pulsed electric fields. The fields destroy cells while simultaneously completely preserving the extracellular matrix architecture and releasing multiple growth factors locally that induce new cells and tissue growth. We have identified the specific pulsed electric field parameters in rats that lead to prominent proliferation of the epidermis, formation of microvasculature, and secretion of new collagen at treated areas without scarring. Our results suggest that pulsed electric fields can improve skin function and thus can potentially serve as a novel non-invasive skin therapy for multiple degenerative skin diseases. PMID:25965851

  17. Non-invasive biomarkers and pulmonary function in smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Borrill, Zo? L; Roy, Kay; Vessey, Rupert S; Woodcock, Ashley A; Singh, Dave

    2008-01-01

    Zoë L Borrill1, Kay Roy1, Rupert S Vessey2, Ashley A Woodcock1, Dave Singh11Medicines Evaluation Unit, University of Manchester, Wythenshawe Hospital, Southmoor Rd, Manchester, UK; 2Glaxo Smith Kline, Philadelphia, USAAbstract: Limited information exists regarding measurement, reproducibility and interrelationships of non-invasive biomarkers in smokers. We compared exhaled breath condensate (EBC) leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and 8-isoprostane, exhaled nitric oxide, induced sputum, spirometr...

  18. Applicability of non-invasively collected matrices for human biomonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickmilder Marc

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With its inclusion under Action 3 in the Environment and Health Action Plan 2004–2010 of the European Commission, human biomonitoring is currently receiving an increasing amount of attention from the scientific community as a tool to better quantify human exposure to, and health effects of, environmental stressors. Despite the policy support, however, there are still several issues that restrict the routine application of human biomonitoring data in environmental health impact assessment. One of the main issues is the obvious need to routinely collect human samples for large-scale surveys. Particularly the collection of invasive samples from susceptible populations may suffer from ethical and practical limitations. Children, pregnant women, elderly, or chronically-ill people are among those that would benefit the most from non-invasive, repeated or routine sampling. Therefore, the use of non-invasively collected matrices for human biomonitoring should be promoted as an ethically appropriate, cost-efficient and toxicologically relevant alternative for many biomarkers that are currently determined in invasively collected matrices. This review illustrates that several non-invasively collected matrices are widely used that can be an valuable addition to, or alternative for, invasively collected matrices such as peripheral blood sampling. Moreover, a well-informed choice of matrix can provide an added value for human biomonitoring, as different non-invasively collected matrices can offer opportunities to study additional aspects of exposure to and effects from environmental contaminants, such as repeated sampling, historical overview of exposure, mother-child transfer of substances, or monitoring of substances with short biological half-lives.

  19. Thiomers: potential excipients for non-invasive peptide delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas; Krauland, Alexander H; Leitner, Verena M; Palmberger, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    In recent years thiolated polymers or so-called thiomers have appeared as a promising alternative in the arena of non-invasive peptide delivery. Thiomers are generated by the immobilisation of thiol-bearing ligands to mucoadhesive polymeric excipients. By formation of disulfide bonds with mucus glycoproteins, the mucoadhesive properties of these polymers are improved up to 130-fold. Due to formation of inter- and intramolecular disulfide bonds within the thiomer itself, dosage forms such as tablets or microparticles display strong cohesive properties resulting in comparatively higher stability, prolonged disintegration times and a more controlled release of the embedded peptide drug. The permeation of peptide drugs through mucosa can be improved by the use of thiolated polymers. Additionally some thiomers exhibit improved inhibitory properties towards peptidases. The efficacy of thiomers in non-invasive peptide delivery could be demonstrated by various in vivo studies. Tablets comprising a thiomer and pegylated insulin, for instance, resulted in a pharmacological efficacy of 7% after oral application to diabetic mice. Furthermore, a pharmacological efficacy of 1.3% was achieved in rats by oral administration of calcitonin tablets comprising a thiomer. Human growth hormone in a thiomer-gel was applied nasally to rats and led to a bioavailability of 2.75%. In all these studies, formulations comprising the corresponding unmodified polymer had only a marginal or no effect. According to these results drug carrier systems based on thiomers seem to be a promising tool for non-invasive peptide drug delivery.

  20. Current methods of non-invasive ventilatory support for neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ramadan A; Roehr, Charles Christoph; Schmalisch, Gerd

    2011-09-01

    Non-invasive ventilatory support can reduce the adverse effects associated with intubation and mechanical ventilation, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, sepsis, and trauma to the upper airways. In the last 4 decades, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been used to wean preterm infants off mechanical ventilation and, more recently, as a primary mode of respiratory support for preterm infants with respiratory insufficiency. Moreover, new methods of respiratory support have been developed, and the devices used to provide non-invasive ventilation (NIV) have improved technically. Use of NIV is increasing, and a variety of equipment is available in different clinical settings. There is evidence that NIV improves gas exchange and reduces extubation failure after mechanical ventilation in infants. However, more research is needed to identify the most suitable devices for particular conditions; the NIV settings that should be used; and whether to employ synchronized or non-synchronized NIV. Furthermore, the optimal treatment strategy and the best time for initiation of NIV remain to be identified. This article provides an overview of the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in newborn infants, and the clinical applications of NIV. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Non-invasive genetic censusing and monitoring of primate populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arandjelovic, Mimi; Vigilant, Linda

    2018-03-01

    Knowing the density or abundance of primate populations is essential for their conservation management and contextualizing socio-demographic and behavioral observations. When direct counts of animals are not possible, genetic analysis of non-invasive samples collected from wildlife populations allows estimates of population size with higher accuracy and precision than is possible using indirect signs. Furthermore, in contrast to traditional indirect survey methods, prolonged or periodic genetic sampling across months or years enables inference of group membership, movement, dynamics, and some kin relationships. Data may also be used to estimate sex ratios, sex differences in dispersal distances, and detect gene flow among locations. Recent advances in capture-recapture models have further improved the precision of population estimates derived from non-invasive samples. Simulations using these methods have shown that the confidence interval of point estimates includes the true population size when assumptions of the models are met, and therefore this range of population size minima and maxima should be emphasized in population monitoring studies. Innovations such as the use of sniffer dogs or anti-poaching patrols for sample collection are important to ensure adequate sampling, and the expected development of efficient and cost-effective genotyping by sequencing methods for DNAs derived from non-invasive samples will automate and speed analyses. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Non-invasive ventilation after surgery in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, C; Castioni, C A; Livigni, S; Bersano, E; Cantello, R; Della Corte, F; Mazzini, L

    2014-04-01

    Surgery in patients affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) presents a particular anesthetic challenge because of the risk of post-operative pulmonary complications. We report on the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) to prevent post-operative pulmonary complications (PPCs) in nine patients affected by ALS enrolled in a phase-1 clinical trial with stem cell transplantation. All patients were treated with autologous mesenchymal stem cells implanted into the spinal cord with a surgical procedure. Anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with remifentanil and sevoflurane. No muscle relaxant was used. After awakening and regain of spontaneous breathing, patients were tracheally extubated. Non-invasive ventilation through nasal mask was delivered and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation and continuous positive pressure ventilation were started. The average time on NIV after surgery was 3 h and 12 min. All patients regained stable spontaneous breathing after NIV discontinuation and had no episodes of respiratory failure until the following day. Our case series suggest that the use of NIV after surgery can be a safe strategy to prevent PPCs in patients affected by ALS. The perioperative procedure we chose for these patients appeared safe even in patients with advanced functional stage of the disease. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Synergistic retention strategy of RGD active targeting and radiofrequency-enhanced permeability for intensified RF & chemotherapy synergistic tumor treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Li, Pei; He, Yaping; Bo, Xiaowan; Li, Xiaolong; Li, Dandan; Chen, Hangrong; Xu, Huixiong

    2016-08-01

    Despite gaining increasing attention, chelation of multiple active targeting ligands greatly increase the formation probability of protein corona, disabling active targeting. To overcome it, a synergistic retention strategy of RGD-mediated active targeting and radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field-enhanced permeability has been proposed here. It is validated that such a special synergistic retention strategy can promote more poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-based capsules encapsulating camptothecin (CPT) and solid DL-menthol (DLM) to enter and retain in tumor in vitro and in vivo upon exposure to RF irradiation, receiving an above 8 fold enhancement in HeLa retention. Moreover, the PLGA-based capsules can respond RF field to trigger the entrapped DLM to generate solid-liquid-gas (SLG) tri-phase transformation for enhancing RF ablation and CPT release. Therefore, depending on the enhanced RF ablation and released CPT and the validated synergistic retention effect, the inhibitory outcome for tumor growth has gained an over 10-fold improvement, realizing RF ablation & chemotherapy synergistic treatment against HeLa solid tumor, which indicates a significant promise in clinical RF ablation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Invasive v non-invasive assessment of the carotid arteries prior to trans-sphenoidal surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macpherson, P.; Teasdale, E.; Hadley, D.M.; Teasdale, G.

    1987-01-01

    Imaging studies in 47 patients who were to undergo trans-sphenoidal surgery were analysed with reference to the vascular structures in the parasellar region. The results of cavernous sinography, dynamic contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed good correlation with each other and with the appearances found at operation. CT and MRI, both non-invasive investigations, are therefore reliable preliminary screening methods for identifying the small proportion of patients on whom other imaging techniques need to be performed. (orig.)

  5. Effect of parallel radiofrequency transmission on arterial input function selection in dynamic contrast-enhanced 3 Tesla pelvic MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafi, Hatim; Elias, Saba N; Nguyen, Huyen T; Friel, Harry T; Knopp, Michael V; Guo, BeiBei; Heymsfield, Steven B; Jia, Guang

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate whether parallel radiofrequency transmission (mTX) can improve the symmetry of the left and right femoral arteries in dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) of prostate and bladder cancer. Eighteen prostate and 24 bladder cancer patients underwent 3.0 Tesla DCE-MRI scan with a single transmission channel coil. Subsequently, 21 prostate and 21 bladder cancer patients were scanned using the dual channel mTX upgrade. The precontrast signal ( S0) and the maximum enhancement ratio (MER) were measured in both the left and the right femoral arteries. Within the patient cohort, the ratio of S0 and MER in the left artery to that in the right artery ( S0_LR, MER_LR) was calculated with and without the use of mTX. Left to right asymmetry indices for S0 ( S0_LRasym) and MER ( MER_LRasym) were defined as the absolute values of the difference between S0_LR and 1, and the difference between MER_LR and 1, respectively. S0_LRasym, and MER_LRasym were 0.21 and 0.19 for prostate cancer patients with mTX, and 0.43 and 0.45 for the ones imaged without it (P enhancement. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. An alternative non-invasive treatment for Peyronie's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim A. Claro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Surgical correction of the deformity and plaque caused by Peyronie's disease has some important disadvantages and extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT emerged as a new promising therapy. We evaluated prospectively the efficacy and safety of the association of high dose vitamin E and ESWT as a non-invasive treatment for the disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients 42 to 68 years old (mean = 54 presenting penile deviation and sexual distress caused by Peyronie's disease were treated in a non-invasive manner. The time of penile deviation ranged from 16 to 52 months (mean = 30. All patients had previous unsuccessful treatment for Peyronie's disease. The angulation's deformity of the penis was assessed by photography at home. The patients received vitamin E (l.200 mg daily during 3 months and underwent 3 to 6 sessions (mean = 3 of ESWT (3,000 to 4,000 shockwaves at a power level of l to 2 at 1-week intervals. RESULTS: From 25 patients treated, 16 (64% reported an improvement in penile angulation, with a mean reduction of 21 degrees (10 to 40. Eight patients reported improvement in their spontaneous erections. Overall, the patients presented only minimal bruising at the site of treatment and skin hematoma. Four patients presented urethral bleeding. The mean angulation after treatment in the control group was 48.67 degrees (30 - 70 and in the study group was 24.42 degrees (0 - 70, statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Considering the common complications and the unsatisfactory outcome of the surgical correction for Peyronie's disease, the association of high dose vitamin E and ESWT represents a good option for a non-invasive, effective and safe treatment of the penile deformity.

  7. Enhancement of hydrophobicity and tensile strength of muga silk fiber by radiofrequency Ar plasma discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogoi, D.; Choudhury, A.J.; Chutia, J.; Pal, A.R.; Dass, N.N.; Devi, D.; Patil, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    The hydrophobicity and tensile strength of muga silk fiber are investigated using radiofrequency (RF) Ar plasma treatment at various RF powers (10-30 W) and treatment times (5-20 min). The Ar plasma is characterized using self-compensated Langmuir and emissive probe. The ion energy is observed to play an important role in determining the tensile strength and hydrophobicity of the plasma treated fibers. The chemical compositions of the fibers are observed to be affected by the increase in RF power rather than treatment time. XPS study reveals that the ions that are impinging on the substrates are mainly responsible for the cleavage of peptide bond and side chain of amino acid groups at the surface of the fibers. The observed properties (tensile strength and hydrophobicity) of the treated fibers are found to be dependent on their variation in atomic concentration and functional composition at the surfaces. All the treated muga fibers exhibit almost similar thermal behavior as compared to the virgin one. At RF power of 10 W and treatment time range of 5-20 min, the treated fibers exhibit properties similar to that of the virgin one. Higher RF power (30 W) and the increase in treatment time deteriorate the properties of the fibers due to incorporation of more surface roughness caused by sufficiently high energetic ion bombardment. The properties of the plasma treated fibers are attempted to correlate with the XPS analysis and their surface morphologies.

  8. Biomechanics of subcellular structures by non-invasive Brillouin microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonacci, Giuseppe; Braakman, Sietse

    2016-11-01

    Cellular biomechanics play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of several diseases. Unfortunately, current methods to measure biomechanical properties are invasive and mostly limited to the surface of a cell. As a result, the mechanical behaviour of subcellular structures and organelles remains poorly characterised. Here, we show three-dimensional biomechanical images of single cells obtained with non-invasive, non-destructive Brillouin microscopy with an unprecedented spatial resolution. Our results quantify the longitudinal elastic modulus of subcellular structures. In particular, we found the nucleoli to be stiffer than both the nuclear envelope (p biomechanics and its role in pathophysiology.

  9. Non-invasive techniques for determining musculoskeleton body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation analysis, combined with gamma spectrometry, has ushered in a new era of clinical diagnosis and evaluation of therapies, as well as investigation into and modelling of body composition in both normal individuals and patients suffering from various diseases and dysfunctions. Body composition studies have provided baseline data on such vital constituents as nitrogen, potassium and calcium. The non-invasive measurement techniques are particularly suitable for study of the musculo-skeletal changes in body composition. Of particular relevance here is the measurement of calcium loss in astronauts during prolonged space flights

  10. Towards a smart non-invasive fluid loss measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryadevara, N K; Mukhopadhyay, S C; Barrack, L

    2015-04-01

    In this article, a smart wireless sensing non-invasive system for estimating the amount of fluid loss, a person experiences while physical activity is presented. The system measures three external body parameters, Heart Rate, Galvanic Skin Response (GSR, or skin conductance), and Skin Temperature. These three parameters are entered into an empirically derived formula along with the user's body mass index, and estimation for the amount of fluid lost is determined. The core benefit of the developed system is the affluence usage in combining with smart home monitoring systems to care elderly people in ambient assisted living environments as well in automobiles to monitor the body parameters of a motorist.

  11. Therapeutic response assessment of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma: Utility of contrast-enhanced agent detection imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Kyo; Choi, Dongil; Lim, Hyo K.; Kim, Seung Hoon; Lee, Won Jae; Kim, Min Ju; Lee, Ji Yeon; Jeon, Yong Hwan; Lee, Jongmee; Lee, Soon Jin; Lim, Jae Hoon

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the utility of contrast-enhanced agent detection imaging (ADI) in the assessment of the therapeutic response to percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and methods: Ninety patients with a total of 97 nodular HCCs (mean, 2.1 ± 1.3 cm; range, 1.0-5.0 cm) treated with percutaneous RF ablation under the ultrasound guidance were evaluated with contrast-enhanced ADI after receiving an intravenous bolus injection of a microbubble contrast agent (SH U 508A). We obtained serial contrast-enhanced ADI images during the time period from 15 to 90 s after the initiation of the bolus contrast injection. All of the patients underwent a follow-up four-phase helical CT at 1 month after RF ablation, which was then repeated at 2-4 month intervals during a period of at least 12 months. The results of the contrast-enhanced ADI were compared with those of the follow-up CT in terms of the presence or absence of residual unablated tumor and local tumor progression in the treated lesions. Results: On contrast-enhanced ADI, technical success was obtained in 94 (97%) of the 97 HCCs, while residual unablated tumors were found in three HCCs (3%). Two of the three tumors that were suspicious (was not proven) for incomplete ablation were subjected to additional RF ablation. The remaining one enhancing lesion that was suspicious of a residual tumor on contrast-enhanced ADI was revealed to be reactive hyperemia at the 1-month follow-up CT. Therefore; the diagnostic concordance between the contrast-enhanced ADI and 1-month follow-up CT was 99%. Of the 94 ablated HCCs without residual tumors on both the contrast-enhanced ADI and 1-month follow-up CT after the initial RF ablation, five (5%) had CT findings of local tumor progression at a subsequent follow-up CT. Conclusion: Despite its limitations in predicting local tumor progression in the treated tumors, contrast-enhanced ADI is potentially useful for evaluating the

  12. The immunological response created by interstitial and non-invasive laser immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahavar, Cody F.; Zhou, Feifan; Hasanjee, Aamr M.; West, Connor L.; Nordquist, Robert E.; Hode, Tomas; Liu, Hong; Chen, Wei R.

    2015-03-01

    Laser immunotherapy (LIT) is an innovative cancer modality that uses laser irradiation and immunological stimulation to treat late-stage, metastatic cancers. LIT can be performed through either interstitial or non-invasive laser irradiation. Although LIT is still in development, recent clinical trials have shown that it can be used to successfully treat patients with late-stage breast cancer and melanoma. The development of LIT has been focused on creating an optimal immune response created by irradiating the tumor. One important factor that could enhance the immune response is the duration of laser irradiation. Irradiating the tumor for a shorter or longer amount of time could weaken the immune response created by LIT. Another factor that could weaken this immune response is the proliferation of regulatory T cells (TRegs) in response to the laser irradiation. However, low dose cyclophosphamide (CY) can help suppress the proliferation of TRegs and help create a more optimal immune response. An additional factor that could weaken the effectiveness of LIT is the selectivity of the laser. If LIT is performed non-invasively, then deeply embedded tumors and highly pigmented skin could cause an uneven temperature distribution inside the tumor. To solve this problem, an immunologically modified carbon nanotube system was created by using an immunoadjuvant known as glycated chitosan (GC) as a surfactant for single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to immunologically modify SWNTs. SWNT-GC retains the optical properties of SWNTs and the immunological functions of GC to help increase the selectivity of the laser and create a more optimal immune response. In this preliminary study, tumor-bearing rats were treated with LIT either interstitially by an 805-nm laser with GC and low-dose CY, or non-invasively by a 980-nm laser with SWNT-GC. The goal was to observe the effects of CY on the immune response induced by LIT and to also determine the effect of irradiation duration for

  13. Measurement of non-invasive X-ray measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Shinji

    2013-01-01

    Described are the history, measuring system, characteristics and present state of the instruments in the title (NXMI). NXMI, non-invasive to the inner circuit of X-ray generator, is now essential for the quality control of generator with reference to definitions by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and Japan Industrial Standards (JIS). Non-invasive measurement of the generator's tube voltage in 1944 is the first report where the absorption difference of Cu plates with different thickness is used. At present, NXMI, being compact, can measure multiple properties of X-ray generated, such as the tube voltage (TV), current (TC), imaging time, dose/dose rate, total filtration, half value layer, and TV/output waveform. TV is measurable by the penetration difference of X-rays through Cu filters of different thickness, which is a linear function of TV; TC, with the clamp-type ammeter placed at the generator high voltage cable; and the dose, with the semiconductor detector. Characteristics can be evaluable within the upper trigger level of the detector (radiation time, dose measured here), in which measured are the irradiation (imaging) time, delay time, and TV (within the window width). Authors' practical quality control of the generator is conducted through calibration for which data are obtained by invasive (direct) precise measurement of TV, TC, imaging time and dose with reference to JIS. Periodical calibration and consequent quality control of NXMI are essential for the maintenance of precision of the generator. (T.T.)

  14. Non-invasive assessment of the liver using imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorling Thompson, Camilla; Wang, Haolu; Liu, Xin; Liang, Xiaowen; Crawford, Darrell H.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2016-12-01

    Chronic liver disease causes 2,000 deaths in Australia per year and early diagnosis is crucial to avoid progression to cirrhosis and end stage liver disease. There is no ideal method to evaluate liver function. Blood tests and liver biopsies provide spot examinations and are unable to track changes in function quickly. Therefore better techniques are needed. Non-invasive imaging has the potential to extract increased information over a large sampling area, continuously tracking dynamic changes in liver function. This project aimed to study the ability of three imaging techniques, multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, infrared thermography and photoacoustic imaging, in measuring liver function. Collagen deposition was obvious in multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging in fibrosis and cirrhosis and comparable to conventional histology. Infrared thermography revealed a significantly increased liver temperature in hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition, multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging and photoacoustic imaging could both track uptake and excretion of indocyanine green in rat liver. These results prove that non-invasive imaging can extract crucial information about the liver continuously over time and has the potential to be translated into clinic in the assessment of liver disease.

  15. Influence of hemoglobin on non-invasive optical bilirubin sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingying; Gong, Qiliang; Zou, Da; Xu, Kexin

    2012-03-01

    Since the abnormal metabolism of bilirubin could lead to diseases in the human body, especially the jaundice which is harmful to neonates. Traditional invasive measurements are difficult to be accepted by people because of pain and infection. Therefore, the real-time and non-invasive measurement of bilirubin is of great significance. However, the accuracy of currently transcutaneous bilirubinometry(TcB) is generally not high enough, and affected by many factors in the human skin, mostly by hemoglobin. In this talk, absorption spectra of hemoglobin and bilirubin have been collected and analyzed, then the Partial Least Squares (PLS) models have been built. By analyzing and comparing the Correlation and Root Mean Square Error of Prediction(RMSEP), the results show that the Correlation of bilirubin solution model is larger than that of the mixture solution added with hemoglobin, and its RMSEP value is smaller than that of mixture solution. Therefore, hemoglobin has influences on the non-invasive optical bilirubin sensing. In next step, it is necessary to investigate how to eliminate the influence.

  16. Use of Doppler ultrasound for non-invasive urodynamic diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Ozawa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A totally non-invasive transperineal urodynamic technique using Doppler ultrasonography has been developed. Methods: Since normal urine does not have blood cells, urine was thought not to produce the Doppler effects. However, basic studies confirmed that the decrease of pressure at high velocity (Bernouilli effect caused dissolved gas to form microbubbles, which are detected by Doppler ultrasonography. Subjects sat and the probe was advanced via remote control to achieve gentle contact with the perineal skin. The digital uroflow data signals and the color Doppler ultrasound video images were processed on a personal computer. The flow-velocity curves from two sites; the distal prostatic urethra just above the external sphincter (V1 and the sphincteric urethra (V2 were plotted against time. The parameters of both the pressure-flow studies and the Doppler ultrasound urodynamic studies were compared in men who had various degrees of obstruction. Results: Functional cross-sectional area at prostatic urethra (A1, calculated by Q max /V1, was lower in the group of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO vs. control group. Velocity ratio (VR, which was calculated by V1/V2, was the parameter having the best correlation with BOO index, though A1 had a similar correlation. This method is viable to diagnose the degree of BOO. Conclusions: The development of non-invasive Doppler ultrasound videourodynamics (Doppler UDS will dramatically expand the information on voiding function.

  17. Clinical evaluation of non-invasive perfusion-weighted MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasu, Miyuki

    2000-01-01

    A spin labeling method to measure cerebral blood flow without a contrast medium was developed and applied clinically to obtain a non-invasive perfusion-weighted image. The purpose of this study is to compare the non-invasive perfusion-weighted image using FAIR with the well-established PWI using a bolus injection of Gd-DTPA. Of 41 lesions which revealed decreased perfusion, 13 were shown to be low signal intensity areas on FAIR. Therefore, detection rate of FAIR for hypoperfusion was 32%. Of 8 lesions which revealed increased perfusion, 7 demonstrated high intensity on FAIR. Therefore, detection rate of FAIR for hyperperfusion was 88%. Seven lesions were found to have a mean pixel value of zero on PWI. Of these lesions, 5 lesions could be detected as high signal intensity area on FAIR. The rCBV- and rCBF index ratios of hypoperfused lesions detected on FAIR were significantly lower than those of lesions which were not detected on FAIR (p=0.007, p=0.01). As concerns the lesions detected of FAIR, there were positive correlation between rCBV- or rCBF index ratio and FAIR signal ratio (rCBV ratio: ρ=0.873, p=0.0002, rCBF index ratio: ρ=0.858, p=0.0003). FAIR is valuable clinical tool to detect perfusion abnormality semi-quantitatively without contrast medium, although it showed relatively low detection rate for hypoperfused lesions. (author)

  18. Non-invasive means of measuring hepatic fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sanjeev-R; Thomas, E-Louise; Bell, Jimmy-D; Johnston, Desmond-G; Taylor-Robinson, Simon-D

    2008-06-14

    Hepatic steatosis affects 20% to 30% of the general adult population in the western world. Currently, the technique of choice for determining hepatic fat deposition and the stage of fibrosis is liver biopsy. However, it is an invasive procedure and its use is limited, particularly in children. It may also be subject to sampling error. Non-invasive techniques such as ultrasound, computerised tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) can detect hepatic steatosis, but currently cannot distinguish between simple steatosis and steatohepatitis, or stage the degree of fibrosis accurately. Ultrasound is widely used to detect hepatic steatosis, but its sensitivity is reduced in the morbidly obese and also in those with small amounts of fatty infiltration. It has been used to grade hepatic fat content, but this is subjective. CT can detect hepatic steatosis, but exposes subjects to ionising radiation, thus limiting its use in longitudinal studies and in children. Recently, magnetic resonance (MR) techniques using chemical shift imaging have provided a quantitative assessment of the degree of hepatic fatty infiltration, which correlates well with liver biopsy results in the same patients. Similarly, in vivo (1)H MRS is a fast, safe, non-invasive method for the quantification of intrahepatocellular lipid (IHCL) levels. Both techniques will be useful tools in future longitudinal clinical studies, either in examining the natural history of conditions causing hepatic steatosis (e.g. non-alcoholic fatty liver disease), or in testing new treatments for these conditions.

  19. Comparison of different models for non-invasive FFR estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirramezani, Mehran; Shadden, Shawn

    2017-11-01

    Coronary artery disease is a leading cause of death worldwide. Fractional flow reserve (FFR), derived from invasively measuring the pressure drop across a stenosis, is considered the gold standard to diagnose disease severity and need for treatment. Non-invasive estimation of FFR has gained recent attention for its potential to reduce patient risk and procedural cost versus invasive FFR measurement. Non-invasive FFR can be obtained by using image-based computational fluid dynamics to simulate blood flow and pressure in a patient-specific coronary model. However, 3D simulations require extensive effort for model construction and numerical computation, which limits their routine use. In this study we compare (ordered by increasing computational cost/complexity): reduced-order algebraic models of pressure drop across a stenosis; 1D, 2D (multiring) and 3D CFD models; as well as 3D FSI for the computation of FFR in idealized and patient-specific stenosis geometries. We demonstrate the ability of an appropriate reduced order algebraic model to closely predict FFR when compared to FFR from a full 3D simulation. This work was supported by the NIH, Grant No. R01-HL103419.

  20. Sleep-related breathing disorders and non-invasive ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Lax

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NPPV was originally used in patients with acute respiratory impairment or exacerbations of chronic respiratory diseases, as an alternative to the endotracheal tube. Over the last thirty years NPPV has been also used at night in patients with stable chronic lung disease such as obstructive sleep apnea, the overlap syndrome (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea, neuromuscular disorders, obesity-hypoventilation syndrome, and in other conditions such as sleep disorders associated with congestive heart failure (Cheyne-Stokes respiration. In this no-systematic review we discuss the different types of NPPV, the specific conditions in which they can be used and the indications, recommendations and evidence supporting the efficacy of NPPV. Optimizing patient acceptance and adherence to non-invasive ventilation treatment is challenging. The treatment of sleep-related disorders is a life-threatening condition. The optimal level of treatment should be determined in a sleep laboratory. Side effects directly affecting the patient’s adherence to treatment are known. The most common are nasopharyngeal symptoms including increased congestion and rhinorrhea; these effects are related to reduced humidity of inspired gas. Humidification of delivered gas may improve these symptoms.

  1. Fecal Glucocorticoid Analysis: Non-invasive Adrenal Monitoring in Equids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Kelly; Purcell, Rebecca S; Walker, Susan L

    2016-04-25

    Adrenal activity can be assessed in the equine species by analysis of feces for corticosterone metabolites. During a potentially aversive situation, corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) is released from the hypothalamus in the brain. This stimulates the release of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland, which in turn stimulates release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal gland. In horses the glucocorticoid corticosterone is responsible for several adaptations needed to support equine flight behaviour and subsequent removal from the aversive situation. Corticosterone metabolites can be detected in the feces of horses and assessment offers a non-invasive option to evaluate long term patterns of adrenal activity. Fecal assessment offers advantages over other techniques that monitor adrenal activity including blood plasma and saliva analysis. The non-invasive nature of the method avoids sampling stress which can confound results. It also allows the opportunity for repeated sampling over time and is ideal for studies in free ranging horses. This protocol describes the enzyme linked immunoassay (EIA) used to assess feces for corticosterone, in addition to the associated biochemical validation.

  2. Assessment of ablative margin after radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma; comparison between magnetic resonance imaging with ferucarbotran and enhanced CT with iodized oil deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koda, Masahiko; Tokunaga, Shiho; Fujise, Yuki; Kato, Jun; Matono, Tomomitsu; Sugihara, Takaaki; Nagahara, Takakazu; Ueki, Masaru; Murawaki, Yoshikazu; Kakite, Suguru; Yamashita, Eijiro

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Our aim was to investigate whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with ferucarbotran administered prior to radiofrequency ablation could accurately assess ablative margin when compared with enhanced computed tomography (CT) with iodized oil marking. Materials and methods: We enrolled 27 patients with 32 hepatocellular carcinomas in which iodized oil deposits were visible throughout the nodule after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization. For these nodules, radiofrequency ablation was performed after ferucarbotran administration. We then performed T2-weighted MRI after 1 week and enhanced CT after 1 month. T2-weighted MRI demonstrated the ablative margin as a low-intensity rim. We classified the margin into three grades; margin (+): high-intensity area with a continuous low-intensity rim; margin zero: high-intensity area with a discontinuous low-intensity rim; and margin (−): high-intensity area extending beyond the low-intensity rim. Results: In 28 (86%) of 32 nodules, there was agreement between MRI and CT. The overall agreement between for the two modalities in the assessment of ablative margin was good (κ = 0.759, 95% confidence interval: 0.480–1.000, p < 0.001). In four nodules, ablative margins on MRI were underestimated by one grade compared with CT. Conclusion: MRI using ferucarbotran is less invasive and allows earlier assessment than CT. The MRI technique performed similarly to enhanced CT with iodized oil marking in evaluating the ablative margin after radiofrequency ablation.

  3. Growth and characterization of stoichiometric BCN films on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite by radiofrequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannan, Md. Abdul, E-mail: amannan75@yahoo.co [Department of Chemistry and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Synchrotron Radiation Research Unit, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Noguchi, Hideyuki; Kida, Tetsuya; Nagano, Masamitsu [Department of Chemistry and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Hirao, Norie; Baba, Yuji [Synchrotron Radiation Research Unit, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2010-05-31

    Hexagonal boron carbonitride (h-BCN) hybrid films have been synthesized on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite by radiofrequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using tris-(dimethylamino)borane as a single-source molecular precursor. The films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and Raman spectroscopic measurements. XPS measurement showed that the B atoms were bonded to C and N atoms to form the sp{sup 2}-B-C-N atomic hybrid chemical environment. The atomic composition estimated from the XPS of the typical sample was found to be almost B{sub 1}C{sub 1}N{sub 1}. NEXAFS spectra of the B K-edge and the N K-edge had the peaks due to the {pi}* and {sigma}* resonances of sp{sup 2} hybrid orbitals implying the existence of the sp{sup 2} hybrid configurations of h-BCN around the B atoms. The G band at 1592 and D band at 1352 cm{sup -1} in the Raman spectra also suggested the presence of the graphite-like sp{sup 2}-B-C-N atomic hybrid bonds. The films consisted of micrometer scale crystalline structure of around 10 {mu}m thick has been confirmed by the field emission scanning electron microscopy.

  4. Renal Cell Carcinoma Perfusion before and after Radiofrequency Ablation Measured with Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tze Min Wah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate if the early treatment effects of radiofrequency ablation (RFA on renal cell carcinoma (RCC can be detected with dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE-MRI and to correlate RCC perfusion with RFA treatment time. Materials and methods: 20 patients undergoing RFA of their 21 RCCs were evaluated with DCE-MRI before and at one month after RFA treatment. Perfusion was estimated using the maximum slope technique at two independent sittings. Total RCC blood flow was correlated with total RFA treatment time, tumour location, size and histology. Results: DCE-MRI examinations were successfully evaluated for 21 RCCs (size from 1.3 to 4 cm. Perfusion of the RCCs decreased significantly (p < 0.0001 from a mean of 203 (±80 mL/min/100 mL before RFA to 8.1 (±3.1 mL/min/100 mL after RFA with low intra-observer variability (r ≥ 0.99, p < 0.0001. There was an excellent correlation (r = 0.95 between time to complete ablation and pre-treatment total RCC blood flow. Tumours with an exophytic location exhibit the lowest mean RFA treatment time. Conclusion: DCE-MRI can detect early treatment effects by measuring RCC perfusion before and after RFA. Perfusion significantly decreases in the zone of ablation, suggesting that it may be useful for the assessment of treatment efficacy. Pre-RFA RCC blood flow may be used to predict RFA treatment time.

  5. Radiofrequency ablation of renal tumours: diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound for early detection of residual tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeffel, Christine; Pousset, Maud; Elie, Caroline; Timsit, Marc-Olivier; Mejean, Arnaud; Merran, Samuel; Tranquart, Francois; Khairoune, Ahmed; Helenon, Olivier; Correas, Jean-Michel; Joly, Dominique; Richard, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the early detection of residual tumour after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of renal tumours. Patients referred to our institution for RFA of renal tumours prospectively underwent CEUS and computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before, within 1 day and 6 weeks after treatment. Identification of residual tumour was assessed by three blinded radiologists. Reference standard was CT/MRI performed at least 1 year after RFA. A total of 66 renal tumours in 43 patients (median age 62 years; range 44-71.5) were studied. Inter-reader agreement (κ value) was 0.84 for CEUS. Prevalence of residual disease was 19%. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV), respectively, were as follows: 64% [confidence interval (CI) 39-84], 98% [CI 91-100], 82% [CI 52-95] and 92% [CI 83-97] on 24-h CEUS; 79% [CI 52-92], 100% [CI 94-100], 100% [CI 74-100] and 95% [CI 87-100] on 6-week CEUS; 79% [CI 52-92], 95% [CI 86-98], 79% [CI 52-92] and 95% [CI 86-98] on 24-h CT/MRI; and 100% [CI 72-100], 98% [CI 90-100], 91% [CI 62-98] and 100% [CI 93-100] on 6-week CT/MRI. CEUS has high specificity for the early diagnosis of residual tumour after renal RFA. (orig.)

  6. Cell-baswd non-invasive prenatal testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldbjerg, Niels; Singh, Ripudaman; Christensen, Rikke

    that fetal cells are stable in blood samples stored up to 48 hours. Using these cells, we have detected subchromosomal abnormalities including one with mosaic 45, X/46, X, r(X) which have been confirmed at DNA from chorion villus sampling. Conclusions: We conclude that fcmb-NIPT deserves full attention......CONTROL ID: 2520273 ABSTRACT FINAL ID: OC06.03 TITLE: Cell based Non-invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT) AUTHORS (FIRST NAME, LAST NAME): Niels Uldbjerg2, Ripudaman Singh4, Rikke Christensen3, Palle Schelde4, Ida Vogel1, Else Marie Vestergaard3, Lotte Hatt4, Steen Kølvrå4 INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1...... therefore hypothesize that NIPT based on amplified DNA from fetal cells circulating in maternal blood (fcmb-NIPT) will make it possible to detect subchromosomal aberrations. Methods: We obtained 30 ml of whole blood from 100 pregnant women undergoing chorion villus sampling at a gestational age of 10...

  7. NON-INVASIVE INVERSE PROBLEM IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Havelka

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we focus on recovery of spatial distribution of material parameters utilizing only non-invasive boundary measurements. Such methods has gained its importance as imaging techniques in medicine, geophysics or archaeology. We apply similar principles for non-stationary heat transfer in civil engineering. In oppose to standard technique which rely on external loading devices, we assume the natural fluctuation of temperature throughout day and night can provide sufficient information to recover the underlying material parameters. The inverse problem was solved by a modified regularised Gauss-Newton iterative scheme and the underlying forward problem is solved with a finite element space-time discretisation. We show a successful reconstruction of material parameters on a synthetic example with real measurements. The virtual experiment also reveals the insensitivity to practical precision of sensor measurements.

  8. Innovative instrumentation for VVERs based in non-invasive techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanneau, H.; Favennec, J.M.; Tournu, E.; Germain, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power plants such as VVERs can greatly benefit from innovative instrumentation to improve plant safety and efficiency. In recent years innovative instrumentation has been developed for PWRs with the aim of providing additional measurements of physical parameters on the primary and secondary circuits: the addition of new instrumentation is made possible by using non-invasive techniques such as ultrasonics and radiation detection. These innovations can be adapted for upgrading VVERs presently in operation and also in future VVERs. The following innovative instrumentation for the control, monitoring or testing at VVERs is described: 1. instrumentation for more accurate primary side direct measurements (for a better monitoring of the primary circuit); 2. instrumentation to monitor radioactivity leaks (for a safer plant); 3. instrumentation-related systems to improve the plant efficiency (for a cheaper kWh)

  9. Non invasive sensing technologies for cultural heritage management and fruition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Masini, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    The relevance of the information produced by science and technology for the knowledge of the cultural heritage depends on the quality of the feedback and, consequently, on the "cultural" distance between scientists and end-users. In particular, the solution to this problem mainly resides in the capability of end-users' capability to assess and transform the knowledge produced by diagnostics with regard to: information on both cultural objects and sites (decay patterns, vulnerability, presence of buried archaeological remains); decision making (management plan, conservation project, and excavation plan). From our experience in the field of the cultural heritage and namely the conservation, of monuments, there is a significant gap of information between technologists (geophysicists/physicists/engineers) and end-users (conservators/historians/architects). This cultural gap is due to the difficulty to interpret "indirect data" produced by non invasive diagnostics (i.e. radargrams/thermal images/seismic tomography etc..) in order to provide information useful to improve the historical knowledge (e.g. the chronology of the different phases of a building), to characterise the state of conservation (e.g. detection of cracks in the masonry) and to monitor in time cultural heritage artifacts and sites. The possible answer to this difficulty is in the set-up of a knowledge chain regarding the following steps: - Integrated application of novel and robust data processing methods; - Augmented reality as a tool for making easier the interpretation of non invasive - investigations for the analysis of decay pathologies of masonry and architectural surfaces; - The comparison between direct data (carrots, visual inspection) and results from non-invasive tests, including geophysics, aims to improve the interpretation and the rendering of the monuments and even of the archaeological landscapes; - The use of specimens or test beds for the detection of archaeological features and

  10. Non-invasive beamforming add-on module

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2017-02-23

    An embodiment of a non-invasive beamforming add-on apparatus couples to an existing antenna port and rectifies the beam azimuth in the upstream and downstream directions. The apparatus comprises input circuitry that is configured to receive one or more signals from a neighboring node of the linear wireless sensor network; first amplifier circuitry configured to adjust an amplitude of a respective received signal in accordance with a weighting coefficient and invoke a desired phase to a carrier frequency of the received signal thereby forming a first amplified signal; and second amplifier circuitry configured to adjust a gain of the first amplified signal towards upstream and downstream neighbors of the linear wireless sensor in the linear wireless sensor network.

  11. Non-invasive examination of multiple sclerosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weerd, A.W. de.

    1981-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is characterized by a wide range of symptoms and, in many cases, by a highly erratic course. As a result diagnosis is often a problem. Two non-invasive examinations, Computer Tomography (CT scan) and the Evoked Response test (ER), are the subjects of this study which, according to available literature, both can play a role in the establishment of the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Clinical trials have been performed and both methods demonstrated abnormalities of the central nervous system which were not suspected on clinical grounds; as a result both methods of examination can contribute to the early establishment of the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. In addition the diagnosis can be determined with greater certainty when the findings of the CT-scan and the evoked response test are taken into consideration. (Auth.)

  12. Non-invasive biological dosimetry of the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, S.; Marks, R.; Charles, M.W.; Wells, J.

    1986-01-01

    Investigations designed to identify a potential biological dosimetry technique to examine the effects of X-ray doses down to 0.1 Gy on human skin, are described. In a variety of parameters assessed, the most important changes observed were a significant depression in epidermal cell production in the basal layer after X-ray doses between 0.5 Gy and 1 Gy and a concomitant reduction in the desquamation rate of corneocytes after doses above 1 Gy. Changes in non-specific esterase (NSE) activity were also observed. Further work is described which applies these results to several non-invasive techniques which may have potential for routine application. Preliminary data from irradiated human skin are presented on the measurement of forced desquamation, the evaluation of NSE activity from hair samples and the evaluation of stratum corneum turnover time using the fluorescent dye, dansyl chloride. (author)

  13. Estimation of blood pressure from non-invasive data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Satya Narayan

    2017-07-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is one of the most important physiological parameter that can provide crucial information for health care. The widely used cuff based technology is not very convenient or comfortable as it occludes the blood flow in the arteries during the time of measurement. In past, Phonocardiogram (PCG), Electrocardiogram (ECG) and Photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals have been used to predict the BP values. In this paper, we propose to estimate the blood pressure from PPG using Multi Task Gaussian Processes (MTGPs) and compare with Artificial Neural networks (ANNs). Both MTGPs and ANNs are evaluated on the clinical data obtained from MIMIC Database. The performance of the proposed method is found to be comparable or better than the existing methods of computing BP from non-invasive data.

  14. Non-Invasive in vivo Imaging in Small Animal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Koo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive real time in vivo molecular imaging in small animal models has become the essential bridge between in vitro data and their translation into clinical applications. The tremendous development and technological progress, such as tumour modelling, monitoring of tumour growth and detection of metastasis, has facilitated translational drug development. This has added to our knowledge on carcinogenesis. The modalities that are commonly used include Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, Computed Tomography (CT, Positron Emission Tomography (PET, bioluminescence imaging, fluorescence imaging and multi-modality imaging systems. The ability to obtain multiple images longitudinally provides reliable information whilst reducing animal numbers. As yet there is no one modality that is ideal for all experimental studies. This review outlines the instrumentation available together with corresponding applications reported in the literature with particular emphasis on cancer research. Advantages and limitations to current imaging technology are discussed and the issues concerning small animal care during imaging are highlighted.

  15. Non-invasive examination method for cerebrovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Kazuo

    1979-01-01

    CT is superior in the diagnosis of the characteristics and the region of cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) to the examination with RI. The RI examination can only demonstrate the cerebrovascular diseases with large area disturbance of the cerebral cortex, that passed some days after the attack. Moreover, it is difficult to detect the small lesions or the lesions localized in the deep area such as the basal nucleus and the internal capsule by this method. A slight decrease and retardation in unilateral cerebral blood flow (under 20%, within 1.5 second) found by RI-angiography does not always indicate the side of the lesion of cerebrovascular diseases. It is expected that non-invasive examination method for CVD is improved more, and that more precise estimation method for regional cerebral circulation is developed. (Tsunoda, M.)

  16. Non-invasive clinical measurements of bone mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazess, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    Non-invasive methods are now available for measurement of both compact and trabecular bone on both the appendicular and axial skeleton. Radiogrammetry and photodensitometry both are subject to large errors in areas of heavy tissue cover but precise measurements can be made on the hand bones. Single-photon absorptiometry with 125 I provides a more accurate and precise measure of appendicular compact bone, which is particularly useful for screening of metabolic bone disease and for monitoring renal osteodystrophy. Dual-photon absorptiometry with 153 Gd provides a measurement of the femoral neck and of the lumbar spine and hence is the most diagnostically sensitive measurement method. It is also the most sensitive for monitoring bone changes

  17. Non-invasive Blood Glucose Quantification Using a Hybrid Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundararajan JAYAPAL

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar (glucose levels which result from defects in insulin secretion. It is very important for the diabetics and normal people to have a correct blood glucose level. The HbA1c test is the most preferred test by renowned doctors for glucose quantification. But this test is an invasive one. At present, there are many available techniques for this purpose but these are mostly invasive or minimally non-invasive and most of these are under research. Among the different methods available, the photo acoustic (PA methods provide a reliable solution since the acoustical energy loss is much less compared to the optical or other techniques. Here a novel framework is presented for blood glucose level measurement using a combination of the HbA1c test and a PA method to get an absolutely consistent and precise, non-invasive technique. The setup uses a pulsed laser diode with pulse duration of 5-15 ns and at a repetition rate of 10 Hz as the source. The detector setup is based on the piezoelectric detection. It consists of a ring detector that includes two double ring sensors that are attached to the ring shaped module that can be worn around the finger. The major aim is to detect the photo acoustic signals from the glycated hemoglobin with the least possible error. The proposed monitoring system is designed with extreme consideration to precision and compatibility with the other computing devices. The results obtained in this research have been studied and analyzed by comparing these with those of in-vitro techniques like the HPLC. The comparison has been plotted and it shows a least error. The results also show a positive drive for using this concept as a basis for future extension in quantifying the other blood components.

  18. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation in inconspicuous hepatocellular carcinoma on B-mode ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eui Joo; Kim, Yun Soo; Shin, Seung Kak; Kwon, Oh Sang; Choi, Duck Joo; Kim, Ju Hyun

    2017-11-01

    B-mode ultrasound (US) has difficulty targeting small hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) with poor conspicuity during radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) can improve visualization of small or inconspicuous HCCs. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of CEUS-guided RFA electrode insertion during the arterial phase in inconspicuous HCCs. Ninety-three treatment-naïve HCCs from 80 patients treated with RFA from August 2012 to December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Seventy-five HCCs from 65 patients underwent B-mode US-guided RFA, and 15 HCCs from 14 patients that were inconspicuous on B-mode US underwent CEUS-guided RFA during the arterial phase after injection of sulfur hexafluoride microbubbles (SonoVue®). Technical success was assessed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography within 1 week and 3 months after the procedure. The mean size of HCCs treated with CEUS-guided RFA was smaller than that of HCCs treated with B-mode US-guided RFA (1.17±0.36 vs. 1.63±0.55 cm, p=0.003). Technical success rates of CEUS-guided RFA within 1 week and 3 months were 100% (15/15) and 93.3% (14/15), respectively. Technical success rates of B-mode US-guided RFA were 97.3% (73/75) and 94.5% (69/73), respectively. CEUS-guided RFA is highly efficacious for ablation of very small and inconspicuous HCCs.

  19. Evaluation of hepatocellular carcinoma tumor vascularity using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography as a predictor for local recurrence following radiofrequency ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Tomohiro [Gastroenterological Center, Yokohama City University Medical Center, 4-57 Urafune-cho, Minami-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 232-0024 (Japan); Numata, Kazushi, E-mail: kz-numa@urahp.yokohama-cu.ac.jp [Gastroenterological Center, Yokohama City University Medical Center, 4-57 Urafune-cho, Minami-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 232-0024 (Japan); Hao, Yoshiteru; Doba, Nobutaka; Hara, Koji [Gastroenterological Center, Yokohama City University Medical Center, 4-57 Urafune-cho, Minami-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 232-0024 (Japan); Kondo, Masaaki [Division of Gastroenterology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-9 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0004 (Japan); Tanaka, Katsuaki [Gastroenterological Center, Yokohama City University Medical Center, 4-57 Urafune-cho, Minami-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 232-0024 (Japan); Maeda, Shin [Division of Gastroenterology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-9 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0004 (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the hypervascularity of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) on contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) prior to radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a significant risk factor for local recurrence after RFA. Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. Overall, 208 patients (mean age, 71.7 years; range, 50–87 years; 137 men, 71 women) with 282 HCCs treated with RFA were analyzed retrospectively. The mean maximum tumor diameter was 15.7 mm. We compared the abilities of CEUS and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) to detect hypervascularity in HCCs. We then classified the HCCs into two groups according to the arterial-phase CEUS findings: a “hypervascular group” with whole or partial hypervascular areas within the lesions compared with the surrounding liver parenchyma, and a “non-hypervascular group” with isovascular or hypovascular areas within the lesions. We assessed the cumulative rate of local recurrence after RFA, and we also evaluated the risk factors for local recurrence using a univariate analysis. Results: The detection rate for hypervascular HCCs was significantly higher using CEUS (78%, 221/282) than that using CECT (66%, 186/282) (P < 0.001). Using the CEUS findings, the cumulative rate of local recurrence was significantly higher in the hypervascular group (41.2%, 56/221) than in the non-hypervascular group (18.4%, 6/61) (P = 0.007). A univariate analysis revealed that hypervascularity on CEUS was an independent risk factor for local recurrence (P = 0.010). Conclusion: Hypervascularity in HCCs as observed using CEUS is a significant risk factor for local recurrence after RFA.

  20. Construction of a new shuttle vector for DNA delivery into mammalian cells using non-invasive Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagnik, Bhrugu; Padh, Harish; Desai, Priti

    2016-04-01

    Use of food grade Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) is fast emerging as a safe alternative for delivery of DNA vaccine. To attain efficient DNA delivery, L. lactis, a non-invasive bacterium is converted to invasive strain either by expressing proteins like Internalin A (InlA) or Fibronectin binding protein A (FnBPA) or through chemical treatments. However the safety status of invasive L. lactis is questionable. In the present report, we have shown that non-invasive L. lactis efficiently delivered the newly constructed reporter plasmid pPERDBY to mammalian cells without any chemical enhancers. The salient features of the vector are; I) Ability to replicate in two different hosts; Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), II) One of the smallest reporter plasmid for DNA vaccine, III) Enhanced Green Fluorescence Protein (EGFP) linked to Multiple Cloning Site (MCS), IV) Immunostimulatory CpG motifs functioning as an adjuvant. Expression of EGFP in pPERDBY transfected CHO-K1 and Caco-2 cells demonstrates its functionality. Non-invasive r-L. lactis was found efficient in delivering pPERDBY to Caco-2 cells. The in vitro data presented in this article supports the hypothesis that in the absence of invasive proteins or relevant chemical treatment, L. lactis was found efficient in delivering DNA to mammalian cells. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Imaging the pancreas: from ex vivo to non-invasive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, D; Ahlgren, U

    2008-01-01

    While many recently published reviews have covered non-invasive nuclear imaging techniques, the aim of this review is to focus on current developments in optical imaging technologies for investigating the pancreas. Several of these modalities are being developed into non-invasive, real-time monit......While many recently published reviews have covered non-invasive nuclear imaging techniques, the aim of this review is to focus on current developments in optical imaging technologies for investigating the pancreas. Several of these modalities are being developed into non-invasive, real...

  2. Pretreatment Evaluation with Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography for Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation of Hepatocellular Carcinomas with Poor Conspicuity on Conventional Ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ah Yeong; Lee, Min Woo; Rhim, Hyunchul; Cha, Dong Ik; Choi, Dongil; Kim, Young-sun; Lim, Hyo Keun; Cho, Seong Whi

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether pretreatment evaluation with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is effective for percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with poor conspicuity on conventional ultrasonography (US). This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board and informed consent was waived. From June 2008 to July 2011, 82 patients having HCCs (1.2 ± 0.4 cm) with poor conspicuity on planning US for RFA were evaluated with CEUS prior to percutaneous RFA. We analyzed our database, radiologic reports, and US images in order to determine whether the location of HCC candidates on planning US coincide with that on CEUS. To avoid incomplete ablation, percutaneous RFA was performed only when HCC nodules were identified on CEUS. The rate of technical success was assessed. The cumulative rate of local tumor progression was estimated with the use of the Kaplan-Meier method (mean follow-up: 24.0 ± 13.0 months). Among 82 patients, 73 (89%) HCCs were identified on CEUS, whereas 9 (11%) were not. Of 73 identifiable HCCs on CEUS, the location of HCC on planning US corresponded with that on CEUS in 64 (87.7%), whereas the location did not correspond in 9 (12.3%) HCCs. Technical success was achieved for all 73 identifiable HCCs on CEUS in a single (n = 72) or two (n = 1) RFA sessions. Cumulative rates of local tumor progression were estimated as 1.9% and 15.4% at 1 and 3 years, respectively. Pretreatment evaluation with CEUS is effective for percutaneous RFA of HCCs with poor conspicuity on conventional US

  3. Tissue Damage Characterization Using Non-invasive Optical Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, David

    The ability to determine the degree of cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue damage is essential for proper wound assessment and a significant factor for determining patient treatment and morbidity. Accurate characterization of tissue damage is critical for a number of medical applications including surgical removal of nonviable tissue, severity assessment of subcutaneous ulcers, and depth assessment of visually open wounds. The main objective of this research was to develop a non-invasive method for identifying the extent of tissue damage underneath intact skin that is not apparent upon visual examination. This work investigated the relationship between tissue optical properties, blood flow, and tissue viability by testing the hypotheses that (a) changes in tissue oxygenation and/or microcirculatory blood flow measurable by Diffuse Near Infrared Spectroscopy (DNIRS) and Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy (DCS) differ between healthy and damaged tissue and (b) the magnitude of those changes differs for different degrees of tissue damage. This was accomplished by developing and validating a procedure for measuring microcirculatory blood flow and tissue oxygenation dynamics at multiple depths (up to 1 centimeter) using non-invasive DCS and DNIRS technologies. Due to the lack of pressure ulcer animal models that are compatible with our optical systems, a proof of concept was conducted in a porcine burn model prior to conducting clinical trials in order to assess the efficacy of the system in-vivo. A reduction in total hemoglobin was observed for superficial (5%) and deep burns (35%) along with a statistically significant difference between the optical properties of superficial and deep burns (p differences detected in optical properties and hemoglobin content by optical measurements correlated with the extent of tissue injury observed in histological stains. After proof of concept in animals, a human study was conducted and optical data was collected from 20 healthy

  4. Non-invasive assessment of vessel morphology and function in tumors by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiessling, Fabian; Jugold, Manfred; Woenne, Eva C.; Brix, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    The switch to an angiogenic phenotype is an important precondition for tumor growth, invasion and spread. Since newly formed vessels are characterized by structural, functional and molecular abnormalities, they offer promising targets for tumor diagnosis and therapy. Previous studies indicate that MRI is valuable to assess vessel morphology and function. It can be used to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions and to improve delineation of proliferating areas within heterogeneous tumors. In addition, tracer kinetic analysis of contrast-enhanced image series allows the estimation of well-defined physiological parameters such as blood volume, blood flow and vessel permeability. Frequently, changes of these parameters during cytostatic, anti-angiogenic and radiation therapy precede tumor volume reduction. Moreover, target-specific MRI techniques can be used to elucidate the expression of angiogenic markers at the molecular level. This review summarizes strategies for non-invasive characterization of tumor vascularization by functional and molecular MRI, hereby introducing representative preclinical and clinical applications. (orig.)

  5. A Reliable, Non-Invasive Approach to Data Center Monitoring and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moises Levy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent standards, legislation, and best practices point to data center infrastructure management systems to control and monitor data center performance. This work presents an innovative approach to address some of the challenges that currently hinder data center management. It explains how monitoring and management systems should be envisioned and implemented. Key parameters associated with data center infrastructure and information technology equipment can be monitored in real-time across an entire facility using low-cost, low-power wireless sensors. Given the data centers’ mission critical nature, the system must be reliable and deployable through a non-invasive process. The need for the monitoring system is also presented through a feedback control systems perspective, which allows higher levels of automation. The data center monitoring and management system enables data gathering, analysis, and decision-making to improve performance, and to enhance asset utilization.

  6. Chemotherapy and Radiofrequency-Induced Mild Hyperthermia Combined Treatment of Orthotopic Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzykawska-Serda, Martyna; Agha, Mahdi S; Ho, Jason Chak-Shing; Ware, Matthew J; Law, Justin J; Newton, Jared M; Nguyen, Lam; Curley, Steven A; Corr, Stuart J

    2018-04-02

    Patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) have one of the poorest survival rates of all cancers. The main reason for this is related to the unique tumor stroma and poor vascularization of PDAC. As a consequence, chemotherapeutic drugs, such as nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine, cannot efficiently penetrate into the tumor tissue. Non-invasive radiofrequency (RF) mild hyperthermia treatment was proposed as a synergistic therapy to enhance drug uptake into the tumor by increasing tumor vascular inflow and perfusion, thus, increasing the effect of chemotherapy. RF-induced hyperthermia is a safer and non-invasive technique of tumor heating compared to conventional contact heating procedures. In this study, we investigated the short- and long-term effects (~20 days and 65 days, respectively) of combination chemotherapy and RF hyperthermia in an orthotopic PDAC model in mice. The benefit of nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine treatment was confirmed in mice; however, the effect of treatment was statistically insignificant in comparison to saline treated mice during long-term observation. The benefit of RF was minimal in the short-term and completely insignificant during long-term observation. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Visualizing radiofrequency-skin interaction using multiphoton microscopy in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Hua; Lin, Sung-Jan; Lee, Woan-Ruoh; Wang, Chun-Chin; Hsu, Chih-Ting; Chu, Thomas; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2012-02-01

    Redundant skin laxity is a major feature of aging. Recently, radiofrequency has been introduced for nonablative tissue tightening by volumetric heating of the deep dermis. Despite the wide range of application based on this therapy, the effect of this technique on tissue and the subsequent tissue remodeling have not been investigated in detail. Our objective is to evaluate the potential of non-linear optics, including multiphoton autofluorescence and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy, as a non-invasive imaging modality for the real-time study of radiofrequency-tissue interaction. Electro-optical synergy device (ELOS) was used as the radiofrequency source in this study. The back skin of nude mouse was irradiated with radiofrequency at different passes. We evaluated the effect on skin immediately and 1 month after treatment with multiphoton microscopy. Corresponding histology was performed for comparison. We found that SHG is negatively correlated to radiofrequency passes, which means that collagen structural disruption happens immediately after thermal damage. After 1 month of collagen remodeling, SHG signals increased above baseline, indicating that collagen regeneration has occurred. Our findings may explain mechanism of nonablative skin tightening and were supported by histological examinations. Our work showed that monitoring the dermal heating status of RF and following up the detailed process of tissue reaction can be imaged and quantified with multiphoton microscopy non-invasively in vivo. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. An advanced algorithm for fetal heart rate estimation from non-invasive low electrode density recordings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessì, Alessia; Pani, Danilo; Raffo, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive fetal electrocardiography is still an open research issue. The recent publication of an annotated dataset on Physionet providing four-channel non-invasive abdominal ECG traces promoted an international challenge on the topic. Starting from that dataset, an algorithm for the identification of the fetal QRS complexes from a reduced number of electrodes and without any a priori information about the electrode positioning has been developed, entering into the top ten best-performing open-source algorithms presented at the challenge. In this paper, an improved version of that algorithm is presented and evaluated exploiting the same challenge metrics. It is mainly based on the subtraction of the maternal QRS complexes in every lead, obtained by synchronized averaging of morphologically similar complexes, the filtering of the maternal P and T waves and the enhancement of the fetal QRS through independent component analysis (ICA) applied on the processed signals before a final fetal QRS detection stage. The RR time series of both the mother and the fetus are analyzed to enhance pseudoperiodicity with the aim of correcting wrong annotations. The algorithm has been designed and extensively evaluated on the open dataset A (N = 75), and finally evaluated on datasets B (N = 100) and C (N = 272) to have the mean scores over data not used during the algorithm development. Compared to the results achieved by the previous version of the algorithm, the current version would mark the 5th and 4th position in the final ranking related to the events 1 and 2, reserved to the open-source challenge entries, taking into account both official and unofficial entrants. On dataset A, the algorithm achieves 0.982 median sensitivity and 0.976 median positive predictivity. (paper)

  9. Application of optical non-invasive methods in skin physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, J.; Patzelt, A.; Darvin, M.; Richter, H.; Antoniou, C.; Sterry, W.; Koch, S.

    2008-05-01

    In the present paper the application of optical non-invasive methods in dermatology and cosmetology is discussed. Laser scanning microscopy (LSM) and optical coherent tomography (OCT) are the most promising methods for this application. Using these methods, the analysis of different skin parameters like dryness and oiliness of the skin, the barrier function and the structure of furrows and wrinkles are discussed. Additionally the homogeneity of distribution of topically applied creams, as well as their penetration into the skin were investigated. It is shown that these methods are highly valuable in dermatology for diagnostic and therapy control and for basic research, for instance in the field of structure analysis of hair follicles and sweat glands. The vertical images of the tissue produced by OCT can be easily compared with histological sections. Unfortunately, the resolution of the OCT technique is not high enough to carry out measurements on a cellular level, as is possible by LSM. LSM has the advantage that it can be used for the investigation of penetration and storage processes of topically applied substances, if these substances have fluorescent properties or if they are fluorescent-labelled.

  10. Non-invasive anesthesia for children undergoing proton radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owusu-Agyemang, Pascal; Grosshans, David; Arunkumar, Radha; Rebello, Elizabeth; Popovich, Shannon; Zavala, Acsa; Williams, Cynthia; Ruiz, Javier; Hernandez, Mike; Mahajan, Anita; Porche, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    Background: Proton therapy is a newer modality of radiotherapy during which anesthesiologists face specific challenges related to the setup and duration of treatment sessions. Purpose: Describe our anesthesia practice for children treated in a standalone proton therapy center, and report on complications encountered during anesthesia. Materials and methods: A retrospective review of anesthetic records for patients ⩽18 years of age treated with proton therapy at our institution between January 2006 and April 2013 was performed. Results: A total of 9328 anesthetics were administered to 340 children with a median age of 3.6 years (range, 0.4–14.2). The median daily anesthesia time was 47 min (range, 15–79). The average time between start of anesthesia to the start of radiotherapy was 7.2 min (range, 1–83 min). All patients received Total Intravenous Anesthesia (TIVA) with spontaneous ventilation, with 96.7% receiving supplemental oxygen by non-invasive methods. None required daily endotracheal intubation. Two episodes of bradycardia, and one episode each of; seizure, laryngospasm and bronchospasm were identified for a cumulative incidence of 0.05%. Conclusions: In this large series of children undergoing proton therapy at a freestanding center, TIVA without daily endotracheal intubation provided a safe, efficient, and less invasive option of anesthetic care

  11. Non-invasive biosensor and wilreless interrogating system for hypoglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Whitchurch, Ashwin K.; Saukesi, K.

    2002-11-01

    Hypoglycemia - abnormal decrease in blood sugar - is a major obstacle in the management of diabetes and prevention of long-term complications, and it may impose serious effects on the brain, including impairment of memory and other cognitive functions. This paper presents the development of a non-invasive sensor with miniaturized telemetry device in a wrist-watch for monitoring glucose concentration in blood. The sensor concept is based on optical chiralit of glucose level in the interstitial fluid. The wrist watch consists of a laser power source of the wavelength compatible with the glucose. A nanofilm with specific chirality is placed at the bottom of the watch. The light then passes through the film and illuminates a small area on the skin.It has been documented that there is certain concentration of sugar level is taken by the intertitial fluid from the blood stream and deposit a portion of it at the dead skin. The wrist-watch when in contact with the outer skin of the human will thus monitor the glucose concentration. A wireless monitoring system in the watch then downloads the data from the watch to a Palm or laptop computer.

  12. Epilepsy surgery in children and non-invasive evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, Kiyotaka; Sawamura, Atsushi; Yoshida, Katsunari; Tsuda, Hiroshige; Tanaka, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Shigeya

    2001-01-01

    The technique of EEG recording using subdural and depth electrodes has became established, and such invasive EEG is available for epilepsy surgery. However, a non-invasive procedure is required for evaluation of surgical indication for epilepsy patients, particular for children. We analyzed the relationship between the results of presurgical evaluation and seizure outcome, and investigated the role of invasive EEG in epilepsy surgery for children. Over the past decade, 22 children under 16 years of age have been admitted to our hospital for evaluation of surgical indication. High-resolution MR imaging, MR spectroscopy, video-EEG monitoring, and ictal and interictal SPECT were used for presurgical evaluation. Organic lesions were found on MR images from 19 patients. Invasive EEG was recorded in only one patient with occipital epilepsy, who had no lesion. Surgical indication was determined in 17 children, and 6 temporal lobe and 11 extratemporal lobe resections were performed under intraoperative electrocorticogram monitoring. The surgical outcome was excellent in 14 patients who had Engel's class I or II. Surgical complications occurred in two children who had visual field defects. The results showed that a good surgical outcome could be obtained using an intraoperative electrocorticogram, without presurgical invasive EEG, for localization-related epilepsy in children. The role of invasive EEG should be reevaluated in such children. (author)

  13. Epilepsy surgery in children and non-invasive evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, Kiyotaka; Sawamura, Atsushi; Yoshida, Katsunari; Tsuda, Hiroshige; Tanaka, Tatsuya [Asahikawa Medical Coll., Hokkaido (Japan); Tanaka, Shigeya

    2001-04-01

    The technique of EEG recording using subdural and depth electrodes has became established, and such invasive EEG is available for epilepsy surgery. However, a non-invasive procedure is required for evaluation of surgical indication for epilepsy patients, particular for children. We analyzed the relationship between the results of presurgical evaluation and seizure outcome, and investigated the role of invasive EEG in epilepsy surgery for children. Over the past decade, 22 children under 16 years of age have been admitted to our hospital for evaluation of surgical indication. High-resolution MR imaging, MR spectroscopy, video-EEG monitoring, and ictal and interictal SPECT were used for presurgical evaluation. Organic lesions were found on MR images from 19 patients. Invasive EEG was recorded in only one patient with occipital epilepsy, who had no lesion. Surgical indication was determined in 17 children, and 6 temporal lobe and 11 extratemporal lobe resections were performed under intraoperative electrocorticogram monitoring. The surgical outcome was excellent in 14 patients who had Engel's class I or II. Surgical complications occurred in two children who had visual field defects. The results showed that a good surgical outcome could be obtained using an intraoperative electrocorticogram, without presurgical invasive EEG, for localization-related epilepsy in children. The role of invasive EEG should be reevaluated in such children. (author)

  14. Reducing proactive aggression through non-invasive brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmann, Teresa; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Brugman, Suzanne; Sack, Alexander T.

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive behavior poses a threat to human collaboration and social safety. It is of utmost importance to identify the functional mechanisms underlying aggression and to develop potential interventions capable of reducing dysfunctional aggressive behavior already at a brain level. We here experimentally shifted fronto-cortical asymmetry to manipulate the underlying motivational emotional states in both male and female participants while assessing the behavioral effects on proactive and reactive aggression. Thirty-two healthy volunteers received either anodal transcranial direct current stimulation to increase neural activity within right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, or sham stimulation. Aggressive behavior was measured with the Taylor Aggression Paradigm. We revealed a general gender effect, showing that men displayed more behavioral aggression than women. After the induction of right fronto-hemispheric dominance, proactive aggression was reduced in men. This study demonstrates that non-invasive brain stimulation can reduce aggression in men. This is a relevant and promising step to better understand how cortical brain states connect to impulsive actions and to examine the causal role of the prefrontal cortex in aggression. Ultimately, such findings could help to examine whether the brain can be a direct target for potential supportive interventions in clinical settings dealing with overly aggressive patients and/or violent offenders. PMID:25680991

  15. Non-invasive Renal Denervation: Update on External Ultrasound Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, Roland E; Ott, Christian; Bramlage, Peter

    2016-06-01

    In the last decade, intravenous renal denervation (RDN) has emerged as an alternative to pharmacological treatment in patients with resistant hypertension, but currently involves an invasive and technically challenging procedure. The Surround Sound™ system utilises externally delivered ultrasound to achieve RDN using a completely non-invasive, automated real-time tracking system coupled with a therapeutic delivery module thereby addressing these limitations. A brief history, technical overview and summary of preclinical and clinical studies of the KonaMedical Surround Sound™ system are presented. A literature search using the terms "renal denervation", "resistant hypertension" and "external ultrasound" was performed using PubMed, and references retrieved were selected based on relevancy and year of publication (date range 1991-2015). The Surround Sound™ system appears to be a promising approach to RDN which eliminates several of the factors currently limiting the intravenous approach. So far, it has demonstrated efficacy for reducing blood pressure in resistant hypertension patients with minimal adverse effects. Several double-blind, sham-controlled clinical trials are currently underway to confirm the validity of these findings.

  16. Application of optical non-invasive methods in skin physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lademann, J; Patzelt, A; Darvin, M; Richter, H; Sterry, W; Antoniou, C; Koch, S

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper the application of optical non-invasive methods in dermatology and cosmetology is discussed. Laser scanning microscopy (LSM) and optical coherent tomography (OCT) are the most promising methods for this application. Using these methods, the analysis of different skin parameters like dryness and oiliness of the skin, the barrier function and the structure of furrows and wrinkles are discussed. Additionally the homogeneity of distribution of topically applied creams, as well as their penetration into the skin were investigated. It is shown that these methods are highly valuable in dermatology for diagnostic and therapy control and for basic research, for instance in the field of structure analysis of hair follicles and sweat glands. The vertical images of the tissue produced by OCT can be easily compared with histological sections. Unfortunately, the resolution of the OCT technique is not high enough to carry out measurements on a cellular level, as is possible by LSM. LSM has the advantage that it can be used for the investigation of penetration and storage processes of topically applied substances, if these substances have fluorescent properties or if they are fluorescent-labelled

  17. Non-Invasive Measurement of Intracranial Pressure Pulsation using Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Toshiaki; Ballard, R. E.; Yost, W. T.; Hargens, A. R.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity causes a cephalad fluid shift which may elevate intracranial pressure (ICP). Elevation in ICP may affect cerebral hemodynamics in astronauts during space flight. ICP is, however, a difficult parameter to measure due to the invasiveness of currently available techniques. We already reported our development of a non-invasive ultrasound device for measurement of ICP. We recently modified the device so that we might reproducibly estimate ICP changes in association with cardiac cycles. In the first experiment, we measured changes in cranial distance with the ultrasound device in cadavera while changing ICP by infusing saline into the lateral ventricle. In the second experiment, we measured changes in cranial distance in five healthy volunteers while placing them in 60 deg, 30 deg head-up tilt, supine, and 10 deg head-down tilt position. In the cadaver study, fast Fourier transformation revealed that cranial pulsation is clearly associated with ICP pulsation. The ratio of cranial distance and ICP pulsation is 1.3microns/mmHg. In the tilting study, the magnitudes of cranial pulsation are linearly correlated to tilt angles (r=0.87). The ultrasound device has sufficient sensitivity to detect cranial pulsation in association with cardiac cycles. By analyzing the magnitude of cranial pulsation, estimates of ICP during space flight are possible.

  18. Non-invasive system for monitoring of the manufacturing equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazăre, A. G.; Belu, N.; Ionescu, L. M.; Rachieru, N.; Misztal, A.

    2017-08-01

    The automotive industry is one of the most important industries in the world that concerns the economy and the world culture. High demand has resulted in increasing of the pressure on the production lines. In conclusion, it is required more careful in monitoring of the production equipment not only for maintenance but also for staff safety and to increase the quality of production. In this paper, we propose a solution for non-invasive monitoring of the industrial equipment operation by measuring the current consumption on energy supply lines. Thus, it is determined the utilization schedule of the equipment and operation mode. Based on these measurements, it’s built an activity report for that equipment, available to the quality management and maintenance team. The solution consists of the current measuring equipment, with self-harvesting capabilities and radio transceiver, and an embedded system which run a server. The current measuring equipment will transmit data about consumption of each energy supply network line where is placed the industrial equipment. So, we have an internal measuring radio network. The embedded system will collect data for the equipment and put in a local data base and it will provide via an intranet application. The entire system not requires any supplementary energy supply and interventions in the factory infrastructure. It is experimented in a company from the automotive industries.

  19. Photoionization sensors for non-invasive medical diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafaev, Aleksandr; Rastvorova, Iuliia; Khobnya, Kristina; Podenko, Sofia

    2016-09-01

    The analysis of biomarkers can help to identify the significant number of diseases: lung cancer, tuberculosis, diabetes, high levels of stress, psychosomatic disorders etc. To implement continuous monitoring of the state of human health, compact VUV photoionization detector with current-voltage measurement is designed by Saint-Petersburg Mining University Plasma Research Group. This sensor is based on the patented method of stabilization of electric parameters - CES (Collisional Electron Spectroscopy). During the operation at atmospheric pressure VUV photoionization sensor measures the energy of electrons, produced in the ionization with the resonance photons, whose wavelength situated in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV). A special software was developed to obtain the second-order derivative of the I-U characteristics, taken by the VUV sensor, to construct the energy spectra of the characteristic electrons. VUV photoionization detector has an unique set of parameters: small size (10*10*1 mm), low cost, wide range of recognizable molecules, as well as accuracy, sufficient for using this instrument for the medical purposes. This device can be used for non-invasive medical diagnostics without compromising the quality of life, for control of environment and human life. Work supported by Foundation for Assistance to Small Innovative Enterprises in Science and Technology.

  20. Non-invasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadesso, Clara; Nunes, Pedro; Silvestre, Catarina; Matias, Ester; Loureiro, Helena; Almeida, Helena

    2012-04-02

    The aim of this paper is to assess the clinical efficacy of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in avoiding endotracheal intubation (ETI), to demonstrate clinical and gasometric improvement and to identify predictive risk factors associated with NIV failure. An observational prospective clinical study was carried out. Included Patients with acute respiratory disease (ARD) treated with NIV, from November 2006 to January 2010 in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). NIV was used in 151 patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). Patients were divided in two groups: NIV success and NIV failure, if ETI was required. Mean age was 7.2±20.3 months (median: 1 min: 0,3 max.: 156). Main diagnoses were bronchiolitis in 102 (67.5%), and pneumonia in 44 (29%) patients. There was a significant improvement in respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), pH, and pCO(2) at 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours after NIV onset (Papneia (P<0.001; odds ratio 15.8; 95% confidence interval: 3.42-71.4) and pneumonia (P<0.001, odds ratio 31.25; 95% confidence interval: 8.33-111.11). There were no major complications related with NIV. In conclusion this study demonstrates the efficacy of NIV as a form of respiratory support for children and infants with ARF, preventing clinical deterioration and avoiding ETI in most of the patients. Risk factors for failure were related with immaturity and severe infection.

  1. Non-Invasive Ocular Rigidity Measurement: A Differential Tonometry Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstathios T. Detorakis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Taking into account the fact that Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT geometrically deforms the corneal apex and displaces volume from the anterior segment whereas Dynamic Contour Tonometry (DCT does not, we aimed at developing an algorithm for the calculation of ocular rigidity (OR based on the differences in pressure and volume between deformed and non-deformed status according to the general Friedenwald principle of differential tonometry. Methods: To avoid deviations of GAT IOP from true IOP in eyes with corneas different from the “calibration cornea” we applied the previously described Orssengo-Pye algorithm to calculate an error coefficient “C/B”. To test the feasibility of the proposed model, we calculated the OR coefficient (r in 17 cataract surgery candidates (9 males and 8 females. Results: The calculated r according to our model (mean ± SD, range was 0.0174 ± 0.010 (0.0123–0.022 mmHg/μL. A negative statistically significant correlation between axial length and r was detected whereas correlations between r and other biometric parameters examined were statistically not significant. Conclusions: The proposed method may prove a valid non-invasive tool for the measurement method of OR, which could help in introducing OR in the decision-making of the routine clinical practice.

  2. Ultrasound cavitation versus cryolipolysis for non-invasive body contouring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud ELdesoky, Mohamed Taher; Mohamed Abutaleb, Enas ELsayed; Mohamed Mousa, Gihan Samir

    2015-08-24

    The demand for non-surgical and non-invasive devices is continuous and increasing. Such devices have gradually gained ground in the reduction of localised fat and the improvement of body contouring. The study aimed to compare the effects of ultrasound cavitation and cryolipolysis on localised abdominal fat. In total, 60 participants with a body mass index (BMI) over 30 kg/m 2 , whose age ranged between 25 and 45 years, were included. The participants were randomly assigned to three groups of 20 each, using ultrasound cavitation and diet, cryolipolysis and diet, and diet only (the control group), respectively. Measures were bodyweight, BMI, waist circumference and suprailiac skinfold were measured at the beginning of the study and 2 months later. The three groups showed significant improvements in all measured variables after 2 months. There was no statistically significant difference in bodyweight or in BMI among the groups after treatment. However, the groups using ultrasound cavitation and cryolipolysis showed better post-treatment improvement than the diet-only group in waist circumference and suprailiac skinfold. There was no statistically significant difference post-treatment between the cavitation and cryolipolysis groups in waist circumference or suprailiac skinfold. Both ultrasound cavitation and cryolipolysis are safe and effective for the reduction of abdominal fat thickness and for abdominal contouring. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  3. Non-invasive brain stimulation for the treatment of brain diseases in childhood and adolescence: state of the art, current limits and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Mario Vicario

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades interest in application of non-invasive brain stimulation for enhancing neural functions is growing continuously. However, the use of such techniques in pediatric populations remains rather limited and mainly confined to the treatment of severe neurological and psychiatric diseases. In this article we provide a complete review of non-invasive brain stimulation studies conducted in pediatric populations. We also provide a brief discussion about the current limitations and future directions in a field of research still very young and full of issues to be explored.

  4. Non-invasive measurements of exhaled NO and CO associated with methacholine responses in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameredes Bill T

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitric oxide (NO and carbon monoxide (CO in exhaled breath are considered obtainable biomarkers of physiologic mechanisms. Therefore, obtaining their measures simply, non-invasively, and repeatedly, is of interest, and was the purpose of the current study. Methods Expired NO (ENO and CO (ECO were measured non-invasively using a gas micro-analyzer on several strains of mice (C57Bl6, IL-10-/-, A/J, MKK3-/-, JNK1-/-, NOS-2-/- and NOS-3-/- with and without allergic airway inflammation (AI induced by ovalbumin systemic sensitization and aerosol challenge, compared using independent-sample t-tests between groups, and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA within groups over time of inflammation induction. ENO and ECO were also measured in C57Bl6 and IL-10-/- mice, ages 8–58 weeks old, the relationship of which was determined by regression analysis. S-methionyl-L-thiocitrulline (SMTC, and tin protoporphyrin (SnPP were used to inhibit neuronal/constitutive NOS-1 and heme-oxygenase, respectively, and alter NO and CO production, respectively, as assessed by paired t-tests. Methacholine-associated airway responses (AR were measured by the enhanced pause method, with comparisons by repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc testing. Results ENO was significantly elevated in naïve IL-10-/- (9–14 ppb and NOS-2-/- (16 ppb mice as compared to others (average: 5–8 ppb, whereas ECO was significantly higher in naïve A/J, NOS-3-/- (3–4 ppm, and MKK3-/- (4–5 ppm mice, as compared to others (average: 2.5 ppm. As compared to C57Bl6 mice, AR of IL-10-/-, JNK1-/-, NOS-2-/-, and NOS-3-/- mice were decreased, whereas they were greater for A/J and MKK3-/- mice. SMTC significantly decreased ENO by ~30%, but did not change AR in NOS-2-/- mice. SnPP reduced ECO in C57Bl6 and IL-10-/- mice, and increased AR in NOS-2-/- mice. ENO decreased as a function of age in IL-10-/- mice, remaining unchanged in C57Bl6 mice. Conclusion These results are

  5. Enhanced Field Emission Studies on Niobium Surfaces Relevant to High Field Superconducting Radio-Frequency Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Wang

    2002-01-01

    Enhanced field emission (EFE) presents the main impediment to higher acceleration gradients in superconducting niobium (Nb) radio frequency cavities for particle accelerators. The strength, number and sources of EFE sites strongly depend on surface preparation and handling. The main objective of this thesis project is to systematically investigate the sources of EFE from Nb, to evaluate the best available surface preparation techniques with respect to resulting field emission, and to establish an optimized process to minimize or eliminate EFE. To achieve these goals, a scanning field emission microscope (SFEM) was designed and built as an extension to an existing commercial scanning electron microscope (SEM). In the SFEM chamber of ultra high vacuum, a sample is moved laterally in a raster pattern under a high voltage anode tip for EFE detection and localization. The sample is then transferred under vacuum to the SEM chamber equipped with an energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer for individual emitting site characterization. Compared to other systems built for similar purposes, this apparatus has low cost and maintenance, high operational flexibility, considerably bigger scan area, as well as reliable performance. EFE sources from planar Nb have been studied after various surface preparation, including chemical etching and electropolishing, combined with ultrasonic or high-pressure water rinse. Emitters have been identified, analyzed and the preparation process has been examined and improved based on EFE results. As a result, field-emission-free or near field-emission-free surfaces at ∼140 MV/m have been consistently achieved with the above techniques. Characterization on the remaining emitters leads to the conclusion that no evidence of intrinsic emitters, i.e., no fundamental electric field limit induced by EFE, has been observed up to ∼140 MV/m. Chemically etched and electropolished Nb are compared and no significant difference is observed up to ∼140 MV

  6. Non-invasive cardiac output monitoring in neonates using bioreactance: a comparison with echocardiography.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Weisz, Dany E

    2012-01-01

    Non-invasive cardiac output monitoring is a potentially useful clinical tool in the neonatal setting. Our aim was to evaluate a new method of non-invasive continuous cardiac output (CO) measurement (NICOM™) based on the principle of bioreactance in neonates.

  7. Effects of non-invasive neurostimulation on craving: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Jochem M.; Daams, Joost G.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Veltman, Dick J.; van den Brink, Wim; Goudriaan, Anna E.

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the available evidence regarding the effects of non-invasive neurostimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), on craving in substance dependence and craving for high palatable food. Non-invasive neurostimulation techniques were restricted

  8. Effects of non-invasive neurostimulation on craving: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.M.; Daams, J.G.; Koeter, M.W.; Veltman, D.J.; van den Brink, W.; Goudriaan, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the available evidence regarding the effects of non-invasive neurostimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), on craving in substance dependence and craving for high palatable food. Non-invasive neurostimulation techniques were restricted

  9. Advanced signal processing theory and implementation for sonar, radar, and non-invasive medical diagnostic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Stergiopoulos, Stergios

    2009-01-01

    Integrates topics of signal processing from sonar, radar, and medical system technologies by identifying their concept similarities. This book covers non-invasive medical diagnostic system applications, including intracranial ultrasound, a technology that attempts to address non-invasive detection on brain injuries and stroke.

  10. Markers for the non-invasive diagnosis of mesothelioma: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bij, S.; Schaake, E.; Koffijberg, H.; Burgers, J. A.; de Mol, B. A. J. M.; Moons, K. G. M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous markers have been evaluated to facilitate the non-invasive diagnostic work-up of mesothelioma. The purpose of this study was to conduct a structured review of the diagnostic performance of non-invasive marker tests for the detection of mesothelioma in patients with suspected

  11. Markers for the non-invasive diagnosis of mesothelioma : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bij, S.; Schaake, E.; Koffijberg, H.; Burgers, J. A.; De Mol, B. A J M; Moons, K.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Numerous markers have been evaluated to facilitate the non-invasive diagnostic work-up of mesothelioma. The purpose of this study was to conduct a structured review of the diagnostic performance of non-invasive marker tests for the detection of mesothelioma in patients with suspected

  12. 1H NMR- based metabolomics approaches as non- invasive tools for diagnosis of endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Ghazi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: So far, non-invasive diagnostic approaches such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, or blood tests do not have sufficient diagnostic power for endometriosis disease. Lack of a non-invasive diagnostic test contributes to the long delay between onset of symptoms and diagnosis of endometriosis. Objective: The present study focuses on the identification of predictive biomarkers in serum by pattern recognition techniques and uses partial least square discriminant analysis, multi-layer feed forward artificial neural networks (ANNs and quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA modeling tools for the early diagnosis of endometriosis in a minimally invasive manner by 1H- NMR based metabolomics. Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was done in Pasteur Institute, Iran in June 2013. Serum samples of 31 infertile women with endometriosis (stage II and III who confirmed by diagnostic laparoscopy and 15 normal women were collected and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The model was built by using partial least square discriminant analysis, QDA, and ANNs to determine classifier metabolites for early prediction risk of disease. Results: The levels of 2- methoxyestron, 2-methoxy estradiol, dehydroepiandrostion androstendione, aldosterone, and deoxy corticosterone were enhanced significantly in infertile group. While cholesterol and primary bile acids levels were decreased. QDA model showed significant difference between two study groups. Positive and negative predict value levels obtained about 71% and 78%, respectively. ANNs provided also criteria for detection of endometriosis. Conclusion: The QDA and ANNs modeling can be used as computational tools in noninvasive diagnose of endometriosis. However, the model designed by QDA methods is more efficient compared to ANNs in diagnosis of endometriosis patients.

  13. Non-invasive assessment of coronary artery bypass graft patency using 16-slice computed tomography angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uren Neal G

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasive coronary angiography is the gold standard means of imaging bypass vessels and carries a small but potentially serious risk of local vascular complications, including myocardial infarction, stroke and death. We evaluated computed tomography as a non-invasive means of assessing graft patency. Methods Fifty patients with previous coronary artery bypass surgery who were listed for diagnostic coronary angiography underwent contrast enhanced computed tomography angiography using a 16-slice computed tomography scanner. Images were retrospectively gated to the electrocardiogram and two dimensional axial, multiplanar and three dimensional reconstructions acquired. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, accuracy and level of agreement for detection of graft patency by multidetector computed tomography. Results A total of 116 grafts were suitable for analysis. The specificity of CT for the detection of graft patency was 100%, with a sensitivity of 92.8%, positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 85.8% and an accuracy of 94.8%. The kappa value of agreement between the two means of measuring graft patency was 0.9. Mean radiation dose was 9.0 ± 7.2 mSv for coronary angiography and 18.5 ± 4 mSv for computed tomography. Pooled analysis of eight studies, incorporating 932 grafts, confirmed a 97% accuracy for the detection of graft patency by multidetector computed tomography. Conclusion Computed tomography is an accurate, rapid and non-invasive method of assessing coronary artery bypass graft patency. However, this was achieved at the expense of an increase in radiation dose.

  14. Non-invasive genetic monitoring of wild central chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Arandjelovic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An assessment of population size and structure is an important first step in devising conservation and management plans for endangered species. Many threatened animals are elusive, rare and live in habitats that prohibit directly counting individuals. For example, a well-founded estimate of the number of great apes currently living in the wild is lacking. Developing methods to obtain accurate population estimates for these species is a priority for their conservation management. Genotyping non-invasively collected faecal samples is an effective way of evaluating a species' population size without disruption, and can also reveal details concerning population structure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We opportunistically collected wild chimpanzee faecal samples for genetic capture-recapture analyses over a four-year period in a 132 km(2 area of Loango National Park, Gabon. Of the 444 samples, 46% yielded sufficient quantities of DNA for genotyping analysis and the consequent identification of 121 individuals. Using genetic capture-recapture, we estimate that 283 chimpanzees (range: 208-316 inhabited the research area between February 2005 and July 2008. Since chimpanzee males are patrilocal and territorial, we genotyped samples from males using variable Y-chromosome microsatellite markers and could infer that seven chimpanzee groups are present in the area. Genetic information, in combination with field data, also suggested the occurrence of repeated cases of intergroup violence and a probable group extinction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The poor amplification success rate resulted in a limited number of recaptures and hence only moderate precision (38%, measured as the entire width of the 95% confidence interval, but this was still similar to the best results obtained using intensive nest count surveys of apes (40% to 63%. Genetic capture-recapture methods applied to apes can provide a considerable amount of novel information on

  15. Rejuvenecimiento periorbitario no invasivo Non-invasive periorbital rejuvenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Muñóz del Olmo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Cirujanos plásticos y médicos estéticos se esfuerzan por lograr resultados satisfactorios y estéticos que mejoren o suavicen el paso del tiempo a nivel facial, con un especial interés o énfasis en el área periorbitaria. Un gran número de pacientes consultan para mejorar esta zona, pero por diferentes motivos desean que los procedimientos que se les realicen sean poco invasivos y con resultados rápidos, permitiéndoles así incorporarse lo antes posible a sus actividades cotidianas. Es fundamental el conocimiento de las proporciones faciales y periorbitarias para lograr resultados naturales. El objetivo de la técnica que proponemos es lograr una bioestimulación local de la piel, restaurar los volúmenes y reducir las arrugas de expresión o dinámicas, consiguiendo así una apariencia relajada y juvenil en el paciente.Plastic surgeons and aesthetic doctors are making an effort to reach positive aesthetic results. Their aim is to soften the effects of age on facial features stressing in the periorbital area. Many patients come to improve their facial image on this area, but they are asking for non-invasive and fast procedures to keep on their daily life. It is indispensable the knowledge of facial and periorbital proportions to achieve a more natural effect. The aim of the technique exposed is to achieve a local bioestimulation on skin, to restore volumes and to reduce expression and dynamical wrinkles. The expected result is a relaxing, youthful appearance.

  16. Smartphone based non-invasive salivary glucose biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Anuradha; Jha, Sandeep Kumar

    2017-12-15

    The present work deals with the development of a non-invasive optical glucose biosensor using saliva samples and a smartphone. The sensor was fabricated with a simple methodology by immobilization of Glucose oxidase enzyme along with a pH responsive dye on a filter paper based strip. The strip changes color upon reaction with glucose present in saliva and the color changes were detected using a smartphone camera through RGB profiling. This standalone biosensor showed good sensitivity and low interference while operating within 20 s response time. We used various means for improvements such as the use of slope method instead of differential response; use of a responsive pH indicator and made numerous tweaks in the smartphone app. Calibration with spiked saliva samples with slopes for (R + G + B) pixels revealed an exponentially increasing calibration curve with a linear detection range of 50-540 mg/dL, sensitivity of 0.0012 pixels sec -1 /mg dL -1 and LOD of 24.6 mg/dL. The biosensor was clinically validated on both healthy and diabetic subjects divided into several categories based on sex, age, diabetic status etc. and correlation between blood and salivary glucose has been established for better standardization of the sensor. Correlation of 0.44 was obtained between blood and salivary glucose in healthy individuals whereas it was 0.64 and 0.94 in case of prediabetic and diabetic patients respectively. The developed biosensor has the potential to be used for mass diagnosis of diabetes especially in such areas where people remain prohibited from routine analysis due to high healthcare cost. Apart from that, a smartphone would be the only device the user needs for this measurement, along with a disposable low cost test strip. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Skin Hydration Assessment through Modern Non-Invasive Bioengineering Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Maria-Magdalena; Poenaru, Elena; Poenaru, Calin; Constantin, Traian

    2014-03-01

    Non-invasive bioengineering technologies continuously discovered and developed in recent decades provide a significant input to research development and remarkably contribute to the improvement of medical education and care to our patients. Assessing skin hydration by using the capacitance method for a group of patients with allergic contact dermatitis versus healthy subjects, before and after applying a moisturiser (assessing the immediate and long-term effectiveness of hydration). For both groups, but especially for the patients with dry skin, there was a clear improvement of hydration, statistically significant after applying the moisturiser. In the case of the patients with allergic contact dermatitis, hydration was at a maximum immediately after the first application, and then maintained an increased level after 7 and 28 days, respectively. In the healthy subjects, the increase in hydration was lower, but progressive. The moisturiser determined an increase in hydration for all age groups, but those who showed the most obvious effect were the young adults (18-29 years old) with an increase of 19.9%.The maintenance effect of hydration lasted for 28 days, while the improvement was important for allergic skin (17.1%) and significant for healthy skin (10.9%). The assessment of epidermal hydration performed by using the corneometer showed very good hydration of the stratum corneum for both groups studied, with immediate and long-term effect. This study also showed that the degree of skin hydration was inversely proportional with age. The corneometer is easy to use, efficient and widely utilised in international studies for measurements in healthy or pathological conditions, for quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of various preparations intended for application to the skin surface, under well-controlled and standardised conditions.

  18. [Meta-analyses on measurement precision of non-invasive hemodynamic monitoring technologies in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel, G; Fukui, K; Higashi, M; Schmidtmann, I; Werner, C

    2018-06-01

    An ideal non-invasive monitoring system should provide accurate and reproducible measurements of clinically relevant variables that enables clinicians to guide therapy accordingly. The monitor should be rapid, easy to use, readily available at the bedside, operator-independent, cost-effective and should have a minimal risk and side effect profile for patients. An example is the introduction of pulse oximetry, which has become established for non-invasive monitoring of oxygenation worldwide. A corresponding non-invasive monitoring of hemodynamics and perfusion could optimize the anesthesiological treatment to the needs in individual cases. In recent years several non-invasive technologies to monitor hemodynamics in the perioperative setting have been introduced: suprasternal Doppler ultrasound, modified windkessel function, pulse wave transit time, radial artery tonometry, thoracic bioimpedance, endotracheal bioimpedance, bioreactance, and partial CO 2 rebreathing have been tested for monitoring cardiac output or stroke volume. The photoelectric finger blood volume clamp technique and respiratory variation of the plethysmography curve have been assessed for monitoring fluid responsiveness. In this manuscript meta-analyses of non-invasive monitoring technologies were performed when non-invasive monitoring technology and reference technology were comparable. The primary evaluation criterion for all studies screened was a Bland-Altman analysis. Experimental and pediatric studies were excluded, as were all studies without a non-invasive monitoring technique or studies without evaluation of cardiac output/stroke volume or fluid responsiveness. Most studies found an acceptable bias with wide limits of agreement. Thus, most non-invasive hemodynamic monitoring technologies cannot be considered to be equivalent to the respective reference method. Studies testing the impact of non-invasive hemodynamic monitoring technologies as a trend evaluation on outcome, as well as

  19. Endometrial biomarkers for the non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Devashana; Hull, M Louise; Fraser, Ian; Miller, Laura; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Johnson, Neil; Nisenblat, Vicki

    2016-04-20

    About 10% of reproductive-aged women suffer from endometriosis, which is a costly, chronic disease that causes pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopy is the gold standard diagnostic test for endometriosis, but it is expensive and carries surgical risks. Currently, there are no non-invasive tests available in clinical practice that accurately diagnose endometriosis. This is the first diagnostic test accuracy review of endometrial biomarkers for endometriosis that utilises Cochrane methodologies, providing an update on the rapidly expanding literature in this field. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of the endometrial biomarkers for pelvic endometriosis, using a surgical diagnosis as the reference standard. We evaluated the tests as replacement tests for diagnostic surgery and as triage tests to inform decisions to undertake surgery for endometriosis. We did not restrict the searches to particular study designs, language or publication dates. To identify trials, we searched the following databases: CENTRAL (2015, July), MEDLINE (inception to May 2015), EMBASE (inception to May 2015), CINAHL (inception to April 2015), PsycINFO (inception to April 2015), Web of Science (inception to April 2015), LILACS (inception to April 2015), OAIster (inception to April 2015), TRIP (inception to April 2015) and ClinicalTrials.gov (inception to April 2015). We searched DARE and PubMed databases up to April 2015 to identify reviews and guidelines as sources of references to potentially relevant studies. We also performed searches for papers recently published and not yet indexed in the major databases. The search strategies incorporated words in the title, abstract, text words across the record and the medical subject headings (MeSH). We considered published peer-reviewed, randomised controlled or cross-sectional studies of any size that included prospectively collected samples from any population of reproductive-aged women suspected of having one or more of the following target

  20. Non-invasive Oil-Based Method to Increase Topical Delivery of Nucleic Acids to Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vij, Manika; Alam, Shamshad; Gupta, Nidhi; Gotherwal, Vishvabandhu; Gautam, Hemlata; Ansari, Kausar M; Santhiya, Deenan; Natarajan, Vivek T; Ganguli, Munia

    2017-06-07

    Topical delivery of nucleic acids to skin has huge prospects in developing therapeutic interventions for cutaneous disorders. In spite of initial success, clinical translation is vastly impeded by the constraints of bioavailability as well as stability in metabolically active environment of skin. Various physical and chemical methods used to overcome these limitations involve invasive procedures or compounds that compromise skin integrity. Hence, there is an increasing demand for developing safe skin penetration enhancers for efficient nucleic acid delivery to skin. Here, we demonstrate that pretreatment of skin with silicone oil can increase the transfection efficiency of non-covalently associated peptide-plasmid DNA nanocomplexes in skin ex vivo and in vivo. The method does not compromise skin integrity, as indicated by microscopic evaluation of cellular differentiation, tissue architecture, enzyme activity assessment, dye penetration tests using Franz assay, and cytotoxicity and immunogenicity analyses. Stability of nanocomplexes is not hampered on pretreatment, thereby avoiding nuclease-mediated degradation. The mechanistic insights through Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy reveal some alterations in the skin hydration status owing to possible occlusion effects of the enhancer. Overall, we describe a topical, non-invasive, efficient, and safe method that can be used to increase the penetration and delivery of plasmid DNA to skin for possible therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Using non-invasive brain stimulation to augment motor training-induced plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual-Leone Alvaro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Therapies for motor recovery after stroke or traumatic brain injury are still not satisfactory. To date the best approach seems to be the intensive physical therapy. However the results are limited and functional gains are often minimal. The goal of motor training is to minimize functional disability and optimize functional motor recovery. This is thought to be achieved by modulation of plastic changes in the brain. Therefore, adjunct interventions that can augment the response of the motor system to the behavioural training might be useful to enhance the therapy-induced recovery in neurological populations. In this context, noninvasive brain stimulation appears to be an interesting option as an add-on intervention to standard physical therapies. Two non-invasive methods of inducing electrical currents into the brain have proved to be promising for inducing long-lasting plastic changes in motor systems: transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS. These techniques represent powerful methods for priming cortical excitability for a subsequent motor task, demand, or stimulation. Thus, their mutual use can optimize the plastic changes induced by motor practice, leading to more remarkable and outlasting clinical gains in rehabilitation. In this review we discuss how these techniques can enhance the effects of a behavioural intervention and the clinical evidence to date.

  2. Non-invasive brain stimulation to assess and modulate neuroplasticity in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggio, Paulo Sérgio; Valasek, Claudia Aparecida; Campanhã, Camila; Giglio, Ana Carolina Alem; Baptista, Nathalia Ishikawa; Lapenta, Olivia Morgan; Fregni, Felipe

    2011-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative and progressive disease related to a gradual decline in cognitive functions such as memory, attention, perceptual-spatial abilities, language, and executive functions. Recent evidence has suggested that interventions promoting neural plasticity can induce significant cognitive gains especially in subjects at risk of or with mild AD. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are non-invasive techniques that can induce significant and long-lasting changes in focal and non-focal neuroplasticity. In this review, we present initial preliminary evidence that TMS and tDCS can enhance performance in cognitive functions typically impaired in AD. Also, we reviewed the initial six studies on AD that presented early findings showing cognitive gains such as in recognition memory and language associated with TMS and tDCS treatment. In addition, we showed that TMS has also been used to assess neuroplasticity changes in AD supporting the notion that cortical excitability is changed in AD due to the neurodegenerative process. Due to the safe profile, cost of these tools, and initial clinical trials results, further studies are warranted in order to replicate and extend the initial findings of rTMS and tDCS as cognitive enhancers in AD. Further trials should explore different targets of stimulation along with different paradigms of stimulation including combination with behavioural interventions.

  3. Effect of Radio-Frequency and Low-Frequency Bias Voltage on the Formation of Amorphous Carbon Films Deposited by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manis-Levy, Hadar; Mintz, Moshe H.; Livneh, Tsachi; Zukerman Ido; Raveh, Avi

    2014-01-01

    The effect of radio-frequency (RF) or low-frequency (LF) bias voltage on the formation of amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) films was studied on silicon substrates with a low methane (CH 4 ) concentration (2–10 vol.%) in CH 4 +Ar mixtures. The bias substrate was applied either by RF (13.56 MHz) or by LF (150 kHz) power supply. The highest hardness values (∼18–22 GPa) with lower hydrogen content in the films (∼20 at.%) deposited at 10 vol.% CH 4 , was achieved by using the RF bias. However, the films deposited using the LF bias, under similar RF plasma generation power and CH 4 concentration (50 W and 10 vol.%, respectively), displayed lower hardness (∼6–12 GPa) with high hydrogen content (∼40 at.%). The structures analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Raman scattering measurements provide an indication of trans-polyacetylene structure formation. However, its excessive formation in the films deposited by the LF bias method is consistent with its higher bonded hydrogen concentration and low level of hardness, as compared to the film prepared by the RF bias method. It was found that the effect of RF bias on the film structure and properties is stronger than the effect of the low-frequency (LF) bias under identical radio-frequency (RF) powered electrode and identical PECVD (plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition) system configuration. (plasma technology)

  4. Non-invasive tissue oximetry following unilateral DIEP-flap reconstruction: A pilot evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P.A. Vranken

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Continuous non-invasive tissue oxygen saturation is suitable for postoperative monitoring of DIEP-flaps, and StO2 pattern may aid in early identification of vascular compromise in DIEP-flaps.

  5. Detrusor wall thickness compared to other non-invasive methods in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    W. ElSaied

    invasive tests. Abbreviations: ... obstruction, non-invasively in men with lower urinary tract symptoms, with an accuracy approaching that ..... gies such as infection or tumor [15]. .... diagnosis of infravesical obstruction in children: evaluation of blad-.

  6. In-situ Non-Invasive Imaging of Liquid-Immersed Thin Film Composite Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Ogieglo, Wojciech; Pinnau, Ingo; Wessling, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    We present a non-invasive method to directly image liquid-immersed thin film composite membranes. The approach allows accessing information not only on the lateral distribution of the coating thickness, including variations in its swelling

  7. Non-invasive acoustic-based monitoring of uranium in solution and H/D ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantea, Cristian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Beedle, Christopher Craig [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sinha, Dipen N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lakis, Rollin Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The primary objective of this project is to adapt existing non-invasive acoustic techniques (Swept-Frequency Acoustic Interferometry and Gaussian-pulse acoustic technique) for the purpose of demonstrating the ability to quantify U or H/D ratios in solution. Furthermore, a successful demonstration will provide an easily implemented, low cost, and non-invasive method for remote and unattended uranium mass measurements for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

  8. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation with spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, G; Okyay, D Z; Yurtlu, S; Hanci, V; Ayoglu, H; Koksal, B; Turan, I O

    2010-10-01

    We present the successful use of perioperative non-invasive mechanical ventilation in a morbidly obese pregnant woman with bronchial asthma, severe preeclampsia and pulmonary edema undergoing an emergency cesarean delivery with spinal anesthesia. The combination of non-invasive mechanical ventilation with neuraxial anesthesia may be of value in selected parturients with acute or chronic respiratory insufficiency requiring surgery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Emerging non-invasive Raman methods in process control and forensic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Neil A; Matousek, Pavel

    2008-10-01

    This article reviews emerging Raman techniques (Spatially Offset and Transmission Raman Spectroscopy) for non-invasive, sub-surface probing in process control and forensic applications. New capabilities offered by these methods are discussed and several application examples are given including the non-invasive detection of counterfeit drugs through blister packs and opaque plastic bottles and the rapid quantitative analysis of the bulk content of pharmaceutical tablets and capsules without sub-sampling.

  10. 5th German cardiodiagnostic meeting 2013 with the 6th Leipzig Symposium on non-invasive cardiovascular imaging. Challenges and limit of the non-invasive cardiac imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The proceedings on the German cardiodiagnostic meeting 2013 together with the 6th Leipzig Symposium on non-invasive cardiovascular imaging include abstracts concerning the following topics: Imaging in the rhythmology; adults with congenital cardiac defects; cardiac myopathies - myocarditis; cardiac valves (before and after transcutaneous valve replacement); coronary heart diseases; technical developments.

  11. The use of non-invasive fetal electrocardiography in diagnosing second-degree fetal atrioventricular block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhno, Igor; Behar, Joachim A; Oster, Julien; Shulgin, Vyacheslav; Ostras, Oleksii; Andreotti, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Complete atrioventricular block in fetuses is known to be mostly associated with autoimmune disease and can be irreversible if no steroids treatment is provided. Conventional methods used in clinical practice for diagnosing fetal arrhythmia are limited since they do not reflect the primary electrophysiological conduction processes that take place in the myocardium. The non-invasive fetal electrocardiogram has the potential to better support fetal arrhythmias diagnosis through the continuous analysis of the beat to beat variation of the fetal heart rate and morphological analysis of the PQRST complex. We present two retrospective case reports on which atrioventricular block diagnosis could have been supported by the non-invasive fetal electrocardiogram. The two cases comprised a 22-year-old pregnant woman with the gestational age of 31 weeks and a 25-year-old pregnant woman with the gestational age of 41 weeks. Both women were admitted to the Department of Maternal and Fetal Medicine at the Kyiv and Kharkiv municipal perinatal clinics. Patients were observed using standard fetal monitoring methods as well as the non-invasive fetal electrocardiogram. The non-invasive fetal electrocardiographic recordings were analyzed retrospectively, where it is possible to identify the presence of the atrioventricular block. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the feasibility of the non-invasive fetal electrocardiogram as a supplementary method to diagnose of the fetal atrioventricular block. Combined with current fetal monitoring techniques, non-invasive fetal electrocardiography could support clinical decisions.

  12. Radiofrequency radiation-induced calcium-ion-efflux enhancement from human and other neuroblastoma cells in culture: [Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, S.K.; Ghosh, B.; Blackman, C.F.

    1988-01-01

    In order to test the generality of radiofrequency-radiation-induced change in alternation of 45 Ca/sup 2/plus// efflux from avian and feline brain tissues, human neuroblastoma cells were exposed to electromagnetic radiation at 147 MHz, amplitude modulated (AM) at 16 Hz, at specific absorption rates (SAR) of 0.1, 0.05, 0.01, 0.005, 0.001, and 0.0005 Wkg. Significant 45 Ca/sup 2/plus// efflux was obtained at SAR values of 0.05 and 0.005 Wkg. Enchanced efflux at 0.05 Wkg peaked at the 13-to-16 Hz and at the 57.5-to-60 Hz modulation ranges. A Chinese hamster-mouse hybrid neuroblastoma was also shown to exhibit enchanced radiation-induced 45 Ca/sup 2/plus// efflux at an SAR of 0.05 Wkg, using 147 MHz, AM at 16 hz. These results confirm that amplitude-modulated radiofrequency radiation can induce response in cells of nervous tissue origin from widely different animal species including humans. The results are also consistent with reports of similar findings in avian and feline brain tissue reported by others and indicate the general nature of the phenomenon. 9 refs., 3 tabs

  13. Urinary biomarkers for the non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Emily; Nisenblat, Vicki; Farquhar, Cindy; Fraser, Ian; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Johnson, Neil; Hull, M Louise

    2015-12-23

    About 10% of reproductive-aged women suffer from endometriosis which is a costly chronic disease that causes pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopy is the 'gold standard' diagnostic test for endometriosis, but it is expensive and carries surgical risks. Currently, there are no simple non-invasive or minimally-invasive tests available in clinical practice that accurately diagnoses endometriosis. 1. To provide summary estimates of the diagnostic accuracy of urinary biomarkers for the diagnosis of pelvic endometriosis compared to surgical diagnosis as a reference standard.2. To assess the diagnostic utility of biomarkers that could differentiate ovarian endometrioma from other ovarian masses.Urinary biomarkers were evaluated as replacement tests for surgical diagnosis and as triage tests to inform decisions to undertake surgery for endometriosis. The searches were not restricted to particular study design, language or publication dates. We searched the following databases to 20 April - 31 July 2015: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, LILACS, OAIster, TRIP and ClinicalTrials.gov (trial register). MEDION, DARE, and PubMed were also searched to identify reviews and guidelines as reference sources of potentially relevant studies. Recently published papers not yet indexed in the major databases were also sought. The search strategy incorporated words in the title, abstract, text words across the record and the medical subject headings (MeSH) and was modified for each database. Published peer-reviewed, randomised controlled or cross-sectional studies of any size were considered, which included prospectively collected samples from any population of reproductive-aged women suspected of having one or more of the following target conditions: ovarian, peritoneal or deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). We included studies comparing the diagnostic test accuracy of one or more urinary biomarkers with surgical visualisation of endometriotic lesions. Two

  14. Non-invasive pre-clinical MR imaging of prostate tumor hypoxia for radiation therapy prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek White

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the usefulness of Oxygen-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (OE-MRI changes in signal intensity related to oxygen challenge for predicting tumor response to radiation therapy.Methods: Dynamic MR signal changes were acquired using Varian 4.7T small animal MR scanner prior to image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT of small (n = 6 and large subcutaneous (n = 5 prostate tumors in adult male rats. An interleaved blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD and tissue-oxygen level dependent (TOLD data acquisition or (IBT was performed using a baseline of medical air as positive control and using medical oxygen as a breathing challenge. BOLD used a 2-D multi-slice spoiled gradient-echo with multi-echo sequence. TOLD used a 2-D multi-slice spoiled gradient-echo sequence. Voxel changes in signal intensity were determined by a correlation coefficient mapping technique. Irradiation technique planned consisted of 1F × 15 Gy AP/PA or 2F × 7.5 Gy AP/PA to the gross tumor volume (GTV. Tumor growth measurements were recorded over time to assess the response to IGRT.Results: BOLD and TOLD signals variously illustrated positive or negative impulse responses in the tumor ROI due to inhaling medical oxygen. Correlation coefficient mapping demonstrated heterogeneity in tumors after inhaling medical oxygen. BOLD and TOLD signals exhibited increased changes in signal intensities after the first fraction of dose. Multi-fractionation had minimum effect until the second fraction of dose was applied. Tumor growth delays were observed when inhaling medical oxygen during IGRT.Conclusion: OE-MRI is a non-invasive imaging modality that can provide insight to the oxygen status of tumors. Observed increase percent changes in BOLD and TOLD signal intensities after the first fraction of dose suggest tumors experienced reoxygenation. OE-MRI could be used for predicting tumor response to IGRT when using medical oxygen for increasing GTV radiosensitivity, suggesting

  15. Test of a non-invasive bunch shape monitor at the GSI high current LINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwicker, Benjamin; Forck, Peter; Kester, Oliver [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany); Dorn, Christoph; Kowina, Piotr [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    At the heavy ion LINAC at GSI, a novel scheme of non-invasive Bunch Shape Monitor has been tested with several ion beams at 11.4 MeV/u. Caused by the beam impact on the residual gas, secondary electrons are liberated. These electrons are accelerated by an electrostatic field, transported through a sophisticated electrostatic energy analyzer and an rf-deflector, acting as a time-to-space converter. Finally a MCP detects the electron distribution. For the applied beam settings this Bunch Shape Monitor is able to obtain longitudinal profiles down to 400 ps with a resolution of 50 ps, corresponding to 2 degree of the 36 MHz acceleration frequency. During a long shutdown period for the GSI accelerators in 2013, the monitor underwent a general technical retrofit: Influence of the beam has been significantly reduced, due enhanced electrodes, new apertures have been installed to decrease electron scattering, sophisticated stepping motors will allow better image properties, a MCP shielding plate will prevent high background. Together with these improvements the achievements of the monitor are discussed.

  16. Non-Invasive Fiber-Optic Biomedical Sensor for Basic Vital Sign Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Nedoma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the functionality verification of a novel non-invasive fibre-optic sensor monitoring basic vital signs such as Respiratory Rate (RR, Heart Rate (HR and Body Temperature (BT. The integration of three sensors in one unit is a unique solution patented by our research team. The integrated sensor is based on two Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs encapsulated inside an inert polymer (non-reactive to human skin called PolyDiMethylSiloxane (PDMS. The PDMS is beginning to find widespread applications in the biomedical field due to its desirable properties, especially its immunity to ElectroMagnetic Interference (EMI. The integrated sensor's functionality was verified by carrying out a series of laboratory experiments in 10 volunteer subjects after giving them a written informed consent. The Bland-Altman statistical analysis produced satisfactory accuracy for the respiratory and heart rate measurements and their respective reference signals in all test subjects. A total relative error of 0.31% was determined for body temperature measurements. The main contribution of this article is a proof-of-concept of a novel noninvasive fiber-optic sensor which could be used for basic vital sign monitoring. This sensor offers a potential to enhance and improve the comfort level of patients in hospitals and clinics and can even be considered for use in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI environments.

  17. Towards novel compact laser sources for non-invasive diagnostics and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafailov, Edik U.; Litvinova, Karina S.; Sokolovski, Sergei G.

    2015-08-01

    An important field of application of lasers is biomedical optics. Here, they offer great utility for diagnosis, therapy and surgery. For the development of novel methods of laser-based biomedical diagnostics careful study of light propagation in biological tissues is necessary to enhance our understanding of the optical measurements undertaken, increase research and development capacity and the diagnostic reliability of optical technologies. Ultimately, fulfilling these requirements will increase uptake in clinical applications of laser based diagnostics and therapeutics. To address these challenges informative biomarkers relevant to the biological and physiological function or disease state of the organism must be selected. These indicators are the results of the analysis of tissues and cells, such as blood. For non-invasive diagnostics peripheral blood, cells and tissue can potentially provide comprehensive information on the condition of the human organism. A detailed study of the light scattering and absorption characteristics can quickly detect physiological and morphological changes in the cells due to thermal, chemical, antibiotic treatments, etc [1-5]. The selection of a laser source to study the structure of biological particles also benefits from the fact that gross pathological changes are not induced and diagnostics make effective use of the monochromatic directional coherence properties of laser radiation.

  18. Non-invasive brain stimulation of the aging brain: State of the art and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatti, Elisa; Rossi, Simone; Innocenti, Iglis; Rossi, Alessandro; Santarnecchi, Emiliano

    2016-08-01

    Favored by increased life expectancy and reduced birth rate, worldwide demography is rapidly shifting to older ages. The golden age of aging is not only an achievement but also a big challenge because of the load of the elderly on social and medical health care systems. Moreover, the impact of age-related decline of attention, memory, reasoning and executive functions on self-sufficiency emphasizes the need of interventions to maintain cognitive abilities at a useful degree in old age. Recently, neuroscientific research explored the chance to apply Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation (NiBS) techniques (as transcranial electrical and magnetic stimulation) to healthy aging population to preserve or enhance physiologically-declining cognitive functions. The present review will update and address the current state of the art on NiBS in healthy aging. Feasibility of NiBS techniques will be discussed in light of recent neuroimaging (either structural or functional) and neurophysiological models proposed to explain neural substrates of the physiologically aging brain. Further, the chance to design multidisciplinary interventions to maximize the efficacy of NiBS techniques will be introduced as a necessary future direction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. MRI mediated, non-invasive tracking of intratumoral distribution of nanocarriers in rat glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karathanasis, Efstathios; Park, Jaekeun; Agarwal, Abhiruchi; Patel, Vijal; Zhao Fuqiang; Hu Xiaoping; Bellamkonda, Ravi V [Wallace H Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, 313 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Annapragada, Ananth V [School of Health Information Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center, 7000 Fannin Street, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)], E-mail: ravi@gatech.edu

    2008-08-06

    Nanocarrier mediated therapy of gliomas has shown promise. The success of systemic nanocarrier-based chemotherapy is critically dependent on the so-called leaky vasculature to permit drug extravasation across the blood-brain barrier. Yet, the extent of vascular permeability in individual tumors varies widely, resulting in a correspondingly wide range of responses to the therapy. However, there exist no tools currently for rationally determining whether tumor blood vessels are amenable to nanocarrier mediated therapy in an individualized, patient specific manner today. To address this need for brain tumor therapy, we have developed a multifunctional 100 nm scale liposomal agent encapsulating a gadolinium-based contrast agent for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging with prolonged blood circulation. Using a 9.4 T MRI system, we were able to track the intratumoral distribution of the gadolinium-loaded nanocarrier in a rat glioma model for a period of three days due to improved magnetic properties of the contrast agent being packaged in a nanocarrier. Such a nanocarrier provides a tool for non-invasively assessing the suitability of tumors for nanocarrier mediated therapy and then optimizing the treatment protocol for each individual tumor. Additionally, the ability to image the tumor in high resolution can potentially constitute a surgical planning tool for tumor resection.

  20. Non-invasive monitoring of in vivo hydrogel degradation and cartilage regeneration by multiparametric MR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zelong; Yan, Chenggong; Yan, Shina; Liu, Qin; Hou, Meirong; Xu, Yikai; Guo, Rui

    2018-01-01

    Numerous biodegradable hydrogels for cartilage regeneration have been widely used in the field of tissue engineering. However, to non-invasively monitor hydrogel degradation and efficiently evaluate cartilage restoration in situ is still challenging. Methods: A ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO)-labeled cellulose nanocrystal (CNC)/silk fibroin (SF)-blended hydrogel system was developed to monitor hydrogel degradation during cartilage regeneration. The physicochemical characterization and biocompatibility of the hydrogel were evaluated in vitro. The in vivo hydrogel degradation and cartilage regeneration of different implants were assessed using multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and further confirmed by histological analysis in a rabbit cartilage defect model for 3 months. Results: USPIO-labeled hydrogels showed sufficient MR contrast enhancement and retained stability without loss of the relaxation rate. Neither the mechanical properties of the hydrogels nor the proliferation of bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were affected by USPIO labeling in vitro. CNC/SF hydrogels with BMSCs degraded more quickly than the acellular hydrogels as reflected by the MR relaxation rate trends in vivo. The morphology of neocartilage was noninvasively visualized by the three-dimensional water-selective cartilage MRI scan sequence, and the cartilage repair was further demonstrated by macroscopic and histological observations. Conclusion: This USPIO-labeled CNC/SF hydrogel system provides a new perspective on image-guided tissue engineering for cartilage regeneration. PMID:29464005

  1. Development of biosensors for non-invasive measurements of heart failure biomarkers in saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcacer, Albert; Streklas, Angelos; Baraket, Abdoullatif; Zine, Nadia; Errachid, Abdelhamid; Bausells, Joan

    2017-06-01

    Biomedical engineering research today is focused on non-invasive techniques for detection of biomarkers related to specific health issues 1. Three metal layer microelectrode (μE) sensors have been implemented to detect specific biomarkers which can be found in human saliva related with heart failure problems 2 such as interleukin and Tumore Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α), and used as highly sensitive saliva sensors. We designed specialized μEs combining different technologies for multiple measurements aiming to a lab-on-a-chip future integration. Measurements are based to basic principles of Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). Thus, certain planar technology was used involving three metal layers of gold, platinum and silver deposited over an oxidized silicon substrate following standard cleanroom procedures of lithography for the definition of μEs, sputtering physical vapor deposition (PVD) for gold, evaporation PVD for silver and platinum, and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) for passivation layer of silicon nitride.

  2. Radiofrequency radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, J.A.; Czerski, P.A.; Stuchly, M.A.; Mild, K.H.; Sheppard, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    High-level radiofrequency radiation is a source of thermal energy that carries all of the known implications of heating for biological systems, including burns, temporary and permanent changes in reproduction, cataracts, and death. In general, no changes in chromosomes, DNA or the reproductive potential of animals exposed to RF radiation have been reported in the absence of significant rises in temperature, though there are limited data on DNA and chromosomal changes at non-thermal levels. Human data are currently limited and do not provide adequate information about the relationship between prolonged low-level RF radiation exposure and increased mortality or morbidity, including cancer incidence. In epidemiological studies and clinical reports of RF effects in man, the problems of quantification are numerous and include uncertainties about ''dose'', health effects, latent periods, dose-response relationships, and interactions with other physical or chemical agents. 228 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Blood biomarkers for the non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisenblat, Vicki; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Shaikh, Rabia; Farquhar, Cindy; Jordan, Vanessa; Scheffers, Carola S; Mol, Ben Willem J; Johnson, Neil; Hull, M Louise

    2016-05-01

    About 10% of reproductive-aged women suffer from endometriosis, a costly chronic disease causing pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopy is the gold standard diagnostic test for endometriosis, but is expensive and carries surgical risks. Currently, there are no non-invasive or minimally invasive tests available in clinical practice to accurately diagnose endometriosis. Although other reviews have assessed the ability of blood tests to diagnose endometriosis, this is the first review to use Cochrane methods, providing an update on the rapidly expanding literature in this field. To evaluate blood biomarkers as replacement tests for diagnostic surgery and as triage tests to inform decisions on surgery for endometriosis. Specific objectives include:1. To provide summary estimates of the diagnostic accuracy of blood biomarkers for the diagnosis of peritoneal, ovarian and deep infiltrating pelvic endometriosis, compared to surgical diagnosis as a reference standard.2. To assess the diagnostic utility of biomarkers that could differentiate ovarian endometrioma from other ovarian masses. We did not restrict the searches to particular study designs, language or publication dates. We searched CENTRAL to July 2015, MEDLINE and EMBASE to May 2015, as well as these databases to 20 April 2015: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, LILACS, OAIster, TRIP, ClinicalTrials.gov, DARE and PubMed. We considered published, peer-reviewed, randomised controlled or cross-sectional studies of any size, including prospectively collected samples from any population of reproductive-aged women suspected of having one or more of the following target conditions: ovarian, peritoneal or deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). We included studies comparing the diagnostic test accuracy of one or more blood biomarkers with the findings of surgical visualisation of endometriotic lesions. Two authors independently collected and performed a quality assessment of data from each study. For each diagnostic test

  4. Imaging modalities for the non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisenblat, Vicki; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Farquhar, Cindy; Johnson, Neil; Hull, M Louise

    2016-02-26

    About 10% of women of reproductive age suffer from endometriosis. Endometriosis is a costly chronic disease that causes pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopy, the gold standard diagnostic test for endometriosis, is expensive and carries surgical risks. Currently, no non-invasive tests that can be used to accurately diagnose endometriosis are available in clinical practice. This is the first review of diagnostic test accuracy of imaging tests for endometriosis that uses Cochrane methods to provide an update on the rapidly expanding literature in this field. • To provide estimates of the diagnostic accuracy of imaging modalities for the diagnosis of pelvic endometriosis, ovarian endometriosis and deeply infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) versus surgical diagnosis as a reference standard.• To describe performance of imaging tests for mapping of deep endometriotic lesions in the pelvis at specific anatomical sites.Imaging tests were evaluated as replacement tests for diagnostic surgery and as triage tests that would assist decision making regarding diagnostic surgery for endometriosis. We searched the following databases to 20 April 2015: MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, LILACS, OAIster, TRIP, ClinicalTrials.gov, MEDION, DARE, and PubMed. Searches were not restricted to a particular study design or language nor to specific publication dates. The search strategy incorporated words in the title, abstracts, text words across the record and medical subject headings (MeSH). We considered published peer-reviewed cross-sectional studies and randomised controlled trials of any size that included prospectively recruited women of reproductive age suspected of having one or more of the following target conditions: endometrioma, pelvic endometriosis, DIE or endometriotic lesions at specific intrapelvic anatomical locations. We included studies that compared the diagnostic test accuracy of one or more imaging modalities versus findings of surgical

  5. Non-invasive airway health measurement using synchrotron x-ray microscopy of high refractive index glass microbeads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelley, Martin, E-mail: martin.donnelley@adelaide.edu.au; Farrow, Nigel; Parsons, David [Respiratory & Sleep Medicine, Women’s and Children’s Hospital, North Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Robinson Research Institute, University of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); School of Paediatrics and Reproductive Health, University of Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Morgan, Kaye; Siu, Karen [School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria (Australia)

    2016-01-28

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by a gene defect that compromises the ability of the mucociliary transit (MCT) system to clear the airways of debris and pathogens. To directly characterise airway health and the effects of treatments we have developed a synchrotron X-ray microscopy method that non-invasively measures the local rate and patterns of MCT behaviour. Although the nasal airways of CF mice exhibit the CF pathophysiology, there is evidence that nasal MCT is not altered in CF mice1. The aim of this experiment was to determine if our non-invasive local airway health assessment method could identify differences in nasal MCT rate between normal and CF mice, information that is potentially lost in bulk MCT measurements. Experiments were performed on the BL20XU beamline at the SPring-8 Synchrotron in Japan. Mice were anaesthetized, a small quantity of micron-sized marker particles were delivered to the nose, and images of the nasal airways were acquired for 15 minutes. The nasal airways were treated with hypertonic saline or mannitol to increase surface hydration and MCT. Custom software was used to locate and track particles and calculate individual and bulk MCT rates. No statistically significant differences in MCT rate were found between normal and CF mouse nasal airways or between treatments. However, we hope that the improved sensitivity provided by this technique will accelerate the ability to identify useful CF lung disease-modifying interventions in small animal models, and enhance the development and efficacy of proposed new therapies.

  6. Non-invasive airway health measurement using synchrotron x-ray microscopy of high refractive index glass microbeads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelley, Martin; Morgan, Kaye; Farrow, Nigel; Siu, Karen; Parsons, David

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by a gene defect that compromises the ability of the mucociliary transit (MCT) system to clear the airways of debris and pathogens. To directly characterise airway health and the effects of treatments we have developed a synchrotron X-ray microscopy method that non-invasively measures the local rate and patterns of MCT behaviour. Although the nasal airways of CF mice exhibit the CF pathophysiology, there is evidence that nasal MCT is not altered in CF mice1. The aim of this experiment was to determine if our non-invasive local airway health assessment method could identify differences in nasal MCT rate between normal and CF mice, information that is potentially lost in bulk MCT measurements. Experiments were performed on the BL20XU beamline at the SPring-8 Synchrotron in Japan. Mice were anaesthetized, a small quantity of micron-sized marker particles were delivered to the nose, and images of the nasal airways were acquired for 15 minutes. The nasal airways were treated with hypertonic saline or mannitol to increase surface hydration and MCT. Custom software was used to locate and track particles and calculate individual and bulk MCT rates. No statistically significant differences in MCT rate were found between normal and CF mouse nasal airways or between treatments. However, we hope that the improved sensitivity provided by this technique will accelerate the ability to identify useful CF lung disease-modifying interventions in small animal models, and enhance the development and efficacy of proposed new therapies.

  7. WORKSHOPS: Radiofrequency superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    In the continual push towards higher energy particle beams, superconducting radiofrequency techniques now play a vital role, highlighted in the fifth workshop on radiofrequency superconductivity, held at DESY from 19 - 24 August 1991

  8. WORKSHOPS: Radiofrequency superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1992-01-15

    In the continual push towards higher energy particle beams, superconducting radiofrequency techniques now play a vital role, highlighted in the fifth workshop on radiofrequency superconductivity, held at DESY from 19 - 24 August 1991.

  9. Non-Invasive Mechanic Ventilation Using in Flail Chest, Caused By Blunt Chest Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Onat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A 75-year-old woman admitted our faculty emergency room with shortness of breath, and chest pain after traffic accident’s second hour. She was diagnosed as bilateral multipl rib fractures, left clavicula fracture, and left flail chest by phsical and radiological examinations. She was transfered to Chest Surgery Depatment’s intensive care unit. The patient was undergone non-invasive mask mechanic ventilation support, because of the decreasing of blood oxygen saturation and increasing of arteriel blood partial carbondioxide pressure. The treatment of non-invasive mechanic ventilation was succesfull for ventilation support. With this report, we would like to attentioned that non-invasive mechanic ventilation for blunt chest trauma patients could be used succesfully and could be used instead of endotracheal invasive mechanic ventilation.

  10. Intraspecies differenes in phenotypic plasticity: Invasive versus non-invasive populations of Ceratophyllum demersum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Benita; Brix, Hans

    2012-01-01

    High phenotypic plasticity has been hypothesized to affect the invasiveness of plants, as high plasticity may enlarge the breath of environments in which the plants can survive and reproduce. Here we compare the phenotypic plasticity of invasive and non-invasive populations of the same species...... hypothesized that the phenotypic plasticity in fitness-related traits like growth and photosynthesis were higher in the invasive than in the non-invasive population. The invasive population acclimated to elevated temperatures through increased rates of photosynthesis (range: Pamb: 8–452 mol O2 g−1 DM h−1......-harvesting complex. Hence, the invasive population of C. demersum from New Zealand had higher phenotypic plasticity in response to temperature than the non-invasive Danish population. This might be the result of genetic evolution since its introduction to New Zealand five decades ago, but further studies are needed...

  11. Applicability of Non-Invasive Sampling in Population Genetic Study of Taiwanese Macaques (Macaca cyclopis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Hua Chu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a pilot study conducted to test the applicability of non-invasive sampling approach in population genetic studies of Taiwanese macaques (Macaca cyclopis. Monkey feces were collected in the field and used as non-invasive DNA sources. PCR success rates of both microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers were examined. When compared with other studies by non-invasive genetic sampling of different mammal species, success rate of microsatellite PCR amplification is low (42.4%, N = 181 while that of mtDNA PCR amplification is acceptable (66.5%, N = 334. The low PCR success rate and poor PCR repeatability of microsatellite alleles due to allelic dropout and false alleles make it difficult to obtain a reliable microsatellite data set. However, the difficulties may be overcome by new techniques.

  12. Non-invasive spectroscopic techniques in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakaki, E.; Sianoudis, IA; Zois, EN; Makropoulou, M.; Serafetinides, AA; Dessinioti, C.; Stefanaki, E.; Stratigos, AJ; Antoniou, C.; Katsambas, A.; Christofidou, E.

    2017-11-01

    The number of non-melanoma skin cancers is increasing worldwide and has become an important health and economic issue. Early detection and treatment of skin cancer can significantly improve patient outcome. Therefore there is an increase in the demand for proper management and effective non-invasive diagnostic modalities in order to avoid relapses or unnecessary treatments. Although the gold standard of diagnosis for non-melanoma skin cancers is biopsy followed by histopathology evaluation, optical non-invasive diagnostic tools have obtained increased attention. Emerging non-invasive or minimal invasive techniques with possible application in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancers include high-definition optical coherence tomography, fluorescence spectroscopy, oblique incidence diffuse reflectance spectrometry among others spectroscopic techniques. Our findings establish how those spectrometric techniques can be used to more rapidly and easily diagnose skin cancer in an accurate and automated manner in the clinic.

  13. British Thoracic Society Quality Standards for acute non-invasive ventilation in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michael; Allen, Martin; Bentley, Andrew; Bourke, Stephen C; Creagh-Brown, Ben; D’Oliveiro, Rachel; Glossop, Alastair; Gray, Alasdair; Jacobs, Phillip; Mahadeva, Ravi; Moses, Rachael; Setchfield, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of the quality standards document is to provide healthcare professionals, commissioners, service providers and patients with a guide to standards of care that should be met for the provision of acute non-invasive ventilation in adults together with measurable markers of good practice. Methods Development of British Thoracic Society (BTS) Quality Standards follows the BTS process of quality standard production based on the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence process manual for the development of quality standards. Results 6 quality statements have been developed, each describing a standard of care for the provision of acute non-invasive ventilation in the UK, together with measurable markers of good practice. Conclusion BTS Quality Standards for acute non-invasive ventilation in adults form a key part of the range of supporting materials that the Society produces to assist in the dissemination and implementation of guideline’s recommendations. PMID:29636979

  14. Radio frequency energy for non-invasive and minimally invasive skin tightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, R Stephen

    2011-07-01

    This article reviews the non-invasive and minimally invasive options for skin tightening, focusing on peer-reviewed articles and presentations and those technologies with the most proven or promising RF non-excisional skin-tightening results for excisional surgeons. RF has been the mainstay of non-invasive skin tightening and has emerged as the "cutting edge" technology in the minimally invasive skin-tightening field. Because these RF skin-tightening technologies are capital equipment purchases with a significant cost associated, this article also discusses some business issues and models that have proven to work in the plastic surgeon's office for non-invasive and minimally invasive skin-tightening technologies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fluid challenge: tracking changes in cardiac output with blood pressure monitoring (invasive or non-invasive).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhal, Karim; Ehrmann, Stephan; Perrotin, Dominique; Wolff, Michel; Boulain, Thierry

    2013-11-01

    To assess whether invasive and non-invasive blood pressure (BP) monitoring allows the identification of patients who have responded to a fluid challenge, i.e., who have increased their cardiac output (CO). Patients with signs of circulatory failure were prospectively included. Before and after a fluid challenge, CO and the mean of four intra-arterial and oscillometric brachial cuff BP measurements were collected. Fluid responsiveness was defined by an increase in CO ≥10 or ≥15% in case of regular rhythm or arrhythmia, respectively. In 130 patients, the correlation between a fluid-induced increase in pulse pressure (Δ500mlPP) and fluid-induced increase in CO was weak and was similar for invasive and non-invasive measurements of BP: r² = 0.31 and r² = 0.29, respectively (both p area under the receiver-operating curve (AUC) of 0.82 (0.74-0.88), similar (p = 0.80) to that of non-invasive Δ500mlPP [AUC of 0.81 (0.73-0.87)]. Outside large gray zones of inconclusive values (5-23% for invasive Δ500mlPP and 4-35% for non-invasive Δ500mlPP, involving 35 and 48% of patients, respectively), the detection of responsiveness or unresponsiveness to fluid was reliable. Cardiac arrhythmia did not impair the performance of invasive or non-invasive Δ500mlPP. Other BP-derived indices did not outperform Δ500mlPP. As evidenced by large gray zones, BP-derived indices poorly reflected fluid responsiveness. However, in our deeply sedated population, a high increase in invasive pulse pressure (>23%) or even in non-invasive pulse pressure (>35%) reliably detected a response to fluid. In the absence of a marked increase in pulse pressure (<4-5%), a response to fluid was unlikely.

  16. Contrast-enhanced specific absorption rate-efficient 3D cardiac cine with respiratory-triggered radiofrequency gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsson, Markus; Chan, Raymond H; Goddu, Beth; Goepfert, Lois A; Razavi, Reza; Botnar, Rene M; Schaeffter, Tobias; Nezafat, Reza

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the use of radiofrequency (RF) gating in conjunction with a paramagnetic contrast agent to reduce the specific absorption rate (SAR) and increase the blood-myocardium contrast in balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) 3D cardiac cine. RF gating was implemented by synchronizing the RF-excitation with an external respiratory sensor (bellows), which could additionally be used for respiratory gating. For reference, respiratory-gated 3D cine images were acquired without RF gating. Free-breathing 3D cine images were acquired in eight healthy subjects before and after contrast injection (Gd-BOPTA) and compared to breath-hold 2D cine. RF-gated 3D cine reduced the SAR by nearly 40% without introducing significant artifacts while providing left ventricle (LV) measurements similar to those obtained with 2D cine. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was significantly higher for 3D cine compared to 2D cine, both before and after contrast injection; however, no statistically significant CNR increase was observed for the postcontrast 3D cine compared to the precontrast acquisitions. Respiratory-triggered RF gating significantly reduces SAR in 3D cine acquisitions, which may enable a more widespread clinical use of 3D cine. Furthermore, CNR of 3D bSSFP cine is higher than of 2D and administration of Gd-BOPTA does not improve the CNR of 3D cine. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Non-invasive Morphological and Elemental Analysis of Ivory Plate for Artworks\

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tihlaříková, Eva; Neděla, Vilém; Hradilová, J.; Hradil, David

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, S1 (2017), s. 1832-1833 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-25687S Institutional support: RVO:68081731 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : ESEM * EDS * non-invasive morphological analysis * non-invasive elemental analysis Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering; CA - Inorganic Chemistry (UACH-T) OBOR OECD: Microbiology; Inorganic and nuclear chemistry (UACH-T) Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016

  18. Non-Invasive Acoustic-Based Monitoring of Heavy Water and Uranium Process Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantea, Cristian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sinha, Dipen N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lakis, Rollin Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Beedle, Christopher Craig [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Davis, Eric Sean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-20

    This presentation includes slides on Project Goals; Heavy Water Production Monitoring: A New Challenge for the IAEA; Noninvasive Measurements in SFAI Cell; Large Scatter in Literature Values; Large Scatter in Literature Values; Highest Precision Sound Speed Data Available: New Standard in H/D; ~400 pts of data; Noninvasive Measurements in SFAI Cell; New funding from NA241 SGTech; Uranium Solution Monitoring: Inspired by IAEA Challenge in Kazakhstan; Non-Invasive Acoustic-Based Monitoring of Uranium in Solutions; Non-Invasive Acoustic-Based Monitoring of Uranium in Solutions; and finally a summary.

  19. [Clinical guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of patients with non-invasive breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brnijć, Zoran; Brkljacić, Boris; Drinković, Ivan; Jakić-Razumović, Jasminka; Kardum-Skelin, Ika; Krajina, Zdenko; Margaritoni, Marko; Strnad, Marija; Sarcević, Bozena; Tomić, Snjezana; Zic, Rado

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Early diagnosis and more effective treatment of invasive breast cancer resulted in significant mortality reduction, improvement of survival and the quality of life of the patients. The management od non-invasive breast cancer, on the contrary, is still controversial and the problem of overdiagnosis and overtreatment of patients come to evidence. In the following text a multidisciplinary team of experts brings the first consensus guidelines aimed to standardize and optimize the criteria and management in diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of non-invasive breast cancer patients in the Republic of Croatia.

  20. Saline-enhanced hepatic radiofrequency ablation using a perfused-cooled electrode: comparison of dual probe bipolar mode with monopolar and single probe bipolar modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Se Hyung; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Dae Jin; Lee, Min Woo; Cho, Gyung Goo; Han, Chang Jin; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether saline-enhanced dual probe bipolar radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using perfused-cooled electrodes shows better in-vitro efficiency than monopolar or single probe bipolar RFA in creating larger coagulation necrosis. RF was applied to excised bovine livers in both bipolar and monopolar modes using a 200W generator (CC-3; Radionics) and the perfused-cooled electrodes for 10 mins. After placing single or double perfused-cooled electrodes in the explanted liver, 30 ablation zones were created at three different regimens: group A; saline-enhanced monopolar RFA, group B; saline-enhanced single probe bipolar RFA, and group C; saline-enhanced dual probe bipolar RFA. During RFA, we measured the tissue temperature at 15mm from the electrode. The dimensions of the ablation zones and changes in the impedance currents and liver temperature during RFA were then compared between the groups. The mean current values were higher for monopolar mode (group A) than for the bipolar modes (group B and C): 1550 ± 25 mA in group A, 764 ±189 mA in group B and 819 ± 98 mA in group C(ρ 3 in group A, 23.7 ±3.8 cm 3 in group B, and 34.2 ± 5.1 cm 3 in group C(ρ 0.05). The temperature at 15 mm from the electrode was higher in group C than in the other groups: 70 ± 18 .deg. C in group A, 59 ± 23 .deg. C in group B and 96 ± 16 .deg. C in group C (ρ < 0.05). Saline-enhanced bipolar RFA using dual perfused-cooled electrodes increases the dimension of the ablation zone more efficiently than monopolar RFA or single probe bipolar RFA

  1. Non-invasive Assessments of Subjective and Objective Recovery Characteristics Following an Exhaustive Jump Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenauer, Erich; Clarys, Peter; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Clijsen, Ron

    2017-01-01

    Fast recovery after strenuous exercise is important in sports and is often studied via cryotherapy applications. Cryotherapy has a significant vasoconstrictive effect, which seems to be the leading factor in its effectiveness. The resulting enhanced recovery can be measured by using both objective and subjective parameters. Two commonly measured subjective characteristics of recovery are delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). Two important objective recovery characteristics are countermovement jump (CMJ) performance and peak power output (PPO). Here, we provide a detailed protocol to induce muscular exhaustion of the frontal thighs with a self-paced, 3 x 30 countermovement jump protocol (30-s rest between each set). This randomized controlled trial protocol explains how to perform local cryotherapy cuff application (+ 8 °C for 20 min) and thermoneutral cuff application (+ 32 °C for 20 min) on both thighs as two possible post-exercise recovery modalities. Finally, we provide a non-invasive protocol to measure the effects of these two recovery modalities on subjective (i.e., DOMS of both frontal thighs and RPE) and objective recovery (i.e., CMJ and PPO) characteristics 24, 48, and 72 h post-application. The advantage of this method is that it provides a tool for researchers or coaches to induce muscular exhaustion, without using any expensive devices; to implement local cooling strategies; and to measure both subjective and objective recovery, without using invasive methods. Limitations of this protocol are that the 30 s rest period between sets is very short, and the cardiovascular demand is very high. Future studies may find the assessment of maximum voluntary contractions to be a more sensitive assessment of muscular exhaustion compared to CMJs. PMID:28654037

  2. Improvements on a non-invasive, parameter-free approach to inverse form finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landkammer, P.; Caspari, M.; Steinmann, P.

    2018-04-01

    Our objective is to determine the optimal undeformed workpiece geometry (material configuration) within forming processes when the prescribed deformed geometry (spatial configuration) is given. For solving the resulting shape optimization problem—also denoted as inverse form finding—we use a novel parameter-free approach, which relocates in each iteration the material nodal positions as design variables. The spatial nodal positions computed by an elasto-plastic finite element (FE) forming simulation are compared with their prescribed values. The objective function expresses a least-squares summation of the differences between the computed and the prescribed nodal positions. Here, a recently developed shape optimization approach (Landkammer and Steinmann in Comput Mech 57(2):169-191, 2016) is investigated with a view to enhance its stability and efficiency. Motivated by nonlinear optimization theory a detailed justification of the algorithm is given. Furthermore, a classification according to shape changing design, fixed and controlled nodal coordinates is introduced. Two examples with large elasto-plastic strains demonstrate that using a superconvergent patch recovery technique instead of a least-squares (L2)-smoothing improves the efficiency. Updating the interior discretization nodes by solving a fictitious elastic problem also reduces the number of required FE iterations and avoids severe mesh distortions. Furthermore, the impact of the inclusion of the second deformation gradient in the Hessian of the Quasi-Newton approach is analyzed. Inverse form finding is a crucial issue in metal forming applications. As a special feature, the approach is designed to be coupled in a non-invasive fashion to arbitrary FE software.

  3. Improved Geologic Interpretation of Non-invasive Electrical Resistivity Imaging from In-situ Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucelli, A.; Aborn, L.; Jacob, R.; Malusis, M.; Evans, J.

    2016-12-01

    Non-invasive geophysical techniques are useful in characterizing the subsurface geology without disturbing the environment, however, the ability to interpret the subsurface is enhanced by invasive work. Since geologic materials have electrical resistivity values it allows for a geologic interpretation to be made based on variations of electrical resistivity measured by electrical resistivity imaging (ERI). This study focuses on the pre-characterization of the geologic subsurface from ERI collected adjacent to the Montandon Marsh, a wetland located near Lewisburg, PA within the West Branch of the Susquehanna River watershed. The previous invasive data, boreholes, indicate that the subsurface consists of limestone and shale bedrock overlain with sand and gravel deposits from glacial outwash and aeolian processes. The objective is to improve our understanding of the subsurface at this long-term hydrologic research site by using excavation results, specifically observed variations in geologic materials and electrical resistivity laboratory testing of subsurface samples. The pre-excavation ERI indicated that the shallow-most geologic material had a resistivity value of 100-500 ohm-m. In comparison, the laboratory testing indicated the shallow-most material had the same range of electrical resistivity values depending on saturation levels. The ERI also showed that there was an electrically conductive material, 7 to 70 ohm-m, that was interpreted to be clay and agreed with borehole data, however, the excavation revealed that at this depth range the geologic material varied from stratified clay to clay with cobbles to weathered residual clay. Excavation revealed that the subtle variations in the electrical conductive material corresponded well with the variations in the geologic material. We will use these results to reinterpret previously collected ERI data from the entire long-term research site.

  4. Non-Invasive Electrical Impedance Tomography for Multi-Scale Detection of Liver Fat Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Abiri, Parinaz; Zhang, Shell; Chang, Chih-Chiang; Kaboodrangi, Amir H.; Li, Rongsong; Sahib, Ashish K.; Bui, Alex; Kumar, Rajesh; Woo, Mary; Li, Zhaoping; Packard, René R. Sevag; Tai, Yu-Chong; Hsiai, Tzung K.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity is associated with an increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). While Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive gold standard to detect fatty liver, we demonstrate a low-cost and portable electrical impedance tomography (EIT) approach with circumferential abdominal electrodes for liver conductivity measurements. Methods and Results: A finite element model (FEM) was established to simulate decremental liver conductivity in response to incremental liver lipid content. To validate the FEM simulation, we performed EIT imaging on an ex vivo porcine liver in a non-conductive tank with 32 circumferentially-embedded electrodes, demonstrating a high-resolution output given a priori information on location and geometry. To further examine EIT capacity in fatty liver detection, we performed EIT measurements in age- and gender-matched New Zealand White rabbits (3 on normal, 3 on high-fat diets). Liver conductivity values were significantly distinct following the high-fat diet (p = 0.003 vs. normal diet, n=3), accompanied by histopathological evidence of hepatic fat accumulation. We further assessed EIT imaging in human subjects with MRI quantification for fat volume fraction based on Dixon procedures, demonstrating average liver conductivity of 0.331 S/m for subjects with low Body-Mass Index (BMI 25 kg/m²). Conclusion: We provide both the theoretical and experimental framework for a multi-scale EIT strategy to detect liver lipid content. Our preliminary studies pave the way to enhance the spatial resolution of EIT as a marker for fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome. PMID:29556346

  5. Non-Invasive In Vivo Ultrasound Temperature Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Mahdi

    could result in significant artifacts. The first part of this thesis addresses the first limitation by introducing the Recursive Echo Strain Filter (RESF) as a new temperature reconstruction model which largely corrects for the spatial inconsistencies resulting from the infinitesimal model. The performance of this model is validated using the data collected during sub therapeutic temperature changes in the tissue mimicking phantom as well as ex vivo tissue blocks. The second part of this thesis deals with in vivo ultrasound thermography. Tissue deformations caused by natural motions (e.g. respiration, gasping, blood pulsation etc) can create non-thermal changes to the ultrasound echoes which are not accounted for in the derivation of physical model for temperature estimation. These fluctuations can create severe artifacts in the estimated temperature field. Using statistical signal processing techniques an adaptive method is presented which takes advantage of the localized and global availability of these interference patterns and use this data to enhance the estimated temperature in the region of interest. We then propose a model based technique for continuous tracking of temperature in the presence of natural motion and deformation. The method uses the direct discretization of the transient bioheat equation to derive a state space model of temperature change. This model is then used to build a linear estimator based on the Kalman filtering capable of robust estimation of temperature change in the presence of tissue motion and deformation. The robustness of the adaptive and model-based models in removing motion and deformation artifacts is demonstrated using data from in vivo experiments. Both methods are shown to provide effective cancellation of the artifacts with minimal effect on the expected temperature dynamics.

  6. Combination of the non-invasive tests for the diagnosis of endometriosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nisenblat, Vicki; Prentice, Lucy; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Farquhar, Cindy; Hull, M. Louise; Johnson, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Background About 10% of women of reproductive age suffer from endometriosis, a costly chronic disease causing pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopy is the gold standard diagnostic test for endometriosis, but is expensive and carries surgical risks. Currently, there are no non-invasive tests

  7. Diagnostic and prognostic value of non-invasive imaging in known or suspected coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuijf, J.D.; Poldermans, D.; Shaw, L.J.; Jukema, J.W.; Wall, E.E. van der; Lamb, H.J.; Roos, A. de; Wijns, W.; Bax, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    The role of non-invasive imaging techniques in the evaluation of patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease (CAD) has increased exponentially over the past decade. The traditionally available imaging modalities, including nuclear imaging, stress echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have relied on detection of CAD by visualisation of its functional consequences (i.e. ischaemia). However, extensive research is being invested in the development of non-invasive anatomical imaging using computed tomography or MRI to allow detection of (significant) atherosclerosis, eventually at a preclinical stage. In addition to establishing the presence of or excluding CAD, identification of patients at high risk for cardiac events is of paramount importance to determine post-test management, and the majority of non-invasive imaging tests can also be used for this purpose. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the available non-invasive imaging modalities and their merits for the diagnostic and prognostic work-up in patients with suspected or known CAD. (orig.)

  8. Updated Scar Management Practical Guidelines: Non-invasive and invasive measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monstrey, S.; Middelkoop, E.; Vranckx, J.J.; Bassetto, F.; Ziegler, U.E.; Meaume, S.; Teot, L.

    2014-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars and keloids can be aesthetically displeasing and lead to severe psychosocial impairment. Many invasive and non-invasive options are available for the plastic (and any other) surgeon both to prevent and to treat abnormal scar formation. Recently, an updated set of practical

  9. Research Report Non-invasive DNA-based species and sex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    shrushti modi

    Non-invasive DNA-based species and sex identification of Asiatic wild dog (Cuon alpinus) .... We did not find any cross-gender amplification with any of the reference or field-collected samples. Success rate for sex discrimination for all field-.

  10. Non-invasive imaging of kupffer cell status using radiolabelled mannosylated albumin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahajan, V.; Hartimath, S.; Comley, R.; Stefan-Gueldner, M.; Roth, A.; Poelstra, K.; Reker-Smit, C.; Kamps, J.; Dierckx, R.; de Vries, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Kupffer cells are responsible for maintaining liver homeostasis and have a vital role in chronic hepatotoxicity and various liver diseases. Positron Imaging Tomography (PET) is a non-invasive imaging technique that allows quantification and visualization of biochemical processes

  11. Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord, roots and peripheral nerves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossini, P M; Burke, D; Chen, R

    2015-01-01

    These guidelines provide an up-date of previous IFCN report on "Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord and roots: basic principles and procedures for routine clinical application" (Rossini et al., 1994). A new Committee, composed of international experts, some...

  12. miRandola 2017: a curated knowledge base of non-invasive biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russo, Francesco; Di Bella, Sebastiano; Vannini, Federica

    2018-01-01

    miRandola (http://mirandola.iit.cnr.it/) is a database of extracellular non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that was initially published in 2012, foreseeing the relevance of ncRNAs as non-invasive biomarkers. An increasing amount of experimental evidence shows that ncRNAs are frequently dysregulated in dise...

  13. Epidemiological aspects of recruitment of male volunteers for non-invasive urodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Avagyan (Vardan); R. van Mastrigt (Ron); J.W.N.C. Huang Foen Chung (John); A.M. Bohnen (Arthur); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul); J.L.H.R. Bosch (Ruud)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractWe studied epidemiological aspects of recruitment of volunteers for a non-invasive urodynamic study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 9,236 volunteers were invited by 20 general practitioners (GPs), using two different recruitment methods, i.e. by mail only, or during a

  14. Comparative anatomy of invasive and non-invasive species in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The foliar and stem micromorphological study of the invasive and non-invasive species were undertaken using Light Microscope (LM). The occurrence of vessels in the pillar of the abundant sclerenchyma tissues are important component of the skeletal system in the invasive species. The prominent tiles of parenchymatous ...

  15. The management of non-invasive bladder tumours with Doxorubicin intravesical instillation after transurethral resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gallab, Musa I; Naddaf, Louai A; Kanan, Mohamad R

    2009-04-01

    Evaluation of the intravesical instillation of doxorubicin for its effect on disease recurrence for patients with non-invasive bladder tumour. The study was performed at Al Assad University Hospital in Lattakia, Syria and included patients with non-invasive bladder tumours who were managed with transurethral resection and induction and maintenance therapy with intravesical doxorubicin. They were followed up by cystoscopy every 3 months for 2 years and every 6 months thereafter with special emphasis on recurrence rates. The study included 85 patients with non-invasive bladder tumours: 23 with non-invasive papillary carcinoma (Stage Ta), 62 with tumour invading subepithelial connective tissue (Stage T1). Twelve patients had well differentiated tumours (Grade 1), 48 had moderately differentiated (Grade 2), 25 had poorly differentiated (Grade 3) tumours. The total recurrence rate was 23%. The rates of recurrence were 56% in Grade 3 and 0% in Grade 1. The recurrence rate was 41% in patients with large tumours versus 17% in those with small tumours; 44% in those with multiple tumours compared to 18% in those with solitary tumours; 30% of Stage Ta tumours recurred and 21% of Stage T1 tumours. In short term follow-up, our rate of recurrence was 23%. Adjuvant intravesical doxorubicin was shown to reduce the recurrence of superficial bladder cancer. Tumour grade, size and number were shown to be prognostic factors for recurrence.

  16. Ultraweak photon emission as a non-invasive health assessment: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ives, J.A.; Wijk, E.P.A. van; Bat, N.; Crawford, C.; Walter, A.; Jonas, W.B.; Wijk, R. van; Greef, J. van der

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review (SR) of the peer reviewed scientific literature on ultraweak photon emissions (UPE) from humans. The question was: Can ultraweak photon emissions from humans be used as a non-invasive health assessment? A systematic search was conducted across eight relevant

  17. Non-invasive prenatal testing for sub-saharan Africa: Tailoring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for cell-free foetal (cff) RHD genotyping has clinical value to guide pregnancy management for alloimmunised RhD-negative pregnant women and guide antenatal anti-D prophylaxis needs for all D-negative women to prevent alloimmunisation. This assay assumes there ...

  18. Non-invasive monitoring of endocrine status in laboratory primates: methods, guidelines and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heistermann, M.

    2010-11-01

    During the past three decades, non-invasive methods for assessing physiological, in particular endocrine, status have revolutionized almost all areas of primatology, including behavioural ecology, reproductive biology, stress research, conservation and last but not least management of primates in captivity where the technology plays an integral role in assisting the husbandry, breeding and welfare of many species. Non-invasive endocrine methods make use of the fact that hormones circulating in blood are secreted into saliva or deposited in hair and are eliminated from the body via urinary and faecal excretion. The choice of which matrix to use for hormonal assessment depends on a range of factors, including the type of information required, the measurement techniques involved, species differences in hormone metabolism and route of excretion and the practicality of sample collection. However, although sample collection is usually relatively easy, analysing hormones from these non-invasively collected samples is not as easy as many people think, particularly not when dealing with a new species. In this respect, the importance of a careful validation of each technique is essential in order to generate meaningful and accurate results. This paper aims to provide an overview of the available non-invasive endocrine-based methodologies, their relative merits and their potential areas of application for assessing endocrine status in primates, with special reference to captive environments. In addition, general information is given about the most important aspects and caveats researchers have to be aware of when using these methodologies.

  19. Invasive versus Non Invasive Methods Applied to Mummy Research: Will This Controversy Ever Be Solved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jasmine; Bianucci, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Advances in the application of non invasive techniques to mummified remains have shed new light on past diseases. The virtual inspection of a corpse, which has almost completely replaced classical autopsy, has proven to be important especially when dealing with valuable museum specimens. In spite of some very rewarding results, there are still many open questions. Non invasive techniques provide information on hard and soft tissue pathologies and allow information to be gleaned concerning mummification practices (e.g., ancient Egyptian artificial mummification). Nevertheless, there are other fields of mummy studies in which the results provided by non invasive techniques are not always self-explanatory. Reliance exclusively upon virtual diagnoses can sometimes lead to inconclusive and misleading interpretations. On the other hand, several types of investigation (e.g., histology, paleomicrobiology, and biochemistry), although minimally invasive, require direct contact with the bodies and, for this reason, are often avoided, particularly by museum curators. Here we present an overview of the non invasive and invasive techniques currently used in mummy studies and propose an approach that might solve these conflicts. PMID:26345295

  20. Non-invasive ambient pressure estimation using non-linear ultrasound contrast agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Scheldrup

    Many attempts to find a non-invasive procedure to measure the blood pressure locally in the body have been made. This dissertation focuses on the approaches which utilize highly compressible ultrasound contrast agents as ambient pressure sensors. The literature within the topic has been reviewed...

  1. Reflectance confocal microscopy: non-invasive distinction between actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peppelman, M.; Nguyen, K.P.; Hoogedoorn, L.; Erp, P.E.J. van; Gerritsen, M.J.P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early recognition of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is difficult. Non-invasive reflectance confocal microscopic (RCM) imaging of the skin is a promising diagnostic technique. Although several RCM features for SCC and AK have been described, it is not determined whether RCM has the ability

  2. Evaluation of non-invasive trunk sprays and trunk-injected emamectic benzoate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah G. McCullough; D.L. Cappaert; T.M. Poland; A.C. Anulewicz; P. Lewis; J. Molongoski

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, we continued to evaluate two neo-nicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid and dinotefuron, applied as non-invasive trunk sprays to control emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire. Neo-nicotinoid products are widely used to protect landscape ash trees because they are relatively safe for humans and non-target species. These...

  3. The predictive value of respiratory function tests for non-invasive ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilanus, T.B.M.; Groothuis, J.T.; Broek-Pastoor, J.M.C. ten; Feuth, T.; Heijdra, Y.F.; Slenders, J.P.L.; Doorduin, J.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Kampelmacher, M.J.; Raaphorst, J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) improves survival and quality of life in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. The timing of referral to a home ventilation service (HVS), which is in part based on respiratory function tests, has shown room for improvement. It is currently unknown

  4. The predictive value of respiratory function tests for non-invasive ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilanus, T. B. M.; Groothuis, J. T.; TenBroek-Pastoor, J. M. C.; Feuth, T. B.; Heijdra, Y. F.; Slenders, J. P. L.; Doorduin, J.; van Engelen, B. G.; Kampelmacher, M. J.; Raaphorst, J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) improves survival and quality of life in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. The timing of referral to a home ventilation service (HVS), which is in part based on respiratory function tests, has shown room for improvement. It is currently unknown

  5. An integrated spectroscopic approach for the non-invasive study of modern art materials and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi, F.; Miliani, C.; Clementi, C.; Kahrim, K.; Presciutti, F.; Vagnini, M.; Manuali, V.; Daveri, A.; Cartechini, L.; Brunetti, B. G.; Sgamellotti, A.

    2010-09-01

    A non-invasive study has been carried out on 18 paintings by Alberto Burri (1915-1995), one of Italy’s most important contemporary painters. The study aims to demonstrate the appropriate and suitable use of portable non-invasive instrumentation for the characterization of materials and techniques found in works dating from 1948 to 1975 belonging to the Albizzini Collection. Sampling of any kind has been forbidden, in order to maintain the integrity of the paintings. Furthermore, the material heterogeneity of each single artwork could potentially result in a poorly representative sampling campaign. Therefore, a non-invasive and in situ analytical approach has been deemed mandatory, notwithstanding the complexity of modern materials and challenging data interpretation. It is the non-invasive nature of the study that has allowed for the acquisition of vast spectral data (a total of about 650 spectra including XRF, mid and near FTIR, micro-Raman and UV-vis absorption and emission spectroscopies). In order to better handle and to extrapolate the most meaningful information from these data, a statistical multivariate analysis, namely principal component analysis (PCA), has been applied to the spectral results. In particular, the possibility of combining elemental and molecular information has been explored by uniting XRF and infrared spectra in one PCA dataset. The combination of complementary spectroscopic techniques has allowed for the characterization of both inorganic and organic pigments, extenders, fillers, and binders employed by Alberto Burri.

  6. Application of quantum dot nanoparticles for potential non-invasive bio-imaging of mammalian spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various obstacles are encountered by mammalian spermatozoa during their journey through the female genital tract, and only few or none will reach the site of fertilization. Currently, there are limited technical approaches for non-invasive investigation of spermatozoa migration after insemination. A...

  7. Development of non-invasive ventilation treatment practice for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle M; Titlestad, Ingrid L; Huniche, Lotte

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Non-invasive ventilation treatment for patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is well documented. Communication with patients during treatment is inhibited because of the mask, the noise from the machine and patient distress. Assessing life expectanc...

  8. Non-drug Non-invasive Treatment in the Management of Low Back ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of functional independence and quality of life. Aim: The main purpose of this study was to assess the results of non-drug non-invasive treatment in the management of LBP. Subjects and Methods: This was prospective study conducted in the Department of Orthopedics in M. M. Medical College, Mullana, Ambala, Haryana, ...

  9. Bridging the gaps between non-invasive genetic sampling and population parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesca Marucco; Luigi Boitani; Daniel H. Pletscher; Michael K. Schwartz

    2011-01-01

    Reliable estimates of population parameters are necessary for effective management and conservation actions. The use of genetic data for capture­recapture (CR) analyses has become an important tool to estimate population parameters for elusive species. Strong emphasis has been placed on the genetic analysis of non-invasive samples, or on the CR analysis; however,...

  10. Non-invasive monitoring of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics for pharmacological drug profiling in children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrier, Lenneke

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the potential role of non-invasive measurement of pharmacokinetics (pk) and pharmacodynamics (pd) in the research and development of central nervous system (cns) stimulants or depressants for children and adolescents. First, we evaluated the feasibility of using saliva as an

  11. The relation between invasive and non-invasive tear break-up time ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tear stability normal to Nigerians with consideration of gender and age has not been reported. Tear stability in young adults was measured using invasive and non-invasive tear break-up time (TBUT and NIBUT). Forty –five subjects aged 20 to 30 years were selected from among the students of University of. Benin, Edo ...

  12. Assessment of non-invasive time and frequency atrial fibrillation organization markers with unipolar atrial electrograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, Raúl; Hornero, Fernando; Rieta, José J

    2011-01-01

    The standard electrocardiogram (ECG) is the most common non-invasive way to study atrial fibrillation (AF). In this respect, previous works have shown that the surface lead V 1 reflects mainly the dominant atrial frequency (DAF) of the right atrium (RA), which has been widely used to study AF. In a similar way, AF organization and fibrillatory (f) wave amplitude are two recently proposed non-invasive AF markers. These markers need to be validated with invasive recordings in order to assess their capability to reliably reflect the internal fibrillatory activity dynamics. In this work, these two non-invasive metrics have been compared with similar measures recorded from two unipolar atrial electrograms (AEGs). For both ECG and AEG signals, AF organization has been computed by applying a nonlinear regularity index, such as sample entropy (SampEn), to the atrial activity (AA) and to its fundamental waveform, defined as the main atrial wave (MAW). The surface and epicardial f wave amplitude has been estimated through their mean power. Results obtained for 38 patients showed statistically significant correlations between the values measured from surface and invasive recordings, thus corroborating the usefulness of the aforesaid markers in the non-invasive study of AF. Precisely, for AF organization computed from the MAW, the correlation coefficients between surface and both AEGs were R = 0.926 (p < 0.001) and R = 0.932 (p < 0.001). For f wave amplitude, slightly lower significant relationships were noticed, the correlation coefficients being R = 0.765 (p < 0.001) and R = 0.842 (p < 0.001). These outcomes together with interesting linear relationships found among the parameters suggest that AF regularity estimated via SampEn and f wave amplitude can non-invasively characterize the epicardial activity related to AF

  13. Non-invasive nursing technologies for pain relief during childbirth--the Brazilian nurse midwives' view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargens, Octavio M C; Silva, Alexandra C V; Progianti, Jane M

    2013-11-01

    to describe the non-invasive care technologies most frequently used by nurse midwives to relieve childbirth pain, and provide a synthesis of studies published by Brazilian nurse midwives on the use of such technologies. a systematic literature review focusing on the non-invasive pain relief strategies used by nurse midwives in Brazil. Surveys of three databases (BDENF, CINAHL and MEDLINE) were conducted between 2002 and 2012. The inclusion criteria were: (1) full-text article available; (2) published between 2002 and 2012; (3) written by Brazilian nurse midwives, and (4) fitting the descriptors: childbirth pain; non-invasive technologies; labour; and pain relief. For purposes of analysis, the technologies mentioned were classified into four main categories of support as they relate to environment, position, tactile stimulation, and energy level. we located 21 scientific articles that met the inclusion criteria and addressed the non-invasive technologies that nurse midwives use to provide pain relief during labour. The technologies most used was: stimulation of breathing and relaxation; use of massage with essential oils; encouraging freedom to move, to walk and the free choice for vertical positioning; use of showers and baths; use of birth ball. Brazilian nurse midwives have made efforts to focus care during delivery on the parturient. By studying and publishing about the non-invasive care technologies they have strengthened de-medicalised knowledge, based on scientific evidence and good outcomes in pain relief during labour. the study presented ideas towards improved theoretical foundations and strategies for establishing practice consonant with humanised care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Non-invasive measurements of carboxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin in children with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboot, Jason B; Jawad, Abbas F; McDonough, Joseph M; Bowdre, Cheryl Y; Arens, Raanan; Marcus, Carole L; Mason, Thornton B A; Smith-Whitley, Kim; Ohene-Frempong, Kwaku; Allen, Julian L

    2012-08-01

    Assessment of oxyhemoglobin saturation in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) is vital for prompt recognition of hypoxemia. The accuracy of pulse oximeter measurements of blood oxygenation in SCD patients is variable, partially due to carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and methemoglobin (MetHb), which decrease the oxygen content of blood. This study evaluated the accuracy and reliability of a non-invasive pulse co-oximeter in measuring COHb and MetHb percentages (SpCO and SpMet) in children with SCD. We hypothesized that measurements of COHb and MetHb by non-invasive pulse co-oximetry agree within acceptable clinical accuracy with those made by invasive whole blood co-oximetry. Fifty children with SCD-SS underwent pulse co-oximetry and blood co-oximetry while breathing room air. Non-invasive COHb and MetHb readings were compared to the corresponding blood measurements. The pulse co-oximeter bias was 0.1% for COHb and -0.22% for MetHb. The precision of the measured SpCO was ± 2.1% within a COHb range of 0.4-6.1%, and the precision of the measured SpMet was ± 0.33% within a MetHb range of 0.1-1.1%. Non-invasive pulse co-oximetry was useful in measuring COHb and MetHb levels in children with SCD. Although the non-invasive technique slightly overestimated the invasive COHb measurements and slightly underestimated the invasive MetHb measurements, there was close agreement between the two methods. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Nanodrug-enhanced radiofrequency tumor ablation: effect of micellar or liposomal carrier on drug delivery and treatment efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Moussa

    Full Text Available To determine the effect of different drug-loaded nanocarriers (micelles and liposomes on delivery and treatment efficacy for radiofrequency ablation (RFA combined with nanodrugs.Fischer 344 rats were used (n = 196. First, single subcutaneous R3230 tumors or normal liver underwent RFA followed by immediate administration of i.v. fluorescent beads (20, 100, and 500 nm, with fluorescent intensity measured at 4-24 hr. Next, to study carrier type on drug efficiency, RFA was combined with micellar (20 nm or liposomal (100 nm preparations of doxorubicin (Dox; targeting HIF-1α or quercetin (Qu; targeting HSP70. Animals received RFA alone, RFA with Lipo-Dox or Mic-Dox (1 mg i.v., 15 min post-RFA, and RFA with Lipo-Qu or Mic-Qu given 24 hr pre- or 15 min post-RFA (0.3 mg i.v.. Tumor coagulation and HIF-1α or HSP70 expression were assessed 24 hr post-RFA. Third, the effect of RFA combined with i.v. Lipo-Dox, Mic-Dox, Lipo-Qu, or Mic-Qu (15 min post-RFA compared to RFA alone on tumor growth and animal endpoint survival was evaluated. Finally, drug uptake was compared between RFA/Lipo-Dox and RFA/Mic-Dox at 4-72 hr.Smaller 20 nm beads had greater deposition and deeper tissue penetration in both tumor (100 nm/500 nm and liver (100 nm (p<0.05. Mic-Dox and Mic-Qu suppressed periablational HIF-1α or HSP70 rim thickness more than liposomal preparations (p<0.05. RFA/Mic-Dox had greater early (4 hr intratumoral doxorubicin, but RFA/Lipo-Dox had progressively higher intratumoral doxorubicin at 24-72 hr post-RFA (p<0.04. No difference in tumor growth and survival was seen between RFA/Lipo-Qu and RFA/Mic-Qu. Yet, RFA/Lipo-Dox led to greater animal endpoint survival compared to RFA/Mic-Dox (p<0.03.With RF ablation, smaller particle micelles have superior penetration and more effective local molecular modulation. However, larger long-circulating liposomal carriers can result in greater intratumoral drug accumulation over time and reduced tumor growth. Accordingly

  16. Enhancement of chemically induced reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells by 872 MHz radiofrequency radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luukkonen, Jukka [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, Bioteknia 2, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: Jukka.Luukkonen@uku.fi; Hakulinen, Pasi; Maeki-Paakkanen, Jorma [Department of Environmental Health, National Public Health Institute, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Juutilainen, Jukka; Naarala, Jonne [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, Bioteknia 2, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2009-03-09

    The objective of the study was to investigate effects of 872 MHz radiofrequency (RF) radiation on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA damage at a relatively high SAR value (5 W/kg). The experiments also involved combined exposure to RF radiation and menadione, a chemical inducing intracellular ROS production and DNA damage. The production of ROS was measured using the fluorescent probe dichlorofluorescein and DNA damage was evaluated by the Comet assay. Human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were exposed to RF radiation for 1 h with or without menadione. Control cultures were sham exposed. Both continuous waves (CW) and a pulsed signal similar to that used in global system for mobile communications (GSM) mobile phones were used. Exposure to the CW RF radiation increased DNA breakage (p < 0.01) in comparison to the cells exposed only to menadione. Comparison of the same groups also showed that ROS level was higher in cells exposed to CW RF radiation at 30 and 60 min after the end of exposure (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). No effects of the GSM signal were seen on either ROS production or DNA damage. The results of the present study suggest that 872 MHz CW RF radiation at 5 W/kg might enhance chemically induced ROS production and thus cause secondary DNA damage. However, there is no known mechanism that would explain such effects from CW RF radiation but not from GSM modulated RF radiation at identical SAR.

  17. Enhancement of chemically induced reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells by 872 MHz radiofrequency radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luukkonen, Jukka; Hakulinen, Pasi; Maeki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Juutilainen, Jukka; Naarala, Jonne

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate effects of 872 MHz radiofrequency (RF) radiation on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA damage at a relatively high SAR value (5 W/kg). The experiments also involved combined exposure to RF radiation and menadione, a chemical inducing intracellular ROS production and DNA damage. The production of ROS was measured using the fluorescent probe dichlorofluorescein and DNA damage was evaluated by the Comet assay. Human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were exposed to RF radiation for 1 h with or without menadione. Control cultures were sham exposed. Both continuous waves (CW) and a pulsed signal similar to that used in global system for mobile communications (GSM) mobile phones were used. Exposure to the CW RF radiation increased DNA breakage (p < 0.01) in comparison to the cells exposed only to menadione. Comparison of the same groups also showed that ROS level was higher in cells exposed to CW RF radiation at 30 and 60 min after the end of exposure (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). No effects of the GSM signal were seen on either ROS production or DNA damage. The results of the present study suggest that 872 MHz CW RF radiation at 5 W/kg might enhance chemically induced ROS production and thus cause secondary DNA damage. However, there is no known mechanism that would explain such effects from CW RF radiation but not from GSM modulated RF radiation at identical SAR

  18. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Elastography for Efficacy Evaluation after Hepatocellular Carcinoma Radiofrequency Ablation: A Comparative Study with Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To explore acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI elastography in assessing residual tumors of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC after radiofrequency ablation (RFA. Materials and Methods. There were 83 HCC lesions among 72 patients. All patients were examined with ARFI, contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS, and CT or MRI. Tumor brightness on virtual touch tissue imaging (VTI and shear wave velocity (SWV were assessed before and approximately one month after RFA. Results. There were 14 residual tumors after RFA. VTI showed that all the tumors were darker after RFA. VTI was not able to distinguish the ablated lesions and the residual tumors. 13 residual tumor lesions were detected by CEUS. All completely ablated nodules had SWV demonstration of x.xx., while with those residual nodules, 6 tumors had x.xx measurement and 8 tumors had measurable SWV. nine lesions with residual tumors occurred in cirrhosis subjects and 5 lesions with residual tumors occurred in fibrosis subjects; there was no residual tumor in the normal liver subjects. Conclusion. VTI technique cannot demonstrate residual tumor post RFA. While SWV measurement of less than x.xx is likely associated with residual tumors, measurement of less than x.xx cannot exclude residual tumors. Liver cirrhosis is associated with decreased chance of a complete ablation.

  19. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Elastography for Efficacy Evaluation after Hepatocellular Carcinoma Radiofrequency Ablation: A Comparative Study with Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohong; Luo, Liangping; Chen, Jiexin; Wang, Jiexin; Zhou, Honglian; Li, Mingyi; Jin, Zhanqiang; Chen, Nianping; Miao, Huilai; Lin, Manzhou; Dai, Wei; Ahuja, Anil T.; Wang, Yi-Xiang J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To explore acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in assessing residual tumors of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Materials and Methods. There were 83 HCC lesions among 72 patients. All patients were examined with ARFI, contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), and CT or MRI. Tumor brightness on virtual touch tissue imaging (VTI) and shear wave velocity (SWV) were assessed before and approximately one month after RFA. Results. There were 14 residual tumors after RFA. VTI showed that all the tumors were darker after RFA. VTI was not able to distinguish the ablated lesions and the residual tumors. 13 residual tumor lesions were detected by CEUS. All completely ablated nodules had SWV demonstration of x.xx., while with those residual nodules, 6 tumors had x.xx measurement and 8 tumors had measurable SWV. nine lesions with residual tumors occurred in cirrhosis subjects and 5 lesions with residual tumors occurred in fibrosis subjects; there was no residual tumor in the normal liver subjects. Conclusion. VTI technique cannot demonstrate residual tumor post RFA. While SWV measurement of less than x.xx is likely associated with residual tumors, measurement of less than x.xx cannot exclude residual tumors. Liver cirrhosis is associated with decreased chance of a complete ablation. PMID:24895624

  20. Radiofrequency attenuator and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Benjamin P [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM; Burrell, Anthony K [Los Alamos, NM; Agrawal, Anoop [Tucson, AZ; Hall, Simon B [Palmerston North, NZ

    2009-01-20

    Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

  1. Neurohumoral indicators of efficacy radiofrequency cardiac denervation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evtushenko, A. V., E-mail: ave@cardio-tomsk.ru; Evtushenko, V. V. [National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution “Research Institute for Cardiology”, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Saushkina, Yu. V.; Gusakova, A. M.; Suslova, T. E.; Dymbrylova, O. N.; Smyshlyaev, K. A.; Kurlov, I. O. [Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution “Research Institute for Cardiology”, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Lishmanov, Yu. B.; Anfinogenova, Ya. D. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution “Research Institute for Cardiology”, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Sergeevichev, D. S. [Academician E.N. Meshalkin State Research Institute of Circulation Pathology, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Bykov, A. N.; Syryamkin, V. I.; Kistenev, Yu. V. [National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Lotkov, A. I. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Pokushalov, E. A.

    2015-11-17

    In this study, we compared pre- and postoperative parameters of the cardiac sympathetic innervation. The aim of the study was to examine the approaches to evaluating the quality of radiofrequency (RF)-induced cardiac denervation by using non-invasive and laboratory methods. The study included 32 people with long-lasting persistent atrial fibrillation (AF). The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the objectives of the study: group 1 (main) - 21 patients with mitral valve diseases, which simultaneously with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) AF carried out on the effects of the paraganglionic nervous plexuses by C. Pappone (2004) and N. Doll (2008) schemes. The second group (control) contained 11 patients with heart diseases in sinus rhythm (the RF denervation not been performed). All patients, who underwent surgical treatment, were received examination of cardiac sympathetic tone by using {sup 123}I-MIBG. All of them made blood analysis from ascending aorta and coronary sinus to determine the level of norepinephrine and its metabolites before and after cardiac denervation. Data of radionuclide examination are correlating with laboratory data.

  2. Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) / Microwave Ablation (MWA) of Lung Tumors ... and Microwave Ablation of Lung Tumors? What are Radiofrequency and Microwave Ablation of Lung Tumors? Radiofrequency ablation, ...

  3. Use of trimetasphere metallofullerene MRI contrast agent for the non-invasive longitudinal tracking of stem cells in the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sean V; Hale, Austin; Reid, Tanya; Olson, John; Kidiyoor, Amritha; Tan, Josh; Zhou, Zhiguo; Jackson, John; Atala, Anthony

    2016-04-15

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a commonly used, non-invasive imaging technique that provides visualization of soft tissues with high spatial resolution. In both a research and clinical setting, the major challenge has been identifying a non-invasive and safe method for longitudinal tracking of delivered cells in vivo. The labeling and tracking of contrast agent labeled cells using MRI has the potential to fulfill this need. Contrast agents are often used to enhance the image contrast between the tissue of interest and surrounding tissues with MRI. The most commonly used MRI contrast agents contain Gd(III) ions. However, Gd(III) ions are highly toxic in their ionic form, as they tend to accumulate in the liver, spleen, kidney and bones and block calcium channels. Endohedral metallofullerenes such as trimetallic nitride endohedral metallofullerenes (Trimetasphere®) are one unique class of fullerene molecules where a Gd3N cluster is encapsulated inside a C80 carbon cage referred to as Gd3N@C80. These endohedral metallofullerenes have several advantages over small chelated Gd(III) complexes such as increased stability of the Gd(III) ion, minimal toxic effects, high solubility in water and high proton relativity. In this study, we describe the evaluation of gadolinium-based Trimetasphere® positive contrast agent for the ​in vitro labeling and in vivo tracking of human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells within lung tissue. In addition, we conducted a 'proof-of-concept' experiment demonstrating that this methodology can be used to track the homing of stem cells to injured lung tissue and provide longitudinal analysis of cell localization over an extended time course. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of ECG and Other Simple Non-Invasive Tools to Assess Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabor Kovacs

    Full Text Available There is a broad consensus that pulmonary hypertension (PH is to be diagnosed by right heart catheterization (RHC and that the most important non-invasive tool is echocardiography. However, the role of simple non-invasive tools in the work-up of PH is not clearly defined. We hypothesized that the use of simple non-invasive techniques may help to guide important decisions in the diagnostics of pulmonary hypertension.We aimed to develop an algorithm with the use of simple, non-invasive tools in order to identify patients with very high or very low likelihood of PH.We retrospectively analyzed all consecutive patients undergoing RHC between 2005 and 2010 in our center and performed logistic regression of simple non-invasive parameters regarding detection and exclusion of PH and derived a two-step algorithm. In a prospective study we evaluated this algorithm between 2011 and 2013.The retrospective cohort consisted of n = 394 patients of which 49% presented with PH. Right axis deviation in the ECG was present in 90/394 patients and had a positive predictive value (PPV of 93% for PH. The combination of non-right axis deviation, N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP<333pg/ml, arterial oxygen saturation (SO2≥95.5% and WHO functional class I-II was present in 69/394 patients and excluded PH with a negative predictive value (NPV of 96%. The prospective study confirmed these results in a cohort of n = 168 patients (PPV:92%, NPV:97%. Taken together, simple non-invasive tools allowed a prediction regarding the presence or absence of PH in 42% of patients with suspected PH.ECG, NT-proBNP, SO2 and WHO functional class may predict the presence or absence of PH in almost half of the patients with suspected PH, suggesting an important role for these variables in the work-up of patients at risk for PH.NCT01607502.

  5. Evaluation of biolistic gene transfer methods in vivo using non-invasive bioluminescent imaging techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniell Henry

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene therapy continues to hold great potential for treating many different types of disease and dysfunction. Safe and efficient techniques for gene transfer and expression in vivo are needed to enable gene therapeutic strategies to be effective in patients. Currently, the most commonly used methods employ replication-defective viral vectors for gene transfer, while physical gene transfer methods such as biolistic-mediated ("gene-gun" delivery to target tissues have not been as extensively explored. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of biolistic gene transfer techniques in vivo using non-invasive bioluminescent imaging (BLI methods. Results Plasmid DNA carrying the firefly luciferase (LUC reporter gene under the control of the human Cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter/enhancer was transfected into mouse skin and liver using biolistic methods. The plasmids were coupled to gold microspheres (1 μm diameter using different DNA Loading Ratios (DLRs, and "shot" into target tissues using a helium-driven gene gun. The optimal DLR was found to be in the range of 4-10. Bioluminescence was measured using an In Vivo Imaging System (IVIS-50 at various time-points following transfer. Biolistic gene transfer to mouse skin produced peak reporter gene expression one day after transfer. Expression remained detectable through four days, but declined to undetectable levels by six days following gene transfer. Maximum depth of tissue penetration following biolistic transfer to abdominal skin was 200-300 μm. Similarly, biolistic gene transfer to mouse liver in vivo also produced peak early expression followed by a decline over time. In contrast to skin, however, liver expression of the reporter gene was relatively stable 4-8 days post-biolistic gene transfer, and remained detectable for nearly two weeks. Conclusions The use of bioluminescence imaging techniques enabled efficient evaluation of reporter gene expression in vivo. Our results

  6. Non-invasive determination of the complete elastic moduli of spider silks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Kristie J.; Akhenblit, Paul; McKiernan, Keri; Yarger, Jeffery L.

    2013-03-01

    Spider silks possess nature’s most exceptional mechanical properties, with unrivalled extensibility and high tensile strength. Unfortunately, our understanding of silks is limited because the complete elastic response has never been measured—leaving a stark lack of essential fundamental information. Using non-invasive, non-destructive Brillouin light scattering, we obtain the entire stiffness tensors (revealing negative Poisson’s ratios), refractive indices, and longitudinal and transverse sound velocities for major and minor ampullate spider silks: Argiope aurantia, Latrodectus hesperus, Nephila clavipes, Peucetia viridans. These results completely quantify the linear elastic response for all possible deformation modes, information unobtainable with traditional stress-strain tests. For completeness, we apply the principles of Brillouin imaging to spatially map the elastic stiffnesses on a spider web without deforming or disrupting the web in a non-invasive, non-contact measurement, finding variation among discrete fibres, junctions and glue spots. Finally, we provide the stiffness changes that occur with supercontraction.

  7. Validation of non-invasive haemodynamic methods in patients with liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brittain, Jane M; Busk, Troels M; Møller, Søren

    2018-01-01

    Patients with advanced cirrhosis often present a hyperdynamic circulation characterized by a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), and an increase in heart rate (HR) and cardiac output (CO). Accurate assessment of the altered circulation can be performed invasively......; however, due to the disadvantages of this approach, non-invasive methods are warranted. The purpose of this study was to compare continuous non-invasive measurements of haemodynamic variables by the Finometer and the Task Force Monitor with simultaneous invasive measurements. In 25 patients with cirrhosis......, respectively; and CO: 0·1 ± 1·6 and -1·0 ± 2·0 L min(-1) , respectively. The study demonstrates that the overall performances of the Finometer and the Task Force Monitor in estimating absolute values of SBP, DBP, HR and CO in patients with cirrhosis are not equivalent to the gold standard, but may have...

  8. An Investigation of Pulse Transit Time as a Non-Invasive Blood Pressure Measurement Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, B M; O'Flynn, B; Mathewson, A

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the Pulse Transit Method (PTT) as a non-invasive means to track Blood Pressure over a short period of time. PTT was measured as the time it takes for an ECG R-wave to propagate to the finger, where it is detected by a photoplethysmograph sensor. The PTT method is ideal for continuous 24-hour Blood Pressure Measurement (BPM) since it is both cuff-less and non-invasive and therefore comfortable and unobtrusive for the patient. Other techniques, such as the oscillometric method, have shown to be accurate and reliable but require a cuff for operation, making them unsuitable for long term monitoring. Although a relatively new technique, the PTT method has shown to be able to accurately track blood pressure changes over short periods of time, after which re-calibration is necessary. The purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy of the method.

  9. Non-invasive blood glucose monitor based on spectroscopy using a smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantu, Vishnu; Vempati, Jagannadh; Srivilliputhur, Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Development of a novel method for non-invasive measurement of blood glucose concentration using smartphone is discussed. Our research work has three major contributions to society and science. First, we modified and extended the Beer-Lambert's law in physics to accommodate for multiple wavelengths. This extension can aid researchers who wish to perform optical spectroscopy. Second, we successfully developed a creative and non-invasive way for diabetic patients to measure glucose levels via a smartphone. Researchers and chemists can now use their smartphones to determine the absorbance and, therefore, concentration of a chemical. Third, we created an inexpensive way to perform optical spectroscopy by using a smartphone. Monitoring blood glucose using a smartphone application that simply uses equipment already available on smartphones will improve the lives of diabetic patients who can continuously check their blood glucose levels while avoiding the current inconvenient, unhygienic, and costly invasive glucose meters.

  10. Report on Non-invasive acoustic monitoring of D2O concentration Oct 31 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantea, Cristian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sinha, Dipen N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lakis, Rollin Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Beedle, Christopher Craig [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Davis, Eric Sean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-06

    There is an urgent need for real-time monitoring of the hydrogen /deuterium ratio (H/D) for heavy water production monitoring. Based upon published literature, sound speed is sensitive to the deuterium content of heavy water and can be measured using existing acoustic methods to determine the deuterium concentration in heavy water solutions. We plan to adapt existing non-invasive acoustic techniques (Swept-Frequency Acoustic Interferometry and Gaussian-pulse acoustic technique) for the purpose of quantifying H/D ratios in solution. A successful demonstration will provide an easily implemented, low cost, and non-invasive method for remote and unattended H/D ratio measurements with a resolution of less than 0.2% vol.

  11. Early predictors of success of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in hypercapnic respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, D; Prasad, Bnbm; Tampi, P S; Ramprasad, R

    2011-10-01

    Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) has emerged as a significant advancement in the management of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. Patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure requiring ventilation therapy (respiratory rate [RR] of > 30 breaths per minutes, PaCO2 > 55 mmHg and arterial pH success group and these parameters continued to improve even after four and 24 hours of NIPPV treatment. Out of 24 (24%) patients who failed to respond, 13 (54%) needed endotracheal intubation within one hour. The failure group had higher baseline HR than the success group. Improvement in HR, RR, pH, and PCO2 one hour after putting the patient on NIPPV predicts success of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in hypercapnic respiratory failure.

  12. Case report: Non-invasive neurally adjusted ventilatory assist in a newborn with unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosens, Sander; Derriks, Frank; Cools, Filip

    2016-11-01

    Diaphragmatic paralysis is a rare cause of respiratory distress in the newborn. In this paper, a patient with unilateral phrenic nerve injury after traumatic delivery is presented. The child inadequately responded to standard respiratory supportive measures. Non-invasive neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NIV-NAVA®), providing an optimally synchronized respiratory support proportional to the effort of the patient, resulted in prompt clinical and biological improvement of the patient's respiratory condition. NAVA is a relatively new mode of ventilation in neonatal care. In this case of unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis, it provided an alternative strategy of non-invasive respiratory support avoiding prolonged mechanical ventilation. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:E37-E39. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Non-invasive investigation of the upper gastrointestinal tract using technetium - 99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, T V [Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh (UK)

    1979-01-01

    The use of technetium - 99m in the non-invasive investigation of the upper gastrointestinal tract is discussed with particular reference to the evolution of a method of assessing gastric function or gastric acid secretion non-invasively and to the applications of this method in the investigation of surgical patients with disease of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The assessment of maximal acid output and the insulin response is described and the use of the test in the diagnosis of pernicious anaemia, hypo- and hyperchlorhydric states, gastric cancer, hiatus hernia and Barrett's oesophagus, coeliac disease, Meckel's diverticulum, and abdominal aortic aneurism outlined. The use of chemicals labelled with this tracer in hepatobilary scanning is briefly described.

  14. Non-invasive imaging using reporter genes altering cellular water permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arnab; Wu, Di; Davis, Hunter C.; Shapiro, Mikhail G.

    2016-12-01

    Non-invasive imaging of gene expression in live, optically opaque animals is important for multiple applications, including monitoring of genetic circuits and tracking of cell-based therapeutics. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could enable such monitoring with high spatiotemporal resolution. However, existing MRI reporter genes based on metalloproteins or chemical exchange probes are limited by their reliance on metals or relatively low sensitivity. Here we introduce a new class of MRI reporters based on the human water channel aquaporin 1. We show that aquaporin overexpression produces contrast in diffusion-weighted MRI by increasing tissue water diffusivity without affecting viability. Low aquaporin levels or mixed populations comprising as few as 10% aquaporin-expressing cells are sufficient to produce MRI contrast. We characterize this new contrast mechanism through experiments and simulations, and demonstrate its utility in vivo by imaging gene expression in tumours. Our results establish an alternative class of sensitive, metal-free reporter genes for non-invasive imaging.

  15. Evaluation of four non-invasive methods for examination and characterization of pressure ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, E.S.; Karlsmark, T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Pressure ulcers are globally of major concern and there is need for research in the pathogenesis for early intervention. Early studies have suggested existence of a hypo-echogenic subepidermal layer at the location of pressure ulcers, visualized by ultrasound scans. As a continuation......, we here report on usability of four non-invasive techniques for evaluation of pressure ulcers. Methods: Fifteen pressure ulcers in stage 0-IV were examined using four different non-invasive techniques [redness index, skin temperature, skin elasticity (i.e. retraction time), and ultrasound scanning...... at all pressure ulcers, but none at the reference points. The skin retraction time was often higher at the location of a pressure ulcer than at the reference location. We found no correlation between the stage of the ulcers and temperature, redness index, subepidermal layer thickness, or retraction time...

  16. Non-Invasive Assessment of Dairy Products Using SpatiallyResolved Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Otto Højager Attermann; Kamran, Faisal; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm

    2015-01-01

    of commercially available milk and yogurt products with three different levels of fat content are measured. These constitute a relevant range of products at a dairy plant. The measured reduced scattering properties of the samples are presented and show a clear discrimination between levels of fat contents as well...... as fermentation. The presented measurement technique and method of analysis is thus suitable for a rapid, noncontact, and non-invasive inspection that can deduce physically interpretable properties....

  17. Non-invasive measuring instrument of kVp, R/M and exposure time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, Flavio T. van der; Elbern, Alwin W.

    1996-01-01

    The development of an instrument for fast measurement of essential parameters related to quality control of X-ray equipment is described. The unit is designed with a 80 C31 micro controller, a function keyboard, an αnumeric display and a probe with PV diodes. Testing and calibration in this non-invasive instrument has been done at the X-rays equipment for the Santa Rita Hospital in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

  18. Cardiac abnormalities assessed by non-invasive techniques in patients with newly diagnosed idiopathic inflammatory myopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Louise Pyndt; Simonsen, Jane Angel; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt

    2015-01-01

    inflammatory myopathies (IIM) by means of non-invasive techniques. METHODS: Fourteen patients with IIM (8 polymyositis, 4 dermatomyositis, 2 cancer-associated dermatomyositis) and 14 gender- and age- matched healthy control subjects were investigated. Participant assessments included a cardiac questionnaire...... in 8 (57%) of the patients compared to none of the controls (pgroup (p=0.01). Two patients had systolic dysfunction, and one diastolic dysfunction...

  19. Contribution of mechanical unloading to trabecular bone loss following non-invasive knee injury in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Matthew J.; Diko, Sindi; Baehr, Leslie M.; Baar, Keith; Bodine, Sue C.; Christiansen, Blaine A.

    2016-01-01

    Development of osteoarthritis commonly involves degeneration of epiphyseal trabecular bone. In previous studies, we observed 30–44% loss of epiphyseal trabecular bone (BV/TV) from the distal femur within one week following non-invasive knee injury in mice. Mechanical unloading (disuse) may contribute to this bone loss, however it is unclear to what extent the injured limb is unloaded following injury, and whether disuse can fully account for the observed magnitude of bone loss. In this study,...

  20. Urinary high molecular weight matrix metalloproteinases as non-invasive biomarker for detection of bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Mohammed A; Seleim, Manar F; Abdalla, Mohga S; Sharada, Hayat M; Abdel Wahab, Abdel Hady A

    2013-01-01

    Background Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key molecules for tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. Over-expression of different MMPs in tumor tissues can disturb the homeostasis and increase the level of various body fluids. Many MMPs including high molecular weights (HMWs) were detected in the urine of prostate and bladder cancer patients. Our aim here is to assess the usefulness of HMW MMPs as non invasive biomarkers in bilharzial bladder cancer in Egyptian patients. Methods The activ...

  1. Conservation genetics of otters: Review about the use of non-invasive samples

    OpenAIRE

    Aristizábal Duque, Sandra L.; Orozco-Jiménez, Luz Y.; Zapata-Escobar, Carolina; Palacio-Baena, Jaime A.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: Wild population management programs require determining some fundamental aspects for conservation, including population structure, flow between populations, evolutionary history and kinship, among others. Since sample collection from wild mammals for DNA extraction is a complex task, conservation genetics has developed non-invasive sampling techniques, which allow obtaining DNA without the need to capture individuals. For the genetic characterization of otter populations, stools are...

  2. Comparing the Validity of Non-Invasive Methods in Measuring Thoracic Kyphosis and Lumbar Lordosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yousefi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: the purpose of this article is to study the validity of each of the non-invasive methods (flexible ruler, spinal mouse, and processing the image versus the one through-Ray radiation (the basic method and comparing them with each other.Materials and Methods: for evaluating the validity of each of these non-invasive methods, the thoracic Kyphosis and lumber Lordosis angle of 20 students of Birjand University (age mean and standard deviation: 26±2, weight: 72±2.5 kg, height: 169±5.5 cm through fours methods of flexible ruler, spinal mouse, and image processing and X-ray.Results: the results indicated that the validity of the methods including flexible ruler, spinal mouse, and image processing in measuring the thoracic Kyphosis and lumber Lordosis angle respectively have an adherence of 0.81, 0.87, 0.73, 0.76, 0.83, 0.89 (p>0.05. As a result, regarding the gained validity against the golden method of X-ray, it could be stated that the three mentioned non-invasive methods have adequate validity. In addition, the one-way analysis of variance test indicated that there existed a meaningful relationship between the three methods of measuring the thoracic Kyphosis and lumber Lordosis, and with respect to the Tukey’s test result, the image processing method is the most precise one.Conclusion as a result, this method could be used along with other non-invasive methods as a valid measuring method.

  3. Non-invasive method of determination of thermoelectric materials figure of merit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashcheulov А. А.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric effects arising in a sample placed in a measuring oscillating loop have been studied. It has been shown that asymmetric character of flowing current results in a volumetric bundle of induced Foucault currents and regions of Peltier heat release by thermoelectric sample which leads to increasing of irreversible heat losses recorded by measuring oscillating loop. The presence of this effect has caused the emergence of ingenious non-invasive method for recording of thermoelectric materials figure of merit.

  4. Non-Invasive Imaging Method of Microwave Near Field Based on Solid State Quantum Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Bo; Du, Guanxiang; Dong, Yue; Liu, Guoquan; Hu, Zhenzhong; Wang, Yongjin

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a non-invasive imaging method of microwave near field using a diamond containing nitrogen-vacancy centers. We applied synchronous pulsed sequence combined with charge coupled device camera to measure the amplitude of the microwave magnetic field. A full reconstruction formulation of the local field vector, including the amplitude and phase, is developed by measuring both left and right circular polarizations along the four nitrogen-vacancy axes. Compared to the raste...

  5. The use of non-invasive instruments in characterizing human facial and abdominal skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Steven H; Oni, Georgette; Brown, Spencer A; Kashefi, Natalie; Cheriyan, Salim; Maxted, Michael; Stewart, Collin; Jones, Caroline; Maluso, Patrick; Kenkel, Ashley M; Kenkel, Matthew M; Hoopman, John; Barton, Fritz; Kenkel, Jeffrey M

    2012-02-01

    The skin is highly variable. This variation, although helpful for function, causes inconsistencies when assessed using subjective scales. The purpose of this study is to measure differences in skin on the face and abdomen using non-invasive, objective devices as a method to eliminate subjective error and help reduce intra- and inter-observer variability in clinical analysis. Eighty-eight subjects between the ages of 18 and 61 were enrolled in this study. These subjects varied in age, ethnicity, and Fitzpatrick score. Facial analysis was performed by clinical evaluation and utilizing non-invasive objective devices which included the DermaScan C 20 MHz HFUS (Cyberderm, Broomall, PA), Tru Vu (Johnson and Johnson), BTC 2000 (SRLI Technologies, Nashville, TN), Derma Unit SSC3 (CK Electronic, Köln, Germany), and the Chromometer. Non-invasive devices were shown to be consistent and accurate through repeated measurement at each of the anatomical points with error rates of less than 5%. Chromometer measurements were able to categorize patients into Fitzpatrick level. DermaScan measurements demonstrated decreasing skin thicknesses associated with increasing age, smoking, and female gender. Derma Unit SSC 3 showed gender and sun exposure related differences in sebum concentration, pH, and moisture content. The Derma Unit SSC 3 sebum concentration also showed correlation with Tru Vu readings for clogged pores and bacterial activity. The skin assessment scales that are in use today are often prone to variability and inaccuracy due to their subjectivity. Use of the described objective non-invasive facial analysis method provides an accurate, objective analysis of human skin which can be used to measure changes pre- and post-operatively, or even screen patients prior to procedure to identify non-responders or those prone to adverse events. Utilization of these devices introduces a foundation on which a strong evidence-based approach to aesthetic medicine can be built. Copyright

  6. The predictive value of respiratory function tests for non-invasive ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tilanus, T. B. M.; Groothuis, J. T.; TenBroek-Pastoor, J. M. C.; Feuth, T. B.; Heijdra, Y. F.; Slenders, J. P. L.; Doorduin, J.; Van Engelen, B. G.; Kampelmacher, M. J.; Raaphorst, J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) improves survival and quality of life in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. The timing of referral to a home ventilation service (HVS), which is in part based on respiratory function tests, has shown room for improvement. It is currently unknown which respiratory function test predicts an appropriate timing of the initiation of NIV. METHODS: We analysed, retrospectively, serial data of five respiratory function tests: forced vital capacity...

  7. Composite Biomarkers For Non-invasive Screening, Diagnosis And Prognosis Of Colorectal Cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Hicham

    2014-09-11

    The present invention concerns particular biomarkers for diagnosing and/or prognosticating colorectal cancer, in particular in a non-invasive manner. The methods and compositions concern analysis of methylation patterns of one or more genes from a set of 29 genes identified as described herein. In certain embodiments, the gene set includes at least P15.INK4b, SST, GAS7, CNRIP1, and PIK3CG.

  8. Composite Biomarkers For Non-invasive Screening, Diagnosis And Prognosis Of Colorectal Cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Hicham; Incitti, Roberto; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2014-01-01

    The present invention concerns particular biomarkers for diagnosing and/or prognosticating colorectal cancer, in particular in a non-invasive manner. The methods and compositions concern analysis of methylation patterns of one or more genes from a set of 29 genes identified as described herein. In certain embodiments, the gene set includes at least P15.INK4b, SST, GAS7, CNRIP1, and PIK3CG.

  9. A new non-invasive and relocatable immobilization frame for fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodorou, K.; Kappas, C.; Tsokas, C.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: A newly developed non-invasive immobilization frame for stereotactic radiotherapy is presented, which is intended to be used for both imaging (computed tomography (CT) and angiography) and radiotherapeutic procedures. Materials and methods: The frame is made of duraluminium so as to be stable and light and it has an elliptical shape. The immobilization is achieved using three stable locations on the patient's head, i.e. the upper dentition, the nose and the back of the neck. The fixation on the three locations ensures complete immobilization in all directions. Results: The immobilization frame can be fitted as many times as is needed to most heads. In order to assess the accuracy of relocation, repeated fittings on two volunteers and on 22 patients undergoing stereotactic treatment were performed (more than 200 mountings in total), which showed maximum anterior-posterior, inferior-superior and lateral reproducibility in positioning of less than 1 mm in all cases. Conclusions and discussion: The in-house-constructed stereotactic frame is simple to use, easily made, non-invasive, relocatable and well tolerated by the patients, providing the possibility of multiple fractions. The major advantage of using such a non-invasive stereotactic frame is the flexibility in timing the different diagnostic procedures (CT and angiography) as well as providing the possibility to extend the use to large brain lesions (treatment without an additional collimator) where a high precision is also required. It also offers significant labour and cost saving over the invasive frames and the majority of the non-invasive frames. To date, 22 patients with ages varying between 12 and 70 years have been treated using this method. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  10. Exploration of Hand Grasp Patterns Elicitable Through Non-Invasive Proximal Nerve Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Henry; Watkins, Zach; Hu, Xiaogang

    2017-01-01

    Various neurological conditions, such as stroke or spinal cord injury, result in an impaired control of the hand. One method of restoring this impairment is through functional electrical stimulation (FES). However, traditional FES techniques often lead to quick fatigue and unnatural ballistic movements. In this study, we sought to explore the capabilities of a non-invasive proximal nerve stimulation technique in eliciting various hand grasp patterns. The ulnar and median nerves proximal to th...

  11. A meta-analysis of trait differences between invasive and non-invasive plant species

    OpenAIRE

    van Kleunen, Mark; Weber, Ewald; Fischer, Markus

    2010-01-01

    A major aim in ecology is identifying determinants of invasiveness. We performed a meta-analysis of 117 field or experimental-garden studies that measured pair-wise trait differences of a total of 125 invasive and 196 non-invasive plant species in the invasive range of the invasive species. We tested whether invasiveness is associated with performance-related traits (physiology, leaf-area allocation, shoot allocation, growth rate, size and fitness), and whether such associations depend on typ...

  12. Non-invasive multi wavelengths sensorsystem for measuring carboxy-and methemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gewiß Helge

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Standard pulse oximetry only measures the functional derivatives oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb and deoxyhemoglobin (HHb to calculate the arterial oxygenation. However, the two dysfunctional hemoglobin derivatives carboxyhemoglobin (COHb and methemoglobin (MetHb are of much interest. The gold standard detecting abnormal concentration of COHb or MetHb is the blood gas analysis (BGA. In this paper a non-invasive method for measuring these derivatives and a setup for validation is presented.

  13. Non-invasive dendrochronology of late-medieval objects in Oslo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daly, Aoife; Streeton, Noëlle L.W.

    2017-01-01

    scanner. For these reasons, a combined approach was adopted, utilizing CT scanning where possible, but preceded by an ‘exposed-wood’ imaging technique. Both non-invasive techniques have yielded reliable results, and CT scanning has confirmed the reliability of the imaging technique alone. This paper...... presents the analytical methods, along with results from two of the 13 objects under investigation. Results for reliable dates and provenances provide new foundations for historical interpretations....

  14. Non-invasive monitoring of Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine efficacy using biophotonic imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraz M Alam

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes infection of the nasopharynx represents a key step in the pathogenic cycle of this organism and a major focus for vaccine development, requiring robust models to facilitate the screening of potentially protective antigens. One antigen that may be an important target for vaccination is the chemokine protease, SpyCEP, which is cell surface-associated and plays a role in pathogenesis. Biophotonic imaging (BPI can non-invasively characterize the spatial location and abundance of bioluminescent bacteria in vivo. We have developed a bioluminescent derivative of a pharyngeal S. pyogenes strain by transformation of an emm75 clinical isolate with the luxABCDE operon. Evaluation of isogenic recombinant strains in vitro and in vivo confirmed that bioluminescence conferred a growth deficit that manifests as a fitness cost during infection. Notwithstanding this, bioluminescence expression permitted non-invasive longitudinal quantitation of S. pyogenes within the murine nasopharynx albeit with a detection limit corresponding to approximately 10(5 bacterial colony forming units (CFU in this region. Vaccination of mice with heat killed streptococci, or with SpyCEP led to a specific IgG response in the serum. BPI demonstrated that both vaccine candidates reduced S. pyogenes bioluminescence emission over the course of nasopharyngeal infection. The work suggests the potential for BPI to be used in the non-invasive longitudinal evaluation of potential S. pyogenes vaccines.

  15. Radiological protection requirements applicable to non-invasive inspection of charges with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo, S.C.; Palmieri, J.A.S.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    The US twin towers attack in 2001 raised concerns about terrorism, illicit trafficking of materials and the possible use of a 'dirty bomb' (DDR), affecting the control of entry and exit of products. Thus, the use of ionizing radiation scanning systems of containers at ports and borders was started to investigate possible entries of illegal material. Brazil, adhering to this concern and due to the holding of major events such as RIO + 20, World Cup, Olympics, etc., increased safety in the movement of goods using non-invasive inspection. Linear electron accelerators, which produce high energy X-rays in the range of 1.5 to 9 MeV, are used to inspect the containers. Since in Brazil there is no specific technical regulation for the operation of non-invasive inspection equipment with X-rays and linear accelerators, ten main technical requirements are presented. It is essential that a technical regulation is drawn up by placing the system of non-invasive inspection of cargo with ionizing radiation in the international radiation protection standard

  16. Non-invasive prediction of hematocrit levels by portable visible and near-infrared spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Kato, Yukiko Hakariya; Kuratsune, Hirohiko; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2009-10-01

    After blood donation, in some individuals having polycythemia, dehydration causes anemia. Although the hematocrit (Ht) level is closely related to anemia, the current method of measuring Ht is performed after blood drawing. Furthermore, the monitoring of Ht levels contributes to a healthy life. Therefore, a non-invasive test for Ht is warranted for the safe donation of blood and good quality of life. A non-invasive procedure for the prediction of hematocrit levels was developed on the basis of a chemometric analysis of visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR) spectra of the thumbs using portable spectrophotometer. Transmittance spectra in the 600- to 1100-nm region from thumbs of Japanese volunteers were subjected to a partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis and leave-out cross-validation to develop chemometric models for predicting Ht levels. Ht levels of masked samples predicted by this model from Vis-NIR spectra provided a coefficient of determination in prediction of 0.6349 with a standard error of prediction of 3.704% and a detection limit in prediction of 17.14%, indicating that the model is applicable for normal and abnormal value in Ht level. These results suggest portable Vis-NIR spectrophotometer to have potential for the non-invasive measurement of Ht levels with a combination of PLSR analysis.

  17. Non-invasive prenatal detection of achondroplasia using circulating fetal DNA in maternal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ji Hyae; Kim, Mee Jin; Kim, Shin Young; Kim, Hye Ok; Song, Mee Jin; Kim, Min Hyoung; Park, So Yeon; Yang, Jae Hyug; Ryu, Hyun Mee

    2011-02-01

    To perform a reliable non-invasive detection of the fetal achondroplasia using maternal plasma. We developed a quantitative fluorescent-polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) method suitable for detection of the FGFR3 mutation (G1138A) causing achondroplasia. This method was applied in a non-invasive detection of the fetal achondroplasia using circulating fetal-DNA (cf-DNA) in maternal plasma. Maternal plasmas were obtained at 27 weeks of gestational age from women carrying an achondroplasia fetus or a normal fetus. Two percent or less achondroplasia DNA was reliably detected by QF-PCR. In a woman carrying a normal fetus, analysis of cf-DNA showed only one peak of the wild-type G allele. In a woman expected an achondroplasia fetus, analysis of cf-DNA showed the two peaks of wild-type G allele and mutant-type A allele and accurately detected the fetal achondroplasia. The non-invasive method using maternal plasma and QF-PCR may be useful for diagnosis of the fetal achondroplasia.

  18. Optimized intravenous flat detector CT for non-invasive visualization of intracranial stents: first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struffert, Tobias; Kloska, Stephan; Engelhorn, Tobias; Ott, Sabine; Doelken, Marc; Saake, Marc; Doerfler, Arnd; Deuerling-Zheng, Yu.; Koehrmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    As stents for treating intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis may develop in-stent re-stenosis (ISR) in up to 30%, follow-up imaging is mandatory. Residual stenosis (RS) is not rare. We evaluated an optimised Flat Detector CT protocol with intravenous contrast material application (i.v. FD-CTA) for non-invasive follow-up. In 12 patients with intracranial stents, follow-up imaging was performed using i.v. FD-CTA. MPR, subtracted MIP and VRT reconstructions were used to correlate to intra-arterial angiography (DSA). Two neuroradiologists evaluated the images in anonymous consensus reading and calculated the ISR or RS. Correlation coefficients and a Wilcoxon test were used for statistical analysis. In 4 patients, no stenosis was detected. In 6 patients RS and in two cases ISR by intima hyperplasia perfectly visible on MPR reconstructions of i.v. FD-CTA were detected. Wilcoxon's test showed no significant differences between the methods (p > 0.05). We found a high correlation with coefficients of the pairs DSA/ FD-CT MIP r = 0.91, DSA/ FD-CT MPR r = 0.82 and FD-CT MIP/ FD-CT MPR r = 0.8. Intravenous FD-CTA could clearly visualise the stent and the lumen, allowing ISR or RS to be recognised. FD-CTA provides a non-invasive depiction of intracranial stents and might replace DSA for non-invasive follow-up imaging. (orig.)

  19. Equine behavioral enrichment toys as tools for non-invasive recovery of viral and host DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeber, Peter A; Soilemetzidou, Sanatana E; East, Marion L; Walzer, Chris; Greenwood, Alex D

    2017-09-01

    Direct collection of samples from wildlife can be difficult and sometimes impossible. Non-invasive remote sampling for the purpose of DNA extraction is a potential tool for monitoring the presence of wildlife at the individual level, and for identifying the pathogens shed by wildlife. Equine herpesviruses (EHV) are common pathogens of equids that can be fatal if transmitted to other mammals. Transmission usually occurs by nasal aerosol discharge from virus-shedding individuals. The aim of this study was to validate a simple, non-invasive method to track EHV shedding in zebras and to establish an efficient protocol for genotyping individual zebras from environmental DNA (eDNA). A commercially available horse enrichment toy was deployed in captive Grévy's, mountain, and plains zebra enclosures and swabbed after 4-24 hr. Using eDNA extracted from these swabs four EHV strains (EHV-1, EHV-7, wild ass herpesvirus and zebra herpesvirus) were detected by PCR and confirmed by sequencing, and 12 of 16 zebras present in the enclosures were identified as having interacted with the enrichment toy by mitochondrial DNA amplification and sequencing. We conclude that, when direct sampling is difficult or prohibited, non-invasive sampling of eDNA can be a useful tool to determine the genetics of individuals or populations and for detecting pathogen shedding in captive wildlife. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A new CFD based non-invasive method for functional diagnosis of coronary stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xinzhou; Zheng, Minwen; Wen, Didi; Li, Yabing; Xie, Songyun

    2018-03-22

    Accurate functional diagnosis of coronary stenosis is vital for decision making in coronary revascularization. With recent advances in computational fluid dynamics (CFD), fractional flow reserve (FFR) can be derived non-invasively from coronary computed tomography angiography images (FFR CT ) for functional measurement of stenosis. However, the accuracy of FFR CT is limited due to the approximate modeling approach of maximal hyperemia conditions. To overcome this problem, a new CFD based non-invasive method is proposed. Instead of modeling maximal hyperemia condition, a series of boundary conditions are specified and those simulated results are combined to provide a pressure-flow curve for a stenosis. Then, functional diagnosis of stenosis is assessed based on parameters derived from the obtained pressure-flow curve. The proposed method is applied to both idealized and patient-specific models, and validated with invasive FFR in six patients. Results show that additional hemodynamic information about the flow resistances of a stenosis is provided, which cannot be directly obtained from anatomy information. Parameters derived from the simulated pressure-flow curve show a linear and significant correlations with invasive FFR (r > 0.95, P < 0.05). The proposed method can assess flow resistances by the pressure-flow curve derived parameters without modeling of maximal hyperemia condition, which is a new promising approach for non-invasive functional assessment of coronary stenosis.

  1. Non-invasive nuclear device for communicating pressure inside a body to the exterior thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, L.W.; Meyer, G.A.; Hittman, F.; Lyon, W.C.; Hayes, W.H. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The need for a non-invasive technique for measuring the pressure in body cavities of animals or humans is recognized as highly desirable for continuous or intermittent monitoring of body conditions. The non-invasive nuclear device of the present invention is fully implantable and is fully capable of communicating pressure inside a body to the exterior to allow readout non-invasively. In its preferred form, the invention includes a housing for subcutaneous implantation with the radioactive source. An urging means such as a bellows is provided in the housing interior. The fluid pressure from a fluid pressure sensing device within the body is transmitted to the housing interior by means of a pressure-limiting fluid through a conduit. This causes the radioactive source to move against the force out of the initial or repose shielded relationship causing a proportional increase in pressure in the body portion being monitored. The radioactive output from the radioactive source corresponds to the magnitude of the pressure within the body. The housing may be securely mounted on a supporting portion of the body and the mounting serves as a radiation shield for the body. (JTA)

  2. Non-invasive detection of urothelial cancer through the analysis of driver gene mutations and aneuploidy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu; Douville, Christopher; Wang, Yuxuan; Cohen, Joshua David; Taheri, Diana; Silliman, Natalie; Schaefer, Joy; Ptak, Janine; Dobbyn, Lisa; Papoli, Maria; Kinde, Isaac; Afsari, Bahman; Tregnago, Aline C; Bezerra, Stephania M; VandenBussche, Christopher; Fujita, Kazutoshi; Ertoy, Dilek; Cunha, Isabela W; Yu, Lijia; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Grollman, Arthur P; Diaz, Luis A; Karchin, Rachel; Danilova, Ludmila; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Shun, Chia-Tung; Turesky, Robert J; Yun, Byeong Hwa; Rosenquist, Thomas A; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Hruban, Ralph H; Tomasetti, Cristian; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Kinzler, Ken W

    2018-01-01

    Current non-invasive approaches for detection of urothelial cancers are suboptimal. We developed a test to detect urothelial neoplasms using DNA recovered from cells shed into urine. UroSEEK incorporates massive parallel sequencing assays for mutations in 11 genes and copy number changes on 39 chromosome arms. In 570 patients at risk for bladder cancer (BC), UroSEEK was positive in 83% of those who developed BC. Combined with cytology, UroSEEK detected 95% of patients who developed BC. Of 56 patients with upper tract urothelial cancer, 75% tested positive by UroSEEK, including 79% of those with non-invasive tumors. UroSEEK detected genetic abnormalities in 68% of urines obtained from BC patients under surveillance who demonstrated clinical evidence of recurrence. The advantages of UroSEEK over cytology were evident in low-grade BCs; UroSEEK detected 67% of cases whereas cytology detected none. These results establish the foundation for a new non-invasive approach for detection of urothelial cancer. PMID:29557778

  3. Toenail as Non-invasive Biomarker in Metal Toxicity Measurement of Welding Fumes Exposure - A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakri, S. F. Z.; Hariri, A.; Ma'arop, N. F.; Hussin, N. S. A. W.

    2017-01-01

    Workers are exposed to a variety of heavy metal pollutants that are released into the environment as a consequence of workplace activities. This chemical pollutants are incorporated into the human by varies of routes entry and can then be stored and distributed in different tissues, consequently have a potential to lead an adverse health effects and/or diseases. As to minimize the impact, a control measures should be taken to avoid these effects and human biological marker is a very effective tool in the assessment of occupational exposure and potential related risk as the results is normally accurate and reproducible. Toenail is the ideal matrix for most common heavy metals due to its reliability and practicality compared to other biological samples as well as it is a non-invasive and this appears as a huge advantage of toenail as a biomarker. This paper reviews studies that measure the heavy metals concentration in toenail as non-invasive matrix which later may adapt in the investigation of metal fume emitted from welding process. The development of new methodology and modern analytical techniques has allowed the use of toenail as non-invasive approach. The presence of a heavy metal in this matrix reflects an exposure but the correlations between heavy metal levels in the toenail must be established to ensure that these levels are related to the total body burden. These findings suggest that further studies on interactions of these heavy metals in metal fumes utilizing toenail biomarker endpoints are highly warranted especially among welders.

  4. A comparative experimental study of the in-vitro efficiency of hypertonic saline-enhanced hepatic bipolar and monopolar radiofrequency ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Se Hyung; Sohn, Kyu Li; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Ah, Su Kyung; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2003-01-01

    To compare the in-vitro efficiency of a hypertonic saline (HS)- enhanced bipolar radiofrequency (RF) system with monopolar RF applications by assessing the temperature profile and dimensions of RF-created coagulation necrosis in bovine liver. A total of 27 ablations were performed in explanted bovine livers. After placement of two 16-gauge open-perfused electrodes at an interelectrode distance of 3 cm, 5% HS was instilled into tissue at a rate of 1 mL/min through the electrode. Seventeen thermal ablation zones were created in the monopolar mode (groups A, B), and ten more were created using the two open-perfused electrodes in the bipolar mode (group C). RF was applied to each electrode for 5 mins (for a total of 10 mins, group A) or 10 mins (for a total of 20 mins, group B) at 50W in the sequential monopolar mode, or to both electrodes for 10 min in the bipolar mode (group C). During RF instillation, we measured tissue temperature at the midpoint between the two electrodes. The dimensions of the thermal ablation zones and changes in impedance and wattage during RFA were compared between the groups. With open-perfusion electrodes, the mean accumulated energy output value was lower in the bipolar mode (group C: 26675±3047 Watt's) than in the monopolar mode (group A: 28778±1300 Watt's) but the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). In the bipolar mode, there were impedance rises of more than 700 Ω during RF energy application, but in the monopolar modes, impedance did not changed markedly. In the bipolar mode, however, the temperature at the mid-point between the two probes was higher (85 .deg. C) than in the monopolar modes (65 .deg. C, 80 .deg. C for group A, B, respectively) (p<0.05). In addition, in HS-enhanced bipolar RFA (group C), the shortest diameter at the midpoint between the two electrodes was greater than in either of the monopolar modes: 5.4±5.6 mm (group A); 28.8±8.2 mm (group B); 31.2±7.6 mm (group C) (p<0.05) Using an open

  5. Non-invasive optical detection of glucose in cell culture nutrient medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Gerald L.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the proposed research was to begin the development of a non-invasive optical sensor for measuring glucose concentration in the output medium of cell cultures grown in a unique NASA bioreactor referred to as an integrated rotating-wall vessel (IRWV). The input, a bovine serum based nutrient media, has a known glucose concentration. The cells within the bioreactor digest a portion of the glucose. Thus, the non-invasive optical sensor is needed to monitor the decrease in glucose due to cellular consumption since the critical parameters for sustained cellular productivity are glucose and pH. Previous glucose sensing techniques have used chemical reactions to quantify the glucose concentration. Chemical reactions, however, cannot provide for continuous, real time, non-invasive measurement as is required in this application. Our effort while in the fellowship program was focused on the design, optical setup, and testing of one bench top prototype non-invasive optical sensor using a mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy technique. Glucose has a fundamental vibrational absorption peak in the mid-infrared wavelength range at 9.6 micron. Preliminary absorption data using a CO2 laser were collected at this wavelength for water based glucose solutions at different concentrations and one bovine serum based nutrient medium (GTSF) with added glucose. The results showed near linear absorption responses for the glucose-in-water data with resolutions as high at 108 mg/dl and as low as 10 mg/dl. The nutrient medium had a resolution of 291 mg/dl. The variability of the results was due mainly to thermal and polarization drifts of the laser while the decrease in sensitivity to glucose in the nutrient medium was expected due to the increase in the number of confounders present in the nutrient medium. A multispectral approach needs to be used to compensate for these confounders. The CO2 laser used for these studies was wavelength tunable (9.2 to 10.8 micrometers), however

  6. Control of treatment size in cavitation-enhanced high-intensity focused ultrasound using radio-frequency echo signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyasu, Kentaro; Takagi, Ryo; Iwasaki, Ryosuke; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2017-07-01

    In high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment, controlling the ultrasound dose at each focal target spot is important because it is a problem that the length of the coagulated region in front of the focal point deviates owing to the differences in absorption in each focal target spot and attenuation in the intervening tissues. In this study, the detected changes in the power spectra of HIFU echoes were used by controlling the HIFU duration in the “trigger HIFU” sequence with the aim to increase coagulation size through the enhancement of the ultrasonic heating by the cavitation induced by the preceding extremely high intensity short “trigger” pulse. The result shows that this method can be used to detect boiling bubbles and the following generated cavitation bubbles at their early stage. By automatically stopping HIFU exposure immediately after detecting the bubbles, overheating was prevented and the deviation of the length of the coagulated region was reduced.

  7. Reply to ''Comment on enhancement of forbidden nuclear beta decay by high-intensity radio-frequency fields''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    The negative conclusion in the Comment of Becker, Schlicher, and Scully about electromagnetic enhancement of beta decay is shown to be faulty. They have found an algebraic oversight in my paper, but correction of that oversight yields results strongly resembling the original. Becker, Schlicher, and Scully fail to find this. They then conduct an analysis which is highly implicit and incomplete. In attempting to analyze their very complicated expressions they claim not to find significant electromagnetic effects. Yet they also lose completely the electron retardation term of conventional forbidden beta decay. When they attempt to explain the difference between their results and mine, they misconstrue the momentum-translation technique and end up in a logical contradiction. They attempt also to apply a ''no-go'' theorem applicable only to plane-wave particles to my theory, which is built around the use of bound-state nuclear wave functions. This makes the no-go theorem inapplicable

  8. (19)F-heptuloses as tools for the non-invasive imaging of GLUT2-expressing cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malaisse, Willy J; Zhang, Ying; Louchami, Karim

    2012-01-01

    Suitable analogs of d-mannoheptulose are currently considered as possible tools for the non-invasive imaging of pancreatic islet insulin-producing cells. Here, we examined whether (19)F-heptuloses could be used for non-invasive imaging of GLUT2-expressing cells. After 20 min incubation, the uptake......-mannoheptulose in inhibiting insulin release. The 1-deoxy-1-fluoro-d-mannoheptulose and 3-deoxy-3-fluoro-d-mannoheptulose only marginally affected INS-1 cell viability. These findings are compatible with the view that selected (19)F-heptuloses may represent suitable tools for the non-invasive imaging of hepatocytes...

  9. Ex Vivo Experiment of Saline-Enhanced Hepatic Bipolar Radiofrequency Ablation with a Perfused Needle Electrode: Comparison with Conventional Monopolar and Simultaneous Monopolar Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Se Hyung; Han, Joon Koo; Sohn, Kyu Li; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the saline-enhanced bipolar radiofrequency ablation (RFA) technique using a perfused electrode to increase RF-created coagulation necrosis, to compare that technique with monopolar RFAs and to find appropriate concentrations and volumes of perfused NaCl solution for the bipolar RFA. A total of 90 ablations were performed in explanted bovine livers. In the initial experiments to determine appropriate conditions for bipolar RFA, we created five thermal ablation zones in each condition, with instillations of varied concentrations (0.9-36%) or injection rates (30 mL/hr-120 mL/hr) of NaCl solution. After placement of one or two 16-gauge open-perfused electrodes into bovine livers, the NaCl solution was instilled into the tissue through the electrode. In the second part of the study, 10 ablation zones were created using one or two perfused electrodes for each of five groups under different conditions: a conventional monopolar mode with 0.9% NaCl solution (group A) or with 6% NaCl solution (group B), a simultaneous monopolar mode with 6% NaCl solution (group C) and a bipolar mode with 6% NaCl solution (groups D and E). RF was applied to each electrode for 20 min in groups A, B, C, and E, or for 10 min in group D. During RFA, we measured the tissue temperature 15 mm from the electrode. The temperature changes during the RFA and the dimensions of the ablation zones were compared among the groups. Bipolar RFA created larger short-axis diameters of coagulation necrosis with 6% NaCl solution (35.8 ± 15 mm) than with 0.9% NaCl solution (17 ± 9.7 mm) (P 0.05): 31.0 ± 5.4 mm (group A); 28.8 ± 3.8 mm (group B); 25.5 ± 6.4 mm (group C); 32.6 ± 4.2 mm (group D); 49.4 ± 5.0 mm (group E). Bipolar RFA with instillation of 6% NaCl solution through an open perfusion system demonstrates better efficacy in creating a larger ablation zone than does conventional or simultaneous monopolar modes at the various times examined. Therefore

  10. Improved outcome of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation in renal cell carcinoma: a retrospective study of intraoperative contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in 73 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaozhi; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Shiwei; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Fan; Ji, Changwei; Li, Xiaogong; Gan, Weidong; Zhang, Gutian; Guo, Hongqian

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the impact of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) during percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (PRFA) procedure in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). From January 2008 to July 2010, 73 patients with sporadic unilateral RCC were enrolled to our study (57 men and 16 women, age range: 37-78 years, mean age 57.9 years). The diameter of the tumor was 1.7-5.8, 3.4 cm on average. The patients were divided into two groups depending on the intraoperative ultrasonography type: CEUS group and conventional ultrasound group. Patients in CEUS group received CEUS before insertion of the electrode, and the second CEUS was performed right after the initial ablation to dynamically evaluate the images. If there was highly suspicious residue, additional ablation and repeated CEUS were applied. Patients in the conventional ultrasound group received PRFA guided by gray-scale ultrasound. All of these patients received contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examination 7 days after the procedure (patients in CEUS group received CEUS conducted with each CT scan), with subsequent CT and CEUS assessment at 3, 6, and every 6 months thereafter. The mean follow-up period was 22 months (range: 12-42 months). All tumors were biopsied before RFA. The local tumor control rate was 94.6% (35/37) in the CEUS group and 86.1% (31/36) in the conventional ultrasound group (P 73 m(2) (P > 0.05, compared with pre-GFR: 86.4 ± 26.2 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) in the CEUS group and 81.9 ± 22.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (P > 0.05, compared with pre-GFR: 83.5 ± 23.7 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) in the conventional ultrasound group. Intraoperative CEUS can "real-time" monitor the ablated area during PRFA procedure. This technique can help to achieve a higher success rate compared with conventional ultrasound. No impact of intraoperative CEUS has been found on GFR level.

  11. Non-invasive electrical brain stimulation: from acute to late-stage treatment of central nervous system damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Henrich-Noack

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive brain current stimulation (NIBS is a promising and versatile tool for inducing neuroplasticity, protection and functional rehabilitation of damaged neuronal systems. It is technically simple, requires no surgery, and has significant beneficial effects. However, there are various technical approaches for NIBS which influence neuronal networks in significantly different ways. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, alternating current stimulation (ACS and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS all have been applied to modulate brain activity in animal experiments under normal and pathological conditions. Also clinical trials have shown that tDCS, rTMS and ACS induce significant behavioural effects and can – depending on the parameters chosen – enhance or decrease brain excitability and influence performance and learning as well as rehabilitation and protective mechanisms. The diverse phaenomena and partially opposing effects of NIBS are not yet fully understood and mechanisms of action need to be explored further in order to select appropriate parameters for a given task, such as current type and strength, timing, distribution of current densities and electrode position. In this review, we will discuss the various parameters which need to be considered when designing a NIBS protocol and will put them into context with the envisaged applications in experimental neurobiology and medicine such as vision restoration, motor rehabilitation and cognitive enhancement.

  12. Linking stress and immunity: Immunoglobulin A as a non-invasive physiological biomarker in animal welfare studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Molly; Conners, Melinda G; Hall, Katie; Miller, Lance J

    2018-04-26

    As the animal welfare community strives to empirically assess how care and management practices can help maintain or even enhance welfare, the development of tools for non-invasively measuring physiological biomarkers is essential. Of the suite of physiological biomarkers, Immunoglobulin A (IgA), particularly the secretory form (Secretory IgA or SIgA), is at the forefront because of its crucial role in mucosal immunity and links to physical health, stress, and overall psychological well-being. While interpretation of SIgA values on short time scales is complex, long-term SIgA patterns are consistent: conditions that create chronic stress lead to suppression of SIgA. In contrast, when welfare is enhanced, SIgA concentrations are predicted to stabilize at higher concentrations. In this review, we examine how SIgA concentrations are reflective of both physiological stress and immune function. We then review the literature associating SIgA concentrations with various metrics of animal welfare and provide detailed methodological considerations for SIgA monitoring. Overall, our aim is to provide an in-depth discussion regarding the value of SIgA as physiological biomarker to studies aiming to understand the links between stress and immunity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Ablation of liver metastases by radiofrequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baere, T. de

    2012-01-01

    Radiofrequency is a thermal ablative technique that is most often used percuteanously under image guidance. Thermal damage is obtained through frictional heating of a high frequency current. The maximal volume of destruction obtained in one radiofrequency delivery is around 4 cm and consequently, best indication for treatment are tumours below 3 cm. When compared, radiofrequency and surgical removal for tumours below 25 mm in diameter demonstrated a rate of incomplete resection/ablation of 6% and 7.3% respectively. Median survival after the first radiofrequency of a liver metastasis of CRC is reported to be 24 to 52 months with a 5 years overall survival of 18 to 44%. The median overall survival increases from 22 to 48 months depending on the use of radiofrequency ablation as rescue treatment after failure of others, or as a first line treatment. For patients with a single tumour, less than 4 cm, the survival rates at 1, 3, and 5 years are respectively 97%, 84% and 40%, with a median survival of 50 months. Follow-up imaging requires to use contrast-enhanced CT or MRI, looking for local recurrences evidenced by local foci of enhancement at the periphery of the ablation zone. (author)

  14. Proposed Application of Fast Fourier Transform in Near Infra Red Based Non Invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenie, R. P.; Iskandar, J.; Kurniawan, A.; Rustami, E.; Syafutra, H.; Nurdin, N. M.; Handoyo, T.; Prabowo, J.; Febryarto, R.; Rahayu, M. S. K.; Damayanthi, E.; Rimbawan; Sukandar, D.; Suryana, Y.; Irzaman; Alatas, H.

    2017-03-01

    Worldwide emergence of glycaemic status related health disorders, such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome, is growing in alarming rate. The objective was to propose new methods for non invasive blood glucose level measurement system, based on implementation of Fast Fourier Transform methods. This was an initial-lab-scale-research. Data on non invasive blood glucose measurement are referred from Scopus, Medline, and Google Scholar, from 2011 until 2016, and was used as design references, combined with in house verification. System was developed in modular fashion, based on aforementioned compiled references. Several preliminary tests to understand relationship between LED and photo-diode responses have been done. Several references were used as non invasive blood glucose measurement tools design basis. Solution is developed in modular fashion. we have proven different sensor responses to water and glucose. Human test for non invasive blood glucose level measurement system is needed.

  15. Calibration voltage test of non invasive meter for radiodiagnostic on equipment of constant potential X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Manoel M.O.; Peixoto, J. Guilherme P.; Pereira, Marco A.G.S.

    2009-01-01

    This work evaluates the utilization of the non invasive voltage meter PTW Diavolt Universal in industrial X ray equipment of constant potential. With the performed measurements, the conclusion is that conclusion is possible, once his use limits are identified

  16. Non-invasive plant growth measurements for detection of blue-light dose response of stem elongation in Chrysanthemum morifolium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig

    2012-01-01

    . In the present study a non-invasive plant growth sensor (PlantEye, Phenospex B.V, Heerlen, NL) was tested in analysing changes in diurnal stem elongation patterns and plant height in response to the spectral quality of the light environment. Plants were grown in four different LED supplemental lighting...... treatments with 0%, 12.5%, 18.5% and 22.5% blue light under greenhouse conditions in winter (18 h day/4 h night). The non-invasive measurements were carried out automatically every four hour with three repetitions, and supported by manual measurements of plant height every third day. A strong linear relation...... between the non-invasive measurements and manual measurements of plant height was achieved, and a blue-light dose-response showing a decrease in plant height in relation to an increase in blue light was demonstrated. However, the non-invasive plant growth sensor was not able to distinguish between diurnal...

  17. Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation to Enhance Post-Stroke Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Kubis, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Brain plasticity after stroke remains poorly understood. Patients may improve spontaneously within the first 3 months and then more slowly in the coming year. The first day, decreased edema and reperfusion of the ischemic penumbra may possibly account for these phenomena, but the improvement during the next weeks suggests plasticity phenomena and cortical reorganization of the brain ischemic areas and of more remote areas. Indeed, the injured ischemic motor cortex has a reduced cortical excit...

  18. Non invasive diagnostic methods for better screening of peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirala, Neelamshobha; Periyasamy, R; Kumar, Awanish

    2018-05-16

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common circulatory problem in which narrowed arteries reduce blood flow to extremities usually legs. It does not receive enough blood flow to keep up with demand. This causes symptoms, most notably leg pain while walking which is known as claudication. It is a common manifestation of type II Diabetes, but the relationship between other vascular diseases and lower limb (LL)-PAD has been poorly understood and investigated. When assessing a patient with clinically LLPAD, two questions are in order to establish a diagnosis: one is non-invasive testing and other is invasive. Invasive methods are painful and get so bad that some people need to have a leg surgery. People with Diabetes are at increased risk for amputation and it is used only when the damage is very severe. Diagnosis of LLPAD begins with a physical examination, patient history, certain questionnaire and non invasive mode of diagnosis is started for the screening of patients. Clinicians check for weak pulses in the legs and then decide for further diagnosis. Paper discusses the prevalence of LLPAD worldwide and in India along with the clinical effectiveness and limitations of these methods in case of Diabetes. The focus of this review is to discuss only those non invasive methods which are widely used for screening of LLPAD like Ankle brachial index (ABI), Toe brachial Index (TBI), and use of photoplethysmogram (PPG) specially in case of Diabetic patients. Also, this paper gives an overview of the work done using ABI, TBI, and PPG for detection of LLPAD. These tests are not painful and could be performed in a cost-effective manner to avoid delays in screening/diagnosis and also reduce costs. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Contribution of mechanical unloading to trabecular bone loss following non-invasive knee injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Matthew J; Diko, Sindi; Baehr, Leslie M; Baar, Keith; Bodine, Sue C; Christiansen, Blaine A

    2016-10-01

    Development of osteoarthritis commonly involves degeneration of epiphyseal trabecular bone. In previous studies, we observed 30-44% loss of epiphyseal trabecular bone (BV/TV) from the distal femur within 1 week following non-invasive knee injury in mice. Mechanical unloading (disuse) may contribute to this bone loss; however, it is unclear to what extent the injured limb is unloaded following injury, and whether disuse can fully account for the observed magnitude of bone loss. In this study, we investigated the contribution of mechanical unloading to trabecular bone changes observed following non-invasive knee injury in mice (female C57BL/6N). We investigated changes in gait during treadmill walking, and changes in voluntary activity level using Open Field analysis at 4, 14, 28, and 42 days post-injury. We also quantified epiphyseal trabecular bone using μCT and weighed lower-limb muscles to quantify atrophy following knee injury in both ground control and hindlimb unloaded (HLU) mice. Gait analysis revealed a slightly altered stride pattern in the injured limb, with a decreased stance phase and increased swing phase. However, Open Field analysis revealed no differences in voluntary movement between injured and sham mice at any time point. Both knee injury and HLU resulted in comparable magnitudes of trabecular bone loss; however, HLU resulted in considerably more muscle loss than knee injury, suggesting another mechanism contributing to bone loss following injury. Altogether, these data suggest that mechanical unloading likely contributes to trabecular bone loss following non-invasive knee injury, but the magnitude of this bone loss cannot be fully explained by disuse. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1680-1687, 2016. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Non-Invasive Seismic Methods for Earthquake Site Classification Applied to Ontario Bridge Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilson Darko, A.; Molnar, S.; Sadrekarimi, A.

    2017-12-01

    How a site responds to earthquake shaking and its corresponding damage is largely influenced by the underlying ground conditions through which it propagates. The effects of site conditions on propagating seismic waves can be predicted from measurements of the shear wave velocity (Vs) of the soil layer(s) and the impedance ratio between bedrock and soil. Currently the seismic design of new buildings and bridges (2015 Canadian building and bridge codes) requires determination of the time-averaged shear-wave velocity of the upper 30 metres (Vs30) of a given site. In this study, two in situ Vs profiling methods; Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) and Ambient Vibration Array (AVA) methods are used to determine Vs30 at chosen bridge sites in Ontario, Canada. Both active-source (MASW) and passive-source (AVA) surface wave methods are used at each bridge site to obtain Rayleigh-wave phase velocities over a wide frequency bandwidth. The dispersion curve is jointly inverted with each site's amplification function (microtremor horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio) to obtain shear-wave velocity profile(s). We apply our non-invasive testing at three major infrastructure projects, e.g., five bridge sites along the Rt. Hon. Herb Gray Parkway in Windsor, Ontario. Our non-invasive testing is co-located with previous invasive testing, including Standard Penetration Test (SPT), Cone Penetration Test and downhole Vs data. Correlations between SPT blowcount and Vs are developed for the different soil types sampled at our Ontario bridge sites. A robust earthquake site classification procedure (reliable Vs30 estimates) for bridge sites across Ontario is evaluated from available combinations of invasive and non-invasive site characterization methods.

  1. Non- invasive in vivo analysis of a murine aortic graft using high resolution ultrasound microimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowinska, Zuzanna; Zander, Simone; Zernecke, Alma; Jacobs, Michael; Langer, Stephan; Weber, Christian; Merx, Marc W.; Koeppel, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: As yet, murine aortic grafts have merely been monitored histopathologically. The aim of our study was to examine how these grafts can be monitored in vivo and non-invasively by using high-resolution ultrasound microimaging to evaluate function and morphology. A further aim was to prove if this in vivo monitoring can be correlated to immunohistological data that indicates graft integrity. Methods: Murine infrarenal aortic isografts were orthotopically transplanted into 14 female mice (C57BL/6-Background) whereas a group of sham-operated animals (n = 10) served as controls. To assess the graft morphology and hemodynamics, we examined the mice over a post-operative period of 8 weeks with a sophisticated ultrasound system (Vevo 770, Visual Sonics). Results: The non-invasive graft monitoring was feasible in all transplanted mice. We could demonstrate a regular post-transplant graft function and morphology, such as anterior/posterior wall displacement and wall thickness. Mild alterations of anterior wall motion dynamics could only be observed at the site of distal graft anastomosis (8 weeks after grafting (transplant vs. sham mice: 0.02 mm ± 0.01 vs. 0.03 mm ± 0.01, p < 0.05). However, the integrity of the entire graft wall could be confirmed by histopathological evaluation of the grafts. Conclusions: With regard to graft patency, function and morphology, high resolution ultrasound microimaging has proven to be a valuable tool for longitudinal, non-invasive, in vivo graft monitoring in this murine aortic transplantation model. Consequently, this experimental animal model provides an excellent basis for molecular and pharmacological studies using genetically engineered mice.

  2. Non-invasive therapy for the prevention of moist desquamation following β-radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, L.; Wilcock, S.; Rezvani, M.; Hsia, C.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In an environment of potential nuclear mishap, effective therapies are lacking for radiation-induced skin burns. In this report we describe an effective, non-invasive therapy for post acute radiation exposure based on skin compression. A pig skin model of β-radiation-induced moist desquamation (MD) was employed in this study. Exposure to 30 Gy was used to induce skin lesions involving >80% MD in prescribed test sites on flank skin of female Large White pigs (n 18 per flank). The animals' left flank was placed under pressure from the weight of the pig's own body for 3 hours, immediately following radiation exposure. The right flank served as control, and was not subject to compression following irradiation. Percentage differences in MD were measured between sites on both flanks based on the the area of the test site containing 50% MD (severe) as determined by clinical assessment using blinded observers. The incidence of MD was significantly higher on the uncompressed right flank as compared to the compressed left flank (p < 0.005). A 61% and 45% reduction of MD was observed in both total and severe MD, respectively, during the 8-week study period. Radiation-induced MD was significantly reduced by immediate, mild skin compression (approx. 1.5 psi) for 3 hours immediately following exposure. This observation suggests that skin lesion development from radiation-induced oxidative damage cascades may be modulated non-invasively. Understanding the mechanism(s) at work and developing devices based on this non-invasive therapeutic principle may provide a novel treatment for consequent skin injury in radiation oncology, cosmetic and therapeutic UV, laser, glycolic and derm abrasion procedures

  3. Non-invasive brain-to-brain interface (BBI: establishing functional links between two brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Schik Yoo

    Full Text Available Transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS is capable of modulating the neural activity of specific brain regions, with a potential role as a non-invasive computer-to-brain interface (CBI. In conjunction with the use of brain-to-computer interface (BCI techniques that translate brain function to generate computer commands, we investigated the feasibility of using the FUS-based CBI to non-invasively establish a functional link between the brains of different species (i.e. human and Sprague-Dawley rat, thus creating a brain-to-brain interface (BBI. The implementation was aimed to non-invasively translate the human volunteer's intention to stimulate a rat's brain motor area that is responsible for the tail movement. The volunteer initiated the intention by looking at a strobe light flicker on a computer display, and the degree of synchronization in the electroencephalographic steady-state-visual-evoked-potentials (SSVEP with respect to the strobe frequency was analyzed using a computer. Increased signal amplitude in the SSVEP, indicating the volunteer's intention, triggered the delivery of a burst-mode FUS (350 kHz ultrasound frequency, tone burst duration of 0.5 ms, pulse repetition frequency of 1 kHz, given for 300 msec duration to excite the motor area of an anesthetized rat transcranially. The successful excitation subsequently elicited the tail movement, which was detected by a motion sensor. The interface was achieved at 94.0±3.0% accuracy, with a time delay of 1.59±1.07 sec from the thought-initiation to the creation of the tail movement. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of a computer-mediated BBI that links central neural functions between two biological entities, which may confer unexplored opportunities in the study of neuroscience with potential implications for therapeutic applications.

  4. [A comparison of leak compensation in six acute care ventilators during non-invasive ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X S; Wang, Y; Wang, Z T; Yan, P; Zhang, X G; Zhao, S F; Xie, F; Gu, H J; Xie, L X

    2017-02-12

    Objective: To compare the ability of leak compensation in 6 medical ventilators during non-invasive ventilation. Methods: Six medical ventilators were selected, including 3 non-invasive ventilators (V60, Flexo and Stellar150), and 3 invasive ventilators(Avea, Servo I and BellaVist). Using a lung simulator, the ability of leak compensation was evaluated during triggering and cycling in 2 respiratory mechanics conditions (high airway resistance condition and high elastance resistance condition), and each condition was performed under 2 PEEP levels (4, and 8 cmH(2)O, 1 mmHg=0.098 kPa) at 4 air leak level conditions (L0: 2-3 L/min, L1: 8-10 L/min, L2: 22-27 L/min, L3: 35-40 L/min). Results: In the high elastance resistance condition (L2, L3)with different leak levels, the number of auto-triggering and miss-triggering of the non-invasive ventilator Flexo was significantly less than those of the others (L2: 1, 1; L3: 1.67, 1.33, P ventilators ( P ventilators (1, 0.67, 0, P ventilators in both high airway resistance and high elastance resistance conditions with L0 and L1 leak levels and PEEP levels [ARDS, PEEP=4: (109.8±1.8) ms, (112.0±0.6) ms; ARDS, PEEP=8: (103.1±0.7) ms, (109.7±0.7) ms; COPD, PEEP=4: (207.3±1.1) ms, (220.8±1.1) ms; COPD, PEEP=8: (195.6±6.7) ms, (200.0±1.2) ms , P ventilators could be synchronized, among which V60, Stellar150 and Flexo presented a good performance features in specific conditions.

  5. Non-invasive coronary angiography with multislice computed tomography. Technology, methods, preliminary experience and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversi, Egidio; Bertoli, Giuseppe; Barazzoni, Giancarlo; Baldi, Maurizia; Tramarin, Roberto

    2004-02-01

    The recent technical developments in multislice computed tomography (MSCT), with ECG retro-gated image reconstruction, have elicited great interest in the possibility of accurate non-invasive imaging of the coronary arteries. The latest generation of MSCT systems with 8-16 rows of detectors permits acquisition of the whole cardiac volume during a single 15-20 s breath-hold with a submillimetric definition of the images and an outstanding signal-to-noise ratio. Thus the race which, between MSCT, electron beam computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, can best provide routine and reliable imaging of the coronary arteries in clinical practice has recommenced. Currently available MSCT systems offer different options for both cardiac image acquisition and reconstruction, including multiplanar and curved multiplanar reconstruction, three-dimensional volume rendering, maximum intensity projection, and virtual angioscopy. In our preliminary experience including 176 patients suffering from known or suspected coronary artery disease, MSCT was feasible in 161 (91.5%) and showed a sensitivity of 80.4% and a specificity of 80.3%, with respect to standard coronary angiography, in detecting critical stenosis in coronary arteries and artery or venous bypass grafts. These results correspond to a positive predictive value of 58.6% and a negative predictive value of 92.2%. The true role that MSCT is likely to play in the future in non-invasive coronary imaging is still to be defined. Nevertheless, the huge amount of data obtainable by MSCT along with the rapid technological advances, shorter acquisition times and reconstruction algorithm developments will make the technique stronger, and possible applications are expected not only for non-invasive coronary angiography, but also for cardiac function and myocardial perfusion evaluation, as an all-in-one examination.

  6. Prediction of human core body temperature using non-invasive measurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermann, Reto; Wyss, Eva; Annaheim, Simon; Psikuta, Agnes; Davey, Sarah; Rossi, René Michel

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of core body temperature is an efficient method for monitoring heat stress amongst workers in hot conditions. However, invasive measurement of core body temperature (e.g. rectal, intestinal, oesophageal temperature) is impractical for such applications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define relevant non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature under various conditions. We conducted two human subject studies with different experimental protocols, different environmental temperatures (10 °C, 30 °C) and different subjects. In both studies the same non-invasive measurement methods (skin temperature, skin heat flux, heart rate) were applied. A principle component analysis was conducted to extract independent factors, which were then used in a linear regression model. We identified six parameters (three skin temperatures, two skin heat fluxes and heart rate), which were included for the calculation of two factors. The predictive value of these factors for core body temperature was evaluated by a multiple regression analysis. The calculated root mean square deviation (rmsd) was in the range from 0.28 °C to 0.34 °C for all environmental conditions. These errors are similar to previous models using non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature. The results from this study illustrate that multiple physiological parameters (e.g. skin temperature and skin heat fluxes) are needed to predict core body temperature. In addition, the physiological measurements chosen in this study and the algorithm defined in this work are potentially applicable as real-time core body temperature monitoring to assess health risk in broad range of working conditions.

  7. Radiofrequency ablation in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachdeva Silonie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiofreqeuency ablation is a versatile dermatosurgical procedure used for surgical management of skin lesions by using various forms of alternating current at an ultra high frequency. The major modalities in radiofrequency are electrosection, electrocoagulation, electrodessication and fulguration. The use of radiofrequency ablation in dermatosurgical practice has gained importance in recent years as it can be used to treat most of the skin lesions with ease in less time with clean surgical field due to adequate hemostasis and with minimal side effects and complications. This article focuses on the major tissue effects and factors influencing radiofrequency ablation and its application for various dermatological conditions.

  8. Differential Mueller matrix polarimetry technique for non-invasive measurement of glucose concentration on human fingertip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Quoc-Hung; Lo, Yu-Lung

    2017-06-26

    A differential Mueller matrix polarimetry technique is proposed for obtaining non-invasive (NI) measurements of the glucose concentration on the human fingertip. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated by detecting the optical rotation angle and depolarization index of tissue phantom samples containing de-ionized water (DI), glucose solutions with concentrations ranging from 0~500 mg/dL and 2% lipofundin. The results show that the extracted optical rotation angle increases linearly with an increasing glucose concentration, while the depolarization index decreases. The practical applicability of the proposed method is demonstrated by measuring the optical rotation angle and depolarization index properties of the human fingertips of healthy volunteers.

  9. [Reflections on the use of non-invasive mechanical ventilation in acute respiratory failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Raffaele

    2012-12-01

    Given its prevalence into the clinical practice, non-invasive ventilation (NIV) can be included among the cornerstones of medicine. Just think of the acute applications of NIV which are in constant expansion, from COPD exacerbation to severe de novo hypoxemia, from postoperative distress to extra-hospital use in acute pulmonary edema, from ongoing support of interventional procedures to delicate strategies for end of life in terminally ill oncologic and non-oncologic patients. The thought should be focused on how, by whom, where and to whom is delivered this mode of artificial ventilation to avoid the risk of trivialization and flattening.

  10. Non-invasive assessment of in-vitro embryo quality to improve transfer success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbøge, Tina Rødgaard; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Callesen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Although IVF has been performed routinely for many years to help couples with fertility problems and in relation to modern breeding of farm animals, pregnancy rates after transfer to a recipient have not improved during the last decade. Early prediction of the viability of in-vitro developed...... subjectively. The simple morphological approach is, however, inadequate for the prediction of embryo quality, and several studies have focused on developing new non-invasive methods using molecular approaches based particularly on proteomics, metabolomics and most recently small non-coding RNA, including micro...

  11. NON-INVASIVE EVALUATION OF NERVE CONDUCTION IN SMALL DIAMETER FIBERS IN THE RAT

    OpenAIRE

    Zotova, Elena G.; Arezzo, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    A novel non-invasive technique was applied to measure velocity within slow conducting axons in the distal extreme of the sciatic nerve (i.e., digital nerve) in a rat model. The technique is based on the extraction of rectified multiple unit activity (MUA) from in vivo whole nerve compound responses. This method reliably identifies compound action potentials in thinly myelinated fibers conducting at a range of 9-18 m/s (Aδ axons), as well as in a subgroup of unmylinated C fibers conducting at ...

  12. Non-invasive bleaching of the human lens by femtosecond laser photolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, L.; Eskildsen, Lars; Poel, Mike van der

    2010-01-01

    . Reducing blindness from cataract requires solutions that can be applied outside operating theatres. Cataract is a protein conformational disease characterized by accumulation of light absorbing, fluorescent and scattering protein aggregates. The aim of the study was to investigate whether these compounds...... by a non-invasive procedure based on femtosecond laser photolysis. Cataract is a disease associated with old age. At the current technological stage, lens aging is delayed but with a treatment covering the entire lens volume complete optical rejuvenation is expected. Thus, femtosecond photolysis has...

  13. Role of non-invasive ventilation in difficult-to-wean children with acute neuromuscular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, V G; Nair, M P; Bataclan, F

    2004-05-01

    Weaning from mechanical ventilation in children could be time-consuming and on many occasions, leads to reintubation with its associate complications. We report two children with acute neuromuscular disease, in whom bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) as a mode of non-invasive ventilation was successfully used to wean the child from ventilators and prevented the need for tracheostomy. Despite the limited number of studies published in the literature suggesting BiPAP as a mode of weaning from mechanical ventilation, the technique when applied correctly seems to be safe and effective in weaning and avoiding tracheostomy.

  14. CARDIAC TRANSPLANT REJECTION AND NON-INVASIVE COMON CAROTID ARTERY WALL FUNCTIONAL INDICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Shevchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allograft rejection would entail an increase in certain blood biomarkers and active substances derived from activated inflammatory cells which could influence entire vascular endothelial function and deteriorate arterial wall stiffness. We propose that carotid wall functional indices measured with non-invasive ultrasound could we valuable markers of the subclinical cardiac allograft rejection. Aim. Our goal was to analyze the clinical utility of functional common carotid wall (CCW variables measured with high-resolution Doppler ultrasound as a non-invasive screening tool for allograft rejection in cardiac transplant patients (pts. Methods. One hundred and seventy one pts included 93 cardiac recipients, 30 dilated cardiomyopathy waiting list pts, and 48 stable coronary artery disease (SCAD pts without decompensated heart failure were included. Along with resistive index (Ri, pulsative index (Pi, and CCW intima-media thickness (IMT, CCW rigidity index (iRIG was estimated using empirical equation. Non-invasive evaluation was performed in cardiac transplant recipients prior the endomyo- cardial biopsy. Results. Neither of Ri, Pi, or CCW IMT were different in studied subgroups. iRIG was signifi- cantly lower in SCAD pts when compared to the dilated cardiomyopathy subgroup. The later had similar values with cardiac transplant recipients without rejection. Antibody-mediated and cellular rejection were found in 22 (23.7% and 17 (18.3% cardiac recipients, respectively. Mean iRIG in pts without rejection was significantly lower in comparison to antibody-mediated rejection and cell-mediated (5514.7 ± 2404.0 vs 11856.1 ± 6643.5 and 16071.9 ± 10029.1 cm/sec2, respectively, p = 0.001. Area under ROC for iRIG was 0.90 ± 0.03 units2. Analysis showed that iRIG values above estimated treshold 7172 cm/sec2 suggested relative risk of any type of rejection 17.7 (95%CI = 6.3–49.9 sensitivity 80.5%, specificity – 81.1%, negative predictive value – 84

  15. Portable non-invasive brain-computer interface: challenges and opportunities of optical modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Clara A.; Hendrickson, Scott M.; Swett, Bruce A.; Fitch, Michael J.; Walter, Erich C.; McLoughlin, Michael P.; Chevillet, Mark A.; Blodgett, David W.; Hwang, Grace M.

    2017-05-01

    The development of portable non-invasive brain computer interface technologies with higher spatio-temporal resolution has been motivated by the tremendous success seen with implanted devices. This talk will discuss efforts to overcome several major obstacles to viability including approaches that promise to improve spatial and temporal resolution. Optical approaches in particular will be highlighted and the potential benefits of both Blood-Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) and Fast Optical Signal (FOS) will be discussed. Early-stage research into the correlations between neural activity and FOS will be explored.

  16. Validation of a non-invasive arterial monitor GATE model for PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giansiracusa, P.J., E-mail: pgia@student.unimelb.edu.au [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia); Peake, D.J. [DETECT Australia, Bundoora (Australia); Sobott, B.A. [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia); O' Keefe, G. [The Austin PET Centre, Austin Hospital, Heidelberg (Australia); Rassool, R.P. [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia)

    2014-02-11

    The Non-Invasive Arterial Monitor (NIAM3) is an SiPM based detector system designed for calibrating Positron-Emission Tomography (PET) images without invasive blood sampling. By imaging the radial and ulnar arteries in the wrist directly with a custom built PET system the resultant PET images can be calibrated. An integral step in the development of a complex detector system is the creation of a model which accurately reflects the physical reality being studied. This paper describes the development of a simulation for NIAM which shows good agreement between the model and physical detector setup.

  17. Method for Non-Invasive Determination of Chemical Properties of Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Paul W. (Inventor); Jones, Alan (Inventor); Thomas, Nathan A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method for non-invasively determining a chemical property of an aqueous solution is provided. The method provides the steps of providing a colored solute having a light absorbance spectrum and transmitting light through the colored solute at two different wavelengths. The method further provides the steps of measuring light absorbance of the colored solute at the two different transmitted light wavelengths, and comparing the light absorbance of the colored solute at the two different wavelengths to determine a chemical property of an aqueous solution.

  18. Dielectric spectroscopy for non-invasive monitoring of epithelial cell differentiation within three-dimensional scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoud, Jamal; Tabrizian, Maryam; Asami, Koji; Rosenberg, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we introduce a cellular differentiation cellular model based on dielectric spectroscopy that characterizes epithelial differentiation processes. Non-invasive cellular monitoring was achieved within a three-dimensional microenvironment consisting of a cell-containing collagen I gel seeded onto microfabricated scaffolds. In this proof-of-concept investigation, Madin–Darby canine kidney cells were cultured within microfabricated, geometrically controlled scaffolds and allowed us to differentiate to hollow cyst-like structures. This transformation within the three-dimensional environment is monitored and characterized through dielectric spectroscopy while maintaining cell culture in vitro. (paper)

  19. Non-invasive brain stimulation to promote motor and functional recovery following spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Gunduz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a systematic review of studies using non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS: repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS as a research and clinical tool aimed at improving motor and functional recovery or spasticity in patients following spinal cord injury (SCI under the assumption that if the residual corticospinal circuits could be stimulated appropriately, the changes might be accompanied by functional recovery or an improvement in spasticity. This review summarizes the literature on the changes induced by NIBS in the motor and functional recovery and spasticity control of the upper and lower extremities following SCI.

  20. Experimental bifurcation analysis of an impact oscillator - Tuning a non-invasive control scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bureau, Emil; Schilder, Frank; Santos, Ilmar

    2013-01-01

    We investigate a non-invasive, locally stabilizing control scheme necessary for an experimental bifurcation analysis. Our test-rig comprises a harmonically forced impact oscillator with hardening spring nonlinearity controlled by electromagnetic actuators, and serves as a prototype...... for electromagnetic bearings and other machinery with build-in actuators. We propose a sequence of experiments that allows one to choose optimal control-gains, filter parameters and settings for a continuation method without a priori study of a model. Depending on the algorithm for estimating the Jacobian required...

  1. Non-invasive electrocardiogram detection of in vivo zebrafish embryos using electric potential sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon-Morales, E.; Prance, R. J.; Prance, H.; Aviles-Espinosa, R.

    2015-11-01

    In this letter, we report the continuous detection of the cardiac electrical activity in embryonic zebrafish using a non-invasive approach. We present a portable and cost-effective platform based on the electric potential sensing technology, to monitor in vivo electrocardiogram activity from the zebrafish heart. This proof of principle demonstration shows how electrocardiogram measurements from the embryonic zebrafish may become accessible by using electric field detection. We present preliminary results using the prototype, which enables the acquisition of electrophysiological signals from in vivo 3 and 5 days-post-fertilization zebrafish embryos. The recorded waveforms show electrocardiogram traces including detailed features such as QRS complex, P and T waves.

  2. Open source non-invasive prenatal testing platform and its performance in a public health laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Peter; Richter, Stine R; Balslev-Harder, Marie

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to introduce non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for fetal autosomal trisomies and gender in a Danish public health setting, using semi-conductor sequencing and published open source scripts for analysis. METHODS: Plasma-derived DNA from a total of 375...... correlation (R(2)  = 0.72) to Y-chromosomal content of the male fetus samples. DISCUSSION: We have implemented NIPT into Danish health care using published open source scripts for autosomal aneuploidy detection and fetal DNA fraction estimation showing excellent false negative and false positive rates. Seq...

  3. Measurement of Non-Invasive Blood Glucose Level Based Sensor Color TCS3200 and Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniadi Wardana, Humaidillah; Indahwati, Elly; Arifah Fitriyah, Lina

    2018-04-01

    Design and measurement of Arduino-based urinary (non-invasive) urine glucose using RGB tcs3200 sensor. This research was conducted by making use of the urine in diabetes patients detected by sensor colours then measured levels of colour based on the RGB colour of the urine of diabetics. The detection is done on 4 urine samples with each consisting of 3 diabetics and 1 non-diabetics. Equipment used in this research, among others, Arduino Uno, colour sensor tcs3200, LCD 16x4. The results showed that the detection of RGB values in diabetics 230 with blue and not diabetics 200 with red.

  4. Non-invasive imaging of retinal blood flow in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Anne; Hansen, Mathias M; Klefter, Oliver Niels

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the circulation in the retinal vessels in patients with blood dyscrasia due to myeloproliferative neoplasms using non-invasive retinal imaging. METHODS: Prospective consecutive case series of seven treatment-naïve patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (n = 2), polycythemia vera...... present at baseline in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia and were replaced by normal patterns at follow-up. Retinopathy, in the form of cotton-wool spots and retinal haemorrhages, was found at presentation in the two patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia and in one patient with polycythemia vera...

  5. Non-invasive imaging methods applied to neo- and paleontological cephalopod research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, R.; Schultz, J. A.; Schellhorn, R.; Rybacki, E.; Keupp, H.; Gerden, S. R.; Lemanis, R.; Zachow, S.

    2013-11-01

    Several non-invasive methods are common practice in natural sciences today. Here we present how they can be applied and contribute to current topics in cephalopod (paleo-) biology. Different methods will be compared in terms of time necessary to acquire the data, amount of data, accuracy/resolution, minimum-maximum size of objects that can be studied, of the degree of post-processing needed and availability. Main application of the methods is seen in morphometry and volumetry of cephalopod shells in order to improve our understanding of diversity and disparity, functional morphology and biology of extinct and extant cephalopods.

  6. Intercomparison of techniques for the non-invasive measurement of bone mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    A variety of methods are presently available for the non-invasive measurement of bone mass of both normal individuals and patients with metabolic disorders. Chief among these methods are radiographic techniques such as radiogrammetry, photon absorptiometry, computer tomography, Compton scattering and neutron activation analysis. In this review, the salient features of the bone measurement techniques are discussed along with their accuracy and precision. The advantages and disadvantages of the various techniques for measuring bone mass are summarized. Where possible, intercomparisons are made of the various techniques

  7. Non-invasive index of liver fibrosis induced by alcohol, thioacetamide and schistosomal infection in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Beltagy Doha M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non invasive approaches will likely be increasing utilized to assess liver fibrosis. This work provides a new non invasive index to predict liver fibrosis induced in mice. Methods Fibrosis was generated by thioacetamide (TAA, chronic intake of ethanol, or infection with S. mansoni in 240 mice. Both progression and regression of fibrosis (after treatment with silymarin and/or praziquantel were monitored. The following methods were employed: (i The METAVIR system was utilized to grade and stage liver inflammation and fibosis; (ii Determination of hepatic hydroxyproline and collagen; and (iii Derivation of a new hepatic fibrosis index from the induced changes, and its prospective validation in a group of 70 mice. Results The index is composed of 4 serum variable including total proteins, γ-GT, bilirubin and reduced glutathione (GSH, measured in diseased, treated and normal mice. These parameters were highly correlated with both the histological stage and the grade. They were combined in a logarithmic formula, which non-invasively scores the severity of liver fibrosis through a range (0 to 2, starting with healthy liver (corresponding to stage 0 to advanced fibrosis (corresponding stage 3.Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC for the accuracy of the index to predict the histological stages demonstrated that the areas under the curve (AUC were 0.954, 0.979 and 0.99 for index values corresponding to histological stages 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Also, the index was correlated with stage and grade, (0.947 and 0.859, respectively. The cut off values that cover the range between stages 0-1, 1-2 and 2-3 are 0.4, 1.12 and 1.79, respectively. The results in the validation group confirmed the accuracy of the test. The AUROC was 0.869 and there was good correlation with the stage of fibrosis and grade of inflammation. Conclusion The index fulfils the basic criteria of non-invasive marker of liver fibrosis since it is liver

  8. Non-Invasive Study of Nerve Fibres using Laser Interference Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazhe, A. R.; Brazhe, N. A.; Rodionova, N. N.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a laser interference microscopy study of the morphology and dynamical properties of myelinated nerve fibres. We describe the principles of operation of the phase-modulated laser interference microscope and show how this novel technique allows us to obtain...... information non-invasively about the internal structure of different regions of a nerve fibre. We also analyse the temporal variations in the internal optical properties in order to detect the rhythmic activity in the nerve fibre at different time scales and to shed light on the underlying biological...

  9. Non-invasive estimation of dissipation from non-equilibrium fluctuations in chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muy, S; Kundu, A; Lacoste, D

    2013-09-28

    We show how to extract an estimate of the entropy production from a sufficiently long time series of stationary fluctuations of chemical reactions. This method, which is based on recent work on fluctuation theorems, is direct, non-invasive, does not require any knowledge about the underlying dynamics and is applicable even when only partial information is available. We apply it to simple stochastic models of chemical reactions involving a finite number of states, and for this case, we study how the estimate of dissipation is affected by the degree of coarse-graining present in the input data.

  10. Pilot study for supervised target detection applied to spatially registered multiparametric MRI in order to non-invasively score prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Rulon; Simone, Charles B; Skinner, William; Turkbey, Baris; Choykey, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Gleason Score (GS) is a validated predictor of prostate cancer (PCa) disease progression and outcomes. GS from invasive needle biopsies suffers from significant inter-observer variability and possible sampling error, leading to underestimating disease severity ("underscoring") and can result in possible complications. A robust non-invasive image-based approach is, therefore, needed. Use spatially registered multi-parametric MRI (MP-MRI), signatures, and supervised target detection algorithms (STDA) to non-invasively GS PCa at the voxel level. This study retrospectively analyzed 26 MP-MRI from The Cancer Imaging Archive. The MP-MRI (T2, Diffusion Weighted, Dynamic Contrast Enhanced) were spatially registered to each other, combined into stacks, and stitched together to form hypercubes. Multi-parametric (or multi-spectral) signatures derived from a training set of registered MP-MRI were transformed using statistics-based Whitening-Dewhitening (WD). Transformed signatures were inserted into STDA (having conical decision surfaces) applied to registered MP-MRI determined the tumor GS. The MRI-derived GS was quantitatively compared to the pathologist's assessment of the histology of sectioned whole mount prostates from patients who underwent radical prostatectomy. In addition, a meta-analysis of 17 studies of needle biopsy determined GS with confusion matrices and was compared to the MRI-determined GS. STDA and histology determined GS are highly correlated (R = 0.86, p < 0.02). STDA more accurately determined GS and reduced GS underscoring of PCa relative to needle biopsy as summarized by meta-analysis (p < 0.05). This pilot study found registered MP-MRI, STDA, and WD transforms of signatures shows promise in non-invasively GS PCa and reducing underscoring with high spatial resolution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Process for selected gas oxide removal by radiofrequency catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Chang Y.

    1993-01-01

    This process to remove gas oxides from flue gas utilizes adsorption on a char bed subsequently followed by radiofrequency catalysis enhancing such removal through selected reactions. Common gas oxides include SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x.

  12. 3D non-contrast-enhanced ECG-gated MR angiography of the lower extremities with dual-source radiofrequency transmission at 3.0 T: Intraindividual comparison with contrast-enhanced MR angiography in PAOD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasper, Michael; Wildgruber, Moritz; Settles, Marcus; Eckstein, Hans-Henning; Zimmermann, Alexander; Reeps, Christian; Rummeny, Ernst J; Huber, Armin M

    2016-09-01

    To compare prospectively image quality and diagnostic confidence of flow-sensitive 3D turbo spin echo (TSE)-based non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography (NE-MRA) at 3.0 T using dual-source radiofrequency (RF) transmission with contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA) in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). After consent was obtained, 35 patients (mean age 69.1 ± 10.6 years) with PAOD stage II-IV underwent NE-MRA followed by CE-MRA. Signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were calculated. Subjective image quality was independently assessed by two radiologists and stenosis scoring was performed in 875 arterial segments. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for stenosis classification were calculated using CE-MRA as a reference method. Diagnostic agreement with CE-MRA was evaluated with Cohen's kappa statistics. NE-MRA provided high objective and subjective image quality at all levels of the arterial tree. Sensitivity and specificity for the detection of relevant stenosis was 91 % and 89 %, respectively; the NPV was 96 % and the PPV 78 %. There was good concordance between CE-MRA and NE-MRA in stenosis scoring. 3D electrocardiography (ECG)-gated TSE NE-MRA with patient-adaptive dual-source RF transmission at 3.0 T is a promising alternative for PAOD patients with contraindications for gadolinium-based contrast agents. It offers high sensitivity and NPV values in the detection of clinically relevant arterial stenosis. • Flow-sensitive TSE NE-MRA is a promising technique for PAOD evaluation. • Diagnostic accuracy is comparable to contrast-enhanced MRA. • NE-MRA eliminates the risk of NSF in patients with renal insufficiency. • Costs arising from the use of contrast agents can be avoided.

  13. RADIOFREQUENCY SUPERCONDUCTIVITY: Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengeler, Herbert

    1989-01-01

    Superconducting radiofrequency is already playing an important role in the beam acceleration system for the TRISTAN electron-positron collider at the Japanese KEK Laboratory and new such systems are being prepared for other major machines. Thus the fourth Workshop on Radiofrequency Superconductivity, organized by KEK under the chairmanship of local specialist Yuzo Kojima and held just before the International Conference on High Energy Accelerators, had much progress to review and even more to look forward to

  14. Antenatal screening for aneuploidy--surveying the current situation and planning for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Ashley; Webster, Dianne; Taylor, Juliet; Mckay, Richard; McEwen, Alison; Sullivan, Jan; Pope-Couston, Rachel; Stone, Peter

    2016-01-29

    To gauge clinical opinion about the current system and possible changes as well as providing a forum for education about Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT). A series of workshops for doctors and midwives, supported by the National Screening Unit of the Ministry of Health and the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, were held in the main centres of New Zealand. Following a brief education session, a structured evaluation of current screening and future possibilities was undertaken by questionnaire. One hundred and eight maternity carers participated in 5 workshops. Over 40% identified barriers to current screening. More than 60% would support NIPT in the first trimester. The majority of carers provided their own counselling support for women. The survey has shown general enthusiasm for the introduction of publically funded NIPT into prenatal screening in New Zealand. Barriers to utilisation of the current system have been identified and enhancements to screening performance with guidelines around conditions to be screened for would be supported.

  15. Non-invasive imaging and monitoring of rodent retina using simultaneous dual-band optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimalla, Peter; Burkhardt, Anke; Walther, Julia; Hoefer, Aline; Wittig, Dierk; Funk, Richard; Koch, Edmund

    2011-03-01

    Spectral domain dual-band optical coherence tomography for simultaneous imaging of rodent retina in the 0.8 μm and 1.3 μm wavelength region and non-invasive monitoring of the posterior eye microstructure in the field of retinal degeneration research is demonstrated. The system is illuminated by a supercontinuum laser source and allows three-dimensional imaging with high axial resolution better than 3.8 μm and 5.3 μm in tissue at 800 nm and 1250 nm, respectively, for precise retinal thickness measurements. A fan-shaped scanning pattern with the pivot point close to the eye's pupil and a contact lens are applied to obtain optical access to the eye's fundus. First in vivo experiments in a RCS (royal college of surgeons) rat model with gene-related degeneration of the photoreceptor cells show good visibility of the retinal microstructure with sufficient contrast for thickness measurement of individual retinal layers. An enhanced penetration depth at 1250 nm is clearly identifiable revealing sub-choroidal structures that are not visible at 800 nm. Furthermore, additional simultaneous imaging at 1250 nm improves image quality by frequency compounding speckle noise reduction. These results are encouraging for time course studies of the rodent retina concerning its development related to disease progression and treatment response.

  16. New concepts in molecular imaging: non-invasive MRI spotting of proteolysis using an Overhauser effect switch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Mellet

    Full Text Available Proteolysis, involved in many processes in living organisms, is tightly regulated in space and time under physiological conditions. However deregulation can occur with local persistent proteolytic activities, e.g. in inflammation, cystic fibrosis, tumors, or pancreatitis. Furthermore, little is known about the role of many proteases, hence there is a need of new imaging methods to visualize specifically normal or disease-related proteolysis in intact bodies.In this paper, a new concept for non invasive proteolysis imaging is proposed. Overhauser-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (OMRI at 0.2 Tesla was used to monitor the enzymatic hydrolysis of a nitroxide-labeled protein. In vitro, image intensity switched from 1 to 25 upon proteolysis due to the associated decrease in the motional correlation time of the substrate. The OMRI experimental device used in this study is consistent with protease imaging in mice at 0.2 T without significant heating. Simulations show that this enzymatic-driven OMRI signal switch can be obtained at lower frequencies suitable for larger animals or humans.The method is highly sensitive and makes possible proteolysis imaging in three dimensions with a good spatial resolution. Any protease could be targeted specifically through the use of taylor-made cleavable macromolecules. At short term OMRI of proteolysis may be applied to basic research as well as to evaluate therapeutic treatments in small animal models of experimental diseases.

  17. Multiparametric Functional MRI: Non-Invasive Imaging of Inflammation and Edema Formation after Kidney Transplantation in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Hueper

    Full Text Available Kidney transplantation (ktx in mice is used to learn about rejection and to develop new treatment strategies. Past studies have mainly been based on histological or molecular biological methods. Imaging techniques to monitor allograft pathology have rarely been used.Here we investigated mice after isogenic and allogenic ktx over time with functional MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI and mapping of T2-relaxation time (T2-mapping to assess graft inflammation and edema formation. To characterize graft pathology, we used PAS-staining, counted CD3-positive T-lymphocytes, analyzed leukocytes by means flow cytometry.DWI revealed progressive restriction of diffusion of water molecules in allogenic kidney grafts. This was paralleled by enhanced infiltration of the kidney by inflammatory cells. Changes in tissue diffusion were not seen following isogenic ktx. T2-times in renal cortex were increased after both isogenic and allogenic transplantation, consistent with tissue edema due to ischemic injury following prolonged cold ischemia time of 60 minutes. Lack of T2 increase in the inner stripe of the inner medulla in allogenic kidney grafts matched loss of tubular autofluorescence and may result from rejection-driven reductions in tubular water content due to tubular dysfunction and renal functional impairment.Functional MRI is a valuable non-invasive technique for monitoring inflammation, tissue edema and tubular function. It permits on to differentiate between acute rejection and ischemic renal injury in a mouse model of ktx.

  18. Pneumococci in biofilms are non-invasive: implications on nasopharyngeal colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Paul Gilley

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the human nasopharynx asymptomatically. Invasive pneumococcal disease develops following bacterial aspiration into the lungs. Pneumococci within the nasopharynx exist as biofilms, a growth phenotype characterized by surface attachment, encasement within an extracellular matrix, and antimicrobial resistance. Experimental evidence indicates that biofilm pneumococci are attenuated versus their planktonic counterpart. Biofilm pneumococci failed to cause invasive disease in experimentally challenged mice and in vitro were shown to be non-invasive despite being hyper-adhesive. This attenuated phenotype corresponds with observations that biofilm pneumococci elicit significantly less cytokine and chemokine production from host cells than their planktonic counterparts. Microarray and proteomic studies show that pneumococci within biofilms have decreased metabolism, less capsular polysaccharide, and reduced production of the pore-forming toxin pneumolysin. Biofilm pneumococci are predominately in the transparent phenotype, which has elevated cell wall phosphorylcholine, an adhesin subject to C-reactive protein mediated opsonization. Herein, we review these changes in virulence, interpret their impact on colonization and transmission, and discuss the notion that non-invasive biofilms are principal lifestyle of S. pneumoniae.

  19. Electro-resistive bands for non-invasive cardiac and respiration monitoring, a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gargiulo, Gaetano D; Breen, Paul P; O’Loughlin, Aiden

    2015-01-01

    Continuous unobtrusive monitoring of tidal volume, particularly for critical care patients (i.e. neonates and patients in intensive care) during sleep studies and during daily activities, is still an unresolved monitoring need. Also a successful monitoring solution is yet to be proposed for continuous non-invasive cardiac stroke volume monitoring that is a novel clinical need. In this paper we present the feasibility study for a wearable, non-invasive, non-contact and unobtrusive sensor (embedded in a standard T-shirt) based on four electro-resistive bands that simultaneously monitors tidal volume and cardiac stroke volume changes. This low power sensor system (requires only 100 mW and accepts a wide power supply range up to ±18 V); thus the sensor can be easily embedded in existing wearable solutions (i.e. Holter monitors). Moreover, being contactless, it can be worn over bandages or electrodes, and as it does not rely over the integrity of the garment to work, it allows practitioners to perform procedures during monitoring. For this preliminary evaluation, one subject has worn the sensor over the period of 24 h (removing it only to shower); the accuracy of the tidal volume tested against a portable spirometer reported a precision of ±10% also during physical activity; accuracy tests for cardiac output (as it may require invasive procedure) have not been carried out in this preliminary trial. (note)

  20. Electromyography data for non-invasive naturally-controlled robotic hand prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzori, Manfredo; Gijsberts, Arjan; Castellini, Claudio; Caputo, Barbara; Hager, Anne-Gabrielle Mittaz; Elsig, Simone; Giatsidis, Giorgio; Bassetto, Franco; Müller, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in rehabilitation robotics suggest that it may be possible for hand-amputated subjects to recover at least a significant part of the lost hand functionality. The control of robotic prosthetic hands using non-invasive techniques is still a challenge in real life: myoelectric prostheses give limited control capabilities, the control is often unnatural and must be learned through long training times. Meanwhile, scientific literature results are promising but they are still far from fulfilling real-life needs. This work aims to close this gap by allowing worldwide research groups to develop and test movement recognition and force control algorithms on a benchmark scientific database. The database is targeted at studying the relationship between surface electromyography, hand kinematics and hand forces, with the final goal of developing non-invasive, naturally controlled, robotic hand prostheses. The validation section verifies that the data are similar to data acquired in real-life conditions, and that recognition of different hand tasks by applying state-of-the-art signal features and machine-learning algorithms is possible.

  1. A novel non-invasive diagnostic sampling technique for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasaman Taslimi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is important for chemotherapy and epidemiological studies. Common approaches for Leishmania detection involve the invasive collection of specimens for direct identification of amastigotes by microscopy and the culturing of promastigotes from infected tissues. Although these techniques are highly specific, they require highly skilled health workers and have the inherent risks of all invasive procedures, such as pain and risk of bacterial and fungal super-infection. Therefore, it is essential to reduce discomfort, potential infection and scarring caused by invasive diagnostic approaches especially for children. In this report, we present a novel non-invasive method, that is painless, rapid and user-friendly, using sequential tape strips for sampling and isolation of DNA from the surface of active and healed skin lesions of CL patients. A total of 119 patients suspected of suffering from cutaneous leishmaniasis with different clinical manifestations were recruited and samples were collected both from their lesions and from uninfected areas. In addition, 15 fungal-infected lesions and 54 areas of healthy skin were examined. The duration of sampling is short (less than one minute and species identification by PCR is highly specific and sensitive. The sequential tape stripping sampling method is a sensitive, non-invasive and cost-effective alternative to traditional diagnostic assays and it is suitable for field studies as well as for use in health care centers.

  2. Diagnosis of cirrhosis and portal hypertension: imaging, non-invasive markers of fibrosis and liver biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopet, Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The concept of ‘cirrhosis’ is evolving and it is now clear that compensated and decompensated cirrhosis are completely different in terms of prognosis. Furthermore, the term ‘advanced chronic liver disease (ACLD)’ better reflects the continuum of histological changes occurring in the liver, which continue to progress even after cirrhosis has developed, and might regress after removing the etiological factor causing the liver disease. In compensated ACLD, portal hypertension marks the progression to a stage with higher risk of clinical complication and requires an appropriate evaluation and treatment. Invasive tests to diagnose cirrhosis (liver biopsy) and portal hypertension (hepatic venous pressure gradient measurement and endoscopy) remain of crucial importance in several difficult clinical scenarios, but their need can be reduced by using different non-invasive tests in standard cases. Among non-invasive tests, the accepted use, major limitations and major benefits of serum markers of fibrosis, elastography and imaging methods are summarized in the present review. PMID:28533906

  3. Non-invasive peripheral nerve stimulation via focused ultrasound in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Matthew E.; Lee, Stephen A.; Yang, Georgiana; Kim, Seaok; Wang, Qi; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2018-02-01

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) has been employed on a wide range of clinical applications to safely and non-invasively achieve desired effects that have previously required invasive and lengthy procedures with conventional methods. Conventional electrical neuromodulation therapies that are applied to the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are invasive and/or non-specific. Recently, focused ultrasound has demonstrated the ability to modulate the central nervous system and ex vivo peripheral neurons. Here, for the first time, noninvasive stimulation of the sciatic nerve eliciting a physiological response in vivo is demonstrated with FUS. FUS was applied on the sciatic nerve in mice with simultaneous electromyography (EMG) on the tibialis anterior muscle. EMG signals were detected during or directly after ultrasound stimulation along with observable muscle contraction of the hind limb. Transecting the sciatic nerve downstream of FUS stimulation eliminated EMG activity during FUS stimulation. Peak-to-peak EMG response amplitudes and latency were found to be comparable to conventional electrical stimulation methods. Histology along with behavioral and thermal testing did not indicate damage to the nerve or surrounding regions. The findings presented herein demonstrate that FUS can serve as a targeted, safe and non-invasive alternative to conventional peripheral nervous system stimulation to treat peripheral neuropathic diseases in the clinic.

  4. Application of magnetic resonance elastography as a non-invasive technique for diagnosis of liver fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Minglei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, liver biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosis and grading of liver fibrosis, but its limitations have been widely acknowledged. The non-invasive detection methods are needed in clinical practice, and at present, magnetic resonance elastography (MRE is a hot research topic. This article reviews the advances in the clinical application of MRE in related fields, and studies have shown that MRE has a high diagnostic value due to its high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis and grading of liver fibrosis and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve as high as 0.95. Compared with serological and other imaging diagnostic methods, MRE can determine fibrosis stage more accurately and has good reproducibility and objectivity. MRE can be widely applied in all patients except those with hemochromatosis, with special advantages in the diagnosis for patients with obesity and ascites, and can make up for the disadvantages of other methods. This article points out that MRE may become the best non-invasive method for the assessment of liver fibrosis, especially advanced fibrosis.

  5. Non invasive methods for genetic analysis applied to ecological and behavioral studies in Latino-America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana González

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Documenting the presence and abundance of the neotropical mammals is the first step for understanding their population ecology, behavior and genetic dynamics in designing conservation plans. The combination of field research with molecular genetics techniques are new tools that provide valuable biological information avoiding the disturbance in the ecosystems, trying to minimize the human impact in the process to gather biological information. The objective of this paper is to review the available non invasive sampling techniques that have been used in Neotropical mammal studies to apply to determine the presence and abundance, population structure, sex ratio, taxonomic diagnostic using mitochondrial markers, and assessing genetic variability using nuclear markers. There are a wide range of non invasive sampling techniques used to determine the species identification that inhabit an area such as searching for tracks, feces, and carcasses. Other useful equipment is the camera traps that can generate an image bank that can be valuable to assess species presence and abundance by morphology. With recent advances in molecular biology, it is now possible to use the trace amounts of DNA in feces and amplify it to analyze the species diversity in an area, and the genetic variability at intraspecific level. This is particularly helpful in cases of sympatric and cryptic species in which morphology failed to diagnose the taxonomic status of several species of brocket deer of the genus Mazama.

  6. Non-invasive spectroscopy of transfusable red blood cells stored inside sealed plastic blood-bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, K; Atkins, C G; Chen, D; Schulze, H G; Devine, D V; Blades, M W; Turner, R F B

    2016-03-07

    After being separated from (donated) whole blood, red blood cells are suspended in specially formulated additive solutions and stored (at 4 °C) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) blood-bags until they are needed for transfusion. With time, the prepared red cell concentrate (RCC) is known to undergo biochemical changes that lower effectiveness of the transfusion, and thus regulations are in place that limit the storage period to 42 days. At present, RCC is not subjected to analytical testing prior to transfusion. In this study, we use Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) to probe, non-invasively, the biochemistry of RCC inside sealed blood-bags. The retrieved spectra compare well with conventional Raman spectra (of sampled aliquots) and are dominated by features associated with hemoglobin. In addition to the analytical demonstration that SORS can be used to retrieve RCC spectra from standard clinical blood-bags without breaking the sterility of the system, the data reveal interesting detail about the oxygenation-state of the stored cells themselves, namely that some blood-bags unexpectedly contain measurable amounts of deoxygenated hemoglobin after weeks of storage. The demonstration that chemical information can be obtained non-invasively using spectroscopy will enable new studies of RCC degeneration, and points the way to a Raman-based instrument for quality-control in a blood-bank or hospital setting.

  7. Targets and probes for non-invasive imaging of β-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jodal, Andreas; Behe, Martin [Paul Scherrer Institut, Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences ETH-PSI-USZ, Villigen (Switzerland); Schibli, Roger [Paul Scherrer Institut, Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences ETH-PSI-USZ, Villigen (Switzerland); ETH Zurich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-04-15

    β-cells, located in the islets of the pancreas, are responsible for production and secretion of insulin and play a crucial role in blood sugar regulation. Pathologic β-cells often cause serious medical conditions affecting blood glucose level, which severely impact life quality and are life-threatening if untreated. With 347 million patients, diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases, and will continue to be one of the largest socioeconomic challenges in the future. The diagnosis still relies mainly on indirect methods like blood sugar measurements. A non-invasive diagnostic imaging modality would allow direct evaluation of β-cell mass and would be a huge step towards personalized medicine. Hyperinsulinism is another serious condition caused by β-cells that excessively secrete insulin, like for instance β-cell hyperplasia and insulinomas. Treatment options with drugs are normally not curative, whereas curative procedures usually consist of the resection of affected regions for which, however, an exact localization of the foci is necessary. In this review, we describe potential tracers under development for targeting β-cells with focus on radiotracers for PET and SPECT imaging, which allow the non-invasive visualization of β-cells. We discuss either the advantages or limitations for the various tracers and modalities. This article concludes with an outlook on future developments and discuss the potential of new imaging probes including dual probes that utilize functionalities for both a radioactive and optical moiety as well as for theranostic applications. (orig.)

  8. Breath Analysis as a Potential and Non-Invasive Frontier in Disease Diagnosis: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a small number of diseases, particularly cardiovascular (CVDs, oncologic (ODs, neurodegenerative (NDDs, chronic respiratory diseases, as well as diabetes, form a severe burden to most of the countries worldwide. Hence, there is an urgent need for development of efficient diagnostic tools, particularly those enabling reliable detection of diseases, at their early stages, preferably using non-invasive approaches. Breath analysis is a non-invasive approach relying only on the characterisation of volatile composition of the exhaled breath (EB that in turn reflects the volatile composition of the bloodstream and airways and therefore the status and condition of the whole organism metabolism. Advanced sampling procedures (solid-phase and needle traps microextraction coupled with modern analytical technologies (proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry, e-noses, etc. allow the characterisation of EB composition to an unprecedented level. However, a key challenge in EB analysis is the proper statistical analysis and interpretation of the large and heterogeneous datasets obtained from EB research. There is no standard statistical framework/protocol yet available in literature that can be used for EB data analysis towards discovery of biomarkers for use in a typical clinical setup. Nevertheless, EB analysis has immense potential towards development of biomarkers for the early disease diagnosis of diseases.

  9. Non-invasive and micro-destructive investigation of the Domus Aurea wall painting decorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, Catia; Ciocan, Valeria; Vagnini, Manuela; Doherty, Brenda; Tabasso, Marisa Laurenzi; Conti, Cinzia; Brunetti, Brunetto Giovanni; Miliani, Costanza

    2011-10-01

    The paper reports on the exploitation of an educated multi-technique analytical approach based on a wide non invasive step followed by a focused micro-destructive step, aimed at the minimally invasive identification of the pigments decorating the ceiling of the Gilded Vault of the Domus Aurea in Rome. The combination of elemental analysis with molecular characterization provided by X-ray fluorescence and UV-vis spectroscopies, respectively, allowed for the in situ non-invasive identification of a remarkable number of pigments, namely Egyptian blue, green earth, cinnabar, red ochre and an anthraquinonic lake. The study was completed with the Raman analysis of two bulk samples, in particular, SERS measurements allowed for the speciation of the anthraquinonic pigment. Elemental mapping by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometer combined with micro-fluorimetry on cross-section gave an insight into both the distribution of different blend of pigments and on the nature of the inorganic support of the red dye.

  10. Non-invasive monitoring of muscle blood perfusion by photoplethysmography: evaluation of a new application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, M; Zhang, Q; Styf, J; Gerdle, B; Lindberg, L-G

    2005-04-01

    To evaluate a specially developed photoplethysmographic (PPG) technique, using green and near-infrared light sources, for simultaneous non-invasive monitoring of skin and muscle perfusion. Evaluation was based on assessments of changes in blood perfusion to various provocations, such as post-exercise hyperaemia and hyperaemia following the application of liniment. The deep penetrating feature of PPG was investigated by measurement of optical radiation inside the muscle. Simultaneous measurements using ultrasound Doppler and the new PPG application were performed to elucidate differences between the two methods. Specific problems related to the influence of skin temperature on blood flow were highlightened, as well. Following static and dynamic contractions an immediate increase in muscle perfusion was shown, without increase in skin perfusion. Liniment application to the skin induced a rapid increase in skin perfusion, but not in muscle. Both similarities and differences in blood flow measured by Ultrasound Doppler and PPG were demonstrated. The radiant power measured inside the muscle, by use of an optical fibre, showed that the near-infrared light penetrates down to the vascular depth inside the muscle. The results of this study indicate the potentiality of the method for non-invasive measurement of local muscle perfusion, although some considerations still have to be accounted for, such as influence of temperature on blood perfusion.

  11. Non-invasive tissue temperature measurements based on quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, S H [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Cerussi, A E; Tromberg, B J [Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, 1002 Health Sciences Road, Irvine 92612, CA (United States); Merritt, S I [Masimo Corporation, 40 Parker, Irvine, CA 92618 (United States); Ruth, J, E-mail: bjtrombe@uci.ed [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, 210 S. 33rd Street, Room 240, Skirkanich Hall, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2010-07-07

    We describe the development of a non-invasive method for quantitative tissue temperature measurements using Broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS). Our approach is based on well-characterized opposing shifts in near-infrared (NIR) water absorption spectra that appear with temperature and macromolecular binding state. Unlike conventional reflectance methods, DOS is used to generate scattering-corrected tissue water absorption spectra. This allows us to separate the macromolecular bound water contribution from the thermally induced spectral shift using the temperature isosbestic point at 996 nm. The method was validated in intralipid tissue phantoms by correlating DOS with thermistor measurements (R = 0.96) with a difference of 1.1 {+-} 0.91 {sup 0}C over a range of 28-48 {sup 0}C. Once validated, thermal and hemodynamic (i.e. oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration) changes were measured simultaneously and continuously in human subjects (forearm) during mild cold stress. DOS-measured arm temperatures were consistent with previously reported invasive deep tissue temperature studies. These results suggest that DOS can be used for non-invasive, co-registered measurements of absolute temperature and hemoglobin parameters in thick tissues, a potentially important approach for optimizing thermal diagnostics and therapeutics.

  12. Research on the multiple linear regression in non-invasive blood glucose measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianming; Chen, Zhencheng

    2015-01-01

    A non-invasive blood glucose measurement sensor and the data process algorithm based on the metabolic energy conservation (MEC) method are presented in this paper. The physiological parameters of human fingertip can be measured by various sensing modalities, and blood glucose value can be evaluated with the physiological parameters by the multiple linear regression analysis. Five methods such as enter, remove, forward, backward and stepwise in multiple linear regression were compared, and the backward method had the best performance. The best correlation coefficient was 0.876 with the standard error of the estimate 0.534, and the significance was 0.012 (sig. regression equation was valid. The Clarke error grid analysis was performed to compare the MEC method with the hexokinase method, using 200 data points. The correlation coefficient R was 0.867 and all of the points were located in Zone A and Zone B, which shows the MEC method provides a feasible and valid way for non-invasive blood glucose measurement.

  13. Trojan Horse Strategy for Non-invasive Interference of Clock Gene in the Oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, Laura; Perrigault, Mickael; Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Marcel, Anjara; Massabuau, Jean-Charles; Tran, Damien

    2017-08-01

    RNA interference is a powerful method to inhibit specific gene expression. Recently, silencing target genes by feeding has been successfully carried out in nematodes, insects, and small aquatic organisms. A non-invasive feeding-based RNA interference is reported here for the first time in a mollusk bivalve, the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. In this Trojan horse strategy, the unicellular alga Heterocapsa triquetra is the food supply used as a vector to feed oysters with Escherichia coli strain HT115 engineered to express the double-stranded RNA targeting gene. To test the efficacy of the method, the Clock gene, a central gene of the circadian clock, was targeted for knockout. Results demonstrated specific and systemic efficiency of the Trojan horse strategy in reducing Clock mRNA abundance. Consequences of Clock disruption were observed in Clock-related genes (Bmal, Tim1, Per, Cry1, Cry2, Rev.-erb, and Ror) and triploid oysters were more sensitive than diploid to the interference. This non-invasive approach shows an involvement of the circadian clock in oyster bioaccumulation of toxins produced by the harmful alga Alexandrium minutum.

  14. Targets and probes for non-invasive imaging of β-cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jodal, Andreas; Behe, Martin; Schibli, Roger

    2017-01-01

    β-cells, located in the islets of the pancreas, are responsible for production and secretion of insulin and play a crucial role in blood sugar regulation. Pathologic β-cells often cause serious medical conditions affecting blood glucose level, which severely impact life quality and are life-threatening if untreated. With 347 million patients, diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases, and will continue to be one of the largest socioeconomic challenges in the future. The diagnosis still relies mainly on indirect methods like blood sugar measurements. A non-invasive diagnostic imaging modality would allow direct evaluation of β-cell mass and would be a huge step towards personalized medicine. Hyperinsulinism is another serious condition caused by β-cells that excessively secrete insulin, like for instance β-cell hyperplasia and insulinomas. Treatment options with drugs are normally not curative, whereas curative procedures usually consist of the resection of affected regions for which, however, an exact localization of the foci is necessary. In this review, we describe potential tracers under development for targeting β-cells with focus on radiotracers for PET and SPECT imaging, which allow the non-invasive visualization of β-cells. We discuss either the advantages or limitations for the various tracers and modalities. This article concludes with an outlook on future developments and discuss the potential of new imaging probes including dual probes that utilize functionalities for both a radioactive and optical moiety as well as for theranostic applications. (orig.)

  15. In vivo Microscopic Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Non-Invasive Glucose Monitoring Invulnerable to Skin Secretion Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Joo Yong; Ahn, Chang-Geun; Jeong, Eun-Ju; Kim, Bong Kyu

    2018-01-18

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy has been shown to be a promising tool for non-invasive blood glucose monitoring. However, the repeatability of such a method is susceptible to changes in skin condition, which is dependent on hand washing and drying due to the high absorption of infrared excitation light to the skin secretion products or water. In this paper, we present a method to meet the challenges of mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasive glucose monitoring. By obtaining the microscopic spatial information of skin during the spectroscopy measurement, the skin region where the infrared spectra is insensitive to skin condition can be locally selected, which enables reliable prediction of the blood glucose level from the photoacoustic spectroscopy signals. Our raster-scan imaging showed that the skin condition for in vivo spectroscopic glucose monitoring had significant inhomogeneities and large variability in the probing area where the signal was acquired. However, the selective localization of the probing led to a reduction in the effects of variability due to the skin secretion product. Looking forward, this technology has broader applications not only in continuous glucose monitoring for diabetic patient care, but in forensic science, the diagnosis of malfunctioning sweat pores, and the discrimination of tumors extracted via biopsy.

  16. Deconstructing autofluorescence: non-invasive detection and monitoring of biochemistry in cells and tissues (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldys, Ewa M.; Gosnell, Martin E.; Anwer, Ayad G.; Cassano, Juan C.; Sue, Carolyn M.; Mahbub, Saabah B.; Pernichery, Sandeep M.; Inglis, David W.; Adhikary, Partho P.; Jazayeri, Jalal A.; Cahill, Michael A.; Saad, Sonia; Pollock, Carol; Sutton-Mcdowall, Melanie L.; Thompson, Jeremy G.

    2016-03-01

    Automated and unbiased methods of non-invasive cell monitoring able to deal with complex biological heterogeneity are fundamentally important for biology and medicine. Label-free cell imaging provides information about endogenous fluorescent metabolites, enzymes and cofactors in cells. However extracting high content information from imaging of native fluorescence has been hitherto impossible. Here, we quantitatively characterise cell populations in different tissue types, live or fixed, by using novel image processing and a simple multispectral upgrade of a wide-field fluorescence microscope. Multispectral intrinsic fluorescence imaging was applied to patient olfactory neurosphere-derived cells, cell model of a human metabolic disease MELAS (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, stroke-like syndrome). By using an endogenous source of contrast, subtle metabolic variations have been detected between living cells in their full morphological context which made it possible to distinguish healthy from diseased cells before and after therapy. Cellular maps of native fluorophores, flavins, bound and free NADH and retinoids unveiled subtle metabolic signatures and helped uncover significant cell subpopulations, in particular a subpopulation with compromised mitochondrial function. The versatility of our method is further illustrated by detecting genetic mutations in cancer, non-invasive monitoring of CD90 expression, label-free tracking of stem cell differentiation, identifying stem cell subpopulations with varying functional characteristics, tissue diagnostics in diabetes, and assessing the condition of preimplantation embryos. Our optimal discrimination approach enables statistical hypothesis testing and intuitive visualisations where previously undetectable differences become clearly apparent.

  17. Clinical Validation of Non-Invasive Cardiac Output Monitoring in Healthy Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Kelsey; Wright, Stephen P; Kingdom, John C P; Parker, John D

    2017-11-01

    Non-invasive hemodynamic monitoring has the potential to be a valuable clinical tool for the screening and management of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. The objective of this study was to validate the clinical utility of the non-invasive cardiac output monitoring (NICOM) system in pregnant women. Twenty healthy pregnant women with a singleton pregnancy at 22 to 26 weeks' gestation were enrolled in this study. Measures of heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output were obtained through NICOM and compared with Doppler echocardiography. NICOM significantly overestimated measures of both stroke volume and cardiac output compared with Doppler echocardiography (95 ± 4 vs. 73 ± 4 mL, P gold standard for the measurement of cardiac output in the setting of pregnancy. However, once normal values have been established, NICOM has the potential to be a useful clinical tool for monitoring maternal hemodynamics in pregnant women. Further investigation regarding the validity of NICOM is required in larger populations of healthy and hypertensive pregnant women to determine whether this device is appropriate for maternal hemodynamic assessment during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Non-invasive estimation of intracranial pressure. MR-based evaluation in children with hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehlmann, M.; Steffinger, D.; Ertl-Wagner, B.; Koerte, I.K.; Peraud, A.; Lehner, M.; Heinen, F.; Alperin, N.

    2012-01-01

    The intracranial pressure (ICP) is a crucially important parameter for diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making in patients with hydrocephalus. So far there is no standard method to non-invasively assess the ICP. Various approaches to obtain the ICP semi-invasively or non-invasively are discussed and the clinical application of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based method to estimate ICP (MR-ICP) is demonstrated in a group of pediatric patients with hydrocephalus. Arterial inflow, venous drainage and craniospinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow were quantified using phase-contrast imaging to derive the MR-ICP. A total of 15 patients with hydrocephalus (n=9 treated with shunt placement or ventriculostomy) underwent MRI on a 3 T scanner applying retrospectively-gated cine phase contrast sequences. Of the patients six had clinical symptoms indicating increased ICP (age 2.5-14.61 years, mean 7.4 years) and nine patients had no clinical signs of elevated ICP (age 2.1-15.9 years; mean 9.8 years; all treated with shunt or ventriculostomy). Median MR-ICP in symptomatic patients was 24.5 mmHg (25th percentile 20.4 mmHg; 75th percentile 44.6 mmHg). Median MR-ICP in patients without acute signs of increased ICP was 9.8 mmHg (25th percentile 8.6 mmHg; 75th percentile 11.4 mmHg). Group differences were significant (p [de

  19. Reactivity of dogs' brain oscillations to visual stimuli measured with non-invasive electroencephalography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miiamaaria V Kujala

    Full Text Available Studying cognition of domestic dogs has gone through a renaissance within the last decades. However, although the behavioral studies of dogs are beginning to be common in the field of animal cognition, the neural events underlying cognition remain unknown. Here, we employed a non-invasive electroencephalography, with adhesive electrodes attached to the top of the skin, to measure brain activity of from 8 domestic dogs (Canis familiaris while they stayed still to observe photos of dog and human faces. Spontaneous oscillatory activity of the dogs, peaking in the sensors over the parieto-occipital cortex, was suppressed statistically significantly during visual task compared with resting activity at the frequency of 15-30 Hz. Moreover, a stimulus-induced low-frequency (~2-6 Hz suppression locked to the stimulus onset was evident at the frontal sensors, possibly reflecting a motor rhythm guiding the exploratory eye movements. The results suggest task-related reactivity of the macroscopic oscillatory activity in the dog brain. To our knowledge, the study is the first to reveal non-invasively measured reactivity of brain electrophysiological oscillations in healthy dogs, and it has been based purely on positive operant conditional training, without the need for movement restriction or medication.

  20. Non-invasive and non-destructive measurements of confluence in cultured adherent cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busschots, Steven; O'Toole, Sharon; O'Leary, John J; Stordal, Britta

    2015-01-01

    Many protocols used for measuring the growth of adherent monolayer cells in vitro are invasive, destructive and do not allow for the continued, undisturbed growth of cells within flasks. Protocols often use indirect methods for measuring proliferation. Microscopy techniques can analyse cell proliferation in a non-invasive or non-destructive manner but often use expensive equipment and software algorithms. In this method images of cells within flasks are captured by photographing under a standard inverted phase contract light microscope using a digital camera with a camera lens adaptor. Images are analysed for confluence using ImageJ freeware resulting in a measure of confluence known as an Area Fraction (AF) output. An example of the AF method in use on OVCAR8 and UPN251 cell lines is included. •Measurements of confluence from growing adherent cell lines in cell culture flasks is obtained in a non-invasive, non-destructive, label-free manner.•The technique is quick, affordable and eliminates sample manipulation.•The technique provides an objective, consistent measure of when cells reach confluence and is highly correlated to manual counting with a haemocytometer. The average correlation co-efficient from a Spearman correlation (n = 3) was 0.99 ± 0.008 for OVCAR8 (p = 0.01) and 0.99 ± 0.01 for UPN251 (p = 0.01) cell lines.

  1. Non-invasive brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease: Current concepts and outlook 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninger, David H; Hallett, Mark

    2015-01-01

    In advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), the emergence of symptoms refractory to conventional therapy poses a therapeutic challenge. The success of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of PD have raised interest in non-invasive brain stimulation as an alternative therapeutic tool. The rationale for its use draws from the concept that reversing abnormalities in brain activity and physiology thought to cause the clinical deficits may restore normal functioning. Currently the best evidence in support of this concept comes from DBS, which improves motor deficits, and modulates brain activity and motor cortex physiology, though whether a causal interaction exists remains largely undetermined. Most trials of non-invasive brain stimulation in PD have applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) targeting the primary motor cortex and cortical areas of the motor circuit. Published studies suggest a possible therapeutic potential of rTMS and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), but clinical effects so far have been small and negligible regarding functional independence and quality of life. Approaches to potentiate the efficacy of rTMS, including increasing stimulation intensity and novel stimulation parameters, derive their rationale from studies of brain physiology. These novel parameters simulate normal firing patterns or act on the hypothesized role of oscillatory activity in the motor cortex and basal ganglia in motor control. There may also be diagnostic potential of TMS in characterizing individual traits for personalized medicine.

  2. Non-invasive ventilation with neurally adjusted ventilatory assist in newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Howard; Beck, Jennifer; Dunn, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) is a mode of ventilation in which both the timing and degree of ventilatory assist are controlled by the patient. Since NAVA uses the diaphragm electrical activity (Edi) as the controller signal, it is possible to deliver synchronized non-invasive NAVA (NIV-NAVA) regardless of leaks and to monitor continuously patient respiratory pattern and drive. Advantages of NIV-NAVA over conventional modes include improved patient-ventilator interaction, reliable respiratory monitoring and self-regulation of respiratory support. In theory, these characteristics make NIV-NAVA an ideal mode to provide effective, appropriate non-invasive support to newborns with respiratory insufficiency. NIV-NAVA has been successfully used clinically in neonates as a mode of ventilation to prevent intubation, to allow early extubation, and as a novel way to deliver nasal continuous positive airway pressure. The use of NAVA in neonates is described with an emphasis on studies and clinical experience with NIV-NAVA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. NON-INVASIVE EVALUATION OF NERVE CONDUCTION IN SMALL DIAMETER FIBERS IN THE RAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotova, Elena G; Arezzo, Joseph C

    2013-01-01

    A novel non-invasive technique was applied to measure velocity within slow conducting axons in the distal extreme of the sciatic nerve (i.e., digital nerve) in a rat model. The technique is based on the extraction of rectified multiple unit activity (MUA) from in vivo whole nerve compound responses. This method reliably identifies compound action potentials in thinly myelinated fibers conducting at a range of 9-18 m/s (Aδ axons), as well as in a subgroup of unmylinated C fibers conducting at approximately 1-2 m/s. The sensitivity of the method to C-fiber conduction was confirmed by the progressive decrement of the responses in the 1-2 m/s range over a 20-day period following the topical application of capsaicin (ANOVA p <0.03). Increasing the frequency of applied repetitive stimulation over a range of 0.75 Hz to 6.0 Hz produced slowing of conduction and a significant decrease in the magnitude of the compound C-fiber response (ANOVA p <0.01). This technique offers a unique opportunity for the non-invasive, repeatable, and quantitative assessment of velocity in the subsets of Aδ and C fibers in parallel with evaluation of fast nerve conduction.

  4. Clinical, social and ethical issues associated with non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Blanche; Edwards, Samantha; Chitty, Lyn S; Lewis, Celine

    2018-03-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT), based on analysis of cell-free foetal DNA, is rapidly becoming a preferred method to screen for chromosomal aneuploidy with the technology now available in over 90 countries. This review provides an up-to-date discussion of the key clinical, social and ethical implications associated with this revolutionary technology. Stakeholders are positive about a test that is highly accurate, safe, can be perfomed early in pregnancy, identifies affected pregnancies that might otherwise have been missed and reduces the need for invasive testing. Nevertheless, professional societies currently recommend it as an advanced screening test due to the low false positive rate (FPR). Despite the practical and psychological benefits, a number of concerns have been raised which warrant attention. These include the potential for routinisation of testing and subsequent impact on informed decision-making, an "easy" blood test inadvertently contributing to women feeling pressured to take the test, fears NIPT will lead to less tolerance and support for those living with Down syndrome and the heightened expectation of having "perfect babies". These issues can be addressed to some extent through clinician education, patient information and establishing national and international consensus in the development of comprehensive and regularly updated guidelines. As the number of conditions we are able to test for non-invasively expands it will be increasingly important to ensure pre-test counselling can be delivered effectively supported by knowledgeable healthcare professionals.

  5. A review of invasive and non-invasive sensory feedback in upper limb prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Pamela; Wijk, Ulrika; Björkman, Anders; Antfolk, Christian

    2017-06-01

    The constant challenge to restore sensory feedback in prosthetic hands has provided several research solutions, but virtually none has reached clinical fruition. A prosthetic hand with sensory feedback that closely imitates an intact hand and provides a natural feeling may induce the prosthetic hand to be included in the body image and also reinforces the control of the prosthesis. Areas covered: This review presents non-invasive sensory feedback systems such as mechanotactile, vibrotactile, electrotactile and combinational systems which combine the modalities; multi-haptic feedback. Invasive sensory feedback has been tried less, because of the inherent risk, but it has successfully shown to restore some afferent channels. In this review, invasive methods are also discussed, both extraneural and intraneural electrodes, such as cuff electrodes and transverse intrafascicular multichannel electrodes. The focus of the review is on non-invasive methods of providing sensory feedback to upper-limb amputees. Expert commentary: Invoking embodiment has shown to be of importance for the control of prosthesis and acceptance by the prosthetic wearers. It is a challenge to provide conscious feedback to cover the lost sensibility of a hand, not be overwhelming and confusing for the user, and to integrate technology within the constraint of a wearable prosthesis.

  6. Studies of X-ray tube aging by non-invasive methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottaro, Marcio.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present work was the evaluation of an x ray tube aging with an anode made of tungsten, used in radio diagnostic. Workloads were applied, in accordance with Brazilian workload distribution, and periodic measurements of quantities related to the radiation quality of the beam were performed. For the purpose of this work, a single phase, full bridge clinical system was employed. For the long term x ray tube characteristics evaluation related to the applied workload, it was necessary to measure parameters that could quantitatively represent the tube aging, with special attention to the anode roughening. For the indirect measurement of tube aging, four parameters were chosen, some of them normally applied in x ray diagnostic quality control: first and second half value layers (HVL), focal spot dimensions, non invasive measurement of Practical Peak Voltage (PPV) and x ray spectroscopy. These parameters were measured before any workload and after each workload intervals. To assure confidence of the results reproducibility conditions were stated to each evaluated parameter. The uncertainties involved in all measurement processes were calculated to evaluate the real contributions of x ray tube aging effects on non invasive parameters. Within all evaluated parameters, the most sensitive to long term workload were the mean energy obtained from spectroscopy and half value layers. A model related to these parameters was applied and estimates of x ray tube aging rate for different acceleration voltages and anodic currents were calculated. (author)

  7. Non-invasive imaging of zebrafish with spinal deformities using optical coherence tomography: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Liane; Beaudette, Kathy; Patten, Kessen; Beaulieu-Ouellet, Émilie; Strupler, Mathias; Moldovan, Florina; Boudoux, Caroline

    2013-03-01

    A zebrafish model has recently been introduced to study various genetic mutations that could lead to spinal deformities such as scoliosis. However, current imaging techniques make it difficult to perform longitudinal studies of this condition in zebrafish, especially in the early stages of development. The goal of this project is to determine whether optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a viable non-invasive method to image zebrafish exhibiting spinal deformities. Images of both live and fixed malformed zebrafish (5 to 21 days postfertilization) as well as wild-type fish (5 to 29 days postfertilization) were acquired non-invasively using a commercial SD-OCT system, with a laser source centered at 930nm (λ=100nm), permitting axial and lateral resolutions of 7 and 8μm respectively. Using two-dimensional images and three-dimensional reconstructions, it was possible to identify the malformed notochord as well as deformities in other major organs at different stages of formation. Visualization of the notochord was facilitated with the development of a segmentation algorithm. OCT images were compared to HE histological sections and images obtained by calcein staining. Because of the possibility of performing longitudinal studies on a same fish and reducing image processing time as compared with staining techniques and histology, the use of OCT could facilitate phenotypic characterization in studying genetic factors leading to spinal deformities in zebrafish and could eventually contribute to the identification of the genetic causes of spinal deformities such as scoliosis.

  8. Urinary Cell-Free DNA Quantification as Non-Invasive Biomarker in Patients with Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisuda, Antonin; Pazourkova, Eva; Soukup, Viktor; Horinek, Ales; Hrbáček, Jan; Capoun, Otakar; Svobodova, Iveta; Pospisilova, Sarka; Korabecna, Marie; Mares, Jaroslav; Hanuš, Tomáš; Babjuk, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Concentration of urinary cell-free DNA (ucfDNA) belongs to potential bladder cancer markers, but the reported results are inconsistent due to the use of various non-standardised methodologies. The aim of the study was to standardise the methodology for ucfDNA quantification as a potential non-invasive tumour biomarker. In total, 66 patients and 34 controls were enrolled into the study. Volumes of each urine portion (V) were recorded and ucfDNA concentrations (c) were measured using real-time PCR. Total amounts (TA) of ucfDNA were calculated and compared between patients and controls. Diagnostic accuracy of the TA of ucfDNA was determined. The calculation of TA of ucfDNA in the second urine portion was the most appropriate approach to ucfDNA quantification, as there was logarithmic dependence between the volume and the concentration of a urine portion (p = 0.0001). Using this methodology, we were able to discriminate between bladder cancer patients and subjects without bladder tumours (p = 0.0002) with area under the ROC curve of 0.725. Positive and negative predictive value of the test was 90 and 45%, respectively. Quantification of ucf DNA according to our modified method could provide a potential non-invasive biomarker for diagnosis of patients with bladder cancer. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Breath analysis as a potential and non-invasive frontier in disease diagnosis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jorge; Porto-Figueira, Priscilla; Cavaco, Carina; Taunk, Khushman; Rapole, Srikanth; Dhakne, Rahul; Nagarajaram, Hampapathalu; Câmara, José S

    2015-01-09

    Currently, a small number of diseases, particularly cardiovascular (CVDs), oncologic (ODs), neurodegenerative (NDDs), chronic respiratory diseases, as well as diabetes, form a severe burden to most of the countries worldwide. Hence, there is an urgent need for development of efficient diagnostic tools, particularly those enabling reliable detection of diseases, at their early stages, preferably using non-invasive approaches. Breath analysis is a non-invasive approach relying only on the characterisation of volatile composition of the exhaled breath (EB) that in turn reflects the volatile composition of the bloodstream and airways and therefore the status and condition of the whole organism metabolism. Advanced sampling procedures (solid-phase and needle traps microextraction) coupled with modern analytical technologies (proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry, e-noses, etc.) allow the characterisation of EB composition to an unprecedented level. However, a key challenge in EB analysis is the proper statistical analysis and interpretation of the large and heterogeneous datasets obtained from EB research. There is no standard statistical framework/protocol yet available in literature that can be used for EB data analysis towards discovery of biomarkers for use in a typical clinical setup. Nevertheless, EB analysis has immense potential towards development of biomarkers for the early disease diagnosis of diseases.

  10. Novel algorithm for non-invasive assessment of fibrosis in NAFLD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Peter Sowa

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Various conditions of liver disease and the downsides of liver biopsy call for a non-invasive option to assess liver fibrosis. A non-invasive score would be especially useful to identify patients with slow advancing fibrotic processes, as in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD, which should undergo histological examination for fibrosis. PATIENTS/METHODS: Classic liver serum parameters, hyaluronic acid (HA and cell death markers of 126 patients undergoing bariatric surgery for morbid obesity were analyzed by machine learning techniques (logistic regression, k-nearest neighbors, linear support vector machines, rule-based systems, decision trees and random forest (RF. Specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of the evaluated datasets to predict fibrosis were assessed. RESULTS: None of the single parameters (ALT, AST, M30, M60, HA did differ significantly between patients with a fibrosis score 1 or 2. However, combining these parameters using RFs reached 79% accuracy in fibrosis prediction with a sensitivity of more than 60% and specificity of 77%. Moreover, RFs identified the cell death markers M30 and M65 as more important for the decision than the classic liver parameters. CONCLUSION: On the basis of serum parameters the generation of a fibrosis scoring system seems feasible, even when only marginally fibrotic tissue is available. Prospective evaluation of novel markers, i.e. cell death parameters, should be performed to identify an optimal set of fibrosis predictors.

  11. Non-Invasive Ventilation in Patients with Heart Failure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Souza Bittencourt

    Full Text Available Abstract Non-invasive ventilation (NIV may perfect respiratory and cardiac performance in patients with heart failure (HF. The objective of the study to establish, through systematic review and meta-analysis, NIV influence on functional capacity of HF patients. A systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized studies was carried out through research of databases of Cochrane Library, SciELO, Pubmed and PEDro, using the key-words: heart failure, non-invasive ventilation, exercise tolerance; and the free terms: bi-level positive airway pressure (BIPAP, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP, and functional capacity (terms were searched for in English and Portuguese using the Boolean operators AND and OR. Methodological quality was ensured through PEDro scale. Weighted averages and a 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated. The meta-analysis was done thorugh the software Review Manager, version 5.3 (Cochrane Collaboration. Four randomized clinical trials were included. Individual studies suggest NIV improved functional capacity. NIV resulted in improvement in the distance of the six-minute walk test (6MWT (68.7m 95%CI: 52.6 to 84.9 in comparison to the control group. We conclude that the NIV is an intervention that promotes important effects in the improvement of functional capacity of HF patients. However, there is a gap in literature on which are the most adequate parameters for the application of this technique.

  12. Anaphylaxis Imaging: Non-Invasive Measurement of Surface Body Temperature and Physical Activity in Small Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Manzano-Szalai

    Full Text Available In highly sensitized patients, the encounter with a specific allergen from food, insect stings or medications may rapidly induce systemic anaphylaxis with potentially lethal symptoms. Countless animal models of anaphylaxis, most often in BALB/c mice, were established to understand the pathophysiology and to prove the safety of different treatments. The most common symptoms during anaphylactic shock are drop of body temperature and reduced physical activity. To refine, improve and objectify the currently applied manual monitoring methods, we developed an imaging method for the automated, non-invasive measurement of the whole-body surface temperature and, at the same time, of the horizontal and vertical movement activity of small animals. We tested the anaphylaxis imaging in three in vivo allergy mouse models for i milk allergy, ii peanut allergy and iii egg allergy. These proof-of-principle experiments suggest that the imaging technology represents a reliable non-invasive method for the objective monitoring of small animals during anaphylaxis over time. We propose that the method will be useful for monitoring diseases associated with both, changes in body temperature and in physical behaviour.

  13. Non-Invasive Electromagnetic Skin Patch Sensor to Measure Intracranial Fluid–Volume Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Griffith

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Elevated intracranial fluid volume can drive intracranial pressure increases, which can potentially result in numerous neurological complications or death. This study’s focus was to develop a passive skin patch sensor for the head that would non-invasively measure cranial fluid volume shifts. The sensor consists of a single baseline component configured into a rectangular planar spiral with a self-resonant frequency response when impinged upon by external radio frequency sweeps. Fluid volume changes (10 mL increments were detected through cranial bone using the sensor on a dry human skull model. Preliminary human tests utilized two sensors to determine feasibility of detecting fluid volume shifts in the complex environment of the human body. The correlation between fluid volume changes and shifts in the first resonance frequency using the dry human skull was classified as a second order polynomial with R2 = 0.97. During preliminary and secondary human tests, a ≈24 MHz and an average of ≈45.07 MHz shifts in the principal resonant frequency were measured respectively, corresponding to the induced cephalad bio-fluid shifts. This electromagnetic resonant sensor may provide a non-invasive method to monitor shifts in fluid volume and assist with medical scenarios including stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, concussion, or monitoring intracranial pressure.

  14. Exhaled breath condensate pH and hydrogen peroxide as non-invasive markers for asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Obaidy, Amina H.; Al-Samarai, Abdul-Gahni M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to estimate the predictive value of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration and pH as non-invasive markers in asthma. Fifty patients with unstable, steroid naive atopic asthma were included in this study, 25 with persistent asthma. Asthma diagnosis was according to the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was measured by computerized spirometry. The EBC H2O2 assay was carried out using the colorimetric assay. The study was conducted from January to December 2005 in the Asthma and Allergy Center, Tikrit, Iraq. The EBC H2O2 concentration was higher in the asthmatic group (0.91mol) as compared with the control (0.23 mol). There was inverse correlation between EBC H2O2 concentration and FEV1 predicted percent for asthmatic patients. The mean EBC pH was lower in the asthmatic than the control group. There was a positive correlation between EBC pH and FEV 1 predicted percent for asthmatic patients. There was an inverse correlation between EBC H2O2 concentration and pH for all asthmatic patients, intermittent, and persistent asthmatic group. Exhaled breath condensate hydrogen peroxide concentration and pH was a good non-invasive marker for asthma, whether it was with a persistent or intermittent course. (author)

  15. Invasive clonal plant species have a greater root-foraging plasticity than non-invasive ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Lidewij H; Dawson, Wayne; Song, Yao-Bin; Yu, Fei-Hai; Fischer, Markus; Dong, Ming; van Kleunen, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Clonality is frequently positively correlated with plant invasiveness, but which aspects of clonality make some clonal species more invasive than others is not known. Due to their spreading growth form, clonal plants are likely to experience spatial heterogeneity in nutrient availability. Plasticity in allocation of biomass to clonal growth organs and roots may allow these plants to forage for high-nutrient patches. We investigated whether this foraging response is stronger in species that have become invasive than in species that have not. We used six confamilial pairs of native European clonal plant species differing in invasion success in the USA. We grew all species in large pots under homogeneous or heterogeneous nutrient conditions in a greenhouse, and compared their nutrient-foraging response and performance. Neither invasive nor non-invasive species showed significant foraging responses to heterogeneity in clonal growth organ biomass or in aboveground biomass of clonal offspring. Invasive species had, however, a greater positive foraging response in terms of root and belowground biomass than non-invasive species. Invasive species also produced more total biomass. Our results suggest that the ability for strong root foraging is among the characteristics promoting invasiveness in clonal plants.

  16. Simulation based investigation of source-detector configurations for non-invasive fetal pulse oximetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böttrich Marcel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Transabdominal fetal pulse oximetry is a method to monitor the oxygen supply of the unborn child non-invasively. Due to the measurement setup, the received signal of the detector is composed of photons coding purely maternal and photons coding mixed fetal-maternal information. To analyze the wellbeing of the fetus, the fetal signal is extracted from the mixed component. In this paper we assess source-detector configurations, such that the mixed fetal-maternal components of the acquired signals are maximized. Monte-Carlo method is used to simulate light propagation and photon distribution in tissue. We use a plane layer and a spherical layer geometry to model the abdomen of a pregnant woman. From the simulations we extracted the fluence at the detector side for several source-detector distances and analyzed the ratio of the mixed fluence component to total fluence. Our simulations showed that the power of the mixed component depends on the source-detector distance as expected. Further we were able to visualize hot spot areas in the spherical layer model where the mixed fluence ratio reaches the highest level. The results are of high importance for sensor design considering signal composition and quality for non-invasive fetal pulse oximetry.

  17. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation and mortality in elderly immunocompromised patients hospitalized with pneumonia: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher S; Frei, Christopher R; Metersky, Mark L; Anzueto, Antonio R; Mortensen, Eric M

    2014-01-27

    Mortality after pneumonia in immunocompromised patients is higher than for immunocompetent patients. The use of non-invasive mechanical ventilation for patients with severe pneumonia may provide beneficial outcomes while circumventing potential complications associated with invasive mechanical ventilation. The aim of our study was to determine if the use of non-invasive mechanical ventilation in elderly immunocompromised patients with pneumonia is associated with higher all-cause mortality. In this retrospective cohort study, data were obtained from the Department of Veterans Affairs administrative databases. We included veterans age ≥65 years who were immunocompromised and hospitalized due to pneumonia. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between the use of invasive versus non-invasive mechanical ventilation and 30-day and 90-day mortality. Of 1,946 patients in our cohort, 717 received non-invasive mechanical ventilation and 1,229 received invasive mechanical ventilation. There was no significant association between all-cause 30-day mortality and non-invasive versus invasive mechanical ventilation in our adjusted model (odds ratio (OR) 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66-1.10). However, those patients who received non-invasive mechanical ventilation had decreased 90-day mortality (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.52-0.84). Additionally, receipt of guideline-concordant antibiotics in our immunocompromised cohort was significantly associated with decreased odds of 30-day mortality (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.24-0.39) and 90-day mortality (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.31-0.53). Our findings suggest that physicians should consider the use of non-invasive mechanical ventilation, when appropriate, for elderly immunocompromised patients hospitalized with pneumonia.

  18. Structured telephone support or non-invasive telemonitoring for patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Sally C; Clark, Robyn A; Dierckx, Riet; Prieto-Merino, David; Cleland, John G F

    2015-10-31

    Specialised disease management programmes for heart failure aim to improve care, clinical outcomes and/or reduce healthcare utilisation. Since the last version of this review in 2010, several new trials of structured telephone support and non-invasive home telemonitoring have been published which have raised questions about their effectiveness. To review randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of structured telephone support or non-invasive home telemonitoring compared to standard practice for people with heart failure, in order to quantify the effects of these interventions over and above usual care. We updated the searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Health Technology AsseFssment Database (HTA) on the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (OVID), EMBASE (OVID), CINAHL (EBSCO), Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Conference Proceedings Citation Index- Science (CPCI-S) on Web of Science (Thomson Reuters), AMED, Proquest Theses and Dissertations, IEEE Xplore and TROVE in January 2015. We handsearched bibliographies of relevant studies and systematic reviews and abstract conference proceedings. We applied no language limits. We included only peer-reviewed, published RCTs comparing structured telephone support or non-invasive home telemonitoring to usual care of people with chronic heart failure. The intervention or usual care could not include protocol-driven home visits or more intensive than usual (typically four to six weeks) clinic follow-up. We present data as risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Primary outcomes included all-cause mortality, all-cause and heart failure-related hospitalisations, which we analysed using a fixed-effect model. Other outcomes included length of stay, health-related quality of life, heart failure knowledge and self care, acceptability and cost; we described and tabulated these. We performed meta-regression to assess homogeneity (the

  19. A review of non-invasive imaging methods and applications in contaminant hydrogeology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, Charles J; Zhang, Changyong; Brusseau, Mark L; Oostrom, Mart; Baumann, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    Contaminant hydrogeological processes occurring in porous media are typically not amenable to direct observation. As a result, indirect measurements (e.g., contaminant breakthrough at a fixed location) are often used to infer processes occurring at different scales, locations, or times. To overcome this limitation, non-invasive imaging methods are increasingly being used in contaminant hydrogeology research. Four of the most common methods, and the subjects of this review, are optical imaging using UV or visible light, dual-energy gamma radiation, X-ray microtomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Non-invasive imaging techniques have provided valuable insights into a variety of complex systems and processes, including porous media characterization, multiphase fluid distribution, fluid flow, solute transport and mixing, colloidal transport and deposition, and reactions. In this paper we review the theory underlying these methods, applications of these methods to contaminant hydrogeology research, and methods' advantages and disadvantages. As expected, there is no perfect method or tool for non-invasive imaging. However, optical methods generally present the least expensive and easiest options for imaging fluid distribution, solute and fluid flow, colloid transport, and reactions in artificial two-dimensional (2D) porous media. Gamma radiation methods present the best opportunity for characterization of fluid distributions in 2D at the Darcy scale. X-ray methods present the highest resolution and flexibility for three-dimensional (3D) natural porous media characterization, and 3D characterization of fluid distributions in natural porous media. And MRI presents the best option for 3D characterization of fluid distribution, fluid flow, colloid transport, and reaction in artificial porous media. Obvious deficiencies ripe for method development are the ability to image transient processes such as fluid flow and colloid transport in natural porous media in three

  20. Non-invasive evaluation of physiological stress in an iconic Australian marsupial: the Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Edward J; Webster, Koa; Nicolson, Vere; Mucci, Al; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2013-06-15

    Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are the only extant representatives of Australia's unique marsupial family Phascolarctidae and were listed as nationally Vulnerable in 2012. Causes of mortality are diverse, although the disease chlamydiosis, dog attacks, collisions with cars, and loss of habitat represent the principal reasons for the continued species decline. Koala breeding facilities in Queensland and New South Wales, Australia have been established for conservation and tourism. Non-invasive monitoring of physiological stress is important for determining the sub-lethal effects of environmental stressors on the well-being, reproduction and survival of Koalas in Zoos and also in the wild. In this study, we developed a faecal cortisol metabolite (FCM) enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) for monitoring physiological stress in Koalas from two established Zoos in Australia and also within a free-living sub-population from Queensland. Biological validation of the FCM EIA was done using an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge. We discovered excretory lag-times of FCM of 24 h in females (n=2) and 48 h in male (n=2) Koalas in response to the ACTH challenge. FCM levels showed an episodic and delayed peak response lasting up to 9 days post ACTH challenge. This finding should be taken into consideration when designing future experiments to study the impacts of short-term (acute) and chronic stressors on the Koalas. Laboratory validations were done using parallelism and recovery checks (extraction efficiency) of the cortisol standard against pooled Koala faecal extracts. Greater than 99% recovery of the cortisol standard was obtained as well as a parallel displacement curve against Koala faecal extracts. FCM levels of the captive Koalas (n=10 males and 13 females) significantly differed by sex, reproductive condition (lactating versus non-lactating Koalas) and the handling groups. Handled male Koalas had 200% higher FCM levels than their non-handled counterparts, while females

  1. Utility and reliability of non-invasive muscle function tests in high-fat-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Huenchullan, Sergio F; McLennan, Susan V; Ban, Linda A; Morsch, Marco; Twigg, Stephen M; Tam, Charmaine S

    2017-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Non-invasive muscle function tests have not been validated for use in the study of muscle performance in high-fat-fed mice. What is the main finding and its importance? This study shows that grip strength, hang wire and four-limb hanging tests are able to discriminate the muscle performance between chow-fed and high-fat-fed mice at different time points, with grip strength being reliable after 5, 10 and 20 weeks of dietary intervention. Non-invasive tests are commonly used for assessing muscle function in animal models. The value of these tests in obesity, a condition where muscle strength is reduced, is unclear. We investigated the utility of three non-invasive muscle function tests, namely grip strength (GS), hang wire (HW) and four-limb hanging (FLH), in C57BL/6 mice fed chow (chow group, n = 48) or a high-fat diet (HFD group, n = 48) for 20 weeks. Muscle function tests were performed at 5, 10 and 20 weeks. After 10 and 20 weeks, HFD mice had significantly reduced GS (in newtons; mean ± SD: 10 weeks chow, 1.89 ± 0.1 and HFD, 1.79 ± 0.1; 20 weeks chow, 1.99 ± 0.1 and HFD, 1.75 ± 0.1), FLH [in seconds per gram body weight; median (interquartile range): 10 weeks chow, 2552 (1337-4964) and HFD, 1230 (749-1994); 20 weeks chow, 2048 (765-3864) and HFD, 1036 (717-1855)] and HW reaches [n; median (interquartile range): 10 weeks chow, 4 (2-5) and HFD, 2 (1-3); 20 weeks chow, 3 (1-5) and HFD, 1 (0-2)] and higher falls [n; median (interquartile range): 10 weeks chow, 0 (0-2) and HFD, 3 (1-7); 20 weeks chow, 1 (0-4) and HFD, 8 (5-10)]. Grip strength was reliable in both dietary groups [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.5-0.8; P tests are valuable and reliable tools for assessment of muscle strength and function in high-fat-fed mice. © 2017 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  2. Comparison of ASL and DCE MRI for the non-invasive measurement of renal blood flow: quantification and reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutajar, Marica; Thomas, David L; Hales, Patrick W; Banks, T; Clark, Christopher A; Gordon, Isky

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the reproducibility of arterial spin labelling (ASL) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and quantitatively compare these techniques for the measurement of renal blood flow (RBF). Sixteen healthy volunteers were examined on two different occasions. ASL was performed using a multi-TI FAIR labelling scheme with a segmented 3D-GRASE imaging module. DCE MRI was performed using a 3D-FLASH pulse sequence. A Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess repeatability of each technique, and determine the degree of correspondence between the two methods. The overall mean cortical renal blood flow (RBF) of the ASL group was 263 ± 41 ml min(-1) [100 ml tissue](-1), and using DCE MRI was 287 ± 70 ml min(-1) [100 ml tissue](-1). The group coefficient of variation (CVg) was 18 % for ASL and 28 % for DCE-MRI. Repeatability studies showed that ASL was more reproducible than DCE with CVgs of 16 % and 25 % for ASL and DCE respectively. Bland-Altman analysis comparing the two techniques showed a good agreement. The repeated measures analysis shows that the ASL technique has better reproducibility than DCE-MRI. Difference analysis shows no significant difference between the RBF values of the two techniques. Reliable non-invasive monitoring of renal blood flow is currently clinically unavailable. Renal arterial spin labelling MRI is robust and repeatable. Renal dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI is robust and repeatable. ASL blood flow values are similar to those obtained using DCE-MRI.

  3. New tools for non-invasive exploration of collagen network in cartilaginous tissue-engineered substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrionnet, Christel; Dumas, Dominique; Hupont, Sébastien; Stoltz, Jean François; Mainard, Didier; Gillet, Pierre; Pinzano, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    In tissue engineering approaches, the quality of substitutes is a key element to determine its ability to treat cartilage defects. However, in clinical practice, the evaluation of tissue-engineered cartilage substitute quality is not possible due to the invasiveness of the standard procedure, which is to date histology. The aim of this work was to validate a new innovative system performed from two-photon excitation laser adapted to an optical macroscope to evaluate at macroscopic scale the collagen network in cartilage tissue-engineered substitutes in confrontation with gold standard histologic techniques or immunohistochemistry to visualize type II collagen. This system permitted to differentiate the quality of collagen network between ITS and TGF-β1 treatments. Multiscale large field imaging combined to multimodality approaches (SHG-TCSPC) at macroscopical scale represent an innovative and non-invasive technique to monitor the quality of collagen network in cartilage tissue-engineered substitutes before in vivo implantation.

  4. Recent Advances in Non-invasive Brain Stimulation for Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shui Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive brain stimulation (NBS is a promising treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD, which is an affective processing disorder involving abnormal emotional processing. Many studies have shown that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over the prefrontal cortex can play a regulatory role in affective processing. Although the clinical efficacy of NBS in MDD has been demonstrated clinically, the precise mechanism of action remains unclear. Therefore, this review article summarizes the current status of NBS methods, including rTMS and tDCS, in the treatment of MDD. The article explores possible correlations between depressive symptoms and affective processing, highlighting the relevant affective processing mechanisms. Our review provides a reference for the safety and efficacy of NBS methods in the clinical treatment of MDD.

  5. A technical guide to tDCS, and related non-invasive brain stimulation tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, AJ; Antal, A; Bikson, M; Boggio, PS; Brunoni, AR; Celnik, P; Cohen, LG; Fregni, F; Herrmann, CS; Kappenman, ES; Knotkova, H; Liebetanz, D; Miniussi, C; Miranda, PC; Paulus, W; Priori, A; Reato, D; Stagg, C; Wenderoth, N; Nitsche, MA

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), including transcranial direct and alternating current stimulation (tDCS, tACS) are non-invasive brain stimulation techniques increasingly used for modulation of central nervous system excitability in humans. Here we address methodological issues required for tES application. This review covers technical aspects of tES, as well as applications like exploration of brain physiology, modelling approaches, tES in cognitive neurosciences, and interventional approaches. It aims to help the reader to appropriately design and conduct studies involving these brain stimulation techniques, understand limitations and avoid shortcomings, which might hamper the scientific rigor and potential applications in the clinical domain. PMID:26652115

  6. Combining non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation with neuroimaging and electrophysiology: Current approaches and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Til Ole; Karabanov, Anke; Hartwigsen, Gesa

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial current stimulation (TCS) are important tools in human systems and cognitive neuroscience because they are able to reveal the relevance of certain brain structures...... are technically demanding. We argue that the benefit from this combination is twofold. Firstly, neuroimaging and electrophysiology can inform subsequent NTBS, providing the required information to optimize where, when, and how to stimulate the brain. Information can be achieved both before and during the NTBS...... experiment, requiring consecutive and concurrent applications, respectively. Secondly, neuroimaging and electrophysiology can provide the readout for neural changes induced by NTBS. Again, using either concurrent or consecutive applications, both "online" NTBS effects immediately following the stimulation...

  7. 201thallium myocardial scintigraphy. A non-invasive method for diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyst Madsen, J.; Utne, H.E.

    1982-01-01

    Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with the isotope 201 thallium is a new non-invasive technique for the diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease. This article presents the results of scintigraphy in four persons with presumably healthy hearts and 12 with ischaemic heart disease. In addition, some foreign works are reviewed. The method possesses only slightly greater nosographical sensitivity than the exercise ECG alone but can be employed to advantage if the results of the exercise ECG are inconclusive e.g. on account of bundle branch block, digoxin therapy etc. Another, although somewhat more special indication, is employment prior to and after coronary artery by-pass operation with subsequent control of the result. (authors)

  8. Non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal chromosome abnormalities: review of clinical and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekas, Jean; Langlois, Sylvie; Ravitsky, Vardit; Audibert, François; van den Berg, David Gradus; Haidar, Hazar; Rousseau, François

    2016-01-01

    Genomics-based non-invasive prenatal screening using cell-free DNA (cfDNA screening) was proposed to reduce the number of invasive procedures in current prenatal diagnosis for fetal aneuploidies. We review here the clinical and ethical issues of cfDNA screening. To date, it is not clear how cfDNA screening is going to impact the performances of clinical prenatal diagnosis and how it could be incorporated in real life. The direct marketing to users may have facilitated the early introduction of cfDNA screening into clinical practice despite limited evidence-based independent research data supporting this rapid shift. There is a need to address the most important ethical, legal, and social issues before its implementation in a mass setting. Its introduction might worsen current tendencies to neglect the reproductive autonomy of pregnant women.

  9. Application of heat-resistant non invasive acoustic transducers for coolant control in the NPP pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnikov, V.; Nigmatulin, B.

    1997-01-01

    The use of ultrasonic waves enables remote testing of the coolant flow, detection of solid and gaseous occlusions and measuring of the water velocity and level. Analysis of the acoustic noise makes it possible to detect coolant leaks and diagnose the state and operation of the rotating mechanisms and bearings. Results are given of the research in the development of highly reliable waveguide-type non-invasive acoustic transducers with a long service life. Examples are given of the use of transducers in various fields of nuclear technology: detection of gas in coolant, indication of the coolant level, control of pipe filling and drainage, measurement of liquid film velocity at the pipe inner surface. (M.D.)

  10. Non-invasive assessment of muscle stiffness in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacourpaille, Lilian; Hug, François; Guével, Arnaud; Péréon, Yann; Magot, Armelle; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Nordez, Antoine

    2015-02-01

    Assessment of muscle mechanical properties may provide clinically valuable information for follow-up of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) through the course of their disease. In this study we aimed to assess the effect of DMD on stiffness of relaxed muscles using elastography (supersonic shear imaging). Fourteen DMD patients and 13 control subjects were studied. Six muscles were measured at 2 muscle lengths (shortened and stretched): gastrocnemius medialis (GM); tibialis anterior (TA); vastus lateralis (VL); biceps brachii (BB); triceps brachii (TB); and abductor digiti minimi (ADM). Stiffness was significantly higher in DMD patients compared with controls for all the muscles (main effect for population, P muscle lengths) to large (d = 0.86 for BB/stretched). Supersonic shear imaging is a sensitive non-invasive technique to assess the increase in muscle stiffness associated with DMD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Non-invasive estimation of firmness in apple fruit using VIS/NIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez, M.; Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laio; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    2012-01-01

    Better and steady fruit quality evaluation at harvest is a major challenge for commercial growers of apples in Denmark. Those fruits not meeting the requirements for the fresh market traditionally go to the juice concentrate industry where low cost products are obtained. Special fruit qualities...... are needed to develop commodities that can obtain a premium added value on the market. Nowadays in the food industry, quality evaluation is commonly performed non-destructively by means of optical sensors such as spectrometers, hyperspectral and multispectral cameras, that allow rapid measurements of fruit...... as for eating apples. Invasive and non-invasive measurements of firmness, on the shaded and exposed side of the fruits were carried out for three Danish apple cultivars of known commercial usage. Resulting data determined wavelengths between 415 to 715 nm to be predictive for firmness. A PLS model for all three...

  12. Non-invasive estimation of firmness in apple using VIS/NIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Vega, Mabel Virginia; Wulfsohn, Dvora-Laio; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    2012-01-01

    Better and steady fruit quality evaluation at harvest is a major challenge for commercial growers of apples in Denmark. Those fruits not meeting the requirements for the fresh market traditionally go to the juice concentrate industry where low cost products are obtained. Special fruit qualities...... are needed to develop commodities that can obtain a premium added value on the market. Nowadays in the food industry, quality evaluation is commonly performed non-destructively by means of optical sensors such as spectrometers, hyperspectral and multispectral cameras, that allow rapid measurements of fruit...... as for eating apples. Invasive and non-invasive measurements of firmness, on the shaded and exposed side of the fruits were carried out for three Danish apple cultivars of known commercial usage. Resulting data determined wavelengths between 415 to 715 nm to be predictive for firmness. A PLS model for all three...

  13. Fluid Vessel Quantity using Non-Invasive PZT Technology Flight Volume Measurements Under Zero G Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Anthony A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the project is to perform analysis of data using the Systems Engineering Educational Discovery (SEED) program data from 2011 and 2012 Fluid Vessel Quantity using Non-Invasive PZT Technology flight volume measurements under Zero G conditions (parabolic Plane flight data). Also experimental planning and lab work for future sub-orbital experiments to use the NASA PZT technology for fluid volume measurement. Along with conducting data analysis of flight data, I also did a variety of other tasks. I provided the lab with detailed technical drawings, experimented with 3d printers, made changes to the liquid nitrogen skid schematics, and learned how to weld. I also programmed microcontrollers to interact with various sensors and helped with other things going on around the lab.

  14. Non-invasive Continuous Monitoring of Cerebral Edema Using Portable Microwave Based System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuhao; Zhao, Minji; Wang, Huiqian; Li, Guoquan

    2018-01-01

    A portable non-invasive head detecting system based on microwave technology was developed for evaluation of cerebral edema change inside human brain. Real-time monitoring of cerebral edema in the brain helps the clinician to assess medical condition and treatment. In this work, a microwave signal was transmitted and coupled into an open-end circular waveguide sensor, incident on a 3D printed head phantom, and reflected back to receiver. Theoretically, the operation of this instrument depends on the conductivity contrast between cerebral edema and healthy brain tissues. The efficacy of the proposed detecting system is verified using 3D printed anatomically and dielectrically realistic human head phantoms with simulated cerebral edema targets with different size. Changes in the amplitude of time domain result were shown to be induced by the expansion or decrease of the edema volume. The eventual goal of this proposed head evaluating system is use in the hospital as an effective real-time monitoring tool.

  15. Non-invasive imaging technics for diagnosis in children with surgical abdominal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakada, Koonosuke; Sato, Yutaka; Shimoyamada, Hiroaki; Kim, Yoshitaka; Ishikawa, Misao

    1984-01-01

    The usefullness of non-invasive imaging technics namely CT and ultrasonography was evaluated in pediatric surgical abdominal diseases, under the categoly of A) inflammatory masses (10), B) biliary abnormalities (6), C) neoplasms (12), and D) blunt abdominal traumas (8), which were experienced at St. Marianna University Hospital from April 1978 to January 1982. According to the results of the clinical study, the plan of useful diagnostic approaches in each group by means of several imaging technics was outlined. In group A and B, ultrasonography is usually suffice for diagnosis and therapy planning, whereas in group C and D, in addition to the ultrasound, CT is sometimes required for evaluating the involvement of vascular structures and sorrounding vital structures in cases of neoplasm, and coexisting injuries in the traumas. (author)

  16. Non Invasive Sensors for Monitoring the Efficiency of AC Electrical Rotating Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Jacq

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a non invasive method for estimating the energy efficiency of induction motors used in industrial applications. This method is innovative because it is only based on the measurement of the external field emitted by the motor. The paper describes the sensors used, how they should be placed around the machine in order to decouple the external field components generated by both the air gap flux and the winding end-windings. The study emphasizes the influence of the eddy currents flowing in the yoke frame on the sensor position. A method to estimate the torque from the external field use is proposed. The measurements are transmitted by a wireless module (Zig-Bee and they are centralized and stored on a PC computer.

  17. Non-invasive multiwavelength photoplethysmography under low partial pressure of oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yung Chieh; Tai, Cheng-Chi

    2016-08-01

    A reduction in partial pressure of oxygen in the environment may be caused by a gain in altitude, which reduces the atmospheric pressure; it may also be caused by the carbon dioxide generated from breathing in an enclosed space. Does inhaling oxygen of lower partial pressure affect the oxygen-carrying function of haemoglobin in vivo? This study uses non-invasive multiwavelength photoplethysmography to measure the effects that inhaling this type of oxygen can have on the plethysmography of the appendages of the body (fingertips). The results indicate that under low partial pressure of oxygen, be it the result of a gain in carbon dioxide concentration or altitude, the change in visible light absorption is the biggest for short wavelengths (approximately 620 or 640 nm) near deoxyhaemoglobin, which has higher absorption coefficient. Moreover, increasing carbon dioxide concentration from 5000 to 10,000 ppm doubly reduces the absorption rate of these short wavelengths.

  18. Cardiac tumours: non invasive detection and assessment by gated cardiac blood pool radionuclide imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitcher, D.; Wainwright, R.; Brennand-Roper, D.; Deverall, P.; Sowton, E.; Maisey, M.

    1980-01-01

    Four patients with cardiac tumours were investigated by gated cardiac blood pool radionuclide imaging and echocardiography. Contrast angiocardiography was performed in three of the cases. Two left atrial tumours were detected by all three techniques. In one of these cases echocardiography alone showed additional mitral valve stenosis, but isotope imaging indicated tumour size more accurately. A large septal mass was detected by all three methods. In this patient echocardiography showed evidence of left ventricular outflow obstruction, confirmed at cardiac catheterisation, but gated isotope imaging provided a more detailed assessment of the abnormal cardiac anatomy. In the fourth case gated isotope imaging detected a large right ventricular tumour which had not been identified by echocardiography. Gated cardiac blood pool isotope imaging is a complementary technique to echocardiography for the non-invasive detection and assessment of cardiac tumours. (author)

  19. Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring with Raman spectroscopy: prospects for device miniaturization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wróbel, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    The number of patients with diabetes has reached over 350 million, and still continues to increase. The need for regular blood glucose monitoring sparks the interest in the development of modern detection technologies. One of those methods, which allows for noninvasive measurements, is Raman spectroscopy. The ability of infrared light to penetrate deep into tissues allows for obtaining measurements through the skin without its perforation. This paper presents the limitations and possibilities of non-invasive blood glucose monitoring with Raman spectroscopy. Especially focusing on the possibilities for device miniaturization. Such device incorporates a Raman spectrometer, a fiber-optical probe, and a computing device (microcontroller, smartphone, etc.) which calculates the glucose concentration using specialized algorithms. Simplification of device design, as well as turbidity correction technique and a new proposed method of synchronized detection are described

  20. Non-invasive imaging of skin cancer with fluorescence lifetime imaging using two photon tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patalay, Rakesh; Talbot, Clifford; Alexandrov, Yuriy; Munro, Ian; Breunig, Hans Georg; König, Karsten; Warren, Sean; Neil, Mark A. A.; French, Paul M. W.; Chu, Anthony; Stamp, Gordon W.; Dunsby, Christopher

    2011-07-01

    Multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) using two photon microscopy as a non-invasive technique for the diagnosis of skin lesions is described. Skin contains fluorophores including elastin, keratin, collagen, FAD and NADH. This endogenous contrast allows tissue to be imaged without the addition of exogenous agents and allows the in vivo state of cells and tissues to be studied. A modified DermaInspect® multiphoton tomography system was used to excite autofluorescence at 760 nm in vivo and on freshly excised ex vivo tissue. This instrument simultaneously acquires fluorescence lifetime images in four spectral channels between 360-655 nm using time-correlated single photon counting and can also provide hyperspectral images. The multispectral fluorescence lifetime images were spatially segmented and binned to determine lifetimes for each cell by fitting to a double exponential lifetime model. A comparative analysis between the cellular lifetimes from different diagnoses demonstrates significant diagnostic potential.

  1. Non-invasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Qizhi; Carney, Paul R; Yuan Zhen; Jiang Huabei [J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Liu Zhao [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Neurology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Chen Huanxin; Roper, Steven N [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0265 (United States)], E-mail: hjiang@bme.ufl.edu

    2008-04-07

    Non-invasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is an emerging imaging modality that has the potential to image the dynamic function of the brain due to its unique ability of imaging biological tissues with high optical contrast and ultrasound resolution. Here we report the first application of our finite-element-based PAT for imaging of epileptic seizures in an animal model. In vivo photoacoustic images were obtained in rats with focal seizures induced by microinjection of bicuculline, a GABA{sub A} antagonist, into the neocortex. The seizure focus was accurately localized by PAT as confirmed with gold-standard electroencephalogram (EEG). Compared to the existing neuroimaging modalities, PAT not only has the unprecedented advantage of high spatial and temporal resolution in a single imaging modality, but also is portable and low in cost, making it possible to bring brain imaging to the bedside.

  2. Current status and future of non-invasive studies of human brain functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibasaki, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Currently available non-invasive studies are divided into two groups: electrophysiological studies and functional neuroimaging based on the hemodynamic principle. The former includes electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG) and transcranial magnetic stimulation, and the latter includes functional MRI, positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and near-infrared spectroscopy. The hemodynamic response has been shown to be correlated with neuronal electrical activity, especially with synaptic activity rather than spiking activity, within a certain range. Since each technique has advantage and disadvantage, it is important to apply the most appropriate technique to solve each specific question. The combined use of more than one techniques of different principles, if possible, provides data of higher spatial and temporal resolution. Functional connectivity among different brain areas can be studied by using some of these techniques either alone or in combination. (author)

  3. Canis familiaris As a Model for Non-Invasive Comparative Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunford, Nóra; Andics, Attila; Kis, Anna; Miklósi, Ádám; Gácsi, Márta

    2017-07-01

    There is an ongoing need to improve animal models for investigating human behavior and its biological underpinnings. The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is a promising model in cognitive neuroscience. However, before it can contribute to advances in this field in a comparative, reliable, and valid manner, several methodological issues warrant attention. We review recent non-invasive canine neuroscience studies, primarily focusing on (i) variability among dogs and between dogs and humans in cranial characteristics, and (ii) generalizability across dog and dog-human studies. We argue not for methodological uniformity but for functional comparability between methods, experimental designs, and neural responses. We conclude that the dog may become an innovative and unique model in comparative neuroscience, complementing more traditional models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Early diagnosis of incipient caries based on non-invasive lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velescu, A.; Todea, C.; Vitez, B.

    2016-03-01

    AIM: The aim of this study is to detect incipient caries and enamel demineralization using laser fluorescence.This serves only as an auxilary aid to identify and to monitor the development of these lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 6 patients were involved in this study, three females and three male. Each patient underwent a professional cleaning, visual examination of the oral cavity, and then direct inspection using DiagnoCam and DIAGNOdent. After data recording each patient was submitted to retro-alveolar X-ray on teeth that were detected with enamel lesions. All data was collected and analyzed statistically. RESULTS: Of 36 areas considered in clinically healthy, 24 carious surfaces were found using laser fluorescence, a totally non-invasive method for detecting incipient carious lesions compared with the radiographic examination. CONCLUSIONS: This method has good applicability for patients because it improves treatment plan by early detection of caries and involves less fear for anxious patients and children.

  5. A novel wearable device for continuous, non-invasion blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Qin; Wu, Jianping

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we have developed a wearable cuffless device for daily blood pressure (BP) measurement. We incorporated the light based sensor and other hard wares in a small volume for BP detection. With optimized algorithm, the real-time BP reading could be achieved, the data could be presented in the screen and be transmitted by internet of things (IoT) for history data comparison and multi-terminal viewing. Thus, further analysis provides the probability for diet or sports suggestion and alarm. We have measured BP from more than 60 subjects, compare to traditional mercury blood pressure meter, no obvious error in both systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) are detected. Such device can be used for continues non-invasion BP detection, and further data docking and health analysis could be achieved. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Insights into Parkinson's disease models and neurotoxicity using non-invasive imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Pernaute, Rosario; Brownell, Anna-Liisa; Jenkins, Bruce G.; Isacson, Ole

    2005-01-01

    Loss of dopamine in the nigrostriatal system causes a severe impairment in motor function in patients with Parkinson's disease and in experimental neurotoxic models of the disease. We have used non-invasive imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate in vivo the changes in the dopamine system in neurotoxic models of Parkinson's disease. In addition to classic neurotransmitter studies, in these models, it is also possible to characterize associated and perhaps pathogenic factors, such as the contribution of microglia activation and inflammatory responses to neuronal damage. Functional imaging techniques are instrumental to our understanding and modeling of disease mechanisms, which should in turn lead to development of new therapies for Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders

  7. Gas dynamics considerations in a non-invasive profile monitor for charged particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Tzoganis, Vasilis; Welsch, Carsten P

    2014-01-01

    A non-invasive, gas jet-based, beam profile monitor has been developed in the QUASAR Group at the Cockcroft Institute, UK. This allows on-line measurement of the 2-dimensional transverse profile of particle beams with negligible disturbance to either primary beam or accelerator vacuum. The monitor is suitable for use with beams across a wide range of energies and intensities. In this setup a nozzle-skimmer system shapes a thin supersonic gas jet into a curtain. However, the small dimensions of the gas inlet nozzle and subsequent skimmers were shown to be the cause of many operational problems. In this paper, the dynamics of gas jet formation transport and shaping is discussed before an image-processing based alignment technique is introduced. Furthermore, experimental results obtained with a 5 keV electron beam are discussed and the effects of gas stagnation pressure on the acquired beam are presented.

  8. Non-invasive NMR stratigraphy of a multi-layered artefact: an ancient detached mural painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Tullio, Valeria; Capitani, Donatella; Presciutti, Federica; Gentile, Gennaro; Brunetti, Brunetto Giovanni; Proietti, Noemi

    2013-10-01

    NMR stratigraphy was used to investigate in situ, non-destructively and non-invasively, the stratigraphy of hydrogen-rich layers of an ancient Nubian detached mural painting. Because of the detachment procedure, a complex multi-layered artefact was obtained, where, besides layers of the original mural painting, also the materials used during the procedure all became constitutive parts of the artefact. NMR measurements in situ enabled monitoring of the state of conservation of the artefact and planning of minimum representative sampling to validate results obtained in situ by solid-state NMR analysis of the samples. This analysis enabled chemical characterization of all organic materials. Use of reference compounds and prepared specimens assisted data interpretation.

  9. In situ non-invasive EDXRF analysis to reconstruct stratigraphy and thickness of Renaissance pictorial multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonizzoni, L.; Poldi, G.; Milazzo, M.; Galli, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we report a few examples showing how energy dispersive XRF analysis (EDXRF) coupled with visible reflectance spectroscopy (vis-RS) can be successfully applied for the investigation of wood or canvas paintings by performing stratigraphic analyses with non-invasive techniques. The specific aim is to reconstruct layers and their thicknesses. The method has been tested in the laboratory on paint layers similar to traditional Renaissance ones. In situ analyses of a famous wood painting by Andrea Mantegna - 'Madonna col bambino e un coro di cherubini', Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan - were also carried out. While illustrating the results concerning the identification of pigments and the discrimination of layer stratigraphy, advantages and limitation of this method are pointed out. (authors)

  10. Non-invasive method for screening and early detection of breast tumors using thermal field analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Drosu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to general presentation of international and European evaluation regarding breast cancer incidence and mortality as well as recommendations for prevention, screening, detection and treatment.The past years international research development in biomedical engineering has put a particular emphasis on the thermography use in breast pathology diagnosis and its main advantages, such as: an early diagnose of the breast cancer, in that stage when the mammography or ultrasounds can not easily detect the changes of the tissue; a totally non-invasive interaction with human body; very low costs and possibilities for the women to do a self thermographic test.We also present some important results of our research within the field of breast tumor detection using the numerical analysis of the thermal inverse problem.

  11. Muscle tissue saturation in humans studied with two non-invasive optical techniques: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaharin, Alfi; Krite Svanberg, Emilie; Ellerström, Ida; Subash, Arman Ahamed; Khoptyar, Dmitry; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Åkeson, Jonas

    2013-11-01

    Muscle tissue saturation (StO2) has been measured with two non-invasive optical techniques and the results were compared. One of the techniques is widely used in the hospitals - the CW-NIRS technique. The other is the photon timeof- flight spectrometer (pTOFS) developed in the Group of Biophotonics, Lund University, Sweden. The wavelengths used in both the techniques are 730 nm and 810 nm. A campaign was arranged to perform measurements on 21 (17 were taken for comparison) healthy adult volunteers (8 women and 13 men). Oxygen saturations were measured at the right lower arm of each volunteer. To observe the effects of different provocations on the oxygen saturation a blood pressure cuff was attached in the upper right arm. For CW-NIRS, the tissue saturation values were in the range from 70-90%, while for pTOFS the values were in the range from 55-60%.

  12. Non-invasive Player Experience Estimation from Body Motion and Game Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Triantafyllidis, George; Patras, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate on the relationship between player experience and body movements in a non-physical 3D computer game. During an experiment, the participants played a series of short game sessions and rated their experience while their body movements were tracked using a depth camera....... The data collected was analysed and a neural network was trained to find the mapping between player body movements, player in- game behaviour and player experience. The results reveal that some aspects of player experience, such as anxiety or challenge, can be detected with high accuracy (up to 81......%). Moreover, taking into account the playing context, the accuracy can be raised up to 86%. Following such a multi-modal approach, it is possible to estimate the player experience in a non-invasive fashion during the game and, based on this information, the game content could be adapted accordingly....

  13. A non-invasive method for fractionated steriotactic irradiation of brain tumors with linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hariz, M.I.; Laitinen, L.V.; Henriksson, R.; Saeterborg, N.-E.; Loefroth, P.-O.

    1990-01-01

    A new technique for fractionated stereotactic irradiation of intracranial lesions is described. The treatment is based on a versatile, non-invasive interface for stereotactic localization of the brain target imaged by computed tomography (CT), angiography or magnetic resonance tomography (MRT), and subsequent repetitive stereotactic irradiation of the target using a linear accelerator. The fractionation of the stereotactic irradiation was intended to meet the requirements of the basic principles of radiobiology. The radiophysical evaluation using phantoms, and the clinical results in a small number of patients, demonstrated a good reproducibilit between repeated positionings of the target in the isocenter of the accelerator, and a high degree of accuracy in the treatment of brain lesions. (authors). 28 refs.; 11 figs.; 1 tab

  14. Non-invasive detection of murals with pulsed terahertz reflected imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Minjie; Sun, Wenfeng; Wang, Xinke; Ye, Jiasheng; Wang, Sen; Zhang, Qunxi; Zhang, Yan

    2015-11-01

    Pulsed terahertz reflected imaging technology has been expected to have great potential for the non-invasive analysis of artworks. In this paper, three types of defects hidden in the plaster used to simulate the cases of defects in the murals, have been investigated by a pulsed terahertz reflected imaging system. These preset defects include a circular groove, a cross-shaped slit and a piece of "Y-type" metal plate built in the plaster. With the terahertz reflective tomography, information about defects has been determined involving the thickness from the surface of sample to the built-in defect, the profile and distribution of the defect. Additionally, three-dimensional analyses have been performed in order to reveal the internal structure of defects. Terahertz reflective imaging can be applied to the defect investigation of the murals.

  15. Non-invasive imaging methods applied to neo- and paleo-ontological cephalopod research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, R.; Schultz, J. A.; Schellhorn, R.; Rybacki, E.; Keupp, H.; Gerden, S. R.; Lemanis, R.; Zachow, S.

    2014-05-01

    Several non-invasive methods are common practice in natural sciences today. Here we present how they can be applied and contribute to current topics in cephalopod (paleo-) biology. Different methods will be compared in terms of time necessary to acquire the data, amount of data, accuracy/resolution, minimum/maximum size of objects that can be studied, the degree of post-processing needed and availability. The main application of the methods is seen in morphometry and volumetry of cephalopod shells. In particular we present a method for precise buoyancy calculation. Therefore, cephalopod shells were scanned together with different reference bodies, an approach developed in medical sciences. It is necessary to know the volume of the reference bodies, which should have similar absorption properties like the object of interest. Exact volumes can be obtained from surface scanning. Depending on the dimensions of the study object different computed tomography techniques were applied.

  16. Non Invasive Sensors for Monitoring the Efficiency of AC Electrical Rotating Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidat, Farid; Lecointe, Jean-Philippe; Morganti, Fabrice; Brudny, Jean-François; Jacq, Thierry; Streiff, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a non invasive method for estimating the energy efficiency of induction motors used in industrial applications. This method is innovative because it is only based on the measurement of the external field emitted by the motor. The paper describes the sensors used, how they should be placed around the machine in order to decouple the external field components generated by both the air gap flux and the winding end-windings. The study emphasizes the influence of the eddy currents flowing in the yoke frame on the sensor position. A method to estimate the torque from the external field use is proposed. The measurements are transmitted by a wireless module (Zig-Bee) and they are centralized and stored on a PC computer. PMID:22163631

  17. The importance of optical methods for non-invasive measurements in the skin care industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatas, Georgios N.

    2010-02-01

    Pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries are concerned with treating skin disease, as well as maintaining and promoting skin health. They are dealing with a unique tissue that defines our body in space. As such, skin provides not only the natural boundary with the environment inhibiting body dehydration as well as penetration of exogenous aggressors to the body, it is also ideally situated for optical measurements. A plurality of spectroscopic and imaging methods is being used to understand skin physiology and pathology and document the effects of topically applied products on the skin. The obvious advantage of such methods over traditional biopsy techniques is the ability to measure the cutaneous tissue in vivo and non-invasively. In this work, we will review such applications of various spectroscopy and imaging methods in skin research that is of interest the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. Examples will be given on the importance of optical techniques in acquiring new insights about acne pathogenesis and infant skin development.

  18. High-flow nasal cannula: transient fashion or new method of non-invasive ventilatory assistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, F; Colnaghi, M; Agosti, M; Fumagalli, M

    2012-10-01

    Respiratory failure in the premature infants remains a difficult challenge. An alternative to the use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) as a non-invasive modality to support respiratory distress in premature infants has been the recent introduction of high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) devices in many neonatal units. There has been increased use of HFNC presumably because of anecdotal reports and experience that it is easy to use, and well tolerated by the infants, while experiencing decreased nasal septumerosion. The paucity of evidence regarding its efficacy and safety, would support a caution approach to the use of HFNC. Particular concern has focused on the imprecise regulation and generation of pressure that may occur at higher flows especially in the smallest of infants.

  19. Continuous non-invasive blood glucose monitoring by spectral image differencing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Liao, Ningfang; Cheng, Haobo; Liang, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Currently, the use of implantable enzyme electrode sensor is the main method for continuous blood glucose monitoring. But the effect of electrochemical reactions and the significant drift caused by bioelectricity in body will reduce the accuracy of the glucose measurements. So the enzyme-based glucose sensors need to be calibrated several times each day by the finger-prick blood corrections. This increases the patient's pain. In this paper, we proposed a method for continuous Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring by spectral image differencing method in the near infrared band. The method uses a high-precision CCD detector to switch the filter in a very short period of time, obtains the spectral images. And then by using the morphological method to obtain the spectral image differences, the dynamic change of blood sugar is reflected in the image difference data. Through the experiment proved that this method can be used to monitor blood glucose dynamically to a certain extent.

  20. In vivo neuro MR spectroscopy: a non-invasive insight into cerebral metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, S.; De Zubicaray, G.; Wang, D.; Galloway, G.; Doddrell, D.; Chalk, J.; University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD; Eagle, S.; Semple, J.

    1999-01-01

    In addition to conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for examining anatomical structure, in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is currently being used as a non-invasive clinical tool for monitoring altered brain metabolism. Conditions such as head injury, dementia, multiple sclerosis, tumour, stroke, epilepsy and inborn errors of metabolism are all presently being investigated with MRS. At the Centre for Magnetic Resonance, we are currently undertaking a longitudinal study of dementia progression in Alzheimer's disease (AD) utilising both MRS and volumetric MRI techniques. The aim is to identify metabolic differences between this patient group and normal older adults and to correlate these measures with cognitive function. Cerebral artrophy, or loss of brain matter, together with ventricular enlargement , or enlargement of normally occuring cavities, is clearly present on MRI exams in patients with moderate and severe AD

  1. Quantitative non-invasive intracellular imaging of Plasmodium falciparum infected human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edward, Kert; Farahi, Faramarz

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is a virulent pathological condition which results in over a million annual deaths. The parasitic agent Plasmodium falciparum has been extensively studied in connection with this epidemic but much remains unknown about its development inside the red blood cell host. Optical and fluorescence imaging are among the two most common procedures for investigating infected erythrocytes but both require the introduction of exogenous contrast agents. In this letter, we present a procedure for the non-invasive in situ imaging of malaria infected red blood cells. The procedure is based on the utilization of simultaneously acquired quantitative phase and independent topography data to extract intracellular information. Our method allows for the identification of the developmental stages of the parasite and facilitates in situ analysis of the morphological changes associated with the progression of this disease. This information may assist in the development of efficacious treatment therapies for this condition. (letters)

  2. NON-INVASIVE MONITORING OF FOETAL ANAEMIA IN KELL SENSITIZED PREGNANCY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Zaibunnisa; Sheikh, Sana Sadiq

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of Kell sensitized pregnancy with good neonatal outcome. Anti-K antibodies were detected in maternal serum in early pregnancy as a part of routine antibody screening test. The middle cerebral artery doppler monitoring and serial titers were carried out to screen for foetal anaemia. Despite of rising antibody titers, serial middle cerebral artery doppler was normal and did not showed foetal anaemia. The pregnancy was carried out till term and patient delivered at 37 weeks of pregnancy with no evidence of foetal anaemia. This case underlines the need of general screening on rare antibodies in all pregnant women and that non-invasive monitoring of foetal anaemia can be done with anti-k titers and middle cerebral artery Doppler.

  3. Non-invasive Brain Stimulation: A Paradigm Shift in Understanding Brain Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Vosskuhl

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive neuroscience set out to understand the neural mechanisms underlying cognition. One central question is how oscillatory brain activity relates to cognitive processes. Up to now, most of the evidence supporting this relationship was correlative in nature. This situation changed dramatically with the recent development of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS techniques, which open up new vistas for neuroscience by allowing researchers for the first time to validate their correlational theories by manipulating brain functioning directly. In this review, we focus on transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS, an electrical brain stimulation method that applies sinusoidal currents to the intact scalp of human individuals to directly interfere with ongoing brain oscillations. We outline how tACS can impact human brain oscillations by employing different levels of observation from non-invasive tACS application in healthy volunteers and intracranial recordings in patients to animal studies demonstrating the effectiveness of alternating electric fields on neurons in vitro and in vivo. These findings likely translate to humans as comparable effects can be observed in human and animal studies. Neural entrainment and plasticity are suggested to mediate the behavioral effects of tACS. Furthermore, we focus on mechanistic theories about the relationship between certain cognitive functions and specific parameters of brain oscillaitons such as its amplitude, frequency, phase and phase coherence. For each of these parameters we present the current state of testing its functional relevance by means of tACS. Recent developments in the field of tACS are outlined which include the stimulation with physiologically inspired non-sinusoidal waveforms, stimulation protocols which allow for the observation of online-effects, and closed loop applications of tACS.

  4. A nonadhesive solid-gel electrode for a non-invasive brain–machine interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru eToyama

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A non-invasive brain–machine interface (BMI or brain-computer interface (BCI is a technology for helping individuals with disabilities and utilizes neurophysiological signals from the brain to control external machines or computers without requiring surgery. However, when applying EEG methodology, users must place EEG electrodes on the scalp each time, and the development of easy-to-use electrodes for clinical use is required. In this study, we developed a conductive nonadhesive solid-gel electrode for practical non-invasive BMIs. We performed basic material testing, including examining the volume resistivity, viscoelasticity, and moisture-retention properties of the solid gel. Then, we compared the performance of the solid gel, a conventional paste, and an in-house metal pin-based electrode using impedance measurements and P300-BMI testing. The solid gel was observed to be conductive (volume resistivity 13.2 Ωcm and soft (complex modulus 105.4 kPa, and it remained wet for a prolonged period (>10 hours in a dry environment. Impedance measurements revealed that the impedance of the solid-gel-based and conventional paste-based electrodes was superior to that of the pin-based electrode. The EEG measurement suggested that the signals obtained with the solid-gel electrode were comparable to those with the conventional paste-based electrode. Moreover, the P300-BMI study suggested that systems using the solid-gel or pin-based electrodes were effective. One of the advantages of the solid gel is that it does not require cleaning after use, whereas the conventional paste adheres to the hair, which requires washing. Furthermore, the solid-gel electrode was not painful compared with a metal-pin electrode. Taken together, the results suggest that the solid-gel electrode worked well for practical BMIs and could be useful for bedridden patients such as those with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  5. Non-Invasive In Vivo Characterization of Breast Tumors Using Photon Migration Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce J. Tromberg

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequency-domain photon migration (FDPM is a noninvasive optical technique that utilizes intensity-modulated, near-infrared (NIR light to quantitatively measure optical properties in thick tissues. Optical properties (absorption, μa, and scattering, μs′, parameters derived from FDPM measurements can be used to construct low-resolution (0.5 to 1 cm functional images of tissue hemoglobin (total, oxy-, and deoxyforms, oxygen saturation, blood volume fraction, water content, fat content and cellular structure. Unlike conventional NIR transillumination, FDPM enables quantitative analysis of tissue absorption and scattering parameters in a single non-invasive measurement. The unique functional information provided by FDPM makes it well-suited to characterizing tumors in thick tissues. In order to test the sensitivity of FDPM for cancer diagnosis, we have initiated clinical studies to quantitatively determine normal and malignant breast tissue optical and physiological properties in human subjects. Measurements are performed using a non-invasive, multi-wavelength, diode-laser FDPM device optimized for clinical studies. Results show that ductal carcinomas (invasive and in situ and benign fibroadenomas exhibit 1.25 to 3-fold higher absorption than normal breast tissue. Within this group, absorption is greatest for measurements obtained from sites of invasive cancer. Optical scattering is approximately 20% greater in pre-menopausal versus post-menopausal subjects due to differences in gland/cell proliferation and collagen/fat content. Spatial variations in tissue scattering reveal the loss of differentiation associated with breast disease progression. Overall, the metabolic demands of hormonal stimulation and tumor growth are detectable using photon migration techniques. Measurements provide quantitative optical property values that reflect changes in tissue perfusion, oxygen consumption, and cell/matrix development.

  6. Rapid, serial, non-invasive assessment of drug efficacy in mice with autoluminescent Mycobacterium ulcerans infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyu Zhang

    Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans is the world's third most common mycobacterial infection. There is no vaccine against BU and surgery is needed for patients with large ulcers. Although recent experience indicates combination chemotherapy with streptomycin and rifampin improves cure rates, the utility of this regimen is limited by the 2-month duration of therapy, potential toxicity and required parenteral administration of streptomycin, and drug-drug interactions caused by rifampin. Discovery and development of drugs for BU is greatly hampered by the slow growth rate of M. ulcerans, requiring up to 3 months of incubation on solid media to produce colonies. Surrogate markers for evaluating antimicrobial activity in real-time which can be measured serially and non-invasively in infected footpads of live mice would accelerate pre-clinical evaluation of new drugs to treat BU. Previously, we developed bioluminescent M. ulcerans strains, demonstrating proof of concept for measuring luminescence as a surrogate marker for viable M. ulcerans in vitro and in vivo. However, the requirement of exogenous substrate limited the utility of such strains, especially for in vivo experiments.For this study, we engineered M. ulcerans strains that express the entire luxCDABE operon and therefore are autoluminescent due to endogenous substrate production. The selected reporter strain displayed a growth rate and virulence similar to the wild-type parent strain and enabled rapid, real-time monitoring of in vitro and in vivo drug activity, including serial, non-invasive assessments in live mice, producing results which correlated closely with colony-forming unit (CFU counts for a panel of drugs with various mechanisms of action.Our results indicate that autoluminescent reporter strains of M. ulcerans are exceptional tools for pre-clinical evaluation of new drugs to treat BU due to their potential to drastically reduce the time, effort, animals, compound

  7. Optimal Non-Invasive Fault Classification Model for Packaged Ceramic Tile Quality Monitoring Using MMW Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Smriti; Singh, Dharmendra

    2016-04-01

    Millimeter wave (MMW) frequency has emerged as an efficient tool for different stand-off imaging applications. In this paper, we have dealt with a novel MMW imaging application, i.e., non-invasive packaged goods quality estimation for industrial quality monitoring applications. An active MMW imaging radar operating at 60 GHz has been ingeniously designed for concealed fault estimation. Ceramic tiles covered with commonly used packaging cardboard were used as concealed targets for undercover fault classification. A comparison of computer vision-based state-of-the-art feature extraction techniques, viz, discrete Fourier transform (DFT), wavelet transform (WT), principal component analysis (PCA), gray level co-occurrence texture (GLCM), and histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) has been done with respect to their efficient and differentiable feature vector generation capability for undercover target fault classification. An extensive number of experiments were performed with different ceramic tile fault configurations, viz., vertical crack, horizontal crack, random crack, diagonal crack along with the non-faulty tiles. Further, an independent algorithm validation was done demonstrating classification accuracy: 80, 86.67, 73.33, and 93.33 % for DFT, WT, PCA, GLCM, and HOG feature-based artificial neural network (ANN) classifier models, respectively. Classification results show good capability for HOG feature extraction technique towards non-destructive quality inspection with appreciably low false alarm as compared to other techniques. Thereby, a robust and optimal image feature-based neural network classification model has been proposed for non-invasive, automatic fault monitoring for a financially and commercially competent industrial growth.

  8. Characteristics of a multisensor system for non invasive glucose monitoring with external validation and prospective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caduff, Andreas; Mueller, Martin; Megej, Alexander; Dewarrat, Francois; Suri, Roland E; Klisic, Jelena; Donath, Marc; Zakharov, Pavel; Schaub, Dominik; Stahel, Werner A; Talary, Mark S

    2011-05-15

    The Multisensor Glucose Monitoring System (MGMS) features non invasive sensors for dielectric characterisation of the skin and underlying tissue in a wide frequency range (1 kHz-100 MHz, 1 and 2 GHz) as well as optical characterisation. In this paper we describe the results of using an MGMS in a miniaturised housing with fully integrated sensors and battery. Six patients with Type I Diabetes Mellitus (age 44±16 y; BMI 24.1±1.3 kg/m(2), duration of diabetes 27±12 y; HbA1c 7.3±1.0%) wore a single Multisensor at the upper arm position and performed a total of 45 in-clinic study days with 7 study days per patient on average (min. 5 and max. 10). Glucose changes were induced either orally or by i.v. glucose administration and the blood glucose was measured routinely. Several prospective data evaluation routines were applied to evaluate the data. The results are shown using one of the restrictive data evaluation routines, where measurements from the first 22 study days were used to train a linear regression model. The global model was then prospectively applied to the data of the remaining 23 study days to allow for an external validation of glucose prediction. The model application yielded a Mean Absolute Relative Difference of 40.8%, a Mean Absolute Difference of 51.9 mg dL(-1), and a correlation of 0.84 on average per study day. The Clarke error grid analyses showed 89.0% in A+B, 4.5% in C, 4.6% in D and 1.9% in the E region. Prospective application of a global, purely statistical model, demonstrates that glucose variations can be tracked non invasively by the MGMS in most cases under these conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal chromosome abnormalities: review of clinical and ethical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gekas J

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Jean Gekas,1,2 Sylvie Langlois,3 Vardit Ravitsky,4 François Audibert,5 David Gradus van den Berg,6 Hazar Haidar,4 François Rousseau2,7 1Prenatal Diagnosis Unit, Department of Medical Genetics and Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Québec City, QC, Canada; 2Department of Medical Biology, CHU de Québec, Québec City, QC, Canada; 3Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 4Bioethics Program, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital Sainte-Justine, Montreal, QC, Canada; 6Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Québec City, QC, Canada; 7Department of Molecular Biology, Medical Biochemistry and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Québec City, QC, Canada Abstract: Genomics-based non-invasive prenatal screening using cell-free DNA (cfDNA screening was proposed to reduce the number of invasive procedures in current prenatal diagnosis for fetal aneuploidies. We review here the clinical and ethical issues of cfDNA screening. To date, it is not clear how cfDNA screening is going to impact the performances of clinical prenatal diagnosis and how it could be incorporated in real life. The direct marketing to users may have facilitated the early introduction of cfDNA screening into clinical practice despite limited evidence-based independent research data supporting this rapid shift. There is a need to address the most important ethical, legal, and social issues before its implementation in a mass setting. Its introduction might worsen current tendencies to neglect the reproductive autonomy of pregnant women. Keywords: prenatal diagnosis, Down syndrome, non-invasive prenatal testing, cell-free fetal DNA, informed consent, reproductive autonomy

  10. Non invasive blood flow measurement in cerebellum detects minimal hepatic encephalopathy earlier than psychometric tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipo, Vicente; Urios, Amparo; Giménez-Garzó, Carla; Cauli, Omar; Andrés-Costa, Maria-Jesús; González, Olga; Serra, Miguel A; Sánchez-González, Javier; Aliaga, Roberto; Giner-Durán, Remedios; Belloch, Vicente; Montoliu, Carmina

    2014-09-07

    To assess whether non invasive blood flow measurement by arterial spin labeling in several brain regions detects minimal hepatic encephalopathy. Blood flow (BF) was analyzed by arterial spin labeling (ASL) in different brain areas of 14 controls, 24 cirrhotic patients without and 16 cirrhotic patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). Images were collected using a 3 Tesla MR scanner (Achieva 3T-TX, Philips, Netherlands). Pulsed ASL was performed. Patients showing MHE were detected using the battery Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES) consisting of five tests. Different cognitive and motor functions were also assessed: alterations in selective attention were evaluated using the Stroop test. Patients and controls also performed visuo-motor and bimanual coordination tests. Several biochemical parameters were measured: serum pro-inflammatory interleukins (IL-6 and IL-18), 3-nitrotyrosine, cGMP and nitrates+nitrites in plasma, and blood ammonia. Bivariate correlations were evaluated. In patients with MHE, BF was increased in cerebellar hemisphere (P = 0.03) and vermis (P = 0.012) and reduced in occipital lobe (P = 0.017). BF in cerebellar hemisphere was also increased in patients without MHE (P = 0.02). Bimanual coordination was impaired in patients without MHE (P = 0.05) and much more in patients with MHE (P battery and with CFF. BF in cerebellar hemisphere correlates with plasma cGMP and nitric oxide (NO) metabolites. BF in vermis cerebellar also correlates with NO metabolites and with 3-nitrotyrosine. IL-18 in plasma correlates with BF in thalamus and occipital lobe. Non invasive BF determination in cerebellum using ASL may detect MHE earlier than the PHES. Altered NO-cGMP pathway seems to be associated to altered BF in cerebellum.

  11. Effects of Provided Trainings Regarding Non-Invasive Mechanical Ventilation on the Knowledge Level of Nurses

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    Sonay Göktaş

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Having experienced members in the team for obtaining successful outcomes in non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV is important. The aim of our study is to determine the effectiveness of training on nurse’s level of knowledge about NIMV Methods: This study was done with 70 nurses who were working at an university hospital. The data collection tools that were used were form for individual characteristics and knowledge test questions form consisting of multiple-choice for NIMV. Firstly, Pre-tests have been collected in the survey. Secondly, courses regarding NIMV indications, contraindications and patients management topics were given verbally by researchers. Finally, final tests were performed and data were collected. Analyzing for data were used frequency, percentage, wilcoxon and dependent samples Mc Nemar tests. Results: Mean age were 33.2±7.3, 87.1% were female, 68.6% had bachelor degrees. Of 47.1% were working in intensive care. 54.3% often provide care to NIMV applied patients. 94.7% mentioned that they don’t have any knowledge of NIMV applications. The differences between the pre-post training scores were higher statistically (p<0.001. It was determined that knowledge levels of nurses about NIMV indications and contraindications after training increased statistically significantly. (p<0.05. Conclusion: In our research it was understood that nurses’ knowledge has increased significantly after the training for non-invasive applications. By means of these trainings that will develop the affective, cognitive and psychomotor skills of nurses, it is expected to reveal the results of the extensive research and successful outcomes for NIMV applications will increase.

  12. Non-invasive determination of absolute lung resistivity in adults using electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jie; Patterson, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Lung resistivity is a physiological parameter that describes the electrical characteristics of the lungs. Lung composition changes due to changes in the lung tissues, fluid and air volume. Various diseases that can cause a change in lung composition may be monitored by measuring lung resistivity. Currently, there is no accepted non-invasive method to measure lung resistivity. In this study, we presented a method and framework to non-invasively determine lung resistivity using electrical impedance tomography (EIT). By comparing actual measurements from subjects with data from a 3D human thorax model, an EIT image can be reconstructed to show a resistivity difference between the model and the subject. By adjusting the lung resistivity in the model, the resistivity difference in the lung regions can be reduced to near zero. This resistivity value then is the estimation of the lung resistivity of the subject. Using the proposed method, the lung resistivities of four normal adult males (43 ± 13 years, 78 ± 10 kg) in the supine position at air volumes starting at functional residual capacity (FRC—end expiration) and increasing in 0.5 l steps to 1.5 l were studied. The averaged lung resistivity changes 12.59%, from 1406 Ω cm to 1583 Ω cm, following the inspiration of 1.5 l air from FRC. The coefficients of variation (CV) of precision for the four subjects are less than 10%. The experiment was repeated five times at each air volume on a subject to test the reproducibility. The CVs are less than 3%. The results show that it is feasible to determine absolute lung resistivity using an EIT-based method

  13. Non-invasive determination of absolute lung resistivity in adults using electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Patterson, Robert

    2010-08-01

    Lung resistivity is a physiological parameter that describes the electrical characteristics of the lungs. Lung composition changes due to changes in the lung tissues, fluid and air volume. Various diseases that can cause a change in lung composition may be monitored by measuring lung resistivity. Currently, there is no accepted non-invasive method to measure lung resistivity. In this study, we presented a method and framework to non-invasively determine lung resistivity using electrical impedance tomography (EIT). By comparing actual measurements from subjects with data from a 3D human thorax model, an EIT image can be reconstructed to show a resistivity difference between the model and the subject. By adjusting the lung resistivity in the model, the resistivity difference in the lung regions can be reduced to near zero. This resistivity value then is the estimation of the lung resistivity of the subject. Using the proposed method, the lung resistivities of four normal adult males (43 +/- 13 years, 78 +/- 10 kg) in the supine position at air volumes starting at functional residual capacity (FRC--end expiration) and increasing in 0.5 l steps to 1.5 l were studied. The averaged lung resistivity changes 12.59%, from 1406 Omega cm to 1583 Omega cm, following the inspiration of 1.5 l air from FRC. The coefficients of variation (CV) of precision for the four subjects are less than 10%. The experiment was repeated five times at each air volume on a subject to test the reproducibility. The CVs are less than 3%. The results show that it is feasible to determine absolute lung resistivity using an EIT-based method.

  14. Non-invasive monitoring of chewing and swallowing for objective quantification of ingestive behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazonov, Edward; Schuckers, Stephanie; Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Makeyev, Oleksandr; Sazonova, Nadezhda; Melanson, Edward L; Neuman, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A methodology of studying of ingestive behavior by non-invasive monitoring of swallowing (deglutition) and chewing (mastication) has been developed. The target application for the developed methodology is to study the behavioral patterns of food consumption and producing volumetric and weight estimates of energy intake. Monitoring is non-invasive based on detecting swallowing by a sound sensor located over laryngopharynx or by a bone-conduction microphone and detecting chewing through a below-the-ear strain sensor. Proposed sensors may be implemented in a wearable monitoring device, thus enabling monitoring of ingestive behavior in free-living individuals. In this paper, the goals in the development of this methodology are two-fold. First, a system comprising sensors, related hardware and software for multi-modal data capture is designed for data collection in a controlled environment. Second, a protocol is developed for manual scoring of chewing and swallowing for use as a gold standard. The multi-modal data capture was tested by measuring chewing and swallowing in 21 volunteers during periods of food intake and quiet sitting (no food intake). Video footage and sensor signals were manually scored by trained raters. Inter-rater reliability study for three raters conducted on the sample set of five subjects resulted in high average intra-class correlation coefficients of 0.996 for bites, 0.988 for chews and 0.98 for swallows. The collected sensor signals and the resulting manual scores will be used in future research as a gold standard for further assessment of sensor design, development of automatic pattern recognition routines and study of the relationship between swallowing/chewing and ingestive behavior

  15. Conscious brain-to-brain communication in humans using non-invasive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Carles; Ginhoux, Romuald; Riera, Alejandro; Nguyen, Thanh Lam; Chauvat, Hubert; Berg, Michel; Amengual, Julià L; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Ruffini, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    Human sensory and motor systems provide the natural means for the exchange of information between individuals, and, hence, the basis for human civilization. The recent development of brain-computer interfaces (BCI) has provided an important element for the creation of brain-to-brain communication systems, and precise brain stimulation techniques are now available for the realization of non-invasive computer-brain interfaces (CBI). These technologies, BCI and CBI, can be combined to realize the vision of non-invasive, computer-mediated brain-to-brain (B2B) communication between subjects (hyperinteraction). Here we demonstrate the conscious transmission of information between human brains through the intact scalp and without intervention of motor or peripheral sensory systems. Pseudo-random binary streams encoding words were transmitted between the minds of emitter and receiver subjects separated by great distances, representing the realization of the first human brain-to-brain interface. In a series of experiments, we established internet-mediated B2B communication by combining a BCI based on voluntary motor imagery-controlled electroencephalographic (EEG) changes with a CBI inducing the conscious perception of phosphenes (light flashes) through neuronavigated, robotized transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), with special care taken to block sensory (tactile, visual or auditory) cues. Our results provide a critical proof-of-principle demonstration for the development of conscious B2B communication technologies. More fully developed, related implementations will open new research venues in cognitive, social and clinical neuroscience and the scientific study of consciousness. We envision that hyperinteraction technologies will eventually have a profound impact on the social structure of our civilization and raise important ethical issues.

  16. Conscious brain-to-brain communication in humans using non-invasive technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Grau

    Full Text Available Human sensory and motor systems provide the natural means for the exchange of information between individuals, and, hence, the basis for human civilization. The recent development of brain-computer interfaces (BCI has provided an important element for the creation of brain-to-brain communication systems, and precise brain stimulation techniques are now available for the realization of non-invasive computer-brain interfaces (CBI. These technologies, BCI and CBI, can be combined to realize the vision of non-invasive, computer-mediated brain-to-brain (B2B communication between subjects (hyperinteraction. Here we demonstrate the conscious transmission of information between human brains through the intact scalp and without intervention of motor or peripheral sensory systems. Pseudo-random binary streams encoding words were transmitted between the minds of emitter and receiver subjects separated by great distances, representing the realization of the first human brain-to-brain interface. In a series of experiments, we established internet-mediated B2B communication by combining a BCI based on voluntary motor imagery-controlled electroencephalographic (EEG changes with a CBI inducing the conscious perception of phosphenes (light flashes through neuronavigated, robotized transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, with special care taken to block sensory (tactile, visual or auditory cues. Our results provide a critical proof-of-principle demonstration for the development of conscious B2B communication technologies. More fully developed, related implementations will open new research venues in cognitive, social and clinical neuroscience and the scientific study of consciousness. We envision that hyperinteraction technologies will eventually have a profound impact on the social structure of our civilization and raise important ethical issues.

  17. Non-invasive shallow seismic source comparison for hazardous waste site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, W.E.

    1994-01-01

    Many commonly used shallow seismic sources are unacceptable for hazardous waste site investigations because they risk exhumation of contaminants in the soil, they add contaminants (e.g. lead) which are not allowed by regulations, or they add new migration paths for contaminants. Furthermore, recently developed high frequency vibrators for shallow investigations could be more effective at some sites than non-invasive impulsive sources because of their ability to tailor the source spectrum and reduce interference. The authors show preliminary results of a comparison test of eight non-invasive impulsive and swept sources in preparation for seismic reflection profiling on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee. Well log data are used to determine geologic contacts and to generate synthetic seismograms for the site. Common midpoint (CMP) seismic data for each source were collected at 95 geophone groups from 125 shot points along a 400m test line. Hydrophone data were obtained at 1.5m spacing between 61m and 133m depth in a hole near the center of the CMP line. As of March, 1994, brute stacks have been completed for three of the eight sources. Depth penetration is demonstrated in brute stacks and shot gathers, which show a 200ms reflector for all of the sources tested along portions of the line. Source effectiveness will also be evaluated by comparing images of several shallower reflectors (40--150ms) which are apparent in many of the records. Imaging of these reflectors appears to depend upon the ability of the source to generate sufficient high frequency energy (>100 Hz)

  18. Genomic comparison of invasive and rare non-invasive strains reveals Porphyromonas gingivalis genetic polymorphisms

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    Svetlana Dolgilevich

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis strains are shown to invade human cells in vitro with different invasion efficiencies, varying by up to three orders of magnitude.We tested the hypothesis that invasion-associated interstrain genomic polymorphisms are present in P. gingivalis and that putative invasion-associated genes can contribute to P. gingivalis invasion.Using an invasive (W83 and the only available non-invasive P. gingivalis strain (AJW4 and whole genome microarrays followed by two separate software tools, we carried out comparative genomic hybridization (CGH analysis.We identified 68 annotated and 51 hypothetical open reading frames (ORFs that are polymorphic between these strains. Among these are surface proteins, lipoproteins, capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis enzymes, regulatory and immunoreactive proteins, integrases, and transposases often with abnormal GC content and clustered on the chromosome. Amplification of selected ORFs was used to validate the approach and the selection. Eleven clinical strains were investigated for the presence of selected ORFs. The putative invasion-associated ORFs were present in 10 of the isolates. The invasion ability of three isogenic mutants, carrying deletions in PG0185, PG0186, and PG0982 was tested. The PG0185 (ragA and PG0186 (ragB mutants had 5.1×103-fold and 3.6×103-fold decreased in vitro invasion ability, respectively.The annotation of divergent ORFs suggests deficiency in multiple genes as a basis for P. gingivalis non-invasive phenotype. Access the supplementary material to this article: Supplement, table (see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online.

  19. A non-invasive experimental approach for surface temperature measurements on semi-crystalline thermoplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boztepe, Sinan; Gilblas, Remi; de Almeida, Olivier; Le Maoult, Yannick; Schmidt, Fabrice

    2017-10-01

    Most of the thermoforming processes of thermoplastic polymers and their composites are performed adopting a combined heating and forming stages at which a precursor is heated prior to the forming. This step is done in order to improve formability by softening the thermoplastic polymer. Due to low thermal conductivity and semi-transparency of polymers, infrared (IR) heating is widely used for thermoforming of such materials. Predictive radiation heat transfer models for temperature distributions are therefore critical for optimizations of thermoforming process. One of the key challenges is to build a predictive model including the physical background of radiation heat transfer phenomenon in semi-crystalline thermoplastics as their microcrystalline structure introduces an optically heterogeneous medium. In addition, the accuracy of a predictive model is required to be validated experimentally where IR thermography is one of the suitable methods for such a validation as it provides a non-invasive, full-field surface temperature measurement. Although IR cameras provide a non-invasive measurement, a key issue for obtaining a reliable measurement depends on the optical characteristics of a heated material and the operating spectral band of IR camera. It is desired that the surface of a material to be measured has a spectral band where the material behaves opaque and an employed IR camera operates in the corresponding band. In this study, the optical characteristics of the PO-based polymer are discussed and, an experimental approach is proposed in order to measure the surface temperature of the PO-based polymer via IR thermography. The preliminary analyses showed that IR thermographic measurements may not be simply performed on PO-based polymers and require a correction method as their semi-transparent medium introduce a challenge to obtain reliable surface temperature measurements.

  20. Non-invasive stem cell therapy in a rat model for retinal degeneration and vascular pathology.

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    Shaomei Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Retinitis pigmentosa (RP is characterized by progressive night blindness, visual field loss, altered vascular permeability and loss of central vision. Currently there is no effective treatment available except gene replacement therapy has shown promise in a few patients with specific gene defects. There is an urgent need to develop therapies that offer generic neuro-and vascular-protective effects with non-invasive intervention. Here we explored the potential of systemic administration of pluripotent bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs to rescue vision and associated vascular pathology in the Royal College Surgeons (RCS rat, a well-established animal model for RP. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Animals received syngeneic MSCs (1x10(6 cells by tail vein at an age before major photoreceptor loss. PRINCIPAL RESULTS: both rod and cone photoreceptors were preserved (5-6 cells thick at the time when control animal has a single layer of photoreceptors remained; Visual function was significantly preserved compared with controls as determined by visual acuity and luminance threshold recording from the superior colliculus; The number of pathological vascular complexes (abnormal vessels associated with migrating pigment epithelium cells and area of vascular leakage that would ordinarily develop were dramatically reduced; Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated there was upregulation of growth factors and immunohistochemistry revealed that there was an increase in neurotrophic factors within eyes of animals that received MSCs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results underscore the potential application of MSCs in treating retinal degeneration. The advantages of this non-invasive cell-based therapy are: cells are easily isolated and can be expanded in large quantity for autologous graft; hypoimmunogenic nature as allogeneic donors; less controversial in nature than other stem cells; can be readministered with minor discomfort

  1. Non-invasive long-term fluorescence live imaging of Tribolium castaneum embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobl, Frederic; Stelzer, Ernst H K

    2014-06-01

    Insect development has contributed significantly to our understanding of metazoan development. However, most information has been obtained by analyzing a single species, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Embryonic development of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum differs fundamentally from that of Drosophila in aspects such as short-germ development, embryonic leg development, extensive extra-embryonic membrane formation and non-involuted head development. Although Tribolium has become the second most important insect model organism, previous live imaging attempts have addressed only specific questions and no long-term live imaging data of Tribolium embryogenesis have been available. By combining light sheet-based fluorescence microscopy with a novel mounting method, we achieved complete, continuous and non-invasive fluorescence live imaging of Tribolium embryogenesis at high spatiotemporal resolution. The embryos survived the 2-day or longer imaging process, developed into adults and produced fertile progeny. Our data document all morphogenetic processes from the rearrangement of the uniform blastoderm to the onset of regular muscular movement in the same embryo and in four orientations, contributing significantly to the understanding of Tribolium development. Furthermore, we created a comprehensive chronological table of Tribolium embryogenesis, integrating most previous work and providing a reference for future studies. Based on our observations, we provide evidence that serosa window closure and serosa opening, although deferred by more than 1 day, are linked. All our long-term imaging datasets are available as a resource for the community. Tribolium is only the second insect species, after Drosophila, for which non-invasive long-term fluorescence live imaging has been achieved. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Non-Invasive Detection of Lung Inflammation by Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging Using Bimodal Liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desu, Hari R; Wood, George C; Thoma, Laura A

    2016-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and its more severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome results in respiratory obstruction and severe lung inflammation. Critical characteristics of ALI are alveolar edema, infiltration of leukocytes (neutrophils and monocytes), release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines into broncho-alveolar lavage fluid, and activation of integrin receptors. The purpose of the study was to demonstrate non-invasive detection of lung inflammation using integrin receptor targeted fluorescence liposomes. An inflammation similar to that observed in ALI was elicited in rodents by intra-tracheal instillation of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). Cyclic arginine glycine-(D)-aspartic acid-peptide (cRGD-peptide) grafted fluorescence liposomes were administered to ALI induced male Sprague-Dawley rats for targeting lung integrin receptors. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRFI) was applied for visualization and quantitation of lung inflammation. NIRFI signals were correlated with inflammatory cellular and biochemical markers of lungs. A positive correlation was observed between NIRF signals and lung inflammation markers. Compared to control group, an intense NIRF signal was observed in ALI induced rats in the window 6-24 h post-IL-1beta instillation. Interaction of integrin receptors with targeted liposomes was assumed to contribute to intense NIRF signal. RT-PCR studies showed an elevated lung expression of alphavbeta5 integrin receptors, 12 h post-IL-1beta instillation. In vitro studies demonstrated integrin receptor specificity of targeted liposomes. These targeted liposomes showed binding to alphavbeta5 integrin receptors expressed on alveolar cells. Non-invasive detection of lung inflammation was demonstrated using a combination of integrin receptor targeting and NIRFI.

  3. Drug detection in breath: non-invasive assessment of illicit or pharmaceutical drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefz, Phillip; Kamysek, Svend; Fuchs, Patricia; Sukul, Pritam; Schubert, Jochen K; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2017-03-20

    Breath analysis not only holds great potential for the development of new non-invasive diagnostic methods, but also for the identification and follow up of drug levels in breath. This is of interest for both, forensic and medical science. On the one hand, the detection of drugs of abuse in exhaled breath-similar to the well-known breath alcohol tests-would be highly desirable as an alternative to blood or urine analysis in situations such as police controls for drugged driving. The non-invasive detection of drugs and their metabolites is thus of great interest in forensic science, especially since marijuana is becoming legalized in certain parts of the US and the EU. The detection and monitoring of medical drugs in exhaled breath without the need of drawing blood samples on the other hand, is of high relevance in the clinical environment. This could facilitate a more precise medication and enable therapy control without any burden to the patient. Furthermore, it could be a step towards personalized medicine. This review gives an overview of the current state of drug detection in breath, including both volatile and non-volatile substances. The review is divided into two sections. The first section deals with qualitative detection of drugs (drugs of abuse), while the second is related to quantitative drug detection (medical drugs). Chances and limitations are discussed for both aspects. The detection of the intravenous anesthetic propofol is presented as a detailed example that demonstrates the potential, requirements, pitfalls and limitations of therapeutic drug monitoring by means of breath analysis.

  4. UWB based low-cost and non-invasive practical breast cancer early detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasarveswari, V.; Khatun, S.; Fakir, M. M.; Jusoh, M.; Ali, S.

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the main causes of women death worldwide. Breast tumor is an early stage of cancer that locates in cells of a human breast. As there is no remedy, early detection is crucial. Towards this, Ultra-Wideband (UWB) is a prominent candidate. It is a wireless communication technology which can achieve high bandwidth with low power utilization. UWB is suitable to be used for short range communication systems including breast cancer detection since it is secure, non-invasive and human health friendly. This paper presents the low-cost and non-invasive early breast cancer detection strategy using UWB sensor (or antenna). Emphasis is given here to detect breast tumor in 2D and 3D environments. The developed system consisted of hardware and software. Hardware included UWB transceiver and a pair of home-made directional sensor/antenna. The software included feed-forward back propagation Neural Network (NN) module to detect the tumor existence, size and location along with soft interface between software and hardware. Forward scattering technique was used by placing two sensors diagonally opposite sides of a breast phantom. UWB pulses were transmitted from one side of phantom and received from other side, controlled by the software interface in PC environment. Collected received signals were then fed into the NN module for training, testing and validation. The system exhibited detection efficiency on tumor existence, location (x, y, z), and size were approximately 100%, (78.17%, 70.66%, 92.46%), 85.86% respectively. The proposed UWB based early breast cancer detection system could be more practical with low-cost, user friendly and non-harmful features. This project may help users to monitor their breast health regularly at their home.

  5. A non-invasive method of quantifying pancreatic volume in mice using micro-MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L Paredes

    Full Text Available In experimental models of pancreatic growth and recovery, changes in pancreatic size are assessed by euthanizing a large cohort of animals at varying time points and measuring organ mass. However, to ascertain this information in clinical practice, patients with pancreatic disorders routinely undergo non-invasive cross-sectional imaging of the pancreas using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI or computed tomography (CT. The aim of the current study was to develop a thin-sliced, optimized sequence protocol using a high field MRI to accurately calculate pancreatic volumes in the most common experimental animal, the mouse. Using a 7 Telsa Bruker micro-MRI system, we performed abdominal imaging in whole-fixed mice in three standard planes: axial, sagittal, and coronal. The contour of the pancreas was traced using Vitrea software and then transformed into a 3-dimensional (3D reconstruction, from which volumetric measurements were calculated. Images were optimized using heart perfusion-fixation, T1 sequence analysis, and 0.2 to 0.4 mm thick slices. As proof of principle, increases in pancreatic volume among mice of different ages correlated tightly with increasing body weight. In summary, this is the first study to measure pancreatic volumes in mice, using a high field 7 Tesla micro-MRI and a thin-sliced, optimized sequence protocol. We anticipate that micro-MRI will improve the ability to non-invasively quantify changes in pancreatic size and will dramatically reduce the number of animals required to serially assess pancreatic growth and recovery.

  6. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation after the successful weaning: a comparison with the venturi mask

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Adıyeke

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: This study compared the rates of acute respiratory failure, reintubation, length of intensive care stay and mortality in patients in whom the non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV was applied instead of the routine venturi face mask (VM application after a successful weaning. Methods: Following the approval of the hospital ethics committee, 62 patients who were under mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours were scheduled for this study. 12 patients were excluded because of the weaning failure during T-tube trial. The patients who had optimum weaning criteria after the T-tube trial of 30 minutes were extubated. The patients were kept on VM for 1 hour to observe the hemodynamic and respiratory stability. The group of 50 patients who were successful to wean randomly allocated to have either VM (n = 25, or NIV (n = 25. Systolic arterial pressure (SAP, heart rate (HR, respiratory rate (RR, PaO2, PCO2, and pH values were recorded. Results: The number of patients who developed respiratory failure in the NIV group was significantly less than VM group of patients (3 reintubation vs. 14 NIV + 5 reintubation in the VM group. The length of stay in the ICU was also significantly shorter in NIV group (5.2 ± 4.9 vs. 16.7 ± 7.7 days. Conclusions: The ratio of the respiratory failure and the length of stay in the ICU were lower when non-invasive mechanical ventilation was used after extubation even if the patient is regarded as ‘successfully weaned’. We recommend the use of NIMV in such patients to avoid unexpected ventilator failure.

  7. Non-Invasive Pneumothorax Detector Final Report CRADA No. TC02110.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, J. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Purcell, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-29

    This was a collaborative effort between Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC as manager and operator of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and ElectroSonics Medical Inc. (formerly known as BIOMEC, Inc.), to develop a non-invasive pneumothorax detector based upon the micropower impulse radar technology invented at LLNL. Under a Work for Others Subcontract (L-9248), LLNL and ElectroSonics successfully demonstrated the feasibility of a novel device for non-invasive detection of pneumothorax for emergency and long-term monitoring. The device is based on Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR) Ultra Wideband (UWB) technology. Phase I experimental results were promising, showing that a pneumothorax volume even as small as 30 ml was clearly detectable from the MIR signals. Phase I results contributed to the award of a National Institute of Health (NIH) SBIR Phase II grant to support further research and development. The Phase II award led to the establishment of a LLNL/ElectroSonics CRADA related to Case No. TC02045.0. Under the subsequent CRADA, LLNL and ElectroSonics successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the pneumothorax detection in human subject research trials. Under this current CRADA TC02110.0, also referred to as Phase II Type II, the project scope consisted of seven tasks in Project Year 1; five tasks in Project Year 2; and four tasks in Project Year 3. Year 1 tasks were aimed toward the delivery of the pneumothorax detector design package for the pre-production of the miniaturized CompactFlash dockable version of the system. The tasks in Project Years 2 and 3 critically depended upon the accomplishments of Task 1. Since LLNL’s task was to provide subject matter expertise and performance verification, much of the timeline of engagement by the LLNL staff depended upon the overall project milestones as determined by the lead organization ElectroSonics. The scope of efforts were subsequently adjusted accordingly to commensurate with funding

  8. Fecal lipocalin 2, a sensitive and broadly dynamic non-invasive biomarker for intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassaing, Benoit; Srinivasan, Gayathri; Delgado, Maria A; Young, Andrew N; Gewirtz, Andrew T; Vijay-Kumar, Matam

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation has classically been defined histopathologically, especially by the presence of immune cell infiltrates. However, more recent studies suggest a role for "low-grade" inflammation in a variety of disorders ranging from metabolic syndrome to cancer, which is defined by modest elevations in pro-inflammatory gene expression. Consequently, there is a need for cost-effective, non-invasive biomarkers that, ideally, would have the sensitivity to detect low-grade inflammation and have a dynamic range broad enough to reflect classic robust intestinal inflammation. Herein, we report that, for assessment of intestinal inflammation, fecal lipocalin 2 (Lcn-2), measured by ELISA, serves this purpose. Specifically, using a well-characterized mouse model of DSS colitis, we observed that fecal Lcn-2 and intestinal expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, CXCL1, TNFα) are modestly but significantly induced by very low concentrations of DSS (0.25 and 0.5%), and become markedly elevated at higher concentrations of DSS (1.0 and 4.0%). As expected, careful histopathologic analysis noted only modest immune infiltrates at low DSS concentration and robust colitis at higher DSS concentrations. In accordance, increased levels of the neutrophil product myeloperoxidase (MPO) was only detected in mice given 1.0 and 4.0% DSS. In addition, fecal Lcn-2 marks the severity of spontaneous colitis development in IL-10 deficient mice. Unlike histopathology, MPO, and q-RT-PCR, the assay of fecal Lcn-2 requires only a stool sample, permits measurement over time, and can detect inflammation as early as 1 day following DSS administration. Thus, assay of fecal Lcn-2 by ELISA can function as a non-invasive, sensitive, dynamic, stable and cost-effective means to monitor intestinal inflammation in mice.

  9. A non-invasive, quantitative study of broadband spectral responses in human visual cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline R Kupers

    Full Text Available Currently, non-invasive methods for studying the human brain do not routinely and reliably measure spike-rate-dependent signals, independent of responses such as hemodynamic coupling (fMRI and subthreshold neuronal synchrony (oscillations and event-related potentials. In contrast, invasive methods-microelectrode recordings and electrocorticography (ECoG-have recently measured broadband power elevation in field potentials (~50-200 Hz as a proxy for locally averaged spike rates. Here, we sought to detect and quantify stimulus-related broadband responses using magnetoencephalography (MEG. Extracranial measurements like MEG and EEG have multiple global noise sources and relatively low signal-to-noise ratios; moreover high frequency artifacts from eye movements can be confounded with stimulus design and mistaken for signals originating from brain activity. For these reasons, we developed an automated denoising technique that helps reveal the broadband signal of interest. Subjects viewed 12-Hz contrast-reversing patterns in the left, right, or bilateral visual field. Sensor time series were separated into evoked (12-Hz amplitude and broadband components (60-150 Hz. In all subjects, denoised broadband responses were reliably measured in sensors over occipital cortex, even in trials without microsaccades. The broadband pattern was stimulus-dependent, with greater power contralateral to the stimulus. Because we obtain reliable broadband estimates with short experiments (~20 minutes, and with sufficient signal-to-noise to distinguish responses to different stimuli, we conclude that MEG broadband signals, denoised with our method, offer a practical, non-invasive means for characterizing spike-rate-dependent neural activity for addressing scientific questions about human brain function.

  10. Non-invasive monitoring of chewing and swallowing for objective quantification of ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonov, Edward; Schuckers, Stephanie; Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Makeyev, Oleksandr; Sazonova, Nadezhda; Melanson, Edward L; Neuman, Michael

    2008-05-01

    A methodology of studying of ingestive behavior by non-invasive monitoring of swallowing (deglutition) and chewing (mastication) has been developed. The target application for the developed methodology is to study the behavioral patterns of food consumption and producing volumetric and weight estimates of energy intake. Monitoring is non-invasive based on detecting swallowing by a sound sensor located over laryngopharynx or by a bone-conduction microphone and detecting chewing through a below-the-ear strain sensor. Proposed sensors may be implemented in a wearable monitoring device, thus enabling monitoring of ingestive behavior in free-living individuals. In this paper, the goals in the development of this methodology are two-fold. First, a system comprising sensors, related hardware and software for multi-modal data capture is designed for data collection in a controlled environment. Second, a protocol is developed for manual scoring of chewing and swallowing for use as a gold standard. The multi-modal data capture was tested by measuring chewing and swallowing in 21 volunteers during periods of food intake and quiet sitting (no food intake). Video footage and sensor signals were manually scored by trained raters. Inter-rater reliability study for three raters conducted on the sample set of five subjects resulted in high average intra-class correlation coefficients of 0.996 for bites, 0.988 for chews and 0.98 for swallows. The collected sensor signals and the resulting manual scores will be used in future research as a gold standard for further assessment of sensor design, development of automatic pattern recognition routines and study of the relationship between swallowing/chewing and ingestive behavior.

  11. Non-invasive brain stimulation of motor cortex induces embodiment when integrated with virtual reality feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassolino, M; Franza, M; Bello Ruiz, J; Pinardi, M; Schmidlin, T; Stephan, M A; Solcà, M; Serino, A; Blanke, O

    2018-04-01

    Previous evidence highlighted the multisensory-motor origin of embodiment - that is, the experience of having a body and of being in control of it - and the possibility of experimentally manipulating it. For instance, an illusory feeling of embodiment towards a fake hand can be triggered by providing synchronous visuo-tactile stimulation to the hand of participants and to a fake hand or by asking participants to move their hand and observe a fake hand moving accordingly (rubber hand illusion). Here, we tested whether it is possible to manipulate embodiment not through stimulation of the participant's hand, but by directly tapping into the brain's hand representation via non-invasive brain stimulation. To this aim, we combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), to activate the hand corticospinal representation, with virtual reality (VR), to provide matching (as contrasted to non-matching) visual feedback, mimicking involuntary hand movements evoked by TMS. We show that the illusory embodiment occurred when TMS pulses were temporally matched with VR feedback, but not when TMS was administered outside primary motor cortex, (over the vertex) or when stimulating motor cortex at a lower intensity (that did not activate peripheral muscles). Behavioural (questionnaires) and neurophysiological (motor-evoked-potentials, TMS-evoked-movements) measures further indicated that embodiment was not explained by stimulation per se, but depended on the temporal coherence between TMS-induced activation of hand corticospinal representation and the virtual bodily feedback. This reveals that non-invasive brain stimulation may replace the application of external tactile hand cues and motor components related to volition, planning and anticipation. © 2018 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Non-invasive carboxyhemoglobin monitoring: screening emergency medical services patients for carbon monoxide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilson, Douglas; Partridge, Robert; Suner, Selim; Jay, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) toxicity is a significant health problem. The use of non-invasive pulse CO-oximetry screening in the emergency department has demonstrated that the rapid screening of numerous individuals for CO toxicity is simple and capable of identifying occult cases of CO toxicity. The objective of this study was to extend the use of this handheld device to the prehospital arena, assess carboxyhemoglobin (SpCO) levels in emergency medical services (EMS) patients, and correlate these levels with clinical and demographic data. This was a retrospective, observational, chart review of adult patients transported to hospital emergency departments by urban fire department EMS ambulances during a six-week period. Each ambulance used a non-invasive pulse CO-oximeter (Rad-57, Masimo Inc.) to record patients' COHb concentrations (SpCO) along with the standard EMS assessment data. Spearman's Rank Correlation tests and Student's t-tests were used to analyze the data and calculate relationships between SpCO and other variables (age, gender, respiratory rate, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry). A total of 36.4% of the patients transported during the study had SpCO documented. Of the 1,017 adults included in this group, 11 (1.1%) had an SpCO >15%. There was no correlation between SpCO and heart rate, ventilatory rate, mean arterial pressure, and oxygen saturation. Screening for CO toxicity in the EMS setting is possible, and may aid in the early detection and treatment of CO-poisoned patients.

  13. Radiofrequency ablation of osteoid osteoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderschueren, Geert Maria Joris Michael

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of CT-guided radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of spinal and non-spinal osteoid osteomas. Furthermore, the technical requirements needed for safe radiofrequency ablation and the clinical outcome after radiofrequency

  14. BrainStorm: a psychosocial game suite design for non-invasive cross-generational cognitive capabilities data collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Faizan; Chen, Yiqiang; Hu, Lisha; Wang, Shuangquan; Wang, Jindong; Chen, Zhenyu; Jiang, Xinlong; Shen, Jianfei

    2017-11-01

    Currently available traditional as well as videogame-based cognitive assessment techniques are inappropriate due to several reasons. This paper presents a novel psychosocial game suite, BrainStorm, for non-invasive cross-generational cognitive capabilities data collection, which additionally provides cross-generational social support. A motivation behind the development of presented game suite is to provide an entertaining and exciting platform for its target users in order to collect gameplay-based cognitive capabilities data in a non-invasive manner. An extensive evaluation of the presented game suite demonstrated high acceptability and attraction for its target users. Besides, the data collection process is successfully reported as transparent and non-invasive.

  15. A General Approach to the Non-Invasive Imaging of Transgenes Using Cis-Linked Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine Kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juri G. Tjuvajev

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive imaging of gene expression opens new prospects for the study of transgenic animals and the implementation of genetically based therapies in patients. We have sought to establish a general paradigm to enable whole body non-invasive imaging of any transgene. We show that the expression and imaging of HSV1-tk (a marker gene can be used to monitor the expression of the LacZ gene (a second gene under the transcriptional control of a single promoter within a bicistronic unit that includes a type II internal ribosomal entry site. In cells bearing a single copy of the vector, the expression of the two genes is proportional and constant, both in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate that non-invasive imaging of HSV1-tk gene accurately reflects the topology and activity of the other cis-linked transgene.

  16. Fractional flow reserve derived from coronary CT angiography in stable coronary disease: a new standard in non-invasive testing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noergaard, B.L.; Jensen, J.M.; Leipsic, J.

    2015-01-01

    Fractional flow reserve (FFR) measured during invasive coronary angiography is the gold standard for lesion-specific decisions on coronary revascularization in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Current guidelines recommend non-invasive functional or anatomic testing as a gatekeeper to the catheterization laboratory. However, the ''holy grail'' in non-invasive testing of CAD is to establish a single test that quantifies both coronary lesion severity and the associated ischemia. Most evidence to date of such a test is based on the addition of computational analysis of FFR to the anatomic information obtained from standard-acquired coronary CTA data sets at rest (FFR CT ). This review summarizes the clinical evidence for the use of FFR CT in stable CAD in context to the diagnostic performance of other non-invasive testing modalities. (orig.)

  17. Characterisation of a novel transmission Raman spectroscopy platform for non-invasive detection of breast micro-calcifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghita, Adrian; Matousek, Pavel; Stone, Nick

    2018-02-01

    Our work focuses on the development of a medical Raman spectroscopy based platform to non-invasively detect and determine in-vivo molecular information deep inside biological tissues by monitoring the chemical composition of breast calcifications. The ultimate goal is to replace a needle biopsy which typically follows the detection of an abnormality in mammographic images. Here we report the non-invasive detection of calcium oxalate monohydrate in tissue through 40 mm of phantom tissues using our recently developed advanced Raman instrument complementing our previous detection of calcium hydroxyapatite through this thickness of tissue. The ability to detect these two key types of calcifications opens avenues for the development of non-invasive in-vivo breast cancer diagnostic tool in the future.

  18. Non-invasive monitoring of pulmonary artery pressure from timing information by EIT: experimental evaluation during induced hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Martin; Braun, Fabian; Solà, Josep; Adler, Andy; Lemay, Mathieu; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Rimoldi, Stefano F

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring of pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) in pulmonary hypertensive patients is currently limited to invasive solutions. We investigate a novel non-invasive approach for continuous monitoring of PAP, based on electrical impedance tomography (EIT), a safe, low-cost and non-invasive imaging technology. EIT recordings were performed in three healthy subjects undergoing hypoxia-induced PAP variations. The pulmonary pulse arrival time (PAT), a timing parameter physiologically linked to the PAP, was automatically calculated from the EIT signals. Values were compared to systolic PAP values from Doppler echocardiography, and yielded strong correlation scores ([Formula: see text]) for all three subjects. Results suggest the feasibility of non-invasive, unsupervised monitoring of PAP.

  19. Effect of prophylactic non-invasive mechanical ventilation on functional capacity after heart valve replacement: a clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaro Afrânio de Araújo-Filho

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: During cardiac surgery, several factors contribute to the development of postoperative pulmonary complications. Non-invasive ventilation is a promising therapeutic tool for improving the functionality of this type of patient. The aim of this study is to evaluate the functional capacity and length of stay of patients in a nosocomial intensive care unit who underwent prophylactic non-invasive ventilation after heart valve replacement. METHOD: The study was a controlled clinical trial, comprising 50 individuals of both sexes who were allocated by randomization into two groups with 25 patients in each group: the control group and experimental group. After surgery, the patients were transferred to the intensive care unit and then participated in standard physical therapy, which was provided to the experimental group after 3 applications of non-invasive ventilation within the first 26 hours after extubation. For non-invasive ventilation, the positive pressure was 10 cm H2O, with a duration of 1 hour. The evaluation was performed on the 7th postoperative day/discharge and included a 6-minute walk test. The intensive care unit and hospitalization times were monitored in both groups. Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (REBeC: RBR number 8bxdd3. RESULTS: Analysis of the 6-minute walk test showed that the control group walked an average distance of 264.34±76 meters and the experimental group walked an average distance of 334.07±71 meters (p=0.002. The intensive care unit and hospitalization times did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSION: Non-invasive ventilation as a therapeutic resource was effective toward improving functionality; however, non-invasive ventilation did not influence the intensive care unit or hospitalization times of the studied cardiac patients.

  20. Precision analysis of a multi-slice ultrasound sensor for non-invasive 3D kinematic analysis of knee joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masum, Md Abdullah; Lambert, Andrew J; Pickering, Mark R; Scarvell, J M; Smith, P N

    2012-01-01

    Currently the standard clinical practice for measuring the motion of bones in a knee joint with sufficient precision involves implanting tantalum beads into the bones to act as fiducial markers prior to imaging using X-ray equipment. This procedure is invasive in nature and exposure to ionizing radiation imposes a cancer risk and the patient's movements are confined to a narrow field of view. In this paper, an ultrasound based system for non-invasive kinematic evaluation of knee joints is proposed. The results of an initial analysis show that this system can provide the precision required for non-invasive motion analysis while the patient performs normal physical activities.

  1. State-of-the-art sensor technology in Spain: invasive and non-invasive techniques for monitoring respiratory variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Christian; Blanch, Lluis; Murias, Gaston; Luján, Manel

    2010-01-01

    The interest in measuring physiological parameters (especially arterial blood gases) has grown progressively in parallel to the development of new technologies. Physiological parameters were first measured invasively and at discrete time points; however, it was clearly desirable to measure them continuously and non-invasively. The development of intensive care units promoted the use of ventilators via oral intubation ventilators via oral intubation and mechanical respiratory variables were progressively studied. Later, the knowledge gained in the hospital was applied to out-of-hospital management. In the present paper we review the invasive and non-invasive techniques for monitoring respiratory variables.

  2. Contrast-enhanced MR venography of the head using magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo imaging. Comparison between head and body radiofrequency transmitter coil systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunobu, Satosi; Amanuma, Makoto; Tsukuda, Shunji

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the image quality and vascular selectivity of MR venography of the head using an magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo (MP-RAGE) technique when obtained with a body radiofrequency transmitter coil system. A total of 24 patients were imaged with a head or body radiofrequency (RF) transmission system. Subtraction MR angiography (MRA) was processed with 0.1 mmol Gd-DTPA administration, and signal-to-noise ratios of the vascular system were measured. Venous demonstration and selectivity were also assessed. MP-RAGE MR venography with a body transmission system showed almost the same signal intensity for the venous and arterial systems, resulting in nonspecific vascular demonstration, while the head transmission system showed semi-selective venograms owing to inflow-induced high signal on precontrast images. However, MRA with a body transmission system provided a 1.5- to 2.5-fold higher signal-to-noise ratios based on higher gradient performance and excellent demonstration of the head veins, especially those below the skull base. Although selective venography was difficult, MRA with a body transmission coil provided excellent vascular images of the brain. (author)

  3. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis for fetal sex determination: benefits and disadvantages from the service users' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Celine; Hill, Melissa; Skirton, Heather; Chitty, Lyn S

    2012-11-01

    Prenatal fetal sex determination is clinically indicated for women who are at risk of having a child with a serious genetic disorder affecting a particular sex. Ultrasound has been the traditional method used, but early fetal sex determination using non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) can now be performed using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma. The study aim was to assess the views and experiences of service users who had used NIPD for fetal sex determination. In this paper, we report on the perceived benefits and disadvantages. A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews was used. A total of 44 participants (38 women and 6 partners of participating women) were recruited. Participants' views and experiences of NIPD were overwhelmingly positive. Concerning benefits over traditional methods, three themes emerged: (1) technical aspects of technology; (2) timing; and (3) enhanced decision-making. Practical advantages of NIPD included avoiding miscarriage, and there were a number of psychological advantages associated with timing such as perceived control, early re-engagement, normalization of pregnancy and peace of mind. Participants also valued NIPD as it enabled a stepwise approach to decision-making. A number of disadvantages were discussed including concerns about social sexing and increased bonding at a time in pregnancy when miscarriage risk is high. However, participants felt these were fairly minor in comparison with the advantages of NIPD. Until definitive genetic diagnosis using NIPD is available, NIPD for fetal sex determination is perceived as a good interim measure with a number of notable advantages over traditional methods.

  4. Piloting a Non-Invasive Genetic Sampling Method for Evaluating Population-Level Benefits of Wildlife Crossing Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony P. Clevenger

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Intuitively, wildlife crossing structures should enhance the viability of wildlife populations. Previous research has demonstrated that a broad range of species will use crossing structures, however, questions remain as to whether these measures actually provide benefits to populations. To assess this, studies will need to determine the number of individuals using crossings, their sex, and their genetic relationships. Obtaining empirical data demonstrating population-level benefits for some species can be problematic and challenging at best. Molecular techniques now make it possible to identify species, individuals, their sex, and their genetic relatedness from hair samples collected through non-invasive genetic sampling (NGS. We describe efforts to pilot a method to assess potential population-level benefits of wildlife crossing structures. We tested the feasibility of a prototype NGS system designed to sample hair from black bears (Ursus americanus and grizzly bears (U. arctos at two wildlife underpasses. The piloted hair-sampling method did not deter animal use of the trial underpasses and was effective at sampling hair from more than 90% of the bear crossing events at the underpasses. Hair samples were also obtained from non-target carnivore species, including three out of five (60% cougar (Puma concolor crossing events. Individual identification analysis revealed that three female and two male grizzly bears used one wildlife underpass, whereas two female and three male black bears were identified as using the other underpass. Of the 36 hair samples from bears analyzed, five failed, resulting in an 87% extraction success rate, and six more were only identified to species. Overall, 70% of the hair samples from bears collected in the field had sufficient DNA for extraction purposes. Preliminary data from our NGS suggest the technique can be a reliable method to assess the population-level benefits of Banff wildlife crossings. Furthermore, NGS

  5. Non-invasive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS of the Motor Cortex for Neuropathic Pain—At the Tipping Point?

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    Roi Treister

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The term “neuropathic pain” (NP refers to chronic pain caused by illnesses or injuries that damage peripheral or central pain-sensing neural pathways to cause them to fire inappropriately and signal pain without cause. Neuropathic pain is common, complicating diabetes, shingles, HIV, and cancer. Medications are often ineffective or cause various adverse effects, so better approaches are needed. Half a century ago, electrical stimulation of specific brain regions (neuromodulation was demonstrated to relieve refractory NP without distant effects, but the need for surgical electrode implantation limited use of deep brain stimulation. Next, electrodes applied to the dura outside the brain’s surface to stimulate the motor cortex were shown to relieve NP less invasively. Now, electromagnetic induction permits cortical neurons to be stimulated entirely non-invasively using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Repeated sessions of many TMS pulses (rTMS can trigger neuronal plasticity to produce long-lasting therapeutic benefit. Repeated TMS already has US and European regulatory approval for treating refractory depression, and multiple small studies report efficacy for neuropathic pain. Recent improvements include “frameless stereotactic” neuronavigation systems, in which patients’ head MRIs allow TMS to be applied to precise underlying cortical targets, minimizing variability between sessions and patients, which may enhance efficacy. Transcranial magnetic stimulation appears poised for the larger trials necessary for regulatory approval of a NP indication. Since few clinicians are familiar with TMS, we review its theoretical basis and historical development, summarize the neuropathic pain trial results, and identify issues to resolve before large-scale clinical trials.

  6. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis for fetal sex determination: benefits and disadvantages from the service users' perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Celine; Hill, Melissa; Skirton, Heather; Chitty, Lyn S

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal fetal sex determination is clinically indicated for women who are at risk of having a child with a serious genetic disorder affecting a particular sex. Ultrasound has been the traditional method used, but early fetal sex determination using non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) can now be performed using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma. The study aim was to assess the views and experiences of service users who had used NIPD for fetal sex determination. In this paper, we report on the perceived benefits and disadvantages. A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews was used. A total of 44 participants (38 women and 6 partners of participating women) were recruited. Participants' views and experiences of NIPD were overwhelmingly positive. Concerning benefits over traditional methods, three themes emerged: (1) technical aspects of technology; (2) timing; and (3) enhanced decision-making. Practical advantages of NIPD included avoiding miscarriage, and there were a number of psychological advantages associated with timing such as perceived control, early re-engagement, normalization of pregnancy and peace of mind. Participants also valued NIPD as it enabled a stepwise approach to decision-making. A number of disadvantages were discussed including concerns about social sexing and increased bonding at a time in pregnancy when miscarriage risk is high. However, participants felt these were fairly minor in comparison with the advantages of NIPD. Until definitive genetic diagnosis using NIPD is available, NIPD for fetal sex determination is perceived as a good interim measure with a number of notable advantages over traditional methods. PMID:22453293

  7. On the possibility of non-invasive multilayer temperature estimation using soft-computing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, C A; Pereira, W C A; Ruano, A E; Ruano, M Graça

    2010-01-01

    This work reports original results on the possibility of non-invasive temperature estimation (NITE) in a multilayered phantom by applying soft-computing methods. The existence of reliable non-invasive temperature estimator models would improve the security and efficacy of thermal therapies. These points would lead to a broader acceptance of this kind of therapies. Several approaches based on medical imaging technologies were proposed, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) being appointed as the only one to achieve the acceptable temperature resolutions for hyperthermia purposes. However, MRI intrinsic characteristics (e.g., high instrumentation cost) lead us to use backscattered ultrasound (BSU). Among the different BSU features, temporal echo-shifts have received a major attention. These shifts are due to changes of speed-of-sound and expansion of the medium. The originality of this work involves two aspects: the estimator model itself is original (based on soft-computing methods) and the application to temperature estimation in a three-layer phantom is also not reported in literature. In this work a three-layer (non-homogeneous) phantom was developed. The two external layers were composed of (in % of weight): 86.5% degassed water, 11% glycerin and 2.5% agar-agar. The intermediate layer was obtained by adding graphite powder in the amount of 2% of the water weight to the above composition. The phantom was developed to have attenuation and speed-of-sound similar to in vivo muscle, according to the literature. BSU signals were collected and cumulative temporal echo-shifts computed. These shifts and the past temperature values were then considered as possible estimators inputs. A soft-computing methodology was applied to look for appropriate multilayered temperature estimators. The methodology involves radial-basis functions neural networks (RBFNN) with structure optimized by the multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA). In this work 40 operating conditions were

  8. Combination of the non-invasive tests for the diagnosis of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisenblat, Vicki; Prentice, Lucy; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Farquhar, Cindy; Hull, M Louise; Johnson, Neil

    2016-07-13

    About 10% of women of reproductive age suffer from endometriosis, a costly chronic disease causing pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopy is the gold standard diagnostic test for endometriosis, but is expensive and carries surgical risks. Currently, there are no non-invasive tests available in clinical practice to accurately diagnose endometriosis. This review assessed the diagnostic accuracy of combinations of different non-invasive testing modalities for endometriosis and provided a summary of all the reviews in the non-invasive tests for endometriosis series. To estimate the diagnostic accuracy of any combination of non-invasive tests for the diagnosis of pelvic endometriosis (peritoneal and/or ovarian or deep infiltrating) compared to surgical diagnosis as a reference standard. The combined tests were evaluated as replacement tests for diagnostic surgery and triage tests to assist decision-making to undertake diagnostic surgery for endometriosis. We did not restrict the searches to particular study designs, language or publication dates. We searched CENTRAL to July 2015, MEDLINE and EMBASE to May 2015, as well as the following databases to April 2015: CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, LILACS, OAIster, TRIP, ClinicalTrials.gov, DARE and PubMed. We considered published, peer-reviewed, randomised controlled or cross-sectional studies of any size, including prospectively collected samples from any population of women of reproductive age suspected of having one or more of the following target conditions: ovarian, peritoneal or deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). We included studies comparing the diagnostic test accuracy of a combination of several testing modalities with the findings of surgical visualisation of endometriotic lesions. Three review authors independently collected and performed a quality assessment of the data from each study by using the QUADAS-2 tool. For each test, the data were classified as positive or negative for the surgical detection of

  9. Impact of Reclassification on Thyroid Nodules with Architectural Atypia: From Non-Invasive Encapsulated Follicular Variant Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas to Non-Invasive Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm with Papillary-Like Nuclear Features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ji Jeon

    Full Text Available The follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer (FVPTC, especially the encapsulated non-invasive subtype, is a controversial entity. Recent study suggested using 'non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP' for these indolent carcinomas. We evaluated the impact of reclassification from non-invasive encapsulated FVPTCs (EFVPTCs to NIFTPs in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules with architectural atypia.We reviewed 1301 thyroid nodules with architectural atypia in core needle biopsy (CNB specimens obtained from March 2012 to February 2013. Nodules were classified into atypia of undetermined significance with architectural atypia (AUS-A, 984, 76% or follicular neoplasm/suspicious for a follicular neoplasm (FN/SFN, 317, 24%. Among them, diagnostic surgery was performed in 384 nodules (30%.In total, 160 nodules (42% presented final malignant diagnoses including 39 non-invasive encapsulated FVPTCs (10%. The malignancy rate was estimated to be 7-35% in AUS-A nodules and 28-49% in FN/SFN nodules. After reclassification, the malignancy rate was much decreased and estimated to be 5-24% in AUS-A nodules, and 23-39% in FN/SFN nodules. Thyroid nodules with final malignant diagnoses were significantly more likely to have a FN/SFN CNB diagnosis, malignant US features and concomitant nuclear atypia in CNB specimens. However, these factors could not differentiate NIFTPs from other malignancies.After reclassification of non-invasive EFVPTCs to NIFTPs, the malignancy rate of thyroid nodules with architectural atypia in CNB specimens was decreased. However, there were no preoperative factors differentiating other malignancies from NIFTPs. The presence of malignant US features or concomitant nuclear atypia might help clinicians deciding diagnostic surgery but, these features also might indicate NIFTPs.

  10. NON INVASIVE PAIN MANAGEMENT IN POST PARTUM MOTHER WITHEVIDENCE BASED PRACTICE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikmatur Rohmah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pain is a sensation of discomfort that most post-partum mothers complain about, in the case of prolonged pain, the risk of post-partum blues is higher. The usage of evidence based practice method gives a bigger opportunity for nurse and medical attendants to think more critically in making decisions and in performing the appropriate treatment in accordance with the patient's problem and uniqueness. This research aimed to applicate management of non-invasive pain on post partum mother through the approach of evidence based practice. Method: This was a case-study, performed to client Mrs. A P1-1 A0 post sectio caesarea day 1 as there is an indication of suspect cepalo pelvis disproportion secondary arrest. Data were collected at maternity room, dr. Soebandi Regional General Hospital. Using interview, observation, and physical examination. Data analysis was conducted through a descriptive analysis. Result: Through a careful nursing, it is found out that pain location and spreading that generally spotted at the patient’s back during the contraction in the uterus, occurred around the shoulders when evidence-base practice is applied. The basic principle of applying an intervention to non invasive pain based on evidence–base practice are: cutaneous stimulation and distraction, while massaging area was set on the face, while the distraction media was interaction with the baby. Evaluation on evidence –based practice showed that pain is reduced to scale 2, while face and mobilitation become more relaxed. Discussion: Massage was intended to stimulated the production of endorphine and dinorphine that play an important roke to block the pain transmission through the descendent control system. Interaction with the baby was intended to function as a distraction media to dominate the incoming impuls into the ascendant control system,which further may close the gate of the pain transmitter. Both of the interventions were axpected to work

  11. Spirometer Non-Invasive dengan Sensor Piezoelektrik untuk Deteksi Kesehatan Paru-Paru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KEMALASARI KEMALASARI

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Polusi udara dapat mempengaruhi kesehatan paru-paru. Umumnya pengukuran fungsi paru menggunakan spirometer, dilakukan di rumah sakit dan membutuhkan waktu yang lama untuk mengetahui hasilnya. Untuk mengatasi masalah ini, dirancang Spirometer non-invasive yang portable dengan menggunakan sensor piezoelektrik yang diletakkan di dada. Perubahan tekanan yang diukur oleh sensor piezoelektrik adalah 10 – 80 mV, sehingga diperlukan rangkaian amplifier, filter, clamper, mikrokontroler AVR ATMega 32 sebagai pengolah data I/O dan LCD grafik untuk menampilkan hasil ukur serta SD card untuk menyimpan data. Alat ini mengukur  kapasitas vital paru-paru, respirasi rate, dan jika hasil ukur kapasitas vital paru-paru kurang  dari 80 % dari nilai prediksi kapasitas paru-paru maka kondisi paru-paru dideteksi tidak sehat.  Hasil dari pengujian menunjukkan bahwa persentase nilai keberhasilan alat adalah 95,70 %, hasil pengukuran dan deteksi kondisi paru-paru dapat langsung diketahui dari tampilan di LCD grafik, data hasil pengukuran bisa disimpan dan alat berukuran kecil sehingga portable, mudah digunakan oleh siapapun dan dimanapun dengan nyaman. Kata kunci: Spirometer, Piezoelektrik, Mikrokontroler, Kapasitas Paru-Paru, LCD Grafik. ABSTRACT Air pollution can be affected the health of the lungs. Generally the measurement of lungs function use a spirometry, performed  in the hospital and takes a long time to know the results. To overcome this problem, a portable non-invasive Spirometry is designed using a piezoelectric sensors placed on the chest. The changes of pressure is measured by the piezoelectric sensor are 10 - 80 mV, so it needs a amplifier circuit, filter, clamper, ATMega 32 AVR microcontroller as I/O data processor and LCD graph to display result of measurement and SD card for save the data. This instrument measure lungs vital capacity, respiration rate, and if the measured of lungs vital capacity is less than 80 % of the predicted of lung

  12. Spirometer Non-Invasive dengan Sensor Piezoelektrik untuk Deteksi Kesehatan Paru-Paru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KEMALASARI KEMALASARI

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKPolusi udara dapat mempengaruhi kesehatan paru-paru. Umumnya pengukuran fungsi paru menggunakan spirometer, dilakukan di rumah sakit dan membutuhkan waktu yang lama untuk mengetahui hasilnya. Untuk mengatasi masalah ini, dirancang Spirometer non-invasive yang portable dengan menggunakan sensor piezoelektrik yang diletakkan di dada. Perubahan tekanan yang diukur oleh sensor piezoelektrik adalah 10 – 80 mV, sehingga diperlukan rangkaian amplifier, filter, clamper, mikrokontroler AVR ATMega 32 sebagai pengolah data I/O dan LCD grafik untuk menampilkan hasil ukur serta SD card untuk menyimpan data. Alat ini mengukur  kapasitas vital paru-paru, respirasi rate, dan jika hasil ukur kapasitas vital paru-paru kurang  dari 80 % dari nilai prediksi kapasitas paru-paru maka kondisi paru-paru dideteksi tidak sehat.  Hasil dari pengujian menunjukkan bahwa persentase nilai keberhasilan alat adalah 95,70 %, hasil pengukuran dan deteksi kondisi paru-paru dapat langsung diketahui dari tampilan di LCD grafik, data hasil pengukuran bisa disimpan dan alat berukuran kecil sehingga portable, mudah digunakan oleh siapapun dan dimanapun dengan nyaman.Kata kunci: Spirometer, Piezoelektrik, Mikrokontroler, Kapasitas Paru-Paru, LCD Grafik.ABSTRACTAir pollution can be affected the health of the lungs. Generally the measurement of lungs function use a spirometry, performed  in the hospital and takes a long time to know the results. To overcome this problem, a portable non-invasive Spirometry is designed using a piezoelectric sensors placed on the chest. The changes of pressure is measured by the piezoelectric sensor are 10 - 80 mV, so it needs a amplifier circuit, filter, clamper, ATMega 32 AVR microcontroller as I/O data processor and LCD graph to display result of measurement and SD card for save the data. This instrument measure lungs vital capacity, respiration rate, and if the measured of lungs vital capacity is less than 80 % of the predicted of lung

  13. Simple and non-invasive techniques to evaluate the function of CircuLite Synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohite, Prashant N; Bowles, Christopher T; Sabashnikov, Anton; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Patil, Nikhil P; Sáez, Diana García; Banner, Nicholas R; Simon, André R

    2014-11-01

    The Synergy CircuLite micropump is a novel partial-support miniature left ventricular assist device that propels 2-3 l/min blood from the left atrium into the right subclavian artery. The ability of currently available investigative modalities to confirm Synergy pump malfunction is limited. The Synergy speed fluctuates periodically (at 10-s intervals) from the baseline to a transient decrease followed by a transient increase (alternating speed algorithm, ASA) with the purpose of changing the blood flow behaviour, thereby reducing thrombogenicity. The aim of this study was to develop a simple non-invasive monitoring technique to assess pump function based on the detection of the ASA in the peripheral microcirculation. Between February 2012 and July 2013, 10 patients with advanced chronic heart failure underwent Synergy implantation at our institution. The pump function was assessed by echocardiography and invasive monitoring according to standard protocols; additionally, the pump speed and power consumption were monitored. During the pump function assessment, the pulse oximeter waveform was recorded from the index fingers of the left and right hand with simultaneous pump auscultation using a stethoscope positioned on the pump (right infra-clavicular pocket). The pulse oximeter waveform was readily detectable from the right and left hand of all study patients. If the Synergy function was normal, there was a significant difference in the morphology of the pulse oximeter waveform from each hand: the ASA algorithm produced a more pronounced variation (giant wave) in the trace from the right hand than from the left. The giant waves invariably coincided with the sound variation associated with the ASA algorithms, which were detected regularly at 10-s intervals. We describe a simple, readily applicable, inexpensive, non-invasive technique that allows evaluation of Synergy pump function and may have diagnostic utility under conditions of suspected pump thrombus

  14. Pre-analytical conditions in non-invasive prenatal testing of cell-free fetal RHD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Banch Clausen

    Full Text Available Non-invasive prenatal testing of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA in maternal plasma can predict the fetal RhD type in D negative pregnant women. In Denmark, routine antenatal screening for the fetal RhD gene (RHD directs the administration of antenatal anti-D prophylaxis only to women who carry an RhD positive fetus. Prophylaxis reduces the risk of immunization that may lead to hemolytic disease of the fetus and the newborn. The reliability of predicting the fetal RhD type depends on pre-analytical factors and assay sensitivity. We evaluated the testing setup in the Capital Region of Denmark, based on data from routine antenatal RHD screening.Blood samples were drawn at gestational age 25 weeks. DNA extracted from 1 mL of plasma was analyzed for fetal RHD using a duplex method for exon 7/10. We investigated the effect of blood sample transportation time (n = 110 and ambient outdoor temperatures (n = 1539 on the levels of cffDNA and total DNA. We compared two different quantification methods, the delta Ct method and a universal standard curve. PCR pipetting was compared on two systems (n = 104.The cffDNA level was unaffected by blood sample transportation for up to 9 days and by ambient outdoor temperatures ranging from -10 °C to 28 °C during transport. The universal standard curve was applicable for cffDNA quantification. Identical levels of cffDNA were observed using the two automated PCR pipetting systems. We detected a mean of 100 fetal DNA copies/mL at a median gestational age of 25 weeks (range 10-39, n = 1317.The setup for real-time PCR-based, non-invasive prenatal testing of cffDNA in the Capital Region of Denmark is very robust. Our findings regarding the transportation of blood samples demonstrate the high stability of cffDNA. The applicability of a universal standard curve facilitates easy cffDNA quantification.

  15. The predictive value of respiratory function tests for non-invasive ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilanus, T B M; Groothuis, J T; TenBroek-Pastoor, J M C; Feuth, T B; Heijdra, Y F; Slenders, J P L; Doorduin, J; Van Engelen, B G; Kampelmacher, M J; Raaphorst, J

    2017-07-25

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) improves survival and quality of life in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. The timing of referral to a home ventilation service (HVS), which is in part based on respiratory function tests, has shown room for improvement. It is currently unknown which respiratory function test predicts an appropriate timing of the initiation of NIV. We analysed, retrospectively, serial data of five respiratory function tests: forced vital capacity (FVC), peak cough flow (PCF), maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressure (MIP and MEP) and sniff nasal inspiratory pressure (SNIP) in patients with ALS. Patients who had had at least one assessment of respiratory function and one visit at the HVS, were included. Our aim was to detect the test with the highest predictive value for the need for elective NIV in the following 3 months. We analysed time curves, currently used cut-off values for referral, and respiratory function test results between 'NIV indication' and 'no-NIV indication' patients. One hundred ten patients with ALS were included of whom 87 received an NIV indication; 11.5% had one assessment before receiving an NIV indication, 88.5% had two or more assessments. The NIV indication was based on complaints of hypoventilation and/or proven (nocturnal) hypercapnia. The five respiratory function tests showed a descending trend during disease progression, where SNIP showed the greatest decline within the latest 3 months before NIV indication (mean = -22%). PCF at the time of referral to the HVS significantly discriminated between the groups 'NIV-indication' and 'no NIV-indication yet' patients at the first HVS visit: 259 (±92) vs. 348 (±137) L/min, p = 0.019. PCF and SNIP showed the best predictive characteristics in terms of sensitivity. SNIP showed the greatest decline prior to NIV indication and PCF significantly differentiated 'NIV-indication' from 'no NIV-indication yet' patients with ALS. Currently used cut-off values might be

  16. Gingival crevicular blood: As a non-invasive screening tool for diabetes mellitus in dental clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neema Shetty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high number of patients with periodontitis may have undiagnosed diabetes. Self-monitoring devices provide a simple method for rapid monitoring of the glucose level in the blood by utilizing a blood sample from the finger, but this method requires a needle puncture to obtain blood. It is possible that gingival crevicular blood (GCB from routine periodontal probing may be a source of blood for glucose measurements. Aim: To establish whether GCB can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic aid in screening for diabetes mellitus during routine periodontal examination. Materials and Methods: The study involved 50 diabetics and 50 non-diabetics, with an age range of 26-66 years. Both diabetic and non-diabetic patients had moderate to severe gingivitis with at least one tooth in the maxillary anterior region showing bleeding upon probing. The Gingival Index and Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified were recorded. Blood oozing from the gingival sulcus/pocket following periodontal pocket probing was collected using a capillary tube and transferred to the test stick of a glucose self-monitoring device (Accu-Chek, Roche Diagnostic, Germany in patients with comparable gingival and oral hygiene status. This value was compared with the peripheral fingerstick blood glucose (PFBG value, which was obtained by pricking the finger tip at the same visit. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson′s correlation coefficient. Result: There was no statistically significant difference between the gingival crevicular blood glucose (GCBG values and the PFBG values in both the diabetic (P = 0.129, NS and the non-diabetic (P = 0.503, NS groups. Karl Pearson′s product-moment correlation coefficient was calculated, which showed a positive correlation between the two measurements in the diabetic (r = 0.943 as well as the non-diabetic (r = 0.926 groups. Conclusion: The results suggest that GCB can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic aid in screening for diabetes

  17. Combining non-invasive techniques for delimitation and monitoring of chlorinated solvents in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrenbom, Charlotte; Åkesson, Sofia; Hagerberg, David; Dahlin, Torleif; Holmstrand, Henry; Johansson, Sara

    2016-04-01

    Large numbers of polluted areas cause leakage of hazardous pollutants into our groundwater. Remediated actions are needed in a vast number of areas to prevent degradation of the quality of our water resources. As excavation of polluted masses is problematic as it often moves the pollutants from one site to another (in best case off site treatment is carried out), in-situ remediation and monitoring thereof needs further development. In general, we need to further develop and improve how we retrieve information on the status of the underground system. This is needed to avoid costly and hazardous shipments associated with excavations and to avoid unnecessary exposure when handling polluted masses. Easier, cheaper, more comprehensive and nondestructive monitoring techniques are needed for evaluation of remediation degree, degradation status of the contaminants and the remaining groundwater contaminant plume. We investigate the possibility to combine two investigation techniques, which are invasive to a very low degree and can give a very good visualization and evaluation of pollutant status underground and changes therein in time. The two methods we have combined are Direct Current resistivity and time-domain Induced Polarization tomography (DCIP) and Compound Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA) and their use within the context of DNAPL contaminated sites. DCIP is a non-invasive and non-destructive geoelectrical measurement method with emerging new techniques for 4D mapping for promising visualization of underground hydrogeochemical structures and spatial distribution of contaminants. The strength of CSIA is that inherent degradation-relatable isotopic information of contaminant molecules remains unaffected as opposed to the commonly used concentration-based studies. Our aim is to evaluate the possibilities of gas sampling on the ground surface for this technique to become non-invasive and usable without interfering ground conditions.Drillings together with soil and

  18. Attitudes of pregnant women and male partners towards non-invasive prenatal testing and widening the scope of prenatal screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schendel, Rachèl V.; Kleinveld, Johanna H.; Dondorp, Wybo J.; Pajkrt, Eva; Timmermans, Danielle R. M.; Holtkamp, Kim C. A.; Karsten, Margreet; Vlietstra, Anne L.; Lachmeijer, Augusta M. A.; Henneman, Lidewij

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) and its potential to test for multiple disorders has received much attention. This study explores attitudes of women and men towards NIPT, and their views on widening the scope of prenatal testing in a country with a low uptake of prenatal screening (The

  19. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy as a Novel Non-Invasive Tool to Assess Spiny Lobster Nutritional Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodemann, Thomas; Carter, Chris G.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid non-invasive monitoring of spiny lobster nutritional condition has considerable application in the established fishery, live market and prospective aquaculture. The aim of this research was to test the feasibility of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a novel non-invasive tool to assess the nutritional condition of three lobster species. Lobster (n = 92) abdominal muscle dry matter (AMDM) and carbon content (AMC) correlated significantly with indices of nutritional condition including hepatopancreas dry matter (HPDM; rho = 0.83, 0.78), total lipid content (HPTL; rho = 0.85, 0.87) and haemolymph total protein (TP; rho = 0.89, 0.87 respectively). Abdominal muscle nitrogen content (AMN) was a poor correlate of nutritional condition. Models based on FT-NIR scanning of whole lobster tails successfully predicted AMDM, AMN and AMC (RMSECV = 1.41%, 0.35% and 0.91%; R2 = 0.75, 0.65, 0.77, respectively), and to a lower accuracy HPDM, HPTL and TP (RMSECV = 6.22%, 8.37%, 18.4 g l-1; R2 = 0.51, 0.70, 0.83, respectively). NIRS was applied successfully to assess the condition of spiny lobsters non-invasively. This pilot study paves the way for the development of crustacean condition models using portable non-invasive devices in the laboratory or in the field. PMID:27442242

  20. Non-invasive aneuploidy detection using free fetal DNA and RNA in maternal plasma: recent progress and future possibilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Go, A.T.; Vugt, J.M.G. van; Oudejans, C.B.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cell-free fetal DNA (cff DNA) and RNA can be detected in maternal plasma and used for non-invasive prenatal diagnostics. Recent technical advances have led to a drastic change in the clinical applicability and potential uses of free fetal DNA and RNA. This review summarizes the latest