WorldWideScience

Sample records for enhance human performance

  1. Psychology: red enhances human performance in contests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Russell A; Barton, Robert A

    2005-05-19

    Red coloration is a sexually selected, testosterone-dependent signal of male quality in a variety of animals, and in some non-human species a male's dominance can be experimentally increased by attaching artificial red stimuli. Here we show that a similar effect can influence the outcome of physical contests in humans--across a range of sports, we find that wearing red is consistently associated with a higher probability of winning. These results indicate not only that sexual selection may have influenced the evolution of human response to colours, but also that the colour of sportswear needs to be taken into account to ensure a level playing field in sport.

  2. Enhanced human performance of utility maintenance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresco, A.; Haber, S.; O'Brien, J.

    1993-01-01

    Assuring the safe operation of a nuclear power plant depends, to a large extent, on how effectively one understands and manages the aging-related degradation that occurs in structures, systems, and components (SSCs). Aging-related degradation is typically managed through a nuclear plant's maintenance program. A review of 44 Maintenance Team Inspection (MTI) Reports indicated that while some plant organizations appeared to assume a proactive mode in preventing aging-related failures of their SSCs important to safety, others seemed to be taking a passive or reactive mode. Across all plants, what is clearly needed, is a strong recognition of the importance of aging-related degradation and the use of existing organizational assets to effectively detect and mitigate those effects. Many of those assets can be enhanced by the consideration of organizational and management factors necessary for the implementation of an effective aging management program. This report provides a discussion of this program

  3. Regulatory approach to enhanced human performance during accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palla, R.L. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear in recent years that the risk associated with nuclear power is driven by human performance. Although human errors have contributed heavily to the two core-melt events that have occurred at power reactors, effective performance during an event can also prevent a degraded situation from progressing to a more serious accident, as in the loss-of-feedwater event at Davis-Besse. Sensitivity studies in which human error rates for various categories of errors in a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) were varied confirm the importance of human performance. Moreover, these studies suggest that actions taken during an accident are at least as important as errors that occur prior to an initiating event. A program that will lead to enhanced accident management capabilities in the nuclear industry is being developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and industry and is a key element in NRC's integration plan for closure of severe-accident issues. The focus of the accident management (AM) program is on human performance during accidents, with emphasis on in-plant response. The AM program extends the defense-in-depth principle to plant operating staff. The goal is to take advantage of existing plant equipment and operator skills and creativity to find ways to terminate accidents that are beyond the design basis. The purpose of this paper is to describe the NRC's objectives and approach in AM as well as to discuss several human performance issues that are central to AM

  4. Mechanisms for training security inspectors to enhance human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhalter, H.E.; Sessions, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established qualification standards for protective force personnel employed at nuclear facilities [10 CFR Part 1046 (Federal Register)]. Training mechanisms used at Los Alamos to enhance human performance in meeting DOE standards include, but are not limited to, the following: for cardio-respiratory training, they utilize distance running, interval training, sprint training, pacing, indoor aerobics and circuit training; for muscular strength, free weights, weight machines, light hand weights, grip strength conditioners, and calistenics are employed; for muscular endurance, participants do high repetitions (15 - 40) using dumbbells, flex weights, resistive rubber bands, benches, and calisthenics; for flexibility, each training session devotes specific times to stretch the muscles involved for a particular activity. These training mechanisms with specific protocols can enhance human performance

  5. Improving human object recognition performance using video enhancement techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Lucy S.; Lewis, Colin; Oakley, John P.

    2004-12-01

    Atmospheric scattering causes significant degradation in the quality of video images, particularly when imaging over long distances. The principle problem is the reduction in contrast due to scattered light. It is known that when the scattering particles are not too large compared with the imaging wavelength (i.e. Mie scattering) then high spatial resolution information may be contained within a low-contrast image. Unfortunately this information is not easily perceived by a human observer, particularly when using a standard video monitor. A secondary problem is the difficulty of achieving a sharp focus since automatic focus techniques tend to fail in such conditions. Recently several commercial colour video processing systems have become available. These systems use various techniques to improve image quality in low contrast conditions whilst retaining colour content. These systems produce improvements in subjective image quality in some situations, particularly in conditions of haze and light fog. There is also some evidence that video enhancement leads to improved ATR performance when used as a pre-processing stage. Psychological literature indicates that low contrast levels generally lead to a reduction in the performance of human observers in carrying out simple visual tasks. The aim of this paper is to present the results of an empirical study on object recognition in adverse viewing conditions. The chosen visual task was vehicle number plate recognition at long ranges (500 m and beyond). Two different commercial video enhancement systems are evaluated using the same protocol. The results show an increase in effective range with some differences between the different enhancement systems.

  6. Applying lessons learned to enhance human performance and reduce human error for ISS operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, W.R.

    1998-09-01

    A major component of reliability, safety, and mission success for space missions is ensuring that the humans involved (flight crew, ground crew, mission control, etc.) perform their tasks and functions as required. This includes compliance with training and procedures during normal conditions, and successful compensation when malfunctions or unexpected conditions occur. A very significant issue that affects human performance in space flight is human error. Human errors can invalidate carefully designed equipment and procedures. If certain errors combine with equipment failures or design flaws, mission failure or loss of life can occur. The control of human error during operation of the International Space Station (ISS) will be critical to the overall success of the program. As experience from Mir operations has shown, human performance plays a vital role in the success or failure of long duration space missions. The Department of Energy`s Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is developed a systematic approach to enhance human performance and reduce human errors for ISS operations. This approach is based on the systematic identification and evaluation of lessons learned from past space missions such as Mir to enhance the design and operation of ISS. This paper describes previous INEEL research on human error sponsored by NASA and how it can be applied to enhance human reliability for ISS.

  7. A study on human performance enhancement plan in maintenance field by survey on actual condition of human performance tools - 15035

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.; Jeong, H.; Kim, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Human errors in nuclear power plant are one of the important factors that may cause reactor trip. Most operating companies of nuclear power plants manage human factor systematically through tools like HPES (Human Performance Enhancement), PSR (Periodic Safety Review), OE (Operating Experience), human performance tools, safety culture assessment and CAP (Corrective Action Program). But human factors are managed passively in maintenance field, because maintenance works are carrying out by partner companies. KHNP also contracts the maintenance work to the partner companies, and advise them to use human performance tools. But the actual condition on partner companies has not been surveyed. This paper suggests some plans that can improve human performance by analyzing the opinion of partner company employees about the causes and solutions of human errors, by analyzing utilization of human performance tools and by comparing the results of the partner companies survey with the results of the operating company survey. The survey is conducted to 3 partner companies by similar contents and categories in order to compare partner company with operating company, and the main analysis fields are the following: -1) Level of understanding and utilization of the human performance tools, -2) Difficulties of applying the human performance tools, -3) Level of employee's training (or education) in the use of the human performance tools, and -4) Root causes of human errors and countermeasures. (authors)

  8. The role of human reliability analysis for enhancing crew performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannaman, G.W.; Joksimovich, V.; Worledge, D.H.; Spurgin, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes some aspects of EPRI-sponsored research undertaken in support of improving the PRA technology. In particular, the consideration of how human actions that impact accident sequences can be analyzed in a systematic way to supplement the type of ergonomic studies normally carried out in support of control room design. The HRA/PRA approach described not only identifies the operator information and interface needs, but also helps to identify issues and areas for additional research. The process includes a link to data collections. Preliminary collections of data and analytical benchmark support the idea that such analytical frameworks and models provide support for ranking the importance of various human reliability issues

  9. INPO Perspectives and Activities to Enhance Supplier Human Performance and Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Within their own organizations, utilities have made significant improvements in human performance and safety culture, supported by a strong community of practice through INPO and WANO. In recent years, utilities have been making increasing use of suppliers for design, construction, inspection and maintenance services in support of their NPPs. Many of these suppliers do not have the benefit of being members of a community of practice when it comes to human performance and safety culture. To help the supplier community make improvements similar to what the utilities have achieved, INPO has recently expanded its Supplier Participant program to address the issue of human performance and safety culture in the supplier community. The intent of this paper will be to share the INPO’s perspectives and activities in helping suppliers of services and products to NPPs enhance their human performance and safety culture. (author)

  10. Human θ burst stimulation enhances subsequent motor learning and increases performance variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, James T H; Swayne, Orlando B C; Cheeran, Binith; Greenwood, Richard J; Rothwell, John C

    2011-07-01

    Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) transiently increases motor cortex excitability in healthy humans by a process thought to involve synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP), and this is enhanced by nicotine. Acquisition of a ballistic motor task is likewise accompanied by increased excitability and presumed intracortical LTP. Here, we test how iTBS and nicotine influences subsequent motor learning. Ten healthy subjects participated in a double-blinded placebo-controlled trial testing the effects of iTBS and nicotine. iTBS alone increased the rate of learning but this increase was blocked by nicotine. We then investigated factors other than synaptic strengthening that may play a role. Behavioral analysis and modeling suggested that iTBS increased performance variability, which correlated with learning outcome. A control experiment confirmed the increase in motor output variability by showing that iTBS increased the dispersion of involuntary transcranial magnetic stimulation-evoked thumb movements. We suggest that in addition to the effect on synaptic plasticity, iTBS may have facilitated performance by increasing motor output variability; nicotine negated this effect on variability perhaps via increasing the signal-to-noise ratio in cerebral cortex.

  11. The Development of Web-Based Collaborative Training Model for Enhancing Human Performances on ICT for Students in Banditpattanasilpa Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumipuntu, Natawut; Kidrakarn, Pachoen; Chetakarn, Somchock

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to develop the model of Web-based Collaborative (WBC) Training model for enhancing human performances on ICT for students in Banditpattanasilpa Institute. The research is divided into three phases: 1) investigating students and teachers' training needs on ICT web-based contents and performance, 2) developing a web-based…

  12. Enhancing human performance in ship operations by modifying global design factors at the design stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montewka, Jakub; Goerlandt, Floris; Innes-Jones, Gemma; Owen, Douglas; Hifi, Yasmine; Puisa, Romanas

    2017-01-01

    Usually the improvements of human performance in the course of ship design process is carried out by modifying local ergonomics, like electronic visualisation and information display systems on the bridge or in the engine control room, stair or hatch covers design. However, the effect of global design factors (GDFs), such as ship motion, whole body vibration and noise, on human performance has not been given attention before. Such knowledge would allow the improvements of human performance by effective design modification on very early stage of ship design process. Therefore, in this paper we introduce probabilistic models linking the effect of GDFs with the human performance suitable for ship design process. As a theoretical basis for modelling human performance the concept of Attention Management is utilized, which combines the theories described by Dynamic Adaptability Model, Cognitive Control Model and Malleable Attentional Resources Theory. Since the analysed field is characterised by a high degree of uncertainty, we adopt a specific modelling technique along with a validation framework that allows uncertainty treatment and helps the potential end-users to gain confidence in the models and the results that they yield. The proposed models are developed with the use Bayesian Belief Networks, which allows systematic translation of the available background knowledge into a coherent network and the uncertainty assessment and treatment. The obtained results are promising as the models are responsive to changes in the GDF nodes as expected. The models may be used as intended by naval architects and vessel designers, to facilitate risk-based ship design. - Highlights: • Models linking the effect of GDFs with the human performance are established. • Three global design factors (GDFs) are considered: ship motion, body vibration, noise. • Attention Management concept as theoretical base is modelled with Bayesian Networks. • Two models are developed that can be

  13. Enhanced Contaminated Human Remains Pouch: initial development and preliminary performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iseli, A.M.; Kwen, H.D.; Ul-Alam, M.; Balasubramanian, M.; Rajagopalan, S.

    2011-11-07

    The objective is to produce a proof of concept prototype Enhanced Contaminated Human Remains Pouch (ECHRP) with self-decontamination capability to provide increased protection to emergency response personnel. The key objective was to decrease the concentration of toxic chemicals through the use of an absorbent and reactive nanocellulose liner. Additionally, nanomaterials with biocidal properties were developed and tested as a 'stand-alone' treatment. The setting was a private company research laboratory. The main outcome measures were production of a functional prototype. A functional prototype capable of mitigating the threats due to sulfur mustard, Soman, and a large variety of liquid and vapor toxic industrial chemicals was produced. Stand-alone biocidal treatment efficacy was validated. The ECHRP provides superior protection from both chemical and biological hazards to various emergency response personnel and human remains handlers.

  14. Human Performance and Biosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    Fuel Cells • Artificial Photosynthesis Overview of Topic Areas 3003 Human Performance/Biosystems • Photo-Electro-Magnetic Stimulation of...1) Electronic transport in bacterial nanowires was demonstrated using nanofabrication enabled approaches (2) Identified the biophysical... bacterial nanowires and outer-membrane vesicles enhancing the electron transfer and respiration of individual cells Outlook The first demonstration

  15. Defining Human Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    2017-01-01

    -matter definitions are vital legal tools to determine what is currently regulated in established fields of law and whether there is room for a new legal field – Enhancement Law. This paper provides a reflection on the relevance of establishing a legal definition of human enhancement and to what extent different...... legal fields and jurisdictions may warrant different understandings of such concept. It reviews a number of different and often divergent concepts and taxonomies of human enhancement and concludes with the proposal and analysis of a definition: Use of technological means with the intention to improve......Emerging technologies open the prospect of extraordinary interventions on the human body. These may go beyond what is strictly necessary to sustain health and well-being. While responding to social and ethical challenges of such advances, the Law simultaneously faces the challenge of reflecting...

  16. Aircrew Performance Cutting-Edge Tech: Emerging Human Performance Enhancement Technology Vision in Support of Operational Military Aviation Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belland, Kris

    2002-01-01

    Using cutting-edge technology to create a human factors advantage in military operations will contribute to success on the battlefield of the future whether below the surface, on the surface, in the air, or in space...

  17. Aircrew Performance Cutting-Edge Technology: Emerging Human Performance Enhancement Technology Vision in Support of Operational Military Aviation Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belland, Kris M

    2003-01-01

    Using cutting-edge technology to create a human factors advantage in military operations will contribute to success on the battlefield of the future whether below the surface, on the surface, in the air, or in space...

  18. Enhancing LAN performance

    CERN Document Server

    Held, Gilbert

    2004-01-01

    Enhancing LAN Performance, Fourth Edition explains how to connect geographically separated LANs with appropriate bandwidth, the issues to consider when weighing the use of multiport or dualport devices, how to estimate traffic for new networks, the effects of configuration changes on the performance of Ethernet and Token Ring networks, the design of switch-based networks that prevent traffic bottlenecks, and other critical topics. It provides the tools to address these issues in relation to specific network requirements. This volume develops mathematical models of various LAN performance issue

  19. Human freedom and enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilinger, Jan-Christoph; Crone, Katja

    2014-02-01

    Ideas about freedom and related concepts like autonomy and self-determination play a prominent role in the moral debate about human enhancement interventions. However, there is not a single understanding of freedom available, and arguments referring to freedom are simultaneously used to argue both for and against enhancement interventions. This gives rise to misunderstandings and polemical arguments. The paper attempts to disentangle the different distinguishable concepts, classifies them and shows how they relate to one another in order to allow for a more structured and clearer debate. It concludes in identifying the individual underpinnings and the social conditions of choice and decision-making as particularly salient dimensions of freedom in the ethical debate about human enhancement.

  20. Use of neurofeedback to achieve human performance enhancement in the nuclear power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freer, P. [Freer Logic (United States); Chandler, K. [Univ. of Windsor, Dept. of Kinesiology, Windsor, Ontario (Canada); Lane, L.; Templeton, R. [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The nuclear industry has spent many millions of dollars to provide training to personnel to operate our nuclear facilities. However, even with excellent training programs, candidates often fail examinations. For many, the debilitating effects of performance anxiety are contributing factors. Neurofeedback technology instantly presents psychophysiological feedback to the trainee while the trainee is performing a training task. This feedback can teach the trainee to effectively cope with environmental and psychological stressors. We hypothesize that NF training can help NPPs resolve staffing and training challenges while yielding a high ROI by ultimately improving success rates for Certification training candidates. (author)

  1. Use of neurofeedback to achieve human performance enhancement in the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freer, P.; Chandler, K.; Lane, L.; Templeton, R.

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear industry has spent many millions of dollars to provide training to personnel to operate our nuclear facilities. However, even with excellent training programs, candidates often fail examinations. For many, the debilitating effects of performance anxiety are contributing factors. Neurofeedback technology instantly presents psychophysiological feedback to the trainee while the trainee is performing a training task. This feedback can teach the trainee to effectively cope with environmental and psychological stressors. We hypothesize that NF training can help NPPs resolve staffing and training challenges while yielding a high ROI by ultimately improving success rates for Certification training candidates. (author)

  2. Enhanced Lighting Techniques and Augmented Reality to Improve Human Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maida, James C.; Bowen, Charles K.; Pace, John W.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most versatile tools designed for use on the International Space Station (ISS) is the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) robot. Operators for this system are trained at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) using a robotic simulator, the Dexterous Manipulator Trainer (DMT), which performs most SPDM functions under normal static Earth gravitational forces. The SPDM is controlled from a standard Robotic Workstation. A key feature of the SPDM and DMT is the Force/Moment Accommodation (FMA) system, which limits the contact forces and moments acting on the robot components, on its payload, an Orbital Replaceable Unit (ORU), and on the receptacle for the ORU. The FMA system helps to automatically alleviate any binding of the ORU as it is inserted or withdrawn from a receptacle, but it is limited in its correction capability. A successful ORU insertion generally requires that the reference axes of the ORU and receptacle be aligned to within approximately 0.25 inch and 0.5 degree of nominal values. The only guides available for the operator to achieve these alignment tolerances are views from any available video cameras. No special registration markings are provided on the ORU or receptacle, so the operator must use their intrinsic features in the video display to perform the pre-insertion alignment task. Since optimum camera views may not be available, and dynamic orbital lighting conditions may limit viewing periods, long times are anticipated for performing some ORU insertion or extraction operations. This study explored the feasibility of using augmented reality (AR) to assist with SPDM operations. Geometric graphical symbols were overlaid on the end effector (EE) camera view to afford cues to assist the operator in attaining adequate pre-insertion ORU alignment.

  3. Human Computer Music Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    2012-01-01

    Human Computer Music Performance (HCMP) is the study of music performance by live human performers and real-time computer-based performers. One goal of HCMP is to create a highly autonomous artificial performer that can fill the role of a human, especially in a popular music setting. This will require advances in automated music listening and understanding, new representations for music, techniques for music synchronization, real-time human-computer communication, music generation, sound synt...

  4. The Physiological Mechanisms of Performance Enhancement with Sprint Interval Training Differ between the Upper and Lower Extremities in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinner, Christoph; Morales-Alamo, David; Ørtenblad, Niels; Larsen, Filip J.; Schiffer, Tomas A.; Willis, Sarah J.; Gelabert-Rebato, Miriam; Perez-Valera, Mario; Boushel, Robert; Calbet, Jose A. L.; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the differences in adaptation of arm and leg muscles to sprint training, over a period of 11 days 16 untrained men performed six sessions of 4–6 × 30-s all-out sprints (SIT) with the legs and arms, separately, with a 1-h interval of recovery. Limb-specific VO2peak, sprint performance (two 30-s Wingate tests with 4-min recovery), muscle efficiency and time-trial performance (TT, 5-min all-out) were assessed and biopsies from the m. vastus lateralis and m. triceps brachii taken before and after training. VO2peak and Wmax increased 3–11% after training, with a more pronounced change in the arms (P training, VO2 during the two Wingate tests was increased by 52 and 6% for the arms and legs, respectively (P intensity, HR, VO2, VCO2, VE, and Vt were all lower during arm-cranking than leg-pedaling, and oxidation of fat was minimal, remaining so after training. Despite the higher relative intensity, fat oxidation was 70% greater during leg-pedaling (P = 0.017). The aerobic energy contribution in the legs was larger than for the arms during the Wingate tests, although VO2 for the arms was enhanced more by training, reducing the O2 deficit after SIT. The levels of muscle glycogen, as well as the myosin heavy chain composition were unchanged in both cases, while the activities of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase and citrate synthase were elevated only in the legs and capillarization enhanced in both limbs. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the variables that predict TT performance differ for the arms and legs. The primary mechanism of adaptation to SIT by both the arms and legs is enhancement of aerobic energy production. However, with their higher proportion of fast muscle fibers, the arms exhibit greater plasticity. PMID:27746738

  5. Enhancing Job Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The impact of the Self-Determined Career Development Model (hereafter called the Self-Determined Career Model) on the job performance of four adults with moderate intellectual disability employed in competitive work settings was examined. Employees learned to set work-related goals, develop an action plan, implement the plan, and adjust their…

  6. Enhancing performance through collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froats, J.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation examines how co-operation and collaboration are keys to high performing organizations and attempts to provoke some thinking about how one can improve the game to meet the challenges of today. The presentation discusses the origins of the belief system and gives examples of the benefits of collaborative approaches.

  7. Managing human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, J.; LaRhette, R.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluating human error or human performance problems and correcting the root causes can help preclude recurrence. The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), working with several members and participant utilities in an extended pilot program, has developed a nonpunitive program designed to identify, evaluate, and correct situations that cause human performance errors. The program is called the Human Performance Evaluation System (HPES). Its primary goal is to improve human reliability in overall nuclear plant operations by reducing human error through correction of the conditions that cause the errors. Workers at participating nuclear utilities are encouraged to report their errors and a specially trained plant coordinator investigates and recommends actions to correct the root causes of these errors

  8. The physiological mechanisms of performance enhancement with sprint interval training differ between the upper and lower extremities in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Zinner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the differences in adaptation of arm and leg muscles to sprint training, over a period of 11 days 16 untrained men performed six sessions of 4-6x30-sec all-out sprints (SIT with the legs and arms, separately, with a 1-h interval of recovery. Limb-specific VO2peak, sprint performance (two 30-sec Wingate tests with 4-min recovery, muscle efficiency and time-trial performance (TT, 5-min all-out were assessed and biopsies from the m. vastus lateralis and m. triceps brachii taken before and after training. VO2peak and Wmax increased 3-11% after training, with a more pronounced change in the arms (P < 0.05. Gross efficiency improved for the arms (+8.8%, P < 0.05, but not the legs (-0.6%. Wingate peak and mean power outputs improved similarly for the arms and legs, as did TT performance. After training, VO2 during the two Wingate tests was increased by 52% and 6% for the arms and legs, respectively (P < 0.001. In the case of the arms, VO2 was higher during the first than second Wingate test (64% vs. 44%, P < 0.05. During the TT, relative exercise intensity, HR, VO2, VCO2, VE, and Vt were all lower during arm-cranking than leg-pedaling, and oxidation of fat was minimal, remaining so after training. Despite the higher relative intensity, fat oxidation was 70% greater during leg-pedaling (P = 0.017. The aerobic energy contribution in the legs was larger than for the arms during the Wingate tests, although VO2 for the arms was enhanced more by training, reducing the O2 deficit after SIT. The levels of muscle glycogen, as well as the myosin heavy chain composition were unchanged in both cases, while the activities of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase and citrate synthase were elevated only in the legs and capillarization enhanced in both limbs. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the variables that predict TT performance differ for the arms and legs. The primary mechanism of adaptation to SIT by both the arms

  9. Can training improve human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waylett, W.J. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The nuclear industry has made a significant commitment to improve training through the implementation of performance-based training programs. Senior management expects that human performance improvement will result from this significant resource allocation. The author examines this hypothesis and discusses other issues that may interfere with enhancing human performance through training. The integration of quality improvement concepts to support training is also discussed by the author, who was a pioneer facilitator during the development of Florida Power and Light Company's Quality Improvement Program. Critical success factors are proposed based on the author's experience as a plant manager, training manager and quality facilitator

  10. Managing human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strucic, M.; Kavsek, D.

    2004-01-01

    Human performance remains a significant factor for management attention not only from a reactor safety perspective, but also from a financial one. Recent significant events analysis shows that human errors are still dominant causes and contributors to them. An analysis of significant events in nuclear industry occurred through 15-years period revealed that three of four significant events were triggered by human error, although the number of events have dropped by more than a factor of four. A number of human performance breakdowns occurred in the application of errorprevention techniques. These included a lack of pre-job briefs, inadequate turnover of tasks, ineffective use of peer checking, inadequate procedure adherence, and failure to apply a questioning attitude when unexpected changes were encountered in the task. Attempts by the industry to improve human performance have traditionally focused at the worker level. However, human error occurs within the context of the organization, which can either foster or resist human error. The greatest room for improvement lies not only in the continued improvement of front-line worker performance but more so in the identification and elimination of weaknesses in the organizational and managerial domains that contributes to worker performance at the job site. Based on mentioned analysis, other industrial sources and own operating experience, NPP Krsko is paying more attention to improve human performance among own as well as contractor workers. Through series of programs and activities, such as Reactivity Management Program, Safety Culture Program, Self-assessment Program, Corrective Action Program, Plant Performance Monitoring Program, developed in last few years, and through new procedures, written guides and publications, training and management efforts, number of human errors is going to be reduced. Involvement of higher levels of NPP Krsko organization in promotion and use of Human Performance techniques is

  11. Human Performance Evaluation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardwick, R.J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Operating nuclear power plants requires high standards of performance, extensive training and responsive management. Despite our best efforts inappropriate human actions do occur, but they can be managed. An extensive review of License Event Reports (LERs) was conducted which indicated continual inadequacy in human performance and in evaluation of root causes. Of some 31,000 LERs, about 5,000 or 16% were directly attributable to inappropriate actions. A recent analysis of 87 Significant Event Reports (issued by INPO in 1983) identified inappropriate actions as being the most frequent root cause (44% of the total). A more recent analysis of SERs issued in 1983 and 1984 indicate that 52% of the root causes were attributed to human performance. The Human Performance Evaluation System (HPES) is a comprehensive, coordinated utility/industry system for evaluating and reporting human performance situtations. HPES is a result of the realization that current reporting system provide limited treatment of human performance and rarely provide adequate information about root causes of inappropriate actions by individuals. The HPES was implemented to identify and eliminate root causes of inappropriate actions

  12. Human Performance Event Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trager, E. A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe several aspects of a Human Performance Event Database (HPED) that is being developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These include the background, the database structure and basis for the structure, the process for coding and entering event records, the results of preliminary analyses of information in the database, and plans for the future. In 1992, the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) within the NRC decided to develop a database for information on human performance during operating events. The database was needed to help classify and categorize the information to help feedback operating experience information to licensees and others. An NRC interoffice working group prepared a list of human performance information that should be reported for events and the list was based on the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP) that had been developed by the NRC as an aid in investigating events. The structure of the HPED was based on that list. The HPED currently includes data on events described in augmented inspection team (AIT) and incident investigation team (IIT) reports from 1990 through 1996, AEOD human performance studies from 1990 through 1993, recent NRR special team inspections, and licensee event reports (LERs) that were prepared for the events. (author)

  13. Chemometrics enhanced HPLC-DAD performance for rapid quantification of carbamazepine and phenobarbital in human serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosough, Maryam; Ghafghazi, Shiva; Sabetkasaei, Masoumeh

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes development and validation of a simple and efficient bioanalytical procedure for simultaneous determination of phenobarbital and carbamazepine in human serum samples using high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) regarding a fast elution methodology in less than 5 min. Briefly, this method consisted of a simple deproteinization step of serum samples followed by HPLC analysis on a Bonus-RP column using an isocratic mode of elution with acetonitrile/K2HPO4 (pH=7.5) buffer solution (45:55). Due to the presence of serum endogenous components as non-calibrated components in the sample, second-order calibration based on multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS), has been applied on a set of absorbance matrices collected as a function of retention time and wavelengths. Acceptable resolution and quantification results were achieved in the presence of matrix interferences and the second-order advantage was fully exploited. The average recoveries for carbamazepine and phenobarbital were 89.7% and 86.1% and relative standard deviation values were lower than 9%. Additionally, computed elliptical joint confidence region (EJCR) confirmed the accuracy of the proposed method and indicated the absence of both constant and proportional errors in the predicted concentrations. The developed method enabled the determination of the analytes in different serum samples in the presence of overlapped profiles, while keeping experimental time and extraction steps at minimum. Finally, the serum concentration levels of carbamazepine in three time intervals were reported for morphine-dependents who had received carbamazepine for treating their neuropathic pain. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Does Caffeine Enhance Athletic Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcou Juliana

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Caffeine consumption may enhance athletic endurance, based on strong evidence, but further research needs to be conducted. High caffeine doses than the optimal, 3-6 mg/kg, before exercise does not confer any additional improvement in athletic performance. Additional, higher caffeine doses may cause side effects in athletes.

  15. A Novel Cellular Handset Design for an Enhanced Antenna Performance and a Reduced SAR in the Human Head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah I. Al-Mously

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel cellular handset design with a bottom-mounted short loaded-whip antenna. This new handset design is modeled and simulated using a finite difference time-domain (FDTD-based platform SEMCAD. The proposed handset is based on a current commercially available bar-phone type with a curvature shape, keypad positioned above the screen, and top-mounted antenna. The specific absorption rates (SARs are determined computationally in the specific anthropomorphic mannequin (SAM and anatomically correct model of a human head when exposed to the EM-field radiation of the proposed cellular handset and the handset with top-mounted antenna. The two cellular handsets are simulated to operate at both GSM standards, 900 MHz as well as 1800 MHz, having different antenna dimensions and intput power of 0.6 W and 0.125 W, respectively. The proposed human hand holding the two handset models is a semirealistic hand model consists of three tissues: skin, muscle, and bone. The simulations are conducted with handset positions based on the IEEE standard 1528-2003. The results show that the proposed handset has a significant improvement of antenna efficiency when it is hand-held close to head, as compared with the handset of top-mounted antenna. Also, the results show that a significant reduction of the induced SAR in the human head-tissues can be achieved with the proposed handset.

  16. Mentoring Human Performance - 12480

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geis, John A.; Haugen, Christian N. [CALIBRE Systems, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Although the positive effects of implementing a human performance approach to operations can be hard to quantify, many organizations and industry areas are finding tangible benefits to such a program. Recently, a unique mentoring program was established and implemented focusing on improving the performance of managers, supervisors, and work crews, using the principles of Human Performance Improvement (HPI). The goal of this mentoring was to affect behaviors and habits that reliably implement the principles of HPI to ensure continuous improvement in implementation of an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) within a Conduct of Operations framework. Mentors engaged with personnel in a one-on-one, or one-on-many dialogue, which focused on what behaviors were observed, what factors underlie the behaviors, and what changes in behavior could prevent errors or events, and improve performance. A senior management sponsor was essential to gain broad management support. A clear charter and management plan describing the goals, objectives, methodology, and expected outcomes was established. Mentors were carefully selected with senior management endorsement. Mentors were assigned to projects and work teams based on the following three criteria: 1) knowledge of the work scope; 2) experience in similar project areas; and 3) perceived level of trust they would have with project management, supervision, and work teams. This program was restructured significantly when the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) and the associated funding came to an end. The program was restructured based on an understanding of the observations, attributed successes and identified shortfalls, and the consolidation of those lessons. Mentoring the application of proven methods for improving human performance was shown effective at increasing success in day-to-day activities and increasing confidence and level of skill of supervisors. While mentoring program effectiveness is difficult to

  17. Management and human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Past human performance and management problems have been well documented. The accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl have significant root causes in human factors and in plant management. The failure of plant personnel to recognize the safety significance of their actions, procedures which were knowingly violated, a lack of awareness of plant conditions and status, and operators being misled by incorrect data and information were root causes of these accidents. Safety culture starts with personal dedication and accountability beginning at the top with senior corporate management. It is formed by policies and administrative controls which when implemented ensure that correct practices are followed. Senior management fosters an attitude and safety consciousness in all personnel with responsibility for supervision, operation and maintenance of the nuclear power plant

  18. The Physiological Mechanisms of Performance Enhancement with Sprint Interval Training Differ between the Upper and Lower Extremities in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinner, Christoph; Morales-Alamo, David; Ørtenblad, Niels

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the differences in adaptation of arm and leg muscles to sprint training, over a period of 11 days 16 untrained men performed six sessions of 4-6 × 30-s all-out sprints (SIT) with the legs and arms, separately, with a 1-h interval of recovery. Limb-specific V...

  19. Analysis of human performance in KHNP NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tae, Sung Eun

    2004-01-01

    The most important thing in the management of nuclear power plant is safety. One of the key factors to enhance the safety is to analyze human performance and to reflect the results on the practical plant operation. KHNP NPPs experienced human errors in the fields of operation and maintenance. The human errors need to be analyzed and, necessary corrective actions according to the causes should be made to prevent the same event or similar events. Therefore we'd like to introduce the procedure of K-HPES(KHNP-Human Performance Enhancement System) and the results of analysis of HPES reports produced in 2002 and 2003

  20. Performance Enhancement by Brain Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Gazerani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Number of substances and strategies are available to increase performance in sport (Catlin and Murray, 1996. Since 2004, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA posts an updated list of substances and methods prohibited to athletes. Drugs (e.g., steroids, stimulants are a major part of this list; however, technologies and methods (e.g., gene doping are increasingly being identified and added (WADA, 2017. Among technologies and methods that might exert a potential effect on athletic performance, brain stimulation has recently been subjected to extensive discussion. Neuro-enhancement for doping purposes has been termed “neurodoping” in the literature (Davis, 2013; however, this concept needs further documentation before the term “neurodoping” can be used properly. Two major non-invasive techniques of brain stimulations are transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS (Hallett, 2007; Rossi et al., 2009, and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS (Stagg and Nitsche, 2011. In TMS, an electric coil held over the head applies magnetic pulses to create currents in the brain. In tDCS, a low, continuous electrical current is delivered to the brain by using surface electrodes attached on the scalp. TMS and tDCS have been used in both research and clinic (Shin and Pelled, 2017 for example to examine alterations in cognitive function or motor skills or to assist in recovering motor function after a stroke (Gomez Palacio Schjetnan et al., 2013 or reducing fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis (Saiote et al., 2014. In an opinion paper, it was proposed that use of emerging brain stimulation techniques might also enhance physical and mental performance in sports (Davis, 2013. The assumption was based on several reports. For example some studies have shown that TMS could shorten reaction times to visual, auditory and touch stimuli, reduce tremor, and enhance the acquisition of complex motor skills. Based on the current evidence, a recent review (Colzato

  1. Competency build up, sustained performance enhancement of human resource through effective man power planning, training and proper safety culture and organizational climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, B.D.; Goyal, O.P.

    2006-01-01

    Human resource competence building and continued enhancement of performance is the most vital input for safe and reliable operations of a Nuclear Power Plant. Integrated planning leading to the decision of timely selection of optimum number of fresh people and deployment of experienced manpower with desired lead time is inevitable to achieve the above objective. For safe and reliable plant operation human performance analysis followed by suggestive measures to improve the same is needed. Corrective or strengthening input may be in terms of training, work environment, motivations, organizational culture and climate, leadership and prevailing environmental force and bio-rhythm of individuals with critical days are to be worked out The adequacy in training and development not only gives safe and reliable plant operations but results in greater employee satisfaction and self esteem as well. As of date, in the present vibrant global scenario, only the organization which impart good training in addition to competitive pay and perks to their employees are able to attract good people. Indian nuclear power plant in general and TAPP 3 and 4 in particular has been referred. (author)

  2. Public opinions about human enhancement can enhance the expert-only debate. A review study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Anne M.; Schuijff, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Human enhancement, the non-medical use of biomedical technologies to improve the human body or performance beyond their ‘natural’ limitations, is a growing trend. At the same time, the use of these technologies has societal consequences. In societal debates about human enhancement, however, it is

  3. Enhanced performance hybrid-arq

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob

    2016-06-16

    Apparatuses, computer readable media, and methods are provided for enhancing hybrid automatic repeat request (ARQ) performance. In an example method, a communication device transmits a first element of a vector, where the vector is selected using the information bits to be transmitted as an index in a code book. In some embodiments, this code book is constructed using Linear Constellation Precoding (LCP). If a NACK is received, the communication device transmits a second element of the vector. The process of transmitting elements of the vector continues until an ACK is received or the maximum number of transmission attempts is reached. If an ACK is received, the communication device transmits a first element of another vector of the code book that encodes a second set of information bits. This procedure may continue until all information bits have been transmitted successfully.

  4. Enhanced performance hybrid-arq

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob; Yang, Hong-Chuan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    Apparatuses, computer readable media, and methods are provided for enhancing hybrid automatic repeat request (ARQ) performance. In an example method, a communication device transmits a first element of a vector, where the vector is selected using the information bits to be transmitted as an index in a code book. In some embodiments, this code book is constructed using Linear Constellation Precoding (LCP). If a NACK is received, the communication device transmits a second element of the vector. The process of transmitting elements of the vector continues until an ACK is received or the maximum number of transmission attempts is reached. If an ACK is received, the communication device transmits a first element of another vector of the code book that encodes a second set of information bits. This procedure may continue until all information bits have been transmitted successfully.

  5. Human performance improvement for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The IAEA assists NPP operating organizations to improve plant performance through a focus on human performance improvement in areas like organizational and leadership development, senior management decision making, organization and management of HPI programmes including tools needed for effective HPI implementation, safety culture enhancement, knowledge management, personnel selection and staffing, career development, training and development, work design, scheduling and conditions, procedure and other job-aid development and use, effective communications, human performance monitoring, motivation. Many NPP operating organizations in Member States, are not yet achieving the full potential of their NPP technology/equipment regarding safety, operational or economic performance due to human performance weaknesses. The IAEA's HPI (Human Performance Improvement) services provide a means for these organizations to efficiently and effectively learn from international experts and the experiences of others in improving plant performance through human performance improvements. NPP operating organizations can benefit from these services in a number of ways, including requesting a national project, participating in a regional project, or requesting an assist visit. The types of activities provided through these services include assistance in benchmarking practices of successful organizations, providing information exchange and reviews of current practices through assist missions, conducting workshops on focused human performance topics, evaluating current human performance methods, including assistance in implementing self assessment programmes and providing support to safety culture enhancement programmes based on self-assessment

  6. Human Performance Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Biochemistry:Improvements in energy metabolism, muscular strength and endurance capacity have a basis in biochemical and molecular adaptations within the human body....

  7. 21st Century Human Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ruth Colvin

    1995-01-01

    Technology can extend human memory and improve performance, but bypassing human intelligence has its dangers. Cognitive apprenticeships that compress learning experiences, provide coaching, and allow trial and error can build complex problem-solving skills and develop expertise. (SK)

  8. Human Performance Westinghouse Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Gutierrez, A.; Gil, C.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the Program consists in the excellence actuation, achieving the client success with a perfect realisation project. This program consists of different basic elements to reduce the human mistakes: the HuP tools, coaching, learning clocks and iKnow website. There is, too, a document file to consult and practice. All these elements are expounded in this paper.

  9. Post-study caffeine administration enhances memory consolidation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borota, Daniel; Murray, Elizabeth; Keceli, Gizem; Chang, Allen; Watabe, Joseph M; Ly, Maria; Toscano, John P; Yassa, Michael A

    2014-02-01

    It is currently not known whether caffeine has an enhancing effect on long-term memory in humans. We used post-study caffeine administration to test its effect on memory consolidation using a behavioral discrimination task. Caffeine enhanced performance 24 h after administration according to an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve; this effect was specific to consolidation and not retrieval. We conclude that caffeine enhanced consolidation of long-term memories in humans.

  10. Equipment improvements for performance enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaestel, P.; Guesnon, H.; Sauze, G.

    1994-01-01

    In order to enhance the reactor availability, several improvements on reactor equipment have been developed: design optimization for stator maintenance replacement in the main alternator; adjustment modification of stator coils in the main alternator for an easier maintenance; improvement of the fuel handling line (pole crane, transfer equipment, loading machine); development of a loose part trapping system in the steam generator secondary circuit. 1 tab

  11. Enhancing importance-performance analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The interpretation of the importance/performance map is based on an assumption of independence between importance and performance but many studies question the validity of this assumption. The aim of this research is to develop a new typology for job satisfaction attributes as well...... as a new importance/performance map that can be an aid for organizations when they prioritize their improvement actions based on a job satisfaction study. Design/methodology/approach: A typology for possible relationships between importance and performance in job satisfaction studies is developed based...... on theoretical considerations. This typology is then applied and validated on approximately 10,000 responses from the European Employee Index 2002. Ultimately a new importance/performance map for priority setting in job satisfaction studies is developed based on the new typology for possible relationships...

  12. Performance-Enhancing Drugs: Know the Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... edge by taking muscle-building supplements or other performance-enhancing drugs? Learn how these drugs work and how they can affect your health. By ... to testosterone and estradiol in both men and women. Andro is available legally ... use as a performance-enhancing drug is illegal in the United States. ...

  13. Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradies, M.; Unger, L.

    1991-01-01

    The Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP) is a systematic method for use by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel investigating incidents that include human error. The combination of techniques into an investigation procedure is designed to help investigators (for example, a typical resident inspector with little human factors training) find the root causes of human performance problems that contributed to the incident. This summary briefly outlines the process and the techniques. The full paper provides a more in-depth description of the process, the techniques, and their development and evaluation. The complete documentation of the process will be presented in NUREG/CR-5455, Development of the NRC Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP) to be published late in 1991

  14. Moderate eugenics and human enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Though the reputation of eugenics has been tarnished by history, eugenics per se is not necessarily a bad thing. Many advocate a liberal new eugenics--where individuals are free to choose whether or not to employ genetic technologies for reproductive purposes. Though genetic interventions aimed at the prevention of severe genetic disorders may be morally and socially acceptable, reproductive liberty in the context of enhancement may conflict with equality. Enhancement could also have adverse effects on utility. The enhancement debate requires a shift in focus. What the equality and/or utility costs of enhancement will be is an empirical question. Rather than philosophical speculation, more social science research is needed to address it. Philosophers, meanwhile, should address head-on the question of how to strike a balance between liberty, equality, and utility in cases of conflict (in the context of genetics).

  15. Human Enhancement and the Story of Job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, Nicholas; McDonald, Johnny

    2017-07-01

    This article explores some implications of the concept of transformative change for the debate about human enhancement. A transformative change is understood to be one that significantly alters the value an individual places on his or her experiences or achievements. The clearest examples of transformative change come from science fiction, but the concept can be illuminatingly applied to the enhancement debate. We argue that it helps to expose a threat from too much enhancement to many of the things that make human lives valuable. Among the things threated by enhancement are our relationships with other human beings. The potential to lose these relationships provides a compelling reason for almost all humans to reject too much enhancement.

  16. NASA Human Health and Performance Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    In May 2007, what was then the Space Life Sciences Directorate, issued the 2007 Space Life Sciences Strategy for Human Space Exploration. In January 2012, leadership and key directorate personnel were once again brought together to assess the current and expected future environment against its 2007 Strategy and the Agency and Johnson Space Center goals and strategies. The result was a refined vision and mission, and revised goals, objectives, and strategies. One of the first changes implemented was to rename the directorate from Space Life Sciences to Human Health and Performance to better reflect our vision and mission. The most significant change in the directorate from 2007 to the present is the integration of the Human Research Program and Crew Health and Safety activities. Subsequently, the Human Health and Performance Directorate underwent a reorganization to achieve enhanced integration of research and development with operations to better support human spaceflight and International Space Station utilization. These changes also enable a more effective and efficient approach to human system risk mitigation. Since 2007, we have also made significant advances in external collaboration and implementation of new business models within the directorate and the Agency, and through two newly established virtual centers, the NASA Human Health and Performance Center and the Center of Excellence for Collaborative Innovation. Our 2012 Strategy builds upon these successes to address the Agency's increased emphasis on societal relevance and being a leader in research and development and innovative business and communications practices. The 2012 Human Health and Performance Vision is to lead the world in human health and performance innovations for life in space and on Earth. Our mission is to enable optimization of human health and performance throughout all phases of spaceflight. All HH&P functions are ultimately aimed at achieving this mission. Our activities enable

  17. Enclosure enhancement of flight performance

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi; Garcia, Daniel; Calo, Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    We use a potential flow solver to investigate the aerodynamic aspects of flapping flights in enclosed spaces. The enclosure effects are simulated by the method of images. Our study complements previous aerodynamic analyses which considered only the near-ground flight. The present results show that flying in the proximity of an enclosure affects the aerodynamic performance of flapping wings in terms of lift and thrust generation and power consumption. It leads to higher flight efficiency and more than 5% increase of the generation of lift and thrust.

  18. Enclosure enhancement of flight performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghommem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a potential flow solver to investigate the aerodynamic aspects of flapping flights in enclosed spaces. The enclosure effects are simulated by the method of images. Our study complements previous aerodynamic analyses which considered only the near-ground flight. The present results show that flying in the proximity of an enclosure affects the aerodynamic performance of flapping wings in terms of lift and thrust generation and power consumption. It leads to higher flight efficiency and more than 5% increase of the generation of lift and thrust.

  19. Enhancement of SPES source performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagotti, E.; Palmieri, A.; Ren, X.

    2008-01-01

    Installation of SPES source at LNL was finished in July 2006 and the first beam was extracted in September 2006. Commissioning results confirmed very good performance of the extracted current density. Conversely, source reliability was very poor due to glow-discharge phenomena, which were caused by the ion source axial magnetic field protruding in the high-voltage column. This problem was fixed by changing the stainless steel plasma electrode support with a ferromagnetic one. This new configuration required us to recalculate ion source solenoids positions and fields in order to recover the correct resonance pattern. Details on magnetic simulations and experimental results of high voltage column shielding are presented

  20. Enclosure enhancement of flight performance

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi

    2014-08-19

    We use a potential flow solver to investigate the aerodynamic aspects of flapping flights in enclosed spaces. The enclosure effects are simulated by the method of images. Our study complements previous aerodynamic analyses which considered only the near-ground flight. The present results show that flying in the proximity of an enclosure affects the aerodynamic performance of flapping wings in terms of lift and thrust generation and power consumption. It leads to higher flight efficiency and more than 5% increase of the generation of lift and thrust.

  1. DENdb: database of integrated human enhancers

    KAUST Repository

    Ashoor, Haitham

    2015-09-05

    Enhancers are cis-acting DNA regulatory regions that play a key role in distal control of transcriptional activities. Identification of enhancers, coupled with a comprehensive functional analysis of their properties, could improve our understanding of complex gene transcription mechanisms and gene regulation processes in general. We developed DENdb, a centralized on-line repository of predicted enhancers derived from multiple human cell-lines. DENdb integrates enhancers predicted by five different methods generating an enriched catalogue of putative enhancers for each of the analysed cell-lines. DENdb provides information about the overlap of enhancers with DNase I hypersensitive regions, ChIP-seq regions of a number of transcription factors and transcription factor binding motifs, means to explore enhancer interactions with DNA using several chromatin interaction assays and enhancer neighbouring genes. DENdb is designed as a relational database that facilitates fast and efficient searching, browsing and visualization of information.

  2. DENdb: database of integrated human enhancers

    KAUST Repository

    Ashoor, Haitham; Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios A.; Radovanovic, Aleksandar; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-01-01

    Enhancers are cis-acting DNA regulatory regions that play a key role in distal control of transcriptional activities. Identification of enhancers, coupled with a comprehensive functional analysis of their properties, could improve our understanding of complex gene transcription mechanisms and gene regulation processes in general. We developed DENdb, a centralized on-line repository of predicted enhancers derived from multiple human cell-lines. DENdb integrates enhancers predicted by five different methods generating an enriched catalogue of putative enhancers for each of the analysed cell-lines. DENdb provides information about the overlap of enhancers with DNase I hypersensitive regions, ChIP-seq regions of a number of transcription factors and transcription factor binding motifs, means to explore enhancer interactions with DNA using several chromatin interaction assays and enhancer neighbouring genes. DENdb is designed as a relational database that facilitates fast and efficient searching, browsing and visualization of information.

  3. Enhancing Human Cognition with Cocoa Flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Socci

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing cognitive abilities has become a fascinating scientific challenge, recently driven by the interest in preventing age-related cognitive decline and sustaining normal cognitive performance in response to cognitively demanding environments. In recent years, cocoa and cocoa-derived products, as a rich source of flavonoids, mainly the flavanols sub-class, have been clearly shown to exert cardiovascular benefits. More recently, neuromodulation and neuroprotective actions have been also suggested. Here, we discuss human studies specifically aimed at investigating the effects of acute and chronic administration of cocoa flavanols on different cognitive domains, such as executive functions, attention and memory. Through a variety of direct and indirect biological actions, in part still speculative, cocoa and cocoa-derived food have been suggested to possess the potential to counteract cognitive decline and sustain cognitive abilities, particularly among patients at risk. Although still at a preliminary stage, research investigating the relations between cocoa and cognition shows dose-dependent improvements in general cognition, attention, processing speed, and working memory. Moreover, cocoa flavanols administration could also enhance normal cognitive functioning and exert a protective role on cognitive performance and cardiovascular function specifically impaired by sleep loss, in healthy subjects. Together, these findings converge at pointing to cocoa as a new interesting nutraceutical tool to protect human cognition and counteract different types of cognitive decline, thus encouraging further investigations. Future research should include complex experimental designs combining neuroimaging techniques with physiological and behavioral measures to better elucidate cocoa neuromodulatory properties and directly compare immediate versus long-lasting cognitive effects.

  4. Five Performance Enhancements for Hybrid Hash Join

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graefe, Goetz

    1992-01-01

    .... We discuss five performance enhancements for hybrid hash join algorithms, namely data compression, large cluster sizes and multi-level recursion, role reversal of build and probe inputs, histogram...

  5. Research strategies for human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Lennart

    1998-01-01

    This document reflects basic proposals derived from the discussions and results by the expert group on human performance within the frame of an OECD study on nuclear safety research. Different topics have identified which are herein briefly presented: cognitive models and errors of commission, organizational practices, validation of existing techniques for human reliability analysis, control room design and man-machine interactions, use of simulators, improvement of methods for evaluation of operating experience, safety culture, operator aids, shutdown, decommissioning

  6. Human Resources Key Performance Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabčanová Iveta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article brings out a proposed strategy map and respective key performance indicators (KPIs in human resources (HR. The article provides an overview of how HR activities are supported in order to reach the partial goals of HR as defined in the strategic map. Overall the aim of the paper is to show the possibilities of using the modern Balanced Scorecard method in human capital.

  7. Information processing. [in human performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Christopher D.; Flach, John M.

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models of sensory-information processing by the human brain are reviewed from a human-factors perspective, with a focus on their implications for aircraft and avionics design. The topics addressed include perception (signal detection and selection), linguistic factors in perception (context provision, logical reversals, absence of cues, and order reversals), mental models, and working and long-term memory. Particular attention is given to decision-making problems such as situation assessment, decision formulation, decision quality, selection of action, the speed-accuracy tradeoff, stimulus-response compatibility, stimulus sequencing, dual-task performance, task difficulty and structure, and factors affecting multiple task performance (processing modalities, codes, and stages).

  8. Towards a Moderate Stance on Human Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikil Mukerji

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, we argue against radical ethical views about human enhancement that either dismiss or endorse it tout court. Instead, we advocate the moderate stance that issues of enhancement should be examined with an open mind and on a case-by-case basis. To make this view plausible, we offer three reasons. The first lies in the fact that it is difficult to delineate enhancement conceptually, which makes it hard to argue for general ethical conclusions about it. The second is that an appropriate view of the edifice of moral theory suggests that tenable moral judgements about human enhancement are the result of a careful consideration of the pros and cons that attach to the use of a specific enhancement technology. Lastly, we show that important normative factors in the enhancement debate can be used both in arguments for and in arguments against enhancement. The bottom line of our discussion is that we should treat issues of human enhancement like we do any other ethical issue, viz. by weighing up the reasons pro and con.

  9. Notes on human performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollnagel, E.; Pedersen, O.M.; Rasmussen, J.

    1981-06-01

    This paper contains a framework for the integration of observation and analysis of human performance in nuclear environments - real or simulated. It identifies four main sources of data, and describes the characteristic data types and methods of analysis for each source in relation to a common conceptual background. The general conclusion is that it is highly useful to combine the knowledge and experience from different contexts into coherent picture of how nuclear operators perform under varying circumstances. (author)

  10. Sensorimotor Rhythm Neurofeedback Enhances Golf Putting Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming-Yang; Huang, Chung-Ju; Chang, Yu-Kai; Koester, Dirk; Schack, Thomas; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2015-12-01

    Sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) activity has been related to automaticity during skilled action execution. However, few studies have bridged the causal link between SMR activity and sports performance. This study investigated the effect of SMR neurofeedback training (SMR NFT) on golf putting performance. We hypothesized that preelite golfers would exhibit enhanced putting performance after SMR NFT. Sixteen preelite golfers were recruited and randomly assigned into either an SMR or a control group. Participants were asked to perform putting while electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded, both before and after intervention. Our results showed that the SMR group performed more accurately when putting and exhibited greater SMR power than the control group after 8 intervention sessions. This study concludes that SMR NFT is effective for increasing SMR during action preparation and for enhancing golf putting performance. Moreover, greater SMR activity might be an EEG signature of improved attention processing, which induces superior putting performance.

  11. Human Resource Management and Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.P.E.F. Boselie (Paul); J. Paauwe (Jaap); P. Jansen (Paul)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThe relationship between Human Resource Management (HRM) and performance of the firm has been a hot debated topic in the field of HRM/IR for the last decade. Most scientific research on this topic originates from the USA. In our paper we will give an overview of recent USA-based research

  12. Performance Enhancements for Advanced Database Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Helmer, Sven

    2000-01-01

    New applications have emerged, demanding database management systems with enhanced functionality. However, high performance is a necessary precondition for the acceptance of such systems by end users. In this context we developed, implemented, and tested algorithms and index structures for improving the performance of advanced database management systems. We focused on index structures and join algorithms for set-valued attributes.

  13. Enhancing Organizational Performance: A Toolbox for Self ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Do you know if your organization is performing efficiently? If it isn't, do you know why? This guidebook presents an innovative and thoroughly tested model for organizational self-assessment. The tools and tips in Enhancing Organizational Performance go beyond measuring the impact of programs, products, and services.

  14. Brain performance enhancement for military operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F.; Reschke, S.; Grootjen, M.; Brouwer, A.-M.

    2009-01-01

    Performance of military operators depends on both physical and cognitive aspects. Enhancement of operator performance should therefore address both the body and the brain. This paper focuses on the latter. We provide an extended list of areas where neuroscientific knowledge may be important like

  15. Research strategies for human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge about factors that influence Human Performance is essential for the safety of nuclear power plant operation. Through a number of tasks, workshops and projects, experience is shared among OECD countries. At its December 1996 meeting, the CSNI endorsed the SESAR/CAF report on 'Nuclear Safety Research in OECD Countries: Capabilities and Facilities' and requested that the Principal Working Groups (PWGs) review existing co-operative programmes and develop specifications for programmes which address the identified needs. Following discussions between the chairmen of these PWGs and the NEA Secretariat, it was concluded that, for this technical area, the development of programme specifications must be preceded by the development of a strategic document that further elaborates the conclusions of the SESAR/CAF report and set out the general orientation of the research over the medium and long term. Accordingly, a group of senior experts met in August 1997 to discuss possible strategies in the area of Human Performance. The objectives of this meeting were: - To exchange information on existing plans and strategies by different Member countries; - To determine relevant issues and realistic medium/long-term targets and expectations for their resolution, and - To determine, in general sense, possible research programmes, their priority and their likelihood for success. This document is the result of this meeting. Its objective is to present to the CSNI proposals for future work on Human Performance research. The proposals are built upon the work performed to date by PWG1 and PWG5. Carrying out these proposals will continue to require close coordination on joint activities between these two PWGs. Reinforced systematic networking activities are needed particularly in management and organisational performance research to initiate and manage comparison and benchmarking activities. Synchronising the availability of funding is a specific problem in many cases. Since most

  16. Enhancing astronaut performance using sensorimotor adaptability training

    OpenAIRE

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen S.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts experience disturbances in balance and gait function when they return to Earth. The highly plastic human brain enables individuals to modify their behavior to match the prevailing environment. Subjects participating in specially designed variable sensory challenge training programs can enhance their ability to rapidly adapt to novel sensory situations. This is useful in our application because we aim to train astronauts to rapidly formulate effective strategies to cope with the bal...

  17. Performance management system enhancement and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaver, T. G.; Ahour, R.; Johnson, B. R.

    1984-01-01

    The research described in this report concludes a two-year effort to develop a Performance Management System (PMS) for the NCC computers. PMS provides semi-automated monthly reports to NASA and contractor management on the status and performance of the NCC computers in the TDRSS program. Throughout 1984, PMS was tested, debugged, extended, and enhanced. Regular PMS monthly reports were produced and distributed. PMS continues to operate at the NCC under control of Bendix Corp. personnel.

  18. Patentability of methods of human enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how to apply patentability rules to human enhancement, particularly focusing on Article 53(c) of the European Patent Convention (EPC). The global size and value of the cosmetic and wellness market and industry allow for the prediction of considerable market potential for hum...... future evolution and the corresponding public policy choices. This article seeks to provide prospective patentees with guidance and awareness concerning the patentability of methods for human enhancement.......This article explores how to apply patentability rules to human enhancement, particularly focusing on Article 53(c) of the European Patent Convention (EPC). The global size and value of the cosmetic and wellness market and industry allow for the prediction of considerable market potential for human...... enhancement. Patents will be instrumental for companies to protect investment in innovation and tap into this potentially valuable market. The European patent system contains, in Article 53(c) EPC, an exception from patentability for methods for treatment and diagnostic methods. Such rule was created...

  19. Love troubles : human attachment and biomedical enhancements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyholm, S.

    ABSTRACT In fascinating recent work, Julian Savulescu and his various co-authors argue that human love is one of the things we can improve upon using biomedical enhancements. Is that so? This article first notes that Savulescu and his co-authors mainly treat love as a means to various other goods.

  20. Human Capital Development Policies: Enhancing Employees Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hooi Lan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose--The aim of this article is to gain insight into some of the human capital development (HCD) policies that enhance employee satisfaction. A salient focus of the study is to assess whether employees in globalised foreign-owned MNCs are likely to be more satisfied with the HCD policies than with the practices employed by locally owned MNCs.…

  1. Peripheral visual performance enhancement by neurofeedback training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Wenya; Wan, Feng; Lou, Chin Ian; Vai, Mang I; Rosa, Agostinho

    2013-12-01

    Peripheral visual performance is an important ability for everyone, and a positive inter-individual correlation is found between the peripheral visual performance and the alpha amplitude during the performance test. This study investigated the effect of alpha neurofeedback training on the peripheral visual performance. A neurofeedback group of 13 subjects finished 20 sessions of alpha enhancement feedback within 20 days. The peripheral visual performance was assessed by a new dynamic peripheral visual test on the first and last training day. The results revealed that the neurofeedback group showed significant enhancement of the peripheral visual performance as well as the relative alpha amplitude during the peripheral visual test. It was not the case in the non-neurofeedback control group, which performed the tests within the same time frame as the neurofeedback group but without any training sessions. These findings suggest that alpha neurofeedback training was effective in improving peripheral visual performance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show evidence for performance improvement in peripheral vision via alpha neurofeedback training.

  2. Integrating Human Performance and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farris, Ronald K.; Medema, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Human error is a significant factor in the cause and/or complication of events that occur in the commercial nuclear industry. In recent years, great gains have been made using Human Performance (HU) tools focused on targeting individual behaviors. However, the cost of improving HU is growing and resistance to add yet another HU tool certainly exists, particularly for those tools that increase the paperwork for operations. Improvements in HU that are the result of leveraging existing technology, such as hand-held mobile technologies, have the potential to reduce human error in controlling system configurations, safety tag-outs, and other verifications. Operator rounds, valve lineup verifications, containment closure verifications, safety and equipment protection, and system tagging can be supported by field-deployable wireless technologies. These devices can also support the availability of critical component data in the main control room and other locations. This research pilot project reviewing wireless hand-held technology is part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program (LWRSP), a research and development (R and D) program sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The project is being performed in close collaboration with industry R and D programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing, and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. The LWRSP vision is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current nuclear reactor fleet. (author)

  3. Integrating Human Performance and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald K. Farris; Heather Medema

    2012-05-01

    Human error is a significant factor in the cause and/or complication of events that occur in the commercial nuclear industry. In recent years, great gains have been made using Human Performance (HU) tools focused on targeting individual behaviors. However, the cost of improving HU is growing and resistance to add yet another HU tool certainly exists, particularly for those tools that increase the paperwork for operations. Improvements in HU that are the result of leveraging existing technology, such as hand-held mobile technologies, have the potential to reduce human error in controlling system configurations, safety tag-outs, and other verifications. Operator rounds, valve line-up verifications, containment closure verifications, safety & equipment protection, and system tagging can be supported by field-deployable wireless technologies. These devices can also support the availability of critical component data in the main control room and other locations. This research pilot project reviewing wireless hand-held technology is part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program (LWRSP), a research and development (R&D) program sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The project is being performed in close collaboration with industry R&D programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing, and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. The LWRSP vision is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current nuclear reactor fleet.

  4. Identification of Enhancers In Human: Advances In Computational Studies

    KAUST Repository

    Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios A.

    2016-03-24

    Roughly ~50% of the human genome, contains noncoding sequences serving as regulatory elements responsible for the diverse gene expression of the cells in the body. One very well studied category of regulatory elements is the category of enhancers. Enhancers increase the transcriptional output in cells through chromatin remodeling or recruitment of complexes of binding proteins. Identification of enhancer using computational techniques is an interesting area of research and up to now several approaches have been proposed. However, the current state-of-the-art methods face limitations since the function of enhancers is clarified, but their mechanism of function is not well understood. This PhD thesis presents a bioinformatics/computer science study that focuses on the problem of identifying enhancers in different human cells using computational techniques. The dissertation is decomposed into four main tasks that we present in different chapters. First, since many of the enhancer’s functions are not well understood, we study the basic biological models by which enhancers trigger transcriptional functions and we survey comprehensively over 30 bioinformatics approaches for identifying enhancers. Next, we elaborate more on the availability of enhancer data as produced by different enhancer identification methods and experimental procedures. In particular, we analyze advantages and disadvantages of existing solutions and we report obstacles that require further consideration. To mitigate these problems we developed the Database of Integrated Human Enhancers (DENdb), a centralized online repository that archives enhancer data from 16 ENCODE cell-lines. The integrated enhancer data are also combined with many other experimental data that can be used to interpret the enhancers content and generate a novel enhancer annotation that complements the existing integrative annotation proposed by the ENCODE consortium. Next, we propose the first deep-learning computational

  5. Automation and robotics human performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    The scope of this report is limited to the following: (1) assessing the feasibility of the assumptions for crew productivity during the intra-vehicular activities and extra-vehicular activities; (2) estimating the appropriate level of automation and robotics to accomplish balanced man-machine, cost-effective operations in space; (3) identifying areas where conceptually different approaches to the use of people and machines can leverage the benefits of the scenarios; and (4) recommending modifications to scenarios or developing new scenarios that will improve the expected benefits. The FY89 special assessments are grouped into the five categories shown in the report. The high level system analyses for Automation & Robotics (A&R) and Human Performance (HP) were performed under the Case Studies Technology Assessment category, whereas the detailed analyses for the critical systems and high leverage development areas were performed under the appropriate operations categories (In-Space Vehicle Operations or Planetary Surface Operations). The analysis activities planned for the Science Operations technology areas were deferred to FY90 studies. The remaining activities such as analytic tool development, graphics/video demonstrations and intelligent communicating systems software architecture were performed under the Simulation & Validations category.

  6. Cardiovascular Effects of Performance-Enhancing Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Gerche, André; Brosnan, Maria J

    2017-01-03

    Exercise and competitive sports should be associated with a wide range of health benefits with the potential to inspire a positive community health legacy. However, the reputation of sports is being threatened by an ever-expanding armamentarium of agents with real or perceived benefits in performance enhancement. In addition to the injustice of unfair advantage for dishonest athletes, significant potential health risks are associated with performance-enhancing drugs. Performance-enhancing drugs may have an effect on the cardiovascular system by means of directly altering the myocardium, vasculature, and metabolism. However, less frequently considered is the potential for indirect effects caused through enabling athletes to push beyond normal physiological limits with the potential consequence of exercise-induced arrhythmias. This review will summarize the known health effects of PEDs but will also focus on the potentially greater health threat posed by the covert search for performance-enhancing agents that have yet to be recognized by the World Anti-Doping Agency. History has taught us that athletes are subjected to unmonitored trials with experimental drugs that have little or no established efficacy or safety data. One approach to decrease drug abuse in sports would be to accept that there is a delay from when athletes start experimenting with novel agents to the time when authorities become aware of these drugs. This provides a window of opportunity for athletes to exploit with relative immunity. It could be argued that all off-label use of any agent should be deemed illegal. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. In Defense of Pharmaceutically Enhancing Human Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopapadakis, Evangelos D

    2017-01-01

    I will discuss the prospect of pharmaceutically enhancing human morality and decision making in such a way as to eliminate morally unjustifiable choices and promote desirable ones. Our species in the relatively short period since it has emerged has enormously advanced in knowledge, science, and technical progress. When it comes to moral development, the distance it has covered is almost negligible. What if we could medically accelerate our moral development? What if we could once and for all render our species totally immune to certain vices? I will examine whether pharmaceutically intervening in human morality would compromise the autonomy of moral agents. I will argue that the argument from the autonomy of the moral agent is neither stable nor convincing. In the light of Kantian ethics we might consider moral enhancement by pharmaceutical means to be a perfect duty for moral agents.

  8. Optical design applications for enhanced illumination performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilray, Carl; Lewin, Ian

    1995-08-01

    Nonimaging optical design techniques have been applied in the illumination industry for many years. Recently however, powerful software has been developed which allows accurate simulation and optimization of illumination devices. Wide experience has been obtained in using such design techniques for practical situations. These include automotive lighting where safety is of greatest importance, commercial lighting systems designed for energy efficiency, and numerous specialized applications. This presentation will discuss the performance requirements of a variety of illumination devices. It will further cover design methodology and present a variety of examples of practical applications for enhanced system performance.

  9. Vertebral artery dissection in weightlifter with performance enhancing drug use

    OpenAIRE

    Low, Andrew; Dovey, Julie; Ash-Miles, Janice

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes a transient ischaemic attack secondary to vertebral artery dissection (VAD) in a young male body builder. This occurred following weight training with weights across the back and shoulders. The patient was also known to take multiple performance enhancing agents including anabolic steroids, slimming agents, stimulants and human growth hormone. Cases of VAD have been described with cervical manipulation in the past and an association between the use of anabolic stero...

  10. Translating Fatigue to Human Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoka, Roger M.; Duchateau, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Despite flourishing interest in the topic of fatigue—as indicated by the many presentations on fatigue at the 2015 annual meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine—surprisingly little is known about its impact on human performance. There are two main reasons for this dilemma: (1) the inability of current terminology to accommodate the scope of the conditions ascribed to fatigue, and (2) a paucity of validated experimental models. In contrast to current practice, a case is made for a unified definition of fatigue to facilitate its management in health and disease. Based on the classic two-domain concept of Mosso, fatigue is defined as a disabling symptom in which physical and cognitive function is limited by interactions between performance fatigability and perceived fatigability. As a symptom, fatigue can only be measured by self-report, quantified as either a trait characteristic or a state variable. One consequence of such a definition is that the word fatigue should not be preceded by an adjective (e.g., central, mental, muscle, peripheral, and supraspinal) to suggest the locus of the changes responsible for an observed level of fatigue. Rather, mechanistic studies should be performed with validated experimental models to identify the changes responsible for the reported fatigue. As indicated by three examples (walking endurance in old adults, time trials by endurance athletes, and fatigue in persons with multiple sclerosis) discussed in the review, however, it has proven challenging to develop valid experimental models of fatigue. The proposed framework provides a foundation to address the many gaps in knowledge of how laboratory measures of fatigue and fatigability impact real-world performance. PMID:27015386

  11. The human factor: enhancing women's rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinzor, N

    1995-01-01

    The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the UN in 1948, declares that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights, and that everyone has the right to life, liberty, and security of person. In practice, however, far from everyone has these rights, especially women. Many women worldwide have neither the awareness of nor access to family planning methods with which they could regulate their fertility and childbearing. Thus deprived of their reproductive freedom, these women cannot pursue education, employment, and other life options which would otherwise be readily available to them were they not saddled with poor reproductive health and too many children. Expanded choices enhance the status of women, which in turn helps them to reduce fertility rates and stabilize population growth. The author discusses how the wide range of cultural and social norms, and economic and political systems worldwide make it very difficult and complex to actually implement universal human rights.

  12. Human-Robot Teams Informed by Human Performance Moderator Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    performance factors that affect the ability of a human to drive at night, which includes the eyesight of the driver, the fatigue level of the driver...where human factors are factors that affect the performance of an individual. 7 for human interaction. For instance, they explain the various human... affecting trust in human-robot interaction. Human Factors 53(5), 517-527 (2001) 35. Hart, S. G. and Staveland, L. E. Development of NASA-TLX (Task

  13. Lean Production Practices to Enhance Organisational Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Satya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Service sector organisations are constantly overcoming the challenges facing the over-production and waste reduction within their environments. Industries are also becoming very competitive thus forcing them to seek suitable production organisation strategies with the aim towards enhancing their competitiveness and efficiency. The aim of this research study is to investigate the impact of lean production practices on the performance of service based businesses through the case study of a local baked goods supplier. The research framework adopted consists of questionnaire survey method implemented with different end users, thus covering the overall production – retail – customer cycle. The research results and analysis justify the objective of the research that lean production practices enhance the performance of the supplier company and the common tool identified were JIT (Just in Time, Value Steam Mapping (VSP and the 5S methods. The results also suggest that JIT method has a higher impact towards improvement on performance relating to quality, speed, dependability, flexibility and cost of the supplier. However, the research study also identifies that one of the major challenges faced by the organisation while adopting lean practices was the lack of commitment from top management, continuous training and employee engagement measures.

  14. Radiation enhanced reactivation of irradiated human adenovirus type 2 in human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeeves, W.P.

    1981-04-01

    Radiation-enhanced reactivation (ER) of a radiation-damaged mammalian virus is the term given to the observation that the survival of irradiated virus can be enhanced by irradiation of an appropriate host cell prior to infection. In this work, both UV-enhanced reactivation (UVER) and gamma-ray-enhanced reactivation (γRER) of irradiated human adenovirus type 2 (AD 2) were studied in a variety of normal and DNA repair-deficient human fibroblast host cell strains. In order to examine the lesion specificity of ER in human cells, experiments were performed using UV-irradiated and γ-irradiated virus. The investigation was carried out using a sensitive technique of indirect immunofluorescence, according to which irradiated and unirradiated cell cultures were infected with irradiated or unirradiated AD 2 and were subsequently examined for the presence of viral structural antigens ('V' Ag) at a fixed time after infection

  15. Enhancing neural-network performance via assortativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franciscis, Sebastiano de; Johnson, Samuel; Torres, Joaquin J.

    2011-01-01

    The performance of attractor neural networks has been shown to depend crucially on the heterogeneity of the underlying topology. We take this analysis a step further by examining the effect of degree-degree correlations - assortativity - on neural-network behavior. We make use of a method recently put forward for studying correlated networks and dynamics thereon, both analytically and computationally, which is independent of how the topology may have evolved. We show how the robustness to noise is greatly enhanced in assortative (positively correlated) neural networks, especially if it is the hub neurons that store the information.

  16. Genomic features of human limb specific enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahid; Amina, Bibi; Anwar, Saneela; Minhas, Rashid; Parveen, Nazia; Nawaz, Uzma; Azam, Syed Sikandar; Abbasi, Amir Ali

    2016-10-01

    To elucidate important cellular and molecular interactions that regulate patterning and skeletal development, vertebrate limbs served as a model organ. A growing body of evidence from detailed studies on a subset of limb regulators like the HOXD cluster or SHH, reveals the importance of enhancers in limb related developmental and disease processes. Exploiting the recent genome-wide availability of functionally confirmed enhancer dataset, this study establishes regulatory interactions for dozens of human limb developmental genes. From these data, it appears that the long-range regulatory interactions are fairly common during limb development. This observation highlights the significance of chromosomal breaks/translocations in human limb deformities. Transcriptional factor (TF) analysis predicts that the differentiation of early nascent limb-bud into future territories entail distinct TF interaction networks. Conclusively, an important motivation for annotating the human limb specific regulatory networks is to pave way for the systematic exploration of their role in disease and evolution. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Operational human performance reliability assessment (OHPRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.M.; Swanson, P.J.; Connelly, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    Operational Human Performance Reliability Assessment (OHPRA) is an approach for assessing human performance that is being developed in response to demands from modern process industries for practical and effective tools to assess and improve human performance, and therefore overall system performance and safety. The single most distinguishing feature of the approach is that is defines human performance in open-quotes operationalclose quotes terms. OHPRA is focused not on generation of human error probabilities, but on practical analysis of human performance to aid management in (1) identifying open-quotes fixableclose quotes problems and (2) providing input on the importance and nature of potential improvements. Development of the model in progress uses a unique approach for eliciting expert strategies for assessing performance. A PC-based model incorporating this expertise is planned. A preliminary version of the approach has already been used successfully to identify practical human performance problems in reactor and chemical process plant operations

  18. Enhancing Astronaut Performance using Sensorimotor Adaptability Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob J Bloomberg

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Astronauts experience disturbances in balance and gait function when they return to Earth. The highly plastic human brain enables individuals to modify their behavior to match the prevailing environment. Subjects participating in specially designed variable sensory challenge training programs can enhance their ability to rapidly adapt to novel sensory situations. This is useful in our application because we aim to train astronauts to rapidly formulate effective strategies to cope with the balance and locomotor challenges associated with new gravitational environments - enhancing their ability to learn to learn. We do this by coupling various combinations of sensorimotor challenges with treadmill walking. A unique training system has been developed that is comprised of a treadmill mounted on a motion base to produce movement of the support surface during walking. This system provides challenges to gait stability. Additional sensory variation and challenge are imposed with a virtual visual scene that presents subjects with various combinations of discordant visual information during treadmill walking. This experience allows them to practice resolving challenging and conflicting novel sensory information to improve their ability to adapt rapidly. Information obtained from this work will inform the design of the next generation of sensorimotor countermeasures for astronauts.

  19. Enhancing astronaut performance using sensorimotor adaptability training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J; Peters, Brian T; Cohen, Helen S; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts experience disturbances in balance and gait function when they return to Earth. The highly plastic human brain enables individuals to modify their behavior to match the prevailing environment. Subjects participating in specially designed variable sensory challenge training programs can enhance their ability to rapidly adapt to novel sensory situations. This is useful in our application because we aim to train astronauts to rapidly formulate effective strategies to cope with the balance and locomotor challenges associated with new gravitational environments-enhancing their ability to "learn to learn." We do this by coupling various combinations of sensorimotor challenges with treadmill walking. A unique training system has been developed that is comprised of a treadmill mounted on a motion base to produce movement of the support surface during walking. This system provides challenges to gait stability. Additional sensory variation and challenge are imposed with a virtual visual scene that presents subjects with various combinations of discordant visual information during treadmill walking. This experience allows them to practice resolving challenging and conflicting novel sensory information to improve their ability to adapt rapidly. Information obtained from this work will inform the design of the next generation of sensorimotor countermeasures for astronauts.

  20. Enhancing health leadership performance using neurotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swingle, Paul G; Hartney, Elizabeth

    2018-05-01

    The discovery of neuroplasticity means the brain can change, functionally, in response to the environment and to learning. While individuals can develop harmful patterns of brain activity in response to stressors, they can also learn to modify or control neurological conditions associated with specific behaviors. Neurotherapy is one way of changing brain functioning to modify troubling conditions which can impair leadership performance, through responding to feedback on their own brain activity, and enhancing optimal leadership functioning through learning to maximize such cognitive strengths as mental efficiency, focus, creativity, perseverance, and executive functioning. The present article outlines the application of the concept of optimal performance training to organizational leadership in a healthcare context, by describing approaches to neurotherapy and illustrating their application through a case study of a health leader learning to overcome the neurological and emotional sequelae of workplace stress and trauma.

  1. The better human, the better than human: Limits of enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Predrag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the representations of science, fiction and science fiction, this article attempts to sketch out a certain line of development in the history of representation of the enhanced human. First it was thought that chemicals could temporarily or permanently improve his natural abilities, then artificial substitutes, inserts and accessories dominated the vision of his improvement. The most recent possibility announced is the fundamental morphological transformation of his biological composition into a completely unrecognizable, amorphous “entity” capable of taking any form. This trajectory of “improvement” of human capacities could be regarded as a gradual advancement in the realization of the pledge of traditional humanism: that man is special precisely for being able to become anything he chooses. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41004: Retke bolesti: molekularna patofiziologija, dijagnostički i terapijski modaliteti i socijalni, etički i pravni aspekti

  2. Technology-enhanced human interaction in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Zac E; Caperton, Derek D; Tanana, Michael; Atkins, David C

    2017-07-01

    Psychotherapy is on the verge of a technology-inspired revolution. The concurrent maturation of communication, signal processing, and machine learning technologies begs an earnest look at how these technologies may be used to improve the quality of psychotherapy. Here, we discuss 3 research domains where technology is likely to have a significant impact: (1) mechanism and process, (2) training and feedback, and (3) technology-mediated treatment modalities. For each domain, we describe current and forthcoming examples of how new technologies may change established applications. Moreover, for each domain we present research questions that touch on theoretical, systemic, and implementation issues. Ultimately, psychotherapy is a decidedly human endeavor, and thus the application of modern technology to therapy must capitalize on-and enhance-our human capacities as counselors, students, and supervisors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Human body communication performance simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Mufti, H. (Haseeb)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Human Body Communication (HBC) is a novel communication method between devices which use human body as a transmission medium. This idea is mostly based on the concept of wireless biomedical monitoring system. The on-body sensor nodes can monitor vital signs of a human body and use the body as a transmission medium. This technology is convenient for long durations of clinical monitoring with the option of more mobil...

  4. Distributing coil elements in three dimensions enhances parallel transmission multiband RF performance: A simulation study in the human brain at 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoping; Tian, Jinfeng; Schmitter, Sebastian; Vaughan, J Tommy; Uğurbil, Kâmil; Van de Moortele, Pierre-François

    2016-06-01

    We explore the advantages of using a double-ring radiofrequency (RF) array and slice orientation to design parallel transmission (pTx) multiband (MB) pulses for simultaneous multislice (SMS) imaging with whole-brain coverage at 7 Tesla (T). A double-ring head array with 16 elements split evenly in two rings stacked in the z-direction was modeled and compared with two single-ring arrays consisting of 8 or 16 elements. The array performance was evaluated by designing band-specific pTx MB pulses with local specific absorption rate (SAR) control. The impact of slice orientations was also investigated. The double-ring array consistently and significantly outperformed the other two single-ring arrays, with peak local SAR reduced by up to 40% at a fixed excitation error of 0.024. For all three arrays, exciting sagittal or coronal slices yielded better RF performance than exciting axial or oblique slices. A double-ring RF array can be used to drastically improve SAR versus excitation fidelity tradeoff for pTx MB pulse design for brain imaging at 7 T; therefore, it is preferable against single-ring RF array designs when pursuing various biomedical applications of pTx SMS imaging. In comparing the stripline arrays, coronal and sagittal slices are more advantageous than axial and oblique slices for pTx MB pulses. Magn Reson Med 75:2464-2472, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Technology in Paralympic sport: performance enhancement or essential for performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Brendan

    2010-02-01

    People with disabilities often depend on assistive devices to enable activities of daily living as well as to compete in sport. Technological developments in sport can be controversial. To review, identify and describe current technological developments in assistive devices used in the summer Paralympic Games; and to prepare for the London 2012 Games, the future challenges and the role of technology are debated. A systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature and personal observations of technological developments at the Athens (2004) and Beijing (2008) Paralympic Games was conducted. Standard assistive devices can inhibit the Paralympians' abilities to perform the strenuous activities of their sports. Although many Paralympic sports only require technology similar to their Olympic counterparts, several unique technological modifications have been made in prosthetic and wheelchair devices. Technology is essential for the Paralympic athlete, and the potential technological advantage for a Paralympian, when competing against an Olympian, is unclear. Technology must match the individual requirements of the athlete with the sport in order for Paralympians to safely maximise their performance. Within the 'performance enhancement or essential for performance?' debate, any potential increase in mechanical performance from an assistive device must be considered holistically with the compensatory consequences the disability creates. To avoid potential technology controversies at the 2012 London Olympic and Paralympic Games, the role of technology in sport must be clarified.

  6. Some human performance paradoxes of nuclear operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.; Misenta, R.

    1980-01-01

    Roughly once a year, an abnormal situation with emergency potential may suddenly break the calm monotony of nuclear-power plant operation. The operating crew, perhaps under-stimulated by monitoring largely automatic processes, may then be expected to make correct inferences and decisions about complex phenomena. However, under stress, the operators may resort to using their 'best-learned responses', inappropriate to the real situation. Recent events at Three Mile Island prompted a variety of suggestions intended to improve operator performance, eg higher qualifications, more pay, or enhanced status. The authors stress the paradoxes of nuclear operation, conclude that some 'intuitively obvious' suggestions might have the opposite effect to that intended, and explore the possibility of introducing frequent, realistic emergency drills. Even this approach raises paradoxes - perhaps the role of the operator should be eliminated, or redefined to allow less human intervention in emergencies. (author)

  7. A trending database for human performance events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, D.

    1993-01-01

    An effective Operations Experience program includes a standardized methodology for the investigation of unplanned events and a tool capable of retaining investigation data for the purpose of trending analysis. A database used in conjunction with a formalized investigation procedure for the purpose of trending unplanning event data is described. The database follows the structure of INPO's Human Performance Enhancement System for investigations. The database screens duplicate on-line the HPES evaluation Forms. All information pertaining to investigations is collected, retained and entered into the database using these forms. The database will be used for trending analysis to determine if any significant patterns exist, for tracking progress over time both within AECL and against industry standards, and for evaluating the success of corrective actions. Trending information will be used to help prevent similar occurrences

  8. Enhancing Thermoelectric Performance Using Nonlinear Transport Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jian-Hua; Imry, Yoseph

    2017-06-01

    We study nonlinear transport effects on the maximum efficiency and power for both inelastic and elastic thermoelectric generators. The former device refers to phonon-assisted hopping in double quantum dots, while the latter device is represented by elastic tunneling through a single quantum dot. We find that nonlinear thermoelectric transport can lead to enhanced efficiency and power for both types of devices. A comprehensive survey of various quantum-dot energy, temperature, and parasitic heat conduction reveals that the nonlinear transport-induced improvements of the maximum efficiency and power are overall much more significant for inelastic devices than for elastic devices, even for temperature biases as small as Th=1.2 Tc (Th and Tc are the temperatures of the hot and cold reservoirs, respectively). The underlying mechanism is revealed as due to the fact that, unlike the Fermi distribution, the Bose distribution is not bounded when the temperature bias increases. A large flux density of absorbed phonons leads to a great enhancement of the electrical current, output power, and energy efficiency, dominating over the concurrent increase of the parasitic heat current. Our study reveals that nonlinear transport effects can be a useful tool for improving thermoelectric performance.

  9. PRODUCTION WELL PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT USING SONICATION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael A. Adewumi; M. Thaddeus Ityokumbul; Robert W. Watson; Mario Farias; Glenn Heckman; Johnson Olanrewaju; Eltohami Eltohami; Bruce G. Miller; W. Jack Hughes; Thomas C. Montgomery

    2003-12-17

    The objective of this project is to develop a sonic well performance enhancement technology that focuses on near wellbore formations. In order to successfully achieve this objective, a three-year project has been defined with each year consisting of four tasks. The first task is the laboratory-scale study whose goal is to determine the underlying principles of the technology. The second task will develop a scale-up mathematical model to serve as the design guide for tool development. The third task is to develop effective transducers that can operate with variable frequency so that the most effective frequencies can be applied in any given situation. The system, assembled as part of the production string, ensures delivery of sufficient sonic energy to penetrate the near-wellbore formation. The last task is the actual field testing of the tool. The first year of the project has been completed.

  10. National plan to enhance aviation safety through human factors improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foushee, Clay

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this section of the plan is to establish a development and implementation strategy plan for improving safety and efficiency in the Air Traffic Control (ATC) system. These improvements will be achieved through the proper applications of human factors considerations to the present and future systems. The program will have four basic goals: (1) prepare for the future system through proper hiring and training; (2) develop a controller work station team concept (managing human errors); (3) understand and address the human factors implications of negative system results; and (4) define the proper division of responsibilities and interactions between the human and the machine in ATC systems. This plan addresses six program elements which together address the overall purpose. The six program elements are: (1) determine principles of human-centered automation that will enhance aviation safety and the efficiency of the air traffic controller; (2) provide new and/or enhanced methods and techniques to measure, assess, and improve human performance in the ATC environment; (3) determine system needs and methods for information transfer between and within controller teams and between controller teams and the cockpit; (4) determine how new controller work station technology can optimally be applied and integrated to enhance safety and efficiency; (5) assess training needs and develop improved techniques and strategies for selection, training, and evaluation of controllers; and (6) develop standards, methods, and procedures for the certification and validation of human engineering in the design, testing, and implementation of any hardware or software system element which affects information flow to or from the human.

  11. Human Performance Westinghouse Program; Programa Human Performance de Westinghouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Gutierrez, A.; Gil, C.

    2010-07-01

    The objective of the Program consists in the excellence actuation, achieving the client success with a perfect realisation project. This program consists of different basic elements to reduce the human mistakes: the HuP tools, coaching, learning clocks and Know website. There is, too, a document file to consult and practice. All these elements are expounded in this paper.

  12. Human body region enhancement method based on Kinect infrared imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Fan, Yubo; Song, Xiaowei; Cai, Wenjing

    2016-10-01

    To effectively improve the low contrast of human body region in the infrared images, a combing method of several enhancement methods is utilized to enhance the human body region. Firstly, for the infrared images acquired by Kinect, in order to improve the overall contrast of the infrared images, an Optimal Contrast-Tone Mapping (OCTM) method with multi-iterations is applied to balance the contrast of low-luminosity infrared images. Secondly, to enhance the human body region better, a Level Set algorithm is employed to improve the contour edges of human body region. Finally, to further improve the human body region in infrared images, Laplacian Pyramid decomposition is adopted to enhance the contour-improved human body region. Meanwhile, the background area without human body region is processed by bilateral filtering to improve the overall effect. With theoretical analysis and experimental verification, the results show that the proposed method could effectively enhance the human body region of such infrared images.

  13. Development of Human Performance Analysis and Advanced HRA Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Won Dea; Park, Jin Kyun; Kim, Jae Whan; Kim, Seong Whan; Kim, Man Cheol; Ha, Je Joo

    2007-06-15

    The purpose of this project is to build a systematic framework that can evaluate the effect of human factors related problems on the safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) as well as develop a technology that can be used to enhance human performance. The research goal of this project is twofold: (1) the development of a human performance database and a framework to enhance human performance, and (2) the analysis of human error with constructing technical basis for human reliability analysis. There are three kinds of main results of this study. The first result is the development of a human performance database, called OPERA-I/II (Operator Performance and Reliability Analysis, Part I and Part II). In addition, a standard communication protocol was developed based on OPERA to reduce human error caused from communication error in the phase of event diagnosis. Task complexity (TACOM) measure and the methodology of optimizing diagnosis procedures were also finalized during this research phase. The second main result is the development of a software, K-HRA, which is to support the standard HRA method. Finally, an advanced HRA method named as AGAPE-ET was developed by combining methods MDTA (misdiagnosis tree analysis technique) and K-HRA, which can be used to analyze EOC (errors of commission) and EOO (errors of ommission). These research results, such as OPERA-I/II, TACOM, a standard communication protocol, K-HRA and AGAPE-ET methods will be used to improve the quality of HRA and to enhance human performance in nuclear power plants.

  14. Development of Human Performance Analysis and Advanced HRA Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Won Dea; Park, Jin Kyun; Kim, Jae Whan; Kim, Seong Whan; Kim, Man Cheol; Ha, Je Joo

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this project is to build a systematic framework that can evaluate the effect of human factors related problems on the safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) as well as develop a technology that can be used to enhance human performance. The research goal of this project is twofold: (1) the development of a human performance database and a framework to enhance human performance, and (2) the analysis of human error with constructing technical basis for human reliability analysis. There are three kinds of main results of this study. The first result is the development of a human performance database, called OPERA-I/II (Operator Performance and Reliability Analysis, Part I and Part II). In addition, a standard communication protocol was developed based on OPERA to reduce human error caused from communication error in the phase of event diagnosis. Task complexity (TACOM) measure and the methodology of optimizing diagnosis procedures were also finalized during this research phase. The second main result is the development of a software, K-HRA, which is to support the standard HRA method. Finally, an advanced HRA method named as AGAPE-ET was developed by combining methods MDTA (misdiagnosis tree analysis technique) and K-HRA, which can be used to analyze EOC (errors of commission) and EOO (errors of ommission). These research results, such as OPERA-I/II, TACOM, a standard communication protocol, K-HRA and AGAPE-ET methods will be used to improve the quality of HRA and to enhance human performance in nuclear power plants

  15. Human Performance Resource Center (HPRC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — HPRC is aligned under Force Health Protection and Readiness and is the educational arm of the Consortium for Health and Military Performance (CHAMP) at the Uniformed...

  16. Improving human performance: Industry factors influencing the ability to perform

    OpenAIRE

    Güera Massyn Romo

    2013-01-01

    Learning interventions and new technologies that aim to improve human performance must take cognisance of industry factors inhibiting human performance. The dynamic and fast pace nature of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and the engineering industries do not lend themselves to proper skills planning and management. These industries experience real skills gaps, to some of which they contribute by themselves. This study reports on these performance-inhibiting factors such a...

  17. Production Well Performance Enhancement using Sonication Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adewumi, Michael A; Ityokumbul, M Thaddeus; Watson, Robert W; Eltohami, Eltohami; Farias, Mario; Heckman, Glenn; Houlihan, Brendan; Karoor, Samata Prakash; Miller, Bruce G; Mohammed, Nazia; Olanrewaju, Johnson; Ozdemir, Mine; Rejepov, Dautmamed; Sadegh, Abdallah A; Quammie, Kevin E; Zaghloul, Jose; Hughes, W Jack; Montgomery, Thomas C

    2005-12-31

    The objective of this project was to develop a sonic well performance enhancement technology that focused on near wellbore formation damage. In order to successfully achieve this objective, a three-year project was defined. The entire project was broken into four tasks. The overall objective of all this was to foster a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in sonic energy interactions with fluid flow in porous media and adapt such knowledge for field applications. The fours tasks are: • Laboratory studies • Mathematical modeling • Sonic tool design and development • Field demonstration The project was designed to be completed in three years; however, due to budget cuts, support was only provided for the first year, and hence the full objective of the project could not be accomplished. This report summarizes what was accomplished with the support provided by the US Department of Energy. Experiments performed focused on determining the inception of cavitation, studying thermal dissipation under cavitation conditions, investigating sonic energy interactions with glass beads and oil, and studying the effects of sonication on crude oil properties. Our findings show that the voltage threshold for onset of cavitation is independent of transducer-hydrophone separation distance. In addition, thermal dissipation under cavitation conditions contributed to the mobilization of deposited paraffins and waxes. Our preliminary laboratory experiments suggest that waxes are mobilized when the fluid temperature approaches 40°C. Experiments were conducted that provided insights into the interactions between sonic wave and the fluid contained in the porous media. Most of these studies were carried out in a slim-tube apparatus. A numerical model was developed for simulating the effect of sonication in the nearwellbore region. The numerical model developed was validated using a number of standard testbed problems. However, actual application of the model for scale

  18. NASA Human Health and Performance Information Architecture Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy; Kadwa, Binafer; VanBaalen, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The Human Health and Performance (HH&P) Directorate at NASA's Johnson Space Center has a mission to enable optimization of human health and performance throughout all phases of spaceflight. All HH&P functions are ultimately aimed at achieving this mission. Our activities enable mission success, optimizing human health and productivity in space before, during, and after the actual spaceflight experience of our crews, and include support for ground-based functions. Many of our spaceflight innovations also provide solutions for terrestrial challenges, thereby enhancing life on Earth.

  19. Cyclic Variations in Sustained Human Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aue, William R.; Arruda, James E.; Kass, Steven J.; Stanny, Claudia J.

    2009-01-01

    Biological rhythms play a prominent role in the modulation of human physiology and behavior. [Smith, K., Valentino, D., & Arruda, J. (2003). "Rhythmic oscillations in the performance of a sustained attention task." "Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology," 25, 561-570] suggested that sustained human performance may systematically…

  20. SOCIAL PERFORMANCE ENHANCES FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE. BENEFITS FROM CSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    gazzola patrizia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to show how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR should not be considered a cost to bear as an economic social actor but an investment that will contribute to the competitiveness and growth of the firm. In the first part we consider capitalistic firm as systems for the creation of economic and financial value for their shareholders. We measure their performance by a system of monetary values. In the second part we do not limit our view to simply the shareholders, but we consider, instead a vast group of stakeholders because it is important not only to make profits, but also how companies make them . In these years characterized by the financial crisis, where many big companies went bankrupt, more and more companies are speaking about ethics and CSR. For a firm, acting socially responsible, means for example having fair compensations, promoting transparency and the respect of employees, neutralizing conflicts of interest, as well as taking care of the environment. CSR is today a topic for discussion not only for business people but also for politicians, media, researchers, NGOs and consumers. Growing awareness of CSR is evident in the growth of voluntary codes of corporate conduct, in the growth of companies that are using self-reporting on social and environmental practices, and in increasingly social and ethical investment funds. The public and governments of the world have been steadily increasing pressure on corporations to increase their CSR. Recently the European Commission has put forward a new, simpler definition of corporate social responsibility as “the responsibility of enterprises for their impacts on society” (European Commission 25/10/2011. Companies have realized that to increase their market share or keep their market share, they must adopt CSR, but the synergy between social performance and financial performance is not automatic; rather it is the result of efforts that combine managerial

  1. Emotional stability components of human performance problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wexler, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    Over half of all significant events that occur in nuclear plants involve human performance problems. There is increasing worldwide recognition that human performance problems have a significant impact on the safety, cost, and efficiency of nuclear plant operations. Emotional stability components have an important direct and indirect impact on human performance problems. This paper examines emotional stability components that are currently incorporated into human performance evaluation systems (HPES) in nuclear plants. It describes HPES programs being developed around the world, the emotional stability components that are currently referred to in these programs, and suggestions for improving HPES programs through a greater understanding of emotion stability components. A review of emotional stability components that may hinder or promote a plant environment that encourages the voluntary reporting and correction of human error is also presented

  2. Developing Human Performance Measures (PSAM8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey C. Joe

    2006-01-01

    Through the reactor oversight process (ROP), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) monitors the performance of utilities licensed to operate nuclear power plants. The process is designed to assure public health and safety by providing reasonable assurance that licensees are meeting the cornerstones of safety and designated crosscutting elements. The reactor inspection program, together with performance indicators (PIs), and enforcement activities form the basis for the NRC's risk-informed, performance based regulatory framework. While human performance is a key component in the safe operation of nuclear power plants and is a designated cross-cutting element of the ROP, there is currently no direct inspection or performance indicator for assessing human performance. Rather, when human performance is identified as a substantive cross cutting element in any 1 of 3 categories (resources, organizational or personnel), it is then evaluated for common themes to determine if follow-up actions are warranted. However, variability in human performance occurs from day to day, across activities that vary in complexity, and workgroups, contributing to the uncertainty in the outcomes of performance. While some variability in human performance may be random, much of the variability may be attributed to factors that are not currently assessed. There is a need to identify and assess aspects of human performance that relate to plant safety and to develop measures that can be used to successfully assure licensee performance and indicate when additional investigation may be required. This paper presents research that establishes a technical basis for developing human performance measures. In particular, we discuss: (1) how historical data already gives some indication of connection between human performance and overall plant performance, (2) how industry led efforts to measure and model human performance and organizational factors could serve as a data source and basis for a

  3. Audiovisual semantic congruency during encoding enhances memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Jenni; Alho, Kimmo; Hyvönen, Heidi; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    Studies of memory and learning have usually focused on a single sensory modality, although human perception is multisensory in nature. In the present study, we investigated the effects of audiovisual encoding on later unisensory recognition memory performance. The participants were to memorize auditory or visual stimuli (sounds, pictures, spoken words, or written words), each of which co-occurred with either a semantically congruent stimulus, incongruent stimulus, or a neutral (non-semantic noise) stimulus in the other modality during encoding. Subsequent memory performance was overall better when the stimulus to be memorized was initially accompanied by a semantically congruent stimulus in the other modality than when it was accompanied by a neutral stimulus. These results suggest that semantically congruent multisensory experiences enhance encoding of both nonverbal and verbal materials, resulting in an improvement in their later recognition memory.

  4. Indulging anxiety: human enhancement from a Protestant perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Mark J

    1999-08-01

    At the heart of any ethics of human enhancement must be some normative assumptions about human nature. The purpose of this essay is to draw on themes from a Protestant theological anthropology to provide a basis for understanding and evaluating the tension between maintaining our humanity and enhancing it. Drawing primarily on the work of theologian Reinhold Niebuhr, I interpret enhancement as proceeding from the anxiety that characterizes human experience at the juncture of freedom and finiteness. Religious and moral dimensions of human sinfulness are considered in relation to cultural values that motivate human enhancement generally. I employ these dimensions in a series of benchmarks to suggest a background of theological, anthropological, and moral considerations against which enhancement is not to be condemmed but rather critically evaluated.

  5. Novel biofuel formulations for enhanced vehicle performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Dennis [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Narayan, Ramani [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Berglund, Kris [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Lira, Carl [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Schock, Harold [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Jaberi, Farhad [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Lee, Tonghun [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Anderson, James [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Wallington, Timothy [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Kurtz, Eric [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Ruona, Will; Hass, Heinz

    2013-08-30

    This interdisciplinary research program at Michigan State University, in collaboration with Ford Motor Company, has explored the application of tailored or designed biofuels for enhanced vehicle performance and reduced emissions. The project has included a broad range of experimental research, from chemical and biological formation of advanced biofuel components to multicylinder engine testing of blended biofuels to determine engine performance parameters. In addition, the project included computation modeling of biofuel physical and combustion properties, and simulation of advanced combustion modes in model engines and in single cylinder engines. Formation of advanced biofuel components included the fermentation of five-carbon and six-carbon sugars to n-butanol and to butyric acid, two four-carbon building blocks. Chemical transformations include the esterification of the butyric acid produced to make butyrate esters, and the esterification of succinic acid with n-butanol to make dibutyl succinate (DBS) as attractive biofuel components. The conversion of standard biodiesel, made from canola or soy oil, from the methyl ester to the butyl ester (which has better fuel properties), and the ozonolysis of biodiesel and the raw oil to produce nonanoate fuel components were also examined in detail. Physical and combustion properties of these advanced biofuel components were determined during the project. Physical properties such as vapor pressure, heat of evaporation, density, and surface tension, and low temperature properties of cloud point and cold filter plugging point were examined for pure components and for blends of components with biodiesel and standard petroleum diesel. Combustion properties, particularly emission delay that is the key parameter in compression ignition engines, was measured in the MSU Rapid Compression Machine (RCM), an apparatus that was designed and constructed during the project simulating the compression stroke of an internal combustion

  6. Human enhancement and communication: on meaning and shared understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Laura; Weckert, John

    2013-09-01

    Our technologies have enabled us to change both the world and our perceptions of the world, as well as to change ourselves and to find new ways to fulfil the human desire for improvement and for having new capacities. The debate around using technology for human enhancement has already raised many ethical concerns, however little research has been done in how human enhancement can affect human communication. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether some human enhancements could change our shared lifeworld so radically that human communication as we know it would not be possible any longer. After exploring the kinds of communication problems we are concerned with as well as mentioning some possible enhancement interventions that could bring about such problems, we will address some of the ethical implications that follow from these potential communication problems. We argue that because of the role that communication plays in human society, this issue deserves attention.

  7. The Skills Enhancement Training Program. Performance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Beverage Workers Union, Local 32, Washington, DC.

    This report describes a joint labor-management workplace literacy program called SET (Skills Enhancement Training) that targeted the more than 2,000 unionized employees of food service contractors at U.S. government institutions in Washington, D.C. Nineteen classes were offered and a total of 191 people self-selected themselves into the program.…

  8. NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffery R.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the purpose, potential members and participants of the NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC). Included in the overview is a brief description of the administration and current activities of the NHHPC.

  9. Human Resource Orientation and Corporate Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Long W.; White, Louis P.

    1998-01-01

    A study of 14 manufacturing firms found significantly better financial performance among those that strongly emphasized recruitment, compensation, and training and development (a human resource orientation). Human resource development that helped sustain competence combined with that orientation to form a valuable competitive advantage. (SK)

  10. Human performance interfaces in air traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Hern; Yeh, Chung-Hsing

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how human performance factors in air traffic control (ATC) affect each other through their mutual interactions. The paper extends the conceptual SHEL model of ergonomics to describe the ATC system as human performance interfaces in which the air traffic controllers interact with other human performance factors including other controllers, software, hardware, environment, and organisation. New research hypotheses about the relationships between human performance interfaces of the system are developed and tested on data collected from air traffic controllers, using structural equation modelling. The research result suggests that organisation influences play a more significant role than individual differences or peer influences on how the controllers interact with the software, hardware, and environment of the ATC system. There are mutual influences between the controller-software, controller-hardware, controller-environment, and controller-organisation interfaces of the ATC system, with the exception of the controller-controller interface. Research findings of this study provide practical insights in managing human performance interfaces of the ATC system in the face of internal or external change, particularly in understanding its possible consequences in relation to the interactions between human performance factors.

  11. Developing theological tools for a strategic engagement with Human Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The literature on Human Enhancement may indeed have reached a critical mass yet theological engagement with the subject is still thin. Human Enhancement has already been established as a key topic within research and captivating visions of the future have been allied with a depth of philosophical analysis. Some Transhumanists have pointed to a theological dimension to their position and some who have warned against enhancement might be seen as having done so from a perspective shaped by a Judeo-Christian worldview. Nonetheless, in neither of these cases has theology been central to engagement with the enhancement quest.Christian theologians who have begun to open up such an engagement with Human Enhancement include Brent Waters, Robert Song and Celia Deane-Drummond. The work they have already carried out is insightful and important yet due to the scale of the possible engagement, the wealth of Christian theology which might be applied to Human Enhancement remains largely untapped. This paper explores how three key aspects of Christian theology, eschatology, love of God and love of neighbour, provide valuable tools for a theological engagement with Human Enhancement. It is proposed that such theological tools need to be applied to Human Enhancement if the debate is to be resourced with the Christian theological perspective of what it means to be human in our contemporary technological context and if society is to have the choice of maintaining its Christian foundations.

  12. Limits to human enhancement: nature, disease, therapy or betterment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Bjørn

    2017-10-10

    New technologies facilitate the enhancement of a wide range of human dispositions, capacities, or abilities. While it is argued that we need to set limits to human enhancement, it is unclear where we should find resources to set such limits. Traditional routes for setting limits, such as referring to nature, the therapy-enhancement distinction, and the health-disease distinction, turn out to have some shortcomings. However, upon closer scrutiny the concept of enhancement is based on vague conceptions of what is to be enhanced. Explaining why it is better to become older, stronger, and more intelligent presupposes a clear conception of goodness, which is seldom provided. In particular, the qualitative better is frequently confused with the quantitative more. We may therefore not need "external" measures for setting its limits - they are available in the concept of enhancement itself. While there may be shortcomings in traditional sources of limit setting to human enhancement, such as nature, therapy, and disease, such approaches may not be necessary. The specification-of-betterment problem inherent in the conception of human enhancement itself provides means to restrict its unwarranted proliferation. We only need to demand clear, sustainable, obtainable goals for enhancement that are based on evidence, and not on lofty speculations, hypes, analogies, or weak associations. Human enhancements that specify what will become better, and provide adequate evidence, are good and should be pursued. Others should not be accepted.

  13. EVA Health and Human Performance Benchmarking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercromby, A. F.; Norcross, J.; Jarvis, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple HRP Risks and Gaps require detailed characterization of human health and performance during exploration extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks; however, a rigorous and comprehensive methodology for characterizing and comparing the health and human performance implications of current and future EVA spacesuit designs does not exist. This study will identify and implement functional tasks and metrics, both objective and subjective, that are relevant to health and human performance, such as metabolic expenditure, suit fit, discomfort, suited postural stability, cognitive performance, and potentially biochemical responses for humans working inside different EVA suits doing functional tasks under the appropriate simulated reduced gravity environments. This study will provide health and human performance benchmark data for humans working in current EVA suits (EMU, Mark III, and Z2) as well as shirtsleeves using a standard set of tasks and metrics with quantified reliability. Results and methodologies developed during this test will provide benchmark data against which future EVA suits, and different suit configurations (eg, varied pressure, mass, CG) may be reliably compared in subsequent tests. Results will also inform fitness for duty standards as well as design requirements and operations concepts for future EVA suits and other exploration systems.

  14. Enhancing Backyard Poultry Enterprise Performance in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elfreda Yaa Donkor

    2012-02-01

    Feb 1, 2012 ... survive per hatch and were able to sustain year round production compared to mostly seasonal production among low performance farmers due to higher mortality rates among their birds. At the input supply level, both high and low performing BP farmers secured and reared indigenous chicken breeds with ...

  15. Performance Enhancement of Carbon Nanomaterials for Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin M. Saleem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and graphene are exploited extensively due to their unique electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties and recently investigated for energy storage application (supercapacitor due to additional high specific surface area and chemical inertness properties. The supercapacitor is an energy storage device which, in addition to long cycle life (one million, can give energy density higher than parallel plate capacitor and power density higher than battery. In this paper, carbon nanomaterials and their composites are reviewed for prospective use as electrodes for supercapacitor. Moreover, different physical and chemical treatments on these nanomaterials which can potentially enhance the capacitance are also reviewed.

  16. Enhancing the performance of brewing yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabín, Marcel; Jelínek, Lukáš; Kotrba, Pavel; Cejnar, Rudolf; Dostálek, Pavel

    2017-12-22

    Beer production is one of the oldest known traditional biotechnological processes, but is nowadays facing increasing demands not only for enhanced product quality, but also for improved production economics. Targeted genetic modification of a yeast strain is one way to increase beer quality and to improve the economics of beer production. In this review we will present current knowledge on traditional approaches for improving brewing strains and for rational metabolic engineering. These research efforts will, in the near future, lead to the development of a wider range of industrial strains that should increase the diversity of commercial beers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Gene doping: a review of performance-enhancing genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Gary R; Parisotto, Robin

    2007-08-01

    Unethical athletes and their mentors have long arrogated scientific and medical advances to enhance athletic performance, thus gaining a dishonest competitive advantage. Building on advances in genetics, a new threat arises from athletes using gene therapy techniques in the same manner that some abused performance-enhancing drugs were used. Gene doping, as this is known, may produce spectacular physiologic alterations to dramatically enhance athletic abilities or physical appearance. Furthermore, gene doping may present pernicious problems for the regulatory agencies and investigatory laboratories that are entrusted to keep sporting events fair and ethical. Performance-enhanced genetics will likewise present unique challenges to physicians in many spheres of their practice.

  18. The SACADA database for human reliability and human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James Chang, Y.; Bley, Dennis; Criscione, Lawrence; Kirwan, Barry; Mosleh, Ali; Madary, Todd; Nowell, Rodney; Richards, Robert; Roth, Emilie M.; Sieben, Scott; Zoulis, Antonios

    2014-01-01

    Lack of appropriate and sufficient human performance data has been identified as a key factor affecting human reliability analysis (HRA) quality especially in the estimation of human error probability (HEP). The Scenario Authoring, Characterization, and Debriefing Application (SACADA) database was developed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to address this data need. An agreement between NRC and the South Texas Project Nuclear Operating Company (STPNOC) was established to support the SACADA development with aims to make the SACADA tool suitable for implementation in the nuclear power plants' operator training program to collect operator performance information. The collected data would support the STPNOC's operator training program and be shared with the NRC for improving HRA quality. This paper discusses the SACADA data taxonomy, the theoretical foundation, the prospective data to be generated from the SACADA raw data to inform human reliability and human performance, and the considerations on the use of simulator data for HRA. Each SACADA data point consists of two information segments: context and performance results. Context is a characterization of the performance challenges to task success. The performance results are the results of performing the task. The data taxonomy uses a macrocognitive functions model for the framework. At a high level, information is classified according to the macrocognitive functions of detecting the plant abnormality, understanding the abnormality, deciding the response plan, executing the response plan, and team related aspects (i.e., communication, teamwork, and supervision). The data are expected to be useful for analyzing the relations between context, error modes and error causes in human performance

  19. Enhanced Massive Visualization of Engines Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostand, N D; Eglantine, H; Jerôme, L

    2012-01-01

    Today, we are witnessing an increasing complexity of transport in order to deal with requirements of safety, security, reliability and efficiency. Such transport is generally equipped with drive systems; it is nevertheless for engine manufacturers to overcome the performance requirements of energy efficiency throughout their operations. To this end, this article proposes a performance monitoring solution for a large fleet of engines in operation. It uses a pre-calibrated physical model developed by the engine manufacturer regarding the performance objectives as reference. The physical model is firstly decomposed into critical performance modules, and is secondly updated on current observations extracted at specific predefined operating conditions in order to derive residual errors status of each engine tested. Through a process of standardization of those contextual differences remaining, the solution offers a synthesis mapping to visualize the evolution of performance of each engine throughout its operations. This article describes the theoretical methodology of implementation mainly based on universal mathematical foundations, and vindicates the interests of its industrialization in the light of the proactive findings.

  20. Performance Enhancements Under Dual-task Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, A. F.; Wickens, C. D.; Donchin, E.

    1984-01-01

    Research on dual-task performance has been concerned with delineating the antecedent conditions which lead to dual-task decrements. Capacity models of attention, which propose that a hypothetical resource structure underlies performance, have been employed as predictive devices. These models predict that tasks which require different processing resources can be more successfully time shared than tasks which require common resources. The conditions under which such dual-task integrality can be fostered were assessed in a study in which three factors likely to influence the integrality between tasks were manipulated: inter-task redundancy, the physical proximity of tasks and the task relevant objects. Twelve subjects participated in three experimental sessions in which they performed both single and dual-tasks. The primary task was a pursuit step tracking task. The secondary tasks required the discrimination between different intensities or different spatial positions of a stimulus. The results are discussed in terms of a model of dual-task integrality.

  1. TCP Performance Enhancement for UMTS Access Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Liang

    2008-01-01

    is between UMTS access network and Internet. The split proxy divides the bandwidth delay product into two parts, resulting in two TCP connections with smaller bandwidth delay products. Simulation results show, the split TCP proxy can significantly improve the TCP performance under high bit rate DCH channel......We aim at optimize the TCP performance over UMTS access network challenged by the large delay bandwidth product that is mainly caused by the latency from the link layer ARQ retransmissions and diversity technique at physical layer. We propose to place a split TCP proxy at GGSN nodes which...

  2. Fermentation products of Cordyceps militaris enhance performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WP

    2016-05-07

    May 7, 2016 ... CMF supplementation significantly increased growth performance in ... the expression of cycloxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase and TNF-α (Kimet al., 2006). ... At the end of the experiment, the pigs were killed by ... Metabolizable energy (MJ/kg) ..... Cordycepin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced.

  3. Hunger enhances consistent economic choices in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroshi

    2017-05-24

    Hunger and thirst are fundamental biological processes that drive consumption behavior in humans and non-human animals. While the existing literature in neuroscience suggests that these satiety states change how consumable rewards are represented in the brain, it remains unclear as to how they change animal choice behavior and the underlying economic preferences. Here, I used combined techniques from experimental economics, psychology, and neuroscience to measure food preferences of marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus), a recently developed primate model for neuroscience. Hunger states of animals were manipulated by scheduling feeding intervals, resulting in three different conditions: sated, non-sated, and hungry. During these hunger states, animals performed pairwise choices of food items, which included all possible pairwise combinations of five different food items except for same-food pairs. Results showed that hunger enhanced economic rationality, evident as a decrease of transitivity violations (item A was preferred to item B, and B to C, but C was preferred to A). Further analysis demonstrated that hungry monkeys chose more-preferred items over less-preferred items in a more deterministic manner, while the individual food preferences appeared to remain stable across hunger states. These results suggest that hunger enhances consistent choice behavior and shifts animals towards efficient outcome maximization.

  4. Virginia power's human performance evaluation system (HPES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Human Performance Evaluation System (HPES) which was initially developed by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) using the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) as a guide. After a pilot program involving three utilities ended in 1983, the present day program was instituted. A methodology was developed, for specific application to nuclear power plant employees, to aid trained coordinators/evaluators in determining those factors that exert a negative influence on human behavior in the nuclear power plant environment. HPES is for anyone and everyone on site, from contractors to plant staff to plant management. No one is excluded from participation. Virginia Power's HPES program goal is to identify and correct the root causes of human performance problems. Evaluations are performed on reported real or perceived conditions that may have an adverse influence on members of the nuclear team. A report is provided to management identifying root cause and contributing factors along with recommended corrective actions

  5. Quantification of human performance using performance shaping factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.E.; Hall, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper considers the human reliability data needs for Probabilistic Risk Assessment, and concludes that some form of extrapolation will be needed to supplement the limited data resources currently available. A technique for quantifying expert subjective judgement is described, which can be used to systematically perform extrapolations. Some preliminary results from recent research in this area are presented

  6. Improving human performance: Industry factors influencing the ability to perform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güera Massyn Romo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Learning interventions and new technologies that aim to improve human performance must take cognisance of industry factors inhibiting human performance. The dynamic and fast pace nature of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT and the engineering industries do not lend themselves to proper skills planning and management. These industries experience real skills gaps, to some of which they contribute by themselves. This study reports on these performance-inhibiting factors such as the underutilisation of available skills, tolerance for individual preferences, and dynamically, and informally refining a role objective while an employee is occupying a certain role. The important professional skills required by individuals to cope with these real life factors are also explored in the skills gaps management context. Moreover, these industries need a profile they refer to as Special Forces, which denotes a high calibre of worker that possesses well-developed professional skills whilst having advanced technical expertise and sufficient experience. This resource profile is required largely due to the poor management of human resource processes in practice and the current reported lack of adequate skills. Furthermore, this study refers to the recent lack of a working definition for these Special Forces leading to the omitted active development of these profiles in industry today, which appears to become a key human performance inhibiting factor.

  7. Enhanced Thermal Performance of Mosques in Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touma, A. Al; Ouahrani, D.

    2017-12-01

    Qatar has an abundance of mosques that significantly contribute to the increasing energy consumption in the country. Little attention has been given to providing mitigation methods that limit the energy demands of mosques without violating the worshippers’ thermal comfort. Most of these researches dealt with enhancing the mosque envelope through the addition of insulation layers. Since most mosque walls in Qatar are mostly already insulated, this study proposes the installation of shading on the mosque roof that is anticipated to yield similar energy savings in comparison with insulated roofs. An actual mosque in Qatar, which is a combination of six different spaces consisting of men and women’s prayer rooms, ablutions and toilets, was simulated and yielded a total annual energy demand of 619.55 kWh/m2. The mosque, whose walls are already insulated, yielded 9.1% energy savings when an insulation layer was added to its roof whereas it produced 6.2% energy savings when a shading layer was added above this roof. As the reconstruction of the roof envelope is practically unrealistic in existing mosques, the addition of shading to the roof was found to produce comparable energy savings. Lastly, it was found that new mosques with thin-roof insulation and shading tend to be more energy-efficient than those with thick-roof insulation.

  8. Strengthened enforcement enhances marine sanctuary performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan P. Kelaher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine sanctuaries are areas where the extraction of biota is not permitted. Although most marine sanctuaries have a positive influence on biotic communities, not all sanctuaries are meeting their conservation objectives. Amidst possible explanations (e.g., size, age and isolation, insufficient enforcement is often speculated to be a key driver of marine sanctuary underperformance. Despite this, there are few studies directly linking quantitative enforcement data to changes in biotic communities within marine sanctuaries. Here, we used an asymmetrical-BACI experimental design from 2006–2012 to test whether new enforcement initiatives enhanced abundances of target fishes and threatened species in an existing large sub-tropical marine sanctuary relative to areas open to fishing. Implementation of the new enforcement initiatives in 2010 was associated with a 201% increase in annual fine rate and a significant increase in target fish and elasmobranch abundance, as well as sightings of a critically-endangered shark, in the marine sanctuary relative to areas open to fishing. Overall, these results demonstrate that strengthening enforcement can have a rapid positive influence on target fish and perhaps threatened species in a subtropical marine sanctuary. From this, we contend that increased enforcement guided by risk-based compliance planning and operations may be a useful first step for improving underperforming marine sanctuaries.

  9. Computer fan performance enhancement via acoustic perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenblatt, David, E-mail: davidg@technion.ac.il [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel); Avraham, Tzahi; Golan, Maayan [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Computer fan effectiveness was increased by introducing acoustic perturbations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acoustic perturbations controlled blade boundary layer separation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimum frequencies corresponded with airfoils studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exploitation of flow instabilities was responsible for performance improvements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peak pressure and peak flowrate were increased by 40% and 15% respectively. - Abstract: A novel technique for increasing computer fan effectiveness, based on introducing acoustic perturbations onto the fan blades to control boundary layer separation, was assessed. Experiments were conducted in a specially designed facility that simultaneously allowed characterization of fan performance and introduction of the perturbations. A parametric study was conducted to determine the optimum control parameters, namely those that deliver the largest increase in fan pressure for a given flowrate. The optimum reduced frequencies corresponded with those identified on stationary airfoils and it was thus concluded that the exploitation of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, commonly observed on airfoils, was responsible for the fan blade performance improvements. The optimum control inputs, such as acoustic frequency and sound pressure level, showed some variation with different fan flowrates. With the near-optimum control conditions identified, the full operational envelope of the fan, when subjected to acoustic perturbations, was assessed. The peak pressure and peak flowrate were increased by up to 40% and 15% respectively. The peak fan efficiency increased with acoustic perturbations but the overall system efficiency was reduced when the speaker input power was accounted for.

  10. Computer fan performance enhancement via acoustic perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenblatt, David; Avraham, Tzahi; Golan, Maayan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Computer fan effectiveness was increased by introducing acoustic perturbations. ► Acoustic perturbations controlled blade boundary layer separation. ► Optimum frequencies corresponded with airfoils studies. ► Exploitation of flow instabilities was responsible for performance improvements. ► Peak pressure and peak flowrate were increased by 40% and 15% respectively. - Abstract: A novel technique for increasing computer fan effectiveness, based on introducing acoustic perturbations onto the fan blades to control boundary layer separation, was assessed. Experiments were conducted in a specially designed facility that simultaneously allowed characterization of fan performance and introduction of the perturbations. A parametric study was conducted to determine the optimum control parameters, namely those that deliver the largest increase in fan pressure for a given flowrate. The optimum reduced frequencies corresponded with those identified on stationary airfoils and it was thus concluded that the exploitation of Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities, commonly observed on airfoils, was responsible for the fan blade performance improvements. The optimum control inputs, such as acoustic frequency and sound pressure level, showed some variation with different fan flowrates. With the near-optimum control conditions identified, the full operational envelope of the fan, when subjected to acoustic perturbations, was assessed. The peak pressure and peak flowrate were increased by up to 40% and 15% respectively. The peak fan efficiency increased with acoustic perturbations but the overall system efficiency was reduced when the speaker input power was accounted for.

  11. Performance Assessment of Communication Enhancement Devices TEA HI Threat Headset

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2015-0076 Performance Assessment of Communication Enhancement Devices: TEA HI Threat Headset Hilary L. Gallagher...of Communication Enhancement Devices: TEA HI Threat Headset 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-14-D-6501 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...technology in military applications. Objective performance data provided an assessment of the performance of these devices. The TEA HI Threat headset

  12. Economics of human performance and systems total ownership cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onkham, Wilawan; Karwowski, Waldemar; Ahram, Tareq Z

    2012-01-01

    Financial costs of investing in people is associated with training, acquisition, recruiting, and resolving human errors have a significant impact on increased total ownership costs. These costs can also affect the exaggerate budgets and delayed schedules. The study of human performance economical assessment in the system acquisition process enhances the visibility of hidden cost drivers which support program management informed decisions. This paper presents the literature review of human total ownership cost (HTOC) and cost impacts on overall system performance. Economic value assessment models such as cost benefit analysis, risk-cost tradeoff analysis, expected value of utility function analysis (EV), growth readiness matrix, multi-attribute utility technique, and multi-regressions model were introduced to reflect the HTOC and human performance-technology tradeoffs in terms of the dollar value. The human total ownership regression model introduces to address the influencing human performance cost component measurement. Results from this study will increase understanding of relevant cost drivers in the system acquisition process over the long term.

  13. Surface engineering for enhanced performance against wear

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Surface Engineering constitutes a variety of processes and sub processes. Each chapter of this work covers specific processes by experts working in the area. Included for each topic are tribological performances for each process as well as results of recent research. The reader also will benefit from in-depth studies of diffusion coatings, nanocomposite films for wear resistance, surfaces for biotribological applications, thin-film wear, tribology of thermal sprayed coatings, hardfacing, plating for tribology and high energy beam surface modifications. Material scientists as well as engineers working with surface engineering for tribology will be particularly interested in this work.

  14. Enhanced Performance of Cylindrical Hall Thrusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raitses, Y.; Smirnov, A.; Fisch, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    The cylindrical thruster differs significantly in its underlying physical mechanisms from the conventional annular Hall thruster. It features high ionization efficiency, quiet operation, ion acceleration in a large volume-to-surface ratio channel, and performance comparable with the state-of-the-art conventional Hall thrusters. Very significant plume narrowing, accompanied by the increase of the energetic ion fraction and improvement of ion focusing, led to 50-60% increase of the thruster anode efficiency. These improvements were achieved by overrunning the discharge current in the magnetized thruster plasma

  15. Human performance in radiological survey scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.S.; Abelquist, E.W.

    1998-03-01

    The probability of detecting residual contamination in the field using portable radiological survey instruments depends not only on the sensitivity of the instrumentation used in scanning, but also on the surveyor's performance. This report provides a basis for taking human performance into account in determining the minimum level of activity detectable by scanning. A theoretical framework was developed (based on signal detection theory) which allows influences on surveyors to be anticipated and understood, and supports a quantitative assessment of performance. The performance of surveyors under controlled yet realistic field conditions was examined to gain insight into the task and to develop means of quantifying performance. Then, their performance was assessed under laboratory conditions to quantify more precisely their ability to make the required discriminations. The information was used to characterize surveyors' performance in the scanning task and to provide a basis for predicting levels of radioactivity that are likely to be detectable under various conditions by surveyors using portable survey instruments

  16. Human performance in radiological survey scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Abelquist, E.W. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The probability of detecting residual contamination in the field using portable radiological survey instruments depends not only on the sensitivity of the instrumentation used in scanning, but also on the surveyor`s performance. This report provides a basis for taking human performance into account in determining the minimum level of activity detectable by scanning. A theoretical framework was developed (based on signal detection theory) which allows influences on surveyors to be anticipated and understood, and supports a quantitative assessment of performance. The performance of surveyors under controlled yet realistic field conditions was examined to gain insight into the task and to develop means of quantifying performance. Then, their performance was assessed under laboratory conditions to quantify more precisely their ability to make the required discriminations. The information was used to characterize surveyors` performance in the scanning task and to provide a basis for predicting levels of radioactivity that are likely to be detectable under various conditions by surveyors using portable survey instruments.

  17. Research opportunities in human behavior and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J. M. (Editor); Talbot, J. M. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Extant information on the subject of psychological aspects of manned space flight are reviewed; NASA's psychology research program is examined; significant gaps in knowledge are identified; and suggestions are offered for future research program planning. Issues of human behavior and performance related to the United States space station, to the space shuttle program, and to both near and long term problems of a generic nature in applicable disciplines of psychology are considered. Topics covered include: (1) human performance requirements for a 90 day mission; (2) human perceptual, cognitive, and motor capabilities and limitations in space; (3) crew composition, individual competencies, crew competencies, selection criteria, and special training; (4) environmental factors influencing behavior; (5) psychosocial aspects of multiperson space crews in long term missions; (6) career determinants in NASA; (7) investigational methodology and equipment; and (8) psychological support.

  18. Human Resource management, Institutionalisation and Organisational Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.P.E.F. Boselie (Paul); J. Paauwe (Jaap); R. Richardson

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe relationship between Human Resource Management (HRM) and firm performance has been a hotly debated topic over the last decade, especially in the United States (e.g. Osterman, 1994; Huselid, 1995; MacDuffie, 1995). The question arises whether the domination of USA oriented models,

  19. Integrating Humanism and Behaviorism: Toward Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Darrell

    1974-01-01

    The current emphasis on performance criteria in training programs and in professional services poses a threat to the humanistically oriented helper. This article suggests a behavioral humanism as the desired solution to the dilemma and proposes some guidelines for formulating and implementing such a synthetic system. (Author)

  20. Testing to Enhance Retention in Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the…

  1. Pseudocapacitance effects for enhancement of capacitor performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lota, G.; Frackowiak, E. [Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Chemistry and Technical Electrochemistry, 60-965 Poznan, Piotrowo 3 (Poland)

    2010-10-15

    We report on the pseudo-capacitance induced by a nitrogen substituted in the carbon network composite prepared by a simple carbonisation (750 C) of formaldehyde and melamine in the presence of carbon nanotubes. Nitrogen content in the composites varied from 7.4 to 21.7 wt.%. Such materials have a higher density than activated carbons, hence, they can supply better volumetric capacity. N-rich composites show an excellent charge propagation at current loads from 500 mA g{sup -1} to 50 A g{sup -1} because of multiwalled nanotubes which play a conducting as well as a supporting role. The electrochemical performance of various composites was investigated in two- and three-electrode cells using acidic (1 mol L{sup -1} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), alkaline (6 mol L{sup -1}KOH), neutral (1 mol L{sup -1} Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and organic electrolytes (1 mol L{sup -1} TEABF{sub 4} in acetonitrile). Organic and neutral medium is not adapted for N-rich carbon electrodes of supercapacitor. The detailed electrochemical characterisation pointed out the differences of charge propagation of electrodes with the different polarity. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Human performance: An essential element in materials control and accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, S.B.; Allentuck, J.

    1996-01-01

    The importance of the role of human performance in the successful and effective operation of many activities throughout many industries has been well documented. Most closely related to the materials control and accountability area is the work in human factors that has been ongoing in the U.S. nuclear industry since the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1979. Research related to the role of human reliability, human-system interface, and organization and management influences has been and is still being conducted to identify ways to enhance the safe and effective operation of nuclear facilities. This paper will discuss these human performance areas and how they relate to the materials control and accountability area. Particular attention will be focussed on the notion of open-quotes safety cultureclose quotes and how it can be defined and measured for understanding the values and attitudes held by individuals working in the materials control area. It is widely believed that the culture of an organization, which reflects the expectations and values of the management of an organization, is a key element to the operation of that organization. The human performance element is one which has not received a great deal of consideration in the materials control and accountability area and yet it will be demonstrated that it is an essential component to ensure the success of safeguards activities

  3. Selected herbals and human exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, L R

    2000-08-01

    Herbs have been used throughout history to enhance physical performance, but scientific scrutiny with controlled clinical trials has only recently been used to study such effects. The following herbs are currently used to enhance physical performance regardless of scientific evidence of effect: Chinese, Korean, and American ginsengs; Siberian ginseng, mahuang or Chinese ephedra; ashwagandha; rhodiola; yohimbe; CORDYCEPS: fungus, shilajit or mummio; smilax; wild oats; Muira puama; suma (ecdysterone); Tribulus terrestris; saw palmetto berries; beta-sitosterol and other related sterols; and wild yams (diosgenin). Controlled studies of Asian ginsengs found improvements in exercise performance when most of the following conditions were true: use of standardized root extracts, study duration (>8 wk, daily dose >1 g dried root or equivalent, large number of subjects, and older subjects. Improvements in muscular strength, maximal oxygen uptake, work capacity, fuel homeostasis, serum lactate, heart rate, visual and auditory reaction times, alertness, and psychomotor skills have also been repeatedly documented. Siberian ginseng has shown mixed results. Mahuang, ephedrine, and related alkaloids have not benefited physical performance except when combined with caffeine. Other herbs remain virtually untested. Future research on ergogenic effects of herbs should consider identity and amount of substance or presumed active ingredients administered, dose response, duration of test period, proper experimental controls, measurement of psychological and physiologic parameters (including antioxidant actions), and measurements of performance pertinent to intended uses.

  4. Enhanced casein kinase II activity in human tumour cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowald, K; Fischer, H; Issinger, O G

    1984-01-01

    Casein kinase II (CKII) activity is enhanced as much as 2-3 fold in established and 4-5-fold in transformed human cell lines when compared to that of fibroblasts and primary human tumour cell cultures where CKII activity never exceeded a basic level. The high activity of CKII in transformed cells...

  5. Expressive Writing: Enhancing the Emotional Intelligence of Human Services Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Yuleinys; Fischer, Jerome M.

    2017-01-01

    The skills and tasks in the human services field are highly connected to emotional intelligence abilities. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of an expressive writing program involving human service students in an undergraduate rehabilitation services course. The program was developed to enhance their emotional intelligence.…

  6. Enhancing backyard poultry enterprise performance in the techiman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Enhancing backyard poultry enterprise performance in the techiman area: A value chain analysis ... from each community as well as service providers and support institutions in ...

  7. Why higher economic growth cannot always enhance human development

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Md Montasir

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies why higher economic growth cannot always enhance human development. In general, these two dimensions have a strong and positive relationship, but some countries appear unable to balance this relationship. As a consequence, there are some countries with high economic growth but sluggish human development progress. This paper studies how other factors besides GDP – women labor force participation, urbanization, and inequality - are correlated to human development. I construct...

  8. Electronic human resource management: Enhancing or entrancing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Poisat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This article provides an investigation into the current level of development of the body of knowledge related to electronic human resource management (e-HRM by means of a qualitative content analysis. Several aspects of e-HRM, namely definitions of e-HRM, the theoretical perspectives around e-HRM, the role of e-HRM, the various types of e-HRM and the requirements for successful e-HRM, are examined. Research purpose: The purpose of the article was to determine the status of e-HRM and examine the studies that report on the link between e-HRM and organisational productivity. Motivation for the study: e-HRM has the capacity to improve organisational efficiency and leverage the role of human resources (HR as a strategic business partner. Main findings: The notion that the implementation of e-HRM will lead to improved organisational productivity is commonly assumed; however, empirical evidence in this regard was found to be limited. Practical/managerial implications: From the results of this investigation it is evident that more research is required to gain a greater understanding of the influence of e-HRM on organisational productivity, as well as to develop measures for assessing this influence. Contribution: This article proposes additional areas to research and measure when investigating the effectiveness of e-HRM. It provides a different lens from which to view e-HRM assessment whilst keeping it within recognised HR measurement parameters (the HR value chain. In addition, it not only provides areas for measuring e-HRM’s influence but also provides important clues as to how the measurements may be approached.

  9. Machine performance assessment and enhancement for a hexapod machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mou, J.I. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); King, C. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Integrated Manufacturing Systems Center

    1998-03-19

    The focus of this study is to develop a sensor fused process modeling and control methodology to model, assess, and then enhance the performance of a hexapod machine for precision product realization. Deterministic modeling technique was used to derive models for machine performance assessment and enhancement. Sensor fusion methodology was adopted to identify the parameters of the derived models. Empirical models and computational algorithms were also derived and implemented to model, assess, and then enhance the machine performance. The developed sensor fusion algorithms can be implemented on a PC-based open architecture controller to receive information from various sensors, assess the status of the process, determine the proper action, and deliver the command to actuators for task execution. This will enhance a hexapod machine`s capability to produce workpieces within the imposed dimensional tolerances.

  10. WIPP performance assessment: impacts of human intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.R.; Hunter, R.L.; Bertram-Howery, S.G.; Lappin, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico is a research and development facility that may become the USA's first and only mined geologic repository for transuranic waste. Human intrusion into the WIPP repository after closure has been shown by preliminary sensitivity analyses and calculations of consequences to be an important, and perhaps the most important, factor in long-term repository performance

  11. The Development and Validation of a Rubric to Enhance Performer Feedback for Undergraduate Vocal Solo Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrell, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    This is a study of the development and validation of a rubric to enhance performer feedback for undergraduate vocal solo performance. In the literature, assessment of vocal performance is under-represented, and the value of feedback from the assessment of musical performances, from the point of view of the performer, is nonexistent. The research…

  12. Counterfeiting in performance- and image-enhancing drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Michael R; Ryan, Paul; Baker, Julien S; Davies, Bruce; Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Evans, Peter; Easmon, Sue; Walker, Christopher J; Cowan, David; Kicman, Andrew T

    2009-03-01

    The current drastic escalation in obesity may be contributing to the exponential rise in drugs used for image enhancement. Drugs such as anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are perceived as a viable method of achieving a perfect physique. They are also the most widely abused drugs in sport. The Internet has encouraged the abuse of expensive drugs, particularly human growth hormone (hGH), resulting in increased importation for personal use. The substantial increase in this market has opened up avenues for counterfeiting, estimated as a multi-million pound business. The acute adverse effects from contaminated vials may result in a variety of pathologies including communicable diseases. In 2007, in the UK, a series of intramuscular abscesses, requiring surgical treatment, led us to study samples obtained from the underground market. The analysis of 38 parenteral samples and 19 oral samples of tablets was performed by a World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) accredited laboratory, in an attempt to establish the extent of available counterfeit products. Fifty-three per cent (20) of the injectable AAS esters and 21% (4) of the oral tablets were counterfeit. Culture and sensitivity revealed the presence of skin commensal organisms, which may have contributed to the development of the abscesses. Users of AAS and hGH for sport, including bodybuilding, are currently risking their health because of counterfeit and poorly controlled products. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Design of a Cognitive Tool to Enhance Problemsolving Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngmin; Nelson, David

    2005-01-01

    The design of a cognitive tool to support problem-solving performance for external representation of knowledge is described. The limitations of conventional knowledge maps are analyzed in proposing the tool. The design principles and specifications are described. This tool is expected to enhance learners problem-solving performance by allowing…

  14. Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance: Integrating From the Nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roco, M.C.; Bainbridge, W.S.

    2002-01-01

    In the early decades of the twenty-first century, concentrated efforts can unify science based on the unity of nature, thereby advancing the combination of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and new humane technologies based in cognitive science. Converging technologies integrated from the nanoscale could determine a tremendous improvement in human abilities and societal outcomes. This is a broad, cross cutting, emerging, and timely opportunity of interest to individuals, society, and humanity in the long term.About eighty scientific leaders, industry experts, and policy makers across a range of fields have contributed to develop a vision for the potential to improve human physical, mental, and social capabilities through the convergence of the four technologies. Six major themes have emerged: (a) The broad potential of converging technologies; (b) Expanding human cognition and communication; (c) Improving human health and physical capabilities; (d) Enhancing group and societal outcomes; (e) National security, and (f) Unifying science and education. This article summarizes the observations, conclusions, and recommendations made in the report (Roco and Bainbridge, eds., 2002. Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance, NSF-DOC Report, June 2002, Arlington VA, USA)

  15. Circadian Rhythms, Sleep Deprivation, and Human Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Namni; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi; Dinges, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Much of the current science on, and mathematical modeling of, dynamic changes in human performance within and between days is dominated by the two-process model of sleep–wake regulation, which posits a neurobiological drive for sleep that varies homeostatically (increasing as a saturating exponential during wakefulness and decreasing in a like manner during sleep), and a circadian process that neurobiologically modulates both the homeostatic drive for sleep and waking alertness and performance. Endogenous circadian rhythms in neurobehavioral functions, including physiological alertness and cognitive performance, have been demonstrated using special laboratory protocols that reveal the interaction of the biological clock with the sleep homeostatic drive. Individual differences in circadian rhythms and genetic and other components underlying such differences also influence waking neurobehavioral functions. Both acute total sleep deprivation and chronic sleep restriction increase homeostatic sleep drive and degrade waking neurobehavioral functions as reflected in sleepiness, attention, cognitive speed, and memory. Recent evidence indicating a high degree of stability in neurobehavioral responses to sleep loss suggests that these trait-like individual differences are phenotypic and likely involve genetic components, including circadian genes. Recent experiments have revealed both sleep homeostatic and circadian effects on brain metabolism and neural activation. Investigation of the neural and genetic mechanisms underlying the dynamically complex interaction between sleep homeostasis and circadian systems is beginning. A key goal of this work is to identify biomarkers that accurately predict human performance in situations in which the circadian and sleep homeostatic systems are perturbed. PMID:23899598

  16. Kernel Method Based Human Model for Enhancing Interactive Evolutionary Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiangfu; Liu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    A fitness landscape presents the relationship between individual and its reproductive success in evolutionary computation (EC). However, discrete and approximate landscape in an original search space may not support enough and accurate information for EC search, especially in interactive EC (IEC). The fitness landscape of human subjective evaluation in IEC is very difficult and impossible to model, even with a hypothesis of what its definition might be. In this paper, we propose a method to establish a human model in projected high dimensional search space by kernel classification for enhancing IEC search. Because bivalent logic is a simplest perceptual paradigm, the human model is established by considering this paradigm principle. In feature space, we design a linear classifier as a human model to obtain user preference knowledge, which cannot be supported linearly in original discrete search space. The human model is established by this method for predicting potential perceptual knowledge of human. With the human model, we design an evolution control method to enhance IEC search. From experimental evaluation results with a pseudo-IEC user, our proposed model and method can enhance IEC search significantly. PMID:25879050

  17. Functional assessment of human enhancer activities using whole-genome STARR-sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuwen; Yu, Shan; Dhiman, Vineet K; Brunetti, Tonya; Eckart, Heather; White, Kevin P

    2017-11-20

    Genome-wide quantification of enhancer activity in the human genome has proven to be a challenging problem. Recent efforts have led to the development of powerful tools for enhancer quantification. However, because of genome size and complexity, these tools have yet to be applied to the whole human genome.  In the current study, we use a human prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP as a model to perform whole human genome STARR-seq (WHG-STARR-seq) to reliably obtain an assessment of enhancer activity. This approach builds upon previously developed STARR-seq in the fly genome and CapSTARR-seq techniques in targeted human genomic regions. With an improved library preparation strategy, our approach greatly increases the library complexity per unit of starting material, which makes it feasible and cost-effective to explore the landscape of regulatory activity in the much larger human genome. In addition to our ability to identify active, accessible enhancers located in open chromatin regions, we can also detect sequences with the potential for enhancer activity that are located in inaccessible, closed chromatin regions. When treated with the histone deacetylase inhibitor, Trichostatin A, genes nearby this latter class of enhancers are up-regulated, demonstrating the potential for endogenous functionality of these regulatory elements. WHG-STARR-seq provides an improved approach to current pipelines for analysis of high complexity genomes to gain a better understanding of the intricacies of transcriptional regulation.

  18. Human Resource Management in the Enhancement Processes of Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didi Sundiman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research explored Human Resource Management (HRM in enhancement processes of knowledge management. This research explored how HRM practice enhanced the operational of knowledge management. Data were collected by a survey by interviewing 12 informants from Small and Medium Enterprise (SME. The results show that HRM practice gives initiative in the enhancement process of the knowledge management strategy applied to the company. It can be concluded that each sub-component of HRM affects the components of knowledge management, and HRM is highly influential and has a positive effect on quality management processes and vice versa in the work environment.

  19. [Human nature and the enhancement of human beings in the light of the transhumanist program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffi, Jean-Yves

    2011-01-01

    There are three main approaches about the question of Human Nature. essentialists consider that there exists a permanent Human Nature, shared by every human being. Existentialists consider that there is no such thing as human nature, but inescapable modes of being in the world. A moderate approach would consider that Human Nature can be modified within the limits of anthropological invariants. Transhumanists are conservative in that they think that there is a Human Nature; but they are radical in that they believe that it can (and must) be transcended by bio-technnologies and computer technologies. This project is evaluated as a caricature of suitable human enhancement.

  20. An extraordinary transmission analogue for enhancing microwave antenna performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarin V. Pushpakaran

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The theory of diffraction limit proposed by H.A Bethe limits the total power transfer through a subwavelength hole. Researchers all over the world have gone through different techniques for boosting the transmission through subwavelength holes resulting in the Extraordinary Transmission (EOT behavior. We examine computationally and experimentally the concept of EOT nature in the microwave range for enhancing radiation performance of a stacked dipole antenna working in the S band. It is shown that the front to back ratio of the antenna is considerably enhanced without affecting the impedance matching performance of the design. The computational analysis based on Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD method reveals that the excitation of Fabry-Perot resonant modes on the slots is responsible for performance enhancement.

  1. Performance enhancement of hermetic compressor using phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, I. M.; Rady, M. A.; Huzayyin, A. S.

    2015-08-01

    The present study is motivated by the need for the research of simple measures for increasing energy efficiency of hermetic compressor. The measure is the application of phase change materials for performance enhancement. The first experimental study should be guide for choice of PCM. It has been performed to investigate the effects of thermostat setting temperature on the performance of hermetic compressor. The effects of thermostat setting temperature with and without load on power consumption have been analyzed. Performance enhancement using phase change materials (PCMs) has been studied by employing a phase change material Rubitherm-42 (RT-42) on the top surface of compressor. Choice of PCM material is based on basic compressor performance measured in the first part of the present study. Experiments have been carried out for different load values and different quantities of PCM. The quantity and phase change characteristic of PCM are essential parameters that determine the percentage of performance enhancement in term of energy consumption. Reduction of energy consumption of about 10% has been achieved in the present study by using PCM. The present study shows that how to reduce the electrical power consumption to enhance compressor heat dissipation method to improve efficiency.

  2. Human performance in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koncz, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Management of employees human performance in the Nuclear Industry is endemic to their safety when working. In the United Kingdom it has been a key focus since 2003. Employees were made aware through a detailed program of workshops, of the error prevention methods and how to apply them. The use of effective incident barriers became embedded in the safety culture. The methodology implemented was personal ownership, to enable self assessment of behaviors, attitudes and beliefs. When put in place, there are many specific barriers, which can reduce the chances of an error occurring. They come under the headings of organisational, procedural and physical barriers. All of these were used in some way and continue to be reinforced on a daily basis. Specific barriers are applied in specific situations. However, some general ones are also effective. In common use are the Take 2 or Take 5 Minutes, point of work risk assessments. Applying the human performance barrier Independent Verification (I.V.) would result in 'Take 3 and I.V.' This would independently double check the risk assessment. New ways of thinking are required to continuously improve and evolve. Results of the error reduction process included; reduced workload, increased plant reliability, efficiencies and productivity. (author)

  3. Human performance in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koncz, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Management of employees human performance in the Nuclear Industry is endemic to their safety when working. In the United Kingdom it has been a key focus since 2003. Employees were made aware through a detailed program of workshops, of the error prevention methods and how to apply them. The use of effective incident barriers became embedded in the safety culture. The methodology implemented was personal ownership, to enable self assessment of behaviors, attitudes and beliefs. When put in place, there are many specific barriers, which can reduce the chances of an error occurring. They come under the headings of organisational, procedural and physical barriers. All of these were used in some way and continue to be reinforced on a daily basis. Specific barriers are applied in specific situations. However, some general ones are also effective. In common use are the Take 2 or Take 5 Minutes, point of work risk assessments. Applying the human performance barrier Independent Verification (I.V.) would result in 'Take 3 and I.V.' This would independently double check the risk assessment. New ways of thinking are required to continuously improve and evolve. Results of the error reduction process included; reduced workload, increased plant reliability, efficiencies and productivity. (author)

  4. Plants and Human Affairs: Educational Enhancement Via a Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovello, Theodore J.; Smith, W. Nelson

    To enhance both teaching and learning in an advanced undergraduate elective course on the interrelationships of plants and human affairs, the computer was used for information retrieval, multiple choice course review, and the running of three simulation models--plant related systems (e.g., the rise in world coffee prices after the 1975 freeze in…

  5. Enhancing Biology Instruction with the Human Genome Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxeda, Rosa J.; Moore-Russo, Deborah A.

    2003-01-01

    The Human Genome Project (HGP) is a recent scientific milestone that has received notable attention. This article shows how a biology course is using the HGP to enhance students' experiences by providing awareness of cutting edge research, with information on new emerging career options, and with opportunities to consider ethical questions raised…

  6. Human performance assessment: methods and measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, Gisle; Droeivoldsmo, Asgeir

    2000-10-01

    The Human Error Analysis Project (HEAP) was initiated in 1994. The aim of the project was to acquire insights on how and why cognitive errors occur when operators are engaged in problem solving in advanced integrated control rooms. Since human error had not been studied in the HAlden Man-Machine LABoratory (HAMMLAB) before, it was also necessary to carry out research in methodology. In retrospect, it is clear that much of the methodological work is relevant to human-machine research in general, and not only to research on human error. The purpose of this report is, therefore, to give practitioners and researchers an overview of the methodological parts of HEAP. The scope of the report is limited to methods used throughout the data acquisition process, i.e., data-collection methods, data-refinement methods, and measurement methods. The data-collection methods include various types of verbal protocols, simulator logs, questionnaires, and interviews. Data-refinement methods involve different applications of the Eyecon system, a flexible data-refinement tool, and small computer programs used for rearranging, reformatting, and aggregating raw-data. Measurement methods involve assessment of diagnostic behaviour, erroneous actions, complexity, task/system performance, situation awareness, and workload. The report concludes that the data-collection methods are generally both reliable and efficient. The data-refinement methods, however, should be easier to use in order to facilitate explorative analyses. Although the series of experiments provided an opportunity for measurement validation, there are still uncertainties connected to several measures, due to their reliability still being unknown. (Author). 58 refs.,7 tabs

  7. Processes, Performance Drivers and ICT Tools in Human Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oškrdal Václav

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an insight to processes, performance drivers and ICT tools in human resources (HR management area. On the basis of a modern approach to HR management, a set of business processes that are handled by today’s HR managers is defined. Consequently, the concept of ICT-supported performance drivers and their relevance in the area of HR management as well as the relationship between HR business processes, performance drivers and ICT tools are defined. The theoretical outcomes are further enhanced with results obtained from a survey among Czech companies. This article was written with kind courtesy of finances provided by VŠE IGA grant „IGA – 32/2010“.

  8. Enhancing team-sport athlete performance: is altitude training relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billaut, François; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J

    2012-09-01

    Field-based team sport matches are composed of short, high-intensity efforts, interspersed with intervals of rest or submaximal exercise, repeated over a period of 60-120 minutes. Matches may also be played at moderate altitude where the lower oxygen partial pressure exerts a detrimental effect on performance. To enhance run-based performance, team-sport athletes use varied training strategies focusing on different aspects of team-sport physiology, including aerobic, sprint, repeated-sprint and resistance training. Interestingly, 'altitude' training (i.e. living and/or training in O(2)-reduced environments) has only been empirically employed by athletes and coaches to improve the basic characteristics of speed and endurance necessary to excel in team sports. Hypoxia, as an additional stimulus to training, is typically used by endurance athletes to enhance performance at sea level and to prepare for competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved in the last few decades, which are known to enhance aerobic power and, thus, endurance performance. Altitude training can also promote an increased anaerobic fitness, and may enhance sprint capacity. Therefore, altitude training may confer potentially-beneficial adaptations to team-sport athletes, which have been overlooked in contemporary sport physiology research. Here, we review the current knowledge on the established benefits of altitude training on physiological systems relevant to team-sport performance, and conclude that current evidence supports implementation of altitude training modalities to enhance match physical performances at both sea level and altitude. We hope that this will guide the practice of many athletes and stimulate future research to better refine training programmes.

  9. Independent learning modules enhance student performance and understanding of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat, Maria A; Dom, Aaron M; Buchanan, James T; Williams, Alison R; Efaw, Morgan L; Richardson, Laura L

    2014-01-01

    Didactic lessons are only one part of the multimodal teaching strategies used in gross anatomy courses today. Increased emphasis is placed on providing more opportunities for students to develop lifelong learning and critical thinking skills during medical training. In a pilot program designed to promote more engaged and independent learning in anatomy, self-study modules were introduced to supplement human gross anatomy instruction at Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine at Marshall University. Modules use three-dimensional constructs to help students understand complex anatomical regions. Resources are self-contained in portable bins and are accessible at any time. Students use modules individually or in groups in a structured self-study format that augments material presented in lecture and laboratory. Pilot outcome data, measured by feedback surveys and examination performance statistics, suggest that the activity may be improving learning in gross anatomy. Positive feedback on both pre- and post-examination surveys showed that students felt the activity helped to increase their understanding of the topic. In concordance with student perception, average examination scores on module-related laboratory and lecture questions were higher in the two years of the pilot program compared with the year before its initiation. Modules can be fabricated on a modest budget using minimal resources, making implementation practical for smaller institutions. Upper level medical students assist in module design and upkeep, enabling continuous opportunities for vertical integration across the curriculum. This resource offers a feasible mechanism for enhancing independent and lifelong learning competencies, which could be a valuable complement to any gross anatomy curriculum. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  10. Performance enhancement of implantable medical antenna using differential feed technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Bhattacharjee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The health care industry is continuously revolutionizing and advancing towards developing more efficient system suitable for human body. Today implantable devices have become a more interesting topic in health care services which primarily started with the pacemakers. Since then it is continuously evolving due to its non-invasive nature, instant monitoring and diagnosis, and periodic simulation. The main goal of these implantable devices is to efficiently monitor or inspect various ailments in the body and then transmits this to the server or base station. For proper communication between the implant and the base station, antenna design is of prime importance. In this paper MEMS based differentially fed dual band antenna has been proposed and can be used both in Medical Implant Communication Service (MICS band for transmission of data and industrial, scientific and medical (ISM band for wake-up purpose. The proposed antenna has been simulated for free space scenario and has been found to radiate in both MICS & ISM band with S11 of −17.62 dB and −14.31 dB respectively. Subsequently the antenna is inserted within a skin mimicking model with equivalent dielectric features and the results show variation in radiation characteristics between free space condition and within skin phantom. The design of the antenna has been optimized in such a way that minimum deviation occurs between the two conformal conditions. With the use of differential feeding technique performance of the antenna is quite enhanced in terms of various parameters when compared with single feed.

  11. The Importance of the Study of Cognitive Performance Enhancement for U.S. National Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malish, Richard G

    2017-08-01

    The American military is embarking on the 'Third Offset'-a strategy designed to produce seismic shifts in the future of warfare. Central to the approach is the conjoining of humans, technology, and machines to deliver a decisive advantage on the battlefield. Because technology will spread rapidly and globally, tactical overmatch will occur when American operators possess a competitive edge in cognition. Investigation of cognitive enhancing therapeutics is not widely articulated as an adjunct to the Third Offset, yet failure to study promising agents could represent a strategic vulnerability. Because of its legacy of research into therapeutic agents to enhance human-machine interplay, the aerospace medical community represents a front-running candidate to perform this work. Notably, there are strong signals emanating from gambling, academic, and video-gaming enterprises that already-developed stimulants and other agents provide cognitive benefits. These agents should be studied not only for reasons of national security, but also because cognitive enhancement may be a necessary step in the evolution of humankind. To illustrate these points, this article will assert that: 1) the need to preserve and enhance physical and cognitive health will become more and more important over the next century; 2) aeromedical specialists are in a position to take the lead in the endeavor to enhance cognition; 3) signals of enhancement of the type useful to both military and medical efforts exist aplenty in today's society; and 4) the aeromedical community should approach human enhancement research deliberately but carefully.Malish RG. The importance of the study of cognitive performance enhancement for U.S. national security. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(8):773-778.

  12. Tin (Sn) for enhancing performance in silicon CMOS

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.; Fahad, Hossain M.; Singh, Nirpendra; Sevilla, Galo T.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    We study a group IV element: tin (Sn) by integrating it into silicon lattice, to enhance the performance of silicon CMOS. We have evaluated the electrical properties of the SiSn lattice by performing simulations using First-principle studies, followed by experimental device fabrication and characterization. We fabricated high-κ/metal gate based Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) using SiSn as channel material to study the impact of Sn integration into silicon. © 2013 IEEE.

  13. Tin (Sn) for enhancing performance in silicon CMOS

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2013-10-01

    We study a group IV element: tin (Sn) by integrating it into silicon lattice, to enhance the performance of silicon CMOS. We have evaluated the electrical properties of the SiSn lattice by performing simulations using First-principle studies, followed by experimental device fabrication and characterization. We fabricated high-κ/metal gate based Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) using SiSn as channel material to study the impact of Sn integration into silicon. © 2013 IEEE.

  14. Human Milk Hyaluronan Enhances Innate Defense of the Intestinal Epithelium*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David R.; Rho, Hyunjin K.; Kessler, Sean P.; Amin, Ripal; Homer, Craig R.; McDonald, Christine; Cowman, Mary K.; de la Motte, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Breast-feeding is associated with enhanced protection from gastrointestinal disease in infants, mediated in part by an array of bioactive glycan components in milk that act through molecular mechanisms to inhibit enteric pathogen infection. Human milk contains hyaluronan (HA), a glycosaminoglycan polymer found in virtually all mammalian tissues. We have shown that synthetic HA of a specific size range promotes expression of antimicrobial peptides in intestinal epithelium. We hypothesize that hyaluronan from human milk also enhances innate antimicrobial defense. Here we define the concentration of HA in human milk during the first 6 months postpartum. Importantly, HA isolated from milk has a biological function. Treatment of HT-29 colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA at physiologic concentrations results in time- and dose-dependent induction of the antimicrobial peptide human β-defensin 2 and is abrogated by digestion of milk HA with a specific hyaluronidase. Milk HA induction of human β-defensin 2 expression is also reduced in the presence of a CD44-blocking antibody and is associated with a specific increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting a role for the HA receptor CD44. Furthermore, oral administration of human milk-derived HA to adult, wild-type mice results in induction of the murine Hβ D2 ortholog in intestinal mucosa and is dependent upon both TLR4 and CD44 in vivo. Finally, treatment of cultured colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA enhances resistance to infection by the enteric pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. Together, our observations suggest that maternally provided HA stimulates protective antimicrobial defense in the newborn. PMID:23950179

  15. Performance of full scale enhanced reductive dechlorination in clay till

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ida; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Jacobsen, Carsten S.

    2013-01-01

    At a low permeability clay till site contaminated with chlorinated ethenes (Gl. Kongevej, Denmark), enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD) was applied by direct push injection of molasses and dechlorinating bacteria. The performance was investigated by long-term groundwater monitoring, and after 4...

  16. Enhanced thermo-mechanical performance and strain-induced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Enhanced thermo-mechanical performance and strain-induced band gap reduction of TiO2@PVC nanocomposite films ... School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749, Republic of Korea; School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749, Republic of Korea ...

  17. Use of Martial Art Exercises in Performance Enhancement Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Tim; Anderson, Warren

    2002-01-01

    Details some of the many martial arts training techniques and their potential applications for inclusion in performance enhancement programs, focusing on the benefits of martial training, the arts continuum, and martial arts training modes. The article concludes that the various martial arts techniques provide a stimulating and intuitively…

  18. Does strategic planning enhance or impede innovation and firm performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Michael; Im, Subin; van der Bijl, H.M.; Song, Lisa Z.

    2011-01-01

    Does strategic planning enhance or impede innovation and firm performance? The current literature provides contradictory views. This study extends the resource-advantage theory to examine the conditions in which strategic planning increases or decreases the number of new product development projects

  19. Does strategic planning enhance or impede innovation and firm performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Michael; Im, Subin; van der Bij, Hans; Song, Lisa Z.

    Does strategic planning enhance or impede innovation and firm performance? The current literature provides contradictory views. This study extends the resource-advantage theory to examine the conditions in which strategic planning increases or decreases the number of new product development projects

  20. High performance simulation of lattice physics using enhanced transputer arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hey, A.J.G.; Jesshope, C.R.; Nicole, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors describe an architecture under construction at Southampton using arrays of communicating transputers with enhanced floating-point capabilities. Performance in the Gigaflop range is expected. Algorithms for taking explicit advantage of this MIMD architecture are discussed using the Occam programming paradigm. (Auth.)

  1. The Use of Digital Repositories for Enhancing Teacher Pedagogical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Anat; Kalimi, Sharon; Nachmias, Rafi

    2013-01-01

    This research examines the usage of local learning material repositories at school, as well as related teachers' attitudes and training. The study investigates the use of these repositories for enhancing teacher performance and assesses whether the assimilation of the local repositories increases their usage of and contribution to by teachers. One…

  2. Sleep Deprivation Impairs and Caffeine Enhances My Performance, but Not Always Our Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Nadira S; Häusser, Jan A; Kerr, Norbert L

    2017-02-01

    What effects do factors that impair or enhance performance in individuals have when these individuals act in groups? We provide a framework, called the GIE ("Effects of Grouping on Impairments and Enhancements") framework, for investigating this question. As prominent examples for individual-level impairments and enhancements, we discuss sleep deprivation and caffeine. Based on previous research, we derive hypotheses on how they influence performance in groups, specifically process gains and losses in motivation, individual capability, and coordination. We conclude that the effect an impairment or enhancement has on individual-level performance is not necessarily mirrored in group performance: grouping can help or hurt. We provide recommendations on how to estimate empirically the effects individual-level performance impairments and enhancements have in groups. By comparing sleep deprivation to stress and caffeine to pharmacological cognitive enhancement, we illustrate that we cannot readily generalize from group results on one impairment or enhancement to another, even if they have similar effects on individual-level performance.

  3. Impact of human resource management practices on nursing home performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondeau, K V; Wagar, T H

    2001-08-01

    Management scholars and practitioners alike have become increasingly interested in learning more about the ability of certain 'progressive' or 'high-performance' human resource management (HRM) practices to enhance organizational effectiveness. There is growing evidence to suggest that the contribution of various HRM practices to impact firm performance may be synergistic in effect yet contingent on a number of contextual factors, including workplace climate. A contingency theory perspective suggests that in order to be effective, HMR policies and practices must be consistent with other aspects of the organization, including its environment. This paper reports on empirical findings from research that examines the relationship between HRM practices, workplace climate and perceptions of organizational performance, in a large sample of Canadian nursing homes. Data from 283 nursing homes were collected by means of a mail survey that included questions on HRM practices, programmes, and policies, on human resource aspects of workplace climate, as well as a variety of indicators that include employee, customer/resident and facility measures of organizational performance. Results derived from ordered probit analysis suggest that nursing homes in our sample which had implemented more 'progressive' HRM practices and which reported a workplace climate that strongly values employee participation, empowerment and accountability tended to be perceived to generally perform better on a number of valued organizational outcomes. Nursing homes in our sample that performed best overall were found to be more likely to not only have implemented more of these HRM practices, but also to report having a workplace climate that reflects the seminal value that it places on its human resources. This finding is consistent with the conclusion that simply introducing HRM practices or programmes, in the absence of an appropriately supportive workplace climate, will be insufficient to attain

  4. Hyperbaric Oxygen Environment Can Enhance Brain Activity and Multitasking Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dor Vadas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Brain uses 20% of the total oxygen supply consumed by the entire body. Even though, <10% of the brain is active at any given time, it utilizes almost all the oxygen delivered. In order to perform complex tasks or more than one task (multitasking, the oxygen supply is shifted from one brain region to another, via blood perfusion modulation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether a hyperbaric oxygen (HBO environment, with increased oxygen supply to the brain, will enhance the performance of complex and/or multiple activities.Methods: A prospective, double-blind randomized control, crossover trial including 22 healthy volunteers. Participants were asked to perform a cognitive task, a motor task and a simultaneous cognitive-motor task (multitasking. Participants were randomized to perform the tasks in two environments: (a normobaric air (1 ATA 21% oxygen (b HBO (2 ATA 100% oxygen. Two weeks later participants were crossed to the alternative environment. Blinding of the normobaric environment was achieved in the same chamber with masks on while hyperbaric sensation was simulated by increasing pressure in the first minute and gradually decreasing to normobaric environment prior to tasks performance.Results: Compared to the performance at normobaric conditions, both cognitive and motor single tasks scores were significantly enhanced by HBO environment (p < 0.001 for both. Multitasking performance was also significantly enhanced in HBO environment (p = 0.006 for the cognitive part and p = 0.02 for the motor part.Conclusions: The improvement in performance of both single and multi-tasking while in an HBO environment supports the hypothesis which according to, oxygen is indeed a rate limiting factor for brain activity. Hyperbaric oxygenation can serve as an environment for brain performance. Further studies are needed to evaluate the optimal oxygen levels for maximal brain performance.

  5. The Five Key Questions of Human Performance Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changxu

    2018-01-01

    Via building computational (typically mathematical and computer simulation) models, human performance modeling (HPM) quantifies, predicts, and maximizes human performance, human-machine system productivity and safety. This paper describes and summarizes the five key questions of human performance modeling: 1) Why we build models of human performance; 2) What the expectations of a good human performance model are; 3) What the procedures and requirements in building and verifying a human performance model are; 4) How we integrate a human performance model with system design; and 5) What the possible future directions of human performance modeling research are. Recent and classic HPM findings are addressed in the five questions to provide new thinking in HPM's motivations, expectations, procedures, system integration and future directions.

  6. Hyperbaric Oxygen Environment Can Enhance Brain Activity and Multitasking Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadas, Dor; Kalichman, Leonid; Hadanny, Amir; Efrati, Shai

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Brain uses 20% of the total oxygen supply consumed by the entire body. Even though, multitasking), the oxygen supply is shifted from one brain region to another, via blood perfusion modulation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether a hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) environment, with increased oxygen supply to the brain, will enhance the performance of complex and/or multiple activities. Methods: A prospective, double-blind randomized control, crossover trial including 22 healthy volunteers. Participants were asked to perform a cognitive task, a motor task and a simultaneous cognitive-motor task (multitasking). Participants were randomized to perform the tasks in two environments: (a) normobaric air (1 ATA 21% oxygen) (b) HBO (2 ATA 100% oxygen). Two weeks later participants were crossed to the alternative environment. Blinding of the normobaric environment was achieved in the same chamber with masks on while hyperbaric sensation was simulated by increasing pressure in the first minute and gradually decreasing to normobaric environment prior to tasks performance. Results: Compared to the performance at normobaric conditions, both cognitive and motor single tasks scores were significantly enhanced by HBO environment ( p Multitasking performance was also significantly enhanced in HBO environment ( p = 0.006 for the cognitive part and p = 0.02 for the motor part). Conclusions: The improvement in performance of both single and multi-tasking while in an HBO environment supports the hypothesis which according to, oxygen is indeed a rate limiting factor for brain activity. Hyperbaric oxygenation can serve as an environment for brain performance. Further studies are needed to evaluate the optimal oxygen levels for maximal brain performance.

  7. Improved human performance through appropriate work scheduling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisseau, D.S.; Lewis, P.M.; Persensky, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has had a policy, Generic Letter 82-12, on hours of work since 1982. The policy states that licensees should establish controls to prevent situations where fatigue could reduce the ability of operating personnel to perform their duties safely (USNRC 1982). While that policy does give guidance on hours of work and overtime, it does not address periods of longer than 7 days or work schedules other than the routine 8-hour day, 40-hour week. Recognizing that NRC policy could provide broader guidance for shift schedules and hours of overtime work, the Division of Human Factors Safety conducted a project with Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) to help the NRC better understand the human factors principles and issues concerning hours of work so that the NRC could consider updating their policy as necessary. The results of this project are recommendations for guidelines and limits for periods of 14 days, 28 days, and 1 year to take into account the cumulative effects of fatigue. In addition, routine 12-hour shifts are addressed. This latter type of shift schedule has been widely adopted in the petroleum and chemical industries and several utilities operating nuclear power plants have adopted it as well. Since this is the case, it is important to consider including guidelines for implementing this type of schedule. This paper discusses the bases for the PNL recommendations which are currently being studied by the NRC

  8. Thermal performance enhancement in nanofluids containing diamond nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Huaqing; Yu Wei; Li Yang

    2009-01-01

    Nanofluids, nanoparticle suspensions prepared by dispersing nanoscale particles in a base fluid, have been gaining interest lately due to their potential to greatly outperform traditional thermal transport liquids. Diamond has the highest thermal transport capacity in nature and diamond particles are often used as filler in mixtures for upgrading the performance of a matrix. It is reasonable to expect that the addition of diamond nanoparticles (DNPs) would lead to thermal performance enhancement in a base fluid. In this study, homogeneous and stable nanofluids composed of DNPs as the inclusions and a mixture of ethylene glycol (EG) and water as base fluid have been prepared. Acid mixtures of perchloric acid, nitric acid and hydrochloric acid were employed to purify and tailor the DNPs to eliminate impurities and to enhance their dispersibilty. Ultrasound and the alkalinity of solution are beneficial to the deaggregation of the soft DNP aggregations. The thermal conductivity enhancement of the DNP nanofluids increases with DNP loading and the thermal conductivity enhancement is more than 18.0% for a nanofluid at a DNP volume fraction of 0.02. Viscosity measurements show that the DNP nanofluids demonstrate Newtonian behaviour, and the viscosity significantly decreases with temperature. With increasing volume fraction of DNPs, the convective heat transfer coefficient increases first, and then decreases with a further increase in the volume fraction of DNPs. The nanofluid with a volume fraction of 0.005 has optimal overall thermal performance.

  9. Enhancement by platelets of oxygen radical responses of human neutrophils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCulloch, K.K.; Powell, J.; Johnson, K.J.; Ward, P.A.

    1986-03-01

    When human blood neutrophils were incubated with immune complexes (consisting of IgG antibody) in the presence of platelets, there was a 2 to 10 fold enhancement in the generation of O-/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. This enhancement phenomenon was proportional to the dose of immune complex added and the number of platelets present. The response was not agonist specific since similar enhancement also occurred with the following agonists: phorbol myristate acetate, opsonized zymosan particles and the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-met-leu-phe. The platelet related phenomenon of enhanced O-/sub 2/ generation could not be reproduced by the addition of serotonin, histamine or platelet-derived growth factor and was not affected by prior treatment of platelets with cyclooxygenase inhibitors (indomethacin, piroxicam) or lipoxygenase inhibitors (nafazatrom, BW755C or nordihydroguaiaretic acid). However, activation of platelets by thrombin caused release into the platelet supernatant fluid of a factor that, only in the presence of immune complexes, caused enhanced O-/sub 2/ responses to neutrophils. These data indicate that platelets potentiate oxygen radical responses of human neutrophils and suggest a mechanisms by which platelets may participate in tissue injury which is mediated by oxygen radical products from activated neutrophils.

  10. Enhancement by platelets of oxygen radical responses of human neutrophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, K.K.; Powell, J.; Johnson, K.J.; Ward, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    When human blood neutrophils were incubated with immune complexes (consisting of IgG antibody) in the presence of platelets, there was a 2 to 10 fold enhancement in the generation of O- 2 and H 2 O 2 . This enhancement phenomenon was proportional to the dose of immune complex added and the number of platelets present. The response was not agonist specific since similar enhancement also occurred with the following agonists: phorbol myristate acetate, opsonized zymosan particles and the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-met-leu-phe. The platelet related phenomenon of enhanced O- 2 generation could not be reproduced by the addition of serotonin, histamine or platelet-derived growth factor and was not affected by prior treatment of platelets with cyclooxygenase inhibitors (indomethacin, piroxicam) or lipoxygenase inhibitors (nafazatrom, BW755C or nordihydroguaiaretic acid). However, activation of platelets by thrombin caused release into the platelet supernatant fluid of a factor that, only in the presence of immune complexes, caused enhanced O- 2 responses to neutrophils. These data indicate that platelets potentiate oxygen radical responses of human neutrophils and suggest a mechanisms by which platelets may participate in tissue injury which is mediated by oxygen radical products from activated neutrophils

  11. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of an inclined nanowire array solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2015-11-30

    An innovative solar cell based on inclined p-i-n nanowire array is designed and analyzed. The results show that the inclined geometry can sufficiently increase the conversion efficiency of solar cells by enhancing the absorption of light in the active region. By tuning the nanowire array density, nanowire diameter, nanowire length, as well as the proportion of intrinsic region of the inclined nanowire solar cell, a remarkable efficiency in excess of 16% can be obtained in GaAs. Similar results have been obtained in InP and Si nanowire solar cells, demonstrating the universality of the performance enhancement of inclined nanowire arrays.

  12. Shuttle performance enhancement using an uprated OMS engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallini, Charles J.; Boyd, William C.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Space Shuttle's Orbital Maneuvering Engine (OME) has been investigated as the basis for an enhancement of Shuttle operational flexibility. The Johnson Space Center has given attention to an upgrading of the OME through the use of a gas generator-driven turbopump to raise engine specific impulse. Hardware tests have demonstrated the projected performance gains, which will yield an enhanced, intact ascent-abort capability, as well an an improved on-orbit payload and altitude capability. Attention is given to the application of these capabilities to the Hubble Space Telescope's deployment.

  13. Staying human in the 21st century : thinking beyond human enhancement technologies inside the body

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Est, van Q.C.; Schuijff, M.; Boer, de T.; Fischer, R.

    2013-01-01

    The debate on human enhancement has focused so far on invasive biomedical technologies that work inside the body. To fully address the question of what does it mean to be human in the 21st century, we should also pay attention to a broad range of technologies that work outside the body, but still

  14. Ethacrynic acid: a novel radiation enhancer in human carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khil, Mark S.; Sang, Hie Kim; Pinto, John T.; Jae, Ho Kim

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Because agents that interfere with thiol metabolism and glutathione S-transferase (GST) functions have been shown to enhance antitumor effects of alkylating agents in vitro and in vivo, the present study was conceived on the basis that an inhibitor of GST would enhance the radiation response of some selected human carcinoma cells. Ethacrynic acid (EA) was chosen for the study because it is an effective inhibitor of GST and is a well known diuretic in humans. Methods and Materials: Experiments were carried out with well-established human tumor cells in culture growing in Eagle's minimum essential medium (MEM) supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS). Cell lines used were MCF-7, MCF-7 adriamycin resistant (AR) cells (breast carcinoma), HT-29 cells (colon carcinoma), DU-145 cells (prostate carcinoma), and U-373 cells (malignant glioma). Cell survival following the exposure of cells to drug alone, radiation alone, and a combined treatment was assayed by determining the colony-forming ability of single plated cells in culture to obtain dose-survival curves. The drug enhancement ratio was correlated with levels of GST. Results: The cytotoxicity of EA was most pronounced in MCF-7, U-373, and DU-145 cells compared to MCF-7 AR and HT-29 cells. The levels of GST activity were found to be lower in those EA-sensitive cells. A significant radiation enhancement was obtained with EA-sensitive cells exposed to nontoxic concentrations of the drug immediately before or after irradiation. The sensitizer enhancement ratio (SER) of MCF-7 cells was 1.55 with EA (20 μg/ml), while the SER of MCF-7 AR was less than 1.1. Based on five different human tumor cells, a clear inverse relationship was demonstrated between the magnitude of SER and GST levels of tumor cells prior to the combined treatment. Conclusion: The present results suggest that EA, which acts as both a reversible and irreversible inhibitor of GST activity, could significantly enhance the radiation response of

  15. Enhanced bag of words using multilevel k-means for human activity recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motasem Elshourbagy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to enhance the bag of features in order to improve the accuracy of human activity recognition. In this paper, human activity recognition process consists of four stages: local space time features detection, feature description, bag of features representation, and SVMs classification. The k-means step in the bag of features is enhanced by applying three levels of clustering: clustering per video, clustering per action class, and clustering for the final code book. The experimental results show that the proposed method of enhancement reduces the time and memory requirements, and enables the use of all training data in the k-means clustering algorithm. The evaluation of accuracy of action classification on two popular datasets (KTH and Weizmann has been performed. In addition, the proposed method improves the human activity recognition accuracy by 5.57% on the KTH dataset using the same detector, descriptor, and classifier.

  16. Composite Materials for Thermal Energy Storage: Enhancing Performance through Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhiwei; Ye, Feng; Ding, Yulong

    2014-01-01

    Chemical incompatibility and low thermal conductivity issues of molten-salt-based thermal energy storage materials can be addressed by using microstructured composites. Using a eutectic mixture of lithium and sodium carbonates as molten salt, magnesium oxide as supporting material, and graphite as thermal conductivity enhancer, the microstructural development, chemical compatibility, thermal stability, thermal conductivity, and thermal energy storage performance of composite materials are investigated. The ceramic supporting material is essential for preventing salt leakage and hence provides a solution to the chemical incompatibility issue. The use of graphite gives a significant enhancement on the thermal conductivity of the composite. Analyses suggest that the experimentally observed microstructural development of the composite is associated with the wettability of the salt on the ceramic substrate and that on the thermal conduction enhancer. PMID:24591286

  17. Composite materials for thermal energy storage: enhancing performance through microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhiwei; Ye, Feng; Ding, Yulong

    2014-05-01

    Chemical incompatibility and low thermal conductivity issues of molten-salt-based thermal energy storage materials can be addressed by using microstructured composites. Using a eutectic mixture of lithium and sodium carbonates as molten salt, magnesium oxide as supporting material, and graphite as thermal conductivity enhancer, the microstructural development, chemical compatibility, thermal stability, thermal conductivity, and thermal energy storage performance of composite materials are investigated. The ceramic supporting material is essential for preventing salt leakage and hence provides a solution to the chemical incompatibility issue. The use of graphite gives a significant enhancement on the thermal conductivity of the composite. Analyses suggest that the experimentally observed microstructural development of the composite is associated with the wettability of the salt on the ceramic substrate and that on the thermal conduction enhancer. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Human Resource Valuation and the Performance of Selected Banks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Resource Valuation and the Performance of Selected Banks in ... the researcher gathered data from Nigerian banks listed in the Nigeria Stock ... Conclusively, human resources cost approach to corporate performance measurement ...

  19. Interfacial Layer Engineering for Performance Enhancement in Polymer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zeng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Improving power conversion efficiency and device performance stability is the most critical challenge in polymer solar cells for fulfilling their applications in industry at large scale. Various methodologies have been developed for realizing this goal, among them interfacial layer engineering has shown great success, which can optimize the electrical contacts between active layers and electrodes and lead to enhanced charge transport and collection. Interfacial layers also show profound impacts on light absorption and optical distribution of solar irradiation in the active layer and film morphology of the subsequently deposited active layer due to the accompanied surface energy change. Interfacial layer engineering enables the use of high work function metal electrodes without sacrificing device performance, which in combination with the favored kinetic barriers against water and oxygen penetration leads to polymer solar cells with enhanced performance stability. This review provides an overview of the recent progress of different types of interfacial layer materials, including polymers, small molecules, graphene oxides, fullerene derivatives, and metal oxides. Device performance enhancement of the resulting solar cells will be elucidated and the function and operation mechanism of the interfacial layers will be discussed.

  20. Predicting Tissue-Specific Enhancers in the Human Genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennacchio, Len A.; Loots, Gabriela G.; Nobrega, Marcelo A.; Ovcharenko, Ivan

    2006-07-01

    Determining how transcriptional regulatory signals areencoded in vertebrate genomes is essential for understanding the originsof multi-cellular complexity; yet the genetic code of vertebrate generegulation remains poorly understood. In an attempt to elucidate thiscode, we synergistically combined genome-wide gene expression profiling,vertebrate genome comparisons, and transcription factor binding siteanalysis to define sequence signatures characteristic of candidatetissue-specific enhancers in the human genome. We applied this strategyto microarray-based gene expression profiles from 79 human tissues andidentified 7,187 candidate enhancers that defined their flanking geneexpression, the majority of which were located outside of knownpromoters. We cross-validated this method for its ability to de novopredict tissue-specific gene expression and confirmed its reliability in57 of the 79 available human tissues, with an average precision inenhancer recognition ranging from 32 percent to 63 percent, and asensitivity of 47 percent. We used the sequence signatures identified bythis approach to assign tissue-specific predictions to ~;328,000human-mouse conserved noncoding elements in the human genome. Byoverlapping these genome-wide predictions with a large in vivo dataset ofenhancers validated in transgenic mice, we confirmed our results with a28 percent sensitivity and 50 percent precision. These results indicatethe power of combining complementary genomic datasets as an initialcomputational foray into the global view of tissue-specific generegulation in vertebrates.

  1. Human System Simulation in Support of Human Performance Technical Basis at NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Gertman; Katya Le Blanc; alan mecham; william phoenix; Magdy Tawfik; Jeffrey Joe

    2010-06-01

    This paper focuses on strategies and progress toward establishing the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL’s) Human Systems Simulator Laboratory at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES), a consortium of Idaho State Universities. The INL is one of the National Laboratories of the US Department of Energy. One of the first planned applications for the Human Systems Simulator Laboratory is implementation of a dynamic nuclear power plant simulation (NPP) where studies of operator workload, situation awareness, performance and preference will be carried out in simulated control rooms including nuclear power plant control rooms. Simulation offers a means by which to review operational concepts, improve design practices and provide a technical basis for licensing decisions. In preparation for the next generation power plant and current government and industry efforts in support of light water reactor sustainability, human operators will be attached to a suite of physiological measurement instruments and, in combination with traditional Human Factors Measurement techniques, carry out control room tasks in simulated advanced digital and hybrid analog/digital control rooms. The current focus of the Human Systems Simulator Laboratory is building core competence in quantitative and qualitative measurements of situation awareness and workload. Of particular interest is whether introduction of digital systems including automated procedures has the potential to reduce workload and enhance safety while improving situation awareness or whether workload is merely shifted and situation awareness is modified in yet to be determined ways. Data analysis is carried out by engineers and scientists and includes measures of the physical and neurological correlates of human performance. The current approach supports a user-centered design philosophy (see ISO 13407 “Human Centered Design Process for Interactive Systems, 1999) wherein the context for task performance along with the

  2. The Performance Enhancement Group Program: Integrating Sport Psychology and Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Vincent J.; Hogan, Jeffery B.; Varnum, Lisa K.

    1995-01-01

    In an effort to improve the psychological health of the athlete who has sustained an injury, the Performance Enhancement Group program for injured athletes was created. This paper will offer a model for the Performance Enhancement Group program as a way to: 1) support the athlete, both mentally and physically; 2) deal with the demands of rehabilitation; and 3) facilitate the adjustments the athlete has to make while being out of the competitive arena. The program consists of responsibilities for professionals in sport psychology (ie, assessment/orientation, support, education, individual counseling, and evaluation) and athletic training (ie, organization/administration, recruitment and screening, support, application of techniques, and program compliance). The paper will emphasize that the success of the program is dependent on collaboration between professionals at all levels. PMID:16558357

  3. Performance Enhancement of the Patch Antennas Applying Micromachining Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed N. Azermanesh

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the application of micromachining technology for performance enhancement of two types of compact antennas which are becoming a common practice in microsystems. Shorted patch antennas (SPA and folded shorted patch antennas operating in the 5-6 GHz ISM band, with intended application in short-range wireless communications, are considered. The electrical length of antennas are modified by etching the substrate of the antennas, thus providing a new degree of freedom to control the antenna operating properties, which is the main novelty of our work. The gain and bandwidth of the antennas are increased by increasing the etching depth. However, etching the substrate affects the operating frequency as well. To keep the operating frequency at a pre-specified value, the dimension of the antennas must be increased by deepening the etching depth. Therefore, a trade off between the performance enhancement of the antennas and the dimensional enlargement is required.

  4. Role of Disorder in Enhancing Lithium-Ion Battery Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Yuanzheng; He, W.

    and type of disorder, material performances can be significantly enhanced. Disorder can be tuned by doping, calcination, redox reaction, composition tuning, and so on. Recently we have fabricated a cathode material for lithium ion battery by introducing heterostructure and disorder into the material...... material exhibits the extremely high reversible lithium ion capacity and extraordinary rate capability with high cycling stability at high discharge current. In this presentation we demonstrate that the disorder plays a decisive role in achieving those exceptional electrochemical performances. We describe...... how the disorder affects the migration of both lithium ions and electrons. It is found that both the modified glassy surface and the heterogeneous superlattice structure greatly contribute to the extremely high discharge/charge rates owing to the enhanced storage capacity of lithium ions and ultrafast...

  5. Enhancing MINIX 3.X input/output performance

    OpenAIRE

    Pessolani, Pablo Andrés; Weisz, Gustavo; Bardus, Marisa; Hein, César

    2008-01-01

    MINIX 3.X is an open-source operating system designed to be highly reliable, flexible, and secure. The kernel is extremely small and user processes, specialized servers and device driver runs as user-mode insulated processes. These features, the tiny amount of kernel code, and other aspects greatly enhance system reliability. The drawbacks of running device drivers in user-mode are the performance penalties on input/output ports access, kernel data structures access, interrupt indirect man...

  6. Caffeine: Cognitive and Physical Performance Enhancer or Psychoactive Drug?

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelletti, Simone; Daria, Piacentino; Sani, Gabriele; Aromatario, Mariarosaria

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine use is increasing worldwide. The underlying motivations are mainly concentration and memory enhancement and physical performance improvement. Coffee and caffeine-containing products affect the cardiovascular system, with their positive inotropic and chronotropic effects, and the central nervous system, with their locomotor activity stimulation and anxiogenic-like effects. Thus, it is of interest to examine whether these effects could be detrimental for health. Furthermore, caffeine a...

  7. Conditions for enhanced performance of segmented thermoelectrics under load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angst, Sebastian; Wolf, Dietrich E.

    2017-08-01

    The Onsager-de Groot-Callen transport theory is used to investigate the performance of double segmented thermoelectrics as generators. We show that such an inhomogeneous device usually performs worse than predicted by the effective transport coefficients. This is caused by the difference of the open circuit Seebeck voltage and the Seebeck voltage under operating conditions. The electrical current and the related interface Peltier effect cause a self-organization of the temperature profile such that the temperature drop across the material with the higher absolute Seebeck coefficient is reduced. However, including Joule heating we derive conditions for the opposite effect resulting in an enhanced power.

  8. Human Performance in Simulated Reduced Gravity Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Matthew; Harvill, Lauren; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently designing a new space suit capable of working in deep space and on Mars. Designing a suit is very difficult and often requires trade-offs between performance, cost, mass, and system complexity. Our current understanding of human performance in reduced gravity in a planetary environment (the moon or Mars) is limited to lunar observations, studies from the Apollo program, and recent suit tests conducted at JSC using reduced gravity simulators. This study will look at our most recent reduced gravity simulations performed on the new Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) compared to the C-9 reduced gravity plane. Methods: Subjects ambulated in reduced gravity analogs to obtain a baseline for human performance. Subjects were tested in lunar gravity (1.6 m/sq s) and Earth gravity (9.8 m/sq s) in shirt-sleeves. Subjects ambulated over ground at prescribed speeds on the ARGOS, but ambulated at a self-selected speed on the C-9 due to time limitations. Subjects on the ARGOS were given over 3 minutes to acclimate to the different conditions before data was collected. Nine healthy subjects were tested in the ARGOS (6 males, 3 females, 79.5 +/- 15.7 kg), while six subjects were tested on the C-9 (6 males, 78.8 +/- 11.2 kg). Data was collected with an optical motion capture system (Vicon, Oxford, UK) and was analyzed using customized analysis scripts in BodyBuilder (Vicon, Oxford, UK) and MATLAB (MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA). Results: In all offloaded conditions, variation between subjects increased compared to 1-g. Kinematics in the ARGOS at lunar gravity resembled earth gravity ambulation more closely than the C-9 ambulation. Toe-off occurred 10% earlier in both reduced gravity environments compared to earth gravity, shortening the stance phase. Likewise, ankle, knee, and hip angles remained consistently flexed and had reduced peaks compared to earth gravity. Ground reaction forces in lunar gravity (normalized to Earth body weight) were 0.4 +/- 0.2 on

  9. Performance Support Systems: Integrating AI, Hypermedia, and CBT to Enhance User Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Karen L.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the use of a performance support system (PSS) to enhance user performance on an operational system. Highlights include background information that describes the stimulus for PSS development; discussion of the major PSS components and the technology they require; and discussion of the design of a PSS for a complex database system.…

  10. Development of the NRC's Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradies, M.; Unger, L.; Haas, P.; Terranova, M.

    1993-10-01

    The three volumes of this report detail a standard investigation process for use by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel when investigating human performance related events at nuclear power plants. The process, called the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP), was developed to meet the special needs of NRC personnel, especially NRC resident and regional inspectors. HPIP is a systematic investigation process combining current procedures and field practices, expert experience, NRC human performance research, and applicable investigation techniques. The process is easy to learn and helps NRC personnel perform better field investigations of the root causes of human performance problems. The human performance data gathered through such investigations provides a better understanding of the human performance issues that cause events at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume I is a concise description of the need for the human performance investigation process, the process' components, the methods used to develop the process, the methods proposed to test the process, and conclusions on the process' usefulness

  11. Enhancement on Wingate Anaerobic Test Performance With Hyperventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithäuser, Renate M; Böning, Dieter; Hütler, Matthias; Beneke, Ralph

    2016-07-01

    Relatively long-lasting metabolic alkalizing procedures such as bicarbonate ingestion have potential for improving performance in long-sprint to middle-distance events. Within a few minutes, hyperventilation can induce respiratory alkalosis. However, corresponding performance effects are missing or equivocal at best. To test a potential performance-enhancing effect of respiratory alkalosis in a 30-s Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT). 10 men (mean ± SD age 26.6 ± 4.9 y, height 184.4 ± 6.1 cm, body-mass test 1 80.7 ± 7.7 kg, body-mass test 2 80.4 ± 7.2 kg, peak oxygen uptake 3.95 ± 0.43 L/min) performed 2 WAnTs, 1 with and 1 without a standardized 15-min hyperventilation program pre-WAnT in randomized order separated by 1 wk. Compared with the control condition, hyperventilation reduced (all P respiratory alkalosis can enhance WAnT cycling sprint performance well in the magnitude of what is seen after successful bicarbonate ingestion.

  12. Exploring the Implications of Emotional Intelligence to Enhance Employees’ Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Bashir Khan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Emotional intelligence (EI is an effective tool to increase organizational productivity. This study depicts the impact of EI on employees’ performance who are engaged with customer services by using four elements i.e. self awareness, self management, social awareness and relationship management. A sample of 120 respondents was selected from four paint manufacturing companies in Pakistan. The primary data was collected through the structured questionnaire and simple regression method was used to investigate the relationship between employee’s performance and emotional intelligence. The results illustrate that EI has positive impact on employee’s performance. It is suggested that the implication of EI be ensured as contemporary need of customer services in paint industries so that organization productivity may be enhanced with efficient employees’ performance.

  13. Minimizing the risks of human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, H.E.; Walker, I.

    1989-01-01

    Bruce nuclear generating station (NGS) unit A has been operating a human performance evaluation system (HPES) since 1985. This paper reviews changes to the program, the results, a case study, and plans for the future. The HPES began as a pilot program with one management evaluator. Changes were made to improve and expand the program. In its present form, the HPES is an imprecise instrument. Properly used by knowledgeable analysts, however, the technique helps bring out the real causes of error. For this reason, the corrective actions taken address the root causes of errors. The step between root cause and risk reduction is a big one. This has not been quantified in the HPES management review process. Risk is the product of frequency and consequences. Real reduction in risk, therefore, requires that there be a tangible reduction in either the frequency of the event under consideration or its consequences. The reduction must be measurable and confirmed. For the wide range of man/machine interactions, this is a tall order, but still possible

  14. Curcumin enhances human macrophage control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiyuan; Oberley-Deegan, Rebecca E; Bai, An; Ovrutsky, Alida R; Kinney, William H; Weaver, Michael; Zhang, Gong; Honda, Jennifer R; Chan, Edward D

    2016-07-01

    With the worldwide emergence of highly drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB), novel agents that have direct antimycobacterial effects or that enhance host immunity are urgently needed. Curcumin is a polyphenol responsible for the bright yellow-orange colour of turmeric, a spice derived from the root of the perennial herb Curcuma longa. Curcumin is a potent inducer of apoptosis-an effector mechanism used by macrophages to kill intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). An in vitro human macrophage infection model was used to determine the effects of curcumin on MTB survival. We found that curcumin enhanced the clearance of MTB in differentiated THP-1 human monocytes and in primary human alveolar macrophages. We also found that curcumin was an inducer of caspase-3-dependent apoptosis and autophagy. Curcumin mediated these anti-MTB cellular functions, in part, via inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) activation. Curcumin protects against MTB infection in human macrophages. The host-protective role of curcumin against MTB in macrophages needs confirmation in an animal model; if validated, the immunomodulatory anti-TB effects of curcumin would be less prone to drug resistance development. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  15. Caffeine ingestion enhances Wingate performance: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgic, Jozo

    2018-03-01

    The positive effects of caffeine ingestion on aerobic performance are well-established; however, recent findings are suggesting that caffeine ingestion might also enhance components of anaerobic performance. A commonly used test of anaerobic performance and power output is the 30-second Wingate test. Several studies explored the effects of caffeine ingestion on Wingate performance, with equivocal findings. To elucidate this topic, this paper aims to determine the effects of caffeine ingestion on Wingate performance using meta-analytic statistical techniques. Following a search through PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and SportDiscus ® , 16 studies were found meeting the inclusion criteria (pooled number of participants = 246). Random-effects meta-analysis of standardized mean differences (SMD) for peak power output and mean power output was performed. Study quality was assessed using the modified version of the PEDro checklist. Results of the meta-analysis indicated a significant difference (p = .005) between the placebo and caffeine trials on mean power output with SMD values of small magnitude (0.18; 95% confidence interval: 0.05, 0.31; +3%). The meta-analysis performed for peak power output indicated a significant difference (p = .006) between the placebo and caffeine trials (SMD = 0.27; 95% confidence interval: 0.08, 0.47 [moderate magnitude]; +4%). The results from the PEDro checklist indicated that, in general, studies are of good and excellent methodological quality. This meta-analysis adds on to the current body of evidence showing that caffeine ingestion can also enhance components of anaerobic performance. The results presented herein may be helpful for developing more efficient evidence-based recommendations regarding caffeine supplementation.

  16. Color enhancement in multispectral image of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Masanori; Murakami, Yuri; Obi, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    2003-07-01

    Multispectral imaging is receiving attention in medical color imaging, as high-fidelity color information can be acquired by the multispectral image capturing. On the other hand, as color enhancement in medical color image is effective for distinguishing lesion from normal part, we apply a new technique for color enhancement using multispectral image to enhance the features contained in a certain spectral band, without changing the average color distribution of original image. In this method, to keep the average color distribution, KL transform is applied to spectral data, and only high-order KL coefficients are amplified in the enhancement. Multispectral images of human skin of bruised arm are captured by 16-band multispectral camera, and the proposed color enhancement is applied. The resultant images are compared with the color images reproduced assuming CIE D65 illuminant (obtained by natural color reproduction technique). As a result, the proposed technique successfully visualizes unclear bruised lesions, which are almost invisible in natural color images. The proposed technique will provide support tool for the diagnosis in dermatology, visual examination in internal medicine, nursing care for preventing bedsore, and so on.

  17. Evaluating Models of Human Performance: Safety-Critical Systems Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is part of panel discussion on Evaluating Models of Human Performance. The purpose of this panel is to discuss the increasing use of models in the world today and specifically focus on how to describe and evaluate models of human performance. My presentation will focus on discussions of generating distributions of performance, and the evaluation of different strategies for humans performing tasks with mixed initiative (Human-Automation) systems. I will also discuss issues with how to provide Human Performance modeling data to support decisions on acceptability and tradeoffs in the design of safety critical systems. I will conclude with challenges for the future.

  18. Effectively managing nuclear risk through human performance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coe, R.P.

    2004-01-01

    considering the temper of the times. For nuclear organizations to stay viable performance improvement processes will have to be part of their culture in order to better manage risk and to achieve and maintain ongoing success. Greater plant performance will be directly related to greater human performance. To be successful, the nuclear industry, like any other organization, must clearly understand its purpose, structure itself to achieve that purpose, structure appropriate internal relationships, establish a realistic incentive/reward system, establish efficient work processes and assure knowledgeable and supportive leadership. Using the principles of Human Performance Technology can provide a structure for helping the industry in general as nuclear facilities individually take steps to accomplish these goals. Taking strategic steps to develop these elements will result in higher levels of production efficiency, better risk management, higher customer service/satisfaction and an ability to successfully meet ever changing environmental and business demands. Human Performance Technology is proven effective methodology to help in the successful development of these strategic steps. This session will offer a discussion of the basics of HPT, as well as some specific examples of how it can be applied to nuclear facilities to effectively manage risk and drive enhanced performance. (author)

  19. Predicting students' intention to use stimulants for academic performance enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnet, Koen; Wouters, Edwin; Walrave, Michel; Heirman, Wannes; Van Hal, Guido

    2015-02-01

    The non-medical use of stimulants for academic performance enhancement is becoming a more common practice among college and university students. The objective of this study is to gain a better understanding of students' intention to use stimulant medication for the purpose of enhancing their academic performance. Based on an extended model of Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, we examined the predictive value of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, psychological distress, procrastination, substance use, and alcohol use on students' intention to use stimulants to improve their academic performance. The sample consisted of 3,589 Flemish university and college students (mean age: 21.59, SD: 4.09), who participated anonymously in an online survey conducted in March and April 2013. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the relationships among the study variables. Our results indicate that subjective norm is the strongest predictor of students' intention to use stimulant medication, followed by attitude and perceived behavioral control. To a lesser extent, procrastinating tendencies, psychological distress, and substance abuse contribute to students' intention. Conclusions/ Importance: Based on these findings, we provide several recommendations on how to curtail students' intention to use stimulant medication for the purpose of improving their academic performance. In addition, we urge researchers to identify other psychological variables that might be related to students' intention.

  20. Distinctiveness enhances long-term event memory in non-human primates, irrespective of reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Amy; Call, Josep; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2017-08-01

    Non-human primates are capable of recalling events that occurred as long as 3 years ago, and are able to distinguish between similar events; akin to human memory. In humans, distinctiveness enhances memory for events, however, it is unknown whether the same occurs in non-human primates. As such, we tested three great ape species on their ability to remember an event that varied in distinctiveness. Across three experiments, apes witnessed a baiting event in which one of three identical containers was baited with food. After a delay of 2 weeks, we tested their memory for the location of the baited container. Apes failed to recall the baited container when the event was undistinctive (Experiment 1), but were successful when it was distinctive (Experiment 2), although performance was equally good in a less-distinctive condition. A third experiment (Experiment 3) confirmed that distinctiveness, independent of reinforcement, was a consistent predictor of performance. These findings suggest that distinctiveness may enhance memory for events in non-human primates in the same way as in humans, and provides further evidence of basic similarities between the ways apes and humans remember past events. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Human Performance Modeling for Dynamic Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Laboratory; Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Laboratory; Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-08-01

    Part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Light Water Reac- tor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Charac- terization (RISMC) Pathway develops approaches to estimating and managing safety margins. RISMC simulations pair deterministic plant physics models with probabilistic risk models. As human interactions are an essential element of plant risk, it is necessary to integrate human actions into the RISMC risk framework. In this paper, we review simulation based and non simulation based human reliability analysis (HRA) methods. This paper summarizes the founda- tional information needed to develop a feasible approach to modeling human in- teractions in RISMC simulations.

  2. Enhanced natural radiation exposure enhanced by human activity: the largest contributor to the Chinese population dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang; Liu Yanyang

    2011-01-01

    For the radiation exposure caused by human activities, the enhanced natural radiation exposure is the largest contributor to Chinese population dose. This problem has attracted social attention in recent years. Efforts have been made in several fields, such as radon indoors and in workplace, environmental problems associated with NORMs, occupational radiation hazards of non-uranium mine, and radiation dose evaluation for energy chain, but there are still many problems to be solved. In order to protect the health of workers and the public, while ensuring industrial production and economic development, it is also necessary to continue to strengthen research in all aspects above mentioned, and gradually promote the control of natural radiation exposure enhanced by human activities. (authors)

  3. Human Performance Metrics for Spacesuit Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Introduction: Human spaceflight and exploration beyond low-earth orbit requires providing crewmembers life support systems in various extreme environments, such as...

  4. Human engineering design considerations for the use of signal color enhancement in ASW displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W.W.

    1990-11-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was requested to examine and define man-machine limits as part of the Office of Naval Technology's High Gain Initiative program (HGI). As an initial investigative area, LLNL's Systems and Human Performance effort focused upon color display interfaces and the use of color enhancement techniques to define human and system interface limits in signal detection and discrimination tasks. The knowledgeable and prudent use of color in different types of display is believed to facilitate human visual detection, discrimination and recognition in complex visual tasks. The consideration and understanding of the complex set of interacting variables associated with the prudent use of color is essential to optimize human performance, especially in the ASW community. The designers of advanced display technology and signal processing algorithms may be eventually called upon to present pre-processed information to ASW operators and researchers using the latest color enhancement techniques. These techniques, however, may be limited if one does not understand the complexity and limits of human information processing which reflects the assessed state of knowledge relevant to the use of color in displays. The initial sections of this report discuss various aspects of color presentation and the problems typically encountered, while the last section deals with a specific research proposal required to further our understanding and proper use of color enhancement methods.

  5. Potential Knowledge Management Contributions to Human Performance Technology Research and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwen, Thomas M.; Kalman, Howard K.; Hara, Noriko; Kisling, Eric L.

    1998-01-01

    Considers aspects of knowledge management that have the potential to enhance human-performance-technology research and practice. Topics include intellectual capital; learning organization versus organizational learning; the importance of epistemology; the relationship of knowledge, learning, and performance; knowledge creation; socio-technical…

  6. Science-Based Simulation Model of Human Performance for Human Reliability Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Dana L.; Boring, Ronald L.; Mosleh, Ali; Smidts, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Human reliability analysis (HRA), a component of an integrated probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), is the means by which the human contribution to risk is assessed, both qualitatively and quantitatively. However, among the literally dozens of HRA methods that have been developed, most cannot fully model and quantify the types of errors that occurred at Three Mile Island. Furthermore, all of the methods lack a solid empirical basis, relying heavily on expert judgment or empirical results derived in non-reactor domains. Finally, all of the methods are essentially static, and are thus unable to capture the dynamics of an accident in progress. The objective of this work is to begin exploring a dynamic simulation approach to HRA, one whose models have a basis in psychological theories of human performance, and whose quantitative estimates have an empirical basis. This paper highlights a plan to formalize collaboration among the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), the University of Maryland, and The Ohio State University (OSU) to continue development of a simulation model initially formulated at the University of Maryland. Initial work will focus on enhancing the underlying human performance models with the most recent psychological research, and on planning follow-on studies to establish an empirical basis for the model, based on simulator experiments to be carried out at the INL and at the OSU.

  7. Candle Soot-Driven Performance Enhancement in Pyroelectric Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Puneet; Singh, V. P.; Vaish, Rahul

    2018-05-01

    We observed substantial enhancement in pyroelectric output with the help of candle soot coating on the surface of lead zirconate titanate (PZT). Candle soot of varying thicknesses was coated by directly exposing pyroelectric material to the candle flame. The open-circuit pyroelectric voltage and closed-circuit pyroelectric current were recorded while applying infrared heating across the uncoated and candle soot-coated samples for different heating and cooling cycles. In comparison to the uncoated sample, the maximum open-circuit voltage improves seven times for the candle soot-coated sample and electric current increases by eight times across a resistance of 10Å. Moreover, the harvested energy is enhanced by 50 times for candle soot-coated sample. Results indicate that candle soot coating is an effective and economic method to improve infrared sensing performance of pyroelectric materials.

  8. Enhanced performance of a filter-sensor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Isao; Josowicz, Mira; Janata, Jirí; Glezer, Ari

    2006-06-01

    In this paper are addressed two important, but seemingly unrelated issues: long term performance of a gas sensing array and performance of an air purification unit. It is shown that when considered together, the system can be regarded as a "smart filter". The enhancement is achieved by periodic differential sampling and measurement of the "upstream" and "downstream" gases of a filter. The correctly functioning filter supplies the "zero gas" from the downstream for the continuous sensor baseline correction. A key element in this scheme is the synthetic jet that delivers well-defined pulses of the two gases. The deterioration of the performance of the "smart filter" can be diagnosed from the response pattern of the sensor. The approach has been demonstrated on removal/sensing of ammonia gas from air.

  9. RNA interference for performance enhancement and detection in doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Maxie; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2011-10-01

    RNA interference represents a comparably new route of regulating and manipulating specific gene expression. Promising results were obtained in experimental therapies aim at the treatment of different kinds of diseases including cancer, diabetes mellitus or Dychenne muscular dystrophy. While studies on down-regulation efficiency are often performed by analyzing the regulated protein, the direct detection of small, interfering RNA molecules and antisense oligonucleotides is of great interest for the investigation of the metabolism and degradation and also for the detection of a putative misuse of these molecules in sports. Myostatin down-regulation was shown to result in increased performance and muscle growth and the regulation of several other proteins could be relevant for performance enhancement. This mini-review summarizes current approaches for the mass spectrometric analysis of siRNA and antisense oligonucleotides from biological matrices and the available data on biodistribution, metabolism, and half-life of relevant substances are discussed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Development of the NRC's Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradies, M.; Unger, L.; Haas, P.; Terranova, M.

    1993-10-01

    The three volumes of this report detail a standard investigation process for use by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel when investigating human performance related events at nuclear power plants. The process, called the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP), was developed to meet the special needs of NRC personnel, especially NRC resident and regional inspectors. HPIP is a systematic investigation process combining current procedures and field practices, expert experience, NRC human performance research, and applicable investigation techniques. The process is easy to learn and helps NRC personnel perform better field investigations of the root causes of human performance problems. The human performance data gathered through such investigations provides a better understanding of the human performance issues that cause event at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume II, is a field manual for use by investigators when performing event investigations. Volume II includes the HPIP Procedure, the HPIP Modules, and Appendices that provide extensive documentation of each investigation technique

  11. Enhanced Microgrid Dynamic Performance Using a Modulated Power Filter Based on Enhanced Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Othman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design of microgrid (MG with enhanced dynamic performance. Distributed energy resources (DER are widely used in MGs to match the various load types and profiles. DERs include solar PV cells, wind energy sources, fuel cells, batteries, micro gas-engines and storage elements. MG will include AC/DC circuits, developed power electronics devices, inverters and power electronic controllers. A novel modulated power filters (MPF device will be applied in MG design. Enhanced bacterial foraging optimization (EBFO will be proposed to optimize and set the MPF parameters to enhance and tune the MG dynamic response. Recent dynamic control is applied to minimize the harmonic reference content. EBFO will adapt the gains of MPF dynamic control. The present research achieves an enhancement of MG dynamic performance, in addition to ensuring improvements in the power factor, bus voltage profile and power quality. MG operation will be evaluated by the dynamic response to be fine-tuned by MPF based on EBFO. Digital simulations have validated the results to show the effectiveness and efficient improvement by the proposed strategy.

  12. BST2/Tetherin enhances entry of human cytomegalovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasinath Viswanathan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Interferon-induced BST2/Tetherin prevents budding of vpu-deficient HIV-1 by tethering mature viral particles to the plasma membrane. BST2 also inhibits release of other enveloped viruses including Ebola virus and Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV, indicating that BST2 is a broadly acting antiviral host protein. Unexpectedly however, recovery of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV from supernatants of BST2-expressing human fibroblasts was increased rather than decreased. Furthermore, BST2 seemed to enhance viral entry into cells since more virion proteins were released into BST2-expressing cells and subsequent viral gene expression was elevated. A significant increase in viral entry was also observed upon induction of endogenous BST2 during differentiation of the pro-monocytic cell line THP-1. Moreover, treatment of primary human monocytes with siRNA to BST2 reduced HCMV infection, suggesting that BST2 facilitates entry of HCMV into cells expressing high levels of BST2 either constitutively or in response to exogenous stimuli. Since BST2 is present in HCMV particles we propose that HCMV entry is enhanced via a reverse-tethering mechanism with BST2 in the viral envelope interacting with BST2 in the target cell membrane. Our data suggest that HCMV not only counteracts the well-established function of BST2 as inhibitor of viral egress but also employs this anti-viral protein to gain entry into BST2-expressing hematopoietic cells, a process that might play a role in hematogenous dissemination of HCMV.

  13. Nicotianamine, a novel enhancer of rice iron bioavailability to humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luqing Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polished rice is a staple food for over 50% of the world's population, but contains little bioavailable iron (Fe to meet human needs. Thus, biofortifying the rice grain with novel promoters or enhancers of Fe utilization would be one of the most effective strategies to prevent the high prevalence of Fe deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in the developing world. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We transformed an elite rice line cultivated in Southern China with the rice nicotianamine synthase gene (OsNAS1 fused to a rice glutelin promoter. Endosperm overexpression of OsNAS1 resulted in a significant increase in nicotianamine (NA concentrations in both unpolished and polished grain. Bioavailability of Fe from the high NA grain, as measured by ferritin synthesis in an in vitro Caco-2 cell model that simulates the human digestive system, was twice as much as that of the control line. When added at 1:1 molar ratio to ferrous Fe in the cell system, NA was twice as effective when compared to ascorbic acid (one of the most potent known enhancers of Fe bioavailability in promoting more ferritin synthesis. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrated that NA is a novel and effective promoter of iron utilization. Biofortifying polished rice with this compound has great potential in combating global human iron deficiency in people dependent on rice for their sustenance.

  14. Total System Performance Assessment: Enhanced Design Alternative V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N. Erb; S. Miller; V. Vallikat

    1999-01-01

    This calculation documents the total system performance assessment modeling of Enhanced Design Analysis (EDA) V. EDA V is based on the TSPA-VA base design which has been modified with higher thermal loading, a quartz sand invert, and line loading with 21 PWR waste packages that have 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistance material (CRM) drip shields placed over dual-layer waste packages composed of 'inside out' VA reference material (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This document details the changes and assumptions made to the VA reference Performance Assessment Model (CRWMS M and O 1998a) to incorporate the design changes detailed for EDA V. The performance measure for this evaluation is expected value dose-rate history. Time histories of dose rate are presented for EDA V and a Defense in Depth (DID) analysis base on EDA V. Additional details concerning the Enhanced Design Alternative II are provided in the 'LADS 3-12 Requests' interoffice correspondence (CRWMS M and O 1999a)

  15. Performance limits of plasmon-enhanced organic photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karatay, Durmus U.; Ginger, David S., E-mail: ginger@chem.washington.edu [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Salvador, Michael [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Yao, Kai [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Jen, Alex K.-Y. [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2014-07-21

    We use a combination of experiment and modeling to explore the promise and limitations of using plasmon-resonant metal nanoparticles to enhance the device performance of organic photovoltaics (OPVs). We focus on optical properties typical of the current generation of low-bandgap donor polymers blended with the fullerene (6,6)-phenyl C{sub 71}-butyric acid methyl ester (PC{sub 71}BM) and use the polymer poly(indacenodithiophene-co-phenanthro[9,10-b]quinoxaline) (PIDT-PhanQ) as our test case. We model the optical properties and performance of these devices both in the presence and absence of a variety of colloidal silver nanoparticles. We show that for these materials, device performance is sensitive to the relative z-position and the density of nanoparticles inside the active layer. Using conservative estimates of the internal quantum efficiency for the PIDT-PhanQ/PC{sub 71}BM blend, we calculate that optimally placed silver nanoparticles could yield an enhancement in short-circuit current density of over 31% when used with ∼ 80-nm-thick active layers, resulting in an absolute increase in power conversion efficiency of up to ∼2% for the device based on optical engineering.

  16. Actin depolymerization enhances adipogenic differentiation in human stromal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Hu, Huimin; Qiu, Weimin; Shi, Kaikai; Kassem, Moustapha

    2018-05-01

    Human stromal stem cells (hMSCs) differentiate into adipocytes that play a role in skeletal tissue homeostasis and whole body energy metabolism. During adipocyte differentiation, hMSCs exhibit significant changes in cell morphology suggesting changes in cytoskeletal organization. Here, we examined the effect of direct modulation of actin microfilament dynamics on adipocyte differentiation. Stabilizing actin filaments in hMSCs by siRNA-mediated knock down of the two main actin depolymerizing factors (ADFs): Cofilin 1 (CFL1) and Destrin (DSTN) or treating the cells by Phalloidin reduced adipocyte differentiation as evidenced by decreased number of mature adipocytes and decreased adipocyte specific gene expression (ADIPOQ, LPL, PPARG, FABP4). In contrast, disruption of actin cytoskeleton by Cytochalasin D enhanced adipocyte differentiation. Follow up studies revealed that the effects of CFL1 on adipocyte differentiation depended on the activity of LIM domain kinase 1 (LIMK1) which is the major upstream kinase of CFL1. Inhibiting LIMK by its specific chemical inhibitor LIMKi inhibited the phosphorylation of CFL1 and actin polymerization, and enhanced the adipocyte differentiation. Moreover, treating hMSCs by Cytochalasin D inhibited ERK and Smad2 signaling and this was associated with enhanced adipocyte differentiation. On the other hand, Phalloidin enhanced ERK and Smad2 signaling, but inhibited adipocyte differentiation which was rescued by ERK specific chemical inhibitor U0126. Our data provide a link between restructuring of hMSCs cytoskeleton and hMSCs lineage commitment and differentiation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Microneedle Enhanced Delivery of Cosmeceutically Relevant Peptides in Human Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Yousuf H.; Yamada, Miko; Lin, Lynlee L.; Grice, Jeffrey E.; Roberts, Michael S.; Raphael, Anthony P.; Benson, Heather A. E.; Prow, Tarl W.

    2014-01-01

    Peptides and proteins play an important role in skin health and well-being. They are also found to contribute to skin aging and melanogenesis. Microneedles have been shown to substantially enhance skin penetration and may offer an effective means of peptide delivery enhancement. The aim of this investigation was to assess the influence of microneedles on the skin penetration of peptides using fluorescence imaging to determine skin distribution. In particular the effect of peptide chain length (3, 4, 5 amino acid chain length) on passive and MN facilitated skin penetration was investigated. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to image fluorescence intensity and the area of penetration of fluorescently tagged peptides. Penetration studies were conducted on excised full thickness human skin in Franz type diffusion cells for 1 and 24 hours. A 2 to 22 fold signal improvement in microneedle enhanced delivery of melanostatin, rigin and pal-KTTKS was observed. To our knowledge this is the first description of microneedle enhanced skin permeation studies on these peptides. PMID:25033398

  18. Microneedle enhanced delivery of cosmeceutically relevant peptides in human skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousuf H Mohammed

    Full Text Available Peptides and proteins play an important role in skin health and well-being. They are also found to contribute to skin aging and melanogenesis. Microneedles have been shown to substantially enhance skin penetration and may offer an effective means of peptide delivery enhancement. The aim of this investigation was to assess the influence of microneedles on the skin penetration of peptides using fluorescence imaging to determine skin distribution. In particular the effect of peptide chain length (3, 4, 5 amino acid chain length on passive and MN facilitated skin penetration was investigated. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to image fluorescence intensity and the area of penetration of fluorescently tagged peptides. Penetration studies were conducted on excised full thickness human skin in Franz type diffusion cells for 1 and 24 hours. A 2 to 22 fold signal improvement in microneedle enhanced delivery of melanostatin, rigin and pal-KTTKS was observed. To our knowledge this is the first description of microneedle enhanced skin permeation studies on these peptides.

  19. Endurance training enhances BDNF release from the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Brassard, Patrice; Wissenberg, Mads

    2010-01-01

    The circulating level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is reduced in patients with major depression and type-2 diabetes. Because acute exercise increases BDNF production in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, we hypothesized that endurance training would enhance the release of BDNF from...... the human brain as detected from arterial and internal jugular venous blood samples. In a randomized controlled study, 12 healthy sedentary males carried out 3 mo of endurance training (n = 7) or served as controls (n = 5). Before and after the intervention, blood samples were obtained at rest and during...... exercise. At baseline, the training group (58 + or - 106 ng x 100 g(-1) x min(-1), means + or - SD) and the control group (12 + or - 17 ng x 100 g(-1) x min(-1)) had a similar release of BDNF from the brain at rest. Three months of endurance training enhanced the resting release of BDNF to 206 + or - 108...

  20. Actin depolymerization enhances adipogenic differentiation in human stromal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Li; Hu, Huimin; Qiu, Weimin

    2018-01-01

    Human stromal stem cells (hMSCs) differentiate into adipocytes that play a role in skeletal tissue homeostasis and whole body energy metabolism. During adipocyte differentiation, hMSCs exhibit significant changes in cell morphology suggesting changes in cytoskeletal organization. Here, we examined...... differentiation as evidenced by decreased number of mature adipocytes and decreased adipocyte specific gene expression (ADIPOQ, LPL, PPARG, FABP4). In contrast, disruption of actin cytoskeleton by Cytochalasin D enhanced adipocyte differentiation. Follow up studies revealed that the effects of CFL1 on adipocyte...... differentiation depended on the activity of LIM domain kinase 1 (LIMK1) which is the major upstream kinase of CFL1. Inhibiting LIMK by its specific chemical inhibitor LIMKi inhibited the phosphorylation of CFL1 and actin polymerization, and enhanced the adipocyte differentiation. Moreover, treating h...

  1. Proceedings from Specialists Meeting on human performance in operational events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This conference on human performance in operational events is composed of 34 papers, grouped in 11 sessions. After an invited contribution on the human factor in the nuclear industry, the sessions are: session 1 (Operational events: Human performance in operational events - how to improve it?, Human performance research strategies for human performance, The development of a model of control room operator cognition), session 2 (Operational response: A study of the recovery from 120 events, Empirical study of the influence of organizational and procedural characteristics on team performance in the emergency situation using plant simulators, Cognitive skills and nuclear power plant operational decision making), session 3 (PSA for Probabilistic Safety Analysis: A sensitivity study of human errors in optimizing surveillance test interval (STI) and allowed outage time (AOT) of standby safety system, Analysis of Parks nuclear power plant personnel activity during safety related event sequences, An EDF project to update the Probabilistic Human Reliability Assessment PHRA methodology), session 4 (modelling with ATHEANA: Atheana, a technique for human error analysis, an overview of its methodological basis, Common elements on operational events across technologies, Results of nuclear power plant application of new technique for human error analysis), session 5 (Regulatory practice: US.NRC Research and analysis activities concerning human reliability assessment and human performance evaluation, Introduction of simulator-based examinations and its effects on the nuclear industry, Regulatory monitoring of human performance in PWR operation in France), session 6 (Simulation: Human performance in Bavarian nuclear power plant as a preventive element, Human performance event database, Crew situation awareness, diagnoses and performance in simulated nuclear power plant process disturbances), session 7 (Operator aids: Development of a plant navigation system, Operation system

  2. The Enhancing Impact of Friendship Networks on Sales Managers’ Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Pimentel Claro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how relationships with friends moderate the impact of professional networks on sales performance. Based on a sample of 204 sales managers in a professional service company, this study presents evidence that friendship networks amplify the effect of sales forces’ professional networks on new product sales as well as on prospecting and converting new deals. Our results offer important insights into the socio-cognitive perspective of sales management literature and suggest that firms should encourage managers to improve their friendships in order to access valuable information that will enhance customer knowledge and support their sales efforts.

  3. Enhanced Portfolio Performance Using a Momentum Approach to Annual Rebalancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Mattei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available After diversification, periodic portfolio rebalancing has become one of the most widely practiced methods for reducing portfolio risk and enhancing returns. Most of the rebalancing strategies found in the literature are generally regarded as contrarian approaches to rebalancing. A recent article proposed a rebalancing approach that incorporates a momentum approach to rebalancing. The momentum approach had a better risk adjusted return than either the traditional approach or a Buy-and-Hold approach. This article identifies an improvement to the momentum approach and then examines the impact of transactions costs and taxes on the portfolio performance of four active rebalancing approaches.

  4. Setting up and performance of a laser enhanced ionisation spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandola, L.C.; Khanna, P.P.; Razvi, M.A.N.

    1990-01-01

    A laser enhanced ionisation (LEI) spectrometer has been successfuly set up around an excimer laser pumped dye laser. The performance of the spectrometer has been tested by analysing sodium in water solutions. A straight line working curve has been obtained in the concentration range of 1-1000 ng/ml of Na. The effect of parameters like laser power, ion collector electrode voltage and the load resistance on LEI signals has been investigated. The spectrometer is useful not only for analytical purposes but also for laser spectroscopic studies of species formed in flames, study of phenomenon of combustion etc. (author). 1 tab ., 10 figs., 5 refs

  5. Development of the NRC's Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradies, M.; Unger, L.; Haas, P.; Terranova, M.

    1993-10-01

    The three volumes of this report detail a standard investigation process for use by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel when investigating human performance related events at nuclear power plants. The process, called the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP), was developed to meet the special needs of NRC personnel, especially NRC resident and regional inspectors. HPIP is a systematic investigation process combining current procedures and field practices, expert experience, NRC human performance research, and applicable investigation techniques. The process is easy to learn and helps NRC personnel perform better field investigations of the root causes of human performance problems. The human performance data gathered through such investigations provides a better understanding of the human performance issues that cause events at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume III, is a detailed documentation of the development effort and the pilot training program

  6. Estramustine: A novel radiation enhancer in human carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, S.; Gabel, M.; Khil, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    Estramustine (EM), an antimicrotubule agent, binds microtubule-associated proteins, causes spindle disassembly, and arrests cells at the late G 2 /M phase of the cell cycle. Since cells in the G 2 /M phase are the most radiosensitive and some human cancer cells contain high level of EM-binding protein, experiments were carried out to determine whether radiation sensitization could be obtained in human carcinoma cells. Cells containing a high level of EM-binding protein such as prostate carcinoma (DU-145), breast carcinoma (MCF-7), and malignant glioma (U-251) were used to demonstrate radiosensitization. Cervical carcinoma (HeLa-S 3 ) and colon carcinoma (HT-29) cells which are not known to contain EM-binding protein were also employed. Cell survival was assayed by the colony forming ability of single plated cells in culture to obtain dose-survival curves. Pretreatment of DU-145, MCF-7, and U-251 cells to a nontoxic concentration (5 μM) of EM for more than one cell cycle time, substantially enhanced the radiation-induced cytotoxicity. The sensitizer enhancement ratio of these cells ranged from 1.35-1.52. The magnitude of the enhancement was dependent on the drug concentration and exposure time. The rate of cell accumulation in G 2 /M phase, as determined by flow cytometry, increased with longer treatment time in the cell lines which showed radiosensitization. Other antimicrotubule agents such as taxol and vinblastine caused minimal or no radiosensitization at nontoxic concentrations. The data provide a radiobiological basis for using EM as a novel radiation enhancer, with the property of tissue selectivity. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. Actin depolymerization enhances adipogenic differentiation in human stromal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Human stromal stem cells (hMSCs differentiate into adipocytes that play a role in skeletal tissue homeostasis and whole body energy metabolism. During adipocyte differentiation, hMSCs exhibit significant changes in cell morphology suggesting changes in cytoskeletal organization. Here, we examined the effect of direct modulation of actin microfilament dynamics on adipocyte differentiation. Stabilizing actin filaments in hMSCs by siRNA-mediated knock down of the two main actin depolymerizing factors (ADFs: Cofilin 1 (CFL1 and Destrin (DSTN or treating the cells by Phalloidin reduced adipocyte differentiation as evidenced by decreased number of mature adipocytes and decreased adipocyte specific gene expression (ADIPOQ, LPL, PPARG, FABP4. In contrast, disruption of actin cytoskeleton by Cytochalasin D enhanced adipocyte differentiation. Follow up studies revealed that the effects of CFL1 on adipocyte differentiation depended on the activity of LIM domain kinase 1 (LIMK1 which is the major upstream kinase of CFL1. Inhibiting LIMK by its specific chemical inhibitor LIMKi inhibited the phosphorylation of CFL1 and actin polymerization, and enhanced the adipocyte differentiation. Moreover, treating hMSCs by Cytochalasin D inhibited ERK and Smad2 signaling and this was associated with enhanced adipocyte differentiation. On the other hand, Phalloidin enhanced ERK and Smad2 signaling, but inhibited adipocyte differentiation which was rescued by ERK specific chemical inhibitor U0126. Our data provide a link between restructuring of hMSCs cytoskeleton and hMSCs lineage commitment and differentiation. Keywords: Actin cytoskeleton, Actin depolymerizing factors, Adipocyte differentiation, Human stromal stem cells

  8. Human factors quantification via boundary identification of flight performance margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Changpeng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A systematic methodology including a computational pilot model and a pattern recognition method is presented to identify the boundary of the flight performance margin for quantifying the human factors. The pilot model is proposed to correlate a set of quantitative human factors which represent the attributes and characteristics of a group of pilots. Three information processing components which are influenced by human factors are modeled: information perception, decision making, and action execution. By treating the human factors as stochastic variables that follow appropriate probability density functions, the effects of human factors on flight performance can be investigated through Monte Carlo (MC simulation. Kernel density estimation algorithm is selected to find and rank the influential human factors. Subsequently, human factors are quantified through identifying the boundary of the flight performance margin by the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN classifier. Simulation-based analysis shows that flight performance can be dramatically improved with the quantitative human factors.

  9. Image enhancement using thermal-visible fusion for human detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaihidee, Ezrinda Mohd; Hawari Ghazali, Kamarul; Zuki Saleh, Mohd

    2017-09-01

    An increased interest in detecting human beings in video surveillance system has emerged in recent years. Multisensory image fusion deserves more research attention due to the capability to improve the visual interpretability of an image. This study proposed fusion techniques for human detection based on multiscale transform using grayscale visual light and infrared images. The samples for this study were taken from online dataset. Both images captured by the two sensors were decomposed into high and low frequency coefficients using Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT). Hence, the appropriate fusion rule was used to merge the coefficients and finally, the final fused image was obtained by using inverse SWT. From the qualitative and quantitative results, the proposed method is more superior than the two other methods in terms of enhancement of the target region and preservation of details information of the image.

  10. Enhanced Component Performance Study: Emergency Diesel Generators 1998-2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-01-01

    This report presents an enhanced performance evaluation of emergency diesel generators (EDGs) at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. This report evaluates component performance over time using (1) Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES) data from 1998 through 2014 and (2) maintenance unavailability (UA) performance data from Mitigating Systems Performance Index (MSPI) Basis Document data from 2002 through 2014. The objective is to show estimates of current failure probabilities and rates related to EDGs, trend these data on an annual basis, determine if the current data are consistent with the probability distributions currently recommended for use in NRC probabilistic risk assessments, show how the reliability data differ for different EDG manufacturers and for EDGs with different ratings; and summarize the subcomponents, causes, detection methods, and recovery associated with each EDG failure mode. Engineering analyses were performed with respect to time period and failure mode without regard to the actual number of EDGs at each plant. The factors analyzed are: sub-component, failure cause, detection method, recovery, manufacturer, and EDG rating. Six trends with varying degrees of statistical significance were identified in the data.

  11. Evidence-Based Supplements for the Enhancement of Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling, Peter; Binnie, Martyn J; Goods, Paul S R; Sim, Marc; Burke, Louise M

    2018-03-01

    A strong foundation in physical conditioning and sport-specific experience, in addition to a bespoke and periodized training and nutrition program, are essential for athlete development. Once these underpinning factors are accounted for, and the athlete reaches a training maturity and competition level where marginal gains determine success, a role may exist for the use of evidence-based performance supplements. However, it is important that any decisions surrounding performance supplements are made in consideration of robust information that suggests the use of a product is safe, legal, and effective. The following review focuses on the current evidence-base for a number of common (and emerging) performance supplements used in sport. The supplements discussed here are separated into three categories based on the level of evidence supporting their use for enhancing sports performance: (1) established (caffeine, creatine, nitrate, beta-alanine, bicarbonate); (2) equivocal (citrate, phosphate, carnitine); and (3) developing. Within each section, the relevant performance type, the potential mechanisms of action, and the most common protocols used in the supplement dosing schedule are summarized.

  12. A collaborative brain-computer interface for improving human performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Wang

    Full Text Available Electroencephalogram (EEG based brain-computer interfaces (BCI have been studied since the 1970s. Currently, the main focus of BCI research lies on the clinical use, which aims to provide a new communication channel to patients with motor disabilities to improve their quality of life. However, the BCI technology can also be used to improve human performance for normal healthy users. Although this application has been proposed for a long time, little progress has been made in real-world practices due to technical limits of EEG. To overcome the bottleneck of low single-user BCI performance, this study proposes a collaborative paradigm to improve overall BCI performance by integrating information from multiple users. To test the feasibility of a collaborative BCI, this study quantitatively compares the classification accuracies of collaborative and single-user BCI applied to the EEG data collected from 20 subjects in a movement-planning experiment. This study also explores three different methods for fusing and analyzing EEG data from multiple subjects: (1 Event-related potentials (ERP averaging, (2 Feature concatenating, and (3 Voting. In a demonstration system using the Voting method, the classification accuracy of predicting movement directions (reaching left vs. reaching right was enhanced substantially from 66% to 80%, 88%, 93%, and 95% as the numbers of subjects increased from 1 to 5, 10, 15, and 20, respectively. Furthermore, the decision of reaching direction could be made around 100-250 ms earlier than the subject's actual motor response by decoding the ERP activities arising mainly from the posterior parietal cortex (PPC, which are related to the processing of visuomotor transmission. Taken together, these results suggest that a collaborative BCI can effectively fuse brain activities of a group of people to improve the overall performance of natural human behavior.

  13. IT Performance Dashboard: Human Resources Dashboard

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The IT Performance Dashboard is a trusted source for IT performance information across VA. This is available only on the VA intranet. The dashboard is a collection...

  14. Sleep enhances false memories depending on general memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2010-04-02

    Memory is subject to dynamic changes, sometimes giving rise to the formation of false memories due to biased processes of consolidation or retrieval. Sleep is known to benefit memory consolidation through an active reorganization of representations whereas acute sleep deprivation impairs retrieval functions. Here, we investigated whether sleep after learning and sleep deprivation at retrieval enhance the generation of false memories in a free recall test. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal", etc.), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black"). Free recall was tested after 9h following a night of sleep, a night of wakefulness (sleep deprivation) or daytime wakefulness. Compared with memory performance after a retention period of daytime wakefulness, both post-learning nocturnal sleep as well as acute sleep deprivation at retrieval significantly enhanced false recall of theme words. However, these effects were only observed in subjects with low general memory performance. These data point to two different ways in which sleep affects false memory generation through semantic generalization: one acts during consolidation on the memory trace per se, presumably by active reorganization of the trace in the post-learning sleep period. The other is related to the recovery function of sleep and affects cognitive control processes of retrieval. Both effects are unmasked when the material is relatively weakly encoded. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Human performance models for computer-aided engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkind, Jerome I. (Editor); Card, Stuart K. (Editor); Hochberg, Julian (Editor); Huey, Beverly Messick (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses a topic important to the field of computational human factors: models of human performance and their use in computer-based engineering facilities for the design of complex systems. It focuses on a particular human factors design problem -- the design of cockpit systems for advanced helicopters -- and on a particular aspect of human performance -- vision and related cognitive functions. By focusing in this way, the authors were able to address the selected topics in some depth and develop findings and recommendations that they believe have application to many other aspects of human performance and to other design domains.

  16. Procreative liberty, enhancement and commodification in the human cloning debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapshay, Sandra

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to scrutinize a contemporary standoff in the American debate over the moral permissibility of human reproductive cloning in its prospective use as a eugenic enhancement technology. I shall argue that there is some significant and under-appreciated common ground between the defenders and opponents of human cloning. Champions of the moral and legal permissibility of cloning support the technology based on the right to procreative liberty provided it were to become as safe as in vitro fertilization and that it be used only by adults who seek to rear their clone children. However, even champions of procreative liberty oppose the commodification of cloned embryos, and, by extension, the resulting commodification of the cloned children who would be produced via such embryos. I suggest that a Kantian moral argument against the use of cloning as an enhancement technology can be shown to be already implicitly accepted to some extent by champions of procreative liberty on the matter of commodification of cloned embryos. It is in this argument against commodification that the most vocal critics of cloning such as Leon Kass and defenders of cloning such as John Robertson can find greater common ground. Thus, I endeavor to advance the debate by revealing a greater degree of moral agreement on some fundamental premises than hitherto recognized.

  17. Work, Productivity, and Human Performance: Practical Case Studies in Ergonomics, Human Factors and Human Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, T. M.; Pityn, P. J.

    This book contains 12 case histories, each based on a real-life problem, that show how a manager can use common sense, knowledge, and interpersonal skills to solve problems in human performance at work. Each case study describes a worker's problem and provides background information and an assignment; solutions are suggested. The following cases…

  18. Mindfulness Enhances Episodic Memory Performance: Evidence from a Multimethod Investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk Warren Brown

    Full Text Available Training in mindfulness, classically described as a receptive attentiveness to present events and experiences, has been shown to improve attention and working memory. Both are key to long-term memory formation, and the present three-study series used multiple methods to examine whether mindfulness would enhance episodic memory, a key form of long-term memory. In Study 1 (N = 143, a self-reported state of mindful attention predicted better recognition performance in the Remember-Know (R-K paradigm. In Study 2 (N = 93, very brief training in a focused attention form of mindfulness also produced better recognition memory performance on the R-K task relative to a randomized, well-matched active control condition. Study 3 (N = 57 extended these findings by showing that relative to randomized active and inactive control conditions the effect of very brief mindfulness training generalized to free-recall memory performance. This study also found evidence for mediation of the mindfulness training-episodic memory relation by intrinsic motivation. These findings indicate that mindful attention can beneficially impact motivation and episodic memory, with potential implications for educational and occupational performance.

  19. Mindfulness Enhances Episodic Memory Performance: Evidence from a Multimethod Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kirk Warren; Goodman, Robert J; Ryan, Richard M; Anālayo, Bhikkhu

    2016-01-01

    Training in mindfulness, classically described as a receptive attentiveness to present events and experiences, has been shown to improve attention and working memory. Both are key to long-term memory formation, and the present three-study series used multiple methods to examine whether mindfulness would enhance episodic memory, a key form of long-term memory. In Study 1 (N = 143), a self-reported state of mindful attention predicted better recognition performance in the Remember-Know (R-K) paradigm. In Study 2 (N = 93), very brief training in a focused attention form of mindfulness also produced better recognition memory performance on the R-K task relative to a randomized, well-matched active control condition. Study 3 (N = 57) extended these findings by showing that relative to randomized active and inactive control conditions the effect of very brief mindfulness training generalized to free-recall memory performance. This study also found evidence for mediation of the mindfulness training-episodic memory relation by intrinsic motivation. These findings indicate that mindful attention can beneficially impact motivation and episodic memory, with potential implications for educational and occupational performance.

  20. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis enhances leukocyte rolling and adhesion in human microvasculature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Mokarram

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitric oxide (NO is a multifunctional signaling molecule that regulates important cellular events in inflammation including leukocyte recruitment. Previous studies have shown that pharmacological inhibition of NO synthesis induces leukocyte recruitment in various in vitro and animal models. However, it is not known whether NO modulation has similar effects on leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions within the human microvasculature. The present study explored the effect of systemic L-NAME treatment on leukocyte recruitment in the SCID-hu mouse model. Methods Human skin xenografts were transplanted in SCID mice to study human leukocyte dynamics in human vasculature. Early events of human leukocyte recruitment in human vasculature were studied using intravital microscopy. NO synthesis was pharmacologically inhibited using NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to elucidate E-selectin expression in human xenograft skin. Human neutrophil-endothelial cell interactions were also studied in an in vitro flow chamber assay system. P- and E-selectin expression on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs was measured using ELISA. Platelet-activating factor (PAF synthesis was detected using a TLC-based assay. Results L-NAME treatment significantly enhanced the rolling and adhesion of human leukocytes to the human vasculature. Functional blocking of P- and E-selectins significantly inhibited rolling but not adhesion induced by inhibition of NO synthesis. Systemic L-NAME treatment enhanced E-selectin expression in human xenograft skin. L-NAME treatment significantly enhanced P- and E-selectin expression on HUVECs. L-NAME treatment did not significantly modify neutrophil rolling or adhesion to HUVECs indicating that L-NAME−induced subtle P- and E-selectin expression was insufficient to elicit dynamic neutrophil-HUVEC interactions in vitro. Moreover, synthesis of endothelial

  1. Biotin deficiency enhances the inflammatory response of human dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Sudhanshu; Agrawal, Anshu; Said, Hamid M

    2016-09-01

    The water-soluble biotin (vitamin B7) is indispensable for normal human health. The vitamin acts as a cofactor for five carboxylases that are critical for fatty acid, glucose, and amino acid metabolism. Biotin deficiency is associated with various diseases, and mice deficient in this vitamin display enhanced inflammation. Previous studies have shown that biotin affects the functions of adaptive immune T and NK cells, but its effect(s) on innate immune cells is not known. Because of that and because vitamins such as vitamins A and D have a profound effect on dendritic cell (DC) function, we investigated the effect of biotin levels on the functions of human monocyte-derived DCs. Culture of DCs in a biotin-deficient medium (BDM) and subsequent activation with LPS resulted in enhanced secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-12p40, IL-23, and IL-1β compared with LPS-activated DCs cultured in biotin-sufficient (control) and biotin-oversupplemented media. Furthermore, LPS-activated DCs cultured in BDM displayed a significantly higher induction of IFN-γ and IL-17 indicating Th1/Th17 bias in T cells compared with cells maintained in biotin control or biotin-oversupplemented media. Investigations into the mechanisms suggested that impaired activation of AMP kinase in DCs cultured in BDM may be responsible for the observed increase in inflammatory responses. In summary, these results demonstrate for the first time that biotin deficiency enhances the inflammatory responses of DCs. This may therefore be one of the mechanism(s) that mediates the observed inflammation that occurs in biotin deficiency.

  2. Enhanced visual performance in obsessive compulsive personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Zohreh; Fadardi, Javad Salehi

    2016-12-01

    Visual performance is considered as commanding modality in human perception. We tested whether Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) people do differently in visual performance tasks than people without OCPD. One hundred ten students of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and non-student participants were tested by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II), among whom 18 (mean age = 29.55; SD = 5.26; 84% female) met the criteria for OCPD classification; controls were 20 persons (mean age = 27.85; SD = 5.26; female = 84%), who did not met the OCPD criteria. Both groups were tested on a modified Flicker task for two dimensions of visual performance (i.e., visual acuity: detecting the location of change, complexity, and size; and visual contrast sensitivity). The OCPD group had responded more accurately on pairs related to size, complexity, and contrast, but spent more time to detect a change on pairs related to complexity and contrast. The OCPD individuals seem to have more accurate visual performance than non-OCPD controls. The findings support the relationship between personality characteristics and visual performance within the framework of top-down processing model. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Human Wellbeing-Sociability, Performance, and Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Britta; Farah, Adriana; Jones, Lawrence; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages worldwide. Since its discovery, it has played an important role in the life of many people, even though throughout history people have debated the consequences of drinking coffee to the human body and mind. The pleasurable

  4. Impact of High - Performance Work Systems on Export - Oriented SMEs Performance: The Mediating Role of Human Capital Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Hamid

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium enterprises (SMEs contribute substantially to the economic development, income generation, poverty reduction, and particularly job creation for both developed and developing economies. However, compared with large firms, SMEs face several challenges related to their performance and competitiveness. The role of human capital (HC and human resource practices (HR Practices in enhancing SMEs competitiveness and performance is vital but understudied areas. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the role of HC development between the relationship of high-performance work systems (HPWS and export-oriented SMEs performance. Quantitative strategy and cross-sectional survey method was used to collect data from 205 managerial staff through a self-administered structured questionnaire. HPWS had a significant positive impact on export-oriented SMEs performance. The findings of the study provide evidence that HC development plays a mediating role between HPWS and enterprises performance.

  5. Enhancing performance and reducing stress in sports technological advances

    CERN Document Server

    Ivancevic, Tijana; Greenberg, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    This book is designed to help athletes and individuals interested in high sports performance in their journey towards the perfection of human sports abilities and achievements. It has two main goals: accelerating the acquisition of motor skills and preparing and vigilantly reducing the recovery time after training and competition. The Diamond Sports Protocol (DSP) presents state-of-the-art techniques for current sport and health technologies, particularly neuromuscular electrical stimulation (Sports Wave), oxygen infusion (Oxy Sports), infrared (Sports Infrared Dome) and lactic acid cleaning (Turbo Sports). The book suggest DSP as an essential part of every future athlete's training, competition and health maintenance. The book is for everyone interested in superior sports performance, fast and effective rehabilitation from training and competition and sports injury prevention.

  6. Overview Electrotactile Feedback for Enhancing Human Computer Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamungkas, Daniel S.; Caesarendra, Wahyu

    2018-04-01

    To achieve effective interaction between a human and a computing device or machine, adequate feedback from the computing device or machine is required. Recently, haptic feedback is increasingly being utilised to improve the interactivity of the Human Computer Interface (HCI). Most existing haptic feedback enhancements aim at producing forces or vibrations to enrich the user’s interactive experience. However, these force and/or vibration actuated haptic feedback systems can be bulky and uncomfortable to wear and only capable of delivering a limited amount of information to the user which can limit both their effectiveness and the applications they can be applied to. To address this deficiency, electrotactile feedback is used. This involves delivering haptic sensations to the user by electrically stimulating nerves in the skin via electrodes placed on the surface of the skin. This paper presents a review and explores the capability of electrotactile feedback for HCI applications. In addition, a description of the sensory receptors within the skin for sensing tactile stimulus and electric currents alsoseveral factors which influenced electric signal to transmit to the brain via human skinare explained.

  7. Neurofeedback training of alpha-band coherence enhances motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaz, Anais; Solcà, Marco; Magnin, Cécile; Corbet, Tiffany; Schnider, Armin; Guggisberg, Adrian G

    2015-09-01

    Neurofeedback training of motor cortex activations with brain-computer interface systems can enhance recovery in stroke patients. Here we propose a new approach which trains resting-state functional connectivity associated with motor performance instead of activations related to movements. Ten healthy subjects and one stroke patient trained alpha-band coherence between their hand motor area and the rest of the brain using neurofeedback with source functional connectivity analysis and visual feedback. Seven out of ten healthy subjects were able to increase alpha-band coherence between the hand motor cortex and the rest of the brain in a single session. The patient with chronic stroke learned to enhance alpha-band coherence of his affected primary motor cortex in 7 neurofeedback sessions applied over one month. Coherence increased specifically in the targeted motor cortex and in alpha frequencies. This increase was associated with clinically meaningful and lasting improvement of motor function after stroke. These results provide proof of concept that neurofeedback training of alpha-band coherence is feasible and behaviorally useful. The study presents evidence for a role of alpha-band coherence in motor learning and may lead to new strategies for rehabilitation. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Two Measures for Enhancing Data Association Performance in SLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data association is one of the key problems in the SLAM community. Several data association failures may cause the SLAM results to be divergent. Data association performance in SLAM is affected by both data association methods and sensor information. Two measures of handling sensor information are introduced herein to enhance data association performance in SLAM. For the first measure, truncating strategy of limited features, instead of all matched features, is used for observation update. These features are selected according to an information variable. This truncating strategy is used to lower the effect of false matched features. For the other measure, a special rejecting mechanism is designed to reject suspected observations. When the predicted robot pose is obviously different from the updated robot pose, all observed sensor information at this moment is discarded. The rejecting mechanism aims at eliminating accidental sensor information. Experimental results indicate that the introduced measures perform well in improving the stability of data association in SLAM. These measures are of extraordinary value for real SLAM applications.

  9. Startle Auditory Stimuli Enhance the Performance of Fast Dynamic Contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Del-Olmo, Miguel; Río-Rodríguez, Dan; Iglesias-Soler, Eliseo; Acero, Rafael M.

    2014-01-01

    Fast reaction times and the ability to develop a high rate of force development (RFD) are crucial for sports performance. However, little is known regarding the relationship between these parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of auditory stimuli of different intensities on the performance of a concentric bench-press exercise. Concentric bench-presses were performed by thirteen trained subjects in response to three different conditions: a visual stimulus (VS); a visual stimulus accompanied by a non-startle auditory stimulus (AS); and a visual stimulus accompanied by a startle auditory stimulus (SS). Peak RFD, peak velocity, onset movement, movement duration and electromyography from pectoralis and tricep muscles were recorded. The SS condition induced an increase in the RFD and peak velocity and a reduction in the movement onset and duration, in comparison with the VS and AS condition. The onset activation of the pectoralis and tricep muscles was shorter for the SS than for the VS and AS conditions. These findings point out to specific enhancement effects of loud auditory stimulation on the rate of force development. This is of relevance since startle stimuli could be used to explore neural adaptations to resistance training. PMID:24489967

  10. Startle auditory stimuli enhance the performance of fast dynamic contractions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Fernandez-Del-Olmo

    Full Text Available Fast reaction times and the ability to develop a high rate of force development (RFD are crucial for sports performance. However, little is known regarding the relationship between these parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of auditory stimuli of different intensities on the performance of a concentric bench-press exercise. Concentric bench-presses were performed by thirteen trained subjects in response to three different conditions: a visual stimulus (VS; a visual stimulus accompanied by a non-startle auditory stimulus (AS; and a visual stimulus accompanied by a startle auditory stimulus (SS. Peak RFD, peak velocity, onset movement, movement duration and electromyography from pectoralis and tricep muscles were recorded. The SS condition induced an increase in the RFD and peak velocity and a reduction in the movement onset and duration, in comparison with the VS and AS condition. The onset activation of the pectoralis and tricep muscles was shorter for the SS than for the VS and AS conditions. These findings point out to specific enhancement effects of loud auditory stimulation on the rate of force development. This is of relevance since startle stimuli could be used to explore neural adaptations to resistance training.

  11. Enhanced memory performance thanks to neural network assortativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franciscis, S. de; Johnson, S.; Torres, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    The behaviour of many complex dynamical systems has been found to depend crucially on the structure of the underlying networks of interactions. An intriguing feature of empirical networks is their assortativity--i.e., the extent to which the degrees of neighbouring nodes are correlated. However, until very recently it was difficult to take this property into account analytically, most work being exclusively numerical. We get round this problem by considering ensembles of equally correlated graphs and apply this novel technique to the case of attractor neural networks. Assortativity turns out to be a key feature for memory performance in these systems - so much so that for sufficiently correlated topologies the critical temperature diverges. We predict that artificial and biological neural systems could significantly enhance their robustness to noise by developing positive correlations.

  12. Stainless steel valves with enhanced performance through microstructure optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barani, A. A.; Boukhattam, M.; Haggeney, M.; Güler, S.

    2017-08-01

    Compressor valves are made of hardened and tempered martensitic steels. The main design criterion for the material selection is the fatigue performance of the material under bending loads. In some cases impact loads and corrosive atmospheres additionally act on the part. For the first time, the microstructure of the most commonly used stainless steel and its influence on the properties relevant for flapper valves is presented and described in this paper. It is demonstrated how the tensile properties of a martensitic stainless steel can be enhanced by tailoring the microstructure. Electron back scatter diffraction method is carried out to explain the changes in monotonic mechanical properties. Through a modified heat treatment the martensite microstructure is refined resulting in an increase of yield and ultimate tensile strength and at the same time a significant increase of elongation.

  13. Modeling track access charge to enhance railway industry performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berawi, Mohammed Ali; Miraj, Perdana; Berawi, Abdur Rohim Boy; Susantono, Bambang; Leviakangas, Pekka; Radiansyah, Hendra

    2017-11-01

    Indonesia attempts to improve nation's competitiveness by increasing the quality and the availability of railway network. However, the infrastructure improperly managed by the operator in terms of the technical issue. One of the reasons for this problem is an unbalanced value of infrastructure charge. In 2000's track access charge and infrastructure maintenance and operation for Indonesia railways are equal and despite current formula of the infrastructure charge, issues of transparency and accountability still in question. This research aims to produce an alternative scheme of track access charge by considering marginal cost plus markup (MC+) approach. The research combines qualitative and quantitative method through an in-depth interview and financial analysis. The result will generate alternative formula of infrastructure charge in Indonesia's railway industry. The simulation also conducted to estimate track access charge for the operator and to forecast government support in terms of subsidy. The result is expected to enhance railway industry performance and competitiveness.

  14. Identification of human operator performance models utilizing time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, F. M.; Shinners, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    The results of an effort performed by Sperry Systems Management Division for AMRL in applying time series analysis as a tool for modeling the human operator are presented. This technique is utilized for determining the variation of the human transfer function under various levels of stress. The human operator's model is determined based on actual input and output data from a tracking experiment.

  15. Which one Enhances Muscular Performance in ACL Reconstructed Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harput, Gulcan; Ulusoy, Burak; Atay, Ahmet Ozgur; Baltacı, Gul

    2014-01-01

    (p=0.01). However, brace decreased VJ distance (p=0.04). Kinesiotaping had no effect on quadriceps and hamstring strength (p>0.05). Only brace increased the quadriceps strength at 180 °/s (p=0.02). 40% of the subjects felt more confident with knee brace; 25% of them were more confident with kinesiotaping and the rest (35%) of them were more confident with no brace and kinesiotaping. Conclusion: Kinesiotaping enhances balance and jump performance except for increasing knee strength in ACLR subjects at 6th months after surgery when they normally return to their sport. Although, knee brace increases quadriceps strength, it has adverse effect on functional performance . Therefore, Kinesiotaping can be applied for those patients when they start their sport specific training to enhance functional performance.

  16. How Live Performance Moves the Human Heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Shoda

    Full Text Available We investigated how the audience member's physiological reactions differ as a function of listening context (i.e., live versus recorded music contexts. Thirty-seven audience members were assigned to one of seven pianists' performances and listened to his/her live performances of six pieces (fast and slow pieces by Bach, Schumann, and Debussy. Approximately 10 weeks after the live performance, each of the audience members returned to the same room and listened to the recorded performances of the same pianists' via speakers. We recorded the audience members' electrocardiograms in listening to the performances in both conditions, and analyzed their heart rates and the spectral features of the heart-rate variability (i.e., HF/TF, LF/HF. Results showed that the audience's heart rate was higher for the faster than the slower piece only in the live condition. As compared with the recorded condition, the audience's sympathovagal balance (LF/HF was less while their vagal nervous system (HF/TF was activated more in the live condition, which appears to suggest that sharing the ongoing musical moments with the pianist reduces the audience's physiological stress. The results are discussed in terms of the audience's superior attention and temporal entrainment to live performance.

  17. Enhanced performance of ferroelectric materials under hydrostatic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Aditya; Patel, Satyanarayan; Wang, Shuai; Novak, Nikola; Xu, Bai-Xiang; Lv, Peng; Vaish, Rahul; Lynch, Christopher S.

    2017-12-01

    Mechanical confinement or restricted degrees of freedom have been explored for its potential to enhance the performance of ferroelectric devices. It presents an easy and reversible method to tune the response for specific applications. However, such studies have been mainly limited to uni- or bi-axial stress. This study investigates the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the ferroelectric behavior of bulk polycrystalline Pb0.99Nb0.02(Zr0.95Ti0.05)0.98O3. Polarization versus electric field hysteresis plots were generated as a function of hydrostatic pressure for a range of operating temperatures (298-398 K). The application of hydrostatic pressure was observed to induce anti-ferroelectric like double hysteresis loops. This in turn enhances the piezoelectric, energy storage, energy harvesting, and electrocaloric effects. The hydrostatic piezoelectric coefficient (dh) was increased from 50 pCN-1 (0 MPa) to ˜900 pC N-1 (265 MPa) and ˜3200 pCN-1 (330 MPa) at 298 K. Energy storage density was observed to improve by more than 4 times under pressure, in the whole temperature range. The relative change in entropy was also observed to shift from ˜0 to 4.8 J kg-1 K-1 under an applied pressure of 325 MPa. This behavior can be attributed to the evolution of pinched hysteresis loops that have been explained using a phenomenological model. All values represent an improvement of several hundred percent compared to unbiased performance, indicating the potential benefits of the proposed methodology.

  18. Performance enhancement with supplements: incongruence between rationale and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazanov Jason

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Athletes are expected to consider multiple factors when making informed decision about nutritional supplement use. Besides rules, regulations and potential health hazards, the efficacy of different nutritional supplements in performance enhancement is a key issue. The aim of this paper was to find evidence for informed decision making by investigating the relationship between specific performance-related reasons for supplement use and the reported use of nutritional supplements. Methods The 'UK Sport 2005 Drug Free Survey' data (n = 874 were re-analysed using association [χ2] and 'strength of association' tests [ϕ] to show the proportion of informed choices and to unveil incongruencies between self-reported supplement use and the underlying motives. Results Participants (n = 520 reported supplement use in the pattern of: vitamin C (70.4%, creatine (36.1%, whey protein (30.6%, iron (29.8%, caffeine (23.8%, and ginseng (8.3% for the following reasons: strength maintenance (38.1%, doctors' advice (24.2%, enhancing endurance (20.0%, ability to train longer (13.3%, and provided by the governing body (3.8%. Of thirty possible associations between the above supplements and reasons, 11 were predictable from literature precedents and only 8 were evidenced and these were not strong (ϕ 2 = 49.14, p 2 = 97.08, p 2 = 97.82, p Conclusion This study provided a platform for assessing congruence between athletes' reasons for supplement use and their actual use. These results suggest that a lack of understanding exists in supplement use. There is an urgent need to provide accurate information which will help athletes make informed choices about the use of supplements.

  19. Enhancement of plate heat exchanger performance using electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Down, E.M.

    2000-12-01

    The falling film plate evaporator is often used in the food processing industry to remove large amounts of water from liquids, pulps and slurries. Although a compact efficient device with high heat transfer rates, there is a requirement for even greater performance, particularly when fuelled by the low grade energy from many renewable sources. Electrohydrodynamics (EHD) has been shown to give large heat transfer enhancements under many conditions, but most of this previous research has been with working fluids having much lower electrical conductivities than the water-based fluids that are the main concern of this study. The liquid flow in falling film plate evaporators is in the form of a very thin (less than a millimetre) film falling down a heated plate under the effect of gravity. The film surface exhibits waviness over much of the operating range of industrial heat exchangers, and the degree of waviness has previously been shown to have a large effect on the rate of heat transfer. A theoretical model was developed which suggested that significant increases in waviness, and therefore heat transfer, could be stimulated using high voltage electrodes, and these were subsequently observed on the surface of a pool of water during bench-top experiments. An experimental falling film rig was designed to study this EHD effect but the 2.5 kV maximum voltage attainable was thought to be too low to stimulate wave enlargement and no heat transfer enhancement was seen. Significant heat transfer enhancement was observed in the falling film rig when utilising corona discharge electrodes. This was thought to be due to a thinning of the film in the vicinity of the electrode via the corona wind and increased fluid mixing downstream of the electrode. Both point and wire electrodes improved heat transfer rates but wire electrodes were thought to have more potential for integration into existing industrial heat exchanger designs, so were studied more closely. Heat transfer rates

  20. Human Performance at the Perry Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabe, Alan W.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a description of human performance training for plant workers as implemented at the Perry Nuclear Power Plant. Practical concepts regarding the training are presented as well as a demonstration of some of the training material. Concepts are drawn from INPO, Reason and Deming. The paper encourages the use of site-wide and individual organizational unit training in human performance management techniques. (author)

  1. Enhanced Performance Assessment System (EPAS) for carbon sequestration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yifeng; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; McNeish, Jerry A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Dewers, Thomas A.; Hadgu, Teklu; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.

    2010-09-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is an option to mitigate impacts of atmospheric carbon emission. Numerous factors are important in determining the overall effectiveness of long-term geologic storage of carbon, including leakage rates, volume of storage available, and system costs. Recent efforts have been made to apply an existing probabilistic performance assessment (PA) methodology developed for deep nuclear waste geologic repositories to evaluate the effectiveness of subsurface carbon storage (Viswanathan et al., 2008; Stauffer et al., 2009). However, to address the most pressing management, regulatory, and scientific concerns with subsurface carbon storage (CS), the existing PA methodology and tools must be enhanced and upgraded. For example, in the evaluation of a nuclear waste repository, a PA model is essentially a forward model that samples input parameters and runs multiple realizations to estimate future consequences and determine important parameters driving the system performance. In the CS evaluation, however, a PA model must be able to run both forward and inverse calculations to support optimization of CO{sub 2} injection and real-time site monitoring as an integral part of the system design and operation. The monitoring data must be continually fused into the PA model through model inversion and parameter estimation. Model calculations will in turn guide the design of optimal monitoring and carbon-injection strategies (e.g., in terms of monitoring techniques, locations, and time intervals). Under the support of Laboratory-Directed Research & Development (LDRD), a late-start LDRD project was initiated in June of Fiscal Year 2010 to explore the concept of an enhanced performance assessment system (EPAS) for carbon sequestration and storage. In spite of the tight time constraints, significant progress has been made on the project: (1) Following the general PA methodology, a preliminary Feature, Event, and Process (FEP) analysis was performed for

  2. Bee venom enhances the differentiation of human regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramalho, I; Melo, A; Pedro, E; Barbosa, M M P; Victorino, R M M; Pereira Santos, M C; Sousa, A E

    2015-10-01

    Venom-specific immunotherapy (VIT) is well recognized by its efficacy, and compelling evidence implicates regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the underlying tolerogenic mechanisms. Additionally, hymenoptera venom has for a long time been claimed to modulate immunity. Here, we investigated the putative role of bee venom (Bv) in human FOXP3-expressing Treg homeostasis and differentiation, irrespective of the donors' allergic status. We found that Bv significantly enhanced the differentiation of FOXP3-expressing cells both from conventional naïve CD4 T cells and mature CD4 thymocytes, a property that may contribute to the VIT's capacity to expand circulating Tregs in allergic individuals. We expect that our data enlightening the Treg-mediated immunomodulatory properties of Bv regardless of TCR specificity, to have application in other allergies, as well as in other clinical settings, such as autoimmunity and transplantation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Glucose enhancement of human memory: a comprehensive research review of the glucose memory facilitation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael A; Riby, Leigh M; Eekelen, J Anke M van; Foster, Jonathan K

    2011-01-01

    The brain relies upon glucose as its primary fuel. In recent years, a rich literature has developed from both human and animal studies indicating that increases in circulating blood glucose can facilitate cognitive functioning. This phenomenon has been termed the 'glucose memory facilitation effect'. The purpose of this review is to discuss a number of salient studies which have investigated the influence of glucose ingestion on neurocognitive performance in individuals with (a) compromised neurocognitive capacity, as well as (b) normally functioning individuals (with a focus on research conducted with human participants). The proposed neurocognitive mechanisms purported to underlie the modulatory effect of glucose on neurocognitive performance will also be considered. Many theories have focussed upon the hippocampus, given that this brain region is heavily implicated in learning and memory. Further, it will be suggested that glucose is a possible mechanism underlying the phenomenon that enhanced memory performance is typically observed for emotionally laden stimuli. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Improving human performance in maintenance personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Anez, Francisco; Agueero Agueero, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    The continuous evolution and improvement of safety-related processes has included the analysis, design and development of training plans for the qualification of maintenance nuclear power plant personnel. In this respect, the international references in this area recommend the establishment of systematic qualification programmes for personnel performing functions or carrying out safety related tasks. Maintenance personnel qualification processes have improved significantly, and training plans have been designed and developed based on Systematic Approach to Training methodology to each job position. These improvements have been clearly reflected in recent training programmes with new training material and training facilities focused not only on developing technical knowledge and skills but also on improving attitudes and safety culture. The objectives of maintenance training facilities such as laboratories, mock-ups real an virtual, hydraulic loops, field simulators and other training material to be used in the maintenance training centre are to cover training necessities for initial and continuous qualification. Evidently, all these improvements made in the qualification of plant personnel should be extended to include supplemental personnel (external or contracted) performing safety-related tasks. The supplemental personnel constitute a very spread group, covering the performance of multiple activities entailing different levels of responsibility. Some of these activities are performed permanently at the plant, while others are occasional or sporadic. In order to establish qualification requirements for these supplemental workers, it is recommended to establish a rigorous analysis of job positions and tasks. The objective will be to identify the qualification requirements to assure competence and safety. (authors)

  5. The Astronaut-Athlete: Optimizing Human Performance in Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Kyle J; Scott, Jessica M; Hanson, Andrea M; English, Kirk L; Downs, Meghan E; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that long-duration spaceflight results in deconditioning of neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems, leading to a decline in physical fitness. On reloading in gravitational environments, reduced fitness (e.g., aerobic capacity, muscular strength, and endurance) could impair human performance, mission success, and crew safety. The level of fitness necessary for the performance of routine and off-nominal terrestrial mission tasks remains an unanswered and pressing question for scientists and flight physicians. To mitigate fitness loss during spaceflight, resistance and aerobic exercise are the most effective countermeasure available to astronauts. Currently, 2.5 h·d, 6-7 d·wk is allotted in crew schedules for exercise to be performed on highly specialized hardware on the International Space Station (ISS). Exercise hardware provides up to 273 kg of loading capability for resistance exercise, treadmill speeds between 0.44 and 5.5 m·s, and cycle workloads from 0 and 350 W. Compared to ISS missions, future missions beyond low earth orbit will likely be accomplished with less vehicle volume and power allocated for exercise hardware. Concomitant factors, such as diet and age, will also affect the physiologic responses to exercise training (e.g., anabolic resistance) in the space environment. Research into the potential optimization of exercise countermeasures through use of dietary supplementation, and pharmaceuticals may assist in reducing physiological deconditioning during long-duration spaceflight and have the potential to enhance performance of occupationally related astronaut tasks (e.g., extravehicular activity, habitat construction, equipment repairs, planetary exploration, and emergency response).

  6. New Star-Like Surfacetexture for Enhanced Hydrodynamic Lubrication Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uddin M.S.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical modelling and optimization of a new ‘star-like’ geometric texture shape with an aim to improve tribological performance. Initial studies showed that the triangle effect is the most dominant in reducing the friction. Motivated with this, a ‘star-like’ texture shape consisting of a series of triangular spikes around the centre of the texture is proposed. It is hypothesised that by increasing the triangular effect on a texture shape, the converging micro-wedge effect is expected to increase, hence increasing the film pressure and reducing the friction. Using the well-known Reynolds boundary conditions, numerical modelling of surface texturing is implemented via finite difference method. Simulation results showed that the number of apex points of the new ‘star-like’ texture has a significant effect on the film pressure and the friction coefficient. A 6-pointed texture at a texture density of 0.4 is shown to be the optimum shape. The new optimum star-like texture reduces the friction coefficient by 80%, 64.39%, 19.32% and 16.14%, as compared to ellipse, chevron, triangle and circle, respectively. This indicates the potential benefit of the proposed new shape in further enhancing the hydrodynamic lubrication performance of slider bearing contacts.

  7. Performance enhancement of a subcooled cold storage air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao, M.-J.; Cheng, C.-H.; Huang, M.-C.; Chen, S.-L.

    2009-01-01

    This article experimentally investigates the enhancement of thermal performance for an air conditioning system utilizing a cold storage unit as a subcooler. The cold storage unit is composed of an energy storage tank, liquid-side heat exchanger, suction-side heat exchanger and energy storage material (ESM), water. When the cooling load is lower than the nominal cooling capacity of the system, the cold storage unit can store extra cold energy of the system to subcool the condenser outlet refrigerant. Hence, both the cooling capacity and coefficient of performance (COP) of the system will be increased. This experiment tests the two operation modes: subcooled mode with energy storage and non-subcooled mode without energy storage. The results show that for fixed cooling loads at 3.05 kW, 3.5 kW and 3.95 kW, the COP of the subcooled mode are 16.0%, 15.6% and 14.1% higher than those of the non-subcooled mode, respectively. In the varied cooling load experiments, the COP of the subcooled cold storage air conditioning system is 15.3% higher than the conventional system.

  8. Optimizing Performance in Psychology Students - Neurofeedback as a performance enhancing tool

    OpenAIRE

    Elvebredd, Pernille Malene Sandberg

    2014-01-01

    Neurofeedback has been shown to be successful in treating epilepsy and ADHD and in enhancing performance in musicians and dancers. The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of a neurofeedback beta1/theta protocol as a tool for optimizing performance in healthy psychology students. To achieve this, 19-channel EEG was recorded during a visual Go/NoGo task at two time points, both prior to and following either ten sessions of neurofeedback training (10 individuals) or ten sess...

  9. Human Performance and Acute Hypoxia. Chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    with which the hemoglobin is saturated- with oxygen. Blood temperature, blood pH, PaC02, and 2,3 diphosphoglycerate (2,3 DPG) can all affect the...Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 56:10G4-1008, 33. Greene, R. Mental performance in chronic anoxia . Brit Med J. 1 (5026):1028-1031, 1957. 34. Grover, R.F

  10. Human PrimPol activity is enhanced by RPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Jiménez, María I; Lahera, Antonio; Blanco, Luis

    2017-04-10

    Human PrimPol is a primase belonging to the AEP superfamily with the unique ability to synthesize DNA primers de novo, and a non-processive DNA polymerase able to bypass certain DNA lesions. PrimPol facilitates both mitochondrial and nuclear replication fork progression either acting as a conventional TLS polymerase, or repriming downstream of blocking lesions. In vivo assays have shown that PrimPol is rapidly recruited to sites of DNA damage by interaction with the human replication protein A (RPA). In agreement with previous findings, we show here that the higher affinity of RPA for ssDNA inhibits PrimPol activities in short ssDNA templates. In contrast, once the amount of ssDNA increases up to a length in which both proteins can simultaneously bind ssDNA, as expected during replicative stress conditions, PrimPol and RPA functionally interact, and their binding capacities are mutually enhanced. When using M13 ssDNA as template, RPA stimulated both the primase and polymerase activities of PrimPol, either alone or in synergy with Polε. These new findings supports the existence of a functional PrimPol/RPA association that allows repriming at the exposed ssDNA regions formed in the leading strand upon replicase stalling.

  11. Prior video game exposure does not enhance robotic surgical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Jonathan D; Kaiser, Stefan; Ebrahimi, Kamyar; Lamberton, Gregory R; Hadley, H Roger; Ruckle, Herbert C; Baldwin, D Duane

    2007-10-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that counterintuitive laparoscopic surgical skills are enhanced by experience with video games. A similar relation with robotic surgical skills has not been tested. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prior video-game experience enhances the acquisition of robotic surgical skills. A series of 242 preclinical medical students completed a self-reported video-game questionnaire detailing the frequency, duration, and peak playing time. The 10 students with the highest and lowest video-game exposure completed a follow-up questionnaire further quantifying video game, sports, musical instrument, and craft and hobby exposure. Each subject viewed a training video demonstrating the use of the da Vinci surgical robot in tying knots, followed by 3 minutes of proctored practice time. Subjects then tied knots for 5 minutes while an independent blinded observer recorded the number of knots tied, missed knots, frayed sutures, broken sutures, and mechanical errors. The mean playing time for the 10 game players was 15,136 total hours (range 5,840-30,000 hours). Video-game players tied fewer knots than nonplayers (5.8 v 9.0; P = 0.04). Subjects who had played sports for at least 4 years had fewer mechanical errors (P = 0.04), broke fewer sutures (P = 0.01), and committed fewer total errors (P = 0.01). Similarly, those playing musical instruments longer than 5 years missed fewer knots (P = 0.05). In the extremes of video-game experience tested in this study, game playing was inversely correlated with the ability to learn robotic suturing. This study suggests that advanced surgical skills such as robotic suturing may be learned more quickly by athletes and musicians. Prior extensive video-game exposure had a negative impact on robotic performance.

  12. Role of nutrition in performance enhancement and postexercise recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck KL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kathryn L Beck,1 Jasmine S Thomson,2 Richard J Swift,1 Pamela R von Hurst11School of Food and Nutrition, Massey Institute of Food Science and Technology, College of Health, Massey University Albany, Auckland, 2School of Food and Nutrition, Massey Institute of Food Science and Technology, College of Health, Massey University Manawatu, Palmerston North, New ZealandAbstract: A number of factors contribute to success in sport, and diet is a key component. An athlete's dietary requirements depend on several aspects, including the sport, the athlete's goals, the environment, and practical issues. The importance of individualized dietary advice has been increasingly recognized, including day-to-day dietary advice and specific advice before, during, and after training and/or competition. Athletes use a range of dietary strategies to improve performance, with maximizing glycogen stores a key strategy for many. Carbohydrate intake during exercise maintains high levels of carbohydrate oxidation, prevents hypoglycemia, and has a positive effect on the central nervous system. Recent research has focused on athletes training with low carbohydrate availability to enhance metabolic adaptations, but whether this leads to an improvement in performance is unclear. The benefits of protein intake throughout the day following exercise are now well recognized. Athletes should aim to maintain adequate levels of hydration, and they should minimize fluid losses during exercise to no more than 2% of their body weight. Supplement use is widespread in athletes, with recent interest in the beneficial effects of nitrate, beta-alanine, and vitamin D on performance. However, an unregulated supplement industry and inadvertent contamination of supplements with banned substances increases the risk of a positive doping result. Although the availability of nutrition information for athletes varies, athletes will benefit from the advice of a registered dietician or nutritionist

  13. The Impact of Strategic Human Resource Management on Organizational Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luftim CANIA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Organizational performance is getting more and more important, especially in a market with greater competition and dynamic. Organizational performance is measured through different indicators. It guarantees the continuity of the organization to be competitive in a global marketplace. Normally, the implementation of performance indicators achieved through human resources. Human resources are the key for keeping the organization in the market so competitive. These human resources need to be managed effectively to achieve the required performance of the organization. It is necessary to manage strategically the human resources and to adapt at its strategy with organizational strategy. The aim of this study is focused on the impact of the strategic management of human resource in achieving organizational performance. This study was conducted based on primary and secondary sources. How much organizations appear competitive in the market through achieving the performance indicators? How important is the management of human resources in achieving organizational performance? So, through the skills, behaviors and attitudes would be expected by human resources to achieve the required performance in the organization.

  14. Self-assessment of human performance errors in nuclear operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambliss, K.V.

    1996-01-01

    One of the most important approaches to improving nuclear safety is to have an effective self-assessment process in place, whose cornerstone is the identification and improvement of human performance errors. Experience has shown that significant events usually have had precursors of human performance errors. If these precursors are left uncorrected or not understood, the symptoms recur and result in unanticipated events of greater safety significance. The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) has been championing the cause of promoting excellence in human performance in the nuclear industry. INPO's report, open-quotes Excellence in Human Performance,close quotes emphasizes the importance of several factors that play a role in human performance. They include individual, supervisory, and organizational behaviors; real-time feedback that results in specific behavior to produce safe and reliable performance; and proactive measures that remove obstacles from excellent human performance. Zack Pate, chief executive officer and president of INPO, in his report, open-quotes The Control Room,close quotes provides an excellent discussion of serious events in the nuclear industry since 1994 and compares them with the results from a recent study by the National Transportation Safety Board of airline accidents in the 12-yr period from 1978 to 1990 to draw some common themes that relate to human performance issues in the control room

  15. Titanium phosphate glass microcarriers induce enhanced osteogenic cell proliferation and human mesenchymal stem cell protein expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilay J Lakhkar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have developed 50- to 100-µm-sized titanium phosphate glass microcarriers (denoted as Ti5 that show enhanced proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells and MG63 osteosarcoma cells, as well as enhanced human mesenchymal stem cell expression of bone differentiation markers, in comparison with commercially available glass microspheres at all time points. We also demonstrate that these microcarriers provide superior human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation with conventional Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle medium than with a specially developed commercial stem cell medium. The microcarrier proliferative capacity is revealed by a 24-fold increase in MG63 cell numbers in spinner flask bioreactor studies performed over a 7-day period, versus only a 6-fold increase in control microspheres under the same conditions; the corresponding values of Ti5 and control microspheres under static culture are 8-fold and 7-fold, respectively. The capability of guided osteogenic differentiation is confirmed by ELISAs for bone morphogenetic protein-2 and osteopontin, which reveal significantly greater expression of these markers, especially osteopontin, by human mesenchymal stem cells on the Ti5 microspheres than on the control. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy images reveal favorable MG63 and human mesenchymal stem cell adhesion on the Ti5 microsphere surfaces. Thus, the results demonstrate the suitability of the developed microspheres for use as microcarriers in bone tissue engineering applications.

  16. An Empirical Analysis of Human Performance and Nuclear Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey Joe; Larry G. Blackwood

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis, which was conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), was to test whether an empirical connection exists between human performance and nuclear power plant safety culture. This was accomplished through analyzing the relationship between a measure of human performance and a plant's Safety Conscious Work Environment (SCWE). SCWE is an important component of safety culture the NRC has developed, but it is not synonymous with it. SCWE is an environment in which employees are encouraged to raise safety concerns both to their own management and to the NRC without fear of harassment, intimidation, retaliation, or discrimination. Because the relationship between human performance and allegations is intuitively reciprocal and both relationship directions need exploration, two series of analyses were performed. First, human performance data could be indicative of safety culture, so regression analyses were performed using human performance data to predict SCWE. It also is likely that safety culture contributes to human performance issues at a plant, so a second set of regressions were performed using allegations to predict HFIS results

  17. A laserterapia de baixa potência melhora o desempenho muscular mensurado por dinamometria isocinética em humanos Low-level laser therapy enhances muscular performance as measured by isokinetic dynamometry in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal Junior

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A fadiga muscular é uma nova área de pesquisa em laserterapia, com poucos estudos conduzidos. Embora a laserterapia de baixa potência (LBP previamente ao exercício tenha apresentado resultados positivos no retardo da fadiga musculoesquelética, ainda não foi estudada utilizando-se a dinamometria isocinética para mensurar desempenho e fadiga muscular. Este estudo tem o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da LBP (655 nm, 50 mW, 2,4 J por ponto e 12 J de energia total sobre o desempenho e fadiga muscular do músculo tibial anterior, utilizando dinamometria isocinética (30 repetições de contração concêntrica em 14 indivíduos saudáveis sedentários do sexo masculino. Os voluntários foram avaliados ao efetuar 30 repetições isocinéticas de dorsiflexão de tornozelo à velocidade angular de 240°.seg-1. Os resultados mostram que, quando os voluntários foram tratados com LBP antes do exercício, os valores do pico de torque (30,91±5,86 N.m foram significativamente superiores, comparados a três medições anteriores sem a aplicação de LBP (24,92±7,45 N.m, pSkeletal muscle fatigue is a novel research area in laser therapy, there being few studies carried out. Though low-level laser therapy (LLLT applied prior to exercise has showed positive results in delaying skeletal muscle fatigue, no studies could be found that measured muscle performance and fatigue by means of isokinetic dynamometry. This clinical trial aims at assessing the effects of LLLT (655 nm, 50 mW and 12 J total energy delivered on anterior tibialis muscle performance and fatigue by means of isokinetic dynamometry (30 concentric-mode repetitions at 240º.sec-1 angular speed in 14 healthy male subjects. Results show that, when volunteers had been treated with LLLT prior to exercise, torque peak values (30.91±5.86 N.m were significantly higher than those of three previous measurements with no LLLT (24.92±7.45 N.m, p<0.001; 26.83±7.74 N.m, p<0.01; and 26.00±7.88 N.m, p<0

  18. Human Reliability Assessment and Human Performance Evaluation: Research and Analysis Activities at the U.S. NRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramey-Smith, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The author indicates the themes of the six programs identified by the US NRC mission on human performance and human reliability activities. They aim at developing the technical basis to support human performance, at developing and updating a model of human performance and human reliability, at fostering national and international dialogue and cooperation efforts on human performance evaluation, at conducting operating events analysis and database development, and at providing support to human performance and human reliability inspection

  19. Basic considerations in predicting error probabilities in human task performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleishman, E.A.; Buffardi, L.C.; Allen, J.A.; Gaskins, R.C. III

    1990-04-01

    It is well established that human error plays a major role in the malfunctioning of complex systems. This report takes a broad look at the study of human error and addresses the conceptual, methodological, and measurement issues involved in defining and describing errors in complex systems. In addition, a review of existing sources of human reliability data and approaches to human performance data base development is presented. Alternative task taxonomies, which are promising for establishing the comparability on nuclear and non-nuclear tasks, are also identified. Based on such taxonomic schemes, various data base prototypes for generalizing human error rates across settings are proposed. 60 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  20. The use of genes for performance enhancement: doping or therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent biotechnological advances have permitted the manipulation of genetic sequences to treat several diseases in a process called gene therapy. However, the advance of gene therapy has opened the door to the possibility of using genetic manipulation (GM to enhance athletic performance. In such ‘gene doping’, exogenous genetic sequences are inserted into a specific tissue, altering cellular gene activity or leading to the expression of a protein product. The exogenous genes most likely to be utilized for gene doping include erythropoietin (EPO, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF-1, myostatin antagonists, and endorphin. However, many other genes could also be used, such as those involved in glucose metabolic pathways. Because gene doping would be very difficult to detect, it is inherently very attractive for those involved in sports who are prepared to cheat. Moreover, the field of gene therapy is constantly and rapidly progressing, and this is likely to generate many new possibilities for gene doping. Thus, as part of the general fight against all forms of doping, it will be necessary to develop and continually improve means of detecting exogenous gene sequences (or their products in athletes. Nevertheless, some bioethicists have argued for a liberal approach to gene doping.

  1. Caffeine: Cognitive and Physical Performance Enhancer or Psychoactive Drug?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Simone; Daria, Piacentino; Sani, Gabriele; Aromatario, Mariarosaria

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine use is increasing worldwide. The underlying motivations are mainly concentration and memory enhancement and physical performance improvement. Coffee and caffeine-containing products affect the cardiovascular system, with their positive inotropic and chronotropic effects, and the central nervous system, with their locomotor activity stimulation and anxiogenic-like effects. Thus, it is of interest to examine whether these effects could be detrimental for health. Furthermore, caffeine abuse and dependence are becoming more and more common and can lead to caffeine intoxication, which puts individuals at risk for premature and unnatural death. The present review summarizes the main findings concerning caffeine’s mechanisms of action (focusing on adenosine antagonism, intracellular calcium mobilization, and phosphodiesterases inhibition), use, abuse, dependence, intoxication, and lethal effects. It also suggests that the concepts of toxic and lethal doses are relative, since doses below the toxic and/or lethal range may play a causal role in intoxication or death. This could be due to caffeine’s interaction with other substances or to the individuals' preexisting metabolism alterations or diseases. PMID:26074744

  2. Enhancement of Ultrahigh Performance Concrete Material Properties with Carbon Nanofiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libya Ahmed Sbia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrahigh performance concrete (UHPC realized distinctly high mechanical, impermeability, and durability characteristics by reducing the size and content of capillary pore, refining the microstructure of cement hydrates, and effectively using fiber reinforcement. The dense and fine microstructure of UHPC favor its potential to effectively disperse and interact with nanomaterials, which could complement the reinforcing action of fibers in UHPC. An optimization experimental program was implemented in order to identify the optimum combination of steel fiber and relatively low-cost carbon nanofiber in UHPC. The optimum volume fractions of steel fiber and carbon nanofiber identified for balanced improvement of flexural strength, ductility, energy sorption capacity, impact, and abrasion resistance of UHPC were 1.1% and 0.04%, respectively. Desired complementary/synergistic actions of nanofibers and steel fibers in UHPC were detected, which were attributed to their reinforcing effects at different scales, and the potential benefits of nanofibers to interfacial bonding and pull-out behavior of fibers in UHPC. Modification techniques which enhanced the hydrophilicity and bonding potential of nanofibers to cement hydrates benefited their reinforcement efficiency in UHPC.

  3. Caffeine: cognitive and physical performance enhancer or psychoactive drug?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Simone; Piacentino, Daria; Daria, Piacentino; Sani, Gabriele; Aromatario, Mariarosaria

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine use is increasing worldwide. The underlying motivations are mainly concentration and memory enhancement and physical performance improvement. Coffee and caffeine-containing products affect the cardiovascular system, with their positive inotropic and chronotropic effects, and the central nervous system, with their locomotor activity stimulation and anxiogenic-like effects. Thus, it is of interest to examine whether these effects could be detrimental for health. Furthermore, caffeine abuse and dependence are becoming more and more common and can lead to caffeine intoxication, which puts individuals at risk for premature and unnatural death. The present review summarizes the main findings concerning caffeine's mechanisms of action (focusing on adenosine antagonism, intracellular calcium mobilization, and phosphodiesterases inhibition), use, abuse, dependence, intoxication, and lethal effects. It also suggests that the concepts of toxic and lethal doses are relative, since doses below the toxic and/or lethal range may play a causal role in intoxication or death. This could be due to caffeine's interaction with other substances or to the individuals' preexisting metabolism alterations or diseases.

  4. The use of genes for performance enhancement: doping or therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R S; Collares, T F; Smith, K R; Collares, T V; Seixas, F K

    2011-12-01

    Recent biotechnological advances have permitted the manipulation of genetic sequences to treat several diseases in a process called gene therapy. However, the advance of gene therapy has opened the door to the possibility of using genetic manipulation (GM) to enhance athletic performance. In such 'gene doping', exogenous genetic sequences are inserted into a specific tissue, altering cellular gene activity or leading to the expression of a protein product. The exogenous genes most likely to be utilized for gene doping include erythropoietin (EPO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF-1), myostatin antagonists, and endorphin. However, many other genes could also be used, such as those involved in glucose metabolic pathways. Because gene doping would be very difficult to detect, it is inherently very attractive for those involved in sports who are prepared to cheat. Moreover, the field of gene therapy is constantly and rapidly progressing, and this is likely to generate many new possibilities for gene doping. Thus, as part of the general fight against all forms of doping, it will be necessary to develop and continually improve means of detecting exogenous gene sequences (or their products) in athletes. Nevertheless, some bioethicists have argued for a liberal approach to gene doping.

  5. Tablet computer enhanced training improves internal medicine exam performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Daniel C; Wende, Ilja; Grittner, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Traditional teaching concepts in medical education do not take full advantage of current information technology. We aimed to objectively determine the impact of Tablet PC enhanced training on learning experience and MKSAP® (medical knowledge self-assessment program) exam performance. In this single center, prospective, controlled study final year medical students and medical residents doing an inpatient service rotation were alternatingly assigned to either the active test (Tablet PC with custom multimedia education software package) or traditional education (control) group, respectively. All completed an extensive questionnaire to collect their socio-demographic data, evaluate educational status, computer affinity and skills, problem solving, eLearning knowledge and self-rated medical knowledge. Both groups were MKSAP® tested at the beginning and the end of their rotation. The MKSAP® score at the final exam was the primary endpoint. Data of 55 (tablet n = 24, controls n = 31) male 36.4%, median age 28 years, 65.5% students, were evaluable. The mean MKSAP® score improved in the tablet PC (score Δ + 8 SD: 11), but not the control group (score Δ- 7, SD: 11), respectively. After adjustment for baseline score and confounders the Tablet PC group showed on average 11% better MKSAP® test results compared to the control group (plearning to their respective training programs.

  6. Performance Analysis of TCP Enhancements in Satellite Data Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyles, Ren H.

    1999-01-01

    This research examines two proposed enhancements to the well-known Transport Control Protocol (TCP) in the presence of noisy communication links. The Multiple Pipes protocol is an application-level adaptation of the standard TCP protocol, where several TCP links cooperate to transfer data. The Space Communication Protocol Standard - Transport Protocol (SCPS-TP) modifies TCP to optimize performance in a satellite environment. While SCPS-TP has inherent advantages that allow it to deliver data more rapidly than Multiple Pipes, the protocol, when optimized for operation in a high-error environment, is not compatible with legacy TCP systems, and requires changes to the TCP specification. This investigation determines the level of improvement offered by SCPS-TP's Corruption Mode, which will help determine if migration to the protocol is appropriate in different environments. As the percentage of corrupted packets approaches 5 %, Multiple Pipes can take over five times longer than SCPS-TP to deliver data. At high error rates, SCPS-TP's advantage is primarily caused by Multiple Pipes' use of congestion control algorithms. The lack of congestion control, however, limits the systems in which SCPS-TP can be effectively used.

  7. A New Metasurface Superstrate Structure for Antenna Performance Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Ullah, Mohammad Habib; Singh, Mandeep Jit; Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal

    2013-07-31

    A new metasurface superstrate structure (MSS)-loaded dual band microstrip line-fed small patch antenna is presented in this paper. The proposed antenna was designed on a ceramic-filled bioplastic sandwich substrate with a high dielectric constant. The proposed 7 × 6 element, square-shaped, single-sided MSS significantly improved the bandwidth and gain of the proposed antenna. The proposed MSS incorporated a slotted patch antenna that effectively increased the measured operating bandwidth from 13.3% to 18.8% and from 14.8% to 23.2% in the lower and upper bands, respectively. Moreover, the average gain of the proposed MSS-based antenna was enhanced from 2.12 dBi to 3.02 dBi in the lower band and from 4.10 dBi to 5.28 dBi in the upper band compared to the patch antenna alone. In addition to the bandwidth and gain improvements, more directive radiation characteristics were also observed from the MSS antenna compared to the patch itself. The effects of the MSS elements and the ground plane length on the reflection coefficient of the antenna were analyzed and optimized. The overall performance makes the proposed antenna appropriate for RFID and WLAN applications.

  8. Specific inspiratory muscle warm-up enhances badminton footwork performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hua; Tong, Tom Kwokkeung; Huang, Chuanye; Nie, Jinlei; Lu, Kui; Quach, Binh

    2007-12-01

    The effects of inspiratory muscle (IM) warm-up on IM function and on the maximum distance covered in a subsequent incremental badminton-footwork test (FWmax) were examined. Ten male badminton players were recruited to perform identical tests in three different trials in a random order. The control trial did not involve an IM warm-up, whereas the placebo and experimental trials did involve an IM warm-up consisting of two sets of 30-breath manoeuvres with an inspiratory pressure-threshold load equivalent to 15% (PLA) and 40% (IMW) maximum inspiratory mouth pressure, respectively. In the IMW trial, IM function was improved with 7.8%+/-4.0% and 6.9%+/-3.5% increases from control found in maximal inspiratory pressure at zero flow (P0) and maximal rate of P0 development (MRPD), respectively (pbadminton-footwork test. The improved footwork was partly attributable to the reduced breathless sensation resulting from the enhanced IM function, whereas the contribution of the concomitant reduction in [La-]b accumulation was relatively minor.

  9. Performance enhancement in the workplace: why and when healthyindividuals should disclose their reliance on pharmaceutical cognitive enhancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko D. Garasic

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of pharmaceuticals cognitive enhancers (PCE have been stirring growing interest, not only in the scientific domain but also in the popular media, and has probably had some increase recently in academic, professional and military quarters, although such increase is very difficult to assess. In line with an attitude of general acceptance towards – at least some of – the practical implementations of Human Enhancement (HE, this phenomenon is deemed as a normal procedure aimed at improving the performance of an individual as well as the overall standards of an organization. Although the vast majority of countries have some kind of restrictions to reduce the wide non-medical usage of PCE, these can be overcome quite easily. Our main objective in this theoretical paper is to underline the tension between the bio-liberal motto the use of PCE is a freely eligible personal choice, and the practical context in which its secret or concealed implementation might lead to potential dysfunctional or dangerous interpersonal or social consequences.

  10. Load carriage, human performance, and employment standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Peoples, Gregory E; Petersen, Stewart R

    2016-06-01

    The focus of this review is on the physiological considerations necessary for developing employment standards within occupations that have a heavy reliance on load carriage. Employees within military, fire fighting, law enforcement, and search and rescue occupations regularly work with heavy loads. For example, soldiers often carry loads >50 kg, whilst structural firefighters wear 20-25 kg of protective clothing and equipment, in addition to carrying external loads. It has long been known that heavy loads modify gait, mobility, metabolic rate, and efficiency, while concurrently elevating the risk of muscle fatigue and injury. In addition, load carriage often occurs within environmentally stressful conditions, with protective ensembles adding to the thermal burden of the workplace. Indeed, physiological strain relates not just to the mass and dimensions of carried objects, but to how those loads are positioned on and around the body. Yet heavy loads must be borne by men and women of varying body size, and with the expectation that operational capability will not be impinged. This presents a recruitment conundrum. How do employers identify capable and injury-resistant individuals while simultaneously avoiding discriminatory selection practices? In this communication, the relevant metabolic, cardiopulmonary, and thermoregulatory consequences of loaded work are reviewed, along with concomitant impediments to physical endurance and mobility. Also emphasised is the importance of including occupation-specific clothing, protective equipment, and loads during work-performance testing. Finally, recommendations are presented for how to address these issues when evaluating readiness for duty.

  11. Human Performance Technology and Knowledge Management: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Anne P.; Montoya-Weiss, Mitzi M.; O'Driscoll, Tony M.

    2005-01-01

    As organizations respond to competitive environments and strive to enhance performance, knowledge management (KM) has increasingly become a strategic activity. A KM strategy entails consciously helping people share and put knowledge into action. A key challenge is how to develop and implement KM solutions that provide performance support to…

  12. Performance Enhancement of a Vertical Tail Using Synthetic Jet Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathay, Nicholas

    The performance enhancement of a vertical tail using an array of finite span synthetic jet actuators was investigated in wind tunnel experiments on 1/25th, 1/19th, and 1/9 th scale models. The models were sweptback, tapered, and instrumented with multiple synthetic jets placed upstream of the rudder hinge--line with the objective of controlling the separation that commenced over the rudder when it was deflected to high angles. By controlling the separation, the side force generated by the tail was augmented, which may allow for the size of the tail to be decreased. This would reduce the weight, drag, and corresponding fuel costs of an airplane. The synthetic jets augmented the side force coefficient by a maximum of 0.17 (34%). Furthermore, the performance of the vertical tail was dependent on jet strength. It was expected that the increase in side force would continue to grow as the momentum generation capabilities of the jets improved. A primary goal of the research was to determine the effect of multiple synthetic jet parameters on side force enhancement. Experiments were conducted with various jet orifice configurations, which indicated the following: the spacing between adjacent orifice edges and the orifices' aspect ratio were relatively unimportant; in terms of quantifying jet strength, the area--based (3--D) momentum coefficient of the jets was a more dominant parameter than the blowing ratio or the chord--based (2--D) momentum coefficient. Moreover, the most favorable spanwise location of control was, in general, found to be near the mid--span at lower rudder deflections and toward the inboard section of the model at larger deflections. The optimal chordwise location was hypothesized to be on the stabilizer as close as possible to the hinge--line. An investigation into the spanwise spacing of active jets demonstrated that, for some conditions, when the individual strength of the jets was held constant, larger jet spacing was more effective. Also, similar

  13. Human tumor cell proliferation evaluated using manganese-enhanced MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod D Braun

    Full Text Available Tumor cell proliferation can depend on calcium entry across the cell membrane. As a first step toward the development of a non-invasive test of the extent of tumor cell proliferation in vivo, we tested the hypothesis that tumor cell uptake of a calcium surrogate, Mn(2+ [measured with manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI], is linked to proliferation rate in vitro.Proliferation rates were determined in vitro in three different human tumor cell lines: C918 and OCM-1 human uveal melanomas and PC-3 prostate carcinoma. Cells growing at different average proliferation rates were exposed to 1 mM MnCl(2 for one hour and then thoroughly washed. MEMRI R(1 values (longitudinal relaxation rates, which have a positive linear relationship with Mn(2+ concentration, were then determined from cell pellets. Cell cycle distributions were determined using propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. All three lines showed Mn(2+-induced increases in R(1 compared to cells not exposed to Mn(2+. C918 and PC-3 cells each showed a significant, positive correlation between MEMRI R(1 values and proliferation rate (p≤0.005, while OCM-1 cells showed no significant correlation. Preliminary, general modeling of these positive relationships suggested that pellet R(1 for the PC-3 cells, but not for the C918 cells, could be adequately described by simply accounting for changes in the distribution of the cell cycle-dependent subpopulations in the pellet.These data clearly demonstrate the tumor-cell dependent nature of the relationship between proliferation and calcium influx, and underscore the usefulness of MEMRI as a non-invasive method for investigating this link. MEMRI is applicable to study tumors in vivo, and the present results raise the possibility of evaluating proliferation parameters of some tumor types in vivo using MEMRI.

  14. Reducing the occurrence of plant events through improved human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, T.; Burkhart, A.D.

    1993-01-01

    During a routine control room surveillance, the reactor operator is distracted by an alarming secondary annunciator and a telephone call. When the reactor operator resumes the surveillance, he inadvertently performs the procedural steps out of order. This causes a reportable nuclear event. How can procedure-related human performance problems such as this be prevented? The question is vitally important for the nuclear industry. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data observed, open-quotes With the perceived reduction in the number of events caused by equipment failures, INPO and other industry groups and human performance experts agree that a key to continued improvement in plant performance and safety is improved human performance.close quotes In fact, open-quotes more than 50% of the reportable events occurring at nuclear power plants involve human error.close quotes Prevention (or correction) of a human performance problem is normally based on properly balancing the following three factors: (1) supervisory involvement; (2) personnel training; and (3) procedures. The nuclear industry is implementing a formula known as ACME, which better balances supervisory involvement, personnel training, and procedures. Webster's New World Dictionary defines acme as the highest point, the peak. ACME human performance is the goal: ACME Adherence to and use of procedures; Self-Checking; Management Involvement; and Event Investigations

  15. Human Engineering Modeling and Performance Lab Study Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    The HEMAP (Human Engineering Modeling and Performance) Lab is a joint effort between the Industrial and Human Engineering group and the KAVE (Kennedy Advanced Visualiations Environment) group. The lab consists of sixteen camera system that is used to capture human motions and operational tasks, through te use of a Velcro suit equipped with sensors, and then simulate these tasks in an ergonomic software package know as Jac, The Jack software is able to identify the potential risk hazards.

  16. Human Performance Assessments when Using Augmented Reality for Navigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldiez, Brian F; Saptoka, Nabin; Aedunuthula, Prashanth

    2006-01-01

    Human performance executing search and rescue type of navigation is one area that can benefit from augmented reality technology when the proper computer generated information is added to a real scene...

  17. Computational Modeling of Human Multiple-Task Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kieras, David E; Meyer, David

    2005-01-01

    This is the final report for a project that was a continuation of an earlier, long-term project on the development and validation of the EPIC cognitive architecture for modeling human cognition and performance...

  18. Job satisfaction and job performance – impacts on human capital

    OpenAIRE

    Gotvassli, Kjell-Åge; Haugset, Anne Sigrid

    2010-01-01

    Within macroeconomics it is a well established point of view that investments in human capital is important for the economic growth of a region. In this paper we will look at the connection between job satisfaction and job performance and its impact on the “use” of human capital.

  19. A Cross-Cultural Investigation of Human Performance Technology Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivelu, Ramaswamy N.

    2010-01-01

    Human Performance Technology (HPT) is a field of practice that has evolved from advancements in organizational development, instructional design, strategic human resource management and cognitive psychology. As globalization and trends like outsourcing and off-shoring start to dominate the way organizations grow, HPT practitioners are managing the…

  20. Squad Overmatch Study: Training Human Dimension to Enhance Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The Financier: Conduct tactical questioning of a suspect whom Soldiers contact in the market .  S3, House Call: Conduct a security patrol to make...Warrior Skills, Levels 2-4 List of Warrior Skills to Be Demonstrated  Analyze STP 21-24 to determine which tasks would be practiced in each training...presence and generally provides aid to the rebel forces. The patrol will enter the market to increase SA on the environment, observe a police checkpoint

  1. Effectiveness of Human Research Protection Program Performance Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsan, Min-Fu; Nguyen, Yen

    2017-10-01

    We analyzed human research protection program performance metric data of all Department of Veterans Affairs research facilities obtained from 2010 to 2016. Among a total of 25 performance metrics, 21 (84%) showed improvement, four (16%) remained unchanged, and none deteriorated during the study period. The overall improvement from these 21 performance metrics was 81.1% ± 18.7% (mean ± SD), with a range of 30% to 100%. The four performance metrics that did not show improvement all had initial noncompliance/incidence rates of performance metrics that showed improvement ranged from 0.05% to 60%. However, of the 21 performance metrics that showed improvement, 10 had initial noncompliance/incidence rates of performance measurement is an effective tool in improving the performance of human research protection programs.

  2. Xe enhanced CT in the human newborn infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuse, Yozen; Nemoto, Yuko; Shimizu, Mitsumasa; Uga, Naoki; Tada, Hiroshi; Fujii, Toshi; Machida, Keiichi; Kikuchi, Hideo; Izumi, Shigemitsu.

    1990-01-01

    With a cranial computed tomography (CT) using stable xenon gas as a diffusible tracer, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 6 newborn infants with a variety of neurological abnormalities. Gestational ages and birthweights were 35 to 43 weeks and 2436 to 3540 g, respectively. Four infants exhibited hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), one infant had subdural hemorrhage and the other one was the infant with hyponatremia. A baseline CT was done during denitrogenation by 100% oxygen breathing and then a mixture of 35% xenon and 65% oxygen was breathed for 6 minutes. Six scans were obtained during the inhalation period then the infant was returned to breathing 100% oxygen and additional 7 scans were taken. Four samples of arterial blood were collected every 2 minutes before and during inhalation of the xenon gas. A rCBF was calculated with the changes of Hounsfield units in brain tissue and arterial blood. Relatively high blood flows in the region of the basal nuclei as well as decreased flows in the occipital white matter were observed in the infants with HIE. In an infant with subdural hemorrhage, the blood flows were markedly reduced in the areas adjacent to the lesion, including the basal nuclei, and frontal white matter in the opposite hemisphere. Xenon-enhanced CT by inhaling low concentration of the xenon gas enables to measure rCBF in the human newborn infants without no obvious side effect. (author)

  3. Specific Human Capital as a Source of Superior Team Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Egon Franck; Stephan Nüesch; Jan Pieper

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we empirically investigate the performance effect of team-specific human capital in highly interactive teams. Based on the tenets of the resource-based view of the firm and on the ideas of typical learning functions, we hypothesize that team members’ shared experience in working together positively impacts team performance, but at diminishing rates. Holding a team’s stock of general human capital and other potential drivers constant, we find support for this prediction. Implica...

  4. Copolymer-1 enhances cognitive performance in young adult rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Alfredo; Cruz-Martínez, Yolanda; Anaya-Jiménez, Rosa María; Liy-Salmerón, Gustavo; Carvajal, Horacio Guillermo; Ponce-López, Maria Teresa

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a dysfunction observed as a sequel of various neurodegenerative diseases, as well as a concomitant element in the elderly stages of life. In clinical settings, this malfunction is identified as mild cognitive impairment. Previous studies have suggested that cognitive impairment could be the result of a reduction in the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and/or immune dysfunction. Copolymer-1 (Cop-1) is an FDA-approved synthetic peptide capable of inducing the activation of Th2/3 cells, which are able to release BDNF, as well as to migrate and accumulate in the brain. In this study, we evaluated the effect of Cop-1 immunization on improvement of cognition in adult rats. For this purpose, we performed four experiments. We evaluated the effect of Cop-1 immunization on learning/memory using the Morris water maze for spatial memory and autoshaping for associative memory in 3- or 6-month-old rats. BDNF concentrations at the hippocampus were determined by ELISA. Cop-1 immunization induced a significant improvement of spatial memory and associative memory in 6-month-old rats. Likewise, Cop-1 improved spatial memory and associative memory when animals were immunized at 3 months and evaluated at 6 months old. Additionally, Cop-1 induced a significant increase in BDNF levels at the hippocampus. To our knowledge, the present investigation reports the first instance of Cop-1 treatment enhancing cognitive function in normal young adult rats, suggesting that Cop-1 may be a practical therapeutic strategy potentially useful for age- or disease-related cognitive impairment. PMID:29494605

  5. Enhanced performance of ultracapacitors using redox additive-based electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Dharmendra; Kanungo, Jitendra; Tripathi, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    Different concentrations of potassium iodide (KI) as redox additive had been added to 1 M sulfuric acid (H2SO4) electrolyte with an aim of enhancing the capacitance and energy density of ultracapacitors via redox reactions at the interfaces of electrode-electrolyte. Ultracapacitors were fabricated using chemically treated activated carbon as electrode with H2SO4 and H2SO4-KI as an electrolyte. The electrochemical performances of fabricated supercapacitors were investigated by impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge techniques. The maximum capacitance ` C' was observed with redox additives-based electrolyte system comprising 1 M H2SO4-0.3 M KI (1072 F g- 1), which is very much higher than conventional 1 M H2SO4 (61.3 F g- 1) aqueous electrolyte-based ultracapacitors. It corresponds to an energy density of 20.49 Wh kg- 1 at 2.1 A g- 1 for redox additive-based electrolyte, which is six times higher as compared to that of pristine electrolyte (1 M H2SO4) having energy density of only 3.36 Wh kg- 1. The temperature dependence behavior of fabricated cell was also analyzed, which shows increasing pattern in its capacitance values in a temperature range of 5-70 °C. Under cyclic stability test, redox electrolyte-based system shows almost 100% capacitance retention up to 5000 cycles and even more. For comparison, ultracapacitors based on polymer gel electrolyte polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) (10 wt%)—{H2SO4 (1 M)-KI (0.3 M)} (90 wt%) have been fabricated and characterized with the same electrode materials.

  6. Managing Human Performance to Improve Nuclear Facility Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world.' One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property'. The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in Member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia, and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. IAEA Nuclear Energy Series No. NG-G-2.1, Managing Human Resources in the Field of Nuclear Energy, was published in 2009. In that publication, four interrelated objectives of the management of human resources were identified and discussed: ensuring that nuclear industry personnel have the necessary competence for their jobs; effectively organizing work activities; anticipating human resource needs; and monitoring and continually improving performance. This publication addresses the fourth objective and, in particular, summarizes good practices in the area of managing human performance

  7. Electrical noise modulates perception of electrical pulses in humans: sensation enhancement via stochastic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulos, Fivos; Nierhaus, Till; Villringer, Arno

    2014-03-01

    Although noise is usually considered to be harmful for signal detection and information transmission, stochastic resonance (SR) describes the counterintuitive phenomenon of noise enhancing the detection and transmission of weak input signals. In mammalian sensory systems, SR-related phenomena may arise both in the peripheral and the central nervous system. Here, we investigate behavioral SR effects of subliminal electrical noise stimulation on the perception of somatosensory stimuli in humans. We compare the likelihood to detect near-threshold pulses of different intensities applied on the left index finger during presence vs. absence of subliminal noise on the same or an adjacent finger. We show that (low-pass) noise can enhance signal detection when applied on the same finger. This enhancement is strong for near-threshold pulses below the 50% detection threshold and becomes stronger when near-threshold pulses are applied as brief trains. The effect reverses at pulse intensities above threshold, especially when noise is replaced by subliminal sinusoidal stimulation, arguing for a peripheral direct current addition. Unfiltered noise applied on longer pulses enhances detection of all pulse intensities. Noise applied to an adjacent finger has two opposing effects: an inhibiting effect (presumably due to lateral inhibition) and an enhancing effect (most likely due to SR in the central nervous system). In summary, we demonstrate that subliminal noise can significantly modulate detection performance of near-threshold stimuli. Our results indicate SR effects in the peripheral and central nervous system.

  8. A Perspective on Computational Human Performance Models as Design Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia M.

    2010-01-01

    The design of interactive systems, including levels of automation, displays, and controls, is usually based on design guidelines and iterative empirical prototyping. A complementary approach is to use computational human performance models to evaluate designs. An integrated strategy of model-based and empirical test and evaluation activities is particularly attractive as a methodology for verification and validation of human-rated systems for commercial space. This talk will review several computational human performance modeling approaches and their applicability to design of display and control requirements.

  9. Human performance in nondestructive inspections and functional tests: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.H.

    1988-10-01

    Human performance plays a vital role in the inspections and tests conducted to assure the physical integrity of nuclear power plants. Even when technically-sophisticated equipment is employed, the outcome is highly dependent on human control actions, calibrations, observations, analyses, and interpretations. The principal consequences of inadequate performance are missed or falsely-reported defects. However, the cost-avoidance that stems from addressing potential risks promptly, and the increasing costs likely with aging plants, emphasize that timeliness and efficiency are important inspection-performance considerations also. Human performance issues were studied in a sample of inspections and tests regularly conducted in nuclear power plants. These tasks, selected by an industry advisory panel, were: eddy-current inspection of steam-generator tubes; ultrasonic inspection of pipe welds; inservice testing of pumps and valves; and functional testing of shock suppressors. Information was obtained for the study from industry and plant procedural documents; training materials; research reports and related documents; interviews with training specialists, inspectors, supervisory personnel, and equipment designers; and first-hand observations of task performance. Eleven recommendations are developed for improving human performance on nondestructive inspections and functional tests. Two recommendations were for the more-effective application of existing knowledge; nine recommendations were for research projects that should be undertaken to assure continuing improvements in human performance on these tasks. 25 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  10. Principals' Human Capital Development Practices for Enhancing Staff Personnel Administration in Secondary Schools in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidi, Nnebedum; Victor, Akinfolarin Akinwale

    2017-01-01

    Unsatisfactory performance of secondary school students in external examinations in Oyo State seems to suggest lapses in principals' application of human capital development practices especially in the areas of training and mentoring of teachers to enhance instructional delivery. This unpleasant state of affair necessitated the researchers to…

  11. Theory Development and Convergence of Human Resource Fields: Implications for Human Performance Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yonjoo; Yoon, Seung Won

    2010-01-01

    This study examines major theory developments in human resource (HR) fields and discusses implications for human performance technology (HPT). Differentiated HR fields are converging to improve organizational performance through knowledge-based innovations. Ruona and Gibson (2004) made a similar observation and analyzed the historical evolution…

  12. Performance Enhancement with Low Stress and Anxiety Modulated by Cognitive Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyung Woo; Kee, Baik Seok; Na, Churl; Na, Do-Hyun E.; Zaichkowsky, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare cognitive flexibility abilities, stress, and anxiety between starters and non-starter athletes. Methods A total of 30 male professional-soccer and 40 professional-baseball athletes were recruited. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Trail Making Test A & B (TMT A & B) were administered to assess cognitive flexibility during competition. The Korean version of the STAI form Y (STAI-KY) and Visual analogue scale for anxiety and stress were used to assess the anxiety and stress. Results The starter group had better cognitive function (fewer perseverative errors and rapid TMTB times) (Z=3.32, panxiety (F=4.34, p=0.01; F=6.61, pcognitive performances were negatively correlated with stress and anxiety. Current results suggested that cognitive flexibility would enhance human performance by modulation of the anxiety and stress during competition. PMID:21994509

  13. Performance-enhancing substances in sports: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momaya, Amit; Fawal, Marc; Estes, Reed

    2015-04-01

    Performance-enhancing substances (PESs) have unfortunately become ubiquitous in numerous sports, often tarnishing the spirit of competition. Reported rates of PES use among athletes are variable and range from 5 to 31%. More importantly, some of these substances pose a serious threat to the health and well-being of athletes. Common PESs include anabolic-androgenic steroids, human growth hormone, creatine, erythropoietin and blood doping, amphetamines and stimulants, and beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate. With recent advances in technology, gene doping is also becoming more conceivable. Sports medicine physicians are often unfamiliar with these substances and thus do not routinely broach the topic of PESs with their patients. However, to effect positive change in the sports community, physicians must educate themselves about the physiology, performance benefits, adverse effects, and testing methods. In turn, physicians can then educate athletes at all levels and prevent the use of potentially dangerous PESs.

  14. Vehicle and enhancer effects on human skin penetration of aminophylline from cream formulations: evaluation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lai-Hao; Wang, Chia-Chen; Kuo, Su-Ching

    2007-01-01

    The effects of four essential oils (rosemary, ylang, lilacin, and peppermint oils), and three plant oils (jojoba oil, corn germ oil, and olive oil) on the permeation of aminophylline were studied using human skin. The permeation effects of these oils were compared with those of three chemical penetration enhancers. Although all oils enhanced the permeation of aminophylline, their effects were less than that of ethanol. Jojoba oil was found to be the most active, causing about a 32% peak height decrease of N-H bending absorbances in comparison with the control, while peppermint, lilacin, rosemary, and ylang oils caused 28%, 24%, 18%, and 12% peak height decreases, respectively. Microemulsions containing 10% jojoba oil and 30% corn germ oil were found to be superior vehicles for the percutaneous absorption of aminophylline. Comparision with results obtained from high-performance liquid chromatography shows good agreement.

  15. Working group 4B - human intrusion: Design/performance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channell, J.

    1993-01-01

    There is no summary of the progress made by working group 4B (Human Intrusion: Design/performance Requirements) during the Electric Power Research Institute's EPRI Workshop on the technical basis of EPA HLW Disposal Criteria, March 1993. This group was to discuss the waste disposal standard, 40 CFR Part 191, in terms of the design and performance requirements of human intrusion. Instead, because there were so few members, they combined with working group 4A and studied the three-tier approach to evaluating postclosure performance

  16. A new method to evaluate human-robot system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, G.; Weisbin, C. R.

    2003-01-01

    One of the key issues in space exploration is that of deciding what space tasks are best done with humans, with robots, or a suitable combination of each. In general, human and robot skills are complementary. Humans provide as yet unmatched capabilities to perceive, think, and act when faced with anomalies and unforeseen events, but there can be huge potential risks to human safety in getting these benefits. Robots provide complementary skills in being able to work in extremely risky environments, but their ability to perceive, think, and act by themselves is currently not error-free, although these capabilities are continually improving with the emergence of new technologies. Substantial past experience validates these generally qualitative notions. However, there is a need for more rigorously systematic evaluation of human and robot roles, in order to optimize the design and performance of human-robot system architectures using well-defined performance evaluation metrics. This article summarizes a new analytical method to conduct such quantitative evaluations. While the article focuses on evaluating human-robot systems, the method is generally applicable to a much broader class of systems whose performance needs to be evaluated.

  17. Enhancement of P53-Mutant Human Colorectal Cancer Cells Radiosensitivity by Flavonoid Fisetin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wenshu; Lee Yijang; Yu Yichu; Hsaio Chinghui

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate whether fisetin is a potential radiosensitizer for human colorectal cancer cells, which are relatively resistant to radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Cell survival was examined by clonogenic survival assay, and DNA fragmentation was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay. The effects of treatments on cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were examined by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was performed to ascertain the protein levels of γ-H2AX, phospho-Chk2, active caspase-3, PARP cleavage, phospho-p38, phospho-AKT, and phospho-ERK1/2. Results: Fisetin pretreatment enhanced the radiosensitivity of p53-mutant HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells but not human keratocyte HaCaT cells; it also prolonged radiation-induced G 2 /M arrest, enhanced radiation-induced cell growth arrest in HT-29 cells, and suppressed radiation-induced phospho-H2AX (Ser-139) and phospho-Chk2 (Thr-68) in p53-mutant HT-29 cells. Pretreatment with fisetin enhanced radiation-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in HT-29 cells. Fisetin pretreatment augmented radiation-induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, which is involved in caspase-mediated apoptosis, and SB202190 significantly reduced apoptosis and radiosensitivity in fisetin-pretreated HT-29 cells. By contrast, both phospho-AKT and phospho-ERK1/2, which are involved in cell proliferation and antiapoptotic pathways, were suppressed after irradiation combined with fisetin pretreatment. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide evidence that fisetin exerts a radiosensitizing effect in p53-mutant HT-29 cells. Fisetin could potentially be developed as a novel radiosensitizer against radioresistant human cancer cells.

  18. Processes, Performance Drivers and ICT Tools in Human Resources Management

    OpenAIRE

    Oškrdal Václav; Pavlíček Antonín; Jelínková Petra

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an insight to processes, performance drivers and ICT tools in human resources (HR) management area. On the basis of a modern approach to HR management, a set of business processes that are handled by today’s HR managers is defined. Consequently, the concept of ICT-supported performance drivers and their relevance in the area of HR management as well as the relationship between HR business processes, performance drivers and ICT tools are defined. The theoretical outcomes ...

  19. Aversive pavlovian responses affect human instrumental motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoli, Francesco; Pavone, Enea Francesco; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    IN NEUROSCIENCE AND PSYCHOLOGY, AN INFLUENTIAL PERSPECTIVE DISTINGUISHES BETWEEN TWO KINDS OF BEHAVIORAL CONTROL: instrumental (habitual and goal-directed) and Pavlovian. Understanding the instrumental-Pavlovian interaction is fundamental for the comprehension of decision-making. Animal studies (as those using the negative auto-maintenance paradigm), have demonstrated that Pavlovian mechanisms can have maladaptive effects on instrumental performance. However, evidence for a similar effect in humans is scarce. In addition, the mechanisms modulating the impact of Pavlovian responses on instrumental performance are largely unknown, both in human and non-human animals. The present paper describes a behavioral experiment investigating the effects of Pavlovian conditioned responses on performance in humans, focusing on the aversive domain. Results showed that Pavlovian responses influenced human performance, and, similar to animal studies, could have maladaptive effects. In particular, Pavlovian responses either impaired or increased performance depending on modulator variables such as threat distance, task controllability, punishment history, amount of training, and explicit punishment expectancy. Overall, these findings help elucidating the computational mechanisms underlying the instrumental-Pavlovian interaction, which might be at the base of apparently irrational phenomena in economics, social behavior, and psychopathology.

  20. Aversive Pavlovian responses affect human instrumental motor performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eRigoli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In neuroscience and psychology, an influential perspective distinguishes between two kinds of behavioural control: instrumental (habitual and goal-directed and Pavlovian. Understanding the instrumental-Pavlovian interaction is fundamental for the comprehension of decision-making. Animal studies (as those using the negative auto-maintenance paradigm, have demonstrated that Pavlovian mechanisms can have maladaptive effects on instrumental performance. However, evidence for a similar effect in humans is scarce. In addition, the mechanisms modulating the impact of Pavlovian responses on instrumental performance are largely unknown, both in human and non-human animals. The present paper describes a behavioural experiment investigating the effects of Pavlovian conditioned responses on performance in humans, focusing on the aversive domain. Results showed that Pavlovian responses influenced human performance, and, similar to animal studies, could have maladaptive effects. In particular, Pavlovian responses either impaired or increased performance depending on modulator variables such as threat distance, task controllability, punishment history, amount of training, and explicit punishment expectancy. Overall, these findings help elucidating the computational mechanisms underlying the instrumental-Pavlovian interaction, which might be at the base of apparently irrational phenomena in economics, social behaviour, and psychopathology.

  1. Endostar, a recombined humanized endostatin, enhances the radioresponse for human nasopharyngeal carcinoma and human lung adenocarcinoma xenografts in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Qinglian; Meng Maobin; Tu Lingli; Jia Li; Zhou Lin; Xu Yong; Lu You; Yang Bo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine the efficacy of combining radiation therapy with endostar, a recombined humanized endostatin, in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma and human lung adenocarcinoma xenografts. Tumor xenografts were established in the hind limb of male athymic nude mice (BALB/c-nu) by subcutaneous transplantation. The tumor-bearing mice were assigned into four treatment groups: sham therapy (control), endostar (20 mg/kg, once daily for 10 days), radiation therapy (6 Gray per day to 30 Gray, once a day for 1 week), and endostar plus radiation therapy (combination). The experiment was repeated and mice were killed at days 3, 6, and 10 after initiation therapy, and the tumor tissues and blood samples were collected to analyze the kinetics of antitumor, antiangiogenesis, and antivascularization responses of different therapies. In human nasopharyngeal carcinoma and human lung adenocarcinoma xenografts, endostar significantly enhanced the effects of tumor growth inhibition, endothelial cell and tumor cell apoptosis induction, and improved tumor cell hypoxia of radiation therapy. Histological analyses demonstrated that endostar plus radiation also induced a significant reduction in microvascular density, microvascular area, and vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression compared with radiation and endostar alone respectively. We concluded that endostar significantly sensitized the function of radiation in antitumor and antiangiogenesis in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma and human lung adenocarcinoma xenografts by increasing the apoptosis of the endothelial cell and tumor cell, improving the hypoxia of the tumor cell, and changing the proangiogenic factors. These data provided a rational basis for clinical practice of this multimodality therapy. (author)

  2. Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.S.; O'Hara, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance

  3. Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I.S.; O' Hara, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

  4. Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I.S.; O`Hara, J.M.

    1993-05-01

    Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

  5. Performance of taste enhancers mixed with cereal bases and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baiting technique if appropriately applied is the most reliable strategy to control rodent pests. Behavior modifying components may play a significant role in developing the most attractive baits. An attempt was therefore made to investigate the behavior revolutionizing effect of taste enhancers including peanut oil, peanut ...

  6. Enhancement of the Performance of a Transfer Field Electric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the enhancement of the output power and power factor of a transfer field machine operating in the asynchronous mode by direct capacitance injection into the auxiliary winding of the machine, which is electrically isolated from the main winding but magnetically coupled to it. It is shown that by proper ...

  7. Enhanced water desalination performance through hierarchically-structured ceramic membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Tong; Lei, Libin; Gu, Jianqiang; Wang, Yao; Winnubst, Louis; Chen, Chusheng; Ye, Chunsong; Chen, Fanglin

    2017-01-01

    Developments of membrane water desalination are impeded by low water vapor flux across the membrane. We present an innovative membrane design to significantly enhance the water vapor flux. A bilayer zirconia-based membrane with a thick hierarchically-structured support and a thin functional layer is

  8. Minimizing Human Risk: Human Performance Models in the Space Human Factors and Habitability and Behavioral Health and Performance Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Brian F.

    2016-01-01

    Human space exploration has never been more exciting than it is today. Human presence to outer worlds is becoming a reality as humans are leveraging much of our prior knowledge to the new mission of going to Mars. Exploring the solar system at greater distances from Earth than ever before will possess some unique challenges, which can be overcome thanks to the advances in modeling and simulation technologies. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is at the forefront of exploring our solar system. NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) focuses on discovering the best methods and technologies that support safe and productive human space travel in the extreme and harsh space environment. HRP uses various methods and approaches to answer questions about the impact of long duration missions on the human in space including: gravity's impact on the human body, isolation and confinement on the human, hostile environments impact on the human, space radiation, and how the distance is likely to impact the human. Predictive models are included in the HRP research portfolio as these models provide valuable insights into human-system operations. This paper will provide an overview of NASA's HRP and will present a number of projects that have used modeling and simulation to provide insights into human-system issues (e.g. automation, habitat design, schedules) in anticipation of space exploration.

  9. Political Minimalism and Social Debates: The Case of Human-Enhancement Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Alcázar, Javier

    2017-09-01

    A faulty understanding of the relationship between morality and politics encumbers many contemporary debates on human enhancement. As a result, some ethical reflections on enhancement undervalue its social dimensions, while some social approaches to the topic lack normative import. In this essay, I use my own conception of the relationship between ethics and politics, which I call "political minimalism," in order to support and strengthen the existing social perspectives on human-enhancement technologies.

  10. Electromagnetic Modeling of Human Body Using High Performance Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Cho-Kuen; Beall, Mark; Ge, Lixin; Kim, Sanghoek; Klaas, Ottmar; Poon, Ada

    Realistic simulation of electromagnetic wave propagation in the actual human body can expedite the investigation of the phenomenon of harvesting implanted devices using wireless powering coupled from external sources. The parallel electromagnetics code suite ACE3P developed at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is based on the finite element method for high fidelity accelerator simulation, which can be enhanced to model electromagnetic wave propagation in the human body. Starting with a CAD model of a human phantom that is characterized by a number of tissues, a finite element mesh representing the complex geometries of the individual tissues is built for simulation. Employing an optimal power source with a specific pattern of field distribution, the propagation and focusing of electromagnetic waves in the phantom has been demonstrated. Substantial speedup of the simulation is achieved by using multiple compute cores on supercomputers.

  11. Enhancing Interest and Performance with a Utility Value Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulleman, Chris S.; Godes, Olga; Hendricks, Bryan L.; Harackiewicz, Judith M.

    2010-01-01

    We tested whether a utility value intervention (via manipulated relevance) influenced interest and performance on a task and whether this intervention had different effects depending on an individual's performance expectations or prior performance. Interest was defined as triggered situational interest (i.e., affective and emotional task…

  12. Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence of enhanced performance monitoring in meditators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreu, C.I.; Moënne-Loccoz, C.; López, V.; Slagter, H.A.; Franken, I.H.A.; Cosmelli, D.

    2017-01-01

    Performance monitoring—the ability to monitor ongoing performance to detect and correct errors—is a core component of cognitive control. Impairments in performance monitoring have been associated with several psychiatric disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance use

  13. Editorial: Technology for higher education, adult learning and human performance

    OpenAIRE

    Minhong Wang; Chi-Cheng Chang; Feng Wu

    2013-01-01

    This special issue is dedicated to technology-enabled approaches for improving higher education, adult learning, and human performance. Improvement of learning and human development for sustainable development has been recognized as a key strategy for individuals, institutions, and organizations to strengthen their competitive advantages. It becomes crucial to help adult learners and knowledge workers to improve their self-directed and life-long learning capabilities. Meanwhile, advances in t...

  14. A Strategy for Accomplishing Human-Performance Monitoring of Constructing NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Chanho; Jung, Yeonsub [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The main purpose of HPM(Human performance monitoring) is that no significant safety degradation occurs due to changes in design, procedures, training, or staffing during the plant operation. Accordingly, the strategy for accomplishing HPM should be to maintain the acceptable level of human performance for safety operation. This paper presents a strategy to fulfill HPM effectively for constructing NPPs in Korea. Activities for HPM in constructing plants need to be divided into two large parts on the basis of the fuel loading, which could be a good strategy to accomplish HPM effectively. That is, the activities such as making HPM plan and developing its indexes are performed before the fuel loading, while the activities of maintaining acceptable HP levels are conducted after the fuel loading. This HPM strategy includes not only maintaining the criteria of human performance established during ISV, but also improving human performance through existing activities during the plant operation. Constructing plants will also make actively use of the existing programs for enhancing human performance.

  15. Supporting human performance in operations - principles for new nuclear build

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, L.; Davey, E.

    2006-01-01

    Operational experience worldwide continues to demonstrate that human performance is a key factor in the ongoing safety, production, and protection of investment in operation of nuclear plants for electricity generation. Human performance in support of plant operational objectives can be influenced by a range of factors, for example: organizational culture and expectations; role assignments, training, and individual and team behaviours; and the support offered by the workplace environment, tools, and task design. This paper outlines a perspective on some of the principles that should be considered for application in the design of new nuclear build to facilitate support for human performance in plant operations. The principles identified focus on but are not limited to the tasks of shift staff, and are derived from the observations and experience of the authors who are experienced with control room operations in current plants. (author)

  16. Supporting human performance in operations - principles for new nuclear build

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, L. [Ontario Power Generation, Darlington Nuclear Div., Bowmanville, Ontario (Canada); Davey, E. [Crew Systems Solutions, Deep River, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Operational experience worldwide continues to demonstrate that human performance is a key factor in the ongoing safety, production, and protection of investment in operation of nuclear plants for electricity generation. Human performance in support of plant operational objectives can be influenced by a range of factors, for example: organizational culture and expectations; role assignments, training, and individual and team behaviours; and the support offered by the workplace environment, tools, and task design. This paper outlines a perspective on some of the principles that should be considered for application in the design of new nuclear build to facilitate support for human performance in plant operations. The principles identified focus on but are not limited to the tasks of shift staff, and are derived from the observations and experience of the authors who are experienced with control room operations in current plants. (author)

  17. Human performance modeling for system of systems analytics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Kevin R.; Lawton, Craig R.; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Longsine, Dennis E. (INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX); Forsythe, James Chris; Gauthier, John Henry; Le, Hai D.

    2008-10-01

    A Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project was initiated in 2005 to investigate Human Performance Modeling in a System of Systems analytic environment. SAND2006-6569 and SAND2006-7911 document interim results from this effort; this report documents the final results. The problem is difficult because of the number of humans involved in a System of Systems environment and the generally poorly defined nature of the tasks that each human must perform. A two-pronged strategy was followed: one prong was to develop human models using a probability-based method similar to that first developed for relatively well-understood probability based performance modeling; another prong was to investigate more state-of-art human cognition models. The probability-based modeling resulted in a comprehensive addition of human-modeling capability to the existing SoSAT computer program. The cognitive modeling resulted in an increased understanding of what is necessary to incorporate cognition-based models to a System of Systems analytic environment.

  18. Enhanced Performance of Bipolar Cascade Light Emitting Diodes by Doping the Aluminum Oxide Apertures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siskaninetz, William

    2004-01-01

    Performance improvements in multiple-stage, single-cavity bipolar cascade light emitting diodes including reduced operating voltages, enhanced light generation, and reduced device heating are obtained...

  19. Expanding the human-machine interface model to address the effect of leadership and management on performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briant, V.S.; Childress, J.R.; Hannaman, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    The US nuclear industry now focuses on improving plant performance in measurable areas such as availability, safety, and operations. Risk assessment and pioneering work in human reliability analysis (HRA) have provided methods to identify and prioritize numerous design improvements. Improvements such as control room design, training, and procedures have contributed positively to plant performance. Human performance is increasingly recognized as a fundamental contributor to safe, economic, and reliable operation. Industry leaders suggest that improved leadership and management are keys to enhanced plant performance. This paper identifies several critical aspects of individual and group behavior that, if managed, could significantly contribute to improved performance. Some existing tools for measuring performance are cited

  20. Enhanced Portfolio Performance Using a Momentum Approach to Annual Rebalancing

    OpenAIRE

    Michael D. Mattei

    2018-01-01

    After diversification, periodic portfolio rebalancing has become one of the most widely practiced methods for reducing portfolio risk and enhancing returns. Most of the rebalancing strategies found in the literature are generally regarded as contrarian approaches to rebalancing. A recent article proposed a rebalancing approach that incorporates a momentum approach to rebalancing. The momentum approach had a better risk adjusted return than either the traditional approach or a Buy-and-Hold app...

  1. The Effect of Noise on Human Performance: A Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Nassiri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Noise is defined as unwanted or meaningless sound that apart from auditory adverse health effects may distract attention from cues that are important for task performance. Human performance is influenced by many job-related factors and workplace conditions including noise level. Objective: To study the effect of noise on human performance. Methods: The participants included 40 healthy male university students. The experimental design consisted of 3 (sound pressure level x 3 (noise schedule x 2 (noise type factors. To investigate occupational skill performance, some specific test batteries were used: 1 steadiness test, 2 Minnesota manual dexterity test, 3 hand tool dexterity test, and 4 two-arm coordination test. Time duration of test completion was measured as speed response; to determine error response, the time taken during committing an error by participants while performing a task was measured. Results: Speed response obtained from the 4 tests in combined conditions of noise schedule, harmonic index, and sound pressure level was highest for (intermittent, treble, 95 dB, (continuous, treble, 95 dB, (continuous, treble, 85 dB and (intermittent, treble, 95 dB, respectively. Conclusion: Treble noise was found significant in reducing human performance; also, intermittent noise, especially at high pressure levels, was responsible for worsening environmental conditions during performing a task.

  2. Enhancing pavement performance prediction models for the Illinois Tollway System

    OpenAIRE

    Laxmikanth Premkumar; William R. Vavrik

    2016-01-01

    Accurate pavement performance prediction represents an important role in prioritizing future maintenance and rehabilitation needs, and predicting future pavement condition in a pavement management system. The Illinois State Toll Highway Authority (Tollway) with over 2000 lane miles of pavement utilizes the condition rating survey (CRS) methodology to rate pavement performance. Pavement performance models developed in the past for the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) are used by th...

  3. Applying Neuroscience to Enhance Tactical Leader Cognitive Performance in Combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    highlights works inspired by neuroscience discoveries in the last twenty years. Neuroscience Literature and Research In his 1994 book, Descartes ’ Error...http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/ facts.html (accessed 9 October 2011). Damasio, Antonio. 1994. Descartes ’ error: Emotion, reason, and the human

  4. Enhancement of broiler performance and immune response by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-19

    Sep 19, 2011 ... response by Echinacea purpurea supplemented in diet. Saied Habibian ... E. purpurea, animal and human studies have shown that. E. purpurea had .... claimed that E. purpurea extract as a feed additive for broilers and layers is .... Echinacea: biological effects and active principles, In: Phytomedicines of ...

  5. Human Performance Optimization Metrics: Consensus Findings, Gaps, and Recommendations for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nindl, Bradley C; Jaffin, Dianna P; Dretsch, Michael N; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Wesensten, Nancy J; Kent, Michael L; Grunberg, Neil E; Pierce, Joseph R; Barry, Erin S; Scott, Jonathan M; Young, Andrew J; OʼConnor, Francis G; Deuster, Patricia A

    2015-11-01

    Human performance optimization (HPO) is defined as "the process of applying knowledge, skills and emerging technologies to improve and preserve the capabilities of military members, and organizations to execute essential tasks." The lack of consensus for operationally relevant and standardized metrics that meet joint military requirements has been identified as the single most important gap for research and application of HPO. In 2013, the Consortium for Health and Military Performance hosted a meeting to develop a toolkit of standardized HPO metrics for use in military and civilian research, and potentially for field applications by commanders, units, and organizations. Performance was considered from a holistic perspective as being influenced by various behaviors and barriers. To accomplish the goal of developing a standardized toolkit, key metrics were identified and evaluated across a spectrum of domains that contribute to HPO: physical performance, nutritional status, psychological status, cognitive performance, environmental challenges, sleep, and pain. These domains were chosen based on relevant data with regard to performance enhancers and degraders. The specific objectives at this meeting were to (a) identify and evaluate current metrics for assessing human performance within selected domains; (b) prioritize metrics within each domain to establish a human performance assessment toolkit; and (c) identify scientific gaps and the needed research to more effectively assess human performance across domains. This article provides of a summary of 150 total HPO metrics across multiple domains that can be used as a starting point-the beginning of an HPO toolkit: physical fitness (29 metrics), nutrition (24 metrics), psychological status (36 metrics), cognitive performance (35 metrics), environment (12 metrics), sleep (9 metrics), and pain (5 metrics). These metrics can be particularly valuable as the military emphasizes a renewed interest in Human Dimension efforts

  6. Control Design of VSIs to Enhance Transient Performance in Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, de Bosio; Antonio DeSouza Ribeiro, Luiz; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the control design for an islanded microgrid in order to ensure acceptable performance in terms of voltage quality and load sharing by focusing on transient conditions. To this aim, state feedback decoupling approach has been applied. Experimental tests have been performed...

  7. Identification of Enhancers In Human: Advances In Computational Studies

    KAUST Repository

    Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios A.

    2016-01-01

    Finally, we take a step further by developing a novel feature selection method suitable for defining a computational framework capable of analyzing the genomic content of enhancers and reporting cell-line specific predictive signatures.

  8. Muramyl Peptide-Enhanced Sleep: Pharmacological Optimization of Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    endotoxin, and I FN c’iti ,I ,r lcli 1)!,.pacid metabolism (31) , thus possibly alteriir, PD proict ion: 11(i *PcD( C2’. enhance release of %I11( 104...interleukin-l in homeostasis. In: The Phys- iologic, Metabolic , and Immunologic Actions of Interleukin-l, edited by M. J. Kluger, J. J. Oppenheim...1980. 99. Sakaguchi, S., S. F. Glotzbach, and H. C. Heller. Influence of hypot!;a- lamic and ambient temperatures on sleep in kangaroo rats. Am. J

  9. A broader consideration of human factor to enhance sustainable building design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaianese, Erminia

    2012-01-01

    The link between ergonomic/human factor and sustainability seems to be clearly evidenced mainly in relation to social dimension of sustainability, in order to contribute to assure corporate social responsibility and global value creation. But the will to establish an equilibrated connection among used resources in human activities, supported by the sustainability perspective, evidences that the contribution of ergonomics/human factors can be effectively enlarged to other aspects, especially in relation to building design. In fact a sustainable building is meant to be a building that contributes, through its characteristics and attribute, to a sustainable development by assuring, in the same time, a decrease of resources use and environmental impact and an increase of health, safety and comfort of the occupants. The purpose of this paper is to analyze in a broader sense the contribution of ergonomic/human factor to design of sustainable building, focusing how ergonomics principles, methodology and techniques can improve building design, enhancing its sustainability performance during all phases of building lifecycle.

  10. Performance enhancement of a solar still using cotton regenerative medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirumalai Gopal Sakthivel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance of a single slope solar still using cotton cloth regenerative medium. The performance was evaluated under the metrological conditions of Chennai city in India during the summer months of 2016. Two single-slope solar stills are fabricated with an effective area of 0.5 m2 with various thicknesses (2, 4, 6, and 8 mm of cotton cloth were used for the performance comparison. The results showed, the solar still with 6 mm thick cotton assisted regenerative solar still has about 28% improved productivity when compared to conventional solar still.

  11. Noradrenergic enhancement of associative fear memory in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeter, M.; Kindt, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ample evidence in animals and humans supports the noradrenergic modulation in the formation of emotional memory. However, in humans the effects of stress on emotional memory are traditionally investigated by declarative memory tests (e.g., recall, recognition) for non-associative emotional stimuli

  12. Engineering Substantially Prolonged Human Lifespans: Biotechnological Enhancement and Ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkx, P.H.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Substantial extension of the human lifespan has recently become a subject of lively debate. One reason for this is the completion in 2001 of the Human Genome Project and the experimental avenues for biogerontological research it has opened. Another is recent theoretical progress in biogerontology.

  13. Enhancement of human capital assets role in current economic situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pechenaia Liudmila Timofeevna

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents transformation of the notion “human capital assets” in economics. Methodical approaches to evaluation of human capital assets and involvement in innovation process. Generalization of theoretical overview data allows conclusion about strong interest to this economic category, testifying to good promise of this field development.

  14. Correlation between human observer performance and model observer performance in differential phase contrast CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ke; Garrett, John; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: With the recently expanding interest and developments in x-ray differential phase contrast CT (DPC-CT), the evaluation of its task-specific detection performance and comparison with the corresponding absorption CT under a given radiation dose constraint become increasingly important. Mathematical model observers are often used to quantify the performance of imaging systems, but their correlations with actual human observers need to be confirmed for each new imaging method. This work is an investigation of the effects of stochastic DPC-CT noise on the correlation of detection performance between model and human observers with signal-known-exactly (SKE) detection tasks.Methods: The detectabilities of different objects (five disks with different diameters and two breast lesion masses) embedded in an experimental DPC-CT noise background were assessed using both model and human observers. The detectability of the disk and lesion signals was then measured using five types of model observers including the prewhitening ideal observer, the nonprewhitening (NPW) observer, the nonprewhitening observer with eye filter and internal noise (NPWEi), the prewhitening observer with eye filter and internal noise (PWEi), and the channelized Hotelling observer (CHO). The same objects were also evaluated by four human observers using the two-alternative forced choice method. The results from the model observer experiment were quantitatively compared to the human observer results to assess the correlation between the two techniques.Results: The contrast-to-detail (CD) curve generated by the human observers for the disk-detection experiments shows that the required contrast to detect a disk is inversely proportional to the square root of the disk size. Based on the CD curves, the ideal and NPW observers tend to systematically overestimate the performance of the human observers. The NPWEi and PWEi observers did not predict human performance well either, as the slopes of their CD

  15. The Impact of Human Capital on Company performance Abera D

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    capital development towards accelerating the economic growth by devoting necessary ... extent does human capital create impact on firm performance? This study ... Till 2010 majority of their exports are semi-processed leather products such as pickled ...... Leather Industry Development Institute, AAU MSc thesis economics.

  16. Synthesizing Soft Systems Methodology and Human Performance Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Glen; Winiecki, Donald J.

    2012-01-01

    Human performance technology (HPT), like other concepts, models, and frameworks that we use to describe the world in which we live and the way we organize ourselves to accomplish valuable activities, is built from paradigms that were fresh and relevant at the time it was conceived and from the fields of study from which it grew. However, when the…

  17. Warning Signals for Poor Performance Improve Human-Robot Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brule, Rik; Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Dotsch, Ron; Haselager, Pim; Wigboldus, Daniel HJ

    2016-01-01

    The present research was aimed at investigating whether human-robot interaction (HRI) can be improved by a robot’s nonverbal warning signals. Ideally, when a robot signals that it cannot guarantee good performance, people could take preventive actions to ensure the successful completion of the

  18. Human performance modeling for system of systems analytics :soldier fatigue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, Craig R.; Campbell, James E.; Miller, Dwight Peter

    2005-10-01

    The military has identified Human Performance Modeling (HPM) as a significant requirement and challenge of future systems modeling and analysis initiatives as can be seen in the Department of Defense's (DoD) Defense Modeling and Simulation Office's (DMSO) Master Plan (DoD 5000.59-P 1995). To this goal, the military is currently spending millions of dollars on programs devoted to HPM in various military contexts. Examples include the Human Performance Modeling Integration (HPMI) program within the Air Force Research Laboratory, which focuses on integrating HPMs with constructive models of systems (e.g. cockpit simulations) and the Navy's Human Performance Center (HPC) established in September 2003. Nearly all of these initiatives focus on the interface between humans and a single system. This is insufficient in the era of highly complex network centric SoS. This report presents research and development in the area of HPM in a system-of-systems (SoS). Specifically, this report addresses modeling soldier fatigue and the potential impacts soldier fatigue can have on SoS performance.

  19. Alignment of Human Resource Practices and Teacher Performance Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneman III, Herbert G.; Milanowski, Anthony T.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we argue that human resource (HR) management practices are important components of strategies for improving student achievement in an accountability environment. We present a framework illustrating the alignment of educational HR management practices to a teacher performance competency model, which in turn is aligned with student…

  20. Driving Performance Improvements by Integrating Competencies with Human Resource Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Gu; Park, Yongho; Yang, Gi Hun

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the issues in the development and application of a competency model and provides implications for more precise integration of competencies into human resource (HR) functions driving performance improvement. This research is based on a case study from a Korean consumer corporation. This study employed document reviews,…

  1. Human Schedule Performance, Protocol Analysis, and the "Silent Dog" Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Francisco; Luciano, Carmen; Gomez, Inmaculada; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the current experiment was to investigate the role of private verbal behavior on the operant performances of human adults, using a protocol analysis procedure with additional methodological controls (the "silent dog" method). Twelve subjects were exposed to fixed ratio 8 and differential reinforcement of low rate 3-s schedules. For…

  2. Pool boiling performance of lithium bromide solution on enhanced tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Yong Sub; Kim, Nae Hyun

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, pool boiling heat transfer coefficients of LiBr solution were obtained for smooth, corrugated, floral and low fin tubes. Test range covered saturation pressure from 7.38 kPa to 101.3 kPa, LiBr concentration from 0% to 50%. Low fin tube yielded the highest heat transfer coefficient followed by floral, corrugated and smooth tube. The sequence was the same independent of saturation pressure or LiBr concentration. For the low fin tube, the heat transfer enhancement ratio ranged from 1.34 to 2.37. Those of floral tube are 1.16 to 1.64 and those of corrugated tube are 0.90 to 1.43. The enhancement ratio decreased as LiBr concentration increased. No general trend is observed for the effect of saturation pressure. Exceptionally high heat transfer coefficient was obtained for the low fin tube in pure water. The reason may be attributed to many small bubbles at high frequency due to the existence of low fins. Boiling heat transfer correlations were developed which are applicable for saturation pressure from 7.38 kPa to 101.3 kPa and LiBr concentration from 0% to 50%.

  3. Enhanced performance of dicationic ionic liquid electrolytes by organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Song; Feng, Guang; Cummings Peter, T; Zhang, Pengfei; Fulvio Pasquale, F; Hillesheim Patrick, C; Dai, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The use of dicationic ionic liquid (DIL) electrolytes in supercapacitors is impeded by the slow dynamics of DILs, whereas the addition of organic solvents into DIL electrolytes improves ion transport and then enhances the power density of supercapacitors. In this work, the influences of organic solvents on the conductivity of DILs and the electrical double layer (EDL) of DIL-based supercapacitors are investigated using classical molecular dynamics simulation. Two types of organic solvents, acetonitrile (ACN) and propylene carbonate (PC), were used to explore the effects of different organic solvents on the EDL structure and capacitance of DIL/organic solvent-based supercapacitors. Firstly, it was found that the conductivity of DIL electrolytes was greatly enhanced in the presence of the organic solvent ACN. Secondly, a stronger adsorption of PC on graphite results in different EDL structures formed by DIL/ACN and DIL/PC electrolytes. The expulsion of co-ions from EDLs was observed in DIL/organic solvent electrolytes rather than neat DILs and this feature is more evident in DIL/PC. Furthermore, the bell-shaped differential capacitance–electric potential curve was not essentially changed by the presence of organic solvents. Comparing DIL/organic solvent electrolytes with neat DILs, the capacitance is slightly increased by organic solvents, which is in agreement with experimental observation. (paper)

  4. Enhancement of acoustical performance of hollow tube sound absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putra, Azma; Khair, Fazlin Abd; Nor, Mohd Jailani Mohd

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents acoustical performance of hollow structures utilizing the recycled lollipop sticks as acoustic absorbers. The hollow cross section of the structures is arranged facing the sound incidence. The effects of different length of the sticks and air gap on the acoustical performance are studied. The absorption coefficient was measured using impedance tube method. Here it is found that improvement on the sound absorption performance is achieved by introducing natural kapok fiber inserted into the void between the hollow structures. Results reveal that by inserting the kapok fibers, both the absorption bandwidth and the absorption coefficient increase. For test sample backed by a rigid surface, best performance of sound absorption is obtained for fibers inserted at the front and back sides of the absorber. And for the case of test sample with air gap, this is achieved for fibers introduced only at the back side of the absorber.

  5. Enhancement of acoustical performance of hollow tube sound absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putra, Azma, E-mail: azma.putra@utem.edu.my; Khair, Fazlin Abd, E-mail: fazlinabdkhair@student.utem.edu.my; Nor, Mohd Jailani Mohd, E-mail: jai@utem.edu.my [Centre for Advanced Research on Energy, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, Durian Tunggal Melaka 76100 Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2016-03-29

    This paper presents acoustical performance of hollow structures utilizing the recycled lollipop sticks as acoustic absorbers. The hollow cross section of the structures is arranged facing the sound incidence. The effects of different length of the sticks and air gap on the acoustical performance are studied. The absorption coefficient was measured using impedance tube method. Here it is found that improvement on the sound absorption performance is achieved by introducing natural kapok fiber inserted into the void between the hollow structures. Results reveal that by inserting the kapok fibers, both the absorption bandwidth and the absorption coefficient increase. For test sample backed by a rigid surface, best performance of sound absorption is obtained for fibers inserted at the front and back sides of the absorber. And for the case of test sample with air gap, this is achieved for fibers introduced only at the back side of the absorber.

  6. Thermo-hydraulic performance enhancement of solar air heater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    Keywords: Solar air heater; Nusselt number; thermal efficiency; multiple arcs with ... loss; and one or two covers of glass or transparent plastic provide resistance to ..... Methods of testing to determine the thermal performance of solar collectors.

  7. Enhanced Performance of Recycled Aggregate Concrete with Atomic Polymer Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The atomic polymer technology in form of mesoporous inorganic polymer (MIP) can effectively improve material durability and performance of concrete by dramatically increase inter/intragranular bond strength of concrete at nano-scale. The strategy of ...

  8. Enhancing start performance in the sport of skeleton

    OpenAIRE

    Colyer, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    A fast start is considered to be crucial in skeleton with marginal gains in start performance perceived to make meaningful improvements to overall chances of success. Currently, knowledge surrounding the underlying determinants of start performance is sparse and training practices are based on limited scientific evidence. A series of investigations were conducted to advance this understanding.Initial observations revealed similarities between dry-land push-starts and those on ice tracks. Howe...

  9. Injury Prevention and Performance Enhancement in 101st Airborne Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    assessments consisting of strength, cardiorespiratory, anaerobic, and body composition tests. Isokinetic strength testing 10 was performed on the...a meter or more. Moreover, the maximum VGRF experienced during landing tasks performed in the field could be much greater than the standardized... isokinetic strength. Subjects were assigned to groups based on the DoD’s standard for body fat (Group 1: ≤18% BF; Group 2 >18% BF). Soldiers who met

  10. Enhancing Team Performance for Long-Duration Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orasanu, Judith M.

    2009-01-01

    Success of exploration missions will depend on skilled performance by a distributed team that includes both the astronauts in space and Mission Control personnel. Coordinated and collaborative teamwork will be required to cope with challenging complex problems in a hostile environment. While thorough preflight training and procedures will equip creW'S to address technical problems that can be anticipated, preparing them to solve novel problems is much more challenging. This presentation will review components of effective team performance, challenges to effective teamwork, and strategies for ensuring effective team performance. Teamwork skills essential for successful team performance include the behaviors involved in developing shared mental models, team situation awareness, collaborative decision making, adaptive coordination behaviors, effective team communication, and team cohesion. Challenges to teamwork include both chronic and acute stressors. Chronic stressors are associated with the isolated and confined environment and include monotony, noise, temperatures, weightlessness, poor sleep and circadian disruptions. Acute stressors include high workload, time pressure, imminent danger, and specific task-related stressors. Of particular concern are social and organizational stressors that can disrupt individual resilience and effective mission performance. Effective team performance can be developed by training teamwork skills, techniques for coping with team conflict, intracrew and intercrew communication, and working in a multicultural team; leadership and teamwork skills can be fostered through outdoor survival training exercises. The presentation will conclude with an evaluation of the special requirements associated with preparing crews to function autonomously in long-duration missions.

  11. THERMOREGULATION AND HUMAN PERFORMANCE: PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank E Marino

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Vol 53 (Medicine & Sport Science This collection on the latest interpretation of research data about the relationship between thermoregulation, exercise performance and fatigue is published as the 53rd volume of Medicine and Sport Science Journal. PURPOSE The book aims to explain how the advances in technology and methodology allowed studying the affects of the changing body temperature on metabolism and the role played by the nervous system in shaping human performance under challenging thermal situations. FEATURES This publication provides different interpretations of recent research for a better understanding of the limitations of thermoregulation in nine titles. The presented titles are: The Evolutionary Basis of Thermoregulation and Exercise Performance; Comparative Thermoregulation and the Quest for Athletic Supremacy; Thermoregulation, Fatigue and Exercise Modality; Neuromuscular Response to Exercise Heat Stress; Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction, Endotoxemia and Gastrointestinal Symptoms: The 'Canary in the Coal Mine' during Exercise-Heat Stress?; Effects of Peripheral Cooling on Characteristics of Local Muscle; Cooling Interventions for the Protection and Recovery of Exercise Performance from Exercise-Induced Heat Stress; Ethnicity and Temperature Regulation; Exercise Heat Stress and Metabolism. The evidence for the human's ability to adjust their performance according to the thermal limits in order to preserve cellular homeostasis is particularly noteworthy. AUDIENCE This is a fundamental book for any students and/or researchers involved in the fields of medicine, exercise physiology and human performance with special reference to thermal regulation. ASSESSMENT This publication is a must-read text for all those working in thermal medicine, exercise physiology and human performance fields

  12. Designing The Human Resource Scorecard as a Performance Measurement of Human Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlinda Muslim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This study discusses the importance of performance measurement in a company because it can be used to assess the success of the company. The purpose of this study is to design and measure the performance of a MIGAS company using the Human Resource Scorecard approach by establishing the priority weight of strategic objectives and Key Performance Indicators on the Strategy Map through the Analytical Network Process. Results of this study are acquiring 16 strategic objectives, and 20 leading indicators and 17 lag ging indicators. Results of the priority weight show that the company is more focused on the operational perspective, then the financial perspective, strategic perspective, and the last is the customer perspective. From the design and measurement results obtained from this study, a plan of the Human Resource Scorecard design was created that can be used by the company. Keywords: performance measurement, human resource scorecard, strategy map, key performance indicator, analytical network process

  13. Enhancing Human Capital Development and Service Delivery in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions through Effective Academic Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinyeaka Igbokwe-Ibeto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of bureaucratic and human capital theories, an eclectic approach, the study examines the nexus between academic staff recruitment in Nigerian tertiary institutions and human capital development as well as service delivery with specific reference to universities. It is generally agreed that higher education is a sine-qua-non for human capital development and efficient service delivery. Higher education is a prerequisite for the production of highly competent experts, which in turn, contributes to the development of organizations and the economy at large. For these to be achieved, the right content and academic staff  must be in place to perform this varied function.  However, over the years the quality of human capital coming out of Nigerian universities and its impact on service delivery has become a source of concern to employers of labour and all stakeholders. Inferential opinions have traced the problem to the recruitment of incompetent academic staff. To investigate the issues raised, the study relied heavily on primary and secondary data and multi stage sampling was used to select the sample population. The data collected was presented in pie chart and simple percentage. Similarly, in order to test the hypotheses and establish the degree of dependence or independence of the variables under investigation, the chi-square statistical technique was used. The findings of the study revealed among others, that Nigerian universities do not employ merit, qualification and competency in the academic staff recruitment. It also established that there is a significant relationship between merit, qualification and competency based academic staff recruitment and human capital development and service delivery. To enhance human capital development and service delivery in Nigerian universities, the study recommends among others, that an independent body like the National University Commission (NUC should be given the responsibility of

  14. Enhancing pavement performance prediction models for the Illinois Tollway System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmikanth Premkumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate pavement performance prediction represents an important role in prioritizing future maintenance and rehabilitation needs, and predicting future pavement condition in a pavement management system. The Illinois State Toll Highway Authority (Tollway with over 2000 lane miles of pavement utilizes the condition rating survey (CRS methodology to rate pavement performance. Pavement performance models developed in the past for the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT are used by the Tollway to predict the future condition of its network. The model projects future CRS ratings based on pavement type, thickness, traffic, pavement age and current CRS rating. However, with time and inclusion of newer pavement types there was a need to calibrate the existing pavement performance models, as well as, develop models for newer pavement types.This study presents the results of calibrating the existing models, and developing new models for the various pavement types in the Illinois Tollway network. The predicted future condition of the pavements is used in estimating its remaining service life to failure, which is of immediate use in recommending future maintenance and rehabilitation requirements for the network. Keywords: Pavement performance models, Remaining life, Pavement management

  15. Enhanced thermoelectric performance of amorphous Nb based oxynitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Music, Denis, E-mail: music@mch.rwth-aachen.de; Geyer, Richard W.; Hans, Marcus

    2015-12-15

    Using density functional theory, amorphous Nb{sub 0.27}Ru{sub 0.06}O{sub 0.56}N{sub 0.10} was designed to facilitate a combination of an enhanced Seebeck coefficient and low electrical resistivity. Based on a positive Cauchy pressure, ductile behavior is expected. To verify these predictions, the transport and mechanical properties of amorphous thin films were evaluated. Metallic electrical resistivity and the Seebeck coefficient of −94 µV K{sup −1} are obtained, which is consistent with our predictions. As there is no crack formation, these samples can be perceived as ductile. We demonstrate that the power factor can be increased by an order of magnitude, while keeping the thermal fatigue low.

  16. Enhanced thermoelectric performance of amorphous Nb based oxynitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, Denis; Geyer, Richard W.; Hans, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Using density functional theory, amorphous Nb_0_._2_7Ru_0_._0_6O_0_._5_6N_0_._1_0 was designed to facilitate a combination of an enhanced Seebeck coefficient and low electrical resistivity. Based on a positive Cauchy pressure, ductile behavior is expected. To verify these predictions, the transport and mechanical properties of amorphous thin films were evaluated. Metallic electrical resistivity and the Seebeck coefficient of −94 µV K"−"1 are obtained, which is consistent with our predictions. As there is no crack formation, these samples can be perceived as ductile. We demonstrate that the power factor can be increased by an order of magnitude, while keeping the thermal fatigue low.

  17. Mindfulness: a fundamental skill for performance sustainment and enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuster, Patricia A; Schoomaker, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The term "mindfulness" has become very fashionable within the military and across multiple sectors of civilian and first responder populations. Overall, the key concept of mindfulness is intentionally being acutely aware of what is going on internally as well as externally, without reacting. Mindfulness and the awareness that underlies it are inherent capabilities that can be honed through training. As such, classes in mindfulness are being offered in many venues and medical clinics are using mindfulness-based interventions for patients for a wide range of medical issues. The evidence behind the benefits of mindfulness is extensive and instructive. Importantly, evidence suggests that mindfulness can be helpful for many operational, leadership, and personal activities and is likely beneficial for enhancing resilience and overall health. Many current military leaders are using mindfulness as a tool to better prepare for a dynamic and uncertain future. 2015.

  18. Enhanced thermoelectric performance of amorphous Nb based oxynitrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music, Denis; Geyer, Richard W.; Hans, Marcus

    2015-12-01

    Using density functional theory, amorphous Nb0.27Ru0.06O0.56N0.10 was designed to facilitate a combination of an enhanced Seebeck coefficient and low electrical resistivity. Based on a positive Cauchy pressure, ductile behavior is expected. To verify these predictions, the transport and mechanical properties of amorphous thin films were evaluated. Metallic electrical resistivity and the Seebeck coefficient of -94 μV K-1 are obtained, which is consistent with our predictions. As there is no crack formation, these samples can be perceived as ductile. We demonstrate that the power factor can be increased by an order of magnitude, while keeping the thermal fatigue low.

  19. Shuttle performance enhancements using an OMS payload bay kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templin, Kevin C.; Mallini, Charles J.

    1991-01-01

    The study focuses on the use of an orbital maneuvering system (OMS) payload bay kit (PBK) designed to utilize OMS tanks identical to those currently employed in the Orbiter OMS pods. Emphasis is placed on payload deployment capability and payload servicing/reboost capability augmentation from the point of view of payload mass, maximum deployment altitudes, and initial retrieval and final deployment altitudes. The deployment, servicing, and reboost requirements of the Hubble Space Telescope and Advanced X-ray and Astrophysics Facility are analyzed in order to show the benefits an OMS PBK can provide for these missions. It is shown that OMS PBKs can provide the required capability enhancement necessary to support deployment, reboost, and servicing of payloads requiring altitudes greater than 325 nautical miles.

  20. Judgments about illegal performance-enhancing substances: reasoned, reactive, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Tonya; Stock, Michelle; Litt, Dana

    2013-07-01

    This study applied aspects of the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Prototype/Willingness model to understand cognitions associated with the use of illegal performance-enhancing substances. There were two study objectives. One was to investigate whether the illegal-is-effective heuristic (i.e. belief that illegal performance-enhancing substances are more effective than legal performance-enhancing substances) affects willingness to use illegal performance-enhancing substances. The second was to examine whether attitudes, norms, and prototypes influence the willingness and intentions to use illegal performance-enhancing substances. The illegal-is-effective heuristic was a significant predictor of willingness but was not a significant predictor of intentions. Implications for future research and prevention efforts are discussed.

  1. Transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation induces lasting fatigue resistance and enhances explosive vertical jump performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Rothwelle J.; Conway, Bernard A.

    2017-01-01

    Transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) is a non-invasive neuromodulatory intervention that has been shown to modify excitability in spinal and supraspinal circuits in animals and humans. Our objective in this study was to explore the functional neuromodulatory potential of tsDCS by examining its immediate and lasting effects over the repeated performance of a whole body maximal exercise in healthy volunteers. Using a double-blind, randomized, crossover, sham-controlled design we investigated the effects of 15 min of anodal tsDCS on repeated vertical countermovement jump (VCJ) performance at 0, 20, 60, and 180 minutes post-stimulation. Measurements of peak and take-off velocity, vertical displacement, peak power and work done during countermovement and push-off VCJ phases were derived from changes in vertical ground reaction force (12 performance parameters) in 12 healthy participants. The magnitude and direction of change in VCJ performance from pre- to post-stimulation differed significantly between sham and active tsDCS for 7 of the 12 VCJ performance measures (P 0.05). Our original findings demonstrate that one single session of anodal tsDCS in healthy subjects can prevent fatigue and maintain or enhance different aspects of whole body explosive motor power over repeated sets of VCJs performed over a period of three hours. The observed effects are discussed in relation to alterations in central fatigue mechanisms, muscle contraction mode during jump execution and changes in spinal cord excitability. These findings have important implications for power endurance sport performance and for neuromotor rehabilitation. PMID:28379980

  2. Transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation induces lasting fatigue resistance and enhances explosive vertical jump performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen R Berry

    Full Text Available Transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS is a non-invasive neuromodulatory intervention that has been shown to modify excitability in spinal and supraspinal circuits in animals and humans. Our objective in this study was to explore the functional neuromodulatory potential of tsDCS by examining its immediate and lasting effects over the repeated performance of a whole body maximal exercise in healthy volunteers. Using a double-blind, randomized, crossover, sham-controlled design we investigated the effects of 15 min of anodal tsDCS on repeated vertical countermovement jump (VCJ performance at 0, 20, 60, and 180 minutes post-stimulation. Measurements of peak and take-off velocity, vertical displacement, peak power and work done during countermovement and push-off VCJ phases were derived from changes in vertical ground reaction force (12 performance parameters in 12 healthy participants. The magnitude and direction of change in VCJ performance from pre- to post-stimulation differed significantly between sham and active tsDCS for 7 of the 12 VCJ performance measures (P 0.05. Our original findings demonstrate that one single session of anodal tsDCS in healthy subjects can prevent fatigue and maintain or enhance different aspects of whole body explosive motor power over repeated sets of VCJs performed over a period of three hours. The observed effects are discussed in relation to alterations in central fatigue mechanisms, muscle contraction mode during jump execution and changes in spinal cord excitability. These findings have important implications for power endurance sport performance and for neuromotor rehabilitation.

  3. Human performance data collected in a virtual environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashrura Musharraf

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This data article describes the experimental data used in the research article “Incorporating individual differences in human reliability analysis: an extension to the virtual experimental technique” (Musharraf et al., 2017 [1]. The article provides human performance data for 36 individuals collected using a virtual environment. Each participant was assigned to one of two groups for training: 1 G1: high level training and 2 G2: low level training. Participants’ performance was tested in 4 different virtual scenarios with different levels of visibility and complexity. Several performance metrics of the participants were recorded during each scenario. The metrics include: time to muster, time spent running, interaction with fire doors and watertight doors, interaction with hazards, and reporting at different muster locations.

  4. Human performance data collected in a virtual environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musharraf, Mashrura; Smith, Jennifer; Khan, Faisal; Veitch, Brian; MacKinnon, Scott

    2017-12-01

    This data article describes the experimental data used in the research article "Incorporating individual differences in human reliability analysis: an extension to the virtual experimental technique" (Musharraf et al., 2017) [1]. The article provides human performance data for 36 individuals collected using a virtual environment. Each participant was assigned to one of two groups for training: 1) G1: high level training and 2) G2: low level training. Participants' performance was tested in 4 different virtual scenarios with different levels of visibility and complexity. Several performance metrics of the participants were recorded during each scenario. The metrics include: time to muster, time spent running, interaction with fire doors and watertight doors, interaction with hazards, and reporting at different muster locations.

  5. Optimized controllers for enhancing dynamic performance of PV interface system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. Attia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic performance of PV interface system can be improved by optimizing the gains of the Proportional–Integral (PI controller. In this work, gravitational search algorithm and harmony search algorithm are utilized to optimal tuning of PI controller gains. Performance comparison between the PV system with optimized PI gains utilizing different techniques are carried out. Finally, the dynamic behavior of the system is studied under hypothetical sudden variations in irradiance. The examination of the proposed techniques for optimal tuning of PI gains is conducted using MATLAB/SIMULINK software package. The main contribution of this work is investigating the dynamic performance of PV interfacing system with application of gravitational search algorithm and harmony search algorithm for optimal PI parameters tuning. Keywords: Photovoltaic power systems, Gravitational search algorithm, Harmony search algorithm, Genetic algorithm, Artificial intelligence

  6. COMMUNICATION OPENNESS IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEMS ENHANCING JOB SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISMAIL Azman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between communication openness in performance appraisal systems and job satisfaction. A survey method was employed to gather data from employees who have worked in a privatized postal company in Sarawak, Malaysia. SmartPLS version 2.0 was used to determine the validity and reliability of instrument and test the research hypotheses. The outcomes of SmartPLS path model showed that explanation and feedback were positively and significantly related to job satisfaction. This result confirms that the ability of appraisers to clearly explain the performance appraisal practices and adequately provide feedback in determining performance scores have been important predictors of appraises’ job satisfaction in the studied organization. Further, this study provides discussion, implications and conclusion.

  7. Relationship between alertness, performance, and body temperature in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth P Jr; Hull, Joseph T.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    Body temperature has been reported to influence human performance. Performance is reported to be better when body temperature is high/near its circadian peak and worse when body temperature is low/near its circadian minimum. We assessed whether this relationship between performance and body temperature reflects the regulation of both the internal biological timekeeping system and/or the influence of body temperature on performance independent of circadian phase. Fourteen subjects participated in a forced desynchrony protocol allowing assessment of the relationship between body temperature and performance while controlling for circadian phase and hours awake. Most neurobehavioral measures varied as a function of internal biological time and duration of wakefulness. A number of performance measures were better when body temperature was elevated, including working memory, subjective alertness, visual attention, and the slowest 10% of reaction times. These findings demonstrate that an increased body temperature, associated with and independent of internal biological time, is correlated with improved performance and alertness. These results support the hypothesis that body temperature modulates neurobehavioral function in humans.

  8. Cholinergic enhancement of visual attention and neural oscillations in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Markus; Kluge, Christian; Bach, Dominik; Bradbury, David; Heinze, Hans Jochen; Dolan, Raymond J; Driver, Jon

    2012-03-06

    Cognitive processes such as visual perception and selective attention induce specific patterns of brain oscillations. The neurochemical bases of these spectral changes in neural activity are largely unknown, but neuromodulators are thought to regulate processing. The cholinergic system is linked to attentional function in vivo, whereas separate in vitro studies show that cholinergic agonists induce high-frequency oscillations in slice preparations. This has led to theoretical proposals that cholinergic enhancement of visual attention might operate via gamma oscillations in visual cortex, although low-frequency alpha/beta modulation may also play a key role. Here we used MEG to record cortical oscillations in the context of administration of a cholinergic agonist (physostigmine) during a spatial visual attention task in humans. This cholinergic agonist enhanced spatial attention effects on low-frequency alpha/beta oscillations in visual cortex, an effect correlating with a drug-induced speeding of performance. By contrast, the cholinergic agonist did not alter high-frequency gamma oscillations in visual cortex. Thus, our findings show that cholinergic neuromodulation enhances attentional selection via an impact on oscillatory synchrony in visual cortex, for low rather than high frequencies. We discuss this dissociation between high- and low-frequency oscillations in relation to proposals that lower-frequency oscillations are generated by feedback pathways within visual cortex. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The human performance evaluation system at Virginia Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.G. III.

    1989-01-01

    The safe operation of nuclear power plants requires high standards of performance, extensive training, and responsive management. Despite a utility's best efforts, inappropriate human actions do occur. Although such inappropriate actions will occur, it is believed that such actions can be minimized and managed. The Federal Aviation Administration has a successful program administered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This program is called the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). Established in 1975, it is anonymous and nonpunitive. A trial program for several utilities was developed by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations which used a concept similar to the ASRS reporting process. Based on valuable lessons learned by Virginia Power during the pilot program, an effort was made in 1986 to formalize the Human Performance Evaluation System (HPES) to establish an ongoing problem-solving system for evaluating human performance. Currently, 34 domestic utilities and 3 international utilities voluntarily participate in the implementation of the HPES. Each participating utility has selected and trained personnel to evaluate events involving human error and provide corrective action recommendations to prevent recurrence. It is believed that the use of the HPES can lead to improved safety and operation availability

  10. Downsizing?-?Intellectual Capital Performance Anorexia or Enhancement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. Mitchell

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate if downsizing contributes to, or impedes, a firm's intellectual capital performance (ICE) based on a longitudinal analysis of 56 United States publicly listed companies that significantly downsized their workforce during the mid-1990s. Empirical analysis indicates that for the majority of firms, ICE…

  11. Prior-to-Exam: What Activities Enhance Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, C. J.; Healy, Therese

    2013-01-01

    Can instructors impact their student performance by recommending an activity just prior to taking an exam? In this study, college students were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups (study, exercise, or meditation) or a control group. Each group was given two different types of tests; a traditional concept exam, and a non-traditional…

  12. Global performance enhancements via pedestal optimisation on ASDEX Upgrade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunne, M.G.; Frassinetti, L.; Beurkens, M.N.A.; Cavedon, M.; Fietz, S.; Fischer, R.; Giannone, L.; Huijsmans, G.T.A.; Kurzan, B.; Laggner, F.; McCarhty, P.J.; McDermott, R.M.; Tardini, G.; Viezzer, E.; Willensdorfer, M.; Wolfrum, E.

    2017-01-01

    Results of experimental scans of heating power, plasma shape, and nitrogen content are presented, with a focus on global performance and pedestal alteration. In detailed scans at low triangularity, it is shown that the increase in stored energy due to nitrogen seeding stems from the pedestal. It is

  13. Design methodology to enhance high impedance surfaces performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grelier

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A methodology is introduced for designing wideband, compact and ultra-thin high impedance surfaces (HIS. A parametric study is carried out to examine the effect of the periodicity on the electromagnetic properties of an HIS. This approach allows designers to reach the best trade-off for HIS performances.

  14. Negative Thought Stopping. A Key to Performance Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Susan G.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of mental training on skill acquisition and performance is currently emphasized in the study of sport psychology and motor learning. This article provides the teacher and coach with general guidelines for understanding and incorporating negative thought stopping training into athletic programs. (MT)

  15. Strategies for enhanced deammonification performance and reduced nitrous oxide emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leix, Carmen; Drewes, Jörg E; Ye, Liu; Koch, Konrad

    2017-07-01

    Deammonification's performance and associated nitrous oxide emissions (N 2 O) depend on operational conditions. While studies have investigated factors for high performances and low emissions separately, this study investigated optimizing deammonification performance while simultaneously reducing N 2 O emissions. Using a design of experiment (DoE) method, two models were developed for the prediction of the nitrogen removal rate and N 2 O emissions during single-stage deammonification considering three operational factors (i.e., pH value, feeding and aeration strategy). The emission factor varied between 0.7±0.5% and 4.1±1.2% at different DoE-conditions. The nitrogen removal rate was predicted to be maximized at settings of pH 7.46, intermittent feeding and aeration. Conversely, emissions were predicted to be minimized at the design edges at pH 7.80, single feeding, and continuous aeration. Results suggested a weak positive correlation between the nitrogen removal rate and N 2 O emissions, thus, a single optimizing operational set-point for maximized performance and minimized emissions did not exist. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of various additives to enhance growth performance, blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martina van Heerden

    2017-06-28

    Jun 28, 2017 ... It was assigned to three pigs/pen and five pens/treatment. ... Essential oils have been demonstrated to improve performance and reduce .... were detected using Gastec GV-110S gas detection machine and tube namely, NH3 ...

  17. Enhancing Performance & Preventing Injuries in Team Sport Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Does, Hendrike

    2016-01-01

    Next to physical load and recovery as a result of training, psychosocial stress and recovery affect performance and injury risk of team sport players. This can be concluded based on a series of studies that focus on the relation between jumping technique, training load, training recovery,

  18. Compressive sensing for high resolution profiles with enhanced Doppler performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anitori, L.; Hoogeboom, P.; Chevalier, F. Le; Otten, M.P.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate how Compressive Sensing (CS) can be used in pulse-Doppler radars to improve the Doppler performance while preserving range resolution. We investigate here two types of stepped frequency waveforms, the coherent frequency bursts and successive frequency ramps, which can be

  19. Low-temperature enhancement of plasmonic performance in silver films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jayanti, S.V.; Park, J.H.; Dejneka, Alexandr; Chvostová, Dagmar; McPeak, K.M.; Chen, X.; Oh, S.H.; Norris, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 5 (2015), 1147-1155 ISSN 2159-3930 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-13853S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : plasmonic performance * silver films * low temperature * spectroscopic ellipsometry Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.657, year: 2015

  20. Enhanced Detection of Human Plasma Proteins on Nanostructured Silver Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Orságová Králová

    2013-08-01

    enhancement factor of 3.6×102 was achieved for a band with a Raman shift of 2104cm‐1 for globulin deposited onto silver nanostructured film on unpolished stainless steel substrate. The detection limit was 400g/mL. Plasma or serum could present a preferable material for non‐ invasive cancer disease diagnosis using the SERS method.

  1. Human Cognitive Enhancement Ethical Implications for Airman-Machine Teaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    involved with memory, emotion , and reasoning which can lead to improved task design and decision support systems. • Training efficiency: enabling...Kraemer, Felicitas. 2011. "Authenticity Anyone? The Enhancement of Emotions via Neuro- Psychopharmascology." Neuroethics (Springer) (4): 51-64...Impact Emerging Technology - What You Need to Know: Definitions, Adoptions, Impact, Benefits, Maturity , Vendors. LaVergne, Tennessee, USA: Lightning

  2. PERFORMANCE IN ORGANIZATIONS IN A HUMAN RESOURCE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOGOFĂTU MONICA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In turbulent financial and economic present conditions a major challenge for the general management of organizations and in particular for the strategic human resources management is to establish a clear, coherent and consistent framework in terms of measuring organizational performance and economic efficiency. This paper aims to conduct an exploratory research of literature concerning measuring organizational performance. Based on the results of research the paper proposes a multi-dimensional model for measuring organizational performance providing a mechanism that will allow quantification of performance based on selected criteria. The model will attempt to eliminate inconsistencies and incongruities of organizational effectiveness models developed by specialists from organization theory area, performance measurement models developed by specialists from accounting management area and models of measuring the efficiency and effectiveness developed by specialists from strategic management and entrepreneurship areas.

  3. Human Performance Considerations for Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, R. Jay; Hobbs, Alan; Lyall, Beth; Rorie, Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Successful integration of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) into civil airspace will not only require solutions to technical challenges, but will also require that the design and operation of RPAS take into account human limitations and capabilities. Human factors can affect overall system performance whenever the system relies on people to interact with another element of the system. Four types of broad interactions can be described. These are (1) interactions between people and hardware, such as controls and displays; (2) human use of procedures and documentation; (3) impact of the task environment, including lighting, noise and monotony; and lastly, (4) interactions between operational personnel, including communication and coordination. In addition to the human factors that have been identified for conventional aviation, RPAS operations introduce a set of unique human challenges. The purpose of document is to raise human factors issues for consideration by workgroups of the ICAO RPAS panel as they work to develop guidance material and additions to ICAO annexes. It is anticipated that the content of this document will be revised and updated as the work of the panel progresses.

  4. Food Components to Enhance Performance: An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marriott, Bernadette M

    .... It reflects the views of military and non-military scientists from such fields as neuroscience, nutrition, physiology, various medical specialties, and performance psychology on the most up-to-date...

  5. Dynamic performance enhancement of microgrids by advanced sliding mode controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofla, Mohammadhassan Abdollahi [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Dept., University of Toledo, Ohio (United States); Gharehpetian, Gevorg B. [Electrical Engineering Dept., Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Dynamics are the most important problems in the microgrid operation. In the islanded microgrid, the mismatch of parallel operations of inverters during dynamics can result in the instability. This paper considers severe dynamics which can occur in the microgrid. Microgrid can have different configurations with different load and generation dynamics which are facing voltage disturbances. As a result, microgrid has many uncertainties and is placed in the distribution network where is full of voltage disturbances. Moreover, characteristics of the distribution network and distributed energy resources in the islanded mode make microgrid vulnerable and easily lead to instability. The main aim of this paper is to discuss the suitable mathematical modeling based on microgrid characteristics and to design properly inner controllers to enhance the dynamics of microgrid with uncertain and changing parameters. This paper provides a method for inner controllers of inverter-based distributed energy resources to have a suitable response for different dynamics. Parallel inverters in distribution networks were considered to be controlled by nonlinear robust voltage and current controllers. Theoretical prove beyond simulation results, reveal evidently the effectiveness of the proposed controller. (author)

  6. Simple patterned nanofiber scaffolds and its enhanced performance in immunoassay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    Full Text Available Cancer has become the leading cause of death worldwide; early diagnosis and treatment of cancers is critical for the survival of the patients. The concentration of cancer markers in easy-to-access biological fluids can provide great assistance in screening for occult primary cancers, distinguishing malignant from benign findings, determining prognosis and prediction for cancer patients. The multiplex detection technology of a panel of cancer markers can greatly increase the accuracy of disease diagnosis. Herein, we briefly fabricate a high-throughput micro-immunoassay based on the electrospun polystyrene (PS substrates to improve detection sensitivity. The immunoassay was evaluated by analyzing three different cancer biomarkers (AFP, CEA, VEGF. For AFP, CEA, VEGF immunofluorescence assay, the LOD of assay conducted on electrospun PS substrates before or after plasma and the conventional PS substrates were 0.42, 0.10, 1.12 ng/mL, 0.57, 0.09, 1.24 ng/mL, and 159.75, 26.19, 385.59 pg/mL, respectively (P < 0.05. Due to the high porosity and large surface area-to-volume ratio which is the foremost merit of nanostructures, and the plasma treatment which make the hydrophobic PS nanofibers hydropholic, the nanofibers substrates showed sufficient retention of immunoassay functionality and high potential for capture molecules immobilization. Consequently, the immunofluorescence assay conducted on electrospun PS substrates could significantly enhance the sensitivity and limits of detection.

  7. Enhancement in performance of polycarbazole-graphene nanocomposite Schottky diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Rajiv K.; Singh, Arun Kumar; Prakash, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    We report formation of polycarbazole (PCz)–graphene nanocomposite over indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate using electrochemical technique for fabrication of high performance Schottky diodes. The synthesized nanocomposite is characterized before fabrication of devices for confirmation of uniform distribution of graphene nanosheets in the polymer matrix. Pure PCz and PCz-graphene nanocomposites based Schottky diodes are fabricated of configuration Al/PCz/ITO and Al/PCz-graphene nanocomposite/ITO, respectively. The current density–voltage (J-V) characteristics and diode performance parameters (such as the ideality factor, barrier height, and reverse saturation current density) are compared under ambient condition. Al/PCz-graphene nanocomposite/ITO device exhibits better ideality factor in comparison to the device formed using pure PCz. It is also observed that the Al/PCz-graphene nanocomposite/ITO device shows large forward current density and low turn on voltage in comparison to Al/PCz/ITO device

  8. Enhancing the role of MC and A through performance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emeigh, C.W.; Smith, B.W.; Ehinger, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear material safeguards combines physical protection and material control and accounting (MCandA). Integration of these measures to optimize protection requires defining the role of each in the context of the potential threats. The NRC amended 10 CFR Parts 70 and 74 to reform the MCandA regulations. The Reform Amendments specify insider threats to protect against and the general goals for detection, response and assurance. The Reform Amendments use the graded safeguards concept and are performance oriented. They allow a facility flexibility in determining how to meet the goals. An element of the Reform Amendments is the use of process monitoring data to account for nuclear materials in-process. This paper reviews the evolution of the Reform Amendments and identifies some of the decisions to implement performance criteria

  9. System-level techniques for analog performance enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Bang-Sup

    2016-01-01

    This book shows readers to avoid common mistakes in circuit design, and presents classic circuit concepts and design approaches from the transistor to the system levels. The discussion is geared to be accessible and optimized for practical designers who want to learn to create circuits without simulations. Topic by topic, the author guides designers to learn the classic analog design skills by understanding the basic electronics principles correctly, and further prepares them to feel confident in designing high-performance, state-of-the art CMOS analog systems. This book combines and presents all in-depth necessary information to perform various design tasks so that readers can grasp essential material, without reading through the entire book. This top-down approach helps readers to build practical design expertise quickly, starting from their understanding of electronics fundamentals. .

  10. DOES CSR ENHANCE MARKET PERFORMANCE FOR AUTOMOTIVE COMPANIES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca BUTNARIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing the role of strategic CSR in creating stable long term performance in the automotive industry. The first part of the paper reviews the success factors for the European auto industry and analyses the influence strategic CSR has on these factors. In order to illustrate the relation between strategic CSR activities and the economic performance, the paper presents the strategic evolution of one of the most ancient motor companies on the international scene, namely Peugeot and evaluates the innovative ideas brought into the market, as well as its future prospects. The PSA Group holds a position of European leader in terms of CO2 emissions, with an average of 110.3 grams of CO2/km in 2014. The PSA Peugeot Citroen Group’s strategy is being increasingly oriented towards environmental protection and energy saving.

  11. Enhance hospital performance from intellectual capital to business intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Mahtab; Fatehi, Mansoor; Torabi, Mashallah; Langarizadeh, Mostafa; Rahimi, Azin; Safdari, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Business intelligence (BI) refers to technologies, tools, and practices for collecting, integrating, analyzing, and presenting large volumes of information to enable better decision making. The aim of this study is to provide a general overview of BI and its impacts on improving hospital performance. In this paper, literature is reviewed on the concept, classification, and structure of intellectual capital and BI. Research on the building of BI and its impact on the performance of hospitals are briefly summarized. Some areas in healthcare which can utilize BI benefits, including radiology, are also discussed. Used properly, BI is an effective communication tool that can enable hospitals to reach strategic goals and objectives and can also help eliminate information asymmetry.

  12. Life context of pharmacological academic performance enhancement among university students--a qualitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildt, Elisabeth; Lieb, Klaus; Franke, Andreas Günter

    2014-03-07

    Academic performance enhancement or cognitive enhancement (CE) via stimulant drug use has received increasing attention. The question remains, however, whether CE solely represents the use of drugs for achieving better academic or workplace results or whether CE also serves various other purposes. The aim of this study was to put the phenomenon of pharmacological academic performance enhancement via prescription and illicit (psycho-) stimulant use (Amphetamines, Methylphenidate) among university students into a broader context. Specifically, we wanted to further understand students' experiences, the effects of use on students and other factors, such as pressure to perform in their academic and private lives. A sample of 18 healthy university students reporting the non-medical use of prescription and illicit stimulants for academic performance enhancement was interviewed in a face-to-face setting. The leading questions were related to the situations and context in which the students considered the non-medical use of stimulants. Based on the resultant transcript, two independent raters identified six categories relating to the life context of stimulant use for academic performance enhancement: Context of stimulant use beyond academic performance enhancement, Subjective experience of enhancement, Timing of consumption, Objective academic results, Side effects, Pressure to perform. The answers reveal that academic performance enhancement through the use of stimulants is not an isolated phenomenon that solely aims at enhancing cognition to achieve better academic results but that the multifaceted life context in which it is embedded is of crucial relevance. The participants not only considered the stimulants advantageous for enhancing academic performance, but also for leading an active life with a suitable balance between studying and time off. The most common reasons given for stimulant use were to maximize time, to increase motivation and to cope with memorizing

  13. SIP Signaling Implementations and Performance Enhancement over MANET: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Alshamrani, M; Cruickshank, Haitham; Sun, Zhili; Ansa, G; Alshahwan, F

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)-based Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and multimedia over MANET is still a challenging issue. Many routing factors affect the performance of SIP signaling and the voice Quality of Service (QoS). Node mobility in MANET causes dynamic changes to route calculations, topology, hop numbers, and the connectivity status between the correspondent nodes. SIP-based VoIP depends on the caller’s registration, call initiation, and call termin...

  14. Crystal Morphology Engineering of Pharmaceutical Solids: Tabletting Performance Enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Mirza, Sabiruddin; Miroshnyk, Inna; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Antikainen, Osmo; Rantanen, Jukka; Vuorela, Pia; Vuorela, Heikki; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2009-01-01

    Crystal morphology engineering of a macrolide antibiotic, erythromycin A dihydrate, was investigated as a tool for tailoring tabletting performance of pharmaceutical solids. Crystal habit modification was induced by using a common pharmaceutical excipient, hydroxypropyl cellulose, as an additive during crystallization from solution. Observed morphology of the crystals was compared with the predicted Bravais–Friedel–Donnay–Harker morphology. An analysis of the molecular arrangements along the ...

  15. The enhancing impact of friendship networks on sales managers' performance

    OpenAIRE

    Claro, Danny Pimentel; Laban Neto, Silvio Abrahão; Claro, Priscila Borin de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how relationships with friends moderate the impact of professional networks on sales performance. Based on a sample of 204 sales managers in a professional service company, this study presents evidence that friendship networks amplify the effect of sales forces’ professional networks on new product sales as well as on prospecting and converting new deals. Our results offer important insights into the socio-cognitive perspective of sales management literature and suggest th...

  16. Enhancing Ground Based Telescope Performance with Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    called the hybrid diversity algorithm ( HDA ) that is based on the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm with another process to perform phase-unwraping [36, 45...47]. The HDA requires phase diversity similar to the LM least squares method used for characterizing the HST [32]. The problem of generating...addition, the new phase retrieval algorithm proposed in this chapter has the advantage over NASA’s hybrid diversity algorithm ( HDA ) planned for use on JWST

  17. Investigation of human-robot interface performance in household environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Sven; Mirza, Fahad; Tuladhar, Yathartha; Alonzo, Rommel; Hingeley, Anthony; Popa, Dan O.

    2016-05-01

    Today, assistive robots are being introduced into human environments at an increasing rate. Human environments are highly cluttered and dynamic, making it difficult to foresee all necessary capabilities and pre-program all desirable future skills of the robot. One approach to increase robot performance is semi-autonomous operation, allowing users to intervene and guide the robot through difficult tasks. To this end, robots need intuitive Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs) that support fine motion control without overwhelming the operator. In this study we evaluate the performance of several interfaces that balance autonomy and teleoperation of a mobile manipulator for accomplishing several household tasks. Our proposed HMI framework includes teleoperation devices such as a tablet, as well as physical interfaces in the form of piezoresistive pressure sensor arrays. Mobile manipulation experiments were performed with a sensorized KUKA youBot, an omnidirectional platform with a 5 degrees of freedom (DOF) arm. The pick and place tasks involved navigation and manipulation of objects in household environments. Performance metrics included time for task completion and position accuracy.

  18. Human performance for the success of equipment reliability programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodcock, J.

    2007-01-01

    Human performance is a critical element of programs directed at equipment reliability. Reliable equipment performance requires broad support from all levels of plant management and throughout all plant departments. Experience at both nuclear power plants and fuel manufacturing plants shows that human performance must be addressed during all phases of program implementation from the beginning through the establishment of a living, on-going process. At the beginning, certain organizational and management actions during the initiation of the program set the stage for successful adoption by station personnel, leading to more rapid benefits. For the long term, equipment reliability is a living process needed throughout the lifetime of a station, a program which must be motivated and measured. Sustained acceptance and participation by the plant personnel is a requirement, and culture is a key ingredient. This paper will provide an overview of key human performance issues to be considered, using the application of the INPO AP-913 Equipment Reliability Guideline as a basis and gives some best practices for training, communicating and implementing programs. The very last part includes ways to tell if the program is effective

  19. On enhancing GridFTP and GPFS performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalli, A; Ciocca, C; Dell'Agnello, L; Ferrari, T; Gregori, D; Martelli, B; Prosperini, A; Ricci, P; Ronchieri, E; Sapunenko, V; Vitlacil, D; Zani, S; Sartirana, A

    2010-01-01

    One of the most demanding tasks which Computing in High Energy Physics has to deal with is reliable and high throughput transfer of large data volumes. Maximization and optimization of the data throughput are therefore key issues which have to be addressed by detailed investigations of the involved infrastructures and services. In this note, we present some transfer performance tests carried out at the INFN-CNAF Tier-1 center, using SLC4 64-bit Grid File Transfer Protocol (GridFTP) servers and a disk storage system based on the General Parallel File System (GPFS) from IBM. We describe the testbed setup and report the measurements of throughput performances in function of some fundamental variables, such as number of parallel file and number of streams per transfer, concurrent read and write activity and size of data blocks transferred. During this activity, we have verified that a significant improvement in performances of the GridFTP server can be obtained using 64bit version of Operating System and GPFS from IBM.

  20. Performance enhancement of PV cells through micro-channel cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffar Ali

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of a PV cell is strongly dependent on its surface temperature. The current study is focused to achieve maximum efficiency of PV cells even in scorching temperatures in hot climates like Pakistan where the cell surface temperatures can even rise up to around 80 ℃. The study includes both the CFD and real time experimental investigations of a solar panel using micro channel cooling. Initially, CFD analysis is performed by developing a 3D model of a Mono-Crystalline cell with micro-channels to analyze cell surface temperature distribution at different irradiance and water flow rates. Afterwards, an experimental setup is developed for performance investigations under the real conditions of an open climate of a Pakistan's city, Taxila. Two 35W panels are manufactured for the experiments; one is based on the standard manufacturing procedure while other cell is developed with 4mm thick aluminum sheet having micro-channels of cross-section of 1mm by 1mm. The whole setup also includes different sensors for the measurement of solar irradiance, cell power, surface temperature and water flow rates. The experimental results show that PV cell surface temperature drop of around 15 ℃ is achieved with power increment of around 14% at maximum applied water flow rate of 3 LPM. Additionally, a good agreement is also found between CFD and experimental results. Therefore, that study clearly shows that a significant performance improvement of PV cells can be achieved through the proposed cell cooling technique.

  1. Enhanced Chromatographic Determination of Nicotine in Human Plasma: Applied to Human Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Bassam M; Mohamady, Samy; Hendy, Moataz S; Elmazar, Mohamed M

    2015-12-01

    Development of enhanced UPLC-UV method for determination of nicotine in human plasma was achieved on a Symmetry(®) C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 2.2 μm) applying isocratic elution based on Methanol: Acetonitrile: Phosphate Buffer (pH: 2.7) with the ratio (20:30:50, v/v/v) as a mobile phase. The ultraviolet detector was operated at 260 nm. The mobile phase was pumped through the column at a flow rate of 0.2 mL min(-1). The column temperature was adjusted to 50ºC and the injection volume was 2 μL. Quinine was selected as an internal standard (IS) due to its structure similarity to nicotine having basic pyridine ring to optimize the liquid liquid extraction procedure using diethyl ether coupled with vacuum evaporation at 40°C. Validation parameters for nicotine were found to be acceptable over the concentration range of 2.5-50 ng ml(-1). The application of the proposed method on four healthy human volunteers was approved by the ethical committee. The study was carried out under fasting conditions and the concerned subjects were informed about the objectives and possible risks involved in the study. The proposed method proved to be simple and fast which is a major advantage to analyze large number of samples per day using the accelerated vacuum evaporation technique. The method showed satisfactory data for all the parameters tested within the limits for bioanalytical assays. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) permits the application of the method for further pharmacological and clinical studies.

  2. An Enhancement of Campaign Posters for Human Error Prevention in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Yong Hee; Kwon, Soon Il

    2010-01-01

    Accidents in high reliability systems such as nuclear power plants (NPPs) give rise to not only a loss of property and life, but also social problems. One of the most frequently used techniques to grasp the current situation for hazard factors in the NPPs is an event investigation analysis based on the INPO's Human Performance Enhancement System (HPES), and the Korean Human Performance Enhancement System (K-HPES) in Korea, respectively. There are many methods and approaches for an HE assessment that is valuable for investigating the causes of undesirable events and counter-plans to prevent their recurrence in the NPPs. They differ from each other according to the objectives of the analysis; the explanation of the event, the investigation of the causes, the allocation of the responsibility, and the establishment of the counter-plan. Event databases include their own events and information from various sources such as the IAEA, regulatory bodies, and also from the INPO and WANO. As many as 111 reactor trips have occurred in the past 5 years ('01∼'05), and 26 cases of them have occurred due to HE. The trend of human error rate didn't decrease in 2004, so the KHNP started to make efforts to decrease HEs. The KHNP created as many as 40 posters for human performance improvement in 2006. The INPO has been using a traditional form of poster; additionally, the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) developed a type of caution report. The caution report is comprised of a poster name, a serial number, a figure, work situations, the point at issue, and a countermeasure. The preceding posters which KHNP developed in 2006 give a message about specific information related to HE events. However, it is not enough to arouse interest in the effectiveness of the posters because most people are favorably disposed toward a simple poster with many illustrations. Therefore, we stressed the need for worker's receptiveness rather than notification of information

  3. Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery performance according to the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, Ricardo A.

    2017-07-17

    IntroductionThe need to increase the efficiency of oil recovery and environmental concerns are bringing to prominence the use of carbon dioxide (CO2) as a tertiary recovery agent. Assessment of the impact of flooding with CO2 all eligible reservoirs in the United States not yet undergoing enhanced oil recovery (EOR) requires making the best possible use of the experience gained in 40 years of applications. Review of the publicly available literature has located relevant CO2-EOR information for 53 units (fields, reservoirs, pilot areas) in the United States and 17 abroad.As the world simultaneously faces an increasing concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere and a higher demand for fossil fuels, the CO2-EOR process continues to gain popularity for its efficiency as a tertiary recovery agent and for the potential for having some CO2 trapped in the subsurface as an unintended consequence of the enhanced production (Advanced Resources International and Melzer Consulting, 2009). More extensive application of CO2-EOR worldwide, however, is not making it significantly easier to predict the exact outcome of the CO2 flooding in new reservoirs. The standard approach to examine and manage risks is to analyze the intended target by conducting laboratory work, running simulation models, and, finally, gaining field experience with a pilot test. This approach, though, is not always possible. For example, assessment of the potential of CO2-EOR at the national level in a vast country such as the United States requires making forecasts based on information already available.Although many studies are proprietary, the published literature has provided reviews of CO2-EOR projects. Yet, there is always interest in updating reports and analyzing the information under new perspectives. Brock and Bryan (1989) described results obtained during the earlier days of CO2-EOR from 1972 to 1987. Most of the recovery predictions, however, were based on intended injections of 30 percent the size of

  4. Enhanced/Synthetic Vision Systems - Human factors research and implications for future systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyle, David C.; Ahumada, Albert J.; Larimer, James; Sweet, Barbara T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews recent human factors research studies conducted in the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division at NASA Ames Research Center related to the development and usage of Enhanced or Synthetic Vision Systems. Research discussed includes studies of field of view (FOV), representational differences of infrared (IR) imagery, head-up display (HUD) symbology, HUD advanced concept designs, sensor fusion, and sensor/database fusion and evaluation. Implications for the design and usage of Enhanced or Synthetic Vision Systems are discussed.

  5. Engineering Education Development to Enhance Human Skill in DENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isogai, Emiko; Nuka, Takeji

    Importance of human skills such as communication or instruction capability to their staff members has recently been highlighted in a workplace, due to decreasing opportunity of face-to-face communication between supervisors and their staff, or Instruction capability through OJT (On the Job Training) . Currently, communication skills are being reinforced mainly through OJT at DENSO. Therefore, as part of supplemental support tools, DENSO has established comprehensive engineers training program on off-JT basis for developing human skills, covering from newly employeed enginners up to managerial class since 2003. This paper describes education activities and reports the results.

  6. Human performance analysis of industrial radiography radiation exposure events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reece, W.J.; Hill, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    A set of radiation overexposure event reports were reviewed as part of a program to examine human performance in industrial radiography for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Incident records for a seven year period were retrieved from an event database. Ninety-five exposure events were initially categorized and sorted for further analysis. Descriptive models were applied to a subset of severe overexposure events. Modeling included: (1) operational sequence tables to outline the key human actions and interactions with equipment, (2) human reliability event trees, (3) an application of an information processing failures model, and (4) an extrapolated use of the error influences and effects diagram. Results of the modeling analyses provided insights into the industrial radiography task and suggested areas for further action and study to decrease overexposures

  7. Oxytocin enhances the appropriate use of human social cues by the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) in an object choice task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, J L; Rault, J-L; Appleton, B; Lill, A

    2015-05-01

    It has been postulated that the neuropeptide, oxytocin, is involved in human-dog bonding. This may explain why dogs, compared to wolves, are such good performers on object choice tasks, which test their ability to attend to, and use, human social cues in order to find hidden food treats. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of intranasal oxytocin administration, which is known to increase social cognition in humans, on domestic dogs' ability to perform such a task. We hypothesised that dogs would perform better on the task after an intranasal treatment of oxytocin. Sixty-two (31 males and 31 females) pet dogs completed the experiment over two different testing sessions, 5-15 days apart. Intranasal oxytocin or a saline control was administered 45 min before each session. All dogs received both treatments in a pseudo-randomised, counterbalanced order. Data were collected as scores out of ten for each of the four blocks of trials in each session. Two blocks of trials were conducted using a momentary distal pointing cue and two using a gazing cue, given by the experimenter. Oxytocin enhanced performance using momentary distal pointing cues, and this enhanced level of performance was maintained over 5-15 days time in the absence of oxytocin. Oxytocin also decreased aversion to gazing cues, in that performance was below chance levels after saline administration but at chance levels after oxytocin administration.

  8. Breeder design for enhanced performance and safety characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, G.J.; Atefi, B.; Yang, J.W.; Galperin, A.; Segev, M.

    1980-01-01

    A fast breeder reactor design has been created which offers a considerably extended fuel cycle and excellent performance characteristics. An example of a core designed to operate on a ten-year fuel cycle is described in some detail. Use of metal fuel along with a moderator such as beryllium oxide dispersed throughout the core provides both design flexibility and safety advantages such as a strong Doppler feedback and limited sodium void reactivity gain. Local power variations are small for the entire cycle; control requirements are also modest, and fuel cycle costs are low

  9. Enhancing Cellulase Commercial Performance for the Lignocellulosic Biomass Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarnigan, Alisha [Danisco, US Inc., Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2016-06-07

    Cellulase enzyme loading (Bt-G) for the economic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol is on of the key challenges identified in the Biomass Program of DOE/EERE. The goal of Danisco’s project which ran from 2008 to 2012, was to address the technical challenge by creating more efficient enzyme that could be used at lower doses, thus reducing the enzymes’ cost contribution to the conversio process. We took the approach of protein engineering of cellulase enzymes to overcome the enzymati limitations in the system of cellulosic-hydrolyzing enzymes to improve performance in conversion o biomass, thereby creating a more effective enzyme mix.

  10. Performance Improvement and Feature Enhancement of WriteOn

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekar, Samantha

    2008-01-01

    A Tablet PC is a portable computing device which combines a regular notebook computer with a digitizing screen that interacts with a complementary electronic pen stylus. The pen allows the user to input data by writing on or by tapping the screen. Like a regular notebook computer, the user can also perform tasks using the mouse and keyboard. A Tablet PC gives the users all the features of a regular notebook computer along with the support to recognize, process, and store electronic/digital in...

  11. Enhancing Functional Performance using Sensorimotor Adaptability Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Brady, R.; Audas, C.; Ruttley, T. M.; Cohen, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    During the acute phase of adaptation to novel gravitational environments, sensorimotor disturbances have the potential to disrupt the ability of astronauts to perform functional tasks. The goal of this project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of functional capabilities when astronauts transition to different gravitational environments. The project conducted a series of studies that investigated the efficacy of treadmill training combined with a variety of sensory challenges designed to increase adaptability including alterations in visual flow, body loading, and support surface stability.

  12. The Effect of Multispectral Image Fusion Enhancement on Human Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-20

    and discrete wavelet transformation (DWT). A seventh function was added after we noticed a number of cases where PCA produced uninterpretable...component analysis and adjusted PCA Principal component analysis (PCA) is a general math - ematical technique that transforms a set of potentially correlated...equivalent to sampling the image with Laplacian operators of many scales, which tends to enhance salient image features. Discrete wavelet transform The

  13. Identification of a novel human deoxynivalenol metabolite enhancing proliferation of intestinal and urinary bladder cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warth, Benedikt; Del Favero, Giorgia; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Puntscher, Hannes; Woelflingseder, Lydia; Fruhmann, Philipp; Sarkanj, Bojan; Krska, Rudolf; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Adam, Gerhard; Marko, Doris

    2016-09-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is an abundant contaminant of cereal based food and a severe issue for global food safety. We report the discovery of DON-3-sulfate as a novel human metabolite and potential new biomarker of DON exposure. The conjugate was detectable in 70% of urine samples obtained from pregnant women in Croatia. For the measurement of urinary metabolites, a highly sensitive and selective LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated. The method was also used to investigate samples from a duplicate diet survey for studying the toxicokinetics of DON-3-sulfate. To get a preliminary insight into the biological relevance of the newly discovered DON-sulfates, in vitroexperiments were performed. In contrast to DON, sulfate conjugates lacked potency to suppress protein translation. However, surprisingly we found that DON-sulfates enhanced proliferation of human HT-29 colon carcinoma cells, primary human colon epithelial cells (HCEC-1CT) and, to some extent, also T24 bladder cancer cells. A proliferative stimulus, especially in tumorigenic cells raises concern on the potential impact of DON-sulfates on consumer health. Thus, a further characterization of their toxicological relevance should be of high priority.

  14. Thermoelectric Performance Enhancement by Surrounding Crystalline Semiconductors with Metallic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jung; King, Glen C.; Park, Yeonjoon; Lee, Kunik; Choi, Sang H.

    2011-01-01

    Direct conversion of thermal energy to electricity by thermoelectric (TE) devices may play a key role in future energy production and utilization. However, relatively poor performance of current TE materials has slowed development of new energy conversion applications. Recent reports have shown that the dimensionless Figure of Merit, ZT, for TE devices can be increased beyond the state-of-the-art level by nanoscale structuring of materials to reduce their thermal conductivity. New morphologically designed TE materials have been fabricated at the NASA Langley Research Center, and their characterization is underway. These newly designed materials are based on semiconductor crystal grains whose surfaces are surrounded by metallic nanoparticles. The nanoscale particles are used to tailor the thermal and electrical conduction properties for TE applications by altering the phonon and electron transport pathways. A sample of bismuth telluride decorated with metallic nanoparticles showed less thermal conductivity and twice the electrical conductivity at room temperature as compared to pure Bi2Te3. Apparently, electrons cross easily between semiconductor crystal grains via the intervening metallic nanoparticle bridges, but phonons are scattered at the interfacing gaps. Hence, if the interfacing gap is larger than the mean free path of the phonon, thermal energy transmission from one grain to others is reduced. Here we describe the design and analysis of these new materials that offer substantial improvements in thermoelectric performance.

  15. Moringa oleifera extract enhances sexual performance in stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabsattroo, Thawatchai; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Iamsaard, Sitthichai; Somsapt, Pichet; Sritragool, Opass; Thukhummee, Wipawee; Muchimapura, Supaporn

    2015-03-01

    Aphrodisiacs are required to improve male sexual function under stressful conditions. Due to the effects of oxidative stress and dopamine on male sexual function, we hypothesized that Moringa oleifera leaves might improve male sexual dysfunction induced by stress. Therefore, the effects on various factors playing important roles in male sexual behavior, such as antioxidant effects, the suppression of monoamine and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) activities, serum testosterone and corticosterone levels, and histomorphological changes in the testes, of a hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves were investigated. Various doses of extract including 10, 50, and 250 mg/kg body weight (BW) were given orally to male Wistar rats before exposure to 12 h-immobilization stress for 7 d. The results demonstrated that the extract showed both antioxidant and monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) suppression activities. At 7 d of treatment, the low dose of extract improved sexual performance in stress-exposed rats by decreasing intromission latency and increasing intromission frequency. It also suppressed PDE-5 activity, decreased serum corticosterone level, but increased serum testosterone, numbers of interstitial cells of Leydig and spermatozoa. The increased numbers of interstitial cells of Leydig and spermatozoa might have been due to the antioxidant effect of the extract. The increased sexual performance during the intromission phase might have been due to the suppression of MAO-B and PDE-5 activities and increased testosterone. Therefore, M. oleifera is a potential aphrodisiac, but further research concerning the precise underlying mechanisms is still needed.

  16. Numerical Nudging: Using an Accelerating Score to Enhance Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Luxi; Hsee, Christopher K

    2017-08-01

    People often encounter inherently meaningless numbers, such as scores in health apps or video games, that increase as they take actions. This research explored how the pattern of change in such numbers influences performance. We found that the key factor is acceleration-namely, whether the number increases at an increasing velocity. Six experiments in both the lab and the field showed that people performed better on an ongoing task if they were presented with a number that increased at an increasing velocity than if they were not presented with such a number or if they were presented with a number that increased at a decreasing or constant velocity. This acceleration effect occurred regardless of the absolute magnitude or the absolute velocity of the number, and even when the number was not tied to any specific rewards. This research shows the potential of numerical nudging-using inherently meaningless numbers to strategically alter behaviors-and is especially relevant in the present age of digital devices.

  17. Enhancement, ethics and society: towards an empirical research agenda for the medical humanities and social sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickersgill, Martyn; Hogle, Linda

    2015-12-01

    For some time now, bioethicists have paid close attention to issues associated with 'enhancement'; specifically, the appropriate use and regulation of substances and artefacts understood by some to improve the functioning of human bodies beyond that associated with 'normal' function. Medical humanities scholars (aside from philosophers and lawyers) and social scientists have not been frequent participants in debates around enhancement, but could shine a bright light on the range of dilemmas and opportunities techniques of enhancement are purported to introduce. In this paper, we argue that empirical research into the notion and practice of enhancement is necessary and timely. Such work could fruitfully engage with-and further develop-existing conceptual repertoires within the medical humanities and social sciences in ways that would afford benefit to scholars in those disciplines. We maintain that empirical engagements could also provide important resources to bioethicists seeking to regulate new enhancements in ways that are sensitive to societal context and cultural difference. To this end, we outline an empirical agenda for the medical humanities and social sciences around enhancement, emphasising especially how science and technology studies could bring benefits to-and be benefitted by-research in this area. We also use the example of (pharmaceutical) cognitive enhancement to show how empirical studies of actual and likely enhancement practices can nuance resonant bioethical debates. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Measuring Human Performance within Computer Security Incident Response Teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClain, Jonathan T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silva, Austin Ray [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Avina, Glory Emmanuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Forsythe, James C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Human performance has become a pertinen t issue within cyber security. However, this research has been stymied by the limited availability of expert cyber security professionals. This is partly attributable to the ongoing workload faced by cyber security professionals, which is compound ed by the limited number of qualified personnel and turnover of p ersonnel across organizations. Additionally, it is difficult to conduct research, and particularly, openly published research, due to the sensitivity inherent to cyber ope rations at most orga nizations. As an alternative, the current research has focused on data collection during cyb er security training exercises. These events draw individuals with a range of knowledge and experience extending from seasoned professionals to recent college gradu ates to college students. The current paper describes research involving data collection at two separate cyber security exercises. This data collection involved multiple measures which included behavioral performance based on human - machine transactions and questionnaire - based assessments of cyber security experience.

  19. Effects of scopolamine and dextroamphetamine on human performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmedtje, John F., Jr.; Oman, Charles M.; Letz, Richard; Baker, Edward L.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of two drugs used to prevent symptoms of motion sickness in the operational environment were examined in this study of human performance as measured by computer-based tests of cognitive and psychomotor skills. Each subject was exposed repetitively to five tests: symbol-digit substitution, simple reaction time, pattern recognition, digit span memory, and pattern memory. Although there have been previous reports of decreases in human performance in similar testing with higher dosages of scopolamine or dextroamphetamine, no significant decrements were observed with the operational-level combined dose used in this study (0.4 mg oral scopolamine and 5.0 mg oral dextroamphetamine.) The controversy over the use of combination drug therapy in this environnment is discussed along with the indications for further research based on the findings.

  20. Approaching human performance the functionality-driven Awiwi robot hand

    CERN Document Server

    Grebenstein, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Humanoid robotics have made remarkable progress since the dawn of robotics. So why don't we have humanoid robot assistants in day-to-day life yet? This book analyzes the keys to building a successful humanoid robot for field robotics, where collisions become an unavoidable part of the game. The author argues that the design goal should be real anthropomorphism, as opposed to mere human-like appearance. He deduces three major characteristics to aim for when designing a humanoid robot, particularly robot hands: _ Robustness against impacts _ Fast dynamics _ Human-like grasping and manipulation performance   Instead of blindly copying human anatomy, this book opts for a holistic design me-tho-do-lo-gy. It analyzes human hands and existing robot hands to elucidate the important functionalities that are the building blocks toward these necessary characteristics.They are the keys to designing an anthropomorphic robot hand, as illustrated in the high performance anthropomorphic Awiwi Hand presented in this book.  ...

  1. The Effect of Multispectral Image Fusion Enhancement on Human Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-20

    basic human behavior. The former asks participants for rankings of characteristics ranging from pure preference of imagery up to self-ratings of their...PCA) is a general math - ematical technique that transforms a set of potentially correlated variables into a set of linearly uncorrelated vari- ables

  2. Enhancement of Human Cheek Skin Texture by Acacia Nilotica Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a topical application of a cream formulation containing extract of. Acacia nilotica bark extract on human cheek skin texture. Methods: A cream containing 3 % concentrated extract of Acacia nilotica bark was developed by entrapping the extract in the internal aqueous phase of the cream ...

  3. Erythropoietin treatment enhances muscle mitochondrial capacity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plenge, Ulla; Belhage, Bo; Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia

    2012-01-01

    in humans. In six healthy volunteers rhEpo was administered by sub-cutaneous injection over 8 weeks with oral iron (100 mg) supplementation taken daily. Mitochondrial OXPHOS was quantified by high-resolution respirometry in saponin-permeabilized muscle fibers obtained from biopsies of the vastus lateralis...

  4. Smarter Grid through Collective Intelligence: User Awareness for Enhanced Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Macarulla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This paper examines the scenario of a university campus, and the impact on energy consumption of the awareness of building managers and users (lecturers, students and administrative staff.Design/methodology/approach – This study draws a comparison between direct fruition of the information by both skilled (building managers and unskilled (users recipients, and the effect of peer pressure and beneficial competition between users in applying the good practices. In fact, the usage of edutainment, implemented by the automatic publication on the Twitter platform of energy consumption data from different users, can promote general users’ awareness on best practices and their effect on energy consumption. In addition, the use of a social network platform allows the interaction between users, sharing experiences and increasing the collective intelligence in the energy efficiency field.Findings – Tests revealed that enhanced awareness helped managers to identify strategies that, if implemented in the whole building, could reduce energy consumption by about 6%. The tests on university users’ awareness hint that the expected energy savings can reach 9%, in addition to the previous 6%. In fact, the measures were implemented in one of the three common rooms, and at building level the total energy consumption decreased by 3.42%, proving that a large deal of energy can be saved by capillary actions targeting society at large. The emerging collective intelligence of the final users ends up having a stronger effect on energy saving than the actions of more educated professionals.Practical implications – The approach used in this paper moved the burden of evolving the energy saving strategies to new scenarios onto the collective intelligence of the users, by connecting the users – and their experiences in new scenarios – using a social network to provide guidelines to other users involved in the same decision processes

  5. Enhancing the performance of cooperative face detector by NFGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesugade, Snehal; Dave, Palak; Srivastava, Srinkhala; Das, Apurba

    2015-07-01

    Computerized human face detection is an important task of deformable pattern recognition in today's world. Especially in cooperative authentication scenarios like ATM fraud detection, attendance recording, video tracking and video surveillance, the accuracy of the face detection engine in terms of accuracy, memory utilization and speed have been active areas of research for the last decade. The Haar based face detection or SIFT and EBGM based face recognition systems are fairly reliable in this regard. But, there the features are extracted in terms of gray textures. When the input is a high resolution online video with a fairly large viewing area, Haar needs to search for face everywhere (say 352×250 pixels) and every time (e.g., 30 FPS capture all the time). In the current paper we have proposed to address both the aforementioned scenarios by a neuro-visually inspired method of figure-ground segregation (NFGS) [5] to result in a two-dimensional binary array from gray face image. The NFGS would identify the reference video frame in a low sampling rate and updates the same with significant change of environment like illumination. The proposed algorithm would trigger the face detector only when appearance of a new entity is encountered into the viewing area. To address the detection accuracy, classical face detector would be enabled only in a narrowed down region of interest (RoI) as fed by the NFGS. The act of updating the RoI would be done in each frame online with respect to the moving entity which in turn would improve both FR (False Rejection) and FA (False Acceptance) of the face detection system.

  6. Mild performic acid oxidation enhances chromatographic and top down mass spectrometric analyses of histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, James J; Garcia, Benjamin A; Streeky, James A; Kelleher, Neil L; Mizzen, Craig A

    2007-09-01

    Recent developments in top down mass spectrometry have enabled closely related histone variants and their modified forms to be identified and quantitated with unprecedented precision, facilitating efforts to better understand how histones contribute to the epigenetic regulation of gene transcription and other nuclear processes. It is therefore crucial that intact MS profiles accurately reflect the levels of variants and modified forms present in a given cell type or cell state for the full benefit of such efforts to be realized. Here we show that partial oxidation of Met and Cys residues in histone samples prepared by conventional methods, together with oxidation that can accrue during storage or during chip-based automated nanoflow electrospray ionization, confounds MS analysis by altering the intact MS profile as well as hindering posttranslational modification localization after MS/MS. We also describe an optimized performic acid oxidation procedure that circumvents these problems without catalyzing additional oxidations or altering the levels of posttranslational modifications common in histones. MS and MS/MS of HeLa cell core histones confirmed that Met and Cys were the only residues oxidized and that complete oxidation restored true intact abundance ratios and significantly enhanced MS/MS data quality. This allowed for the unequivocal detection, at the intact molecule level, of novel combinatorially modified forms of H4 that would have been missed otherwise. Oxidation also enhanced the separation of human core histones by reverse phase chromatography and decreased the levels of salt-adducted forms observed in ESI-FTMS. This method represents a simple and easily automated means for enhancing the accuracy and sensitivity of top down analyses of combinatorially modified forms of histones that may also be of benefit for top down or bottom up analyses of other proteins.

  7. Control room human engineering influences on operator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finlayson, F.C.

    1977-01-01

    Three general groups of factors influence operator performance in fulfilling their responsibilities in the control room: (1) control room and control system design, informational data displays (operator inputs) as well as control board design (for operator output); (2) operator characteristics, including those skills, mental, physical, and emotional qualities which are functions of operator selection, training, and motivation; (3) job performance guides, the prescribed operating procedures for normal and emergency operations. This paper presents some of the major results of an evaluation of the effect of human engineering on operator performance in the control room. Primary attention is given to discussion of control room and control system design influence on the operator. Brief observations on the influences of operator characteristics and job performance guides (operating procedures) on performance in the control room are also given. Under the objectives of the study, special emphasis was placed on the evaluation of the control room-operator relationships for severe emergency conditions in the power plant. Consequently, this presentation is restricted largely to material related to emergency conditions in the control room, though it is recognized that human engineering of control systems is of equal (or greater) importance for many other aspects of plant operation

  8. Performance Enhancement of Power Transistors and Radiation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassn, Th.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this scientific research is studying the characteristic of bipolar junction transistor device and its performance under radiation fields and temperature effect as a control element in many power circuits. In this work we present the results of experimental measurements and analytical simulation of gamma – radiation effects on the electrical characteristics and operation of power transistor types 2N3773, 2N3055(as complementary silicon power transistor are designed for general-purpose switching and amplifier applications), three samples of each type were irradiated by gamma radiation with doses, 1 K rad, 5 K rad, 10 K rad, 30 K rad, and 10 Mrad, the experimental data are utilized to establish an analytical relation between the total absorbed dose of gamma irradiation and corresponding to effective density of generated charge in the internal structure of transistor, the electrical parameters which can be measured to estimate the generated defects in the power transistor are current gain, collector current and collected emitter leakage current , these changes cause the circuit to case proper functioning. Collector current and transconductance of each device are calibrated as a function of irradiated dose. Also the threshold voltage and transistor gain can be affected and also calibrated as a function of dose. A silicon NPN power transistor type 2N3773 intended for general purpose applications, were used in this work. It was designed for medium current and high power circuits. Performance and characteristic were discusses under temperature and gamma radiation doses. Also the internal junction thermal system of the transistor represented in terms of a junction thermal resistance (Rjth). The thermal resistance changed by ΔRjth, due to the external intended, also due to the gamma doses intended. The final result from the model analysis reveals that the emitter-bias configuration is quite stable by resistance ratio RB/RE. Also the current

  9. Build and Demonstrate a Training Program that Integrates Human Dimension to Optimize Human Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    health, and sports medicine to the overall fitness level of Soldiers.  Social: The social component focuses on the ways in which Army...has, then you can approach that person from a different perspective and knock down some barriers. You have to understand where the student is...and sports medicine contributions for optimal physical performance. (TRADOC Pam 525-3-7 (05/2014). The U.S. Army Human Dimension Concept) Human

  10. Toward a tactile language for human-robot interaction: two studies of tacton learning and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Daniel J; Reinerman-Jones, Lauren E; Matthews, Gerald

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments were performed to investigate the feasibility for robot-to-human communication of a tactile language using a lexicon of standardized tactons (tactile icons) within a sentence. Improvements in autonomous systems technology and a growing demand within military operations are spurring interest in communication via vibrotactile displays. Tactile communication may become an important element of human-robot interaction (HRI), but it requires the development of messaging capabilities approaching the communication power of the speech and visual signals used in the military. In Experiment 1 (N = 38), we trained participants to identify sets of directional, dynamic, and static tactons and tested performance and workload following training. In Experiment 2 (N = 76), we introduced an extended training procedure and tested participants' ability to correctly identify two-tacton phrases. We also investigated the impact of multitasking on performance and workload. Individual difference factors were assessed. Experiment 1 showed that participants found dynamic and static tactons difficult to learn, but the enhanced training procedure in Experiment 2 produced competency in performance for all tacton categories. Participants in the latter study also performed well on two-tacton phrases and when multitasking. However, some deficits in performance and elevation of workload were observed. Spatial ability predicted some aspects of performance in both studies. Participants may be trained to identify both single tactons and tacton phrases, demonstrating the feasibility of developing a tactile language for HRI. Tactile communication may be incorporated into multi-modal communication systems for HRI. It also has potential for human-human communication in challenging environments. © 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  11. Enhancement of Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor performance by lithium conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfield, D.K.; Hill, K.W.; Strachan, J.D.; Bell, M.G.; Scott, S.D.; Budny, R.; Marmar, E.S.; Snipes, J.A.; Terry, J.L.; Batha, S.; Bell, R.E.; Bitter, M.; Bush, C.E.; Chang, Z.; Darrow, D.S.; Ernst, D.; Fredrickson, E.; Grek, B.; Herrmann, H.W.; Janos, A.; Jassby, D.L.; Jobes, F.C.; Johnson, D.W.; Johnson, L.C.; Levinton, F.M.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Mueller, D.; Owens, D.K.; Park, H.; Ramsey, A.T.; Roquemore, A.L.; Skinner, C.H.; Stevenson, T.; Stratton, B.C.; Synakowski, E.; Taylor, G.; von Halle, A.; von Goeler, S.; Wong, K.L.; Zweben, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    Wall conditioning in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [K. M. McGuire et al., Phys. Plasmas 2, 2176 (1995)] by injection of lithium pellets into the plasma has resulted in large improvements in deuterium endash tritium fusion power production (up to 10.7 MW), the Lawson triple product (up to 10 21 m -3 s keV), and energy confinement time (up to 330 ms). The maximum plasma current for access to high-performance supershots has been increased from 1.9 to 2.7 MA, leading to stable operation at plasma stored energy values greater than 5 MJ. The amount of lithium on the limiter and the effectiveness of its action are maximized through (1) distributing the Li over the limiter surface by injection of four Li pellets into Ohmic plasmas of increasing major and minor radius, and (2) injection of four Li pellets into the Ohmic phase of supershot discharges before neutral-beam heating is begun. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  12. Enhanced ECR ion source performance with an electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.; Lyneis, C.M.; Lam, R.S.; Lundgren, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    An electron gun for the advanced electron cyclotron resonance (AECR) source has been developed to increase the production of high charge state ions. The AECR source, which operates at 14 GHz, is being developed for the 88-in. cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The electron gun injects 10 to 150 eV electrons into the plasma chamber of the AECR. With the electron gun the AECR has produced at 10 kV extraction voltage 131 e μA of O 7+ , 13 e μA of O 8+ , 17 e μA of Ar 14+ , 2.2 e μA of Kr 25+ , 1 e μA of Xe 31+ , and 0.2 e μA of Bi 38+ . The AECR was also tested as a single stage source with a coating of SiO 2 on the plasma chamber walls. This significantly improved its performance compared to no coating, but direct injection of electrons with the electron gun produced the best results

  13. Performance enhancement of electronic sensor through mask-less lithography

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya

    2016-03-30

    The escalating applications of miniaturized sensors have led the microelectronics industry to stay abreast with the precise micro-fabrication technologies. The following article describes a new technique for the fabrication of miniaturized interdigitated capacitive sensors that own highly sensitive and real-time detections capabilities. In standard lithographic procedure, the sensors are fabricated applying different photoresist materials that give rise to the variable characteristic profile of the fabricated product. Single crystal p-doped Silicon wafer was used as a substrate material due to its advantageous properties over Germanium. Heidelberg system was used for the maskless lithographic patterning of the new interdigital sensors on a silicon substrate. The process was carried out in a clean room in the absence of ultraviolet light at a fixed temperature. The fabricated sensors were used for inflammable gas sensing application. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy was applied to read the resistive and capacitive impedance measured by the sensor. The results proclaimed that the fabricated sensors own better performance in LPG detection as compared to its commercial counterparts.

  14. Bifurcation to Enhanced Performance H-mode on NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, D. J.; Chang, C. S.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Kaye, S. M.; Maingi, R.; Smith, D. R.

    2015-11-01

    The bifurcation from H-mode (H98 Performance (EP)H-mode (H98 = 1.2 - 2.0) on NSTX is found to occur when the ion thermal (χi) and momentum transport become decoupled from particle transport, such that the ion temperature (Ti) and rotation pedestals increase independent of the density pedestal. The onset of the EPH-mode transition is found to correlate with decreased pedestal collisionality (ν*ped) and an increased broadening of the density fluctuation (dn/n) spectrum in the pedestal as measured with beam emission spectroscopy. The spectrum broadening at decreased ν*ped is consistent with GEM simulations that indicate the toroidal mode number of the most unstable instability increases as ν*ped decreases. The lowest ν*ped, and thus largest spectrum broadening, is achieved with low pedestal density via lithium wall conditioning and when Zeff in the pedestal is significantly reduced via large edge rotation shear from external 3D fields or a large ELM. Kinetic neoclassical transport calculations (XGC0) confirm that Zeff is reduced when edge rotation braking leads to a more negative Er that shifts the impurity density profiles inward relative to the main ion density. These calculations also describe the role kinetic neoclassical and anomalous transport effects play in the decoupling of energy, momentum and particle transport at the bifurcation to EPH-mode. This work was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  15. Virtual assistant: Enhancing content acquisition by eliciting information from humans

    OpenAIRE

    Ozeki, Motoyuki; Maeda, Shunichi; Obata, Kanako; Nakamura, Yuichi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the "Virtual Assistant, " a novel framework for supporting knowledge capturing in videos. The Virtual Assistant is an artificial agent that simulates a human assistant shown in TV programs and prompts users to provide feedback by asking questions. This framework ensures that sufficient information is provided in the captured content while users interact in a natural and enjoyable way with the agent. We developed a prototype agent based on a chatbot-like approach and ...

  16. Erythropoietin enhances hippocampal response during memory retrieval in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla; O'Sullivan, Ursula; Harmer, Catherine J

    2007-01-01

    Although erythropoietin (Epo) is best known for its effects on erythropoiesis, recent evidence suggests that it also has neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties in animal models of hippocampal function. Such an action in humans would make it an intriguing novel compound for the treatment....... This is consistent with upregulation of hippocampal BDNF and neurotrophic actions found in animals and highlights Epo as a promising candidate for treatment of psychiatric disorders....

  17. 76 FR 54408 - Human Subjects Research Protections: Enhancing Protections for Research Subjects and Reducing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 50 and 56 Human Subjects Research Protections: Enhancing Protections for Research Subjects and Reducing Burden, Delay, and Ambiguity for Investigators; Extension of... Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) in coordination with the Office of Science...

  18. Human developmental enhancers conserved between deuterostomes and protostomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoa L Clarke

    Full Text Available The identification of homologies, whether morphological, molecular, or genetic, is fundamental to our understanding of common biological principles. Homologies bridging the great divide between deuterostomes and protostomes have served as the basis for current models of animal evolution and development. It is now appreciated that these two clades share a common developmental toolkit consisting of conserved transcription factors and signaling pathways. These patterning genes sometimes show common expression patterns and genetic interactions, suggesting the existence of similar or even conserved regulatory apparatus. However, previous studies have found no regulatory sequence conserved between deuterostomes and protostomes. Here we describe the first such enhancers, which we call bilaterian conserved regulatory elements (Bicores. Bicores show conservation of sequence and gene synteny. Sequence conservation of Bicores reflects conserved patterns of transcription factor binding sites. We predict that Bicores act as response elements to signaling pathways, and we show that Bicores are developmental enhancers that drive expression of transcriptional repressors in the vertebrate central nervous system. Although the small number of identified Bicores suggests extensive rewiring of cis-regulation between the protostome and deuterostome clades, additional Bicores may be revealed as our understanding of cis-regulatory logic and sample of bilaterian genomes continue to grow.

  19. Human health and performance considerations for near earth asteroids (NEA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan; Kundrot, Craig; Charles, John

    2013-11-01

    Humans are considered as a system in the design of any deep space exploration mission. The addition of many potential near asteroid (NEA) destinations to the existing multiple mission architecture for Lunar and Mars missions increases the complexity of human health and performance issues that are anticipated for exploration of space. We suggest that risks to human health and performance be analyzed in terms of the 4 major parameters related to multiple mission architecture: destination, duration, distance and vehicle design. Geological properties of the NEA will influence design of exploration tasks related to sample handling and containment, and extravehicular activity (EVA) capabilities including suit ports and tools. A robotic precursor mission that collects basic information on NEA surface properties would reduce uncertainty about these aspects of the mission as well as aid in mission architecture and exploration task design. Key mission parameters are strongly impacted by duration and distance. The most critical of these is deep-space radiation exposure without even the temporary shielding of a nearby large planetary body. The current space radiation permissible exposure limits (PEL) limits mission duration to 3-10 months depending on age, gender and stage of the solar cycle. Duration also impacts mission architectures including countermeasures for bone, muscle, and cardiovascular atrophy during continuous weightlessness; and behavioral and psychological issues resulting from isolation and confinement. Distance affects communications and limits abort and return options for a NEA mission. These factors are anticipated to have important effects on crew function and autonomous operations, as well as influence medical capability, supplies and training requirements of the crew. The design of a habitat volume that can maintain the physical and psychological health of the crew and support mission operations with limited intervention from earth will require an

  20. Enhanced propellant performance via environmentally friendly curable surface coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Manning

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface coating of granular propellants is widely used in a multiplicity of propellants for small, medium and large caliber ammunition. All small caliber ball propellants exhibit burning progressivity due to application of effective deterrent coatings. Large perforated propellant grains have also begun utilizing plasticizing and impregnated deterrent coatings with the purpose of increasing charge weights for greater energy and velocity for the projectile. The deterrent coating and impregnation process utilizes volatile organic compounds (VOCs and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs which results in propellants that need to be forced air dried which impacts air quality. Propellants undergo temperature fluctuations during their life. Diffusion coefficients vary exponentially with variations in temperature. A small temperature increase can induce a faster migration, even over a short period of time, which can lead to large deviations in the concentration. This large concentration change in the ammunition becomes a safety or performance liability. The presence of both polymeric deterrents and nitroglycerin(NG in the nitrocellulose matrix and organic solvents leads to higher diffusion rates. This results in continued emissions of VOCs and HAPs. Conventional polymers tend to partition within the propellant matrix. In other words, localized mixing can occur between the polymer and underlying propellant. This is due to solvent induced softening of the polymer vehicle over the propellant grain. In effect this creates a path where migration can occur. Since nitrate esters, like NG, are relatively small, it can exude to the surface and create a highly unstable and dangerous situation for the warfighter. Curable polymers do not suffer from this partitioning due to “melting” because no VOC solvents are present. They remain surface coated. The small scale characterization testing, such as closed bomb testing, small scale sensitivity, thermal stability, and