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Sample records for english verb forms

  1. L'Apprentissage des Formes Verbales en Anglais (The Acquisition of Verb Forms in English). Melanges Pedagogiques, 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauriac, P.

    This is a summary of a report investigating the way verb forms are treated in four audiovisual or audiolingual methods (textbooks) for the teaching of introductory English as a second language. The methods under investigation are: (1) "Methode Audio-visuelle d'Anglais, 1," Filipovic; (2) "My Friend Tony--Pratique Audio-Orale des Structures, "…

  2. SPOTLIGHTING ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS

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    Éva Kovács

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phrasal verbs or multi-word verbs, such as call off, go into and run up against, etc. represent a very interesting and challenging aspect of the English language. In ELT there is a widespread view that familiarity with a wide range of phrasal verbs and the ability to use them appropriately in context are among the distinguishing marks of a native-like command of English. However, it is also generally recognised that these verb+particle combinations pose special difficulties for both learners and teachers of English partly because there are so many of them, partly because they have special semantic, syntactic and stylistic properties. Besides, quite many of them can be used as nouns, e.g. a hideaway, a stowaway and a write-off, etc. and adjectives, e.g. a broken-down car and a knockdown price, etc. What is more, again quite many of them have a single word equivalent of Romance origin, which, however, often differs from them in terms of style, collocation and meaning, e.g. blow up ~ explode, do away with ~ eliminate and put out ~ extinguish, etc. Furthermore, it is a misconception that phrasal verbs are mainly used in informal style and in spoken English. In fact, they can be found in many styles of writing, ranging from highly formal texts to slang, e.g. call forth vs. gobble up, etc. This paper sets out to explore the unique and complex nature of English verb+particle constructions in order to make them a more manageable part of the vocabulary of English.

  3. Characterization of adjectival -ed and -ing forms of psychological verbs in English

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    Matsui Chie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines for the first time a very large set of psychological verbs and their derived adjectives in English. To determine whether an item is an adjective or not, we take the standard structural criteria of morphological (-ly or un-, morpho-syntactic (very, -er/-est or more/most and syntactic (seem, look, or feel characteristics. As for the data, we selected three data bases and gathered those containing certain items in specific contexts, such as whether the item in question takes a -ly or un- affix, or a comparative or superlative form, or follows seem, look or feel. We took dictionaries as our source of criteria in checking whether an item was perceived to be an adjective. As a result, we found some hierarchy within adjectives as to whether they take morphological, morpho-syntactic, or syntactic characteristics. The most powerful determinant of adjectives is the morphological characteristic -ly.

  4. The regularization of Old English weak verbs

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Tío Sáenz

    2015-01-01

    [EN] This article deals with the regularization of non-standard spellings of the verbal forms extracted from a corpus. It addresses the question of what the limits of regularization are when lemmatizing Old English weak verbs. The purpose of such regularization, also known as normalization, is to carry out lexicological analysis or lexicographical work. The analysis concentrates on weak verbs from the second class and draws on the lexical database of Old English Nerthus, which has incorporate...

  5. On using verbs appropriately in academic English writing

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    Khrabrova Valentina Evgenievna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with English action verbs as key elements of academic English writing. Due to cognitive and semantic characteristics, verbs in the predicate function, by contrast with deverbative suffixal nouns and adjectives as parts of nominal predicates, convey the meaning of written message more concisely. The article is provided with verb classifications aimed at systematizing the information about verbs and developing a conscious approach to choosing verbs in the writing process. Syntactic transformation, limitation of passive voice forms, substitution of action verbs for stative verbs, adjectives and nouns entail perfecting the second language student writing skills.

  6. Meaning and the English verb

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    Leech, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Every language has its peculiar problems of meaning for the foreign learner. In the English language, some of the biggest yet most fascinating problems are concentrated in the area of the finite verb phrase: in particular, tense, aspect, mood and modality. Meaning and the English Verb describes these fields in detail for teachers and advanced students of English as a foreign or second language. This new third edition uses up-to-date examples to show differences and similarities between American and British english, reflecting a great deal of recent research in this area. It also takes account

  7. Teaching Grammar: The Use Of The English Auxiliary “BE” Present Tense Verb Among Malaysian Form 4 And Form5 Students

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    Joanna Jishvithaa.M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research paper aims to explore the usage of the English Auxiliary “Be” Present Tense Verb, using corpus based method among Malaysian form 4 and form 5 students. This study is conducted by identifying and classifying the types of errors in the Auxiliary “Be” Present Tense verb in students’ compositions from the MCSAW corpus developed by (Mukundan&RezvaniKalajahi, 2013. 273 Form 5 sample essays and 295 Form 4 sample essays were taken from four different national schools where the schools were from four different states. The errors made in the written usage of the English Auxiliary “Be” Present Tense verb were evaluated and analyzed using the Wordsmith software version 4. The findings revealed that there are three types of errors which are the “Tense shift, Agreement and Misuse”. The results show that there were more errors made by the form 4s compared to the form 5s even though the difference of the frequencies of errors produced by both the levels were not of much difference. Therefore, the findings of this study can be used as a guide in enabling secondary school teachers to revise and be more prepared in their teaching instructions, materials and procedures. It will help teachers look into the possible remedial actions which could be taken into consideration to overcome the problems faced by Malaysian secondary school students in using the Auxiliary “Be” Present Tense verb.

  8. The acquisition of English ergative verbs by Turkish EFL students

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullayeva, Ophelia

    1993-01-01

    Ankara : Faculty of Humanities and Letters and Institute of Economics and Social Sciences, Bilkent Univ., 1993. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1993. Includes bibliographical refences. The purpose of the study was to investigate the acquisition of English ergative verbs by Turkish EFL students. In contrast with transitive and intransitive verbs, these verbs can form both grammatically correct passive and intransitive ergative constructions. Generative grammar pre...

  9. The regularization of Old English weak verbs

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    Marta Tío Sáenz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the regularization of non-standard spellings of the verbal forms extracted from a corpus. It addresses the question of what the limits of regularization are when lemmatizing Old English weak verbs. The purpose of such regularization, also known as normalization, is to carry out lexicological analysis or lexicographical work. The analysis concentrates on weak verbs from the second class and draws on the lexical database of Old English Nerthus, which has incorporated the texts of the Dictionary of Old English Corpus. As regards the question of the limits of normalization, the solution adopted are, in the first place, that when it is necessary to regularize, normalization is restricted to correspondences based on dialectal and diachronic variation and, secondly, that normalization has to be unidirectional.

  10. English Verb Accuracy of Bilingual Cantonese-English Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezzonico, Stefano; Goldberg, Ahuva; Milburn, Trelani; Belletti, Adriana; Girolametto, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Knowledge of verb development in typically developing bilingual preschoolers may inform clinicians about verb accuracy rates during the 1st 2 years of English instruction. This study aimed to investigate tensed verb accuracy in 2 assessment contexts in 4- and 5-year-old Cantonese-English bilingual preschoolers. Method: The sample included…

  11. English Verb Accuracy of Bilingual Cantonese-English Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezzonico, Stefano; Goldberg, Ahuva; Milburn, Trelani; Belletti, Adriana; Girolametto, Luigi

    2017-07-26

    Knowledge of verb development in typically developing bilingual preschoolers may inform clinicians about verb accuracy rates during the 1st 2 years of English instruction. This study aimed to investigate tensed verb accuracy in 2 assessment contexts in 4- and 5-year-old Cantonese-English bilingual preschoolers. The sample included 47 Cantonese-English bilinguals enrolled in English preschools. Half of the children were in their 1st 4 months of English language exposure, and half had completed 1 year and 4 months of exposure to English. Data were obtained from the Test of Early Grammatical Impairment (Rice & Wexler, 2001) and from a narrative generated in English. By the 2nd year of formal exposure to English, children in the present study approximated 33% accuracy of tensed verbs in a formal testing context versus 61% in a narrative context. The use of the English verb BE approximated mastery. Predictors of English third-person singular verb accuracy were task, grade, English expressive vocabulary, and lemma frequency. Verb tense accuracy was low across both groups, but a precocious mastery of BE was observed. The results of the present study suggest that speech-language pathologists may consider, in addition to an elicitation task, evaluating the use of verbs during narratives in bilingual Cantonese-English bilingual children.

  12. Analysing English particle verbs: synchrony and diachrony

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    Elenbaas, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    English has a very productive construction in which a verb is combined with a particle. (1) a. The cleaner knocked (down) the vase (down). b. The police locked (up) the criminal (up). c. The Formula 1 race-driver wrote (off) his car (off). (write off = damage beyond repair) The challenge of

  13. Participial Perception Verb Complements in Old English

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    Lowrey Brian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I shall examine the complements of perception verbs in Old English involving a noun phrase and a present participle. What kind of perception is described by these structures? Do they evoke the perception of an event, or that of an entity? It will be shown here that there are good reasons to believe that an NP + present participle sequence could function as the equivalent of the traditional “AcI” construction when used with perception verbs. I shall also attempt to determine to what extent the syntax of this construction matches the semantics: is the internal argument of the perception verb the NP alone, or some kind of combination of the NP and the participle? This question is particularly interesting in the light of Declerck’s (1982 remarks on participle perception verb complements in modern English. Finally, I shall take a look at morphological parametres: sometimes the participle inflects to agree with the NP, whereas on other occasions it does not. What might the implications of this kind of variation be?

  14. Regularisation of irregular verbs in child English second language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Basing their conclusions on studies that were conducted on acquisition of English and German noun and verb inflections, these researchers proposed that, through the Blocking Principle, the use of the regular inflections with irregular verbs and nouns is automatically and subconsciously blocked. The present study was ...

  15. Verbs and Attention to Relational Roles in English and Tamil

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    Sethuraman, Nitya; Smith, Linda B.

    2013-01-01

    English-learning children have been shown to reliably use cues from argument structure in learning verbs. However, languages pair overtly expressed arguments with verbs to varying extents, raising the question of whether children learning all languages expect the same, universal mapping between arguments and relational roles. Three experiments…

  16. English-learning infants' segmentation of verbs from fluent speech.

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    Nazzi, Thierry; Dilley, Laura C; Jusczyk, Ann Marie; Shattuck-Hufnagel, Stefanie; Jusczyk, Peter W

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments sought to extend the demonstration of English-learning infants' abilities to segment nouns from fluent speech to a new lexical class: verbs. Moreover, we explored whether two factors previously shown to influence noun segmentation, stress pattern (strong-weak or weak-strong) and type of initial phoneme (consonant or vowel), also influence verb segmentation. Our results establish the early emergence of verb segmentation in English: by 13.5 months for strong-weak consonant- or vowel-initial verbs and for weak-strong consonant-initial verbs; and by 16.5 months for weak-strong verbs beginning with a vowel. This generalizes previous reports of early segmentation to a new lexical class, thereby providing additional evidence that segmentation is likely to contribute to lexical acquisition. The effects of stress pattern and onset type found are similar to those previously obtained for nouns, in that verbs with a weak-strong stress pattern and verbs beginning with a vowel appear to be at a disadvantage in segmentation. Finally, we present prosodic analyses that suggest a possible effect of prosodic boundary and pitch accent distribution on segmentation. These prosodic differences potentially explain a developmental lag in verb segmentation observed in the present study compared to earlier findings for noun segmentation.

  17. Implicit causality bias in English: a corpus of 300 verbs.

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    Ferstl, Evelyn C; Garnham, Alan; Manouilidou, Christina

    2011-03-01

    This study provides implicit verb causality norms for a corpus of 305 English verbs. A web-based sentence completion study was conducted, with 96 respondents completing fragments such as "John liked Mary because..." The resulting bias scores are provided as supplementary material in the Psychonomic Society Archive, where we also present lexical and semantic verb features, such as the frequency, semantic class and emotional valence. Our results replicate those of previous studies with much smaller numbers of verbs and respondents. Novel effects of gender and its interaction with verb valence illustrate the type of issues that can be investigated using stable norms for a large number of verbs. The corpus will facilitate future studies in a range of areas, including psycholinguistics and social psychology.

  18. FUNCTIONAL INTERACTION OF LEXICAL AND GRAMMATICAL FACTORS IN THE ENGLISH VERB SYSTEM

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    Nina Sergeevna Kotova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the research conducted is revealing the peculiarities of lexical paradigmatics influence upon the usage of aspect and temporal verb forms and the opposite impact as well, i.e. the influence of aspect and temporal verb forms upon the lexical meaning of this verb groups under specific conditions of functioning. The lexical paradigmatics is considered as the system of mutually contrasted semantic features of particular verb groups. In this case, we analyze the paradigmatics in the middle language hierarchy for each language level separately. Methodology. The research is conducted synchronically on the material of the contemporary English verb system. Interaction of lexical and grammatical factors in the English verb system is examined in a functional aspect. Such consideration gives a possibility to differentiate the intrasystem phenomena and phenomena of pragmatic character and expose the system-structural mutual relations of lexical and grammatical factors. The research material is the verb as massive word group. From the point of view of interaction of lexical and grammatical factors in the functional and semantic field representing aspectuality, we get interested in the meaning which realizes in the opposition ofatelicity – telicity(telicity correlates the action with the limit, and atelicity demotes the action irrespectively to its limit. The technique applied to the analysis of lexical and grammatical factors in the English verb system is complex combining descriptive and comparative and functional methods. Results. Interrelations and interdependency of lexical and grammatical paradigmatics create particular sustainability in using the lexical unit of this paradigm with aspect and temporal verb forms. In this case, the tendencies of the language sign developing and changing are expressed in the process of the mutual substitution and interpenetration of grammatical forms primarily under the influence of paradigmatic

  19. Verbs and attention to relational roles in English and Tamil*

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    SETHURAMAN, NITYA; SMITH, LINDA B.

    2013-01-01

    English-learning children have been shown to reliably use cues from argument structure in learning verbs. However, languages pair overtly expressed arguments with verbs to varying extents, raising the question of whether children learning all languages expect the same, universal mapping between arguments and relational roles. Three experiments examined this question by asking how strongly early-learned verbs by themselves, without their corresponding explicitly expressed arguments, point to ‘conceptual arguments’ – the relational roles in a scene. Children aged two to four years and adult speakers of two languages that differ structurally in terms of whether the arguments of a verb are explicitly expressed more (English) or less (Tamil) frequently were compared in their mapping of verbs, presented without any overtly expressed arguments, to a range of scenes. The results suggest different developmental trajectories for language learners, as well as different patterns of adult interpretation, and offer new ways of thinking about the nature of verbs cross-linguistically. PMID:22289295

  20. Beyond dichotomies : on the nature and classification of compound verbs in English

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    Alexandra Bagasheva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of compound verbs in English poses numerous problems, among which even their recognition as compounds on grounds of their derivation. Resulting from at least three different word-formation patterns, compound verbs constitute a heterogeneous class of complex lexemes. Their status as actual compound lexemes invites the differentiation between compounding as a word-formation process and compounds as a special class of lexemes. Even within the latter, compound verbs display marked properties at least in relation to the inability of standard classifications of compounds to capture and compromise their lexical uniformity and their heterogeneous origin. The adoption of a position in which it is argued that compound verbs in English constitute a constructional idiom and the application of scalar analytical notions which combine word-formationist and lexical-semantic accounts cast in the general framework of the cognitive linguistic enterprise yield informative generalizations concerning the linguistic and conceptual properties of compound verbs in English. In view of Radden and Dirven's (2007: 41-46 claim that we do not need "more than two basic types of conceptual units things and relations" in order to establish linguistically relevant conceptual distinctions, compound verbs pose a problem for neat dichotomous treatment as they very often both conceptually and in terms of form include a "thing" (e.g. to flat-hunt, to house-sit, to fellow-feel, to case-harden, etc. and thus come closer to a "situation" than to a "relation". Exactly because of the fact that compound verbs profile/perspectivize "situations" as "relations", they function as special construal mechanisms and as such do not fit the subordinate/coordinate distinction, because they name situations. In view of the above the paper treats compound verbs as a constructional idiom whose analysis necessitates the recognition of the role of conceptual conversion mechanisms, scalar

  1. Verbs in the standard marine communication phrases as a sublanguage of maritime English

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    Milena Dževerdanović Pejović

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on lexical aspect making the core of the Standard Marine Communication Phrases (SMCP – the verbs. Given that the key feature of this specific maritime sublanguage laid down by the International Maritime Organization (IMO, the Standard Marine Communication Phrases i s to convey precise information in English between seafarers on board and in external ship - to - ship and ship - to - shore communication at sea, the semantic analysis of the verbs in the SMCP was carried out, applying theoretical knowledge in the semantic domain s of verbs (Biber et al., 1999 and verb patterns (Francis et al., 1996. The discursive function of verbs and verb patterns, as well as verb phrases making up idiomatic expressions in the SMCP, is explained in the light of conceptual knowledge or knowledg e of the professional (maritime setting in which they occur. This study also supports idea that results of analysis carried out by the use of modern linguistic quantitative tools should be incorporated in teaching SMCP phrases and presented to seafarers i n the form of e - documents like screenshots, concordance lists and formulaic structures. Due to lack of time spent on shore, seafarers particularly benefit from computer - based learning and prefer economic and short information.

  2. Grammatical constraints on verb phrases in Twi/English code ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have shown that items from the languages that participate in code switching (henceforth CS) do not occur at random. Rather they are guided by the grammatical rules of the languages involved. Verbs that participate in Twi/English CS also do not occur at random. They are constrained by the grammatical rules of ...

  3. The structure of the English verb-particle combination

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    Elenbaas, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    A key issue in analysing the present-day English verb-particle combination is its syntactic properties on the one hand and its morphological makeup on the other. The particle's syntactic independence exemplified in the word order alternation conflicts with the word formation properties of the

  4. The morphophonology of the Akan reduplicated verb-form

    OpenAIRE

    KwekuOsam, E.; Charles O. Marfo; Kofi Agyekum

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the interaction between constituent formation and alteration of sounds (i.e., morphophonology) in Akan reduplicated verb-forms. Specifically, we strive to look into two issues; the morphology of reduplicated verb stems and how the morphological manifestation(s) affect certain target sounds. With its morphology, we observe that reduplication of the Akan verb-stem is generally total and, through the Morphological Doubling Theory (Inkelas 2005; Inkelas and Zoll 2005), redupl...

  5. Transitional particle syntax: on the rise of the verb-particle-object order in Middle English

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    Elenbaas, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    In the transition from Old to Middle English, particle-verb combinations were rapidly transformed into verb-particle combinations, in which particles are invariably postverbal (Hiltunen 1983). Data from the early Middle English period show that particles immediately following the verb, (1a), far

  6. Chinese L1 Children's English L2 Verb Morphology over Time: Individual Variation in Longterm Outcomes

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    Paradis, Joanne; Tulpar, Yasemin; Arppe, Antti

    2016-01-01

    This study examined accuracy in production and grammaticality judgements of verb morphology by eighteen Chinese-speaking children learning English as a second language (L2) followed longitudinally from four to six years of exposure to English, and who began to learn English at age 4;2. Children's growth in accuracy with verb morphology reached a…

  7. Survival of the Strongest: Strong Verbs in the History of English

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    Branchaw, Sherrylyn Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The English strong verbs, throughout their history, have shown a tendency to be attracted into the large class of regular verbs. The retention of strong inflection for some verbs is a phenomenon that many scholars have sought to explain. The dissertation presents hypotheses that strong preterites have historically correlated with long vowels, and…

  8. Usage frequencies of complement-taking verbs in Spanish and English: Data from Spanish monolinguals and Spanish—English bilinguals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dussias, Paola E; Marful, Alejandra; Gerfen, Chip; Molina, María Teresa Bajo

    2010-01-01

    .... To date, the vast majority of sentence processing research involving verb bias has been conducted almost exclusively with monolingual speakers, and predominantly with monolingual English speakers...

  9. Verb Errors in Advanced Spoken English

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    Tomáš Gráf

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As an experienced teacher of advanced learners of English I am deeply aware of recurrent problems which these learners experience as regards grammatical accuracy. In this paper, I focus on researching inaccuracies in the use of verbal categories. I draw the data from a spoken learner corpus LINDSEI_CZ and analyze the performance of 50 advanced (C1–C2 learners of English whose mother tongue is Czech. The main method used is Computer-aided Error Analysis within the larger framework of Learner Corpus Research. The results reveal that the key area of difficulty is the use of tenses and tense agreements, and especially the use of the present perfect. Other error-prone aspects are also described. The study also identifies a number of triggers which may lie at the root of the problems. The identification of these triggers reveals deficiencies in the teaching of grammar, mainly too much focus on decontextualized practice, use of potentially confusing rules, and the lack of attempt to deal with broader notions such as continuity and perfectiveness. Whilst the study is useful for the teachers of advanced learners, its pedagogical implications stretch to lower levels of proficiency as well.

  10. Marking of verb tense in the English of preschool English-Mandarin bilingual children: evidence from language development profiles within subgroups on the Singapore English Action Picture Test.

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    Brebner, Chris; McCormack, Paul; Liow, Susan Rickard

    2016-01-01

    The phonological and morphosyntactic structures of English and Mandarin contrast maximally and an increasing number of bilinguals speak these two languages. Speech and language therapists need to understand bilingual development for children speaking these languages in order reliably to assess and provide intervention for this population. To examine the marking of verb tense in the English of two groups of bilingual pre-schoolers learning these languages in a multilingual setting where the main educational language is English. The main research question addressed was: are there differences in the rate and pattern of acquisition of verb-tense marking for English-language 1 children compared with Mandarin-language 1 children? Spoken language samples in English from 481 English-Mandarin bilingual children were elicited using a 10-item action picture test and analysed for each child's use of verb tense markers: present progressive '-ing', regular past tense '-ed', third-person singular '-s', and irregular past tense and irregular past-participle forms. For 4-6 year olds the use of inflectional markers by the different language dominance groups was compared statistically using non-parametric tests. This study provides further evidence that bilingual language development is not the same as monolingual language development. The results show that there are very different rates and patterns of verb-tense marking in English for English-language 1 and Mandarin-language 1 children. Furthermore, they show that bilingual language development in English in Singapore is not the same as monolingual language development in English, and that there are differences in development depending on language dominance. Valid and reliable assessment of bilingual children's language skills needs to consider the characteristics of all languages spoken, obtaining accurate information on language use over time and accurately establishing language dominance is essential in order to make a

  11. Learning Transitive Verbs from Single-Word Verbs in the Input by Young Children Acquiring English

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    Ninio, Anat

    2016-01-01

    The environmental context of verbs addressed by adults to young children is claimed to be uninformative regarding the verbs' meaning, yielding the Syntactic Bootstrapping Hypothesis that, for verb learning, full sentences are needed to demonstrate the semantic arguments of verbs. However, reanalysis of Gleitman's (1990) original data regarding…

  12. Recalling Arabic and English Prefixed and Suffixed Verbs among Arabic-English Bilingual Speakers: An Experimental Study in Relation to Working Memory

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    Jiyar Othman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study focuses on how prefixes and suffixes in Arabic and English impact one’s working memory capacity to recall verbs.  Further, it deals with whether or not Arabic-English bilingual speakers recall Arabic and English prefixed and suffixed verbs differently. To investigate this, the study was conducted in the form of two experiments on a group of 10 graduate students. The first experiment was on Arabic prefixed and suffixed verbs, whereas the second experiment was conducted similarly on English. The study concluded that suffixed Arabic verbs were recalled more than the prefixed ones, whereas in English the result was contrary where the participants could recall prefixed verbs more than the suffixed ones. This shows that L2 (Second Language does not differ from L1 (First Language in the effort exerted to recall words. Rather, the findings may suggest that it is easier to recall words in the second language, which might be due to the intensive instruction received in the second language. The study also discovered that several other factors played important roles in making the participants recall the items such as word-length effect, frequency and recency of the words.

  13. Morphological priming in Spanish verb forms: an ERP repetition priming study.

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    Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Münte, Thomas F; Clahsen, Harald

    2002-04-01

    The ERP repetition priming paradigm has been shown to be sensitive to the processing differences between regular and irregular verb forms in English and German. The purpose of the present study is to extend this research to a language with a different inflectional system, Spanish. The design (delayed visual repetition priming) was adopted from our previous study on English, and the specific linguistic phenomena we examined are priming relations between different kinds of stem (or root) forms. There were two experimental conditions: In the first condition, the prime and the target shared the same stem form, e.g., "ando-andar" [I walk-to walk], whereas in the second condition, the prime contained a marked (alternated) stem, e.g., "duermo-dormir" [I sleep-to sleep]. A reduced N400 was found for unmarked (nonalternated) stems in the primed condition, whereas marked stems showed no such effect. Moreover, control conditions demonstrated that the surface form properties (i.e., the different degree of phonetic and orthographic overlap between primes and targets) do not explain the observed priming difference. The ERP priming effect for verb forms with unmarked stems in Spanish is parallel to that found for regularly inflected verb forms in English and German. We argue that effective priming is possible because prime target pairs such as "ando-andar" access the same lexical entry for their stems. By contrast, verb forms with alternated stems (e.g., "duermo") constitute separate lexical entries, and are therefore less powerful primes for their corresponding base forms.

  14. The morphophonology of the Akan reduplicated verb-form

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    E. KwekuOsam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the interaction between constituent formation and alteration of sounds (i.e.,morphophonology in Akan reduplicated verb-forms. Specifically, we strive to look into two issues; themorphology of reduplicated verb stems and how the morphological manifestation(s affect certain target sounds.With its morphology, we observe that reduplication of the Akan verb-stem is generally total and, through theMorphological Doubling Theory (Inkelas 2005; Inkelas and Zoll 2005, reduplication of Akan verb-stems isviewed as the double (or multiple occurrence of a morphological constituent meeting a particular morphosemanticdescription. That is to say, while there could be differences in structure between the reduplicant and thebase, they are subject to a common phonology that determines a resulting shape of an output. Withmorphophonology, we observe that three issues are relevant in the discussion of the phonology of thereduplicated verbs in Akan. These are the application of vowel harmony, vowel shift in terms of height, and therealization of tonal semblance. Through thorough discussions, the paper finally explains that reduplication ofverb-stems in Akan is morphophonologically driven.

  15. Novel Noun and Verb Learning in Chinese-, English-, and Japanese-Speaking Children

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    Imai, Mutsumi; Li, Lianjing; Haryu, Etsuko; Okada, Hiroyuki; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Shigematsu, Jun

    2008-01-01

    When can children speaking Japanese, English, or Chinese map and extend novel nouns and verbs? Across 6 studies, 3- and 5-year-old children in all 3 languages map and extend novel nouns more readily than novel verbs. This finding prevails even in languages like Chinese and Japanese that are assumed to be verb-friendly languages (e.g., T. Tardif,…

  16. A Corpus-Based Study on Use of Copular Verbs by Chinese School Children Learning English in China

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    Du, Ailing

    2011-01-01

    By adopting corpus-based approach in this research study, the authors examined the various aspects of the copular verbs used by Chinese school children learning English. This study revealed that Chinese school children use copular verbs less frequently than native English speakers; they select a limited variety of copular verbs and less often use…

  17. Avoidance of Phrasal Verbs: The Case of Chinese Learners of English

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    Liao, Yan; Fukuya, Yoshinori J.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the avoidance of English phrasal verbs by Chinese learners. Six groups of Chinese learners (intermediate and advanced; a total of 70) took one of 3 tests multiplechoice, translation, or recall, which included literal and figurative phrasal verbs, while 15 native speakers took the multiple-choice test. The results show that…

  18. Deaf Students' Knowledge of Subtle Lexical Properties of Transitive and Intransitive English Verbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Gerald P.; Kelly, Ronald R.; Albertini, John A.; Toscano, Rose Marie

    2013-01-01

    Deaf Learners' Acquisition of fundamental lexical properties of high-frequency English verbs related to transitivity and intransitivity was examined, including the subtle distinction between unergative and unaccusative verbs. A 140-item sentence acceptability rating scale was used to assess this lexical knowledge in deaf college students at two…

  19. Verb Learning in 14- and 18-Month-Old English-Learning Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Angela Xiaoxue; Lidz, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates English-learning infants' early understanding of the link between the grammatical category "verb" and the conceptual category "event," and their ability to recruit morphosyntactic information online to learn novel verb meanings. We report two experiments using an infant-controlled…

  20. MEG masked priming evidence for form-based decomposition of irregular verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph eFruchter

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To what extent does morphological structure play a role in early processing of visually presented English past tense verbs? Previous masked priming studies have demonstrated effects of obligatory form-based decomposition for genuinely affixed words (teacher-TEACH and pseudo-affixed words (corner-CORN, but not for orthographic controls (brothel-BROTH. Additionally, MEG single word reading studies have demonstrated that the transition probability from stem to affix (in genuinely affixed words modulates an early evoked response known as the M170; parallel findings have been shown for the transition probability from stem to pseudo-affix (in pseudo-affixed words. Here, utilizing the M170 as a neural index of visual form-based morphological decomposition, we ask whether the M170 demonstrates masked morphological priming effects for irregular past tense verbs (following a previous study which obtained behavioral masked priming effects for irregulars. Dual mechanism theories of the English past tense predict a rule-based decomposition for regulars but not for irregulars, while certain single mechanism theories predict rule-based decomposition even for irregulars. MEG data was recorded for 16 subjects performing a visual masked priming lexical decision task. Using a functional region of interest (fROI defined on the basis of repetition priming and regular morphological priming effects within the left fusiform and inferior temporal regions, we found that activity in this fROI was modulated by the masked priming manipulation for irregular verbs, during the time window of the M170. We also found effects of the scores generated by the learning model of Albright & Hayes (2003 on the degree of priming for irregular verbs. The results favor a single mechanism account of the English past tense, in which even irregulars are decomposed into stems and affixes prior to lexical access, as opposed to a dual mechanism model, in which irregulars are recognized as whole

  1. MEG masked priming evidence for form-based decomposition of irregular verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchter, Joseph; Stockall, Linnaea; Marantz, Alec

    2013-01-01

    To what extent does morphological structure play a role in early processing of visually presented English past tense verbs? Previous masked priming studies have demonstrated effects of obligatory form-based decomposition for genuinely affixed words (teacher-TEACH) and pseudo-affixed words (corner-CORN), but not for orthographic controls (brothel-BROTH). Additionally, MEG single word reading studies have demonstrated that the transition probability from stem to affix (in genuinely affixed words) modulates an early evoked response known as the M170; parallel findings have been shown for the transition probability from stem to pseudo-affix (in pseudo-affixed words). Here, utilizing the M170 as a neural index of visual form-based morphological decomposition, we ask whether the M170 demonstrates masked morphological priming effects for irregular past tense verbs (following a previous study which obtained behavioral masked priming effects for irregulars). Dual mechanism theories of the English past tense predict a rule-based decomposition for regulars but not for irregulars, while certain single mechanism theories predict rule-based decomposition even for irregulars. MEG data was recorded for 16 subjects performing a visual masked priming lexical decision task. Using a functional region of interest (fROI) defined on the basis of repetition priming and regular morphological priming effects within the left fusiform and inferior temporal regions, we found that activity in this fROI was modulated by the masked priming manipulation for irregular verbs, during the time window of the M170. We also found effects of the scores generated by the learning model of Albright and Hayes (2003) on the degree of priming for irregular verbs. The results favor a single mechanism account of the English past tense, in which even irregulars are decomposed into stems and affixes prior to lexical access, as opposed to a dual mechanism model, in which irregulars are recognized as whole forms.

  2. Novel noun and verb learning in Chinese-, English-, and Japanese-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Mutsumi; Li, Lianjing; Haryu, Etsuko; Okada, Hiroyuki; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Shigematsu, Jun

    2008-01-01

    When can children speaking Japanese, English, or Chinese map and extend novel nouns and verbs? Across 6 studies, 3- and 5-year-old children in all 3 languages map and extend novel nouns more readily than novel verbs. This finding prevails even in languages like Chinese and Japanese that are assumed to be verb-friendly languages (e.g., T. Tardif, 1996). The results also suggest that the input language uniquely shapes verb learning such that English-speaking children require grammatical support to learn verbs, whereas Chinese children require pragmatic as well as grammatical support. This research bears on how universally shared cognitive factors and language-specific linguistic factors interact in lexical development.

  3. Agrammatic aphasia verb and argument patterns in Kiswahili-English spontaneous language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Hillary K

    2015-06-08

    The spontaneous and narrative language of Kiswahili agrammatic aphasic and non-brain-damaged speakers was analysed. The bilingual participants were also tested in English to enable comparisons of verb production in the two languages. The significance of this study was to characterise bilingual Kiswahili-English spontaneous agrammatic output. This was done by describing Kiswahili-English bilingual output data with a specific focus on the production of verbs. The description involves comparison of verb and argument production in Kiswahili and English. The participants recruited for this study were drawn from two groups of participants (six non-fluent aphasic/agrammatic speakers and six non-brain-damaged). From each participant, a sample of spontaneous output was tape-recorded in English and Kiswahili based on the description and narration of the Flood rescue picture' and the 'Cookie theft picture'. The data elicited were compared for each subject and between the participants and relevant verb parameters have been analysed. The variables that were studied included mean length of utterance (MLU), inflectional errors, verb tokens and types, copulas and auxiliaries. Further, all verbs produced were classified as per their argument structure. The results from English data supported previous findings on agrammatic output. The agrammatic participants produced utterances with shorter MLU and simpler sentence structure. However, Kiswahili data surprisingly showed reversed results, with agrammatic speakers producing longer utterances than non-brain-damaged (NBD) controls. The results also revealed selective impairment in some agrammatic speakers who made inflectional errors. The verb argument structure showed contrasting results, with agrammatic speakers preferring transitive verbs whilst the NBD speakers used more intransitive verbs. The study attempts for the first time to characterise English-Kiswahili bilingual spontaneous and narrative output. A quantitative analysis of

  4. Verbs in space: Axis and direction of motion norms for 299 English verbs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meteyard, Lotte; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2009-01-01

    .... Until now, there have been no freely available norms of this kind for a large set of verbs that can be used in any area of language research investigating the semantic representation of motion...

  5. Remarks on Causative Verbs and Object Deletion in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Hiromi

    2007-01-01

    Rappaport Hovav and Levin [Rappaport Hovav, M., Levin, B., 1998. "Building verb meanings." In: Butt, M., Geuder, W. (Eds.), "The Projection of Arguments: Lexical and Compositional Factors." CSLI Publications, Stanford, pp. 97-134] contend that result verbs disallow object deletion because of their lexical semantic properties. Their point is that…

  6. English Stress Placement by Japanese Students : Effects of Syllable Structure and Noun-Verb Stress Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Keiichi

    2006-01-01

    Stress or accent plays an important role in the production of spoken language. Identifying the factors which affect stress placement is crucial to better understanding of how people process native and nonnative language. This study examined how Japanese learners of English deal with English word stress. Experiment 1 investigated the effect of the general noun-verb stress difference in English on stress judgment of English words by Japanese students. Experiment 2 tested the effect of syllable ...

  7. A contrastive analysis of mazandarani, farsi and english word order, verbs and tenses

    OpenAIRE

    Baleghizadeh, Sasan; Nasirahmadi, Arman

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with contrasting three languages, namely English, Farsi (Persian), and Mazandarani (Tabari). The study followed two main goals: first, providing Mazandarani and Farsi teachers with pedagogical implications in teaching English as a foreign language (EFL); and second, taking a step toward preventing the Mazandarani (Mazani) language from gradual extinction. By comparing the word order, verbs, and tenses of the three aforementione...

  8. The role of the input in the acquisition of third person singular verbs in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theakston, Anna L; Lieven, Elena V M; Tomasello, Michael

    2003-08-01

    During the early stages of language acquisition, children pass through a stage of development when they produce both finite and nonfinite verb forms in finite contexts (e.g., "it go there," "it goes there"). Theorists who assume that children operate with an abstract understanding of tense and agreement marking from the beginnings of language use tend to explain this phenomenon in terms of either performance limitations in production (e.g., V. Valian, 1991) or the optional use of finite forms in finite contexts due to a lack of knowledge that tense and agreement marking is obligatory (the optional infinitive hypothesis; K. Wexler, 1994, 1996). An alternative explanation, however, is that children's use of nonfinite forms is based on the presence of questions in the input ("Where does it go?") where the grammatical subject is immediately followed by a nonfinite verb form. To compare these explanations, 2 groups of 24 children aged between 2 years 6 months and 3 years were exposed to 6 known and 3 novel verbs produced in either declaratives or questions or in both declaratives and questions. The children were then questioned to elicit use of the verbs in either finite or nonfinite contexts. The results show that for novel verbs, the children's patterns of verb use were closely related to the patterns of verb use modeled in the language to which they were exposed. For known verbs, there were no differences in the children's use of individual verbs, regardless of the specific patterns of verb use modeled in the language they heard. The implications of these findings for theories of early verb use are discussed.

  9. A Study of the Use of the Weak Forms of English Grammatical Words ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pronouns, conjunctions, auxiliary verbs and prepositions occur in Standard English sentences, they are produced in their weak forms. The concern of this study is whether educated Yoruba English speakers appropriately use the weak forms of English grammatical words in their sentences or not. One hundred Educated ...

  10. Corpus evidence for the acquisition of modal verbs of obligation by Macedonian learners of English

    OpenAIRE

    Mitkovska, Liljana; Buzarovska, Eleni; Kusevska, Marija

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the acquisition process of the English modal verbs for expressing obligation (must, have to, should and need to) by Macedonian learners across several proficiency levels (A1, A2, B1 and B2) using data from the Macedonian English Learner Corpus. We examine how they are used in the writings of learners at each level from formal, semantic and pragmatic perspective. The frequencies will show the order of occurrence of the uses of these modal verbs and the comparison with data ...

  11. Syntactic Properties Of The English Verbs In The Students' Essays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Muhammad Basri D.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed to explain the epithet of verb performance within the syntactic properties gained by the students in their essays, i.e. (1 tense, (2 aspect, (3 voice, and (4 mood. The data had been gathered from the 50 samples for each graded level by using a proportional random sampling technique. The processes of soft data attempted to search the epithet of verb performance through the equilibriums between accuracy and inaccuracy. As a result, the research findings indicated that epithet of the students' verb performance was 12.06%, including tense (27.83 %, aspect (21.51%, voice (-35.72%, and mood (34.63%.

  12. The Lexical Knowledge and Avoidance of Phrasal Verbs: The Case of Egyptian Learners of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Abdel Salam El-Dakhs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in different parts of the world have highlighted that phrasal verbs constitute a learning difficulty for English language learners despite their confirmed significance and high productivity in English. Proposed explanations include cross-linguistic differences, the complex nature of phrasal verbs, low language proficiency and psychological factors. The present study examines this difficulty among an Arabic-speaking population of Egyptian undergraduates in a foreign language context. To this end, a total of 407 Egyptian undergraduates in a private English-medium university completed a paraphrase task, two gap-filling tasks and a survey. The results confirm the difficulty highlighted in earlier studies, particularly at the production level. The results also show that the under-representation of phrasal verbs in the participants’ production can be interpreted in terms of cross-linguistic differences, passive learning for comprehension and limited language exposure. The study thus supports a multi-faceted model for the explanation of the limited use of phrasal verbs by English language learners, and calls for a revision of the English language teaching programs in Egypt.

  13. English VPs and why they contain more than just verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Sten

    2016-01-01

    Hjulmand & Schwarz (2009:32, 2012:33) (and many others) assume that has concluded constitutes a verb phrase (VP) in the example The British car industry has concluded a deal with the Japanese government. I want to defend a different analysis, namely that concluded constitutes a VP together with t...

  14. Consonant Alternations in Changing Verb Forms in Modern Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Alekseevna Gracheva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to consonant alternations in the verbal final basis that is associated with the processes of verbal form changes. It presents some results of the verbal form analysis that are being conjugated as types 4-8. The source of the material was "Grammatical dictionary of the Russian language" by A.A. Zaliznyak. It is proved that the alternation in verbal forms of modern Russian depends on the character of language levels coordination thus performing the following functions: grammar meaning intensification, lexical homonyms differentiation, and grammar form identification including. The novelty of the data presented in the article consists in defining the principle statement that there exists some variations in the balance between regularity and predictiveness of consonant alternations in verbal forms: the alternation is more predictable if the number of grammema clusters in a paradigm that they mark is lower (type 4 with inflection -ить; on the contrary, the less predictable the alternations are, the bigger grammema clusters in the paradigm are, (i.e. when used for intensifying type 6 (with inflection -ать. The comparison of verbal forms with and without alternations resulted in the following conclusion: an infinitive form of a verb will predict with greater certainly types of alternations in the final basis and point to a definite kind of morphological meaning. The regularities revealed might be used in a descriptive morphology of modern Russian and in practice of teaching Russian as a foreign language.

  15. Memori English Irregular Verbs Berdasarkan Frekuensi Pengulangan dan Jenis Kelamin Santri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sribagus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Retention of English Irregular Verbs in Relation to Repetition Frequency and Sex. The study explores the most effective and preferred repetition frequency to facilitate memorizing English ir­regular verbs (EIV by students of different sexes, 35 male students and 30 female students of an Islamic boarding school in West Nusa Tenggara. The data for this experimental study were collected through VCD that records EIV, tests, questionnaires, and interviews. The results of the two-way ANOVA analysis indicate that male students had a higher degree of EIV memory based on repetition frequency, with two-time repetition as the most preferred frequency. For male students, the higher the frequency, the lower the memory. Abstrak: Memori English Irregular Verbs Berdasarkan Frekuensi Pengulangan dan Jenis Kelamin Santri. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan frekuensi pengulangan yang efektif dan disukai untuk meningkatkan memori EIV berdasarkan jenis kelamin. Data penelitian eksperimen ini dikumpulkan melalui video compact disk (VCD yang merekam English Irregular Verb, tes, angket dan wawancara terhadap 35 santri putra dan 30 santri putri di pondok pesantren di Nusa Tenggara Barat. Kemudian data dianalisis dengan Anava-dua Jalur. Ditemukan bahwa ada perbedaan taraf memori EIV berdasarkan frekuensi pengulangan antara santri putra dan santri putriMemori EIV santri putra lebih tinggi daripada santri putri. Frekuensi pengulangan yang paling efektif adalah dua kali. Semakin tinggi frekuensi pengulangan, semakin rendah memori. Urutan pilihan frekuensi santri putra adalah 2-4-6, sedangkan santri putri 2-6-4.

  16. Do as I say, not as I do:a lexical distributional account of English locative verb class acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Twomey, Katherine; Chang, Franklin; Ambridge, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Children overgeneralise verbs to ungrammatical structures early in acquisition, but retreat from these overgeneralisations as they learn semantic verb classes. In a large corpus of English locative utterances (e.g., the woman sprayed water onto the wall/wall with water), we found structural biases which changed over development and which could explain overgeneralisation behaviour. Children and adults had similar verb classes and a correspondence analysis suggested that lexical distributional ...

  17. Using Adele’s “Someone Like You” to Teach Verbs Tenses and Passive Forms

    OpenAIRE

    Ariya Jati

    2014-01-01

    This  paper  is  about  how  to  use  Adele’s  “Someone  Like  You”  to teach tenses and passive forms. Adele’s song lyric was potentially used  in  an  English-as-a  Foreign  Language  (EFL)  classroom.  This study is to provide a practical alternative to the teaching of tenses and  passive  forms. The  teaching  is  performed  in  three  phases namely text  completion, verb  categorization, and  sentence construction. The teaching is expected the students to demonstrate their  receptive  an...

  18. A Generic Analysis of English Research Article Abstracts and the Use of Modal Verbs for Financial Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a generic study of schematic structures and the use of modal verbs of 50 English Research Article (RA) abstracts. With Bhatia's (1990) model as the framework, three other move patterns were obtained besides the normal move order. The density of modal verbs varies greatly from move to move with significant differences in the frequency…

  19. The Bahaviour of Non-finite Verbs in Translation: A Comparative Case Study of English, Malay and French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdou Moindjie

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-finite verbs are verbs which are void of tenses but have definite meanings. Their behaviour in translation may bring about meaning loss or gain. This study is an investigation on their translation behaviour from English into Malay and French.  Analyses are carried out following Toury comparative translation theory for translation modeling. The text used is Shakespeare’s Hamlet; it is a literary text whose findings are expected to be reflexive to other genres.  The analysis reveals that English language use more non-finites verbs than Malay and French; this behaviour is determined by some factors relative to language peculiarity and language norms in terms of translators’ decisions and choices. Although English has historically some impacts on Malay language, it is found that Malay and French share more characteristics than do Malay and English as far as non-finite verb translation is concerned. Keywords: Non-finite verbs, finite verbs, language peculiarities, translatability, translation norms, English- French translation, English-Malay translation

  20. Exploring Emotive Verbs in Persian and English Short Stories: A Contrastive Sociopragmatic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Keihaneh; Biria, Reza

    2017-04-01

    Current developments in the areas of discourse analysis and cross-cultural studies have led to an increased interest in the way people of different cultures express their affections on various occasions. Individuals learn how to regulate their emotional reactions according to sociocultural norms of behavior defined by the cultures to which they belong. Accordingly, this article aimed to investigate the linguistic expression of emotions in English and Persian short stories in order to fathom out the impact of culture on the way feelings are expressed cross-culturally. For this purpose, a corpus of eight different English and Persian short stories, four in each language, was selected based on a purposive sampling method. Then, using Devon's (The origin of emotions, 2006) typology of emotions, different types of emotive verbs were selected as the unit of analysis. Finally, the frequency and percentage values of emotive verb tokens used in these stories were carefully tabulated in terms of types and their respective metalinguistic categories introduced by Wierzbicka (Emotions across languages and cultures: diversity and universals, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999). The results obtained from the analysis of the targeted corpora reflected that English and Persian writers employ different types of emotive verbs in expressing their feelings. Essentially, the findings of the present study may have important implications for language teachers, material developers, and course designers.

  1. Transfer at the level of argument structure or morphology: a comparative study of English and Persian unaccusative and unergative verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghan Farzaneh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Transitivity alternation refers to the causative/inchoative alternation of some unaccusative verbs. Different languages use different patterns to show transitivity alternation morphologically. While some languages like English use zero or no overt lexical marking, other languages (e.g. Spanish, Turkish, and Japanese use overt morphological markers to show transitivity. This study aims to investigate the degree to which similarities and/or mismatches between English and Persian influence the use of unaccusative and unergative verbs by Persianspeaking learners of English. Based on different verb types in English and Persian, seven verb categories were identified as the basis for comparison. A forced-choice elicitation test including 48 items was developed based on these seven verb categories. A proficiency test was also used to divide participants (116 undergraduate students of English into high and low proficiency groups. The results revealed findings more in line with transfer at the morphological rather than the argument structure level (Montrul, 2000. Alternating unaccusatives with similar equivalent structures for transitive/intransitive pairs in Persian and non-alternating unaccusatives with different structures for transitive/intransitive pairs in Persian seem to be the most difficult verb categories for learners. The effect of proficiency level was also significant on the recognition of correct structures.

  2. Noun/verb distinction in English stress homographs: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Heechun; Magne, Cyrille

    2015-09-09

    Sensitivity to speech rhythm, especially the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables, is an important aspect of language acquisition and comprehension from infancy through adulthood. In English, a strong correlation exists between speech rhythm and grammatical class. This property is well illustrated by a particular group of noun/verb homographs that are spelled the same but are pronounced with a lexical stress on the first syllable when used as a noun or on the second syllable when used as a verb. The purpose of this study was to further examine the neural markers of speech rhythm and its role in word recognition. To this end, event-related brain potentials were recorded while participants listened to spoken sentences containing a stress homograph either in a noun or a verb position. The rhythmic structure of the stress homographs was manipulated so that they were pronounced with a stress pattern that either matched or mismatched their grammatical class. Results of cluster-based permutation tests on the event-related brain potentials revealed larger negativities over the centrofrontal scalp regions when the stress homographs were mispronounced, in line with previous studies on lexical ambiguity resolution. In addition, differences between rhythmically unexpected nouns and verbs could be seen as early as 200 ms, suggesting that listeners are sensitive to statistical properties of their language rhythm. Together, these results support the hypothesis that information about speech rhythm is rapidly integrated during speech perception and contributes to lexical retrieval.

  3. On the (atelicity property of English verb phrases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilinca Crăiniceanu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is that of offering an overview of various executions of the aspectual notions of (atelicity in the current literature. The core idea is that in English the telic-atelic contrast is compositionally computed at the level of VP or IP. We discuss (atelicity of complete VPs in the analyses put forward by Krifka (1989, 1992, 1998, Rothstein (2008, Filip (2008, and Landman and Rothstein (2008.

  4. English Modal Verbs in Modal Verb Phrase Structures and Lexical Associations of Modality in ‘Standard Terms and Conditions of Sale’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Gajšt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a corpus-based analysis of English modal verbs and semi-modals in modal verb phrase structures as well as lexical association of modality in ‘standard terms and conditions of sale’, which are legally binding documents in the domain of commerce and whose purpose is to govern the obligations and rights of sellers and buyers in the transaction of goods for payment. Our research has established that the most frequent modal verbs in these documents are shall, will, may, must and can, and that the most common modal verb phrase structures in are ‘modal+infinitive’ and ‘modal+be+past participle’. We found 718 different lexical verbs that indicate actions, states and conditions associated with commercial transactions. These results correspond with the definition of these documents. Our findings are a demonstration of how language expresses the characteristics of a legal text type in a professional domain of commerce/trade.

  5. Animacy Effect and Language Specificity: Judgment of Unaccusative Verbs by Korean Learners of English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pae, Hye K.; Schanding, Brian; Kwon, Yeon-Jin; Lee, Yong-Won

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the tendency of overpassivization of unaccusative verbs by Korean learners of English as a foreign language (FL). Sixty Korean native college students participated in the study, along with 17 English-speaking counterparts serving as a comparison group. Consistent with the findings of previous research, this study found…

  6. English Linguistic Society> Argument Structure and Experiencer Verbs in English

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, Manabu

    1989-01-01

    Among the various types of verbs, I investigate the characteristics of the argument structure of Experiencer verbs and their derived nominals in comparison with those of Agentive verbs and nominals. ...

  7. Studies on the s_dm.t=f verb form in Classical Egyptian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonhoven, Ludovicus Martinus Johannes

    1997-01-01

    This study is devoted to some synchronic aspects of the sDm.t=f verb form, primarily its meaning and uses in Classical Egyptian. In the introduction some attention is paid to the history of the studies of the form and its origin, an aspect which will receive no further consideration. In accordance

  8. Competing language structures: the acquisition of verb placement by bilingual German-English children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döpke, S

    1998-10-01

    The simultaneous acquisition of two languages in early childhood presents an interesting test case for language acquisition theories. Children in bilingual environments receive input which could potentially lead to output systems different to those of monolingual children. The speech of three bilingual German-English children was recorded monthly between the ages of 2;0 and 5;0. The analysis of word order in the verb phrase shows that initial structural separation was followed by an extended period of non-target structures in German before the children eventually worked out which structures overlap and which structures differentiate the two languages. The bilingual data point towards language being acquired incrementally, on the basis of cue strength and cue cost. It is suggested that the partially overlapping structures in the input from German and English create structural saliencies for the child before they are functionally accessible. Functional identification eventually leads to structural separation.

  9. Caregiver Input in English and Korean: Use of Nouns and Verbs in Book-Reading and Toy-Play Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soonja

    2000-01-01

    Investigates structural and pragmatic aspects of caregiver input in English and Korean that relate to the early development of nouns and verbs. Twenty mothers in each language were asked to interact with their children in two contexts: Book-reading and toy-play. Data suggest that systematic comparisons of caregiver input within and across…

  10. Using Adele’s “Someone Like You” to Teach Verbs Tenses and Passive Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariya Jati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This  paper  is  about  how  to  use  Adele’s  “Someone  Like  You”  to teach tenses and passive forms. Adele’s song lyric was potentially used  in  an  English-as-a  Foreign  Language  (EFL  classroom.  This study is to provide a practical alternative to the teaching of tenses and  passive  forms. The  teaching  is  performed  in  three  phases namely text  completion, verb  categorization, and  sentence construction. The teaching is expected the students to demonstrate their  receptive  and  productive  skills in  English  language  by  using the lyric. (By such a teaching, the students are expected to be able to demonstrate  their  receptive  and  productive  skills  in  English language by using the lyric.Makalah ini tentang penggunaan lirik “Someone Like You” karya Adele untuk mengajarkan kala dan bentuk pasif. Lirik lagu Adele tersebut  dapat  digunakan  di  dalam    kelas  dengan  bahasa  Inggris sebagai  bahasa  asing. Kajian  ini  untuk  memberikan  alternatif praktis  bagi  pengajaran  kala    dan  bentuk  pasif  bagi  mahasiswa EFL. Pengajaran dilakukan dalam tiga tahap, yaitu: pengisian teks, kategorisasi  kata  kerja, dan  penyusunan kalimat.  Pengajaran  ini diharapkan  dapat  memungkinkan  mahasiswa  menampilkan keterampilan  reseptif  dan  produktif  mereka  dalam  berbahasa Inggris melalui lirik tersebut.

  11. School-age children's metalinguistic awareness of grammaticality in verb form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, J C; Johnson, C J

    1990-03-01

    This study investigated 6-, 7-, and 8-year-old children's ability to monitor grammaticality in the past progressive, perfect progressive, and perfect verb forms. The children achieved a significantly higher rate of accurate judgments monitoring grammatical forms that ungrammatical forms. Age was a significant factor in error identification. Eight-year-olds were substantially better at identifying ungrammatical forms than were their younger schoolmates. Verb form, in conjunction with type of anomaly, significantly varied with respect to ease of identification. Errors of the auxiliary and suffix were easier for children to identify than an adverbial error which required a sentence analysis to determine the incompatibility. The context surrounding ungrammatical verb forms significantly affected monitoring ability. Anomalous forms in unrelated sentences were easier to identify as ungrammatical than anomalous forms in sentences taken from a story the children had just heard. It appears that school-age children prefer to maintain the semantic intent of the message rather than critically search for grammatical errors.

  12. Language Use in a "One Parent-One Language" Mandarin-English Bilingual Family: Noun versus Verb Use and Language Mixing Compared to Maternal Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chen; Winsler, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Via naturalistic observations, parent interview, and direct assessments, we examined language proficiency, language use, and differentiation of a 3-year, 4-month-old bilingual child exposed to Mandarin and English via the "one parent-one language" principle. Although noun versus verb dominance has been explored across verb-based…

  13. Homophone Dominance at the Whole-Word and Sub-Word Levels: Spelling Errors Suggest Full-Form Storage of Regularly Inflected Verb Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra, Dominiek

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments and two corpus studies focus on homophone dominance in the spelling of regularly inflected verb forms, the phenomenon that the higher-frequency homophone causes more intrusion errors on the lower-frequency one than vice versa. Experiment 1 was a speeded dictation task focusing on the Dutch imperative, a verb form whose formation…

  14. Does Variability across Events Affect Verb Learning in English, Mandarin, and Korean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Jane B.; Paik, Jae H.; Flores, Melissa; Lai, Gabrielle; Dolan, Megan

    2017-01-01

    Extending new verbs is important in becoming a productive speaker of a language. Prior results show children have difficulty extending verbs when they have seen events with varied agents. This study further examines the impact of variability on verb learning and asks whether variability interacts with event complexity or differs by language.…

  15. Semantic packaging in verb-based compounds in English and Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bagasheva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Semantic packaging in verb­ based compounds in English and Bulgarian The article contrasts the word­ formation types of (parasynthetic compound nouns and compound verbs in two genetically distantly related but typologically distinct languages Bulgarian and English. While the nature of synthetic compound nouns in both languages is comparable, compound verbs show greater contrasts in terms of types, restrictions and preferences for intra­ compound relations and semantic diversity. An explanation is sought in terms of the influence of word­ relevant syntactic properties on word­ formation phenomena in the two languages. An additional powerful factor is the ubiquity of conversion or syntactic promiscuity in English. A hypothesis is formulated that in Bulgarian the iconicity of word­ formation processes and products associated with the biuniqueness of the sign as understood by Natural Morphology accounts for restrictions on the absolute reign of word­ formation paradigms in Bulgarian, where the distinction between inflectional morphology and word­ formation is more sharply delineated. The typological character of the two languages is ultimately taken into account as a factor which determines the preferences for compounds in English and the prevalence of affixal derivation in Bulgarian.   Kompresja semantyczna w złożeniach czasownikowych w językach bułgarskim i angielskim Autorzy artykułu dokonali porównania mechanizmów słowotwórczych wykorzystywanych przy derywacji (parasyntetycznych złożeń rzeczownikowych oraz czasownikowych w językach bułgarskim i angielskim. Badane języki wykazują dalekie pokrewieństwo genetyczne, lecz z typologicznego punktu widzenia są one od siebie różne. W odróżnieniu od mechanizmów tworzenia syntetycznych złożeń rzeczownikowych, które w obu językach są podobne, złożenia czasownikowe różnią się, jeżeli chodzi o ich typy, ograniczenia użycia oraz preferencje odnośnie relacji

  16. Focus on Form in College English Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Sixia

    2009-01-01

    Many college English teachers lay emphasis on language meaning instead of language forms in order to satisfy the need of new college English curricular, change the present situation of "dumb-and-deaf English" and improve the students' communicative competence. This approach upgrades the fluency but slows down accuracy, which results in…

  17. Do Students Who Continue Their English Studies Outperform Students Who Do Not? : A Study of Subject-verb Concord in Written Compositions in English by Swedish University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Preber, Louise

    2006-01-01

    This essay deals with subject-verb concord in written compositions by Swedish students at Uppsala University. The essay investigates the possibility that students who continue studying English beyond the A level at the university make fewer errors than students who do not continue. In order to minimize the influence of the students’ gender and first language, only essays written by female students were included in the study; in addition, all students included had Swedish as their first langua...

  18. Malaysian ESL Students' Syntactic Accuracy in the Usage of English Modal Verbs in Argumentative Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukundan, Jayakaran; bin Saadullah, Khairil Anuar; binti Ismail, Razalina; binti Jusoh Zasenawi, Nur Hairunnisa

    2013-01-01

    This research studied the use of modals in argumentative written tasks by Form 5 Malaysian secondary school ESL students. The aim of this study was to examine the use of English modals at the syntactic level from data presented in the MCSAW Corpus. The research design comprised a qualitative technique through discourse analysis aided by…

  19. TRANSLATION OF PHRASAL VERBS INTO INDONESIAN

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    I Dewa Ayu Devi Maharani Santika

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study has two aims, those are to analyze: (1 the classification of phrasal verbs found in a short story and the classification of their translations in Indonesian done by some English teachers from some primary schools in Denpasar, and (2 how the meaning of phrasal verbs in SL help to determine their equivalents in TL. The classification and the meaning of phrasal verbs are proposed by McArthur and Atkins (1975. Based on the analysis there were three categories of 34 phrasal verbs found in the data source, those are: intransitive verbs, transitive separable verbs, and transitive fused verbs. The results found that most of the phrasal verbs are included into transitive separable verbs and from the three categories of phrasal verbs; they were translated mostly into transitive verbs. Meanwhile, the meanings of phrasal verbs in SL determine the suitable equivalents for the phrasal verbs in TL since there were variants equivalents given in the translations.

  20. The verb Hteti and the structure of auxiliary and modal verbs in Serbo-Croatian

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    Stanimir Rakić

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the distribution of enclitic forms ću, ćeš, će ... and   heverb hteti shows that they cannot be naturally reduced to each other. Thi.s mean. s that the., verb hteti is not.. an auxiliary verb at all, i. e. it does not take part in compound tenses in S.erbo-Croatian. Accord,ing to their complement.& we ha­ve distinguished two verbs hteti - hteti1 and hteti. Hteti is a modal verb, hteti a main verb. Furthermore, we have shown that there is a parallelism between 'complements "da + prezent" and "sentence" which can be best accounted for by a transforma­ tion (18, which may be called in English Subjugation of Infi­ nitive. This analysis has enabled us to present the structure of auxiliary and modal verbs by rewrite rules (34. Finally, we have shown that an alternative analysis in which all verbs are conceived as main verbs is quite feasible. In this new analysis our results are preserved in the form of an obligatory filter.

  1. Processing of verb tense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Aleksandar Đ.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Processing of Serbian inflected verbs was investigated in two lexical decision experiments. In the first experiment subjects were presented with five forms of future tense, while in the second experiment the same verbs were presented in three forms of present and future tense. The outcome of the first experiment indicates that processing of inflected verb is determined by the amount of information derived from the average probability per congruent personal pronoun of a particular verb form. This implies that the cognitive system is not sensitive to verb person per se, nor to the gender of congruent personal pronoun. Results of the second experiment show that for verb forms of different tenses, presented in the same experiment, the amount of information has to be additionally modulated by tense probability. Such an outcome speaks in favor of cognitive relevance of verb tense.

  2. Immobile Complex Verbs in Germanic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Sten

    2005-01-01

    Certain complex verbs in Dutch, German, and Swiss German do not undergo verb movement. The suggestion to be made in this article is that these ‘‘immobile'' verbs have to fulfill both the requirements imposed on complex verbs of the V° type (=verbs with non-separable prefixes) and the requirements...... imposed on complex verbs of the V* type (=verbs with separable prefixes). This results in such verbs being morphologically unexceptional, i.e., having a full set of forms but syntactically peculiar (‘‘immobile''), i.e., they can only occur in their base position. Any movement is incompatible with either...... (and why this single prefix-like part may NOT be a particle), - why immobile verbs even include verbs with two prefix-like parts, where each of these are separable particles (as in, e.g., German voranmelden ‘preregister'), - why there is such a great amount of speaker variation as to which verbs...

  3. The Role of the Verb in Grammatical Function Assignment in English and Korean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Heeju; Kaiser, Elsi

    2014-01-01

    One of the central questions in speech production is how speakers decide which entity to assign to which grammatical function. According to the lexical hypothesis (e.g., Bock & Levelt, 1994), verbs play a key role in this process (e.g., "send" and "receive" result in different entities being assigned to the subject…

  4. Dialect Variation of Copula and Auxiliary Verb BE: African American English-Speaking Children With and Without Gullah/Geechee Heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jessica R; Oetting, Janna B

    2017-09-18

    We compared copula and auxiliary verb BE use by African American English-speaking children with and without a creole heritage, using Gullah/Geechee as the creole criterion, to determine if differences exist, the nature of the differences, and the impact of the differences on interpretations of ability. Data came from 38 children, aged 5 to 6 years (19 with Gullah/Geechee and 19 without Gullah/Geechee heritage). All were developing language typically, with groups matched on gender, maternal education, and, when possible, test scores. The children's productions of BE were elicited using a screener, probes, and language samples. Although many similarities were documented, the 2 groups' BE systems differed in 3 ways: use of unique forms (i.e., də), unique use of shared forms (i.e., BEEN), and rates of use of shared forms (e.g., am, is, was/were, was for were). Although most noticeable in the language samples, differences surfaced across tasks and showed the potential to affect interpretations of ability. Dialect variation that is tied to children's creole heritage exists, involves 3 types of variation, and potentially affects interpretations of ability. Effects of a heritage language and different types of variation should be considered in research and clinical endeavors with African American English-speaking children.

  5. Homophonic forms of regularly inflected verbs have their own orthographic representations: a developmental perspective on spelling errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisson, Steven; Sandra, Dominiek

    2002-01-01

    In previous research (Sandra, Frisson, & Daems, 1999) we demonstrated that experienced writers of Dutch (18-year-olds) make spelling errors on regularly inflected homophonic verb forms. Intrusion errors, i.e., spelling of the homophonic alternative, occurred more often when the low-frequency homophone had to be written. In the present article we report error data for three groups of less experienced spellers, who have not yet fully mastered the rules for verb suffix spelling: 12-year-olds, 13-year-olds, and 14-year-olds. Younger spellers obviously make many more errors than experienced ones. Whereas this is in part due to inadequate rule mastery/application, their error patterns are also clearly influenced by the frequency relationship between the homophonic forms, i.e., the same factor accounting for the errors of experienced spellers. The conclusion of our present and past research is that homophonic forms of regularly inflected verbs have their own orthographic representations in the mental lexicon and that these representations cause interference in writing (spelling errors), whereas they might cause facilitation in reading (a claim made by dual-route models of reading). Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  6. Comprehension of Infrequent Subject-Verb Agreement Forms: Evidence from French-Learning Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, Geraldine; Barriere, Isabelle; Goyet, Louise; Nazzi, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Two comprehension experiments were conducted to investigate whether young French-learning children (N = 76) are able to use a single number cue in subject-verb agreement contexts and match a visually dynamic scene with a corresponding verbal stimulus. Results from both preferential looking and pointing demonstrated significant comprehension in…

  7. Motion Verbs in Learner Corpora

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    M. Pınar BABANOĞLU

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Motions verbs differ across languages in respect of spatial relations and syntactic/semantic conceptualization. Languages have two typological groups for motion events: (a verb-framed languages in which the main verb expresses the core information of the path of movement, and the manner information is expressed in a subordinate structure (e.g. a gerundive and (b satellite-framed languages where the main verb expresses information about manner of movement and a subordinate satellite element (e.g., a verb particle to the verb conveys the path of movement (Talmy, 1985; Chen & Guo, 2009. In this corpus-based study, two learner corpora from two different native languages as Turkish as a verb-framed language and German as satellite-framed language are investigated in terms of motion verbs in English like move, fly, walk, go via frequency and statistical analysis for corpora comparison. The purpose of the study is to find out whether there is a statistical difference in the use of motion verbs by Turkish (as a verb-framed L1 and German (as a satellite-framed L1 learners in due of cross-linguistic difference between Turkish and German which may be a factor that influence learners essay writing in English (as a satellite-framed L2 in the use of motion verbs. Results indicated that German learners of English use especially manner of motion verbs in English statistically more frequent and lexically more diverse in their essays than Turkish learners of English.

  8. No Can Do Modal Verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašper Ilc

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the systems of modal verbs in Slovene and English, and it focuses on comprehension and usage problems that advanced students of English may have when dealing with modal verb constructions. The paper identifies the key factors that give rise to various problems, such as in-vacuo vs. in-context treatment of modal verbs and absolute vs. relative temporal relations. It is argued that most students fail to fully understand contextualised modal verb constructions mostly due to the polysemy of modal verbs as well as their relative tense value. This is particularly the case when a (narrative text containing modal verb constructions has a past time reference, and combines different narrative techniques.

  9. Second Language Learnability and the Acquisition of the Argument Structure of English Locative Verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hye-Ri

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on Korean English as a foreign language (EFL) learners' knowledge of the locative alternation and its relationship to theories of language-particular and language-universal properties. Results are discussed with reference to universality of linking, to the transfer of argument structure, and to Pinker's learnability theory. (Author/VWL)

  10. Verbs and Syntactic Frames in Children's Elicited Actions: A Comparison of Tamil- and English-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethuraman, Nitya; Laakso, Aarre; Smith, Linda B.

    2011-01-01

    We directly compare children learning argument expressing and argument dropping languages on the use of verb meaning and syntactic cues, by examining enactments of transitive and intransitive verbs given in transitive and intransitive syntactic frames. Our results show similarities in the children's knowledge: (1) Children were somewhat less…

  11. Verbs and Syntactic Frames in Children’s Elicited Actions: A Comparison of Tamil- and English-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Aarre; Smith, Linda B.

    2015-01-01

    We directly compare children learning argument expressing and argument dropping languages on the use of verb meaning and syntactic cues, by examining enactments of transitive and intransitive verbs given in transitive and intransitive syntactic frames. Our results show similarities in the children’s knowledge: (1) Children were somewhat less likely to perform an action when the core meaning of a verb was in conflict with the frame in which it was presented; (2) Children enacted the core meaning of the verb with considerable accuracy in all conditions; and (3) Children altered their actions to include or not include explicit objects appropriately to the frame. The results suggest that 3-year-olds learning languages that present them with very different structural cues still show similar knowledge about and sensitivity to the core meanings of transitive and intransitive verbs as well as the implications of the frames in which they appear. PMID:21499789

  12. A Morphological Analysis of English-Igbo Merged Verbs in Code ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They also reveal that a new language known as Engli-Igbo has been formed by the merger. This leads to the conclusion that Engli-Igbo is a present reality. Based on this, this paper recommends further researches on Engli-Igbo linguistic merger in the areas of phonological, syntactic and other areas of morphology.

  13. Young children's overgeneralizations with fixed transitivity verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, P J; Tomasello, M; Dodson, K; Lewis, L B

    1999-01-01

    The present study examined English-speaking children's tendency to make argument structure overgeneralization errors (e.g., I disappeared it). Children were exposed to several English verbs of fixed transitivity (exclusively intransitive or exclusively transitive) and then asked questions that encouraged them to overgeneralize usage of the verbs. Seventy-two children (24 in each of three age groups: 3, 4/5, and 8 years of age) experienced four actions performed by puppets. Each action had two verbs of similar meaning associated with it in the context of the experimental action: one more familiar to young children and one less familiar. Children at all ages were more likely to overgeneralize usage of verbs that were less familiar to them, supporting the hypothesis that children's usage of verbs in particular construction types becomes entrenched over time. As children solidly learn the transitivity status of particular verbs, they become more reluctant to use those verbs in other argument structure constructions.

  14. Korean Speakers' Acquisition of the English Ditransitive Construction: The Role of Verb Prototype, Input Distribution, and Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Year, Jungeun; Gordon, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies in usage-based linguistics have found that construction learning is more effective when input is skewed toward a prototypical exemplar of the construction, thereby reflecting the frequency distribution in natural language. This study investigates the extent to which a prototypical ditransitive verb with high frequency ("give")…

  15. English Linguistic Society> A Study of Complements of Perception Verbs

    OpenAIRE

    Nabeya, Koji

    1998-01-01

    In this report, I am concerned with the relation between the internal structure of the Participle Perception Verb Complement (PPVC) and its meaning. The PPVCs in (1a, b), which are italicized, both have two readings: one is the object reading, ...

  16. The ultimate phrasal verb book for ESL and EFL students

    CERN Document Server

    Hart, Carl W

    2017-01-01

    Presents 400 common phrasal verbs as they are used in everyday English. Updated information includes the most commonly used phrasal verbs, hundreds of examples in context and hundreds of exercises to increase fluency and prep for the TOEFL, and more.

  17. Marking of Verb Tense in the English of Preschool English-Mandarin Bilingual Children: Evidence from Language Development Profiles within Subgroups on the Singapore English Action Picture Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brebner, Chris; McCormack, Paul; Rickard Liow, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The phonological and morphosyntactic structures of English and Mandarin contrast maximally and an increasing number of bilinguals speak these two languages. Speech and language therapists need to understand bilingual development for children speaking these languages in order reliably to assess and provide intervention for this…

  18. Does preemption help children learn verb transitivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Patricia J; Zizak, Otto

    2002-11-01

    Children's acquisition of the transitivity status of novel verbs was examined to test whether preemption helps children learn to avoid nonconventional uses of verbs. Given that many English verbs alternate between transitive and intransitive usage (e.g., break, roll), how do children learn the fixed transitive status of verbs such as hit or the fixed intransitive status of verbs such as fall? 48 four-year-olds and 48 six- and seven-year-olds learned two novel verbs, with one verb modelled as transitive and the other as intransitive. Exposure conditions varied the occurrence and type of preemptive evidence potentially facilitating learning of the verbs' transitivity status. In comparison to a No Preemption group, only six- to seven-year-olds exposed to novel verbs in alternative construction (that allowed them to talk about the actions from the perspective of the agent or patient without changing the verbs' assigned transitivity) produced fewer utterances violating the verbs' fixed transitivity. The results identify limits in children's usage of indirect negative evidence in acquiring verb argument structure constructions.

  19. Germanic Verb Particle Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Sten

    2017-01-01

    This paper has two closely related goals. The more "global" one is to present an overview of the variation conceming verb particles across the Germanic languages (see e.g. den Dikken 1995; Haiden 2005; Mclntyre 2007 and many others), and the more "local" one is to use some of this variation data ...... to argue for Yiddish being an SOV-language like German and Dutch rather than an SVO-language like English and the Scandinavian languages....

  20. Implicit Learning of Semantic Preferences of Verbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciorek, Albertyna; Williams, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies of semantic implicit learning in language have only examined learning grammatical form-meaning connections in which learning could have been supported by prior linguistic knowledge. In this study we target the domain of verb meaning, specifically semantic preferences regarding novel verbs (e.g., the preference for a novel verb to…

  1. FORMING FUTURE ENGLISH TEACHERS’ LISTENING SKILLS VIA DRAMATIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Datskiv

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the problem of forming future English teachers’ listening competence as an important component of future English teachers’ communicative competence. The requirements for future English teachers’ listening competence at the beginning stage of the university course have been determined. Dramatization has been considered as a means of forming future English teachers’ listening skills and it has been defined as interaction of a lecturer and students in drama games, role plays, improvisations, simulations and theatre projects aimed at forming the students’ communicative competence. The appropriateness of using different forms of dramatization for forming the second year students’ listening skills has been substantiated, the students’ listening skills have been determined. The complex of exercises for forming the students’ listening skills while learning the topic “Work and Employment” has been suggested. The structure of the complex has been outlined, the types and kinds of exercises have been described. The examples of exercises have been given. The exercises of the complex are aimed at simultaneous development of speaking, listening and writing skills of the future English teachers.

  2. Assessing Syntactic Deficits in Chinese Broca's aphasia using the Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences-Chinese (NAVS-C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honglei; Thompson, Cynthia K

    , rather than the latter, involve non-canonical order in Chinese. Similar to English-speaking patients, Chinese patients exhibited more difficulty with object extracted wh-questions than with subject extracted wh-questions. Suggesting that wh-movement in Logical Form may also cause processing difficulty. Moreover, Chinese-speaking patients exhibited similar performance in both production and comprehension, indicating the deficits in both modalities. The number and optionality of verb arguments as well as canonicity of the Agent-Theme order in sentences impacts Chinese-speaking individuals with aphasia as it does in the case of English-speaking patients. These findings indicate that the NAVS-C is a useful tool for detailing deficit patterns associated with syntactic processing in patients with aphasia cross-linguistically.

  3. Functional verbs in Gungbe: the case of inherent complement verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoch O. Aboh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional linguistics assumes that verbs are lexical categories that typically merge in the predicate domain of a sentence: VP. This study shows that, in Gungbe (Kwa, a significantly large class of items functioning as verbs heading a VP in a sentence may also serve as functional elements that merge within the functional skeleton of the clause. The discussion builds on the analysis of Inherent Complement Verbs (ICVs. In the Kwa literature, ICVs are defined as verbs which require a complement in their citation form (e.g., dó wèzùn lit. plant race; ‘to run’. This paper argues that these verbs can first merge in two syntactic positions: little v and V. When merged in v, such verbs select for a VP-complement involving an abstract empty V which necessarily takes a bare NP as complement (Hale & Keyser 1993. When merged in V, however, these verbs pattern like other Gungbe lexical verbs in selecting a DP argument. The paper concludes that Gungbe, (and possibly Kwa languages in general involve a class of verbal roots that can merge in the predicate head or in the functional domain. This finding supports Kayne’s (2009 recent antisymmetric approach to the lexicon.

  4. NOUN COMPOUND IN ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Ketut Mas Indrawati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing and describing the English compound specifically the English noun compound. Compound is a combination of two or more words of which meaning cannot always be predicted from the meaning of each part. In English, words, especially adjectives and nouns, are combined into compound structures in a variety of ways. This article attempts to discuss the formal characteristics and types of the English noun compound. The theory of compound was adopted for further analysis. The finding shows that the formal characteristics of the English noun compound are: the noun compounds have primary stress on the first constituent, the semantic unity of a noun compound is reflected in an orthographic, the meaning of the noun compound cannot be predicted from the meaning of the parts. The orthographic characteristics can be solid, hyphenated, and open. The types involved are Subject and Verb, Verb and Object, verb and adverbial, verb-less, subject and complement, combining-form and Bahuvrihi

  5. Graded Representations in the Acquisition of English and German Transitive Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbot-Smith, Kirsten; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2008-01-01

    English and German children aged 2 years 4 months and 4 years heard both novel and familiar verbs in sentences whose form was grammatical, but which mismatched the event they were watching (e.g., "The frog is pushing the lion", when the lion was actually the "agent" or "doer" of the pushing). These verbs were then elicited in new sentences. All…

  6. Clause structure and verb movement in a Greek-English speaking bilingual patient with Broca's aphasia: evidence from adverb placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiadou, Artemis; Stavrakaki, Stavroula

    2006-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of a Greek-English bilingual patient with Broca's aphasia and mild agrammatism on the placement of CP, MoodP, AspectP, and NegP-related adverbs, labeled specifier-type adverbs, and VP-related adverbs, labeled complement-type adverbs, by means of a constituent ordering task and a grammaticality judgment task. Based on the results derived by means of these two different tasks in both Greek and English, we argue that (i) the CP layer causes great difficulties to aphasic performance in both languages but it is not missing from aphasic grammar, whereas the VP layer remains intact in both languages; (ii) the MoodP, AspectP, and NegP-related adverbs cause more difficulties in English that in Greek. We attribute this to the independent differences between English and Greek that relate to properties of verbal morphology and syntactic head movement.

  7. The impact of verb form, sentence position, home language and proficiency on subject-verb agreement in child L2 Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, E.; Baayen, H.R.

    2013-01-01

    It has been argued that children learning a second language (L2) omit agreement inflection because of communication demands. The conclusion of these studies is that L2 children know the morphological and syntactic properties of agreement inflection, but sometimes insert an inflectional default form

  8. Analogy as a Tool for the Acquisition of English Verb Tenses among Low Proficiency L2 Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoke, Soo Kum; Hasan, Nor Haniza

    2014-01-01

    The teaching of English grammar to second language learners is usually a tedious, stressful and time consuming activity and even after all the effort, students have generally found these lessons boring and confusing. As such, innovative language instructors have been trying different approaches to the teaching of grammar in their classrooms. Using…

  9. Verb Semantics and Lexical Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Z; Wu, Zhibiao; Palmer, Martha

    1994-01-01

    This paper will focus on the semantic representation of verbs in computer systems and its impact on lexical selection problems in machine translation (MT). Two groups of English and Chinese verbs are examined to show that lexical selection must be based on interpretation of the sentence as well as selection restrictions placed on the verb arguments. A novel representation scheme is suggested, and is compared to representations with selection restrictions used in transfer-based MT. We see our approach as closely aligned with knowledge-based MT approaches (KBMT), and as a separate component that could be incorporated into existing systems. Examples and experimental results will show that, using this scheme, inexact matches can achieve correct lexical selection.

  10. It’s not what it looks to be! : Déconnexion entre forme et sens dans les énoncés avec verbe de perception à emploi dit “copule”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle LACASSAIN-LAGOIN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet article a pour objet l’analyse de la déconnexion entre forme et sens dans les énoncés où figurent les verbes de perception à emploi dit copule (look, sound, smell, taste et feel. L’origine de ces verbes est sujette à débat et il est avancé ici une hypothèse sur l’origine nominale de ces verbes, ainsi que sur leur comportement syntaxique et sémantique unique. Il apparaît que, dans ce type d’énoncés, le sujet grammatical n’est pas le sujet logique du verbe, qui a un emploi modalisant en ce qu’il exprime un jugement sur les apparences perceptuelles. Ce conflit apparent entre syntaxe et sémantique transparaît également au niveau de certains types d’attributs du sujet (les syntagmes nominaux, les syntagmes prépositionnels introduits par OF et les propositions en AS IF / AS THOUGH. L’étude montre que tous les attributs renvoient nécessairement à des propriétés gradables, ce qui n’est pas le cas avec le verbe copule be. Ainsi, ces énoncés copulatifs, où le verbe de perception a un emploi modalisant, présentent tous, à plusieurs titres et de diverses manières, un phénomène de compression syntaxique et sémantique motive par l’application d’un principe d’économie langagière.This paper aims at analysing the disconnection between form and meaning in sentences involving copular perception verbs (look, sound, smell, taste and feel. The origin of these verbs is a controversial issue, and in this article, it is argued that they have a nominal origin and that they have identical syntactic and semantic features. It appears that, in these copulative sentences, the grammatical subject does not coincide with the underlying subject of the verb, which has a modalising use as it expresses a judgment concerning sensory appearances. This surface conflict between syntax and semantics also shows in certain types of subject complements – nominal phrases, OF-prepositional phrases and AS IF/AS THOUGH-clauses. This

  11. Another Type of Bilingual Advantage? Tense-Mood-Aspect Frequency, Verb-Form Regularity and Context-Governed Choice in Bilingual vs. Monolingual Spanish Speakers with Agrammatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Ann O'Connor Wells

    2014-04-01

    ser or estar in the present tense and do not result in a semantic change Participants: Six Spanish-speaking participants with agrammatism were tested. Three had been highly proficient bilingual Spanish-English speakers, while the other three were relatively monolingual Spanish speakers. All had suffered left-frontal strokes at least 6 months prior to this study (X= 3.4 years and were judged agrammatic (in both languages, for bilinguals based on the effortfulness of their spontaneous speech, short phrase-length, high substantive-word use, omission of functors, and relatively good comprehension. Twelve non-aphasic Spanish-English speakers served as controls, and were matched for language history, age, educational attainment, and relative socio-economic status. Results and Conclusions: In general, participants with agrammatism made markedly more errors on this task (X= 40% than control participants (X= 4%, thus reinforcing our finding that despite high frequency in daily usage, ser and estar are not resistant to agrammatism (O’Connor Wells, 2011; O’Connor, Obler & Goral, 2007. A mixed-effects logistic regression analysis of the bilingual vs. monolingual data, revealed a trend (p = 0.07 for the mean performance of the bilinguals with agrammatism (65% to be greater than that of the monolinguals (54%. Although the direction of their performance was the same, the bilinguals with agrammatism outperformed the monolingual ones on all three of our verb factors. These data are consistent with the possibility that bilingualism facilitates language performance among bilinguals in their first language.

  12. Verb-Final Typology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Saeko

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a typological study of verb-final languages, the purpose of which is to examine various grammatical phenomena in verb-final languages to discover whether there are correlations between the final position of the verb and other aspects of grammar. It examines how finality of the verb interacts with argument coding in simple…

  13. ACQUIRING NEW PHRASAL VERBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Supriono

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of English demands natural settings in which learners engage with linguistic resources and attempt trial and errors method to express their ideas. These natural settings, for some, traditionally still require the presence of native speakerteachers (NST. However as the growing numbers of non-native speaker teachers (NNST of English in the developing countries makes way to the need for more occupation, the presence of NST on the contrary is lacking in relevance. However, can the NNST fulfill the necessitated language skills as if the classes were to be managed by NST? How much does the competence of NNST level NST‘s? Or, should we see the realm from the other end of the continuum?—thatwhatever norms and levels of competence our students should have should as well be determined by the availability of the resources at hand and the need for English as means of global communication? This paper questions the conventional paradigm in seeing the needs for learners‘ competence in English skills and challenges new generation of English teachers to be creative and realistic in meeting the needs of language acquisition and/or learning of EFLthrough the teaching and acquisition of phrasal verbs.

  14. دراسة أفعال اللغة الإنجليزية في اتصال الخطابات السياسية والدينية A Study of English Verbs of Communication in the Political and Religious Speeches

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    Lect. Lihadh Abdul Ameer Mubarak لحاظ عبدالامير مبارك

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Communication is the main core of language as language is widely defined as a means of communication. Verbs of communication can help achieving communication by their own. The current study focuses on the verbs of communication showing its semantic features and types. It tries to find out the role of the verbs of communication in achieving communication in two linguistic discourses namely the political and the religious speeches. It also tries to find the similarities and differences between these two types of speeches in regard to the use of verbs of communication finding out whether both types of speeches use such verbs. Finally, if verbs of communication are used, the study tries to find out which types of verbs of communication are used in both political and religious speeches. The aim of the study is to describe the verbs of communication in English as used in political and religious speeches. There by, it is possible to make a comparison between these two different discourses in regard to the use of verbs of communication and to contrast them so as to find out the syntactic and semantic differences and similarities between the two discourses. To achieve aims of the study, the following procedures are followed: 1. Presenting a theoretical background about the notion of communication in general concentrating on the role of verbs of communication. 2. Finding out the role of verbs of communication in achieving communication and showing the syntactic and semantic features of verbs of communication in English. 3. Analyzing samples of political and religious speeches to correlate the syntactic and semantic features of verbs of communication used in these two discourses.

  15. Verb inflection in German-learning children with typical and atypical language acquisition: the impact of subsyllabic frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Susan; Höhle, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that high phonotactic frequencies facilitate the production of regularly inflected verbs in English-learning children with specific language impairment (SLI) but not with typical development (TD). We asked whether this finding can be replicated for German, a language with a much more complex inflectional verb paradigm than English. Using an elicitation task, the production of inflected nonce verb forms (3(rd) person singular with -t suffix) with either high- or low-frequency subsyllables was tested in sixteen German-learning children with SLI (ages 4;1-5;1), sixteen TD-children matched for chronological age (CA) and fourteen TD-children matched for verbal age (VA) (ages 3;0-3;11). The findings revealed that children with SLI, but not CA- or VA-children, showed differential performance between the two types of verbs, producing more inflectional errors when the verb forms resulted in low-frequency subsyllables than when they resulted in high-frequency subsyllables, replicating the results from English-learning children.

  16. Englishising African Cultures: Revisiting Acculturated Forms of English in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwasi, Mompoloki Mmangaka

    2014-01-01

    Many "African English" researchers (see Kachru, B. B. (1983). "The Indianization of English." "The English language in India." Singapore: Singapore University Press.) have argued that when English is used in non-native environments, many aspects of its lexicon, grammar and pronunciation are modified and…

  17. Fast Mapping Verb Meaning from Argument Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Valerie E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine lexical knowledge in children through a fast mapping task. Method: This study compared the performance of 60 African American English-speaking and general American English-speaking children between the ages of 4 and 6 years. They were presented with a comprehension task involving the fast mapping of novel verbs in 4 different…

  18. A Study of the Use of the Weak Forms of English Grammatical Words ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    The concern of this study is whether educated Yoruba English speakers appropriately use the weak forms of English grammatical words in their sentences or not. One hundred Educated Yoruba English (EYE) speakers were made to read some. English sentences into tapes and a perceptual analysis of the data was done.

  19. ENGLISH COLLOCATIONS OF THE VERBS “TO BE”, “TO HAVE” AND “TO TAKE” AND THEIR EQUIVALENTS IN GERMAN, FRENCH AND ITALIAN LANGUAGES: LINGUISTIC–CULTURAL ASPECT

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    Anna Nikolaevna Panamaryova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to find out conceptual characteristics of English, German, French, Italian languages world image. The subject of this paper is English collocations with the verbs “to be”, “to have” and “to take” and their equivalents in German, French and Italian languages. The task of this paper is to compare English collocations of the verbs “to be”, “to have” and “to take” and their equivalents in German, French and Italian languages in linguistic–cultural aspect. In Russian language studies such word groups are called “synlexis”. This term was coined by G. I. Klimovskaya, the professor ofTomskStateUniversity. The main method of the research is a comparative study of linguistic units. The conclusions made in the research are essential in the further study of European linguistic world image and can be used in textbooks on Cultural Linguistics.The practical result of the research can be a cross-cultural collocation dictionary of some languages. Such a dictionary is important for linguists, translators and people studying foreign languages.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-32

  20. Verb and sentence production and comprehension in aphasia: Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences (NAVS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho-Reyes, Soojin; Thompson, Cynthia K

    syntactic complexity; however, individuals with anomic aphasia appear to exhibit these impairments only for the most complex forms of verbs and sentences. The present data indicate that the NAVS is useful for characterising verb and sentence deficits in people with aphasia.

  1. A guide of scientific writing in English

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Bang Geun

    1987-10-15

    This book introduces reference while writing English paper, how to use letters, punctuation, how to use articles, similar word phrases and verbs used in scientific writings, auxiliary verbs, nouns deeply related to scientific writings, expressions about experiment tools and equipment, expressions of chemicals, how to mark numbers, adjectives and pronouns relevant to numbers, how to make plural form, expressions about multiple, surface area, depth, width, time, period, temperature, humidity. It also adds expressions about sensible assessment, statistics, deviation, signs, abbreviations, and how to write letters in English.

  2. Neoclassical compounds and final combining forms in English

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    Ana Díaz-Negrillo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available English neoclassical compounds rely on a distinct vocabulary stock and present morphological features which raise a number of theoretical questions. Generalisations about neoclassical compounds are also problematic because the output is by no means homogeneous, that is, defining features of neoclassical compounds sometimes co-exist with features that are not prototypical of these formations. The paper looks at neoclassical compounds with a view to exploring patterns of morphological behaviour and development in this class of compounds. The approach is both synchronic and diachronic: it researches whether the morphological behaviour of recently formed compounds is different from that of earlier compounds and, if so, in which respects. This is assessed on data from the BNC with respect to some of the features that are cited in the literature as defining properties of neoclassical compounds, specifically, their internal configuration, the occurrence or not of a linking vowel, and their productivity.

  3. Decomposability and mental representation of French verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estivalet, Gustavo L; Meunier, Fanny E

    2015-01-01

    In French, regardless of stem regularity, inflectional verbal suffixes are extremely regular and paradigmatic. Considering the complexity of the French verbal system, we argue that all French verbs are polymorphemic forms that are decomposed during visual recognition independently of their stem regularity. We conducted a behavioral experiment in which we manipulated the surface and cumulative frequencies of verbal inflected forms and asked participants to perform a visual lexical decision task. We tested four types of verbs with respect to their stem variants: a. fully regular (parler "to speak," [parl-]); b. phonological change e/E verbs with orthographic markers (répéter "to repeat," [répét-] and [répèt-]); c. phonological change o/O verbs without orthographic markers (adorer "to adore," [ador-] and [adOr-]); and d. idiosyncratic (boire "to drink," [boi-] and [buv-]). For each type of verb, we contrasted four conditions, forms with high and low surface frequencies and forms with high and low cumulative frequencies. Our results showed a significant cumulative frequency effect for the fully regular and idiosyncratic verbs, indicating that different stems within idiosyncratic verbs (such as [boi-] and [buv-]) have distinct representations in the mental lexicon as different fully regular verbs. For the phonological change verbs, we found a significant cumulative frequency effect only when considering the two forms of the stem together ([répét-] and [répèt-]), suggesting that they share a single abstract and under specified phonological representation. Our results also revealed a significant surface frequency effect for all types of verbs, which may reflect the recombination of the stem lexical representation with the functional information of the suffixes. Overall, these results indicate that all inflected verbal forms in French are decomposed during visual recognition and that this process could be due to the regularities of the French inflectional verbal

  4. Decomposability and mental representation of French verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Lopez Estivalet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In French, regardless of stem regularity, inflectional verbal suffixes are extremely regular and paradigmatic. Considering the complexity of the French verbal system, we argue that all French verbs are polymorphemic forms that are decomposed during visual recognition independently of their stem regularity. We conducted a behavioural experiment in which we manipulated the surface and cumulative frequencies of verbal inflected forms and asked participants to perform a visual lexical decision task. We tested four types of verbs with respect to their stem variants: a. fully regular (parler ‘to speak’, [parl-]; b. phonological change e/E verbs with orthographic markers (répéter ‘to repeat’, [répét-] and [répèt-]; c. phonological change o/O verbs without orthographic markers (adorer ‘to adore’, [ador-] and [adOr-]; and d. idiosyncratic (boire ‘to drink’, [boi-] and [buv-]. For each type of verb, we contrasted four conditions, forms with high and low surface frequencies and forms with high and low cumulative frequencies. Our results showed a significant cumulative frequency effect for the fully regular and idiosyncratic verbs, indicating that different stems within idiosyncratic verbs (such as [boi-] and [buv-] have distinct representations in the mental lexicon as different fully regular verbs. For the phonological change verbs, we found a significant cumulative frequency effect only when considering the two forms of the stem together ([répét-] and [répèt-], suggesting that they share a single abstract and underspecified phonological representation. Our results also revealed a significant surface frequency effect for all types of verbs, which may reflect the recombination of the stem lexical representation with the functional information of the suffixes. Overall, these results indicate that all inflected verbal forms in French are decomposed during visual recognition and that this process could be due to the regularities of

  5. Cross-linguistic gestures reflect typological universals: a subject-initial, verb-final bias in speakers of diverse languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futrell, Richard; Hickey, Tina; Lee, Aldrin; Lim, Eunice; Luchkina, Elena; Gibson, Edward

    2015-03-01

    In communicating events by gesture, participants create codes that recapitulate the patterns of word order in the world's vocal languages (Gibson et al., 2013; Goldin-Meadow, So, Ozyurek, & Mylander, 2008; Hall, Mayberry, & Ferreria, 2013; Hall, Ferreira, & Mayberry, 2014; Langus & Nespor, 2010; and others). Participants most often convey simple transitive events using gestures in the order Subject-Object-Verb (SOV), the most common word order in human languages. When there is a possibility of confusion between subject and object, participants use the order Subject-Verb-Object (SVO). This overall pattern has been explained by positing an underlying cognitive preference for subject-initial, verb-final orders, with the verb-medial order SVO order emerging to facilitate robust communication in a noisy channel (Gibson et al., 2013). However, whether the subject-initial and verb-final biases are innate or the result of languages that the participants already know has been unclear, because participants in previous studies all spoke either SVO or SOV languages, which could induce a subject-initial, verb-late bias. Furthermore, the exact manner in which known languages influence gestural orders has been unclear. In this paper we demonstrate that there is a subject-initial and verb-final gesturing bias cross-linguistically by comparing gestures of speakers of SVO languages English and Russian to those of speakers of VSO languages Irish and Tagalog. The findings show that subject-initial and verb-final order emerges even in speakers of verb-initial languages, and that interference from these languages takes the form of occasionally gesturing in VSO order, without an additional bias toward other orders. The results provides further support for the idea that improvised gesture is a window into the pressures shaping language formation, independently of the languages that participants already know. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Learning Verbs without Arguments: The Problem of Raising Verbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Misha

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of learning the class of raising verbs (e.g. seem). These verbs are potentially problematic for learners in that unlike typical main verbs, these verbs do not stand in a semantic relation with any Noun Phrase (NP) arguments. Moreover, a second class of verbs, known as control verbs, shares certain distributional…

  7. Syntactic Functions of Infinitives in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Quintero Ramírez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the most relevant syntactic functions of infinitives within the sentence in English, based on the British 2006 Corpus (BE06 designed by Paul Baker and displayed by the server of Andrew Hardie, Corpus Query Processor (CQPweb. The corpus reveals that infinitives are a very frequent non-finite form employed in English. The most relevant syntactic functions that infinitives took in the corpus were as verbal periphrasis, as verb complements, as noun complements, as adjectival complements, as nominal predicates and as verb subjects. In English there are specific contexts in which the infinitive is not preceded by the particle to, such as after an extensive number of auxiliary, perception and permission verbs. Furthermore, there are other specific contexts in which the infinitive is preceded by the particle to, such as after a large number of direct objects in transitive verbs and functioning as a verb subject and as a noun or adjective complement. The major claim of this study is that infinitives in English do not constitute a uniform group; in fact, they display a variety of syntactic functions within the sentence directly reflecting their nominal and verbal properties.

  8. A Translation Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs: An Ongoing Project

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    structure of phrasal verbs, literal and figurative usage, definitions, synonyms, illustrative exam- ples, relatedness of meaning, order ... students in the Department of English Language and Translation at Alexandria. University have ..... simple verb + particle and ranging through to the more opaque idioms". (p.6). The following ...

  9. Testing controlled productive knowledge of adverb-verb collocations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study examines English as a Foreign Language (EFL) junior researchers' use of adverb- verb collocations of ... Key words: academic writing, adverb-verb collocations, productive knowledge of collocations, .... This is even more so for the expression to blow the gaff, which is totally opaque in meaning – to reveal ...

  10. Doing More with Less: Verb Learning in Korean-Acquiring 24-Month-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, Sudha; Leddon, Erin M.; Song, Hyun-joo; Lee, Yoonha; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2013-01-01

    Research on early word learning reveals that verbs present a unique challenge. While English-acquiring 24-month-olds can learn novel verbs and extend them to new scenes, they perform better in rich linguistic contexts (when novel verbs appear with lexicalized noun phrases naming the event participants) than in sparser linguistic contexts…

  11. VERB TENSE SYSTEMS OF INDONESIAN EFL LEARNERS

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    Endang Fauziati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Among aspect of studies on second language acquisition, IL is one of the most important one. To date research on IL features has provided benefits to the study of second language learning in particular to EFL classroom. The present study explored IL verb tense system to indicate present, past, and future events employed by Indonesian learners of English as a foreign language. Empirical data were 444 ill-formed utterances elicited through free compositions from the EFL learners. Error analysis and IL analysis were used as analytical tool for data analysis. The results indicate the students have developed their own grammatical system to express present, past, and future events. Whilst their IL system was typified by a number of non-targetlike variants, this study provides evidence of the systematicity of IL as well as a model of particular IL systems, i.e. Indonesian EFL learners.

  12. Auxiliary verbs in Dinka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    Dinka, a Western Nilotic language, has a class of auxiliary verbs which is remarkable in the following four respects: (i) It is unusually large, comprising some 20 members; (ii) it is grammatically homogeneous in terms of both morphology and syntax; (iii) most of the auxiliary verbs correspond to...... semantic changes the auxiliary verbs have undergone or are undergoing during the process of grammaticalization....

  13. Patterns of comprehension and production of nouns and verbs in agrammatism: implications for lexical organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M; Thompson, C K

    2000-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between verb retrieval and verb-argument-structure properties in seven agrammatic aphasic patients using tasks requiring access to the verb's lexicon for both comprehension- and productionlike processes. Results showed intact comprehension of both nouns and verbs and noun naming, but impaired naming of verbs. Subjects also demonstrated near-normal performance on a grammaticality judgment task involving verb-argument-structure violations but were impaired in categorizing verbs by type (based on number of obligatory arguments). In both naming and categorization conditions, a hierarchy of verb difficulty emerged. Subjects were more accurate in naming/categorizing one-place verbs than two-place verbs and more accurate in naming/categorizing two-place verbs than three-place verbs. The pattern of selective impairment in lexical access/retrieval supports the hypothesis that one dimension of normal lexical organization is by form class. The results also suggest that no necessary relationship exists between production difficulties and comprehension of nouns/verbs in agrammatism. Further, the performance pattern noted supports the claim that verb-argument-structure properties, an important component of the verb lexicon, influence verb production at the single-word and at the sentence level. Subjects' performance on different tasks suggests that the locus of breakdown in the verb-retrieval processes for productionlike tasks may be in accessing information at the lemma level of representation as per Bock's model (1995) of sentence production. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  14. Psych verbs, the linking problem, and the acquisition of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartshorne, Joshua K; O'Donnell, Timothy J; Sudo, Yasutada; Uruwashi, Miki; Lee, Miseon; Snedeker, Jesse

    2016-12-01

    In acquiring language, children must learn to appropriately place the different participants of an event (e.g., causal agent, affected entity) into the correct syntactic positions (e.g., subject, object) so that listeners will know who did what to whom. While many of these mappings can be characterized by broad generalizations, both within and across languages (e.g., semantic agents tend to be mapped onto syntactic subjects), not all verbs fit neatly into these generalizations. One particularly striking example is verbs of psychological state: The experiencer of the state can appear as either the subject (Agnes fears/hates/loves Bartholomew) or the direct object (Agnes frightens/angers/delights Bartholomew). The present studies explore whether this apparent variability in subject/object mapping may actually result from differences in these verbs' underlying meanings. Specifically, we suggest that verbs like fear describe a habitual attitude towards some entity whereas verbs like frighten describe an externally caused emotional episode. We find that this distinction systematically characterizes verbs in English, Mandarin, and Korean. This pattern is generalized to novel verbs by adults in English, Japanese, and Russian, and even by English-speaking children who are just beginning to acquire psych verbs. This results support a broad role for systematic mappings between semantics and syntax in language acquisition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Polyfunctionality and distribution of reflexive verbs in Latvian

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    Andra Kalnača

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current paper is to analyze Latvian reflexive verbs from the point of view of their polyfunctionality and distributon.The polysemy of the reflexive verbs is not usually disucussed in the connection with its distribution pattern in the sentence either. This can be partly explianed by the fact that the reflexive verb can have some non-standard language meanings, which following the established practice of the traditional grammars and sometimes even dictionaries,  were not depicted in the language system description either. So the current paper is an attempt to analyze the polyfunctionality of reflexive verbs in connection with their semantic and syntactic functions, without judging the language use from the normative point of view.The classification of Latvian reflexive verbs is based on the relationship between semantic roles and syntactic structure according to the principles devised by Palmer (1994 and Saeed (1997.One and the same reflexive verb may have different lexical meanings with a different distribution for each of the meanings. One and the same verb can belong to different subclasses of the subject and object (or impersonal verbs.Some reflexive verbs have evaluative or aspectual (iterative meanings. The evaluative meanings usually are manifested by a positive or negative assessment of the event (the context can be enhanced by the adverbs good or bad and the consequences while the aspectual meaning is manifested by the intensity of the action, that is – iterativity.The study confirms the assumption that reflexive verbs are independent lexemes as opposed to non-reflexive verb forms. Each reflexive verb has its distinct semantic system and distribution which is different from polysemy of non-reflexive verbs and their distribution. The system of reflexive verbs in Latvian is open where new meanings and even new reflexive verbs arise particularly in colloquial use.

  16. Phrasal Verbs in English and Arabic: A Contrastive Study With Reference to Some Scientific Texts أشباه الجمل الفعلية باللغتين العربية والإنجليزية: دراسة مقارنة مع الإشارة إلى بعض النصوص العلمية

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louhaz Abdul Amir Mubarak لحاظ عبد الأمير مبارك

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Phrasal verb, in both English and Arabic languages can be defined as a type of verb consisting of a sequence of a lexical elements. English phrasal verbs could be transitive or intransitive e.g. come in, get up, look out for, subtype may be distinguished on syntactic grounds into separable and inseparable. The particles may be classified into prepositional or adverbial types. Arabic language includes a linguistic item that shares some features of English phrasal verbs (often called prepositional verbs. Arabic phrasal verbs are classified as a subtype of transitive verbs. Transitive verbs in Arabic are classified into two types: transitive by itself such as يلقي in ﴿وَأَلْقِ عَصَاكَ﴾ (النمل: 10; and transitive through a preposition such as يعشو in وَمَن يَعْشُ عَن ذِكْرِ الرَّحْمَنِ نُقَيِّضْ لَهُ شَيْطَانًا فَهُوَ لَهُ قَرِين﴾ (الزخرف: 36 this later type is parallel to the English phrasal verbs. The present study is an attempt to show the syntactic and semantic aspects of phrasal verbs in both English and Arabic to find out the similarities and differences between the two languages in relation to this type of verbs.

  17. FORMING THE PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE OF THE FUTURE ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHERS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL USING ICT

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    Liudmyla H. Havrilova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the results of experimental implementing ICT into forming the professional competence of future English teachers of primary school. Among the ways of using the electronic educational means offered by the authors there are: developing and using the educational and methodological simulator «Introduction to Interactive Communication» as a local electronic resource on English; implementing the distance learning courses «Practical English Grammar», «Linguistic Country Study» in future specialists’ professional training; work in the electronic services, mastering the programs of infographics during studying the discipline «Methodology of Teaching English». The analysis of the study results showed developing of students’ acmeological linguomethodological aspirations, increasing the motivation for learning, in particular the use of ICT tools in English classes, and proved the effectiveness of the chosen ways of forming the professional competence of future English teachers of primary school.

  18. Early Acquisition of Verbs in Korean: A Cross-linguistic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soonja; Gopnik, Alison

    1995-01-01

    Investigates children's early lexical development in English and Korean and compares caregivers' linguistic input in the two languages. Results indicate that young Korean children use verbs productively with appropriate inflections and that, unlike in English, both verbs and nouns in Korean are dominant categories from the single-word stage. (39…

  19. THE ENGLISH POSTPOSITIONS AS WORD-FORMATION AND GRAMMATICAL COMPONENTS-CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Veorgievich Shabaev

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Using cognitive-conceptual analysis, the variant of contensive correlation in verb formation of the English phrasal verbs and Russian synthetic perfective verbs with prefixes are considered. Notional (conceptual synonymity of the role of the corresponding English postpositions and Russian prefixes in this process of perfective verb formation is analyzed.Purpose. Studying verb formation typology of the English postpositions and Russian prefixes of the perfective verbs.Methodology. Cognitive-conceptual description of the functions of the postpositions and prefixes in analytical and synthrtical verb formation.Practical implications. Teaching and science researching practices of the English and Russian languages.

  20. Revisiting verbs of emission: an update on some relevant theoretical accounts of lexical specification and argument structure of emission verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasa Milivojevic

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the question of what semantic properties lexicalized in verbs determine their syntactic behavior in intransitive motion events and in resultative constructions in English and Serbian. Special attention is devoted to English and Serbian verbs of emission (specifically verbs of sound emission and partly also verbs of light, smell and substance emission regarding their potential to surface as main verbs in these constructions and to combine with directional phrases within specific morphosyntactic templates (unaccusatives and unergatives. The presented research promotes a theoretical view according to which the established syntactic patterns can be applied across the whole class of verbs of emission to express a full er range of atypical verb meanings in motion events. Theoretical conclusions of the research are also relevant for a wider theoretical description of motion events and resultatives in a cross - linguistic perspective. The paper puts forth additional implica tions regarding the projectionalist approach to semantic verb classes against the theoretical framework of Beth Levin (1993. Finally, the paper considers the relevant points of structurally realized similarities via relevant constructional templates in En glish and in Serbian, as well as some important points of morphosyntactic divergence between the two languages. The conclusions presented aim at a more comprehensive contrastive language typology based on language “framing” parameters.

  1. How Snuck Sneaked into English and Drug is still Dragging Behind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horslund, Camilla Søballe

    2014-01-01

    Language observers may have noticed the existence of two past tense forms for the verb to sneak in American English, sneaked and snuck. Interestingly, both forms have not always coexisted; the original form is sneaked, and snuck has only recently become a real competitor for sneaked (Hogg, 1988: 31...

  2. Light Verbs and Polysemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugman, Claudia

    2001-01-01

    Examines the relationship between the polysemic structure of main verbs and their light counterparts. Suggests that light verbs are systematically related to their heavy counterparts in retaining the force-dynamic properties of the heavy sense, but that the conceptual domain in which that force-dynamic structure applies shifts from the physical to…

  3. Chipewyan Classificatory Verbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Robin M.

    1976-01-01

    Verb stems are classified according to the particular group of nouns they appear with. The system reflects a taxonomy of situations involving concrete objects. A verb is chosen according to the shape and number of the object, if it is sitting, falling, etc., and according to the speaker's intention. (SCC)

  4. Syntax of Dutch : Verbs and Verb Phrases, volume 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuis, H.; Corver, N.

    Syntax of Dutch: Verbs and Verb Phrases consists of three volumes. Volume 1 opens with a general introduction to verbs, including a review of various verb classifications and discussions on inflection, tense, mood, modality and aspect. This is followed by a comprehensive discussion of

  5. Syntax of Dutch : Verbs and Verb phrases, Volume 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuis, H.; Corver, N.

    2015-01-01

    Syntax of Dutch: Verbs and Verb Phrases consists of three volumes. Volume 1 opens with a general introduction to verbs, including a review of various verb classifications and discussions on inflection, tense, mood, modality and aspect. This is followed by a comprehensive discussion of

  6. Syntax of Dutch : Verbs and Verb Phrases, Volume 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuis, H.; Corver, N.; Vos, Riet

    2015-01-01

    Syntax of Dutch: Verbs and Verb Phrases consists of three volumes. Volume 1 opens with a general introduction to verbs, including a review of various verb classifications and discussions on inflection, tense, mood, modality and aspect. This is followed by a comprehensive discussion of

  7. The Usages of the Verb “to be” in Written Turkish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertan ALİBEKİROĞLU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic vocabulary of the language and its dictionary meanings are consist of nouns and verbs. Nouns identify the presence and distinguish them from other assets. Verbs, on the other hand , describe the actions of known, the known assets of every kind (abstract, concrete, animate and inanimate, etc.. In this sense, the verb can be defined as the names of the movement’s of presence. Verbs are accepted to be the most populous types words after nouns, which form reveale the presence in the dictionaries. But the quantity of verbs are quite less comparet to the nouns. The main reasons for the presence of this vast as almost immediately when entering a new presence in our lives every day, verbs are almost stable and limited. Some verbs have different features in the structure, meaning and task when compared to the other verbs. However, the number of these verbs are limited to only 5-10 in almost all languages but, their activity and agility are quite astounding. The activity and agility of languages, expression capabilities, in short, their significant portion of the power is hidden in these verbs. İn Turkology these particular verbs in the languages can be called as essence verbs, auxiliary verbs or depicted verbs. These particular verbs vary in functions, tasks and usages inside themselves. Even if some verbs have less and specific use, it is very difficult to determine exactly the boundaries of the areas of other verbs. The verbs in Turkish such as “ol-, et-, eyle-, kıl-“ are in this category. In this study; the usege, the activity and the position of Turkish basic verb “to be” tried to explore in aspects

  8. Aspectual auxiliary verbs in Xitsonga

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Xitsonga has verbal extensions that change the argument structure of the lexical verb. The applicative suffix -el-, when attached to the lexical verb (39a), for example, makes the verb take the benefactive object mánáná 'mother'. In AA constructions, this suffix does not attach to the AA verb (39b), nor can it double as in (39c).

  9. 500 French verbs for dummies

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    Erotopoulos

    2013-01-01

    Vexed by French verbs? Fear no more! In 500 French Verbs For Dummies, beginning French language learners can find a quick reference for verbs in the basic present tenses. More advanced French speakers can utilize this book to learn more complex verb tenses and conjugations as well as advanced verbs with irregular endings. One page for each of the 500 most commonly used verbs in the French language -alphabetically arranged and numbered for easy referenceSpecial designation of the 50 most essential French verbsA summary of basic French grammar that incl

  10. Subclassification of English Adjectives for French to English Machine Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Mary A.

    1990-01-01

    Advances the hypothesis that, when translating French personal constructions involving an adjective and a verb infinitive into English, the property of the English adjective determines whether the verb will be translated as an infinitive or as a gerund. Alternatives for handling such translations in machine translation systems are explored. (five…

  11. Using an Online Dictionary for Identifying the Meanings of Verb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on the results of a study which investigated the use of an online dictionary by Chinese EFL learners in identifying the meanings of verb phrases. Thirty-two stu-dents with English as major subject participated in a meaning determination task with and without the help of the Macmillan English Dictionary ...

  12. Psych verb production and comprehension in agrammatic Broca's aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cynthia K; Lee, Miseon

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the factors that affect agrammatic sentence production by testing eight agrammatic aphasic participants' comprehension and production of active and passive sentences using two types of English psych verbs, those with an Experiencer-marked subject (Subject-Experiencer (SubExp)) and those with an Experiencer-marked object (Object-Experiencer (ObjExp)). The Argument Structure Complexity Hypothesis (ASCH, [J. Neuroling. 16 (2003) 151]) posits that the verb (and sentence) production difficulties observed in agrammatic aphasia can be attributed, at least in part, to the argument structure properties of verbs, with verbs that are marked for more complex argument structure (in terms of the number and type of arguments) presenting greater difficulty than those with less complex argument structure entries. Based on previous linguistic analyses of psych verbs, ObjExp psych verbs are more complex than SubjExp verbs. Therefore, we predicted that the former would present greater production (but not comprehension) difficulty than the latter. Results showed above chance comprehension of all sentence types, with the exception of SubjExp passive constructions, in which the subject position is occupied by a non-Experiencer argument. In active sentence production, ObjExp verbs were more impaired than SubjExp verbs. However, the opposite pattern was noted for passive sentence production. While all participants had difficulty producing passive sentences of both types, they showed better performance on ObjExp verbs, as compared to SubjExp verbs, in which the Experiencer is in the subject position. Further, agrammatic aphasic speakers showed a preference for producing actives for SubjExp verbs and passives for ObjExp verbs, indicating that the thematic role requirements of selected verbs (e.g., Experiencer, Theme) influence production patterns, as they do in normal speakers. These data, as well as the error patterns seen in our patients, support the ASCH and suggest

  13. Abstract Objects of Verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robering, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which...... of such a representation are considered: the denotations of that-phrases are objects representing propositions, generic noun phrases denote objects standing for sorts, and infinitivals are viewed as denoting objects representing attributes, i.e., the "ordinary'' meanings of verb phrases....

  14. Standardization of the Action Verbs used in Emergency Operating Procedures of NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Tong Il; Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Jae Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yeon Seop; Chu, Gang Il [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The action verbs used in Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs) for each nuclear power plant are translated respectively from the action verbs used in Emergency Recovery Guidelines (ERG) of the reference plants. The action verbs used in each plant are not largely different with one another. There are, however, some cases that the meanings of the same action verbs used in different plants are not consistent with each other and translations are not exact. In this study, the original English expressions of the action verbs and the translated verbs were compared and their accepted meanings analyzed. And then, standardization for the action verbs which are not exactly translated or which are used with different meanings among the plants was proposed

  15. The origin of the Northern Subject Rule : subject positions and verbal morphosyntax in older English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, Nynke; van Kemenade, Ans

    This article presents new evidence for the early history of the Northern Subject Rule in the form of an exhaustive corpus study of plural present-tense indicative verb forms in Northern and Northern Midlands early Middle English, analysed in relation to their syntactic context, including subject

  16. Form-Focused Discovery Activities in English Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogeyik, Muhlise Cosgun

    2011-01-01

    Form-focused discovery activities allow language learners to grasp various aspects of a target language by contributing implicit knowledge by using discovered explicit knowledge. Moreover, such activities can assist learners to perceive and discover the features of their language input. In foreign language teaching environments, they can be used…

  17. The Trouble with Nouns and Verbs in Greek Fluent Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambanaros, Maria

    2008-01-01

    In the past verb retrieval problems were associated primarily with agrammatism and noun retrieval difficulties with fluent aphasia. With regards to fluent aphasia, so far in the literature, three distinct patterns of verb/noun dissociations have been described for individuals with fluent anomic aphasia in languages with different underlying forms;…

  18. Production of verbs in base position by Dutch agrammatic speakers : Inflection versus finiteness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaanse, Y.R.M.

    Several hypotheses have been formulated to predict the pattern of performance on finite verbs by agrammatic speakers. The present study is focused on finite and nonfinite verbs in base-position. Three finite verb forms (third person singular in past and present tense and third person plural in

  19. A Comparison of Two Theoretically Driven Treatments for Verb Inflection Deficits in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen

    2008-01-01

    Errors in the production of verb inflections, especially tense inflections, are pervasive in agrammatic Broca's aphasia ("*The boy eat"). The neurolinguistic underpinnings of these errors are debated. One group of theories attributes verb inflection errors to disruptions in encoding the verb's morphophonological form, resulting from either a…

  20. The Origin of American Black English: Be-Forms in the HOODOO Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, Traute

    The study examines origins of the usage patterns of "be" forms (conjugated and invariant forms of the copula) in Black English as they developed over a period of about 30 years. The corpus studied consists of selected interviews from a collection of recordings about Hoodoo, conjuration, witchcraft, and rootwork made by a white priest with almost…

  1. Language Anxiety and Motivation to Learn English: A Glimpse into the Form 4 Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mary Siew-Lian

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study on Form 4 students' anxiety and motivation in learning English. One hundred and seventy-seven Form 4 students (90 males, 87 females) from a government secondary school in Kuching participated in this study. Scores from a language anxiety scale showed that 17.5% of the students were at the low language…

  2. Derivational and Semantic Relations of Croatian Verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Šojat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with certain morphosemantic relations between Croatian verbs and discusses their inclusion in Croatian WordNet. The morphosemantic relations in question are the semantic relations between unprefixed infinitives and their prefixed derivatives. We introduce the criteria for the division of aspectual pairs and further discuss verb prefixation which results in combinations of prefixes and base forms that can vary in terms of meaning from compositional to completely idiosyncratic. The focus is on the regularities in semantic modifications of base forms modified by one prefix. The aim of this procedure is to establish a set of morphosemantic relations based on regular or reoccuring meaning alternations.

  3. SMART_PV: A SOFTWARE APPLICATION FOR MANAGING ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS SMART_PV: UNA APLICACIÓN DE SOFTWARE PARA LA GESTIÓN DE VERBOS FRASALES EN INGLÉS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Manrique Losada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Phrasal verbs (PVs are lexical units consisting of a verb and one or two particles. In this paper we present a characterization of English PVs. This characterization serves as the backbone for our web application called Smart_PV. The purpose of Smart_PV is twofold: i to allow the input of PVs and ii to detect PVs in texts. We designed web interfaces to register the PVs with their features and to detect PVs in the texts as follows: the user enters the text and starts the PVs detection process by splitting the text into words. Smart_PV was validated inserting 80 PVs (including the 25 most common PVs in documents of the European Union and detecting PVs in texts from different domains. Our results show the expediency of this kind of applications for teachers, students, translators, and common users, as a tool to support translation and text mining tasks. Although a database with more PVs and the analysis of more documents are required, our results demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of our application.Los verbos frasales (VF son unidades léxicas conformadas por un verbo y una o dos partículas. En este artículo se presenta una caracterización para los VF en inglés, la cual es usada como eje principal de una aplicación web para VF llamada Smart_PV. El objetivo de Smart_PV es doble: i permitir el ingreso de VF, y ii detectar VF en textos. Se diseñaron interfaces web para ingresar los VF con sus características y para detectarlos en textos así: el usuario ingresa un texto y comienza el proceso de detección de VF dividiendo el texto en palabras. Smart_PV fue validada insertando 80 VF (incluyendo los 25 VF más comunes en documentos de la Unión Europea, y detectando VF en textos de diferentes dominios. Los resultados muestran la conveniencia de este tipo de aplicaciones para profesores, estudiantes, traductores y usuarios comunes como apoyo en tareas de traducción y minería de textos. Aunque es deseable una base de datos con más VF y

  4. Considering bilingual dictionaries against a corpus. Do English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates the extent to which four representatives of the latest generation of English-French / French-English dictionaries present "real English", i.e. actually used meanings of actually used English word patterns. The findings of a corpus study of the verb CONSIDER are confronted with the entries for this verb ...

  5. On the Mandarin Possessive and Existential Verb "You" and Its Idiomatic Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her, One-Soon

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the possessive, existential, and locational usages of the Mandarin Chinese verb "you3," arguing for the formulation of a single lexical entry of the verb within lexical-functional grammar and demonstrating the similarities between English idiom chunks and you3 expressions. (20 references) (Author/CB)

  6. The Role of Timing and Prototypical Causality on How Preschoolers Fast-Map Novel Verb Meanings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbot-Smith, Kirsten; Imai, Mutsumi; Durrant, Samantha; Nurmsoo, Erika

    2017-01-01

    In controlled contexts, young children find it more difficult to learn novel words for actions than words for objects: Imai et al. found that English-speaking three-year-olds mistakenly choose a novel object as a referent for a novel verb about 42% of the time despite hearing the verb in a transitive sentence. The current two studies investigated…

  7. Main Verb Versus Reduced Relative Clause Ambiguity Resolution in L2 Sentence Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juffs, Alan

    1998-01-01

    Investigated how adult learners of English-as-a-Second- Language (ESL) process sentences containing verbs that are temporarily ambiguous in interpretation between a main verb and a reduced relative clause. Seventeen Chinese, 17 Korean or Japanese, and 17 Romance learners with advanced ESL proficiency and a comparison group of 17 monolingual native…

  8. Cognitive Factors in the Choice of Syntactic Form by Aphasic and Normal Speakers of English and Japanese: The Speaker's Impulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menn, Lise; And Others

    This study examined the role of empathy in the choice of syntactic form and the degree of independence of pragmatic and syntactic abilities in a range of aphasic patients. Study 1 involved 9 English-speaking and 9 Japanese-speaking aphasic subjects with 10 English-speaking and 4 Japanese normal controls. Study 2 involved 14 English- and 6…

  9. Perception of Native English Reduced Forms in Chinese Learners: Its Role in Listening Comprehension and Its Phonological Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Simpson W. L.; Mok, Peggy P. K.; Chung, Kevin Kien-Hoa; Leung, Vina W. H.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown that learners of English as a second language have difficulties in understanding connected speech spoken by native English speakers. This study examines the role of the perception of reduced forms (e.g., contraction, elision, assimilation) of English words in connected speech comprehension and the phonological skills…

  10. Variation in verb cluster interruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    Except for finite verbs in main clauses, verbs in Standard Dutch cluster together in a clause-final position. In certain Dutch dialects, non-verbal material can occur within this verb cluster (Verhasselt 1961; Koelmans 1965, among many others). These dialects vary with respect to which types of

  11. How to Teach Phrasal Verbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mart, Cagri Tugrul

    2012-01-01

    Teaching phrasal verbs is a difficult area. Many a study has proved that contextualization has an important positive effect on the ability of the students to decipher the correct meaning of a phrasal verb. In this article you will read some useful approaches to the presentation of phrasal verbs through context to improve the students' level of…

  12. Abstract Objects of Verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which...... these objects represent non-objectual entities in contexts from which they are excluded by type restrictions. Thus these objects are "abstract'' in a functional rather than in an ontological sense: they function as representatives of other entities but they are otherwise quite normal objects. Three examples...... of such a representation are considered: the denotations of that-phrases are objects representing propositions, generic noun phrases denote objects standing for sorts, and infinitivals are viewed as denoting objects representing attributes, i.e., the "ordinary'' meanings of verb phrases....

  13. Focus-on-Form Instructional Methods Promote Deaf College Students' Improvement in English Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Gerald P.; Kelly, Ronald R.; Aldersley, Stephen; Schmitz, Kathryn L.; Khalsa, Baldev Kaur; Panara, John; Keenan, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Focus-on-form English teaching methods are designed to facilitate second-language learners' noticing of target language input, where "noticing" is an acquisitional prerequisite for the comprehension, processing, and eventual integration of new grammatical knowledge. While primarily designed for teaching hearing second-language learners, many…

  14. The Model of Forming Communicative Competence of Students in the Process of Teaching the English Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrutdinova, Rezida A.; Fahrutdinov, Rifat R.; Yusupov, Rinat N.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the topic is specified by the necessity of forming the communicative competence of students in the process of teaching of the English language in the institute of higher education. This article is intended to define interactive methods of teaching foreign language, which are based on interactive conception of interaction between…

  15. Theorising "Sacred" Space in Educational Contexts: A Case Study of Three English Midlands Sixth Form Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Stephen G.

    2009-01-01

    Sixth Form Colleges (along with the general Further Education sector) in England and Wales have of late begun to appoint new chaplains and to set aside space for quiet, prayer and reflection. This article explores this phenomenon as exhibited by three colleges in the English Midlands, utilising spatial theory and the sociology of…

  16. Cerebellum engages in automation of verb-generation skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi; Wu, Paula; Weng, Xuchu; Bandettini, Peter A

    2014-03-01

    Numerous studies have shown cerebellar involvement in item-specific association, a form of explicit learning. However, very few have demonstrated cerebellar participation in automation of non-motor cognitive tasks. Applying fMRI to a repeated verb-generation task, we sought to distinguish cerebellar involvement in learning of item-specific noun-verb association and automation of verb generation skill. The same set of nouns was repeated in six verb-generation blocks so that subjects practiced generating verbs for the nouns. The practice was followed by a novel block with a different set of nouns. The cerebellar vermis (IV/V) and the right cerebellar lobule VI showed decreased activation following practice; activation in the right cerebellar Crus I was significantly lower in the novel challenge than in the initial verb-generation task. Furthermore, activation in this region during well-practiced blocks strongly correlated with improvement of behavioral performance in both the well-practiced and the novel blocks, suggesting its role in the learning of general mental skills not specific to the practiced noun-verb pairs. Therefore, the cerebellum processes both explicit verbal associative learning and automation of cognitive tasks. Different cerebellar regions predominate in this processing: lobule VI during the acquisition of item-specific association, and Crus I during automation of verb-generation skills through practice.

  17. The emergence of grammar: early verbs and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armon-Lotem, Sharon; Berman, Ruth A

    2003-11-01

    The paper examines the first twenty verb-forms recorded for six Hebrew-speaking children aged between 1;2 and 2;1, and how they evolve into fully inflected verbs for three of these children. Discussion focuses first on what word-forms children initially select for the verbs they produce, what role these forms play in children's emergent grammar, and how emergent grammar is reflected in the acquisition of fully inflected forms of verbs. Children's early verb repertoire indicates that they possess a strong basis for moving into the expression of a variety of semantic roles and the syntax of a range of different verb-argument structures. On the other hand, children's initial use of verbs demonstrates that they still need to acquire considerable language-particular grammatical knowledge in order to encode such relations explicitly. This language-particular knowledge demonstrates a clear pattern of acquisition, in which aspect precedes inflectional marking for gender, followed by tense, and then by person.

  18. TONE IN MALAWIAN TONGA VERBS1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most. of the studies on Bantu tonology have shown that the languages which belong to this family have two level tones namely, high and low and that in the majority of cases, particulary in verbs, there is no underlying or lexical contrast between these two tones. Root forms in such languages are either high or low.

  19. The Acquisition of Complex Deverbal Words by a French-English Bilingual Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoladis, Elena

    2005-01-01

    This study explores the acquisition of complex words composed of both verbs and nouns through novel forms produced spontaneously by a French-English bilingual child. Diary recordings were kept by the child's mother from ages 2:8 to 5:0. The results showed little support for a proposed developmental sequence based on cross-sectional data e.g.,…

  20. Challenges of Implementing a Top-Down Curriculum Innovation in English Language Teaching: Perspectives of Form Iii English Language Teachers in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoth, Teresa A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the challenges Form III English language teachers face when implementing the revised integrated English language curriculum. A mixed-method descriptive design was used in Eldoret East SubCounty in Kenya. Data was collected through questionnaires, interviews and reflective conversations. Cluster, purposive and random…

  1. Verb aspect, alternations and quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetla Koeva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Verb aspect, alternations and quantification In this paper we are briefly discuss the nature of Bulgarian verb aspect and argue that the verb aspect pairs are different lexical units with different (although related meaning, different argument structure (reflecting categories, explicitness and referential status of arguments and different sets of semantic and syntactic alternations. The verb prefixes resulting in perfective verbs derivation in some cases can be interpreted as lexical quantifiers as well. Thus the Bulgarian verb aspect is related (in different way both with the potential for the generation of alternations and with the prefixal lexical quantification. It is shown that the scope of the lexical quantification by means of verbal prefixes is the quantified verb phrase and the scope remains constant in all derived alternations. The paper concerns the basic issues of these complex problems, while the detailed description of the conditions satisfying particular alternation or particular lexical quantification are subject of a more detailed study.

  2. Native language influence on the distributive effect in producing second language subject-verb agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoyan; Chen, Baoguo; Liang, Lijuan; Dunlap, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate the distributive effect when producing subject-verb agreement in English as a second language (L2) when the participant's first language either does or does not require subject-verb agreement. Both Chinese-English and Uygur-English bilinguals were included in Experiment 1. Chinese has no required subject-verb agreement, whereas Uygur does. Results showed that the distributive effect was observed in Uygur-English bilinguals but not in Chinese-English bilinguals, indicating that this particular first language (L1) syntactic feature is one significant factor affecting the distributive effect in the production of subject-verb agreement in L2. Experiment 2 further investigated the matter by choosing Chinese-English participants with higher L2 proficiency. Still, no distributive effect was observed, suggesting that the absence of distributive effect in Chinese-English bilinguals in Experiment 1 was not due to low proficiency in the target language. Experiment 3 changed the way the stimuli were presented, highlighting the singular or distributive nature of the subject noun phrases, and the distributive effect was observed in Chinese-English bilinguals. Altogether, the results show that the L1 syntactic feature of subject-verb agreement is one significant factor affecting the distributive effect in the production of subject-verb agreement in L2. More specifically, distributive effects rarely occur in L2 when L1 has no requirement on subject-verb agreement, whereas distributive effects are more likely to occur in L2 when the L1 also has required subject-verb agreement.

  3. Representation of the verb's argument-structure in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assadollahi Ramin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A verb's argument structure defines the number and relationships of participants needed for a complete event. One-argument (intransitive verbs require only a subject to make a complete sentence, while two- and three-argument verbs (transitives and ditransitives normally take direct and indirect objects. Cortical responses to verbs embedded into sentences (correct or with syntactic violations indicate the processing of the verb's argument structure in the human brain. The two experiments of the present study examined whether and how this processing is reflected in distinct spatio-temporal cortical response patterns to isolated verbs and/or verbs presented in minimal context. Results The magnetoencephalogram was recorded while 22 native German-speaking adults saw 130 German verbs, presented one at a time for 150 ms each in experiment 1. Verb-evoked electromagnetic responses at 250 – 300 ms after stimulus onset, analyzed in source space, were higher in the left middle temporal gyrus for verbs that take only one argument, relative to two- and three-argument verbs. In experiment 2, the same verbs (presented in different order were preceded by a proper name specifying the subject of the verb. This produced additional activation between 350 and 450 ms in or near the left inferior frontal gyrus, activity being larger and peaking earlier for one-argument verbs that required no further arguments to form a complete sentence. Conclusion Localization of sources of activity suggests that the activation in temporal and frontal regions varies with the degree by which representations of an event as a part of the verbs' semantics are completed during parsing.

  4. Representation of the verb's argument-structure in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadollahi, Ramin; Rockstroh, Brigitte S

    2008-07-21

    A verb's argument structure defines the number and relationships of participants needed for a complete event. One-argument (intransitive) verbs require only a subject to make a complete sentence, while two- and three-argument verbs (transitives and ditransitives) normally take direct and indirect objects. Cortical responses to verbs embedded into sentences (correct or with syntactic violations) indicate the processing of the verb's argument structure in the human brain. The two experiments of the present study examined whether and how this processing is reflected in distinct spatio-temporal cortical response patterns to isolated verbs and/or verbs presented in minimal context. The magnetoencephalogram was recorded while 22 native German-speaking adults saw 130 German verbs, presented one at a time for 150 ms each in experiment 1. Verb-evoked electromagnetic responses at 250 - 300 ms after stimulus onset, analyzed in source space, were higher in the left middle temporal gyrus for verbs that take only one argument, relative to two- and three-argument verbs. In experiment 2, the same verbs (presented in different order) were preceded by a proper name specifying the subject of the verb. This produced additional activation between 350 and 450 ms in or near the left inferior frontal gyrus, activity being larger and peaking earlier for one-argument verbs that required no further arguments to form a complete sentence. Localization of sources of activity suggests that the activation in temporal and frontal regions varies with the degree by which representations of an event as a part of the verbs' semantics are completed during parsing.

  5. Verb Errors of Bilingual and Monolingual Basic Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Olga

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed the grammatical control of verbs exercised by 145 monolingual English and Generation 1.5 bilingual developmental writers in narrative essays using quantitative and qualitative methods. Generation 1.5 students made more errors than their monolingual peers in each category investigated, albeit in only 2 categories was the…

  6. Variability in the Second Language Acquisition of Verb Morphology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article seeks to make a developmental study of variability in the acquisition of verb morphology by second language (L2) pupils who learn at an English input impoverished school where variability in learner language is often presumed to be quite extensive. By studying variability in such settings, it is hoped that we can ...

  7. Variability in the Second language learners' acquisition of verb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article seeks to make a developmental study of variability in the acquisition of verb morphology by second language (L2) pupils who learn at an English input impoverished school where variability in learner language is often presumed to be quite extensive. By studying variability in such settings, it is hoped that not only ...

  8. Using an Online Dictionary for Identifying the Meanings of Verb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Internet, smart phones and iPads, ways of obtaining information have been ... Lew and Tokarek (2010) also examined the efficiency of entry menus in bilin- ... that the verb phrase is an important element of language learning and usage ...... Phraseology in English Academic Writing: Some Implications for Language Learning.

  9. Cognitive verbs and stance taking in Nigerian jobs and careers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings show that while the expression of cognition through the use of the verb think in the corpus may be similar to what obtains in English as a mother tongue speech context in terms of frequency of occurrence, its syntactic positioning and clusters mirror the patterns typical of some major Nigerian languages.

  10. Los problemas de contenido y de empleo del verbo haber (Problems of Meaning and Use of the Verb "Haber.")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Botero, Luis A.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the derivation, meaning and both past and present uses of the Spanish verb "haber." The verb refers to relationships of possession, duration and existence, and is used as an auxiliary. Extant derivative forms of the verb in other languages and earlier Spanish meanings are noted. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  11. Bare plurals and achievements: a case study of aspectual verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberlei Bertucci

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse in what way Brazilian Portuguese bare plurals affect the aspectual structure of a sentence whose VP is headed by an achievement verb. In order to achieve this goal, we will study the interaction of these VPs composed by achievements with aspectual verbs. We will argue that: a achievements do not have the property of S-cumulativity (Rothstein, 2004, b aspectual verbs select as complements predicates which have the property of S-cumulativity, and c the property of S-cumulativity is the semantic contribution given by bare plurals to the aspectual structure of the sentence. Based on these ideas, we predict that the sentences formed by the combination of an aspectual verb and a VP whose structure is [achievement verb – NP] will be grammatical only if the NP complement of the achievement verb is a bare plural. This is the way by which this constituent will satisfy the selectional constraints imposed by the aspectual verb.

  12. Phrasal Verbs through DDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Azzaro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Two techniques are examined for teaching 10 Phrasal Verbs (PVs to two groups of university students: dictionary presentation and concordance-based Data-Driven Learning (DDL. After checking their prior knowledge, 5 PVs were introduced via DDL, 5 via dictionary entries. The two techniques were compared, as well as the two groups of students, towards an assessment of DDL as a motivating and effective teaching aid. The results show that DDL can be a productive way to teach new lexical items and to consolidate old ones. The difference was statistically significant for the group which was smaller in size, more mature and working with corpus samples on screen rather than on paper. DDL, independently of classroom attendance, was a positive aid, whereas dictionary presentation was detrimental for some of the verbs involved.

  13. Effects of verb-argument cues on verb production in persons with aphasia using a verb-final language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee Eun Sung

    2014-04-01

    PWA showed greater difficulties in producing verbs with more argument structures compared to the normal group. In contrast, PWA presented significantly increased performance on the verb-completion task as the number of verb arguments increased since more cues were provided for 2- or 3-place verbs than 1-place verbs. The current results suggested that the features of more semantic and syntactic units to be activated may induce greater difficulties in retrieving verbs with more arguments, and PWA benefited from the verb-argument cues in verb production.

  14. Effects of relative embodiment in lexical and semantic processing of verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, David M; Kwan, Rachel; Pexman, Penny M; Siakaluk, Paul D

    2014-06-01

    Research examining semantic richness effects in visual word recognition has shown that multiple dimensions of meaning are activated in the process of word recognition (e.g., Yap et al., 2012). This research has, however, been limited to nouns. In the present research we extended the semantic richness approach to verb stimuli in order to investigate how verb meanings are represented. We characterized a dimension of relative embodiment for verbs, based on the bodily sense described by Borghi and Cimatti (2010), and collected ratings on that dimension for 687 English verbs. The relative embodiment ratings revealed that bodily experience was judged to be more important to the meanings of some verbs (e.g., dance, breathe) than to others (e.g., evaporate, expect). We then tested the effects of relative embodiment and imageability on verb processing in lexical decision (Experiment 1), action picture naming (Experiment 2), and syntactic classification (Experiment 3). In all three experiments results showed facilitatory effects of relative embodiment, but not imageability: latencies were faster for relatively more embodied verbs, even after several other lexical variables were controlled. The results suggest that relative embodiment is an important aspect of verb meaning, and that the semantic richness approach holds promise as a strategy for investigating other aspects of verb meaning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Language Analysis : Phrasal Verbs and Phonological Information in ESL Textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    北山, 長貴; Nagaki, Kitayama

    1996-01-01

    Grammatical terms which are used in both linguistics and applied linguistics are usually fixed. Especially the ones used in grammar textbooks for English as a Second Language (E5L) are fixed. However, there is a term which varies from text to text in ESL grammar. It is the term "phrasal verb". This is what I am interested in; why so many different terminologies are used in each textbook. In this paper I would like to clarify the definition of phrasal verbs by mentioning several studies of phr...

  16. Real People Don't Talk Like Books: Teaching Colloquial English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engkent, Lucia Petrusiak

    1986-01-01

    Discusses different characteristics of conversational English, including: pronunciation, ellipsis, use of "you" as a general pronoun, hesitation markers, subject-verb agreement, pronoun agreement, verbs, modifiers, comparisons, euphemisms, idioms, slang, and phatic/ritualistic expressions. (Author/CB)

  17. Verb and Noun Word Retrieval in Bilingual Aphasia: A Case Study of Language- and Modality-Specific Levels of Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambanaros, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the pattern of performance on spoken and written naming, spelling to dictation, and oral reading of single verbs and nouns in a bilingual speaker with aphasia in two first languages that differ in morphological complexity, orthographic transparency, and script: Greek (L1a) and English (L1b). The results reveal no verb/noun…

  18. Functional verbs in Gungbe: The case of inherent complement verbs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aboh, E.O.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional linguistics assumes that verbs are lexical categories that typically merge in the predicate domain of a sentence: VP. This study shows that, in Gungbe (Kwa), a significantly large class of items functioning as verbs heading a VP in a sentence may also serve as functional elements that

  19. NEGATION AFFIXES IN ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Subandowo -

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This research entitled "Negation Affixes in English". This study is aimed to describe the various negation affixes in English, morphological process, morphophonemic and meaning. The research data were taken from various sources of English grammar book, morphology, research journal and the book which relatees to the research. English grammar books used in this study are written by Otto Jesperson, Marcella Frank, Greenbaum and Geoffrey Leech.  The method used in this research is the descriptive-qualitative method. While the data collection techniques are performed by using jot-down method. And the results of analysis are presented in tabular form and descriptive method. The result of the research shows that English has six types of negative affixes which are categorized by the intensity of its appearance, such as dis-, in-, non-, un-, anti- and -less. Based on the function, negation affixes are divided into several categories such as adjectives, nouns, verbs, and adverbs. The morphophonemic affix in- has four allomorphs, they are in-, im-, il- and ir- . While the analysis revealed that negation affixes have some basic meanings, such as ‘not’, ‘without’, and ‘anti’.

  20. PSYCHOLINGUISTIC PECULIARITIES OF FORMING STUDENTS GRAMMAR COMPETENCE IN TEACHING ENGLISH AFTER GERMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Danylenko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on psycholinguistic aspects of forming and developing grammar competence in the process of teaching English as a second non-native language for students, native speakers of Ukrainian, majoring in German. The aim of the investigation is to analyze the psychological and linguistic factors that determine the process of second foreign language acquisition and grammar competence development under the conditions of artificial subordinate trilingualism. The analysis of psycholinguistic studies in the field of second and third language acquisition has been carried out. The concern of our investigation is the process of cross-linguistic influence of Ukrainian, German and English. A general overview of scientific approaches to understanding the models of multilingual interaction has been provided. The problem of dominant language in the process of acquiring another foreign language has been studied. The current research has suggested that the process of acquisition of the second non-native language is predominantly influenced by the first non-native language. It has been determined that cross-linguistic influence results in the phenomena of interference and transfer. Interference is regarded as a negative phenomenon resulting in production of mistakes by students and hindering the process of forming English grammar competence. Transfer is looked upon as a positive phenomenon that facilitates the development of grammar competence in one language on the basis of another. The processes of grammatical interference and transfer in the areas of morphology and syntax have been examined. The issues of preventing the negative influence of interference and facilitating the positive effects of transfer have been explored. Our survey has put forward for consideration the necessity to develop students linguistic awareness and ability to enhance the positive transfer effects. The educational background facilitates reducing the negative effect of

  1. Psychological verbs and the double-dependency hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, A; Campbell, C

    2001-01-01

    The double-dependency hypothesis (DDH, Mauner et al., 1993) holds that where two dependencies of a certain kind are present, comprehension in Broca's aphasia will be random, but that where there is only one dependency, comprehension will be intact. We tested this hypothesis by examining the performance of Broca's aphasics on sentences with psychological verbs of two different classes. One class has an argument structure in which the Experiencer role is assigned to the subject. In the other class, the Experiencer role is assigned to the object. Subject-Experiencer verbs can form verbal passives which have two relevant dependencies, whereas object-Experiencer verbs can form adjectival passives and have only one relevant dependency. Thus these sentence types make contrasting predictions relevant to the DDH. Our results clearly demonstrate that patients understand the adjectival passive psychological verbs, as predicted by the DDH. On the verbal passive psychological verbs, patients perform at chance, again consistent with DDH predictions. These results firmly buttress the DDH account. They also contradict the results of an earlier study (of verbal passive psychological verbs only), a study which we argue is plagued with problems (namely, Grodzinsky, 1995b).

  2. English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2011-01-01

    have been maintained and intensified since then, as African and Indian scholarship demonstrates. Language plays a key role in education, the World Bank taking over where colonial regimes left off. Anglo-American efforts to maintain global English dominance have intensified since 1945 and are central...... to the present-day world ‘order’, as the postcolonial is subsumed under global empire, assisted by English linguistic neoimperialism. Some scholars who deny the existence of linguistic imperialism are reported on, and the complexity of language policy in European integration is demonstrated. The article......The article exemplifies and presents the characteristics of linguistic imperialism, linguistic capital accumulation following the same pattern as capitalist economic dominance. The text summarizes the way English was established in the colonial period. Many of the mechanisms of linguistic hierarchy...

  3. Especulaciones sobre Adjectives and Verbs in English

    OpenAIRE

    Lakoff, Georges

    2015-01-01

    Los escritores en el campo de la literatura generativa de transformaciones han introducido perspectivas completamente nuevas en los estudios lingüísticos al externar dudas que nunca antes habían surgido, y al traer a la opinión pública problemas que no se consideraban de gran interés durante el interludio estructuralista. Por ser el transformasionalismo generativo relativamente nuevo, aun no ha habido tiempo para que en el se atrinchere el dogmatismo, y el campo esta abierto para la especulac...

  4. China English and ELT for English Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingjuan

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a general study of one of varieties of English--China English and its influence on English Language Teaching (ELT) for English majors. The status of English as an International language breaks the situation in which British English or American English is the sole standard. English becomes World Englishes, taking on a plural form,…

  5. Semantic Weight and Verb Retrieval in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barde, Laura H. F.; Schwartz, Myrna F.; Boronat, Consuelo B.

    2006-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic aphasia may have difficulty with verb production in comparison to nouns. Additionally, they may have greater difficulty producing verbs that have fewer semantic components (i.e., are semantically "light") compared to verbs that have greater semantic weight. A connectionist verb-production model proposed by Gordon and…

  6. LEXICAL ANALYSIS OF THE VERB COOK AND LEARNING VOCABULARY: A CORPUS STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyono Priyono

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available English verbs have built-in properties that determine how they behave syntactically and generate appropriate meaning associated. With these inherent properties some verbs can fill in only in certain syntactic structures and some in others. The observation of the verb COOK using English corpus has revealed its lexical properties covering the area of syntax, semantics, and collocation suggesting uniqueness of its behaviours that are distinguishable from other verbs. Having found the lexical properties of COOK, this article concludes that the acquisition of lexicon should include lexical properties that reflect their level of competence. It also argues that the acquisition of lexical properties should be implicit, not through meta-linguistic knowledge. This would render early grammar teaching unnecessary. The acquisition of lexical properties should take place through subconscious process, not explicit grammar instruction. Many of these are grammatical aspects such as word order, sentence construction, grammatical and lexical collocations.

  7. Consuming English: How Mexican Transmigrants form Identities and Construct Symbolic Citizenship through the English-Language Program Ingles Sin Barreras [English without Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Char

    2010-01-01

    "Ingles Sin Barreras" is an English-language program that is highly advertised on Spanish-language television in the United States, to the point that it has become a pop-culture phenomenon. In this article, I argue that few people actually use it to learn English, but instead consume it as a symbol of national belonging. This article…

  8. Sentence structures with the connective verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ružić Vladislava

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper talks about specific sentence structures in contemporary Serbian language that are a transition between simple and complex sentences, since they contain two finite forms of the verbs (e.g. To je da poludiš; Smisao pravde leži u tome da krivci budu kažnjeni, that however are a functionally - semantically unique predicate only when occurring together. At the position of the second part of the predicate phrase, there is a clause with a subordinate conjunction as its semantic core. Some types of the connective verbs are described, which have a specific role to connect subject argument and its related content or to mark the content of the sentence with a specific modality.

  9. Developing a Diagnostic Test of Verbs for Hands-on Craft Workshops

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes and evaluates the development of The Verbs for Craft Test, a small-scale diagnostic instrument to measure knowledge of 50 common imperative verbs found in spoken discourse related to technical instruction requiring the use of one’s hands. Still under development, the test is designed to contribute to a pedagogic approach towards relevant English language learning materials to help train professionals of the Japanese craft industry, especially in the context ...

  10. Forming impressions from English and French first names: is there an in-group effect in Québec?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuvelink, Christine; McKelvie, Stuart; Drumheller, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    Using the Name Connotation Profile, English Canadian and French Canadian university students rated their impressions of people with English or French first names. Both the English and French students formed a more favorable impression of people who had names from their own linguistic group. These results are consistent with social identity theory, according to which people define themselves in part by groups to which they belong, with the contact hypothesis, according to which people feel more positively towards those with whom they have interacted more, and perhaps with the mere exposure effect, according to which liking for an object increases with the frequency with which it is presented.

  11. Toddlers Default to Canonical Surface-to-Meaning Mapping When Learning Verbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautriche, Isabelle; Cristia, Alejandrina; Brusini, Perrine; Yuan, Sylvia; Fisher, Cynthia; Christophe, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has shown that toddlers readily encode each noun in the sentence as a distinct argument of the verb. However, languages allow multiple mappings between form and meaning that do not fit this canonical format. Two experiments examined French 28-month-olds' interpretation of right-dislocated sentences ("noun"-verb,…

  12. Verb-Noun Collocation Proficiency and Academic Years

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Ebrahimi-Bazzaz; Arshad Abd Samad; Ismi Arif bin Ismail; Nooreen Noordin

    2014-01-01

    Generally vocabulary and collocations in particular have significant roles in language proficiency. A collocation includes two words that are frequently joined concurrently in the memory of native speakers. There have been many linguistic studies trying to define, to describe, and to categorise English collocations. It contains grammatical collocations and lexical collocations which include nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverb. In the context of a foreign language environment such as Iran, co...

  13. Endocentric and Exocentric Verb Typology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzen, Iørn

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the so-called Endo- and Exocentric Verb Typology advanced by the Danish research group TYPOlex. The typology is partly based on Talmy’s lexicalization patterns for motion verbs with some elaboration and refinement of the manner–path distinction, and it is generalized to compri...... Talmy’s two semantic components ground and figure and argues that they are far more generalized in Romance (secondary) lexicalization patterns – parasynthetic derivation – than normally assumed.z½...

  14. Social Networking Sites (SNSs- Shifting Paradigm of English Language Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetal K. Kachhia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available English is the globally accepted language in various nations and professions in different varieties, but the English that has acquired a wider spectrum than all these Englishes is the English used in Social Networking Sites which has changed the scenario of English language usage due to the ease in its accessibility and the kind of flexibility of language usage. The English used in Social Networking Sites like Facebook and Twitter has changed the linguistic behaviour of the people by producing a number of acronyms like BFF, FB etc, creating new verb forms like ‘to tweet’ or nouns like ‘tweeple’ or producing many compound nouns such as ‘netiquette’, changing the meaning of traditional verbs and nouns by introducing new meanings to them, e.g. the word ‘friend’ is used to refer “someone to an online list of acquaintances”, and by making use of prefixes like ‘un’ for the purpose of conveying the meaning of negation as in ‘unlike a comment/update’ by ignoring its original prefix ‘dis’ for referring the antonym of ‘like’. By emphasizing on the aim of communication, grammar and vocabulary are put on the peripheral value in Social Networking Sites. Therefore, the focal point of this paper is to study the changes in the linguistic behaviour of the people caused by the SNSs.

  15. E-CONTENT AS THE MEANS OF FORMING METHODOLOGY COMPETENCE OF PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS OF ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Iaburova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article depicts the questions of using e-content as the means of forming methodology competence of primary school teachers of English and underlines that Information-communication technologies have become an integral part of modern society life in the XXI century. It is also pointed out the main reasons of using ICT technologies at the lessons of English at primary school. Pupils grow up along with the development of modern information technologies which become a natural and constituent part of their life, for them using Internet-resources is the way to combine real-life situations with learning activity. Internet-lessons give new opportunities for using authentic learning materials, allow to connect geographically distant groups and involve them into the mutual activity, and provide new ways for conversational practice and assessing results, gives students practical experience in all four kinds of language activity: speaking, listening, reading and writing. The author offers a couple of options for creating online materials which cover a wide variety of formats and storage options and give primary school teachers an idea of the kinds of things that can be produced with very little technical knowledge. Ones of the most popular are the Discovery School Puzzlemaker (http: // puzzlemaker.school.discovery.com/ and Smile (http:// smile.clear.msu.edu which are ideal tools for reviewing vocabulary, expanding lists of synonyms and antonyms, activating paraphrasing skills and using word definitions. The most famous authoring tools of developing e-content are Hot Potatoes and Kahoot.com. These are small Windows or Mac programmes that create web-based exercises of the following types: multiple choice, short answer, jumbled sentence, crossword, matching/ordering, gap-filling. According to the author’s experience, implementing electronic materials into the structure of the English lesson in primary school considerably increases young

  16. Certain Verbs Are Syntactically Explicit Quantifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szabolcsi

    2010-12-01

    Form: Its Structure and Derivation. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Montague, R. 1974. ‘The proper treatment of quantification in ordinary English’. In R. Thomason (ed. ‘Formal Philosophy: Selected Papers of Richard Montague’, 247–271. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.Nchare, A. L. 2011. The Grammar of Shupamem. Ph.D. thesis, New York University.Partee, B. 1973. ‘Some structural analogies between tenses and pronouns in English’. The Journal of Philosophy 70, no. 18: 601–609.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2025024Percus, O. 2000. ‘Constraints on Some Other Variables in Syntax’. Natural Language Semantics 8, no. 3: 173–229.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1011298526791Percus, O. & Sauerland, U. 2003. ‘On the LFs of attitude reports’. In Proceedings of Sinn und Bedeutung.Perlmutter, D. 1970. ‘The two verbs begin’. In R. Thomason (ed. ‘Readings in English Transformational Grammar’, 107–119. Waltham, MA: Blaisdell.Polinsky, M. 2008. ‘Real And Apparent Long-distance Agreement In Subject-to-subject Raising Constructions’. Lecture at the Annual Meeting of the German Linguistic Society, Bamberg.Quine, W. V. O. 1960. ‘Variables explained away’. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 104: 343–347.Schlenker, P. 1999. Propositional Attitudes and Indexicality (A Cross-Linguistic Approach. Ph.D. thesis, MIT.Schlenker, P. 2004. ‘Sequence phenomena and double access readings generalized’. In J. Lacarme & J. Guéron (eds. ‘The Syntax of Time’, 555–597. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Schlenker, P. 2006. ‘Ontological symmetry in language’. Mind and Language 21: 504–539.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0017.2006.00288.xStechow, A. von. 2004. ‘Binding by verbs: tense, person, and mood under attitudes’. In H. Lohnstein & S. Trissler (eds. ‘The Syntax and Semantics of the Left Periphery’, 431–488. Berlin: de Gruyter.Stechow, A. von. 2008. ‘Tenses, Modals, and Attitudes as Verbal Quantifiers’. Ms., ESSLLI Hamburg

  17. THE PROCESS OF FORMING OF ENGLISH-LANGUAGE LEXICAL COMPETENCE OF FUTURE SPECIALISTS IN TOURISM BASED ON LEARNING STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ірина Потюк

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Peculiarities of mastering the English-language lexical competence in unlinguistic educational establishment, which appears an integral component of professionally directed communicative competence of the student, provides future specialists’ knowledge with professional vocabulary and forms ability to recognize and understand it with the help of learning strategies, have been analyzed in the article. The theoretical aspects of research, the basic methodical aspects of forming the English-language lexical competence and results of the verification of efficiency of the offered methodology have been highlighted and characterized by the author.

  18. Syntactic generalization with novel intransitive verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Melissa; Demuth, Katherine

    2014-05-01

    To understand how children develop adult argument structure, we must understand the nature of syntactic and semantic representations during development. The present studies compare the performance of children aged 2;6 on the two intransitive alternations in English: patient (Daddy is cooking the food/The food is cooking) and agent (Daddy is cooking). Children displayed abstract knowledge of both alternations, producing appropriate syntactic generalizations with novel verbs. These generalizations were adult-like in both flexibility and constraint. Rather than limiting their generalizations to lexicalized frames, children produced sentences with a variety of nouns and pronouns. They also avoided semantic overgeneralizations, producing intransitive sentences that respected the event restrictions and animacy cues. Some generated semantically appropriate agent intransitives when discourse pressure favored patient intransitives, indicating a stronger command of the first alternation. This was in line with frequency distributions in child-directed speech. These findings suggest that children have early access to representations that permit flexible argument structure generalization.

  19. A Review on Studies of Phrasal Verb Constructions in ESL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jahedi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to give an overview of studies on phrasal verbs in three decades to present the theoretical and methodological issues, as well as the findings of research. Moreover, this review reveals the developments and paradigm shifts occurred in this area. Previous studies have shown that the research findings have not been incorporated into classroom activities and English Language Teaching (ELT materials. The paper claims that the number of research on the use of phrasal verbs in ESL textbooks is limited and, therefore, further research is needed to examine how phrasal verbs are treated in textbooks in order to help ELT materials developers to present these items more effectively based on research findings. Keywords: Corpus-based studies, ESL learner, Phrasal verbs

  20. Investigating Thematic Roles through Implicit Learning: Evidence from Light Verb Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wittenberg

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The syntactic structure of a sentence is usually a strong predictor of its meaning: Each argument noun phrase (i.e., Subject and Object should map onto exactly one thematic role (i.e., Agent and Patient, respectively. Some constructions, however, are exceptions to this pattern. This paper investigates how the syntactic structure of an utterance contributes to its construal, using ditransitive English light verb constructions, such as “Nils gave a hug to his brother,” as an example of such mismatches: Hugging is a two-role event, but the ditransitive syntactic structure suggests a three-role event. Data from an eye-tracking experiment and behavioral categorization data reveal that listeners learn to categorize sentences according to the number of thematic roles they convey, independent of their syntax. Light verb constructions, however, seem to form a category of their own, in which the syntactic structure leads listeners down an initial incorrect assignment of thematic roles, from which they only partly recover. These results suggest an automatic influence of syntactic argument structure on semantic interpretation and event construal, even in highly frequent constructions.

  1. Washington English Language Proficiency Assessment (WELPA). Form C 2015. Interpretation Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The "Washington English Language Proficiency Assessment" (WELPA) is a No Child Left Behind (NCLB)-compliant instrument that is used in Grades K-12 as a formal and standardized method of measuring language proficiency. The test results provide important information for classifying English Language Learners (ELLs) and subsequently for…

  2. Attention to Orthographic and Phonological Word Forms in Vocabulary Instruction for Kindergarten English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadasy, Patricia F.; Sanders, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined benefits of connecting meaning, speech, and print in vocabulary learning for kindergarten English learners. Students screened eligible with limited English proficiency were randomly assigned to two instruction conditions. Both groups received direct instruction in high frequency root words. One condition featured added…

  3. Teachers' Evaluation of KBSM Form 4, 5 English Textbooks Used in the Secondary Schools in Penang, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Hooi Shyan; Knight, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This is an exploratory study of the suitability of Form 4, 5 KBSM English textbooks used in Penang public secondary schools, Malaysia. It aims to investigate the relevance of the current textbooks to the needs of learners and the requirement of public examinations. A checklist is used to gauge teachers' viewpoints while subsequent interview…

  4. Translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the English "Short form SF 12v2" into Bengali in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, Nazrul; Khan, Ikramul Hasan; Ferdous, Nira; Rasker, Johannes J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: To develop a culturally adapted and validated Bengali Short Form SF 12v2 among Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Methods: The English SF 12v2 was translated, adapted and back translated into and from Bengali, pre-tested by 60 patients. The Bengali SF 12v2 was administered twice with 14

  5. GENERATIVE WORDS OF ALBANIAN AND ENGLISH SENTENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Shkelqim Millaku

    2017-01-01

    This studies or the aim of the research is to deals the generative “morphems, words or “simple or compound[1]” sentence. The full congrast of Albanian and English language in this phenomena of generative is in morphology and in syntactic structure. This accepts of studies will comparted, contrasted and generated between two languages. This studies deals with noun (noun phrase), verb (verb phrase) of syntactic structure between Albanian and English language. In both of languages, most linguis...

  6. Force Dynamics of Verb Complementation

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    Jacek Woźny

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Force Dynamics of Verb Complementation The concepts of motion and force are both extensively discussed in cognitive linguistics literature. But they are discussed separately. The first usually in the context of ‘motion situations’ (Talmy, Slobin, Zlatev, the other as part of the Force Dynamics framework, which was developed by Talmy. The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to argue that the concepts of force and motion should not be isolated but considered as two inseparable parts of force-motion events. The second goal is to prove that the modified Force Dynamics (force-motion framework can be used for precise characterization of the verb complementation patterns. To this end, a random sample of 50 sentences containing the verb ‘went’ is analyzed, demonstrating the differences between the categories of intensive and intransitive complementation with respect to the linguistically coded parameters of force and motion.

  7. Variability, Negative Evidence, and the Acquisition of Verb Argument Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfors, Amy; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.; Wonnacott, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    We present a hierarchical Bayesian framework for modeling the acquisition of verb argument constructions. It embodies a domain-general approach to learning higher-level knowledge in the form of inductive constraints (or overhypotheses), and has been used to explain other aspects of language development such as the shape bias in learning object…

  8. Particles and Prefixes in English and Serbian

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    Nataša Milivojević

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to, by means of contrastive analysis, prove that particles belonging to phrasal verbs in English are in their linguistic essence equivalent to Serbian perfective verbal prefixes. This hypothesis has been backed up by a brief study based on 40 translation equivalents, which has shown that phrasal verb particles in English and perfective prefixes in Serbian are both markers of telic aktionsart on the lexical level of the verb. Also, the particles and the prefixes alike affect the ‘aspectual use’ of verbs in their respective languages: while the particles in English do not block their use with the progressive, the prefixes in Serbian block their use with imperfective aspect. Both semantically and grammatically, the appropriate solution for translating the English progressive of phrasal verbs into Serbian is modal aorist of Serbian perfective verbs. On the lexical and grammatical level alike, Serbian and English seem to have a convergent relationship, hence there exists a contrast between Serbian and English, the analyzed language elements are also similar with respect to distribution and equivalent with respect to meaning.

  9. Verb-Noun Collocation Proficiency and Academic Years

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    Fatemeh Ebrahimi-Bazzaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally vocabulary and collocations in particular have significant roles in language proficiency. A collocation includes two words that are frequently joined concurrently in the memory of native speakers. There have been many linguistic studies trying to define, to describe, and to categorise English collocations. It contains grammatical collocations and lexical collocations which include nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverb. In the context of a foreign language environment such as Iran, collocational proficiency can be useful because it helps the students improve their language proficiency. This paper investigates the possible relationship between verb-noun collocation proficiency among students from one academic year to the next. To reach this goal, a test of verb-noun collocations was administered to Iranian learners. The participants in the study were 212 Iranian students in an Iranian university. They were selected from the second term of freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior years. The students’ age ranged from 18 to 35.The results of ANOVA showed there was variability in the verb-noun collocations proficiency within each academic year and between the four academic years. The results of a post hoc multiple comparison tests demonstrated that the means are significantly different between the first year and the third and fourth years, and between the third and the fourth academic year; however, students require at least two years to show significant development in verb-noun collocation proficiency. These findings provided a vital implication that lexical collocations are learnt and developed through four academic years of university, but requires at least two years showing significant development in the language proficiency.

  10. Cues and economy in the acquisition of verb movement

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    Kristine Bentzen

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will discuss how economy principles interact with cues in the input in bilingual first language acquisition. We will look at the acquisition of verb placement in a child acquiring English and Norwegian simultaneously. Based on data from this child, it will be argued that when faced with ambiguous cues with respect to the verb movement parameter, children do not necessarily adopt the default, less marked setting. Rather, they may opt for a setting which yields an overall consistent grammar, even when this grammar contains operations that are more costly than those used in the target language. We will suggest that economy in acquisition may involve consistency in a grammar in correlation with economy in the more traditional sense within minimalism, where moving an element in general is considered more costly than not moving it (Chomsky 1995.

  11. Verbs Taking Clausal and Non-Finite Arguments as Signals of Modality - Revisiting the Issue of Meaning Grounded in Syntax

    OpenAIRE

    Eckle-Kohler, Judith

    2015-01-01

    We revisit Levin's theory about the correspondence of verb meaning and syntax and infer semantic classes from a large syntactic classification of more than 600 German verbs taking clausal and non-finite arguments. Grasping the meaning components of Levin-classes is known to be hard. We address this challenge by setting up a multi-perspective semantic characterization of the inferred classes. To this end, we link the inferred classes and their English translation to independently constructed s...

  12. The argument expression of change-of-state verbs and pseudo-transitive verbs

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    Eva Kardos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normál táblázat"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} In this paper, I aim to explore the argument realization properties of change-of-state verbs and those of pseudo-transitives. I pursue this by (1 providing an overview of two approaches towards the representation of argument structure and event structure information and (2 applying them to English and Hungarian change-of-state verbs and pseudo-transitives. In the end, although I acknowledge the merits of both models, I would like to emphasize the descriptive power of the second model with regard to my Hungarian data.

  13. The influence of the Pinyin and Zhuyin writing systems on the acquisition of Mandarin word forms by native English speakers

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    Rachel eHayes-Harb

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of written input in second language (L2 phonological and lexical acquisition has received increased attention in recent years. Here we investigated the influence of two factors that may moderate the influence of orthography on L2 word form learning: (i whether the writing system is shared by the native language and the L2, and (ii if the writing system is shared, whether the relevant grapheme-phoneme correspondences are also shared. The acquisition of Mandarin via the Pinyin and Zhuyin writing systems provides an ecologically valid opportunity to explore these factors. We first asked whether there is a difference in native English speakers’ ability to learn Pinyin and Zhuyin grapheme-phoneme correspondences. In Experiment 1, native English speakers assigned to either Pinyin or Zhuyin groups were exposed to Mandarin words belonging to one of two conditions: in the ‘congruent’ condition, the Pinyin forms are possible English spellings for the auditory words (e.g., for [nai]; in the ‘incongruent’ condition, the Pinyin forms involve a familiar grapheme representing a novel phoneme (e.g., for [ɕiou]. At test, participants were asked to indicate whether auditory and written forms matched; in the crucial trials, the written forms from training (e.g., 'xiu' were paired with possible English pronunciations of the Pinyin written forms (e.g., [ziou]. Experiment 2 was identical to Experiment 1 except that participants additionally saw pictures depicting word meanings during the exposure phase, and at test were asked to match auditory forms with the pictures. In both experiments the Zhuyin group outperformed the Pinyin group due to the Pinyin group’s difficulty with ‘incongruent’ items. A third experiment confirmed that the groups did not differ in their ability to perceptually distinguish the relevant Mandarin consonants (e.g., [ɕ] from the foils (e.g., [z], suggesting that the findings of Experiments 1 and 2 can be attributed to

  14. "When Stones Falls": A Conceptual-Functional Account of Subject-Verb Agreement in Persian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifian, Farzad; Lotfi, Ahmad R.

    2007-01-01

    Most linguistic studies of subject-verb agreement have thus far attempted to account for this phenomenon in terms of either syntax or semantics. Kim (2004) [Kim, J., 2004. Hybrid agreement in English. Linguistics 42 (6), 1105-1128] proposes a "hybrid analysis", which allows for a morphosyntactic agreement and a semantic agreement within the same…

  15. Passives and the loss of verb second: A study of syntactic and information-structural factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreschler, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    During the fourteenth and fifteenth century, the English language went through two quite remarkable changes: it lost the verb-second (V2) system that is characteristic of many Germanic languages, and it saw the introduction of three cross-linguistically rare passives. This thesis investigates

  16. Second Language Learner Knowledge of Verb-Argument Constructions: Effects of Language Transfer and Typology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römer, Ute; O'Donnell, Matthew Brook; Ellis, Nick C.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines second language (L2) learner knowledge of English verb-argument constructions (VACs), for example, the "V 'against' n" construction. It investigates to what extent constructions underpin L2 learners' linguistic competence, how VAC mental representations in native speakers and learners differ, and…

  17. Universal and Language-Specific Patterns in the Acquisition of Verb Argument Structures in German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leischner, Franziska N.; Weissenborn, Jürgen; Naigles, Letitia R.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of universal and language-specific morpho-syntactic properties (i.e., flexible word order, case) on the acquisition of verb argument structures in German compared with English. To this end, 65 three- to nine-year-old German learning children and adults were asked to act out grammatical ("The sheep…

  18. Verb Argument Structure Acquisition in Young Children: Defining a Role for Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naigles, Letitia R.; Maltempo, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Two-, three- and four-year-old English learners enacted sentences that were missing a direct object (e.g. *The zebra brings.). Previous work has indicated that preschoolers faced with such ungrammatical sentences consistently alter the usual meaning of the verb to fit the syntactic frame (enacting "zebra comes"); older children are more likely to…

  19. Imageability Predicts the Age of Acquisition of Verbs in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weiyi; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; McDonough, Colleen; Tardif, Twila

    2009-01-01

    Verbs are harder to learn than nouns in English and in many other languages, but are relatively easy to learn in Chinese. This paper evaluates one potential explanation for these findings by examining the construct of imageability, or the ability of a word to produce a mental image. Chinese adults rated the imageability of Chinese words from the…

  20. New inventory for measurement of parental rearing patterns. An English form of the EMBU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M W; Campbell, R L; Clayer, J R

    1982-12-01

    Despite the importance of measurement of parental rearing patterns in psychiatric research, there are almost no acceptable standardised inventories available. An English-language version of the Swedish EMBU Inventory is presented, which has subscales measuring the degree to which each parent was abusive, depriving, punitive, shaming, rejecting, overprotective, overinvolved, tolerant, affectionate, performance-oriented, guilt-engendering, stimulating, favoured siblings, and favoured the subject. Results indicate high and comparable reliability and item-factor structure. It would appear that the EMBU has both cross-cultural reliability and stable structure in the English translation.

  1. Diversity Matters: Parent Input Predicts Toddler Verb Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ning; Hadley, Pamela A.; Rispoli, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of parent input to children's subsequent expressive verb diversity was explored in twenty typically developing toddlers with small verb lexicons. Child developmental factors and parent input measures (i.e. verb quantity, verb diversity, and verb-related structural cues) at age 1;9 were examined as potential predictors of…

  2. Neural correlates of verb argument structure processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cynthia K; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Fix, Stephen C; Blumenfeld, Henrike K; Parrish, Todd B; Gitelman, Darren R; Mesulam, M-Marsel

    2007-11-01

    Neuroimaging and lesion studies suggest that processing of word classes, such as verbs and nouns, is associated with distinct neural mechanisms. Such studies also suggest that subcategories within these broad word class categories are differentially processed in the brain. Within the class of verbs, argument structure provides one linguistic dimension that distinguishes among verb exemplars, with some requiring more complex argument structure entries than others. This study examined the neural instantiation of verbs by argument structure complexity: one-, two-, and three-argument verbs. Stimuli of each type, along with nouns and pseudowords, were presented for lexical decision using an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging design. Results for 14 young normal participants indicated largely overlapping activation maps for verbs and nouns, with no areas of significant activation for verbs compared to nouns, or vice versa. Pseudowords also engaged neural tissue overlapping with that for both word classes, with more widespread activation noted in visual, motor, and peri-sylvian regions. Examination of verbs by argument structure revealed activation of the supramarginal and angular gyri, limited to the left hemisphere only when verbs with two obligatory arguments were compared to verbs with a single argument. However, bilateral activation was noted when both two- and three-argument verbs were compared to one-argument verbs. These findings suggest that posterior peri-sylvian regions are engaged for processing argument structure information associated with verbs, with increasing neural tissue in the inferior parietal region associated with increasing argument structure complexity. These findings are consistent with processing accounts, which suggest that these regions are crucial for semantic integration.

  3. Age of Acquisition Effects in Chinese EFL learners’ Delexicalized Verb and Collocation Acquisition

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    Miao Haiyan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates age of acquisition (AoA effects and the acquisition of delexicalized verbs and collocations in Chinese EFL learners, and explores the underlying reasons from the connectionist model for these learners’ acquisition characteristics. The data were collected through a translation test consisted of delexialized verb information section and English-Chinese and Chinese-English collocation parts, aiming to focus on Chinese EFL learners’ receptive and productive abilities respectively. As Chinese EFL is a nationally classroom-based practice beginning from early primary school, the pedagogical value and different phases of acquisition are thus taken into consideration in designing the translation test. Research results show that the effects of AoA are significant not only in the learners’ acquisition of individual delexicalized verbs but also in delexicalized collocations. Although learners have long begun to learn delexicalized verbs, their production indicates that early learning does not guarantee total acquisition, because their grasp of delexicalized verbs still stay at the senior middle school level. AoA effects significantly affect the recognition but not the production of collocations. Furthermore, a plateau effect occurs in learners’ acquisition of college-level delexicalized collocations, as their recognition and production have no processing advantages over earlier learned collocations.

  4. Word order and finiteness in Dutch and English Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaanse, R

    The effect of two linguistic factors in Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia was examined using Dutch and English subjects. Three tasks were used to test (1) the comprehension and (2) the construction of sentences, where verbs (in Dutch) and verb arguments (in Dutch and English) are in canonical versus

  5. Influencing the parents of children aged 9-13 years: findings from the VERB campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Simani M; Huhman, Marian; Potter, Lance D

    2008-06-01

    The CDC's VERB campaign was designed to increase physical activity among children aged 9-13 years (tweens). As part of the strategy to surround tweens with support to be physically active, VERB developed messages for parents, the secondary target audience, to encourage them to support their tween's physical activity. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine whether parent awareness of VERB was a significant predictor of seven factors that related to parental attitudes, beliefs, and supportive behaviors for tweens' physical activity using the Youth Media Campaign Longitudinal Survey (YMCLS). Parents (N=1946) of U.S. children aged 9-13 years. Advertising directed at tweens through paid television, radio, print, Internet, and schools was the primary VERB intervention; tween advertising could have been also seen by parents. Messages directed at parents encouraging their support of tweens' physical activity were delivered in English through mainly print and radio. In-language messages for Latino and Asian audiences were delivered through print, radio, television, and at events. Parents' awareness of VERB; parents' attitudes, beliefs, and support for their tweens' physical activities. Awareness increased each year of the campaign; more than 50% of parents were aware of VERB by the third year of the campaign. Parents reported that their main source of awareness was television, the main channel used to reach tweens. Awareness of VERB was predictive of positive attitudes about physical activity for all children, belief in the importance of physical activity for their own child, and the number of days parents were physically active with their child. Parents' awareness of VERB was associated with positive attitudes, beliefs, and behavior. Parents' awareness probably resulted from a combination of messages directed to parents and tweens. To maximize audience reach, social marketers who are developing health messages should consider the potential value of

  6. Teaching Grammar to Adult English Language Learners: Focus on Form. CAELA Network Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup Rodriguez, Amber

    2009-01-01

    Many adult English language learners place a high value on learning grammar. Perceiving a link between grammatical accuracy and effective communication, they associate excellent grammar with opportunities for employment and promotion, the attainment of educational goals, and social acceptance by native speakers. Reflecting the disagreement that…

  7. The Instructed Learning of Form-Function Mappings in the English Article System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Helen; MacWhinney, Brian

    2018-01-01

    This article analyzes the instructed learning of the English article system by second language (L2) learners. The Competition Model (MacWhinney, 1987, 2012) was adopted as the theoretical framework for analyzing the cues to article usage and for designing effective computer-based article instruction. Study 1 found that article cues followed a…

  8. The Present and Past Participles in the Medieval English Translations of St. John’s Gospel from Latin

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    Lidija Štrmelj

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present participle and past participle, together with the infinitive, have a long history in English; this is quite contrary to finite verb forms, which mostly developed during the Middle English period. Participles were already in use in the earliest stages of the language and performed functions similar to those of the present active participle and perfect passive participle in Latin. Therefore, one may assume that Latin participles are rendered into Old English and Middle English mostly by means of their English equivalents. It appears, however, that this was not the case. The data provided in our research lead us to the conclusion that the implementation of participles in English was rather difficult and slow, at least when it comes to the Gospel translations. This paper shows what was used instead – for example, various types of clauses; it also shows the reasons for this (such as ambiguity hidden sometimes in participles.

  9. Subject-verb number (disagreement

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    Daniela Isac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses cases of number mismatches between subjects and verbs. The main proposal is that subject-verb agreement is not in number but in a different feature, that we call Cardinality. Cardinality is a feature of DPs that is computed on the basis of number features and collectivity features carried by various heads in the DP. The “computation” of the Cardinality feature proceeds internal to the feature matrix of one lexical item - the D. The values of the number and collectivity features carried by various heads in the DP are transferred to the D by means of a feature checking mechanism and the value of the Cardinality feature is then derived from these.

  10. How textbooks (and learners get it wrong: A corpus study of modal auxiliary verbs

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    Hayo Reinders

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Many elements contribute to the relative difficulty in acquiring specific aspects of English as a foreign language (Goldschneider & DeKeyser, 2001. Modal auxiliary verbs (e.g. could, might, are examples of a structure that is difficult for many learners. Not only are they particularly complex semantically, but especially in the Malaysian context reported on in this paper, there is no direct equivalent in the students’ L1. In other words, they are a good example of a structure for which successful acquisition depends very much on the quality of the input and instruction students receive. This paper reports on analysis of a 230,000 word corpus of Malaysian English textbooks, in which it was found that the relative frequency of the modals did not match that found in native speaker corpora such as the BNC. We compared the textbook corpus with a learner corpus of Malaysian form 4 learners and found no direct relationship between frequency of presentation of target forms in the textbooks and their use by students in their writing. We also found a very large percentage of errors in students’ writing. We suggest a number of possible reasons for these findings and discuss the implications for materials developers and teachers.

  11. Acquisition and evaluation of verb subcategorization resources for biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimell, Laura; Lippincott, Thomas; Verspoor, Karin; Johnson, Helen L; Korhonen, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Biomedical natural language processing (NLP) applications that have access to detailed resources about the linguistic characteristics of biomedical language demonstrate improved performance on tasks such as relation extraction and syntactic or semantic parsing. Such applications are important for transforming the growing unstructured information buried in the biomedical literature into structured, actionable information. In this paper, we address the creation of linguistic resources that capture how individual biomedical verbs behave. We specifically consider verb subcategorization, or the tendency of verbs to "select" co-occurrence with particular phrase types, which influences the interpretation of verbs and identification of verbal arguments in context. There are currently a limited number of biomedical resources containing information about subcategorization frames (SCFs), and these are the result of either labor-intensive manual collation, or automatic methods that use tools adapted to a single biomedical subdomain. Either method may result in resources that lack coverage. Moreover, the quality of existing verb SCF resources for biomedicine is unknown, due to a lack of available gold standards for evaluation. This paper presents three new resources related to verb subcategorization frames in biomedicine, and four experiments making use of the new resources. We present the first biomedical SCF gold standards, capturing two different but widely-used definitions of subcategorization, and a new SCF lexicon, BioCat, covering a large number of biomedical sub-domains. We evaluate the SCF acquisition methodologies for BioCat with respect to the gold standards, and compare the results with the accuracy of the only previously existing automatically-acquired SCF lexicon for biomedicine, the BioLexicon. Our results show that the BioLexicon has greater precision while BioCat has better coverage of SCFs. Finally, we explore the definition of subcategorization using these

  12. Clause structure and verb series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aboh, E.O.

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that in V1-XP-V2 and V1-V2-XP series, V1 merges in the functional domain of the lexical verb (V2). V2 introduces the (internal) argument and is embedded under an AspP whose head is endowed with an EPP feature. Surface word order variations in Kwa (and Khoisan) result from the EPP

  13. Neural Correlates of Verb Argument Structure Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Fix, Stephen C.; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Parrish, Todd B.; Gitelman, Darren R.; Mesulam, M.-Marsel

    2007-01-01

    Neuroimaging and lesion studies suggest that processing of word classes, such as verbs and nouns, is associated with distinct neural mechanisms. Such studies also suggest that subcategories within these broad word class categories are differentially processed in the brain. Within the class of verbs, argument structure provides one linguistic dimension that distinguishes among verb exemplars, with some requiring more complex argument structure entries than others. This study examined the neura...

  14. A protocol for psych verbs

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    Giuliana Giusti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available So-called psychological verbs such as Italian temere ‘fear’, preoccupare ‘worry’, and piacere ‘like’ present an extremely varied argument structure across languages, that arranges these two roles in apparently opposite hierarchies and assigns them different grammatical functions (subject, direct, indirect and prepositional objects. This paper wants to provide a descriptively adequate classification of such verbs in Latin and Italian to serve future analyses irrespective of their theoretical persuasion. We individuate six classes in Italian and seven classes in Latin, which comply with Belletti and Rizzi’s (1988 original analysis of psych verbs and focus on the three less studied classes, namely unaccusatives, unergatives and impersonals. We show that diachronic variation and apparent intra-language idiosyncrasies are due to the fact that these classes are universally available to all psych roots. The presentation is set in a protocol fashion in the sense of Giusti and Zegrean (2015 and Di Caro and Giusti (2015.

  15. θ-structures of Mandarin Resultative Verb Compounds

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    Li, Fengqi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandarin Resultative Verb Compounds, different from any simplex words, have complicated θ-structures, since both the verb (Vcaus and its complement (Cres have the capacity of assigning their own thematic roles. The thematic roles assigned by Vcaus form the θ-structure’s main structure, and those assigned by Cres form the embedded structure. Sometimes an entity plays a role in the main structure, and at the same time plays a role in the embedded structure. If the two roles are identical, they are “coindexed”; if they are different, they form a composite role. RVC’s θ-structure is further compounded when ambiguity occurs and when causation is taken into consideration. The ambiguity of RVCs can be attributed to the different combination of thematic roles. As for causation, the two causative roles, causer and cause, can be assigned to thematic roles according to certain constraints.

  16. English Grammar For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Lesley J

    2009-01-01

    If you're confused by commas, perplexed by pronouns, and plain terrified by tenses, English Grammar For Dummies will put your fears to rest. Packed with expert guidance, it covers everything from sentence basics to rules even your English teacher didn't know - if you want to brush up on your grammar, this is the only guide you'll ever need. Discover how to: avoid common grammatical errors; get to grips with apostrophes; structure sentences correctly; use verbs and find the right tense; and decide when to use slang or formal English.  

  17. German causative events with placement verbs

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    De Knop Sabine

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have described the semantic uses of German posture verbs, but only few have dealt with German placement verbs. The present study wants to make up for this gap. Starting from a collection of examples from the core corpora of the Digitales Wörterbuch der Deutschen Sprache (DWDS and some former studies on posture verbs, it first describes the variety of the most common German placement verbs stellen (‘to put upright’, legen (‘to lay down’, setzen (‘to set’ and stecken (‘to stick’.

  18. Some remarks on Romanian reflexive verbs derived by the prefix "în"

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    Veronica Tomescu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses a small group of Romanian reflexive verbs, denominals derived by means of the prefix în, as well as a group of transitive verbs which are reflexivized. Their behaviour will be briefly considered. A search on the Internet has also been made alongside the dictionary study in order to gain an insight into the frequency of use of certain forms.

  19. The Effects of Verb Argument Complexity on Verb Production in Persons with Aphasia: Evidence from a Subject-Object-Verb Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jee Eun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of verb argument complexity on verb production in individuals with aphasia using a verb-final language. The verb-argument complexity was examined by the number of arguments (1-, 2-, and 3-place) and the types of arguments (unaccusative vs. unergative comparisons). Fifteen Korean-speaking…

  20. The fox and the cabra: an ERP analysis of reading code switched nouns and verbs in bilingual short stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shukhan; Gonzalez, Christian; Wicha, Nicole Y Y

    2014-04-04

    Comprehending a language (or code) switch within a sentence context triggers 2 electrophysiological signatures: an early left anterior negativity post code switch onset - a LAN - followed by a Late Positive Component (LPC). Word class and word position modulate lexico-semantic processes in the monolingual brain, e.g., larger N400 amplitude for nouns than verbs and for earlier than later words in the sentence. Here we test whether the bilingual brain is affected by word class and word position when code switching, or if the cost of switching overrides these lexico-semantic and sentence context factors. Adult bilinguals read short stories in English containing 8 target words. Targets were nouns or verbs, occurred early or late in a story and were presented alternately in English (non-switch) or Spanish (switch) across different story versions. Overall, switched words elicited larger LAN and LPC amplitude than non-switched words. The N400 amplitude was larger for nouns than verbs, more focal for switches than non-switches, and for early than late nouns but not for early than late verbs. Moreover, an early LPC effect was observed only for switched nouns, but not verbs. Together, this indicates that referential elements (nouns) may be harder to process and integrate than relational elements (verbs) in discourse, and when switched, nouns incur higher integration cost. Word position did not modulate the code switching effects, implying that switching between languages may invoke discourse independent processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Teachers’ Evaluation of KBSM Form 4, 5 English Textbooks Used in the Secondary Schools in Penang, Malaysia

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    Hooi Shyan Khoo

    2015-08-01

    Keywords: KBSM - Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Menengah (The Integrated Secondary School Curriculum, SPM - Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (High School Certificate, ESL - English as a Second Language, EFL - English as a Foreign Language, ELT - English Language Teaching

  2. CzEngClass – Towards a Lexicon of Verb Synonyms with Valency Linked to Semantic Roles

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    Urešová Zdeňka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce our ongoing project about synonymy in bilingual context. This project aims at exploring semantic ‘equivalence’ of verb senses of generally different verbal lexemes in a bilingual (Czech-English setting. Specifically, it focuses on their valency behavior within such equivalence groups. We believe that using bilingual context (translation as an important factor in the delimitation of classes of synonymous lexical units (verbs, in our case may help to specify the verb senses, also with regard to the (semantic roles relation to other verb senses and roles of their arguments more precisely than when using monolingual corpora. In our project, we work “bottom-up”, i.e., from an evidence as recorded in our corpora and not “top-down”, from a predefined set of semantic classes.

  3. Translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the English ?Short form SF 12v2? into Bengali in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Nazrul; Khan, Ikramul Hasan; Ferdous, Nira; Rasker, Johannes J.

    2017-01-01

    Background To develop a culturally adapted and validated Bengali Short Form SF 12v2 among Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Methods The English SF 12v2 was translated, adapted and back translated into and from Bengali, pre-tested by 60 patients. The Bengali SF 12v2 was administered twice with 14 days interval to 130 Bangladeshi RA patients. The psychometric properties of the Bengali SF 12v2 were assessed. Test-retest reliability was assessed by intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and ...

  4. On the co-variation between form and function of adnominal possessive modifiers in Dutch and English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This contribution is concerned with Dutch and to a lesser extent English possessive modifiers introduced by the preposition of (Dutch van), as in a woman OF INFLUENCE or (Dutch) de auto VAN MIJN BROER (the car OF MY BROTHER) ‘my brother’s car’. The main goal of this paper is to demonstrate...... generalizations can be made about members of different form classes (e.g. adjectives and possessives) if modifiers are characterized in functional rather than formal terms. This paper is restricted to possessive modifiers of nouns that denote concrete objects....

  5. Modelling verb selection within argument structure constructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matusevych, Yevgen; Alishahi, Afra; Backus, Albert

    2016-01-01

    This article looks into the nature of cognitive associations between verbs and argument structure constructions (ASCs). Existing research has shown that distributional and semantic factors affect speakers' choice of verbs in ASCs. A formal account of this theory has been proposed by Ellis,

  6. Verb-Noun Collocations in Written Discourse of Iranian EFL Learners

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    Fatemeh Ebrahimi-Bazzaz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available When native speakers of English write, they employ both grammatical rules and collocations. Collocations are words that are present in the memory of native speakers as ready-made prefabricated chunks. Non-native speakers who wish to acquire native-like fluency should give appropriate attention to collocations in writing in order not to produce sentences that native speakers may consider odd. The present study tries to explore the use of verb-noun collocations in written discourse of English as foreign language (EFL among Iranian EFL learners from one academic year to the next in Iran. To measure the use of verb-noun collocations in written discourse, there was a 60-minute task of writing story  based on a series of six pictures whereby for each picture, three verb-noun collocations were measured, and nouns were provided to limit the choice of collocations. The results of the statistical analysis of ANOVA for the research question indicated that there was a significant difference in the use of lexical verb-noun collocations in written discourse both between and within the four academic years. The results of a post hoc multiple comparison tests confirmed that the means are significantly different between the first year and the third and fourth years, between the second and the fourth, and between the third and the fourth academic year which indicate substantial development in verb-noun collocation proficiency.  The vital implication is that the learners could use verb-noun collocations in productive skill of writing.

  7. Aspectual Verbs in European and Brazilian Portuguese

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    Fátima Oliveira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the semantics and the syntax of aspectual verbs in European and Brazilian Portuguese. Some of these verbs select a+Infinitive in the European variety whereas the same verbs select that structure and Gerund in the Brazilian variety. We show that this discrepancy can be explained in semantic and syntactic grounds due to the different nature of the semantic ‘input’ (stative or eventive, the availability of tense constructions and the functional structure of the embedded domain. Another group of aspectual verbs do not differ in their syntactic structure in the two varieties as their structure (de+Infinitive is the same, although syntactically different from a+ Infinitive, but they do differ in their semantics and also in the selection of different verbs.

  8. Rules and construction effects in learning the argument structure of verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Katherine; Machobane, Malillo; Moloi, Francina

    2003-11-01

    Theorists of language acquisition have long debated the means by which children learn the argument structure of verbs (e.g. Bowerman, 1974, 1990; Pinker, 1984, 1989; Tomasello, 1992). Central to this controversy has been the possible role of verb semantics, especially in learning which verbs undergo dative-shift alternation in languages like English. The learning problem is somewhat simplified in Bantu double object constructions, where all applicative verbs show the same order of postverbal objects. However, Bantu languages differ as to what that order is, some placing the benefactive argument first, and others placing the animate argument first. Learning the language-specific word-order restrictions on Bantu double object applicative constructions is therefore more akin to setting a parameter (cf. Hyams, 1986). This study examined 100 three- to eight-year-old children's knowledge of word order restrictions in Sesotho double object applicatives. Performance on forced choice elicited production tasks found that four-year-olds showed evidence of rule learning, although eight-year-olds had not yet attained adult levels of performance. Further investigation found lexical construction effects for three-year-olds. These findings suggest that learning the argument structure of verbs, even when lexical semantics is not involved, may be more sensitive to lexical construction effects than previously thought.

  9. Email English with new social media section and phrase bank of useful expressions

    CERN Document Server

    Emmerson, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Email English will help students of English to write effective and convincing communications, whether for work or study, whether by email or via social media. Based on hundreds of real examples, Email English deals systematically with key language for constructing effective and convincing emails in English as well as developing an appropriate voice through social media. Basics, including opening and closing emails, giving information, making requests, arranging meetings and checking understanding. Specific situations, such as negotiating, asking for payment and dealing with a supplier or customer. Skills such as describing business trends, relating cause and effect and reporting. General grammar problems, for instance, sentence structure, verb forms, comparison and punctuation. Communication styles: formal and informal, direct and indirect, ways of seeming friendlier. A NEW social media section presents strategies, tips and key language and expressions for writing blogs and on social media platforms such as F...

  10. Lao Serial Verb Constructions and Their Event Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Douglas James

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation is an investigation of serial verb constructions in Lao (Tai-Kadai, SVO) and the events that they encode. Serial verb constructions (SVCs), structures where multiple verbs appear in a single clause, raise several important questions for syntactic theory. One issue is how the verbs are related; proposals involving coordination…

  11. The Neural Correlates of Linguistic Distinctions: Unaccusative and Unergative Verbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetreet, Einat; Friedmann, Naama; Hadar, Uri

    2010-01-01

    Unaccusative verbs like "fall" are special in that their sole argument is syntactically generated at the object position of the verb rather than at the subject position. Unaccusative verbs are derived by a lexical operation that reduces the agent from transitive verbs. Their insertion into a sentence often involves a syntactic movement from the…

  12. Remarques sur un cas spécial de l'emploi des verbes vicaires faire et do en Français et en Anglais

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    Anton Grad

    1955-12-01

    Full Text Available On constate en français et en anglais un fait syntactique intéressant: le parallélisme – à l'époque ancienne encore plus évident qu'à l'époque moderne – de l'emploi des verbes faire et do comme verbes vicaires (verbes de substitution, verbes suppléants; c'est ainsi qu'on trouve, en anglais moderne, les formes personnelles du verbe do, faiblement accentuées et servant à remplacer un verbe à sens plein déjà employé précédemment, p. ex. Dans les propositions comparatives, surtout celles dépourvues de complément d'objet.

  13. Intensional Verbs Without Type-Raising or Lexical Ambiguity

    CERN Document Server

    Dalrymple, M; Pereira, F; Saraswat, V; Dalrymple, Mary; Lamping, John; Pereira, Fernando; Saraswat, Vijay

    1994-01-01

    We present an analysis of the semantic interpretation of intensional verbs such as seek that allows them to take direct objects of either individual or quantifier type, producing both de dicto and de re readings in the quantifier case, all without needing to stipulate type-raising or quantifying-in rules. This simple account follows directly from our use of logical deduction in linear logic to express the relationship between syntactic structures and meanings. While our analysis resembles current categorial approaches in important ways, it differs from them in allowing the greater type flexibility of categorial semantics while maintaining a precise connection to syntax. As a result, we are able to provide derivations for certain readings of sentences with intensional verbs and complex direct objects that are not derivable in current purely categorial accounts of the syntax-semantics interface. The analysis forms a part of our ongoing work on semantic interpretation within the framework of Lexical-Functional G...

  14. In my own words: the translation of reporting verbs on the parallel corpus the adventures of Huckleberry Finn — As aventuras de Huck

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    Daniel Alves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines Monteiro Lobato’s (retextualization of Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. The analysis focuses on reporting verbs in instances of direct speech. The methodology used for data collection is based on Corpus Linguistics and the analysis built on the hallidayan systemic-functional grammar. The aim of this paper is to explore patterns in the choice of reporting verbs in Twain’s and Lobato’s textualizations particularly in connection with neutral verbs, such as ‘say’ in English and ‘dizer’ in Portuguese. Results show that Lobato’s (retextualization tends to select Free Direct Discourse, (instead of Direct Discourse and a wider variety of reporting verbs, there being no single verb accounting for more than 25% of all occurrences of direct discourse examined. The neutral verb ‘say’ was also observed to have been (retextualized by reporting verbs that signal speech function, indicating either information giving or demanding, and by verbs that realize an additional feature or specify speech connotation.

  15. In my own words: the translation of reporting verbs on the parallel corpus the adventures of Huckleberry Finn — As aventuras de Huck

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    Daniel Alves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2016v36n1p34 This article examines Monteiro Lobato’s (retextualization of Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. The analysis focuses on reporting verbs in instances of direct speech. The methodology used for data collection is based on Corpus Linguistics and the analysis built on the hallidayan systemic-functional grammar. The aim of this paper is to explore patterns in the choice of reporting verbs in Twain’s and Lobato’s textualizations particularly in connection with neutral verbs, such as ‘say’ in English and ‘dizer’ in Portuguese. Results show that Lobato’s (retextualization tends to select Free Direct Discourse, (instead of Direct Discourse and a wider variety of reporting verbs, there being no single verb accounting for more than 25% of all occurrences of direct discourse examined. The neutral verb ‘say’ was also observed to have been (retextualized by reporting verbs that signal speech function, indicating either information giving or demanding, and by verbs that realize an additional feature or specify speech connotation.

  16. Transderivational relations and paradigm gaps in Russian verbs

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    Katya Pertsova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I argue that the notorious case of paradigm gaps, the first person singular gaps of Russian verbs, are not synchronically arbitrary as is often assumed (Graudina et al. 1976; Daland et al. 2007; Baerman 2008, but are predictable and connected to the opaque morphophonological alternations affecting stem-final consonants in the 1st person singular (1sg present tense. I present evidence for a new empirical generalization showing that the problematic alternations in verbs are subject to a 'lexical conservatism 'effect (Steriade 1997. Namely, stems that appear in other derivationally or inflectionally related forms with the same alternation as the one expected in 1sg generally do not have gaps, while stems that have no attested related forms with alternations do. Overall, a larger set of verbs are problematic for the speakers than indicated in dictionaries, and there are degrees of “gappiness” with a lot of variation across speakers. Additionally, I consider how different theoretical proposals for handling ineffability fare in accounting for these findings. I propose to augment the framework of Harmonic Grammar (Legendre et al. 1990 with an additional post-competition step during which outputs can be compared to each other based on their Harmony scores. This proposal is not tied to violations of specific constraint and it has potential to account for both paradigm gaps and gradient grammaticality judgments.

  17. Analysis of Tense Interferential of Verbs in Old Narrative Texts

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    Mahmood Barati khansari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the admirable methods to compose stories in Persian verse and prose, is the present Tense verbs in the meaning of past tense. This grammatical point has been hidden in the grammarian and stylist's point of view although it has been repeatedly mentioned in the texts and this point has been not mentioned in the grammatical books but some of the investigators and literati have pointed out it in their correction works. We mention their sayings: firstly, Allame Qazvini, doubtfully, mentions the interferential times of the verbs and inconsistencies of the Tenses in the correction of texts of Jahangoshaye – Joveini Book. He writes in the second footnote 2-3, that the verb Mikonam( I do is in the form of present Tense but its meaning is in the simple past Tense. As it has been observed, in the most old books the form of the verb is in the present tense but its meaning is in simple Tense ( Joveini, 1367, p. 357. Later, Fruzanfar in the correction of grammatical notes of ouhadoddin Kermani's Manaqeb, points to this point and counted it of the Eltefat Literary art ( Fruzanfar, 1347. P. 61 Mohammad Roushan informed this grammatical rule and he writes in the introduction of his book: the application of this kind of verb that is not on the basis of the dependent and independent verbs (Khagushi, 1361, p. 24. Yusofi in his correction on Bidpay Stories points to this grammatical point that it has been hidden of correctors of the book. Ha says that this grammatical point is the prose characteristic of the book. He adds that the characteristic includes in the present stories (Yusofi, 1364, p. 36. Finally, Dr. shfi'ee in his valuable notes on the Mateqol altei their mentions that this style of telling stories – the verb in the present Tense- is less in verse but the verbs in the same meaning and forms were used in old Persian as in the present time but there were inconsistence in the time and the form of the verbs in the past and the grammarians

  18. Analysis of Tense Interferential of Verbs in Old Narrative Texts

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    Amir Zeighami

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the admirable methods to compose stories in Persian verse and prose, is the present Tense verbs in the meaning of past tense. This grammatical point has been hidden in the grammarian and stylist's point of view although it has been repeatedly mentioned in the texts and this point has been not mentioned in the grammatical books but some of the investigators and literati have pointed out it in their correction works. We mention their sayings: firstly, Allame Qazvini, doubtfully, mentions the interferential times of the verbs and inconsistencies of the Tenses in the correction of texts of Jahangoshaye – Joveini Book. He writes in the second footnote 2-3, that the verb Mikonam( I do is in the form of present Tense but its meaning is in the simple past Tense. As it has been observed, in the most old books the form of the verb is in the present tense but its meaning is in simple Tense ( Joveini, 1367, p. 357. Later, Fruzanfar in the correction of grammatical notes of ouhadoddin Kermani's Manaqeb, points to this point and counted it of the Eltefat Literary art ( Fruzanfar, 1347. P. 61 Mohammad Roushan informed this grammatical rule and he writes in the introduction of his book: the application of this kind of verb that is not on the basis of the dependent and independent verbs (Khagushi, 1361, p. 24. Yusofi in his correction on Bidpay Stories points to this grammatical point that it has been hidden of correctors of the book. Ha says that this grammatical point is the prose characteristic of the book. He adds that the characteristic includes in the present stories (Yusofi, 1364, p. 36. Finally, Dr. shfi'ee in his valuable notes on the Mateqol altei their mentions that this style of telling stories – the verb in the present Tense- is less in verse but the verbs in the same meaning and forms were used in old Persian as in the present time but there were inconsistence in the time and the form of the verbs in the past and

  19. NARRATIVE PERSPECTIVE MEDIATED BY MANNER OF MOTION VERBS

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    Olesea BODEAN-VOZIAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is typological variation in the way languages encode manner as an element of a motion event. Languages like English view it as relevant, and the lexicalization of the variety of ways to move results in a rich class of motion verbs, contrary to other types of languages, like Romanian, which leave the manner element to be encoded by verbids or adverbs (for these reasons some linguists refer to the first type as manner-rich and second type as manner-poor languages. Still, several studies contrasting typologically different languages showed that languages of the latter type are not so poor in manner-of-motion verbs. The question then might rather be: which manner components are more likely to be lexicalized?For research purposes, we distinguish manner in terms of objective elements (medium, speed or intensity and subjective elements (attitude, intention. The aim of the study is to focus on the manner-of-motion verbs that embed an evaluative or qualitative dimension of motion and to examine the way these verbs encode somebody’s perspective in a narrative. The first question in such a case is whose evaluation or point of view is being represented. The second one is how the subjective point of view (narrative perspective mediated through manner-of-motion verbs in an English narrative (The Lord of the Rings, by J.R.R. Tolkien is translated into Romanian, supposedly a manner-poor or low-manner language.PERSPECTIVA NARATIVĂ MEDIATĂ DE VERBELE DE MIŞCARE DE MODExistă o variaţie tipologică în felul în care limbile codifică modul ca element al unui eveniment de mişcare. Limbile precum engleza îl percep drept unul relevant, iar lexicalizarea gamei de mijloace de redare a mişcării a dat naştere unei clase bogate de verbe de mişcare, contrar altor tipuri de limbi, aşa ca româna, în care elementul ce redă modul este codificat de gerunziu sau adverbe. Din aceasta cauză, unii lingvişti numesc primul tip limbi bogate în verbe de mod (

  20. The Use of Subject-Verb Agreement and Verb Argument Structure in Monolingual and Bilingual Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoelman, Marianne; Bol, Gerard W.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure in the spoken Dutch of monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) and bilingual Frisian-Dutch children with SLI. Both SLI groups appeared to be less efficient in their use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure than the…

  1. Servant Leadership in English Sixth Form Colleges: What Do Teachers Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoten, David William

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether servant leadership can be applied to college management. The research methodology involved questionnaire and co-constructed discussion eliciting the views of teachers on how they interpret leadership in a sixth form college. Three other models of leadership were discussed along with…

  2. Salience in Second Language Acquisition: Physical Form, Learner Attention, and Instructional Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintrón-Valentín, Myrna C; Ellis, Nick C

    2016-01-01

    We consider the role of physical form, prior experience, and form focused instruction (FFI) in adult language learning. (1) When presented with competing cues to interpretation, learners are more likely to attend to physically more salient cues in the input. (2) Learned attention is an associative learning phenomenon where prior-learned cues block those that are experienced later. (3) The low salience of morphosyntactic cues can be overcome by FFI, which leads learners to attend cues which might otherwise be ignored. Experiment 1 used eye-tracking to investigate how language background influences learners' attention to morphological cues, as well as the attentional processes whereby different types of FFI overcome low cue salience, learned attention and blocking. Chinese native speakers (no L1 verb-tense morphology) viewed Latin utterances combining lexical and morphological cues to temporality under control conditions (CCs) and three types of explicit FFI: verb grammar instruction (VG), verb salience with textual enhancement (VS), and verb pretraining (VP), and their use of these cues was assessed in a subsequent comprehension test. CC participants were significantly more sensitive to the adverbs than verb morphology. Instructed participants showed greater sensitivity to the verbs. These results reveal attentional processes whereby learners' prior linguistic experience can shape their attention toward cues in the input, and whereby FFI helps learners overcome the long-term blocking of verb-tense morphology. Experiment 2 examined the role of modality of input presentation - aural or visual - in L1 English learners' attentional focus on morphological cues and the effectiveness of different FFI manipulations. CC participants showed greater sensitivity toward the adverb cue. FFI was effective in increasing attention to verb-tense morphology, however, the processing of morphological cues was considerably more difficult under aural presentation. From visual exposure

  3. Salience in Second Language Acquisition: Physical Form, Learner Attention, and Instructional Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintrón-Valentín, Myrna C.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the role of physical form, prior experience, and form focused instruction (FFI) in adult language learning. (1) When presented with competing cues to interpretation, learners are more likely to attend to physically more salient cues in the input. (2) Learned attention is an associative learning phenomenon where prior-learned cues block those that are experienced later. (3) The low salience of morphosyntactic cues can be overcome by FFI, which leads learners to attend cues which might otherwise be ignored. Experiment 1 used eye-tracking to investigate how language background influences learners’ attention to morphological cues, as well as the attentional processes whereby different types of FFI overcome low cue salience, learned attention and blocking. Chinese native speakers (no L1 verb-tense morphology) viewed Latin utterances combining lexical and morphological cues to temporality under control conditions (CCs) and three types of explicit FFI: verb grammar instruction (VG), verb salience with textual enhancement (VS), and verb pretraining (VP), and their use of these cues was assessed in a subsequent comprehension test. CC participants were significantly more sensitive to the adverbs than verb morphology. Instructed participants showed greater sensitivity to the verbs. These results reveal attentional processes whereby learners’ prior linguistic experience can shape their attention toward cues in the input, and whereby FFI helps learners overcome the long-term blocking of verb-tense morphology. Experiment 2 examined the role of modality of input presentation – aural or visual – in L1 English learners’ attentional focus on morphological cues and the effectiveness of different FFI manipulations. CC participants showed greater sensitivity toward the adverb cue. FFI was effective in increasing attention to verb-tense morphology, however, the processing of morphological cues was considerably more difficult under aural presentation. From visual

  4. Verbs in Mothers' Input to Six-Month-Olds: Synchrony between Presentation, Meaning, and Actions Is Related to Later Verb Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomikou, Iris; Koke, Monique; Rohlfing, Katharina J

    2017-04-29

    In embodied theories on language, it is widely accepted that experience in acting generates an expectation of this action when hearing the word for it. However, how this expectation emerges during language acquisition is still not well understood. Assuming that the intermodal presentation of information facilitates perception, prior research had suggested that early in infancy, mothers perform their actions in temporal synchrony with language. Further research revealed that this synchrony is a form of multimodal responsive behavior related to the child's later language development. Expanding on these findings, this article explores the relationship between action-language synchrony and the acquisition of verbs. Using qualitative and quantitative methods, we analyzed the coordination of verbs and action in mothers' input to six-month-old infants and related these maternal strategies to the infants' later production of verbs. We found that the verbs used by mothers in these early interactions were tightly coordinated with the ongoing action and very frequently responsive to infant actions. It is concluded that use of these multimodal strategies could significantly predict the number of spoken verbs in infants' vocabulary at 24 months.

  5. Verbs in Mothers’ Input to Six-Month-Olds: Synchrony between Presentation, Meaning, and Actions Is Related to Later Verb Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Nomikou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In embodied theories on language, it is widely accepted that experience in acting generates an expectation of this action when hearing the word for it. However, how this expectation emerges during language acquisition is still not well understood. Assuming that the intermodal presentation of information facilitates perception, prior research had suggested that early in infancy, mothers perform their actions in temporal synchrony with language. Further research revealed that this synchrony is a form of multimodal responsive behavior related to the child’s later language development. Expanding on these findings, this article explores the relationship between action–language synchrony and the acquisition of verbs. Using qualitative and quantitative methods, we analyzed the coordination of verbs and action in mothers’ input to six-month-old infants and related these maternal strategies to the infants’ later production of verbs. We found that the verbs used by mothers in these early interactions were tightly coordinated with the ongoing action and very frequently responsive to infant actions. It is concluded that use of these multimodal strategies could significantly predict the number of spoken verbs in infants’ vocabulary at 24 months.

  6. English Transitivity Alternation in Second Language Acquisition: An Attentional Approach. China Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuxia

    2017-01-01

    The correct use of English verb argument structure is crucial for foreign learners of the English language. Based on an experimental study recruiting 162 Chinese English learners at different proficiency levels, this book suggests that the acquisition of English transitivity alternation follows as a consequence of the cognitive processing of…

  7. Levelling in the German Verb Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John

    1974-01-01

    Levelling processes in the history of the German verb paradigm from Old High German to the present are discussed. It is asserted that the theory of transformational generative grammar provides a proper framework for the study of linguistic change. (RM)

  8. Take a stand on understanding: electrophysiological evidence for stem access in German complex verbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka, Eva; Gondan, Matthias; Rösler, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The lexical representation of complex words in Indo-European languages is generally assumed to depend on semantic compositionality. This study investigated whether semantically compositional and noncompositional derivations are accessed via their constituent units or as whole words. In an overt visual priming experiment (300 ms stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA), event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded for verbs (e.g., ziehen, “pull”) that were preceded by purely semantically related verbs (e.g., zerren, “drag”), by morphologically related and semantically compositional verbs (e.g., zuziehen, “pull together”), by morphologically related and semantically noncompositional verbs (e.g., erziehen, “educate”), by orthographically similar verbs (e.g., zielen, “aim”), or by unrelated verbs (e.g., tarnen, “mask”). Compared to the unrelated condition, which evoked an N400 effect with the largest amplitude at centro-parietal recording sites, the N400 was reduced in all other conditions. The rank order of N400 amplitudes turned out as follows: morphologically related and semantically compositional ≈ morphologically related and semantically noncompositional primes produced similar N400 modulations—irrespective of their semantic compositionality. The control conditions with orthographic similarity confirmed that these morphological effects were not the result of a simple form overlap between primes and targets. Our findings suggest that the lexical representation of German complex verbs refers to their base form, regardless of meaning compositionality. Theories of the lexical representation of German words need to incorporate this aspect of language processing in German. PMID:25767442

  9. Imageability predicts the age of acquisition of verbs in Chinese children*

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Weiyi; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; McDonough, Colleen; Tardif, Twila

    2008-01-01

    Verbs are harder to learn than nouns in English and in many other languages, but are relatively easy to learn in Chinese. This paper evaluates one potential explanation for these findings by examining the construct of imageability, or the ability of a word to produce a mental image. Chinese adults rated the imageability of Chinese words from the Chinese Communicative Development Inventory (Tardif et al., in press). Imageability ratings were a reliable predictor of age of acquisition in Chines...

  10. El + verb complex predicates in Hungarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Dékány

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the structure of complex predicates comprising the verbal particle el- (`away' and a verb in Hungarian. I show that el- has different meaning contributions to the predication when combined with different types of verbs. I argue that despite the three seemingly unrelated meanings of el-, two uses involve the same lexical item. In these unifiable cases I analyze el- as a measure function that can measure in both the spatial and the temporal domains.

  11. Particle position in the Middle English Northern and Southern dialects Evidence for Scandinavian influence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elenbaas, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    In the transition from Old to Middle English, particle-verb combinations were rapidly transformed into verb-particle combinations, in which particles are invariably postverbal (Hiltunen 1983). (1) a. & lahte ut his tunge se long þæt he swong hire a-buten his swire. (St.Margaret, 69) 'and took

  12. ABRELATAS AND SCARECROW NOUNS: EXOCENTRIC VERB-NOUN COMPOUNDS. AS ILLUSTRATIONS OF BASIC PRINCIPLES OF COGNITIVE GRAMMAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tuggy

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Spanish and English have exocentric verb+obiect = subiect/instrument compounds, such as abrelatas (opens-cans 'can-opener' and scarecrow. They share a general constructional pattem, consist of "clumps" or subfamilies of forms, and have a negative or jocular tendency. They differ in their individual compounds, subfamilies and constructional prototypes. The Spanish construction is a widely productive, major mechanism for naming instruments; the English construction names subjects, and is a minor pattem currently productive only in one subfamily. Exceptional forms in both languages approach each other's prototype. In both languages the category fits into wider families or categories of constructions, but those wider families are different. These patterns illuminate basic tenets of Cognitive grammar, including: (1 usage-based grammar. (2 Multiple pattems. (3 Lower-leve1 outranking higher-leve1 pattems. (4 Functional motivation, but ( 5 persistence of pattems despite absence of functionality. These considerations underline (6 the insufficiency of models positing innate, absolute, few and simple rules.

  13. Building words on actions: verb enactment and verb recognition in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Gabriel; Colonnello, Valentina; Giacchè, Roberta; Piredda, Maria Letizia; Sogos, Carla

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that language processing is grounded in actions. Multiple independent research findings indicate that children with specific language impairment (SLI) show subtle difficulties beyond the language domain. Uncertainties remain on possible association between body-mediated, non-linguistic expression of verbs and early manifestation of SLI during verb acquisition. The present study was conducted to determine whether verb production through non-linguistic modalities is impaired in children with SLI. Children with SLI (mean age 41 months) and typically developing children (mean age 40 months) were asked to recognize target verbs while viewing video clips showing the action associated with the verb (verb-recognition task) and to enact the action corresponding to the verb (verb-enacting task). Children with SLI performed more poorly than control children in both tasks. The present study demonstrates that early language impairment emerges at the bodily level. These findings are consistent with the embodied theories of cognition and underscore the role of action-based representations during language development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Awareness of Verb Subcategorization Probabilities with Polysemous Verbs: The Second Language Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uckun, Berrin

    2012-01-01

    Different meanings of a verb are associated with different argument structures (subcategorization), which in this study are sentential complements (SC) and direct object (DO) arguments. Interaction between verbal meaning and argument structure is investigated at the production level using polysemous verbs in the absence (Norming Experiment) and…

  15. Exploring atypical verb+noun combinations in learner technical writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Luzón Marco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Professional and academic discourse is characterised by a specific phraseology, which usually poses problems for students. This paper investigates atypical verb+noun collocations in a corpus of English technical writing of Spanish students. I focus on the type of verbs that most frequently occurred in these awkward or questionable combinations and attempt to explore the reasons why the learners deviate from NS's norms. The analysis indicates that these learners tend to have problems with a set of sub-technical and high-frequency verbs. Deviant combinations involving these verbs are frequently the result of a deficient knowledge of the phraseology of academic and technical discourse. The unawareness of collocations that are typical of this discourse often leads students to create V+N combinations by relying on the “Open Choice Principle” (Sinclair, 1991 or by using patterns from their mother tongue.El discurso profesional y académico se caracteriza por una fraseología específica, que suele plantear problemas a los estudiantes. Este artículo investiga colocaciones de verbo+nombre atípicas en un corpus de textos técnicos en inglés escritos por estudiantes españoles. El estudio se centra en los verbos que más frecuentemente aparecen en estas combinaciones atípicas y explora las razones por las que los estudiantes se desvían de la norma. El análisis indica que estos estudiantes suelen tener problemas con un grupo de verbos sub-técnicos y verbos de alta frecuencia. Las combinaciones atípicas en las que estos verbos aparecen son frecuentemente el resultado de un conocimiento deficiente de la fraseología del discurso académico y técnico. El desconocimiento de colocaciones que son típicas de este discurso a menudo lleva a los estudiantes a crear combinaciones basándose en el “principio de opción abierta” (Sinclair, 1991 o a usar colocaciones prestadas de su lengua materna.

  16. Latent Semantics of Action Verbs Reflect Phonetic Parameters of Intensity and Emotional Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Michael Kai

    2015-01-01

    Conjuring up our thoughts, language reflects statistical patterns of word co-occurrences which in turn come to describe how we perceive the world. Whether counting how frequently nouns and verbs combine in Google search queries, or extracting eigenvectors from term document matrices made up of Wikipedia lines and Shakespeare plots, the resulting latent semantics capture not only the associative links which form concepts, but also spatial dimensions embedded within the surface structure of language. As both the shape and movements of objects have been found to be associated with phonetic contrasts already in toddlers, this study explores whether articulatory and acoustic parameters may likewise differentiate the latent semantics of action verbs. Selecting 3 × 20 emotion-, face-, and hand-related verbs known to activate premotor areas in the brain, their mutual cosine similarities were computed using latent semantic analysis LSA, and the resulting adjacency matrices were compared based on two different large scale text corpora: HAWIK and TASA. Applying hierarchical clustering to identify common structures across the two text corpora, the verbs largely divide into combined mouth and hand movements versus emotional expressions. Transforming the verbs into their constituent phonemes, and projecting them into an articulatory space framed by tongue height and formant frequencies, the clustered small and large size movements appear differentiated by front versus back vowels corresponding to increasing levels of arousal. Whereas the clustered emotional verbs seem characterized by sequences of close versus open jaw produced phonemes, generating up- or downwards shifts in formant frequencies that may influence their perceived valence. Suggesting, that the latent semantics of action verbs reflect parameters of intensity and emotional polarity that appear correlated with the articulatory contrasts and acoustic characteristics of phonemes. PMID:25849977

  17. Latent semantics of action verbs reflect phonetic parameters of intensity and emotional content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Michael Kai

    2015-01-01

    Conjuring up our thoughts, language reflects statistical patterns of word co-occurrences which in turn come to describe how we perceive the world. Whether counting how frequently nouns and verbs combine in Google search queries, or extracting eigenvectors from term document matrices made up of Wikipedia lines and Shakespeare plots, the resulting latent semantics capture not only the associative links which form concepts, but also spatial dimensions embedded within the surface structure of language. As both the shape and movements of objects have been found to be associated with phonetic contrasts already in toddlers, this study explores whether articulatory and acoustic parameters may likewise differentiate the latent semantics of action verbs. Selecting 3 × 20 emotion-, face-, and hand-related verbs known to activate premotor areas in the brain, their mutual cosine similarities were computed using latent semantic analysis LSA, and the resulting adjacency matrices were compared based on two different large scale text corpora: HAWIK and TASA. Applying hierarchical clustering to identify common structures across the two text corpora, the verbs largely divide into combined mouth and hand movements versus emotional expressions. Transforming the verbs into their constituent phonemes, and projecting them into an articulatory space framed by tongue height and formant frequencies, the clustered small and large size movements appear differentiated by front versus back vowels corresponding to increasing levels of arousal. Whereas the clustered emotional verbs seem characterized by sequences of close versus open jaw produced phonemes, generating up- or downwards shifts in formant frequencies that may influence their perceived valence. Suggesting, that the latent semantics of action verbs reflect parameters of intensity and emotional polarity that appear correlated with the articulatory contrasts and acoustic characteristics of phonemes.

  18. Walking but not barking improves verb recovery: implications for action observation treatment in aphasia rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangolo, Paola; Cipollari, Susanna; Fiori, Valentina; Razzano, Carmela; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that action observation treatment without concomitant verbal cue has a positive impact on the recovery of verb retrieval deficits in aphasic patients. In agreement with an embodied cognition viewpoint, a hypothesis has been advanced that gestures and language form a single communication system and words whose retrieval is facilitated by gestures are semantically represented through sensory-motor features. However, it is still an open question as to what extent this treatment approach works. Results from the recovery of motor deficits have suggested that action observation promotes motor recovery only for actions that are part of the motor repertoire of the observer. The aim of the present experiment was to further investigate the role of action observation treatment in verb recovery. In particular, we contrasted the effects induced by observing human actions (e.g. dancing, kicking, pointing, eating) versus non human actions (e.g. barking, printing). Seven chronic aphasic patients with a selective deficit in verb retrieval underwent an intensive rehabilitation training that included five daily sessions over two consecutive weeks. Each subject was asked to carefully observe 115 video-clips of actions, one at a time and, after observing them, they had to produce the corresponding verb. Two groups of actions were randomly presented: humans versus nonhuman actions. In all patients, significant improvement in verb retrieval was found only by observing video-clips of human actions. Moreover, follow-up testing revealed long-term verb recovery that was still present two months after the two treatments had ended. In support of the multimodal concept representation's proposal, we suggest that just the observation of actions pertaining to the human motor repertoire is an effective rehabilitation approach for verb recovery.

  19. Walking but not barking improves verb recovery: implications for action observation treatment in aphasia rehabilitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Marangolo

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that action observation treatment without concomitant verbal cue has a positive impact on the recovery of verb retrieval deficits in aphasic patients. In agreement with an embodied cognition viewpoint, a hypothesis has been advanced that gestures and language form a single communication system and words whose retrieval is facilitated by gestures are semantically represented through sensory-motor features. However, it is still an open question as to what extent this treatment approach works. Results from the recovery of motor deficits have suggested that action observation promotes motor recovery only for actions that are part of the motor repertoire of the observer. The aim of the present experiment was to further investigate the role of action observation treatment in verb recovery. In particular, we contrasted the effects induced by observing human actions (e.g. dancing, kicking, pointing, eating versus non human actions (e.g. barking, printing. Seven chronic aphasic patients with a selective deficit in verb retrieval underwent an intensive rehabilitation training that included five daily sessions over two consecutive weeks. Each subject was asked to carefully observe 115 video-clips of actions, one at a time and, after observing them, they had to produce the corresponding verb. Two groups of actions were randomly presented: humans versus nonhuman actions. In all patients, significant improvement in verb retrieval was found only by observing video-clips of human actions. Moreover, follow-up testing revealed long-term verb recovery that was still present two months after the two treatments had ended. In support of the multimodal concept representation's proposal, we suggest that just the observation of actions pertaining to the human motor repertoire is an effective rehabilitation approach for verb recovery.

  20. Latent semantics of action verbs reflect phonetic parameters of intensity and emotional content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kai Petersen

    Full Text Available Conjuring up our thoughts, language reflects statistical patterns of word co-occurrences which in turn come to describe how we perceive the world. Whether counting how frequently nouns and verbs combine in Google search queries, or extracting eigenvectors from term document matrices made up of Wikipedia lines and Shakespeare plots, the resulting latent semantics capture not only the associative links which form concepts, but also spatial dimensions embedded within the surface structure of language. As both the shape and movements of objects have been found to be associated with phonetic contrasts already in toddlers, this study explores whether articulatory and acoustic parameters may likewise differentiate the latent semantics of action verbs. Selecting 3 × 20 emotion-, face-, and hand-related verbs known to activate premotor areas in the brain, their mutual cosine similarities were computed using latent semantic analysis LSA, and the resulting adjacency matrices were compared based on two different large scale text corpora: HAWIK and TASA. Applying hierarchical clustering to identify common structures across the two text corpora, the verbs largely divide into combined mouth and hand movements versus emotional expressions. Transforming the verbs into their constituent phonemes, and projecting them into an articulatory space framed by tongue height and formant frequencies, the clustered small and large size movements appear differentiated by front versus back vowels corresponding to increasing levels of arousal. Whereas the clustered emotional verbs seem characterized by sequences of close versus open jaw produced phonemes, generating up- or downwards shifts in formant frequencies that may influence their perceived valence. Suggesting, that the latent semantics of action verbs reflect parameters of intensity and emotional polarity that appear correlated with the articulatory contrasts and acoustic characteristics of phonemes.

  1. The segmentation of sub-lexical morphemes in English-learning 15-month-olds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toben H. Mintz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In most human languages, important components of linguistic structure are carried by affixes, also called bound morphemes. The affixes in a language comprise a relatively small but frequently occurring set of forms that surface as parts of words, but never occur without a stem. They combine productively with word stems and other grammatical entities in systematic and predictable ways. For example, the English suffix –ing occurs on verb stems, and in combination with a form of the auxiliary verb be, marks the verb with progressive aspect (e.g., was walking. In acquiring a language, learners must acquire rules of combination for affixes. However, prior to learning these combinatorial rules, learners are faced with discovering what the sub-lexical forms are over which the rules operate. That is, they have to discover the bound morphemes themselves. It is not known when English-learners begin to analyze words into morphological units. Previous research with learners of English found evidence that 18-month-olds have started to learn the combinatorial rules involving bound morphemes, and that 15-month-olds have not. However, it is not known whether 15-month-olds nevertheless represent the morphemes as distinct entities. This present study demonstrates that when 15-month-olds process words that end in ¬–ing, they segment ¬the suffix from the word, but they do not do so with endings that are not morphemes. Eight-month olds do not show this capacity. Thus, 15-month-olds have already started to identify bound morphemes and actively use them in processing speech.

  2. English Grammar Workbook For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    O'Sullivan, Nuala

    2010-01-01

    English Grammar Workbook For Dummies, UK Edition is grammar First Aid for anyone wanting to perfect their English and develop the practical skills needed to write and speak correctly. Each chapter focuses on key grammatical principles, with easy-to-follow theory and examples as well as practice questions and explanations. From verbs, prepositions and tenses, to style, expressions and tricky word traps, this hands-on workbook is essential for both beginners looking to learn and practise the basics of English grammar, and those who want to brush up skills they already have - quickly, easily, and

  3. The Differences between Thai and Indonesian Undergraduates in Pronouncing Plural Nouns and Third Singular Present Verbs due to Progressive Assimilation

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    Sofa Zakiyatul Muna

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pronunciation is an important aspect in learning English and it is varied in different area. There are several types of dialect differences in speaking English and geographical dialect is one of them. In pronouncing plural verbs and third singular present verbs in English, the differences are happened. This research investigates the differences between Thai and Indonesian undergraduates in pronouncing plural nouns and third singular present verbs with s/es ending. The aim of this research are to find out the differences and similarities between Thai and Indonesian undergraduates in pronouncing plural nouns and third singular present verbs and the factors that influence it. The design of this research is case study by investigating Thai and Indonesian undergraduates of IAIN Salatiga in several period of time. Data is collected through documentation and interview. Documentation is conducted by recording respondents’ pronunciation. The recording is analyzed and combined with interview report to answer research problems. From the analysis, it is found that the differences and similarities of Thai and Indonesian undergraduates are substitution and omission of s/es suffix pronunciation. It is influenced by the geographic dialects and the existence of consonants in native language.

  4. Do morphophonological rules impact both regular and irregular verb inflection? Evidence from acquired morphological impairment

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    Stacey Rimikis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The role of morphophonological rules in production is a frequent point of contention in competing theories of morphological processing. Dual-mechanism theories have posited that a single default rule (stem+ed is used to produce the regular past tense, while all other past-tense forms are memorized and retrieved whole. However, research has suggested that a series of stochastic morphophonological rules plays a role in morphological productivity for both regular and irregular novel verbs (e.g. Albright & Hayes, 2003. Under this view, the likelihood of a given rule applying to a verb is partially dependent on its lexical support, measured as the number of phonologically similar verbs in the lexicon which take the same inflectional change (e.g. weep→wept, sweep→swept, etc.. To date, most evidence supporting this view has come from the morphological productivity of novel forms (e.g. Albright & Hayes, 2003 and from visual word recognition (Fruchter, Stockall, & Marantz, 2013. The present study extends this work by demonstrating that morphophonological rules impact production more generally, including the production of both regular and irregular past tense in RMI, an aphasic individual with an established morphological deficit (Rimikis & Buchwald, 2014. While we previously reported differences in production for irregular verbs with either high or low levels of lexical support, the current study further examined this phenomenon, and we found that the production of the past-tense form for both regular and irregular verbs was affected by the support for that verb’s inflectional rule . Subject RMI, 39, right-handed male with aphasia secondary to L-MCA CVA. His production includes frequent morphological errors across tasks, with semantic and phonological errors also occurring. Procedure RMI was administered a past-tense elicitation task. Sentence frames including regular and irregular verbs were presented verbally and visually (e.g.

  5. Verb-based anticipatory processing in aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Walsh Dickey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Healthy listeners use verb and agent+verb constraints to anticipate likely arguments (Altmann & Kamide, 1999; Kamide et al., 2003. Listeners also show early looks to unlikely but possible arguments (Boland, 2005; Borovsky, et al., 2012, suggesting that coarse-grained verb-based semantic constraints may influence early processing (Kuperberg, 2013. This study investigated the roles of verb and agent+verb constraints on expectations about likely and unlikely arguments in people with aphasia (PWA and healthy age-matched controls. In two visual-world experiments, PWA (n=9 and older adults (n=27 heard sentences truncated at the determiner and clicked on the image that “best finished” the sentence (Mack, et al, 2013. In Experiment 1, sentences with a semantically-constraining vs. unconstraining verb (Someone will eat/move the … were accompanied by images of: a likely target (cake, an unlikely but possible competitor (branch, and two unrelated impossible distractors (pail, van. In Experiment 2, sentences with a semantically-constraining vs. unconstraining agent+verb combination (The dog/Someone will drink the … were accompanied by: a likely target (water, an unlikely but possible competitor (coffee, a semantically-related impossible distractor (cat – semantic associate of constraining agent, and an unrelated impossible distractor (rocks. By-participants and by-items ANOVAs showed that likelihood guided looks for both participant groups in both experiments. In the constrained condition in Experiment 1, gaze proportion was reliably higher to the target (cake than the two impossible distractors (pail, van, with controls showing this effect in a 400-ms bin starting 400 ms after verb onset (Fig1a and PWA approximately 400ms later, in a 400-ms bin starting 800 ms after verb onset (Fig1b. During the same time windows in the constrained condition in Experiment 2, both groups were more likely to gaze at the target (water than the unlikely competitor

  6. SEMANTIC ANALYSIS OF THETA ROLES OF VERBS IN THE MAH MERI LANGUAGE

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    Maisarah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mah Meri language, one of the severely endangered languages of Malaysia, is facing the threat of extinction. In order to save valuable information of this language, this paper focuses on one of its aspects, the Theta Roles in relation to the verbs. Using Radford’s (1997 & 2009 theory of Theta Roles, this study analyzes and explores the verb phrase of Mah Meri. The main objective of this study is to establish the Theta Roles in relation to verbs in the Mah Meri language. In order to fully understand the verb structures, the morphological entities of affixes such as prefixes and suffixes are studied. Moreover, the word order of the sentential constructions are also analyzed according to active and passive forms. These are done in tandem with analyzing the pronouns in relation to the placement of verbs in a Mah Meri sentential construction. It is found that Theta Roles are present in the data except for the Theta Role Recipient. However, this is not due to the lack of the Theta Role of Recipient in the Mah Meri language; rather it is due to the limitation of the scope in this study as data is analyzed based on the interviews only. On the other hand, the Theta Role of Agent is clearly evident in the Mah Meri language.

  7. How many theta roles in a reflexive verb?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitriadis, Alexis|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304366455; Everaert, Martin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071746080

    2014-01-01

    While purely syntactic approaches to reflexivization have characterized reflexive verbs in terms of detransitivization, we show that there is a discrepancy between syntactic and semantic arity. Reflexive verbs are syntactically intransitive, but semantically they are two-place predicates: both

  8. Two languages, two sets of interpretations: Language-specific influences of morphological form on Dutch and English speakers' interpretation of compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banga, A.; Hanssen, E.J.M.; Schreuder, R.; Neijt, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates linguistic relativity. Do form differences between Dutch and English influence the interpretations which speakers have? The Dutch element en in noun-noun compounds, for example in aardbeienjam 'strawberry jam' is homophonous and homographic with the regular plural

  9. Serialising languages: Satellite-framed, verb-framed or neither ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diversity in the coding of the core schema of motion, i.e., Path, has led to a traditional typology of languages into verb-framed and satellite-framed languages. In the former Path is encoded in verbs and in the latter it is encoded in non-verb elements that function as sisters to co-event expressing verbs such as manner ...

  10. Jak najít optimální překlad polysémních sloves: porovnání metod formální analýzy paralelních textů : In Search of the Optimal Translation of Polysemous Verbs : Comparing Methods of Formal Analysis of Parallel Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczmarska, Elżbieta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Our goal is to identify factors that influence the choice of equivalents of ‘psych’ verbs when translating between typologically close languages such as Polish and Czech. Using the example of the Czech verb toužit ‘to yearn, to desire’ we show that these verbs may be perceived differently by native speakers of Polish and Czech — as ambiguous or unambiguous. Translation of such verbs is equally challenging. We start with the hypothesis that the choice of an equivalent is determined primarily by syntactico-semantic properties of the source lexeme, especially by its valency. Based on the analysis of lexemes and their arguments in parallel texts we identify regularities and preferences for the choice of an equivalent. Manual analysis is complemented by an automatically extracted bilingual glossary with frequencies. The results show that valency is an important, but not the only factor.

  11. Subjective age-of-acquisition norms for 4,640 verbs in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, María Ángeles; Díez, Emiliano; Fernandez, Angel

    2016-12-01

    Many studies have shown that how words are processed in a variety of language-related tasks is affected by their age of acquisition (AoA). Most AoA norms have been collected for nouns, a fact that limits the extent to which verb stimuli can be adequately manipulated and controlled in empirical studies. With the aim of increasing the number of verbs with AoA values in Spanish, 900 college students were recruited to provide subjective estimates for a total of 4,640 infinitive and reflexive forms. An AoA score for each verb was obtained by averaging the responses of the participants, and these norms were included, together with additional quantitative information (standard deviations, ranges, and z scores), in a database that can be downloaded with this article as supplemental materials.

  12. Russian morphophonemics in a nutshell: The verb vstat’ ‘stand up’

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    Anna Endresen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues against a number of accounts found in dictionaries of Russian word-formation and shows that the verb vstat' ‘stand up' (1 even synchronically is derived from stat' ‘become' and (2 is formed via the prefix vz- rather than v-. We provide semantic, historical, morphophonemic, and typological arguments in favor of this analysis. We argue that the verb vstat' is morphologically complex, but not fully analyzable due to a lack of formal transparency. The affix-root overlap found in the verb vstat' refers to a distinct pattern of Russian historical morphophonemics. Our findings conform to the theory of gradient structures in morphology (Hay & Baayen 2005 and contribute an additional type to the degrees of analyzability described in Panov 1968 & 1999 and Kubrjakova 1970.

  13. Salience in Second Language Acquisition:Physical form, learner attention, and instructional focus

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    Myrna C Cintrón-Valentín

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider the role of physical form, prior experience, and form focused instruction (FFI in adult language learning. (1 When presented with competing cues to interpretation, learners are more likely to attend to physically more salient cues in the input. (2 Learned attention is an associative learning phenomenon where prior-learned cues block those that are experienced later. (3 The low salience of morphosyntactic cues can be overcome by FFI, which leads learners to attend cues which might otherwise be ignored. Experiment 1 used eye-tracking to investigate how language background influences learners’ attention to morphological cues, as well as the attentional processes whereby different types of FFI overcome low cue salience, learned attention and blocking. Chinese native speakers (no L1 verb-tense morphology viewed Latin utterances combining lexical and morphological cues to temporality under control conditions (CC and three types of explicit FFI: grammar instruction (VG, verb salience with textual enhancement (VS, and verb pretraining (VP, and their use of these cues was assessed in a comprehension test. CC participants were significantly more sensitive to the adverbs than verb morphology. Instructed participants showed greater sensitivity to the verbs. These results reveal attentional processes whereby learners’ prior linguistic experience can shape their attention toward cues in the input, and whereby FFI helps learners overcome the long-term blocking of verb-tense morphology. Experiment 2 examined the role of modality of input presentation – aural or visual – in L1 English learners’ attentional focus on morphological cues and the effectiveness of different FFI manipulations. CC participants showed greater sensitivity toward the adverb cue. FFI was effective in increasing attention to verb-tense morphology, however, the processing of morphological cues was considerably more difficult under aural presentation. From visual exposure

  14. Some attractions of verb agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bock, K.; Eberhard, K.M.; Cutting, J.C.; Meyer, A.S.; Schriefers, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    In English, words like scissors are grammatically plural but conceptually singular, while words like suds are both grammatically and conceptually plural. Words like army can be construed plurally, despite being grammatically singular. To explore whether and how congruence between grammatical and

  15. Agrammatic Sentence Production: Is Verb Second Impaired in Dutch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Peter; Kolk, Herman; Haverkort, Marco

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates effects of verb movement in nine Dutch-speaking agrammatic aphasics. According to linguistic theory, in verb second languages such as Dutch and German, the verb remains in its clause-final base position in embedded clauses, whereas it moves to second position in main clauses. In recent linguistic accounts of agrammatic…

  16. On the Asymmetry of Serial Verbs in the Edo Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Osamuyimen Thompson

    The serial verb construction (SVC) in Edo (Bini), a language spoken in Nigeria, is examined, and an analysis that systematically characterizes the notion of functional relationship of verbs within these constructions is proposed. It is argued that the verbs in series are sensitive to different semantic and grammatical phenomena and are therefore…

  17. Learning to categorize verbs and nouns : studies on Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkelens, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Verbs and nouns are elementary notions in linguistics, so the question how children learn to categorize verbs and nouns in their first language is an intriguing one. Children not only have to learn to identify verbs and nouns as belonging to different categories based on perception, they also have

  18. Reciprocal Pronouns Binding within Psych-Verb Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epoge, Napoleon

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at giving an analysis of certain syntactic peculiarities of reciprocal pronouns within verbs of psychological state, commonly known as psych-verbs. The analysis reveal that psych-verbs constructions have a peculiar property in that the binding conditions of reciprocal pronouns are satisfied in Experiencer-Subject (ES) psychverbs…

  19. Idea Sharing: Reporting Verbs in Research Writing: Lessons from Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroongkhongdach, Woravut

    2015-01-01

    Using reporting verbs in research writing seems to be a problem for graduate students (or novice researchers) when writing a research paper. The aim of this paper is to raise the awareness of students in using reporting verbs. The main argument in this paper is based on the comparison of reporting verbs used by two expert researchers and two Thai…

  20. Exploring the Acquisition of German Verb Morphology by Instructed Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Bettina

    2008-01-01

    Research into the acquisition of L2 German word order has provided strong evidence for a sequence of incremental stages of development. Studies of the acquisition of German verb morphology so far have focused on establishing a correlation between the acquisition of word order and of verb morphology, neglecting the question how verb morphology per…

  1. Strategies for the Prediction of English Word Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Barbara O.

    1989-01-01

    An analysis of Brazilian learners' errors in English word stress revealed a difficulty hierarchy of stress pattern rules and six stress prediction strategies: (1) cognate stress patterns; (2) predominant stress patterns of English; (3) initial vowels and consonants; (4) verbs with a tense vowel in the final syllable; (5) tertiary stress; and (6)…

  2. Vowel quality alternation in Dinka verb derivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    In Dinka, a predominantly monosyllabic and highly fusional Western Nilotic language, vowel quality alternation in the root plays a major and systematic role in the morphology of verbs, together with alternations in vowel length, voice quality, and tone. Earlier work has shown that in the inflection...... of simple, i. e., underived, transitive verbs, the vowel quality alternation conforms to a vowel height gradation system with three vowel grades. The present article shows that this vowel gradation system is also operative in the morphology of derived verbs with a transitive root, but with certain...... modifications. These include a different distribution of the vowel grades and interaction with a shift in voice quality, to breathy voice....

  3. The Use of Consciousness-Raising Tasks in Learning and Teaching of Subject-Verb Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idek, Sirhajwan; Fong, Lee Lai; Sidhu, Gurnam Kaur

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the use of two types of Consciousness-Raising (CR) tasks in learning Subject-Verb Agreement (SVA). The sample consisted of 28 Form 2 students who were divided into two groups. Group 1 was assigned with Grammaticality Judgment (GJ) tasks and Group 2 received Sentence Production (SP) tasks for eight weeks. Learners were given…

  4. Detection of Irregular Verb Violations by Children with and without SLI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Sean M.; Rice, Mabel L.

    2001-01-01

    Fifty-seven children (ages 5-8) with and without specific language impairment (SLI) participated in judgment and elicitation tasks designed to evaluate their understanding of irregular verb forms. Differences between SLI and control children were observed in their productions and relative levels of sensitivity to infinitive errors in finite…

  5. The use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure in monolingual and bilingual children with specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelman, Marianne; Bol, Gerard W.

    This study investigates the use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure in the spoken Dutch of monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) and bilingual Frisian-Dutch children with SLI. Both SLI groups appeared to be less efficient in their use of subject-verb

  6. Translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the English "Short form SF 12v2" into Bengali in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nazrul; Khan, Ikramul Hasan; Ferdous, Nira; Rasker, Johannes J

    2017-05-22

    To develop a culturally adapted and validated Bengali Short Form SF 12v2 among Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. The English SF 12v2 was translated, adapted and back translated into and from Bengali, pre-tested by 60 patients. The Bengali SF 12v2 was administered twice with 14 days interval to 130 Bangladeshi RA patients. The psychometric properties of the Bengali SF 12v2 were assessed. Test-retest reliability was assessed by intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and internal consistency by Cronbach's alpha. Content validity was assessed by index for content validity (ICV) and floor and ceiling effects. To determine convergent and discriminant validity a Bengali Health Assessment Questionnaire (B-HAQ) was used. Factor analysis was done. The Bengali SF 12v2 was well accepted by the patients in the pre-test and showed good reliability. Internal consistency for both physical and mental component was satisfactory; Cronbach's alpha was 0.9. ICC exceeded 0.9 in all domains. Spearman's rho for all domains exceeded 0.8. The physical health component of Bengali SF 12v2 had convergent validity to the B-HAQ. Its mental health component had discriminant validity to the B-HAQ. The ICV of content validity was 1 for all items. Factor analysis revealed two factors a physical and a mental component. The interviewer-administered Bengali SF 12v2 appears to be an acceptable, reliable, and valid instrument for measuring health-related quality of life in Bengali speaking RA patients. Further evaluation in the general population and in different medical conditions should be done.

  7. English Do/Make Compared with German Tun/Machen and Dutch Doen/Maken--A Synchronic-Diachronic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehls, Dietrich

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the difficulties in learning the English verbs "do" and "make" by second-language learners, and compares the use of these verbs with the German "tun" and "machen" and the Dutch "doen" and "maken." It is suggested that to reach valid conclusions in contrastive linguistics, it is necessary to consider the diachronic dimension. (21…

  8. A Typological Approach to Translation of English and Chinese Motion Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yu; Chen, Huifang

    2012-01-01

    English and Chinese are satellite-framed languages in which Manner is usually incorporated with Motion in the verb and Path is denoted by the satellite. Based on Talmy's theory of motion event and typology, the research probes into translation of English and Chinese motion events and finds that: (1) Translation of motion events in English and…

  9. Category-specific difficulty naming with verbs in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, K M; Grossman, M; White-Devine, T; D'Esposito, M

    1996-07-01

    We studied 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) on a picture-naming task consisting of frequency-matched pairs of nouns and verbs that were homophonic and homographic (e.g., paint). Intragroup comparisons revealed that verb naming is significantly more difficult for patients with AD than noun naming. An error analysis demonstrated that patients with AD produce significantly more semantic and descriptive errors for verbs than nouns. We correlated verb naming and noun naming with measures of grammatical comprehension, lexical retrieval, and visuoperceptual processing, but there were no selective effects for verbs compared with nouns. Differences in the mental representation of concepts underlying verbs and nouns may account, in part, for the relative difficulty naming with verbs in AD.

  10. Vowel quality alternation in Dinka verb derivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    In Dinka, a predominantly monosyllabic and highly fusional Western Nilotic language, vowel quality alternation in the root plays a major and systematic role in the morphology of verbs, together with alternations in vowel length, voice quality, and tone. Earlier work has shown that in the inflecti...

  11. Broca's aphasia, verbs and the mental lexicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaanse, Y.R.M.; van Zonneveld, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Verb production is notoriously difficult for individuals with Broca's aphasia, both at the word and at the sentence level. An intriguing question is at which level in the speech production these problems arise. The aim of the present study is to identify the functional locus of the impairment that

  12. Distribution of conjunctive and disjunctive forms in Xitsonga | Lee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conjunctive and disjunctive forms in Xitsonga are examined with the purpose of presenting the distribution of these forms. While verbs in the conjunctive form are followed by some elements, the disjunctive is used when no element follows the verb. Xitsonga follows these basic patterns observed in other Bantu ...

  13. Verb Argument Structure in Narrative Speech: Mining AphasiaBank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyutina, Svetlana; Richardson, Jessica D; den Ouden, Dirk B

    2016-02-01

    Previous research has found that verb argument structure characteristics (such as the number of participant roles in the situation described by the verb) can facilitate or hinder aphasic language production and comprehension in constrained laboratory tasks. This research needs to be complemented by studies of narrative or unrestricted speech, which can capture the spontaneous selection of verbs and grammatical structures by people with aphasia and may be particularly sensitive to the relative cost of access to different verb types in more natural conditions. Focusing on the number of subcategorization options, we investigated verb argument structure effects in a large sample of narratives from AphasiaBank, by speakers with aphasia, as well as control speakers without brain damage. Verb argument structure complexity did not negatively affect verb selection in any type of aphasia. However, people with aphasia, particularly with Broca's aphasia, used verbs in less complex and diverse ways, with fewer arguments and less diverse subcategorization options. In line with previous research, this suggests that deficits in verb use in aphasia are likely due to difficulties with the online application of or partial damage to verb argument structure knowledge. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Polysemous Verbs and Modality in Native and Non-Native Argumentative Writing: A Corpus-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danica Salazar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a corpus-based analysis of a selection of polysemous lexical verbs used to express modality in student argumentative writing. Twenty-three lexical verbs were searched for in three 100,000-word corpora of argumentative essays written in English by American, Filipino and Spanish university students. Concordance lines were examined to determine their use in the three corpora. After presenting the overall results for all verbs studied, more in-depth linguistic analysis was performed on the polysemous verb feel. These analyses revealed that the non-native writers, unlike their native counterparts, had a limited grasp of the full range of meanings of lexical verbs such as feel. It also showed that all student writers under study employed only a restricted range of lexical verbs to convey modal meanings in their writing.En este artículo presentamos un análisis de una selección de verbos polisémicos, utilizados para expresar modalidad, en tres corpus de textos argumentativos escritos en inglés por estudiantes universitarios americanos, filipinos y españoles. Después de exponer los resultados generales, se presenta un análisis más exhaustivo del verbo polisémico feel, que revela que los estudiantes no nativos, a diferencia de los nativos, tienen un conocimiento limitado de su diversidad de sentidos. También muestra que todos los estudiantes analizados usaron un repertorio restringido de verbos léxicos que expresan modalidad.

  15. Acquiring the English Causative Alternation: Evidence from the University of Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseel Zibin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the current study was to test whether Advanced Jordanian EFL learners have acquired the English causative alternation. To this end, we used a Grammaticality Judgment Task (GJT to determine whether the participants would be able distinguish between alternating and non-alternating causative/inchoative verbs. The verbs used in the GJT were chosen based on their frequency in the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA. The sample of the study consisted of eighty advanced Jordanian EFL learners, studying English Language and Literature at the University of Jordan. The results revealed that the participants have not acquired the English causative alternation (total mean=61%. Specifically, the results showed that the participants encountered some difficulties with certain verbs that do not alternate and were used ungrammatically on the GJT. We proposed that these difficulties could be attributed to the differences between English and Jordanian Arabic (JA in terms of the semantically-based constraints that govern the causative-inchoative alternation in English and JA. The participants transferred the argument structure of verbs in JA into English without realising that the two languages are different in terms of the verbs that are allowed to alternate and those that are not. The study concludes with recommendations for further research. Keywords: C

  16. Auditory word recognition of verbs: Effects of verb argument structure on referent identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Torrent, Mònica; Rodriguez Ferreiro, Javier; Coll-Florit, Marta; Trueswell, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Word recognition includes the activation of a range of syntactic and semantic knowledge that is relevant to language interpretation and reference. Here we explored whether or not the number of arguments a verb takes impinges negatively on verb processing time. In this study, three experiments compared the dynamics of spoken word recognition for verbs with different preferred argument structure. Listeners’ eye movements were recorded as they searched an array of pictures in response to hearing a verb. Results were similar in all the experiments. The time to identify the referent increased as a function of the number of arguments, above and beyond any effects of label appropriateness (and other controlled variables, such as letter, phoneme and syllable length, phonological neighborhood, oral and written lexical frequencies, imageability and rated age of acquisition). The findings indicate that the number of arguments a verb takes, influences referent identification during spoken word recognition. Representational complexity and amount of information generated by the lexical item that aids target identification are discussed as possible sources of this finding. PMID:29206841

  17. Auditory word recognition of verbs: Effects of verb argument structure on referent identification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mònica Sanz-Torrent

    Full Text Available Word recognition includes the activation of a range of syntactic and semantic knowledge that is relevant to language interpretation and reference. Here we explored whether or not the number of arguments a verb takes impinges negatively on verb processing time. In this study, three experiments compared the dynamics of spoken word recognition for verbs with different preferred argument structure. Listeners' eye movements were recorded as they searched an array of pictures in response to hearing a verb. Results were similar in all the experiments. The time to identify the referent increased as a function of the number of arguments, above and beyond any effects of label appropriateness (and other controlled variables, such as letter, phoneme and syllable length, phonological neighborhood, oral and written lexical frequencies, imageability and rated age of acquisition. The findings indicate that the number of arguments a verb takes, influences referent identification during spoken word recognition. Representational complexity and amount of information generated by the lexical item that aids target identification are discussed as possible sources of this finding.

  18. Auditory word recognition of verbs: Effects of verb argument structure on referent identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Torrent, Mònica; Andreu, Llorenç; Rodriguez Ferreiro, Javier; Coll-Florit, Marta; Trueswell, John C

    2017-01-01

    Word recognition includes the activation of a range of syntactic and semantic knowledge that is relevant to language interpretation and reference. Here we explored whether or not the number of arguments a verb takes impinges negatively on verb processing time. In this study, three experiments compared the dynamics of spoken word recognition for verbs with different preferred argument structure. Listeners' eye movements were recorded as they searched an array of pictures in response to hearing a verb. Results were similar in all the experiments. The time to identify the referent increased as a function of the number of arguments, above and beyond any effects of label appropriateness (and other controlled variables, such as letter, phoneme and syllable length, phonological neighborhood, oral and written lexical frequencies, imageability and rated age of acquisition). The findings indicate that the number of arguments a verb takes, influences referent identification during spoken word recognition. Representational complexity and amount of information generated by the lexical item that aids target identification are discussed as possible sources of this finding.

  19. Usage of pronouns and verbs in Cortazar's novel «Rayuela» as reflection of decentralized vision of world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М С Бройтман

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the usage of personal pronouns and impersonal verbs in Cortazar's novel «Rayuela». These forms are being examined in connection with relations between «I» and «The Other». The semantics of unusual usage of plural forms and impersonal verbs in the Cortazar's text is connected with the fictitious nature of hero's personality limits, and represents the author's personality as multiple one. This fact reflects the decentralized, probabilistic picture of world, created by Julio Cortazar.

  20. Neural regions essential for writing verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, Argye E; Wityk, Robert J; Barker, Peter B; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2003-01-01

    Functional imaging data collected during cognitive tasks show which brain regions are active during those tasks, but do not necessarily indicate which regions are essential for those tasks. Here, in a study of two cases of selectively impaired written naming of verbs after focal brain ischemia, we combined imaging and behavioral testing to unambiguously identify brain regions that are crucial for a specific cognitive process. We used magnetic resonance perfusion imaging to show that the selective impairment in each case was due to hypoperfusion (low blood flow) in left posterior inferior frontal gyrus (PIFG) and precentral gyrus (PrG); the impairment was immediately reversed when blood flow was restored to these regions, indicating that parts of the left frontal lobe are crucial for representing and processing verbs.

  1. Complex Predicates : Verbal Complexes, Resultative Constructions, and Particle Verbs in German

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    In this book, I presented analyses for auxiliaries, subject and object control verbs, subject and object raising verbs, copula constructions, subject and object predicative constructions, depictive predicates, resultative predicate constructions, and particle verbs. The depictive predicates were

  2. Live Action: Can Young Children Learn Verbs From Video?

    OpenAIRE

    Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Parish-Morris, Julia; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2009-01-01

    The availability of educational programming aimed at infants and toddlers is increasing, yet the effect of video on language acquisition remains unclear. Three studies of 96 children aged 30–42 months investigated their ability to learn verbs from video. Study 1 asked whether children could learn verbs from video when supported by live social interaction. Study 2 tested whether children could learn verbs from video alone. Study 3 clarified whether the benefits of social interaction remained w...

  3. Presentation of the verbs in Bulgarian-Polish electronic dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Presentation of the verbs in Bulgarian-Polish electronic dictionary This paper briefly discusses the presentation of the verbs in the first electronic Bulgarian-Polish dictionary that is currently being developed under a bilateral collaboration between IMI-BAS and ISS-PAS. Special attention is given to the digital entry classifiers that describe Bulgarian and Polish verbs. Problems related to the correspondence between natural language phenomena and their presentations are discussed. Some examples illustrate the different types of dictionary entries for verbs.

  4. Combinatorial Processing of Irregular Verbs: Evidence from Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey Rimikis

    2014-04-01

    Taken together, the results of Experiments 1 and 2 indicate a combinatorial morphological deficit affecting both regular and irregular verb production. The errors in producing irregularly-inflected verbs are similar to the production of regular verbs, and not similar to phonologically-matched monomorphemic words. These findings are consistent with full-decomposition accounts of morphological processing and inconsistent with accounts that posit differential processing of regular and irregular verbs. We will present additional analyses from these tasks and related tasks involving morphological comprehension and production across modalities.

  5. A morphophonological analysis of the velar insert in Italian verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Lampitelli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a particular group of Italian irregular verbs that are characterized by the insertion of [g] between the root and the inflectional markers. Despite the apparent unetymological status of such a velar insert (Rohlfs 1968, it is shown that the allomorphy of the root depends on the internal organization of the segmental material with respect to a fixed template made of a strict alternation of onsets (C and nuclei (V. The analyses are couched within the CVCV framework (Lowenstamm 1996; Scheer 2004 and are consistent with a syntactic approach to word- formation such as Distributed Morphology (Halle & Marantz 1993; Embick 2010. This article is part of the special collection: Motivating Form in Morpho-Syntax

  6. The Englishness of English Sedilia

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    James Alexander Cameron

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sedilia are the ceremonial seats of the priest, deacon, and subdeacon placed to the south of the altar. In Gothic church architecture, they typically take the form of three deep niches, recessed into the thickness of the wall, surmounted by arches and separated by shafts. These types of sedilia are most well-known from English churches of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. This essay looks to explain why sedilia became so popular in England, through a consideration of trends in English architecture. With the help of Nikolaus Pevsner’s characterization of the country’s art from The Englishness of English Art, it will argue that the basic decorative language of sedilia is entrenched in trends first developed in the Anglo-Norman Romanesque. It will also suggest, however, that regional variations in the distribution of sedilia complicate the idea of a single “national style”.

  7. KISWAHILI VERBS: A LEXICOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    verbal root pend- 'love' the article claims that the agglutinative nature of Bantu languages is at the core of the morphological ... reveals the non-correspondence between form and meaning in language. Looked at from this same ...... From the discussion above, these derivatives may prove to be opaque to a. Kiswahili learner.

  8. ASYNCHRONICAL MEANS OF FORMING CROSS CULTURAL COMPETENCE OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS (IN THE CASE OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy G. Apalkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the key problems of forming cross cultural competence by means of asynchronic Internet-communication techniques. A concise overview of main studies in using e-mail group in forming cross cultural competence. An algorithm of forming cross cultural competence of high school students is described. 

  9. A concordance-based study of the use of reporting verbs as rhetorical devices in academic papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Bloch

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the use of concordancing to create materials for teaching about the role of reporting verbs in academic papers. The appropriate use of reporting verbs is crucial both in establishing the writer’s own claims and situating these claims within previously published research. The paper uses a sample of articles from Science, a leading journal in the scientific community, to create two small corpora. Based on the frequency ranking of 27 examples of reporting verbs, a sample of 540 sentences was chosen for more careful analysis. For each reporting verb in this sample, a randomized sample of sentences was drawn. In addition, a third corpus was created from student papers to compare the student use of reporting verbs to that of published writers. Each sentence in the randomized sample was coded into six possible categories that were based on syntactic form and rhetorical purpose. An analysis of these categories is presented in the second part of this paper. The results of this research were used to design a database of sentences that could be used to create teaching materials for an academic writing course and also be accessed through the Internet (Bloch, 2009.

  10. The metaphor in the grammaticalization process of the verb DANAR to express inceptive aspect with extension of the action in Brazilian Portuguese

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    Thaís Franco de Paula

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present how a metaphor acts in the grammaticalization process of the verb DANAR, from Brazilian Portuguese, ranging from the full lexical verb to the grammatical, auxiliary verb in constructions like: "The kid danou(-se to cry", hereby referred to as V1DANAR + (pron + (prep + V2infinitive. We support that this new usage of DANAR, perceived as a marker of an inceptive aspect with an extension of action, is a consequence of a metaphorical cognitive process that involves imagetic schemes of motion and force, which already existed within the concrete form of DANAR, which justifies that this verb, although not the archetypal aspect marker, may have updated this grammatical category.

  11. Do Acting out Verbs with Dolls and Comparison Learning between Scenes Boost Toddlers' Verb Comprehension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Amy Louise; Van Kleeck, Anne; Maguire, Mandy J.; Abdi, Herve

    2017-01-01

    To better understand how toddlers integrate multiple learning strategies to acquire verbs, we compared sensorimotor recruitment and comparison learning because both strategies are thought to boost children's access to scene-level information. For sensorimotor recruitment, we tested having toddlers use dolls as agents and compared this strategy…

  12. Parallelism Effects and Verb Activation: The Sustained Reactivation Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Sarah M.; Shapiro, Lewis P.; Love, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the processes underlying parallelism by evaluating the activation of a parallel element (i.e., a verb) throughout "and"-coordinated sentences. Four points were tested: (1) approximately 1,600ms after the verb in the first conjunct (PP1), (2) immediately following the conjunction (PP2), (3) approximately 1,100ms after the…

  13. A computational approach to Zulu verb morphology within the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The central research question that is addressed in this article is: How can ZulMorph, a finite state morphological analyser for Zulu, be employed to add value to Zulu lexical semantics with specific reference to Zulu verbs? The verb is the most complex word category in Zulu. Due to the agglutinative nature of Zulu morphology, ...

  14. The Nahuatl Verb "maka": A Cognitive Grammar Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuggy, David

    The verb stem "maka" ("give") in Nahuatl is unusual in its range of options with respect to transitivity. Like all transitive verb stems, it regularly occurs with an object and must do so, but it also appears in an unusually large number of constructions in which it has two objects. These constructions are examined within the…

  15. Noun-Verb Ambiguity in Chronic Undifferentiated Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Robert; Bekker, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated noun-verb retrieval patterns of 30 adults with chronic undifferentiated schizophrenia and 67 typical adults, to determine if schizophrenia affected nouns (associated with temporal lobe function) differently from verbs (associated with frontal lobe function). Stimuli were homophonic homographic homonyms, balanced according…

  16. Finiteness and Verb-Second in German Agrammatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzlaff, Michaela; Clahsen, Harald

    2005-01-01

    This study presents results from sentence-completion and grammaticality-judgement tasks with seven German-speaking agrammatic aphasics and seven age-matched control subjects examining verb finiteness marking and verb-second (V2) placement. The patients were found to be selectively impaired in tense marking in the face of preserved mood and…

  17. Training verb and sentence production in agrammatic Broca's aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Links, Petra; Hurkmans, Joost; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2010-01-01

    Background: Many aphasic speakers have problems producing verbs at both the word and the sentence level. A treatment programme called ACTION (Bastiaanse, Bunge, Perk, 2004; Bastiaanse, Jonkers, Quak, Varela Put, 1997) has been developed to train verb production of both fluent and non-fluent aphasic

  18. Verb naming fluency in hypokinetic and hyperkinetic movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Ece; Akbostanci, Muhittin C

    2017-07-01

    Cortical motor regions are considered to play a role in action related language. These regions are affected differently in different types of movement disorders. Parkinson's disease, a hypokinetic movement disorder, has been shown to cause action language disruptions alongside movement deficits. Action language, however, has not been investigated in primary cervical dystonia, a hyperkinetic movement disorder. The aim of this study is to investigate whether action language is affected differently in hypokinetic and hyperkinetic movement disorders which have different effects on movements. Thirty patients with Parkinson's disease, thirty primary cervical dystonia patients and thirty healthy controls were included in the study. Participants performed phonemic, semantic and action fluency tasks. Verbs produced during action fluency were grouped as action and non-action verbs and group differences were investigated. Our results showed that all participants performed similarly in all of the fluency tasks. Mean action content of the verbs produced in action fluency did not differ between groups. During action fluency, however, whereas healthy controls produced more action verbs than non-action verbs, both patient groups did not have this difference between verb groups. Primary cervical dystonia patients produced less action verbs compared to healthy controls. The lack of action language deficits in Parkinson's disease and only an action verb deficit in primary cervical dystonia without any other action language deficits reject strong embodiment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Time Reference through Verb Inflection in Turkish Agrammatic Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Tuba Yarbay; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the production of tensed finite verbs and participles referring to the past and future in agrammatic speakers of Turkish. The agrammatic speakers did not make more time reference errors in tensed verbs than in participles. This is interesting because tense in general cannot therefore be the main problem, since time reference for…

  20. Live Action: Can Young Children Learn Verbs from Video?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Parish-Morris, Julia; Golinkoff, Roberta M.

    2009-01-01

    The availability of educational programming aimed at infants and toddlers is increasing, yet the effect of video on language acquisition remains unclear. Three studies of 96 children aged 30-42 months investigated their ability to learn verbs from video. Study 1 asked whether children could learn verbs from video when supported by live social…

  1. Testing controlled productive knowledge of adverb-verb collocations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicate that free-productive knowledge of adverb-verb collocations is challenging for EFL users. This finding supports previous studies that focused mainly on verb-noun collocations, and that reached the conclusion that EFL students are not sensitive enough to collocations to use them in their written productions (cf ...

  2. The Acquisition of Verb Argument Structure in Basilectal Jakarta Indonesian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidajat, Lanny

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation studies the acquisition of verb argument structure in the basilectal subvariety of Jakarta Indonesian (henceforth, bJI). There are two characteristics of bJI that potentially affect the acquisition of verb argument structure. First, bJI sentences can surface not only in the full frame but also in truncated frames. Second, the…

  3. On the Formation of Verb Compounds in Early Middle Japanese

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    Wenchao LI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the formation of verb compounds in Early Middle Japanese, a stage of the Japanese language used in the Heian Period (794–1185. The findings reveal that current verb compounds have come a long way from Old Japanese. Multiple verbs in Old Japanese are assigned to an associate type, rather than a compounding type of relation. Thus, the serial constituents receive equal syntactic weight, giving rise to the extensive use of the coordinate type and succession type of multi-verbs. In Early Middle Japanese, the combinations of the two constituents seem much tighter, giving rise the frequent use of the modifier-predicate V-V. The conclusion emerging from this study is that it was not until Early Middle Japanese that verb compounds in the strict sense appeared. Moreover, two types of verb weakening are observed in Early Middle Japanese: (a transformation of the first verb into a prefix, (b grammaticalization of the second verb into a directional/resultative complement.

  4. Reciprocal Pronouns Binding within Psych-verb Constructions

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    Napoleon Epoge

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at giving an analysis of certain syntactic peculiarities of reciprocal pronouns within verbs of psychological state, commonly known as psych-verbs. The analysis reveal that psych-verbs constructions have a peculiar property in that the binding conditions of reciprocal pronouns are satisfied in Experiencer-Subject (ES psych-verbs constructions but are not in the Experiencer-Object (EO at the surface level; though the latter constructions are grammatical. However, the paper argues that though binding conditions are not satisfied in EO psych-verb constructions at the surface level, they are satisfied in the deep structure (D-structure construction wherein the reciprocal pronoun, in the theme argument, is bound by a c-commanding Experiencer argument. By so doing, it satisfies binding condition A which holds that a reciprocal pronoun must be bound by an appropriate c-command antecedent. This analysis shows that reciprocal binding in Experiencer-Object psych-verb constructions, at the D-structure, does not reflect the linear order in the thematic hierarchy as proposed by Grimshaw (1990 and the psych-verb in EO D-structure construction is construed as one with two internal arguments. Keywords: antecedent, binding theory, D-structure, psych-verb, reciprocal pronoun, S-structure

  5. Cross-Linguistic Differences in a Picture-Description Task Between Korean- and English-Speaking Individuals With Aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jee Eun; DeDe, Gayle; Lee, Soo Eun

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine cross-linguistic differences in a picture-description task between Korean- and English-speaking individuals with Broca's and anomic aphasia to determine whether a variation exists in the use of verbs and nouns across the language and aphasia groups. Forty-eight individuals (male = 29; female = 19) participated in the study (n = 28 for aphasic group and n = 20 healthy controls). Data for English speakers were obtained from the Aphasia Bank Project. We used the picture-description task to obtain connected speech samples and analyzed noun- and verb-related linguistic variables. Korean speakers with aphasia produced more verbs per utterance and a lower noun-to-verb ratio than English speakers with aphasia, whereas English speakers produced more nouns than Korean speakers. The Korean anomic group produced more verbs than Korean speakers with Broca's aphasia, whereas no effects were significant for English speakers with aphasia depending on the type of aphasia. Aphasia symptoms vary as a function of linguistic features of languages that individuals with aphasia used premorbidly. Furthermore, the linguistic characteristics of the individual's language influenced aphasia symptoms more strongly than the type of aphasia. It is theoretically and clinically important that this cross-linguistic study provides different perspectives, and that noun-verb deficits may vary depending on linguistic features.

  6. Spanish Verbs Visualization: A study and scalable experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana García Serrano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is presented a study on verbs in Spanish and it’s potential to display images from the Wikipedia (Wikimedia. It is designed and developed an Information Retrieval model based on linguistic structures of verbs and an environment that allows all subsequent scaling Spanish verbs. Adesse and EuroWordNet are the linguistic resources selected to bring the theoretical basis of the work. In the absence of an adequate corpus with relevant judgments to the problem, it has been recorded by the second author a subset of visual verbs sufficiently representative and enable to further work on this issue. Finally conclusions about visual verbs as well as the obtained results are provided

  7. Differing Interpretations of Empty Categories in English and Japanese VP Ellipsis Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Ayumi

    2007-01-01

    This article describes how English and Japanese children interpret empty categories in Verb Phrase Ellipsis contexts as in (1):(1) The penguin [sat on his chair] and the robot did [delta], too. To obtain an adultlike interpretation of (1), English children have to do two things. First, they need to find a suitable antecedent for the empty verb…

  8. English-Afrikaans Intrasentential Code Switching: Testing a Feature Checking Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dulm, Ondene

    2009-01-01

    The work presented here aims to account for the structure of intrasentential code switching between English and Afrikaans within the framework of feature checking theory, a theory associated with minimalist syntax. Six constructions in which verb position differs between English and Afrikaans were analysed in terms of differences in the strength…

  9. Personal and Impersonal Authorial References: A Contrastive Study of English and Italian Linguistics Research Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molino, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    A cross-cultural approach is taken to analyse Linguistics research articles in English and Italian in terms of 1) the use of exclusive first-person subject pronouns in English and first-person inflected verbs in Italian, and 2) the passive voice in both languages and "si" constructions in Italian. The aim is to determine whether personal and…

  10. A Question of Language Awareness: Using English To Support Second Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ian

    1997-01-01

    Argues that a better understanding of the workings of one's first language--English, for most Australians--can facilitate the acquisition and appreciation of another language. The article exploits the morphology and syntax of English in the following areas: liaison, emphasis, stress, separable and inseparable verbs, dental suffixes, weak and…

  11. Objects, Events and "to Be" Verbs in Spanish--An ERP Study of the Syntax-Semantics Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone-Fernandez, Barbara; Molinaro, Nicola; Carreiras, Manuel; Barber, Horacio A.

    2012-01-01

    In Spanish, objects and events at subject position constrain the selection of different forms of the auxiliary verb "to be": locative predicates about objects require "estar en", while those relating to events require "ser en", both translatable as "to be in". Subjective ratings showed that while the "object + ser + en" is considered as incorrect,…

  12. Past tense in the brain's time: Neurophysiological evidence for dual-route processing of past-tense verbs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, I.; Pulvermüller, F.; Shtyrov, Y.

    2013-01-01

    A controversial issue in neuro- and psycholinguistics is whether regular past-tense forms of verbs are stored lexically or generated productively by the application of abstract combinatorial schemas, for example affixation rules. The success or failure of models in accounting for this particular

  13. A contrastive analysis of dar ‘give’ in english and brazilian portuguese: semantic-syntactic relationships and implications for L2 instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoffersen, Katherine O'Donnell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, research on multiword lexical units has influenced second language acquisition research, but little work has been done on light verbs, especially comparing the use of light verbs in English and Brazilian Portuguese. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the syntactic and semantic aspects of dar and ‘give’ through the semantic continuum, event type, denominal verbs and incorporation. This study finds that distinct and varied semantic uses of light verbs present a unique challenge to second language learners in terms of both their understanding and their production. Furthermore, this study analyzes the semantic-syntactic interrelationships and suggests implications for teaching English and Portuguese light verbs to second language learners

  14. The use of corpora in English writing classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Pinto Paiva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at discussing aspects related to learner corpora and linguistic features found in texts written by English learners based on the use of collocations in text production. For this research, we analyzed collocations with the verb “to have” and with the nouns “prejudice” and “regret”.

  15. Acquisition of English by Korean Children: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Joo

    1998-01-01

    Longitudinally investigated the development of interlanguage by two Korean speakers of English to better understand the second-language acquisition process. In particular it tested the aspect hypothesis that asserts that verb inflections in early interlanguage systems function primarily as markers of lexical aspect. (Author/VWL)

  16. AN ANALYSIS OF SUBJECT AGREEMENT ERRORS IN ENGLISH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    however, continuing prevalence of a wide range of errors in students' writing. ... were written before. In English, as in many other languages, one of the grammar rules is that the subjects and the verbs must agree both in number and in person. .... The incorrect sentences which were picked were the ones which had types of.

  17. Linking learner corpus and experimental data in studying second language learners’ knowledge of verb-argument constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Römer Ute

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper combines data from learner corpora and psycholinguistic experiments in an attempt to find out what advanced learners of English (first language backgrounds German and Spanish know about a range of common verbargument constructions (VACs, such as the ‘V about n’ construction (e.g. she thinks about chocolate a lot. Learners’ dominant verb-VAC associations are examined based on evidence retrieved from the German and Spanish subcomponents of ICLE and LINDSEI and collected in lexical production tasks in which participants complete VAC frames (e.g. ‘he ___ about the...’ with verbs that may fill the blank (e.g. talked, thought, wondered. The paper compares findings from the different data sets and highlights the value of linking corpus and experimental evidence in studying linguistic phenomena

  18. The Answer Is the Question: The Effect of Verb Causality on Locus of Explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semin, Gun R.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated how verb causality in question formulation affects the locus of causal origin for answers. Hypothesized questions formulated with action verbs cue the logical subject of the question sentence as the causal origin for answers. Reverse tendency was expected for state verbs. Verb type in question formulation was found to affect…

  19. Lexical, morphological, and syntactic aspects of verb production in agrammatic aphasics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaanse, Y.R.M.; Hugen, J.; Kos, M; van Zonneveld, R.M.

    Agrammatic aphasics do not exhibit a normal pattern of verb production their spontaneous speech is said to lack verbs, and the verbs that are produced lack inflection. The Current article focuses on the lexical. morphological, and syntactic aspects of verbs in spontaneous speech of a group of Dutch

  20. Verb Argument Structure in Children with SLI: Evidence from Eye-Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, Llorenc

    2011-01-01

    Despite the problems found in relation to verbs, to date there have been few studies on the online processing of verb argument structure in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). This work explores the role of verb semantics and specifically verb argument structure in language comprehension and language production. To carry out the…

  1. The Acquisition of the English Locative Alternation by Kuwaiti EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Alotaibi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to test whether 100 advanced Kuwaiti EFL learners have acquired the English locative alternation. A Grammaticality Judgment Task (GJT was used to examine whether the participants have the ability to make a distinction between verbs that alternate between the figure-object frame and the ground-object frame and those verbs that do not. The researcher selected the verbs on the basis of Pinker’s (1989 classification of alternating vs. non-alternating English locative verbs. The results show that the participants’ performance on the alternating verbs was better than that on the non-alternating ones. They also reveal that negative transfer of the argument structure of the verbs from the participants’ first language into English contributed to their erroneous answers on the test. Additionally, it has been argued that positive transfer from L1 also played a major role in the participants’ correct answers on the test. The study concludes with some recommendations for further research.

  2. The passive of reflexive verbs in Icelandic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlíf Árnadóttir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Reflexive Passive in Icelandic is reminiscent of the so-called New Passive (or New Impersonal in that the oblique case of a passivized object NP is preserved. As is shown by recent surveys, however, speakers who accept the Reflexive Passive do not necessarily accept the New Passive, whereas conversely, speakers who accept the New Passive do also accept the Reflexive Passive. Based on these results we suggest that there is a hierarchy in the acceptance of passive sentences in Icelandic, termed the Passive Acceptability Hierarchy. The validity of this hierarchy is confirmed by our diachronic corpus study of open access digital library texts from Icelandic journals and newspapers dating from the 19th and 20th centuries (tímarit.is. Finally, we sketch an analysis of the Reflexive Passive, proposing that the different acceptability rates of the Reflexive and New Passives lie in the argument status of the object. Simplex reflexive pronouns are semantically dependent on the verbs which select them, and should therefore be analyzed as syntactic arguments only, and not as semantic arguments of these verbs.

  3. ENGLISH TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch PLACES AVAILABLE Writing Professional Documents in English This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English who need to improve their professional writing (administrative, scientific, technical). Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) Date and timetable will be fixed when there are sufficient participants enrolled. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their sp...

  4. Identity-Forming Discourses: A Critical Discourse Analysis on Policy Making Processes Concerning English Language Teaching in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escobar Alméciga Wilder Yesid

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses a critical problem about asymmetrical power relationships and uneven conditions in English language education exerted via identity shaping discourses in the document Educación: Visión 2019 issued by the Colombian Ministry of National Education. The study follows the critical discourse analysis method. It characterizes discursive strategies which, in turn, unveil power structures, means of control, and subject positioning of submission and dominance inherent in three main categories: Being bilingual, being successful, and being Colombian. It concludes that discourses are being strategically employed by the Colombian Ministry of National Education to change or preserveideologies and to widen gaps between socio-economic groups to protect the interests of only a small segment of the population.Este reporte postula una problemática de relaciones desequilibradas de dominio, poder, control y de la desproporcionada distribución de recursos en la enseñanza del inglés en Colombia, lo cual es perpetrado por discursos que moldean la identidad, en el documento Educación: Visión 2019 publicado por el Ministerio de Educación Nacional de Colombia. El estudio sigue los principios del análisis crítico del discurso. Esta investigación caracteriza estrategias discursivas que a su vez develan estructuras de poder, medios de control, y posicionamiento de sumisión y dominio en tres categorías: ser bilingüe, ser exitoso y ser colombiano. El estudio sugiere que el Ministerio de Educación Nacional está empleando discursos para manipular ideologías y generar inequidad entre grupos sociales en tanto que protege los intereses de un segmento de la población exclusivamente. 

  5. Uma investigação dos sentidos de um phrasal verb por meio dos corpora e dicionários on-line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Fernandes Bonalumi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nesta pesquisa analisamos o uso do phrasal verbs throw up encontrado em dois corpora on-line originalmente escritos em língua inglesa, a saber: British National Corpus (BNC e Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA, bem como no livro didático adotado em sala de aula New English File Upper-Intermediate, com o suporte dos dicionários on-line Cambridge Online Dictionary e Macmillan Dictionary. Objetivamos identificar, classificar e generalizar o uso e significados do phrasal verb selecionado para a análise nos respectivos corpora on-line em relação ao seu uso e significado no livro didático anteriormente mencionado. Por meio dos corpora e dicionários on-line, o aluno expandirá seu conhecimento acerca do uso e significados de um determinado phrasal verb, como o analisado nesta investigação. Palavras-chave: linguística de corpus; ensino movido por dados; phrasal verbs.

  6. L2 English Intonation: Relations between Form-Meaning Associations, Access to Meaning, and L1 Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Llebaria, Marta; Colantoni, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Although there is consistent evidence that higher levels of processing, such as learning the form-meaning associations specific to the second language (L2), are a source of difficulty in acquiring L2 speech, no study has addressed how these levels interact in shaping L2 perception and production of intonation. We examine the hypothesis of whether…

  7. [Mnemonic strategy for english vocabulary of TCM fundamental theory formed by borrowing translation and morphemic translation from Western medical terms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wu, Xiao-kang

    2006-08-01

    In the article, the importance and feasibility of borrowing translation and morphemic translation from Western medical terms for translating terms of TCM fundamental theory are briefly reviewed, and mnemonic strategy for the memorization of TCM vocabulary formed by the two translation methods is discussed.

  8. THE FUNCTION OF SIMPLE SENTENCE BETWEEN ALBANIAN AND ENGLISH

    OpenAIRE

    Shkelqim Millaku

    2017-01-01

    In Albanian and English we have same kind of sentences (simple, compound or complex sentence). The major of elements or constituents that can be found in clauses are subject, predicate, object, complement etc. For Albanian and English most linguists agree on the needs to recognize at least the following word classes: noun, verb, adjective, preposition, adverb, determinative and conjunction. Each of these words classes is illustrated in the sentence below. The noun or noun phrase can be subjec...

  9. Left-right compatibility in the processing of trading verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Mario Vicario

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research investigating the nature of cognitive processes involved in the representation of economical outcomes is growing. Within this research, the mental accounting model proposes that individuals may well use cognitive operations to organize, evaluate, and keep track of their financial activities (Thaler, 1999. Here we wanted to test this hypothesis by asking to a group of participants to detect a syntax mistake of verbs indicating incoming and going out activities related to economical profit (trading verbs, swapping (swapping verbs and thinking (thinking verbs. We reported a left-right compatibility for trading verbs (i.e. participants were faster with their right hand while detecting verb referring to a monetary gain with respect to a monetary loss; and faster with their left hand while detecting a monetary loss with respect to a monetary gain. However, this pattern of result was not reported while detecting swapping verbs. Results are discussed taking into account the mental accounting theory as well as to the spatial mapping of valence hypothesis.

  10. Left-right compatibility in the processing of trading verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Carmelo M; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2014-01-01

    The research investigating the nature of cognitive processes involved in the representation of economical outcomes is growing. Within this research, the mental accounting model proposes that individuals may well use cognitive operations to organize, evaluate, and keep track of their financial activities (Thaler, 1999). Here we wanted to test this hypothesis by asking to a group of participants to detect a syntax mistake of verbs indicating incoming and going out activities related to economical profit (trading verbs), swapping (swapping verbs) and thinking (thinking verbs). We reported a left-right compatibility for trading verbs (i.e., participants were faster with their right hand while detecting verb referring to a monetary gain with respect to a monetary loss; and faster with their left hand while detecting a monetary loss with respect to a monetary gain). However, this pattern of result was not reported while detecting swapping verbs. Results are discussed taking into account the mental accounting theory as well as to the spatial mapping of valence hypothesis.

  11. 'It's just not acceptable any more': the erosion of homophobia and the softening of masculinity at an English sixth form

    OpenAIRE

    McCormack, M; Anderson, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This ethnographic research interrogates the relationship between sexuality, gender and homophobia and how they impact on 16- to 18-year-old boys in a coeducational sixth form in the south of England. Framing our research with inclusive masculinity theory, we find that, unlike the elevated rates of homophobia typically described in academic literature, the boys at 'Standard High' espouse pro-gay attitudes and eliminate homophobic language. This inclusivity simultaneously permits an expansion o...

  12. IMPROVING THE GRAMMATICAL ACCURACY OF THE SPOKEN ENGLISH OF INDONESIAN INTERNATIONAL KINDERGARTEN STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMELDA GOZALI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The need to improve the spoken English of kindergarten students in an international preschool in Surabaya prompted this Classroom Action Research (CAR. It involved the implementation of Form-Focused Instruction (FFI strategy coupled with Corrective Feedback (CF in Grammar lessons. Four grammar topics were selected, namely Regular Plural form, Subject Pronoun, Auxiliary Verbs Do/Does, and Irregular Past Tense Verbs as they were deemed to be the morpho-syntax which children acquire early in life based on the order of acquisition in Second Language Acquisition. The results showed that FFI and CF contributed to the improvement of the spoken grammar in varying degrees, depending on the academic performance, personality, and specific linguistic traits of the students. Students with high academic achievement could generally apply the grammar points taught after the FFI lessons in their daily speech. Students who were rather talkative were sensitive to the CF and could provide self-repair when prompted. Those with lower academic performance generally did not benefit much from the FFI lessons nor the CF.

  13. Verbs and arguments: syntactic-semantic combinations with the Latin verb cogo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª Esperanza Torrego

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the combinations of arguments within the verb cogo ‘to force’. They are organized in three semantic domains, the one of gathering-put together —cogo 1—; the one of forcing —cogo 2—; and the one of collecting — extorting (money — cogo 3—. These domains yield several Predicate Frames. Some of the combinations are explained from verb lexical features (cogo 1x and cogo 2, but other ones seem to be rather collocations (‘to gather olives’, ‘to collect money’. Syntax of cogo has a transitive frame with an argument of Direction (cogo 1, projected as an event (Infinitive in cogo 2. Syntax of cogo 3 reflects an alternative conceptualization of the force dinamics. Conceptual relationship among PFs is articulated from the facet of ‘coaction’ and completed by the one of ‘resistence oposition’; this combination sets the verb in a clear sphere of causativity.

  14. Early lexical development in English- and Korean-speaking children: language-general and language-specific patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M; McGregor, K K; Thompson, C K

    2000-06-01

    The present study examined the composition of the early productive vocabulary of eight Korean- and eight English-learning children and the morpho-syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic characteristics of their caregivers' input in order to determine parallels between caregiver input and early lexical development. Vocabulary acquisition was followed using maternal diary and checklists for the Korean-learning children (from a mean age of 1;6 to 1;9) and for the English-learning children (from a mean age of 1;4 to 1;8). Results showed that both Korean-learning and English-learning children acquired significantly more nouns than verbs at the 50-word mark. However, Korean children learned significantly more verbs than did English-learning children. The relative ease with which Korean learners, as compared to English learners, acquired verbs parallels several differences in the linguistic and socio-pragmatic characteristics of the input addressed to them. Korean-speaking caregivers presented more activity-oriented utterances, more verbs, and more salient cues to verbs than did English-speaking caregivers. These data suggest that both general and language-specific factors shape the early lexicon.

  15. Compositionality and the angular gyrus: A multi-voxel similarity analysis of the semantic composition of nouns and verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Christine; Trueswell, John C; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2015-11-01

    The cognitive and neural systems that enable conceptual processing must support the ability to combine (and recombine) concepts to form an infinite number of ideas. Two candidate neural systems for conceptual combination-the left anterior temporal lobe (ATL) and the left angular gyrus (AG)-have been characterized as "semantic hubs" due to both functional and anatomical properties; however, these two regions likely support different aspects of composition. Here we consider two hypotheses for the role of AG in conceptual combination, both of which differ from a putative role for the ATL in "feature-based" combinatorics (i.e., meaning derived by combining concepts' features). Firstly, we examine whether AG is more sensitive to function-argument relations of the sort that arise when a predicate is combined with its arguments. Secondly, we examine the non-mutually exclusive possibility that AG represents information carried on a verb in particular, whether this be information about event composition or about thematic relations denoted uniquely by verbs. We identified voxels that respond differentially to two-word versus one-word stimuli, and we measured the similarity of the patterns in these voxels evoked by (1) pairs of two-word phrases that shared a noun that was an argument, thus sharing function-argument composition (e.g. eats meat and with meat), in comparison with two-word phrases that shared only a noun, not an argument (e.g., eats meat and tasty meat); and (2) stimulus pairs that shared only an event (operationalized here as sharing a verb; e.g. eats meat and eats quickly), in comparison to both of the above. We found that activity patterns in left AG tracked information relating to the presence of an event-denoting verb in a pair of two-word phrases. We also found that the neural similarity in AG voxel patterns between two phrases sharing a verb correlated with subjects' ratings of how similar the meanings of those two verb phrases were. These findings

  16. English Language Teaching Profile: Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This profile in outline form of the English language teaching situation in Cyprus discusses the role of English within the Greek Cypriot community and within the educational system. Areas covered include English language requirements and English within the curriculum, teaching personnel and teacher training, instructional materials, English…

  17. Application of lexical information in grammar: On the data of Czech verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panevova Jarmila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between lexical information and the rules of grammar is demonstrated by selected morphological and syntactic phenomena from the domain of Czech verbs. The application of some grammatical rules is based on the data stored in the lexicon. The information about valency is a substantial part of a lexical entry and it contains a great deal of supplementary information about this item. Systemic surface omissions of the obligatory valency positions are indicated in the valency frame in the lexicon (Sect. 2. Conditions for the choice of the formal expressions of the valency members (e.g. conjunctions in content clauses, infinitive forms of participants depend on the features given in the corresponding lexical item of their governing verb as well (Sect. 3 and 6. Two types of semantic conversions are demonstrated in Section 4 with regard to the distinctions in their valency frames. The relation of reciprocity is understood here as a syntactic diathesis (Sect. 5. The introduction of the new types of grammatical diatheses is discussed in Sect. 7: The morphologhy and syntax of resultative, recipient and dispositional diatheses are described here together with the requirements of the grammatical component regarding the shape of lexical items of the verbs participating in these diathesis (Section 8.

  18. Language-general and language-specific influences on children's acquisition of argument structure: a comparison of French and English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naigles, Letitia R; Lehrer, Nadine

    2002-08-01

    This research investigates language-general and language-specific properties of the acquisition of argument structure. Ten French preschoolers enacted forty sentences containing motion verbs; sixteen sentences were ungrammatical in that the syntactic frame was incompatible with the standard argument structure for the verb (e.g. *Le tigre va le lion = *The tiger goes the lion). Previous work (Naigles, Fowler & Helm, 1992, 1995; Naigles, Gleitman & Gleitman, 1993) indicated that English-speaking two-year-olds faced with such ungrammatical sentences consistently altered the usual meaning of the verb to fit the syntactic frame (frame compliance) whereas adults faced with the same sentences altered the syntax to fit the meaning of the verb (verb compliance). The age at which children began to perform Verb Compliantly varied by frame and by verb. The current study finds that the level of Verb Compliance in French five-year-olds largely mirrors that of English-speaking five-year-olds. The sole exception is the intransitive frame with an added prepositional phrase (e.g. *Le tigre amène près de la passerelle = *The tiger brings next to the ramp), which elicits a higher level of Verb Compliance among French kindergarteners than among their English learning peers. This effect may be due to the unambiguous interpretation of French spatial prepositions (i.e. next to has both locative and directional interpretations whereas près de supports only the locative interpretation). These data support the conclusion that the acquisition of argument structure is influenced by both language-general mechanisms (e.g. uniqueness, entrenchment) and language-specific properties (e.g. prepositional ambiguity).

  19. Training verb argument structure production in agrammatic aphasia: behavioral and neural recovery patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cynthia K; Riley, Ellyn A; den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Meltzer-Asscher, Aya; Lukic, Sladjana

    2013-10-01

    Neuroimaging and lesion studies indicate a left hemisphere network for verb and verb argument structure processing, involving both frontal and temporoparietal brain regions. Although their verb comprehension is generally unimpaired, it is well known that individuals with agrammatic aphasia often present with verb production deficits, characterized by an argument structure complexity hierarchy, indicating faulty access to argument structure representations for production and integration into syntactic contexts. Recovery of verb processing in agrammatism, however, has received little attention and no studies have examined the neural mechanisms associated with improved verb and argument structure processing. In the present study we trained agrammatic individuals on verbs with complex argument structure in sentence contexts and examined generalization to verbs with less complex argument structure. The neural substrates of improved verb production were examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Eight individuals with chronic agrammatic aphasia participated in the study (four experimental and four control participants). Production of three-argument verbs in active sentences was trained using a sentence generation task emphasizing the verb's argument structure and the thematic roles of sentential noun phrases. Before and after training, production of trained and untrained verbs was tested in naming and sentence production and fMRI scans were obtained, using an action naming task. Significant pre- to post-training improvement in trained and untrained (one- and two-argument) verbs was found for treated, but not control, participants, with between-group differences found for verb naming, production of verbs in sentences, and production of argument structure. fMRI activation derived from post-treatment compared to pre-treatment scans revealed upregulation in cortical regions implicated for verb and argument structure processing in healthy controls. Training

  20. Constructions with Support Verbs: Grammatical and Discursive Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rove Luiza de Oliveira Chishman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This text aims to present evidences from a corpus study of constructions with the support verbs dar and fazer from Brazilian Portuguese and to discuss the discursive function that underlies support verb constructions. There is the argument that the grammaticalization process of these constructions is related to their pragmatic value. The functionalist assumption that grammar is related to language functional demands is taken on. The study presents one hundred constructions which were the most frequent in the corpus and the most common morphosyntatic variations showed by these constructions, such as the use of determinants and number and degree noun variations. Lastly, some examples of sentences from the corpus are commented in order to demonstrate how the use of support verb constructions instead of full verbs can cause certain discursive effects. The text also attempts to show how the morphosyntatic variations can influence the construction of a different meaning.

  1. A syntactic and lexical approach to French reflexive verbs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Corina Petersilka

    2012-01-01

    This Construction grammar approach to French refl exive verbs describes the formal and semantic constraints at work in the different refl exive constructions, points out at their different branches...

  2. Automatic Verb Classification Based on Statistical Distributions of Argument Structure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paola Merlo; Suzanne Stevenson

    2001-01-01

    .... Especially important is knowledge about verbs, which are the primary source of relational information in a sentence-the predicate-argument structure that relates an action or state to its participants (i.e...

  3. Changement lexical et constructionnalisation dans le domaine du verbe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch Peter

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Une théorie qui a de plus en plus attiré l’attention des linguistes pendant ces dernières années est celle des « grammaires de construction », qui considèrent les ‘constructions’ grammaticales non plus comme des structures syntagmatiques purement formelles, mais comme des signes linguistiques complexes, qui associent un sens à une forme. Dès son application aux ‘structures argumentales’ (Goldberg 1995, l’approche constructionelle s’est avérée fructueuse pour saisir plus particulièrement les problèmes qui concernent le rapport entre les noyaux verbaux et les arguments/actants qui les entourent (dans ce qui suit : ‘constructions circonverbales’. A priori, les grammaires de construction ont été conçues comme des modèles destinés à la description synchronique. Or, depuis un certain nombre d’années, elles se sont également ouvertes à la diachronie, notamment dans les domaines de la grammaticalisation, de la formation des mots en diachronie et de la phraséologie diachronique (Traugott 2003 ; Bergs/Diewald 2008 ; Lasch/Ziem 2011. Il est tentant de faire converger les deux filières de recherche évoquées pour étudier la diachronie du lexique verbal dans une optique constructionnelle, comme l’a fait pour la première fois Jacques François (p.ex. 2008. Il est évident que le changement que subit un lexème verbal en diachronie implique, dans la plupart des cas, également un changement de la structure actantielle/valencielle (Koch 2002. Souvent un tel changement n’est pas seulement de nature formelle, mais implique aussi un changement sémantique du verbe même. On peut supposer que l’approche constructionnelle se prête particulièrement à mettre en évidence le rapport entre changement formel et changement sémantique du verbe en tant qu’élément central d’une ‘construction’. Pour réaliser ce projet, il convient de procéder à un certain nombre de modifications et d’adaptations non

  4. The acquisition of functional categories in early French second language grammars: the use of finite and non-finite verbs in negative contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Rule, Sarah; Marsden, Emma

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This cross-sectional study of first language (L1) English adolescents learning French as a second language (L2) uses their development of negatives in relation to finite and non-finite verbs to investigate the status and nature of functional categories in these learners? emerging grammars. Analysing oral data from elicited production tasks from instructed learners, it provides evidence for a lack o...

  5. Verbs and nouns from a cross-linguistic perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, J.

    2002-01-01

    It has often been claimed that all languages have major, distinct classes of verbs and nouns (see e.g. Robins 1967: 211; Schachter 1985: 6–7; Whaley 1997: 59). There is, however, growing evidence to suggest that the verb-noun distinction is scalar rather than discrete (Ross 1972, 1973), and that ...... phrases and clauses) can be analyzed in a similar fashion (section 5)....

  6. Enco're une remarque sur le verbe voler = derober

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    Anton Grad

    1965-12-01

    Full Text Available L'article «A Note on French voler, to steal» de M. N.C. W. Spence' représente une nouvelle tentative pour trouver l'origine du verbe voler, employé transitivement au sens de dérober.  L'auteur y passe d'abord en revue les hypothèses émises jusqu'ici sur l'origine et l'histoire sémantique du verbe voler = dérober, surtout celle de M. Gamillscheg' qui - vu que le verbe voler = dérober n’est constaté qu'au 16e siécle - rejette la possibilité d'une dérivation de notre verbe du verbe latin involare (=prendre en. possession, anc. fr. embler, ainsi que celle d'une dérivation de notre verbe du nom vola «main creuse», proposée par Diez; Gamillscheg préfère y voir un emprunt à l'argot des malfaiteurs dans lequel le verbe intransitif voler = to fly, fliegen aurait subi un changement et pris le sens nouveau - celui de dérober – grâce à l'emploi euphémique du mot; mais, selon Gamillscheg, ce dernier sens de voler 'aurait été précédé du verbe voler employe factitivement au sens de «faire voler».

  7. A syntactic and lexical approach to French reflexive verbs

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    Corina Petersilka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This Construction grammar approach to French refl exive verbs describes the formal and semantic constraints at work in the different refl exive constructions, points out at their different branches of inheritance and shows cases of fusion with other argument structures. The article suggests a family tree of French reflexive constructions which appear to be derived from different transitive constructions. It also deals with how the reflexive argument structure modifies the semantics of the transitive verb used in reflexive construction.

  8. Le préverbe kata- et les verbes évoquant la mort : étude sémantique de quelques verbes composés chez Homère et Hérodote

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    Violas, Aurore

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the verbs meaning to kill and to die, there are, in Ancient Greek, several compound verbs with kata- [kata-]. This preverb which usually possesses an aspectual value of accomplishment competes, for this category of process, with the preverb [apo-], but also with the uses of the corresponding simple verb. Thus, the Ancient Greek uses, for the meaning of to die, the verbs [katathnèsko], [apothnèsko] and [thnèsko], the latter almost only in poetry. The preverb kata- also served to create some compound verbs developing this meaning while the simple verb is far more neutral. This paper seeks to study the different uses of the compound verbs with kata- referring to death in Homer’s and Herodotus’ works, and to analyse the particular connotations taken on by the preverb kata-.

  9. Factors Affecting Stress Placement for English Nonwords Include Syllabic Structure, Lexical Class, and Stress Patterns of Phonologically Similar Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guion, Susan G.; Clark, J. J.; Harada, Tetsuo; Wayland, Ratree P.

    2003-01-01

    Seventeen native English speakers participated in an investigation of language users' knowledge of English main stress patterns. First, they produced 40 two-syllable nonwords of varying syllabic structure as nouns and verbs. Second, they indicated their preference for first or second syllable stress of the same words in a perception task. Finally,…

  10. Searching for patterns in English as a second language : a Norwegian study of 10 and 15 year old learners

    OpenAIRE

    Evensen, Markus Waagen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this master thesis is to investigate the role of language transfer and metalinguistic awareness in Norwegian students' use and evaluation of grammar in their L2 English. The grammatical elements that are investigated are: Bare nouns, subject/verb-agreement, definite articles, adverbials of frequency and the verb second syntax of interrogative clauses. Twelve 10-year old students and twenty-four 15-year old students performed an error-finding test which aimed at investigating possib...

  11. Pourquoi certains verbes admettent-ils les objets implicites indéfinis ? Une réponse pragmatique

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    Bourmayan Anouch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Les objets implicites indéfinis – ou OIIs – sont des constituants de sens correspondant sur un plan sémantique à des arguments objet de valeur indéfinie. Ils sont donc paraphrasables par des compléments d'objet direct indéfinis. Cependant, ces constituants sont implicites, au sens où ils n'apparaissent pas dans la forme de surface de l'énoncé. Ainsi, lorsque j'affirme (1, mon énoncé présente les mêmes conditions de vérité que (2 : (1 Marie mange. (2 Marie mange quelque chose. Affirmer que Marie mange, c'est bien affirmer que Marie mange quelque chose. Et comprendre l'énoncé en (1, c'est comprendre qu'il signifie (2. En d'autres termes, (1 met en jeu un OII. Or il semble que parmi les verbes pouvant apparaître avec un complément d'objet direct, tous n'admettent pas l'omission de l'objet et l'interprétation avec un OII. Ainsi, on ne peut pas dire « je suis en train de mettre », au sens de « je suis en train de mettre quelque chose ». Comment expliquer ce contraste entre « manger « et « mettre » ? Plus généralement, comment rendre compte de la distribution des OIIs ? Dans cet article, j'examine tour à tour quatre analyses qui ont été proposées dans la littérature, à savoir l'approche lexicaliste arbitraire, selon laquelle la capacité d'un verbe à admettre les OIIs est déterminée lexicalement mais ne peut être dérivée d'aucun autre trait sémantique du verbe, l'approche lexicaliste aspectuelle, selon laquelle la capacité d'un verbe à admettre les OIIs est déterminée lexicalement, mais peut être dérivée des propriétés aspectuelles du verbe, l'approche lexicaliste événementielle, selon laquelle la capacité d'un verbe à admettre les OIIs est déterminée par la nature de la structure événementielle du verbe, et l'approche constructionniste, selon laquelle les OIIs sont autorisés par des constructions grammaticales spécifiques qui font partie de la connaissance grammaticale des

  12. Heritage and L2 processing of person and number features: Evidence from Spanish subject-verb agreement

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    Estrella Rodríguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a study, with online measures, which investigated the processing of subject–verb (SV agreement sentences by one group of heritage Spanish speakers (HSs, two groups of L2 learners of Spanish (L1 English and one group of traditional Spanish native speakers. Experimental SV sentences manipulated person and number features with subjects and verbs in the present tense. Between-group statistical analyses indicated differential processing between the heritage and the L2 groups. The heritage group’s performance was more native-like than the L2 participants. Within-subject tests showed some similar patterns between heritage and L2 high-level processing, including delayed sensitivity to ungrammaticality after the verb region. We argue that the HSs were able to process basic grammar structures, just as traditional native speakers do. This suggests early bilingualism conferred an advantage to HSS when compared to L2 learners, in the control of basic agreement in Spanish.

  13. ERROR ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH WRITTEN ESSAY OF HIGHER EFL LEARNERS: A CASE STUDY

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    Rina Husnaini Febriyanti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to identify grammatical error and to investigate the most and the least of grammatical error occurred on the students’ English written essay. The approach of research is qualitative descriptive with descriptive analysis. The samples were taken from the essays made by 34 students in writing class. The findings resulted in: the most common error occurred was subject-verb agreement error and the score was 28, 25%. The second place of frequent error was on verb tense and form with 24, 66% as the score. The third was on spellings errors and the value is 17, 94%. The fourth was error on using auxiliaries and the score 9, 87%. The fifth was error on word order with the score was 8.07%. The rest error was applying passive voice with the score is 4.93%, articles (3.59%, prepositions (1.79%, and pronoun and run-on sentence with the same scores, 0. 45%. This may indicate that most students still made errors even for the usage of basic grammar rules in their writing.

  14. Indefinite and Continuative Interpretations of the English Present Perfect

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    Katarina Dea Žetko

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our paper is to demonstrate that the English present perfect is not by inherent meaning either indefinite or continuative. Notions like indefinite and continuative are contextdependent interpretations of whole constructions and their broader context. However, continuative interpretation can also be triggered by certain adverbials, negative constructions and verbs in the progressive form. But, even these factors do not always guarantee continuative interpretations. Construction, continuative meaning can be cancelled by the context in a broader sense, this fact being a proof that this meaning is merely an implicature. We will demonstrate how different factors interact and trigger either indefinite or continuative interpretations which are not inherent in the present perfect itself. Our paper will attempt to provide sufficient evidence that there is no indefinite/continuative distinction in the English present perfect, the inherent meaning or function of the present perfect is merely to locate the situation somewhere within a period that starts before the time of utterance and leads up to it.

  15. Qualia Structure in Spanish Prepositional Verbs: When the verb resorts to a preposition

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    Zoltan Zato

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In generative grammar it is generally assumed that argumental prepositional phrases (PPs can have two syntactic functions: argument and complement. Contrary to this assumption, I will propose a unified syntactic treatment for all argumental PPs, which I consider more appropriate to account for the main problems they pose. Focusing on Spanish, I will try to explain how the meaning of prepositional verbs is compositionally built by means of a lexical mechanism of coercion. My claim is based on Pustejovsky’s Generative Lexicon theory, a sophisticated lexicist and generative model of combination of words.

  16. ERROR ANALYSIS IN THE TRAVEL WRITING MADE BY THE STUDENTS OF ENGLISH STUDY PROGRAM

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    Vika Agustina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify the kinds of errors in surface strategy taxonomy and to know the dominant type of errors made by the fifth semester students of English Department of one State University in Malang-Indonesia in producing their travel writing. The type of research of this study is document analysis since it analyses written materials, in this case travel writing texts. The analysis finds that the grammatical errors made by the students based on surface strategy taxonomy theory consist of four types. They are (1 omission, (2 addition, (3 misformation and (4 misordering. The most frequent errors occuring in misformation are in the use of tense form. Secondly, the errors are in omission of noun/verb inflection. The next error, there are many clauses that contain unnecessary phrase added there.

  17. “I puts it away”—early proto morphological ways of inflecting verbs in a child acquiring Saami

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    Johanna Ijäs

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, some protomorphological ways of inflect verbs in the acquisition of Saami at age 1;8–3;0 are discussed. The main focus is the forms for first person singular present indicative. The child uses the adult-like forms during all the period since the emergence of first person singular at age 1;9–1;10 but in addition to the adult-like forms, there are three main ways to inflect verbs in the child’s language. Using the stem without the -n-suffix is a typical way of inflection at the age of 2;0–2;8. Almost at the same time, at 2;1–2;9, the forms for third person singular present indicative are used instead of the adult-like forms for first person singular. The third difference compared to adult language is the strong gradation of consonant centres in bisyllabic verbs.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa6.06

  18. Semantic, phonologic, and verb fluency in Huntington's disease

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    Mariana Jardim Azambuja

    Full Text Available Abstract Verbal fluency tasks have been identified as important indicators of executive functioning impairment in patients with frontal lobe dysfunction. Although the usual evaluation of this ability considers phonologic and semantic criteria, there is some evidence that fluency of verbs would be more sensitive in disclosing frontostriatal physiopathology since frontal regions primarily mediate retrieval of verbs. Huntington's disease usually affects these circuitries. Objective: To compare three types of verbal fluency task in the assessment of frontal-striatal dysfunction in HD subjects. Methods: We studied 26 Huntington's disease subjects, divided into two subgroups: mild (11 and moderate (15 along with 26 normal volunteers matched for age, gender and schooling, for three types of verbal fluency: phonologic fluency (F-A-S, semantic fluency and fluency of verbs. Results: Huntington's disease subjects showed a significant reduction in the number of words correctly generated in the three tasks when compared to the normal group. Both controls and Huntington's disease subjects showed a similar pattern of decreasing task performance with the greatest number of words being generated by semantic elicitation followed by verbs and lastly phonologic criteria. We did not find greater production of verbs compared with F-A-S and semantic conditions. Moreover, the fluency of verbs distinguished only the moderate group from controls. Conclusion: Our results indicated that phonologic and semantic fluency can be used to evaluate executive functioning, proving more sensitive than verb fluency. However, it is important to point out that the diverse presentations of Huntington's disease means that an extended sample is necessary for more consistent analysis of this issue.

  19. Children with SLI use argument structure cues to learn verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetting, J B

    1999-10-01

    Across two tasks, children's use of argument structure cues to learn verbs was tested. In Task 1, we examined children's use of cues to interpret novel verbs while viewing single action scenes. In Task 2, we examined the role of cues for novel verb interpretation and retention through a story viewing task. The participants were 20 6-year-olds who were diagnosed as specifically language impaired (SLI) and 40 normally developing children who served as either age-matched or language-matched controls. Across tasks, the children with SLI demonstrated an ability to use cues to interpret verb meaning. For Task 1, scores of the children with SLI were not significantly different from those of either control group; for Task 2, their scores exceeded chance and were not found to be different from those obtained by the language-matched controls. When verb retention was examined, scores of the children with SLI were lower than those of both control groups, and they also did not exceed chance even after repeated exposure to the stimuli and additional testing. Patterns within the data ruled out inattention and an inability to follow the narrative as contributing to the children's low scores. Additionally, poor verb retention was not found to be related to a limitation in the perception and encoding of the cue content. Specific deficits with the storage and retrieval of grammatical information within the lexicon, general working memory/capacity limitations, or both are posited as plausible, but unconfirmed, explanations for the verb retention difficulties of the children with SLI.

  20. Verb production in agrammatic aphasia: The influence of semantic class and argument structure properties on generalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sandra L; Thompson, Cynthia K

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some individuals with agrammatic aphasia have difficulty producing verbs when naming and generating sentences (Miceli, Silveri, Villa, & Caramazza, 1984; Saffran, Schwartz, & Marin, 1980; Zingeser & Berndt, 1990). And when verbs are produced there is an over-reliance on verbs requiring simple argument structure arrangements (Thompson, Lange, Schneider, & Shapiro, 1997; Thompson, Shapiro, Schneider, & Tait, 1994). Verbs, as argument-taking elements, show especially complex semantic and argument structure properties. This study investigated the role these properties have on verb production in individuals with agrammatic aphasia. AIM: This treatment study examined the extent to which semantic class and argument structure properties of verbs influenced the ability of seven individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia to retrieve verbs and then use them in correct sentence production. Verbs from two semantic classes and two argument structure categories were trained using either a semantic or an argument structure verb retrieval treatment. Specifically, acquisition and generalisation to trained and untrained verbs within and across semantic and argument structure categories was examined. In addition, the influence of verb production on each participant's sentence production was also examined. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: Utilising a single-subject crossover design in combination with a multiple baseline design across subjects and behaviours, seven individuals with agrammatic aphasia were trained to retrieve verbs with specific argument structures from two semantic classes under two treatment conditions-semantic verb retrieval treatment and verb argument structure retrieval treatment. Treatment was provided on two-place and three-place motion or change of state verbs, counterbalanced across subjects and behaviours. A total of 102 verbs, depicted in black and white drawings, were utilised in the study, divided equally into motion and change of state

  1. MIDA TEEB TEGEMA-VERB HOIDJAKEELES

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    Reili Argus

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esimese keele omandamist mõjutab lapsele suunatud keel ehk hoidjakeel, mis pakub lapsele loomuliku keele sellise statistilise struktuuri, kus tõuseb esile mingi keelesüsteemiosa kõige sagedasem, üldisem, prototüüpsem, kesksem ning kõige lihtsam element. Hoidjakeeles esineb teistest verbidest sagedamini verbi tegema. Selle verbi ühendite hulk ja laad muutub lapse kasvades. Üldjoontes võib tegema-verbi tugiverbi konstruktsioonid lapsele suunatud kõnes jaotada kolme suuremasse rühma: kõige enam esineb selliseid ühendeid, kus tegema verbiga esineb koos mõni onomatopoeetiline sõna; tegema-verbi ja adverbi või adjektiivi ühendeid, millega rõhutatakse teelisust,leidub mõnevõrra vähem ning umbes neljandiku moodustavad tegema-verbi ja noomeni ühendid. Püsiühendite ja rutiniseerunud mallide suur hulk (moodustavad lapsele suunatud kõnes tegema-verbi konstruktsioonidest peaaegu poole annab alust oletada, et lapsega kõneleja eelistab kasutada n-ö valmis kujul keeletükke. Kuigi tegema-verbil on oma roll nii leksika kui ka süntaksi omandamises, ilmneb tema olulisus kõige selgemalt vormimoodustuse omandamise kontekstis: just sellest verbist esineb lapsele suunatud kõnes kõige enam eri vorme ning just see on üks kahest varakult omandatud vormimoodustusega verbe ka lapse kõnes.

  2. Three forms of assessment of prior knowledge, and improved performance following an enrichment programme, of English second language biology students within the context of a marine theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltham, Nicola F.; Downs, Colleen T.

    2002-02-01

    The Science Foundation Programme (SFP) was launched in 1991 at the University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa in an attempt to equip a selected number of matriculants from historically disadvantaged schools with the skills, resources and self-confidence needed to embark on their tertiary studies. Previous research within the SFP biology component suggests that a major contributor to poor achievement and low retention rates among English second language (ESL) students in the Life Sciences is the inadequate background knowledge in natural history. In this study, SFP student background knowledge was assessed along a continuum of language dependency using a set of three probes. Improved student performance in each of the respective assessments examined the extent to which a sound natural history background facilitated meaningful learning relative to ESL proficiency. Student profiles and attitudes to biology were also examined. Results indicated that students did not perceive language to be a problem in biology. However, analysis of the student performance in the assessment probes indicated that, although the marine course provided the students with the background knowledge that they were initially lacking, they continued to perform better in the drawing and MCQ tools in the post-tests, suggesting that it is their inability to express themselves in the written form that hampers their development. These results have implications for curriculum development within the constructivist framework of the SFP.

  3. A contrastive-stylistic study into the tense distribution in English and Slovene fictional texts

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    Silvana Orel Kos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses contrastive and narratological issues of the unity vs. diversity of temporal spheres in fictional texts. It focuses on the presentation of mimetic discourse within the past time-sphere narrative, trying to establish the narrative or stylistic functions of the present and past time-sphere verb actions with respect to the role of the narrator or that of the character. the diegetic and mimetic functions of verb actions in certain temporal spheres, ie. tense usage in (free indirect discourse (free direct discourse, will be contrastively studied in original fictional texts and their translations, in both directions between english and Slovene. the character’s mimetic discourse may be presented through different narrative forms, spanning the report-control cline from the forms “in total control” of the character, ie. free direct discourse, to that “apparently in total control” of the narrator, ie. speech act and thought act report (cf. Leech and Short 1981: 324. in addition to the character’s verbal and mental responses, the study includes mediated instances of the character’s sensory responses, the basic formula thus being: He said that/thought that/saw that. Our contrastive analysis considers only fictional texts whose diegesis is rendered   in the narrative past tenses, as the english language system observes the sequence of tenses, while the Slovene language does not. the diegesis of a fictional text may be completely located in the present time-sphere, yet such texts do not present any major issues in terms of contrastive relevance for the studied language pair.

  4. LEXICAL CONSTRAINTS IN TRANSLATION AND LEARNING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE IN INDONESIA

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    Priyono Priyono

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems in the process of translating and learning English as a foreign language may be attributed to lexical constraints. Problems exist in both processes (translating and learning because the two languages involved represent two different systems of expression. The differences in lexical structure between English and Indonesian are predicted to be the main cause of difficulties for EFL learners and translators. Using lexical conceptual structure (LCS, this study has collected data from authentic sources including English novels, brochures, textbooks, bulletins and newspapers. From this data we have identified five types of problems: These problems will be referred to as denominalized verbs or nouns surface as verbs, deadjectival verbs or adjectives surface as verbs, verb semantic structure, collocational combination, and transitive-intransitive alternation. The analysis of these cases has demonstrated that potential problems associated with each case are all lexically related. Therefore it will be argued in this paper that these five cases are part of the main causes for the problems faced by translators and EFL learners.

  5. Validation of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form 36 (KDQOL-36™) US Spanish and English Versions in a Cohort of Hispanics with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo, Ana C.; Hacker, Eileen; Lora, Claudia M.; Ackerson, Lynn; DeSalvo, Karen B.; Go, Alan; Kusek, John W.; Nessel, Lisa; Ojo, Akinlolu; Townsend, Raymond R.; Xie, Dawei; Ferrans, Carol E.; Lash, James P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the reliability and validity of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form 36 (KDQOL-36™) in Hispanics with mild-to-moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD). Design Cross-sectional Setting Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study Participants 420 Hispanic (150 English- and 270 Spanish-speakers), and 409 non-Hispanic White individuals, matched by age (mean 57 years), sex (60% male), kidney function (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate 36ml/min/1.73m2), and diabetes (70%). Methods To measure construct validity, we selected instruments, comorbidities, and laboratory tests related to at least one KDQOL-36™ subscale. Reliability was determined by calculating Cronbach’s alpha. Results Reliability of each KDQOL-36™ subscale [SF-12 Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS), Symptoms/Problems, Burden of Kidney Disease and Effects of Kidney Disease] was very good (Cronbach’s alpha >0.8). Construct validity was supported by expected negative correlation between MCS scores and the Beck Depression Inventory in all three subgroups (r= −0.56 to −0.61, P<.0001). There was inverse correlation between the Symptoms/Problems subscale and the Patient Symptom Form (r= −0.70 to −0.77, P<.0001). We also found significant, positive correlation between the PCS score and a physical activity survey (r= +0.29 to +0.38, P≤.003); and between the PCS and MCS scores and the Kansas City Questionnaire (r= +0.31 to +0.64, P<.0001). Reliability and validity were similar across all racial/ethnic groups analyzed separately. Conclusion Our findings support the use of the KDQOL-36™ as a measure of HRQOL in this cohort of US Hispanics with CKD. PMID:23530302

  6. Context effects on verb production in specific language impairment (SLI): confrontation naming versus connected speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambanaros, Maria

    2014-11-01

    A handful of studies have shown that verbs are more vulnerable than nouns to retrieval deficits on picture-based naming tasks for children with specific language impairment (SLI). The aim of this study was to examine if the disproportionate verb as opposed to noun production deficit reported for naming is also found in connected speech. Sixteen children participated in the study: eight children diagnosed with SLI (mean age: 6:3 years) and eight typically language developing (TLD, mean age: 5:9 years) controls. Verb and noun production was measured in connected speech and compared to picture confrontation naming. Both groups of children showed a significant difficulty naming verbs compared to nouns. In contrast, they did not differ on the total number of both verb tokens and verb types produced in connected speech. The findings indicate that the previously reported verb retrieval difficulties in SLI are a product of the confrontation naming task demands rather than a true verb deficit.

  7. The curious case of processing unaccusative verbs in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Natalie; Walenski, Matthew; Love, Tracy; Shapiro, Lewis P

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia (IWBA) exhibit a delay in lexical activation in S-V-O word order sentences and delayed lexical reactivation in sentences that contain syntactic dependencies. This pattern is in contrast to neurologically unimpaired individuals who immediately evince lexical reactivation at the gap in sentences that contain syntactic dependencies. However, in the case of sentences that contain unaccusative verbs, neurologically unimpaired individuals also exhibit a delay in lexical reactivation. This delay provides a unique opportunity to further examine lexical delays in IWBA. The purpose of the current studies is to investigate the online comprehension of sentences that contain unaccusative verbs in IWBA and in a group of age-matched control (AMC) individuals. Cross-modal picture priming was used to test for priming of a displaced lexical item (direct object noun) immediately after the unaccusative verb (at the gap) during the ongoing auditory stream and at three additional time points downstream from the verb (500 ms, 750 ms, and 1,250 ms). Delayed reactivation of the displaced lexical item downstream from the gap (similar to prior reports of delayed reactivation with younger unimpaired listeners) for both the AMCs and the IWBA was found. These results provide support that IWBA do not evince a delayed time course of lexical reactivation for unaccusative verbs compared to neurologically unimpaired individuals.

  8. Form-focused instruction and the acquisition of tense by Dutch-speaking learners of English: Experimental studies into the effects of input practice and output practice

    OpenAIRE

    Ureel, J.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    What is the difference between ‘I have done a lot of work this morning’ and ‘I did a lot of work this morning?’ Are sentences such as ‘I have seen him yesterday’ and ‘Who has invented the telephone?’ grammatically correct in present-day English? These are a few examples of the challenges that learners and teachers of English as a second language face when acquiring and teaching tense in English in instructional settings (e.g., grammar classes). The concept of practice as a necessary component...

  9. The social and cultural background of initial forms of the English comedy and the development thereof before the age of Shakespeare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slobodan D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that the great age of English drama, the Age of Shakespeare, today famed chiefly for its tragedy, also reached a high level of success in the field of comedy. It has left us hundreds and hundreds of comedies, many of which are still at least readable, and some of which have lasting value. Most often studied, however, are its chief representatives and their work. Shakespeare himself can never really receive all the attention he deserves, with as thorough as possible surveys of his comedies, while central to every serious study should also be the work of Ben Jonson, as the most important and historically influential author of comedy in this age. If we want to study any literary phenomenon, we must first know what it is in itself, what historical development it has undergone (for all literary kinds have been formed through human history, and what has been its social and cultural background. The intention here is therefore to begin with a general view of this kind of drama, and to offer an account of its origins, its history in England before Shakespeare, and its social and cultural background in Shakespeare's and Jonson's times, i.e. approximately between the years 1580 and 1625. Such a survey of its social circumstances, of its chief authors and works can help draw some general conclusions as to its place in history, its nature and literary value. For the very start, a definition of comedy is not easy to give, as the literary theoreticians have not been much concerned with comedy, and because the existing definitions are usually one-sided, based on some limited field of experience, never taking into account the whole of comedy in its historical development in various countries. If we start from the lowest common denominator, we can say that comedy is a play that provokes laughter; and laughter is a phenomenon not yet satisfactorily accounted for either by psychology or literary theory. The definition that would cover most

  10. Designing a verb guesser for part of speech tagging in Northern Sotho

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this article is to describe the design and implementation of a verb guesser that will enhance the results of statistical part of speech (POS) tagging of verbs in Northern Sotho. It will be illustrated that verb stems in Northern Sotho can successfully be recognised by examining their suffixes and combinations of ...

  11. Early development of nouns and verbs in French: exploring the interface between lexicon and grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassano, D

    2000-10-01

    Early acquisition of nouns and verbs across languages is a key issue for a number of recent studies that question the reality of the 'noun-bias' and wonder about the reasons why it exists as they explore the role of cognitive vs. more language-specific input factors. Addressing this issue, the present study investigates how the noun and verb word classes develop in the free speech of a French child between the ages of 1;2 and 2;6, from the perspective of semantic and grammatical development. The analyses indicate that, in French acquisition, nouns clearly predominate over verbs until age 1;8 at least, but that verbs are produced in the early stages. Concrete object names among nouns and concrete action verbs among verbs were found to be the most prevalent categories, but they were not the earliest to appear and their distribution revealed an asymmetry in the conceptual packaging of nouns and verbs. Verb grammaticalization, assessed through inflection and auxiliary use, lagged somewhat behind noun grammaticalization, assessed through determiner use. This result supports the hypothesized noun-verb grammatical asynchrony. Verb grammaticalization seems to be related to the production of concrete action verbs, and noun grammaticalization to that of concrete object nouns, indicating interactions between semantic and grammatical development. These findings, discussed in a cross-linguistic perspective, suggest that both conceptual and grammatical packaging are important and interacting factors in noun and verb development, and argue in favour of a constructivist approach to language acquisition.

  12. The Matrix Verb as a Source of Comprehension Difficulty in Object Relative Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, Adrian; Dillon, Brian; Clifton, Charles, Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments used eyetracking during reading to examine the processing of the matrix verb following object and subject relative clauses. The experiments show that the processing of the matrix verb following an object relative is indeed slowed compared to the processing of the same verb following a subject relative. However, this difficulty is…

  13. The head of Verb+Noun compounds in the Romance languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroten, J.D.W.

    2010-01-01

    Verb+Noun compounds in Spanish and the other Romance languages have well-known curious properties: (i) lack of nominalizing affix on the Verb; (ii) obligatory presence of the Noun, interpreted as the direct object of the Verb; (iii) interpretation as referring to persons or instruments able to

  14. Eating Apples and Houseplants: Typicality Constraints on Thematic Roles in Early Verb Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meints, Kerstin; Plunkett, Kim; Harris, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    Are thematic roles linked to verbs in young children as in adults or will children accept any participant in a given role with any verb? To assess early verb comprehension we used typicality ratings with adults, parental questionnaires, and Intermodal Preferential Looking with children. We predicted that children would look at named targets, would…

  15. Verb Disposition in Argument Structure Alternations: A Corpus Study of the Dative Alternation in Dutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleman, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Semantic accounts of verb pattern alternations often rely on observations about "verb disposition": the preference of verbs with particular lexical semantic characteristics for one of two competing constructions is taken as a clue to the semantic differences between the two constructions. For instance, it has been observed with regard to the…

  16. The Role of Configurational Asymmetry in the Lexical Access of Prefixed Verbs: Evidence from French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapkini, Kyrana; Jarema, Gonia; Di Sciullo, Anna-Maria

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we investigated the effects of configurational asymmetry in prefixed verbs in French. We used a simple lexical decision paradigm to compare prefixed verbs with external and internal prefixes as specified in linguistic theory (Di Sciullo, 1997) where external prefixes do not change the aktionsart and the verb argument structure of the…

  17. Acquiring and Processing Verb Argument Structure: Distributional Learning in a Miniature Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonnacott, Elizabeth; Newport, Elissa L.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    Adult knowledge of a language involves correctly balancing lexically-based and more language-general patterns. For example, verb argument structures may sometimes readily generalize to new verbs, yet with particular verbs may resist generalization. From the perspective of acquisition, this creates significant learnability problems, with some…

  18. What Modals Are: Modal Verbs, Modal Words, and Auxiliary Modals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazira A. Kakzhanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The modals are a complicated grammatical phenomenon. As of today, the status of modals is still not precisely defined in the linguistics literature, and they are described under different names: modal verbs, modal words, auxiliary modals, or defective verbs. Modals express the result of the conversion of thought processes (deep structure about the realization of actions into surface structure. As articles determine the status of nouns as indefinite or definite things, modals determine the relation of a person to actions or the quality of an action as realizable or unrealizable. Modals cannot truly be ‘modal verbs’, because they lack the morphological characteristics of verbs (aspect, voice, mood, and tense, and the term ‘defective verb’ is flawed for the same reason. Furthermore, they cannot be ‘auxiliary modals’, because they don’t neutralize their main meanings when they become auxiliary. Thus, I propose to refer to these elements only as modals or modal words.

  19. Russian normative data for 375 action pictures and verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinina, Yulia; Malyutina, Svetlana; Ivanova, Maria; Iskra, Ekaterina; Mannova, Elena; Dragoy, Olga

    2015-09-01

    The present article introduces a Russian-language database of 375 action pictures and associated verbs with normative data. The pictures were normed for name agreement, conceptual familiarity, and subjective visual complexity, and measures of age of acquisition, imageability, and image agreement were collected for the verbs. Values of objective visual complexity, as well as information about verb frequency, length, argument structure, instrumentality, and name relation, are also provided. Correlations between these parameters are presented, along with a comparative analysis of the Russian name agreement norms and those collected in other languages. The full set of pictorial stimuli and the obtained norms may be freely downloaded from http://neuroling.ru/en/db.htm for use in research and for clinical purposes.

  20. Verb Movement Variation in Germanic and Optimality Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Sten

    2001-01-01

    This habilitation dissertation falls into two parts. In the first part, "Establishing the typology: Verb Movement in the Germanic VO- and OV-languages", I continue the work in Vikner (1995a, 1997) on the movement of finite verbs across the Germanic languages. Chapter 1 argues that rich finite...... inflection triggers V°-to-I° movement in the Germanic (and Romance) VO-languages, chapter 2 supports the claim that Yiddish is an OV-language, and chapter 3 defends the view that all Germanic OV-languages except Yiddish do not have V°-to-I° movement. Where Part I tries to establish facts and arguments which...... are independent of (but not incompatible with) Optimality Theory, the objective in Part II, "Accounting for the typology: Optimality Theory and Germanic Verb Movement", is not only to show how these facts may be accounted for within Optimality Theory but also to show why it is more promising to do this within...

  1. How Brazilian learners express modality through verbs and adverbs in their writing: a corpus-based study on n-grams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maria TENUTA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the view of modality in the theoretical framework of descriptive syntax, this study examined a corpus of learners compared with a corpus of native speakers of English, aiming to identify different patterns of expression of modal meanings, particularly, adverbs and modal verbs. Therefore, the study focused its analysis on n-grams containing modal verbs and adverbs that express modality. This analysis revealed the prevalence of epistemic values in both corpora, and the existence of distinct patterns in the expression of this type of modality. In the non-native corpus, the expression of modality is restricted when compared to the native speakers'. In the corpus of native speakers, there was a prevalence of adverbs with modalizing meanings. In addition, learners tend to use some modal verbs differently. This study may contribute to the emerging field of corpora linguistic studies as well as to the area of syntax, with possible implications for the teaching of academic writing in English.

  2. Production of verbs related to body movement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson's Disease (PD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Katheryn A Q; Ash, Sharon; Grossman, Murray

    2017-09-08

    Theories of grounded cognition propose that action verb knowledge relies in part on motor processing regions, including premotor cortex. Accordingly, impaired action verb knowledge in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson's Disease (PD) is thought to be due to motor system degeneration. Upper motor neuron disease in ALS degrades the motor cortex and related pyramidal motor system, while disease in PD is centered in the basal ganglia and can spread to frontostriatal areas that are important to language functioning. These anatomical distinctions in disease may yield subtle differences in the action verb impairment between patient groups. Here we compare verbs where the body is the agent of the action to verbs where the body is the theme. To examine the role of motor functioning in body verb production, we split patient groups into patients with high motor impairment (HMI) and those with low motor impairment (LMI), using disease-specific measures of motor impairment. Regression analyses assessed how verb production in ALS and PD was related to motor system atrophy. We find a dissociation between agent- and theme-body verbs in ALS: ALS HMI were impaired for agent body verbs but not theme verbs, compared to ALS LMI. This dissociation was not present in PD patients, who instead show depressed production for all body verbs. Although patients with cognitive impairment were excluded from this study, cognitive performance significantly correlated with the production of theme verbs in ALS and cognitive/stative verbs in PD. Finally, regression analyses related the agent-theme dissociation in ALS to grey matter atrophy of premotor cortex. These findings support the view that motor dysfunction and disease in premotor cortex contributes to the agent body verb deficit in ALS, and begin to identify some distinct characteristics of impairment for verbs in ALS and PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Language-Specific Effects on Story and Procedural Narrative tasks between Korean-speaking and English-speaking Individuals with Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee Eun Sung

    2015-04-01

    Results suggested that Korean-speaking individuals with aphasia produced more numbers of different verbs, number of verbs per utterance and higher VNRs than English speakers. Both groups generated more words in story. The significant two-way interactions between the language group and task type suggested that there are task-specific effects on linguistic measures across the groups. The study implied that the linguistic characteristics differentially affected language symptoms of aphasia across the different languages and task types.

  4. Testing the “division of labor hypothesis” of aphasic verb production using big-data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen Faroqi-Shah

    2015-05-01

    Individuals with aphasia and healthy controls produced a similar proportion of light verbs (.38, U(298 = 13,129, p > 0.05. Linear regression analysis revealed three significant predictors of high light verb use in aphasia: greater syntactic complexity (high DSS score, lower semantic richness (low idea density and lower Verb Naming Test scores (picture naming of heavy verbs, Cho-Reyes & Thompson, 2012. These findings support the division of labor in aphasia – persons with stronger syntactic abilities produce more light verbs and have lower semantic ability (Gordon & Dell, 2003.

  5. Applying Cognitive Linguistics to Instructed L2 Learning: The English Modals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Andrea; Mueller, Charles M.; Ho, Vu

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a quasi-experimental effects-of-instruction study examining the efficacy of applying a Cognitive Linguistic (CL) approach to L2 learning of the semantics of English modals. In spite of their frequency in typical input, modal verbs present L2 learners with difficulties, party due to their inherent…

  6. Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics, Volume Twenty-Five. The Polish-English Contrastive Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisiak, Jacek, Ed.

    Papers in this volume on contrastive linguistics include the following: "Auxiliaries in English and Danish" (Niels Davidsen-Nielsen); "On Tongue Twisters" (Wlodzimierz Sobkowiak); "On Derivational and Phrasal Adverbials of Manner" (James L. Wyatt); "Scrambling and the Polish Word Order. An Alternative Hypothesis" (Przemyslaw Tajsner); "Verbs of…

  7. Interlanguage Development by Two Korean Speakers of English with a Focus on Temporality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Joo

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the acquisition of temporality in English by Korean speakers over a period of 24 months. Temporality is examined from two perspectives: the expression of past-time events and semantic aspect and verb morphology. Results are discusses. (Author/VWL)

  8. Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics, Volume Twenty Three. The Polish-English Contrastive Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisiak, Jacek, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Ten articles are presented in this volume on contrastive linguistics. The articles and authors are as follows: "Contrastive Grammar: Theory and Practice" (F. Aarts and H. Wekker); "On the Semantic and Morphological Status of Reversative Verbs in English and German" (W.-P. Funk); "The Problem of Directionality in…

  9. English- and Chinese-Learning Infants Map Novel Labels to Objects and Actions Differently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cheri C. Y.; Tardif, Twila; Chen, Jie; Pulverman, Rachel B.; Zhu, Liqi; Meng, Xiangzhi

    2011-01-01

    Research based on naturalistic and checklist methods has revealed differences between English and Chinese monolingual children in their trajectories of learning nouns and verbs. However, studies based on controlled laboratory designs (e.g., Imai et al., 2008) have yielded a more mixed picture. Guided by a multidimensional view of word learning (in…

  10. Effects of verb meaning on lexical integration in agrammatic aphasia: Evidence from eyetracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Jennifer E; Ji, Woohyuk; Thompson, Cynthia K

    2013-11-01

    Relatively little is known about the time course of access to the lexical representations of verbs in agrammatic aphasia and its effects on the prediction and integration of the verb's arguments. The present study used visual-world eyetracking to test whether verb meaning can be used by agrammatic aphasic individuals to predict and facilitate the integration of a subsequent noun argument. Nine adults with agrammatic aphasia and ten age-matched controls participated in the study. In Experiment 1, participants viewed arrays of four objects (e.g., jar, plate, stick, pencil) while listening to sentences containing either a restrictive verb that was semantically compatible only with the target object or an unrestrictive verb compatible with all four objects (e.g., Susan will open/break the jar). For both participant groups, the restrictive condition elicited more fixations to the target object immediately after the verb. Experiment 2 differed from Experiment 1 in that the auditory sentences presented were incomplete (e.g., Susan will open/break the…). For controls, restrictive verbs elicited more target fixations immediately after the verb; however, the effects of verb type were noted downstream from the verb for the aphasic listeners. The results suggest that individuals with agrammatic aphasia have preserved ability to use verb information to facilitate integration of overt arguments, but prediction of upcoming arguments is impaired. Impaired lexical-semantic prediction processes may be caused by damage to the left inferior frontal gyrus, which has been argued to support higher-level lexical processes.

  11. Vers une unité sémantique des verbes de position en russe contemporain : stojat', sidet', ležat'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burlot, Frank

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La langue russe possède un système verbal fort différent du français pour désigner la localisation d'un objet dans l'espace. D'une part on constate la présence de verbes d'existence, tels que быть (byt', être, находиться (naxodit' sja, se trouver, есть (est', il y a, qui présentent un fonctionnement similaire à la localisation en français. Parallèlement à ce premier type, le russe permet de localiser un objet au moyen de verbes désignant un procès qui se déroule dans un lieu précis. C'est notamment le cas des verbes de position стоять (stojat', être debout, сидеть (sidet', être assis et лежать (ležat', être allongé. Les verbes висеть (viset', être accroché et торчать (torčat', se dresser, dépasser de peuvent être rapprochés de ceux-ci, mais sont exclus de cette étude car leur fonctionnement est sensiblement différent des trois premiers verbes de position. Si la langue russe présente deux types de possibilités pour désigner la localisation d'un objet dans l'espace, on peut se demander ce qui motive l'emploi d'un type plutôt qu'un autre. Certains linguistes comme GAK(1998 : 18 et APRESJAN(1995 : 151 considèrent que les verbes de position sont généralement interchangeables avec des verbes d'existence, car le sème de position qu'ils contiennent est superflu. Ce sème positionnel relégué au second plan, il ne resterait à ces verbes qu'une valeur d'existence. Or, APRESJAN convient lui-même du fait qu'il existe des contextes dans lesquels un verbe de position n'est pas interchangeable avec un verbe d'existence. Nous introduisons ici le caractère sémasiologique de notre démarche : toute modification de la forme entraîne nécessairement une modification du sens. De nombreuses études tentent de décrire la totalité de la valeur sémantique de ces verbes. Une grande partie de ces études sur les verbes de position explique des énoncés comme (1 par un

  12. Anna Dziemianko. User-friendliness of Verb Syntax in Pedagogical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    preferences of a wide range of language users, many of them, of course, from schools and universities as well as ... tionaries have now included a large number of tools in the definition, such as. IPA pronunciation, examples ... ing the content of the verb entry and making it both opaque and abstract. A choice will have to be ...

  13. Topic: Conjoint and disjoint verb alternations in Dagbani

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samuel

    from two different sources: data taken from students' written works, and examples generated by the author using ... speech in linguistic analysis, since it is not influenced by the particular research agenda. Though a native ... I therefore define aspect as that grammatical property of verbs which indicates whether the action ...

  14. Morphosyntax of verb movement and Afrikaans verbal constructionsl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In his Morphosyntax of verb movement: a minimalist approach to the syntax of Dutch (1997) zwart argues for an alternative analysis to the traditional analysis2 of the word order variation that exists in West Gennanic subject initial main clauses and embedded clauses. This alternative analysis is a heavily revised version of ...

  15. The Rhythmic Group, Liaison, Nouns and Verbs of French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, William J.

    1975-01-01

    The "rhythmic group" in French (noun group or verb group) is described with examples. The aim is to find some relation between the morphophonological phenomena such as "liaison" occurring within such rhythmic groups and the syntactic structure of French. Available from Liber Laeromedel, Box 1205, S-22105 Lund, Sweden. (TL)

  16. Verbs: Some properties and their consequences for agrammatic Broca's aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaanse, Y.R.M.; Rispens, J.E.; Ruigendijk, E.; Juncos Rabadán, O.; Thompson, C.K.

    2002-01-01

    It has repeatedly been shown that agrammatic Broca's aphasics have serious problems with the retrieval of verbs on action naming tests (Miceli, Silveri, Villa & Caramazza, 1984; Kohn, Lorch Pearson, 1989; Basso, Razzano, Faglioni Zanobio, 1990; Jonkers, 1998; Kim & Thompson, 2000). Less attention

  17. serialising languages: satellite-framed, verb-framed or neither

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    George Saad

    conclusion is still valid. The role of verb serialisation in the expression of spatial notions is further explored in Ameka & Essegbey (2006) for Ewe. 1 Introduction. Talmy (1985, 2000) distinguishes two types of languages in the lexicalisation of motion. The one lexicalises the core schema of motion, i.e., Path, in a satellite while.

  18. Transitivity of Spanish perception verbs: a gradual category?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Enghels

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines to what extent perception verbs occurring in a syntactically transitive scheme are also semantically transitive. Indeed, since the perception process represents a mental rather than a physical contact between the perceiver/subject and the stimulus/object, it should be distinguished from the prototypical transfer of energy. It is shown that the semantic and conceptual differences between the perception modalities influence on the linguistic behaviour of Spanish perception verbs. In this perspective, the verbs ver (to see, oír (to hear, mirar (to look at and escuchar (to listen to are ranged on a scale of transitivity. The validity of the elaborated hierarchy of transitivity is verified by means of empirical data. Based on a large corpus of infinitive constructions, it will be examined to what extent the position of a perception verb on the scale of transitivity correlates with the preferred case markings of its stimulus/object. A specific morphosyntactic phenomenon is studied, namely the special marking of the DO by the prepositional accusative.

  19. From HAVE to HAVE verbs : relations and incorporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Bruyn, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30484912X; de Swart, H.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074764187; Zwarts, Joost|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/094993025

    2016-01-01

    We bring together two lines of research. The first is that of so-called HAVE-verbs, which come with the peculiarity of allowing for bare nominal objects in Norwegian, Catalan, Romanian, etc. These languages normally impose the use of articles in argument position and don’t have a generalized

  20. Tense Usage Analysis in Verb Distribution in Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, Henry W., Comp.

    This section of a four-part research project investigating the syntax of Brazilian Portuguese presents data concerning tense usage in verb distribution. The data are derived from the analysis of selected literary samples from representative and contemporary writers. The selection of authors and tabulation of data are also described. Materials…

  1. Verb Production during Action Naming in Semantic Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meligne, D.; Fossard, M.; Belliard, S.; Moreaud, O.; Duvignau, K.; Demonet, J.-F.

    2011-01-01

    In contrast with widely documented deficits of semantic knowledge relating to object concepts and the corresponding nouns in semantic dementia (SD), little is known about action semantics and verb production in SD. The degradation of action semantic knowledge was studied in 5 patients with SD compared with 17 matched control participants in an…

  2. Uninterpretable features in comprehension: Subject-verb agreement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In line with these studies, this study tested the comprehension of subject-verb agreement and absolute pronouns by 37 isiXhosa-speaking children aged 4;0 to 6;0. The results of the study reveal an asymmetry between production and comprehension of the subject agreement marker (SM) and absolute pronouns as well as ...

  3. Conjoint and disjoint verb alternations in Dagbani | Issah | Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper considers the morphology of the verb and how it may be correlated with readily observable syntactic features of the language such as the presence or absence of certain arguments. The aspectual suffixes have different realisations which call for the presence or absence of certain structural arguments such as NP ...

  4. Generalizing Semantic Role Annotations Across Syntactically Similar Verbs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gordon, Andrew S; Swanson, Reid

    2007-01-01

    ...) with only a single training example. Our approach involves the identification of syntactically similar verbs found in Prop-Bank, the alignment of arguments in their corresponding rolesets, and the use of their corresponding annotations in Prop-Bank as surrogate training data.

  5. Two Classes of Transitive Verbs: Evidence from Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Grant Warren

    2011-01-01

    The unaccusativity hypothesis (Burzio 1986; Levin & Rappaport Hovav 1995; Perlmutter 1978) posits that intransitive verbs may be divided into two broad classes: unaccusatives, whose sole argument is an internal argument and unergatives, whose sole argument is an external argument. In this dissertation I explore the idea that there is a similar,…

  6. RUSSIAN VERBS OF SPATIAL ORIENTATION STAND, SIT, LIE

    OpenAIRE

    Kravchenko, Prof. A.V.

    2001-01-01

    The semantics of Russian verbs of spatial orientation is far from being simple or trivial; complex spatial concepts categorized in these lexical items are based on a number of cognitive structures that emerge from different modes of man’s interaction with the environment.

  7. Neural correlates of Dutch Verb Second in speech production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Hoogduin, Hans; Stowe, Laurie A.; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    Dutch speakers with agrammatic Broca's aphasia are known to have problems with the production of finite verbs in main clauses. This performance pattern has been accounted for in terms of the specific syntactic complexity of the Dutch main clause structure, which requires an extra syntactic operation

  8. Language in Consultation: The Effect of Affect and Verb Tense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Daniel S.; Guiney, Meaghan C.; Barrett, Courtenay A.

    2017-01-01

    This study was an exploration of school consultation interactions between instructional consultants and consultees. Of specific interest was how consultants (n = 18) and consultees (n = 18) used verb tense and emotion words during the problem identification and analysis instructional consultation stage, similarities and differences in…

  9. Word Order and Voice Influence the Timing of Verb Planning in German Sentence Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauppe, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Theories of incremental sentence production make different assumptions about when speakers encode information about described events and when verbs are selected, accordingly. An eye tracking experiment on German testing the predictions from linear and hierarchical incrementality about the timing of event encoding and verb planning is reported. In the experiment, participants described depictions of two-participant events with sentences that differed in voice and word order. Verb-medial active sentences and actives and passives with sentence-final verbs were compared. Linear incrementality predicts that sentences with verbs placed early differ from verb-final sentences because verbs are assumed to only be planned shortly before they are articulated. By contrast, hierarchical incrementality assumes that speakers start planning with relational encoding of the event. A weak version of hierarchical incrementality assumes that only the action is encoded at the outset of formulation and selection of lexical verbs only occurs shortly before they are articulated, leading to the prediction of different fixation patterns for verb-medial and verb-final sentences. A strong version of hierarchical incrementality predicts no differences between verb-medial and verb-final sentences because it assumes that verbs are always lexically selected early in the formulation process. Based on growth curve analyses of fixations to agent and patient characters in the described pictures, and the influence of character humanness and the lack of an influence of the visual salience of characters on speakers' choice of active or passive voice, the current results suggest that while verb planning does not necessarily occur early during formulation, speakers of German always create an event representation early. PMID:29018379

  10. Word Order and Voice Influence the Timing of Verb Planning in German Sentence Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Sauppe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Theories of incremental sentence production make different assumptions about when speakers encode information about described events and when verbs are selected, accordingly. An eye tracking experiment on German testing the predictions from linear and hierarchical incrementality about the timing of event encoding and verb planning is reported. In the experiment, participants described depictions of two-participant events with sentences that differed in voice and word order. Verb-medial active sentences and actives and passives with sentence-final verbs were compared. Linear incrementality predicts that sentences with verbs placed early differ from verb-final sentences because verbs are assumed to only be planned shortly before they are articulated. By contrast, hierarchical incrementality assumes that speakers start planning with relational encoding of the event. A weak version of hierarchical incrementality assumes that only the action is encoded at the outset of formulation and selection of lexical verbs only occurs shortly before they are articulated, leading to the prediction of different fixation patterns for verb-medial and verb-final sentences. A strong version of hierarchical incrementality predicts no differences between verb-medial and verb-final sentences because it assumes that verbs are always lexically selected early in the formulation process. Based on growth curve analyses of fixations to agent and patient characters in the described pictures, and the influence of character humanness and the lack of an influence of the visual salience of characters on speakers' choice of active or passive voice, the current results suggest that while verb planning does not necessarily occur early during formulation, speakers of German always create an event representation early.

  11. L'enseignement de l'anglais en sixieme et cinquieme (The Teaching of English in the Fifth and Sixth Forms)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maucorps, Alain

    1972-01-01

    Reforms in French Schools in 1965 for the teaching of English as a second language recommended an audiolingual approach to replace the grammar translation method. Research indicates that both in methodology and in materials the new approach has been effective. (DS)

  12. Lexical Error In Writing English Words Made By Students Of The Junior High School

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Bahrun

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the research are to find out: The lexical error in writing English noun made by the eighth-grade students of SMP Unismuh Makassar. The lexical error in writing English adjective made by the eighth-grade students of SMP Unismuh Makassar. What lexical error in writing English verb is made by the eighth-grade students of SMP Unismuh Makassar. The result of this research gives information caused by the lexical error of the student's ability in writing English noun and adjective ...

  13. English exposed common mistakes made by Chinese speakers

    CERN Document Server

    Hart, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Having analysed the most common English errors made in over 600 academic papers written by Chinese undergraduates, postgraduates, and researchers, Steve Hart has written an essential, practical guide specifically for the native Chinese speaker on how to write good academic English. English Exposed: Common Mistakes Made by Chinese Speakers is divided into three main sections. The first section examines errors made with verbs, nouns, prepositions, and other grammatical classes of words. The second section focuses on problems of word choice. In addition to helping the reader find the right word, it provides instruction for selecting the right style too. The third section covers a variety of other areas essential for the academic writer, such as using punctuation, adding appropriate references, referring to tables and figures, and selecting among various English date and time phrases. Using English Exposed will allow a writer to produce material where content and ideas-not language mistakes-speak the loudest.

  14. The types and categories of Old English recursive compounding

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    Carmen Novo Urraca

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the recursive compounding of Old English nouns, adjectives, verbs and adverbs. It addresses the question of the textual occurrences of the compounds of Old English by means of a corpus analysis based on the Dictionary of Old English Corpus. The data of qualitative analysis have been retrieved from the lexical database of Old English Nerthus. The analysis shows that the nominal, adjectival and adverbial compounds of Old English can be recursive. Nominal compounding allows double recursivity, whereas adjectival and adverbial compounding do not. The conclusion is reached that both the type and token frequencies of recursive compounds are very low; and recursive compounds from the adjectival class are more exocentric as regards categorisation.

  15. Linguistic markers of specific language impairment in bilingual children: the case of verb morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clahsen, Harald; Rothweiler, Monika; Sterner, Franziska; Chilla, Solveig

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates verbal morphology in Specific Language Impairment (SLI) in German, focusing on past participle inflection. Longitudinal data from 12 German-speaking children with SLI, six monolingual and six Turkish-German sequential bilingual children, were examined, plus an additional group of six typically developing Turkish-German sequential bilingual children. In a recent study (Rothweiler, M., Chilla, S., & H. Clahsen. (2012). Subject verb agreement in Specific Language Impairment: A study of monolingual and bilingual German-speaking children. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15, 39-57), the same children with SLI were found to be severely impaired in reliably producing correct agreement-marked verb forms. By contrast, the new results reported in this study show that both the monolingual and the bilingual children with SLI produce participle inflection according to their language age. Our results strengthen the case of difficulties with agreement as a linguistic marker of SLI in German and show that it is possible to identify SLI from an early sequential bilingual child's performance in one of her two languages.

  16. Radiological English

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    Ribes, R. [Hospital Reina Sofia, Cordoba (Spain). Servicio de Radiologia; Ros, P.R. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Div. of Radiology

    2007-07-01

    The book is an introductory book to radiological English on the basis that there are a lot of radiologists, radiology residents, radiology nurses, radiology students, and radiographers worldwide whose English level is indeterminate because their reading skills are much higher than their fluency. It is intended to help those health care professionals who need English for their work but do not speak English on a day-to-day basis. (orig.)

  17. Earphone English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Francisca

    2002-01-01

    Describes Earphone English, a student club sponsored through a partnership between Berkeley High School and the Berkeley Public Library that offers students whose primary language is not English to practice their spoken and aural English skills. Discusses the audiobooks used in the program and the importance of multicultural content and age…

  18. Argument structure effects in action verb naming in static and dynamic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Fix, Steve; Parrish, Todd B; Thompson, Cynthia K

    2009-03-01

    Argument structure, as in the participant roles entailed within the lexical representation of verbs, affects verb processing. Recent neuroimaging studies show that when verbs are heard or read, the posterior temporoparietal region shows increased activation for verbs with greater versus lesser argument structure complexity, usually bilaterally. In addition, patients with agrammatic aphasia show verb production deficits, graded based on argument structure complexity. In the present study, we used fMRI to examine the neural correlates of verb production in overt action naming conditions. In addition, we tested the differential effects of naming when verbs were presented dynamically in video segments versus statically in line drawings. Results showed increased neuronal activity associated with production of transitive as compared to intransitive verbs not only in posterior regions, but also in left inferior frontal cortex. We also found significantly greater activation for transitive versus intransitive action naming for videos compared to pictures in the right inferior and superior parietal cortices, areas associated with object manipulation. These findings indicate that verbs with greater argument structure density engender graded activation of both anterior and posterior portions of the language network and support verb naming deficit patterns reported in lesion studies. In addition, the similar findings derived under video and static picture naming conditions provide validity for using videos in neuroimaging studies, which are more naturalistic and perhaps ecologically valid than using static pictures to investigate action naming.

  19. The role of argument structure in the production of nouns and verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collina, S; Marangolo, P; Tabossi, P

    2001-01-01

    The study reports an investigation on the role of argument structure complexity in the production of nouns and verbs in three Italian agrammatic patients. The patients, all showing a clear noun/verb dissociation in the assessment tests, were requested to produce either nouns or verbs in a picture naming task. Four sets of words were selected to be produced in the naming task: non-argumental nouns (e.g., medaglia-medal), argumental nouns (e.g., pianto-crying), one-place argument verbs (e.g., dormire-to sleep), and two-place argument verbs (e.g., sparare-to shoot). The performance of the three patients was almost identical. All made reliably fewer errors in the production of non-argumental nouns than in the production of verbs, thus replicating with the new materials the initially observed dissociation. Moreover, they made fewer errors with one-place than with two-place argument verbs, and with non-argumental than with argumental nouns. Finally, in contrast with the previously observed noun/verb dissociation, when their ability to produce argumental nouns and verbs was compared, no reliable difference was found. The results indicate that argument complexity may affect the ability of agrammatic patients to produce words. It is argued that since argument complexity is necessarily associated with verbs and only rarely with nouns, unless special attention is paid, argument complexity effects are easily confounded with grammatical class effects, possibly leading to erroneous interpretations of patients' performance.

  20. Unaccusative verb production in agrammatic aphasia: the argument structure complexity hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cynthia K

    2003-03-01

    This study examined patterns of verb production in narrative samples of eight individuals with agrammatic aphasia and seven education- and age-matched normal subjects. Comprehension and constrained production of two types of intransitive verbs-unaccusatives whose argument structure triggers a complex syntactic derivation and unergatives that are considered syntactically simple- was also tested. Results showed that in narrative tasks a hierarchy of verb production difficulty as seen in previous studies [Aphasiology 11 (1997) 473; Brain and Language 74 (2000) 1] emerged for the aphasic participants, with a preference noted for production of verbs with a fewer number of arguments. Both normal and agrammatic subjects also showed fewer productions of unaccusative intransitive verbs in their narrative samples as compared to other verb types (supporting findings reported by Kegl [Brain and Language 50 (1995) 151]. In contrast to relatively spared comprehension of both unaccusative and unergative intransitives, the aphasic participants showed significantly greater difficulty producing unaccusatives as compared to unergatives in the constrained task. These findings suggest that deficits in accessing verbs for production are influenced by the verb's argument structure entry and led to what is referred to as the 'argument structure complexity hypothesis'. When verbs become more complex in terms of the number of associated arguments or when the argument structure entry of the verb does not directly map to its s-structure representation, production difficulty increases.

  1. On subject use in English as a second language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbu Revencu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article addresses the issue of syntactic transfer in child L2 acquisition, by presenting a two-part study in which Romanian monolinguals are compared to Romanian-Hebrew balanced bilinguals in two spontaneous production tasks. The main research question concerns the influence of Hebrew as a second L1 on the (resetting of the Null Subject Parameter in English-L2, as Hebrew exhibits the same subject and verb morphology pattern as English for certain persons and tenses. The collected data provide evidence in favour of both access to UG and syntactic transfer, supporting the Full Access Full Transfer Hypothesis.

  2. The Briefest English Grammar and Punctuation Guide Ever!

    CERN Document Server

    Coleman, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Now in one handy volume: the bestselling The Briefest English Grammar Ever! and The Briefest Punctuation Guide Ever! Covering the basics of English grammar and punctuation, this friendly guide is perfect for students at all levels. It clearly and simply explains how language works and functions and strips out all the jargon to make understanding punctuation easy. So if you need to sort out your verbs from your nouns and your adjectives from your adverbs, or if you aren't sure whether a comma should go before or after a word or when to start a new sentence, then this concise, unintimidating gui

  3. Form-focused instruction and the acquisition of tense by Dutch-speaking learners of English: Experimental studies into the effects of input practice and output practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ureel, J.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    What is the difference between ‘I have done a lot of work this morning’ and ‘I did a lot of work this morning?’ Are sentences such as ‘I have seen him yesterday’ and ‘Who has invented the telephone?’ grammatically correct in present-day English? These are a few examples of the challenges that

  4. LINGUISTIC FEATURES ANALYSIS OF THE ENGLISH ELECTRONIC COMMERCE WEBSITES

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    Siti Nurani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at identifying linguistic features used in the English electronic commerce websites used in correlation with the field, tenor and mode of discourse as parts of Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL approach. Findings have shown that in the field of discourse, the linguistic features are largely appeared in the experiential domain analysis which shows that all terms of registers function as technical terms, of which the two major forms of nouns and verbs were the most frequent categories among other kinds of technical terms. The goal orientation is considered to be as a long term and the social activity is exchange. In the tenor of discourse, the linguistic features are highly appeared in the social distance analysis which shows that the social distance between participants is considered minimal. The agentive role is said to be equal and the social role is considered as non-hierarchic. In the mode of discourse, the linguistic features are excessively occurred in the language role analysis which exists equally of both constitutive and ancillary. The channel is in graphic mode. The medium is in written with a visual contact as its device.

  5. Where agreement merges with disagreement: fMRI evidence of subject-verb integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones, Ileana; Molinaro, Nicola; Mancini, Simona; Hernández-Cabrera, Juan Andrés; Carreiras, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    Language comprehension is incremental, involving the integration of information from different words together with the need to resolve conflicting cues when unexpected information occurs. The present fMRI design seeks to segregate the neuro-anatomical substrates of these two processes by comparing well-formed and ill-formed sentences during subject-verb agreement computation. Our experiment takes advantage of a particular Spanish feature, the Unagreement phenomenon: a subject-verb agreement mismatch that results in a grammatical sentence ("Los pintores trajimos…" [The painters3.pl (we)brought1.pl…]). Comprehension of this construction implies a shift in the semantic interpretation of the subject from 3rd-person to 1st-person, enabling the phrase "The painters" to be re-interpreted as "We painters". Our results include firstly a functional dissociation between well-formed and ill-formed sentences with Person Mismatches: while Person Mismatches recruited a fronto-parietal network associated to monitoring operations, grammatical sentences (both Unagreement and Default Agreement) recruited a fronto-temporal network related to syntactic-semantic integration. Secondly, there was activation in the posterior part of the left middle frontal gyrus for both Person Mismatches and Unagreement, reflecting the evaluation of the morpho-syntactic match between agreeing constituents. Thirdly, the left angular gyrus showed increased activation only for Unagreement, highlighting its crucial role in the comprehension of semantically complex but non-anomalous constructions. These findings point to a central role of the classic fronto-temporal network, plus two additional nodes: the posterior part of the left middle frontal gyrus and the left angular gyrus; opening new windows to the study of agreement computation and language comprehension. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pronouns and verbs in adult speech to children: a corpus analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Aarre; Smith, Linda B

    2007-11-01

    Assessing whether domain-general mechanisms could account for language acquisition requires determining whether statistical regularities among surface cues in child directed speech (CDS) are sufficient for inducing deep syntactic and semantic structure. This paper reports a case study on the relation between pronoun usage in CDS, on the one hand, and broad verb classes, on the other. A corpus analysis reveals statistical regularities in co-occurrences between pronouns and verbs in CDS that could cue physical versus psychological verbs. A simulation demonstrates that a simple statistical learner can acquire these regularities and exploit them to activate verbs that are consistent with incomplete utterances in simple syntactic frames. Thus, in this case, surface regularities ARE sufficiently informative for inducing broad semantic categories. Children MIGHT use these regularities in pronoun/ verb co-occurrences to help learn verbs, although whether they ACTUALLY do so remains a topic of ongoing research.

  7. Modélisation sémantique des verbes ENXER à base substantivale

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    Franziska Heyna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Semantic description of French denominal verbs enXer This article presents a semantic description of French denominal verbs, such as EMBARQUER, EMPOISONNER, ENDIMANCHER and ENDEUILLER. Traditionally described as parasynthetic compounds, these verbs are the result of a special type of word formation, consisting in the affixation of a prefix and suffix to a stem. Our purpose is to deal with a semantic description of this particular verb class, based on the referential and cognitive nature of de noun stem. It will be shown that the semantic classification outlined by Fradin (2003 in verbes en-SITE (EMBARQUER, ENFOURNER, ENGLUER and V-cibles (ENCOLLER, ENFLEURER, ENGLUER, based on the cognitive figure-ground opposition is not general enough. The thesis defended here is that denominal verbes enXer instantiate a transformational process of a more abstract topological kind.

  8. L2 speakers decompose morphologically complex verbs: fMRI evidence from priming of transparent derived verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grauwe, Sophie; Lemhöfer, Kristin; Willems, Roel M; Schriefers, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) long-lag priming study, we investigated the processing of Dutch semantically transparent, derived prefix verbs. In such words, the meaning of the word as a whole can be deduced from the meanings of its parts, e.g., wegleggen "put aside." Many behavioral and some fMRI studies suggest that native (L1) speakers decompose transparent derived words. The brain region usually implicated in morphological decomposition is the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG). In non-native (L2) speakers, the processing of transparent derived words has hardly been investigated, especially in fMRI studies, and results are contradictory: some studies find more reliance on holistic (i.e., non-decompositional) processing by L2 speakers; some find no difference between L1 and L2 speakers. In this study, we wanted to find out whether Dutch transparent derived prefix verbs are decomposed or processed holistically by German L2 speakers of Dutch. Half of the derived verbs (e.g., omvallen "fall down") were preceded by their stem (e.g., vallen "fall") with a lag of 4-6 words ("primed"); the other half (e.g., inslapen "fall asleep") were not ("unprimed"). L1 and L2 speakers of Dutch made lexical decisions on these visually presented verbs. Both region of interest analyses and whole-brain analyses showed that there was a significant repetition suppression effect for primed compared to unprimed derived verbs in the LIFG. This was true both for the analyses over L2 speakers only and for the analyses over the two language groups together. The latter did not reveal any interaction with language group (L1 vs. L2) in the LIFG. Thus, L2 speakers show a clear priming effect in the LIFG, an area that has been associated with morphological decomposition. Our findings are consistent with the idea that L2 speakers engage in decomposition of transparent derived verbs rather than processing them holistically.

  9. L2 speakers decompose morphologically complex verbs: fMRI evidence from priming of transparent derived verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eDe Grauwe

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this fMRI long-lag priming study, we investigated the processing of Dutch semantically transparent, derived prefix verbs. In such words, the meaning of the word as a whole can be deduced from the meanings of its parts, e.g. wegleggen ‘put aside’. Many behavioral and some fMRI studies suggest that native (L1 speakers decompose transparent derived words. The brain region usually implicated in morphological decomposition is the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG. In non-native (L2 speakers, the processing of transparent derived words has hardly been investigated, especially in fMRI studies, and results are contradictory: Some studies find more reliance on holistic (i.e. non-decompositional processing by L2 speakers; some find no difference between L1 and L2 speakers. In this study, we wanted to find out whether Dutch transparent derived prefix verbs are decomposed or processed holistically by German L2 speakers of Dutch. Half of the derived verbs (e.g. omvallen ‘fall down’ were preceded by their stem (e.g. vallen ‘fall’ with a lag of 4 to 6 words (‘primed’; the other half (e.g. inslapen ‘fall asleep’ were not (‘unprimed’. L1 and L2 speakers of Dutch made lexical decisions on these visually presented verbs. Both ROI analyses and whole-brain analyses showed that there was a significant repetition suppression effect for primed compared to unprimed derived verbs in the LIFG. This was true both for the analyses over L2 speakers only and for the analyses over the two language groups together. The latter did not reveal any interaction with language group (L1 vs. L2 in the LIFG. Thus, L2 speakers show a clear priming effect in the LIFG, an area that has been associated with morphological decomposition. Our findings are consistent with the idea that L2 speakers engage in decomposition of transparent derived verbs rather than processing them holistically.

  10. When we think about thinking: the acquisition of belief verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papafragou, Anna; Cassidy, Kimberly; Gleitman, Lila

    2007-10-01

    Mental-content verbs such as think, believe, imagine and hope seem to pose special problems for the young language learner. One possible explanation for these difficulties is that the concepts that these verbs express are hard to grasp and therefore their acquisition must await relevant conceptual development. According to a different, perhaps complementary, proposal, a major contributor to the difficulty of these items lies with the informational requirements for identifying them from the contexts in which they appear. The experiments reported here explore the implications of these proposals by investigating the contribution of observational and linguistic cues to the acquisition of mental predicate vocabulary. We first demonstrate that particular observed situations can be helpful in prompting reference to mental contents, specifically, contexts that include a salient and/or unusual mental state such as a false belief. We then compare the potency of such observational support to the reliability of alternate or concomitant syntactic information (e.g., sentential complementation) in tasks where both children and adults are asked to hypothesize the meaning of novel verbs. The findings support the efficacy of false belief situations for increasing the saliency of mental state descriptions, but also show that syntactic information is a more reliable indicator of mentalistic interpretations than even the most cooperative contextual cues. Moreover, when syntactic and observational information sources converge, both children and simulated adult learners are vastly more likely to build conjectures involving mental verbs. This is consistent with a multiple-cue constraint satisfaction view of vocabulary acquisition. Taken together, our findings support the position that the informational demands of mapping, rather than age-related cognitive deficiency, can bear much of the explanatory burden for the learning problems posed by abstract words.

  11. Functional structure in morphology and the case of nonfinite verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Juul

    In this book, Peter Juul Nielsen examines the foundations of morphological theory from a structural-functional perspective on language as a sign system. He offers a framework for the analysis of morpheme relations based on a thorough discussion of syntagmatic and paradigmatic structure, indexical....... The framework is applied in three detailed studies of Danish nonfinite verbs presenting new accounts of their morphological structure, semantic coding and paradigmatic organisation....

  12. Syntactic variants and natural syntax : Greek infinitive clauses dependent on verbs of speaking and thinking

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    Jerneja Kavčič

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains a very well-known feature of Classical Greek syntax from the perspective of Natural Syntax. Most grammars of Classical Greek state that infinitive clauses could be dependent on both verbs of speaking and thinking in Classical Greek. In contrast, finite dependent clauses could be governed only by verbs of speaking. However, one verb of speaking that regularly governs infinitive clauses is 'say'. In terms of Natural Syntax, infinitive clauses are more natural than finite dependent clauses. The scale > nat (infinitive clause, finite dependent clause is supported by the criterion of favorable for the speaker and the hearer (criterion A and the criterion of integration into the clause (criterion D. In addition, verbs of thinking are more natural than verbs of speaking. The scale > nat (verbs of thinking, verbs of speaking is supported by the criterion of integration into the clause (criterion C, the criterion of frequency (criterion C, and the criterion of favorable for the speaker andthe hearer (criterion A. Natural Syntax predicts that the more natural syntactic variant (i.e., infinitive clauses associates with more natural parameters (i.e., verbs of thinking than the less natural syntactic variant (i.e., finite dependent clauses. This type of alignment rule is called parallel alignment. In addition, most of the criteria applied indicate that the verb 'say' is more natural than other verbs of speaking (e.g., it is an enclitic verb. Consequently, it is expected within Natural Syntax that the verb 'say' associates with the more natural syntactic variant (i.e., with infinitive clauses.

  13. Comparing different models of the development of verb inflection in early child Spanish.

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    Javier Aguado-Orea

    Full Text Available How children acquire knowledge of verb inflection is a long-standing question in language acquisition research. In the present study, we test the predictions of some current constructivist and generativist accounts of the development of verb inflection by focusing on data from two Spanish-speaking children between the ages of 2;0 and 2;6. The constructivist claim that children's early knowledge of verb inflection is only partially productive is tested by comparing the average number of different inflections per verb in matched samples of child and adult speech. The generativist claim that children's early use of verb inflection is essentially error-free is tested by investigating the rate at which the children made subject-verb agreement errors in different parts of the present tense paradigm. Our results show: 1 that, although even adults' use of verb inflection in Spanish tends to look somewhat lexically restricted, both children's use of verb inflection was significantly less flexible than that of their caregivers, and 2 that, although the rate at which the two children produced subject-verb agreement errors in their speech was very low, this overall error rate hid a consistent pattern of error in which error rates were substantially higher in low frequency than in high frequency contexts, and substantially higher for low frequency than for high frequency verbs. These results undermine the claim that children's use of verb inflection is fully productive from the earliest observable stages, and are consistent with the constructivist claim that knowledge of verb inflection develops only gradually.

  14. Production of verb tenses in children with cochlear implants

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    Sokolovac Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of verb tenses leads to better language development of children with cochlear implants. The aim of this study was to assess the acquisition of verb tenses in children with cochlear implants. The sample included 60 children, aged from 9 to 15, with average intellectual abilities. The study group consisted of 30 patients with cochlear implants, with no additional disabilities. The control group consisted of 30 subjects with typical speech - language development and preserved hearing. The acquisition of basic tenses was assessed by 'Corpus for the Assessment of the Use of Tenses' (Dimić, 2003. Significant statistical differences were found in the use of the present tense in children with cochlear implants and hearing children (t=-4.385; p<0.001 as well as in the use of the past tense (t=-4.650; p<0.001, and the future tense (t=-4.269; p<0.001. There was also a significant difference in the use of irregular verb 'go' (t=-3.958; p<0.001, as well as in the combination of the present and the past tense (t=-5.806; p<0.001. The present tense was used correctly by most children with cochlear implants (70%, followed by the past tense (53%, and finally the future tense (23%. Children with cochlear implants, even after several years of re/habilitation, do not reach the grammatical development of children with normal hearing.

  15. The Verb Always Leaves IP in V2 Clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Bonnie D.; Vikner, Sten

    2007-01-01

    (1989) we claimed that all V2 clauses were CPs, and we referred to this analysis as the 'traditional' analysis. In this paper we shall call it the 'V2 outside IP' analysis, and by using this term we want to convey that although in what follows we will adhere to the view that the verb moves to Cº, any......-initial and non-subject-initial V2 clauses, the former being only IPs and the latter CPs, as suggested by Travis (1984, 1986, 1991) and Zwart (1990, 1991). Below we will refer to this analysis as the 'V2 asymmetry' analysis. The other alternative analysis is that V2 takes place inside IP, as suggested by Diesing......The verb second (V2) phenomenon, as it is found in the Germanic languages, has been the focus of much attention within recent syntactic research. In most of the literature on V2, it is assumed that the verb in all V2 clauses has moved to a head position outside IP, e.g. Cº. In Schwartz & Vikner...

  16. The Temporality of the Spanish Verb: From Narrative to Poetry

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    Barbara Pihler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The verb is the first indicator of time in language; therefore it is a fundamental starting point for all research into textual temporality. The Spanish verb system consists of ten verbal paradigms in the indicative mood, and four (or six verbal paradigms in the subjunctive mood. This allows for a wide range of temporal values in different contexts. Every linguistic act and every type of text is realized as a dynamic process of communication where the utterer creates a discourse in order to give rise to certain effects in the recipient. The pragmatic dimension must, therefore, be inherent to each linguistic commentary on the temporality of any text, including a poetic text, where a lyrical discourse is being established in fictional time and space. The understanding of all components of communicative process is unavoidable for the proper interpretation of the textual network because with each statement the speaker “enters” into the language, and its communicative purpose is reflected not only through the meaning and vocabulary, but also at the morphological-syntactic level. This paper presents central views on the temporality of the Spanish verbal paradigms and proposes guidelines for the systematization of the expression of temporality in poetry. The survey is based on the hypothesis that it is possible to detect a certain distribution of Spanish verbal paradigms in poetic texts. The proposed temporal-modal systematization of the Spanish verb is based on the criterion of relevance.

  17. Semantic relations between verbs in Polish WordNet 2.0

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    Marek Maziarz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Semantic relations between verbs in Polish WordNet 2.0 The noun dominates wordnets. The lexical semantics of verbs is usually under-represented, even if it is essential in any semantic analysis which goes beyond statistical methods. We present our attempt to remedy the imbalance; it begins by designing a sufficiently rich set of wordnet relations for verbs. We discuss and show in detail such a relation set in the largest Polish wordnet. Our design decisions, while as general and language-independent as possible, are mainly informed by our desire to capture the nature and peculiarities of the verb system in Polish.

  18. Acquiring and Processing Verb Argument Structure: Distributional Learning in a Miniature Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonnacott, Elizabeth; Newport, Elissa L.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    Adult knowledge of a language involves correctly balancing lexically-based and more language-general patterns. For example, verb-argument structures may sometimes readily generalize to new verbs, yet with particular verbs may resist generalization. From the perspective of acquisition, this creates significant learnability problems (Baker 1979), with some researchers claiming a crucial role for verb semantics in the determination of when generalization may and may not occur (Pinker, 1989). Similarly, there has been debate regarding how verb-specific and more generalized constraints interact in sentence processing (Trueswell et al 1993; Mitchell 1987) and on the role of semantics in this process (Hare et al 2003). The current work explores these issues using artificial language learning. In three experiments using languages without semantic cues to verb distribution, we demonstrate that learners can acquire both verb-specific and verb-general patterns, based on distributional information in the linguistic input regarding each of the verbs as well as across the language as a whole. As with natural languages, these factors are shown to affect production, judgments and real-time processing. We demonstrate that learners apply a rational procedure in determining their usage of these different input-statistics and conclude by suggesting that a Bayesian perspective on statistical learning may be an appropriate framework for capturing our findings. PMID:17662707

  19. EMOTIONALLY COLOURED VERBS IN THE SPEECHES OF BRITISH AND AMERICAN POLITICIANS

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    Shustova, I.N.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of emotionally coloured verbs and their evaluative possibilities in the language of politics. The emotionally coloured verbs with the negative evaluative component are scarce but predominate over the emotionally coloured verbs with positive assessment in the speeches of British and American politicians. They function as a very effective means of assessment with the assistance of which an orator expresses his evaluative attitude to the object of assessment. However, such verbs tend to influence indirectly the political image of the orator himself.

  20. The representation of the verb's argument structure as disclosed by fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadollahi, Ramin; Meinzer, Marcus; Flaisch, Tobias; Obleser, Jonas; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2009-01-15

    In the composition of an event the verb's argument structure defines the number of participants and their relationships. Previous studies indicated distinct brain responses depending on how many obligatory arguments a verb takes. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study served to verify the neural structures involved in the processing of German verbs with one (e.g. "snore") or three (e.g. "gives") argument structure. Within a silent reading design, verbs were presented either in isolation or with a minimal syntactic context ("snore" vs. "Peter snores"). Reading of isolated one-argument verbs ("snore") produced stronger BOLD responses than three-argument verbs ("gives") in the inferior temporal fusiform gyrus (BA 37) of the left hemisphere, validating previous magnetoencephalographic findings. When presented in context one-argument verbs ("Peter snores") induced more pronounced activity in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) of the left hemisphere than three-argument verbs ("Peter gives"). In line with previous studies our results corroborate the left temporal lobe as site of representation and the IFG as site of processing of verbs' argument structure.