Besters, Lucas; van Ours, Jan; van Tuijl, Martin
We analyze the performance effects of in-season manager changes in English Premier League football during the seasons 2000/2001–2014/2015. We find that some managerial changes are successful, while others are counterproductive. On average, performance does not improve following a managerial
Bradley, Paul S.; Sheldon, William; Wooster, Blake
The aims of this study were to (1) determine the activity profiles of a large sample of English FA Premier League soccer players and (2) examine high-intensity running during elite-standard soccer matches for players in various playing positions. Twenty-eight English FA Premier League games were...... analysed during the 2005-2006 competitive season (n=370), using a multi-camera computerised tracking system. During a typical match, wide midfielders (3138 m, s=565) covered a greater distance in high-intensity running than central midfielders (2825 m, s= 73, P=0.04), full-backs (2605 m, s=387, P ....01), attackers (2341 m, s=575, P running distance was approximately 20% less than in the first 15-min period for wide midfielders (467 m, s=104 vs. 589 m, s=134, P
Ireland, Robin; Watkins, Francine
Although there is growing awareness of the impact of diet on health, little attention has been given to the food available in our sports stadia. We used a football club (Citygrene FC) - Citygrene is a fictional name - in the English Premier League as a case study to examine the attitudes of male and female football supporters to the food and drink available at their home stadium (Citygrene Stadium). The research design used five focus groups of male and female fans. The discourse was audiotaped, transcribed, coded and analysed for themes. A football stadium in the English Premier League, England. The participants were season ticket holders drawn from two stands at Citygrene Stadium. The research showed a high level of dissatisfaction with the food and drink supplied. There were key differences in the views of the male and female participants in the focus groups, with the women more concerned about wider issues such as the lack of healthy food. Both men and women were aware of their role as consumers and felt that there was an opportunity for Citygrene to improve their catering profits, if they provided a better selection of food and drink and an improved service. The study shows that there is a demand for healthier food options (and a wider choice of food and drink in general), which may provide an economic opportunity for stadium and catering managers. In addition, a stadium may be considered a potential 'healthy setting', which can serve as a supportive environment for healthier food choices.
Pringle, A; Zwolinsky, S; McKenna, J; Daly-Smith, A; Robertson, S; White, A
To investigate the key design characteristics of Premier League Health (PLH), a national programme of men's health improvement delivered in/by 16 English Premier League (EPL) football clubs. Health Trainers (HTs) were hired by EPL clubs to deliver PLH. HTs were the focus of investigations aimed at identifying the active design characteristics of male-specific health promotion interventions. Semi-structured interviews led by researchers were performed with 13/16 HTs and identified the key design characteristics influential in (I) reaching and (II) helping participants adopt health improvement interventions delivered in professional football club settings. HTs believed that combining the appeal of football alongside EPL clubs, offered a unique opportunity to reach adult males, including hard-to-engage-men (HTEM). Awareness raising events held on match days aimed to connect with men, but outreach activities were especially important for engaging participants. Following initial reach, familiar settings, such as the club stadia and community venues were also important for ensuring regular involvement in health improvement sessions. Interventions shaped around men's health needs and delivered at times when participants could more easily attend, were factors which helped to engage men. Supportive social environments and a range of exercise modes and delivery options were also seen by HTs as being similarly important. Both the informality and familiarity of EPL clubs were viewed by HTs as having substantial advantages over conventional NHS settings for reaching and engaging men. Importantly, HTs contributed substantial skills to the delivery of PLH. Although, top flight professional football clubs can recruit men, including those regarded as hard-to-engage into health improvement programmes, considerable attention to delivery refinement is needed to support male participants adopting interventions aimed at promoting healthy lifestyles. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society
Howard, David M
Tunefulness in singing is well understood in the context of solo stage performance, singing in small groups and singing in choirs, with or without accompaniment, and it can be readily measured under laboratory conditions. When thousands of people are singing outside in support of their football team, however, the singing is impromptu; there is no conductor, no starting note, and generally no accompaniment. This paper describes the measurement of the tunefulness of the singing of fans of the twenty clubs in the 2001-2002 English Premier League. The technique adopted is unusual in that it makes direct reference to the formal definition of pitch as a subjective phenomenon. The results are presented in the form of a 2001-2002 English Premier League football fans singing league table.
Anderson, Liam; Naughton, Robert J; Close, Graeme L; Di Michele, Rocco; Morgans, Ryland; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P
The daily distribution of macronutrient intake can modulate aspects of training adaptations, performance and recovery. We therefore assessed the daily distribution of macronutrient intake (as assessed using food diaries supported by the remote food photographic method and 24 h recalls) of professional soccer players (n=6) of the English Premier League during a 7-day period consisting of two match days and five training days. On match days, average carbohydrate (CHO) content of the pre-match (0.05) though such intakes were lower than contemporary guidelines considered optimal for pre-match CHO intake and post-match recovery. On training days, we observed a skewed and hierarchical approach (Plunch (0.6 g.kg(-1))>breakfast (0.3 g.kg(-1))>evening snacks (0.1 g.kg(-1)). We conclude players may benefit from consuming greater amounts of CHO in both the pre-match and post-match meals so as to increase CHO availability and maximize rates of muscle glycogen re-synthesis, respectively. Furthermore, attention should also be given to ensuring even daily distribution of protein intake so as to potentially promote components of training adaptation.
Bradley, Paul Simon; Lago-Peñas, Carlos; Rey, Ezequiel; Sampaio, Jaime
Abstract The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to examine the influence of situational variables on ball possession in elite soccer and (2) to quantify the variables that discriminate between high or low percentage ball possession teams (HPBPT and LPBPT) across different playing positions. Match performance data were collected from English Premier League matches using a multiple-camera system. Data were examined using linear regression, a 2 × 5 factorial analysis of variance and discriminant analysis. Playing against weak opposition was associated with an increase (P variables (P variables that discriminated performance between HPBPT and LPBPT were different for various playing positions, although the number of successful passes was the most common discriminating variable. The results demonstrate that HPBPT and LPBPT developed different possession strategies during matches and that selected variables such as successful passes were identified to explain these data trends across various playing positions. Combinations of variables could be used to develop a probabilistic model for predicting time spent in possession by teams.
Razali, Nazim; Mustapha, Aida; Yatim, Faiz Ahmad; Aziz, Ruhaya Ab
The issues of modeling asscoiation football prediction model has become increasingly popular in the last few years and many different approaches of prediction models have been proposed with the point of evaluating the attributes that lead a football team to lose, draw or win the match. There are three types of approaches has been considered for predicting football matches results which include statistical approaches, machine learning approaches and Bayesian approaches. Lately, many studies regarding football prediction models has been produced using Bayesian approaches. This paper proposes a Bayesian Networks (BNs) to predict the results of football matches in term of home win (H), away win (A) and draw (D). The English Premier League (EPL) for three seasons of 2010-2011, 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 has been selected and reviewed. K-fold cross validation has been used for testing the accuracy of prediction model. The required information about the football data is sourced from a legitimate site at http://www.football-data.co.uk. BNs achieved predictive accuracy of 75.09% in average across three seasons. It is hoped that the results could be used as the benchmark output for future research in predicting football matches results.
Weston, M; Bird, S; Helsen, W; Nevill, A; Castagna, C
The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of match standard and referee experience on the objective and subjective workload of referees during English Premier League and Football League soccer matches. We also examined the relationship between heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) for assessing match intensity in soccer referees. Heart rate responses were recorded using short-range telemetry and RPE scores were collected using a 10-point scale. Analysis revealed a significant relationship between mean match HR and match RPE scores (r=0.485, pFootball League 81.5+/-2.2%HRmax, pFootball League 6.9+/-0.8, pReferee experience had no effect on match HR and RPE responses to Premier League and Football League matches. The results of the present study demonstrate the validity of using HR and RPE as a measure of global match intensity in soccer referees. Referee experience had no effect on the referees' objective and subjective match workload assessments, whereas match intensity was correlated to competition standard. These findings have implications for fitness preparation and evaluation in soccer referees. When progressing to a higher level of competition, referees should ensure that appropriate levels of fitness are developed in order to enable them to cope with an increase in physical match demands.
Malone, James J; Di Michele, Rocco; Morgans, Ryland; Burgess, Darren; Morton, James P; Drust, Barry
To quantify the seasonal training load completed by professional soccer players of the English Premier League. Thirty players were sampled (using GPS, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion [RPE]) during the daily training sessions of the 2011-12 preseason and in-season period. Preseason data were analyzed across 6×1-wk microcycles. In-season data were analyzed across 6×6-wk mesocycle blocks and 3×1-wk microcycles at start, midpoint, and end-time points. Data were also analyzed with respect to number of days before a match. Typical daily training load (ie, total distance, high-speed distance, percent maximal heart rate [%HRmax], RPE load) did not differ during each week of the preseason phase. However, daily total distance covered was 1304 (95% CI 434-2174) m greater in the 1st mesocycle than in the 6th. %HRmax values were also greater (3.3%, 1.3-5.4%) in the 3rd mesocycle than in the first. Furthermore, training load was lower on the day before match (MD-1) than 2 (MD-2) to 5 (MD-5) d before a match, although no difference was apparent between these latter time points. The authors provide the 1st report of seasonal training load in elite soccer players and observed that periodization of training load was typically confined to MD-1 (regardless of mesocycle), whereas no differences were apparent during MD-2 to MD-5. Future studies should evaluate whether this loading and periodization are facilitative of optimal training adaptations and match-day performance.
Anderson, Liam; Orme, Patrick; Naughton, Robert J; Close, Graeme L; Milsom, Jordan; Rydings, David; O'Boyle, Andy; Di Michele, Rocco; Louis, Julien; Hambly, Catherine; Speakman, John Roger; Morgans, Ryland; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P
In an attempt to better identify and inform the energy requirements of elite soccer players, we quantified the energy expenditure (EE) of players from the English Premier League (n = 6) via the doubly labeled water method (DLW) over a 7-day in-season period. Energy intake (EI) was also assessed using food diaries, supported by the remote food photographic method and 24 hr recalls. The 7-day period consisted of 5 training days (TD) and 2 match days (MD). Although mean daily EI (3186 ± 367 kcals) was not different from (p > .05) daily EE (3566 ± 585 kcals), EI was greater (p players readily achieve current guidelines for daily protein and fat intake, data suggest that CHO intake on the day before and in recovery from match play was not in accordance with guidelines to promote muscle glycogen storage.
Richardson, David; Littlewood, Martin; Nesti, Mark; Benstead, Luke
The migration of soccer players has increased in recent years. In this study, we examined the experiences of elite young soccer players as they engaged in a migratory transition from their home country to an English Premier League (EPL) club. Five young players, who made the migratory transition between the ages of 16 and 24, were interviewed. Data were analysed using the principles of content analysis. Verbatim text was then aligned to the emergent themes. Results indicate that young migratory players face the initial frenzy that is associated with an approach from an EPL club before going through a "decision" phase, followed by a period of "migration" and "acculturation" before establishing (or not) their "home from home". The challenges of leaving home and family while trying to establish themselves as a professional player in an environment that (still) appears to be beset with (traditional) English soccer culture (i.e. high tempo, ruthless, macho, and aggressive) are recounted. While the player's family was a significant source of social support, there is still a need for qualified personnel (e.g. sports psychologists) and/or appropriately trained international recruitment staff and football agents (i.e. in areas of social, psychological, and/or performance lifestyle) to support young players through their migratory transition.
Bradley, Paul S; Carling, Chris; Archer, Dave
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of playing formation on high-intensity running and technical performance during elite soccer matches. Twenty English FA Premier League games were analysed using a multiple-camera computerized tracking system (n = 153 players). Overall ball possession...... did not differ (P > 0.05) between 4-4-2, 4-3-3 and 4-5-1 formations (50%, s = 7 vs. 49%, s = 8 vs. 44%, s = 6). No differences were observed in high-intensity running between 4-4-2, 4-3-3 and 4-5-1 formations. Compared with 4-4-2 and 4-3-3 formations, players in a 4-5-1 formation performed less very...... high-intensity running when their team was in possession (312 m, s = 196 vs. 433 m, s = 261 vs. 410 m, s = 270; P ...
Akenhead, Richard; Harley, Jamie A; Tweddle, Simon P
Akenhead, R, Harley, J, and Tweddle, S. Examining the external training load of an English Premier League football team with special reference to acceleration. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2424-2432, 2016-Practitioners and coaches often use external training load variables such as distance run and the number of high-speed running (HSR) activities to quantify football training. However, an important component of the external load may be overlooked when acceleration activities are not considered. The aim of this study was to describe the within-microcycle distribution of external load, including acceleration, during in-season 1-game weeks in an elite football team. Global Positioning System technology was used to collect time-motion data from 12 representative 7-day microcycles across a competitive season (48 training days, 295 data sets). Training time, total distance (TD), high-speed running (HSR) distance (>5.8 m·s), sprint running distance (>6.7 m·s) and acceleration variables were recorded during each training session. Data were analysed for interday and interposition differences using mixed linear modeling. The distribution of external load was characterized by the second training day of the microcycle (5 days prematch) exhibiting the highest values for all variables of training load, with the fourth day (1 day prematch) exhibiting the lowest values. Central midfield players covered ∼8-16% greater TD than other positions excluding wide midfielders (p ≤ 0.03, d = 0.2-0.4) and covered ∼17% greater distance accelerating 1-2 m·s than central defenders (p = 0.03, d = 0.7). When expressed relative to training duration and TD, the magnitude of interday and interposition differences were markedly reduced (p = 0.03, d = 0.2-0.3). When managing the distribution of training load, practitioners should be aware of the intensity of training sessions and consider the density of external load within sessions.
National Literacy Trust, 2009
Scottish Premier League (SPL) Reading Stars uses the motivational power of football to attract families who need support with literacy into a positive and friendly learning environment. It ran for the first time between March and August 2009 and attracted 225 children and 190 adults to take part in a series of inspirational learning sessions in 23…
The study investigated sociological variable influencing the Nigeria premier League. Three research questions and three hypotheses were raised. The area of the study was Nigeria. The population for the study was 1,118 which comprised of sports administrators, coaches and players in the Nigeria Premier League.
Weston, Matthew; Castagna, Carlo; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Rampinini, Ermanno; Abt, Grant
The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of first half activity, overall match intensity and seasonal variation on the physical match performances of English Premier League football referees. Match analysis data was collected using the Prozone match analysis system from 19 full-time professional referees during a total of 254 matches in the 2004-2005 season. Physical match performances were classified into three separate categories: 1, total distance covered (TD); 2, high-intensity running distance (running speed>5.5m/s, HIR); 3, average distance from infringements (DI). Using these match activity variables the influence of first half TD and HIR distances on second half activities and also the influence of players' match activities upon the referees' physical match performances were examined. The main finding of the present study was that the physical match performances of the referees were partly related to those of the players, in that the referees' HIR correlated with players' HIR (r=0.43, preferees (r=0.47 and r=0.52, respectively, preferee. Further examination is required as to whether reduced physical performances in the second half of matches are a consequence of referee fatigue, tactical strategies on behalf of the referee or reduced player match activities resulting in a slower tempo of match.
Anderson, Liam; Orme, Patrick; Di Michele, Rocco; Close, Graeme L; Morgans, Ryland; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P
Muscle glycogen is the predominant energy source for soccer match play, though its importance for soccer training (where lower loads are observed) is not well known. In an attempt to better inform carbohydrate (CHO) guidelines, we quantified training load in English Premier League soccer players (n = 12) during a one-, two- and three-game week schedule (weekly training frequency was four, four and two, respectively). In a one-game week, training load was progressively reduced (P training load and periodisation was similar in the one- and two-game weeks, total accumulative distance (inclusive of both match and training load) was higher in a two-game week (32.5 ± 4.1 km) versus one-game week (25.9 ± 2 km). In contrast, daily training total distance was lower in the three-game week (2422 ± 251 m) versus the one- and two-game weeks, though accumulative weekly distance was highest in this week (35.5 ± 2.4 km) and more time (P 14.4 km · h(-1) (14%, 18% and 23% in the one-, two- and three-game weeks, respectively). Considering that high CHO availability improves physical match performance but high CHO availability attenuates molecular pathways regulating training adaptation (especially considering the low daily customary loads reported here, e.g., 3-5 km per day), we suggest daily CHO intake should be periodised according to weekly training and match schedules.
The challenge and impact of engaging hard-to-reach populations in regular physical activity and health behaviours: an examination of an English Premier League 'Football in the Community' men's health programme.
Curran, K; Drust, B; Murphy, R; Pringle, A; Richardson, D
To investigate the challenges that men from hard-to-reach (HTR) populations encounter when attempting to commit to regular participation in physical activity and health behaviours, and to explore the psychological and social effects of participation in a twelve week football-led health improvement intervention. A twelve week football specific physical activity intervention targeting men from HTR populations was delivered by Everton Football Clubs' Football in the Community (FitC) scheme as part of a national programme of men's health delivered in/by English Premier League (EPL) football clubs. Men living in homeless shelters and/or recovering from substance misuse were recruited over a period of three months. The programme consisted of a two hour football session, twice weekly, alongside the dissemination of healthy living messages. Football sessions were conducted by a qualified FitC coach. This research was conducted during a twelve week period of immersed practitioner-research. Ethnographic and observational methodologies were adopted. Psychosocial issues were discussed with participants through informal client-researcher interactions and data were logged via field notes. Records of attendance were logged. Participants who failed to attend a session were contacted and their reason(s) for non-attendance were recorded. Data were analysed using deductive and inductive reasoning. Despite the apparent ambition of the participants to regularly participate in the FitC programme, adherence to the programme was poor. Economic, environmental and social barriers to engagement in the programme were apparent. Engagement in the programme resulted in positive psychosocial developments; the development of structure, social interaction and social capital. Community based football-led health improvement programmes endorsed by professional football clubs appear well positioned to connect with, and attract, men from HTR populations. The evidence suggests that such programmes can
The evaluation of the Premier League Reading Stars (PLRS) programme in 2013 has established that the intervention is having a positive impact on the attainment of participating children in reading and writing: Three out of four children made at least six months' progress in just ten weeks. One child in three made a year's progress or more. The…
Farhad Alahvisi; Mohammad Maleki; Farid Zand Salimi
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between game location (host advantage), match result (win, lose or tie) and the level of aggression in football teams of the Iranian Premier League. The study population consisted of Premier League Football teams (League XIII), and 60 matches (related to 4 teams) that were available for the researcher, were selected as the sample. The current study can be regarded as applied and descriptive, in terms of purpose and data collection,...
Full Text Available This study aimed to rank the spectators’ difficulties in buying electronic tickets of football premier league matches at Azadi stadium. The population consisted of all spectators of Esteghlal-Persepolis match in the fifteenth league at Azadi stadium (N= 100000. According to Morgan table and using simple random sampling method, 500 participants were selected as sample. A researcher-made questionnaire was used for collecting the data; its face validity was confirmed by 15 experts and performing a pilot study on 30 subjects, its Cronbach’s alpha was calculated to be 0.86. Using SPSS 22, the descriptive and inferential (including Friedman test statistics was applied for analyzing the data. The findings showed that there was a significant difference between rankings of difficulties in buying electronic tickets of Football premier league matches at Azadi Stadium. The difficulties were ranked as: problem in ticket systems, early selling out of electronic tickets, lack of confidence to electronic ticket sale, lack of skill to work with the internet, low speed of internet, and lack of access to the internet
Vlad Ionut Dumitrache
Full Text Available Smart economy implies the development of key factors like global economy growth, competition, economic progress, economic prosperity, innovation. In the European top-level football, like the case of the British Premier League, financial indicators have demonstrated that the factors that define smart economy can be identified. The new rules of the financial fair-play policies and the ever growing revenues for television rights have created a new market in sports economy, one that identifies itself with the criteria identifies in studies regarding smart economy. This paper comparatively examines the determinants of four indicators of the football team quality in the British Premier League, in order to find out whether a common set of potential determinants could be effective in improving all four indicators of quality, without worsening any of them. This allows finding what measures undertaken at the level of football teams could raise the football team quality. Considering the subjective and multidimensional nature of the football team quality, we first propose four indicators that might be appropriate to define this latent summative measure. Then we select a number of four potentially common determinants of the football team quality, and finally discuss the empirical results, based on panel generalized least squares regression models. The television broadcasting rights are found to be the most important determinant of the football team quality.
de Freitas Guina Fachina, Rafael Júlio; Andrade, Marília dos Santos; Silva, Fernando Roberto; Waszczuk-Junior, Silas; Montagner, Paulo César; Borin, João Paulo; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa
Soccer, which has a large number of participants, has a high injury incidence that causes both financial and time burdens. Therefore, knowledge about the epidemiology of soccer injuries could allow sports-medicine professionals, such as physicians and physiotherapists, to direct their work in specific preventive programs. Thus, our aim was to conduct an epidemiological survey of injuries sustained by professional soccer players from the same team who participated in the Brazilian championship premier league in 2009. To this end, we evaluated retrospectively player medical records from the team, which included name, date of birth, position, date of injury, mechanism of injury, and type of injury. In the period of study, 95 injuries were recorded: 42 (44.2%) were recorded during matches, and 53 (55.8%) during the training period. Injuries occurred more frequently in midfielders and strikers. All injuries happened in the lower limb, most of the injuries were muscular, and most occurred as the result of collisions with other athletes. In summary, this study demonstrates that there is a need for greater safety awareness in the training environment. PMID:24379722
Full Text Available Background and purpose of study : analysis of IRAN premier league soccer players’ technical performance in season 2012-2013, using a computerized match analysis system (Borhan Mobin Development Management Co, IRAN. Material and methods: in this study, data were obtained from 120 players, who performed in competitions 90 minutes. The players were classified into 3 positional roles: defenders, midfielders and forwards. Technical performance variables analysis included: total passes, total successful passes, pass accuracy, total shots; total shots to target, shot accuracy, ball interception and ball losses. The data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Tukey post hoc test. Results : The findings of this study showed that players performed about 45 passes per competition. Midfielders and defenders had significantly higher number of passes than forwards. Pass accuracy was about 67% and there were no significant differences between positional roles. Also, the players performed about 0.8 shots per competition, forwards and midfielders had significantly higher number of shots than defenders. Shot accuracy was about 31%; midfielders and forwards had significantly higher shot accuracy than defenders. Forwards showed significantly lower ball interception and higher ball losses than other positions. Conclusion : The result of this study showed that there were significant differences between some technical actions in positional roles. Therefore, coaches can use this information for individualization of training according to playing positions and for optimization of training in the amateur game.
Kordi, Ramin; Chitsaz, Alireza; Rostami, Mohsen; Mostafavi, Reza; Ghadimi, Mahmoodreza
Background: Despite the crucial role of referees in a soccer match, few researchers have targeted the injury profile of referees in their studies. Understanding the incidence, nature, and pattern of injuries could provide important information for educational and preventative efforts at the international level. Hypothesis: The incidence rate and patterns of acute injuries to official referees of the Iranian Premier Football League during the 2009-2010 season are similar to those reported among referees in short-term international competitions such as FIFA World Cup. Study Design: Prospective cohort study. Methods: Demographic data for 74 referees, including 30 main referees and 44 assistant referees, were collected at the beginning of the season. To record injuries and refereeing time, weekly contact was made by a physician. Results: In total, 102 injuries were reported by referees during the football season. The incidence rates of injuries among referees during training and matches were 4.6 and 19.6 injuries per 1000 hours, respectively. Muscular and tendon injuries were found to be the most common type of injury, and the most common site of injury was the lower leg followed by the hip and groin. Conclusion: The results of this study are consistent with similar prospective studies evaluating injuries to referees over the course of a short-term tournament. Clinical Relevance: These findings provide a base for suggesting possible preventive recommendations in future studies. PMID:24427414
Henderson, Claire; O'Hara, Stefanie; Thornicroft, Graham; Webber, Martin
Football is increasingly used to facilitate recovery in mental health services, often in partnership with football clubs. However, few clubs have made mental health part of their corporate social responsibility programmes until recently. We report the impact on participants of the 'Imagine Your Goals' programme, run by 16 Premier League football clubs in conjunction with England's Time to Change programme to reduce mental health-related stigma and discrimination. Mixed methods evaluation used pre/post measures of well-being, access to social capital, focus groups held early on and towards the end of the two-year programmes, and questionnaires for coaching staff. There were no significant changes to participants' mental well-being scores between baseline and follow-up, nor to the total number of social resources accessible through their networks. However, there was a statistically significant increase at follow-up in the mean score of the personal skills subscale of the Resource Generator-UK. Participants' individual skills were also higher at follow-up. Qualitative data showed programmes had largely met participants' expectations in terms of socializing, providing structure and improving fitness levels, exceeded expectations in relationships with coaching staff and additional activities, but did not always meet them in improving football skills. Participants varied in their knowledge of exit opportunities, depending on which club's programme they attended. A minority of clubs reported difficulties in recruitment and concerns about planning for the future of the projects. Football clubs and the charitable foundations they set up can successfully deliver programmes to people with mental health problems which improve access to personal skills social capital and have other potential benefits.
Morgans, Ryland; Di Michele, Rocco; Drust, Barry
Competitive match play is a dominant component of the physical load completed by soccer players in a training microcycle. Characterizing the temporal disruption in homeostasis that follows exercise may provide some insight on the potential for match play to elicit an adaptive response. Countermovement-jump (CMJ) performance was characterized 3 d postmatch for 15 outfield players from an English Premier League soccer team (age 25.8 ± 4.1 y, stature 1.78 ± 0.08 m, body mass: 71.7 ± 9.1 kg) across a season. These players were classified as either starters (n = 9) or nonstarters (n = 6), according to their average individual playing time (more or less than 60 min/match). Linear mixed models were used to investigate the influence of indicators of match activity (total distance covered [TD] and high-intensity running distance [HI]) on CMJ height and peak power (PP). Starting players covered much greater TD (ES = 1.5) and HI (ES = 1.4) than nonstarters. Furthermore, there was a possible positive effect of HI on CMJ height and PP. This relationship suggests that an additional 0.6 km of HI would increase CMJ height and PP by slightly more than the smallest-worthwhile-change values of 0.6 cm and 1.0 W/kg, respectively. This small yet practically relevant increase in performance may suggest that match play, more specifically the intense activities that are associated with the match, provides a physiological stimulus for neuromuscular adaptation. These data may have implications for the preparation of soccer squads, especially the training requirements of starting and nonstarting players.
Cumming, Sean P; Brown, Daniel J; Mitchell, Siobhan; Bunce, James; Hunt, Dan; Hedges, Chris; Crane, Gregory; Gross, Aleks; Scott, Sam; Franklin, Ed; Breakspear, Dave; Dennison, Luke; White, Paul; Cain, Andrew; Eisenmann, Joey C; Malina, Robert M
Individual differences in the growth and maturation have been shown to impact player performance and development in youth soccer. This study investigated Premier League academy players' experiences of participating in a tournament bio-banded for biological maturation. Players (N = 66) from four professional soccer clubs aged 11 and 14 years and between 85-90% of adult stature participated in a tournament. Players competed in three 11 vs 11 games on a full size pitch with 25-min halves. Sixteen players participated in four 15-min focus groups and were asked to describe their experiences of participating in the bio-banded tournament in comparison to age group competition. All players described their experience as positive and recommended the Premier League integrate bio-banding into the existing games programme. In comparison to age-group competitions, early maturing players described the bio-banded games more physically challenging, and found that they had to adapt their style of play placing a greater emphasis on technique and tactics. Late maturing players considered the games to be less physically challenging, yet appreciated the having more opportunity to use, develop and demonstrate their technical, physical, and psychological competencies. Bio-banding strategies appear to contribute positively towards the holistic development of young soccer players.
Kordi, Ramin; Chitsaz, Alireza; Rostami, Mohsen; Mostafavi, Reza; Ghadimi, Mahmoodreza
Despite the crucial role of referees in a soccer match, few researchers have targeted the injury profile of referees in their studies. Understanding the incidence, nature, and pattern of injuries could provide important information for educational and preventative efforts at the international level. The incidence rate and patterns of acute injuries to official referees of the Iranian Premier Football League during the 2009-2010 season are similar to those reported among referees in short-term international competitions such as FIFA World Cup. Prospective cohort study. Demographic data for 74 referees, including 30 main referees and 44 assistant referees, were collected at the beginning of the season. To record injuries and refereeing time, weekly contact was made by a physician. In total, 102 injuries were reported by referees during the football season. The incidence rates of injuries among referees during training and matches were 4.6 and 19.6 injuries per 1000 hours, respectively. Muscular and tendon injuries were found to be the most common type of injury, and the most common site of injury was the lower leg followed by the hip and groin. The results of this study are consistent with similar prospective studies evaluating injuries to referees over the course of a short-term tournament. These findings provide a base for suggesting possible preventive recommendations in future studies.
Frederick W. Stander; Llewellyn E. Van Zyl
Orientation: Local football contributes significantly to the social- and economic welfare of South Africa through its spectators. Understanding the motives and experiences of football spectators could provide opportunities for capitalising on football as revenue stream feeding the South African economy. Research purpose: To investigate how motives for sport consumption predict intrinsic psychological reward of South African premier league football spectators. Motivation for the study: Sport ...
Sedigheh Hosseinpoor Delavar; Shirin Zardoshtian; Behesht Ahmady; Azadeh Azadi
This study determined the effects of autonomy-supportive behaviors on satisfying the psychological needs and commitment of female handball players in premier league in Iran. Here, we used descriptive research (survey) method. The statistical population of 237 players was selected as our samples. We administered three questionnaires for autonomy-Supportive behaviors, psychological needs and commitment including perceived autonomy-supportive behaviors of coaches in sport (PASSES), satisfaction ...
Full Text Available The economic environment and business, advertising in sport is one of the ways that most companies to manage the brand, its products and expanding its market in the country. The aim of the present study investigates the effects of advertising on transfer of brand identity from the perspective of sports consumers in Premier League football. This study on the nature and purpose and in terms of descriptive and correlational in terms of search data, a survey was carried out that way. After face and content validity, reliability test using Cronbach's alpha for the questionnaire, the effect of advertising tools 0.89, questionnaire transfer brand identity was 0.86, respectively. In order to analyze the data, descriptive and inferential statistical methods for the calculation and processing information, and also Spss software packages and LISREL were used. The study findings also confirmed the emergence of structural equation and the findings of other researchers, showed a promotional tool to transfer of brand identity from the perspective of the Sports consumer was significant effect (Chi-Square/df=2/04, RMSEA=0/059, P-Value =0/0001. The effect of each variable prioritize research also showed use of tool television advertising has the greatest impact on consumers transfer of brand identity. According to the results, it can be said that managers, marketers and planners of advertising companies, organizations and clubs and sporting goods service provider using of the effectiveness of each advertising tool and provide an integrated program of tools and to inform, remind and convince consumers can transfer of brand identity or brand and achieve their advertising goals.
Full Text Available Purpose: to define the characteristics of the model command of technical and tactical training team participating in the Ukrainian Premier League First League. Material and Methods: the research was conducted using the method of peer review. The experts were involved 5 specialists football. Results: the mean values for the analyzed variables in 10 games. The various technical and tactical actions and their percentage in the overall structure of the game team statistics for 20 games, as well as some indicators of team play "Helios" Kharkov. Conclusions: the obtained quantitative and qualitative indicators (coefficient of marriage as a team on the technical and tactical actions, as well as separately for each technical and tactical reception. The performances allow you to make adjustments to the training process this command to improve sportsmanship.
Frederick W. Stander
Full Text Available Orientation: Local football contributes significantly to the social- and economic welfare of South Africa through its spectators. Understanding the motives and experiences of football spectators could provide opportunities for capitalising on football as revenue stream feeding the South African economy. Research purpose: To investigate how motives for sport consumption predict intrinsic psychological reward of South African premier league football spectators. Motivation for the study: Sport - particularly football - is an untapped resource for stimulating economic development and growth through its consumers. Spectators, who often experience their investment in the sport as deeply rewarding and meaningful, should participate more frequently in purchasing products or services associated with the sport. Through understanding the motives for sport consumption of South African premier league football spectators and the impact of these motives on intrinsic psychological reward experiences, football clubs are able to provide a targeted experience or service to spectators in order to further stimulate economic growth. Research design, approach and method: A census sample of 806 football spectators attending various matches at a football stadium in Soweto was drawn. A cross-sectional research design was implemented. This research was exploratory and descriptive. Structural equation modelling was implemented to assess the factor structures of the constructs, to confirm composite reliability of the measures and to assess the structural paths between the variables. Main findings: A predictive model for intrinsic psychological rewards (life satisfaction and meaning through the motivation for sport consumption (individual – and game related factors was confirmed. It was further established that motivation for sport consumption is significantly positively a related to and b associated with the experience of intrinsic psychological reward by South African
Koopman, S.J.; Lit, R.
Summary: We develop a statistical model for the analysis and forecasting of football match results which assumes a bivariate Poisson distribution with intensity coefficients that change stochastically over time. The dynamic model is a novelty in the statistical time series analysis of match results
In his paper "English Football and Its Hong Kong Television Audience," Victor Fan applies Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari's thought in their Kafka. Pour une littérature mineure to map the relationship between the English Premier League of football (soccer) and its Hong Kong television audience/spectatorship. Fan first introduces the background of the English Premier League in relation to its increasing subjugation under Thatcherite and post-Thatcherite consumerist economy. He then examines ...
McAleer, Stephen S; Gille, Justus; Bark, Stefan; Riepenhof, Helge
The aim of this paper was to use a clinical example to describe a treatment strategy for the management of recurrent chronic groin pain and evaluate the evidence of the interventions. A professional footballer presented with chronic recurrent OP/PBS. The injury was managed successfully with a nine-point programme - 1. Acute pharmacological management. 2. Tone reduction of over-active structures. 3. Improved ROM at hips, pelvis and thorax. 4. Adductor strength. 5. Functional movement assessment. 6. Core stability. 7. Lumbo-pelvic control. 8. Gym-based strengthening. 9. Field-based conditioning/rehabilitation. The evidence for these interventions is reviewed. The player returned to full training and match play within 41 and 50 days, respectively, and experienced no recurrence of his symptoms in follow up at 13 months. This case report displays a nine-point conservative management strategy for OP/PBS, with non-time dependent clinical objective markers as the progression criteria in a Premier League football player. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nicholls, Adam R.; Earle, Keith; Earle, Fiona; Madigan, Daniel J.
All football teams that compete within the F. A. Premier League possess an academy, whose objective is to produce more and better home-grown players that are capable of playing professionally. These young players spend a large amount of time with their coach, but little is known about player’s perception of the coach–athlete relationship within F. A. Premier League Academies. The objectives of this study were to examine whether perceptions of the coach–athlete relationship changed over six months and if the coach–athlete relationship predicted self-reported goal achievement among F. A. Premier League academy players. This study included cross-sectional (n = 104) and longitudinal (n = 52) assessments, in which academy soccer players completed a measure of the coach–athlete relationship and goal achievement across either one or two time periods. The cross-sectional data were subjected to bivariate correlations, whereas the longitudinal data were analyzed using multiple regressions. Perceptions of the coach–athlete relationship remained stable over time. The coach–athlete relationship predicted the achievement of mastery goals six months later. Enhancing the quality of the coach–athlete relationship among elite adolescent athletes appears to be a suitable way of maximizing mastery achievement goals, particularly among developmental athletes who participate in team sports. PMID:28572775
Adam R. Nicholls
Full Text Available All football teams that compete within the F. A. Premier League possess an academy, whose objective is to produce more and better home-grown players that are capable of playing professionally. These young players spend a large amount of time with their coach, but little is known about player’s perception of the coach–athlete relationship within F. A. Premier League Academies. The objectives of this study were to examine whether perceptions of the coach–athlete relationship changed over six months and if the coach–athlete relationship predicted self-reported goal achievement among F. A. Premier League academy players. This study included cross-sectional (n = 104 and longitudinal (n = 52 assessments, in which academy soccer players completed a measure of the coach–athlete relationship and goal achievement across either one or two time periods. The cross-sectional data were subjected to bivariate correlations, whereas the longitudinal data were analyzed using multiple regressions. Perceptions of the coach–athlete relationship remained stable over time. The coach–athlete relationship predicted the achievement of mastery goals six months later. Enhancing the quality of the coach–athlete relationship among elite adolescent athletes appears to be a suitable way of maximizing mastery achievement goals, particularly among developmental athletes who participate in team sports.
Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to assess whether the demands of the modern English competitive soccer season would be reflected in the mood states of professional soccer players. Sixty-nine male participants either activity competing in English soccer leagues or resident in England were recruited and grouped accordingly as professional soccer players, university level soccer players, Sunday league soccer players, or non-sporting controls. On three separate occasions; at the beginning, at the middle, and finally towards the end of the English soccer season, participants completed both the Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaire as well as a questionnaire related to their teams’ performance in addition to their perceived life stress. Results showed the POMS scores to differ over the season in relation to the groups’ standard of competition. ANOVAs demonstrated this pattern to be significant for the dependent measures of tension, depression, and confusion with significant group by time interactions (95% level of confidence. At the outset of the season professionals had the most positive POMS profile, however, as the season progressed they showed the greatest change towards a negative profile. These results indicate that English soccer is placing professional players at a predisposition of demonstrating POMS commensurate with negative adaptation to training, having important implications for their long-term performance and health.
Hunt, Kate; Wyke, Sally; Gray, Cindy M; Anderson, Annie S; Brady, Adrian; Bunn, Christopher; Donnan, Peter T; Fenwick, Elisabeth; Grieve, Eleanor; Leishman, Jim; Miller, Euan; Mutrie, Nanette; Rauchhaus, Petra; White, Alan; Treweek, Shaun
The prevalence of male obesity is increasing but few men take part in weight loss programmes. We assessed the effect of a weight loss and healthy living programme on weight loss in football (soccer) fans. We did a two-group, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial of 747 male football fans aged 35-65 years with a body-mass index (BMI) of 28 kg/m(2) or higher from 13 Scottish professional football clubs. Participants were randomly assigned with SAS (version 9·2, block size 2-9) in a 1:1 ratio, stratified by club, to a weight loss programme delivered by community coaching staff in 12 sessions held every week. The intervention group started a weight loss programme within 3 weeks, and the comparison group were put on a 12 month waiting list. All participants received a weight management booklet. Primary outcome was mean difference in weight loss between groups at 12 months, expressed as absolute weight and a percentage of their baseline weight. Primary outcome assessment was masked. Analyses were based on intention to treat. The trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials, number ISRCTN32677491. 374 men were allocated to the intervention group and 374 to the comparison group. 333 (89%) of the intervention group and 355 (95%) of the comparison group completed 12 month assessments. At 12 months the mean difference in weight loss between groups, adjusted for baseline weight and club, was 4·94 kg (95% CI 3·95-5·94) and percentage weight loss, similarly adjusted, was 4·36% (3·64-5·08), both in favour of the intervention (pFootball Pools funded delivery of the programme through a grant to the Scottish Premier League Trust. The National Institute for Health Research Public Health Research Programme funded the assessment (09/3010/06). Copyright © 2014 Hunt et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY-NC-ND. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Injury risk factors, screening tests and preventative strategies: a systematic review of the evidence that underpins the perceptions and practices of 44 football (soccer) teams from various premier leagues.
McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Davison, Michael; Nedelec, Mathieu; Le Gall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Gregory
To systematically review the scientific level of evidence for the 'Top 3' risk factors, screening tests and preventative exercises identified by a previously published survey of 44 premier league football (soccer) teams. Also, to provide an overall scientific level of evidence and graded recommendation based on the current research literature. A systematic literature search (Pubmed [MEDLINE], SportDiscus, PEDRO and Cochrane databases). The quality of the articles was assessed and a level of evidence (1++ to 4) was assigned. Level 1++ corresponded to the highest level of evidence available and 4, the lowest. A graded recommendation (A: strong, B: moderate, C: weak, D: insufficient evidence to assign a specific recommendation) for use in the practical setting was given. Fourteen studies were analysed. The overall level of evidence for the risk factors previous injury, fatigue and muscle imbalance were 2++, 4 and 'inconclusive', respectively. The graded recommendation for functional movement screen, psychological questionnaire and isokinetic muscle testing were all 'D'. Hamstring eccentric had a weak graded 'C' recommendation, and eccentric exercise for other body parts was 'D'. Balance/proprioception exercise to reduce ankle and knee sprain injury was assigned a graded recommendation 'D'. The majority of perceptions and practices of premier league teams have a low level of evidence and low graded recommendation. This does not imply that these perceptions and practices are not important or not valid, as it may simply be that they are yet to be sufficiently validated or refuted by research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Injury risk factors, screening tests and preventative strategies: a systematic review of the evidence that underpins the perceptions and practices of 44 football (soccer) teams from various premier leagues
McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Davison, Michael; Nedelec, Mathieu; Le Gall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Gregory
Purpose To systematically review the scientific level of evidence for the ‘Top 3’ risk factors, screening tests and preventative exercises identified by a previously published survey of 44 premier league football (soccer) teams. Also, to provide an overall scientific level of evidence and graded recommendation based on the current research literature. Methods A systematic literature search (Pubmed [MEDLINE], SportDiscus, PEDRO and Cochrane databases). The quality of the articles was assessed and a level of evidence (1++ to 4) was assigned. Level 1++ corresponded to the highest level of evidence available and 4, the lowest. A graded recommendation (A: strong, B: moderate, C: weak, D: insufficient evidence to assign a specific recommendation) for use in the practical setting was given. Results Fourteen studies were analysed. The overall level of evidence for the risk factors previous injury, fatigue and muscle imbalance were 2++, 4 and ‘inconclusive’, respectively. The graded recommendation for functional movement screen, psychological questionnaire and isokinetic muscle testing were all ‘D’. Hamstring eccentric had a weak graded ‘C’ recommendation, and eccentric exercise for other body parts was ‘D’. Balance/proprioception exercise to reduce ankle and knee sprain injury was assigned a graded recommendation ‘D’. Conclusions The majority of perceptions and practices of premier league teams have a low level of evidence and low graded recommendation. This does not imply that these perceptions and practices are not important or not valid, as it may simply be that they are yet to be sufficiently validated or refuted by research. PMID:25576530
Amir Abbas BABAKIANPOUR
Full Text Available T he aim of this study was to investigate the impact of coaches competitive intelligence on the football teams performance in the Iranian Premier League based on the Balanced Scorecard component (BSC.This prac tical research is a descriptive - correlational study in which population consisted of all head coaches and coaches from 16 Iranian Premier F ootball teams be tween 1392 - 1393. Two individual from each team were selected as coach and head coach and t he sample of 32 students were selected by census method. Questionnaire, 12 balls Fehy (2007 was used to measure competitive intelligence Coaches variables and ¬ 20 items of the questionnaire Neon (2003 was used to measure team performance. The results showed that the competitive intelligence team football coache s could affect performance and internal team performance will significantly increase. Also the team awareness c o ndition, technical knowledge, Opponents situation awareness, and awareness strategy of the coac hes had the greatest impact on team performance. In fact, coach es who having high level of competitive intellige nce will use the environmental threats as opportunities for improvement and uses it to enhance team performance.
Sapp, Ryan M; Spangenburg, Espen E; Hagberg, James M
Current trends suggest professional soccer is becoming less aggressive, with England often argued to have the most aggressive of the top European leagues. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in fouls and cards as indicators of aggressive play in the first divisions of England, France, Germany, Italy, and Spain over the past decade. Number of fouls per match and per yellow card has decreased in all leagues since 2007/08, though attempted tackles per foul has not changed or has increased. A lack of substantial rule changes suggests players have become less aggressive in tackling as opposed to referees becoming more lenient. Total number of fouls and cards per match were consistently lower in the English Premier League, however attempted tackles per foul was higher. The data also demonstrate the notions of home advantage and potentially referee bias, since referees tended to call more fouls and award more cards to away teams. Lastly, number of attempted tackles per foul and yellow cards received exhibited the strongest correlations with final league position across the leagues. In conclusion, our data support that elite European soccer has become less aggressive and the English Premier League is the most aggressive league.
Stig Arve Sæther
Full Text Available European top-level soccer clubs are continually looking for talented players. Few clubs, however, are willing to let youth players play at the highest senior level. Perhaps as a consequence, the search for talented players has resulted in an imbalance in the characteristics of these players, towards an overrepresentation of players born early in the selection year, an effect called the relative age effect (RAE. The RAE has been documented to be present among senior top-level players. Even so, few studies have investigated the effect among youth players at the senior level. The aim of this study is to examine RAE among U17-U20 players in the Norwegian premier league Tippeligaen in the 2009-2012 seasons. Participants were 315 male players born in 1990-1996. The results showed that 68% of the players were born in the two first quartiles of the year. The effect was even increasing in the four-year period. As we could expect based on the literature, the oldest players are given more playing time. However, the connection between playing time and RAE was inconsistent. Norwegian top-level soccer seems to be affected by the RAE when selecting their players. These players are not however guaranteed playing time because of the RAE.
Lovell, Ric; Towlson, Chris; Parkin, Guy; Portas, Matt; Vaeyens, Roel; Cobley, Stephen
The relative age effect (RAE) and its relationships with maturation, anthropometry, and physical performance characteristics were examined across a representative sample of English youth soccer development programmes...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — To provide a historical overview of the participating hospitals, before the first project report, Premier Healthcare Informatics has used data already available for...
Love, Jessica; Walker, Abby
Can the topic of a conversation, when heavily associated with a particular dialect region, influence how a speaker realizes a linguistic variable? We interviewed fans of English Premier League soccer at a pub in Columbus, Ohio. Nine speakers of British English and eleven speakers of American English were interviewed about their favorite American football and English soccer teams. We present evidence that the soccer fans in this speech community produce variants more consistent with Standard American English when talking about American football than English soccer. Specifically, speakers were overall more /r/-ful (F3 values were lower in rhotic environments) when talking about their favorite American football team. Numeric trends in the data also suggest that exposure to both American and British English, being a fan of both sports, and task may mediate these effects.
Ric Lovell; Chris Towlson; Guy Parkin; Matt Portas; Roel Vaeyens; Stephen Cobley
The relative age effect (RAE) and its relationships with maturation, anthropometry, and physical performance characteristics were examined across a representative sample of English youth soccer development programmes...
Rallis, Sharon F.; Militello, Matthew
Effective leadership does not depend on a set of attributes that a single individual possesses. Instead, the search for one best heroic leader should be replaced with the search for and investment in a number of superheroes: a League of Leadership. Those who create a leadership league don't explore individual skills, but collective practices, such…
... mental ability, socio-economic status, political views, gender identity, sexual orientation, family structure, or other protected status. LLLI ... Leche League International and those posting information. All Rights Reserved.
Criado, Regino; García, Esther; Pedroche, Francisco; Romance, Miguel
In this paper, we show a new technique to analyze families of rankings. In particular, we focus on sports rankings and, more precisely, on soccer leagues. We consider that two teams compete when they change their relative positions in consecutive rankings. This allows to define a graph by linking teams that compete. We show how to use some structural properties of this competitivity graph to measure to what extend the teams in a league compete. These structural properties are the mean degree, the mean strength, and the clustering coefficient. We give a generalization of the Kendall's correlation coefficient to more than two rankings. We also show how to make a dynamic analysis of a league and how to compare different leagues. We apply this technique to analyze the four major European soccer leagues: Bundesliga, Italian Lega, Spanish Liga, and Premier League. We compare our results with the classical analysis of sport ranking based on measures of competitive balance.
Hoskins, W; Pollard, H; Hough, K; Tully, C
It was the purpose of this review to document the range, incidence, location and mechanism of injury occurring in the sport of rugby league. Rugby league is a collision sport played in Europe and the Pacific regions including Australia. The sport is well established and has competitions ranging from junior to elite professional. Due to the contact nature of the game, injury is relatively common. The most common injuries are musculotendinous in nature and afflict the lower limb more frequently than elsewhere. Despite the high incidence of minor (sprains/strains) to moderate musculoskeletal injury (fracture, ligament and joint injury) and minor head injuries such as lacerations, nasal fractures and concussions, rare more serious spinal cord and other injuries causing death have also been recorded. The literature on rugby league injury is small but growing and suffers from a lack of consistent definition of what an injury is, thereby causing variability in the nature and incidence/prevalence of injury. Information is lacking on the injury profiles of different age groups. Importantly, there has been little attempt to establish a coordinated injury surveillance program in rugby league in the junior or professional levels. The implementation of such programs would require a universal definition of injury and a focus on important events and competitions. The implementation could provide important information in the identification and prevention of risk factors for injury.
Cooper, Kenneth J.
Ruth Simmons made a big news splash a decade ago when she was named president of Brown University, making her the first Black president of an Ivy League institution. She made another splash three years later by naming a committee to investigate Brown's role in the slave trade and make recommendations on possible reparations. Reflecting on her…
O que pensam os treinadores portugueses da 1ª liga sobre a importância da intervenção psicológica no futebol profissional? What portuguese premier league coaches think about the importance of psychological intervention in professional soccer?
André Neves Barreiros
Full Text Available O rendimento desportivo resulta da interligação de aspectos físicos, técnicos, tácticos e psicológicos. Contudo, relativamente ao treino de Futebol constata-se que a componente psicológica é muito negligenciada. Neste estudo, procura-se conhecer as percepções de treinadores de alto rendimento acerca de diferentes aspectos relacionados com a dimensão psicológica, nomeadamente as concepções sobre o treino psicológico e a sua relação com o treino e o rendimento desportivo; o nível de preparação dos treinadores para treinar as competências psicológicas; e a relevância de colaborar com um especialista em psicologia do desporto. Com recurso a uma entrevista semi-estruturada, foram entrevistados quinze treinadores da Primeira Liga de Futebol Portuguesa. Uma análise indutiva das entrevistas revelou que os treinadores atribuem grande importância à componente psicológica e à colaboração com um especialista em psicologia do desporto, até porque não se sentem preparados para desenvolver um treino sistemático neste domínio.Sport performance results from the interaction of physical, technical, tactical and psychological aspects. However, in Soccer training less attention is devoted to the psychological domain. The purpose of this study was to investigate elite Soccer coaches' perceptions concerning different aspects of the psychological dimension, namely the conceptions about mental training and his relationship with training, in general, and performance; the coaches' level of preparation to apply a specific psychological training; and the collaboration with a sport psychology expert. Using in-depth interviews, fifteen coaches of the Portuguese first league were interviewed. The interviews showed that the coaches attribute great significance to the psychological domain and to a possible collaboration with a sport psychology expert, as coaches seem to be unprepared to apply specific mental strategies or are unfamiliar with
Gardner, Andrew; Iverson, Grant L; Levi, Christopher R; Schofield, Peter W; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Kohler, Ryan M N; Stanwell, Peter
Concussion remains one of the inherent risks of participation in rugby league. While other injuries incurred by rugby league players have been well studied, less focus and attention has been directed towards concussion. The current review examined all articles published in English from 1900 up to June 2013 pertaining to concussion in rugby league players. Publications were retrieved via six databases using the key search terms: rugby league, league, football; in combination with injury terms: athletic injuries, concussion, sports concussion, sports-related concussion, brain concussion, brain injury, brain injuries, mild traumatic brain injury, mTBI, traumatic brain injury, TBI, craniocerebral trauma, head injury and brain damage. Observational, cohort, correlational, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were all included. 199 rugby league injury publications were identified. 39 (20%) were related in some way to concussion. Of the 39 identified articles, 6 (15%) had the main aim of evaluating concussion, while the other 33 reported on concussion incidence as part of overall injury data analyses. Rugby league concussion incidence rates vary widely from 0.0 to 40.0/1000 playing hours, depending on the definition of injury (time loss vs no time loss). The incidence rates vary across match play versus training session, seasons (winter vs summer) and playing position (forwards vs backs). The ball carrier has been found to be at greater risk for injury than tacklers. Concussion accounts for 29% of all injuries associated with illegal play, but only 9% of injuries sustained in legal play. In comparison with other collision sports, research evaluating concussion in rugby league is limited. With such limited published rugby league data, there are many aspects of concussion that require attention, and future research may be directed towards these unanswered questions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a
Hansen, Bodil Olai; Tvede, Mich
In the present paper a model of competition between sports clubs in a sports league is presented. Clubs are endowed with initial players but at a cost clubs are able to sell their initial players and buy new players. The results are that: if the quality of players is one-dimensional, then equilib......In the present paper a model of competition between sports clubs in a sports league is presented. Clubs are endowed with initial players but at a cost clubs are able to sell their initial players and buy new players. The results are that: if the quality of players is one......-dimensional, then equilibria in pure strategies exist, and; if the quality of players is multi-dimensional, then there need not exist equilibria in pure strategies, but equilibria in mixed strategies exist. Equilibria in mixed strategies resemblance signings on deadline day in european soccer...
have been maintained and intensified since then, as African and Indian scholarship demonstrates. Language plays a key role in education, the World Bank taking over where colonial regimes left off. Anglo-American efforts to maintain global English dominance have intensified since 1945 and are central...... to the present-day world ‘order’, as the postcolonial is subsumed under global empire, assisted by English linguistic neoimperialism. Some scholars who deny the existence of linguistic imperialism are reported on, and the complexity of language policy in European integration is demonstrated. The article......The article exemplifies and presents the characteristics of linguistic imperialism, linguistic capital accumulation following the same pattern as capitalist economic dominance. The text summarizes the way English was established in the colonial period. Many of the mechanisms of linguistic hierarchy...
Full Text Available Introduction: Selection of optimal nutrition for physical activity of sportsmen depends on several factors, and includes the type and duration of exercises, total energy consumption, time needed for recovery, andnutritional preferences. Proper nutrition of sportsmen relies on adequate combination and participation of all the macronutrients. The aim of this research was to analyse and determine the nutritional awareness andhabits of sportsmen depending on their age and type of sports they indulge.Methods: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study undertaken from May to July 2011 on the sample of 100 examinees/sportsmen of the Football Club “Željezničar“ and Basketball Club “Bosna“.Results: General awareness of sportsmen on basic principles of proper nutrition is unsatisfactory. Statisticalsignificance per type of sport and age of sportsmen is proved through representation of macronutrients in their nutrition. For 49.1% footballers and 52% sportsmen over 19 years of age the most important combinationof macronutrients resembles the model of carbohydrates-proteins-fats, while 48.9% of basketballers and sportsmen under 18 prefer proteins-carbohydrates-fats. The study had shown a statistically significantdifference (p=0.01 between the footballers and basketballers with regard to the type of meal they consume before the trainings.Conclusion: Insufficient knowledge on the subject reflects in bad nutritional habits, especially those related to the number and arrangement of daily meals in comparison to respective sports activities.
Discusses the Patriot League, whose idea was to emphasize academics and offer no sports scholarships. Examines why modifications, especially to the no-scholarship rule, have been embraced by some member schools. (EV)
Weiss, Martin A
.... The boycott has three tiers. The primary boycott prohibits citizens of an Arab League member from buying, selling, or entering into a business contract with either the Israeli government or an Israeli citizen...
Designed to be practical and engaging, Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6 is a project-based book to help you truly augment your skills and become a film editing hotshot.If you're just starting out or even migrating from existing video editing software, then this book is for you. With rapid progression through practical examples constructed to be both engaging and useful, Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6 is ideal for learning the sometimes complex workflows of this powerful application.
Premier Wen Jiabao met CERN's director general Dr Robert Aymar and physicist and Nobel laureate Dr Samuel Chao Chung Ting. Premier Wen emphasied the importance for China to collaborate on fundamental science (0.5 page)
A better understanding of the pattern of musculoskeletal injuries and the zones of the playing field where injuries occur is needed in order to device specific injury prevention programmes for the Nigerian premier soccer league (NPL). This study was therefore aimed at determining the causes, frequency, and methods of ...
Attitudes of football fans in lower league Objectives: The aim of the work is to find out the attitudes and motives of people to active visitation of football matches in lower league. Then I would like to introdukce a gained knowledges to the head of the clubs in order to reach a higher level of satisfaction of fans. Methods: Questionnaire, interview Results: It will find out the attitudes of fans in lower leagues thanks to mentioned methods of research. The work will present the view of indi...
Boyko, Ryan H; Boyko, Adam R; Boyko, Mark G
Officiating bias is thought to contribute to home advantage. Recent research has shown that sports with subjective officiating tend to experience greater home advantage and that referees' decisions can be influenced by crowd noise, but little work has been done to examine whether individual referees vary in their home bias or whether biased decisions contribute to overall home advantage. We develop an ordinal regression model to determine whether various measures of home advantage are affected by the official for the match and by crowd size while controlling for team ability. We examine 5244 English Premier League (EPL) match results involving 50 referees and find that home bias differs between referees. Individual referees give significantly different levels of home advantage, measured as goal differential between the home and away teams, although the significance of this result depends on one referee with a particularly high home advantage (an outlier). Referees vary significantly and robustly in their yellow card and penalty differentials even excluding the outlier. These results confirm that referees are responsible for some of the observed home advantage in the EPL and suggest that home advantage is dependent on the subjective decisions of referees that vary between individuals. We hypothesize that individual referees respond differently to factors such as crowd noise and suggest further research looking at referees' psychological and behavioural responses to biased crowds.
Echographie devant une metrorragie du premier trimestre de grossesse sur uterus bicorne a issue favorable. Vaginal bleeding in a pregnant woman with a bicornuate uterus, ultrasound finding and favourable outcome.
Helmut Dietl; Egon Franck; Markus Lang; Alexander Rathke
This paper outlines and compares the organizational structure of major sports leagues, explores the reasoning behind their formation, and derives implications for salary caps in European football. To understand why sports leagues have developed a specific organizational structure, one must take the economic peculiarities of team sports leagues into consideration. For this purpose, we analyze the production process and illuminate its major peculiarities. For example, we present the difference ...
Nous rapportons un cas de grossesse dans un utérus bicorne, avec un épisode de saignement vaginal durant le premier trimestre. L'échographie a été capable de trouver un épaississement de l'endomètre de la corne utérine vide qui pourrait expliquer cette métrorragie. Mots clés : Utérus bicorne, métrorragie, premier ...
Full Text Available The issue of race was virtually beyond the touchline in Australian rugby league before the 1960s. It was a white man’s game. Institutionalised racism meant that few Aboriginal men played rugby league at the highest professional level. It is now presumed that race and racism has no place in a game where these questions have been historically ‘out of bounds’. The dearth of critical writing in rugby league history indicates that racism in the sport has been subject to a form of social blindness and deemed unworthy of study. Rugby league’s white exclusionist past and the denial of racism in the present era indicate habits of mind which may be described in league argot as the ‘blindside flick’.
Larsen, Carsten Hvid
The transition from talented youth level to professional level is considered to be the most difficult and complex transition in sports. Literature in career transitions highlights that a match between an athlete’s resources and the demands of a transition will allow an athlete to enjoy a successful...... transitions in a professional football (soccer) club in Denmark. Insights are provided into delivery of workshops, the supervision of the coaches, on pitch training, evaluation of the program and integrating sport psychology as a part of the culture in the club. First, findings highlight that the practitioner...
Stander, Frederick W.; van Zyl, Llewellyn E.; Motaung, Kemiso
The aim of this study was to examine whether fan engagement could be predicted by the motivational dimensions of sport consumption. A sample of 806 football sport fans (African = 85%, male = 67.4%, part of an organised supporters club = 57.6%) were participants. They completed the Fan Engagement
Ranchordas, Mayur K; Bannock, Laurent; Robinson, Scott L
Professional soccer players are exposed to large amounts of physiological and psychological stress, which can increase infection risk and threaten availability for training and competition. Accordingly, it is important for practitioners to implement strategies that support player well-being and prevent illness. This case study demonstrates how a scientifically supported and practically applicable nutrition and lifestyle strategy can reduce infection incidence in an illness-prone professional soccer player. In the 3 months before the intervention, the player had 3 upper-respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and subsequently missed 3 competitive matches and 2 weeks' training. He routinely commenced morning training sessions in the fasted state and was estimated to be in a large daily energy deficit. Throughout the 12-week intervention, the amount, composition, and timing of energy intake was altered, quercetin and vitamin D were supplemented, and the player was provided with a daily sleep and hygiene protocol. There was a positive increase in serum vitamin D 25(OH) concentration from baseline to Week 12 (53 n·mol-1 to 120 n·mol-1) and salivary immunoglobulin-A (98 mg·dl-1 to 135 mg·dl-1), as well as a decline in the number of URTI symptoms (1.8 ± 2.0 vs. 0.25 ± 0.5 for Weeks 0-4 and Weeks 8-12, respectively). More important, he maintained availability for all training and matches over the 12-week period. We offer this case study as a real-world applied example for other players and practitioners seeking to deploy nutrition and lifestyle strategies to reduce risk of illness and maximize player availability.
Gabbett, Tim J
The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the science of rugby league football at all levels of competition (i.e. junior, amateur, semi-professional, professional), with special reference to all discipline-specific scientific research performed in rugby league (i.e. physiological, psychological, injury epidemiology, strength and conditioning, performance analysis). Rugby league football is played at junior and senior levels in several countries worldwide. A rugby league team consists of 13 players (6 forwards and 7 backs). The game is played over two 30 - 40 min halves (depending on the standard of competition) separated by a 10 min rest interval. Several studies have documented the physiological capacities and injury rates of rugby league players. More recently, studies have investigated the physiological demands of competition. Interestingly, the physiological capacities of players, the incidence of injury and the physiological demands of competition all increase as the playing standard is increased. Mean blood lactate concentrations of 5.2, 7.2 and 9.1 mmol . l(-1) have been reported during competition for amateur, semi-professional and professional rugby league players respectively. Mean heart rates of 152 beats . min(-1) (78% of maximal heart rate), 166 beats . min(-1) (84% of maximal heart rate) and 172 beats . min(-1) (93% of maximal heart rate) have been recorded for amateur, semi-professional and junior elite rugby league players respectively. Skill-based conditioning games have been used to develop the skill and fitness of rugby league players, with mean heart rate and blood lactate responses during these activities almost identical to those obtained during competition. In addition, recent studies have shown that most training injuries are sustained in traditional conditioning activities that involve no skill component (i.e. running without the ball), whereas the incidence of injuries while participating in skill-based conditioning
Full Text Available Basketball is a sport that has a very long tradition in the territory of ex-Yugoslavia. The breakdown of the country led to a de- crease in quality of basketball in the newly created countries. The unsteadiness of quality of the teams in national leagues resulted in formation of the Regional Adriatic Basketball League (ABA in 2001. The main goal of this research was to measure the competitive balance in ABA, Spanish (ACB and National Basketball Association League (NBA. The competitive balance was calculated by using Ratio of Standard Deviation index (RSD and Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI.The results of RSD showed that the most equable was ABA league, then came ACB league, while the most unequable was NBA league. The calculating of HHI index gave a different result. NBA is the most equable, then comes ABA league, and the last one is ACB league, which is the most unequable according to this parameter. ABA league has less quality than ACB and NBA league, but the results show that it is competitively the most balanced league. According to the RSD rates, NBA league is the most unequable. The main reason for that is a huge number of teams taking part in the league, which causes the unequable distribution of quality players. Ac- cording to HHI, NBA is the most equable. Reason for that are different mechanisms whose goal is to reach and maintain the competitive balance.
Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael L
The purpose of this study was to determine whether major league baseball players live lontger than the general public. Ages of death of major league baseball players who debuted between 1900 and 1950 were obtained, and differences between ages of death and age-adjusted life expectancies were determined by analysis of variance and t-tests, taking into account player position. Correlational analysis also was conducted to determine if career length affected longevity. Baseball players lived an average of four years longer than age-matched controls from the general public. Career length did not affect longevity among players. We concluded that professional athletes, as represented by major league baseball players, have increased life expectancies. This increase cannot be explained by increased fitness associated with working as a professionral athlete, but is likely the result of an initial selection process for becoming a professional athlete.
Cinq ans après avoir remis en service ses premiers ordinateurs recyclés et leur avoir trouvé un nouveau nid, l'organisation non gouvernementale Computers for Schools Kenya (CFSK) s'est mérité un prix convoité à l'échelle de l'Afrique pour son travail.
The information age has given library media specialists an unprecedented opportunity to play a leading role in helping teachers, administrators, and especially students access and use information intelligently. As the school's premier information specialist; the library media specialist has a unique role to play in helping everyone in the school…
Le trichobezoard est une concretion de cheveux, de poils ou de fibres de tapis et de debris alimentaire, localisee habituellement dans l'estomac. Le trichobezoard est une pathologie rare qui survient habituellement chez des adolescentes presentant des troubles psychiques. La premiere observation de trichobezoard a ete ...
Olai Hansen, Bodil; Tvede, Mich
In the present chapter, a general model of competition between clubs in sports leagues with flexible supply of inputs is studied. There are externalities between clubs because it takes more than one club to produce games and tournaments. It is assumed that the externalities take the form of compl...
Forrest, David; Beaumont, James; Goddard, John; Simmons, Robert
A recurrent theme in sports economics is the extent to which overall league attendances will be raised by measures, such as revenue sharing, which aim to improve competitive balance. This debate has ignored the phenomenon of home advantage, which may, however, be important to the extent that, if all teams had equal talent, all matches may then be weighted heavily in favour of the home team. We present an analysis of the relationship between attendance and match-level uncertainty in the English Football League. A simulation from our model indicates that equality of playing talent would in fact lower aggregate attendance. This result is explained by the loss of prospectively the most uncertain games, where weak teams have home advantage over strong teams.
Kirkwood, Graham; Parekh, Nikesh; Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Pollock, Allyson M
Children and adolescents who play rugby are at increased risk of concussion and its effects. Competitive rugby union and rugby league feature as major sports in the school sport curriculum in the UK. There is a need for a thorough understanding of the epidemiology of concussion in youth rugby, the mechanisms involved in injuries and predisposing risk factors. The publication databases Pubmed, Embase and SportDISCUS were searched in April 2014 for primary research studies of child and adolescent rugby union and rugby league (under 20 years) in English language with data on concussion injuries. The review was conducted within a larger all injury systematic review on rugby union and rugby league where key words used in the search included rugby, injury and concussion with child, adolescent, paediatric and youth. There were 25 studies retrieved with data on child or adolescent rugby and concussion, 20 were on rugby union, three on rugby league and in two the code of rugby was unspecified. There was significant heterogeneity in the definitions of injuries and of concussion. The incidence of child and adolescent match concussion ranged from 0.2 to 6.9 concussions per 1000 player-hours for rugby union and was 4.6 and 14.7 concussions per 1000 player-hours for rugby league, equivalent to a probability of between 0.3% and 11.4% for rugby union and of 7.7% and 22.7% for rugby league. There is a significant risk of concussion in children and adolescents playing rugby union and rugby league evident from the studies included in this systematic review. There is a need for reliable data through routine monitoring and reporting in schools and clubs and in hospital emergency departments in order to inform prevention. Concussion protocols should be implemented and tested. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Rogers, Richard G.; Krueger, Patrick M.
Objective We examine the importance of anthropometric and performance measures, and age, period, and cohort effects in explaining life expectancies among major league baseball (MLB) players over the past century. Methods We use discrete time hazard models to calculate life tables with covariates with data from Total Baseball, a rich source of information on all players who played in the major league. Results Compared to 20-year-old U.S. males, MLB players can expect almost five additional years of life. Height, weight, handedness, and player ratings are unassociated with the risk of death in this population of highly active and successful adults. Career length is inversely associated with the risk of death, likely because those who play longer gain additional incomes, physical fitness, and training. Conclusions Our results indicate improvements in life expectancies with time for all age groups and indicate possible improvements in longevity in the general U.S. population. PMID:19756205
Full Text Available The main activities of the leading sports leagues were described. Sources of revenue and expenditure were identified. The economic performance of professional sports leagues of the United States of America was compared. In the course of the study of economic efficiency of the leading American sports leagues are defined payroll (expense commands on the salaries of players for each team, the total payroll in the League and the average payroll, respectively, for each of the American League. The largest estimates on wages, both in the League and in teams - in the National football League, the largest player's contract - in the Highest League baseball, the minimum wage in the National hockey League; the highest average wages, a greater percentage of athletes with a salary of more than 1 million. $ (82,85 % in the National basketball Association were showed. This difference in the maximum income of the League and of average wages is due to several factors: the number of players in the team, the number of games in a season, and expenses on carrying out of competition and training activities.
Full Text Available The League of Prizren encouraged movements in Albania. Remarkably, patriotism flared and the people with the courage and bravery of a person, who seeks his right, arose as a unique body and asked from invaders, and the world, the rights of a secular nation. Assemblies gathered in Dibra, and made decisions of great importance, not only for the region of Dibra, but for the entire country.
Jones, Marc V; Bray, Steven R; Olivier, Stephen
The present study examined the relationship between aggression and game location in rugby league. We videotaped a random sample of 21 professional rugby league games played in the 2000 Super League season. Trained observers recorded the frequency of aggressive behaviours. Consistent with previous research, which used territoriality theories as a basis for prediction, we hypothesized that the home team would behave more aggressively than the away team. The results showed no significant difference in the frequency of aggressive behaviours exhibited by the home and away teams. However, the away teams engaged in substantially more aggressive behaviours in games they lost compared with games they won. No significant differences in the pattern of aggressive behaviours for home and away teams emerged as a function of game time (i.e. first or second half) or game situation (i.e. when teams were winning, losing or drawing). The findings suggest that while home and away teams do not display different levels of aggression, the cost of behaving aggressively (in terms of game outcome) may be greater for the away team.
This pamphlet is an alphabetical English-Spanish listing of more than three hundred words, phrases, and sentences related to the game of baseball as it is reported in Mexico City, in border towns, and in Spanish language newspapers in the United States. At the end of this dictionary are listed the major league teams of the United States and Canada…
Albina Rodrigues Torres
Full Text Available There has been a considerable increase in the number of academic leagues active within undergraduate medical courses in Brazil over the last few years. However, this phenomenon has not been accompanied by adequate reflection on its determinants, on the role of the leagues within the institutions or even on their pedagogical function. From these observations, the authors analyze the scant literature on this topic, describe the experience of the academic leagues of Botucatu Medical School, Unesp, and reflect on the role of these leagues in medical training, in an attempt to partially fill this gap and contribute towards this important discussion.
DeVore, Susan D; Figlioli, Keith
Implementing health information technology (IT) is a major strategic objective for providers. To pinpoint considerations that tie to success, the Premier health care alliance surveyed hospitals to develop an electronic health record best-practices library. Compiled from diverse health care organizations, the library outlines considerations to support "meaningful use" in the areas of computerized physician order entry, medication management, clinical documentation, reporting of measures, privacy, information exchange, management of populations' health, and personal health records. Best practices also uncovered strategies for securing executive leadership, culture change, communication, and support for clinicians. This paper summarizes lessons from the library, providing recommendations to speed up health IT implementation.
Alaunyte, Ieva; Perry, John L; Aubrey, Tony
Adequate nutrient intake is important to support training and to optimise performance of elite athletes. Nutritional knowledge has been shown to play an important role in adopting optimal nutrition practices. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the level of nutritional knowledge and dietary habits in elite English rugby league players using the eatwell plate food categories. General nutritional knowledge questionnaires were collected during the Super League competitive season in the first team squad of 21 professional Rugby league players (mean age 25 ± 5 yrs, BMI 27 ± 2.4 kg/m2, experience in game 6 ± 4 yrs). According to their nutritional knowledge scores, the players were assigned to either good or poor nutritional knowledge group (n = 11, n = 10, respectively). Their dietary habits were assessment using a food frequency questionnaire. The findings revealed that nutritional knowledge was adequate (mean 72.82%) in this group of athletes with the highest scores in dietary advice section (85.71%), followed by food groups (71.24%) and food choice (69.52%). The majority of athletes were not aware of current carbohydrate recommendations. This translated into their dietary habits as many starchy and fibrous foods were consumed only occasionally by poor nutritional knowledge group. In terms of their eating habits, the good nutritional knowledge group consumed significantly more fruit and vegetables, and starchy foods (p <.05). Nutritional knowledge was positively correlated to fruit and vegetables consumption (rs = .52, p <.05) but not to any other eatwell plate categories. The study identified adequate general nutritional knowledge in professional rugby league players with the exception of recommendation for starchy and fibrous foods. Players who scored higher in nutritional knowledge test were more likely to consume more fruits, vegetables and carbohydrate-rich foods.
Full Text Available Most sports are attractive because they are almost unpredictable. The more the competitiveness of league teams, the harder to predict the games and as a result, that league will be more attractive. Message is: more attractive leagues= bigger audience= more attractive for sponsorship= more money in sport. Competitive balance (CB refers to the balance in sport capabilities of teams. The aim of this paper was to compare the competitive balance between Super Rugby league named SANZAR, which consist of three nations (New Zealand, Australia and South Africa and English Premiership Rugby League in 1996-2014 seasons and compare them. The data were secondary and collected from the final tables.
Castonguay, Helen C.
The League of Peaceful Schools was formed in Nova Scotia to support schools committed to building a culture of peace. Guided by League facilitators, member schools offer children models for building healthy relationships through service learning and elders programs. Member schools develop discipline policies that are proactive instead of punitive,…
Palomino, F.A.; Rigotti, L.
We analyze a dynamic model of strategic interaction between a professional sport league that organizes a tournament, the teams competing to win it, and the broadcasters paying for the rights to televise it.Teams and broadcasters maximize expected profits, while the league's objective may be either
Cieśla, E; Dutkiewicz, R; Mgłosiek, M; Nowak-Starz, G; Markowska, M; Jasiński, P; Dudek, J
Although physical activity brings a range of lifelong health benefits, it may also lead to injuries that pose a significant threat to health. It is particularly noticeable in people involved in professional sports where sport-related injuries commonly occur and are associated with intense exercise which aims to improve physical fitness. The article attempts to determine incidence of sports injuries reported by Plus League volleyball players, as well as to identify their most common types and causes. The research project involved 90 Plus League volleyball players aged 18-37 with the average age of 25.11 (SD±5.378). A method of diagnostic survey was applied to collect empirical data by means of questionnaire developed by the authors (researchers). The results were statistically analysed and verified with the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and χ2 test at the significance level (or critical P-value) of P≤0.05. Over 87% of the respondents suffered from at least one sport-related injury. In total, 362 injuries occurred, on average 4.02 injuries per one volleyball player. The most common sports injuries involved ankle or talocrural joint (46 injuries), knee and lower leg muscles (30), interphalangeal articulations of fingers (30) as well as shoulder joint. More than half of the injuries (57%) occurred twice or three times. Volleyball players commonly sustain injuries through contact with an opposing player in competition. Sport-specific injuries may also occur due to exhaustion, lack of rest and undertreated injuries. The most common volleyball-related injuries are primarily talocrural joint, hand and shoulder injuries. Common types of injuries that can affect volleyball players include muscles, joints and ligaments injuries, sprains and strains as well as bruises. Most of these injuries are caused by exhaustion, contact with an opposing player during competition and fatigue. The incidence of sport-related injuries seems to be influenced by such factors as somatic
Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Johnson, Daniel J; Zuckerman, Scott L; Solomon, Gary S
Significant attention has been directed toward the immediate and long-term effects of sport-related concussions on athletes participating in contact sports, particularly football. The highest level of football, the National Football League (NFL), has received significant attention and criticism regarding player management and safety after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Several review articles have reported data related to concussion in the NFL, but a succinct review and synthesis of data regarding NFL concussions is currently lacking. To (1) review systematically the published data regarding concussion in the NFL and assess limitations of the studies, (2) elucidate areas where further research is needed, and (3) identify methods to improve future investigations of concussion in the NFL. Systematic review of literature. English-language titles and abstracts published between 1900 and September 2014 were searched systematically across electronic databases, and a review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Peer-reviewed journal articles were included if they contained NFL concussion data with or without additional associated long-term effects. Reviews, editorials, letters to the editor, and comments were not included. Of the 344 records screened for review, 88 articles were assessed for eligibility. There were 31 studies that met the inclusion criteria and formed the basis of the evidence synthesis. Included in the current review were 8 case-control studies (Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine evidence level 3b), 6 descriptive epidemiological studies (level 4), 6 cross-sectional studies (level 4), 6 cohort studies (level 2b), and 5 case series (level 4). The study of concussions in the NFL has been limited by lack of recent empirical data, reliance on self-reported concussion history, and ascertainment bias of brains donated for autopsy studies. The scientific community
This article revises previous interpretations of the Imperial Maritime League, and adds new detail to our understanding of Edwardian patriotic leagues, by highlighting the relevance of radical right ideology. A product of division in the Navy League, the Imperial Maritime League channelled extra-parliamentary sentiment into specific navalist causes, and worked closely with likeminded newspaper editors and naval officers to challenge the Unionist leadership, Admiralty, and Navy League. The new...
In recent years, scholars have contested conventional narratives such as that the League of Nations was a complete ‘failure’ or that the United Nations was a novelty in comparison with the League. Scholars now offer more nuanced and archive-based analyses. However, while traditional research has...... emphasised the establishment of the first formally independent international civil service and the corresponding secretariat as one of the League's few big achievements, the subject has not substantially benefitted from these new historical studies. This article helps to shed some light on the secretariat......'s nature and how international the staff really was. After examining the prevailing image of the international civil service at the League, the data will be supplemented by an analysis of the archive material with regard to recruitment and selected personnel files. This article argues that the secretariat...
Song, Alex; Severini, Thomas; Allada, Ravi
.... Here, we examined the effects of jet lag, that is, travel that shifts the alignment of 24-h environmental cycles relative to the endogenous circadian clock, on specific performance metrics in Major League Baseball...
Posner, Matthew; Cameron, Kenneth L; Wolf, Jennifer Moriatis; Belmont, Philip J; Owens, Brett D
Little is known about the injury rates in Major League Baseball (MLB) players, as a formal injury surveillance system does not exist. The goal of this study was to characterize the epidemiology of MLB injuries over a 7-year period. Injuries in MLB would be common. Descriptive epidemiologic study. The authors analyzed the MLB disabled list data from 2002 through 2008. Injuries were analyzed for differences between seasons, as well as during seasons on a monthly basis. The injuries were categorized by major anatomic zones and then further stratified based on injury type. Position-specific subanalyses for pitcher and position players were performed. From the 2002 season through the 2008 season, an average of 438.9 players per year were placed on the disabled list, for a rate of 3.61 per 1000 athlete-exposures. There was a significant 37% increase in injuries between 2005 and 2008. The highest injury rate during the season was during the month of April (5.73/1000 exposures) and the lowest in September (0.54/1000 exposures). No differences were noted in the injury rates between the National League and the American League (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.98, 1.15). Pitchers experienced 34% higher incidence rates for injury compared with fielders during the study period (IRR = 1.34; 95% CI = 1.25, 1.44). Among all player injuries, upper extremity injuries accounted for 51.4% while lower extremity injuries accounted for 30.6%. Injuries to the spine and core musculature accounted for 11.7% while other injuries and illnesses were 6.3% of the total disabled list entries. There was a significant association between position played and anatomic region injured (P < .001), with pitchers experiencing a significantly greater proportion of injuries to the upper extremity (67.0%; 95% CI = 63.1%, 70.9%) compared with fielders (32.1%; 95% CI = 29.1%, 35.1%). Conversely, fielders experienced a significantly greater proportion of injuries to the lower
Gibson, Brett W; Webner, David; Huffman, G Russell; Sennett, Brian J
Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction is commonly performed in major league pitchers, but little is known about pitching performance after a return to major league play. Pitching performance after ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction returns to baseline by the second season after surgery. Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. Data were reviewed for 68 major league pitchers who pitched in at least 1 major league game before undergoing ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction between 1998 and 2003. Mean innings pitched per season, earned run average, and walks and hits per inning pitched were compared for each major league pitcher before and after surgery. All demographic and performance variables were analyzed for an association with ulnar collateral ligament insufficiency and a successful return to major league play. Fifty-six (82%) pitchers returned to major league play at a mean of 18.5 months after surgery with no significant change in mean earned run average or walks and hits per inning pitched. The mean innings pitched per season was not statistically different from controls by the second season after surgery. Starting pitchers demonstrated a higher risk of ulnar collateral ligament injury requiring reconstruction. More experienced pitchers and those with a higher earned run average were less likely to require ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction. No factors predictive of a successful return to play were identified. Most major league pitchers return from ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction by the second season after surgery with no statistical change in mean innings pitched, earned run average, or walks and hits per inning pitched from preinjury levels.
Wang, Andreas; Lilleslåtten, Martin Langslet; Svarverud, Sondre
Dockit League is a project focused around creating a multiplayer online battle arena(MOBA) game using the Unity game engine. The game revolves around playing against other players in a competitive environment, using Docking Kits which provide players with different tools and abilities. This thesis will go through the development of the game and detail how the project evolved throughout the process. Dockit League er et prosjekt fokusert rundt å skape et "multiplayer online battle arena" (MO...
Frazier, Joseph B
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the Student Police Unity League as an effective program at fostering more positive views of the police from black citizens operating by the core tenants provided by Intergroup Contact Theory. It was expected that black students who participated in the Student Police Unity League would report higher levels of trust, legitimacy, willingness to work with the police, outcome justice, and lower level of perceived racial profiling. While the majority of the ...
Mikola, Noora 2016. "Mapping knowledge and experience about sport psychology consulting among Finnish premier football coaches” Sport and Exercise Psychology master's thesis. The Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä. 50 p. Background: Perceptions of sport psychology consulting in Finnish premier football have not been studied before. The current study was inspired by two earlier studies made in England by Pain and Hardwood (2004) and in Sweden by Johnso...
Ahmad, Christopher S; Dick, Randall W; Snell, Edward; Kenney, Nick D; Curriero, Frank C; Pollack, Keshia; Albright, John P; Mandelbaum, Bert R
Hamstring strains are a recognized cause of disability for athletes in many sports, but no study exists that reports the incidence and circumstances surrounding these injuries in professional baseball. Professional baseball players have a high incidence of hamstring strains, and these injuries are influenced by multiple factors including history of hamstring injury, time period within the season, and activity of base running. Descriptive epidemiologic study. For the 2011 season, injury data were prospectively collected for every Major League Baseball (MLB) major and minor league team and recorded in the MLB's Injury Surveillance System. Data collected for this study included date of injury, activity in which the player was engaged at the time of injury, and time loss. Injury rates were reported in injuries per athlete-exposure (A-E). Athlete-exposures were defined as the average number of players on a team who were participating in a game multiplied by the number of games. In the major leagues, 50 hamstring strains were reported for an injury rate (IR) of 0.7 per 1000 A-Es and averaged 24 days missed. In the minor leagues, 218 hamstring strains were reported for an IR of 0.7 per 1000 A-Es and averaged 27 days missed. Base running, specifically running to first base, was the top activity for sustaining a hamstring strain in both major and minor leagues, associated with almost two-thirds of hamstring strains. Approximately two-thirds of these injuries in both the major and minor leagues resulted in more than 7 days of time loss. Approximately 25% of these injuries kept the player out for 1 month or longer. History of a previous hamstring strain in the prior year, 2010, was found in 20% of the major league players and 8% of the minor league players. In the major leagues, the month of May had a statistically significant higher frequency of hamstring injuries than any other month in the season (P = .0153). Hamstring strains are a considerable cause of disability in
Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael L
We investigated the "healthy worker effect" (HWE) in major league baseball. Ages of death of major league baseball players who debuted between 1900 and 1939 were obtained and differences between those ages and age-adjusted life expectancies were examined to determine if longevity increased with career length, controlling for decade in which a player debuted, player position, and handedness. Major league baseball players (N = 4,492) lived an average of 4.8 (+/- 15.0 Standard deviation [SD]) years longer than age-matched controls from the general public. Career length significantly and incrementally increased longevity of players from an average of 4.1 years for players playing one season to 7.4 years for players playing 11 or more years. None of the other factors, nor any of the interactions, was statistically significant. These data provide strong support for the HWE in professional baseball.
Oleg N. Barabanov
Full Text Available Abstract: The article examines the key stages of the establishment of Italy’s Northern League as a rightwing hard eurosceptic party. Being initially a continual supporter of European integration and considering the transition to common currency as an opportunity available only to northern regions, which could secede and form an independent state, Northern League after losing the main point of its political agenda when the whole Italy joined the Economic and Monetary Union in 1998, became a eurosceptically-oriented party, which it is up to now. The authors dwell on the focal points of the party’s anti-EU program: Italy’s exit from the eurozone, the formation of Europe of macroregions, the reformation of supranational institutes and decision-making procedures. However, while confronting the Northern League policy with that of National Front in France and UKIP in the United Kingdom, the authors come to the conclusion that Euroscepticism for the former is just a sign of the shift in priorities rather than a strategy as for the latter. This can be explained by the fact that National Front and UKIP are still to fight for the place in the national mainstream, while Northern League has become its integral part long before. Nevertheless, under the new leadership of M.Salvini Northern League managed to become the fourth party on the national level according to the results of European parliament elections in 2014 and established itself as a significant power opponent to EU policy on a number of important issues, such as anti-Russian sanctions. Moreover, frequent visits of party members to Moscow and the party’s outspoken support of Russia on Crimea’s entrance into the Russian Federation provide an opportunity to consider Northern League a potential conductor of Russian interests in the European Union.
The purpose of this paper is to make a novel contribution to the literature on the prediction market for the Australian Football League, the major sports league in which Australian Rules Football is played. Taking advantage of a novel micro-level data set which includes detailed per-game player statistics, predictions are presented and tested out-of-sample for the simplest kind of bet: fixed odds win betting. It is shown that player-level statistics may be used to yield very modest profits ne...
Sherry, Emma; Schulenkorf, Nico
League Bilong Laif (LBL) is a sport-for-development (SFD) programme that was established in 2013 as a three-way partnership between the Australian Government, the Papua New Guinea (PNG) Government (Department of Education) and the Australian Rugby League Commission (National Rugby League). As a contribution to addressing low rates of school…
Jones, David R.
The aim of this paper is to explore the institutional impact of sustainability league tables on current university agendas. It focuses on a narrative critique of one such league table, the UK's "Green League Table", compiled and reported by the student campaigning NGO, "People & Planet" annually between 2007 and 2013.…
Lawson-Graves, Winifert E.
Increasingly, females are taking the helm as president of colleges and universities in the United States, yet men still hold the majority of presidential positions (ACE, 2012). The Ivy League is an exception. In the Ivy League, the presidency is held by an equal number of females and males. For three of four Ivy League institutions where females…
Turner, Mary Ann
This guide was developed to assist with the problems of organization and administration of girls' interscholastic sports programs. Guidelines are presented for the following: (a) a statement of basic principles, (b) a constitution, (c) league bylaws, (d) operating codes, (e) conduct of contests, (f) archery, (g) badminton, (h) basketball, (i)…
The posting system used in major league baseball to obtain free agent players from Japan has some similarities and many differences from the transfer system used to obtain foreign free agents in European football. This paper uses auction theory to assess the efficiencies (or lack of) in the posting system and to suggest alternatives.
Full Text Available Using a Major League Baseball (MLB baseball field template for guidelines, we estimate the cost of building the largest possible field accepted under MLB standards. This includes finding the areas of both the clay and grassy regions and determining how many bags of clay and fertilizer are required to cover the field.
Kalist, David E.; Peng, Yingwei
The authors used duration analysis to examine the longevity of Major League Baseball players. Using data on players who were born between 1945 and 1964, the authors found that the hazard rate of death for players who only attended high school was almost 2.0 times higher than those players who attended a 4-year university, evidence that the…
This study aims to address this issue by exploring the reasons for providing sponsorship to super league football teams in Botswana. Ten representatives from the companies identified as potential sponsors from the Broadhurst Industrial Area and Gaborone Commercial Park were interviewed. An analysis of the data ...
Wang, Andreas; Lilleslåtten, Martin Langslet; Svarverud, Sondre
Dockit League is a project focused around creating a multiplayer online battle arena(MOBA) game using the Unity game engine. The game revolves around playing against other players in a competitive environment, using Docking Kits which provide players with different tools and abilities. This thesis will go through the development of the game and detail how the project evolved throughout the process.
The paper intends to contribute to the debate on ranking and league tables by adopting a critical approach to ranking methodologies from the point of view of a university benchmarking exercise. The absence of a strict benchmarking exercise in the ranking process has been, in the opinion of the author, one of the major problems encountered in the…
This study presents a profile of the body composition and somatotype characteristics of male Zimbabwean league basketball players, which information is lacking. Twenty six players aged 22.0±5.3 years were purposively sampled from the top teams of the Bulawayo Basketball Association. Anthropometric variables were ...
Alan Moore and Kevin O’Neill’s series The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, published since 1999, depicts a world which is populated by characters of fiction, from Allan Quatermain and Captain Nemo to James Bond and Harry Potter. The result is not only a meta-fictional bricolage of cornerstones...
Full Text Available La préoccupation fréquente, chez les étudiants spécialistes d’autres disciplines que l’anglais, d’améliorer leur compréhension de l’anglais oral a motivé notre démarche de création d’un produit SIC (Systèmes d’Information et de Communication : MACAO (Modules d’Aide à la Compréhension de l’Anglais Oral. Le premier module, "S’entraîner à la reconnaissance", est réalisé et l’outil informatique s’est révélé particulièrement utile pour notre projet. Dans cet article, nous faisons état des difficultés récurrentes en compréhension de l’anglais oral : elles peuvent être dues à des attentes erronées fondées sur la dissymétrie entre la langue écrite et la langue orale, mais aussi à une reconnaissance difficile de certains morphèmes par l’existence de variantes phonologiques en fonction du contexte et par la proximité phonologique de certains morphèmes. Nous présentons également comment le contenu du premier module tente d’apporter des solutions à ces difficultés : en amenant les apprenants à prendre conscience du phénomène de réduction vocalique et d’inaccentuation qui touche certaines syllabes des mots aussi bien que certains éléments monosyllabiques de l’énoncé et en proposant un entraînement à la reconnaissance de ces éléments. Le module est en cours de validation avec une phase d’évaluation.French students who have English as part of their curriculum often express the wish to improve their comprehension of oral English. This led us to envisage the creation of a CALL product: MACAO (Modules to help in the comprehension of oral English. The first module has been created: "Training oneself for recognition". The computer was particularly adequate in this prospect. In this paper we present the most frequent difficulties in the comprehension of oral English: they can be related either to erroneous expectations based on the dissymmetry between the written form and the oral
This paper is a general study of one of varieties of English--China English and its influence on English Language Teaching (ELT) for English majors. The status of English as an International language breaks the situation in which British English or American English is the sole standard. English becomes World Englishes, taking on a plural form,…
This qualitative study explored the use of doodling to surface experiences in the psychological phenomenon of language anxiety in an English classroom. It treated the doodles of 192 freshmen from a premier university in Northern Luzon, Philippines. Further, it made use of phenomenological reduction in analysing the data gathered. Findings reveal…
McLellan, Christopher P; Lovell, Dale I; Gass, Gregory C
The aim of the present study was to identify neuromuscular, biochemical, and endocrine markers of fatigue after Rugby League match play. Seventeen elite Rugby League players were monitored for a single match. Peak rate of force development (PRFD), peak power (PP), and peak force (PF) were measured during a countermovement jump (CMJ) on a force plate pre and postmatch play. Saliva and blood samples were collected 24 hours prematch, 30 minutes prematch, 30 minutes postmatch, and then at 24-hour intervals for a period of 120 hours to determine plasma creatine kinase concentration ([CK]) and salivary cortisol concentration ([sCort]). There were significant (p training 48 hours postmatch may have resulted in a compensatory increase in PRFD supporting the inclusion of strength training during the short-term postmatch recovery period.
Full Text Available European football is a business with more and more attractive numbers for investors, shareholders or partners all over the planet. It has significantly changed especially over the last 20 years, following an intense procedure of acquisitions and marketing, a process that has brought important sums of money in this industry. This paper presents the overview of the “big five” European football leagues (England, Germany, Spain, Italy, France. The study is primarily focused on economics, but is also considering various social or cultural aspects (media, social media followers. The case-study on the five major leagues corroborates the theoretical underpinning. The paper investigates also the roots of financial regulation divergence in Europe and underlines the main issues regarding the UEFA financial fair-play rules.
The study sought to investigate the management of digital records in the Office of the Premier (OTP) in the Eastern Cape Province. The objectives of the study were to determine the compliance to the legal framework, identify the requisite infrastructure for digital records management (DRM), describe the security and ...
Full Text Available First, we will demonstrate that, from an institutional perspective, Romania can labeled of premier-presidentialism regime, but the 2004 and 2009 elections have had a strong impact on the type of regime, meaning that several extra-constitutional factors led to the malfunction of the regime. Out of a total of 15 prime-minister nominations made after 1989, 8 can be considered deviations from the premier-presidential regime, their number being larger between 2004-2014 rather than in 1990-2000. The empirical analysis of the 2004-2014 period, highlighted three extra-constitutional factors that that made the premier-presidential regime be, in fact, a malfunctioning one: leadership style, crisis situations and the recent legitimacy of the president versus the parliament. By identifying the factors that influenced the regime type, we can determine some theoretical expectations following the 2014 elections. The success of a premier-presidentialism regime in Romania will be determined by the number of deviations from such a regime registered after the 2014 elections.
Cade Massey; Richard Thaler
A question of increasing interest to researchers in a variety of fields is whether the incentives and experience present in many "real world" settings mitigate judgment and decision-making biases. To investigate this question, we analyze the decision making of National Football League teams during their annual player draft. This is a domain in which incentives are exceedingly high and the opportunities for learning rich. It is also a domain in which multiple psychological factors suggest team...
White, Peta E; Donaldson, Alex; Sullivan, S John; Newton, Joshua; Finch, Caroline F
Preventing concussion in sport is a global challenge. To assess community-level adult male Australian Football players' views on following the Australian Football League's (AFL) concussion guidelines. 3 focus groups, each comprising 6 players from 1 regional league, were conducted until saturation of issues raised. Discussions followed a semistructured script and were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was conducted by 2 coders independently. Identified advantages of the guidelines included highlighting the seriousness of concussion; changing the culture around playing with concussion and shifting return-to-play decision responsibility from players to others. Disadvantages included players being removed from play unnecessarily; removal of players' rights to decide if they are fit to play and players changing their behaviours to avoid being removed from play. Identified facilitators to guideline use included local league enforcement; broad information dissemination and impartial medically trained staff to assess concussion. Identified barriers to guideline use included players' desire to play at all costs; external pressure that encouraged players to return to play prematurely; and inconvenience and cost. Players generally understand that the AFL concussion guidelines protect their long-term welfare. However, their desire to play at all costs and help their team win is a common barrier to reporting concussion and adhering to guidelines. Leagues should take a lead role by mandating and enforcing the use of the guidelines and educating coaches, game day medical providers and players. The return-to-play component of the guidelines is complex and needs further consideration in the context of community sport.
Freehill, Michael T.; Ebel, Brian G.; Archer, Kristin R.; Bancells, Richard L.; Wilckens, John H.; McFarland, Edward G.; Cosgarea, Andrew J.
Background: Although overhead throwing athletes may develop unique glenohumeral range of motion characteristics, to our knowledge these characteristics have not been studied longitudinally in major league pitchers. Hypothesis: Major league pitchers (starters and relievers) experience an increase in glenohumeral external rotation and a decrease in internal rotation and total range of motion. Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit worsens over a regular playing season. Study Design: Retrospective cohort study. Methods: In 21 major league baseball pitchers (29 individual playing seasons), glenohumeral range of motion was measured in external and internal rotation for the throwing and nonthrowing shoulders before and at the conclusion of the regular season. The total range of motion (the sum of external rotation and internal rotation) and the glenohumeral internal rotation deficit were calculated (the difference between internal rotation of the nonthrowing shoulder minus that of the throwing shoulder), and data were compared between starting and relief pitchers. Results: The overall mean changes in external rotation (+1.5°), internal rotation (+2.7°), and total range of motion (+3.3°) were not statistically significant. However, starting pitchers showed statistically significant increases in internal rotation (+6.5°, P = 0.01) and total range of motion (+7.9°, P = 0.04), whereas relief pitchers had significant worsening of glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (+5.3°, P = 0.04). Conclusions: The characteristics of glenohumeral range of motion in major league pitchers did not differ significantly from the beginning to the end of a season, but significant changes did occur between starting and relief pitchers. Clinical Relevance: Adaptations to the daily routines of starter and reliever pitchers may be warranted on the basis of these findings. PMID:23015997
Ribes, R. [Hospital Reina Sofia, Cordoba (Spain). Servicio de Radiologia; Ros, P.R. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Div. of Radiology
The book is an introductory book to radiological English on the basis that there are a lot of radiologists, radiology residents, radiology nurses, radiology students, and radiographers worldwide whose English level is indeterminate because their reading skills are much higher than their fluency. It is intended to help those health care professionals who need English for their work but do not speak English on a day-to-day basis. (orig.)
Crotin, Ryan L; Bhan, Shivam; Karakolis, Tom; Ramsey, Dan K
Diminishing baseball velocities are objective measures to delineate pitching fatigue. Yet, velocity changes over the course of a competitive season vs. a single game remain unknown. This study examined fastball velocity (FBV) trends of minor league pitchers over an 8-game span. We assumed that accumulation of pitches would cause similar velocity decreases within games to produce velocity decreases between games pitched. Retrospective analysis of major league-affiliated pitching charts indicated mean FBVs, game pitches thrown, game innings pitched, rest days, and pitching work to rest ratios (PWRRs) for 12 pitchers over 8 games. Regression analyses (p league pitchers at the Class A Short Season level did not show similar exertion responses to cumulative workloads (pitches and innings pitched). Recovery factors (rest days, PWRRs, and training) also did not impact FBVs. Velocity increases may be attributable to biomechanical compensations, skill development, strength and conditioning regimens, multistarter rotations, and other performance-related factors. Strength and conditioning professionals should be aware of ball velocity trends, as apparent changes may infer neuromuscular fatigue and increased injury susceptibility, which require in-season training modifications.
Crotin, Ryan L; Forsythe, Charles M; Karakolis, Thomas; Bhan, Shivam
Minimal work has studied physical size effects on statistical performance among Major League players. In this study, longitudinal, bivariate, and regression analyses studied the impact of physical size on offensive baseball statistics within a homogeneous talent sample of Major League batting leaders. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from heights and weights that were publicly available to form a statistical database of 4,360 offense leaders from 1950 to 2010. Repeated-measures analysis of variances examined differences in anthropometrics and baseball statistics between each decade from 1950 to 2010. Bivariate correlation and linear regression analyses evaluated BMI as an independent variable of influence, where all tests applied an a priori significance level (p ≤ 0.05). After 1980, offensive performance increased (p ≤ 0.05) concurrent to body mass and BMI growth (p baseball statistics were positively correlated and predicted by BMI (p Major League offensive statistics. Over the 60-year period, greater body weight-to-height proportions owed to improved competitive performance, which suggests greater emphasis on hypertrophic stimuli in training and nutrition, as well as selection of larger professional baseball prospects.
Rosenbaum, D A; Davis, S W
Purpose is to determine if Major League Baseball plays at risk for collisions have higher injury rates than typical base running plays. 2002-2011 Major League Baseball play data was obtained: non-force putouts by catcher at home plate (Catcher Tag Out), groundball force outs at 2(nd) base with less than 2 outs (Double Play Attempt), and the control play, outfield assisted non-force putouts of runners attempting to advance to 2(nd) or 3(rd) base (Outfield Assist 2(nd)/3(rd)). This list was cross-referenced with 2002-2011 disabled lists to see if an involved player went on the disabled list the day of or day after the play. An on-line search for each match determined if the injury was attributable to that play. Rate calculated per 1 000 plays, severity in days on disabled list. Injury rate and severity for Catcher Tag Out was 6.98 and 45.6 respectively, Double Play Attempt 0.42 and 41.3, Outfield Assist 2(nd/)3(rd) 1.56 and 47.0. Injury rate for Catcher Tag Out was higher (P = 0.03) than the control while Double Play Attempt trended lower (P = 0.05). There was no difference in severity. Catcher Tag Outs carry greater injury risk than typical base running plays. Major League Baseball should consider prohibiting base path collisions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Describes Earphone English, a student club sponsored through a partnership between Berkeley High School and the Berkeley Public Library that offers students whose primary language is not English to practice their spoken and aural English skills. Discusses the audiobooks used in the program and the importance of multicultural content and age…
Polman, Remco; Nicholls, Adam R; Cohen, Jeannette; Borkoles, Erika
In this study, we examined the relationship between home and away matches on mood. In addition, the relationships between game location, game outcome, behavioural factors, and mood were investigated among 12 professional English rugby league players competing in the Super League. Participants completed daily diaries for 27 days. The diary consisted of six analogue scales measuring mood (relaxed-tense, energetic-weary, depressed-elated, tired-alert, anxious-calm, cheerful-miserable) as well as behavioural factors and self-rated performance. There were no significant differences in self-reported mood states leading up to home or away matches except for players feeling more tired when playing away. Significant relationships between mood and behaviours (e.g. sleep and eating) and subjective performance were observed. The outcome of the match was found to influence mood, with a defeat resulting in decreased mood. Our results show that game location did not influence mood and therefore does not provide an explanation for the home advantage.
Rockerbie, Duane; Easton, Stephen
Professional sports leagues that feature teams in different countries with different currencies are exposed to exchange rate uncertainty and risk. This is particularly evident for three professional sports leagues that feature teams in the United States and Canada. We construct a simple model of a profit-maximizing team that earns its revenue in one currency and meets its payroll obligations in a second currency and participates in a league-imposed revenue sharing plan. Team profit can increa...
31 janv. 2018 ... Il permet d'appuyer financièrement de jeunes chercheurs en début de carrière, en particulier des femmes, au moyen de bourses et de stages. ... Selon un récent sondage d'opinion mené dans 17 pays latino-américains, les problèmes liés au marché de l'emploi arrivaient au premier rang de 10 enjeux ...
Le but de cette étude était de déterminer la prévalence des complications de la grossesse au premier trimestre, identifier leurs facteurs de risque et évaluer le pronostic immédiat. L\\'étude prospective, descriptive et multicentrique, conduite sur un an, du 1er Janvier 2005 au 31 Décembre 2005 dans les trois principales ...
Yazid, Tantri Puspita; Afifah, Adilla
Tripadvisor.com is a site that aims to facilitate the tourists to seek information about lodging such as hotels. By using this site everyone is free to provide feedback and reviews based on their experiences, both positive reviews and negative. Many reviews on this site will indirectly affect customers or prospective customers in selecting and deciding hotel. Reviews on these sites influence for customers and prospective customers in selecting place to stay, the PR The Premiere use the site a...
Full Text Available PREMIER is one of three candidates for ESA's 7th Earth Explorer mission that are currently undergoing feasibility studies. The main mission objective of PREMIER is to quantify processes controlling atmospheric composition in the mid/upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, a region of particular importance for climate change. To achieve this objective, PREMIER will employ the first satellite Fourier transform infrared limb-imager with a 2-D detector array combined with a millimetre-wave limb-sounder. The infrared limb-imager can be operated in a high spatial resolution mode ("dynamics mode" for observations of small-scale structures in atmospheric temperatures and trace gas fields with unprecedented 3-D sampling (0.5 km in the vertical direction, 50 km along track, 25 km across track. In this paper, a fast tomographic retrieval scheme is presented, which is designed to fully exploit the high-resolution radiance observations of the dynamics mode. Based on a detailed analysis of the "observational filter", we show that the dynamics mode provides unique information on global distributions of gravity waves (GW. The achievable vertical resolution for GW observations has values between the vertical sampling (0.5 km of the dynamics mode and the vertical field of view (about 0.75 km. The horizontal across track resolution corresponds to the horizontal across track sampling of 25 km. Since the achievable along track horizontal resolution is about 70 km, the dynamics mode will provide GW limb-observations with a horizontal resolution comparable to nadir sounders. Compared to previous observations, PREMIER will therefore considerably extend the range of detectable GWs in terms of horizontal and vertical wavelength.
Pollay, R; Dewhirst, T
Objective: To use the product launch of Player's Premiere as a case study for understanding the new cigarette product development process during the 1990s. We determine the (in)validity of industry claims that: (1) development of the physical product preceded the promotional promise of "less irritation"; (2) "less irritation" was actually realised; (3) advertising informed consumers; and (4) advertising regulations caused the product's failure in the marketplace.
Place, Greg; Beggs, Brent
This study investigated those factors that motivate members of the GLBT (gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender) community to participate in a GLBT sports league. Data from a survey of 1151 members of a Chicago GLBT sports association were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis to determine the variables that contributed most to explaining leisure motivation in this setting. Results showed that the intellectual and social factors were the primary factors in determining motivation in participation. Also contributing to determining motivation were competency mastery and stimulus avoidance. In addition, findings suggested there was no primary difference between male and female participants.
Korngold, Caleb; Farrell, Helen M; Fozdar, Manish
The growing awareness of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) has the potential to change the public perception and on-field rules of the National Football League (NFL). More than 3,000 ex-NFL players or their relatives are engaged in litigation alleging that the NFL failed to acknowledge and address the neuropsychiatric risks associated with brain injuries that result from playing in the NFL. This article explores the intersection between the medical and legal aspects of CTE in the NFL from a forensic psychiatry perspective.
Ce papier dresse un premier bilan de la logistique de transport mise en place pour l'installation du LHC. Les moyens de planification mis en oeuvre seront tout d'abord évoqués avec notamment les réunions avec les groupes utilisateurs, l'élaboration de procédures de transport, la génération de listings d'articles à transporter ou encore l'établissement d'un planning des ressources. Cependant, les premiers travaux d'installation du LHC ont fait apparaître des divergences importantes entre le planning logistique établi et la réalité du terrain. Ces écarts seront analysés, qu'il s'agisse de différences sur le volume de matériel à acheminer, d'opérations non planifiées, de changements de plannings entraînant de longues et délicates traversées de chantiers ou de manque de planification des besoins en personnel dans certaines zones. Tous ces enseignements acquis au cours des premiers travaux devraient permettre de dégager des voies d'amélioration à mettre en place pour les prochains secteur...
Development and validation of the European League Against Rheumatism response criteria for rheumatoid arthritis - Comparison with the preliminary American College of Rheumatology and the World Health Organization International League Against Rheumatism criteria
vanGestel, AM; Prevoo, MLL; vantHof, MA; vanRijswijk, MH; vandePutte, LBA; vanRiel, PLCM
Objective. To validate the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR), the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), acid the World Health Organization (WHO)/International League Against Rheumatism (ILAR) response criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. EULAR response criteria were developed
This multimedia program of English grammar caters specifically for Danish students at Bachelor level. The handbook introduces students to well-established grammatical terminology within the traditional areas of English grammar, and the CD-ROM, which contains about 120 exercises, offers students...
Maclagan, Margaret; King, Jeanette; Gillon, Gail
The Maori language is the language of the indigenous people of New Zealand. Today, not all Maori speak the Maori language, and many Maori as well as non-Maori speak Maori English, the fastest growing of the main varieties of New Zealand English. This paper provides a background to the linguistic situation of the Maori populace in New Zealand,…
... Israel. 652.225-70 Section 652.225-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAUSES... League Boycott of Israel. As prescribed in 625.7002(a), insert the following provision: Arab League Boycott of Israel (AUG 1999) (a) Definitions. As used in this provision: Foreign person means any person...
Usher, Alex; Savino, Massimo
In this document we discuss 19 university league tables and ranking systems from around the world. Sixteen of these are "national" league tables collected from ten countries (Australia, Canada, China, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Poland, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States); three are "international" or…
After the First World War, the League of Nations, through its International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation, attempted to reshape the teaching of history in its member states. The League's supporters realized that its long-term success depended in part on supportive public opinion and that this, in turn, had implications for education. Aware…
Jensen, Signe Hannibal
I investigate the quality and quantity of extramural contact with English for young Danish learners of English. The focus is on whether proficiency is affected by extramural use and whether this is consistent across age groups (1st thru 5th grade). I also investigate whether some extramural...... activities are more supportive of language learning than others, i.e. gaming, watching television, music, etc. Finally, a qualitative gaming study will be carried out to explore what goes on linguistically when very young children game in English together: type of interaction between players...... and with the game and if this interaction can be seen to support their English language learning. Preliminary results indicate that although children use / are exposed to English in a range of different contexts and through a variety of modalities (internet, console/PC games, music etc.), the one activity...
Gerstman, Victoria; Raue, Brian
In a study inspired by the famous humidor of the Colorado Rockies of Major League Baseball, we have measured the effects of temperature and humidity on the elasticity of official Major League baseballs. The elasticity, e, also referred to as the coefficient of restitution (COR), of the baseballs was determined by dropping the balls from a fixed height onto a concrete floor and determining the speed of the ball after the initial impact. Corrections for air drag were made to the measured COR. Measurements were done for baseballs stored under a wide variety of conditions that included storage in the freezer compartment of a household refrigerator, storage in an 80^rcC oven with varying humidity conditions, and storage in a crude humidor. The balls were tested over a period of several hours after removal to nominal conditions. Our results show a linear increase of the COR with increasing temperature, as well as a nearly linear decrease in the COR as water mass is increased. Using the results of our measurements, we have determined the effects of temperature and humidity on batted-ball speeds and flight distances at the Rockies' home field.
Lin, Pao-Hwa; Chen, Chuhe; Young, Deborah R.; Mitchell, Diane; Elmer, Patricia; Wang, Yanfang; Batch, Bryan; Champagne, Catherine
Background: The clinical significance of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) is inconclusive. Objective: This study was conducted to examine the association of GI and GL with clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors including body weight, blood pressure (BP), serum lipids, fasting glucose, insulin and homocysteine over time among the PREMIER participants. Design: PREMIER was an 18-month randomized lifestyle intervention trial, conducted from 2000 to 2002, designed to help par...
Palomino, F.A.; Sakovics, J.
We analyze the distribution of broadcasting revenues by sports leagues.In the context of an isolated league, we show that when the teams engage in competitive bidding to attract talent, the league's optimal choice is full revenue sharing (resulting in full competitive balance) even if the revenues
potential applications helping to provide solutions to problems encountered in the real world. An area of prime importance was the teaching of pronunciation to language learners, and in particular the acquisition of English pronunciation by non-natives. Apart from works devoted to second......-language acquisition, and in particular to the teaching of English as an acquired language, this emphasis also led to the production of important English pronunciation dictionaries, including the Afzelius dictionary reproduced as Volume I of this collection. Other areas covered in the following volumes include key...... Melville Bell, Isaac Pitman, Alexander J. Ellis, and Henry Sweet—the emphasis was on what is now known as articulatory phonetics. (See further Phonetics of English in the Nineteenth Century (Routledge, 2006), compiled by the editors of the current collection.) These pioneers regarded their task...
Gabriel B. Egbe
Full Text Available What will be the future of English in Nigeria? Put more apprehensively, will the English language die in Nigeria in the near future? These questions are answered by reporting on the language preference at home of some Nigerian undergraduates in order to gauge the future of English in Nigeria. The investigation sought to determine the language(s most preferred for communication at home among Nigerian undergraduates. From a sample drawn from students in a private Nigerian university, 66.7% identified English as the most frequently used language at home while 64.1% indicated fluency in English against other languages spoken in Nigeria including the indigenous major Nigerian languages (Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba. On order of fluency among the languages sampled, 18.5% indicated an English-only fluency, which reveals that some section of young Nigerians are moving towards a monolingual English-only proficiency. This discovery has implications for the future of English in Nigeria. Several factors may account for this emerging trend. However, the premier position occupied by English in Nigeria and the expanding use of English world-wide clearly support the continuous growth and visibility of English as the language of choice among Nigerian undergraduates at home. This is without prejudice to several declarations and policy statements in favour of Mother Tongue education and usage in Nigeria. The paper concludes that the emergence of a new generation of Nigerians who use English as a first language in a non-host second language context is sowing the seed for further nativization and entrenchment of English in Nigeria.
Caron, Jeffrey G; Bloom, Gordon A; Johnston, Karen M; Sabiston, Catherine M
The purpose of this study was to understand the meanings and lived experiences of multiple concussions in professional hockey players using hermeneutic, idiographic, and inductive approaches within an interpretative phenomenological analysis. The interviewer was an athlete who had suffered multiple concussions, and the interviewees were five former National Hockey League athletes who had retired due to medically diagnosed concussions suffered during their careers. The men discussed the physical and psychological symptoms they experienced as a result of their concussions and how the symptoms affected their professional careers, personal relationships, and quality of life. The former professional athletes related these symptoms to the turmoil that is ever present in their lives. These findings are of interest to athletes, coaches, sport administrators, family members, sport psychology practitioners, and medical professionals, as they highlight the severity of short- and long-term effects of concussions.
Witnauer, William D.; Rogers, Richard G.; Saint Onge, Jarron M.
Although baseball is considered “the” American pastime, little is known about the career prospects of the individuals who play the game. This study fills that void by examining the careers of baseball players over the last century. Between 1902 and 1993, 5,989 position players started their careers and played 33,272 person years of major league baseball. A rookie position player can expect to play 5.6 years; one in five position players will have only a single-year career, and at every point of a player’s career, the chance of exiting is at least 11%. Position players who start younger and begin their career in more recent decades all have longer and more stable careers; nevertheless, baseball careers are not compressed versions of normal careers, but are substantially skewed toward early exit. PMID:21976782
Objectif : Apprécier la perception de l'anatomie par les étudiants du Premier cycle d'études médicales en vue d'améliorer ainsi la qualité de l'enseignement. Méthodes : Il s'est agi d'une enquête effectuée dans les salles de cours de la 1ère et 2ème de la FMMP. Un questionnaire anonyme a été remis aux étudiants.
James Alexander Cameron
Full Text Available Sedilia are the ceremonial seats of the priest, deacon, and subdeacon placed to the south of the altar. In Gothic church architecture, they typically take the form of three deep niches, recessed into the thickness of the wall, surmounted by arches and separated by shafts. These types of sedilia are most well-known from English churches of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. This essay looks to explain why sedilia became so popular in England, through a consideration of trends in English architecture. With the help of Nikolaus Pevsner’s characterization of the country’s art from The Englishness of English Art, it will argue that the basic decorative language of sedilia is entrenched in trends first developed in the Anglo-Norman Romanesque. It will also suggest, however, that regional variations in the distribution of sedilia complicate the idea of a single “national style”.
西村, 忍; 中里, 浩一; 中嶋, 寛之
Few studies have examined the American Football (football) injuries in terms of the difference of years of football experience. The purpose of this study was to compare with the football injuries between college and X League teams. Subjects were 51 players who belonged to college team and 54 players who belonged to X League team. We investigated the incidence of football injuries of both college team in 2002 and X League team in 2003. As the results, we obtained the followings. Both teams had...
Wingo, Brooks C; Desmond, Renee A; Brantley, Phillip; Appel, Lawrence; Svetkey, Laura; Stevens, Victor J; Ard, Jamy D
Determine whether self-efficacy independently predicted weight loss in a behavioral intervention and explore factors that influence the path between self-efficacy and weight change. Secondary analysis of the PREMIER trial, a randomized controlled trial testing effects of lifestyle interventions on blood pressure. Four academic medical centers. PREMIER recruited adults (n = 810) with pre-hypertension/stage 1 hypertension, not currently receiving medication. This analysis excluded participants in the control arm, resulting in n = 537. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: advice only, established lifestyle recommendations, or established lifestyle recommendations plus Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary pattern. Self-efficacy (dietary self-efficacy [DSE], exercise self-efficacy [ESE]), dietary intake, fitness. Pearson correlations, 1-way analysis of variance, mediation analyses. Despite an overall decrease in DSE/ESE, change in DSE/ESE significantly predicted weight change at 6 (β = -.21, P self-efficacy and adoption of behaviors that influence weight loss. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to elaborate an alternative measure to compare football leagues based on Accumulated Points Difference (APD. The sample includes eight seasons (2006-2007 to 2013-2014 from nine football leagues: German Bundesliga, Campeonato Brasileiro (Brazil, La Liga BBVA (Spain, French Ligue 1, Dutch Eredivise, English Premier League, Italian Serie A, Portuguese Primeira Liga and Russian Premier League. We have employed the ANOVA one way with Tukey post hoc to compare the results. We have confirmed the robustness of the model comparing it with two traditional measures: Herfindahl Index of Competitive Balance (HICB and C4 Index of Competitive Balance (C4ICB. As a result, we have found that the Brazilian League was the most balanced tournament in this period and there are no statistical differences between European leagues.
If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 firstname.lastname@example.org PLACES AVAILABLE Writing Professional Documents in English This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English who need to improve their professional writing (administrative, scientific, technical). Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) Date and timetable will be fixed when there are sufficient participants enrolled. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their sp...
English Graphic is a book of essays on the subject of illustration, with the focus entirely on English artists using graphic media; drawings, prints and watercolours. As editor, I built on a schedule Tom drew up. It contains essays drawn from a variety of sources: the Great Works column, reviews, catalogue essays, and previously unpublished material. The historical span of the book is broad – from the Winchester Psalter Hellmouth to Harry Beck’s London Underground Map and Dom Sylvester Houéda...
Marislei Sanches Panobianco
Full Text Available This quantitative, descriptive and cross study, which aimed to identify and assess the contribution of the Students’ League in the education undergraduate nursing. Data were collected from May to August 2010, using a semi-structured questionnaire, applied to graduate students on the premises of an institution of higher education and sent via electronic mail, to the graduates, a total of 22 respondents linked to a league preventing and combating cancer. The answers were structured in a database in Excel (Windows 2007, and after, the analysis performed by means of Epi Info software, using descriptive statistics. Respected the ethical rules. All respondents said that the league has contributed to academic learning. The League proved to be an important educational strategy, contributing to training to critical reflection on oncology and promoting humane care.
de Wit, M.P.T.; Berlo, S.E.; Aanerud, G.J.; Aletaha, D.; Bijlsma, J.W.; Croucher, L.; Da Silva, J.A.P.; Glusing, B.; Gossec, L.; Hewlett, S.; Jongkees, M.; Magnusson, D.; Scholte-Voshaar, M.; Richards, P.; Ziegler, C.; Abma, T.A.
Objective: To develop recommendations to enable successful inclusion of the patient perspective in European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)-funded scientific research projects. Methods: The EULAR standardised operational procedures for guideline development were followed. A systematic literature
Orchard, J; Seward, H
To describe the epidemiology of injuries in the Australian Football League (AFL) over four seasons. An injury was defined as "any physical or medical condition that caused a player to miss a match in the regular season...
On 15 March 2010, the Johannesburg Equality Court found African National Congress (ANC) Youth League President Julius Malema guilty of hate speech and harassment for his comments regarding rape survivors.
Thomas, Samantha; Lewis, Sophie; Duong, Jenny; McLeod, Colin
Objective: Using Australian Football League (AFL) matches as a case study, we investigated the frequency, length and content of marketing strategies for sports betting during two specific settings: 1...
James Keyte; Paul Eckles
The question, then, is whether there is an alternative analytical framework the Court could adopt that could cut short or streamline these wasteful litigations but without a finding that sports leagues are a single entity?
Riedi, Elizabeth L.
This thesis, based on private papers, society records, autobiographies and memoirs, newspapers and periodicals, examines one mainly female imperialist organisation - the Victoria League - and the women who ran it. It considers two related questions - what made Edwardian women imperialist, and how, within the limits of Edwardian society, could they express their imperialism? The thesis shows that several of the League's founders and executive had visited South Africa during or s...
Mugala Bulinda H.1; Wamukoya Edwin K.
Satisfaction in sports has been a critical issue because of its relation to several psychosocial factors like leadership and motivation. Demographic characteristics of the groups under study have also shown to have impact on the satisfaction levels in physical activity. Based on the self-determination theory, the present study on influence of age on satisfaction of Kenyan volleyball league players hypothesized that there is no significant difference among Kenya volleyball league players of di...
Maroon, Joseph C; Mathyssek, Christina M; Bost, Jeffrey W; Amos, Austin; Winkelman, Robert; Yates, Anthony P; Duca, Mark A; Norwig, John A
By maintaining phosphate and calcium homeostasis, vitamin D is critical for bone health and possibly physical performance. Hence, vitamin D is important to athletes. Few studies have investigated vitamin D levels in relation to fractures and performance in athletes, and no published study has included a multiracial sample of professional American football players. To assess vitamin D levels, including the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, in professional American football players and to evaluate the association of vitamin D levels with race, fracture history, and the ability to obtain a contract position, which may be a marker for athletic performance. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Serum vitamin D levels of 80 professional football players from a single team in the National Football League were obtained during the 2011 off-season (mean age, 26.5±3.7 years; black, n=67 [84%]). These levels were used to compare injury reports from the 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 seasons. Statistical analyses were performed to test if vitamin D levels were related to race, fracture history, and the ability to obtain a contract position. Mean vitamin D level was 27.4±11.7 ng/mL, with significantly lower levels for black players (25.6±11.3 ng/mL) versus white players (37.4±8.6 ng/mL; F 1,78=13.00, P=.001). All athletes who were vitamin D deficient were black. When controlling for number of professional years played, vitamin D levels were significantly lower in players with at least 1 bone fracture when compared with no fractures. Players who were released during the preseason because of either injury or poor performance had significantly lower vitamin D levels than did players who played in the regular season. Black professional football players have a higher rate of vitamin D deficiency than do white players. Furthermore, professional football players with higher vitamin D levels were more likely to obtain a contract position in the National Football League
Hardy, Rich; Ajibewa, Tiwaloluwa; Bowman, Ray; Brand, Jefferson C
To investigate variables (injury, position, performance, and pitching volume) that affect the career longevity of Major League Baseball pitchers. To be eligible, pitchers must have entered Major League Baseball between 1989 and 1992 without missing information for the variables on the website http://www.baseball-reference.com. The variables assessed were average innings pitched per year before and after age 25 years, earned run average, walks and hits divided by innings pitched, strikeout to walk ratio, pitching position, time on the disabled list, length of career, and starting and retirement age. We used analysis of variance to compare the differences between groups and a regression model to assess the relationship between variables before age 25 years and career length. Mean retirement age for the group was 31.74 (95% confidence interval 30.83-32.65) and mean career length was 10.97 (95% confidence interval, 10.02-11.92) years. Innings pitched after age 25 years increased slightly, but not significantly, from the number of innings pitched before age 25 years, 85.35 versus 74.25, P = .5063. Career earned run average was not significantly different after age 25 years compared with before age 25 years, 4.83 versus 5.58, respectively, P = .8834. Both strikeout to walk ratio, 1.55 to 1.77, P = .0022, and walks and hits divided by innings pitched, 1.63 to 1.50, P = .0339, improved significantly after age 25 years compared with before age 25 years. The position the player started and ended his career (starter or reliever) did not influence career length. Multiple regression analysis comparing the variables from before age 25 revealed only the number of innings pitched before age 25 were positively related to career length, R(2) = 0.1408, P < .0001. All other variables analyzed before age 25 years were not significantly related to career length. The only studied variable that had significant relationship, which was weak to low, with career length was
In a remix of the infamous Hitler meme--taking a scene from the movie, "Downfall" (2005), and adding subtitles appropriate (in this case) for "Kairos" readers--theamishaugur makes a pointed, humorous (to some) commentary on the status of multimodal composition scholars in English departments during job market season.
New courses University of Cambridge ESOL examination course We will be starting two new courses in October leading to the Cambridge First Certificate in English (level B2 of the European Framework) and the Cambridge Advanced English (level C1) examinations. These courses will consist of two semesters of 15 weeks with two two-hourly classes per week. There will be an average of eight students per class. Normally the examination will be taken in June 2011 but strong participants could take it earlier. People wishing to take these courses should enrol: http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9:1927376177842004::NO::X_COURSE_ID,X_STATUS:4133%2CD and they will then be required to take a placement test to check that their level of English is of an appropriate level. Please note that we need a minimum of seven students enrolled to open a session. For further information please contact Tessa Osborne 72957. General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: From 4th October 2010 to 5th Feb...
General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 03 March to 28 June 2003 (2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: tel.73127 or Mr. Liptow: tel.72957. Writing Professional Documents in English This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Tessa Osborne: Tessa.Osborne@cern. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-p...
General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 03 March to 28 June 2003 (2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: tel.73127 or Mr. Liptow: tel.72957. Writing Professional Documents in English This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Tessa Osborne: Tessa.Osborne@cern. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, rol...
This study examines (1) the extent to which students at one premier faculty of English in Cambodia exhibit their involvement level in academic activities under a new learning environment and (2) whether differential involvement patterns exist within certain groups of students. The data source was 215 sophomore students randomly selected from all study periods (morning, afternoon and evening) in the 2010 academic year. Student involvement was assessed by their engagement behaviors using select...
Making Out in English is a fun, accessible and thorough English phrase book and guide to the English language as it's really spoken. If you are a student, businessman or tourist traveling to the English speaking world and would like to have an authentic and meaningful experience, the key is being able to speak like a local. This friendly and easy-to-use English phrasebook makes this possible. Making Out in English has been revised and redesigned to act as a guide to modern colloquial English for use in everyday informal interactionsgiving access to the sort of catchy English expressions that
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the contribution of Australian Football League (AFL players to their team's on-field network by simulating player interactions within a chosen team list and estimating the net effect on final score margin. A Visual Basic computer program was written, firstly, to isolate the effective interactions between players from a particular team in all 2011 season matches and, secondly, to generate a symmetric interaction matrix for each match. Negative binomial distributions were fitted to each player pairing in the Geelong Football Club for the 2011 season, enabling an interactive match simulation model given the 22 chosen players. Dynamic player ratings were calculated from the simulated network using eigenvector centrality, a method that recognises and rewards interactions with more prominent players in the team network. The centrality ratings were recorded after every network simulation and then applied in final score margin predictions so that each player's match contribution-and, hence, an optimal team-could be estimated. The paper ultimately demonstrates that the presence of highly rated players, such as Geelong's Jimmy Bartel, provides the most utility within a simulated team network. It is anticipated that these findings will facilitate optimal AFL team selection and player substitutions, which are key areas of interest to coaches. Network simulations are also attractive for use within betting markets, specifically to provide information on the likelihood of a chosen AFL team list "covering the line".
Full Text Available Urpose : The purpose of this research was to determine the requirements for privatization of Iran Pro League (IPL football clubs. Methods: A questionnaire was developed and distributed among a sample of IPL coaches, executives (senior executives from the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports and the Privatization Organization, and faculty members (public and private universities. Descriptive statistics and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for data analysis. Besides, AHP was used in Expert Choice software to weight and rank the items. Results: The results showed that the most important factors were fighting corruption and rent-seeking during and after biddings (political, improving public perception of privatization of football clubs (sociocultural, increasing revenues from ticket sales (economic, transparency in laws regarding football club privatization (legal, and the changing structure and role of the government from exclusive ownership to oversight (structural. Conclusion: Given the results of this research, the most important requirements for privatization of IPL football clubs include offering television broadcast rights, advertisement rights, and ticket sale rights to the clubs, and these and other factors discussed earlier are likely to accelerate privatization of football clubs.
Kelly, Bryan T; Barnes, Ronnie P; Powell, John W; Warren, Russell F
Quarterbacks are at risk for shoulder injury secondary to both the throwing motion as well as from contact injury. To delineate the incidence and etiology of shoulder injuries to quarterbacks in the National Football League (NFL). Using the NFL Injury Surveillance System (NFLISS), all reported injuries to quarterbacks between 1980 and 2001 were identified. A total of 1534 quarterback injuries were identified with a mean of 18.8 and a median of 6.0 days of playing time lost. The majority of these injuries occurred during a game (83.8%). Passing plays were responsible for 77.4% of all quarterback-related injuries. Shoulder injuries were the second most common injury reported (233 or 15.2%), following closely behind head injuries (15.4%). Direct trauma was responsible for 82.3% of the injuries, with acromioclavicular joint sprains being the most common injury overall (40%). Overuse injuries were responsible for 14% of the injuries, the most common being rotator cuff tendinitis (6.1%) followed by biceps tendinitis (3.5%). In this review, the vast majority of shoulder injuries in quarterbacks occurred as a result of direct trauma (82.3%), and less than 15% were overuse injuries resulting from the actual throwing motion.
Song, Alex; Severini, Thomas; Allada, Ravi
Laboratory studies have demonstrated that circadian clocks align physiology and behavior to 24-h environmental cycles. Examination of athletic performance has been used to discern the functions of these clocks in humans outside of controlled settings. Here, we examined the effects of jet lag, that is, travel that shifts the alignment of 24-h environmental cycles relative to the endogenous circadian clock, on specific performance metrics in Major League Baseball. Accounting for potential differences in home and away performance, travel direction, and team confounding variables, we observed that jet-lag effects were largely evident after eastward travel with very limited effects after westward travel, consistent with the >24-h period length of the human circadian clock. Surprisingly, we found that jet lag impaired major parameters of home-team offensive performance, for example, slugging percentage, but did not similarly affect away-team offensive performance. On the other hand, jet lag impacted both home and away defensive performance. Remarkably, the vast majority of these effects for both home and away teams could be explained by a single measure, home runs allowed. Rather than uniform effects, these results reveal surprisingly specific effects of circadian misalignment on athletic performance under natural conditions.
Ricchetti, E T; Weidner, Z; Lawrence, J T R; Sennett, B J; Huffman, G R
Little is known about outcomes of glenoid labral repair in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers. We hypothesized that following repair, pitching performance would not be significantly different from an uninjured cohort. Fifty-one pitchers were identified who pitched in at least one MLB game prior to undergoing isolated glenoid labral repair. For the three years prior to and following surgery, demographic and performance variables were analyzed for an association with labral injury and repair, and compared to a control cohort of MLB pitchers without history of repair. Following surgery, 72.5% of pitchers returned to MLB at a mean of 13.1 months with no significant change in performance. Starting pitchers had a higher risk of labral injury requiring repair (p< or =0.05). Pitchers that returned to play averaged more innings pitched in the seasons prior to surgery and had a higher body mass index than those that did not return to play (p< or =0.05). Approximately 70% of MLB pitchers undergoing labral repair can be expected to return to competition postoperatively with no significant change in performance. Starting pitchers are more likely to undergo repair, but pitchers with greater preoperative innings pitched per season have a greater likelihood of returning to play. Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.
Kilcoyne, Kelly G; Ebel, Brian G; Bancells, Richard L; Wilckens, John H; McFarland, Edward G
In part because of the perception that many injuries occur during collisions with the catcher at home plate, Major League Baseball (MLB) officials recently implemented rule changes to prevent these injuries. There is little research on the rate, type, and severity of injuries in MLB catchers. To (1) determine the types and severity of injuries to catchers, (2) determine catchers' athlete exposure (AE) rate of injuries, and (3) assess the perception that catchers are at risk for career-ending injuries caused by home plate collisions. Descriptive epidemiology study. The MLB Electronic Baseball Information System was queried for injuries in catchers during the 2001-2010 seasons categorized by cause (collision vs noncollision), diagnosis, and severity. All collision injuries were confirmed by reviewing publicly accessible records and news media. The injury exposure rate per 1000 AEs was calculated, and the rate of injury, associated days on the disabled list (DL), and injury severity were determined on the basis of cause and location of injury. Poisson regression was used to compare rates among seasons, and significance was set at P 100 days on the DL compared with collision injuries (P = .049). Study findings indicated that (1) the most common type of injury to catchers was noncollision injury, (2) the rate of injuries to catchers is lower than previously reported rates for other player positions, and (3) this study did not support the perception that collision injuries are a frequent cause of career-ending injury to catchers. © 2015 The Author(s).
Erickson, Brandon J; Chalmers, Peter N; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Romeo, Anthony A
Major League Baseball (MLB) players are at significant risk for both chronic, repetitive overuse injuries as well as acute traumatic injuries. Pitchers have been shown to be at higher risk for sustaining injuries, especially upper extremity injuries, than position players. The past several MLB seasons have seen a dramatic rise in the number of ulnar collateral ligament reconstructions performed in MLB pitchers. Several recent prospective studies have identified risk factors for injuries to both the shoulder and elbow in MLB pitchers. These risk factors include a lack of external rotation, a lack of total rotation, and a lack of flexion in the throwing arm. Thus far, no study has demonstrated a correlation between cumulative work (number of games pitched, total pitches thrown, total innings pitched, innings pitched per game, and pitches thrown per game) and injuries in MLB pitchers, despite several studies showing this correlation in youth pitchers. Although many risk factors have been translated into guidelines for prevention, no study has been conducted to determine whether adherence to these guidelines effectively prevents injuries. Further studies are necessary to define exactly how injuries in MLB players can be prevented.
Full Text Available Les promenades maritimes caractérisent les stations de bord de mer du premier âge touristique (1850-1930. Elles traduisent dans le paysage un urbanisme spéculatif, à rapprocher de celui qui produit le square et le boulevard, et donnent lieu à une urbanisation du littoral sous forme de vastes appendices linéaires. Les pratiques sociales associées à la promenade rappellent celles du jardin de plaisir, et renvoient au même rêve d’une urbanité idéale, libérée des miasmes, des promiscuités sociales, des contraintes qui pèsent sur les amours et les jeux.
You have a good level of English BUT... You still need to improve your speaking or You have problems writing professional documents Would you like to work in a small group on either of these areas? Then, the following courses are for you! Writing Professional Documents in English The aim of the course is for students to improve their professional writing. Participants will work on technical, scientific or administrative documents depending on the needs of the group. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) Oral Expression The emphasis will be on oral expression with necessary feed-back. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957 / Mrs. Tessa Osborne: Tessa.Osborne@cern.ch.
You have a good level of English BUT... You still need to improve your speaking or You have problems writing professional documents Would you like to work in a small group on either of these areas? Then, the following courses are for you! Writing Professional Documents in English The aim of the course is for students to improve their professional writing. Participants will work on technical, scientific or administrative documents depending on the needs of the group. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) Oral Expression The emphasis will be on oral expression with necessary feed-back. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957 / Mrs. Tessa Osborne: Tessa.Osborne@cern.ch.
General and Professional English Courses The next sessions will take place: From 3rd October 2011 to beginning of February 2012 (break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister, tel. 70896. Oral Expression The next sessions will take place from 3rd October 2011 to beginning of February 2012 (break at Christmas). This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be on average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister, tel. 70896. Writing Professional Documents in English - Administrative Wr...
Cours d'anglais général et professionnel La prochaine session se déroulera du 4 mars jusqu’au 21 juin 2013. Ces cours s'adressent à toute personne travaillant au CERN ainsi qu'à leur conjoint. Pour le détail des cours proposés, consultez nos pages web. Oral Expression The next sessions will take place from 4 March to 21 June 2013. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be on average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. More information here. Writing Professional Documents in English - Administrative Writing Professional Documents in English - Technical The next sessions will take place from 4 March to 21 June 2013. These courses are designed for people with a goo...
van der Heijde, Désirée; Breedveld, Ferdinand C.; Kavanaugh, Arthur; Keystone, Edward C.; Landewé, Robert; Patra, Kaushik; Pangan, Aileen L.
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of initial combination treatment with adalimumab (ADA) and methotrexate (MTX) versus monotherapy with ADA or MTX during an open-label extension of PREMIER. Patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) received blinded ADA plus MTX, ADA alone, or MTX alone for 2
Forsythe, Charles M; Crotin, Ryan L; Greenwood, Mike; Bhan, Shivam; Karakolis, Thomas
Among professional pitchers, anthropometric changes and their effect on statistics are relatively unknown. Bivariate analyses and repeated one-way ANOVA evaluated the impact of physical size on baseball pitching statistics and attributes within an elite talent sample of Major League pitching leaders. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated from publicly available players' heights and weights to form a statistical database of 1028 pitching leaders from 1950-2010. Repeated measures ANOVAs examined differences in anthropometrics and baseball statistics between decades 1950-2010. Bivariate correlation evaluated BMI as an independent variable of influence on statistics, where all tests applied an a-priori significance level (P<0.05). BMI increased throughout the sixty year period with weight growth greater than height (P<0.001). Increased BMI reported earlier signing age, and age of debut (P<0.05), where larger pitchers showed small positive correlation seen among saves (P<0.001) concurrent to negative correlation with innings pitched and complete games (P≤0.001), as well as shutouts (P<0.05). A contrast between saves and complete games pitched was found where saves increased over time (P<0.001) while complete games pitched declined (P<0.001). Over time, throwing workloads showed better management for larger starting pitchers with less innings pitched and complete games thrown added to an extra rest day in the pitching rotation. In contrast, paralleled increases in physical size with recorded saves at present requires greater medical and training attention to protecting the throwing arm of the larger relief pitchers, as increased body size can increase force properties and ball velocity owing to greater injury risks.
Sargent, Jonathan; Bedford, Anthony
This paper focuses on the contribution of Australian Football League (AFL) players to their team's on-field network by simulating player interactions within a chosen team list and estimating the net effect on final score margin. A Visual Basic computer program was written, firstly, to isolate the effective interactions between players from a particular team in all 2011 season matches and, secondly, to generate a symmetric interaction matrix for each match. Negative binomial distributions were fitted to each player pairing in the Geelong Football Club for the 2011 season, enabling an interactive match simulation model given the 22 chosen players. Dynamic player ratings were calculated from the simulated network using eigenvector centrality, a method that recognises and rewards interactions with more prominent players in the team network. The centrality ratings were recorded after every network simulation and then applied in final score margin predictions so that each player's match contribution-and, hence, an optimal team-could be estimated. The paper ultimately demonstrates that the presence of highly rated players, such as Geelong's Jimmy Bartel, provides the most utility within a simulated team network. It is anticipated that these findings will facilitate optimal AFL team selection and player substitutions, which are key areas of interest to coaches. Network simulations are also attractive for use within betting markets, specifically to provide information on the likelihood of a chosen AFL team list "covering the line ". Key pointsA simulated interaction matrix for Australian Rules football players is proposedThe simulations were carried out by fitting unique negative binomial distributions to each player pairing in a sideEigenvector centrality was calculated for each player in a simulated matrix, then for the teamThe team centrality measure adequately predicted the team's winning marginA player's net effect on margin could hence be estimated by replacing him in
Pollack, Keshia M; D'Angelo, John; Green, Gary; Conte, Stan; Fealy, Stephen; Marinak, Chris; McFarland, Edward; Curriero, Frank C
In 2010, Major League Baseball and the Major League Baseball Players Association reached an agreement regarding the development and implementation of an electronic medical record system and a new league-wide injury surveillance system. The systems were developed to create a more efficient method to track medical histories of players longitudinally as they move across Major and Minor league affiliates, as well as to identify and monitor injury trends in the sport, identify areas of specific concern, and conduct epidemiologic research to better optimize player health and safety. The resulting injury surveillance system, the Health and Injury Tracking System (HITS), is a robust system that includes all players from the both the Major and Minor Leagues. HITS also allows for data linkage with other player- and game-level data to inform the development of injury prevention policies and programs. In the present article, we document the development and implementation of HITS; describe its utility for epidemiologic research; illustrate the potential analytic strength of the surveillance system and its ability to inform policy change; and note the potential for this new surveillance system to advance the field of sports injury epidemiology. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Anguished English is the impossibly funny anthology of accidental assaults upon our common language. From bloopers and blunders to Signs of the Times to Mixed-Up Metaphors . . . from Two-Headed Headlines to Mangling Modifiers . . . it's a collection that will leave you roaring with delight and laughter.Help wanteds:Wanted: Unmarried girls to pick fresh fruit and produce at night.Two-Headed Headlines:Grandmother of eight makes hole in one!Doctor testifies in horse suit.Modern-Day Malapropisms:I suffer from a deviant septum.
Rasmussen, Rasmus Vinther
. The solution method presented here uses a logic-based Benders decomposition in which the master problem finds home-away pattern sets while the subproblem finds timetables. Furthermore, column generation techniques are used to enhance the speed of the master problem. The computational results show......In this paper, we present a solution method for the highly constrained problem of finding a seasonal schedule for the best Danish soccer league. The league differs from most sports leagues, since it plays a triple round robin tournament which leads to an uneven distribution of home and away games...... that the solution method is capable of solving the problem within reasonable time and the Danish Football Association has used it for scheduling the 2006/2007 season....
Lamme, Margot Opdycke
In 1913, the Anti-Saloon League of America declared its intention to pursue national prohibition. While it continued to adhere to its core principles of agitation, it expanded its communication efforts and entered a partnership with the Scientific Temperance Federation, a spin-off of the education arm of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. The League's tactics were not necessarily new to the temperance movement -- or even to other reform movements of the time. What did set it apart was its single-minded focus on stopping the liquor traffic. Tracing through archival artifacts the League's communication strategies and tactics during 1913, then, this study contributes to a larger body of work that seeks to expand on the traditional model of public relations history.
Boublik, Martin; Schlegel, Theodore F; Koonce, Ryan C; Genuario, James W; Kinkartz, Jason D
Distal quadriceps tendon tears are uncommon injuries that typically occur in patients older than 40 years of age, and they have a guarded prognosis. Predisposing factors, prodromal findings, mechanisms of injury, treatment guidelines, and recovery expectations are not well described in high-level athletes. Professional American football players with an isolated tear of the quadriceps tendon treated with timely surgical repair will return to their sport. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Fourteen unilateral distal quadriceps tendon tears were identified in National Football League (NFL) players from 1994 to 2004. Team physicians retrospectively reviewed training room and clinic records, operative notes, and imaging studies for each of these players. Data on each player were analyzed to identify variables predicting return to play. A successful outcome was defined as returning to play in regular-season NFL games. Eccentric contraction of the quadriceps was the most common mechanism of injury, occurring in 10 players. Only 1 player had antecedent ipsilateral extensor mechanism symptoms. Eleven players had a complete rupture of the quadriceps tendon, and 3 had partial tears. There were no associated knee injuries. All ruptures were treated with surgical repair, 1 of which was delayed after failure of nonoperative treatment. Fifty percent of players returned to play in regular-season NFL games. There was a trend toward earlier draft status for those who returned to play compared with those who did not (draft round, 3.1 ± 2.5 vs. 6.0 ± 2.9, respectively; P = .073). For those who returned to play, the average number of games after injury was 40.9 (range, 12-92). Quadriceps tendon tears are rare in professional American football players, and they usually occur from eccentric load on the extensor mechanism. Prodromal symptoms and predisposing factors are usually absent. Even with timely surgical repair, there is a low rate of return to play in regular-season games. There
Mall, Nathan A; Buchowski, Jacob; Zebala, Lukas; Brophy, Robert H; Wright, Rick W; Matava, Matthew J
The majority of previous literature focusing on spinal injuries in American football players is centered around catastrophic injuries; however, this may underestimate the true number of these injuries in this athletic cohort. The goals of this study were to (1) report the incidence of spinal and axial skeleton injuries, both minor and severe, in the National Football League (NFL) over an 11-year period; (2) determine the incidence of spinal injury by injury type, anatomic location, player position, mechanism of injury, and type of exposure (practice vs game); and (3) determine the average number of practices and days missed because of injury for each injury type. Descriptive epidemiological study. All documented injuries to the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine; pelvis; ribs; and spinal cord were retrospectively analyzed using the NFL's injury surveillance database over a period of 11 seasons from 2000 through 2010. The data were analyzed by the number of injuries per athlete-exposure, the anatomic location and type of injury, player position, mechanism of injury, and number of days missed per injury. A total of 2208 injuries occurred to the spine or axial skeleton over an 11-season interval in the NFL, with a mean loss of 25.7 days per injury. This represented 7% of the total injuries during this time period. Of these 2208 injuries, 987 (44.7%) occurred in the cervical spine. Time missed from play was greatest for thoracic disc herniations (189 days/injury). Other injuries that had a mean time missed greater than 30 days included (in descending order) cervical fracture (120 days/injury), cervical disc degeneration/herniation (85 days/injury), spinal cord injury (77 days/injury), lumbar disc degeneration/herniation (52 days/injury), thoracic fracture (34 days/injury), and thoracic nerve injury (30 days/injury). Offensive linemen were the most likely to suffer a spinal injury, followed by defensive backs, defensive linemen, and linebackers. Blocking and tackling
McHale, Kevin J; Rozell, Joshua C; Milby, Andrew H; Carey, James L; Sennett, Brian J
Tarsometatarsal (Lisfranc) joint injuries commonly occur in National Football League (NFL) competition; however, the career effect of these injuries is unknown. To define the time to return to competition for NFL players who sustained Lisfranc injuries and to quantify the effect on athletic performance. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Data on NFL players who sustained a Lisfranc injury between 2000 and 2010 were collected for analysis. Outcomes data included time to return to competition, total games played after season of injury, yearly total yards and touchdowns for offensive players, and yearly total tackles, sacks, and interceptions for defensive players. Offensive power ratings (OPR = [total yards/10] + [total touchdowns × 6]) and defensive power ratings (DPR = total tackles + [total sacks × 2] + [total interceptions × 2]) were calculated for the injury season and for 3 seasons before and after the injury season. Offensive and defensive control groups consisted of all players without an identified Lisfranc injury who competed in the 2005 season. The study group was composed of 28 NFL athletes who sustained Lisfranc injuries during the study period, including 11 offensive and 17 defensive players. While 2 of 28 (7.1%) players never returned to the NFL, 26 (92.9%) athletes returned to competition at a median of 11.1 (interquartile range [IQR], 10.3-12.5) months from time of injury and missed a median of 8.5 (IQR, 6.3-13.0) regular-season games. Analysis of pre- and postinjury athletic performance revealed no statistically significant changes after return to sport after Lisfranc injury. The magnitude of change in median OPR and DPR observed in offensive and defensive Lisfranc-injured study groups, -34.8 (IQR, -64.4 to 1.4) and -13.5 (-30.9 to 4.3), respectively, was greater than that observed in offensive and defensive control groups, -18.8 (-52.9 to 31.5) and -5.0 (-22.0 to 14.0), respectively; however, these differences did not reach statistical
Shah J Miah
Full Text Available This paper presents a contemporary literature review of design science research (DSR studies in the domain of decision support systems (DSS development. The latest studies in the DSS design domain claim that DSR methodologies are the most popular design approach, but many details are still yet to be revealed for supporting this claim. In particular, it is important to thoroughly investigate the trends in either the form or deeper insights in use of DSR in this field. The aim of this study is to analyse the existing DSS design science studies to reveal insights into the use of DSR, so that we can outline research agenda for a special issue, based on findings of analysis. We selected articles (from 2005 to 2014 that were published in seven selected premier IS journals (ranked as A* in the ABDC journal ranking. The selected 57 sample articles are representative of DSS design studies that used DSR in theorising, designing, implementing, and evaluating DSS solutions. We discuss the theoretical positions of DSR for DSS development through six categories: DSS artefacts, DSR methods, DSR views, user involvement, DSS design innovations and problem domains. The findings indicate that new studies are needed to fill the knowledge gap in DSS design science, for more solid theoretical basis in near future.
Albury, Kath; Carmody, Moira; Evers, Clifton; Lumby, Catharine
In 2004, the Australian National Rugby League (NRL) commissioned the Playing By The Rules research project in response to allegations of sexual assault by members of a professional rugby league team. This article offers an overview of the theoretical and methodological approaches adopted by the team, and the subsequent workplace education…
King, Doug; Hume, Patria; Gissane, Conor; Clark, Trevor
A combined estimate of injuries within a specific sport through pooled analysis provides more precise evidence and meaningful information about the sport, whilst controlling for between-study variation due to individual sub-cohort characteristics. The objective of this analysis was to review all published rugby league studies reporting injuries from match and training participation and report the pooled data estimates for rugby league concussion injury epidemiology. A systematic literature analysis of concussion in rugby league was performed on published studies from January 1990 to October 2015. Data were extracted and pooled from 25 studies that reported the number and incidence of concussions in rugby league match and training activities. Amateur rugby league players had the highest incidence of concussive injuries in match activities (19.1 per 1000 match hours) while semi-professional players had the highest incidence of concussive injuries in training activities (3.1 per 1000 training hours). This pooled analysis showed that, during match participation activities, amateur rugby league participants had a higher reported concussion injury rate than professional and semi-professional participants. Semi-professional participants had nearly a threefold greater concussion injury risk than amateur rugby league participants during match participation. They also had nearly a 600-fold greater concussion injury risk than professional rugby league participants during training participation.
Connor, Jonathan D; Crowther, Robert G; Sinclair, Wade H
This study examined the anticipation and visual behavior of elite rugby league players during two different evasion maneuvers (side- and split-steps). Participants (N = 48) included elite rugby league players (n = 38) and controls (n = 10). Each participant watched videos consisting of side- and split-steps, and anticipation of movement and eye behavior were measured. No significant differences between the groups or evasion maneuvers were found. The split-step was significantly harder to predict. Elite players appeared to spend more time viewing the torso and mid-region of the body compared with the controls.
Carlsson, Mats; Johansson, Mikael; Larson, Jeffrey
Previous approaches for scheduling a league with round-robin and divisional tournaments involved decomposing the problem into easier subproblems. This approach, used to schedule the top Swedish handball league Elitserien, reduces the problem complexity but can result in suboptimal schedules. This paper presents an integrated constraint programming model that allows to perform the scheduling in a single step. Particular attention is given to identifying implied and symmetry-breaking constraints that reduce the computational complexity significantly. The experimental evaluation of the integrated approach takes considerably less computational effort than the previous approach.
Conrad, Amy K; Hutton, Stephen B; Munnelly, Maureen; Bay, R Curtis
The historically disproportionate use of smokeless tobacco (ST) by baseball players is well documented. Oral mucosal lesions (OML) are associated with ST use. Prevalence of ST use and OMLs was assessed among a sample of Major League Baseball (MLB) and Minor League Baseball (MiLB) athletes, while also assessing behavioral and demographic risk factors. ST-use prevalence and OML developmental risk was higher than natiornal averages. MLB policy intervention has not changed ST-use rates, and increased prevalence of ST use remains.
In 2005, Abel and Kruger reported that, compared to the other 10 months of the year, Major League Baseball players are much less likely to commit suicide if they are born in July and much more likely to commit suicide if they are born in August. The data and statistical tests used to support this claim are both incorrect. A correct test applied to the complete, accurate data shows that there is no relationship between birth month and suicide for Major League Baseball players.
Campos, Fabio A D; Stanganélli, Luiz C R; Campos, Leandra C B; Pasquarelli, Bruno N; Gómez, Miguel-Angel
This study was done to investigate the advantage of playing at home in elite women's volleyball leagues and the influence of performance indicators in the game score according to set number. The sample consisted of 240 games of the Brazilian Volleyball League (n = 132 games) and the Italian Volleyball League (n = 108 games) from the 2011-2012 season. The relationship of performance indicators (including serve, attack, block, and opponents' errors) with the game outcome (win or lose) was assessed. The results showed that there was a home advantage effect in women's volleyball leagues, with a higher prevalence of victory for the home teams in Brazilian and Italian leagues (58 and 56%, respectively). When related to the performance indicators and among the aspects that were most highly correlated with victory, the attack was the technical indicator that explained most of the results of volleyball games.
Les Carnets de Camus sont un laboratoire de l’œuvre ; c’est vrai pour Le Premier Homme comme pour les œuvres précédentes. Il ne s’agira pas ici de voir comment les Carnets recueillent de nombreuses traces de la genèse du roman, mais de se demander si les Carnets fournissent un apport spécifique à ce roman autobiographique. À cet égard, on dispose désormais d’un document essentiel, « Éléments pour Le Premier Homme » dossier de travail qui accompagnait le manuscrit inachevé. Il n’avait pas été ...
The aim of this study was to determine the quality of services on Kangaroo Premier Shuttle Travel Samarinda to evaluate customer satisfaction, as well as to identify those attributes that need priority services to be improved. The technique of collecting data by distributing questionnaires. The total sample of 100 respondents using purposive sampling technique. The data analysis technique used is validity, reliability, Kano Model and Importance Performance Analysis (IPA). The results showed t...
Roberts, D M; Blackwell, T H; Marx, J A
To analyze medical care facilities and resources available for spectators attending football games in the current National Football League (NFL) stadiums. A prospective, structured questionnaire regarding facilities, transportation, medications and equipment, personnel configuration, compensation, and communications was mailed to all 28 NFL organizations. Those falling to respond were interviewed by telephone using the identical questionnaire. Data were compiled using Lotus 1-2-3. Data were collected from all 28 NFL organizations. Because two teams use the same stadium, results were calculated for 27 facilities (n = 27). The number of stadium first aid rooms ranges from 1 to 7, with an average of 2.4 +/- 1.3 rooms per stadium (+/- 1 SD) and these vary in size from 120 to 2,000 square feet, with a mean of 434 +/- 377 square feet. Each room is equipped with an average of 3.3 +/- 2.9 stretchers (or tables), with telephones being present in 91% and sinks in 88% of all rooms. To provide contractual EMS coverage, stadiums use standard EMS system designs, including private (n = 19), fire department-based (n = 7), municipal (city/county) (n = 5), volunteer (n = 4), and hospital (n = 3). Nine stadiums employ more than one type of provider. All stadiums have a minimum of one ambulance dedicated on-site for spectators, with a range of 1 to 7, and a mean of 2.9 +/- 1.4. Golf carts are used for intrafacility patient transportation in 17 stadiums, with a range of 1 to 6, and a mean of 2.5 +/- 1.3. Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) medications and equipment are present in all NFL stadiums and are provided by the private EMS company (n = 16), stadium (n = 10), fire EMS (n = 7), hospitals (n = 4), municipal EMS (n = 2), and the local NFL organization (n = 1). Several facilities have more than one provider of ACLS medications and equipment. The majority of stadiums dispense acetaminophen (n = 25) and aspirin (n = 24). Some dispense antacids (n = 7) and antihistamines (n = 6). The
Jiang, Z; Li, P
Speeches given by General Secretary Jiang Zemin and Premier Li Peng to the forum on Family Planning (FP) Work in April 1991 are summarized. Jiang stated that the highest levels of communist party and governmental officials should be in charge of controlling population growth in China. There is great urgency to do so. The problems to be faced are a hugh population, scarce arable land, a poor economic foundation, and low per capita resources. Human resources are an asset for the socialist construction of China, but a rapid growth rate will retard economic and social development and affect the improvement in living standards and the quality of life. The strategy to place FP within state policy and place strict controls over population growth must be carried out resolutely. The future of socialism and the Chinese nation is at stake. Modernization cannot be accomplished with out controlling population growths. The 8th 5 year Plan and the 10 Year Program requirements will still contribute to 1.3 billion population by 2000 and 1.2 billion by 1995. There is historical responsibility, an urgency to strictly control population growth. Adherence to the 4 cardinal principles of socialism (the people's democratic dictatorship, the Communist Party leadership, and Marxist Leninist and Mao Zedong thought) must coexist with social development and family planning. All must be motivated. The provincial Party Secretary personally must oversee problems. The success or failure of FP should be used to evaluate the achievements of party committees and governments. The education on basic national conditions and the basic state policy on FP needs to be publicized through all organizations. There should be confidence in the masses. People must make FP their own cause voluntarily. Premier Li Peng stressed effective implementation and giving it high priority in order to achieve the 2nd step strategic goal of socialist modernization. Per capita output is low, and grain output will not increase
Morin, Lucie; Cargill, Yvonne M; Glanc, Phyllis
RéSULTATS: SOURCES DE DONNéES: Nous avons effectué des recherches dans MEDLINE et un examen de la bibliographie des articles recensés. Le Comité d'imagerie diagnostique de la Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada a passé en revue les données probantes recueillies. Les recommandations reposent sur les lignes directrices élaborées par le Groupe d'étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (tableau 1). AVANTAGES, DéSAVANTAGES ET COûTS: Les femmes qui présentent des saignements durant le premier trimestre peuvent recevoir un diagnostic incorrect d'avortement manqué. En outre, on risque de ne pas détecter une grossesse ectopique ou de les rassurer à tort sur la viabilité de l'embryon. L'amélioration de la détection des repères échographiques du développement embryonnaire normal et de la connaissance des facteurs de risque liés à l'échec de grossesse sur le plan échographique pourrait donner lieu à l'élaboration de stratégies de prise en charge mieux adaptées à chaque cas. Le diagnostic d'une grossesse ectopique suspectée repose souvent sur l'évaluation de marqueurs hormonaux et de caractéristiques échographiques. Par ailleurs, le diagnostic précoce de grossesse ectopique peut réduire la morbidité et la mortalité maternelles. RECOMMANDATIONS. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Au milieu du XVIe siècle, Charles Estienne publie le premier guide routier français, La Guide des chemins de France. S’il ne s’agit pas véritablement d’un guide touristique au sens actuel, Estienne propose déjà, avec une grande économie de moyens, des itinéraires qui renseignent le voyageur sur les curiosités, les monuments, l’hébergement et les particularités des régions parcourues. En un temps où il n’existe pas de représentation cartographique fiable, l’ouvrage construit une vision ordonnée et hiérarchisée du territoire. Les successeurs ou les plagiaires d’Estienne, bien qu’ils s’inscrivent dans la continuité de La Guide, s’efforceront de littéraliser le propos, perdant ainsi, peut-être, ce qui en faisait l’originalité et la modernité.In the middle of the 16th century, Charles Estienne publishes the first French road guide La Guide des chemins de France. Although it is not a tourist guide in the current sense, Estienne proposes routes that inform the traveller about the curiosities, the monuments, the accommodation and the peculiarities of regions travelled through. At a time when there is no reliable cartographic representation, the work offers an orderly and highly hierarchical vision of the territory. Although they write in the continuity of La Guide, the successors or the plagiarists of Estienne will try hard to pursue a more literary purpose, thus losing what made its originality and modernity.
Background. Rugby league is a physically demanding team sport and the National Rugby League is the highest-level competition of rugby league in Australia. Frequent tackles and collisions between players result in a high incidence of injury to players. Concussion injuries have been the source of much debate, with reporting varying greatly depending on the definition used. Method. Injury records of 239 players from one professional National Rugby League were analysed during a continuous period of 15 years, with particular interest in the incidence and recurrence of concussions and the change in incidence over time. Result. A total of 191 concussions were recorded, affecting 90 players. The incidence of concussion injuries was found to be 28.33 per 1000 player match hours, with an increase over time (P = 0.0217). Multiple concussions were recorded for 51 players. Conclusion. A statistically significant increase in the incidence of concussion injuries was found, without a concurrent increase in the number of head injuries or total injuries. New rules which mandate removal of players from the field may be beneficial for protection of players on the long term, although they risk being counterproductive, if they make players less likely to report their symptoms during matches. PMID:26464875
Mallett, Clifford J.; Rossi, Tony; Rynne, Steven B.; Tinning, Richard
Background and Purpose: Given the turbulent and highly contested environment in which professional coaches work, a prime concern to coach developers is how coaches learn their craft. Understanding the learning and development of senior coaches (SCs) and assistant coaches (ACs) in the Australian Football League (AFL--the peak organisation for…
Cross, Matt R; Brughelli, Matt; Brown, Scott R; Samozino, Pierre; Gill, Nicholas D; Cronin, John B; Morin, Jean-Benoît
To compare mechanical properties of overground sprint running in elite rugby union and rugby league athletes. Thirty elite rugby code (15 rugby union and 15 rugby league) athletes participated in this cross-sectional analysis. Radar was used to measure maximal overground sprint performance over 20 or 30 m (forwards and backs, respectively). In addition to time at 2, 5, 10, 20, and 30 m, velocity-time signals were analyzed to derive external horizontal force-velocity relationships with a recently validated method. From this relationship, the maximal theoretical velocity, external relative and absolute horizontal force, horizontal power, and optimal horizontal force for peak power production were determined. While differences in maximal velocity were unclear between codes, rugby union backs produced moderately faster split times, with the most substantial differences occurring at 2 and 5 m (ES 0.95 and 0.86, respectively). In addition, rugby union backs produced moderately larger relative horizontal force, optimal force, and peak power capabilities than rugby league backs (ES 0.73-0.77). Rugby union forwards had a higher absolute force (ES 0.77) despite having ~12% more body weight than rugby league forwards. In this elite sample, rugby union athletes typically displayed greater short-distance sprint performance, which may be linked to an ability to generate high levels of horizontal force and power. The acceleration characteristics presented in this study could be a result of the individual movement and positional demands of each code.
Caia, Johnpaul; Scott, Tannath J; Halson, Shona L; Kelly, Vincent G
This study establishes the sleep behaviour of players and staff during the pre- and competitive seasons of elite rugby league. For seven days during both the pre- and competitive seasons, seven rugby league players and nine full-time staff from one professional Australian rugby league club had their sleep monitored via wrist actigraphy and self-report sleep diaries. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance determined differences between the pre- and competitive season in players and staff, with effect sizes (ES) used to interpret the practical magnitude of differences. Findings show an earlier bed time and wake time for players (-34 min, ES = 1.5; ±0.5 and -39 min, 2.1; ±0.5 respectively) and staff (-29 min, ES = 0.8; ±0.3 and -35 min, ES = 1.7; ±0.4 respectively) during pre-season when compared to the competitive season. Despite this, no differences were seen when considering the amount of time in bed, sleep duration or sleep efficiency obtained between the pre- and competitive seasons. Our results suggest that early morning training sessions scheduled during pre-season advances wake time in elite rugby league. However, both players and staff can aim to avoid reductions in sleep duration and sleep efficiency with subsequent adjustment of night time sleep patterns. This may be particularly pertinent for staff, who wake earlier than players during both the pre- and competitive seasons.
Delaney, Jace A; Scott, Tannath J; Thornton, Heidi R; Bennett, Kyle J; Gay, David; Duthie, Grant M; Dascombe, Ben J
Rugby league coaches often prescribe training to replicate the demands of competition. The intensities of running drills are often monitored in comparison with absolute match-play measures. Such measures may not be sensitive enough to detect fluctuations in intensity across a match or to differentiate between positions. To determine the position- and duration-specific running intensities of rugby league competition, using a moving-average method, for the prescription and monitoring of training. Data from a 15-Hz global positioning system (GPS) were collected from 32 professional rugby league players across a season. The velocity-time curve was analyzed using a rolling-average method, where maximum values were calculated for 10 different durations, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 min, for each player across each match. There were large differences between the 1- and 2-min rolling averages and all other rolling-average durations. Smaller differences were observed for rolling averages of greater duration. Fullbacks maintained a greater velocity than outside backs and middle and edge forwards over the 1- and 2-min rolling averages (ES 0.8-1.2, P rugby league fluctuate vastly across a match. Fullbacks were the only position to exhibit a greater running intensity than any other position, and therefore training prescription should reflect this.
Morgan, Philip J; Callister, Robin
A player's physique and body composition can substantially influence performance in a rugby league; however, there is limited evidence about the impact of training on the anthropometric profile of rugby league players. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a preseason training program on the anthropometric characteristics of semiprofessional players. Fifty-seven semiprofessional rugby league players (29 backs and 28 forwards) completed a range of anthropometric tests including stature, body mass, girths, breadths, lengths, and 9 skinfold sites at the beginning (late October) and end (mid February) of a 14-week preseason. with use of Lifesize software, values were calculated for fat mass, muscle mass, percent body fat, and somatotype. Analysis of change was conducted separately for forwards and backs. Over the preseason, both backs (p Rugby league conditioning staff at a semiprofessional level should consider the value of a comprehensive structured and periodized preseason training program and aim to educate players about strategies to achieve body composition goals.
height and a presumably polygamous dystopia suggest both an anxiety over gender authority and a set of personal ... November 1914 the editors found that it had been made impossible for them to continue publishing the ..... The League also helped to produce a more South African political identity amongst British.
Nielsen, Thomas Heine
The present note discusses why 'The Hellenic League against Persia' made no thank-offering to Zeus at Nemea after its defeat of Xerxes' invasion, even though it did make monumental thank-offerings at the three other great Panhellenic sanctuaries at Delphi, Isthmia and Olympia. It has been argued...
Cable, T A; Rothenberger, L A
Many studies have documented the behavioral patterns of unrestricted breast-feeding among Third World mothers, but knowledge of this behavior among Western women is lacking. La Leche League International is a strong advocate of unrestricted breast-feeding, a feeding behavior more characteristic of women in developing countries than in Western society. To investigate the breast-feeding patterns of La Leche League mothers, a pilot study of 24 active members was undertaken. Utilizing a home diary, a 2-month record of suckling frequency, vaginal bleeding, sexual intercourse, solid food supplements, and six-hour intervals without a suckling episode was maintained. The results show the La Leche League mother in this sample to be an average of 29 years old, white, and well-educated. She fed an infant an average of 15 times per day and frequently slept with her child. Frequency of mother and child sleeping together was inversely related to the frequency of marital intercourse. Prolonged lactational amenorrhea was also found, as 92% of the mothers nursing infants 5 to 16 months old had not regained their normal menstrual flow. La Leche League mothers represent a subset of nursing mothers who have a life-style of which the primary care physician must be aware in order to provide optimal maternal-infant care.
Growing student interest in sports provides geography teachers with a special opportunity to make connections between it and fundamental concepts in the discipline. This article examines the structure, arrangement, relationships, and distinctions among minor league baseball franchise locations, stadia, and team names, and presents examples of…
Kempton, Thomas; Sirotic, Anita Claire; Coutts, Aaron James
This study examined the changes in external outputs, including metabolic power variables, and internal response whilst considering contextual factors on physical performance variables during rugby league match play. Physical performance (total distance, high-speed running and high-power distances, average metabolic power), heart-rate (percentage heart-rate peak and training impulse), collisions (attacking and defensive) and contextual (time in attack, time in defence, time out of play) data were collected from 18 rugby league players during 38 games throughout two National Rugby League seasons. Physical variables were highest in the first 10-min period of each half (P < 0.001). Heart-rate indices peaked in the second 10-min period and were lower during second half periods (P < 0.001). Few differences existed in collisions and contextual factors across 10-min periods. Physical variables were highest during the first 5-min period compared to the final (P < 0.001). There was no difference in heart-rate response, attacking collisions or contextual factors between these periods. Following the peak 5-min period in the match, there were reductions in physical, heart-rate, defensive collisions and contextual factors (P < 0.001). The data show temporal changes in physical performance, heart-rate response and collisions during rugby league match play, although these are affected by contextual factors.
Delaney, Jace A; Thornton, Heidi R; Duthie, Grant M; Dascombe, Ben J
Rugby league coaches adopt replacement strategies for their interchange players to maximize running intensity; however, it is important to understand the factors that may influence match performance. To assess the independent factors affecting running intensity sustained by interchange players during professional rugby league. Global positioning system (GPS) data were collected from all interchanged players (starters and nonstarters) in a professional rugby league squad across 24 matches of a National Rugby League season. A multilevel mixed-model approach was employed to establish the effect of various technical (attacking and defensive involvements), temporal (bout duration, time in possession, etc), and situational (season phase, recovery cycle, etc) factors on the relative distance covered and average metabolic power (P met ) during competition. Significant effects were standardized using correlation coefficients, and the likelihood of the effect was described using magnitude-based inferences. Superior intermittent running ability resulted in very likely large increases in both relative distance and P met . As the length of a bout increased, both measures of running intensity exhibited a small decrease. There were at least likely small increases in running intensity for matches played after short recovery cycles and against strong opposition. During a bout, the number of collision-based involvements increased running intensity, whereas time in possession and ball time out of play decreased demands. These data demonstrate a complex interaction of individual- and match-based factors that require consideration when developing interchange strategies, and the manipulation of training loads during shorter recovery periods and against stronger opponents may be beneficial.
Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.
We tested McCann's precocity-longevity hypothesis, which proposes that early career achievement is related to premature death, for Major League baseball players (N = 3,760). Age at debut was the definition for precocity. We controlled for possible artifacts of life expectancy selection, the "healthy worker" effect, player position, and body-mass…
MOSHÉ, Solomon L.; PERUCCA, EMILIO; WIEBE, SAMUEL; MATHERN, GARY W.
In July 2009, the International League against Epilepsy (ILAE) developed its four-year strategic plan in collaboration with past, current, and future leaders (www.ilae-epilepsy.org). This is the first yearly progress report, prepared by the management committee and the chair of the Strategic Task Force, to highlight progress toward achieving the plan’s goals. PMID:21219305
Sports articles appearing in three New York City newspapers in Jackie Robinson's first season as a major league baseball player were examined to determine if there was biased reporting based on racial prejudice. The sports pages of the New York "Times," the "Herald Tribune," and the "Daily News" for 44 days in 1947…
The Atlanta Urban Debate League was established in 1985 as an after school program focused on providing debate outreach to high school students in the Atlanta public schools. Still in operation today, volunteers work with current students in public middle and high schools in Atlanta, supporting students as they practice reading, writing, speaking…
Mellor, Steven; Paley, Michael J.; Holzworth, R. James
Used a multilevel analysis of surveys completed by 119 baseball fans to examine how strike tactics influenced fan support of the 1994-1995 Major League Baseball players' strike. Discusses factors that influenced fan opinion and the use of hierarchical linear modeling. (SLD)
Keller, Robert A; Steffes, Matthew J; Zhuo, David; Bey, Michael J; Moutzouros, Vasilios
Medial ulnar collateral ligament (MUCL) reconstruction is commonly performed on Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers. Previous studies have reported that most pitchers return to presurgical statistical performance levels after MUCL reconstruction. Pitching performance data--specifically, earned run average (ERA), walks and hits per inning pitched (WHIP), winning percentage, and innings pitched--were acquired for 168 MLB pitchers who had undergone MUCL reconstruction. These data were averaged over the 3 years before surgery and the 3 years after surgery and also acquired from 178 age-matched, uninjured MLB pitchers. Of the pitchers who had MUCL reconstruction surgery, 87% returned to MLB pitching. However, compared with presurgical data, pitching performance declined in terms of ERA (P = .001), WHIP (P = .011), and innings pitched (P = .026). Pitching performance also declined in the season before the surgery compared with previous years (ERA, P = .014; WHIP, P = .036; innings pitched, P major league experience at the same age (P major league level. However, after MUCL reconstruction, there is a statistically significant decline in pitching performance. There appears to be a statistically significant decline in pitching performance the year before reconstructive surgery, and this decline is also a risk factor for requiring surgery. In addition, there is an increased risk of MUCL reconstruction for pitchers who enter the major leagues at a younger age. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Beal, Brent D.; Olson Beal, Heather K.
In this article, Brent Beal, and Heather Olson Beal respond to comments made about their article: "Rethinking the Market Metaphor: School Choice, the Common Good, and the National Football League," appearing in this issue of the Journal of School Choice. Comments were made by Vitteritti, Houck, Coulson, Bast, and Merrifield. In their…
Full Text Available Strength imbalances between the hamstrings and quadriceps are an essential predictor for hamstring strain in soccer. The study aimed to investigate and compare the muscle strength imbalances of professional soccer players of different performance levels. One hundred and fifty nine senior male professional soccer players from first (n = 75 and second league (n = 84 Portuguese clubs participated in this study. Muscle strength was evaluated with a REV9000 isokinetic dynamometer. Maximal peak torque data were used to calculate quadriceps and hamstrings strength during concentric and eccentric actions, bilateral asymmetry, conventional strength ratios and dynamic control ratios. Second league athletes produced slightly lower conventional strength ratios in the right and left legs (ES = 0.22, p = 0.17 and ES = 0.36, p = 0.023, respectively compared to the first league athletes. No significant differences were found in dynamic control ratios or in bilateral asymmetry among first and second league athletes. These findings do not show a clear link between the competitive level and injury risk in soccer players. However, some of the differences found, particularly in conventional strength ratios, highlight the importance of performing off-season and pre-season strength assessments to prescribe and adjust individual strength training programs among professional soccer players.
de Lange, S.L.; Guerra, S.
Historical legacies play an important role in the rise of radical right parties in Central and Eastern Europe. This article conducts an in-depth study of the trajectory of a particular radical right party, the League of Polish Families, in a particular Central and East European country, Poland. The
Which are the best and worst universities in the UK for getting a job when you graduate? This question attracts readers of the employability rankings in national league tables. This study critically reviews the employability measure used in the rankings and its subsequent reporting in public news and commentary sources, such as national and local…
Williams, Kevin M.; Park, Justin H.; Wieling, Martijn B.
We investigated whether individual differences in athleticism, and in turn heritable fitness, may be signaled by differences in facial attractiveness within a highly select group of athletes: National Football League (NFL) quarterbacks (QBs). Athleticism was operationalized as the passer rating, the
Full Text Available Background. Rugby league is a physically demanding team sport and the National Rugby League is the highest-level competition of rugby league in Australia. Frequent tackles and collisions between players result in a high incidence of injury to players. Concussion injuries have been the source of much debate, with reporting varying greatly depending on the definition used. Method. Injury records of 239 players from one professional National Rugby League were analysed during a continuous period of 15 years, with particular interest in the incidence and recurrence of concussions and the change in incidence over time. Result. A total of 191 concussions were recorded, affecting 90 players. The incidence of concussion injuries was found to be 28.33 per 1000 player match hours, with an increase over time (P=0.0217. Multiple concussions were recorded for 51 players. Conclusion. A statistically significant increase in the incidence of concussion injuries was found, without a concurrent increase in the number of head injuries or total injuries. New rules which mandate removal of players from the field may be beneficial for protection of players on the long term, although they risk being counterproductive, if they make players less likely to report their symptoms during matches.
Barrett, Brendan T; Flavell, Jonathan C; Bennett, Simon J; Cruickshank, Alice G; Mankowska, Alex; Harris, Julie M; Buckley, John G
The importance of optimal and/or superior vision for participation in high-level sports remains the subject of considerable clinical research interest. Here, we examine the vision and visual history of elite/near-elite cricketers and rugby-league players. Stereoacuity (TNO), colour vision, and distance (with/without pinhole) and near visual acuity (VA) were measured in two cricket squads (elite/international-level, female, n = 16; near-elite, male, n = 23) and one professional rugby-league squad (male, n = 20). Refractive error was determined, and details of any correction worn and visual history were recorded. Overall, 63% had their last eye examination within 2 years. However, some had not had an eye examination for 5 years or had never had one (near-elite cricketers 30%; rugby-league players 15%; elite cricketers 6%). Comparing our results for all participants to published data for young, optimally corrected, non-sporting adults, distance VA was ~ 1 line of letters worse than expected. Adopting α = 0.01, the deficit in distance VA was significant, but only for elite cricketers (p elite cricketers, p = 0.02; rugby-league players, p = 0.03). Near VA did not differ between subgroups or relative to published norms for young adults (p > 0.02 for all comparisons). On average, near stereoacuity was better than in young adults, but only in elite cricketers (p elite cricketers; p = 0.47, rugby-league players). On-field visual issues were present in 27% of participants and mostly (in 75% of cases) comprised uncorrected ametropia. Some cricketers (near-elite 17.4%; elite 38%) wore refractive correction during play, but no rugby-league player did. Some individuals with prescribed correction choose not to wear it when playing. Aside from near stereoacuity in elite cricketers, the basic visual abilities we measured were not better than equivalent, published data for optimally corrected adults; 20-25% exhibited sub-optimal vision, suggesting that the
Cours d'anglais général et professionnel : La prochaine session se déroulera : du 27 février au 22 juin 2012. Ces cours s'adressent à toute personne travaillant au CERN ainsi qu'à leur conjoint. Pour vous inscrire et voir tout le détail des cours proposés, consultez nos pages Web: http://cern.ch/Training Vous pouvez aussi contacter Kerstin Fuhrmeister, tél. 70896. Oral Expression The next sessions will take place from 27 February to 22 June, 2012. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be on average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web page: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister, tel. ...
Instituto de Idiomas Yazigi, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Linguistica Aplicada.
This second book of a conversational English program for adults contains an introductory section in Portuguese and exercises in English. The text centers around an English-speaking family from the United States that goes to live in Brazil. It contains color photographs with captions followed by exercises. The exercises are in English and involve…
Instituto de Idiomas Yazigi, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Linguistica Aplicada.
This first book of a conversational English program for adults contains an introductory section in Portuguese and exercises in English. The text centers around an English-speaking family from the United States that goes to live in Brazil. It contains color photographs with captions followed by exercises. The exercises are in English and involve…
Tanaka, Sachiko Oda
Describes the use of English in the media in Japan, focusing on the role and history of English-language newspapers, radio, and television programs, as well as the proliferation of English-language films shown in Japanese cinemas. Discusses the implications of English in the Japanese media. (20 references) (MDM)
Nickerson, C.; Planken, B.C.
Introducing Business English provides a comprehensive overview of this topic, situating the concepts of Business English and English for Specific Business Purposes within the wider field of English for Special Purposes. This book draws on contemporary teaching and research contexts to demonstrate
Widdowson, H. G.
A plenary address from the 1993 Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) Convention discusses the question of how English teachers delimit and design their world. Issues of standard English are raised, and it is noted that, if English serves the communicative and communal needs of different communities, it must be diverse. (One…
Examines the theoretical concept of the world Englishes in light of globalization. Outlines phenomena in the organic spread of English around the globe and raises the issue of opportunism in English language teaching. Ethical implications and implications for research on world English are discussed. (Author/VWL)
Lovell, T W J; Sirotic, Anita C; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Coutts, Aaron J
The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) for monitoring training intensity in rugby league. Thirty-two professional rugby league players participated in this study. Training-load (TL) data were collected during an entire season and assessed via microtechnology (heart-rate [HR] monitors, global positioning systems [GPS], and accelerometers) and sRPE. Within-individual correlation analysis was used to determine relationships between sRPE and various other measures of training intensity and load. Stepwise multiple regressions were used to determine a predictive equation to estimate sRPE during rugby league training. There were significant within-individual correlations between sRPE and various other internal and external measures of intensity and load. The stepwise multiple-regression analysis also revealed that 62.4% of the adjusted variance in sRPE-TL could be explained by TL measures of distance, impacts, body load, and training impulse (y = 37.21 + 0.93 distance - 0.39 impacts + 0.18 body load + 0.03 training impulse). Furthermore, 35.2% of the adjusted variance in sRPE could be explained by exercise-intensity measures of percentage of peak HR (%HRpeak), impacts/min, m/min, and body load/min (y = -0.01 + 0.37%HRpeak + 0.10 impacts/min + 0.17 m/min + 0.09 body load/min). A combination of internal and external TL factors predicts sRPE in rugby league training better than any individual measures alone. These findings provide new evidence to support the use of sRPE as a global measure of exercise intensity in rugby league training.
Tsiamis, Costas; Piperaki, Evangelia Theophano; Tsakris, Athanassios
In 1905, a group of eminent Greek physicians led by Professor of Hygiene and Microbiology Constantinos Savvas and the pediatrician Dr. Ioannis Kardamatis founded the Greek Anti-Malaria League. The League assumed a role that the State would not, and for the next 25 years organized the country's anti-malaria campaign. During its first steps, the Greek Anti-Malaria League adopted the principles of Professor Angelo Celli's Italian Anti-Malaria League. The League's accomplishments include a decrease in malarial prevalence, due to mass treatment with quinine, new legislation ensuring the provision of quinine, State monopoly and the collection of epidemiologic data. However, defeat in the Greek-Turkish War (1922) and the massive influx of one million Greek refugees that ensued, led to a change in malarial epidemiology. In 1928, following a visit to Italy, the Greek League adopted the organization and knowledge of the Italian Malaria Schools in Rome and in Nettuno, and this experience served as the basis of their proposal to the State for the development of the anti-malaria services infrastructure. The State adopted many of Professor Savvas' proposals and modified his plan according to Greek needs. The League's experience, accumulated during its 25 years of struggle against malaria, was its legacy to the campaigns that eventually accomplished the eradication of malaria from Greece after World War II.
Kurniawan, Mirdan; Herpratiwi, Herpratiwi; Purnomo, Eddy
The purposes of this study were to 1) reveal students' perceptions about instructional English club program 2) reveal the students' perceptions about instructional English fun day program 3) reveal perception of students about instructional English wall magazine program. From the results of the study it was concluded that 1) students' perceptions of the instructional English club program was less advantages for students, 2) students' perceptions of instructional English fun day program have ...
Green, Gary A; Pollack, Keshia M; D'Angelo, John; Schickendantz, Mark S; Caplinger, Roger; Weber, Kathleen; Valadka, Alex; McAllister, Thomas W; Dick, Randall W; Mandelbaum, Bert; Curriero, Frank C
Although mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is not as common in professional baseball as in collision sports, it does occur and frequently results in significant loss of time away from the sport. To date, no study has investigated MTBI among an entire cohort of professional baseball players. To investigate MTBIs in major and minor league baseball players to determine the most common mechanisms of injury, activity at time of injury, position, level of play, and time lost, as well as ultimately inform prevention efforts. A secondary objective was to document the association between MTBI and return to play using several different measures. Descriptive epidemiologic study. Data were captured from a newly implemented league-wide injury surveillance system that records injuries among all professional baseball players as entered by certified athletic trainers and physicians. The MTBIs were identified with respect to level of play, activity, field location, and mechanism of injury. Time loss was assessed by 3 measures of return to play, and MTBI game rates were reported as injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures. Data were combined over the 2011-2012 seasons for analysis, and results were presented separately for minor and major league players. Chi-square tests were used to test the hypothesis of equal proportions between the various categories of MTBI injury characteristics. There were 41 reported MTBIs in the major leagues and 266 in the minor leagues over the 2-year period under study. The overall MTBI game rate across both major and minor league ball clubs was 0.42 per 1000 athlete-exposures. The median time lost was 9 days. Mild traumatic brain injury accounted for 1% of all injuries resulting in time lost from play. For MTBIs that occurred while fielding, catchers were significantly overrepresented. No differences were noted among the 3 measures of time lost. Mild traumatic brain injury is an important problem in professional baseball players, especially for catchers
Full Text Available Studies of the English language take place on different levels, in various settings and contexts. This article is an attempt to survey the link between two types of English – General and Specific – as much as they are in-volved in teaching English the students of a higher technical school. Recognizing the fact that teaching English is always based on the language skills acquired at a secondary school one must understand the necessity to make language a professionally oriented subject because it should help to build students’ better professional skill as well as to contribute to their education as persons maturing active members of a society.
Miller, James E., Jr.
Discusses English coalitions, "Some Plain Truths about Teaching English" (a statement drafted by the Coalition of English Associations), problems of the profession with communications, and ADE history. (EL)
Pamias-Velázquez, Kristian J; Figueroa-Negrón, Mariam M; Tirado-Crespo, Janiliz; Mulero-Portela, Ana L
.... The purpose of this study was to determine the compliance of pitching coaches of 9- to 14-year-old Little League teams in Puerto Rico with the Administrative Order 2006-01 and the USA Baseball guidelines. Hypotheses: (1...
Gardner, Andrew J; Levi, Christopher R; Iverson, Grant L
... published. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether independent raters reliably agreed on the injury characterization when using a standardized observational instrument to record video footage of National Rugby League (NRL...
Basch, Corey H; Kernan, William D; Reeves, Rachel
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to enumerate and describe violent and risky behaviors as well as other general health behaviors exhibited in the advertisements during the National Football League (NFL) Super Bowl 2015...
Programming Network FAA Federal Aviation Administration FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation FBO Football Banning Order FIG Field Intelligence Group FY...DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) The National Football League (NFL) has become the unofficial national pastime in the United...secure major-league regular season football games and their tailgates effectively and in a manner that does not scare away the fan base
The main objective of this thesis is the description and characterization of media content generated within the community around the game League of Legends inside the phenomenon of e-sports. The central issue is the definition of metagame term and anchoring its functions in different types of media content rising in the community around the game League of Legends. The output of this work is analysis of different types of media content, in which the term metagame is designed, interpreted and t...
Crotin, Ryan L; Forsythe, Charles M; Bhan, Shivam; Karakolis, Thomas
Major League Baseball (MLB) players have not been longitudinally examined for changes in physical size. Height, weight, and body mass indices (BMIs) were examined among offensive league leaders (OLL) and MLB reference cohorts at 1970, 1990, and 2010. Anthropometric values were expected to increase successively, where OLL were expected to be larger at each respective time point. A Mixed Model analysis of variance (p ≤ 0.05) examined anthropometric differences over time within and between groups. Mass and BMI increased over successive years with the largest effect seen between 1990 and 2010 (p baseball scouts may have been influenced by greater offensive prowess shown by larger athletes; yet, increased secular anthropometrics must also be factored in greater heights, weights, BMIs shown over time in MLB. It is possible that greater participation in strength and conditioning programs at an earlier age, advances in sport nutrition, and potential abuse of anabolic drugs are factors perpetuating growth rates at present.
Full Text Available The study aims to examine brand management model in Iran's professional Football League (2011-2012 with emphasis on brand image. The study was descriptive-survey one. A sample of Iranian professional football league fans (N=911 responded 4 items questionnaire. A structural equation model (SEM test with maximum likelihood estimation was performed to test the relationships among the research variables. The analyses of data showed three dimensions of brand image influenced on fan’s brand loyalty of which the attitude was the most important. Benefits and attributes were placed in the second and third rank respectively. According to Results, brand image play a pivotal role between Iranian fans brand loyalty. Create an attractive and desirable brand image in the fans mind increases brand loyalty. And due to, revenue and profits increase through ticket sales and products of club and also attract more sponsors
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Amen, Daniel G.; Willeumier, Kristen; Omalu, Bennet; Newberg, Andrew; Raghavendra, Cauligi; Raji, Cyrus A.
Background: National Football League (NFL) players are exposed to multiple head collisions during their careers. Increasing awareness of the adverse long-term effects of repetitive head trauma has raised substantial concern among players, medical professionals, and the general public. Objective: To determine whether low perfusion in specific brain regions on neuroimaging can accurately separate professional football players from healthy controls. Method: A cohort of retired and current NFL pl...
Wellington, Brandon M; Leveritt, Michael D; Kelly, Vincent G
Repeat-high-intensity efforts (RHIEs) have recently been shown to occur at critical periods of rugby league matches. To examine the effect that caffeine has on RHIE performance in rugby league players. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 11 semiprofessional rugby league players (age 19.0 ± 0.5 y, body mass 87.4 ± 12.9 kg, height 178.9 ± 2.6 cm) completed 2 experimental trials that involved completing an RHIE test after either caffeine (300 mg caffeine) or placebo (vitamin H) ingestion. Each trial consisted of 3 sets of 20-m sprints interspersed with bouts of tackling. During the RHIE test, 20-m-sprint time, heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate were measured. Total time to complete the nine 20-m sprints during the caffeine condition was 1.0% faster (28.46 ± 1.4 s) than during the placebo condition (28.77 ± 1.7 s) (ES = 0.18, 90%CI -0.7 to 0.1 s). This resulted in a very likely chance of caffeine being of benefit to RHIE performance (99% likely to be beneficial). These improvements were more pronounced in the early stages of the test, with a 1.3%, 1.0%, and 0.9% improvement in sprint performance during sets 1, 2, and 3 respectively. There was no significant difference in RPE across the 3 sets (P = .47, 0.48, 1.00) or mean HR (P = .36), maximal HR (P = .74), or blood lactate (P = .50) between treatment conditions. Preexercise ingestion of 300 mg caffeine produced practically meaningful improvements in RHIE performance in rugby league players.
Emara, Noha; Owens, David; Smith, John; Wilmer, Lisa
We investigate the strategic behavior of highly informed agents playing zero-sum games under highly incentivized conditions. We examine data from 3455 National Football League (NFL) games from the 2000 season through the 2012 season, and categorize each play as "rush" or a "pass." We find that the pass-rush mix exhibits negative serial correlation: play types alternate more frequently than an independent stochastic process. This is an exploitable strategy, and we find that this serial corr...
Emara, Noha; Owens, David; Smith, John; Wilmer, Lisa
We examine whether the predictions of minimax in zero-sum games holds under highly incentivized conditions with highly informed informed decision makers. We examine data from 3455 National Football League (NFL) games from the 2000 season through the 2012 season. We categorize every relevant play as either a rush or a pass. We find that, despite the predictions of minimax, the pass-rush mix exhibits negative serial correlation. In other words, given the conditions of the play, teams employ...
Lansdown, Drew A.; Feeley, Brian T.
Background: The medial ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) is the primary restraint to valgus load, and injury is commonly encountered as a result of overuse in throwing athletes. Reconstruction of this ligament has allowed for a high rate of return to sport for elite pitchers. Public perception of this procedure has resulted in a commonly held belief of increased throwing velocity following UCL reconstruction. Hypothesis: Fastball velocity for Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers is significantl...
Dobbin, Nick; Hunwicks, Richard; Highton, Jamie; Twist, Craig
Dobbin, N, Hunwicks, R, Highton, J, and Twist, C. Reliable testing battery for assessing physical qualities of elite academy rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-This study assessed the interday reliability of a testing battery for the assessment of physical qualities of rugby league players. Fifty players (age 17.1 ± 1.1 years; stature 181.3 ± 6.3 cm; and body mass 89.0 ± 11.6 kg) from 3 Super League academies participated in this study. Tests of countermovement jump performance, 10- and 20-m sprint performance, change of direction, medicine ball throw, and a modified Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (prone Yo-Yo IR1) were completed on 3 separate occasions. Between-day intraclass correlation coefficient, typical error (TE), coefficient of variation, and the smallest worthwhile change (SWC) were calculated to determine the reliability and sensitivity of each measure. Individual tests (except medicine ball throw) were not systematically different between trials (p > 0.05), with an interday variability that was <10%. In all instances, the TE was larger than the calculated SWC change, although variability was less than that typically observed after a training intervention or specific training period (i.e., preseason). Using a magnitude-based inference approach, we present the required change for all performance tests to be 75% confident and the change is beneficial. This simple and time efficient testing battery is sufficiently reliable to detect previously observed changes in a range of physical qualities of rugby league players.
Hoskins Wayne; Hansen Lotte; Pollard Henry
Abstract Background This paper describes a case of C7 radiculopathy in a professional rugby league player after repeated cervical spine trauma. The report outlines the management of the patient following an acute cervical hyperflexion injury with chiropractic manipulation and soft tissue therapies. It also presents a change in approach to include distractive techniques on presentation of a neurological deficit following re-injury. The clinical outcomes, while good, were very dependent upon th...
Bahri Gjinovci; Valon Nikqi; Florian Miftari
Introduction: When it is about elite male volleyball players, it is always meant about players that possess such anthropometric parameters which correspond with volleyball game. In this research we are deal with two teams of the super league of Kosovo in volleyball. The goal of this study is to verify the differences between the two teams in volleyball in some anthropometric characteristics, basic motor skills and situational tests. Methods: For the realization of this research, there were in...
Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael L
Batting and pitching records and career lengths of 312 sets of brothers who became major league baseball players were compared. Older brothers at non-pitching positions (N = 262) had significantly higher batting averages and longer careers than their younger siblings. Differences for pitchers were not statistically significant. The results corroborate other studies that firstborns are more likely than later born siblings to be higher achievers, but different factors may be operative for pitchers.
Analysis of the phonological influence of English on Yoruba found such influences as violation of phonotactic constraints, assimilation of English sounds with those of Yoruba sounds, irregular phoneme correspondences, and resistance to new syllable types. (19 references) (Author/CB)
Darrall-Jones, Joshua D; Jones, Ben; Roe, Gregory; Till, Kevin
The purpose of this study was to evaluate (a) whether there were differences in sprint times at 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 m between rugby union and rugby league players, (b) determine the reliability and usefulness of linear sprint testing in adolescent rugby players. Data were collected on 28 rugby union and league academy players over 2 testing sessions, with 3-day rest between sessions. Rugby league players were faster at 5 m than rugby union players, with further difference unclear. Sprint time at 10, 20, 30, and 40 m was all reliable (coefficient of variation [CV] = 3.1, 1.8, 2.0, and 1.3%) but greater than the smallest worthwhile change (SWC [0.2 × between-subject SD]), rating the test as marginal for usefulness. Although the test was incapable of detecting the SWC, we recommend that practitioners and researchers use Hopkins' proposed method; whereby plotting the change score of the individual at each split (±typical error [TE] expressed as a CV) against the SWC and visually inspecting whether the TE crosses into the SWC are capable of identifying whether a change is both real (greater than the noise of the test, i.e., >TE) and of practical significance (>SWC). Researchers and practitioners can use the TE and SWC from this study to assess changes in performance of adolescent rugby players when using single beam timing gates.
Kempton, Thomas; Kennedy, Nicholas; Coutts, Aaron J
This study estimated the expected point value for starting possessions in different field locations during rugby league match-play and calculated the mean expected points for each subsequent play during the possession. It also examined the origin of tries scored according to the method of gaining possession. Play-by-play data were taken from all 768 regular-season National Rugby League (NRL) matches during 2010-2013. A probabilistic model estimated the expected point outcome based on the net difference in points scored by a team in possession in a given situation. An iterative method was used to approximate the value of each situation based on actual scoring outcomes. Possessions commencing close to the opposition's goal-line had the highest expected point equity, which decreased as the location of the possession moved towards the team's own goal-line. Possessions following an opposition error, penalty or goal-line dropout had the highest likelihood of a try being scored on the set subsequent to their occurrence. In contrast, possessions that follow an opposition completed set or a restart were least likely to result in a try. The expected point values framework from our model has applications for informing playing strategy and assessing individual and team performance in professional rugby league.
Julia Eka Rini
Full Text Available Abstract Indonesia is a multilingual country with various local languages and language courses on various foreign languages. Among the foreign languages, English and Chinese are the prominent ones. This article aims at portraying the position of English in Indonesia among the languages spoken and used in Indonesia, especially Chinese. The discussion focuses on English in business, education, and pop culture. In the context of Englishes, this article also discusses
Masselot, Y.; Bataller, S.; Ganivet, M.; Guillet, H.; Robillard, A.; Stosskopf, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
This report is the second in a series of three describing the processes, results and peculiar technical problems related to the manufacture of the first core of the fast reactor Rapsodie. It includes a critical study of the results obtained on the pellets, pins and sub-assemblies as compared with their specifications. By the way, the benefit of the linear mass concept as a quality test for a given manufacture is shown. At last performances and balance of the first two production runs are examined. (author) [French] Ce rapport est le second d'une serie de trois qui decrivent les procedes, les resultats et les problemes techniques particuliers de la fabrication du premier coeur de la pile a neutrons rapides RAPSODIE. Il comporte une etude critique des resultats obtenus pour les pastillles, les aiguilles et les assemblages combustibles, compares a leur specifications. A cette occasion, on montre l'interet de la notion de masse lineaire comme critere de qualite d'une fabrication. Les performances et le bilan des deux premieres campagnes de production sont enfin examines. (auteur)
Coskun, Abdullah; Arslan, Abdullah
This paper aims to emphasize the importance of using Moodle in foreign language learning and teaching by reviewing relevant literature and introducing a Moodle-based environment aiming to help English learners to practice their English by themselves. Firstly, the use of Moodle in education and more specifically in English Language Teaching is…
The Editor invites contributions, including unsolicited reviews, on all aspects of English writing and the English language in Africa, including oral traditions. English in Africa is listed in the Journal of Commonwealth Literature Annual Bibliography, the Modern Language Association MLA International Bibliography, Institute for ...
British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.
A review of the status of English language instruction in Colombia provides an overview of the role of English in the society in general and outlines the status of English use and instruction in the educational system at all levels (elementary, secondary, postsecondary, and teacher education). The following topics are covered: the characteristics…
British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.
The status of the use and instruction of English in Malaysia, where it is a commonly-used second language, is described. The following topics are discussed: (1) the general status and role of English in Malaysian society in recent years; (2) English within the educational system (preschool, elementary, secondary, higher, adult, military, prison,…
Traces the history of English in Fiji, especially in relation to education. The role of English in interethnic communication and as a language of wider communication with the outside world is discussed, and features of Fiji English, a local language variety, are described. (Author/CB)
British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.
A survey of the status and use of the English language in Algeria is presented. The following topics are outlined: (1) the role of English as a third language, (2) its place within the educational system at all levels and in each graduate institution, (3) the status of British expatriates teaching English in Algeria and of Algerian teachers of…
This report focuses on the teaching of English to Aboriginal children in primary schools in Australia. A definition and analysis of dialectal differences between Aboriginal (Australian) English and Standard (Australian) English is offered that includes the phonological, morpho-syntactic, lexico-semantic, and pragmatic differences of the Aboriginal…
Erickson, Brandon J; Gupta, Anil K; Harris, Joshua D; Bush-Joseph, Charles; Bach, Bernard R; Abrams, Geoffrey D; San Juan, Angielyn M; Cole, Brian J; Romeo, Anthony A
Medial ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstruction is a common procedure performed on Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers in the United States. To determine (1) the rate of return to pitching (RTP) in the MLB after UCL reconstruction, (2) the RTP rate in either the MLB and minor league combined, (3) performance after RTP, and (4) the difference in the RTP rate and performance between pitchers who underwent UCL reconstruction and matched controls without UCL injuries. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Major League Baseball pitchers with symptomatic medial UCL deficiency who underwent UCL reconstruction were evaluated. All player, elbow, and surgical demographic data were analyzed. Controls matched by age, body mass index, position, handedness, and MLB experience and performance were selected from the MLB during the same years as those undergoing UCL reconstruction. An "index year" was designated for controls, analogous to the UCL reconstruction year in cases. Return to pitching and performance measures in the MLB were compared between cases and controls. Student t tests were performed for analysis of within-group and between-group variables, respectively. A total of 179 pitchers with UCL tears who underwent reconstruction met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Of these, 148 pitchers (83%) were able to RTP in the MLB, and 174 pitchers were able to RTP in the MLB and minor league combined (97.2%), while only 5 pitchers (2.8%) were never able to RTP in either the MLB or minor league. Pitchers returned to the MLB at a mean 20.5 ± 9.72 months after UCL reconstruction. The length of career in the MLB after UCL reconstruction was 3.9 ± 2.84 years, although 56 of these patients were still currently actively pitching in the MLB at the start of the 2013 season. The revision rate was 3.9%. In the year before UCL reconstruction, pitching performance declined significantly in the cases versus controls in the number of innings pitched, games played, and wins and
Part-time teacher of primary English needed for September 2003 to teach English National Curriculum (KS2) and NLS to mother tongue or good second language English-speakers aged 7-10. 4 hours contact time per week, team planning, marking and meetings. Candidates should be English mother tongue qualified teachers, confident, flexible classroom practitioners and team players. For further details and how to apply see http://enpferney.org/staff_vacancies.htm English National Programme, Lycée International, Ferney-Voltaire (http://enpferney.org/)
Part-time teacher of primary English needed for September 2002 to teach English National Curriculum (KS2) and NLS to mother tongue or good second language English-speakers aged 7-10. 4 hours contact time per week, team planning, marking and meetings. Candidates should be English mother tongue qualified teachers, confident, flexible classroom practitioners and team players. For further details and how to apply: firstname.lastname@example.org or 04 50 40 82 66. Apply as soon as possible, and in any case before 8 July. English National Programme, Lycée International, Ferney-Voltaire.
Full Text Available This article considers the developing status of English in Norway, both as a language and as a school subject, making predictions about which ontological and epistemological perspectives will influence English language teaching (ELT in Norway towards 2030. Status quo and predictions for English in Norway is approached from two angles; the development of presiding language beliefs in linguistic science and in ELT practices from the 16th century to the present, and the more recent and rapid development of English as the foremost global language of communication. The article shows how English language beliefs and the status of English are made visible in the national subject curriculum and in the English language practices among Norwegian adolescent learners. The discussion suggests that English is increasingly characterised by those who use it as a second or later language, including Norwegians who negotiate the meanings of English in the ELT classroom. The article predicts that a logical development for Norwegian ELT is increased influence from social constructionist perspectives, in combination with the existing focus on communicative competence. The study shows that global circumstances related to the status of English are reciprocally related to local language beliefs among educational authorities, teachers and students, and that these have major implications for English as a discipline in lower and higher education.
Government Districts, Other, Voting districts, fire districts, inspector districts, engineering districts, school zones, recreation leagues, Published in 2014, Not Applicable scale, City of Huntsville Government.
NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Government Districts, Other dataset current as of 2014. Voting districts, fire districts, inspector districts, engineering districts, school zones, recreation leagues.
Full Text Available Super League (SL and Championship (RLC rugby league players will compete against each other in 2015 and beyond. To identify possible discrepancies, this study compared the anthropometric profile and body composition of current SL (full-time professional and RLC (part-time semi-professional players using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. A cross-sectional design involved DXA scans on 67 SL (n=29 backs, n=38 forwards and 46 RLC (n=20 backs, n=26 forwards players during preseason. A one-way ANOVA was used to compare age, stature, body mass, soft tissue fat percentage, bone mineral content (BMC, total and regional (i.e., arms, legs and trunk fat and lean mass between SL forwards, SL backs, RLC forwards and RLC backs. No significant differences in age, stature or body mass were observed. SL forwards and backs had relatively less soft tissue fat (17.5 ± 3.7 and 14.8 ± 3.6 vs. 21.4 ± 4.3 and 20.8 ± 3.8%, greater BMC (4,528 ± 443 and 4,230 ± 447 vs. 4,302 ± 393 and 3,971 ± 280 g, greater trunk lean mass (37.3 ± 3.0 and 35.3 ± 3.8 vs. 34.9 ± 32.3 and 32.3 ± 2.6 kg and less trunk fat mass (8.5 ± 2.7 and 6.2 ± 2.1 vs. 10.7 ± 2.8 and 9.5 ± 2.9 kg than RLC forwards and backs. Observed differences may reflect selection based on favourable physical attributes, or training adaptations. To reduce this discrepancy, some RLC players should reduce fat mass and increase lean mass, which may be of benefit for the 2015 season and beyond.
Houdret Annabelle; Bonnet Simon
Les partenariats public-privé (PPP) sont un phénomène relativement récent dans le secteur de l’irrigation ; le projet El Guerdane au Maroc est ainsi le premier de son genre. Inauguré en 2008, le projet alimente en eau 10 000 ha de plantations d’agrumes. Les banques internationales de développement le présentent comme un succès, mais l’impact sur le développement local est, au mieux, mitigé. Alors que certains agriculteurs ont bénéficié de cette initiative, d’autres ont été marginalisés, en te...
Full Text Available The article starts with a brief theoretical overview that defines the term ‚collocation.‛ It then presents a corpus study designed to determine the most frequent lexical collocations in Business English using the concordance program WordSmith Tools. This study is based on the assumption that English mainly consists of various (changeable phraseological units and that both free combinations as well as completely ‚frozen‛ word combinations account for only a small share of the language. English is therefore a language of collocations and one can assume that this is valid not only for general English, but also for ESP and thus for Business English as well. In addition, the study investigated whether the most frequent collocations in this corpus could be found in major dictionaries of collocations, which would then establish their suitability for Business English purposes.
Aims to answer the following research questions: (1) Are general English ability and specific purpose English ability related to computer skills? and (2) Is general English ability transferable to specific purpose English ability? Subjects were third year science students enrolled in an English for academic purposes course. (Author/VWL)
One of the objectives of English as Lingua Franca (ELF) researchers is an account of the unique features of English that they have found in the speech of European users of English. These features, it is argued, describe a variety of English which they label "English as Lingua Franca". The choice of this particular term is problematic…
McDonough, Andrew; Funk, Lennard
To isokinetically record shoulder strength scores and range of motion in a professional rugby league squad. To prospectively monitor injuries over a season looking for associations between measured variables and injury. A cohort study design involving prospective screening of risk factors with subsequent injury surveillance. University Sports Science Laboratory and Professional Rugby League Club. All players participating in the clubs reserve team squad for the 2011 season (n = 20). Concentric (Con) and eccentric (Ecc) peak torque values; ratio of Ecc internal rotation IR to Con external rotation ER, also known as the dynamic control ratio (DCR), shoulder range of IR and ER. Eight players (36%) received a total of eleven injuries over the season. There were no statistically significant differences between injured and non-injured shoulders. IR range of movement was significantly lower in injured versus non-injured groups with left (p = 0.022) and right (p = 0.024). Left IR range of movement was predictive of injury using binary logistic regression (p = 0.046). No isokinetic strength parameters reached statistical significance (p > 0.05) for prediction of injury; however size effects were apparent for reduced con IR of the left shoulder and Ecc IR of both shoulders. Reduced shoulder IR range appears predictive of future shoulder injury although caution is drawn due to small participant numbers. Injury prevention strategies for rugby league players should include exercises to improve shoulder IR and possibly Ecc IR strength. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Canadian and Torontonian Joe Shuster co-created Superman in 1938, drawing on his experiences at the Toronto Daily Star to define Clark Kent’s everyday life as a reporter. Despite Shuster’s Canadian co-authorship of the definitive American comic book superhero, John Bell suggests “Canadians are probably too wary of the uncritical portrayal of unrestrained heroism and power for the superhero genre ever to become a mainstay of the country's indigenous comic art” (84. Bell’s comments express national scepticism towards American myths of heroism, perhaps best summed up in the equally iconic Canadian trope of the ‘beautiful loser’. Whilst comic books may heighten these distinct senses of a national narrative, they are also the potential sites of encounter for intersecting national cultural narratives. Onesuch encounter can be seen in the recent “Justice League Canada” storyline of American publisher DC Comics’ Justice League United. Echoing its past connections with Canada, DC Comics’ Canadian cartoonist Jeff Lemire has created a superhero team storyline set explicitly in Northern Ontario, Canada, also introducing an Indigenous female superhero named Equinox to the DC comic book universe. Cree, and from Moose Factory, Ontario, the hero Equinox is in everyday life the teenager Miiyahbin Marten. Whilst the ‘DC universe’ is firmly a realm of the fantastic, Lemire’s storyline underscores how its characters provide real-life negotiations of American, Canadian and Indigenous identity. National boundaries, identities and sovereignties are potentially re-enforced and challenged through “Justice League Canada,” and particularly in the visualisation of Equinox. The mainstream storyworlds of American comic books are complicated by this negotiation of plural sovereignties.
McGahan, Patrick J; Fronek, Jan; Hoenecke, Heinz R; Keefe, Daniel
Although the majority of Major League Baseball teams use an orthopaedic rating system to evaluate draft picks, little has been published on the topic. Our goal was to assess the attitudes among Major League Baseball physicians regarding 3 common diagnoses in pitching prospects, through the use of an orthopaedic rating system. Our hypothesis was that the assigned orthopaedic grades would vary among physicians, diagnoses, and operative-versus-nonoperative and recent-versus-past treatment. Survey. Level 4. A survey in the form of 12 clinical vignettes was used to query Major League Baseball physicians regarding ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries, type II superior labrum anterior posterior (SLAP) tears, and internal impingement. Respondents graded draft picks using an orthopaedic rating system. The vignettes covered both operative and nonoperative and recent and past treatment (successful return to pitching for 1 year). THE ORTHOPAEDIC GRADES ASSIGNED BY RESPONDENTS WERE AS FOLLOWS (MINIMAL, MODERATE, SEVERE RISK): past UCL reconstruction (73%, 27%, 0%), recent UCL reconstruction (19%, 77%, 4%), past UCL strain (28%, 60%, 12%), recent UCL strain (0%, 48%, 52%), past SLAP repair (52%, 48%, 0%), recent SLAP repair (4%, 64%, 32%), past SLAP nonoperative (28%, 60%, 12%), recent SLAP nonoperative (0%, 36%, 64%), past internal impingement operative (24%, 68%, 8%), recent internal impingement operative (8%, 32%, 60%), past internal impingement nonoperative (24%, 68%, 8%), and recent internal impingement nonoperative (4%, 48%, 44%). Team physicians are optimistic regarding the outcome of UCL reconstruction. In contrast, UCL strains, type II SLAP lesions, and internal impingement carry a guarded prognosis. For all diagnoses, regardless of treatment, the prognosis improved if a player returned to pitching for 1 full season. This study represents a first step toward developing a standardized orthopaedic rating system that will facilitate more accurate player assessment and
Dahm, Diane L; Curriero, Frank C; Camp, Christopher L; Brophy, Robert H; Leo, Tony; Meister, Keith; Paletta, George A; Steubs, John A; Mandelbaum, Bert R; Pollack, Keshia M
Few studies have explored the frequency and impact of lower extremity injuries, such as those to the knee, among professional baseball players. The purpose of this study was to detail the epidemiology of knee injuries in Major League Baseball (MLB) and Minor League Baseball (MiLB) players during the 2011-2014 seasons. It was hypothesized that knee injuries are a common occurrence in these athletes, and represent a significant source of time away from play. The MLB Health and Injury Tracking System database was searched to identify all patients diagnosed with knee injuries during the 2011-2014 seasons. All injuries that occurred during the preseason, regular season, and postseason that resulted in time away from play were included. Injury data analyzed included total number of knee injuries, specific diagnoses, injury mechanisms, locations, player positions, and time lost. Descriptive statistics were conducted and injury rates per athlete-exposures were calculated. During the 2011-2014 seasons, a total of 2171 knee injuries occurred in MLB and MiLB players, representing 6.5% of all injuries in professional baseball. The knee injury rate across both the MLB and MiLB was 1.2 per 1000 athlete-exposures. The mean number of days missed per injury across both leagues was 16.2 with a total of 30,449 days of missed play amongst all athletes over the 4 seasons. Injuries to the knee were the fifth most common cause of missed time in all of baseball, and the fourth most common reason for missed games in the MLB alone. Approximately 12% of all injuries required surgical intervention. The most common mechanism of injury was noncontact (44%), and base runners were injured more frequently than any other position (24%). The infield (30%) and home plate (23%) were the most common locations in which injuries occurred. These data can be utilized for targeted injury prevention initiatives.
Full Text Available Introduction. Each change in the rules of a sport affects the way it is performed. Therefore, changes in regulations require that new training models be developed. The aim of the study was to determine whether FIBA’s introduction of new regulations in the 2010/2011 season pertaining to the dimensions of certain parts of the playing area, which changed the conditions under which the game was played, impacted the offensive actions of the top three teams in the Polish Basketball League. Material and methods. The study analysed qualitative data describing the offences (n = 16,694 performed during 200 matches of the Polish Basketball League, that is the highest-level men’s professional basketball league in Poland, during two periods: the 2009/2010 season (110 matches; n = 9,343 offences, before the regulations were modified, and the 2010/2011 season (90 matches; n = 7,351 offences, after they were changed. The research involved the players of three teams who received the gold, silver, and bronze medals in the final standings of the Polish National Championship in the 2009/2010 season. Results. The study found a statistically significant (p < 0.001 decrease in the overall number of tactical offensive actions of 3.84% and a significant (p < 0.05 5% decrease in the mean number of points scored. A significant (p < 0.05 decrease in half-court offences, amounting to almost 2% was also observed. This offensive system was characterised by a minor shift toward individual offences with the back to the basket and pick-and-roll offences; these changes, however, did not cause an increase in the level of effectiveness. Conclusions. The direction of the changes observed have been determined, which consisted in a reduction in the overall number of offensive actions and a shift in the place where they were completed, from the three-point area in particular, to the two-point area.
Full Text Available This paper is aimed at comparing the use of technique elements by the teams and players who play in the elite level club competition Champions League and the Serbian professional football league. The results of the study were obtained by observing an overall of 20 randomly chosen games, 10 from the Champions League (CL and 10 from the Serbian SuperLiga (SSL. The processing and analysis of the results included each contact with the ball of the players during the play. In the previously designed observing protocol we recorded each technical element, of five groups of technical elements: ball kicks (6 variables - elements, ball receiving (12 variables - elements, disguising movements and dribbles (6 variables - elements, takeover and carrying the ball. The research showed that there are differences in using of certain technical elements in the two analysed competitions. Kicks, receiving and carrying of the ball are significantly more used in the CL while no differences were manifested regarding the use of certain types of kicks and ball receiving. Additionally, there are differences in distribution of certain types of kicks and ball receiving. In the CL significantly more applied are instep drives (70% of all kicks, while in the SSL headers and inside part hard kicks are by far more frequent compared to the CL. The way of ball receiving is partially conditioned by the stated difference in ball kick usage so exploiting of instep ball receiving (rolling ball is the dominant element of ball receiving technique especially in the competitions of the CL. Dribbling application did not show any difference between the football players of the two analysed competitions, where the basic dribbles were the most applied ones (65-70%.
Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben; O'Hara, John; Barlow, Matthew; Brightmore, Amy; Lees, Matthew; Hind, Karen
To compare the body size and 3-compartment body composition between academy and senior professional rugby league players using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Academy (age 18.1 ± 1.1 y, n = 34) and senior (age 26.2 ± 4.6 y, n = 63) rugby league players received 1 total-body DXA scan. Height, body mass, and body-fat percentage alongside total and regional fat mass, lean mass, and bone mineral content (BMC) were compared. Independent t tests with Cohen d effect sizes and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), controlling for height and body mass, with partial eta-squared (η2) effect sizes, were used to compare total and regional body composition. Senior players were taller (183.2 ± 5.8 vs 179.2 ± 5.7 cm, P = .001, d = 0.70) and heavier (96.5 ± 9.3 vs 86.5 ± 9.0 kg, P MANCOVA identified significant overall main effects for total and regional body composition between academy and senior players. Senior players had lower total fat mass (P < .001, η2 = 0.15), greater total lean mass (P < .001, η2 = 0.14), and greater total BMC (P = .001, η2 = 0.12) than academy players. For regional sites, academy players had significantly greater fat mass at the legs (P < .001, η2 = 0.29) than senior players. The lower age, height, body mass, and BMC of academy players suggest that these players are still developing musculoskeletal characteristics. Gradual increases in lean mass and BMC while controlling fat mass is an important consideration for practitioners working with academy rugby league players, especially in the lower body.
Delaney, Jace A; Duthie, Grant M; Thornton, Heidi R; Scott, Tannath J; Gay, David; Dascombe, Ben J
Rugby league involves frequent periods of high-intensity running including acceleration and deceleration efforts, often occurring at low speeds. To quantify the energetic cost of running and acceleration efforts during rugby league competition to aid in prescription and monitoring of training. Global positioning system (GPS) data were collected from 37 professional rugby league players across 2 seasons. Peak values for relative distance, average acceleration/deceleration, and metabolic power (Pmet) were calculated for 10 different moving-average durations (1-10 min) for each position. A mixed-effects model was used to assess the effect of position for each duration, and individual comparisons were made using a magnitude-based-inference network. There were almost certainly large differences in relative distance and Pmet between the 10-min window and all moving averages <5 min in duration (ES = 1.21-1.88). Fullbacks, halves, and hookers covered greater relative distances than outside backs, edge forwards, and middle forwards for moving averages lasting 2-10 min. Acceleration/deceleration demands were greatest in hookers and halves compared with fullbacks, middle forwards, and outside backs. Pmet was greatest in hookers, halves, and fullbacks compared with middle forwards and outside backs. Competition running intensities varied by both position and moving-average duration. Hookers exhibited the greatest Pmet of all positions, due to high involvement in both attack and defense. Fullbacks also reached high Pmet, possibly due to a greater absolute volume of running. This study provides coaches with match data that can be used for the prescription and monitoring of specific training drills.
Corboz, Julienne; Flood, Michael; Dyson, Sue
Programs aimed at preventing violence against women have increasingly adopted bystander approaches, yet large gaps remain in our knowledge about what drives bystanders to act or not, particularly in settings where there is an increased risk of violence against women occurring. This article contributes to this gap by examining data from research with professional male athletes from the Australian Football League. Drawing from a mixed methods approach, including a survey and interviews with football players, we outline some of the challenges to bystander intervention faced by professional athletes and discuss some of the possible similarities and differences between these and other groups of men. © The Author(s) 2015.
Ciccotti, Michael G; Pollack, Keisha M; Ciccotti, Michael C; D'Angelo, John; Ahmad, Christopher S; Altchek, David; Andrews, James; Curriero, Frank C
Elbow injuries cause significant disability for the throwing athlete. Scant data are available on the distribution and characteristics of these injuries in elite baseball players. No study exists that focuses solely on the epidemiological characteristics of elbow injuries in professional baseball players using a comprehensive injury surveillance system. Professional baseball players have a high occurrence of elbow injuries influenced by factors including length of time playing, time period within the annual baseball season, and specific position played. Descriptive epidemiological study. Data on elbow injuries occurring during the 2011-2014 seasons were collected from Major League Baseball's Health Injury and Tracking System, a comprehensive injury surveillance system. Each specific type of elbow injury was evaluated with respect to overall injury rate, years as a professional player, mechanism of injury, treatment, average time lost, and return to play. During the study period, 3185 elbow injuries (n = 430 Major League; n = 2755 Minor League) occurred. The mean number of days missed and percentage requiring surgery were similar between Major and Minor League players. Overall, 20.0% (650/3185) of the injuries required surgical treatment. Pitchers were the most likely to incur an elbow injury (40.0% of injured athletes were pitchers), were the most likely to require surgery (34.2% of injured pitchers required surgery), and had the greatest mean number of days missed when treated nonsurgically (33.2 days). Medial injuries composed 42.1% (1342/3185) of all elbow injuries. Of all elbow surgeries performed during the study period, the highest percentage involved ligaments (372/650; 57.2%). Elbow injuries are a considerable source of disability in professional baseball players. Pitchers are most likely to incur these injuries, are most likely to require surgery, and have the highest mean number of days missed when treated nonsurgically. The most common injuries involve
Full Text Available Introduction. The main aim of the study was to assess the strength of the shoulder rotator muscles of a group of second-league volleyball players. These muscles are assumed to have a crucial impact on attack effectiveness in volleyball. Strength was assessed based on peak torque values obtained for the rotator muscles measured using the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC method. Torque was measured in both limbs and the differences between the two limbs were examined. The torque values obtained for the volleyball players were also compared against those measured in a group of students who had never trained any sports.
Alison Klebanoff Cohen
Full Text Available University-community partnerships are a critical method for how universities can serve the public interest. Yet key questions remain: how do these partnerships work in practice, and how can university and fill reciprocal and mutual needs effectively? A participatory evaluation of university-community partnerships in education at an Ivy League university found that university partners had a surplus perspective of the university and a deficit perspective of community partners; practitioners must shift our paradigm towards mutually beneficial, asset-driven university-community partnerships to ensure success.
Zipser, Mark C; Sum, Jonathan C; Wilcox, Alison G
A 15-year-old baseball pitcher presented to physical therapy with a 1-week history of acute right shoulder pain experienced during the acceleration phase of throwing. The week after physical therapy evaluation, the patient returned with radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging results that revealed lateral physeal widening with adjacent edema. Additionally, a nondisplaced labral tear was noted. In this case, imaging was necessary for an accurate diagnosis of lateral physeal widening, commonly referred to as "Little League shoulder." J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2018;48(1):51. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.7369.
To identify the frequency of violent television commercials aired during major league baseball playoffs, traditionally thought to be a family-oriented viewing time. All 6 World Series games televised on the Fox Television Network (Fox), all 5 American League Championship Series playoff games televised by the National Broadcasting Company (NBC), and 4 first-round playoff games televised by ESPN Sports Television Network (ESPN) were videotaped in October 1996. During the 15 televised games reviewed, 104 (6.8%) of the 1528 commercials contained violent content. Sixty-one commercials (10 per game) that included violent interactions were noted during the World Series, 30 (6 per game) during the American League Championship Series, and 13 (3 per game) during the 4 first-round playoff games for a total of 104. In these 104 violent commercials, 69 contained at least 1 violent act, 90 contained at least 1 violent threat, and 27 contained evidence of at least 1 violent consequence. Seventy (67.3%) of the violent commercials were promotions for television programs, 7 (6.7%) were cable television program advertisements, and 20 (19.2%) were big-screen movie promotions. Twenty (71.4%) of 28 big-screen movie promotions were violent. Twenty-two (21.2%) of the 104 violent commercials and 7 "nonviolent" commercials contained blood or other graphic content, all of which were televised during the Fox presentation of the World Series. Fox also accounted for all 24 violent commercials that used a knife. Guns were involved in 25 violent commercials on NBC (5.0 per game), in 20 on Fox (3.33 per game), and in 7 on ESPN (1.75 per game). Overt violent content in commercials during the 1996 major league playoffs was common and consisted mainly of promotions for television programs and big-screen movies. It is counterintuitive to find such commercials in nonviolent programming and makes it difficult for parents to avoid exposing their children to this form of violence.
Anderson, C R
To identify the frequency of violent commercials during the major league baseball playoffs in 1998 and to compare it with the 1996 playoffs. All 4 World Series games televised on the Fox Television Network (Fox), all 6 National League Championship Series (NLCS) televised by Fox, and 5 of 6 American League Championship Series (ALCS) playoff games televised by the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) were videotaped in October 1998. The results were compared with a similar study that analyzed the 1996 playoffs. Forty-four commercials (11.0 per game) that included violent interactions were noted during the World Series, 53 violent commercials (8.8 per game) during the NLCS, and 40 (8.0 per game) during the ALCS for a total of 137. Of these 137 violent commercials, 78 contained at least 1 violent act, 126 contained at least 1 violent threat, and 12 contained evidence of at least 1 violent consequence. One hundred five of the 137 violent commercials (76.6%) were television promotions and 23 (16.8%) were for big-screen movie promotions. Twenty-three of 35 big-screen movie promotions (65.7%) were violent. Ten of the 137 violent commercials (7.3%) contained obvious blood, of which 9 were televised by NBC. There were, however, an additional 20 commercials televised by Fox that contained visible blood if the videotape was slowed or paused. Sixty-three of the 137 violent commercials (46.0%) used fire and explosions, of which 53 were televised by Fox and 10 by NBC. Guns were involved in 86 of 137 violent commercials (62.8%), with Fox accounting for 64 (6.4 per game) and NBC accounting for 22 (4.4 per game). Knives were used in 1 violent commercial on both Fox and NBC. Comparisons that can be made to 1996 include the following: 1) violent commercials during the World Series (both televised by Fox) increased from 10.1 to 11.0 per game; and 2) violent commercials during the ALCS (both televised by NBC) increased from 6.0 to 8.0 per game. Commercials during the 1998 major league
Verification testing of the Watts Premier M-Series M-15,000 RO Treatment System was conducted over a 31-day period from April 26, 2004, through May 26, 2004. This test was conducted at the Coachella Valley Water District (CVWD) Well 7802 in Thermal, California. The source water...
The Watts Premier M-2400 POE RO Drinking Water Treatment System was tested at the NSF Drinking Water Treatment Systems Laboratory for removal of the viruses fr and MS2, the bacteria Brevundimonas diminuta, and chemicals aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chl...
In 2001, California instituted a statewide test measuring English proficiency for English learners, students who are not proficient in English. In 2003 and 2004, nearly 500,000 English learners in grades 1-5 took this test each year. The relationship between bilingual education receipt and English proficiency is estimated using value-added…
Full Text Available Teaching English for Specific Purposes and General English is analysed in the article. The scientific approach of a scientist M. Rosenberg is presented. The experience of teaching English for Specific Purposesat VGTU is alsopresented. The ideas and teaching methods from the classes of general English can be transferred to the classes of English for Specific Purposes.
Frank Molano Camargo
Full Text Available The article provides a history of the Marxist-Leninist League of Colombia, a Maoist organization active during the 1970s and strongly linked to the struggle for land in different regions of the country, as part of the National Association of Peasant Smallholders (Asociación Nacional de Usuarios Campesinos–anuc. By discussing the readings that blame Maoism for the crisis of anuc in the mid-1970s and highlighting the contribution of the League to the formation of revolutionary peasant leaders, the article seeks to contribute to the study of the Colombian Maoist left. The paper also points out the difficulties and limitations faced by the protagonists in the attempt to grant continuity to their organizational project. The main sources used for the research were the memoirs of surviving League members, with press documents and literature on the historical context serving as secondary sources.
Till, Kevin; Cobley, Steve; O'Hara, John; Morley, David; Chapman, Chris; Cooke, Carlton
The current study retrospectively investigated the differences in anthropometric and fitness characteristics of junior rugby league players selected onto a talent identification and development (TID) programme between long-term career progression levels (i.e., amateur, academy, professional). Retrospective design. Former junior rugby league players (N=580) selected to a TID programme were grouped according to their career progression level. Anthropometric (height, sitting height, body mass and sum of four skinfolds), maturational and fitness (power, speed, change of direction speed and estimated V̇O2max) assessments were conducted at 13-15 years. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) analyzed differences between career progression levels controlling for chronological age. 57.1% and 12.1% of players selected to the TID programme progressed to academy and professional levels in rugby league, respectively. Sum of four skinfolds (η(2)=0.03), vertical jump (η(2)=0.02), 10 m (η(2)=0.02), 20 m (η(2)=0.02), 30 m (η(2)=0.02), and 60 m (η(2)=0.03) speed, agility 505 left (η(2)=0.06), agility 505 right (η(2)=0.05) and estimated V̇O2max (η(2)=0.03) were superior within junior players who progressed to professional compared to amateur levels. No significant differences were identified between future academy and professional players for any measure. Findings suggest that lower sum of four skinfolds and advanced fitness characteristics within junior (13-15 years) rugby league players may partially contribute to long-term career progression. Therefore, TID programmes within rugby league should aim to assess and develop body composition and fitness characteristics, especially change of direction speed. However, TID programmes should also consider technical, tactical and psycho-social characteristics of junior rugby league players that may be important for long-term career progression. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All
Bast, Joseph L.
In their article "Rethinking the Market Metaphor: School Choice, the Common Good, and the National Football League," Brent D. Beal and Heather K. Olson Beal (this issue) promise to update some of the arguments made by Jeffrey R. Henig (1994) and add an interesting twist by proposing the National Football League (NFL) as a possible…
Weber, Beatriz Teixeira
Although the period following 1930 has been considered an era in which homeopathy lost ground within academia, homeopaths nevertheless were advocating for their proposals in a variety of spaces. One such instance was represented by the Homeopathic League of Rio Grande do Sul, founded in 1941, which published a journal until the 1970s, set up three free dispensaries to serve the population in Porto Alegre, and played an active role in political discussions through a group of homeopaths who endeavored to disseminate and expand homeopathic practice. An analysis of the League's Boletim de Homeopatia provides insight into homeopaths' strategies for expanding their role in Porto Alegre, capital of Rio Grande do Sul.
Thornton, Heidi R; Delaney, Jace A; Duthie, Grant M; Dascombe, Ben J
To investigate the influence of daily and exponentially weighted moving training loads on subsequent nighttime sleep. Sleep of 14 professional rugby league athletes competing in the National Rugby League was recorded using wristwatch actigraphy. Physical demands were quantified using GPS technology, including total distance, high-speed distance, acceleration/deceleration load (SumAccDec; AU), and session rating of perceived exertion (AU). Linear mixed models determined effects of acute (daily) and subacute (3- and 7-d) exponentially weighted moving averages (EWMA) on sleep. Higher daily SumAccDec was associated with increased sleep efficiency (effect-size correlation; ES = 0.15; ±0.09) and sleep duration (ES = 0.12; ±0.09). Greater 3-d EWMA SumAccDec was associated with increased sleep efficiency (ES = 0.14; ±0.09) and an earlier bedtime (ES = 0.14; ±0.09). An increase in 7-d EWMA SumAccDec was associated with heightened sleep efficiency (ES = 0.15; ±0.09) and earlier bedtimes (ES = 0.15; ±0.09). The direction of the associations between training loads and sleep varied, but the strongest relationships showed that higher training loads increased various measures of sleep. Practitioners should be aware of the increased requirement for sleep during intensified training periods, using this information in the planning and implementation of training and individualized recovery modalities.
Weaving, Dan; Marshall, Phil; Earle, Keith; Nevill, Alan; Abt, Grant
This study investigated the effect of training mode on the relationships between measures of training load in professional rugby league players. Five measures of training load (internal: individualized training impulse, session rating of perceived exertion; external-body load, high-speed distance, total impacts) were collected from 17 professional male rugby league players over the course of two 12-wk preseason periods. Training was categorized by mode (small-sided games, conditioning, skills, speed, strongman, and wrestle) and subsequently subjected to a principal-component analysis. Extraction criteria were set at an eigenvalue of greater than 1. Modes that extracted more than 1 principal component were subjected to a varimax rotation. Small-sided games and conditioning extracted 1 principal component, explaining 68% and 52% of the variance, respectively. Skills, wrestle, strongman, and speed extracted 2 principal components each explaining 68%, 71%, 72%, and 67% of the variance, respectively. In certain training modes the inclusion of both internal and external training-load measures explained a greater proportion of the variance than any 1 individual measure. This would suggest that in training modes where 2 principal components were identified, the use of only a single internal or external training-load measure could potentially lead to an underestimation of the training dose. Consequently, a combination of internal- and external-load measures is required during certain training modes.
Thornton, Heidi R; Delaney, Jace A; Duthie, Grant M; Dascombe, Ben J
To investigate the ability of various internal and external training-load (TL) monitoring measures to predict injury incidence among positional groups in professional rugby league athletes. TL and injury data were collected across 3 seasons (2013-2015) from 25 players competing in National Rugby League competition. Daily TL data were included in the analysis, including session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE-TL), total distance (TD), high-speed-running distance (>5 m/s), and high-metabolic-power distance (HPD; >20 W/kg). Rolling sums were calculated, nontraining days were removed, and athletes' corresponding injury status was marked as "available" or "unavailable." Linear (generalized estimating equations) and nonlinear (random forest; RF) statistical methods were adopted. Injury risk factors varied according to positional group. For adjustables, the TL variables associated most highly with injury were 7-d TD and 7-d HPD, whereas for hit-up forwards they were sRPE-TL ratio and 14-d TD. For outside backs, 21- and 28-d sRPE-TL were identified, and for wide-running forwards, sRPE-TL ratio. The individual RF models showed that the importance of the TL variables in injury incidence varied between athletes. Differences in risk factors were recognized between positional groups and individual athletes, likely due to varied physiological capacities and physical demands. Furthermore, these results suggest that robust machine-learning techniques can appropriately monitor injury risk in professional team-sport athletes.
Waldron, Mark; Worsfold, Paul; Twist, Craig; Lamb, Kevin
In rugby league, tests of sport-specific skill often involve subjective assessments of performance by observers of varying qualification. However, the reliability of such subjective assessments has yet to be investigated via appropriate statistical techniques. Therefore, the aims of the current study were to investigate: (1) the intra-observer reliability of a non-qualified observer ('novice') and (2) the inter-observer reliability of the three observers (two qualified 'experts' and one novice observer) in the assessment of catching, passing and tackling (stages 1 and 2) ability in elite adolescent rugby league players (age: 14.7 ± 0.5 years). Players performed each skill element within a simulated practice drill and were assessed in 'real time' by the observers according to pre-defined criteria. An overall bias (Pvalues occurring for both tackling skill stages (60-65%). None of the tests employed were sufficiently reliable to potentially discern between players of differing ability, which may mean up to 56% of players' skill being misinterpreted. The credibility of such assessments should be questioned and alternative tests considered.
Webb, Nicholas P; Harris, Nigel K; Cronin, John B; Walker, Craig
This study investigated the relative efficacy of postgame recovery modalities on jump height performance and subjective ratings of muscle soreness and muscle damage at 1, 18, and 42 hours after professional rugby league competition games. Twenty-one professional rugby league players performed 3 different postmatch recovery modalities: cold water immersion (CWI), contrast water therapy (CWT), and active recovery (ACT). The effects of the recovery treatments were analyzed with mixed modeling including a covariate (fatigue score) to adjust for changes in the intensity of each match on the postmatch values of the dependent variables of interest. Standardization of effects was used to make magnitude-based inferences, presented as mean with ±90% confidence limits. Cold water immersion and CWT clearly recovered jump height performance (CWI 2.3 ± 3.7%; CWT 3.5 ± 4.1%), reduced muscle soreness (CWI -0.95 ± 0.37; CWT -0.55 ± 0.37), and decreased creatine kinase (CWI -11.0 ± 15.1%; CWT 18.2 ± 20.1%) by 42 hours postgame compared with ACT. Contrast water therapy was however clearly more effective compared with CWI on the recovery of muscle soreness and creatine kinase by 42 hours postgame. Based on these findings, CWT recovery is recommended postmatch for team rugby sports.
Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Valadés, David; Hernández-Hernández, Elena; Olea-Serrano, Fátima; Sjöström, Michael; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Ortega, Francisco B
This study aimed to describe morphological characteristics of elite female volleyball players from the highest Spanish league, with special focus on differences by performance level and playing positions. Nearly all female players playing in the highest Spanish volleyball league during season 2003/2004 participated in this study (N=148 elite players, 92% of the total). Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype parameters according to performance and playing positions were analysed. The players' characteristics were as follows; body mass 72.3 ± 8.4 kg; stature 179.8 ± 7.1 cm; body fat 24.0 ± 3.1% and skeletal muscle mass 27.3 ± 2.9 kg. Mean somatotype was 3.1 ± 0.7; 3.4 ± 0.9; 3.1 ± 0.9 characterised as central with a tendency to balanced mesomorph. Top level players (whose teams were better classified in the team performance ranking) were taller, had higher skeletal muscle mass and ectomorphy, and had a lower level of adiposity markers, compared with lower level players. Players selected for their respective National teams (individual performance) were taller, heavier, had higher muscle mass and lower endomorphy than non-selected players. Differences according to playing positions were found. This study provides a complete set of reference data on anthropometry, body composition and somatotype of elite female volleyball players. Morphological differences have been identified according to performance level and playing position.
Camp, Christopher L; Curriero, Frank C; Pollack, Keshia M; Mayer, Stephanie W; Spiker, Andrea M; D'Angelo, John; Coleman, Struan H
Although sliding occurs frequently in professional baseball, little is known about the epidemiology and effect of injuries that occur during sliding in this population of elite athletes. To describe the incidence and characteristics of sliding injuries, determine their effect in terms of time out of play, and identify common injury patterns that may represent appropriate targets for injury prevention programs in the future. Descriptive epidemiologic study. All offensive sliding injuries occurring in Major League Baseball (MLB) and Minor League Baseball (MLB) that resulted in time out of play during a span of 5 seasons (2011-2015) were identified. In addition to player demographics, data extracted included time out of play, location on field where injury occurred, level of play, treatment (surgical vs nonsurgical), direction of slide (head vs feet first), body region injured, and diagnosis. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the distribution of these injuries, and injury rates were calculated per slide. From 2011 to 2015, 1633 injuries occurred as a result of a slide. The total number of days missed per season was 4263. Surgical intervention was required for 134 (8.2%) injuries, and the mean days missed was 66.5 for players treated surgically and 12.3 days for players treated nonoperatively ( P professional baseball result in a significant amount of time out of play for these elite athletes. Injuries occurring at second base and those occurring to the hands and fingers were most prevalent and may be an appropriate target for future injury prevention programs.
Witkowski, Ulf; Sitte, Joaquin; Herbrechtsmeier, Stefan; Rückert, Ulrich
AMiRESot is a new robot soccer league that is played with small autonomous miniature robots. Team sizes are defined with one, two, and three robots per team. Special to the AMiRESot league are the fully autonomous behavior of the robots and their small size. For the matches, the rules mainly follow the FIFA laws with some modifications being useful for robot soccer. The new AMiRESot soccer robot is small in size (maximum 110 mm diameter) but a powerful vehicle, equipped with a differential drive system. For sensing, the robots in their basic configuration are equipped with active infrared sensors and a color image sensor. For information processing a powerful mobile processor and reconfigurable hardware resources (FPGA) are available. Due to the robot’s modular structure it can be easily extended by additional sensing and processing resources. This paper gives an overview of the AMiRESot rules and presents details of the new robot platform used for AMiRESot.
Woods, Carl T; Sinclair, Wade; Robertson, Sam
To examine the extent at which match outcome and ladder position could be explained using team performance indicators in the National Rugby League (NRL). The dataset consisted of 13 performance indicators acquired from each NRL team across the 2016 season (n=376 observations). Data was sorted according to apriori match outcome (win/loss) and ladder position (one to 16). Given the binary and categorical nature of the response variables, two analysis approaches were used; a conditional interference classification tree and ordinal regression. Five performance indicators ('try assists', 'all run meters', 'offloads', 'line breaks' and 'dummy half runs') were retained within the classification tree, detecting 66% of the losses and 91% of the wins. A significant negative relationship was noted between ladder position and 'kick metres' (β (SE)=-0.002 (coaches and analysts as a basis for the development of practice conditions and game strategies that may increase their teams' likelihood of success. Beyond rugby league, this study presents analytical techniques that could be applied to other sports when examining the relationships between performance indicators and match derivatives. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Portney, Daniel A; Lazaroff, Jake M; Buchler, Lucas T; Gryzlo, Stephen M; Saltzman, Matthew D
Medial ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstruction is a common procedure performed on Major League Baseball pitchers. Variations in pitching mechanics before and after UCL reconstructive surgery are not well understood. Publicly available pitch tracking data (PITCHf/x) were compared for all Major League Baseball pitchers who underwent UCL reconstruction between 2008 and 2013. Specific parameters analyzed were fastball percentage, release location, velocity, and movement of each pitch type. These data were compared before and after UCL reconstructive surgery and compared with a randomly selected control cohort. There were no statistically significant changes in pitch selection or pitch accuracy after UCL reconstruction, nor was there a decrease in pitch velocity. The average pitch release location for 4-seam and 2-seam fastballs, curveballs, and changeups is more medial after UCL reconstruction (P < .01). Four-seam fastballs and sliders showed decreased horizontal breaking movement after surgery (P < .05), whereas curveballs showed increased downward breaking movement after surgery (P < .05). Pitch selection, pitch velocity, and pitch accuracy do not significantly change after UCL reconstruction, nor do players who require UCL reconstruction have significantly different pitch selection, velocity, or accuracy than a randomly selected control cohort. Pitch release location is more medial after UCL reconstruction for all pitch types except sliders. Breaking movement of fastballs, sliders, and curveballs changes after UCL reconstruction. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McNamara, Andrew R; Ensell, Scott; Farley, Timothy D
Friction blisters are a common sequela of many athletic activities. Their significance can range from minor annoyance to major performance disruptions. The latter is particularly true in baseball pitchers, who sustain repeated trauma between the baseball seams and the fingers of the pitching hand, predominately at the tips of the index and long fingers. Since 2010, 6 Major League Baseball (MLB) players accounted for 7 stints on the disabled list (DL) due to blisters. These injuries resulted in a total of 151 days spent on the DL. Since 2012, 8 minor league players spent time on the DL due to blisters. Moreover, there have been several documented and publicized instances of professional baseball pitchers suffering blisters that did not require placement on the DL but did result in injury time and missed starts. The purpose of this article is to review the etiology and pathophysiology of friction blisters with particular reference to baseball pitchers; provide an overview of past and current prevention methods; and discuss our experience in treating friction blisters in MLB pitchers.
Full Text Available The study aims to examine brand management model in Iran's professional Football League (2011-2012 with emphasis on brand image. The study was descriptive-survey one. A sample of Iranian professional football league fans (N=911 responded 4 items questionnaire. A structural equation model (SEM test with maximum likelihood estimation was performed to test the relationships among the research variables. The analyses of data showed three dimensions of brand image influenced on fan’s brand loyalty of which the attitude was the most important. Benefits and attributes were placed in the second and third rank respectively. According to Results, brand image play a pivotal role between Iranian fans brand loyalty. Create an attractive and desirable brand image in the fans mind increases brand loyalty. And due to, revenue and profits increase through ticket sales and products of club and also attract more sponsors.
Full Text Available The study aims to examine winning brands influence on fans’ brand loyalty in Iranian professional football league. A ten-minute pen and paper questionnaire was distributed to fans of five superior teams of Iranian professional football league in 2009-2010 seasons. Team’s association questionnaire developed by Gladden and Funk (2001 was used for data collection. Reliability of the questionnaire was estimated by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. A structural equation model (SEM test with maximum likelihood estimation was performed to test the relationships among the research variables using 912 participants. The findings showed three dimensions of brand associations influenced on fan’s brand loyalty of which the attitude was the most important. Benefits and attributes were placed in the second and third rank respectively. In addition, the obtained model of this research highlighted strong interactional effects between the three mentioned dimensions of brand associations.
Weber-Gasparoni, Karin; Kanellis, Michael J; Levy, Steven M; Stock, Julie
The purpose of this study was to conduct a secondary data analysis of results from a 1985 survey of La Leche League International (LLLI) members to further investigate the relationship between breast-feeding and caries prior to age 3 (CPA3). Subjects were 576 LLLI mothers who responded to a 23-item questionnaire concerning the following factors for their oldest child: (1) breast-feeding habits; (2) fluoride status; (3) use of antibiotics; (4) carbohydrate ingestion; (5) history of caries; and (6) oral hygiene practices. CPA3 was reported in 10% of all children breast-fed for more than 3 years. Later weaning was found to be significantly associated with CPA3 (odds ratio [OR]=2.03; P=.0001). Late initiation of oral hygiene was marginally associated with CPA3 (OR=0.77; P=.08). Among children who developed CPA3, bivariate analyses found a greater frequency of breast-feeding (P=.012) and presence of night-time breast-feeding (P=.049) to be associated with caries detected at an earlier age. Children with caries on their maxillary incisors were more likely to have been breast-fed at night (P=.027) and more frequently during the night (P=.032). This retrospective study, based on a report of La Leche League International members, found later weaning to be significantly associated with an increased likelihood of developing CPA3.
Jacob J. Bustad
Full Text Available In this article, we explore the relationship between public recreation policy and planning and the transformation of urban governance in the context of the Police Athletic League centers in Baltimore, Maryland. In light of contemporary discussions of the role of youth programs for sport and physical activity within post-industrial cities, the origination, development, and eventual demise of Baltimore’s network of Police Activity League centers is an instructive, if disheartening, saga. It illustrates the social and political rationales mobilized in justifying recreation policy and programming, the framing of sport and physical activity as preventative measures towards crime and juvenile delinquency, and the precarity of such initiatives given the efficiency-driven orthodoxies of neoliberal urban entrepreneurialism (Harvey, 1989. This analysis emphasizes how the PAL centers were designed to ‘fill the void’ left by a declining system of public recreation, thereby providing an example of a recreation program as part of the “social problems industry” (Pitter & Andrews 1997.
Pendlebury, A. C.
Defining vocational English as a specific vocabulary of individual words and phases connected with a certain occupation, the author outlines principles of testing, lists types of vocational English tests, and attempts to show that in constructing such tests a whole range of types of question can be used. (FB)
Bhatia, Vijay K.; Bremner, Stephen
The concept of Business English has undergone some major shifts in the last few years because of a number of developments, such as advances in genre theory and the coming together of English for Business Purposes and Business Communication, inspired by the realization that there is a gap to be bridged between the academy and the globalized…
Using science notebooks effectively in the classroom can encourage students who are learning English to keep up and keep interested. English language proficiency might head the list of content areas that schools can teach properly and effectively through science. Amaral, Garrison, and Klentschy (2002) reported that a successful inquiry-based…
The article reviews the book "Nineteenth-Century English: Stability and Change," by Merja Kytö, Mats Rydèn and Erik Smitterberg......The article reviews the book "Nineteenth-Century English: Stability and Change," by Merja Kytö, Mats Rydèn and Erik Smitterberg...
Technical English differs from everyday English because of the specialized contexts in which it is used and because of the specialized interests of scientists and engineers. This text provides exercises in technical and scientific exposition in the following fields: mathematics, physics, temperature effects, mechanics, dynamics, conservation of…
This book takes up the question of what shape high school English studies should take in the coming years. It describes an English program that blends philosophical depth with classroom practicality. Drawing examples from commonly taught texts such as "Macbeth,""To Kill a Mockingbird," and "Lord of the Flies," the…
Bolton, Kingsley; Graddol, David; Meierkord, Christiane
Over the last three decades scholars promoting the world Englishes paradigm (WE) have worked towards establishing a more positive attitude towards international varieties of English. However, despite the best intentions of Western linguists working in this field, there is an obvious imbalance between the developed and developing world in many…
Lin, Pao-Hwa; Chen, Chuhe; Young, Deborah R; Mitchell, Diane; Elmer, Patricia; Wang, Yanfang; Batch, Bryan; Champagne, Catherine
The clinical significance of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) is inconclusive. This study was conducted to examine the association of GI and GL with clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors including body weight, blood pressure (BP), serum lipids, fasting glucose, insulin and homocysteine over time among the PREMIER participants. PREMIER was an 18-month randomized lifestyle intervention trial, conducted from 2000 to 2002, designed to help participants reduce BP by following the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern, losing weight, reducing sodium and increasing physical activity. GI and GL were estimated from 24 h diet recall data at baseline, 6 and 18 months after intervention. PROC MIXED model was used to examine the association of changes in GI or GL with changes in CVD risk factors. A total of 756 randomized participants, 62% females and 34% African Americans and who averaged 50.0±0.3 years old and 95.3±0.7 kg, were included in this report. Neither GI nor GL changes was associated with changes in any risk factors at 6 months. At 18 months, however, the GI change was significantly and positively associated with total cholesterol (TC) change only (p<0.05, β=23.80±12.11 mg/dL or 0.62±0.31 mmol/L) with a significant age interaction. The GL change was significantly associated with TC (p=0.02, β=0.28±0.15 mg/dL or 0.01±0.00 mmol/L) positively and with low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) changes negatively (p=0.03, β=-0.01±0.00 mg/dL or -0.00±0.00 mmol/L), and significant age interactions were observed for both. GI and GL was associated with TC and LDL-C after controlling for energy, fat and fiber intake and other potential confounders and the associations were modified by age. Further investigation into this relationship is important because of its potential clinical impact.
Full Text Available Background: The clinical significance of glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL is inconclusive. Objective : This study was conducted to examine the association of GI and GL with clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors including body weight, blood pressure (BP, serum lipids, fasting glucose, insulin and homocysteine over time among the PREMIER participants. Design: PREMIER was an 18-month randomized lifestyle intervention trial, conducted from 2000 to 2002, designed to help participants reduce BP by following the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH dietary pattern, losing weight, reducing sodium and increasing physical activity. GI and GL were estimated from 24 h diet recall data at baseline, 6 and 18 months after intervention. PROC MIXED model was used to examine the association of changes in GI or GL with changes in CVD risk factors. Results: A total of 756 randomized participants, 62% females and 34% African Americans and who averaged 50.0±0.3 years old and 95.3±0.7 kg, were included in this report. Neither GI nor GL changes was associated with changes in any risk factors at 6 months. At 18 months, however, the GI change was significantly and positively associated with total cholesterol (TC change only (p<0.05, β = 23.80±12.11 mg/dL or 0.62±0.31 mmol/L with a significant age interaction. The GL change was significantly associated with TC (p=0.02, β = 0.28±0.15 mg/dL or 0.01±0.00 mmol/L positively and with low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C changes negatively (p=0.03, β = − 0.01±0.00 mg/dL or −0.00±0.00 mmol/L, and significant age interactions were observed for both. Conclusion: GI and GL was associated with TC and LDL-C after controlling for energy, fat and fiber intake and other potential confounders and the associations were modified by age. Further investigation into this relationship is important because of its potential clinical impact.
Ward, Lesley J
If you're confused by commas, perplexed by pronouns, and plain terrified by tenses, English Grammar For Dummies will put your fears to rest. Packed with expert guidance, it covers everything from sentence basics to rules even your English teacher didn't know - if you want to brush up on your grammar, this is the only guide you'll ever need. Discover how to: avoid common grammatical errors; get to grips with apostrophes; structure sentences correctly; use verbs and find the right tense; and decide when to use slang or formal English.
Williams, L. [Environmental Protection Agency Region 8, Denver, CO (United States)
The Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) was a United States chemical weapons manufacturing center located in the Colorado, Denver area. This presentation described the transformation of this highly contaminated site into a premier urban wildlife refuge. It included background information on the RMA and described the manufacturing and disposal history, including munition storage, liquid waste disposal and an overview of groundwater contamination. Soil remedies were summarized with particular reference to the timeline of the reclamation; wildlife-remedy/refuge interaction; innovative technologies such as hex pits and a dioxin study; and nuisance odour projects. The RMA was described as a nationwide clean-up success as it was a winner of the 2007 revitalization award from the Environmental Protection Agency. The RMA was originally about 27 square miles in the greater Denver area, of which 1 square mile was transformed into the wildlife refuge. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process was demonstrated in chart format. The presentation concluded with a discussion of lessons learned, such as sharing a mutual goal, and assuming that a mutually acceptable solution is possible. tabs., figs.
Eshiet, Unyime I; Yusuff, Kazeem B
Previous studies of anti-hypertensive medicines utilization pattern in Nigeria showed that Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) were often the least prescribed. However, the appropriate use of ACEIs in the black population achieves good blood pressure control and provides additional long term cardio- and renovascular protection benefits. To assess the current utilization pattern of antihypertensive medicines with specific emphasis on identifying possible shift in the frequency of use of ACEIs. A prospective cross-sectional assessment of the current utilization pattern of anti-hypertensive medicines was conducted among 300 randomly selected cohort at a 900-bed premier Teaching Hospital located in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. The current utilization pattern was compared with the results of a study conducted at the same site and published 10 years ago. Of the 300 random cohorts, a majority (79%) were females (237) with mean age 58.7 years (SD=2.81 years. Stage 2 hypertension was the most frequent diagnosis (54.3%). The utilization of ACEIs and long acting CCB (amlodipine) significantly increased from 8.6% and 21% (Ten years ago) to 29.93% and 36.68% respectively (p Anti-hypertensive medicines utilization has significantly shifted towards the increased use of ACEIs and long acting dihydropyridine CCBs. The use of thiazides and methyldopa has declined significantly. Physicians appeared more cognizant of the long term cardio- and renovascular benefits inherent in using ACEIs in a high cardiovascular risk group such as black hypertensive.
Hausler, Joanne; Halaki, Mark; Orr, Rhonda
To investigate activity profiles of Australian rugby league players during match play by competition, position, and match outcome in the New South Wales (NSW) second-tier competitions. Eighteen NSW Cup (NSWC) and 22 National Youth Competition (NYC) players, participating in this prospective cohort study, were categorized into 3 positional groups: forwards, adjustables, and outside backs. Global positioning system devices were used to examine activity profiles (distance and relative distance covered in walking, jogging, moderate, high, very high, and sprinting speed zones and quantification of high-speed movement) during match play in 21 NSWC and 22 NYC matches (N = 339 files). NSWC players performed more sprints (36.5 ± 9.3 vs 28.4 ± 9.2) and greater relative distance in moderate speed zones (18.4 ± 3.2 vs 15.8 ± 3.1 m/min) than NYC. NSWC outside backs covered greater relative distance in jogging (29.4 ± 2.9 vs 24.8 ± 2.7 m/min) and moderate speed zones (17.0 ± 2.6 vs 12.8 ± 2.8 m/min) than their NYC counterparts. Adjustables performed more sprints (39.4 ± 10.1 vs 27.0 ± 9.2), high-intensity accelerations (3.7 ± 1.4 vs 1.9 ± 1.4), and relative distance (84.8 ± 4.3 vs 88.6 ± 4.8 m/min) than forwards and greater relative distance (81.5 ± 3.8 m/min) and sprints (31.0 ± 8.0) than outside backs. Adjustables recorded greater relative distance (19.8 m/min) in moderate speed zones than forwards (16.7 ± 3.1 m/min) and outside backs (14.9 ± 2.7 m/min). Adjustables covered ~685 m more than outside backs during a win. This is the first study to document the activity profiles of the NSW second-tier rugby league competition. The findings underscore the elevated match demands of adjustables and indicate higher intensity of play in NSWC than NYC that may more closely resemble the demands of National Rugby League match play.
Wright, Rick W; Steger-May, Karen; Klein, Sandra E
Changes in the dominant shoulder and elbow of professional pitchers have been noted on radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging scans, and ultrasound studies. The relationship of these findings to future injury and to time lost from play has not been identified. Degenerative changes of the shoulder and elbow are common findings on the radiographs of asymptomatic Major League Baseball pitchers. The changes are cumulative with increased pitching. These findings are not predictive of time on the disabled list. Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 4. Fifty-seven asymptomatic Major League Baseball pitchers participating in the St Louis Cardinals spring training camp underwent routine preseason radiographic screening of their dominant shoulder and elbow between 1986 and 1998. Radiographs were reviewed for osteophytes, cystic changes, joint-space narrowing, and loose bodies. All findings were recorded as present or absent. Public baseball records were reviewed for arm dominance, age, years of professional pitching, professional innings pitched, shoulder or elbow injury or surgery, and time on the disabled list. These factors were statistically evaluated for their possible association with findings seen on preseason radiographs. Shoulder radiographs were available for 57 pitchers, and elbow radiographs were available for 56 pitchers. Both groups had an average age of 29 years. The average number of radiographic findings was 3 for the shoulder and 7 for the elbow. Comparing pitchers on the disabled list for a shoulder or elbow injury with those not on the disabled list demonstrated no significant difference in the age, number of seasons pitched, or number of innings pitched between the 2 groups. When individual radiographic findings were compared, no single finding was predictive of disabled list status (P >.05 in all cases). The sum of radiographic findings for the shoulder was significantly correlated with the number of innings pitched in professional baseball
McCrory, P. R.; Bladin, P F; Berkovic, S.F.
OBJECTIVES: To study the ictal phenomenology, aetiology, and outcome of convulsions occurring within seconds of impact in violent collision sport. DESIGN: Retrospective identification of convulsions associated with concussive brain injury from case records from medical officers of football clubs over a 15 year period. SUBJECTS: Elite Australian rules and rugby league footballers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Neuroimaging studies, electroencephalography, neuropsychological test data, and statistics ...
McLean, Blake D; Coutts, Aaron J; Kelly, Vince; McGuigan, Michael R; Cormack, Stuart J
The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in neuromuscular, perceptual and hormonal measures following professional rugby league matches during different length between-match microcycles. Twelve professional rugby league players from the same team were assessed for changes in countermovement jump (CMJ) performance (flight time and relative power), perceptual responses (fatigue, well-being and muscle soreness) and salivary hormone (testosterone [T] and cortisol [C]) levels during 5, 7 and 9 d between-match training microcycles. All training was prescribed by the club coaches and was monitored using the session-RPE method. Lower mean daily training load was completed on the 5 d compared with the 7 and 9 d microcycles. CMJ flight time and relative power, perception of fatigue, overall well-being and muscle soreness were significantly reduced in the 48 h following the match in each microcycle (P values following 4 d in each microcycle. Countermovement jump relative power was lower in the 7 d microcycle in comparison with the 9 d microcycle (P rugby league match but can be recovered to baseline levels within 4 d. These findings show that with appropriate training, it is possible to recover neuromuscular and perceptual measures within 4 d after a rugby league match.
Nursing education is challenged to meet a growing demand for nurses, while substantiating the quality of the educational experience as well as the achievement of desired student outcomes. The National League for Nursing (NLN) Centers of Excellence (COE) in Nursing Education(TM) program represents high performing nursing schools which utilize…
Van Yperen, Nico W.
This study was conducted to examine psychological mechanisms underlying self-enhancing comparisons among 88 male major league professional soccer players. In line with other research, the results suggest that positive beliefs about oneself are more difficult to maintain with regard to unambiguous
T. Neogi (Tuhina); D. Aletaha (Daniel); A.J. Silman (Alan); R.L. Naden (Raymond); D. Felson; R. Aggarwal (Rohit); C.O. Bingham (Clifton); N.S. Birnbaum (Neal); G.R. Burmester (Gerd); V.P. Bykerk (Vivian); M.D. Cohen (Marc); B. Combe (Bernard); K.H. Costenbader (Karen); M. Dougados (Maxime); P. Emery (Paul); G. Ferraccioli (Gianfranco); J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke); K. Hobbs (Kathryn); T.W.J. Huizinga (Tom); A. Kavanaugh (Arthur); J. Kay (Jonathan); D. Khanna (Dinesh); T.K. Kvien (Tore); T. Laing (Timothy); K. Liao (Katherine); P. Mease (Philip); H.A. Ménard (Henri); L.W. Moreland (Larry); R. Nair (Raj); T. Pincus (Theodore); S. Ringold (Sarah); J.S. Smolen (Josef); E. Stanislawska-Biernat (Ewa); D. Symmons (Deborah); P.P. Tak (Paul); K.S. Upchurch (Katherine); J. Vencovský (Jiří); F. Wolfe (Frederick); G. Hawker (Gillian)
textabstractObjective. The American College of Rheumatology and the European League Against Rheumatism have developed new classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of Phase 2 of the development process was to achieve expert consensus on the clinical and laboratory variables that
This dissertation explores the relationship between US acting, actor training, and the sociology of theatre. Using the cultural criticism of notable Western Marxists, it argues that the profession of US acting has become a commodified enterprise, most especially since the 1970s and 80s. By using the now defunct League of Professional Theatre…
Inglis, Paul; Bird, Stephen P
The objective of the study was to describe the movement demands and running intensities of semi-professional rugby league players during a rugby league 9's (RL9's) tournament. Six semi-professional rugby league players competed in a RL9's tournament over a two-day period comprising of six games. Movement demands and running intensities were recorded using Global Positioning System (GPS) devices providing data on distance and speeds. Data is presented as mean (95% Confidence Intervals) with changes (≥ 75%) likely to exceed the smallest worthwhile change (0.2) considered practically important. Outside backs performed significantly (p distance than the forwards. Outside backs also performed significantly (p distance than the adjustables. Moderate (0.6 - 1.2) to very large (> 2.0) decreases in performance variables were observed over the two days. The biggest magnitude of change over the two days was seen with very large decreases in relative HSR (- 2.10) and sprint (- 2.14) distance. Between playing groups, the outside backs had the biggest decrease in running intensity with a very large (- 2.32) significant (p professional rugby league players. The observed decreases in running performances between playing groups are in agreement with previous research and may support the use of individualized player monitoring and recovery management during a RL9's tournament-style competition.
English is a national language in Uganda and is widely used in elite areas such as politics and business, but most Ugandans master English to only a limited degree. In this situation, English can be seen as either a foreign language or a second language--influencing how English is taught. One goal of language teaching espoused in this article is…
Liu, Na; Lin, Chih-Kai; Wiley, Terrence G.
Since the 1980s, China has represented one of the major growth areas in the world for English language education, and studying English has been a priority among its foreign language educational policies. As English has gained more popularity in China, some have noted the potential value of English as a means to greater educational access and…
Richards, Jack C.
Most of the world's English language teachers speak English as a second or third language rather than as their first language. For many, their level of proficiency in English may not reach benchmarks established by their employers, raising the issue that is the focus of this article, namely, what kind of proficiency in English is necessary to be…
A rapidly fatal viral infectious disease appeared in England in 1485, persisted for the summer months and disappeared as winter approached. This pattern of infection re-appeared in 1508, 1517, 1528, and finally 1551. The epidemic never returned. It had no respect for wealth or rank, and predominantly attacked males between the ages of 15 and 45 years. The incubation period was frighteningly short and the outcome normally fatal. The symptoms of acute respiratory disease and copious sweating were characteristic, providing the name 'the English sweating disease'. It was never in the big league of killer epidemics, such as plague and influenza, but its pockets of instant lethality in communities gave it a special ranking of horror. The infective cause of this disease remained a total mystery until it was compared with Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in 1994. The strength of this theory is examined in this paper, and it is concluded that, although there is a close resemblance, HPS does not match the English sweating disease completely and positive identification of a possible rodent carrier for the latter was not established.
In the literature on English stress, it is widely assumed that preimary stress falls on one of the last three syllables, depending on its weight and on whether the word undergoes extrametricality. ...
Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben; Geeson-Brown, Tom
The current study retrospectively compared the physical qualities of elite academy rugby league players (aged 16-19 years) by career attainment level (i.e., academy or professional). Retrospective cross-sectional and longitudinal design. Eighty-one academy rugby league players were assessed for physical qualities (height, body mass, skinfolds, speed, momentum, vertical jump, Yo-Yo Level 1 and 1-RM squat, bench press and prone row) at the Under 17-19 age categories between 2007 and 2012. Player's career attainment level was determined in 2014. Longitudinal changes in physical qualities between Under 17 and 19s were compared by career attainment level. Professional players demonstrated moderate significant advantages for height (d=0.98) and 1-RM squat (d=0.66) at the Under 17s, 1-RM bench press (d=0.76) at the Under 18s and 1-RM prone row (d=0.73) at the Under 19s age categories when compared to academy players. When assessed longitudinally (Under 17s-19s), professional players significantly outperformed academy players for 1-RM squat (η(2)=0.20). Professional players also demonstrated greater increases in body mass (8.2 vs. 2.9kg) and 10m momentum (47 vs. 17kgs(-1)) than academy players between the Under 17s and 19s. Advanced physical qualities, particularly height and absolute strength, within 16-19 year old players may contribute to attaining professional status in rugby league. Further, the development of body mass and momentum for players within an academy is an important consideration in the progress towards professional rugby league. Therefore, practitioners should aim to identify and develop the physical qualities, especially size and strength, within academy rugby league players. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Campbell, Norm R C; Lackland, Daniel T; Lisheng, Liu; Zhang, Xin-Hua; Nilsson, Peter M; Niebylski, Mark L
High dietary salt is a leading risk for death and disability largely by causing increased blood pressure. Other associated health risks include gastric and renal cell cancers, osteoporosis, renal stones, and increased disease activity in multiple sclerosis, headache, increased body fat and Meniere's disease. The World Hypertension League (WHL) has prioritized advocacy for salt reduction. WHL resources and actions include a non-governmental organization policy statement, dietary salt fact sheet, development of standardized nomenclature, call for quality research, collaboration in a weekly salt science update, development of a process to set recommended dietary salt research standards and regular literature reviews, development of adoptable power point slide sets to support WHL positions and resources, and critic of weak research studies on dietary salt. The WHL plans to continue to work with multiple governmental and non-governmental organizations to promote dietary salt reduction towards the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations.
Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of choosing a set of most separable colors in a given environment is discussed. The proposed method models the process of generating theoretically computed best colors, printing of these colors through a color printer, and imaging the printed colors through a camera into an integrated framework. Thus, it provides a feasible way to generate practically best separable colors for a given environment with a set of given equipment. A real world application (robust color choice for small-size league RoboCup competition is used as an example to illustrate the proposed method. Experimental results on this example show the competitiveness of the colors learned from our algorithm compared to the colors adopted by other teams which are chosen via an extensive trial and error process using standard color papers.
Fisher, Robert S
This review presents the newly developed International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) 2017 classification of seizure types. The fundamental distinction is between seizures that begin focally in one hemisphere of the brain, generalized onset seizures that apparently originate in both hemispheres, and seizures of unknown onset. Focal seizures optionally can be subclassified according to whether awareness (a surrogate marker for consciousness) is intact or impaired. The next level of classification for focal seizures is motor (with subgroups automatisms, atonic, clonic, epileptic spasms, hyperkinetic, myoclonic, tonic), non-motor (with subgroups autonomic, behavior arrest, cognitive, emotional, sensory), and focal to bilateral tonic-clonic. Generalized seizures are categorized as motor (tonic-clonic, clonic, tonic, myoclonic, myoclonic-tonic-clonic, myoclonic-atonic, atonic, epileptic spasms) and non-motor/absence (typical, atypical, myoclonic, eyelid myoclonia). The classification allows new types of focal seizures and a few new generalized seizures, and clarifies terms used to name seizures.
Full Text Available The National Football League (NFL has recently received significant negative media attention surrounding the safety of its players, revolving largely around the long term health risks of playing the sport. Recent premature deaths and instances of suicide associated with chronic traumatic encephalopathy and other football related injuries have brought the sport under increased scrutiny. By comparing mortality rates of the general population to mortality rates of players using publically available data from the 1970 and 1994 NFL seasons, we test whether participation in football is significantly harmful to the longevity of the players. We conclude that, in total, players in the NFL have lower mortality rates than the general population. However, there is evidence that line players have higher mortality rates than other players and that those who played more games have higher mortality rates than those who played fewer games.
Roberts, David W; Roc, Gilbert J; Hsu, Wellington K
The effects of disk herniations on the career and performance outcomes of Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers are unknown. The purpose of this study is to determine the outcomes after a cervical or lumbar disk herniation for MLB pitchers. Forty MLB pitchers from 1984 to 2009 with a cervical disk herniation or lumbar disk herniation were identified using a previously established protocol. Cervical disk herniation was identified in 11 pitchers, 8 of which were treated operatively. The majority of pitchers with cervical disk herniation (8/11) returned to play at an average of 11.6 months. Lumbar disk herniation was identified in 29 pitchers, 20 of which were treated operatively. All pitchers with lumbar disk herniation (29/29) returned to play at an average of 7.3 months after diagnosis. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.
Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to analyze the special fitness of visually impaired athletes in the subperiod special preparation of goalball players from first league teams, from Lublin and Wroclaw. The study involved 12 visually impaired athletes from clubs "Start" Lublin and Wroclaw (champion and vice-champion of the country, participating in the competition for Polish Championships. To assess the physical fitness of the special uses tests developed by the Bolach of spatial orientation - motion, coordination of auditory tests - mobility, hearing test of dynamic location of the sound source, tests to locate the touch points on the substrate. It was found that a group of visually impaired athletes from Lublin and Bierutów obtained similar results in tests: spatial orientation - motion, coordination, auditory - mobility, hearing location of the dynamic localization of sound sources and touch points on the substrate.
Marie Cordié Levy
Full Text Available En ce printemps 2012 New York apparaît plus que jamais comme le lieu vivant de la photographie. En témoignent la rétrospective de Cindy Sherman au MoMA ainsi que d’autres expositions plus engagées, telles que celle de Weegee à la Steven Kasher Gallery (dont la vitrine présente un mur de clichés noirs et blanc des indignés de Wall Street, pris en octobre 2011, des « Happenings » des années 60 à la Pace Gallery et enfin de l’exposition sur la Photo League au Jewish Museum. Riche d’environ 200 ...
Full Text Available In recent years, the National Football League (NFL has made an effort to lower the prevalence of concussions, partially by enacting rule changes designed to limit contact to the head. This study aims to determine whether NFL rule changes from 2009 – 2015 have resulted in a decrease in the number of reported concussions through analyzing publicly available injury reports, which were compared with rule changes for each season. A second component of the study aims to determine whether teams are underreporting the number of concussions suffered by gathering concussion data for each team. This study found that there was a general increase in the number of concussions from 2009 – 2015 and it is not possible to determine whether rule changes are effective in decreasing head impact exposure. This study also found that certain teams reported a significantly low number of concussions throughout the years analyzed, and underreporting is likely occurring.
This article aims to examine the problems both foreign and Japanese English Language teachers may have in the classroom. Classroom management through English can be a daunting prospect for both Japanese and non-Japanese language teachers. How to clearly put boundaries in place that students will understand and respect is a problem many educators face. This article deals with problematic issues in classroom management and offers advice and guidance on how these issues can be solved.
Even though English was the author's favorite subject, she was not good at speaking in English, and always tried to avoid it. However, it did not matter because she did not have to speak to demonstrate her English ability. After entering university, her lack of confidence in speaking English became a major issue, and other students face the same…
British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.
This profile in outline form of the English language teaching situation in Cyprus discusses the role of English within the Greek Cypriot community and within the educational system. Areas covered include English language requirements and English within the curriculum, teaching personnel and teacher training, instructional materials, English…
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes a case of C7 radiculopathy in a professional rugby league player after repeated cervical spine trauma. The report outlines the management of the patient following an acute cervical hyperflexion injury with chiropractic manipulation and soft tissue therapies. It also presents a change in approach to include distractive techniques on presentation of a neurological deficit following re-injury. The clinical outcomes, while good, were very dependent upon the athlete restricting himself from further trauma during games, which is a challenge for a professional athlete. Case presentation A 30-year old male front row Australian rugby league player presented complaining of neck pain after a hyperflexion and compressive injury during a game. Repeated trauma over a four month period resulted in radicular pain. Radiographs revealed decreased disc height at the C5-C6 and C6-C7 levels and mild calcification within the anterior longitudinal ligament at the C6-C7 level. MRI revealed a right postero-lateral disc protrusion at the C6-C7 level causing a C7 nerve root compression. Conclusion Recommendations from the available literature at the present time suggest that conservative management of cervical discogenic pain and disc protrusion, including chiropractic manipulation and ancillary therapies, can be successful in the absence of progressive neurological deficit. The current case highlights the initial successful management of a football athlete, and the later unsuccessful management. This case highlights the issues involvement in the management of a collision sport athlete with a serious neck injury.
Zeitz, Kathryn; Haghighi, Pari Delir; Burstein, Frada; Williams, Jeffrey
The present study was designed to further understand the psychosocial drivers of crowds impacting on the demand for healthcare. This involved analysing different spectator crowds for medical usage at mass gatherings; more specifically, did different football team spectators (of the Australian Football League) generate different medical usage rates. In total, 317 games were analysed from 10 venues over 2 years. Data were analysed by the ANOVA and Pearson correlation tests. RESULTS; Spectators who supported different football teams generated statistically significant differences in patient presentation rates (PPR) (F15, 618=1.998, P=0.014). The present study confirmed previous findings that there is a positive correlation between the crowd size and PPR at mass gatherings but found a negative correlation between density and PPR (r = -0.206, n=317, Pfootball teams generated statistically significant differences in PPR. What is known about this topic? Understanding the drivers of emergency medical care is most important in the mass gathering setting. There has been minimal analysis of psychological 'crowd' variables. What does this paper add? This study explores the psychosocial impact of supporting a different team on the PPR of spectators at Australian Football League matches. The value of collecting and analysing these types of data sets is to support more balanced planning, better decision support and knowledge management, and more effective emergency medical demand management. What are the implications for practitioners? This information further expands the body of evidence being created to understand the drivers of emergency medical demand and usage. In addition, it supports the planning and management of emergency medical and health-related requirements by increasing our understanding of the effect of elements of 'crowd' that impact on medical usage and emergency healthcare.
Full Text Available This article concerns with new and traditional practises in agriculture in Alxa League in the Inner Mongolia of China. For such a purpose, the DISPAA Department of University of Florence (Italy collaborated with the University of Tuscia (Italy, which has been one of the Italian executives for the Beijing Wind Dust Control Project under the framework of the Sino-Italian Cooperation Programme on Environmental Protection. In the context of ADAM Project, the Inner Mongolia was indicated as a potential hot-spot due to the combination of climatic change, human activities and the general phenomenon of desertification, which is an ongoing process in this area. During the past centuries, arid and semi-arid general environmental characteristics of Inner Mongolia’s landscape have conditioned the main course of economic development in rural areas. Into the Alxa League, a sub-case study situated around Jarantai City in the Alxa Left Banner was selected. During 2005-06, the work analysed the agricultural activities of the local rural population to evaluate if these might be able to cope with desertification and, more in general, with climatic change impacts. In particular, field surveys were implemented among local peasants, which were old herders or new farmers immigrated in the area, following a non-structured interview approach where the length of the interview was calibrated on the characteristics of the single interviewed. The interviews showed that soil fertility and water requirement (e.g. water drawdown and high evaporation rate that cause superficial salt crust formation are yet the main constraints to social and economic development of agriculture.
Cusimano, Michael D; Ilie, Gabriela; Mullen, Sarah J; Pauley, Christopher R; Stulberg, Jennifer R; Topolovec-Vranic, Jane; Zhang, Stanley
In North America, more than 800,000 youth are registered in organized ice hockey leagues. Despite the many benefits of involvement, young players are at significant risk for injury. Body-checking and aggressive play are associated with high frequency of game-related injury including concussion. We conducted a qualitative study to understand why youth ice hockey players engage in aggressive, injury-prone behaviours on the ice. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 61 minor ice hockey participants, including male and female players, parents, coaches, trainers, managers and a game official. Players were aged 13-15 playing on competitive body checking teams or on non-body checking teams. Interviews were manually transcribed, coded and analyzed for themes relating to aggressive play in minor ice hockey. Parents, coaches, teammates and the media exert a large influence on player behavior. Aggressive behavior is often reinforced by the player's social environment and justified by players to demonstrate loyalty to teammates and especially injured teammates by seeking revenge particularly in competitive, body-checking leagues. Among female and male players in non-body checking organizations, aggressive play is not reinforced by the social environment. These findings are discussed within the framework of social identity theory and social learning theory, in order to understand players' need to seek revenge and how the social environment reinforces aggressive behaviors. This study provides a better understanding of the players' motivations and environmental influences around aggressive and violent play which may be conducive to injury. The findings can be used to help design interventions aimed at reducing aggression and related injuries sustained during ice hockey and sports with similar cultures and rules.
Camp, Christopher L; Conte, Stan; Cohen, Steven B; Thompson, Matthew; D' Angelo, John; Nguyen, Joseph T; Dines, Joshua S
Oblique injuries are known to be a common cause of time out of play for professional baseball players, and prior work has suggested that injury rates may be on the rise in Major League Baseball (MLB). To better understand the current incidence of oblique injuries, determine their impact based on time out of play, and to identify common injury patterns that may guide future injury prevention programs. Descriptive epidemiological study. Using the MLB Health and Injury Tracking System, all oblique injuries that resulted in time out of play in MLB and Minor League Baseball (MiLB) during the 2011 to 2015 seasons were identified. Player demographics such as age, position/role, and handedness were included. Injury-specific factors analyzed included the following: date of injury, timing during season, days missed, mechanism, side, treatment, and reinjury status. A total of 996 oblique injuries occurred in 259 (26%) MLB and 737 (74%) MiLB players. Although the injury rate was steady in MiLB, the MLB injury rate declined ( P = .037). A total of 22,064 days were missed at a mean rate of 4413 days per season and 22.2 days per injury. The majority of these occurred during batting (n = 455, 46%) or pitching (n = 348, 35%), with pitchers losing 5 days more per injury than batters ( P time out of play in professional baseball. The vast majority of injuries occur on the lead side, and these injuries result in the greatest amount time out of play. The benefit of injections for the treatment of oblique injuries remains unknown.
Full Text Available The area of tactics in soccer game is of particular importance for modern soccer development. The analysis and improvement of spatio-temporal indicators as well as the game principles related to tactics may be crucial to the achievement of competitive results. This study is aimed at comparing tactical manifestations of the teams competing in the top quality European club competition, the Champions League, and the best Serbian soccer championship by analyzing competitive activity. The results of the conducted research were obtained by observing an overall of 20 randomly selected matches, 10 of the Champions League (CL and 10 of the Serbian Super Liga (SSL, which is a sufficient number of matches for making conclusions about the competitions respectively. In the previously designed observing protocol, using a method of notation, we analyzed all the attacks completed by shooting at the opponent's goal. The structure of successfully realized attacks was assessed on the basis of: accuracy, types of realized offensive actions; area of starting the action, manner of realization of passes completed (assists and distance from the goal from which a shot on goal was executed. The study showed that there are certain common characteristics, but also there are differences in the structure of successfully realized attacks between the two analyzed competitions. The teams of the CL competition had significantly greater number of effective attacks per match (p = 0. 006, they realized their offensive activities with slightly greater number of players (p = 0.002 and number of passes (p = 0.000, whereas there are no significant differences in the area of starting successful attacks, the manner of realization of assists and distance from which shots on goal were executed. The study results may define certain guidelines in training technology when preparing the teams of the SSL competition for taking part in the European soccer cups.
Devetag, Francesca; Mazzilli, Massimiliano; Benis, Roberto; La Torre, Antonio; Bonato, Matteo
The aim of this study was to assess how anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures with subsequently surgery reconstruction were sustaining during the professional career of women's' volleyball players of A1-A2 Italian volleyball league. Using an observational study with a retrospective case-series design for ACL ruptures, 125 teams with 1488 players were monitored. Subjects had to report level, role, injury modality, lower limb injured, laterality, period of the season and age. A total of 34 ACL ruptures were reported. Thirty-three (97%) were non-contact and 1 (3%) with contact. Twenty-one (61.7%) occurred in landing from a jump attack, 3 (8.8%) in landing from wall jump, 1 (3%) with apparent contact and 9 (26.5%) in other landing conditions. The most injured knee was the left limb (22, 64.7%) respect to the right limb (12, 35.3%). Fourteen (41.2%) ruptures occurred in spikers, 10 (29.4%) in middle blockers, 6 (17.6%) in setters, 3 (8.8%) in liberos and 1 (3%) in opposite hitters. Nine (26.5%) occurred in pre-season period, 16 (47%) in the first round, 4 (11.8%) in the second round, and 5 (14.7%) during play-off. The average age of the first ACL rupture was 23±3 years. We observed that female volleyball players of A1-A2 Italian volleyball league occurred mostly in a left non contact ACL rupture during a landing condition and the spikers were the players most a risk. Therefore, it is desirable that coaches teach players variations of landing in order to avoid possible chronic overloading of ACL.
Michael D Cusimano
Full Text Available In North America, more than 800,000 youth are registered in organized ice hockey leagues. Despite the many benefits of involvement, young players are at significant risk for injury. Body-checking and aggressive play are associated with high frequency of game-related injury including concussion. We conducted a qualitative study to understand why youth ice hockey players engage in aggressive, injury-prone behaviours on the ice.Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 61 minor ice hockey participants, including male and female players, parents, coaches, trainers, managers and a game official. Players were aged 13-15 playing on competitive body checking teams or on non-body checking teams. Interviews were manually transcribed, coded and analyzed for themes relating to aggressive play in minor ice hockey.Parents, coaches, teammates and the media exert a large influence on player behavior. Aggressive behavior is often reinforced by the player's social environment and justified by players to demonstrate loyalty to teammates and especially injured teammates by seeking revenge particularly in competitive, body-checking leagues. Among female and male players in non-body checking organizations, aggressive play is not reinforced by the social environment. These findings are discussed within the framework of social identity theory and social learning theory, in order to understand players' need to seek revenge and how the social environment reinforces aggressive behaviors.This study provides a better understanding of the players' motivations and environmental influences around aggressive and violent play which may be conducive to injury. The findings can be used to help design interventions aimed at reducing aggression and related injuries sustained during ice hockey and sports with similar cultures and rules.
Wasserman, Erin B; Abar, Beau; Shah, Manish N; Wasserman, Daniel; Bazarian, Jeffrey J
Concussions impair balance, visual acuity, and reaction time--all of which are required for high-level batting performance--but the effects of concussion on batting performance have not been reported. The authors examined this relationship between concussion and batting performance among Major League Baseball (MLB) players. Batting performance among concussed MLB players will be worse upon return to play than batting performance among players missing time for noninjury reasons. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. The authors identified MLB players who sustained a concussion between 2007 and 2013 through league disabled-list records and a Baseball Prospectus database. For a comparison group, they identified players who went on paternity or bereavement leave during the same period. Using repeated-measures generalized linear models, the authors compared 7 batting metrics between the 2 groups for the 2 weeks upon return, as well as 4 to 6 weeks after return, controlling for pre-leave batting metrics, number of days missed, and position. The authors identified 66 concussions and 68 episodes of bereavement/paternity leave to include in the analysis. In the 2 weeks after return, batting average (.235 vs .266), on-base percentage (.294 vs .326), slugging percentage (.361 vs .423), and on-base plus slugging (.650 vs .749) were significantly lower among concussed players relative to the bereavement/paternity leave players (time×group interaction, P<.05). In weeks 4 to 6 after leave, these metrics were slightly lower in concussed players but not statistically significantly so. Although concussed players may be asymptomatic upon return to play, the residual effects of concussion on the skills required for batting may still be present. Further work is needed to clarify the mechanism through which batting performance after concussion is adversely affected and to identify better measures to use for return-to-play decisions. © 2015 The Author(s).
Coleman, A Eugene; Amonette, William E
The purpose of this article was to compare times to first base in Major League Baseball games to determine whether running velocity decreases to the foul line and first base among players with differing years of playing experience. From 1998 to 2012, 1,185 sprint times to first base were analyzed: 469 outfielders, 601 infielders, and 115 catchers. The players were divided into differing experience categories depending on their years of service in Major League Baseball: 1-5, 6-10, 11-15, and 16-20+ years. Velocity at the foul line and first base was compared and interval accelerations were reported. Comparisons were completed by playing position, and within left- and right-handed batters. Left-handed outfielders exhibited reduced velocities at 6-10 (p = 0.04), 11-15 (p = 0.004), and 16-20 years (p < 0.001) compared with 1-5 years; there were no statistical differences in velocity at the foul line. Right-handed outfielders exhibited significantly reduced velocities at first base in 6-10 (p = 0.002) and 11-15 years (p = 0.001); they also had a reduced velocities at the foul line in 6-10 (p = 0.004) and 11-15 years (p = 0.009). Right-handed infielders had reduced velocities at first base in 11-15 years (p < 0.001). No other differences were observed within infielders at first base or the foul line. There were no differences within the compared variables for catchers. Decreases in running velocity to first base with experience are seen in outfielders but are less prominent in infielders and catchers. Although physical capabilities for sprinting may decline with age, it is possible that through repetition more experienced players perfect the skill-related component of running to first base, thus preserving speed.
Liu, Joseph N; Garcia, Grant H; Conte, Stan; ElAttrache, Neal; Altchek, David W; Dines, Joshua S
With the recent rise in the number of Tommy John surgeries, a proportionate rise in revisions is expected. However, much is unknown regarding the current revision rate of Tommy John surgery, return to play, and change in performance in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers. Publicly available databases were used to obtain a list of all MLB pitchers who underwent primary and revision Tommy John surgery. Pitching performance preoperatively and postoperatively for pitchers who returned to 1 or more MLB games after revision surgery was compared with controls matched for age and position. Since 1999, 235 MLB pitchers have undergone Tommy John surgeries; 31 pitchers (13.2%) underwent revision surgery, and 37% underwent revision within 3 years of the index procedure. Twenty-six revisions had more than 2 years of follow-up; 17 pitchers (65.4%) returned to pitch at least 1 major league game, whereas only 11 (42.3%) returned to pitch 10 or more games. Of those who returned to MLB competition, the average length of recovery was 20.76 months. Compared with controls matched for age and position, MLB pitchers undergoing revision surgery had a statistically shorter career after revision surgery (4.9 vs 2.6 seasons, P = .002), pitched fewer innings, and had fewer total pitches per season. The rate of revision Tommy John surgery is substantially higher than previously reported. For MLB pitchers, return to play after revision surgery is much lower than after primary reconstruction. The overall durability of MLB pitchers after revision ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction decreases significantly compared with controls matched for age and matched controls. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Guss, Michael S; Begly, John P; Ramme, Austin J; Taormina, David P; Rettig, Michael E; Capo, John T
Major League Baseball (MLB) players are at risk of hook of hamate fractures. There is a paucity of data assessing the effect of a hook of hamate fracture on MLB players' future athletic performance. To determine if MLB players who sustain hook of hamate fractures demonstrate decreased performance upon return to competition when compared with their performance before injury and that of their control-matched peers. Retrospective Case-Control Design. Retrospective Database Study. 18 MLB players who sustained hook of hamate fractures. Data for 18 MLB players with hook of hamate fractures incurred over 26 seasons (1989 to 2014) were obtained from injury reports, press releases, and player profiles ( www.mlb.com and www.baseballreference.com ). Player age, position, number of years in the league, mechanism of injury and treatment were recorded. Individual season statistics for the two seasons immediately prior to injury and the two seasons after injury for the main performance variable - wins above replacement (WAR) were obtained. Eighteen controls matched by player position, age, and performance statistics were identified. A performance comparison of the cohorts was performed. Post-injury performance compared to pre-injury performance and matched-controls. Mean age at the time of injury was 25.1 years with a mean of 4.4 seasons of MLB experience prior to injury. All injuries were sustained to their nondominant batting hand. All players underwent operative intervention. There was no significant change in WAR or ISO when pre-injury and post-injury performance was compared. When compared with matched-controls, no significant decline in performance in WAR the first season and second season after injury was found. MLB players sustaining hook of hamate fractures can reasonably expect to return to their pre-injury performance levels following operative treatment.
Keller, Robert A; Mehran, Nima; Marshall, Nathan E; Okoroha, Kelechi R; Khalil, Lafi; Tibone, James E; Moutzouros, Vasilios
Literature has attempted to correlate pitching workload with risk of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury; however, limited data are available in evaluating workload and its relationship with the need for revision reconstruction in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers. We identified 29 MLB pitchers who underwent primary UCL reconstruction surgery and subsequently required revision reconstruction and compared them with 121 MLB pitchers who underwent primary reconstruction but did not later require revision surgery. Games pitched, pitch counts, and innings pitched were evaluated and compared for the seasons after returning from primary reconstruction and for the last season pitched before undergoing revision surgery. The difference in workload between pitchers who did and did not require revision reconstruction was not statistically significant in games pitched, innings pitched, and MLB-only pitch counts. The one significant difference in workload was in total pitch counts (combined MLB and minor league), with the pitchers who required revision surgery pitching less than those who did not (primary: 1413.6 pitches vs. revision: 959.0 pitches, P = .04). In addition, pitchers who required revision surgery underwent primary reconstruction at an early age (22.9 years vs. 27.3 years, P < .001) and had less MLB experience (1.5 years vs. 5.0 years, P < .001). There is no specific number of pitches, innings, or games that place a pitcher at an increase risk for injury after primary UCL reconstruction. However, correlations of risk may be younger age and less MLB experience at the time of the primary reconstruction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Jiang, Jimmy J; Leland, J Martin
Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstructions are relatively common among professional pitchers in Major League Baseball (MLB). To the authors' knowledge, there has not been a study specifically analyzing pitching velocity after UCL surgery. These measurements were examined in a cohort of MLB pitchers before and after UCL reconstruction. There is no significant loss in pitch velocity after UCL reconstruction in MLB pitchers. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Between the years 2008 to 2010, a total of 41 MLB pitchers were identified as players who underwent UCL reconstruction. Inclusion criteria for this study consisted of a minimum of 1 year of preinjury and 2 years of postinjury pitch velocity data. After implementing exclusion criteria, performance data were analyzed from 28 of the 41 pitchers over a minimum of 4 MLB seasons for each player. A pair-matched control group of pitchers who did not have a known UCL injury were analyzed for comparison. Of the initial 41 players, 3 were excluded for revision UCL reconstruction. Eight of the 38 players who underwent primary UCL reconstruction did not return to pitching at the major league level, and 2 players who met the exclusion criteria were omitted, leaving data on 28 players available for final velocity analysis. The mean percentage change in the velocity of pitches thrown by players who underwent UCL reconstruction was not significantly different compared with that of players in the control group. The mean innings pitched was statistically different only for the year of injury and the first postinjury year. There were also no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups with regard to commonly used statistical performance measurements, including earned run average, batting average against, walks per 9 innings, strikeouts per 9 innings, and walks plus hits per inning pitched. There were no significant differences in pitch velocity and common performance measurements between players who returned to
Whiteside, David; Martini, Douglas N; Zernicke, Ronald F; Goulet, Grant C
Whiteside, D, Martini, DN, Zernicke, RF, and Goulet, GC. Ball speed and release consistency predict pitching success in Major League Baseball. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2015-This study aimed to quantify how ball flight kinematics (i.e., ball speed and movement), release location, and variations therein relate to pitching success in Major League Baseball (MLB). One hundred ninety starting MLB pitchers met the inclusion criteria for this study. Ball trajectory information was collected for 76,000 pitches and inserted into a forward stepwise multiple regression model, which examined how (a) pitch selection, (b) ball speed, (c) ball movement (horizontal and lateral), (d) release location (horizontal and lateral), (e) variation in pitch speed, (f) variation in ball movement, and (g) variation in release location related to pitching success (as measured by fielding independent pitching-FIP). Pitch speed, release location variability, variation in pitch speed, and horizontal release location were significant predictors of FIP and, collectively, accounted for 24% of the variance in FIP. These findings suggest that (a) maximizing ball speed, (b) refining a consistent spatial release location, and (c) using varied pitch speeds should be primary foci for the pitching coach. However, between-pitcher variations underline how training interventions should be administered at the individual level, with consideration given to the pitcher's injury history. Finally, despite offering significant predictors of success, these three factors explained only 22% of the variance in FIP and should not be considered the only, or preeminent, indicators of a pitcher's effectiveness. Evidently, traditional pitching metrics only partly account for a pitcher's effectiveness, and future research is necessary to uncover the remaining contributors to success.
Mark Booth, Rhonda Orr
Full Text Available This study aimed to 1 investigate the incidence and characteristics of injuries in emerging rugby league players; and 2 explore the differences in injury incidence and characteristics between the various sub-elite competitions. An NRL emerging player development squad (n = 34 was observed from the beginning of pre-season until the finish of competition. Time-loss injury was defined as any physical pain or impairment sustained that resulted in players missing a match. Injuries were categorised according to circumstance, incidence, characteristics, playing position and competition level. Of a total of 196 injuries that were recorded, 45 were time-loss and 151 were transient. The total injury incidence was 7.9/1,000 playing hours. The most common sites for time-loss injuries were the shoulder, ankle/foot and knee. Ligament injuries accounted for the highest number of injuries by type. Forwards sustained the greatest number of injuries. However, backs suffered the greatest injury cost. The majority of time-loss injuries were sustained during competition matches. Injuries sustained during open age matches resulted in significantly higher injury cost to those received at NYC matches. NRL development and emerging rugby league players are exposed to high risk of injury. Lower limb and shoulder injuries to bone or connective tissue are prevalent as a result of contact during match play. Players at this developmental level feed into several different playing squads where disparities in physical development, maturation, playing intensity and training regimes are evident. This presents a challenge in matching physiological capabilities with playing demands for NRL development squads.
Brophy, Robert H; Wright, Rick W; Powell, John W; Matava, Matthew J
Very little information is available regarding the incidence, causative mechanisms, and expected duration of time lost after injuries to kickers (placekickers and punters) in American football. Lower extremity musculotendinous injuries are the most common type of injury in American football kickers. The injuries related to punting differ from injuries related to placekicking. Descriptive epidemiologic study. A retrospective review of all documented injuries to kickers in the National Football League over a 20-year period (1988-2007) was performed using the League's injury surveillance database. The data were analyzed from multiple perspectives, with emphasis on the type of kick or activity at the time of injury and the factors that affect return to play after injury. There were 488 total injuries over the 20-year period: 72% involved the lower extremity, 9% involved the lumbosacral spine, and 7% involved the head. Muscle-tendon injuries (49%) were the most common, followed by ligamentous injuries (17%). There was a significantly higher risk of injury in games (17.7 per 1000) than during practice (1.91 per 1000). Most injuries (93%) did not require surgery, and the mean time to return to play was 15 days if no surgery was necessary. Kickers over 30 years of age took longer to return to play (mean, 21 days) than younger kickers (mean, 12 days) after nonsurgical injuries (P = .03). Mean return to play after injuries that required surgery was 121 days. Lumbosacral soft tissue injury, lateral ankle sprains, and shoulder injuries were more likely to occur in punters than placekickers. Kicking athletes face a low risk of injury in professional American football. Injuries most commonly involve the lower extremities. Training and injury prevention efforts should reflect that punting is associated with different injuries than placekicking, and that older kickers take longer to recuperate than younger kickers after certain injuries.
This is a fun and userfriendly way to learn EnglishEnglish Made Easy is a breakthrough in English language learningimaginatively exploiting how pictures and text can work together to create understanding and help learners learn more productively. It gives learners easy access to the vocabulary, grammar and functions of English as it is actually used in a comprehensive range of social situations. Selfguided students and classroom learners alike will be delighted by the way they are helped to progress easily from one unit to the next, using a combination of pictures and text to discover for themselves how English works. The pictorial method used in this book is based on a thorough understanding of language structure and how language is successfully learned.English Made Easy, Volume 2 consists of a total of 20 units arranged in groups of five. The first four units presents language and provide learners the opportunities to practice as they learn. The first page of each unit has a list of all the words...
Full Text Available English has successfully overwhelmed Indonesian like tsunami as an imperialistic language. The meaning of imperialism here, however, differs from the conventional meaning as it is invited imperialism, not coerced imperialism.The influence of English in Indonesian is discussed in terms of modernization, globalization, economy, and history. The linguistic tsunami effects are overwhelming, staggering, and unstoppable. The data for this article were collected from various sources, and it was found that the number of English words (pure and modified is indeed confounding. Virtually English words have penetrated all walks of life. Unfortunately, there is no way we can prevent English influence on Indonesian, it is simply inevitable and we cannot do anything about it. Seen from linguistic purism, we have lost the battle in fighting off English influence; but seen from the eye of a descriptive linguist, it is an unpreventable historical phenomenon. It is a lingusitic dynamism in which language is altered and enriched by a continuous input from other languages, the most influential language being the major donor of loanwords of the receiving language. If it is considered a problem, the solution is to change our attitude to realize that any living language continues undergoing modifications and we should be willing to accommodate them. It is the dialectics of world history.
This is a fun and userfriendly way to learn English English Made Easy is a breakthrough in English language learningimaginatively exploiting how pictures and text can work together to create understanding and help learners learn more productively. It gives learners easy access to the vocabulary, grammar and functions of English as it is actually used in a comprehensive range of social situations. Selfguided students and classroom learners alike will be delighted by the way they are helped to progress easily from one unit to the next, using a combination of pictures and text to discover for themselves how English works. The pictorial method used in this book is based on a thorough understanding of language structure and how language is successfully learned.English Made Easy, Volume 1 consists of a total of 20 units arranged in groups of five. The first four units presents language and provide learners the opportunities to practice as they learn. The first page of each unit has a list of all the word...
van Bommel, Rutger J; Lemmert, Miguel E; van Mieghem, Nicolas M; van Geuns, Robert-Jan; van Domburg, Ron T; Daemen, Joost
To compare the occurrence of acute stent recoil in two different stent types (platinum chromium and cobalt chromium) and identify the potential predictors of significant acute stent recoil. Acute stent recoil is frequently observed after percutaneous coronary intervention and has been associated with in-stent restenosis and in-stent thrombosis. Different stent designs may result in varying degrees of stent recoil. From a registry of "all-comers" treated with either the Xience Prime Cobalt Chromium or Promus Premier Platinum Chromium stent, a random sample of 100 patients was drawn. Acute stent recoil was defined as the minimal luminal diameter (MLD) of the last inflated balloon minus the MLD after, divided by the MLD of the last inflated balloon. Significant acute stent recoil was defined as recoil ≥10%. A total of 123 lesions (61 Xience Prime vs 62 Promus Premier) in 100 patients were analyzed. Acute stent recoil of 8.6 ± 4.9% was observed in the Xience Prime group versus 8.7 ± 4.2% in the Promus Premier group, P = 0.970. In a multivariate model for significant acute stent recoil, a stent/vessel ratio ≥1 (hazard ratio 4.64 [1.94-11.12], P = 0.001), a balloon/stent ratio >1 (hazard ratio 3.83 [1.12-13.14], P = 0.032) and direct stenting (hazard ratio 0.42 [0.18-0.96], P = 0.039) were identified as predictors. No significant differences were observed in the extent of acute stent recoil between the Xience Prime and the Promus Premier stent. A larger stent/vessel ratio, a larger balloon/stent ratio, and direct stenting were associated with significant acute stent recoil ≥10%. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Canadian Consultative Council on Multiculturalism, Ottawa (Ontario).
This booklet, written in both English and French, reports on the activities of the Canadian Consultative Council on Multiculturalism since its formation in 1973. Chapters are presented on the retention of language and culture, overcoming inequalities, community cultural centers and multicultural centers, ethnic press and mass media, the arts,…
Tredrea, Matthew; Dascombe, Ben; Sanctuary, Colin E; Scanlan, Aaron Terrence
This study aimed to identify attributes that discriminate selected from non-selected players and predict selection into a rugby league development programme in older adolescent players. Anthropometric, performance and psychological attributes were measured in under-16 (N = 100) and under-18 (N = 60) rugby league players trialling for selection into a development programme with a professional Australian club. Sprint times (P rugby league and indicate talent identification test batteries should be age-specific in older adolescent players.
Full Text Available Continuations intra et interphrastiques du français : premiers résultats expérimentaux Cet article rend compte d’un certain nombre d’observations pour l’étude des continuations mineures et majeures en français. Ces observations ont été obtenues dans le cadre d’un projet en cours sur les patrons prosodiques non-conclusifs en français et en anglais. Ici, Nous discutons plus particulièrement les variations de pente concernant deux types de configurations continuatives : (i le segment final d’un SN sujet dans une phrase simple déclarative, suivie ou non d’une autre phrase, (ii le segment final de X dans une suite complexe de type XY où X et Y sont des phrases simples reliées par une relation de discours, marquée ou non par une conjonction. A l’issu d’un protocole expérimental contrastant huit configurations proposées à trente deux sujets, nous avons relevé les valeurs de F0 toutes les 10 ms sur les segments finaux du SN et de X. En calculant le coefficient de la droite de régression correspondant à ce segment, nous avons contrasté les différentes configurations. Les résultats vont dans le sens de l’existence deux types de continuation, conformément à une intuition répandue dans la littérature, mais montrent aussi que leur différence doit se décrire à l’aide paramètres plus complexes que ce qui est généralement proposé.
Full Text Available Les partenariats public-privé (PPP sont un phénomène relativement récent dans le secteur de l’irrigation ; le projet El Guerdane au Maroc est ainsi le premier de son genre. Inauguré en 2008, le projet alimente en eau 10 000 ha de plantations d’agrumes. Les banques internationales de développement le présentent comme un succès, mais l’impact sur le développement local est, au mieux, mitigé. Alors que certains agriculteurs ont bénéficié de cette initiative, d’autres ont été marginalisés, en termes d’accès à l’eau, aux terres fertiles et au développement. Fondé sur des recherches de terrain extensives conduites entre 2005 et 2013, l’article révèle trois problèmes cruciaux du projet PPP : des effets souvent négatifs sur les revenus des acteurs et sur le développement ; un partage inégal des coûts, des bénéfices et des risques entre les secteurs public et privé ; un impact environnemental incertain. Sur la base de ces résultats, l’étude situe le projet dans le contexte plus large de l’évolution des rapports de force politico-économiques au Maroc.
Ni Luh Ketut Mas Indrawati
Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing and describing the English compound specifically the English noun compound. Compound is a combination of two or more words of which meaning cannot always be predicted from the meaning of each part. In English, words, especially adjectives and nouns, are combined into compound structures in a variety of ways. This article attempts to discuss the formal characteristics and types of the English noun compound. The theory of compound was adopted for further analysis. The finding shows that the formal characteristics of the English noun compound are: the noun compounds have primary stress on the first constituent, the semantic unity of a noun compound is reflected in an orthographic, the meaning of the noun compound cannot be predicted from the meaning of the parts. The orthographic characteristics can be solid, hyphenated, and open. The types involved are Subject and Verb, Verb and Object, verb and adverbial, verb-less, subject and complement, combining-form and Bahuvrihi
Dedy Subandowo -
Full Text Available Abstract: This research entitled "Negation Affixes in English". This study is aimed to describe the various negation affixes in English, morphological process, morphophonemic and meaning. The research data were taken from various sources of English grammar book, morphology, research journal and the book which relatees to the research. English grammar books used in this study are written by Otto Jesperson, Marcella Frank, Greenbaum and Geoffrey Leech. The method used in this research is the descriptive-qualitative method. While the data collection techniques are performed by using jot-down method. And the results of analysis are presented in tabular form and descriptive method. The result of the research shows that English has six types of negative affixes which are categorized by the intensity of its appearance, such as dis-, in-, non-, un-, anti- and -less. Based on the function, negation affixes are divided into several categories such as adjectives, nouns, verbs, and adverbs. The morphophonemic affix in- has four allomorphs, they are in-, im-, il- and ir- . While the analysis revealed that negation affixes have some basic meanings, such as ‘not’, ‘without’, and ‘anti’.
I. G. Fedotova
Full Text Available The Department of English Language № 8 works with students of the Faculty of International Law. The unique school of teaching legal aspects of the English language is one of the most significant achievements of the department. Associate Professor V.F. Nazarov was one of professionals, was at the origin of this school. In 1992 the textbook "The course of the legal interpretation of Anglo-American Commercial Law" was published, which was the result of work of group of specialists in legal translation since early 1970s. The book laid foundation for the further development of the school of teaching legal aspects of the English language. After1990stheteaching of the legal aspects of English language was brought to the next level, marked of the by the creation of the educational complex "Legal concepts and categories in the English language" by I.G. Fedotova and G.P. Tolstopyatenko, based on the new competence-based concept of educating professional international lawyers.
Brown, Ryan, Ed.; Ernst, Jeremy, Ed.; Clark, Aaron, Ed.; DeLuca, Bill, Ed.; Kelly, Daniel, Ed.
This professional development activity on STEM Education is designed to keep Technology and Engineering teachers up to date regarding current and important issues in the discipline. This article describes why there is a focus on STEM Education, defines STEM Education, and discusses curriculum integration and its elements.
Brown, Ryan; Ernst, Jeremy; Clark, Aaron; DeLuca, Bill; Kelly, Daniel
Educators who engage in best practices utilize a variety of instructional delivery methods to assist all learners in achieving success in concept mastery. Best practices help educators set expectations for completing activities/lessons/projects/units, differentiate instruction, integrate curricula, and provide active learning opportunities for…
Chopin, Kimberly Renée
the Danish language may play in higher education in Denmark. This study investigates both trends through a focus on recently implemented language policies at one Danish university faculty which mandate that graduate instruction becarried out only in English, and undergraduate instruction only in Danish......-up approachto determining language use. This research has implications for other institutions which are affected by similar language issues. It adds to existing work on English-medium instruction in higher education, and adds to discussions on domain loss and the language of education inuniversities.......Universities in Denmark are becoming increasingly internationalized, and areincreasingly using English as a language of research, teaching, and administration. At the same time, the Danish language is seen by some as being under threat, and Danish public discourse has focused on what role...
English Book Club
The CERN English Book Club will hold its 2012 AGM at 17h30 on Monday 5th March in the club rooms (club barrack 564). Club members are invited to attend. Any members wishing to add points on to the agenda should contact one of the committee before February 27th. The English Book Club has a collection of over 4500 English language books, mostly general fiction with a sprinkling of nonfiction and children’s books. New books are purchased regularly and the books are shelved in our club room which is accessible to members at all times. Membership is open to all (staff and external) and there is a special tariff for short term students. See the club’s website at http://cern.ch/englishbookclub for more details.
CERN English Book Club
AGM -- AGM -- 2010 -- AGM -- AGM The CERN ENGLISH BOOK CLUB will hold its 2010 AGM at 18h00 on Monday November 22nd in the club rooms (club barrack 564). Club members are invited to attend. Any members wishing to add points on to the agenda should contact one of the committee before November 12th. AGM -- AGM -- 2010 -- AGM -- AGM The English Book Club has a collection of over 4500 English language books, mostly general fiction with a sprinkling of nonfiction and children’s books. New books are purchased regularly and the books are shelved in our club room which is accessible to members at all times. Membership is open to all (staff and external) and there is a special tariff for short term students. See the club’s website at http://cern.ch/englishbookclub for more details.
Full Text Available Phrasal verbs or multi-word verbs, such as call off, go into and run up against, etc. represent a very interesting and challenging aspect of the English language. In ELT there is a widespread view that familiarity with a wide range of phrasal verbs and the ability to use them appropriately in context are among the distinguishing marks of a native-like command of English. However, it is also generally recognised that these verb+particle combinations pose special difficulties for both learners and teachers of English partly because there are so many of them, partly because they have special semantic, syntactic and stylistic properties. Besides, quite many of them can be used as nouns, e.g. a hideaway, a stowaway and a write-off, etc. and adjectives, e.g. a broken-down car and a knockdown price, etc. What is more, again quite many of them have a single word equivalent of Romance origin, which, however, often differs from them in terms of style, collocation and meaning, e.g. blow up ~ explode, do away with ~ eliminate and put out ~ extinguish, etc. Furthermore, it is a misconception that phrasal verbs are mainly used in informal style and in spoken English. In fact, they can be found in many styles of writing, ranging from highly formal texts to slang, e.g. call forth vs. gobble up, etc. This paper sets out to explore the unique and complex nature of English verb+particle constructions in order to make them a more manageable part of the vocabulary of English.
Bridges, Ann; Mitchell, John
A brand new edition of the former Higher English: Close Reading , completely revised and updated for the new Higher element (Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation) - worth 30% of marks in the final exam!. We are working with SQA to secure endorsement for this title. Written by two highly experienced authors this book shows you how to practice for the Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation section of the new Higher English exam. This book introduces the terms and concepts that lie behind success and offers guidance on the interpretation of questions and targeting answer
Since its first publication in 1962, Gimson's Pronunciation of English has been the essential reference book for anyone studying or teaching the pronunciation of English.This eighth edition has been updated to describe General British (GB) as the principal accent, rather than RP, and the accompanying transcriptions have been brought into line with recent changes in pronunciation. This latest edition also includes completely rewritten chapters on the history of the language and the emergence of a standard, alongside a justification for the change from RP to GB.
English teachers constantly have to think up new ways to engage their class. It's hard enough for teachers to fit all their marking, extra-curricular duties and training into their lives, let alone finding time to think up exciting new ways of introducing Dickens, or designing activities to bring Caribbean poetry to life. Resources for Teaching English 11-14 provides complete, curriculum-friendly lesson plans and student worksheets for busy secondary school teachers. This resource comprises an assortment of more than 70 lesson plans, each designed to motivate and inspire students and
Naterop, B Jean
Many people have to use English on the telephone in the course of their work, either at the level of taking a simple message or involving more complex tasks such as requesting information. Telephoning in English provides an up-to-date and relevant context in which students from lower-intermediate level upwards can develop practical telephone skills. The course principally develops spoken interactive skills, but also includes reading material on telephone systems and techniques. As the material is not restricted to particular job functions, it is suitable for students in a wide range of business and administration fields.
Reports on two studies that sought to identify the rhetorical preferences of native speakers when reading inter-English and to compare these with their rhetorical preferences when reading authentic English. (66 references) (JL)
Gordon, W. Terrence
The linguistic complexity of humor is illustrated with examples of word play translated from French to English and English to French. Examples from the writings of James Joyce and Marcel Proust are highlighted. (CB)
... Organizations § 1.501(c)(6)-1 Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real estate boards, and boards of trade. A... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real estate boards, and boards of trade. 1.501(c)(6)-1 Section 1.501(c)(6)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE...
Full Text Available The ageing population in Canada is dramatically increasing. According to recent demographic projections, roughly 20 percent of Canada’s population will consist of people over the age 65 by 2024. Indeed, the senior population is expected to surpass that of children under the age of 14 by 2017. This growth of the senior cohort signals opportunities for individuals over the age of 50 to challenge stereotypes and embrace active living. Organized sport leagues are a means for seniors to not only embrace active living, but to also re-live and continue living the competitive sports that they played earlier in life. The increasing number of organized sport leagues for this cohort, including the active living philosophy embraced by baby boomers, will probably lead to an increased demand for more organized sport opportunities for this population group. The purpose of this paper is to provide a current state of condition of organized sport leagues for those 50 years of age and over. Specifically, the objective of this paper is to present the evolution of organized sport leagues for those 50 and over while also making suggestions for the future provision of such services. It is concluded that: a more research is needed to better understand the trend of 50 and over sport leagues, b municipal sport and recreation administrators should consider establishing more 50 and over sport leagues in their recreation program delivery systems, c 50 and over sport leagues should better address the needs of specific population groups (e.g., women and ethnic groups, and d awareness should be enhanced for potential entrepreneurial opportunities for the establishment of 50 and over sport leagues.
Casson, Ira R; Viano, David C; Powell, John W; Pellman, Elliot J
Positions, signs, symptoms, and medical management of National Football League players with concussions involving 7 or more days out (7+) from play were compared for two 6-year study periods (2002-2007 vs 1996-2001). More players were held out 7+ days in the 2002-2007 period without significant difference in concussion signs and symptoms. Cohort. From 1996 through 2007, National Football League team physicians reported concussion signs and symptoms, medical action taken, and follow-up management. During the 2002-2007 period, 143 (16.7%) and 33 (3.86%) concussed players were out 7+ days and 21+ days, respectively, compared with 73 (8.2%) and 7 (0.79%) in the 1996-2001 period, a significant difference (z = 5.39, P < .01). The positions with the highest fraction of 7+ days out were the quarterback (24.5% vs 16.1%), linebacker (19.7% vs 4.6%), and wide receiver (19.5% vs 8.2%) in the later versus earlier period. The player positions with the highest odds for being out 7+ days were quarterback (odds ratio = 1.80 vs 4.02), linebacker (odds ratio = 1.28 vs 0.65), and wide receiver (odds ratio = 1.25 vs 1.15). The highest incidence of 7+ days out occurred after passing plays (32.2% vs 37.0%), followed by kickoffs (18.9% vs 21.9%). The majority of players with 7+ days out were removed from the game on the day of injury (74.8% vs 72.6%); a smaller fraction were returned to play on the day of injury in the later 6 years (3.5% vs 6.8%). The positions with the highest odds for being out 7+ days with concussion were quarterbacks, linebackers, and wide receivers. In the more recent 6-year period, more players were managed conservatively by being held out 7+ days, even though the signs and symptoms of their concussions were similar to those in the earlier period.
A. Hamid, Mohamad Shariff; Jaafar, Zulkarnain; Mohd Ali, Azril Syazwan
Objective In Malaysia, futsal is a popular sport played by individuals across all ages and genders. Despite its popularity, information on futsal related injury in Malaysia is not available. The purpose of this study is to examine the injury incidence and injury patterns among amateur men and women futsal players in Malaysia. Methods Players reported injury to the tournament medical team during the FELDA/FAM National Futsal League 2010 were interviewed and assessed by a Sports Medicine registrar. Player's socio-demographic profiles and information about the injury were documented in the injury report form adapted from medical report form used by FIFA: Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-Marc). Results A total of 86 injuries were reported from 141 matches, equivalent to an incidence of 91.5 injuries per 1000 player hours (95% CI 72.2 to 110.8), or 61.0 injuries per 1000 player matches (95% CI 48.1 to 73.9). Most were minor injuries resulted from contact with another player. Injuries often involved the lower extremity (44%) followed by the trunk (14%) and the upper limb (13%). Ankle (n = 7; 39%) and knee (n = 6; 33%) sprains were the most prevalent diagnoses of time-loss injuries. A significant association between time-loss and type of injury was found χ2 (1,N = 86) = 3.99, p = 0.04. In addition, time-loss injury was significantly associated with playing surface χ2 (1,N = 86) = 10.11, p = 0.018. Conclusion The injury rate during the FELDA/FAM National Amateur Futsal Men's League in Malaysia was lower compared with previous Futsal World Cups competition. Most injuries resulted from contact with another player were minor and did not lead to time-loss from participation. Time-loss injury was significantly associated with type of injury and playing surface. PMID:24733140
Varley, Matthew C; Gabbett, Tim; Aughey, Robert J
Abstract We compared the match activity profiles of elite footballers from Australian football (AF), rugby league (RL) and soccer (SOC), using identical movement definitions. Ninety-four elite footballers from AF, RL or SOC clubs in Australia participated in this study. Movement data were collected using a 5-Hz global positioning system from matches during the 2008-2011 competitive seasons, including measures of velocity, distance, acceleration and bouts of repeat sprints (RS). Australian footballers covered the greatest relative running distances (129 ± 17 m.min -1 ) compared to RL (97 ± 16 m.min -1 ) and SOC (104 ± 10 m.min -1 ) (effect size [ES]; 1.0-2.8). The relative distance covered (4.92 ± 2.10 m.min -1 vs. 5.42 ± 2.49 m.min -1 ; 0.74 ± 0.78 m.min -1 vs. 0.97 ± 0.80 m.min -1 ) and the number of high-velocity running (0.4 ± 0.2 no.min -1 vs. 0.4 ± 0.2 no.min -1 ) and sprint (0.06 ± 0.06 no.min -1 vs. 0.08 ± 0.07 no.min -1 ) efforts between RL and SOC players were similar (ES; 0.1-0.3). Rugby league players undertook the highest relative number of accelerations (1.10 ± 0.56 no.min -1 ). RS bouts were uncommon for all codes. RL and SOC players perform less running than AF players, possibly due to limited open space as a consequence of field size and code specific rules. While training in football should be code specific, there may be some transference of conditioning drills across codes.
Erickson, Brandon J; Harris, Joshua D; Cole, Brian J; Frank, Rachel M; Fillingham, Yale A; Ellman, Michael B; Verma, Nikhil N; Bach, Bernard R
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a significant injury in male National Hockey League (NHL) players. To determine (1) the return to sport (RTS) rate in the NHL following ACL reconstruction, (2) performance on RTS, and (3) the difference in RTS and performance between players who underwent ACL reconstruction and controls. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. NHL players undergoing ACL reconstruction were evaluated. All demographic data were analyzed. Matched controls were selected from the NHL during the same years as those undergoing ACL reconstruction. The "index year" (relative to the number of years of experience in the NHL) in controls was the same as the year that cases underwent ACL reconstruction. RTS and performance in the NHL were analyzed and compared between cases and controls. Student t tests were performed for analysis of within- and between-group variables. Bonferroni correction was used in the setting of multiple comparisons. A total of 36 players (37 knees) meeting the inclusion criteria underwent ACL reconstruction while in the NHL. Thirty-five players were able to RTS in the NHL (97%), and 1 player returned to the international Kontinental Hockey League. Of the players who RTS in the NHL, 100% were able to RTS the season after ACL reconstruction (mean, 7.8 ± 2.4 months). Length of career in the NHL after ACL reconstruction was 4.47 ± 3.3 years. The revision rate was 2.5%. There were significantly more cases playing in the NHL at 3 (P = .027) and 4 (P = .029) years following surgery compared with controls (index year). After ACL reconstruction, player performance was not significantly different from preinjury performance. Following ACL reconstruction (or index year in controls), cases played significantly more minutes, took more shots, had better shooting percentages, and scored more goals and points than did controls (P performance measure. There is a high RTS rate in the NHL following ACL reconstruction. All players who RTS did so the
Full Text Available Introduction: When it is about elite male volleyball players, it is always meant about players that possess such anthropometric parameters which correspond with volleyball game. In this research we are deal with two teams of the super league of Kosovo in volleyball. The goal of this study is to verify the differences between the two teams in volleyball in some anthropometric characteristics, basic motor skills and situational tests. Methods: For the realization of this research, there were included 12 volleyball player from the team KV "Granit com" and 12 from the team KV "Te Luzha". There are applied 4 anthropometric variables (body weight, body height, arm length, forearm length, 5 basic motor variables (long jump from place, high jump from the place taping hand, taping feet, jogging with 20 meters with a fast start, and 7 situational tests (pass the ball with the fingers on target vertical expulsion of the ball with the forearm ("hammer" in vertical target, passing the ball with the fingers in a horizontal target, the expulsion of the ball with the forearm ("hammer" in horizontal target, pass the ball with fingers to jump in the horizontal target, tennis service in horizontal target, the target service with the horizontal jump. For processing the obtained results from the measurements and proving the difference between the teams in anthrop motored parameters, was used the discriminatory analysis using the t-test for independent variables. Results: The results obtained show that the players of the two volleyball teams of the Super League in of Kosova, involved in the research do not distinguish between them in anthropometric characteristics (p> 0:05. The team KV "Granit Com" has had better results in some motor variables of the explosive force and the one of long jump from the place(P 1.97 above 20 entities. The results show that statistically valid changes with valid significant tests are present in anthropometric and movement space. Table nr
Full Text Available Cet article porte sur les enjeux de signalisation routière pendant l'entre-deux-guerres. Il esquisse d'abord la relation souvent difficile entre l'automobile et la ville d'une part et la société en général. Il revient sur le rôle de la signalisation routière dont la mise en place a contribué à encadrer ces rapports. À la veille de la Première Guerre Mondiale, des milliers de panneaux décorent déjà les routes européennes. Depuis la guerre, la nouvelle Société des Nations réussit à s'accaparer les discussions sur la signalisation routière au début des années 1920, puis commence ses travaux sur la signalisation routière spécifiquement urbaine à partir de 1926. La Conférence Européenne sur le Trafic Routier en 1931 est le sommet de ce mouvement. Le système n'a pas changé fondamentalement depuis. A l'inverse des propositions des représentants urbains, la SdN n’est cependant pas devenue le coordinateur central des problèmes de signalisation routière. L’article conclut par nuancer la qualification des panneaux routiers comme des hiéroglyphes par le journaliste français Baudry de Saunier en 1931.This article discusses road traffic signs in the Interwar years. The article first sketches the often difficult relationship between the car and the city and society at large. It proposes road signs were introduced in part to mitigate this antagonistic relation. On the eve of the First World War thousands of signs already adorned European roads. After the war the new League of Nations managed to seize discussions on road signs in the early 1920s, and started to work on specifically urban road signs from 1926 onwards. The European Conference on Road Traffic in 1931 formed the apex of this development. The system has not fundamentally changed since. Contrary to the proposal of urban representatives, the League did not, however, become the supreme arbiter of traffic signs. The article concludes by nuancing a 1931
Gardner, Andrew J; Howell, David R; Levi, Christopher R; Iverson, Grant L
Many professional sports have introduced sideline video review to help recognise concussions. The reliability and validity of identifying clinical and observable signs of concussion using video analysis has not been extensively explored. This study examined the reliability and validity of clinical signs of concussion using video analysis in the National Rugby League (NRL). All 201 professional NRL matches from the 2014 season were reviewed to document six signs of possible concussion (unresponsiveness, slow to get up, clutching/shaking head, gait ataxia, vacant stare, and seizure). A total of 127,062 tackles were reviewed. Getting up slowly was the most common observable sign (2240 times in the season, 1.8% of all tackles) but only 223 times where it appeared to be a possible concussion (0.2% of all tackles and 10.0% of the times it occurred). Additionally, clutching/shaking the head occurred 361 times (on 212 occasions this sign appeared to be due to a possible concussion), gait ataxia was observed 102 times, a vacant stare was noted 98 times, unresponsiveness 52 times, and a possible seizure 4 times. On 383 occasions, one or more of the observable signs were identified and deemed associated with a possible concussion. There were 175 incidences in which a player appeared to demonstrate two or more concussion signs, and 54 incidences where a player appeared to demonstrate three or more concussion signs. A total of 60 diagnosed concussions occurred, and the concussion interchange rule was activated 167 times. Intra-rater reliability (κ = 0.65-1.00) was moderate to perfect for all six video signs; however, the inter-rater reliability was not as strong (κ = 0.22-0.76). Most of the signs had relatively low sensitivity (0.18-0.75), but high specificity (0.85-1.00). Using video replay, observable signs of concussion appear to be sensitive to concussion diagnoses when reviewing known injuries among professional rugby league players. When reviewing an entire season
Bradley, Warren J; Hannon, Marcus P; Benford, Victoria; Morehen, James C; Twist, Craig; Shepherd, Sam; Cocks, Matthew; Impey, Samuel G; Cooper, Robert G; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L
The metabolic requirements of a rugby league match simulation protocol and the timing of carbohydrate provision on glycogen re-synthesis in damaged muscle were examined. Fifteen (mean±SD: age 20.9±2.9 year, body-mass 87.3±14.1kg, height 177.4±6.0cm) rugby league (RL) players consumed a 6gkgday-1 CHO diet for 7-days, completed a time to exhaustion test (TTE) and a glycogen depletion protocol on day-3, a RL simulated-match protocol (RLMSP) on day-5 and a TTE on day-7. Players were prescribed an immediate or delayed (2-h-post) re-feed post-simulation. Muscle biopsies and blood samples were obtained post-depletion, before and after simulated match-play, and 48-h after match-play with PlayerLoad and heart-rate collected throughout the simulation. Data were analysed using effects sizes±90% CI and magnitude-based inferences. PlayerLoad (8.0±0.7 AUmin-1) and %HRpeak (83±4.9%) during the simulation were similar to values reported for RL match-play. Muscle glycogen very likely increased from immediately after to 48-h post-simulation (272±97 cf. 416±162mmolkg-1d.w.; ES±90%CI) after immediate re-feed, but changes were unclear (283±68 cf. 361±144mmolkg-1d.w.; ES±90%CI) after delayed re-feed. CK almost certainly increased by 77.9±25.4% (0.75±0.19) post-simulation for all players. The RLMSP presents a replication of the internal loads associated with professional RL match-play, although difficulties in replicating the collision reduced the metabolic demands and glycogen utilisation. Further, it is possible to replete muscle glycogen in damaged muscle employing an immediate re-feed strategy. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
aus der Fünten, Karen; Faude, Oliver; Lensch, Jochen; Meyer, Tim
The winter break in the top 2 German professional soccer leagues was shortened from 6.5 to 3.5 weeks in the 2009-2010 season. To investigate whether this change affected injury characteristics by comparing the second half of the 2008-2009 (long winter break) with the equivalent period in the 2009-2010 season (short winter break). Prospective cohort study. German male professional soccer leagues. Seven professional German male soccer teams (184 players in the 2008-2009 season, 188 players in the 2009-2010 season). Injury incidences and injury characteristics (cause of injury, location, severity, type, diagnosis), including their monthly distribution, were recorded. A total of 300 time-loss injuries (2008-2009 n = 151, 2009-2010 n = 149) occurred. The overall injury incidence per 1000 soccer hours was 5.90 (95% confidence interval = 5.03, 6.82) in 2008-2009 and 6.55 (5.58, 7.69) in 2009-2010. Match injuries per 1000 hours were 31.5 (25.0, 38.0) in the first season and 26.5 (20.2, 32.7) in the second season; the corresponding training values were 2.67 (2.08-3.44) and 3.98 (3.19-4.95), respectively. The training injury incidence (incidence rate ratio = 1.49 [95% confidence interval = 1.07, 2.08], P = .02) and the risk of sustaining a knee injury (incidence rate ratio = 1.66 [1.00, 2.76], P = .049) were higher in 2009-2010 after the short winter break; the incidence of moderate and severe injuries (time loss >7 days) trended higher (incidence rate ratio = 1.34 [0.96, 1.86], P = .09). Shortening the winter break from 6.5 to 3.5 weeks did not change the overall injury incidence; however, a higher number of training, knee, and possibly more severe injuries (time loss >7 days) occurred.
Mohamad Shariff A Hamid
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In Malaysia, futsal is a popular sport played by individuals across all ages and genders. Despite its popularity, information on futsal related injury in Malaysia is not available. The purpose of this study is to examine the injury incidence and injury patterns among amateur men and women futsal players in Malaysia. METHODS: Players reported injury to the tournament medical team during the FELDA/FAM National Futsal League 2010 were interviewed and assessed by a Sports Medicine registrar. Player's socio-demographic profiles and information about the injury were documented in the injury report form adapted from medical report form used by FIFA: Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-Marc. RESULTS: A total of 86 injuries were reported from 141 matches, equivalent to an incidence of 91.5 injuries per 1000 player hours (95% CI 72.2 to 110.8, or 61.0 injuries per 1000 player matches (95% CI 48.1 to 73.9. Most were minor injuries resulted from contact with another player. Injuries often involved the lower extremity (44% followed by the trunk (14% and the upper limb (13%. Ankle (n = 7; 39% and knee (n = 6; 33% sprains were the most prevalent diagnoses of time-loss injuries. A significant association between time-loss and type of injury was found χ2 (1,N = 86 = 3.99, p = 0.04. In addition, time-loss injury was significantly associated with playing surface χ2 (1,N = 86 = 10.11, p = 0.018. CONCLUSION: The injury rate during the FELDA/FAM National Amateur Futsal Men's League in Malaysia was lower compared with previous Futsal World Cups competition. Most injuries resulted from contact with another player were minor and did not lead to time-loss from participation. Time-loss injury was significantly associated with type of injury and playing surface.
Sach, Tracey H; Smith, Richard D; Whynes, David K
Pharmaceutical expenditure represents a large percentage of total healthcare expenditure, and has thus received much attention within the economic evaluation literature. However, although the number of contingent valuation (CV) studies measuring willingness to pay (WTP) in healthcare has increased, little is known about the relative magnitude of values elicited across different interventions, diseases or countries, or the methodological comparability of these values. We address this gap by seeking to establish if it is feasible to use elicited WTP values in resource allocation, illustrated by attempting to compile a 'league table' of WTP values for pharmaceutical interventions. A review database was compiled for CV studies in healthcare published from January 1985 to December 2005. Of 210 studies identified, 40 considered pharmaceutical interventions. Values are presented as mean or median WTP values, adjusted where necessary to pound and $US for 2004/5. Lack of reporting in some instances of either the mean or median, together with heterogenous methods and infrequent reporting of costs, made 'league table' construction difficult. This raises questions about the use of existing studies for resource allocation decisions, despite the fact that most studies were seemingly undertaken for policy objectives. However, four interventions had more than one study, making it possible to compare the values elicited. The values elicited across studies were fairly consistent for two interventions (anti-hypertensive therapy and tumour necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha blockade for rheumatoid arthritis), whereas WTP values for insulin and post-operative emesis therapy were very divergent. No single methodological difference seemed to explain this pattern; however, the more methodological differences between studies the greater the likelihood of divergent values. A checklist, or minimum reporting set of information, is the first step towards improving the consistency of methods, and
King, Doug; Hume, Patria; Gissane, Conor; Clark, Trevor
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency, magnitude, and distribution of head impacts sustained by players in a junior rugby league over a season of matches. METHODS The authors performed a prospective cohort analysis of impact magnitude, frequency, and distribution on data collected with instrumented XPatches worn behind the ear of players in an "under-11" junior rugby league team (players under 11 years old). RESULTS A total of 1977 impacts were recorded. Over the course of the study, players sustained an average of 116 impacts (average of 13 impacts per player per match). The measured linear acceleration ranged from 10g to 123g (mean 22g, median 16g, and 95th percentile 57g). The rotational acceleration ranged from 89 rad/sec 2 to 22,928 rad/sec 2 (mean 4041 rad/sec 2 , median 2773 rad/sec 2 , and 95th percentile 11,384 rad/sec 2 ). CONCLUSIONS The level of impact severity based on the magnitude of impacts for linear and rotational accelerations recorded was similar to the impacts reported in studies of American junior and high school football, collegiate football, and youth ice hockey players, but the players in the rugby league cohort were younger, had less body mass, and played at a slower speed than the American players. Junior rugby league players are required to tackle the player to the ground and use a different tackle technique than that used in American football, likely increasing the rotational accelerations recorded at the head.
Till, Kevin; Cobley, Stephen; O'Hara, John; Chapman, Chris; Cooke, Carlton
The current study provided a longitudinal evaluation of the anthropometric and fitness characteristics in junior rugby league players across three annual-age categories (i.e., under 13s, 14s and 15s) considering playing position and selection level. Longitudinal design. Eighty-one junior rugby league players selected to a talent development programme were tracked over a two year period. Anthropometric (height, sitting height, body mass and sum of four skinfolds) and fitness (lower and upper body power, speed, change of direction speed and maximal aerobic power) characteristics were measured on three occasions (i.e., under 13s, 14s and 15s). Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA; controlling chronological and maturational age) analysed changes across annual-age categories in relation to playing position and selection level. Findings identified significant improvements in anthropometric and fitness characteristics across annual-age categories (pMANCOVA analysis identified significant overall effects for playing position (p<0.001) and selection level (p<0.05) throughout the two year period. Interactions between playing position and time were identified for height, vertical jump and estimated V˙O2max (p<0.05). Selection level by time interactions were identified for 20m, 30m and 60m sprint (p<0.05). This study demonstrates the improvement of anthropometric and fitness characteristics within junior representative rugby league players. Interactive effects for playing position and selection level by time highlight the variation in the development of characteristics that occur during adolescence. Tracking the progression of characteristics longitudinally during adolescence, instead of at one-off time points, may assist selection and/or performance assessments within rugby league and other youth sport contexts. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Previous studies of anti-hypertensive medicines utilization pattern in Nigeria showed that Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs were often the least prescribed. However, the appropriate use of ACEIs in the black population achieves good blood pressure control and provides additional long term cardio- and renovascular protection benefits. Objective: To assess the current utilization pattern of anti-hypertensive medicines with specific emphasis on identifying possible shift in the frequency of use of ACEIs. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional assessment of the current utilization pattern of anti-hypertensive medicines was conducted among 300 randomly selected cohort at a 900-bed premier Teaching Hospital located in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. The current utilization pattern was compared with the results of a study conducted at the same site and published 10 years ago. Results: Of the 300 random cohorts, a majority (79% were females (237 with mean age 58.7 years (SD=2.81 years. Stage 2 hypertension was the most frequent diagnosis (54.3%. The utilization of ACEIs and long acting CCB (amlodipine significantly increased from 8.6% and 21% (Ten years ago to 29.93% and 36.68% respectively (p ˂ 0.0001. The use of thiazide diuretic and methyldopa declined significantly from 39.4% and 23.3% (Ten years ago to 16.12% and 9.7% respectively (p ˂ 0.0001. Adverse drug reactions due to ACEIs were documented in 1.5% (3, while laboratory monitoring of serum potassium, urea and creatinine was conducted in only 37% (111 of cohort. Potentially harmful drug-drug interactions were identified in 25% (75 of cohorts, and the most frequent were ACEIs + NSAIDs (53.3%, ACEIs + amiloride / hydrochlorothiazide (22.6%. Conclusions: Anti-hypertensive medicines utilization has significantly shifted towards the increased use of ACEIs and long acting dihydropyridine CCBs. The use of thiazides and methyldopa has declined significantly. Physicians appeared
Freyens, Anne; Dejeanne, Mélanie; Fabre, Elise; Rouge-Bugat, Marie-Eve; Oustric, Stéphane
Résumé Objectif Explorer les représentations sur l’examen gynécologique (EG) et identifier les critères nécessaires à son bon déroulement chez des adolescentes n’ayant pas encore vécu cet examen. Type d’étude Enquête qualitative par entrevues semi-dirigées. Contexte Midi-Pyrénées (France) et Auvergne (France). Participants Jeunes filles de 15 à 19 ans qui n’ayant pas vécu l’EG. Méthodes Le mode de recrutement de l’échantillon a été double : sélection des jeunes filles par la technique boule-de-neige et sélection par la technique d’échantillonnage ciblé jusqu’à l’obtention de la saturation des données tout en cherchant la variation maximale dans les profils des sujets. Les questions ouvertes portaient sur les sources d’informations, les connaissances, les critères de bon déroulement et l’imaginaire autour de l’EG. Le verbatim a fait l’objet d’une analyse longitudinale immédiate rassemblant le contexte (notes des chercheurs) et les idées principales de l’entretien. Une analyse transversale thématique a été réalisée. Principales constatations Une méconnaissance générale des jeunes filles sur l’EG entretenait l’imaginaire autour de cet examen perçu comme obligatoire. L’EG idéal, selon les jeunes filles interrogées, aurait lieu chez une jeune fille qui se sentirait prête, informée préalablement, pouvant être accompagnée selon son souhait. Cet examen se déroulerait dans un environnement chaleureux et confortable afin de diminuer le sentiment de vulnérabilité. La qualité du lien avec le médecin conditionnerait l’acceptation de cet examen par les jeunes filles. Conclusion Une consultation dédiée à l’information, préalable à la consultation où a lieu l’EG, permettrait de diminuer les appréhensions, d’améliorer les connaissances des jeunes filles et de favoriser le bon déroulement du futur premier EG tant pour le médecin que pour la patiente. PMID:28807971
Rezzonico, Stefano; Goldberg, Ahuva; Milburn, Trelani; Belletti, Adriana; Girolametto, Luigi
Knowledge of verb development in typically developing bilingual preschoolers may inform clinicians about verb accuracy rates during the 1st 2 years of English instruction. This study aimed to investigate tensed verb accuracy in 2 assessment contexts in 4- and 5-year-old Cantonese-English bilingual preschoolers. The sample included 47 Cantonese-English bilinguals enrolled in English preschools. Half of the children were in their 1st 4 months of English language exposure, and half had completed 1 year and 4 months of exposure to English. Data were obtained from the Test of Early Grammatical Impairment (Rice & Wexler, 2001) and from a narrative generated in English. By the 2nd year of formal exposure to English, children in the present study approximated 33% accuracy of tensed verbs in a formal testing context versus 61% in a narrative context. The use of the English verb BE approximated mastery. Predictors of English third-person singular verb accuracy were task, grade, English expressive vocabulary, and lemma frequency. Verb tense accuracy was low across both groups, but a precocious mastery of BE was observed. The results of the present study suggest that speech-language pathologists may consider, in addition to an elicitation task, evaluating the use of verbs during narratives in bilingual Cantonese-English bilingual children.
Zhu, Wenzhong; Liao, Fang
With the accelerating rate of globalization, business exchanges are carried out cross the border, as a result there is a growing demand for talents professional both in English and Business. We can see that at present Business English courses are offered by many language schools in the aim of meeting the need for Business English talent. Many…
The paper discusses World Englishes (WEs) in relation to English as an International Language (EIL) and Applied Linguistics. Taking into account Kachru's interesting but at the same time controversial debate about the status of English in its varieties, which are commonly called WEs and the opposing ideas presented by Quirk, it is aimed to present…
This study investigated contemporary Japanese college students' attitudes towards Japan English (JE) and American English (AE) through a verbal guise test (VGT) as well as a questionnaire. Forty-four Japanese college students listened to four Japanese and four North Americans reading a text in English, rated them in terms of solidarity-related…
Amengual-Pizarro, Marian; Garcia Laborda, Jesus
This study is an attempt to explore the nature of L2 teachers' motivation towards English language learning and their decision to become English teachers. A total of 45 third-year prospective Primary school English teachers at the University of the Balearic Islands completed a small-scale survey adapted from Gardner's Attitude/Motivation Test…
With Daly, Horwitz and Y-S-Cheng’s theoretical model of second language writing anxiety as research framework, this thesis surveyed English majors’English writing anxiety. Findings of the present study show that all of the English major stu⁃dents experience English writing anxiety. There is no significant difference in English anxiety among students from three different grades. There is significant difference in English writing anxiety between the students who hold positive attitudes towards English writing and those who hold negative attitudes towards English writing and there is significant difference in English writing anxi⁃ety among students who rated their English writing good, average and bad. Results from the qualitative study show the reasons why there is little difference in English writing anxiety among students from three different grades. What’s more, it is shown that the poor writing skills, cognitive anxiety, test anxiety and erroneous beliefs toward English writing are the main sources of Eng⁃lish writing anxiety.
Wang, Hai-Mei; Li, Zheng-Hai; Wang, Zhen
Based on the monthly temperature and precipitation data of 15 meteorological stations and the statistical data of livestock density in Xilinguole League in 1981-2007, and by using ArcGIS, this paper analyzed the spatial distribution of the climate aridity and livestock density in the League, and in combining with the ten-day data of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in 1981-2007, the driving factors of the vegetation cover change in the League were discussed. In the study period, there was a satisfactory linear regression relationship between the climate aridity and the vegetation coverage. The NDVI and the livestock density had a favorable binomial regression relationship. With the increase of NDVI, the livestock density increased first and decreased then. The vegetation coverage had a complex linear relationship with livestock density and climate aridity. The NDVI had a positive correlation with climate aridity, but a negative correlation with livestock density. Compared with livestock density, climate aridity had far greater effects on the NDVI.
McLellan, Christopher P; Lovell, Dale I
The aim of the present study was to examine the positional differences in physical performance measures of professional, semiprofessional, and junior elite rugby league match-play using portable Global Positioning Systems (GPSs). Twelve professional, 12 semiprofessional, and 18 junior elite male rugby league players were monitored during 5 regular-season competition matches using portable GPS software. The mean total distance traveled during professional (8,371 ± 897 m) and semiprofessional (7,277 ± 734 m) match-play was significantly (p distance traveled and distance traveled per minute of playing time were significantly (p professional (backs: 8,158 ± 673 m; 101 ± 8 m·min and forwards: 8,442 ± 812 m; 98 ± 12 m·min) and semiprofessional (backs: 7,505 ± 765 m; 94 ± 8 m·min and forwards: 6,701 ± 678 m; 89 ± 8 m·min) match-play. Maximum running speed, maximum sprints, and total sprint distance traveled by professional players were all significantly (p Professional backs and forwards performed significantly (p distance during match-play in comparison to semiprofessional and junior elite players. The present findings demonstrate minimal differences in the physical performance measures of professional and semiprofessional rugby league match-play. The position-specific performance characteristics of junior elite match-play indicate that current junior elite player-development pathways may not provide adequate preparation for players transitioning into professional competition.
Full Text Available The article is an attempt to look at the reality of teaching English for Business Purposes (EBP/ Business English (BE from a practical point of view. It approaches the term BE as if through a funnel with English as an International Language (EIL at the top, English Language Teaching/General English (ELT/GE as its sloping sides, English as a Foreign Language (EFL/English as a Second Language (ESL at the top of the funnel's narrow tube, and English for Specific Purposes (ESP at the very bottom, just above where BE, one of its main arms is placed. Special emphasis is laid on key distinctions between BE and ELT/GE, the function of BE teachers and the variety of roles that they assume in BE, on BE teachers as connoisseurs of specialist business expertise, and the importance of carrying out needs analysis as it brings to light some very important information about learners of BE.
Full Text Available Learners of English should be made aware of the nature, types, and use of English idioms. This paper disensses the nature of idioms and collocations and translation issues related to them
This paper aims to discuss the language anxiety in English learning from the following two aspects: the definition of anxiety and the effects of language anxiety. Meanwhile, it provides some pedagogical implications to college English teachers and learners.
This paper aims to discuss the language anxiety in English learning from the following two aspects： the definitionof anxiety and the effects of language anxiety. Meanwhile, it provides some pedagogical implications to college English teachers andlearners.
English sweating disease also known as Sudor Anglicus is one of the least familiar epidemics of the Middle Ages, striking England 5 times during the 15th and 16th centuries before fading. This article will discuss the knowledge available to us about this fascinating epidemic, its characteristics and causes.
Albert, Roy; And Others
Hopi storytellers told, in Hopi, 20 stories for this supplementary reading series. Each story was translated into English, graded (1.1 to 3.8), and illustrated. These stories normally serve to entertain as well as to instruct both children and adults during the winter nights. Several of the stories have Coyote as the central character. He typifies…
Puerto Ricans have been largely ignored in the current debate over English as a national language. Once the rhetoric of language restrictionists is discarded, the real issue becomes that of the political empowerment of Puerto Ricans. The history of language policy in relation to Puerto Ricans is also reviewed. (SLD)
Zambesi Mission, Mitsidi (Malawi).
This English-Chinyanja (Cinyanja) dictionary was prepared and published by the Zambesi Mission for use in Africa. Compilers of this volume were aided by Africans of Southern Angoniland and a Yao tribesman from the Blantyre district knowledgeable in Chinyanja. Spelling rules used are those of the United Translation Board, which has adopted…
As an advanced rhetoric and composition doctoral student, I taught Engl 3135: Visual Rhetoric, a three-credit upper-level course offered by the Department of English at Georgia State University. Mary E. Hocks originally designed this course in 2000 to, in her words, "introduce visual information design theories and practices for writers [and]…
A review-critique of On Writing Behavioral Objectives for English, by John Maxwell and Anthony Lovat, in which behavioral objectives theory is dominated by a stimulus-response rather than a stimulus-response-reinforcement psychology. The reviewer questions whether behavioral objectives can be applied accurately and without distortion of meanings,…
and supremacist attitudes, which caused entries for words of this kind to be shorter and less detailed, and affected ... kinds should receive the same degree of attention, which implies that data collection from the reading of primary ... this paper, African languages have contributed a great many vocabulary items to the English ...
HENDERSON, HAROLD G.
CONVENTIONS FOR CLASSICAL JAPANESE HAIKU USUALLY INCLUDE--17 JAPANESE SYLLABLES IN A 5-7-5 LINE PATTERN, AND SOME SPECIFIC REFERENCE TO AN ASPECT OF NATURE AND TO A PARTICULAR EVENT, PRESENTED AS IF IT WERE HAPPENING IN THE IMMEDIATE PRESENT TO ALLOW THE READER TO EXPERIENCE THE POET'S EMOTION. HAIKU IN ENGLISH, A FORM OF POETRY WHICH HAS BECOME…
Hall, Christopher J.; Schmidtke, Daniel; Vickers, Jamie
In this study we explored variation in the countability of nouns in Outer Circle, Expanding Circle and lingua franca Englishes, a phenomenon which is frequently cited as a marker of Inner Circle norms in TESOL and of endonormative and emerging varieties in the Outer and Expanding Circles. We inspected a set of mass nouns like "information" and…
Brook, G. L.
The English language is not a monolithic entity but an amalgam of many different varieties that can be associated respectively with groups of speakers, with individuals, and with the occasion. Among such varieties are slang, regional and class dialects, the language of children, and the language used by public speakers, journalists, lawyers,…
Full Text Available This work addresses the problem of traction control in mobile wheeled robots in the particular case of the RoboCup Middle Size League (MSL. The slip control problem is formulated using simple friction models for ISePorto Team Robots with a differential wheel configuration. Traction was also characterized experimentally in the MSL scenario for relevant game events. This work proposes a hierarchical traction control architecture which relies on local slip detection and control at each wheel, with relevant information being relayed to a higher level responsible for global robot motion control. A dedicated one axis control embedded hardware subsystem allowing complex local control, high frequency current sensing and odometric information procession was developed. This local axis control board is integrated in a distributed system using CAN bus communications. The slipping observer was implemented in the axis control hardware nodes integrated in the ISePorto Robots and was used to control and detect loss of traction. An external vision system was used to perform a qualitative analysis of the slip detection and observer performance results are presented.
Matthews, Kirstin R W; Cuchiara, Maude L
From professionals to weekend warriors, many athletes seek unproven stem cell (SC) treatments in an effort to heal injuries nonsurgically and/or to accelerate recovery times after surgery. Among the elite athletes opting for these treatments are high-profile U.S. National Football League (NFL) players. Over the past 5 years, several NFL players have publicly advocated for SC types of treatments and credit them as a major reason they could continue their careers after injuries. In this article, we describe the current problems associated with unproven SC treatments, focusing on treatments without U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval undertaken by NFL players in the past 5 years. Specifically, we highlight the types of treatments obtained and how the clinics advertise specifically to athletes. We also review the intended and unintended consequences of high-profile players receiving and advocating for these types of therapies. Our findings suggest that NFL players increasingly seek out unproven SC therapies to help accelerate recoveries from injuries. While most seem to receive treatment within the United States, several have traveled abroad for therapies unavailable domestically.
Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of the officiating role on physical activity profiles of rugby league match officials during match-play. Physical performance indicators were collated from 23 match officials, resulting in 78 observations. Match officials were categorised into two groups: referees and touch judges. Microtechnology facilitated the quantification of total distance (m, relative distance (m⋅min-1, maximum velocity (m⋅s-1, the percentage of high intensity running distance (% total > 3.01 m⋅s-1, walking distance (5 m⋅s-1. Multivariate analysis modelled the main effect of the officiating role with follow up univariate analyses identifying significant differences. A significant effect was noted (V = 750; F(8, 66 = 24.71; p < 0.05 with referees covering a greater total distance (7767 ± 585 vs. 7022 ± 759 m, relative distance (90 ± 6 vs. 82 ± 8 m⋅min-1, jogging distance (3772 ± 752 vs. 3110 ± 553 m, and fast jogging distance (2565 ± 631 vs. 1816 ± 440 m compared to touch judges. Touch judges covered greater distances while sprinting (1012 ± 385 vs. 654 ± 241 m. Results provide important guidance in the development of training programs for match officials.
Shafi'i Muhammad Abdulhamid
Full Text Available Cloud computing system is a huge cluster of interconnected servers residing in a datacenter and dynamically provisioned to clients on-demand via a front-end interface. Scientific applications scheduling in the cloud computing environment is identified as NP-hard problem due to the dynamic nature of heterogeneous resources. Recently, a number of metaheuristics optimization schemes have been applied to address the challenges of applications scheduling in the cloud system, without much emphasis on the issue of secure global scheduling. In this paper, scientific applications scheduling techniques using the Global League Championship Algorithm (GBLCA optimization technique is first presented for global task scheduling in the cloud environment. The experiment is carried out using CloudSim simulator. The experimental results show that, the proposed GBLCA technique produced remarkable performance improvement rate on the makespan that ranges between 14.44% to 46.41%. It also shows significant reduction in the time taken to securely schedule applications as parametrically measured in terms of the response time. In view of the experimental results, the proposed technique provides better-quality scheduling solution that is suitable for scientific applications task execution in the Cloud Computing environment than the MinMin, MaxMin, Genetic Algorithm (GA and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO scheduling techniques.
Mentha, Ricky; Wakerman, Johne
In 2004, the Australian Football League Central Australia (AFLCA) implemented the Responsible Alcohol Strategy (RAS), which aimed to decrease alcohol consumption at matches, and to promote healthy lifestyle messages to the youth of Central Australia participating in Australian Rules football. The evaluation adopted a pre- and post-implementation design to monitor a number of performance indicators. The evaluation analysed routinely collected data from AFLCA, its Security Company, Alice Springs Police Department and Alice Springs Hospital; we surveyed AFLCA staff, club officials and umpires; and undertook direct observation at AFLCA events. The volume of alcohol sold at matches decreased. Survey data indicate decreased alcohol related violence, improved spectator behaviour and decreased spectator attendances. Police data suggest declining alcohol-related and violent behaviours, but trends were not statistically significant. Alice Springs Hospital injury admission data indicate a non-significant interaction between year and season effect. In a community context of high alcohol consumption and high rates of interpersonal violence, the strategies implemented were successful in decreasing alcohol consumption and related undesirable behaviours at football games. However, these measures have resulted in unintended consequences: decreased numbers of spectators attending games, decreased canteen sales and falling sponsorship. The decreased revenue has raised serious issues about sustainability of the alcohol intervention, and stimulated discussions with government and others about strategies to maintain this important alcohol reduction policy.
de Wit, M P T; Berlo, S E; Aanerud, G J; Aletaha, D; Bijlsma, J W; Croucher, L; Da Silva, J A P; Glüsing, B; Gossec, L; Hewlett, S; Jongkees, M; Magnusson, D; Scholte-Voshaar, M; Richards, P; Ziegler, C; Abma, T A
To develop recommendations to enable successful inclusion of the patient perspective in European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)-funded scientific research projects. The EULAR standardised operational procedures for guideline development were followed. A systematic literature review was presented during a first task force meeting, including 3 rheumatologists, 1 rheumatologist/epidemiologist, 2 allied health professionals, 2 representatives of arthritis research organisations and 7 patient representatives, resulting in 38 statements. A Delphi method was carried out to reduce and refine the statements and agree on a set of eight. Next, a survey among a wider group of experts, professionals and patient representatives (n=42), was completed. Feedback from this wider group was discussed at the second meeting and integrated in the final wording of the recommendations. Subsequently, the level of agreement of the group of experts (n=81) was re-evaluated. The project resulted in a definition of patient research partner and agreement on a set of eight recommendations for their involvement in research projects. These recommendations provide practical guidance for organising patient participation, capturing (1) the role of patient research partners, (2) phase of involvement, (3) the recommended number, (4) recruitment, (5) selection, (6) support, (7) training and (8) acknowledgement. Collaboration between patients and professionals in research is relatively new. Trials or effectiveness studies are not yet available. Nevertheless, it is possible to define recommendations for the inclusion of patients in research following a solid expert opinion based consensus process.
Pau, Massimiliano; Arippa, Federico; Leban, Bruno; Corona, Federica; Ibba, Gianfranco; Todde, Francesco; Scorcu, Marco
To assess the existence of correlations between static and dynamic balance abilities in young and professional elite soccer players. Cross-sectional. Fifty-one elite players who regularly compete at national level divided into two groups: Professional (age 18-34, n = 20) and Under 15-17 (age 14-16, n = 31). Dynamic balance was assessed for the case of a single-leg landing task by means of vertical time to stabilization (TTS) and postural sway calculated on the basis of center-of-pressure (COP) trajectories (sway area, COP displacements in antero-posterior and medio-lateral direction, COP path length). The same parameters were also measured for a 20 s one-legged stance to assess static balance abilities. No significant correlations were found between static and dynamic balance parameters except for TTS and COP displacements in the antero-posterior direction (r = 0.29, p = 0.003). Professional players are characterized by lower TTS in comparison with youth leagues players (0.767 vs. 1.188 s for the dominant limb, p balance in soccer players should be performed with both dynamic and static tests, considering that the postural control performances in the two cases are not related. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jack, Robert A; Sochacki, Kyle R; Gardner, Stephanie S; McCulloch, Patrick C; Lintner, David M; Cosculluela, Pedro E; Varner, Kevin E; Harris, Joshua D
Achilles tendon injuries are common in sports, including football. The purpose of this study was to determine (1) return-to-sport rate in National Football League (NFL) players following Achilles tendon repair, (2) postoperative career length and games per season, (3) pre- and postoperative performance, and (4) postoperative performance compared with control players matched by position, age, years of experience, and performance. Publicly available records were used to identify NFL players who underwent Achilles tendon repair and matched controls were identified. Ninety-five players (98 surgeries) were analyzed (mean age 28.2 ± 2.8 years; mean 5.5 ± 2 .8 years in NFL at time of surgery). Demographic and performance data were collected. Comparisons between case and control groups and preoperative and postoperative time points were made using paired-samples Student t tests. Seventy-one (72.4%) players were able to return to sport in the NFL at a mean of 339.8 ± 84.8 days following surgery. Thirty-one (32%) Achilles tendon repairs were performed during training camp or preseason. Controls (3.6 ± 2.1 years) had a significantly longer NFL career ( P performance scores were significantly worse ( P performance scores when compared to matched controls ( P performance scores were significantly worse for RBs and LBs compared to preoperative and LBs had significantly worse postoperative performance when compared to matched controls. Level III, retrospective comparative series.
Shorvon, Simon D; Weiss, Giselle; Goodkin, Howard P
The recent discovery of archival material has shed interesting light on the origins of Epilepsia and also the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). The idea of an international journal devoted to epilepsy seems first to have arisen from talks between Dr. L. J. J. Muskens and Dr. W. Aldren Turner in 1905. A protracted series of subsequent letters between Muskens and a Haarlem publisher show how the idea slowly took shape. The committee of patronage, editorial board, and editorial assistants was probably first approached at the First International Congress of Psychiatry, Neurology, Psychology, and Nursing of the Insane, held in Amsterdam in 1907. At this meeting, the concept of an international organization to fight epilepsy (to become the ILAE) was also first proposed in public, again by Muskens. The concept of the ILAE was clearly modeled on another international organization-the International Commission for the Study of the Causes of Mental Diseases and Their Prophylaxis. This Commission had been first publicly proposed in 1906 by Ludwig Frank, at the Second International Congress for the Care and Treatment of the Insane. The proposed Commission and ILAE shared many features, aims, and personnel. Despite an auspicious start, the International Commission was prevented by personal and political differences from ever actually coming into being. However, the first issue of Epilepsia appeared in March 1909 and the ILAE was inaugurated in August 1909; and both have flourished and celebrate their centenaries this year.
Teramoto, Masaru; Cushman, Daniel M; Cross, Chad L; Curtiss, Heather M; Willick, Stuart E
Concussion prevention in the National Football League (NFL) is an important priority for player safety. The NFL now has modified game schedules, and one concern is that unconventional game schedules, such as a shortened rest period due to playing on a Thursday rather than during the weekend, may lead to an increased risk of injuries. Unconventional game schedules in the NFL are associated with an increased rate of concussion. Descriptive epidemiological study. This study analyzed concussions and game schedules over the NFL regular seasons from 2012 to 2015 (4 years). Documented numbers of concussions, identified by use of the online database PBS Frontline Concussion Watch, were summarized by regular-season weeks. Association of days of rest and game location (home, away, or overseas) with the rate of concussion was examined by use of the χ2 test. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the relationships of days of rest and home/away games to the risk of repeated concussions, with adjustment for player position. A total of 582 concussions were analyzed in this study. A significantly greater number of concussions occurred in the second half of the season (P game location, or timing of the bye week by the team or the opponent (P > .05). Game schedules were not significantly associated with the occurrence of repeat concussions (P > .05). Unconventional game schedules in the NFL, including playing on Thursday and playing overseas, do not seem to put players at increased risk of concussions.
Nor, Shahdiba Binti Md; Mahmud, Zamalia
The analysis of sports data has always aroused great interest among statisticians and sports data have been investigated from different perspectives often aim at forecasting the results. The study focuses on the 12 teams who join the Malaysian Super League (MSL) for season 2015. This paper used Bayesian Expectation Maximization for Generalized Bradley Terry Model to estimate all the football team's rankings. The Generalized Bradley-Terry model is possible to find the maximum likelihood (ML) estimate of the skill ratings λ using a simple iterative procedure. In order to maximize the function of ML, we need inferential bayesian method to get posterior distribution which can be computed quickly. The team's ability was estimated based on the previous year's game results by calculating the probability of winning based on the final scores for each team. It was found that model with tie scores does make a difference in affect the model of estimating the football team's ability in winning the next match. However, team with better results in the previous year has a better chance for scoring in the next game.
Miguel. A Gómez
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify the game-related statistics that allow discriminating between starters and nonstarter players in women's basketball when related to winning or losing games and best or worst teams. The sample comprised all 216 regular season games from the 2005 Women's National Basketball Association League (WNBA. The game-related statistics included were 2- and 3- point field-goals (both successful and unsuccessful, free-throws (both successful and unsuccessful, defensive and offensive rebounds, assists, blocks, fouls, steals, turnovers and minutes played. Results from multivariate analysis showed that when best teams won, the discriminant game-related statistics were successful 2-point field-goals (SC = 0.47, successful free-throws (SC = 0.44, fouls (SC = -0.41, assists (SC = 0.37, and defensive rebounds (SC = 0.37. When the worst teams won, the discriminant game-related statistics were successful 2-point field- goals (SC = 0.37, successful free-throws (SC = 0.45, assists (SC = 0.58, and steals (SC = 0.35. The results showed that the successful 2-point field-goals, successful free-throws and the assists were the most powerful variables discriminating between starters and nonstarters. These specific characteristics helped to point out the importance of starters' players shooting and passing ability during competitions
Abdulhamid, Shafi'i Muhammad; Abd Latiff, Muhammad Shafie; Abdul-Salaam, Gaddafi; Hussain Madni, Syed Hamid
Cloud computing system is a huge cluster of interconnected servers residing in a datacenter and dynamically provisioned to clients on-demand via a front-end interface. Scientific applications scheduling in the cloud computing environment is identified as NP-hard problem due to the dynamic nature of heterogeneous resources. Recently, a number of metaheuristics optimization schemes have been applied to address the challenges of applications scheduling in the cloud system, without much emphasis on the issue of secure global scheduling. In this paper, scientific applications scheduling techniques using the Global League Championship Algorithm (GBLCA) optimization technique is first presented for global task scheduling in the cloud environment. The experiment is carried out using CloudSim simulator. The experimental results show that, the proposed GBLCA technique produced remarkable performance improvement rate on the makespan that ranges between 14.44% to 46.41%. It also shows significant reduction in the time taken to securely schedule applications as parametrically measured in terms of the response time. In view of the experimental results, the proposed technique provides better-quality scheduling solution that is suitable for scientific applications task execution in the Cloud Computing environment than the MinMin, MaxMin, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) scheduling techniques.
Winter, W Christopher; Hammond, William R; Green, Noah H; Zhang, Zhiyong; Bliwise, Donald L
The effect of travel on athletic performance has been investigated in previous studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate this effect on game outcome over 10 Major League Baseball (MLB) seasons. Using the convention that for every time zone crossed, synchronization requires 1 d, teams were assigned a daily number indicating the number of days away from circadian resynchronization. With these values, wins and losses for all games could be analyzed based on circadian values. 19,079 of the 24,121 games (79.1%) were played between teams at an equal circadian time. The remaining 5,042 games consisted of teams playing at different circadian times. The team with the circadian advantage won 2,620 games (52.0%, P = .005), a winning percentage that exceeded chance but was a smaller effect than home field advantage (53.7%, P 2-hadvantage = 1-h advantage, P = .036). Direction of advantage showed teams traveling from Western time zones to Eastern time zones were more likely to win (winning percentage = .530) than teams traveling from Eastern time zones to Western time zones (winning percentage = .509) with a winning odds 1.14 (P = .027). These results suggest that in the same way home field advantage influences likelihood of success, so too does the magnitude and direction of circadian advantage. Teams with greater circadian advantage were more likely to win.
Beyer, Jeffrey A; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M
Some reports have shown that head injuries in baseball may comprise up to 18.5% of all competitive sports-related head injuries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of catcher and umpire masks to impacts at these different regions to discover the impact conditions that represent the greatest risk of injury. A series of 10 events in which a catcher or umpire in Major League Baseball, who experienced a foul ball to the mask that resulted in a concussion, were analyzed through video and data on pitch characteristics. It was found that the impacts were distributed across the face, and the median plate speed was approximately 38 m/s (84 mph). To determine the relative severity of each identified impact location, an instrumented Hybrid III head outfitted with a catcher or umpire mask was impacted with baseballs. Testing at 27 and 38 m/s (60 and 84 mph) suggested that impacts to the center-eyebrow and chin locations were the most severe. Peak linear and rotational accelerations were found to be lower than the suggested injury thresholds. While impacts to a mask result in head accelerations which are near or below levels commonly associated with the lower limits for head injury, the exact injury mechanism is unclear, as concussions are still experienced by the mask wearers.
Camp, Christopher L; Conti, Matthew S; Sgroi, Terrance; Cammisa, Frank P; Dines, Joshua S
In recent years, increased attention has been paid to injuries occurring in Major League Baseball (MLB) players. Although most of the current orthopedic literature regarding baseball injuries pertains to the shoulder and elbow, lumbar spine injuries are another common reason for time out of play. Back and core injuries may represent as many as 12% of all injuries that result in time out of play from MLB. This high rate of injury is likely related to the critical role that the spine plays in every major baseball-related movement. Linking the upper extremities to the hips and lower extremities, a healthy, strong, and stable spine and core is a prerequisite for performance in all levels of baseball. It has been well documented that baseball players with poor spinal control and stabilization are at increased risk for future injury. Common etiologies of lumbar injuries include stress fractures, muscle injury, annular tears with or without disc herniation, facet joint pain, sacroiliac joint pain, and stenosis. This review discusses the epidemiology of spinal injuries in baseball. Special attention is paid to the role of the spine in baseball-related activities, common injuries, tips for making the correct diagnosis, treatment options, outcomes, rehabilitation, and injury prevention.
Srinivas K Reddy
Full Text Available Values of professional sports franchises have outpaced even investment returns in recent bull markets. Financial World found the value of professional teams like the Dallas Cowboys, Miami Dolphins and the NY Yankees to exceed $200 million each. In 1996, the average estimated value of Major League Baseball (MLB teams was $134 million, and most showed double-digit growth in value, although 13 of the 26 teams were in the red. Our research proposes a model to determine the value of a professional sports franchise, by treating the franchise as a brand whose value is enhanced by its key attributes. This approach is appropriate because each franchise represents a single brand firm. Our model takes into account equity enhancing factors like the franchise longevity, historical performance, the number of marquee/award-winning roster players, and market factors such as market size, competition and franchise efficiency. We determine the extent to which a franchise is managed efficiently with respect to inputs like investments in players (player costs and outputs such as franchise revenue and team performance (win-loss ratio. Using data from 1990-1995 to illustrate our model, we are able to determine (1 the brand equity of MLB franchises, (2 how efficiently each team is managed, and (3 the contribution of marketing factors like brand equity, market size, competition, as well as efficiency, to franchise value. While this paper focuses on MBL, the methodology can easily be extended to other professional sports.
Loughin, Thomas M; Bargen, Jason L
A formal statistical analysis is performed to determine the extent to which pitchers and catchers can influence stolen-base attempts and successes. Two response proportions, attempt/opportunity and success/attempt, are modelled separately using mixed-effects logistic regression models applied to situations with a runner on first and other bases empty. Data include the first innings of all Major League Baseball games played between 1978 and 1990, which encompasses over 48,000 opportunities and 9000 attempts. Pitchers and catchers are entered as random effects and various other factors thought to influence stolen-base attempts and successes are entered as fixed effects. Variance components are estimated and hypotheses tests indicate that the population variance components for both pitchers and catchers are significant for both response proportions. The presence of variation among players at the respective positions is interpreted as evidence that stolen-base defence is a real skill exhibited to varying extents by different players. Furthermore, the variance component for pitchers is greater than that for catchers for both response proportions, indicating that pitchers have greater potential to affect stolen-base attempts and successes. Under usual conditions, it is estimated that 95% of pitchers have first-inning stolen-base success/attempt probabilities between 0.50 and 0.84, while 95% of catchers have probabilities between 0.59 and 0.79.
Douglas J. Mattson
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze injuries among adult recreational ice hockey players. This was an observational prospective cohort study with data collected on injuries sustained during one season in the adult recreational ice hockey leagues of Oneida County, NY. The injury incidence rate was found to be 12.2/1000 player-exposures. The most common anatomic region injured was the head/neck/face (35%. Collisions were most often reported as the mechanism of injury (44%. Fracture was the most common diagnosis. Of players wearing face protection (full cage or shield, or partial visor/half shield, none suffered facial injuries, while all facial injuries reported were to players not wearing facial protection. The concussion rate was 1.1/1000 player-exposures. A lack of protective equipment was associated with 38% of injuries and 24% of injuries involved penalties. A history of prior injuries was found in 89% of injured players with 28% re-injuring the same body part. This study's findings suggested various strategies to address player injuries such as mandatory full facial protection and shoulder pads, strict enforcement of game rules, and game rule modifications (no body checking. Further research is needed on the role of preventive rehabilitation in players with previous injury history.
Rowan, Chip P; Kuropkat, Christiane; Gumieniak, Robert J; Gledhill, Norman; Jamnik, Veronica K
The sport of ice hockey requires coordination of complex skills involving musculoskeletal and physiological abilities while simultaneously exposing players to a high risk for injury. The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) was developed to assess fundamental movement patterns that underlie both sport performance and injury risk. The top 111 elite junior hockey players from around the world took part in the 2013 National Hockey League Entry Draft Combine (NHL Combine). The FMS was integrated into the comprehensive medical and physiological fitness evaluations at the request of strength and conditioning coaches with affiliations to NHL teams. The inclusion of the FMS aimed to help develop strategies that could maximize its utility among elite hockey players and to encourage or inform further research in this field. This study evaluated the outcomes of integrating the FMS into the NHL Combine and identified any links to other medical plus physical and physiological fitness assessment outcomes. These potential associations may provide valuable information to identify elements of future training programs that are individualized to athletes' specific needs. The results of the FMS (total score and number of asymmetries identified) were significantly correlated to various body composition measures, aerobic and anaerobic fitness, leg power, timing of recent workouts, and the presence of lingering injury at the time of the NHL Combine. Although statistically significant correlations were observed, the implications of the FMS assessment outcomes remain difficult to quantify until ongoing assessment of FMS patterns, tracking of injuries, and hockey performance are available.
Full Text Available The 2D soccer simulation league is one of the best test beds for the research of artificial intelligence (AI. It has achieved great successes in the domain of multi-agent cooperation and machine learning. However, the problem of integral offensive strategy has not been solved because of the dynamic and unpredictable nature of the environment. In this paper, we present a novel offensive strategy based on multi-group ant colony optimization (MACO-OS. The strategy uses the pheromone evaporation mechanism to count the preference value of each attack action in different environments, and saves the values of success rate and preference in an attack information tree in the background. The decision module of the attacker then selects the best attack action according to the preference value. The MACO-OS approach has been successfully implemented in our 2D soccer simulation team in RoboCup competitions. The experimental results have indicated that the agents developed with this strategy, along with related techniques, delivered outstanding performances.
Matthews, Kirstin R.W.; Cuchiara, Maude L.
Abstract From professionals to weekend warriors, many athletes seek unproven stem cell (SC) treatments in an effort to heal injuries nonsurgically and/or to accelerate recovery times after surgery. Among the elite athletes opting for these treatments are high-profile U.S. National Football League (NFL) players. Over the past 5 years, several NFL players have publicly advocated for SC types of treatments and credit them as a major reason they could continue their careers after injuries. In this article, we describe the current problems associated with unproven SC treatments, focusing on treatments without U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval undertaken by NFL players in the past 5 years. Specifically, we highlight the types of treatments obtained and how the clinics advertise specifically to athletes. We also review the intended and unintended consequences of high-profile players receiving and advocating for these types of therapies. Our findings suggest that NFL players increasingly seek out unproven SC therapies to help accelerate recoveries from injuries. While most seem to receive treatment within the United States, several have traveled abroad for therapies unavailable domestically. PMID:25457965
Randolph, Christopher; Karantzoulis, Stella; Guskiewicz, Kevin
It has been hypothesized that exposure to repetitive head trauma from contact sports over a long-playing career may eventuate in an increased risk of late-life cognitive impairment. There are currently two competing hypotheses about the possible mechanism underlying such impairment. One is the presence of a unique neurodegenerative disorder known as ‘‘chronic traumatic encephalopathy’’ (CTE). The other is diminished cerebral reserve leading to the earlier clinical expression of age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease(AD). The present study examined informant AD8 inventory data in a sample of 513 retired National Football League(NFL) players. These data were indicative of possible cognitive impairment in 35.1% of this relatively young sample. A comparison of neurocognitive profiles in a subsample of this group to a clinical sample of patients with a diagnosis of MCI due to AD revealed a highly similar profile of impairments. Overall, the data suggest that there may be an increased prevalence of late-life cognitive impairment in retired NFL players, which may reflect diminished cerebral reserve. The findings are considered preliminary, but emphasize the need for larger, controlled studies on this issue.
Hides, J; Fan, T; Stanton, W; Stanton, P; McMahon, K; Wilson, S
In this study, asymmetry relative to the preferred kicking leg was determined if it exists for the psoas and quadratus lumborum muscles among elite Australian Football League (AFL) players. AFL players were assessed at three time points from 2005 to 2007 (start of preseason, end of season and end of preseason training). MRI was used to determine the cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the psoas and quadratus lumborum muscles at the L4-L5 vertebral level (psoas) and the L3-L4 vertebral level (quadratus lumborum). MRI was performed in a hospital setting. 54 professional AFL players were eligible to participate in this study. The number of subjects at each of the three time points was 36 for time 1 (T1 Nov 2005), 31 for time 2 (T2 Aug 2006) and 43 for time 3 (T3 Feb Mar 2007). The repeated measures factor in the analyses was "asymmetry", defined as "ipsilateral" or "contralateral" to preferred kicking leg. Number of injuries (coded as 0, 1, 2 or more) was also included as a risk factor. The dependent variables were the CSAs of the psoas and quadratus lumborum muscles. At all three time points, the CSA of the psoas muscle was significantly greater ipsilateral to the kicking leg, while the CSA of the quadratus lumborum muscle was significantly greater on the side contralateral to the kicking leg. Asymmetry in muscle size was not related to number of injuries. Asymmetry of the psoas and the quadratus lumborum muscles exists in elite AFL players.
Rochecouste, Judith; Oliver, Rhonda; Mulligan, Denise; Davies, Martin
The English Language Growth (ELG) Project was conducted in five Australian universities in 2008-09 to address the on-going English language development of international students from non-English speaking backgrounds. Using an online survey inviting both qualitative and quantitative responses, 798 international students provided a rich source of…
In this examination of monolingual and multilingual pedagogies I draw on literature that explores the position of English globally and in the curriculum for English. I amplify the discussion with data from a project exploring how teachers responded to the arrival of Polish children in their English classrooms following Poland's entry to the…
Discusses the official English movement in the United States. Provides suggestions for groups that really want to help immigrants acquire English, by building bridges and not barriers. These include the following: (1) joining private and charitable organizations in helping make English-as-a-Second-Language classes available; (2) support libraries;…
English in Africa was founded in 1974 to provide a forum for the study of ... of English writing and the English language in Africa, including oral traditions. ... to Southern African literary production by this journal - - - In terms of criticism, EA can ...
Describes World Englishes (WE) that are global varieties of English and provides a rationale for teaching WE. Explores suggested activities and materials for teaching about WE, such as learning WE from videos, teaching the history of English, using international newspapers and guest speakers, and having students conduct a country study. (CMK)
Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael
The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are…
Nevill, A M; Newell, S M; Gale, S
Using the results from the end-of-season (1992-93) league tables, overall home advantage was confirmed in the eight major divisions of the English and Scottish football leagues. The degree of home advantage was found to vary significantly across the divisions. Furthermore, these divisional differences in home advantage were found to be significantly associated with the mean attendance of each division. In an attempt to understand these findings, every occurrence of two influential events (either a sending-off or penalty scored) reported in a national Sunday newspaper was recorded. The overall frequency of both sendings-off and penalties scored favoured the home side, but again this was not constant across the divisions. In divisions with large crowds, the percentage of home sendings-off was relatively small (30%), compared with no difference (50%) in divisions with smaller crowds. Similarly, the percentage of penalties scored by home sides in divisions with the largest crowds was large ( > 70%), in contrast to little or no advantage in divisions with smaller crowds. Two possible explanations for these findings were proposed. Either larger crowds were able to provoke the away player into more reckless behaviour (real fouls), or influence the referee into believing that the away player had committed more fouls (perceived fouls).
Mert Kerem Zelyurt
Full Text Available In 2016 it was seen that the “quota rule” (age restriction which was put into practice in 2009 for the 3. League football teams in order to enable young players to have a better chance in squads and bring these players to the national teams have been changed because of not getting the desired results. In the study, the effects of 2009 quota rule which was established as a legal obligation to the football teams were examined in the extent of players, coaches, and the club managers (dramatis personae. The study was designed as “Semi-structured in-depth interview” (Qualitative Method method. According to “Theoretical Sampling Method” the sample of the study was formed through 6 players, 4 club managers and 5 coaches all of which are active in the third football league. The interviews recorded in February 2017 and May 2017, which vary from 6 minutes to 29 minutes in length according to the samples, were converted into text and categorized under 4 themes in findings section. The themes are: 1. being dropped out of squad 2. Problems relating the squads and the quality of the football 3.The problem of player training in the third league for the national team and transfer mobility to upper leagues 4. The fall in wages, the problem of becoming unemployed and being obliged to play in the amateur football league. As it can be concluded from the themes which frame the narrations by the samples including different experiences considering their status and roles in terms of quota rule practice; some outcomes during the period in which the rule had been practiced (particularly due to the version before the change were witnessed such as the deterioration in the quality of football, technical problems relating squads, the problem of vertical and horizontal professional mobility of the players and the fall in wages. In the last instance; it can be concluded that it is necessary to analyze legal sanctions relating a multivariate and intricate field such
Magalhães, Jéssica Teixeira
No fim da década de cinquenta, quando eclodiu o conflito de independência na Argélia e grande parte dos intelectuais franceses apoiavam a causa nacionalista, Albert Camus encontrava-se em posição marginal no cenário francês e escrevia o manuscrito do que viria a ser o romance Le Premier Homme. A narrativa traça a trajetória de um franco-argelino em busca de rastros sobre seu pai morto na Primeira Guerra Mundial enquanto lutava pela França. O texto que viria a ser publicado em 1994 por sua fil...
With the globalization of world economy, English learners' writing ability has been attached less and less importance. As a result, many college students in China, especially the non-English majors, cannot express themselves effectively in written English. They make various kinds of mistakes, mostly grammar mistakes, such as writing sentence…
Full Text Available The paper considers official and individual attitudes towards bilingualism in English and a Ghanaian language. We ask whether bilingualism in English and Ghanaian languages is a social handicap, without merit, or an important indicator of ethnic identity. Ghana has about 50 non-mutually intelligible languages, yet there are no statistics on who speaks what language(s where in the country. We consider attitudes to English against the current Ghanaian language policy in education as practised in the school system. Our data reveal that parents believe early exposure to English enhances academic performance; English is therefore becoming the language of the home.
Harper, Liam D.; Marc A Briggs; McNamee, Ged; West, Daniel J.; Liam P. Kilduff; Stevenson, Emma; Russell, Mark
Objectives: The physiological and performance effects of carbohydrate-electrolyte gels consumed before the 30 min extra-time period of prolonged soccer-specific exercise were investigated. \\ud \\ud Design: Randomised, double-blind, crossover. \\ud \\ud Methods: Eight English Premier League academy soccer players performed 120 min of soccer-specific exercise on two occasions while consuming fluid-electrolyte beverages before exercise, at half-time and 90 min. Carbohydrate-electrolyte (0.7 ± 0.1 g...
De Luca, Giacomo; Schokkaert, Jeroen; Swinnen, Johan F.M.
We examine the impact of a different cultural background on individual behavior, focusing on violence on the football field of southern European and nothern European football players in the English Premier League. We find that southern European football players collect on average more football penalties than their nothern European colleagues. We also find that the initially higher number of football penalties incurred by southern European players converges towards the local average, the longe...
Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have throughout the years been used for several different purposes. Problems spanning from image classification to text generation have all been subject to ANNs. In this report, ANNs were used in order to predict the outcomes of football matches. Using data from the football statistics web site www.whoscored.com, ANNs were constructed in order to predict the outcomes of matches from two successive seasons of the English Premier League. The predictions wer...
De Luca, Giacomo; Schokkaert, Jeroen; Swinnen, Jo
We examine the impact of a different cultural background on individual behavior, focusing on the aggressiveness level of southern and nothern European football players in the English Premier League. We find that southern European football players collect on average more yellow and red cards as compared to their nothern European colleagues. We also find that the initially more aggressive football violent behavior displayed by southern European players coverges towards the local average, the lo...
The diploma thesis addresses the use of music in teaching English and discusses many aspects of music and language learning. The theoretical part introduces music as an important factor in people's lives and presents reasons for its decisive role in acquiring a foreign language. It also provides a comparison between language and music and their effect on human brains. The attention is paid to songs which are presented as an effective pedagogical tool indispensible especially in young learners...
General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144. Oral Expression The next session will take place from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be an average of 8 participants per class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays, etc., depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students) Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). This course is designed for people ...
General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144. Oral Expression The next session will take place from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be on average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students) Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). This course is designed for people w...
General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from 28 February to 24 June 2005 (2/3 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957. Oral Expression The next session will take place from March to June 2005. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be a maximum of 10 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 20 hours Price: 440 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students) Timetable will be fixed after discussion with the students. Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from March to June 2005. T...
General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from 28 February to 24 June 2005 (2/3 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957. Oral Expression The next session will take place from March to June 2005. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be a maximum of 10 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 20 hours Price: 440 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students) Timetable will be fixed after discussion with the students. Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from March to June 2005. Th...
Oral Expression The next session will take place from January to March 2005. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be a maximum of 10 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Timetable: Tuesday 11.30 to 13.30 Duration: 20 hours Price: 440 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students) Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from January to March 2005. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 20 hours Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) Timetable will be fixed after discussion with the students. For registration and further information on these courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 langu...
Oral Expression The next session will take place from January to March 2005. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be a maximum of 10 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Timetable: Tuesday 11.30 to 13.30 Duration: 20 hours Price: 440 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students) Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from January to March 2005. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 20 hours Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) Timetable will be fixed after discussion with the students. For registration and further information on these courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 langua...
Nous nous proposons d’examiner, dans l’histoire des dictionnaires généraux monolingues Larousse des origines à nos jours, une sélection de jalons de l’articulation entre structure conceptuelle et structure formelle des articles. Au regard de l’ampleur des données à couvrir, il ne pourra bien entendu s’agir que d’un survol, mais celui-ci permettra (1 de présenter le premier des trois modèles majeurs de codification des articles dans l’histoire des dictionnaires Larousse, celui qui trouve son origine dans le Nouveau dictionnaire de la langue française de 1856 ou ses éditions révisées, (2 de prendre en compte les dictionnaires proposés par cet éditeur en un siècle et demi qui ont repris le modèle de 1856 ou sa forme révisée, et (3 de présenter contrastivement au premier les deux autres modèles majeurs, qui trouvent leur ancrage chronologique respectivement dans le Grand dictionnaire universel du XIXe siècle de 1866-1876 et le Dictionnaire du français contemporain de 1966.
Sociologists studying the topic of workplace injury have neglected professional athletes despite the fact that, for such employees, remaining 'active' at work is of paramount importance. This study involved semi-structured interviews with 47 current and former male professional footballers who all had careers in the English professional football leagues. The interviews focused on the players' experiences of injury and rehabilitation and their relationships with club managers, physiotherapists and doctors. The object of this empirical article concerns an examination of how professional footballers become, or perceive themselves as being, stigmatised when they are injured or in pain. For players, the social conditions of work, for example the internal competition for places, all have implications with respect to their presentation of self when they are claiming to be injured or in pain. The often conflict-ridden relations between players and managers, combined with a culture that normalises pain and injury, means that players often find themselves in health-compromising situations. Thus, examining this highly physical vocation provides an opportunity to add to the literature in which injury at work is socially produced through interpretive social interaction.
Lincoln, Andrew E; Vogel, Robert A; Allen, Thomas W; Dunn, Reginald E; Alexander, Kezia; Kaufman, Nathaniel D; Tucker, Andrew M
Previous research identified decreased overall and cardiovascular mortality for National Football League (NFL) players from the 1959-1988 era. The present study explored the mortality risk among recent NFL players who played in an era of heavier linemen and nearly year-round physical conditioning. This cohort study included 9778 former NFL players with at least one year in the NFL whose last season was between 1986 and 2012. Players' pension fund records were matched to the National Death Index (NDI) to determine vital status, date of death, and cause of death. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) compared player mortality through 2014 with US men of the same age, race, and calendar year. Cox proportional hazards models assessed the effect of player characteristics on overall and cardiovascular mortality. Two percent (n=227) of players were deceased with a median age at death of 38 years (range: 23-61). The most common major causes of death were diseases of the heart (n=47, 21%), violence (n=39, 17%), and transportation injuries (n=34, 15%). Risk of death was significantly lower than the general population for overall mortality (SMR 0.46, 95% CI 0.40-0.52), cardiovascular disease (SMR 0.65, 95% CI 0.50-0.84), and other major causes. Players with playing-time BMI>35 kg/m had significantly higher cardiovascular disease mortality (SMR 2.20, 95% CI 1.32-3.44) than the general population and higher overall mortality risk (SRR 3.84, 95% CI 2.66-5.54) than players with BMI<30 kg/m. Consistent with an earlier NFL cohort and other elite athlete populations, the overall and cardiovascular mortality risk of this NFL cohort was significantly lower than the general US male population, likely attributable to a healthy worker effect and less smoking.However, players with the highest playing-time BMI exhibited elevated cardiovascular mortality risk.