Geochemical engineering problem identification and program description. Final report
Crane, C.H.; Kenkeremath, D.C.
1981-05-01
The Geochemical Engineering Program has as its goal the improvement of geochemical fluid management techniques. This document presents the strategy and status of the Geochemical Engineering Program. The magnitude and scope of geochemical-related problems constraining geothermal industry productivity are described. The goals and objectives of the DGE Geochemical Engineering Program are defined. The rationale and strategy of the program are described. The structure, priorities, funding, and management of specific elements within the program are delineated, and the status of the overall program is presented.
Structural Identification Problem
Suvorov Aleksei
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The identification problem of the existing structures though the Quasi-Newton and its modification, Trust region algorithms is discussed. For the structural problems, which could be represented by means of the mathematical modelling of the finite element code discussed method is extremely useful. The nonlinear minimization problem of the L2 norm for the structures with linear elastic behaviour is solved by using of the Optimization Toolbox of Matlab. The direct and inverse procedures for the composition of the desired function to minimize are illustrated for the spatial 3D truss structure as well as for the problem of plane finite elements. The truss identification problem is solved with 2 and 3 unknown parameters in order to compare the computational efforts and for the graphical purposes. The particular commands of the Matlab codes are present in this paper.
Computational problems in engineering
Mladenov, Valeri
2014-01-01
This book provides readers with modern computational techniques for solving variety of problems from electrical, mechanical, civil and chemical engineering. Mathematical methods are presented in a unified manner, so they can be applied consistently to problems in applied electromagnetics, strength of materials, fluid mechanics, heat and mass transfer, environmental engineering, biomedical engineering, signal processing, automatic control and more. • Features contributions from distinguished researchers on significant aspects of current numerical methods and computational mathematics; • Presents actual results and innovative methods that provide numerical solutions, while minimizing computing times; • Includes new and advanced methods and modern variations of known techniques that can solve difficult scientific problems efficiently.
Matrices in Engineering Problems
Tobias, Marvin
2011-01-01
This book is intended as an undergraduate text introducing matrix methods as they relate to engineering problems. It begins with the fundamentals of mathematics of matrices and determinants. Matrix inversion is discussed, with an introduction of the well known reduction methods. Equation sets are viewed as vector transformations, and the conditions of their solvability are explored. Orthogonal matrices are introduced with examples showing application to many problems requiring three dimensional thinking. The angular velocity matrix is shown to emerge from the differentiation of the 3-D orthogo
Problems diagnosis in diesel engines
Leugner, L.
1986-10-01
Diagnosis of engine problems in diesel engines used in Western Canadian coal mines is discussed. Areas to which attention must be paid include the air cleaners, turbocharger, engine compression and the fuel system. Exhaust smoke should be analysed to help diagnose combustion related problems.
Professional Identification for Biomedical Engineers
Long, Francis M.
1973-01-01
Discusses four methods of professional identification in biomedical engineering including registration, certification, accreditation, and possible membership qualification of the societies. Indicates that the destiny of the biomedical engineer may be under the control of a new profession, neither the medical nor the engineering. (CC)
System identification of jet engines
Sugiyama, N.
2000-01-01
System identification plays an important role in advanced control systems for jet engines, in which controls are performed adaptively using data from the actual engine and the identified engine. An identification technique for jet engine using the Constant Gain Extended Kalman Filter (CGEKF) is described. The filter is constructed for a two-spool turbofan engine. The CGEKF filter developed here can recognize parameter change in engine components and estimate unmeasurable variables over whole flight conditions. These capabilities are useful for an advanced Full Authority Digital Electric Control (FADEC). Effects of measurement noise and bias, effects of operating point and unpredicted performance change are discussed. Some experimental results using the actual engine are shown to evaluate the effectiveness of CGEKF filter.
Applied Mathematical Problems in Engineering
Carlos Llopis-Albert
2016-10-01
Full Text Available There is a close relationship between engineering and mathematics, which has led to the development of new techniques in recent years. Likewise the developments in technology and computers have led to new ways of teaching mathematics for engineering students and the use of modern techniques and methods. This research aims to provide insight on how to deal with mathematical problems for engineering students. This is performed by means of a fuzzy set/Qualitative Comparative Analysis applied to conflict resolution of Public Participation Projects in support to the EU Water Framework Directive.
Group Design Problems in Engineering Design Graphics.
Kelley, David
2001-01-01
Describes group design techniques used within the engineering design graphics sequence at Western Washington University. Engineering and design philosophies such as concurrent engineering place an emphasis on group collaboration for the solving of design problems. (Author/DDR)
Group Design Problems in Engineering Design Graphics.
Kelley, David
2001-01-01
Describes group design techniques used within the engineering design graphics sequence at Western Washington University. Engineering and design philosophies such as concurrent engineering place an emphasis on group collaboration for the solving of design problems. (Author/DDR)
Techniques for Analysing Problems in Engineering Projects
Thorsteinsson, Uffe
1998-01-01
Description of how CPM network can be used for analysing complex problems in engineering projects.......Description of how CPM network can be used for analysing complex problems in engineering projects....
Techniques for Analysing Problems in Engineering Projects
Thorsteinsson, Uffe
1998-01-01
Description of how CPM network can be used for analysing complex problems in engineering projects.......Description of how CPM network can be used for analysing complex problems in engineering projects....
Problems in event based engine control
Hendricks, Elbert; Jensen, Michael; Chevalier, Alain Marie Roger
1994-01-01
Physically a four cycle spark ignition engine operates on the basis of four engine processes or events: intake, compression, ignition (or expansion) and exhaust. These events each occupy approximately 180° of crank angle. In conventional engine controllers, it is an accepted practice to sample...... the engine variables synchronously with these events (or submultiples of them). Such engine controllers are often called event-based systems. Unfortunately the main system noise (or disturbance) is also synchronous with the engine events: the engine pumping fluctuations. Since many electronic engine...... problems on accurate air/fuel ratio control of a spark ignition (SI) engine....
Solving computationally expensive engineering problems
Leifsson, Leifur; Yang, Xin-She
2014-01-01
Computational complexity is a serious bottleneck for the design process in virtually any engineering area. While migration from prototyping and experimental-based design validation to verification using computer simulation models is inevitable and has a number of advantages, high computational costs of accurate, high-fidelity simulations can be a major issue that slows down the development of computer-aided design methodologies, particularly those exploiting automated design improvement procedures, e.g., numerical optimization. The continuous increase of available computational resources does not always translate into shortening of the design cycle because of the growing demand for higher accuracy and necessity to simulate larger and more complex systems. Accurate simulation of a single design of a given system may be as long as several hours, days or even weeks, which often makes design automation using conventional methods impractical or even prohibitive. Additional problems include numerical noise often pr...
Computational problems in science and engineering
Bulucea, Aida; Tsekouras, George
2015-01-01
This book provides readers with modern computational techniques for solving variety of problems from electrical, mechanical, civil and chemical engineering. Mathematical methods are presented in a unified manner, so they can be applied consistently to problems in applied electromagnetics, strength of materials, fluid mechanics, heat and mass transfer, environmental engineering, biomedical engineering, signal processing, automatic control and more.
Teaching Software Engineering: Problems and Suggestions
Osama Shata
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Teaching Software Engineering is a challenging task. This paper presents some problems encountered during teaching the course of software engineering to computer science and computer engineering students for few offerings. We present problems encountered and which are related to its title and contents and present suggested solutions.
Problem Solving Methods in Engineering Design
Hartvig, Susanne C
1999-01-01
This short paper discusses typical engineering tasks and problem solving methods, based on a field study of engineering tasks at a Danish engineering firm. The field study has identified ten classes of design tasks and in this paper these classes are related to problem solving methods. The descri......This short paper discusses typical engineering tasks and problem solving methods, based on a field study of engineering tasks at a Danish engineering firm. The field study has identified ten classes of design tasks and in this paper these classes are related to problem solving methods....... The described work is part of a project that aims at establishing a coherent framework for future development of integrated design tools....
Chemists, Engineers Probe Mutual Problems.
Chemical and Engineering News, 1980
1980-01-01
Summarizes recommendations made in a workshop sponsored by the American Chemical Society concerning issues involving the diverging viewpoints of chemistry and chemical engineering. Includes recommendations regarding curricula, salary differences, and the need to change attitudes of chemistry faculty toward industry and industrial chemistry. (CS)
Statics formulas and problems : engineering mechanics 1
Gross, Dietmar; Wriggers, Peter; Schröder, Jörg; Müller, Ralf
2017-01-01
This book contains the most important formulas and more than 160 completely solved problems from Statics. It provides engineering students material to improve their skills and helps to gain experience in solving engineering problems. Particular emphasis is placed on finding the solution path and formulating the basic equations. Topics include: - Equilibrium - Center of Gravity, Center of Mass, Centroids - Support Reactions - Trusses - Beams, Frames, Arches - Cables - Work and Potential Energy - Static and Kinetic Friction - Moments of Inertia.
Software Engineering applied to Manufacturing Problems
Jorge A. Ruiz-Vanoye
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Optimization approaches have traditionally been viewed as tools for solving manufacturing problems, the optimization approach is not suitable for many problems arising in modern manufacturing systems due to their complexity and involvement of qualitative factors. In this paper we use a tool of software engineering applied to manufacturing problems. We use the Heuristics Lab software to determine and analyze the solution obtained for Manufacturing Problems.
Thought-evoking approaches in engineering problems
2014-01-01
In creating the value-added product in not distant future, it is necessary and inevitable to establish a holistic and though-evoking approach to the engineering problem, which should be at least associated with the inter-disciplinary knowledge and thought processes across the whole engineering spheres. It is furthermore desirable to integrate it with trans-disciplinary aspects ranging from manufacturing culture, through liberal-arts engineering, and industrial sociology. The thought-evoking approach can be exemplified and typified by representative engineering problems: unveiling essential features in ‘Tangential Force Ratio and Interface Pressure’, prototype development for ‘Bio-mimetic Needle’ and application of ‘Water-jet Machining to Artificial Hip Joint’, product innovation in ‘Heat Sink for Computer’, application of ‘Graph Theory’ to similarity evaluation of production systems, leverage among reciprocity attributes in ‘Industrial and Engineering Designs for Machine Enclosure’,...
Fundamental problems in fault detection and identification
Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Anton A.; Sannuti, Peddapullaiah;
1999-01-01
For certain fundamental problems in fault detection and identification, the necessary and sufficient conditions for their solvability are derived. These conditions are weaker than the ones found in the literature, since we do not assume any particular structure for the residual generator...
Dynamics formulas and problems : engineering mechanics 3
Gross, Dietmar; Wriggers, Peter; Schröder, Jörg; Müller, Ralf
2017-01-01
This book contains the most important formulas and more than 190 completely solved problems from Kinetics and Hydrodynamics. It provides engineering students material to improve their skills and helps to gain experience in solving engineering problems. Particular emphasis is placed on finding the solution path and formulating the basic equations. Topics include: - Kinematics of a Point - Kinetics of a Point Mass- Dynamics of a System of Point Masses - Kinematics of Rigid Bodies - Kinetics of Rigid Bodies - Impact - Vibrations - Non-Inertial Reference Frames - Hydrodynamics .
Some Modern Problems in Structural Engineering Dynamics
I. Elishakoff
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This review paper deals with two problems in structural engineering dynamics; one is deterministic, the other is of stochastic nature. One problem is linear, the other is nonlinear. Authors have a biased preferential view on these problems because of their active involvement in the discussed research topics. Still, these two problems reflect, at least in a small manner, some developments in this vast and fascinating field. The first part deals with deterministic linear vibrations of double-walled carbon nanotubes either in classical or refined setting; the second part is devoted to the nonlinear random vibrations of structures.
Problem Based Learning in Engineering Education
Dahms, Mona-Lisa; Sauerbier, Gabriele; Stubbe, Korinna
2006-01-01
This paper describes a recent EU-project from five European Institutions. The aim was the development and implementation of a new international Master’s programme for staff development, directed towards the introduction of Problem Based Learning methods in the field of engineering education...
Song, Ting; Becker, Kurt; Gero, John; DeBerard, Scott; DeBerard, Oenardi; Reeve, Edward
2016-01-01
The authors investigated the differences in using problem decomposition and problem recomposition between dyads of engineering experts, engineering seniors, and engineering freshmen. Participants worked in dyads to complete an engineering design challenge within 1 hour. The entire design process was video and audio recorded. After the design…
40 CFR 94.213 - Submission of engine identification numbers.
2010-07-01
... request, identify by engine identification number, the engines covered by the certificate of conformity... numbers. 94.213 Section 94.213 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... § 94.213 Submission of engine identification numbers. (a) Upon request of the Administrator, the...
Numerical simulations of coupled problems in engineering
2014-01-01
This book presents and discusses mathematical models, numerical methods and computational techniques used for solving coupled problems in science and engineering. It takes a step forward in the formulation and solution of real-life problems with a multidisciplinary vision, accounting for all of the complex couplings involved in the physical description. Simulation of multifaceted physics problems is a common task in applied research and industry. Often a suitable solver is built by connecting together several single-aspect solvers into a network. In this book, research in various fields was selected for consideration: adaptive methodology for multi-physics solvers, multi-physics phenomena and coupled-field solutions, leading to computationally intensive structural analysis. The strategies which are used to keep these problems computationally affordable are of special interest, and make this an essential book.
Expert vs. Novice: Problem Decomposition/Recomposition in Engineering Design
Ting, Song
2014-01-01
The purpose of this research was to investigate the differences of using problem decomposition and problem recomposition among dyads of engineering experts, dyads of engineering seniors, and dyads of engineering freshmen. Fifty participants took part in this study. Ten were engineering design experts, 20 were engineering seniors, and 20 were engineering freshmen. Participants worked in dyads to complete an engineering design challenge within an hour. The entire design process was video and au...
Making objective decisions in mechanical engineering problems
Raicu, A.; Oanta, E.; Sabau, A.
2017-08-01
Decision making process has a great influence in the development of a given project, the goal being to select an optimal choice in a given context. Because of its great importance, the decision making was studied using various science methods, finally being conceived the game theory that is considered the background for the science of logical decision making in various fields. The paper presents some basic ideas regarding the game theory in order to offer the necessary information to understand the multiple-criteria decision making (MCDM) problems in engineering. The solution is to transform the multiple-criteria problem in a one-criterion decision problem, using the notion of utility, together with the weighting sum model or the weighting product model. The weighted importance of the criteria is computed using the so-called Step method applied to a relation of preferences between the criteria. Two relevant examples from engineering are also presented. The future directions of research consist of the use of other types of criteria, the development of computer based instruments for decision making general problems and to conceive a software module based on expert system principles to be included in the Wiki software applications for polymeric materials that are already operational.
Frameworks in Problems of Structural Identification Systems
Nikolay Karabutov
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The new approach to structural identification of nonlinear dynamic systems under uncertainty is proposed. It is based on the analysis of virtual frameworks (VF, reflecting a state of a nonlinear part system. Construction VF is based on obtaining special an informational set describing a steady state of a nonlinear dynamic system. Introduction VF demands an estimation of structural identifiability of a system. This concept is associated with nonlinearity of system and properties VF. The method of an estimation of structural identifiability is proposed. The appearance of the insignificant virtual frameworks, not satisfying to the condition of structural identifiability, is considered. Algorithms for an estimation of a nonlinearity class on the basis of the analysis of sector sets are proposed. Methods and procedures of the estimation of framework single-valued and multiple -valued nonlinearities are proposed. The method of the structurally-frequency analysis is proposed and applied to validate the obtained solutions. VF is proposed for identification of an order and a spectrum of eigenvalues of a linear dynamic system. The possibility of application VF for the problem solving of identification static systems is shown
Examining Young Students' Problem Scoping in Engineering Design
Watkins, Jessica; Spencer, Kathleen; Hammer, David
2014-01-01
Problem scoping--determining the nature and boundaries of a problem--is an essential aspect of the engineering design process. Some studies from engineering education suggest that beginning students tend to skip problem scoping or oversimplify a problem. However, the ways these studies often characterize students' problem scoping often do not…
Comparison of Problem Solving from Engineering Design to Software Design
Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema; Babar, Muhammad Ali
2012-01-01
Observational studies of engineering design activities can inform the research community on the problem solving models that are employed by professional engineers. Design is defined as an ill-defined problem which includes both engineering design and software design, hence understanding problem s...
Teaching Problem-Solving Skills to Nuclear Engineering Students
Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.
2012-01-01
Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and…
Teaching Problem-Solving Skills to Nuclear Engineering Students
Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.
2012-01-01
Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and…
Study Regarding the Identification of an Internal Combustion Engine
Ioan Ruja
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the scientific investigations performed on an Otto engine. One conducted surveys on the analytic and experimental modelling of the internal combustion engine, considered as automated system element. The results of the analytical study are concretised in the mathematical model of the engine, expressed in the operational. The experimental results are concretised in the indicial response in rotating speed, as well as in the determination of the constants of interest. The investigation methods used in conducting the survey were: experimental identification based on the indicial response of the engine and the analytical identification based on the mathematical models of diverse engine subsystems.
Li, Jian; Ruiz-Sandoval, Manuel; Spencer, Billie F.; Elnashai, Amr S.
2014-03-01
System identification of civil engineering structures are often formulated as Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output (MIMO) problems due to the complexity of loading conditions such as differential ground motion, which is also multi-directional in nature. Such MIMO system identification problems are challenging due to strong coupling between the contributions of multiple ground motion inputs to each individual response. Compared with Single-Input, Multiple-Output (SIMO) system identification, MIMO problems are often more computationally complex and error prone. In this paper, a new system identification strategy is proposed in which a more complex MIMO problem is converted into a number of SIMO problems by decoupling the contribution of multiple inputs to the outputs. A QR-factorization based approach is adopted for the decoupling and its accuracy is investigated. The effectiveness of the proposed strategy is demonstrated through applications to a two-span straight bridge and a four-span curved bridge, both are highway bridges.
Equivalence of the Symbol Grounding and Quantum System Identification Problems
Chris Fields
2014-02-01
Full Text Available The symbol grounding problem is the problem of specifying a semantics for the representations employed by a physical symbol system in a way that is neither circular nor regressive. The quantum system identification problem is the problem of relating observational outcomes to specific collections of physical degrees of freedom, i.e., to specific Hilbert spaces. It is shown that with reasonable physical assumptions these problems are equivalent. As the quantum system identification problem is demonstrably unsolvable by finite means, the symbol grounding problem is similarly unsolvable.
Hybrid intelligent optimization methods for engineering problems
Pehlivanoglu, Yasin Volkan
The purpose of optimization is to obtain the best solution under certain conditions. There are numerous optimization methods because different problems need different solution methodologies; therefore, it is difficult to construct patterns. Also mathematical modeling of a natural phenomenon is almost based on differentials. Differential equations are constructed with relative increments among the factors related to yield. Therefore, the gradients of these increments are essential to search the yield space. However, the landscape of yield is not a simple one and mostly multi-modal. Another issue is differentiability. Engineering design problems are usually nonlinear and they sometimes exhibit discontinuous derivatives for the objective and constraint functions. Due to these difficulties, non-gradient-based algorithms have become more popular in recent decades. Genetic algorithms (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms are popular, non-gradient based algorithms. Both are population-based search algorithms and have multiple points for initiation. A significant difference from a gradient-based method is the nature of the search methodologies. For example, randomness is essential for the search in GA or PSO. Hence, they are also called stochastic optimization methods. These algorithms are simple, robust, and have high fidelity. However, they suffer from similar defects, such as, premature convergence, less accuracy, or large computational time. The premature convergence is sometimes inevitable due to the lack of diversity. As the generations of particles or individuals in the population evolve, they may lose their diversity and become similar to each other. To overcome this issue, we studied the diversity concept in GA and PSO algorithms. Diversity is essential for a healthy search, and mutations are the basic operators to provide the necessary variety within a population. After having a close scrutiny of the diversity concept based on qualification and
Systems engineering: A problem of perception
Senglaub, M.
1995-08-01
The characterization of systems engineering as a discipline, process, procedure or a set of heuristics will have an impact on the implementation strategy, the training methodology, and operational environment. The systems engineering upgrade activities in the New Mexico Weapons Development Center and a search of systems engineering related information provides evidence of a degree of ambiguity in this characterization of systems engineering. A case is made in this article for systems engineering being the engineering discipline applied to the science of complexity. Implications of this characterization and some generic issues are delineated with the goal of providing an enterprise with a starting point for developing its business environment.
Requirements engineering: problem analysis and solution specification
Wieringa, R.J.; Koch, N.; Fraternali, P.; Wirsing, M.
2004-01-01
Taken literally, the term requirements engineering (RE) is a misnomer. A requirement is something that is wanted; engineering, according to Websters, is calculated manipulation. If our wants would arise by calculated manipulation, then something would be wrong. Our wants should not be engineered. Wh
Sujono, A.; Santoso, B.; Juwana, W. E.
2016-03-01
Problems of detonation (knock) on Otto engine (petrol engine) is completely unresolved problem until now, especially if want to improve the performance. This research did sound vibration signal processing engine with a microphone sensor, for the detection and identification of detonation. A microphone that can be mounted is not attached to the cylinder block, that's high temperature, so that its performance will be more stable, durable and inexpensive. However, the method of analysis is not very easy, because a lot of noise (interference). Therefore the use of new methods of pattern recognition, through filtration, and the regression function normalized envelope. The result is quite good, can achieve a success rate of about 95%.
Continuous Identification of a Four-Stroke SI Engine
Melgaard, Henrik; Hendricks, Elbert; Madsen, Henrik
1990-01-01
Compact engine models often consist of a set of nonlinear differential equations which predict the time development of the mean value of the engine state variables (and perhaps some internal variables): such models are sometimes called mean value engine models. Currently a great deal of attention...... is focused on constructing such continuous time models and on finding their parameters. This paper shows, that it is possible to identify an engine model from a linearized version of a mean value model for a CFI four-cycle spark ignition (SI) engine. Such an approach is useful because it preserves a physical...... understanding of the engine throughout the identification stage. Afterwards the identification results are available for general dynamic engine studies. The identfication techniques discussed in this paper include classical methods (step response) as well as modern statistical methods (Kalman filtering...
Optimal control problems related to the navigation channel engineering
朱江; 曾庆存; 郭冬建; 刘卓
1997-01-01
The navigation channel engineering poses optimal control problems of how to find the optimal way of engineering such that the water depth of the channel is maximum under certain budget constraint, or the cost of me en-gineering is minimum while certain goals are achieved. These are typical control problems of distributed system gov erned by hydraulic/sedimentation models. The problems and methods of solutions are discussed Since the models, usually complicated, are nonlinear, they can be solved by solving a series of linear problems For linear problems the solutions are given. Thus the algorithms are simplified.
Expert vs. novice: Problem decomposition/recomposition in engineering design
Song, Ting
The purpose of this research was to investigate the differences of using problem decomposition and problem recomposition among dyads of engineering experts, dyads of engineering seniors, and dyads of engineering freshmen. Fifty participants took part in this study. Ten were engineering design experts, 20 were engineering seniors, and 20 were engineering freshmen. Participants worked in dyads to complete an engineering design challenge within an hour. The entire design process was video and audio recorded. After the design session, members participated in a group interview. This study used protocol analysis as the methodology. Video and audio data were transcribed, segmented, and coded. Two coding systems including the FBS ontology and "levels of the problem" were used in this study. A series of statistical techniques were used to analyze data. Interview data and participants' design sketches also worked as supplemental data to help answer the research questions. By analyzing the quantitative and qualitative data, it was found that students used less problem decomposition and problem recomposition than engineer experts in engineering design. This result implies that engineering education should place more importance on teaching problem decomposition and problem recomposition. Students were found to spend less cognitive effort when considering the problem as a whole and interactions between subsystems than engineer experts. In addition, students were also found to spend more cognitive effort when considering details of subsystems. These results showed that students tended to use dept-first decomposition and experts tended to use breadth-first decomposition in engineering design. The use of Function (F), Behavior (B), and Structure (S) among engineering experts, engineering seniors, and engineering freshmen was compared on three levels. Level 1 represents designers consider the problem as an integral whole, Level 2 represents designers consider interactions between
The Problem of Engineering Creativity in Russia: A Critical Review
Kukushkin, Sergey; Churlyaeva, Natalya
2012-01-01
The problem of technological creativity in Russia is briefly discussed. Special attention is paid to the development of indigenous engineering corpus in unfavourable conditions and some reasons for engineers' low creativity are revealed. The Soviet system of engineering higher education (HE) is criticised as not focused on fostering creative…
Runtime analysis of search heuristics on software engineering problems
Per Kristian LEHRE; Xin YAO
2009-01-01
Many software engineering tasks can potentially be automated using search heuristics. However, much work is needed in designing and evaluating search heuristics before this approach can be routinely applied to a software engineering problem. Experimental methodology should be complemented with theoretical analysis to achieve this goal.Recently, there have been significant theoretical advances in the runtime analysis of evolutionary algorithms (EAs) and other search heuristics in other problem domains. We suggest that these methods could be transferred and adapted to gain insight into the behaviour of search heuristics on software engineering problems while automating software engineering.
Tekinerdogan, B.; Aksit, Mehmet; Dogru, Ali H.; Bicer, Veli
2011-01-01
Software engineering is compared with traditional engineering disciplines using a domain specific problem-solving model called Problem-Solving for Engineering Model (PSEM). The comparative analysis is performed both from a historical and contemporary view. The historical view provides lessons on the
Introductory Level Problems Illustrating Concepts in Pharmaceutical Engineering
McIver, Keith; Whitaker, Kathryn; De Delva, Vladimir; Farrell, Stephanie; Savelski, Mariano J.; Slater, C. Stewart
2012-01-01
Textbook style problems including detailed solutions introducing pharmaceutical topics at the level of an introductory chemical engineering course have been created. The problems illustrate and teach subjects which students would learn if they were to pursue a career in pharmaceutical engineering, including the unique terminology of the field,…
Inverse Problems for Matrix Exponential in System Identification: System Aliasing
Yue, Zuogong; Thunberg, Johan; Goncalves, Jorge
2016-01-01
This note addresses identification of the $A$-matrix in continuous time linear dynamical systems on state-space form. If this matrix is partially known or known to have a sparse structure, such knowledge can be used to simplify the identification. We begin by introducing some general conditions for solvability of the inverse problems for matrix exponential. Next, we introduce "system aliasing" as an issue in the identification of slow sampled systems. Such aliasing give rise to non-unique mat...
Trends and Problems in Mining Engineering Education
Gülhan ÖZBAYOĞLU
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Mining engineering in Turkey has the lowest rank among the other engineering fields. Unemployment, instability in mining industry, lack of investments, difficult working conditions, terrible mining disasters and negative impression of environmentalists are some of the reasons for this fact. On the other hand, mining education has been changing worldwide in the last decade. Many famous mining schools have terminated their programs or established regional collaborations. Therefore, the universities started to rethink and restructure their mining education programs to meet the requirements of the industry and public. In this article, the mining engineering education in the past and present was reviewed including the number of academic staff and graduates. The developments of the engineering curriculum was examined in the world and Europe as well as in Turkey, in particular METU (Middle East Technical University program was investigated, in detail. In Turkey, two mining engineering departments and three programs have been accreditated by ABET(Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology and MÜDEK (Association for Evaluation and Accreditation of Engineering Programs, respectively.
Solving real world problems with mechanical engineering
Shea, Therese
2016-01-01
Planes, trains, and automobiles-these are just some of the many achievements of mechanical engineering. This volume will show readers that they do not have to know complex equations to appreciate the impact the field has had on the world. Accessible text introduces young readers to the machines and engines that power the devices, vehicles, and appliances they encounter on a daily basis. Boxes explain important terms and concepts of mechanics and encourage readers to think critically. The book ends with a guided activity that invites readers to don the hat of a mechanical engineer and build the
Some Identification Problems in the Cointegrated Vector Autoregressive Model
Johansen, Søren
An analysis of some identification problems in the cointegrated VAR is given. We give a new criteria for identification by linear restrictions on individual relations which is equivalent to the rank condition. We compare the asymptotic distribution of the estimators of a and ß; when they are iden...
Some identification problems in the cointegrated vector autoregressive model
Johansen, Søren
An analysis of some identification problems in the cointegrated VAR is given. We give a new criteria for identification by linear restrictions on indi- vidual relations which is equivalent to the rank condition. We compare the asymptotic distribution of the estimators of α and β; when they are id...
Problem solving in foundation engineering using foundationPro
Yamin, Mohammad
2016-01-01
This book is at once a supplement to traditional foundation engineering textbooks and an independent problem-solving learning tool. The book is written primarily for university students majoring in civil or construction engineering taking foundation analysis and design courses to encourage them to solve design problems. Its main aim is to stimulate problem solving capability and foster self-directed learning. It also explains the use of the foundationPro software, available at no cost, and includes a set of foundation engineering applications. Taking a unique approach, Dr. Yamin summarizes the general step-by-step procedure to solve various foundation engineering problems, illustrates traditional applications of these steps with longhand solutions, and presents the foundationPro solutions. The special structure of the book allows it to be used in undergraduate and graduate foundation design and analysis courses in civil and construction engineering. The book stands as valuable resource for students, faculty, ...
The Kadison-Singer problem in mathematics and engineering.
Casazza, Peter G; Tremain, Janet Crandell
2006-02-14
We will see that the famous intractible 1959 Kadison-Singer Problem in C*-algebras is equivalent to fundamental open problems in a dozen different areas of research in mathematics and engineering. This work gives all these areas common ground on which to interact as well as explaining why each area has volumes of literature on their respective problems without a satisfactory resolution.
Hurricanes as Heat Engines: Two Undergraduate Problems
Pyykko, Pekka
2007-01-01
Hurricanes can be regarded as Carnot heat engines. One reason that they can be so violent is that thermodynamically, they demonstrate large efficiency, [epsilon] = (T[subscript h] - T[subscript c]) / T[subscript h], which is of the order of 0.3. Evaporation of water vapor from the ocean and its subsequent condensation is the main heat transfer…
Microbial alcohol dehydrogenases: identification, characterization and engineering
Machielsen, M.P.
2007-01-01
Keywords: alcohol dehydrogenase, laboratory evolution, rational protein engineering, Pyrococcus furiosus, biocatalysis, characterization, computational design, thermostability. Alcohol dehydrogeases (ADHs) catalyze the interconversion of alcohols, aldehydes and ketones. They display a wide variety
State Space identification of Civil Engineering Structures from Output Measurements
1996-01-01
This paper presents the results from a state space system identification simulation study of a 5-degrees-of freedom system driven by white noise. The aim of the study is to compare the durability of the fairly new Stochastic Subspace Technique (SST) with more well-known techniques for identification of civil engineering structures. The SST is compared with the stochastic realization estimator Matrix Block Hankel (MBH) and a prediction error method (PEM). The results show that the investigated...
A Process Analysis of Engineering Problem Solving and Assessment of Problem Solving Skills
Grigg, Sarah J.
2012-01-01
In the engineering profession, one of the most critical skills to possess is accurate and efficient problem solving. Thus, engineering educators should strive to help students develop skills needed to become competent problem solvers. In order to measure the development of skills, it is necessary to assess student performance, identify any…
Uncertainty Quantification with Applications to Engineering Problems
Bigoni, Daniele
The systematic quantification of the uncertainties affecting dynamical systems and the characterization of the uncertainty of their outcomes is critical for engineering design and analysis, where risks must be reduced as much as possible. Uncertainties stem naturally from our limitations in measu......The systematic quantification of the uncertainties affecting dynamical systems and the characterization of the uncertainty of their outcomes is critical for engineering design and analysis, where risks must be reduced as much as possible. Uncertainties stem naturally from our limitations...... in measurements, predictions and manufacturing, and we can say that any dynamical system used in engineering is subject to some of these uncertainties. The first part of this work presents an overview of the mathematical framework used in Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) analysis and introduces the spectral tensor...... some auxiliary properties, we will apply PC on it, obtaining the STT-decomposition. This will allow the decoupling of each dimension, leading to a much cheaper construction of the PC surrogate. In the associated paper, the capabilities of the STT-decomposition are checked on commonly used test...
Engineering surveying theory and examination problems for students
Schofield, W
2013-01-01
Engineering Surveying: Theory and Examination Problems for Students, Volume 1, Third Edition discusses topics concerning engineering surveying techniques and instrumentations. The book is comprised of eight chapters that cover several concerns in engineering survey. Chapter 1 discusses the basic concepts of surveying. Chapter 2 deals with simple and precise leveling, while Chapter 3 covers earthworks. The book also talks about the theodolite and its applications, and then discusses optical distance measurement. Curves, underground and hydrographic surveying, and aspects of dimensional control
Mechanics of materials formulas and problems : engineering mechanics 2
Gross, Dietmar; Wriggers, Peter; Schröder, Jörg; Müller, Ralf
2017-01-01
This book contains the most important formulas and more than 140 completely solved problems from Mechanics of Materials and Hydrostatics. It provides engineering students material to improve their skills and helps to gain experience in solving engineering problems. Particular emphasis is placed on finding the solution path and formulating the basic equations. Topics include: - Stress - Strain - Hooke’s Law - Tension and Compression in Bars - Bending of Beams - Torsion - Energy Methods - Buckling of Bars - Hydrostatics .
Problem and Preferred Management Practices Identification Workshop
Patchen, Douglas G.
2003-03-10
The goals for this workshop were: to introduce key players in the Appalachian basin oil industry to DOE's new Preferred Upstream Management Practices (PUMP) program; to explain the various elements of our two-year project in detail; to transfer technology through a series of short, invited talks; to identify technical problems and best management practices; and to recruit members for our Preferred Management Practices (PMP) Council.
An Integrated Architecture for Engineering Problem Solving
1998-12-01
62 Figure 33: Constrained attainable envisionment heuristic............................................63 Figure 34: Problem 4.21...collection of qualitative states and transitions that describe the behavior of the system is called an envisionment (de Kleer, 1977). There are two...types of envisionments commonly used for analyzing systems. An attainable envisionment describes all states that are reachable from a given initial
Problem-based learning biotechnology courses in chemical engineering.
Glatz, Charles E; Gonzalez, Ramon; Huba, Mary E; Mallapragada, Surya K; Narasimhan, Balaji; Reilly, Peter J; Saunders, Kevin P; Shanks, Jacqueline V
2006-01-01
We have developed a series of upper undergraduate/graduate lecture and laboratory courses on biotechnological topics to supplement existing biochemical engineering, bioseparations, and biomedical engineering lecture courses. The laboratory courses are based on problem-based learning techniques, featuring two- and three-person teams, journaling, and performance rubrics for guidance and assessment. Participants initially have found them to be difficult, since they had little experience with problem-based learning. To increase enrollment, we are combining the laboratory courses into 2-credit groupings and allowing students to substitute one of them for the second of our 2-credit chemical engineering unit operations laboratory courses.
State Space identification of Civil Engineering Structures from Output Measurements
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, P.
for identification of civil engineering structures. The SST is compared with the stochastic realization estimator Matrix Block Hankel (MBH) and a prediction error method (PEM). The results show that the investigated techniques give good results in terms of estimated modal parameters and mode shapes. Especially...
State Space identification of Civil Engineering Structures from Output Measurements
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, P.
1997-01-01
for identification of civil engineering structures. The SST is compared with the stochastic realization estimator Matrix Block Hankel (MBH) and a prediction error method (PEM). The results show that the investigated techniques give good results in terms of estimated modal parameters and mode shapes. Especially...
Systems engineering identification and control of mixed waste technology development
Beitel, G.A.
1997-08-01
The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) to develop technologies required to meet the Department`s commitments for treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes. Waste treatment includes all necessary steps from generation through disposal. Systems engineering was employed to reduce programmatic risk, that is, risk of failure to meet technical commitments within cost and schedule. Customer needs (technology deficiencies) are identified from Site Treatment Plans, Consent Orders, ten year plans, Site Technical Coordinating Groups, Stakeholders, and Site Visits. The Technical Baseline, a prioritized list of technology deficiencies, forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. Technology Development Requirements Documents are prepared for each technology selected for development. After technologies have been successfully developed and demonstrated, they are documented in a Technology Performance Report. The Technology Performance Reports are available to any of the customers or potential users of the technology, thus closing the loop between problem identification and product development. This systematic approach to technology development and its effectiveness after 3 years is discussed in this paper.
Engineering thick tissues - the vascularisation problem
H C H Ko
2007-07-01
Full Text Available The ability to create thick tissues is a major tissue engineering challenge, requiring the development of a suitable vascular supply. Current trends are seeing the utilization of cells seeded into hybrid matrix/scaffold systems to create in vitro vascular analogues. Approaches that aim to create vasculature in vitro include the use of biological extracellular matrices such as collagen hydrogels, porous biodegradable polymeric scaffolds with macro- and micro-lumens and micro-channels, co-culture of cells, incorporation of growth factors, culture in dynamic bioreactor environments, and combinations of these. Of particular interest are those approaches that aim to create bioengineered tissues in vitro that can be readily connected to the host's vasculature following implantation in order to maintain cell viability.
Group invariance in engineering boundary value problems
Seshadri, R
1985-01-01
REFEREN CES . 156 9 Transforma.tion of a Boundary Value Problem to an Initial Value Problem . 157 9.0 Introduction . 157 9.1 Blasius Equation in Boundary Layer Flow . 157 9.2 Longitudinal Impact of Nonlinear Viscoplastic Rods . 163 9.3 Summary . 168 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 . 10 From Nonlinear to Linear Differential Equa.tions Using Transformation Groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 . 10.1 From Nonlinear to Linear Differential Equations . 170 10.2 Application to Ordinary Differential Equations -Bernoulli's Equation . . . . . . . . . . . 173 10.3 Application to Partial Differential Equations -A Nonlinear Chemical Exchange Process . 178 10.4 Limitations of the Inspectional Group Method . 187 10.5 Summary . 188 REFERENCES . . . . 188 11 Miscellaneous Topics . 190 11.1 Reduction of Differential Equations to Algebraic Equations 190 11.2 Reduction of Order of an Ordinary Differential Equation . 191 11.3 Transformat.ion From Ordinary to Partial Differential Equations-Search for First Inte...
Parameter identification of civil engineering structures
Juang, J. N.; Sun, C. T.
1980-01-01
This paper concerns the development of an identification method required in determining structural parameter variations for systems subjected to an extended exposure to the environment. The concept of structural identifiability of a large scale structural system in the absence of damping is presented. Three criteria are established indicating that a large number of system parameters (the coefficient parameters of the differential equations) can be identified by a few actuators and sensors. An eight-bay-fifteen-story frame structure is used as example. A simple model is employed for analyzing the dynamic response of the frame structure.
Introducing Future Engineers to Sustainable Ecology Problems: A Case Study
Filipkowski, A.
2011-01-01
The problem of Earth environmental destruction by human activities is becoming dangerous. Engineers responsible for the production of any goods should be well aware of the negative influence of their activities on the state of the planet. This is why the understanding of ecological problems is essential for people responsible for production and…
LDRD Final Report: Global Optimization for Engineering Science Problems
HART,WILLIAM E.
1999-12-01
For a wide variety of scientific and engineering problems the desired solution corresponds to an optimal set of objective function parameters, where the objective function measures a solution's quality. The main goal of the LDRD ''Global Optimization for Engineering Science Problems'' was the development of new robust and efficient optimization algorithms that can be used to find globally optimal solutions to complex optimization problems. This SAND report summarizes the technical accomplishments of this LDRD, discusses lessons learned and describes open research issues.
Problem-Solving Methods in Agent-Oriented Software Engineering
Bogg, Paul; Beydoun, Ghassan; Low, Graham
Problem-solving methods (PSM) are abstract structures that describe specific reasoning processes employed to solve a set of similar problems. We envisage that off-the-shelf PSMs can assist in the development of agent-oriented solutions, not only as reusable and extensible components that software engineers employ for designing agent architecture solutions, but just as importantly as a set of runtime capabilities that agents themselves dynamically employ in order to solve problems. This chapter describes PSMs for agent-oriented software engineering (AOSE) that address interaction-dependent problem-solving such as negotiation or cooperation. An extension to an AOSE methodology MOBMAS is proposed whereby PSMs are integrated in the software development phases of MAS Organization Design, Internal Design, and Interaction Design. In this way, knowledge engineering drives the development of agent-oriented systems.
Problem of technological inheritance in machine engineering
Blumenstein, Valery; Rakhimyanov, Kharis; Heifetz, Mikhail; Kleptzov, Alexander
2016-01-01
This article demonstrates the importance of the research study with regard to the technological inheritance of the properties, which characterize the surface layer, at different stages of a part's life cycle. It looks back at the major achievements and gives the findings relating to the technological inheritance of the parameters of the surface layer strength and quality as well as to how they affect the performance properties of machine parts. It demonstrates that high rates of machine engineering development, occurrence of new materials and more complicated machine operation environment require a shorter period for design-to-manufacture facility by reducing experiments and increasing design work. That, in its turn, generates the necessity in more complex but also more accurate models of metal behavior under stressing. It is especially critical for strengthening treatment. Among them are the models developed within the mechanics of technological inheritance. It is assumed that at the stages of a part's life cycle deformation accumulates on a continuous basis and the plasticity reserve of the metal, which the surface layer is made of, depletes. The research study of technological inheritance and the discovery of physical patterns of the evolution and degradation of the structures in a thin surface layer, which occur during machining and operational stressing of parts made from existing and unique including nanopatterned metals, is a crucial scientific challenge. This leads to the acquisition of new knowledge in the plasticity of state-of-the-art metals in the conditions of complex non monotonous stressing and to the development of efficient integrated and combined methods of technological impact.
Neurogenetic Algorithm for Solving Combinatorial Engineering Problems
M. Jalali Varnamkhasti
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Diversity of the population in a genetic algorithm plays an important role in impeding premature convergence. This paper proposes an adaptive neurofuzzy inference system genetic algorithm based on sexual selection. In this technique, for choosing the female chromosome during sexual selection, a bilinear allocation lifetime approach is used to label the chromosomes based on their fitness value which will then be used to characterize the diversity of the population. The motivation of this algorithm is to maintain the population diversity throughout the search procedure. To promote diversity, the proposed algorithm combines the concept of gender and age of individuals and the fuzzy logic during the selection of parents. In order to appraise the performance of the techniques used in this study, one of the chemistry problems and some nonlinear functions available in literature is used.
Comorbidity of Conduct Problems and ADHD: Identification of "Fledgling Psychopaths".
Gresham, Frank M.; Lane, Kathleen L.; Lambros, Katina M.
2000-01-01
This article reviews the characteristics of children who exhibit a behavior pattern characterized by hyperactivity-impulsivity-inattention coupled with conduct problems such as fighting, stealing, truancy, noncompliance, and arguing. Procedures for early identification of these so-called "fledgling psychopaths" are described and discussed.…
Developmental and behavioral problems in pediatric primary care : Early identification
van den Heuvel, Mathilda
2016-01-01
This thesis focuses on the early identification of developmental and behavioral problems in pediatric primary care. The social environment is considered a fundamental determinant of early child development. In our study countries with generous redistributive policies had a better organization of ear
Electrical circuits in biomedical engineering problems with solutions
Keskin, Ali Ümit
2017-01-01
This authored monograph presents a comprehensive and in-depth analysis of electrical circuit theory in biomedical engineering, ideally suited as textbook for a course program. The book contains methods and theory, but the topical focus is placed on practical applications of circuit theory, including problems, solutions and case studies. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in electrical engineering who intend to embark on biomedical applications. The book is also very well suited for graduate students in the field. .
Some identification problems in the cointegrated vector autoregressive model
Johansen, Søren
An analysis of some identification problems in the cointegrated VAR is given. We give a new criteria for identification by linear restrictions on indi- vidual relations which is equivalent to the rank condition. We compare the asymptotic distribution of the estimators of α and β; when they are id......An analysis of some identification problems in the cointegrated VAR is given. We give a new criteria for identification by linear restrictions on indi- vidual relations which is equivalent to the rank condition. We compare the asymptotic distribution of the estimators of α and β; when...... they are identified by linear restrictions on β and when they are identified by linear restrictions on α; in which case a component of β is asymptotically Gaussian. Finally we discuss identification of shocks by introducing the contemporaneous and permanent e¤ect of a shock and the distinction between permanent...... and transi- tory shocks, which allows one to identify permanent shocks from the long-run variance and transitory shocks from the short-run variance....
Some Identification Problems in the Cointegrated Vector Autoregressive Model
Johansen, Søren
An analysis of some identification problems in the cointegrated VAR is given. We give a new criteria for identification by linear restrictions on individual relations which is equivalent to the rank condition. We compare the asymptotic distribution of the estimators of a and ß; when they are iden......An analysis of some identification problems in the cointegrated VAR is given. We give a new criteria for identification by linear restrictions on individual relations which is equivalent to the rank condition. We compare the asymptotic distribution of the estimators of a and ß; when...... they are identified by linear restrictions on ß; and when they are identified by linear restrictions on a; in which case a component of ß^ is asymptotically Gaussian. Finally we discuss identification of shocks by introducing the contemporaneous and permanent effect of a shock and the distinction between permanent...... and transitory shocks, which allows one to identify permanent shocks from the long-run variance and transitory shocks from the short-run variance...
The gene identification problem: An overview for developers
Fickett, J.W.
1995-03-27
The gene identification problem is the problem of interpreting nucleotide sequences by computer, in order to provide tentative annotation on the location, structure, and functional class of protein-coding genes. This problem is of self-evident importance, and is far from being fully solved, particularly for higher eukaryotes, Thus it is not surprising that the number of algorithm and software developers working in this area is rapidly increasing. The present paper is an overview of the field, with an emphasis on eukaryotes, for such developers.
2013-11-01
... Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft Engines Correction In rule document 2013... for Subsonic Engines'', in the third column, in the last row, the entry ``rO > 26.7'' is corrected...
Conceptual Comparison of Population Based Metaheuristics for Engineering Problems
Oluwole Adekanmbi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Metaheuristic algorithms are well-known optimization tools which have been employed for solving a wide range of optimization problems. Several extensions of differential evolution have been adopted in solving constrained and nonconstrained multiobjective optimization problems, but in this study, the third version of generalized differential evolution (GDE is used for solving practical engineering problems. GDE3 metaheuristic modifies the selection process of the basic differential evolution and extends DE/rand/1/bin strategy in solving practical applications. The performance of the metaheuristic is investigated through engineering design optimization problems and the results are reported. The comparison of the numerical results with those of other metaheuristic techniques demonstrates the promising performance of the algorithm as a robust optimization tool for practical purposes.
Özyurt, Özcan
2015-01-01
Problem solving is an indispensable part of engineering. Improving critical thinking dispositions for solving engineering problems is one of the objectives of engineering education. In this sense, knowing critical thinking and problem solving skills of engineering students is of importance for engineering education. This study aims to determine…
Özyurt, Özcan
2015-01-01
Problem solving is an indispensable part of engineering. Improving critical thinking dispositions for solving engineering problems is one of the objectives of engineering education. In this sense, knowing critical thinking and problem solving skills of engineering students is of importance for engineering education. This study aims to determine…
Some Identification Problems in the Cointegrated Vector Autoregressive Model
Johansen, Søren
2010-01-01
The paper analyses some identification problems in the cointegrated vector autoregressive model. A criteria for identification by linear restrictions on individual relations is given. The asymptotic distribution of the estimators of a and ß is derived when they are identified by linear restrictions...... on ß , and when they are identified by linear restrictions on a . It it shown that, in the latter case, a component of is asymptotically Gaussian. Finally we discuss identification of shocks by introducing the contemporaneous and permanent effect of a shock and the distinction between permanent...... and transitory shocks, which allows one to identify permanent shocks from the long-run variance and transitory shocks from the short-run variance....
Introduction to Problem Based Learning for Engineering Education
Moesby, Egon; Rosenørn, Torben
2003-01-01
Documentation material and working papers for the workshop "Introduction to Problem Based Learning for Engineering Education" held at Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 6 - 10 October 2003. The material support the workshop where the participants go through a complete pre-planning cycle...
Stirling engines for biomass – what is the problem?
Carlsen, Henrik
2005-01-01
The External combustion of the Stirling engine makes it very attractive for small-scale Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants using bio-fuels. Especially wood chips are an attractive fuel because of the high melting point and the low content of ash. Unfortunately, it is more complicated than...... expected to use bio-fuels for a Stirling engine. The high temperature in the hot heat exchanger transferring heat from the combustion to the Stirling engine combined with the low heating value of the fuel reduce the obtainable efficiency of the plant. The limitations of the combustion temperature in order...... to avoid melted ash in the combustion chamber decrease the obtainable efficiency even further. If a Stirling engine, which has an efficiency of 28,5% using natural gas, is converted into utilization of bio-fuel, the efficiency will decrease to 17,5%. Another problem for utilization of bio-fuels in Stirling...
Problems of engineering education and their decision involving industry
R. P. Simonyants
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In Russia, the problems of engineering education are connected with political and economic upheavals of the late last century. At the same time, some leading engineering universities in Russia, such as the Bauman Moscow State Technical University (BMSTU were resistant to the damaging effects of the crisis. But the methodology and experience of their effective work are insufficiently known.The problems of international engineering school development are also known. The first UNESCO World Report on Engineering (2010 assesses the state of engineering education as follows: worldwide shortage of engineers is a threat to the development of society.Based on the analysis of the current state of engineering education in the world and tendencies of development an urgency of its modernization with the focus on the enhancement of practical component has been shown.Topical problems associated with innovations and modernization in engineering education in the field of aerospace technology were discussed at the first international forum, which was held in Beijing Beyhanskom University (BUAA on 8 - 9 September 2012. The author attended this forum and presented his impressions of its work. It was noted that the role of Russia in the global process to form and develop engineering education is ignored. This opinion sounded, generally, in all speakers' reports, apart from ours.The President BUAA, a Professor Jinpeng Huai, and a Professor Qiushi Li. talked about the problems of building the engineering education system in China. It was emphasized that in China a study of engineering education techniques was motivated by the fact that quality assurance of engineering education at U.S. universities does not meet requirements.Attention is drawn to Dr. David Wisler's report who is a representative of the U.S. aerospace industry (General Electric Aviation corporation, actively promoting networking technology "initiative CDIO».The assessment of the engineering education
Revisiting the Core Ontology and Problem in Requirements Engineering
Jureta, Ivan; Faulkner, Stephane; 10.1109/RE.2008.13
2008-01-01
In their seminal paper in the ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology, Zave and Jackson established a core ontology for Requirements Engineering (RE) and used it to formulate the "requirements problem", thereby defining what it means to successfully complete RE. Given that stakeholders of the system-to-be communicate the information needed to perform RE, we show that Zave and Jackson's ontology is incomplete. It does not cover all types of basic concerns that the stakeholders communicate. These include beliefs, desires, intentions, and attitudes. In response, we propose a core ontology that covers these concerns and is grounded in sound conceptual foundations resting on a foundational ontology. The new core ontology for RE leads to a new formulation of the requirements problem that extends Zave and Jackson's formulation. We thereby establish new standards for what minimum information should be represented in RE languages and new criteria for determining whether RE has been successfully comple...
Problem-based learning in optical engineering studies
Voznesenskaya, Anna
2016-09-01
Nowadays, the Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is one of the most prospective educational technologies. PBL is based on evaluation of learning outcomes of a student, both professional and personal, instead of traditional evaluation of theoretical knowledge and selective practical skills. Such an approach requires changes in the curricula development. There should be introduced projects (cases) imitating real tasks from the professional life. These cases should include a problem summary with necessary theoretic description, charts, graphs, information sources etc, task to implement and evaluation indicators and criteria. Often these cases are evaluated with the assessment-center method. To motivate students for the given task they could be divided into groups and have a contest. Whilst it looks easy to implement in social, economic or teaching fields PBL is pretty complicated in engineering studies. Examples of cases in the first-cycle optical engineering studies are shown in this paper. Procedures of the PBL implementation and evaluation are described.
Differential Evolution Algorithm for Route Optimization Problems of Engineering Networks
O. G. Monahov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper considers problems of structure optimization of engineering networks to provide a minimum total cost of engineering networks in construction and operation. The mathematical statement of the problem in terms of the hyper-network theory takes into account the interdependence of indicators of hyper-network elements, a layout area and a projected network. A digital model of terrain presents the placement area of engineering networks (a territory. In our case, it will be a weighted mesh (graph of primary network of dedicated vertices-consumers and a vertex-source for the utilities. The edges weights will be determined by the costs of construction and operation of the route between the given vertices of the network. The initial solution of the problem of minimizing the total cost will be using the minimum spanning tree, obtained on a weighted complete graph the vertices of which are defined by vertices-consumers and the vertexsource for the utilities, and the weights of edges are the distance between the vertices on the given weighted graph of the primary network. The work offers a method of differential evolution to solve the problem in hyper-network formulation that improves the initial solution by the mapping the edges of the secondary network in the primary network using additional Steiner points. As numerical experiments have shown, a differential evolution algorithm allows us to reduce the average total cost for a given engineering network compared to the initial solution by 5% - 15%, depending on the configuration, parameters, and layout area.
Fundamentals of Physics for Engineering I (problems proposed). Academic year 2014-2015
2014-01-01
Problems proposed: Course "Physical Foundations of Engineering I". Degree in Sound and Image in Telecommunication Engineering. Polytechnic School of the University of Alicante. Academic year 2014-2015.
Fundamentals of Engineering Physics I (Problems proposed). Academic year 2015-2016
2015-01-01
Problems proposed: Course "Fundamentals of Engineering Physics I". Degree in Sound and Image in Telecommunication Engineering. Polytechnic School of the University of Alicante. Academic year 2015-2016.
Introducing future engineers to sustainable ecology problems: a case study
Filipkowski, A.
2011-12-01
The problem of Earth environmental destruction by human activities is becoming dangerous. Engineers responsible for the production of any goods should be well aware of the negative influence of their activities on the state of the planet. This is why the understanding of ecological problems is essential for people responsible for production and industrial design. The energy, which they consume, is increasing the greenhouse effect and the waste poisons the environment. So far, most courses on ecology are offered to specialists in environmental engineering. These courses are filled with many details. The Warsaw Academy of Computer Science, Management and Administration teaches students in the direction of management and production engineering. Upon completion, the students receive the degree of 'engineer'. Their future work will mainly concern management of different types of industrial enterprises and they will be responsible for organising it in such a way as to avoid a dangerous contribution to environmental pollution and climate change. This is why it was decided to introduce a new course entitled 'Principles of Ecology and Environmental Management'. This course is quite broad, concerning almost all technical, law and organisational aspects of the problem. The presentation is made in a spectacular way, aiming to convince students that their future activity must be environmentally friendly. It contains information about international activities in ecology, legal aspects concerning pollution, technical and information methods of monitoring and, finally, the description of 'green' solutions. Altogether, 27 hours of lectures and 15 hours of discussions and students' presentations complete the course. Details of this course are described in this paper.
Engineering neural systems for high-level problem solving.
Sylvester, Jared; Reggia, James
2016-07-01
There is a long-standing, sometimes contentious debate in AI concerning the relative merits of a symbolic, top-down approach vs. a neural, bottom-up approach to engineering intelligent machine behaviors. While neurocomputational methods excel at lower-level cognitive tasks (incremental learning for pattern classification, low-level sensorimotor control, fault tolerance and processing of noisy data, etc.), they are largely non-competitive with top-down symbolic methods for tasks involving high-level cognitive problem solving (goal-directed reasoning, metacognition, planning, etc.). Here we take a step towards addressing this limitation by developing a purely neural framework named galis. Our goal in this work is to integrate top-down (non-symbolic) control of a neural network system with more traditional bottom-up neural computations. galis is based on attractor networks that can be "programmed" with temporal sequences of hand-crafted instructions that control problem solving by gating the activity retention of, communication between, and learning done by other neural networks. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by showing that it can be applied successfully to solve sequential card matching problems, using both human performance and a top-down symbolic algorithm as experimental controls. Solving this kind of problem makes use of top-down attention control and the binding together of visual features in ways that are easy for symbolic AI systems but not for neural networks to achieve. Our model can not only be instructed on how to solve card matching problems successfully, but its performance also qualitatively (and sometimes quantitatively) matches the performance of both human subjects that we had perform the same task and the top-down symbolic algorithm that we used as an experimental control. We conclude that the core principles underlying the galis framework provide a promising approach to engineering purely neurocomputational systems for problem
2013-10-23
... Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation... aircraft engines which, in the EPA Administrator's judgment, causes or contributes to air pollution that... aircraft engine emission standards for oxides of nitrogen (NO X ), compliance flexibilities, and...
Identification of Civil Engineering Structures using Multivariate ARMAV and RARMAV Models
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, P.; Brincker, Rune
This paper presents how to make system identification of civil engineering structures using multivariate auto-regressive moving-average vector (ARMAV) models. Further, the ARMAV technique is extended to a recursive technique (RARMAV). The ARMAV model is used to identify measured stationary data....... The results show the usefulness of the approaches for identification of civil engineering structures excited by natural excitation...
Engineering of glucosinolate biosynthesis: candidate gene identification and validation.
Møldrup, Morten E; Salomonsen, Bo; Halkier, Barbara A
2012-01-01
The diverse biological roles of glucosinolates as plant defense metabolites and anticancer compounds have spurred a strong interest in their biosynthetic pathways. Since the completion of the Arabidopsis genome, functional genomics approaches have enabled significant progress on the elucidation of glucosinolate biosynthesis, although in planta validation of candidate gene function often is hampered by time-consuming generation of knockout and overexpression lines in Arabidopsis. To better exploit the increasing amount of data available from genomic sequencing, microarray database and RNAseq, time-efficient methods for identification and validation of candidate genes are needed. This chapter covers the methodology we are using for gene discovery in glucosinolate engineering, namely, guilt-by-association-based in silico methods and fast proof-of-function screens by transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Moreover, the lessons learned in the rapid, transient tobacco system are readily translated to our robust, versatile yeast expression platform, where additional genes critical for large-scale microbial production of glucosinolates can be identified. We anticipate that the methodology presented here will be beneficial to elucidate and engineer other plant biosynthetic pathways.
Communication Problems in Requirements Engineering: A Field Study
Al-Rawas, Amer; Easterbrook, Steve
1996-01-01
The requirements engineering phase of software development projects is characterized by the intensity and importance of communication activities. During this phase, the various stakeholders must be able to communicate their requirements to the analysts, and the analysts need to be able to communicate the specifications they generate back to the stakeholders for validation. This paper describes a field investigation into the problems of communication between disparate communities involved in the requirements specification activities. The results of this study are discussed in terms of their relation to three major communication barriers: (1) ineffectiveness of the current communication channels; (2) restrictions on expressiveness imposed by notations; and (3) social and organizational barriers. The results confirm that organizational and social issues have great influence on the effectiveness of communication. They also show that in general, end-users find the notations used by software practitioners to model their requirements difficult to understand and validate.
THE MODEL OF IDENTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM MAIN CAUSE SET OF VARIATION
Nenad Miric
2008-06-01
Full Text Available The term Lean has been widely used in today's product manufacturing and service delivery environments. In its fundamental nature the Lean Philosophy continuously strives for elimination of any kind of waste that exists in such environments. There are six basic strategies [1] related to the Lean Philosophy: Workplace Safety & Order & Cleanliness, JIT production, Six Sigma Quality, Empowered Teams, Visual Management and Pursuit of Perfection. On the journey of sustaining the lean supporting strategies there are many problems, or opportunities as Lean Practitioners call them. The value of some strategies highly depends on the efficiency of the problem solving techniques used to overcome the emerging issues. JIT production is difficult to imagine without a system that supports a high level of operational readiness with equipment uptime above 98%. Six Sigma level of quality, even when built into a product or system design, still undergoes the challenges of day to day operations and the variability brought with it. This variability is the source of waste and lean systems culture strives for continuous reduction of it. Empowered Teams properly trained to recognize the real cause of the problems and their Pursuit of Perfection culture are one of the corner stones of Lean Philosophy sustainability. Their ability to work with Problem Solvers and understand the difference between the "cure of the symptoms" approach versus "problem root cause identification" is one of the distinctions between Lean and Mass operations. Among the series of Statistical Engineering To ols this paper will show one of the techniques that proved to be powerful in the identification of the Set of Variation that contains the Main Cause of the new problems that arise in daily operations. This technique is called Multi - Vari. Multi - Vari is th e statistical engineering method used to analyze the set of data acquired in an organized manner. The set could be analyzed graphically or
Engineering Risk Assessment of Space Thruster Challenge Problem
Mathias, Donovan L.; Mattenberger, Christopher J.; Go, Susie
2014-01-01
The Engineering Risk Assessment (ERA) team at NASA Ames Research Center utilizes dynamic models with linked physics-of-failure analyses to produce quantitative risk assessments of space exploration missions. This paper applies the ERA approach to the baseline and extended versions of the PSAM Space Thruster Challenge Problem, which investigates mission risk for a deep space ion propulsion system with time-varying thruster requirements and operations schedules. The dynamic mission is modeled using a combination of discrete and continuous-time reliability elements within the commercially available GoldSim software. Loss-of-mission (LOM) probability results are generated via Monte Carlo sampling performed by the integrated model. Model convergence studies are presented to illustrate the sensitivity of integrated LOM results to the number of Monte Carlo trials. A deterministic risk model was also built for the three baseline and extended missions using the Ames Reliability Tool (ART), and results are compared to the simulation results to evaluate the relative importance of mission dynamics. The ART model did a reasonable job of matching the simulation models for the baseline case, while a hybrid approach using offline dynamic models was required for the extended missions. This study highlighted that state-of-the-art techniques can adequately adapt to a range of dynamic problems.
Three CLIPS-based expert systems for solving engineering problems
Parkinson, W. J.; Luger, G. F.; Bretz, R. E.
1990-01-01
We have written three expert systems, using the CLIPS PC-based expert system shell. These three expert systems are rule based and are relatively small, with the largest containing slightly less than 200 rules. The first expert system is an expert assistant that was written to help users of the ASPEN computer code choose the proper thermodynamic package to use with their particular vapor-liquid equilibrium problem. The second expert system was designed to help petroleum engineers choose the proper enhanced oil recovery method to be used with a given reservoir. The effectiveness of each technique is highly dependent upon the reservoir conditions. The third expert system is a combination consultant and control system. This system was designed specifically for silicon carbide whisker growth. Silicon carbide whiskers are an extremely strong product used to make ceramic and metal composites. The manufacture of whiskers is a very complicated process. which to date. has defied a good mathematical model. The process was run by experts who had gained their expertise by trial and error. A system of rules was devised by these experts both for procedure setup and for the process control. In this paper we discuss the three problem areas of the design, development and evaluation of the CLIPS-based programs.
Environmental and engineering problems of karst Geology in China
Daoxian, Yuan
1988-10-01
Karst terrane is generally regarded as a fragile and vulnerable environment. Its underground drainage system can aggrevate both drought and flood problems; the lack of filtration in an underground conduit makes waste disposal more difficult; and the lack of soil cover in bare karstland can enhance deforestation. Moreover, karst terranes are quite often haunted by a series of engineering problems, such as water gushing into mines or transportation tunnels; leakage from reservoirs; and failure of building foundations. In China, there are more than 200 cases of karst collapse, which include many thousands of individual collapse points. Some of these are paleo and natural collapses, but most of them are modern collapses induced by human activities and they have caused serious damage. Many factors such as geologic structure, overburden thickness and character, lithologic features of karstified rock, and intensity of karstification are related to development and distribution of modern collapses. However, China's karst is mainly developed in pre-Triassic, old phase, hard, compact, carbonate rock. Consequently most modern collapses have occurred only in the overlying soil. So it is understandable that the fluctuation of the water table in the underlying karstified strata plays an important role in the process of collapse. Nevertheless, there are different explanations as to how the groundwater activities can induce collapse.
Environmental and engineering problems of karst geology in China
Yuan Daoxian (Inst. of Karst Geology, Guangxi (China))
1988-10-01
Karst terrane is generally regarded as a fragile and vulnerable environment. Its underground drainage system can aggravate both drought and flood problems; the lack of filtration in an underground conduit makes waste disposal more difficult; and the lack of soil cover in bare karstland can enhance deforestation. Moreover, karst terranes are quite often haunted by a series of engineering problems, such as water gushing into mines or transportation tunnels; leakage from reservoirs; and failure of building foundations. In China, there are more than 200 cases of karst collapse, which include many thousands of individual collapse points. Some of these are paleo and natural collapses, but most of them are modern collapses induced by human activities and they have caused serious damage. Many factors such as geologic structure, overburden thickness and character, lithologic features of karstified rock, and intensity of karstification are related to development and distribution of modern collapses. However, China's karst is mainly developed in pre-Triassic, old phase, hard, compact, carbonate rock. Consequently most modern collapses have occurred only in the overlying soil. So it is understandable that the fluctuation of the water table in the underlying karstified strata plays an important role in the process of collapse. Nevertheless, there are different explanations as to how the groundwater activities can induce collapse.
Crone, M.R.; Bekkema, N.; Wiefferink, C.H.; Reijneveld, S.A.
2010-01-01
Objective: To assess the effectiveness of child health care professionals (CHP) in identifying psychosocial problems among children originating from industrialized and nonindustrialized countries and to assess whether parental concerns enhance CHP problem-identification. Study design: During routine
XRF map identification problems based on a PDE electrodeposition model
Sgura, Ivonne; Bozzini, Benedetto
2017-04-01
In this paper we focus on the following map identification problem (MIP): given a morphochemical reaction–diffusion (RD) PDE system modeling an electrodepostion process, we look for a time t *, belonging to the transient dynamics and a set of parameters \\mathbf{p} , such that the PDE solution, for the morphology h≤ft(x,y,{{t}\\ast};\\mathbf{p}\\right) and for the chemistry θ ≤ft(x,y,{{t}\\ast};\\mathbf{p}\\right) approximates a given experimental map M *. Towards this aim, we introduce a numerical algorithm using singular value decomposition (SVD) and Frobenius norm to give a measure of error distance between experimental maps for h and θ and simulated solutions of the RD-PDE system on a fixed time integration interval. The technique proposed allows quantitative use of microspectroscopy images, such as XRF maps. Specifically, in this work we have modelled the morphology and manganese distributions of nanostructured components of innovative batteries and we have followed their changes resulting from ageing under operating conditions. The availability of quantitative information on space-time evolution of active materials in terms of model parameters will allow dramatic improvements in knowledge-based optimization of battery fabrication and operation.
Corrado, Cesare; Gerbeau, Jean-Frédéric; Moireau, Philippe
2015-02-01
This work addresses the inverse problem of electrocardiography from a new perspective, by combining electrical and mechanical measurements. Our strategy relies on the definition of a model of the electromechanical contraction which is registered on ECG data but also on measured mechanical displacements of the heart tissue typically extracted from medical images. In this respect, we establish in this work the convergence of a sequential estimator which combines for such coupled problems various state of the art sequential data assimilation methods in a unified consistent and efficient framework. Indeed, we aggregate a Luenberger observer for the mechanical state and a Reduced-Order Unscented Kalman Filter applied on the parameters to be identified and a POD projection of the electrical state. Then using synthetic data we show the benefits of our approach for the estimation of the electrical state of the ventricles along the heart beat compared with more classical strategies which only consider an electrophysiological model with ECG measurements. Our numerical results actually show that the mechanical measurements improve the identifiability of the electrical problem allowing to reconstruct the electrical state of the coupled system more precisely. Therefore, this work is intended to be a first proof of concept, with theoretical justifications and numerical investigations, of the advantage of using available multi-modal observations for the estimation and identification of an electromechanical model of the heart.
Engineering bacteria to solve the Burnt Pancake Problem
Rosemond Sabriya
2008-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the possibility of executing DNA-based computation in living cells by engineering Escherichia coli to address a classic mathematical puzzle called the Burnt Pancake Problem (BPP. The BPP is solved by sorting a stack of distinct objects (pancakes into proper order and orientation using the minimum number of manipulations. Each manipulation reverses the order and orientation of one or more adjacent objects in the stack. We have designed a system that uses site-specific DNA recombination to mediate inversions of genetic elements that represent pancakes within plasmid DNA. Results Inversions (or "flips" of the DNA fragment pancakes are driven by the Salmonella typhimurium Hin/hix DNA recombinase system that we reconstituted as a collection of modular genetic elements for use in E. coli. Our system sorts DNA segments by inversions to produce different permutations of a promoter and a tetracycline resistance coding region; E. coli cells become antibiotic resistant when the segments are properly sorted. Hin recombinase can mediate all possible inversion operations on adjacent flippable DNA fragments. Mathematical modeling predicts that the system reaches equilibrium after very few flips, where equal numbers of permutations are randomly sorted and unsorted. Semiquantitative PCR analysis of in vivo flipping suggests that inversion products accumulate on a time scale of hours or days rather than minutes. Conclusion The Hin/hix system is a proof-of-concept demonstration of in vivo computation with the potential to be scaled up to accommodate larger and more challenging problems. Hin/hix may provide a flexible new tool for manipulating transgenic DNA in vivo.
40 CFR 92.213 - Submission of locomotive and engine identification numbers.
2010-07-01
... identification numbers. 92.213 Section 92.213 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Certification Provisions § 92.213 Submission of locomotive and engine identification numbers. (a) Upon request... covered by a certificate of conformity shall, within 30 days of receipt of such request, identify by...
Optimal Design of Experiments for Parametric Identification of Civil Engineering Structures
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
Optimal Systems of experiments for parametric identification of civil engineering structures is investigated. Design of experiments for parametric identification of dynamic systems is usually done by minimizing a scalar measure, e.g the determinant, the trace ect., of an estimated parameter...
Nelson, Kristen C; Andow, David A; Banker, Michael J
2009-01-01
Societal evaluation of new technologies, specifically nanotechnology and genetically engineered organisms (GEOs), challenges current practices of governance and science. Employing environmental risk assessment (ERA) for governance and oversight assumes we have a reasonable ability to understand consequences and predict adverse effects. However, traditional ERA has come under considerable criticism for its many shortcomings and current governance institutions have demonstrated limitations in transparency, public input, and capacity. Problem Formulation and Options Assessment (PFOA) is a methodology founded on three key concepts in risk assessment (science-based consideration, deliberation, and multi-criteria analysis) and three in governance (participation, transparency, and accountability). Developed through a series of international workshops, the PFOA process emphasizes engagement with stakeholders in iterative stages, from identification of the problem(s) through comparison of multiple technology solutions that could be used in the future with their relative benefits, harms, and risk. It provides "upstream public engagement" in a deliberation informed by science that identifies values for improved decision making.
2005-01-01
The Washington Academy of Biomedical Engineering (WABME) is an interdisciplinary and multi-institutional effort to promote research, technology...transfer, and education in biomedical engineering in the national capital region. The core members of WABME are faculty from the biomedical engineering /bioengineering...solution-rich engineering and scientific disciplines. These workshops build connections within the local biomedical engineering community and enable
Multicriteria analysis of real-life engineering optimization problems: statement and solution
Statnikov, R.B.; Bordetsky, A.; Statnikov, A.
2005-01-01
The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.na.2005.01.028 The majority of engineering problems are essentially multicriteria. These criteria are usually contradictory. That is why specialists experience significant difficulties in correctly stating engineering optimization problems, so designers often end up solving ill-posed problems. In general, it is impossible to reduce multicriteria problems to single-criterion ones. For the correct st...
Using Ontological Engineering to Overcome AI-ED Problems: Contribution, Impact and Perspectives
Mizoguchi, Riichiro; Bourdeau, Jacqueline
2016-01-01
This article reflects on the ontology engineering methodology discussed by the paper entitled "Using Ontological Engineering to Overcome AI-ED Problems" published in this journal in 2000. We discuss the achievements obtained in the last 10 years, the impact of our work as well as recent trends and perspectives in ontology engineering for…
A Case Study: Problem-Based Learning for Civil Engineering Students in Transportation Courses
Ahern, A. A.
2010-01-01
This paper describes two case studies where problem-based learning (PBL) has been introduced to undergraduate civil engineering students in University College Dublin. PBL has recently been put in place in the penultimate and final year transport engineering classes in the civil engineering degree in University College Dublin. In this case study,…
Using Ontological Engineering to Overcome AI-ED Problems: Contribution, Impact and Perspectives
Mizoguchi, Riichiro; Bourdeau, Jacqueline
2016-01-01
This article reflects on the ontology engineering methodology discussed by the paper entitled "Using Ontological Engineering to Overcome AI-ED Problems" published in this journal in 2000. We discuss the achievements obtained in the last 10 years, the impact of our work as well as recent trends and perspectives in ontology engineering for…
Stirling engines for biomass – what is the problem?
Carlsen, Henrik
2005-01-01
engines is, that the combustion of bio-fuels and transfer of the heat from the combustion gases to the Stirling engine need much more space than for natural gas as fuel. Because of the large differences in specific heat transfer on the inside and the outside of the heater tubes, the specific power...
Smith-Akin, Kimberly A; McLane, Sharon; Craig, Thomas M; Johnson, Todd R
2006-01-01
Dichotomous identification keys are used throughout biology for identification of plants, insects, and parasites. However, correct use of identification keys can be difficult as they are not usually intended for novice users who may not be familiar with the terminology used or with the morphology of the organism being identified. Therefore, we applied cognitive engineering principles to redesign a parasitology identification key for the Internet. We addressed issues of visual clutter and spatial distance by displaying a single question couplet at a time and by switching to the appropriate next couplet after the user made a choice. Our analysis of the original paper-based key versus the Web-based approach found that of 26 applicable cognitive engineering principles, the paper key did not meet 4 (15%) and partially met 11 (42%). In contrast, the redesigned key met 100% of 32 applicable cognitive engineering principles.
Open and Original Problems in Software Language Engineering 2015 Workshop Report
Bagge, A.H.; Zaytsev, V.
2015-01-01
OOPSLE is a workshop co-located with a re-engineering conference and serving as a venue for software language engineers to meet outside the SLE conference to discuss either long-standing problems that remain unresolved for years or decades, or oftavoided problems that everyone is so used to work aro
Promoting Collaborative Problem-Solving Skills in a Course on Engineering Grand Challenges
Zou, Tracy X. P.; Mickleborough, Neil C.
2015-01-01
The ability to solve problems with people of diverse backgrounds is essential for engineering graduates. A course on engineering grand challenges was designed to promote collaborative problem-solving (CPS) skills. One unique component is that students need to work both within their own team and collaborate with the other team to tackle engineering…
Promoting Collaborative Problem-Solving Skills in a Course on Engineering Grand Challenges
Zou, Tracy X. P.; Mickleborough, Neil C.
2015-01-01
The ability to solve problems with people of diverse backgrounds is essential for engineering graduates. A course on engineering grand challenges was designed to promote collaborative problem-solving (CPS) skills. One unique component is that students need to work both within their own team and collaborate with the other team to tackle engineering…
Effect of a "Look-Ahead" Problem on Undergraduate Engineering Students' Concept Comprehension
Goodman, Kevin; Davis, Julian; McDonald, Thomas
2016-01-01
In an effort to motivate undergraduate engineering students to prepare for class by reviewing material before lectures, a "Look-Ahead" problem was utilized. Students from two undergraduate engineering courses; Statics and Electronic Circuits, were assigned problems from course material that had not yet been covered in class. These…
Kwon, Taejoon; Choi, Hyungwon; Vogel, Christine; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I; Marcotte, Edward M
2011-07-01
Shotgun proteomics using mass spectrometry is a powerful method for protein identification but suffers limited sensitivity in complex samples. Integrating peptide identifications from multiple database search engines is a promising strategy to increase the number of peptide identifications and reduce the volume of unassigned tandem mass spectra. Existing methods pool statistical significance scores such as p-values or posterior probabilities of peptide-spectrum matches (PSMs) from multiple search engines after high scoring peptides have been assigned to spectra, but these methods lack reliable control of identification error rates as data are integrated from different search engines. We developed a statistically coherent method for integrative analysis, termed MSblender. MSblender converts raw search scores from search engines into a probability score for every possible PSM and properly accounts for the correlation between search scores. The method reliably estimates false discovery rates and identifies more PSMs than any single search engine at the same false discovery rate. Increased identifications increment spectral counts for most proteins and allow quantification of proteins that would not have been quantified by individual search engines. We also demonstrate that enhanced quantification contributes to improve sensitivity in differential expression analyses.
Identification of Civil Engineering Structures using Vector ARMA Models
Andersen, P.
The dissertation treats the matter of systems identification and modelling of load-bearing constructions using Auto-Regressive Moving Average Vector (ARMAV) models.......The dissertation treats the matter of systems identification and modelling of load-bearing constructions using Auto-Regressive Moving Average Vector (ARMAV) models....
Mathematics of uncertainty modeling in the analysis of engineering and science problems
Chakraverty, S
2014-01-01
For various scientific and engineering problems, how to deal with variables and parameters of uncertain value is an important issue. Full analysis of the specific errors in measurement, observations, experiments, and applications are vital in dealing with the parameters taken to simplify the problem. Mathematics of Uncertainty Modeling in the Analysis of Engineering and Science Problems aims to provide the reader with basic concepts for soft computing and other methods for various means of uncertainty in handling solutions, analysis, and applications. This book is an essential reference work for students, scholars, practitioners and researchers in the assorted fields of engineering and applied mathematics interested in a model for uncertain physical problems.
Hotta, Genji
The human race came to expect the engineer‧s international activity by an international extension of the risk. The engineer should provide with “Overall ability” and “Independent ability” to answer the demand of the society. The engineer ethics education is effective to the acquisition of the ability that the society demands. Because the engineer ethics education teaches the engineer to develop “Ethics action as the individual” to “Ethics activity as the enterprise” . In the point of development of the comprehensive capacity, it can be said that the engineer ethics education is training that supports the action power that accomplishes the social responsibility. However, it is easy to make the engineer ethics education a polite fiction. Then, we propose to take the safety problem to the ethics education for the prevention of making to the polite fiction of the education.
Phfarr, Barbara B.; So, Maria M.; Lamb, Caroline Twomey; Rhodes, Donna H.
2009-01-01
Experienced systems engineers are adept at more than implementing systems engineering processes: they utilize systems thinking to solve complex engineering problems. Within the space industry demographics and economic pressures are reducing the number of experienced systems engineers that will be available in the future. Collaborative systems thinking within systems engineering teams is proposed as a way to integrate systems engineers of various experience levels to handle complex systems engineering challenges. This paper uses the GOES-R Program Systems Engineering team to illustrate the enablers and barriers to team level systems thinking and to identify ways in which performance could be improved. Ways NASA could expand its engineering training to promote team-level systems thinking are proposed.
Social Competencies Identification for Realization of Successful Engineering Practice
Ivanova, Malinka
2012-01-01
Purpose: The aim of this paper is to identify the main social competencies that future engineers need to become recognized professionals. In the paper the key competencies for contemporary engineers are examined and the focus is given on the importance of social competencies for professional development. A competency research model is developed…
Requirements Engineering as Creative Problem Solving: A Research Agenda for Idea Finding
Maiden, N.; Jones, S; Karlsen, I. K.; Neill, R.; Zachos, K.; Milne, A.
2010-01-01
This vision paper frames requirements engineering as a creative problem solving process. Its purpose is to enable requirements researchers and practitioners to recruit relevant theories, models, techniques and tools from creative problem solving to understand and support requirements processes more effectively. It uses 4 drivers to motivate the case for requirements engineering as a creative problem solving process. It then maps established requirements activities onto one of the longest-esta...
Random Group Problem-Based Learning in Engineering Dynamics
Fleischfresser, Luciano
2014-01-01
Dynamics problem solving is highly specific to the problem at hand and to develop the general mind framework to become an effective problem solver requires ingenuity and creativity on top of a solid grounding on theoretical and conceptual knowledge. A blended approach with prototype demo, problem-based learning, and an opinion questionnaire was used during first semester of 2013. Students working in randomly selected teams had to interact with classmates while solving a randomly selected problem. The approach helps improve awareness of what is important to learn in this class while reducing grading load. It also provides a more rewarding contact time for both pupils and instructor.
A TRUST REGION METHOD FOR SOLVING DISTRIBUTED PARAMETER IDENTIFICATION PROBLEMS
Yan-fei Wang; Ya-xiang Yuan
2003-01-01
This paper is concerned with the ill-posed problems of identifying a parameter in an elliptic equation which appears in many applications in science and industry. Its solution is obtained by applying trust region method to a nonlinear least squares error problem.Trust region method has long been a popular method for well-posed problems. This paper indicates that it is also suitable for ill-posed problems. Numerical experiment is given to compare the trust region method with the Tikhonov regularization method. It seems that the trust region method is more promising.
Screening for Childhood Mental Health Problems: Outcomes and Early Identification
Essex, Marilyn J.; Kraemer, Helena C.; Slattery, Marcia J.; Burk, Linnea R.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Woodward, Hermi R.; Kupfer, David J.
2009-01-01
Background: Many childhood psychiatric problems are transient. Consequently, screening procedures to accurately identify children with problems unlikely to remit and thus, in need of intervention, are of major public health concern. This study aimed to develop a universal school-based screening procedure based on the answers to three questions:…
An Industrial Case Study: Identification of Competencies of Design Engineers
Ahmed, Saeema
2007-01-01
identified and the importance of these for design engineers in industry was investigated. In addition, the number of years of relevant experience required to become an expert in these types of knowledge was investigated. Knowledge related to the process was perceived as more important to those related......This paper describes the findings from an empirical study carried out with engineers in senior roles within a large company manufacturing complex products. This research aimed to identify the types of knowledge that are important for design engineers. Twenty-four knowledge categories were...... to the product. However, the number of years to become an expert in process knowledge was found to be lower than for product knowledge, despite process knowledge being perceived as more important. The findings of this research contribute to the education and training of design engineers....
Common Rail System for GDI Engines Modelling, Identification, and Control
Fiengo, Giovanni; Palladino, Angelo; Giglio, Veniero
2013-01-01
Progressive reductions in vehicle emission requirements have forced the automotive industry to invest in research and development of alternative control strategies. Continual control action exerted by a dedicated electronic control unit ensures that best performance in terms of pollutant emissions and power density is married with driveability and diagnostics. Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine technology is a way to attain these goals. This brief describes the functioning of a GDI engine equipped with a common rail (CR) system, and the devices necessary to run test-bench experiments in detail. The text should prove instructive to researchers in engine control and students are recommended to this brief as their first approach to this technology. Later chapters of the brief relate an innovative strategy designed to assist with the engine management system; injection pressure regulation for fuel pressure stabilization in the CR fuel line is proposed and validated by experiment. The resulting control scheme ...
Smart, Jimmy L.
2007-01-01
In this article, the author presents five problems that are representative of some of the "movie problems" that he has used on tests in various courses, including reactor design, heat transfer, mass transfer, engineering economics, and fluid mechanics. These problems tend to be open-ended. They can be challenging and can often be worked a variety…
Leppavirta, J.; Kettunen, H.; Sihvola, A.
2011-01-01
Complex multistep problem exercises are one way to enhance engineering students' learning of electromagnetics (EM). This study investigates whether exposure to complex problem exercises during an introductory EM course improves students' conceptual and procedural knowledge. The performance in complex problem exercises is compared to prior success…
Investigating and Developing Engineering Students' Mathematical Modelling and Problem-Solving Skills
Wedelin, Dag; Adawi, Tom; Jahan, Tabassum; Andersson, Sven
2015-01-01
How do engineering students approach mathematical modelling problems and how can they learn to deal with such problems? In the context of a course in mathematical modelling and problem solving, and using a qualitative case study approach, we found that the students had little prior experience of mathematical modelling. They were also inexperienced…
Application of a new method of nonlinear dynamical system identification to biochemical problems.
Karnaukhov, A V; Karnaukhova, E V
2003-03-01
The system identification method for a variety of nonlinear dynamic models is elaborated. The problem of identification of an original nonlinear model presented as a system of ordinary differential equations in the Cauchy explicit form with a polynomial right part reduces to the solution of the system of linear equations for the constants of the dynamical model. In other words, to construct an integral model of the complex system (phenomenon), it is enough to collect some data array characterizing the time-course of dynamical parameters of the system. Collection of such a data array has always been a problem. However difficulties emerging are, as a rule, not principal and may be overcome almost without exception. The potentialities of the method under discussion are demonstrated by the example of the test problem of multiparametric nonlinear oscillator identification. The identification method proposed may be applied to the study of different biological systems and in particular the enzyme kinetics of complex biochemical reactions.
Dempster, Robert M; Wildman, Beth G; Langkamp, Diane; Duby, John C
2012-06-01
While most primary care pediatricians acknowledge the importance of identifying child behavior problems, fewer than 2% of children with a diagnosable psychological disorder are referred for mental health care in any given year. The present study examined the potential role of parental characteristics (parental affect, parenting style, and parenting self-efficacy) in pediatrician identification of child behavior problems, and determined whether these relationships differed across practices. Parents of 831 children between 2 and 16 years completed questionnaires regarding demographic information, their child's behavior, their affect, their parenting style, and their parenting self-efficacy. Pediatricians completed a brief questionnaire following visits in four community-based primary care practices in the Midwest. Logistic regressions controlling for child behavior and demographic predictors of pediatrician identification found that an authoritarian parenting style, in which parents yell or strongly negatively react to problem behavior, was negatively associated with likelihood of identification in the overall sample. However, the variables that were predictive of pediatrician identification differed depending on the specific practice. Parental characteristics can aid in understanding which children are likely to be identified by their pediatrician as having behavioral problems. The finding that practices differed on which variables were associated with pediatrician identification suggests the need to potentially individualize interventions to certain physicians and practices to improve identification of child behavior problems in primary care.
Aeroderivative Gas Turbo engine in CHP Plant. Compatibility Problems
Sorinel-Gicu TALIF
2010-12-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the possibilities to develop Combined Cycle Units based onaeroderivative Gas Turbo engines and on existing Steam Turbines. The specific compatibilityproblems of these components and the thermodynamic performances of the analyzed Combined CycleUnits are also presented.
Problem reporting and tracking system: a systems engineering challenge
Cortez, Vasco; Lopez, Bernhard; Whyborn, Nicholas; Price, Roberto; Hernandez, Octavio; Gairing, Stefan; Barrios, Emilio; Alarcon, Hector
2016-08-01
The problem reporting and tracking system (PRTS) is the ALMA system to register operational problems, track unplanned corrective operational maintenance activities and follow the investigations of all problems or possible issues arisen in operation activities. After the PRTS implementation appeared several issues that finally produced a lack in the management of the investigations, problems to produce KPIs, loss of information, among others. In order to improve PRTS, we carried out a process to review the status of system, define a set of modifications and implement a solution; all according to the stakeholder requirements. In this work, we shall present the methodology applied to define a set of concrete actions at the basis of understanding the complexity of the problem, which finally got to improve the interactions between different subsystems and enhance the communication at different levels.
Melnyk Olga G.; Bodaretska Olha M.
2016-01-01
The method for identification of the scale of changes in personnel motivation techniques at mechanical-engineering enterprises based on structural and logical sequence of implementation of relevant stages (identification of the mission, strategy and objectives of the enterprise; forecasting the development of the enterprise business environment; SWOT-analysis of actual motivation techniques, deciding on the scale of changes in motivation techniques, choosing providers for ch...
The Use of Basic Knowledge in Engineering Work
Clemmensen, Torkil; Petersen, Stig Andur; Jørgensen, Ulrik
1999-01-01
Based on empirical studies engineers identification of a problem and their suggestions for solutions are studied and compared amongst engineers with different experiences and domain training.......Based on empirical studies engineers identification of a problem and their suggestions for solutions are studied and compared amongst engineers with different experiences and domain training....
Cornick, Shayla L.
2012-01-01
Experiences that females have during middle and high school have been found to influence the perceptions that they have of their ability to be successful as an engineer and the value that they place on participating in engineering education. Engineering education continues to suffer from a lack of female participation. Several efforts have been…
Verweij, Peter; Janssen, Sander; Braat, Leon; Eupen, van Michiel; Pérez Soba, Marta; Winograd, Manuel; Winter, de Wim; Cormont, Anouk
2016-01-01
Policy making is required in cases in which a public good needs to be either maintained or created, and private or civil initiatives cannot deal alone with this. Policy making thus starts with a phase of problem identification and determining whether there is a problem that needs to be dealt with. R
Baer-Riedhart, Jennifer L.; Landy, Robert J.
1987-01-01
The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program at NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility is a multiphase flight research program to quantify the benefits of promising integrated control systems. McDonnell Aircraft Company is the prime contractor, with United Technologies Pratt and Whitney Aircraft, and Lear Siegler Incorporated as major subcontractors. The NASA F-15A testbed aircraft was modified by the HIDEC program by installing a digital electronic flight control system (DEFCS) and replacing the standard F100 (Arab 3) engines with F100 engine model derivative (EMD) engines equipped with digital electronic engine controls (DEEC), and integrating the DEEC's and DEFCS. The modified aircraft provides the capability for testing many integrated control modes involving the flight controls, engine controls, and inlet controls. This paper focuses on the first two phases of the HIDEC program, which are the digital flight control system/aircraft model identification (DEFCS/AMI) phase and the adaptive engine control system (ADECS) phase.
Inverse problems in geographical economics: parameter identification in the spatial Solow model.
Engbers, Ralf; Burger, Martin; Capasso, Vincenzo
2014-11-13
The identification of production functions from data is an important task in the modelling of economic growth. In this paper, we consider a non-parametric approach to this identification problem in the context of the spatial Solow model which allows for rather general production functions, in particular convex-concave ones that have recently been proposed as reasonable shapes. We formulate the inverse problem and apply Tikhonov regularization. The inverse problem is discretized by finite elements and solved iteratively via a preconditioned gradient descent approach. Numerical results for the reconstruction of the production function are given and analysed at the end of this paper.
Consolidated View on Space Software Engineering Problems - An Empirical Study
Silva, N.; Vieira, M.; Ricci, D.; Cotroneo, D.
2015-09-01
Independent software verification and validation (ISVV) has been a key process for engineering quality assessment for decades, and is considered in several international standards. The “European Space Agency (ESA) ISVV Guide” is used for the European Space market to drive the ISVV tasks and plans, and to select applicable tasks and techniques. Software artefacts have room for improvement due to the amount if issues found during ISVV tasks. This article presents the analysis of the results of a large set of ISVV issues originated from three different ESA missions-amounting to more than 1000 issues. The study presents the main types, triggers and impacts related to the ISVV issues found and sets the path for a global software engineering improvement based on the most common deficiencies identified for space projects.
Risk Identification and Visualization in a Concurrent Engineering Team Environment
Hihn, Jairus; Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Shishko, Robert
2010-01-01
Incorporating risk assessment into the dynamic environment of a concurrent engineering team requires rapid response and adaptation. Generating consistent risk lists with inputs from all the relevant subsystems and presenting the results clearly to the stakeholders in a concurrent engineering environment is difficult because of the speed with which decisions are made. In this paper we describe the various approaches and techniques that have been explored for the point designs of JPL's Team X and the Trade Space Studies of the Rapid Mission Architecture Team. The paper will also focus on the issues of the misuse of categorical and ordinal data that keep arising within current engineering risk approaches and also in the applied risk literature.
Engineering-Based Problem Solving in the Middle School: Design and Construction with Simple Machines
English, Lyn D.; Hudson, Peter; Dawes, Les
2013-01-01
Incorporating engineering concepts into middle school curriculum is seen as an effective way to improve students' problem-solving skills. A selection of findings is reported from a science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM)-based unit in which students in the second year (grade 8) of a three-year longitudinal study explored…
Integration and the hold-up problem in the design organization for engineering projects
Zerjav, Vedran; Hartmann, Timo; Javernick-Will, A.; Chinowsky, P.
2012-01-01
The paper presents a perspective of the design organization in engineering projects based on the economic concept of the hold-up problem. By integrating the economic theories on the boundaries of organizations into the existing knowledge on design in engineering projects, the paper hypothesizes a th
Portsmore, Merredith D.
2010-01-01
This dissertation presents research that investigated how first grade students' ability to construct solutions and to plan through drawing for engineering design problems is related to their participation in a LEGO-based engineering curriculum with two variations on the instruction for planning. The quasi-experimental design engaged two first…
Hydrostatic Pressure Project: Linked-Class Problem-Based Learning in Engineering
Davis, Freddie J.; Lockwood-Cooke, Pamela; Hunt, Emily M.
2011-01-01
Over the last few years, WTAMU Mathematics, Engineering and Science faculty has used interdisciplinary projects as the basis for implementation of a linked-class approach to Problem-Based Learning (PBL). A project that has significant relevance to engineering statics, fluid mechanics, and calculus is the Hydrostatic Pressure Project. This project…
Gendered practices of constructing an engineering identity in a problem-based learning environment
Du, Xiangyun
2006-01-01
This article examines the learning experiences of engineering students of both genders in a problem-based and project-organized learning environment (PBL) at a Danish university. This study relates an amalgam of theories on learning and gender to the context of engineering education. Based on data...
Integration and the hold-up problem in the design organization for engineering projects
Zerjav, Vedran; Hartmann, Timo; Javernick-Will, A.; Chinowsky, P.
2012-01-01
The paper presents a perspective of the design organization in engineering projects based on the economic concept of the hold-up problem. By integrating the economic theories on the boundaries of organizations into the existing knowledge on design in engineering projects, the paper hypothesizes a
Rajprasit, Krich; Pratoomrat, Panadda; Wang, Tuntiga
2015-01-01
English language and communication abilities are an essential part of the global engineering community. However, non-native English speaking engineers and students tend to be unable to master these skills. This study aims to gauge the perceived levels of their general English language proficiency, to explore their English communicative problems,…
Approximation Problems in System Identification With Neural Networks
陈天平
1994-01-01
In this paper, the capability of neural networks and some approximation problens in system identification with neural networks are investigated. Some results are given: (i) For any function g ∈Llocp (R1) ∩S’ (R1) to be an Lp-Tauber-Wiener function, it is necessary and sufficient that g is not apolynomial; (ii) If g∈(Lp TW), then the set of is dense in Lp(K)’ (iii) It is proved that bycompositions of some functions of one variable, one can approximate continuous functional defined on compact Lp(K) and continuous operators from compact Lp1(K1) to LP2(K2). These results confirm the capability of neural networks in identifying dynamic systems.
Integrating Industry in Project Organized Problem Based Learning for Engineering Educations
Nielsen, Kirsten M.
2006-01-01
This abstract deals with the challenge of establishing engineering student projects in collaboration with industry. Based on empirical results a set of advices for industrial collaboration in project oriented problem based learning are formulated......This abstract deals with the challenge of establishing engineering student projects in collaboration with industry. Based on empirical results a set of advices for industrial collaboration in project oriented problem based learning are formulated...
Integrating Industry in Project Organized Problem Based Learning for Engineering Educations
Nielsen, Kirsten M.
2006-01-01
This abstract deals with the challenge of establishing engineering student projects in collaboration with industry. Based on empirical results a set of advices for industrial collaboration in project oriented problem based learning are formulated......This abstract deals with the challenge of establishing engineering student projects in collaboration with industry. Based on empirical results a set of advices for industrial collaboration in project oriented problem based learning are formulated...
Modeling and identification of harmonic instability problems in wind farms
Ebrahimzadeh, Esmaeil; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Xiongfei;
2016-01-01
to identify harmonic instability problems in wind farms, where many wind turbines, cables, transformers, capacitor banks, shunt reactors, etc, typically are located. This methodology introduces the wind farm as a Multi-Input Multi-Outpur (MIMO) control system, where the linearized models of fast inner control...
Identification & Control of Special Processes in Civil Engineering Construction
张怡
2009-01-01
@@ A lot ot special processes exist in operation of construction enterprises. Construction enterprises are categorized as of high risks in certification under the quality management system. Taking civil engineering construction of building projects as an example, the writer analyzes how construction enterprises shall identify and control the special processes.
Identification of Civil Engineering Structures using Vector ARMA Models
Andersen, Palle; Brincker, Rune; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
1998-01-01
This paper describes the work which have been carried out in the project B.1: Damage Detection in Structures under Random Loading. The project is a part of the research programme Dynamics of Structures founded by the Danish Technical Research Council. The planned contents of and the requirements ...... Dept. of Building Technology and Structural Engineering, Aalborg University....
State Space identification of Civil Engineering Structures from Output Measurements
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, P.
1997-01-01
This paper presents the results from a state space system identification simulation study of a 5-degrees-of freedom system driven by white noise. The aim of the study is to compare the durability of the fairly new Stochastic Subspace Technique (SST) with more well-known techniques......, it is found that the new SST technique gives quickly good results compared with the PEM which takes more time with only a limited improvement of the fit on data....
Modeling and Identification of Harmonic Instability Problems In Wind Farms
Ebrahimzadeh, Esmaeil; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Xiongfei
2016-01-01
to identify harmonic instability problems in wind farms, where many wind turbines, cables, transformers, capacitor banks, shunt reactors, etc, typically are located. This methodology introduces the wind farm as a Multi-Input Multi-Outpur (MIMO) control system, where the linearized models of fast inner control......In power electronics based power systems like wind farms, the interactions between the inner control systems of the power converters and the passive components may lead to high frequency oscillations, which can be called harmonic instability. In this paper, a simple methodology is presented...... loops of the grid-side converters are considered. Therefore, instability problems of the whole wind farm are predicted based on the poles of the introduced MIMO system. In order to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed analytical approach, time-domain simulations are performed in the PSCAD...
Forensic identification: the Island Problem and its generalisations
Slooten, Klaas; 10.1111/j.1467-9574.2011.00484.x
2012-01-01
In forensics it is a classical problem to determine, when a suspect $S$ shares a property $\\Gamma$ with a criminal $C$, the probability that $S=C$. In this paper we give a detailed account of this problem in various degrees of generality. We start with the classical case where the probability of having $\\Gamma$, as well as the a priori probability of being the criminal, is the same for all individuals. We then generalize the solution to deal with heterogeneous populations, biased search procedures for the suspect, $\\Gamma$-correlations, uncertainty about the subpopulation of the criminal and the suspect, and uncertainty about the $\\Gamma$-frequencies. We also consider the effect of the way the search for $S$ is conducted, in particular when this is done by a database search. A returning theme is that we show that conditioning is of importance when one wants to quantify the "weight" of the evidence by a likelihood ratio. Apart from these mathematical issues, we also discuss the practical problems in applying t...
Maes, Marlies; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Verkuijten, Maykel
2014-01-01
Previous research has identified ethnic group identification as a moderator in the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and problem behaviors in ethnic minority children. However, little is known about the influence of religious and host national identification on this relationship.
Some Recent Advances on Ice Related Problems in Offshore Engineering
段梦兰; 刘杰鸣; 樊晓东; 朱守铭; 赵秀菊
2000-01-01
This paper deals with several hot topics in ice related problems. In recent years, advances have been made on ice breaking modes, dynamic ice loads on offshore structures, ice-induced structural vibrations, fatigue and fracture by ice-structure interaction, and design of jackets in the Bohai Gulf.
THE PROBLEM OF LARGE DEFORMATION IN SOFTROCK ENGINEERING AND PRACTICAL ANALYSIS OF FLOOR-HEAVING
何满潮; 彭涛
1994-01-01
At present, the mechanics theories studying softrock engineering gcnerally depend on linear small-deformation hypothesis of classical mechanics, Although these theories can be considered with the physical non-linear features of softrock, it is still an approximate theory of geometric small-deformation. Because of the specific characteristics of medium environment, the problem of softrock engineering should be thought as large deformation. This article will prove the advantages of large deformation theory in solving softroek problem with an example of the No. 2 pit of NaLong Coal Mine. This will provide a bencflcal method for the studying of large deformation mechanics of softroek engineering.
On the Uncertainty of Identification of Civil Engineering Structures Using ARMA Models
Andersen, Palle; Brincker, Rune; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
1995-01-01
In this paper the uncertainties of modal parameters estimated using ARMA models for identification of civil engineering structures are investigated. How to initialize the predictor part of a Gauss-Newton optimization algorithm is put in focus. A backward-forecasting procedure for initialization...
Stutzman, Thomas M.; Jawetz, Karen A.
The demand for managers with strong technical skills has led to increased interest in the selection and development of persons who have the potential to be successful managers. To learn more about early identification of persons possessing aptitude to manage, 82 engineering and science students completed a questionnaire describing behaviors they…
Andersen, P.; Skjærbæk, P. S.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
with the smoothed quanties which have been obtained from SARCOF. The results show the usefulness of the technique for identification of a time varying civil engineering structure. It is found that all the techniques give reliable estiates of the frequencies of the two lowest modes and the first mode shape. Only...
On the Uncertainty of Identification of Civil Engineering Structures using ARMA Models
Andersen, P.; Brincker, Rune; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
In this paper the uncertainties of modal parameters estimated using ARMA models for identification of civil engineering structures are investigated. How to initialize the predictor part of a Gauss-Newton optimization algorithm is put in focus. A backward-forecasting procedure for initialization...
Excel 2016 for engineering statistics a guide to solving practical problems
Quirk, Thomas J
2016-01-01
This book shows the capabilities of Microsoft Excel in teaching engineering statistics effectively. Similar to the previously published Excel 2013 for Engineering Statistics, this book is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical engineering problems. If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you. Excel, a widely available computer program for students and managers, is also an effective teaching and learning tool for quantitative analyses in engineering courses. Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past. However,Excel 2016 for Engineering Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and managers how to apply Excel to statistical techniques necessary in their courses and...
Problems of hydrogeology and engineering geology in black coal mining
Sztelak, J.
1989-03-01
Reviews topics discussed in 11 papers presented at the conference in the hydrogeology and engineering geology session. Three subgroups of topics were distinguished: environmental protection, surface waters and surface protection. One paper dealt with protection of a bath peat deposit from infiltration of saline mine waters from a settling pond. Other papers considered mine water recirculation, dumping slurries in rock body by injection through boreholes, hydrogeological damage caused to surface waters by mining operations, water bearing levels at 700-1,500 m depth, content of radioactive isotopes (uranium 234 and 238) in Carboniferous waters, draining water from the Jurassic water bearing level in the Lublin coal basin, rock burst criteria and forecasting, and slope stability.
Includes papers in the following fields: Aerospace Engineering, Agricultural Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Industrial Engineering, Materials Engineering, Mechanical...
Loji, K.
2012-01-01
Problem solving skills and abilities are critical in life and more specifically in the engineering field. Unfortunately, significant numbers of South African students who are accessing higher education lack problem solving skills and this results in poor academic performance jeopardizing their progress especially from first to second year. On the…
Loji, K.
2012-01-01
Problem solving skills and abilities are critical in life and more specifically in the engineering field. Unfortunately, significant numbers of South African students who are accessing higher education lack problem solving skills and this results in poor academic performance jeopardizing their progress especially from first to second year. On the…
Preliminary identification of buffet problems in high speed civil transport
Ravindra, Krishnaswamy
1994-01-01
In the present study, some effort is made to identify whether empennage buffet is a relevant factor in the design and operation of the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Based on some results of the only operational supersonic transport, Concorde and the innumerable studies that exist on the tail buffet of high performance airplanes, CFD analyses on the HSCT as well as low speed wind tunnel tests on models, it appears as though buffet will be a factor that needs attention in the proper design of empennage structure. Utilizing the existing empirical relation between the reduced frequency of the leading edge vortices and the geometric parameters, it is estimated that the characteristic frequencies of the vortices from the wing cranks are in the range of certain fundamental frequencies of the wing-fuselage-empennage structure. Buffet is believed to be critical during take-off, climb, descent and landing. Computational and experimental data available in open literature indicate coherent vortex flow structure in the empennage region at supersonic cruise speeds. This raises further concern on the fatigue life of the empennage structure. Three second generation supersonic transport designs taken from open literature are briefly compared with the 'empennage buffet' in mind. Future research efforts relating to buffet studies on the HSCT are summarized. A bibliography pertaining to the present research, including relevant studies on the first generation supersonic transport is presented. The effect of rounded wing leading edges on the present frequency estimates needs further study. The effect of engine exhaust on the flow field in the empennage region also needs further study.
Investigating and developing engineering students' mathematical modelling and problem-solving skills
Wedelin, Dag; Adawi, Tom; Jahan, Tabassum; Andersson, Sven
2015-09-01
How do engineering students approach mathematical modelling problems and how can they learn to deal with such problems? In the context of a course in mathematical modelling and problem solving, and using a qualitative case study approach, we found that the students had little prior experience of mathematical modelling. They were also inexperienced problem solvers, unaware of the importance of understanding the problem and exploring alternatives, and impeded by inappropriate beliefs, attitudes and expectations. Important impacts of the course belong to the metacognitive domain. The nature of the problems, the supervision and the follow-up lectures were emphasised as contributing to the impacts of the course, where students show major development. We discuss these empirical results in relation to a framework for mathematical thinking and the notion of cognitive apprenticeship. Based on the results, we argue that this kind of teaching should be considered in the education of all engineers.
The problems of piston skirt microgeometry in combustion engines
Iskra, A.; Babiak, M.; Wróblewski, E.
2016-09-01
Geometry of the slot between piston bearing surface and cylinder bore affects the friction losses of the IC engine to the far extent. It appears that these losses depend more on the area covered with oil than the thickness of oil layer separating collaborating parts. Barrel-shaped or stepwise piston bearing surface is the way to reduce the oil covered area. Turns out that the referred to friction losses contributes more to area covered by the oil film than the film thickness of the separation elements cooperating. The method to reduce the area covered by the oil film is a modification of the bearing surface of the piston by adjusting the profile. This paper presents the results of simulation leading to the reduction in friction losses and abrasive wear of piston bearing surface and cylinder bore. Covering the piston bearing surface with a thin layer of graphite one can get an extremely advantageous tribological properties of the piston assembly which means the expected parameters of oil film and in a case of film rupture-an ignorable abrasive wear of the graphite layer and/or cylinder bore.
Aquatic toxicity testing for hazard identification of engineered nanoparticles
Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard
in aqueous media. Moreover, ENPs undergo time-dependent transformation processes of agglomeration, dissolution, sedimentation, and interactions with organisms and their exudates. Together, these processes challenge the establishment of traditional concentration-response data by affecting both the exposure...... to exposure control and response mechanisms in aquatic toxicity tests with ENPs are addressed through: 1) Exposure timing measures to minimize the transformation processes of ENPs during test incubation, and 2) Multi-dimensional approaches including investigations of other organisms responses than...... the traditionally applied, and determination of different exposure fractions such as the concentration of dissolved ions from ENPs and body burdens. Although these approaches are scientifically exploratory by nature, the aim is to generate data applicable for regulatory hazard identification of ENPs. The focus has...
Integral transform methodology for convection-diffusion problems in petroleum reservoir engineering
Almeida, A.R. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cotta, R.M. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
1995-12-01
The convection-diffusion equation is present in the formulation of many petroleum reservoir engineering problems. A representative example, the tracer injection problem, is solved analytically here, through the generalised integral transform technique so as to illustrate the usefulness of this approach, for this class of problems. Classical assumptions, such as steady-state single phase flow and unit mobility ratio, are adopted. Comparisons with alternative analytical (when available) or numerical (finite difference) solutions are performed and benchmark results are established. (author)
Parameter Identification Of Multilayer Thermal Insulation By Inverse Problems
Nenarokomov, Aleksey V.; Alifanov, Oleg M.; Gonzalez, Vivaldo M.
2012-07-01
The purpose of this paper is to introduce an iterative regularization method in the research of radiative and thermal properties of materials with further applications in the design of Thermal Control Systems (TCS) of spacecrafts. In this paper the radiative and thermal properties (heat capacity, emissivity and thermal conductance) of a multilayered thermal-insulating blanket (MLI), which is a screen-vacuum thermal insulation as a part of the (TCS) for perspective spacecrafts, are estimated. Properties of the materials under study are determined in the result of temperature and heat flux measurement data processing based on the solution of the Inverse Heat Transfer Problem (IHTP) technique. Given are physical and mathematical models of heat transfer processes in a specimen of the multilayered thermal-insulating blanket located in the experimental facility. A mathematical formulation of the IHTP, based on sensitivity function approach, is presented too. The practical testing was performed for specimen of the real MLI. This paper consists of recent researches, which developed the approach suggested at [1].
Technical Problem Identification for the Failures of the Liberty Ships
Wei Zhang
2016-11-01
Full Text Available The U.S. Liberty Ship Building Program in World War II set a record—a total of 2700 Liberty Ships were built in 6 years, in order to support the battle against Nazi-Germany. However, numerous vessels suffered sudden fracture, some of them being split in half. This paper demonstrates and investigation of the Liberty Ships failure and problems, which reveals that the failures are caused by a combination of three factors. The welds produced by largely unskilled work force contain crack type flaws. Beyond these cracks, another important reason for failure associated with welding is the hydrogen embitterment; most of the fractures initiate at deck square hatch corners where there is a stress concentration; and the ship steel has fairly poor Charpy-Impact tested fracture toughness. It has been admitted that, although the numerous catastrophic failures were a painful experience, the failures of the Liberty Ships caused significant progress in the study of fracture mechanics. Considering their effect, the Liberty Ships are still a success.
The Identification of Constipation Problem in Healthy Young Individuals
Nurcan Uysal
2010-04-01
Full Text Available AIM: This study was descriptively prepared to determine the rate of constipation in healthy young individuals according to Roma II criteria. METHOD: The study population consisted of students (n=284 who studied at Ege University, School of Nursing in the 2006-2007 academic year. Constipation Questionnaire and Bowel Habit Form-The Visual Scale Analog Questionnaire (VSAQ were used in order to collect data. According to the findings of VSAQ form that includes Roma II criteria for the diagnosis of constipation, students fulfilling any two of the criteria, was accepted as being constipated. Chi-Square test, Pearson Correlation and T-Test were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: In the study results, it was determined that 56.7% of all students accepted themselves as being constipated, 87.7% of them fulfilled at least two of the Roma II criteria, the prevalence of constipation was higher in students who stayed in dormitories and ate less fibrous foods (p0.05. The mean scores of straining, not being completely empty, sense of fullness and pain obtained from the VSAQ and the mean score of negative effect on daily life were found to be statistically different between students, who accepted themselves as being constipated and who did not (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Higher rate of students fulfilling at least two of the criteria, the determination of the negative effect of the constipation on daily life, and the drug use for the treatment was considered that constipation is a problem which excessive emphasis should be put on. To relieve constipation, firstly high fibrous food and plentiful fluid consumption are suggested to the students. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(2.000: 127-132
Efficient formulations of the material identification problem using full-field measurements
Pérez Zerpa, Jorge M.; Canelas, Alfredo
2016-08-01
The material identification problem addressed consists of determining the constitutive parameters distribution of a linear elastic solid using displacement measurements. This problem has been considered in important applications such as the design of methodologies for breast cancer diagnosis. Since the resolution of real life problems involves high computational costs, there is great interest in the development of efficient methods. In this paper two new efficient formulations of the problem are presented. The first formulation leads to a second-order cone optimization problem, and the second one leads to a quadratic optimization problem, both allowing the resolution of the problem with high efficiency and precision. Numerical examples are solved using synthetic input data with error. A regularization technique is applied using the Morozov criterion along with an automatic selection strategy of the regularization parameter. The proposed formulations present great advantages in terms of efficiency, when compared to other formulations that require the application of general nonlinear optimization algorithms.
Multiple time-dependent coefficient identification thermal problems with a free boundary
Hussein, MS; Lesnic, D.; Ivanchov, MI; Snitko, HA
2016-01-01
Multiple time-dependent coefficient identification thermal problems with an unknown free boundary are investigated. The difficulty in solving such inverse and ill-posed free boundary problems is amplified by the fact that several quantities of physical interest (conduction, convection/advection and reaction coefficients) have to be simultaneously identified. The additional measurements which render a unique solution are given by the heat moments of various orders together with a Stefan bounda...
Zhang, Junhong; Wang, Jian; Lin, Jiewei; Bi, Fengrong; Guo, Qian; Chen, Kongwu; Ma, Liang
2015-09-01
As the essential foundation of noise reduction, many noise source identification methods have been developed and applied to engineering practice. To identify the noise source in the board-band frequency of different engine parts at various typical speeds, this paper presents an integrated noise source identification method based on the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), the coherent power spectrum analysis, and the improved analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The measured noise is decomposed into several IMFs with physical meaning, which ensures the coherence analysis of the IMFs and the vibration signals are meaningful. An improved AHP is developed by introducing an objective weighting function to replace the traditional subjective evaluation, which makes the results no longer dependent on the subject performances and provides a better consistency in the meantime. The proposed noise identification model is applied to identifying a diesel engine surface radiated noise. As a result, the frequency-dependent contributions of different engine parts to different test points at different speeds are obtained, and an overall weight order is obtained as oil pan > left body > valve chamber cover > gear chamber casing > right body > flywheel housing, which provides an effectual guidance for the noise reduction.
Solvability identification and feasibility restoring of divergent optimal power flow problems
JIANG QuanYuan; HAN ZhenXiang
2009-01-01
Optimal power flow (OPF) has been considered as an important problem in power systems. Although several excellent algorithms, such as Newton method end interior point method, have been developed to solve the OPF problem, divergences still often occur. Till now, few works have focused on the solvability identification and feasibility restoring of divergent OPF problems. In this paper, we propose a systematic approach to identify the solvability of divergent OPF problems, and restore a feasible solution for unsolvable OPF cases. The proposed approach consists of two phases: solvability identification phase (SIP) and feasibility restoring phase (FRP). In SIP, a novel methodology based on problem transformation and active set is adopted to identify the solvability of divergent OPF problem. If a feasible solution can be obtained in SIP, then this divergent OPF problem is solvable, otherwise, FRP is used to restore a feasible or optimal solution by relaxing soft constraints and load shedding. In FRP, a feasibility restoring model is presented, and a priority-listing strategy of restoring actions is proposed to restore the unsolvable OPF problems. Numerical studies indicate that the proposed SIP and FRP are reliable to diagnose the solvability of the divergent OPF problems, give an index to measure the unsolvability, and restore an unsolvable OPF case.
Application of Lie groups to discretizing nuclear engineering problems
Grove, Travis Justin
A method utilizing groups of point transformations is applied to the three and four group time-independent neutron diffusion equations to obtain invariant difference equations for one-region and composite-region domains in one-dimensional Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical geometries. Also, the theory behind this particular method will be discussed. A comparison of the invariant difference equations will be made to standard finite difference equations as well as to analytical results. From the analytical results, it will be shown that the invariant difference technique gives exact analytical solutions for the grid point values. The construction of invariant difference operators technique is also applied to the one-dimensional P 3 equations from neutron transport theory in Cartesian geometry, using the FLIP formulation, which allows PL equations to be written in the form of sets of coupled ordinary differential equations. The use of finite transforms will be examined to transform multi-dimensional problems into one-dimension where then the construction of invariant difference operators technique can be used to create difference equations. The solutions to the set of equations can then be transformed back into the multi-dimensional geometries. The use of finite transforms along with the construction of invariant difference operators technique is applied to a simple two-dimensional benchmark problem. In addition, a method using groups of point transformations along with Noether's theorem is shown to generate a conservation law that can be used to create a two-term recurrence relation which calculates numerically exact Green's functions in one dimension for the time-independent neutron diffusion equation for Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical geometries. This method will be expanded to constructing two-term recurrence relations for an arbitrary number of spatial regions, as well as detailing starting point values for type 2 and type 3 homogeneous endpoint
Graziotin, Daniel; Wang, Xiaofeng; Abrahamsson, Pekka
2014-01-01
For more than thirty years, it has been claimed that a way to improve software developers' productivity and software quality is to focus on people and to provide incentives to make developers satisfied and happy. This claim has rarely been verified in software engineering research, which faces an additional challenge in comparison to more traditional engineering fields: software development is an intellectual activity and is dominated by often-neglected human factors (called human aspects in software engineering research). Among the many skills required for software development, developers must possess high analytical problem-solving skills and creativity for the software construction process. According to psychology research, affective states-emotions and moods-deeply influence the cognitive processing abilities and performance of workers, including creativity and analytical problem solving. Nonetheless, little research has investigated the correlation between the affective states, creativity, and analytical problem-solving performance of programmers. This article echoes the call to employ psychological measurements in software engineering research. We report a study with 42 participants to investigate the relationship between the affective states, creativity, and analytical problem-solving skills of software developers. The results offer support for the claim that happy developers are indeed better problem solvers in terms of their analytical abilities. The following contributions are made by this study: (1) providing a better understanding of the impact of affective states on the creativity and analytical problem-solving capacities of developers, (2) introducing and validating psychological measurements, theories, and concepts of affective states, creativity, and analytical-problem-solving skills in empirical software engineering, and (3) raising the need for studying the human factors of software engineering by employing a multidisciplinary viewpoint.
Daniel Graziotin
2014-03-01
Full Text Available For more than thirty years, it has been claimed that a way to improve software developers’ productivity and software quality is to focus on people and to provide incentives to make developers satisfied and happy. This claim has rarely been verified in software engineering research, which faces an additional challenge in comparison to more traditional engineering fields: software development is an intellectual activity and is dominated by often-neglected human factors (called human aspects in software engineering research. Among the many skills required for software development, developers must possess high analytical problem-solving skills and creativity for the software construction process. According to psychology research, affective states—emotions and moods—deeply influence the cognitive processing abilities and performance of workers, including creativity and analytical problem solving. Nonetheless, little research has investigated the correlation between the affective states, creativity, and analytical problem-solving performance of programmers. This article echoes the call to employ psychological measurements in software engineering research. We report a study with 42 participants to investigate the relationship between the affective states, creativity, and analytical problem-solving skills of software developers. The results offer support for the claim that happy developers are indeed better problem solvers in terms of their analytical abilities. The following contributions are made by this study: (1 providing a better understanding of the impact of affective states on the creativity and analytical problem-solving capacities of developers, (2 introducing and validating psychological measurements, theories, and concepts of affective states, creativity, and analytical-problem-solving skills in empirical software engineering, and (3 raising the need for studying the human factors of software engineering by employing a
Factors Affecting the Identification of Research Problems in Educational Administration Studies
Yalçin, Mikail; Bektas, Fatih; Öztekin, Özge; Karadag, Engin
2016-01-01
The purpose of this study is to reveal the factors that affect the identification of research problems in educational administration studies. The study was designed using the case study method. Criterion sampling was used to determine the work group; the criterion used to select the participants was that of having a study in the field of…
Herkert, Joseph R
2005-07-01
Engineering ethics entails three frames of reference: individual, professional, and social. "Microethics" considers individuals and internal relations of the engineering profession; "macroethics" applies to the collective social responsibility of the profession and to societal decisions about technology. Most research and teaching in engineering ethics, including online resources, has had a "micro" focus. Mechanisms for incorporating macroethical perspectives include: integrating engineering ethics and science, technology and society (STS); closer integration of engineering ethics and computer ethics; and consideration of the influence of professional engineering societies and corporate social responsibility programs on ethical engineering practice. Integrating macroethical issues and concerns in engineering ethics involves broadening the context of ethical problem solving. This in turn implies: developing courses emphasizing both micro and macro perspectives, providing faculty development that includes training in both STS and practical ethics; and revision of curriculum materials, including online resources. Multidisciplinary collaboration is recommended 1) to create online case studies emphasizing ethical decision making in individual, professional, and societal contexts; 2) to leverage existing online computer ethics resources with relevance to engineering education and practice; and 3) to create transparent linkages between public policy positions advocated by professional societies and codes of ethics.
Engineered gold nanoparticles for identification of novel ovarian biomarkers
Giri, Karuna
Ovarian cancer is a leading cause of cancer related death among women in the US and worldwide. The disease has a high mortality rate due to limited tools available that can diagnose ovarian cancer at an early stage and the lack of effective treatments for disease free survival at late stages. Identification of proteins specifically expressed/overexpressed in ovarian cancer could lead to identification of novel diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets that improve patient outcomes. In this regard, mass spectrometry is a powerful tool to probe the proteome of a cancer cell. It can aid discovery of proteins important for the pathophysiology of ovarian cancer. These proteins in turn could serve as diagnostic and treatment biomarkers of the disease. However, a limitation of mass spectrometry based proteomic analyses is that the technique lacks sensitivity and is biased against detection of low abundance proteins. With current approaches to biomarker discovery, we may therefore be overlooking candidate proteins that are important for ovarian cancer. This study presents a new approach to enrich low abundance proteins and subsequently detect them with mass spectrometry. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and functionalization of their surfaces provide an excellent opportunity to capture and enrich low abundance proteins. First, the study focused on conducting an extensive investigation of the time evolution of nanoparticle-protein interaction and understanding drivers of protein attachment on nanoparticle surface. The adsorption of proteins to AuNPs was found to be highly dynamic with multiple attachment and detachment events which decreased over time. Initially, electrostatic forces played an important role in protein binding and structurally flexible proteins such as those involved in RNA processing were more likely to bind to AuNPs. More importantly, the feasibility and success of protein enrichment by AuNPs was evaluated. The AuNPs based approach was able to detect
Dringenberg, Emily A.
Engineers are expected to solve problems that are ill-structured. These problems are presented with a lack of necessary information and allow for different ways of engaging with the problem; they are open-ended and involve multiple possible solutions with multiple means of evaluation. In order to allow maximum time for students to develop skills for solving such problems, undergraduate engineering programs can introduce such problems during the first year of students' education, in the form of cornerstone design tasks. This provides students with more opportunities to develop their ability to engage with ill-structured problems, which are characteristic of engineering work. Researchers have documented variation within both the behavior and perceptions of students' early experiences with design problems. General themes include novice-like design behavior, discomfort with lack of information, difficulty with problem scoping, and resistance to ambiguity. To build on these generalizations of students' experiences, a more thorough understanding of the variation in how students experience this phenomenon of engaging with ill-structured problems is needed to design effective learning environments. This work presents the qualitatively different ways that engineering students experience problems with multiple possible solutions during their first year of engineering studies. Using phenomenography as the methodological framework, data were collected through in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 27 first-year engineering students. The iterative, phenomenographic analysis resulted in seven descriptive categories for the ways participants experienced problems involving multiple possible solutions. The names of these categories represent the different foci of the students' experiences: completion, transition, iteration, organization, collaboration, reasoning, and growth. These categories are organized along two crucial dimensions of variation: reaction to ambiguity and role
Jensen, Lars Peter; Nygaard, Bjørn; Madsen, Linda
2011-01-01
This paper describes a research project regarding internationalization and development of intercultural competencies at 4 different engineering educations in Denmark. All Danish engineering education institutes have for several years been educating both Danish and foreign students coming either...... the engineering schools and universities in Denmark and an intercultural researcher that was employed to carry out the actual research. The plan was to investigate the outcome of an experiment at four different engineering educations using mixed teams in the autumn semester 2010, focusing on the development...... as exchange students or to take a full degree. Project organized Problem based Learning is used to a high extent at most of the engineering educations in Denmark, using large scale project work (up to 15 ECTS each semester) solved in teams (3-7 students in each team). In more and more situations the teams...
Identification and management of potential problems in aquifer thermal energy storage systems
Michel, F.A. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Allen, D.M. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada)
2003-07-01
There is renewed interest in alternative renewable energy sources because of high energy prices, shortages in peak load electrical supplies, and environmental considerations. Worldwide efforts are being made to extract thermal energy from the ground for heating and cooling individual dwellings and industrial and institutional complexes. Aquifer thermal energy storage systems offer a viable option. Often, there is a poor understanding of the problems associated with the well field, resulting in resistance in the consideration and implementation of the technology. Well-field problems include pressure build-up in the reinjection wells resulting in reduced flow conditions. Other problems associated with well-field configuration include wellbore clogging due to sediment accumulation, scaling, degassing or bio-fouling. These problems are often associated with changes in temperature and pressure. The authors examined these problems and presented guidelines to assist in the identification and management of the potential problems. 2 refs., 1 fig.
Reverse engineering and identification in systems biology: strategies, perspectives and challenges
Villaverde, A. F.; Julio R Banga
2014-01-01
The interplay of mathematical modelling with experiments is one of the central elements in systems biology. The aim of reverse engineering is to infer, analyse and understand, through this interplay, the functional and regulatory mechanisms of biological systems. Reverse engineering is not exclusive of systems biology and has been studied in different areas, such as inverse problem theory, machine learning, nonlinear physics, (bio)chemical kinetics, control theory and optimization, among othe...
Jet Engine Powerloss in Ice Particle Conditions: An Aviation Industry Problem
Strapp, J. W.
2009-09-01
mass concentration, characterization of clouds containing these conditions, experimental testing to support ice accretion model development, and development of engine test requirements. An overview of the engine-powerloss problem, and a summary of the current status of the EHWG technical plan will be given.
L. G. Hanin
2002-01-01
Full Text Available A general framework for solving identification problem for a broad class of deterministic and stochastic models is discussed. This methodology allows for a unified approach to studying identifiability of various stochastic models arising in biology and medicine including models of spontaneous and induced Carcinogenesis, tumor progression and detection, and randomized hit and target models of irradiated cell survival. A variety of known results on parameter identification for stochastic models is reviewed and several new results are presented with an emphasis on rigorous mathematical development.
System Identification and Resonant Control of Thermoacoustic Engines for Robust Solar Power
Boe-Shong Hong
2015-05-01
Full Text Available It was found that thermoacoustic solar-power generators with resonant control are more powerful than passive ones. To continue the work, this paper focuses on the synthesis of robustly resonant controllers that guarantee single-mode resonance not only in steady states, but also in transient states when modelling uncertainties happen and working temperature temporally varies. Here the control synthesis is based on the loop shifting and the frequency-domain identification in advance thereof. Frequency-domain identification is performed to modify the mathematical modelling and to identify the most powerful mode, so that the DSP-based feedback controller can online pitch the engine to the most powerful resonant-frequency robustly and accurately. Moreover, this paper develops two control tools, the higher-order van-der-Pol oscillator and the principle of Dynamical Equilibrium, to assist in system identification and feedback synthesis, respectively.
Testing foreign language impact on engineering students' scientific problem-solving performance
Tatzl, Dietmar; Messnarz, Bernd
2013-12-01
This article investigates the influence of English as the examination language on the solution of physics and science problems by non-native speakers in tertiary engineering education. For that purpose, a statistically significant total number of 96 students in four year groups from freshman to senior level participated in a testing experiment in the Degree Programme of Aviation at the FH JOANNEUM University of Applied Sciences, Graz, Austria. Half of each test group were given a set of 12 physics problems described in German, the other half received the same set of problems described in English. It was the goal to test linguistic reading comprehension necessary for scientific problem solving instead of physics knowledge as such. The results imply that written undergraduate English-medium engineering tests and examinations may not require additional examination time or language-specific aids for students who have reached university-entrance proficiency in English as a foreign language.
Reverse engineering and identification in systems biology: strategies, perspectives and challenges.
Villaverde, Alejandro F; Banga, Julio R
2014-02-06
The interplay of mathematical modelling with experiments is one of the central elements in systems biology. The aim of reverse engineering is to infer, analyse and understand, through this interplay, the functional and regulatory mechanisms of biological systems. Reverse engineering is not exclusive of systems biology and has been studied in different areas, such as inverse problem theory, machine learning, nonlinear physics, (bio)chemical kinetics, control theory and optimization, among others. However, it seems that many of these areas have been relatively closed to outsiders. In this contribution, we aim to compare and highlight the different perspectives and contributions from these fields, with emphasis on two key questions: (i) why are reverse engineering problems so hard to solve, and (ii) what methods are available for the particular problems arising from systems biology?
Stanley, C. W.; Hood, W. E.
1981-01-01
The U.S. Marine Corp (USMC) has been operating the only V/STOL attack aircraft in the western world since 1971. Some of the maintenance problems experienced are related to the unique V/STOL design criteria of the Pegasus engine. However, the major part of the required maintenance effort is found to involve the more conventional engine problems. A description of the aircraft engine is provided and the problems resulting from V/STOL design demands are examined. Attention is given to the fuel system control, the engine air bleed, foreign object damage to the hp compressor, and the engine exhaust system.
Bajaj, Saumya; Banerjee, Manidipa
2015-01-01
Virus capsids have evolved to protect the genome sequestered in their interior from harsh environmental conditions, and to deliver it safely and precisely to the host cell of choice. This characteristic makes them naturally perfect containers for delivering therapeutic molecules to specific locations. Development of an ideal virus-based nano-container for medical usage requires that the capsid be converted into a targetable protein cage which retains the original stability, flexibility and host cell penetrating properties of the native particles, without the associated immunogenicity, and is able to encapsulate large quantities of therapeutic or diagnostic material. In the last few years, several icosahedral, non-enveloped viruses, with a diameter of 25-90 nm-a size which conveniently falls within the 10-100 nm range desirable for biomedical nanoparticles-have been chemically or genetically engineered towards partial fulfilment of the above criteria. This review summarizes the approaches taken towards engineering viruses into biomedical delivery devices and discusses the challenges involved in achieving this goal.
Fault Location Identification for Localized Intermittent Connection Problems on CAN Networks
LEI Yong; YUAN Yong; SUN Yichao
2014-01-01
The intermittent connection(IC) of the field-bus in networked manufacturing systems is a common but hard troubleshooting network problem, which may result in system level failures or safety issues. However, there is no online IC location identification method available to detect and locate the position of the problem. To tackle this problem, a novel model based online fault location identification method for localized IC problem is proposed. First, the error event patterns are identified and classified according to different node sources in each error frame. Then generalized zero inflated Poisson process(GZIP) model for each node is established by using time stamped error event sequence. Finally, the location of the IC fault is determined by testing whether the parameters of the fitted stochastic model is statistically significant or not using the confident intervals of the estimated parameters. To illustrate the proposed method, case studies are conducted on a 3-node controller area network(CAN) test-bed, in which IC induced faults are imposed on a network drop cable using computer controlled on-off switches. The experimental results show the parameters of the GZIP model for the problematic node are statistically significant(larger than 0), and the patterns of the confident intervals of the estimated parameters are directly linked to the problematic node, which agrees with the experimental setup. The proposed online IC location identification method can successfully identify the location of the drop cable on which IC faults occurs on the CAN network.
Chaparro-Pelaez, Julian; Iglesias-Pradas, Santiago; Pascual-Miguel, Felix J.; Hernandez-Garcia, Angel
2013-01-01
Although literature about problem based learning (PBL) is not scarce, there is little research on experiences about learning methodologies that combine PBL and the use of simulation tools. This lack of studies is even more notable in the case of engineering courses. The motivation for this study is to show how such a combination of PBL and…
Testing Foreign Language Impact on Engineering Students' Scientific Problem-Solving Performance
Tatzl, Dietmar; Messnarz, Bernd
2013-01-01
This article investigates the influence of English as the examination language on the solution of physics and science problems by non-native speakers in tertiary engineering education. For that purpose, a statistically significant total number of 96 students in four year groups from freshman to senior level participated in a testing experiment in…
Katsioloudis, Petros; Moye, Johnny J.
2012-01-01
The purpose of this research was to determine the future critical issues and problems facing the K-12 technology and engineering education profession in the Commonwealth of Virginia. This study was based on the Wicklein nationwide studies (1993a, 2005). Even though this study did not exactly replicate the Wicklein studies--since it was limited to…
Problem of fuel losses owing to evaporation during operation of air engineering
C. B. Бойченко
1999-05-01
Full Text Available Considered is the problem of irrevocable losses of air fuel which happen owing to evaporation in conditions of operation of air engineering, particularly in flight time of airplane. Composed is generalized performance of fuel losses from evaporation in conditions of flight of airplane
Chaparro-Pelaez, Julian; Iglesias-Pradas, Santiago; Pascual-Miguel, Felix J.; Hernandez-Garcia, Angel
2013-01-01
Although literature about problem based learning (PBL) is not scarce, there is little research on experiences about learning methodologies that combine PBL and the use of simulation tools. This lack of studies is even more notable in the case of engineering courses. The motivation for this study is to show how such a combination of PBL and…
Enokida, Ryuta; Takewaki, Izuru; Stoten, David
2014-12-01
The problem of control system design can be conceptualised as identifying an input signal to a plant (the system to be controlled) so that the corresponding output matches that of a pre-defined reference signal. Primarily, this problem is solved via well-known techniques based upon the principle of feedback design, an essential component for ensuring stability and robustness of the controlled system. However, feedforward design techniques also have a large part to play, whereby (in the absence of feedback control and assuming that the plant is stable) a model of the plant dynamics can be used to modify the reference signal so that the resultant feedforward input signal generates a plant output signal that is sufficiently close to the original reference signal. The principal objective of this paper is to introduce a new nonlinear control method, called nonlinear signal-based control (NSBC) that can be executed as an on-line technique of feedforward compensation (used synonymously here with the phrase 'input identification') and an off-line technique of feedback compensation. NSBC determines the feedforward input signal to the plant by using an error signal, determined from the difference between the output signals from a linear model of the plant and from the nonlinear plant, under the same input signal. The efficacy of NSBC is examined via numerical examples using Matlab/Simulink and compared with alternative well-known methods based upon inverse transfer function compensation and also the method of high gain feedback control. NSBC was found to provide the most accurate input identification in all the examined cases of linear or nonlinear single-input, single-output and single-input, multi-output (SIMO) systems. Furthermore, in problems of structural and earthquake engineering, NSBC was also found to be particularly effective in estimating the original ground motion from a nonlinear SIMO system and its response.
Simplified TRIZ new problem-solving applications for engineers and manufacturing professionals
Rantanen, Kalevi
2002-01-01
As customers and shareholders demand better products faster, more pressure is felt by technical professionals to develop it now and develop it right the first time. Considered the breakthrough design and inventive problem-solving approach of the past 100 years, TRIZ is a unique, algorithmic approach to problem solving that allows engineers, planners and managers to formulate the best possible solutions for technical systems problems and predict future product needs based on technology evolution and competitive advantages. Developed in Russia, the popularity of TRIZ is now spreading to Europe,
An Approximate Solution for Boundary Value Problems in Structural Engineering and Fluid Mechanics
A. Barari
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Variational iteration method (VIM is applied to solve linear and nonlinear boundary value problems with particular significance in structural engineering and fluid mechanics. These problems are used as mathematical models in viscoelastic and inelastic flows, deformation of beams, and plate deflection theory. Comparison is made between the exact solutions and the results of the variational iteration method (VIM. The results reveal that this method is very effective and simple, and that it yields the exact solutions. It was shown that this method can be used effectively for solving linear and nonlinear boundary value problems.
Solvability identification and feasibility restoring of divergent optimal power flow problems
无
2009-01-01
Optimal power flow (OPF) has been considered as an important problem in power systems. Although several excellent algorithms, such as Newton method and interior point method, have been developed to solve the OPF problem, divergences still often occur. Till now, few works have focused on the solv- ability identification and feasibility restoring of divergent OPF problems. In this paper, we propose a systematic approach to identify the solvability of divergent OPF problems, and restore a feasible solu- tion for unsolvable OPF cases. The proposed approach consists of two phases: solvability identifica- tion phase (SIP) and feasibility restoring phase (FRP). In SIP, a novel methodology based on problem transformation and active set is adopted to identify the solvability of divergent OPF problem. If a fea- sible solution can be obtained in SIP, then this divergent OPF problem is solvable, otherwise, FRP is used to restore a feasible or optimal solution by relaxing soft constraints and load shedding. In FRP, a feasibility restoring model is presented, and a priority-listing strategy of restoring actions is proposed to restore the unsolvable OPF problems. Numerical studies indicate that the proposed SIP and FRP are reliable to diagnose the solvability of the divergent OPF problems, give an index to measure the un- solvability, and restore an unsolvable OPF case.
Lönngren, Johanna; Ingerman, Åke; Svanström, Magdalena
2016-07-01
Wicked sustainability problems (WSPs) are an important and particularly challenging type of problem. Science and engineering education can play an important role in preparing students to deal with such problems, but current educational practice may not adequately prepare students to do so. We address this gap by providing insights related to students' abilities to address WSPs. Specifically, we aim to (I) describe key constituents of engineering students' approaches to a WSP, (II) evaluate these approaches in relation to the normative context of education for sustainable development (ESD), and (III) identify relevant aspects of learning related to WSPs. Aim I is addressed through a phenomenographic study, while aims II and III are addressed by relating the results to research literature about human problem solving, sustainable development, and ESD. We describe four qualitatively different ways of approaching a specific WSP, as the outcome of the phenomenographic study: A. Simplify and avoid, B. Divide and control, C. Isolate and succumb, and D. Integrate and balance. We identify approach D as the most appropriate approach in the context of ESD, while A and C are not. On this basis, we identify three learning objectives related to students' abilities to address WSPs: learn to use a fully integrative approach, distinguish WSPs from tame and well-structured problems, and understand and consider the normative context of SD. Finally, we provide recommendations for how these learning objectives can be used to guide the design of science and engineering educational activities.
Lönngren, Johanna; Ingerman, Åke; Svanström, Magdalena
2017-08-01
Wicked sustainability problems (WSPs) are an important and particularly challenging type of problem. Science and engineering education can play an important role in preparing students to deal with such problems, but current educational practice may not adequately prepare students to do so. We address this gap by providing insights related to students' abilities to address WSPs. Specifically, we aim to (I) describe key constituents of engineering students' approaches to a WSP, (II) evaluate these approaches in relation to the normative context of education for sustainable development (ESD), and (III) identify relevant aspects of learning related to WSPs. Aim I is addressed through a phenomenographic study, while aims II and III are addressed by relating the results to research literature about human problem solving, sustainable development, and ESD. We describe four qualitatively different ways of approaching a specific WSP, as the outcome of the phenomenographic study: A. Simplify and avoid, B. Divide and control, C. Isolate and succumb, and D. Integrate and balance. We identify approach D as the most appropriate approach in the context of ESD, while A and C are not. On this basis, we identify three learning objectives related to students' abilities to address WSPs: learn to use a fully integrative approach, distinguish WSPs from tame and well-structured problems, and understand and consider the normative context of SD. Finally, we provide recommendations for how these learning objectives can be used to guide the design of science and engineering educational activities.
Different stories of group work: Exploring problem solving in engineering education
Maria Berge
2012-06-01
Full Text Available This article aims to further the understanding of group work in higher education, primarily in science.This is done through an empirical investigation of problem solving in small groups. Position theory isused as an analytic tool for describing the complex and dynamic processes of group work, focusing simultaneously on the physics content and the student community and how they constitute each other. We analysed four video-recorded sessions with students from two Master’s programs, Engineering Physics and Bioengineering, respectively. The students addressed two introductory mechanics problems.The analysis resulted in a characterisation in terms of seven ‘storylines’ of two different kinds. These are argued to reflect different aspects of engineering student communities, where one kind of storylines captures ways of approaching the problems and the other kind exemplifies boundary work involved in the constitution of communities.
Application of Modified Flower Pollination Algorithm on Mechanical Engineering Design Problem
Kok Meng, Ong; Pauline, Ong; Chee Kiong, Sia; Wahab, Hanani Abdul; Jafferi, Noormaziah
2017-01-01
The aim of the optimization is to obtain the best solution among other solutions in order to achieve the objective of the problem without evaluation on all possible solutions. In this study, an improved flower pollination algorithm, namely, the Modified Flower Pollination Algorithms (MFPA) is developed. Comprising of the elements of chaos theory, frog leaping local search and adaptive inertia weight, the performance of MFPA is evaluated in optimizing five benchmark mechanical engineering design problems - tubular column design, speed reducer, gear train, tension/compression spring design and pressure vessel. The obtained results are listed and compared with the results of the other state-of-art algorithms. Assessment shows that the MFPA gives promising result in finding the optimal design for all considered mechanical engineering problems.
Natal’ya Yur’evna Gorbunova
2017-06-01
Full Text Available We described several aspects of organizing student research work, as well as solving a number of mathematical modeling problems: professionally-oriented, multi-stage, etc. We underlined the importance of their economic content. Samples of using such problems in teaching Mathematics at agricultural university were given. Several questions connected with information material selection and peculiarities of research problems application were described. Purpose. The author aims to show the possibility and necessity of using professionally-oriented problems of mathematical modeling in teaching Mathematics at agricultural university. The subject of analysis is including such problems into educational process. Methodology. The main research method is dialectical method of obtaining knowledge of finding approaches to selection, writing and using mathematical modeling and professionally-oriented problems in educational process; the methodology is study of these methods of obtaining knowledge. Results. As a result of analysis of literature, students opinions, observation of students work, and taking into account personal teaching experience, it is possible to make conclusion about importance of using mathematical modeling problems, as it helps to systemize theoretical knowledge, apply it to practice, raise students study motivation in engineering sphere. Practical implications. Results of the research can be of interest for teachers of Mathematics in preparing Bachelor and Master students of engineering departments of agricultural university both for theoretical research and for modernization of study courses.
A Semismooth Newton Method for Nonlinear Parameter Identification Problems with Impulsive Noise
Clason, Christian
2012-01-01
This work is concerned with nonlinear parameter identification in partial differential equations subject to impulsive noise. To cope with the non-Gaussian nature of the noise, we consider a model with L 1 fitting. However, the nonsmoothness of the problem makes its efficient numerical solution challenging. By approximating this problem using a family of smoothed functionals, a semismooth Newton method becomes applicable. In particular, its superlinear convergence is proved under a second-order condition. The convergence of the solution to the approximating problem as the smoothing parameter goes to zero is shown. A strategy for adaptively selecting the regularization parameter based on a balancing principle is suggested. The efficiency of the method is illustrated on several benchmark inverse problems of recovering coefficients in elliptic differential equations, for which one- and two-dimensional numerical examples are presented. © by SIAM.
Transportation problem: A special case for linear programing problems in mining engineering
Ali Mahrous A.M.; Sik Yang Hyung
2012-01-01
In real world applications the supply,the demand and the transportation cost per unit of the quantities in a transportation problem are hardly specified precisely because of the changing economic and environmental conditions.It is also important that the time required for transportation should be minimum.In this paper a method has been proposed for the minimization of transportation costs.Supply and transportation costs per unit of the quantities are also determined.The present study was carried out to evaluate the quality of gravel to know its suitability for aggregate (raw material for concrete and road).The samples of gravel were analyzed for petrographic,physical,mechanical and chemical properties.Samples were categorized as quartzite group and carbonate group according to ASTM standard 295.Among these,samples of quartzite group were found dominant.The petrography examination of gravels which was carried out constituted of opal,tridymite,chalcedony,crystobalite and alkali carbonates rocks.Those minerals react with alkalis in cement leading to expansion and cracking of concrete.Other components such as sulfides,sulfates,halites,iron oxides,clay minerals and anhydrites are examined,which might be present as coating and impurities.The present study indicated that all samples are suitable for concrete making and obtain the optimum solution for transporting these materials from quarries to cities with minimum cost according to Egyptian Code.
A Collection of Challenging Optimization Problems in Science, Engineering and Economics
Mehta, Dhagash
2015-01-01
Function optimization and finding simultaneous solutions of a system of nonlinear equations (SNE) are two closely related and important optimization problems. However, unlike in the case of function optimization in which one is required to find the global minimum and sometimes local minima, a database of challenging SNEs where one is required to find stationary points (extrama and saddle points) is not readily available. In this article, we initiate building such a database of important SNE (which also includes related function optimization problems), arising from Science, Engineering and Economics. After providing a short review of the most commonly used mathematical and computational approaches to find solutions of such systems, we provide a preliminary list of challenging problems by writing the Mathematical formulation down, briefly explaning the origin and importance of the problem and giving a short account on the currently known results, for each of the problems. We anticipate that this database will n...
Hedenstierna, K. O.; Lee, Y. H.; Yang, Y.; Fox, G. E.
1993-01-01
A prototype stable RNA identification cassette for monitoring genetically engineered plasmids carried by strains of Escherichia coli has been developed. The cassette consists of a Vibrio proteolyticus 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene surrounded by promoters and terminators from the rrnB operon of Escherischia coli. The identifier RNA is expressed and successfully processed so that approximately 30% of the 5S rRNA isolated from either whole cells or 70S ribosomes is of the V. proteolyticus type. Cells carrying the identifier are readily detectable by hybridization. Accurate measurements show that the identification cassette has little effect on fitness compared to a strain containing an analogous plasmid carrying wild type E. coli 5S rRNA, and the V. proteolyticus 5S rRNA gene is not inactivated after prolonged growth. These results demonstrate the feasibility of developing small standardized identification cassettes that can utilize already existing highly sensitive rRNA detection methods. Cassettes of this type could in principle be incorporated into either the engineered regions of recombinant plasmids or their hosts.
Differential and differential-algebraic systems for the chemical engineer solving numerical problems
Buzzi-Ferraris, Guido
2014-01-01
This fourth in a suite of four practical guides is an engineer''s companion to using numerical methods for the solution of complex mathematical problems. It explains the theory behind current numerical methods and shows in a step-by-step fashion how to use them.The volume focuses on differential and differential-algebraic systems, providing numerous real-life industrial case studies to illustrate this complex topic. It describes the methods, innovative techniques and strategies that are all implemented in a freely available toolbox called BzzMath, which is developed and maintained by the autho
Frequency-Domain Assessment of Integration Schemes for Earthquake Engineering Problems
Juana Arias-Trujillo
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Although numerical integration is a technique commonly employed in many time-dependent problems, usually its accuracy relied on a time interval small enough. However, taking into account that time integration formulae can be considered to be recursive digital filters, in this research a criterion based on transfer functions has been employed to characterize a wide range of integration algorithms from a frequency approach, both in amplitude and in phase. By adopting Nyquist’s criterion to avoid the aliasing phenomena, a total of seven integration schemes have been reviewed in terms of accuracy and distortion effects on the frequency content of the signal. Some of these schemes are very well-known polynomial approximations with different degrees of interpolation, but others have been especially defined for solving earthquake engineering problems or have been extracted from the digital signal processing methodology. Finally, five examples have been developed to validate this frequency approach and to investigate its influence on practical dynamic problems. This research, focused on earthquake and structural engineering, reveals that numerical integration formulae are clearly frequency-dependent, a conclusion that obviously has a relevant interest in all dynamic engineering problems, even when they are formulated and solved in the time-domain.
McLoone, Seamus C.; Lawlor, Bob J.; Meehan, Andrew R.
2016-01-01
This paper describes how a circuits-based project-oriented problem-based learning educational model was integrated into the first year of a Bachelor of Engineering in Electronic Engineering programme at Maynooth University, Ireland. While many variations of problem based learning exist, the presented model is closely aligned with the model used in…
Steif, Paul S.; Fu, Luoting; Kara, Levent Burak
2016-01-01
Problems faced by engineering students involve multiple pathways to solution. Students rarely receive effective formative feedback on handwritten homework. This paper examines the potential for computer-based formative assessment of student solutions to multipath engineering problems. In particular, an intelligent tutor approach is adopted and…
Gustafsson, Peter; Jonsson, Gunnar; Enghag, Margareta
2015-01-01
The problem-solving process is investigated for five groups of students when solving context-rich problems in an introductory physics course included in an engineering programme. Through transcripts of their conversation, the paths in the problem-solving process have been traced and related to a general problem-solving model. All groups exhibit…
Identification of the dynamic operating envelope of HCCI engines using class imbalance learning.
Janakiraman, Vijay Manikandan; Nguyen, XuanLong; Sterniak, Jeff; Assanis, Dennis
2015-01-01
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a futuristic automotive engine technology that can significantly improve fuel economy and reduce emissions. HCCI engine operation is constrained by combustion instabilities, such as knock, ringing, misfires, high-variability combustion, and so on, and it becomes important to identify the operating envelope defined by these constraints for use in engine diagnostics and controller design. HCCI combustion is dominated by complex nonlinear dynamics, and a first-principle-based dynamic modeling of the operating envelope becomes intractable. In this paper, a machine learning approach is presented to identify the stable operating envelope of HCCI combustion, by learning directly from the experimental data. Stability is defined using thresholds on combustion features obtained from engine in-cylinder pressure measurements. This paper considers instabilities arising from engine misfire and high-variability combustion. A gasoline HCCI engine is used for generating stable and unstable data observations. Owing to an imbalance in class proportions in the data set, the models are developed both based on resampling the data set (by undersampling and oversampling) and based on a cost-sensitive learning method (by overweighting the minority class relative to the majority class observations). Support vector machines (SVMs) and recently developed extreme learning machines (ELM) are utilized for developing dynamic classifiers. The results compared against linear classification methods show that cost-sensitive nonlinear ELM and SVM classification algorithms are well suited for the problem. However, the SVM envelope model requires about 80% more parameters for an accuracy improvement of 3% compared with the ELM envelope model indicating that ELM models may be computationally suitable for the engine application. The proposed modeling approach shows that HCCI engine misfires and high-variability combustion can be predicted ahead of time
Strizhakova, E.
2016-04-01
The article shows the problems of the sector of mechanical engineering in the industrial system in Russia. The author's method of estimating the relative level of risk and the method of determining the de-industrialization degree of the sector based on the aggregated level of adaptability are given. According to them we have analysed the key indicators, such as basic, developed and advanced technologies, and investments in an old or new technology of industrial sectors. The main directions of the impact of industrial policy allowing a change in the current situation in mechanical engineering are given. The results can be applied in practice in formation of directions and actual control actions to improve the overall efficiency of mechanical engineering industry.
Identification and well-posedness in a class of nonparametric problems
Zinde-Walsh, Victoria
2010-01-01
This is a companion note to Zinde-Walsh (2010), arXiv:1009.4217v1[MATH.ST], to clarify and extend results on identification in a number of problems that lead to a system of convolution equations. Examples include identification of the distribution of mismeasured variables, of a nonparametric regression function under Berkson type measurement error, some nonparametric panel data models, etc. The reason that identification in different problems can be considered in one approach is that they lead to the same system of convolution equations; moreover the solution can be given under more general assumptions than those usually considered, by examining these equations in spaces of generalized functions. An important issue that did not receive sufficient attention is that of well-posedness. This note gives conditions under which well-posedness obtains, an example that demonstrates that when well-posedness does not hold functions that are far apart can give rise to observable arbitrarily close functions and discusses ...
On the Uncertainty of Identification of Civil Engineering Structures Using ARMA Models
Andersen, Palle; Brincker, Rune; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
1995-01-01
In this paper the uncertainties of modal parameters estimated using ARMA models for identification of civil engineering structures are investigated. How to initialize the predictor part of a Gauss-Newton optimization algorithm is put in focus. A backward-forecasting procedure for initialization...... of the predictor is proposed. This procedure is compared with a standard prediction error method optimization algorithm in a simulation study. It is found that the uncertainties can be reduced by a proper selection of the initial conditions for the predictor....
Qi, Bin; Guo, Linli; Zhang, Zhixian
2016-07-01
Space life science and life support engineering are prominent problems in manned deep space exploration mission. Some typical problems are discussed in this paper, including long-term life support problem, physiological effect and defense of varying extraterrestrial environment. The causes of these problems are developed for these problems. To solve these problems, research on space life science and space medical-engineering should be conducted. In the aspect of space life science, the study of space gravity biology should focus on character of physiological effect in long term zero gravity, co-regulation of physiological systems, impact on stem cells in space, etc. The study of space radiation biology should focus on target effect and non-target effect of radiation, carcinogenicity of radiation, spread of radiation damage in life system, etc. The study of basic biology of space life support system should focus on theoretical basis and simulating mode of constructing the life support system, filtration and combination of species, regulation and optimization method of life support system, etc. In the aspect of space medical-engineering, the study of bio-regenerative life support technology should focus on plants cultivation technology, animal-protein production technology, waste treatment technology, etc. The study of varying gravity defense technology should focus on biological and medical measures to defend varying gravity effect, generation and evaluation of artificial gravity, etc. The study of extraterrestrial environment defense technology should focus on risk evaluation of radiation, monitoring and defending of radiation, compound prevention and removal technology of dust, etc. At last, a case of manned lunar base is analyzed, in which the effective schemes of life support system, defense of varying gravity, defense of extraterrestrial environment are advanced respectively. The points in this paper can be used as references for intensive study on key
CROSS-BORDER E-COMMERCE – PROBLEMS IN IDENTIFICATION AND MEASUREMENT
Sylwia Talar
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Cross-border e-commerce is a relatively new phenomenon in the contemporary world economy and very little examined. The aim of this paper is to specify and charac-terize basic problems for the cross-border e-commerce research. It was carried out a wide literature review, including methodological manuals, studies, reports and statistics. The problems with definition of the cross-border e-commerce notion were studied, as well as the scope of official statistics and private sources of data in this area. The finding is that the studies of cross-border e-commerce are currently faced with serious problems of fundamental nature, which are identification of meaning and quantitative dimension of this phenomenon.
Identification of problems of implementation of Lean concept in the SME sector
Ulewicz Robert
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The article presents identification of problems during the implementation of Lean concept in small and medium-sized enterprises in Poland. Although the Lean methodology is recognized all over the world as one of the best and most effective ways to improve the functioning of enterprises, in Polish conditions exist serious problems with its implementation. Development of small and medium-sized enterprises is regarded as one of the measures of economic growth and a sign of healthy competition. The needs of the economy and the limited resources characterizing this enterprise sector imply the need to adjust its capacities to the requirements of the turbulent environment. In the analysis of problems there were used the results of questionnaire surveys conducted among representatives of the companies participating in the largest Lean conference in Central Europe.
Warming up for PBL: a course in mathematical modelling and problem solving for engineering students
Dag Wedelin
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The step from traditional teaching to PBL is considerable and it has previously been proposed that students should be skilled at problem solving before entering a PBL course. In this paper, we first discuss some key ideas behind the design of a successful course in mathematical modelling and problem solving for engineering students. A central aim of the course is to help the students to understand the power of learning by exploration, a missing key component in the students’ ability to solve problems. We then discuss how this kind of course can serve as an intermediate step in a progression towards more self-directed project-based and problem-based learning.
Excel 2013 for engineering statistics a guide to solving practical problems
Quirk, Thomas J
2015-01-01
This is the first book to show the capabilities of Microsoft Excel to teach engineering statistics effectively. It is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical engineering problems. If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you. Excel, a widely available computer program for students and managers, is also an effective teaching and learning tool for quantitative analyses in engineering courses. Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past. However, Excel 2013 for Engineering Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and managers how to apply Excel to statistical techniques necessary in their courses and work. Each chapter explains statistical formulas and directs...
Case study of a problem-based learning course of physics in a telecommunications engineering degree
Macho-Stadler, Erica; Jesús Elejalde-García, Maria
2013-08-01
Active learning methods can be appropriate in engineering, as their methodology promotes meta-cognition, independent learning and problem-solving skills. Problem-based learning is the educational process by which problem-solving activities and instructor's guidance facilitate learning. Its key characteristic involves posing a 'concrete problem' to initiate the learning process, generally implemented by small groups of students. Many universities have developed and used active methodologies successfully in the teaching-learning process. During the past few years, the University of the Basque Country has promoted the use of active methodologies through several teacher training programmes. In this paper, we describe and analyse the results of the educational experience using the problem-based learning (PBL) method in a physics course for undergraduates enrolled in the technical telecommunications engineering degree programme. From an instructors' perspective, PBL strengths include better student attitude in class and increased instructor-student and student-student interactions. The students emphasised developing teamwork and communication skills in a good learning atmosphere as positive aspects.
Reijneveld Symen A
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Questionnaires used by health services to identify children with psychosocial problems are often rather short. The psychometric properties of such short questionnaires are mostly less than needed for an accurate distinction between children with and without problems. We aimed to assess whether a short Computerized Adaptive Test (CAT can overcome the weaknesses of short written questionnaires when identifying children with psychosocial problems. Method We used a Dutch national data set obtained from parents of children invited for a routine health examination by Preventive Child Healthcare with 205 items on behavioral and emotional problems (n = 2,041, response 84%. In a random subsample we determined which items met the requirements of an Item Response Theory (IRT model to a sufficient degree. Using those items, item parameters necessary for a CAT were calculated and a cut-off point was defined. In the remaining subsample we determined the validity and efficiency of a Computerized Adaptive Test using simulation techniques, with current treatment status and a clinical score on the Total Problem Scale (TPS of the Child Behavior Checklist as criteria. Results Out of 205 items available 190 sufficiently met the criteria of the underlying IRT model. For 90% of the children a score above or below cut-off point could be determined with 95% accuracy. The mean number of items needed to achieve this was 12. Sensitivity and specificity with the TPS as a criterion were 0.89 and 0.91, respectively. Conclusion An IRT-based CAT is a very promising option for the identification of psychosocial problems in children, as it can lead to an efficient, yet high-quality identification. The results of our simulation study need to be replicated in a real-life administration of this CAT.
C-L METHOD AND ITS APPLICATION TO ENGINEERING NONLINEAR DYNAMICAL PROBLEMS
陈予恕; 丁千
2001-01-01
The C-L method was generalized from Liapunov-Schmidt reduction method,combined with theory of singularities, for study of non-autonomous dynamical systems to obtain the typical bifurcating response curves in the system parameter spaces. This method has been used , as an example, to analyze the engineering nonlinear dynamical problems by obtaining the bifurcation programs and response curves which are useful in developing tech niques of control to subharmonic instability of large rotating machinery.
Bolotina, I.; Bulavinov, A.; Pinchuk, R.; Salchak, Y.
2016-04-01
The paper considers the problems of ultrasonic nondestructive testing of products intended for mechanical engineering. The functional and electronic circuits of an ultrasonic tomograph are presented. The function of signal radiation from the clocked multielement apparatus is described, the cross-functional flowchart of the prototype of a US tomograph is considered. The development trends of ultrasonic tomography for near-term outlook are demonstrated.
Melnyk Olga G.
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The method for identification of the scale of changes in personnel motivation techniques at mechanical-engineering enterprises based on structural and logical sequence of implementation of relevant stages (identification of the mission, strategy and objectives of the enterprise; forecasting the development of the enterprise business environment; SWOT-analysis of actual motivation techniques, deciding on the scale of changes in motivation techniques, choosing providers for changing personnel motivation techniques, choosing an alternative to changing motivation techniques, implementation of changes in motivation techniques; control over changes in motivation techniques. It has been substantiated that the improved method enables providing a systematic and analytical justification for management decisionmaking in this field and choosing the best for the mechanical-engineering enterprise scale and variant of changes in motivation techniques. The method for identification of the scale of changes in motivation techniques at mechanical-engineering enterprises takes into account the previous, current and prospective character. Firstly, the approach is based on considering the past state in the motivational sphere of the mechanical-engineering enterprise; secondly, the method involves identifying the current state of personnel motivation techniques; thirdly, within the method framework the prospective, which is manifested in strategic vision of the enterprise development as well as in forecasting the development of its business environment, is taken into account. The advantage of the proposed method is that the level of its specification may vary depending on the set goals, resource constraints and necessity. Among other things, this method allows integrating various formalized and non-formalized causal relationships in the sphere of personnel motivation at machine-building enterprises and management of relevant processes. This creates preconditions for a
A novel algorithm for validating peptide identification from a shotgun proteomics search engine.
Jian, Ling; Niu, Xinnan; Xia, Zhonghang; Samir, Parimal; Sumanasekera, Chiranthani; Mu, Zheng; Jennings, Jennifer L; Hoek, Kristen L; Allos, Tara; Howard, Leigh M; Edwards, Kathryn M; Weil, P Anthony; Link, Andrew J
2013-03-01
Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has revolutionized the proteomics analysis of complexes, cells, and tissues. In a typical proteomic analysis, the tandem mass spectra from a LC-MS/MS experiment are assigned to a peptide by a search engine that compares the experimental MS/MS peptide data to theoretical peptide sequences in a protein database. The peptide spectra matches are then used to infer a list of identified proteins in the original sample. However, the search engines often fail to distinguish between correct and incorrect peptides assignments. In this study, we designed and implemented a novel algorithm called De-Noise to reduce the number of incorrect peptide matches and maximize the number of correct peptides at a fixed false discovery rate using a minimal number of scoring outputs from the SEQUEST search engine. The novel algorithm uses a three-step process: data cleaning, data refining through a SVM-based decision function, and a final data refining step based on proteolytic peptide patterns. Using proteomics data generated on different types of mass spectrometers, we optimized the De-Noise algorithm on the basis of the resolution and mass accuracy of the mass spectrometer employed in the LC-MS/MS experiment. Our results demonstrate De-Noise improves peptide identification compared to other methods used to process the peptide sequence matches assigned by SEQUEST. Because De-Noise uses a limited number of scoring attributes, it can be easily implemented with other search engines.
A Novel Algorithm for Validating Peptide Identification from a Shotgun Proteomics Search Engine
Jian, Ling; Niu, Xinnan; Xia, Zhonghang; Samir, Parimal; Sumanasekera, Chiranthani; Zheng, Mu; Jennings, Jennifer L.; Hoek, Kristen L.; Allos, Tara; Howard., Leigh M.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Weil, P. Anthony; Link, Andrew J.
2013-01-01
Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry has revolutionized the proteomics analysis of complexes, cells, and tissues. In a typical proteomic analysis, the tandem mass spectra from a LC/MS/MS experiment are assigned to a peptide by a search engine that compares the experimental MS/MS peptide data to theoretical peptide sequences in a protein database. The peptide spectra matches are then used to infer a list of identified proteins in the original sample. However, the search engines often fail to distinguish between correct and incorrect peptides assignments. In this study, we designed and implemented a novel algorithm called De-Noise to reduce the number of incorrect peptide matches and maximize the number of correct peptides at a fixed false discovery rate using a minimal number of scoring outputs from the SEQUEST search engine. The novel algorithm uses a three step process: data cleaning, data refining through a SVM-based decision function, and a final data refining step based on proteolytic peptide patterns. Using proteomics data generated on different types of mass spectrometers, we optimized the De-Noise algorithm based on the resolution and mass accuracy of the mass spectrometer employed in the LC/MS/MS experiment. Our results demonstrate De-Noise improves peptide identification compared to other methods used to process the peptide sequence matches assigned by SEQUEST. Because De-Noise uses a limited number of scoring attributes, it can be easily implemented with other search engines. PMID:23402659
Literature Review of the ’Errors-In-Variables’ Approach to the Problem of System Identification
1993-07-01
The papers reviewed here deal with various aspects of the problem of system identification when all the observed variables are contaminated by noise...on singular value decomposition and signal processing is included in the references. System identification , Parameter estimation, Noise modulation, Dynamical systems, Algorithms.
Yu, Wen; Taylor, J Alex; Davis, Michael T; Bonilla, Leo E; Lee, Kimberly A; Auger, Paul L; Farnsworth, Chris C; Welcher, Andrew A; Patterson, Scott D
2010-03-01
Despite recent advances in qualitative proteomics, the automatic identification of peptides with optimal sensitivity and accuracy remains a difficult goal. To address this deficiency, a novel algorithm, Multiple Search Engines, Normalization and Consensus is described. The method employs six search engines and a re-scoring engine to search MS/MS spectra against protein and decoy sequences. After the peptide hits from each engine are normalized to error rates estimated from the decoy hits, peptide assignments are then deduced using a minimum consensus model. These assignments are produced in a series of progressively relaxed false-discovery rates, thus enabling a comprehensive interpretation of the data set. Additionally, the estimated false-discovery rate was found to have good concordance with the observed false-positive rate calculated from known identities. Benchmarking against standard proteins data sets (ISBv1, sPRG2006) and their published analysis, demonstrated that the Multiple Search Engines, Normalization and Consensus algorithm consistently achieved significantly higher sensitivity in peptide identifications, which led to increased or more robust protein identifications in all data sets compared with prior methods. The sensitivity and the false-positive rate of peptide identification exhibit an inverse-proportional and linear relationship with the number of participating search engines.
Hoffmann, Michael; Borenstein, Jason
2014-03-01
As a committee of the National Academy of Engineering recognized, ethics education should foster the ability of students to analyze complex decision situations and ill-structured problems. Building on the NAE's insights, we report about an innovative teaching approach that has two main features: first, it places the emphasis on deliberation and on self-directed, problem-based learning in small groups of students; and second, it focuses on understanding ill-structured problems. The first innovation is motivated by an abundance of scholarly research that supports the value of deliberative learning practices. The second results from a critique of the traditional case-study approach in engineering ethics. A key problem with standard cases is that they are usually described in such a fashion that renders the ethical problem as being too obvious and simplistic. The practitioner, by contrast, may face problems that are ill-structured. In the collaborative learning environment described here, groups of students use interactive and web-based argument visualization software called "AGORA-net: Participate - Deliberate!". The function of the software is to structure communication and problem solving in small groups. Students are confronted with the task of identifying possible stakeholder positions and reconstructing their legitimacy by constructing justifications for these positions in the form of graphically represented argument maps. The argument maps are then presented in class so that these stakeholder positions and their respective justifications become visible and can be brought into a reasoned dialogue. Argument mapping provides an opportunity for students to collaborate in teams and to develop critical thinking and argumentation skills.
Probabilistic Cross-Identification in Crowded Fields as an Assignment Problem
Budavari, Tamas
2016-01-01
One of the outstanding challenges of cross-identification is multiplicity: detections in crowded regions of the sky are often linked to more than one candidate associations of similar likelihoods. We map the resulting maximum likelihood partitioning to the fundamental assignment problem of discrete mathematics and efficiently solve the two-way catalog-level matching in the realm of combinatorial optimization using the so-called Hungarian algorithm. We introduce the method, demonstrate its performance in a mock universe where the true associations are known, and discuss the applicability of the new procedure to large surveys.
Abbas Abbasi-Ghahramanloo
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Attracting community participation is the most important developmental solution in various sectors of the society. In this regard, the community evaluation is the process during which researchers and community members get the right understanding of health, living concerns, and community health care system by collecting and analyzing data and determining the strengths, resources, and the needs of society. Navai Kola is a village in the Babol, Iran, in which this research has been done to identify and prioritize problems. Methods: This research is based on the model of the Northern Carolina. In this model, the process of community assessment is done in an eight-stage process that the first seven stages include: identification and classification of problems and the eighth involves drawing up operational plans for solving high priority problems. Results: In this study, a total of 40 different problems were identified in order, and the main were lack of sports facilities and entertainment, waste disposal, dangerous U-turn point in the entrance of the village, worn out power and water utilities, and youth unemployment. Conclusion: Most of the problems identified were issues not directly related to health, but had effects that differently appeared in community health.
Finite element methods for engineering sciences. Theoretical approach and problem solving techniques
Chaskalovic, J. [Ariel University Center of Samaria (Israel); Pierre and Marie Curie (Paris VI) Univ., 75 (France). Inst. Jean le Rond d' Alembert
2008-07-01
This self-tutorial offers a concise yet thorough grounding in the mathematics necessary for successfully applying FEMs to practical problems in science and engineering. The unique approach first summarizes and outlines the finite-element mathematics in general and then, in the second and major part, formulates problem examples that clearly demonstrate the techniques of functional analysis via numerous and diverse exercises. The solutions of the problems are given directly afterwards. Using this approach, the author motivates and encourages the reader to actively acquire the knowledge of finite- element methods instead of passively absorbing the material, as in most standard textbooks. The enlarged English-language edition, based on the original French, also contains a chapter on the approximation steps derived from the description of nature with differential equations and then applied to the specific model to be used. Furthermore, an introduction to tensor calculus using distribution theory offers further insight for readers with different mathematical backgrounds. (orig.)
Enrique Castillo
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We first show that monomial ratio equations are not only very common in Physics and Engineering, but the natural type of equations in many practical problems. More precisely, in the case of models involving scale variables if the used formulas are not of this type they are not physically valid. The consequence is that when estimating the model parameters we are faced with systems of monomial ratio equations that are nonlinear and difficult to solve. In this paper, we provide an original algorithm to obtain the unique solutions of systems of equations made of linear combinations of monomial ratios whose coefficient matrix has a proper null space with low dimension that permits solving the problem in a simple way. Finally, we illustrate the proposed methods by their application to two practical problems from the hydraulic and structural fields.
Sergeyev, Yaroslav D; Grimaldi, Domenico; Molinaro, Anna
2011-01-01
In this paper we introduce a common problem in electronic measurements and electrical engineering: finding the first root from the left of an equation in the presence of some initial conditions. We present examples of electrotechnical devices (analog signal filtering), where it is necessary to solve it. Two new methods for solving this problem, based on global optimization ideas, are introduced. The first uses the exact a priori given global Lipschitz constant for the first derivative. The second method adaptively estimates local Lipschitz constants during the search. Both algorithms either find the first root from the left or determine the global minimizers (in the case when the objective function has no roots). Sufficient conditions for convergence of the new methods to the desired solution are established in both cases. The results of numerical experiments for real problems and a set of test functions are also presented.
The role of failure/problems in engineering: A commentary of failures experienced - lessons learned
Ryan, R. S.
1992-03-01
The written version of a series of seminars given to several aerospace companies and three NASA centers are presented. The results are lessons learned through a study of the problems experienced in 35 years of engineering. The basic conclusion is that the primary cause of problems has not been mission technologies, as important as technology is, but the neglect of basic principles. Undergirding this is the lack of a systems focus from determining requirements through design, verification, and operations phases. Many of the concepts discussed are fundamental to total quality management (TQM) and can be used to augment this product enhanced philosophy. Fourteen principles are addressed with problems experienced and are used as examples. Included is a discussion of the implication of constraints, poorly defined requirements, and schedules. Design guidelines, lessons learned, and future tasks are listed. Two additional sections are included that deal with personal lessons learned and thoughts on future thrusts (TQM).
The role of failure/problems in engineering: A commentary of failures experienced - lessons learned
Ryan, R. S.
1992-01-01
The written version of a series of seminars given to several aerospace companies and three NASA centers are presented. The results are lessons learned through a study of the problems experienced in 35 years of engineering. The basic conclusion is that the primary cause of problems has not been mission technologies, as important as technology is, but the neglect of basic principles. Undergirding this is the lack of a systems focus from determining requirements through design, verification, and operations phases. Many of the concepts discussed are fundamental to total quality management (TQM) and can be used to augment this product enhanced philosophy. Fourteen principles are addressed with problems experienced and are used as examples. Included is a discussion of the implication of constraints, poorly defined requirements, and schedules. Design guidelines, lessons learned, and future tasks are listed. Two additional sections are included that deal with personal lessons learned and thoughts on future thrusts (TQM).
Gladwell, Graham ML
2011-01-01
The papers in this volume present an overview of the general aspects and practical applications of dynamic inverse methods, through the interaction of several topics, ranging from classical and advanced inverse problems in vibration, isospectral systems, dynamic methods for structural identification, active vibration control and damage detection, imaging shear stiffness in biological tissues, wave propagation, to computational and experimental aspects relevant for engineering problems.
Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R. [Hughes Training, Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States); Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.I. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Technology
1995-07-01
A series of human factors evaluations was undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multi-disciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. The principal sources of radiation are a radioactive isotope, typically cobalt60 (Co-60), or a linear accelerator device capable of producing very high energy x-ray and electron beams. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation technologists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was initially performed to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of user-system interfaces, procedures, training and qualifications, and organizational policies and practices. The final phase of the project focused on identification of the most significant human factors problems with respect to safe and effective operation of the teletherapy system and an identification and assessment of alternative approaches for resolving the problems. This report presents the findings of this final phase.
Lobato, Fran Sérgio
2017-01-01
This book is aimed at undergraduate and graduate students in applied mathematics or computer science, as a tool for solving real-world design problems. The present work covers fundamentals in multi-objective optimization and applications in mathematical and engineering system design using a new optimization strategy, namely the Self-Adaptive Multi-objective Optimization Differential Evolution (SA-MODE) algorithm. This strategy is proposed in order to reduce the number of evaluations of the objective function through dynamic update of canonical Differential Evolution parameters (population size, crossover probability and perturbation rate). The methodology is applied to solve mathematical functions considering test cases from the literature and various engineering systems design, such as cantilevered beam design, biochemical reactor, crystallization process, machine tool spindle design, rotary dryer design, among others.
Zhou, Chunfang
2012-01-01
In order to foster creative engineers, a creativity training programme was carried out in medialogy education in a Problem and Project-Based Learning (PBL) environment at Aalborg University, Denmark. This paper focuses on the question of how engineering students perceive the strategy of integrating...... creativity training into a PBL curriculum. A total of 20 medialogy students in the training programme were interviewed. The data shows that the training programme was thought useful and students get benefits such as gaining project work skills, creative concepts and confidence of being creative. However......, limitations of the programme show that only five days of training did not fit the requirements of learning skills in PBL. So the supervisors are suggested to offer more creativity techniques and process engagement to move projects forward....
Reijneveld, S.A.; Harland, P.; Brugman, E.; Verhulst, F.C.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.
2005-01-01
Background This study aims to examine a) the prevalence of psychosocial problems and b) the association between parent-reported problems and the identification by doctors and nurses (child health professionals, CHP) working in preventive child health care, among immigrant and non-immigrant children.
Jones, Brett D.; Ruff, Chloe; Paretti, Marie C.
2013-01-01
Women almost always comprise a minority in engineering programs and a smaller percentage of women pursue engineering than other science and technology majors. The culture of engineering departments and negative stereotypes of women's engineering and mathematical ability have been identified as factors that inhibit women's entry into…
Jones, Brett D.; Ruff, Chloe; Paretti, Marie C.
2013-01-01
Women almost always comprise a minority in engineering programs and a smaller percentage of women pursue engineering than other science and technology majors. The culture of engineering departments and negative stereotypes of women's engineering and mathematical ability have been identified as factors that inhibit women's entry into…
Zhou, Chunfang; Kolmos, Anette; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard
2012-01-01
In this paper, we explore how engineering students are motivated to develop group creativity in a Problem and Project- Based Learning (PBL) environment. Theoretically, we take a social cultural approach to group creativity and emphasize the influences of a learning environment on student motivation...... creativity. Thus, the supervisors are encouraged to be more aware of the complex relationships between student, teacher and task and the student response....... in group creativity development. Empirically, a case study was carried out on a student satellite project in the Department of Electronic System at Aalborg University in Denmark, by using qualitative methods including interviews and observation. The findings show that student motivation is stimulated...
Zhou, Chunfang; Kolmos, Anette; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard
2012-01-01
In this paper, we explore how engineering students are motivated to develop group creativity in a Problem and Project- Based Learning (PBL) environment. Theoretically, we take a social cultural approach to group creativity and emphasize the influences of a learning environment on student motivation...... in group creativity development. Empirically, a case study was carried out on a student satellite project in the Department of Electronic System at Aalborg University in Denmark, by using qualitative methods including interviews and observation. The findings show that student motivation is stimulated...
The application of and unresolved problems regarding the use of objectives in software engineering
Luis Alfonso Lezcano Rodríguez
2012-08-01
Full Text Available One of the first items which should be identified in resolving a problem or need is an objective in the various fields of knowledge as it enables determining which results must be achieved. Objectives are the starting point in identifying goals, processes, tasks and the people in charge; moreover, activities defined to fulfil their follow-up are based on a set of proposed objectives and enable evaluating results. This article shows how objectives can be defined and used in various fields, especially in software engineering, and depicts the flaws found.
Bekki, Jennifer M.; Bernstein, Bianca; Fabert, Natalie; Gildar, Natalie; Way, Amy
2014-01-01
Interpersonal problem solving skills allow engineers to prevent interpersonal difficulties more effectively and to manage conflict, both of which are critical to successful participation on teams. This research provides evidence that the "Career"WISE online learning environment can improve those skills among women in engineering graduate…
Li, Yanyan; Huang, Zhinan; Jiang, Menglu; Chang, Ting-Wen
2016-01-01
Incorporating scientific fundamentals via engineering through a design-based methodology has proven to be highly effective for STEM education. Engineering design can be instantiated for learning as they involve mental and physical stimulation and develop practical skills especially in solving problems. Lego bricks, as a set of toys based on design…
CHENG Yan
2012-01-01
In line with current situations of extension of Xinjiang’s agricultural products,the paper put forward and analyzed existing problems in extension works of agricultural product identification.The problems mainly include:(i) general identification of agricultural products is basically blank and both producers and consumers lack awareness of identification;(ii) creating(famous) brand is a weak point of agriculture in Xinjiang;(iii) certification of non-hazard,green and organic agricultural products lags behind;(iv) it neglects problem of agricultural product packaging.On the basis of these problems,the paper present our recommendations:(i) government provides financial subsidy to actively guide certification of agricultural products;(ii) it should increase financial fund input in brand construction and support(famous) brand construction of agricultural products;(iii) it should provide subsidy for those enterprises creating famous brand,to encourage agricultural producing and processing enterprises to strive for famous brands;(vi) it should stress agricultural product packaging from the source and provide subsidy for agricultural producers who have affixed the identification;(v) it should gradually promote agricultural product identification,to constantly improve the farmers’ awareness of agricultural product identification.
Mantri, Archana
2014-05-01
The intent of the study presented in this paper is to show that the model of problem-based learning (PBL) can be made scalable by designing curriculum around a set of open-ended problems (OEPs). The detailed statistical analysis of the data collected to measure the effects of traditional and PBL instructions for three courses in Electronics and Communication Engineering, namely Analog Electronics, Digital Electronics and Pulse, Digital & Switching Circuits is presented here. It measures the effects of pedagogy, gender and cognitive styles on the knowledge, skill and attitude of the students. The study was conducted two times with content designed around same set of OEPs but with two different trained facilitators for all the three courses. The repeatability of results for effects of the independent parameters on dependent parameters is studied and inferences are drawn.
Some Problems in Nonlinear Dynamic Instability and Bifurcation Theory for Engineering Structures
彭妙娟; 程玉民
2005-01-01
In civil engineering, the nonlinear dynamic instability of structures occurs at a bifurcation point or a limit point. The instability at a bifurcation point can be analyzed with the theory of nonlinear dynamics, and that at a limit point can be discussed with the theory of elastoplasticity. In this paper, the nonlinear dynamic instability of structures was treated with mathematical and mechanical theories. The research methods for the problems of structural nonlinear dynamic stability were discussed first, and then the criterion of stability or instability of structures, the method to obtain the bifurcation point and the limit point, and the formulae of the directions of the branch solutions at a bifurcation point were elucidated. These methods can be applied to the problems of nonlinear dynamic instability of structures such as reticulated shells, space grid structures, and so on.
Automation of reverse engineering process in aircraft modeling and related optimization problems
Li, W.; Swetits, J.
1994-01-01
During the year of 1994, the engineering problems in aircraft modeling were studied. The initial concern was to obtain a surface model with desirable geometric characteristics. Much of the effort during the first half of the year was to find an efficient way of solving a computationally difficult optimization model. Since the smoothing technique in the proposal 'Surface Modeling and Optimization Studies of Aerodynamic Configurations' requires solutions of a sequence of large-scale quadratic programming problems, it is important to design algorithms that can solve each quadratic program in a few interactions. This research led to three papers by Dr. W. Li, which were submitted to SIAM Journal on Optimization and Mathematical Programming. Two of these papers have been accepted for publication. Even though significant progress has been made during this phase of research and computation times was reduced from 30 min. to 2 min. for a sample problem, it was not good enough for on-line processing of digitized data points. After discussion with Dr. Robert E. Smith Jr., it was decided not to enforce shape constraints in order in order to simplify the model. As a consequence, P. Dierckx's nonparametric spline fitting approach was adopted, where one has only one control parameter for the fitting process - the error tolerance. At the same time the surface modeling software developed by Imageware was tested. Research indicated a substantially improved fitting of digitalized data points can be achieved if a proper parameterization of the spline surface is chosen. A winning strategy is to incorporate Dierckx's surface fitting with a natural parameterization for aircraft parts. The report consists of 4 chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of reverse engineering related to aircraft modeling and some preliminary findings of the effort in the second half of the year. Chapters 2-4 are the research results by Dr. W. Li on penalty functions and conjugate gradient methods for
工程量清单报价结算审核中存在的问题%On problems in the engineering volume listing price settlement and check
李美玲
2015-01-01
结合工程实例，介绍了工程量清单报价结算审核方案的确定方法，对工程量的确定、单价录入、价格审核等工程量清单报价结算审核中存在的问题进行了研究，以真正发挥清单审核的作用。%Combining with the engineering examples,the paper introduces the identification methods for the engineering volume listing price set-tlement and check,and researches some problems in the price settlement and check from the identification of the engineering volume,unit price entry,and price checking,so as to play the full role of the listing checking.
Thomas, Randy; Stueber, Thomas J.
2013-01-01
The System Identification (SysID) Rack is a real-time hardware-in-the-loop data acquisition (DAQ) and control instrument rack that was designed and built to support inlet testing in the NASA Glenn Research Center 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel. This instrument rack is used to support experiments on the Combined-Cycle Engine Large-Scale Inlet for Mode Transition Experiment (CCE? LIMX). The CCE?LIMX is a testbed for an integrated dual flow-path inlet configuration with the two flow paths in an over-and-under arrangement such that the high-speed flow path is located below the lowspeed flow path. The CCE?LIMX includes multiple actuators that are designed to redirect airflow from one flow path to the other; this action is referred to as "inlet mode transition." Multiple phases of experiments have been planned to support research that investigates inlet mode transition: inlet characterization (Phase-1) and system identification (Phase-2). The SysID Rack hardware design met the following requirements to support Phase-1 and Phase-2 experiments: safely and effectively move multiple actuators individually or synchronously; sample and save effector control and position sensor feedback signals; automate control of actuator positioning based on a mode transition schedule; sample and save pressure sensor signals; and perform DAQ and control processes operating at 2.5 KHz. This document describes the hardware components used to build the SysID Rack including their function, specifications, and system interface. Furthermore, provided in this document are a SysID Rack effectors signal list (signal flow); system identification experiment setup; illustrations indicating a typical SysID Rack experiment; and a SysID Rack performance overview for Phase-1 and Phase-2 experiments. The SysID Rack described in this document was a useful tool to meet the project objectives.
A HYBRID CLASSIFICATION ALGORITHM TO CLASSIFY ENGINEERING STUDENTS’ PROBLEMS AND PERKS
Mitali Desai
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The social networking sites have brought a new horizon for expressing views and opinions of individuals. Moreover, they provide medium to students to share their sentiments including struggles and joy during the learning process. Such informal information has a great venue for decision making. The large and growing scale of information needs automatic classification techniques. Sentiment analysis is one of the automated techniques to classify large data. The existing predictive sentiment analysis techniques are highly used to classify reviews on E-commerce sites to provide business intelligence. However, they are not much useful to draw decisions in education system since they classify the sentiments into merely three pre-set categories: positive, negative and neutral. Moreover, classifying the students’ sentiments into positive or negative category does not provide deeper insight into their problems and perks. In this paper, we propose a novel Hybrid Classification Algorithm to classify engineering students’ sentiments. Unlike traditional predictive sentiment analysis techniques, the proposed algorithm makes sentiment analysis process descriptive. Moreover, it classifies engineering students’ perks in addition to problems into several categories to help future students and education system in decision making.
Chakroun, Mahmoud; Gogu, Grigore; Pacaud, Thomas; Thirion, François
2014-09-01
This study proposes an eco-innovative design process taking into consideration quality and environmental aspects in prioritizing and solving technical engineering problems. This approach provides a synergy between the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), the nonquality matrix, the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ), morphological analysis and the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). In the sequence of these tools, LCA assesses the environmental impacts generated by the system. Then, for a better consideration of environmental aspects, a new tool is developed, the non-quality matrix, which defines the problem to be solved first from an environmental point of view. The TRIZ method allows the generation of new concepts and contradiction resolution. Then, the morphological analysis offers the possibility of extending the search space of solutions in a design problem in a systematic way. Finally, the AHP identifies the promising solution(s) by providing a clear logic for the choice made. Their usefulness has been demonstrated through their application to a case study involving a centrifugal spreader with spinning discs.
Time-varying Performance Prediction and System Identification of Internal Combustion Engines
MENG Xiang-hui; DAI Xu-dong; XIE You-bai
2009-01-01
Design for life-time performance and proper maintenance measures are usually needed to prolong the mean-time-between-failures of complex equipments such as internal combustion engines. To reach this, it is important to obtain the information of time-varying system performance in design stage and to identify the structural change at each moment. So a multidisciplinary model based method is studied in this paper to unify the time-varying performance(TVP) prediction and system identification(SI) of equipments. The related multi-disciplinary model in this paper should be not only precise to give simulation results but also sensitive to the variation of system parameters. So the varying history of system performance along with the structural change can be obtained from the model. Then the value of system parameters can be identified by seeking roots with given detected responding data and relationship between system responding data and system parameters. A case study on a low power gasoline engine shows that the method presented in this paper can provide useful information for the development and maintenance of complex equipments.
P. V. Bulat
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We consider current problems of improving propulsion systems of highly supersonic air-space vehicles. In the first part, we review historic developments and list the landmark scientific papers. Classification of detonation engines is presented with detailed consideration of rotation detonation engines and continuous detonation engines. Experimental results on detonation, which are of particular importance for the design of detonation engines, are discussed. The second part of the paper provides an overview of the development in detonation theory, mathematical modelling, and numerical simulation. We focus on the interference of shock waves with formation of triple points, regular and irregular reflection of shock waves, existence of multiple solutions and the resulting appearance of hysteresis. The relevance and importance of triple shock wave configurations for the development of new types of air intakes and detonation jet engines is demonstrated.
Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard
2008-01-01
Mechatronics is a field of multidisciplinary engineering that not only requires knowledge about different technical areas, but also insight into how to combine technologies optimally, to design efficient products and systems.This paper addresses the group project based and problem-oriented learning...... approach in relation to a mechatronic education, which makes it possible for the student to get in-depth skills in the area of mechatronics very fast. The trends and applications of mechatronic engineering and research are illustrated. Control engineering plays a central role in this context, where...... the well established methods from control engineering form very powerful techniques in both analysis and synthesis of mechatronic systems. The necessary skills for mechatronic engineers are outlined followed up by a discussion on how problem oriented project based learning is implemented. A complete...
Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard
2008-01-01
Mechatronics is a field of multidisciplinary engineering that not only requires knowledge about different technical areas, but also insight into how to combine technologies optimally, to design efficient products and systems.This paper addresses the group project based and problem-oriented learning...... approach in relation to a mechatronic education, which makes it possible for the student to get in-depth skills in the area of mechatronics very fast. The trends and applications of mechatronic engineering and research are illustrated. Control engineering plays a central role in this context, where...... the well established methods from control engineering form very powerful techniques in both analysis and synthesis of mechatronic systems. The necessary skills for mechatronic engineers are outlined followed up by a discussion on how problem oriented project based learning is implemented. A complete...
Seamus McLoone
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This paper describes how a circuits-based project-oriented problem-based learning educational model was integrated into the first year of a Bachelor of Engineering in Electronic Engineering programme at Maynooth University, Ireland. While many variations of problem based learning exist, the presented model is closely aligned with the model used in Aalborg University, Denmark. Key learning outcomes, implementation features and an evaluation of the integrated project-oriented problem-based learning module over a two year period are all presented within.
Problem Solution Processes of Musicians and Engineers: What do Their Approaches Look Like
Säde-Pirkko Nissilä
2015-06-01
Full Text Available PBL is learning through becoming conscious of practical and abstract problems and finding ways how to solve them. It can be a pattern which doesn’t follow traditional divisions of disciplines. In this article the material was collected from two, in the first sight, very different groups. One was music students (N = 62 who had to learn to solve various practical and theoretical problems in preparing a program for a series of concerts as collective and individual action. The method used was the 7-step method which divides learning into seven phases proceeding from creating the social frame of reference and mental models (steps 1–4 through actual work (steps 5–6 to the evaluation of the outcomes (step 7. Another group consisted of international, multicultural business leaders in engineering (N = 6. In using earlier the 7-step method, the approaches resembled those of the music students: deepening their professional competences. To engage their ability to use imagination and connect reality with brainstorming and mental flexibility, the creative PBL method 635 was used. Three practical problems were solved so that the solutions included new viewpoints which would be applied to meet the real needs in the near future. The results show that not only were the learning targets of both groups reached but, with reflection included, the processes widened the professional competences of the participants.
Peleshko, V. A.
2016-06-01
quasi-isotropic elastoplastic materials. In practical calculations, in the absence of experimental data about the properties of a material under combined loading, the use of the engineering version of the model is quite acceptable. The simple identification, wide verifiability, and the availability of a software implementation of the method for solving initial-boundary value problems permit treating the proposed theory as an applied theory.
Thieken, John
2012-01-01
A sample of 127 high school Advanced Placement (AP) Calculus students from two schools was utilized to study the effects of an engineering design-based problem solving strategy on student performance with AP style Related Rate questions and changes in conceptions, beliefs, and influences. The research design followed a treatment-control multiple…
Thieken, John
2012-01-01
A sample of 127 high school Advanced Placement (AP) Calculus students from two schools was utilized to study the effects of an engineering design-based problem solving strategy on student performance with AP style Related Rate questions and changes in conceptions, beliefs, and influences. The research design followed a treatment-control multiple…
Analytical approximate technique for strongly nonlinear oscillators problem arising in engineering
Y. Khan
2012-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a novel method called generalized of the variational iteration method is presented to obtain an approximate analytical solution for strong nonlinear oscillators problem associated in engineering phenomena. This approach resulted in the frequency of the motion as a function of the amplitude of oscillation. It is determined that the method works very well for the whole range of parameters and an excellent agreement is demonstrated and discussed between the approximate frequencies and the exact one. The most significant features of this method are its simplicity and excellent accuracy for the whole range of oscillation amplitude values. Also, the results reveal that this technique is very effective and convenient for solving conservative oscillatory systems with complex nonlinearities. Results obtained by the proposed method are compared with Energy Balance Method (EBM and exact solution showed that, contrary to EBM, simply one or two iterations are enough for obtaining highly accurate results.
van den Heuvel, Meta; Jansen, Danielle E.M.C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Flapper, Boudien C.T.; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C.M.
Current evidence on the co-occurrence of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and psychosocial problems mainly concerns parent-reported information, but rarely includes teacher information. The aim of this study was (1) to investigate the teachers' identification of emotional and behavioral
2010-07-01
...; cracks or spalling in cell room floors, pillars, or beams; caustic leaks; liquid mercury accumulations or... Problem Identification, Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor 6 Table 6 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt....
van den Heuvel, Meta; Jansen, Danielle E.M.C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Flapper, Boudien C.T.; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C.M.
2016-01-01
Current evidence on the co-occurrence of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and psychosocial problems mainly concerns parent-reported information, but rarely includes teacher information. The aim of this study was (1) to investigate the teachers' identification of emotional and behavioral pro
Identification of drug-related problems of elderly patients discharged from hospital
Ahmad A
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Abeer Ahmad,1 M Ruth Mast,1 Giel Nijpels,2 Petra JM Elders,2 Jacqueline M Dekker,3 Jacqueline G Hugtenburg1 1Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacy, 2Department of General Practice, 3Departments of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Background: Drug-related problems (DRP following hospital discharge are common among elderly patients using multiple drugs for the treatment of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of DRP in these patients using a specific tool for the identification of DRP by community pharmacists. Methods: An observational study involving 340 patients aged over 60 years using at least five prescription drugs and discharged from hospital. The occurrence of DRP was assessed by means of an identification tool specifically developed for use by community pharmacists, including a semistructured patient interview and a checklist of common DRP. Results: In total, 992 potential DRP were observed in the 340 patients (mean 2.9 ± 1.7. No drug prescribed but clear indication, an unnecessarily long duration of treatment, dose too low, and incorrect drug selection were the DRP most commonly observed. Ten percent of DRP occurring in 71 patients were drug–drug interactions. The number of DRP was related to the number of drugs prescribed. Frequently occurring DRP found using the patient interview were fear of side effects and no or insufficient knowledge of drug use. Medication of patients discharged from the pulmonary department and of those with type 2 diabetes was particularly associated with occurrence of DRP. Conclusion: Following hospital discharge, DRP occur frequently among elderly patients using five or more drugs for the treatment of chronic disease. The number of DRP increased with the number of drugs used. An important task for community pharmacists is to identify, resolve, and prevent the
Particle Swarm Algorithms to Solve Engineering Problems: A Comparison of Performance
Giordano Tomassetti
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In many disciplines, the use of evolutionary algorithms to perform optimizations is limited because of the extensive number of objective evaluations required. In fact, in real-world problems, each objective evaluation is frequently obtained by time-expensive numerical calculations. On the other hand, gradient-based algorithms are able to identify optima with a reduced number of objective evaluations, but they have limited exploration capabilities of the search domain and some restrictions when dealing with noncontinuous functions. In this paper, two PSO-based algorithms are compared to evaluate their pros and cons with respect to the effort required to find acceptable solutions. The algorithms implement two different methodologies to solve widely used engineering benchmark problems. Comparison is made both in terms of fixed iterations tests to judge the solution quality reached and fixed threshold to evaluate how quickly each algorithm reaches near-optimal solutions. The results indicate that one PSO algorithm achieves better solutions than the other one in fixed iterations tests, and the latter achieves acceptable results in less-function evaluations with respect to the first PSO in the case of fixed threshold tests.
Parameter Identification on Lumped Parameters of the Hydraulic Engine Mount Model
Li Qian
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Hydraulic Engine Mounts (HEM are important vibration isolation components with compound structure in the vehicle powertrain mounting system. They have the characteristic that large damping and high dynamic stiffness in the high frequency region, and small damping and low dynamic stiffness in the low frequency region, which can meet the requirements of the vehicle powertrain mounting system better. The method to identify the lumped parameters of the HEM is not only the necessary work for the analysis and calculation in dynamic performance and can also provide the theory for the performance optimization and structure optimization of product in the future. The parameter identification method based on coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI and finite element analysis (FEA was established in this study to identify the equivalent piston area of the rubber spring, the volume stiffness of the upper chamber, as well as the inertia coefficient and damping coefficient of the liquid through the inertia track. The simulated dynamic characteristic curves of the HEM with the parameters identified are in accordance with the measured dynamic characteristic curves well.
Kauder, K.; Kliem, B. [Dortmund Univ. (Germany). FG Fluidenergiemaschinen
1998-12-31
The two-phase screw-type engine presents itself as a expansion engine in a trilateral-flash-cycle to use waste heat in the lower temperature range, because this displacement engine is able to expand working fluids with a high proportion of liquid. Due to the low critical velocity and the blocking flow, the two-phase flow in the inlet port of the screw-type engine has a great influence on the quality of energy transformation. A novel filling system with rotating short nozzles is presented. Less dissipation during the filling process is expected by this system, because the flash evaporation of the fluid will occur in the working chamber and not in the inlet port of the screw-type engine. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Zweiphasen-Schraubenmotor besitzt als Expansionsmaschine in Trilateral-Flash-Cycle-Prozessen zur Nutzung von Abwaerme mit niedriger Temperatur deutliche Vorteile, da dieser Maschinentyp in der Lage ist, Arbeitsfluide mit einem hohen Fluessigkeitsanteil zu expandieren. Die Zweiphasenstroemung im Einlassbereich des Schraubenmotors hat aufgrund ihrer geringen kritischen Geschwindigkeit und der damit verbundenen blockierten Stroemung einen signifikanten Einfluss auf die Fuellung der Arbeitskammer und der Energiewandlungsguete des Motors. Ein hier vorgestelltes neuartiges Fuellungssystem mit rotierenden Kurzduesen laesst eine verbesserte Fuellung des Zweiphasen-Schraubenmotors erwarten, da es erst in den Arbeitskammern zur Flashverdampfung kommt. (orig.)
Viktil, Kirsten K; Blix, Hege Salvesen; Moger, Tron A; Reikvam, Aasmund
2006-09-01
To investigate whether pharmacist interviews of hospitalised patients about their medication would result in identification of more drug-related problems (DRPs) than those found by usual care procedures and further to characterise the DRPs revealed at the interviews. Patients from five internal medicine and two rheumatology departments in four hospitals in Norway were prospectively included in the study. Clinical pharmacists assessed DRPs by reviewing medical records and by participating in multidisciplinary team discussions. Drugs used, medical history, laboratory data and clinical/pharmacological risk factors were recorded (usual care procedure). A proportion of patients were randomly selected for interview with pharmacists. A quality team assessed the clinical significance of the DRPs. Seven hundred and twenty seven patients were included. Significantly more DRPs were found in the interview group (96 patients), an average of 4.4 DRPs per patient as compared to 2.4 DRPs in the non-interview group (631 patients) (p medical chart error', 'patient adherence' and 'need for patient education' were significantly more often recorded in this group. The quality team assessed 63% of the DRPs revealed in the interviews to be of major clinical significance. Significantly more DRPs were identified among the patients who were interviewed compared to those patients having only usual care examination. A high proportion of the DRPs identified in the interviews were of major clinical significance. The clinical pharmacists, with their way of interviewing, seem to fill a gap, ensuring that significant DRPs do not escape detection.
Problems Associated with a Lack of Cohesive Policy in K-12 Pre-College Engineering
Chandler, John; Fontenot, A. Dean; Tate, Derrick
2011-01-01
This article identifies a number of issues associated with current STEM education reform efforts, especially with regard to efforts to integrate engineering education into the K-12 curriculum. Precollege engineering is especially problematic in STEM reform since there is no well-established tradition of engineering in the K-12 curriculum. This…
Marshall, Matthew M.; Carrano, Andres L.; Dannels, Wendy A.
2016-01-01
Individuals who are deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professions, and this may be due in part to their level of preparation in the development and retention of mathematical and problem-solving skills. An approach was developed that incorporates experiential learning and…
Bledsoe, Karen E.; Flick, Lawrence
2012-01-01
This phenomenographic study documented changes in student-held electrical concepts the development of meaningful learning among students with both low and high prior knowledge within a problem-based learning (PBL) undergraduate electrical engineering course. This paper reports on four subjects: two with high prior knowledge and two with low prior…
Beddoes, Kacey D.; Jesiek, Brent K.; Borrego, Maura
2010-01-01
We report on the results of a study to examine the global state of engineering education research on problem-and project-based learning (PBL). This paper has two major aims. First, we analyze a large collection of conference papers and journal articles to report on research trends in PBL, including in specific, leading countries. Second, based…
Brunier, Elisabeth; Le Chapellier, Michel; Dejean, Pierre Henri
2012-01-01
The aims of this paper are to present concept and results of an innovative educational model approach based on ergonomics involvement in industrial project. First we present Cross disciplinary Problem solving Workshop by answering three questions:1) What is a CPW: A partnership between Universities and one or several companies, purposes of it are first to increase health, well being, companies teams competencies, and competitiveness, second to train the "IPOD generation" to include risks prevention in design. 2) How does it work? CPW allows cooperation between experience and new insight through inductive methods. This model follows the Piaget (1) philosophy linking concrete world to abstraction by a learning system associating realization and abstraction. 3) Is it successful? In order to answer this third question we will show examples of studies and models performed during CPWs.It appears that the CPWs produce visible results in companies such as new process designs, new methods, and also changes in lectures. However some less visible results remain unclear: How the company personnel evolve during and after CPW? Does CPW motivate our future engineers enough to continuously improve their skills in risk prevention and innovative design?
Anderson, Devon E; Watts, Bradley V
2013-09-01
Despite innumerable attempts to eliminate the postoperative retention of surgical sponges, the medical error persists in operating rooms worldwide and places significant burden on patient safety, quality of care, financial resources, and hospital/physician reputation. The failure of countless solutions, from new sponge counting methods to radio labeled sponges, to truly eliminate the event in the operating room requires that the emerging field of health-care delivery science find innovative ways to approach the problem. Accordingly, the VA National Center for Patient Safety formed a unique collaboration with a team at the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College to evaluate the retention of surgical sponges after surgery and find a solution. The team used an engineering problem solving methodology to develop the best solution. To make the operating room a safe environment for patients, the team identified a need to make the sponge itself safe for use as opposed to resolving the relatively innocuous counting methods. In evaluation of this case study, the need for systematic engineering evaluation to resolve problems in health-care delivery becomes clear.
Baggen, Yvette; Mainert, Jakob; Lans, Thomas; Biemans, Harm J. A.; Greiff, Samuel; Mulder, Martin
2015-01-01
Today's working life is increasingly characterized by entrepreneurial challenges. Entrepreneurial challenges start at an individual level with the identification of entrepreneurial opportunities, which is acknowledged as one of the key competencies for lifelong learning. Since the identification of entrepreneurial opportunities relies heavily on…
The interplay between geotechnical engineering and engineering geology
NONE
1995-05-01
The proceedings of the eleventh European conference on soil mechanics and foundation engineering held in Copenhagen on May 28th - June 1st, 1995, comprise papers on the measurement of soil/soft rock properties, artificial soils and waste products, the use of soil/soft rock properties, the identification and monitoring of geo-hazards, numerical modelling and information technology, special problem soils/soft rocks and the interplay between geotechnical engineering and engineering geology. (AB)
A Case Base for Requirements Engineering: Problem Categories and Solution Techniques
Sikkel, Klaas; Wieringa, Roel; Engmann, Rolf
2000-01-01
We introduce a notion of business problem frames, categorizing the type of IT requirements problems found in organizations, as opposed to Jackson’s problem frames which describe a problem in terms of the solution to that problem. A survey of students’ projects showed that this a viable notion. We in
Hunter, Deirdre-Annaliese Nicole
2015-01-01
Increasing pressure to transform teaching and learning of engineering is supported by mounting research evidence for the value of learner-centered pedagogies. Despite this evidence, engineering faculty are often unsuccessful in applying such teaching approaches often because they lack the necessary knowledge to customize these pedagogies for their unique contexts. My dissertation study investigated the challenges with facilitation practices in introductory PBL engineering courses and develope...
Doyle, John
2007-01-01
This paper discusses the topic of judicial execution from the perspective of the intersection of the technological issues and the professional ethics issues. Although physicians are generally ethically forbidden from any involvement in the judicial execution process, this does not appear to be the case for engineering professionals. This creates an interesting but controversial opportunity for the engineering community (especially biomedical engineers) to improve the humaneness and reliability of the judicial execution process.
Visual re-identification of individual objects: a core problem for organisms and AI.
Fields, Chris
2016-02-01
Two open questions about the visual re-identification of individual objects over extended time periods are briefly reviewed: (1) How much a priori information about the nature of objects, identity and time is required to support robust individual object re-identification abilities? and (2) how do epistemic feelings, such as the feeling of familiarity, contribute both to object re-identification and to the perception of opportunities and risks associated with individual objects and their affordances? The ongoing interplay between experiments that can be carried out with human subjects and experiments made possible with robotic systems is examined. It is suggested that developmental robotics, including virtual-reality simulations of robot-environment interactions, may provide the best route to understanding both the implementation of epistemic feelings in humans and their functional contribution to the identification of persistent individual objects.
Gregson, D B; Low, D E; Skulnick, M; Simor, A E
1988-01-01
Six rapid agglutination tests for identification of Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated by using 62 strains of S. aureus, 63 strains of S. saprophyticus, and 67 strains of other coagulase-negative staphylococci. S. saprophyticus was responsible for 19 of 26 false-positive results and 20 uninterpretable reactions. Thus, urinary staphylococcal isolates that are positive by rapid agglutination tests may require other confirmatory tests for the identification of possible S. saprophyticus. PMID:3410950
Gregson, D B; Low, D E; Skulnick, M; Simor, A. E.
1988-01-01
Six rapid agglutination tests for identification of Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated by using 62 strains of S. aureus, 63 strains of S. saprophyticus, and 67 strains of other coagulase-negative staphylococci. S. saprophyticus was responsible for 19 of 26 false-positive results and 20 uninterpretable reactions. Thus, urinary staphylococcal isolates that are positive by rapid agglutination tests may require other confirmatory tests for the identification of possible S. saprophyticus.
Liu, Gao-Lian
1991-01-01
Advances in inverse design and optimization theory in engineering fields in China are presented. Two original approaches, the image-space approach and the variational approach, are discussed in terms of turbomachine aerodynamic inverse design. Other areas of research in turbomachine aerodynamic inverse design include the improved mean-streamline (stream surface) method and optimization theory based on optimal control. Among the additional engineering fields discussed are the following: the inverse problem of heat conduction, free-surface flow, variational cogeneration of optimal grid and flow field, and optimal meshing theory of gears.
PENG Lei; LIU Li; LONG Teng; GUO Xiaosong
2014-01-01
As a promising technique, surrogate-based design and optimization(SBDO) has been widely used in modern engineering design optimizations. Currently, static surrogate-based optimization methods have been successfully applied to expensive optimization problems. However, due to the low efficiency and poor flexibility, static surrogate-based optimization methods are difficult to efficiently solve practical engineering cases. At the aim of enhancing efficiency, a novel surrogate-based efficient optimization method is developed by using sequential radial basis function(SEO-SRBF). Moreover, augmented Lagrangian multiplier method is adopted to solve the problems involving expensive constraints. In order to study the performance of SEO-SRBF, several numerical benchmark functions and engineering problems are solved by SEO-SRBF and other well-known surrogate-based optimization methods including EGO, MPS, and IARSM. The optimal solutions, number of function evaluations, and algorithm execution time are recorded for comparison. The comparison results demonstrate that SEO-SRBF shows satisfactory performance in both optimization efficiency and global convergence capability. The CPU time required for running SEO-SRBF is dramatically less than that of other algorithms. In the torque arm optimization case using FEA simulation, SEO-SRBF further reduces 21% of thematerial volume compared with the solution from static-RBF subject to the stress constraint. This study provides the efficient strategy to solve expensive constrained optimization problems.
Timoshenko, Valeriy I.; Belotserkovets, Igor S.; Gusinin, Vjacheslav P.
2009-11-01
Some problems of methane-containing hydrocarbon fuel combustion are discussed. It seems that reduction of methane burnout zone length is one from main problems of designing new type engine. It is very important at the creation of combustion chambers of a rocket-ramjet engine for prospective space shuttle launch vehicles.
Santiago Pindado
2015-01-01
Full Text Available At present, engineering problems required quite a sophisticated calculation means. However, analytical models still can prove to be a useful tool for engineers and scientists when dealing with complex physical phenomena. The mathematical models developed to analyze three different engineering problems: photovoltaic devices analysis; cup anemometer performance; and high-speed train pressure wave effects in tunnels are described. In all cases, the results are quite accurate when compared to testing measurements.
Yang, Li-Ping; Ding, Shun-Liang; Litak, Grzegorz; Song, En-Zhe; Ma, Xiu-Zhen
2015-01-01
The cycling combustion instabilities in a diesel engine have been analyzed based on chaos theory. The objective was to investigate the dynamical characteristics of combustion in diesel engine. In this study, experiments were performed under the entire operating range of a diesel engine (the engine speed was changed from 600 to 1400 rpm and the engine load rate was from 0% to 100%), and acquired real-time series of in-cylinder combustion pressure using a piezoelectric transducer installed on the cylinder head. Several methods were applied to identify and quantitatively analyze the combustion process complexity in the diesel engine including delay-coordinate embedding, recurrence plot (RP), Recurrence Quantification Analysis, correlation dimension (CD), and the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) estimation. The results show that the combustion process exhibits some determinism. If LLE is positive, then the combustion system has a fractal dimension and CD is no more than 1.6 and within the diesel engine operating range. We have concluded that the combustion system of diesel engine is a low-dimensional chaotic system and the maximum values of CD and LLE occur at the lowest engine speed and load. This means that combustion system is more complex and sensitive to initial conditions and that poor combustion quality leads to the decrease of fuel economy and the increase of exhaust emissions.
Yang, Li-Ping, E-mail: yangliping302@hrbeu.edu.cn; Ding, Shun-Liang; Song, En-Zhe; Ma, Xiu-Zhen [Institute of Power and Energy Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, No. 145-1, Nantong Street, Nangang District, Harbin 150001 (China); Litak, Grzegorz [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 36, 20-618 Lublin (Poland)
2015-01-15
The cycling combustion instabilities in a diesel engine have been analyzed based on chaos theory. The objective was to investigate the dynamical characteristics of combustion in diesel engine. In this study, experiments were performed under the entire operating range of a diesel engine (the engine speed was changed from 600 to 1400 rpm and the engine load rate was from 0% to 100%), and acquired real-time series of in-cylinder combustion pressure using a piezoelectric transducer installed on the cylinder head. Several methods were applied to identify and quantitatively analyze the combustion process complexity in the diesel engine including delay-coordinate embedding, recurrence plot (RP), Recurrence Quantification Analysis, correlation dimension (CD), and the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) estimation. The results show that the combustion process exhibits some determinism. If LLE is positive, then the combustion system has a fractal dimension and CD is no more than 1.6 and within the diesel engine operating range. We have concluded that the combustion system of diesel engine is a low-dimensional chaotic system and the maximum values of CD and LLE occur at the lowest engine speed and load. This means that combustion system is more complex and sensitive to initial conditions and that poor combustion quality leads to the decrease of fuel economy and the increase of exhaust emissions.
Yang, Li-Ping; Ding, Shun-Liang; Litak, Grzegorz; Song, En-Zhe; Ma, Xiu-Zhen
2015-01-01
The cycling combustion instabilities in a diesel engine have been analyzed based on chaos theory. The objective was to investigate the dynamical characteristics of combustion in diesel engine. In this study, experiments were performed under the entire operating range of a diesel engine (the engine speed was changed from 600 to 1400 rpm and the engine load rate was from 0% to 100%), and acquired real-time series of in-cylinder combustion pressure using a piezoelectric transducer installed on the cylinder head. Several methods were applied to identify and quantitatively analyze the combustion process complexity in the diesel engine including delay-coordinate embedding, recurrence plot (RP), Recurrence Quantification Analysis, correlation dimension (CD), and the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) estimation. The results show that the combustion process exhibits some determinism. If LLE is positive, then the combustion system has a fractal dimension and CD is no more than 1.6 and within the diesel engine operating range. We have concluded that the combustion system of diesel engine is a low-dimensional chaotic system and the maximum values of CD and LLE occur at the lowest engine speed and load. This means that combustion system is more complex and sensitive to initial conditions and that poor combustion quality leads to the decrease of fuel economy and the increase of exhaust emissions.
Orazbayev, B. B.; Orazbayeva, K. N.; Kurmangaziyeva, L. T.; Makhatova, V.E.
2015-01-01
Mathematical equations for the multi-criteria task of the optimisation of chemical engineering systems, for example for the optimisation of working regimes for industrial installations for benzene production, have been formulated and developed, and based on fuzzy mathematical methods, algorithms for their solution have been developed. Since the chemical engineering system, which is being researched, is characterised by multiple criteria and often functions in conditions of uncertainty, the presenting problem is formulated in the form of multi-criteria equations for fuzzy mathematical programming. New mathematical formulations for the problems being solved in a fuzzy environment and heuristic algorithms for their solution have been developed by the modification of various optimisation principles based on fuzzy mathematical methods.
Orazbayev, B B; Orazbayeva, K N; Kurmangaziyeva, L T; Makhatova, V E
2015-01-01
Mathematical equations for the multi-criteria task of the optimisation of chemical engineering systems, for example for the optimisation of working regimes for industrial installations for benzene production, have been formulated and developed, and based on fuzzy mathematical methods, algorithms for their solution have been developed. Since the chemical engineering system, which is being researched, is characterised by multiple criteria and often functions in conditions of uncertainty, the presenting problem is formulated in the form of multi-criteria equations for fuzzy mathematical programming. New mathematical formulations for the problems being solved in a fuzzy environment and heuristic algorithms for their solution have been developed by the modification of various optimisation principles based on fuzzy mathematical methods.
Cormas, Peter C.
2016-01-01
Preservice teachers (N = 27) in two sections of a sequenced, methodological and process integrated mathematics/science course solved a levers problem with three similar learning processes and a problem-solving approach, and identified a problem-solving approach through one different learning process. Similar learning processes used included:…
Robinson, Jane R.
2002-01-01
This article discusses attachment problems and disorders among infants and young children, the consequences of attachment problems in child development, and factors leading to attachment problems. It provides the current status of diagnostic criteria and classification systems means of assessment and available empirically supported interventions.…
Applications of decision analysis and related techniques to industrial engineering problems at KSC
Evans, Gerald W.
1995-01-01
This report provides: (1) a discussion of the origination of decision analysis problems (well-structured problems) from ill-structured problems; (2) a review of the various methodologies and software packages for decision analysis and related problem areas; (3) a discussion of how the characteristics of a decision analysis problem affect the choice of modeling methodologies, thus providing a guide as to when to choose a particular methodology; and (4) examples of applications of decision analysis to particular problems encountered by the IE Group at KSC. With respect to the specific applications at KSC, particular emphasis is placed on the use of the Demos software package (Lumina Decision Systems, 1993).
Marshall, Matthew M; Carrano, Andres L; Dannels, Wendy A
2016-10-01
Individuals who are deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professions, and this may be due in part to their level of preparation in the development and retention of mathematical and problem-solving skills. An approach was developed that incorporates experiential learning and best practices of STEM instruction to give first-year DHH students enrolled in a postsecondary STEM program the opportunity to develop problem-solving skills in real-world scenarios. Using an industrial engineering laboratory that provides manufacturing and warehousing environments, students were immersed in real-world scenarios in which they worked on teams to address prescribed problems encountered during the activities. The highly structured, Plan-Do-Check-Act approach commonly used in industry was adapted for the DHH student participants to document and communicate the problem-solving steps. Students who experienced the intervention realized a 14.6% improvement in problem-solving proficiency compared with a control group, and this gain was retained at 6 and 12 months, post-intervention. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Ahmed, Zeeshan
2010-01-01
The four intensive problems to the software rose by the software industry .i.e., User System Communication / Human Machine Interface, Meta Data extraction, Information processing & management and Data representation are discussed in this research paper. To contribute in the field we have proposed and described an intelligent semantic oriented agent based search engine including the concepts of intelligent graphical user interface, natural language based information processing, data management and data reconstruction for the final user end information representation.
Juhl, Joakim; Buch, Anders
under pressure to reinvent themselves in order to accommodate expectations of higher effectiveness, competition, and economic yield. Results Our results indicate that the efforts to reorganize academic engineering knowledge-productions towards business operate after an accountability principle...
Yang, Yan
2012-01-01
Purpose: This paper aims to discuss the challenge for the classical idea of professionalism in understanding the Chinese software engineering industry after giving a close insight into the development of this industry as well as individual engineers with a psycho-societal perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The study starts with the general…
Yang, Yan
2012-01-01
Purpose: This paper aims to discuss the challenge for the classical idea of professionalism in understanding the Chinese software engineering industry after giving a close insight into the development of this industry as well as individual engineers with a psycho-societal perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The study starts with the general…
Feature Identification and Filtering for Engine Misfire Detection (EMD) Using Zirconia Oxygen Sensor
Pauzi, Muhammad Zaim Mohamed; Abu Bakar, Elmi; Fauzi Ismail, Mohd
2016-02-01
Vehicles as transportation are popular and mainly use among peoples around the world for various kind of purpose either personal or not. Over hundreds of year internal combustion engines widely used because of high efficiency and low maintenance compare to new technology which are using cells of battery. Nevertheless, emission cause of incomplete combustion such engine misfire normally occurs as well. For instances, some mechanical, sensors or actuators failure and environmental condition contribute to the engine misfire. The importance of engine misfire detection (EMD) is to ensure engine emissions not harmful to the environments and avoid damage of catalytic converter. By using low cost narrowband oxygen sensor to acquire air to fuel ratio (AFR) signal behavior under misfire condition and analyst by digital signal processing method using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) algorithm for Digital Butterworth Filter designation is discussed in this paper.
Dayong Ning
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The acoustic signals of internal combustion engines contain valuable information about the condition of engines. These signals can be used to detect incipient faults in engines. However, these signals are complex and composed of a faulty component and other noise signals of background. As such, engine conditions’ characteristics are difficult to extract through wavelet transformation and acoustic emission techniques. In this study, an instantaneous frequency analysis method was proposed. A new time–frequency model was constructed using a fixed amplitude and a variable cycle sine function to fit adjacent points gradually from a time domain signal. The instantaneous frequency corresponds to single value at any time. This study also introduced instantaneous frequency calculation on the basis of an inverse trigonometric fitting method at any time. The mean value of all local maximum values was then considered to identify the engine condition automatically. Results revealed that the mean of local maximum values under faulty conditions differs from the normal mean. An experiment case was also conducted to illustrate the availability of the proposed method. Using the proposed time–frequency model, we can identify engine condition and determine abnormal sound produced by faulty engines.
Dolatabadi, N.; Theodossiades, S.; Rothberg, S. J.
2015-06-01
Piston slap is a major source of vibration and noise in internal combustion engines. Therefore, better understanding of the conditions favouring piston slap can be beneficial for the reduction of engine Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH). Past research has attempted to determine the exact position of piston slap events during the engine cycle and correlate them to the engine block vibration response. Validated numerical/analytical models of the piston assembly can be very useful towards this aim, since extracting the relevant information from experimental measurements can be a tedious and complicated process. In the present work, a coupled simulation of piston dynamics and engine tribology (tribodynamics) has been performed using quasi-static and transient numerical codes. Thus, the inertia and reaction forces developed in the piston are calculated. The occurrence of piston slap events in the engine cycle is monitored by introducing six alternative concepts: (i) the quasi-static lateral force, (ii) the transient lateral force, (iii) the minimum film thickness occurrence, (iv) the maximum energy transfer, (v) the lubricant squeeze velocity and (vi) the piston-impact angular duration. The validation of the proposed methods is achieved using experimental measurements taken from a single cylinder petrol engine in laboratory conditions. The surface acceleration of the engine block is measured at the thrust- and anti-thrust side locations. The correlation between the theoretically predicted events and the measured acceleration signals has been satisfactory in determining piston slap incidents, using the aforementioned concepts. The results also exhibit good repeatability throughout the set of measurements obtained in terms of the number of events occurring and their locations during the engine cycle.
Rehmat, Abeera Parvaiz
As we progress into the 21st century, higher-order thinking skills and achievement in science and math are essential to meet the educational requirement of STEM careers. Educators need to think of innovative ways to engage and prepare students for current and future challenges while cultivating an interest among students in STEM disciplines. An instructional pedagogy that can capture students' attention, support interdisciplinary STEM practices, and foster higher-order thinking skills is problem-based learning. Problem-based learning embedded in the social constructivist view of teaching and learning (Savery & Duffy, 1995) promotes self-regulated learning that is enhanced through exploration, cooperative social activity, and discourse (Fosnot, 1996). This quasi-experimental mixed methods study was conducted with 98 fourth grade students. The study utilized STEM content assessments, a standardized critical thinking test, STEM attitude survey, PBL questionnaire, and field notes from classroom observations to investigate the impact of problem-based learning on students' content knowledge, critical thinking, and their attitude towards STEM. Subsequently, it explored students' experiences of STEM integration in a PBL environment. The quantitative results revealed a significant difference between groups in regards to their content knowledge, critical thinking skills, and STEM attitude. From the qualitative results, three themes emerged: learning approaches, increased interaction, and design and engineering implementation. From the overall data set, students described the PBL environment to be highly interactive that prompted them to employ multiple approaches, including design and engineering to solve the problem.
Kishida, K. [Gifu Univ. (Japan)
1996-12-31
Research concerning power reactor noise analysis makes rapid progress in the areas of the system identification, prediction and diagnosis. Keywords in these studies are artificial intelligence, neural network, fuzzy, and chaos. Nonlinear, nonstationary, or non-Gaussian processes as well as linear and steady processes are also studied in fluctuation analysis. However, we have not enough time to study a fundamental theory, since we are urged to obtain results or applications in power reactor fluctuations. Furthermore, we have no systematic approach to handle observed time series data in the linear process, since power reactor noise phenomena are complicated. Hence, it is important to study it from the fundamental viewpoint. It is a main aim of the present review paper to describe a unified formalism for reactor system identification and stochastic diagnosis.
Reijneveld, S.A.; Brugman, E.; Verhulst, F.C.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.
2004-01-01
Objectives: To assess the degree to which preventive child health professionals (CHPs) identify and manage psychosocial problems among preschool children in the general population and to determine the association with parent-reported behavioral and emotional problems, sociodemographic factors, and m
Identification and management of psychosocial problems by preventive child health care
Brugman, E.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Verhulst, F.C.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.
2001-01-01
Objectives: To assess the degree to which physicians and nurses working in preventive child health care (child health professionals [CHPs]) identify and manage psychosocial problems in children, and to determine its association with parent-reported behavioral and emotional problems, sociodemographic
McAllister, Cheryl J.; Beaver, Cheryl
2012-01-01
The purpose of this research was to determine if recognizable error types exist in the work of preservice teachers required to create story problems for specific fraction operations. Students were given a particular single-operation fraction expression and asked to do the calculation and then create a story problem that would require the use of…
Identification of Strategies Used by Fifth Graders To Solve Mathematics Word Problems.
Palomares, Julio Cesar Arteaga; Hernandez, Jose Guzman
When students confront arithmetic or algebraic word problems, they develop ideas and notations during the processes of solving them by using various arithmetic strategies. Those ideas and notations are the basis for solving that type of problems. Is it possible to aid the development of students' algebraic thinking during their transition from…
Zwaanswijk, M.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Ende, J. van der; Bensing, J.M.; Verhulst, F.C.
2005-01-01
BACKGROUND: Child and adolescent psychological problems are rarely brought to the attention of GPs. Children and adolescents with psychological problems who do visit their GP are seldom identified as such by GPs. OBJECTIVE: To investigate in a general population sample of 2,449 Dutch children and ad
Reijneveld, S.A.; Brugman, E.; Verhulst, F.C.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.
2004-01-01
Objectives: To assess the degree to which preventive child health professionals (CHPs) identify and manage psychosocial problems among preschool children in the general population and to determine the association with parent-reported behavioral and emotional problems, sociodemographic factors, and m
Identification and management of psychosocial problems by preventive child health care
Brugman, E.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Verhulst, F.C.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.
2001-01-01
Objectives: To assess the degree to which physicians and nurses working in preventive child health care (child health professionals [CHPs]) identify and manage psychosocial problems in children, and to determine its association with parent-reported behavioral and emotional problems, sociodemographic
A Comparative Study of Redundant Constraints Identification Methods in Linear Programming Problems
Paulraj S.
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The objective function and the constraints can be formulated as linear functions of independent variables in most of the real-world optimization problems. Linear Programming (LP is the process of optimizing a linear function subject to a finite number of linear equality and inequality constraints. Solving linear programming problems efficiently has always been a fascinating pursuit for computer scientists and mathematicians. The computational complexity of any linear programming problem depends on the number of constraints and variables of the LP problem. Quite often large-scale LP problems may contain many constraints which are redundant or cause infeasibility on account of inefficient formulation or some errors in data input. The presence of redundant constraints does not alter the optimal solutions(s. Nevertheless, they may consume extra computational effort. Many researchers have proposed different approaches for identifying the redundant constraints in linear programming problems. This paper compares five of such methods and discusses the efficiency of each method by solving various size LP problems and netlib problems. The algorithms of each method are coded by using a computer programming language C. The computational results are presented and analyzed in this paper.
Learning Styles of Science and Engineering Students in Problem and Project Based Education
Kolmos, Anette; Holgaard, Jette Egelund
2008-01-01
At the Faculty of Engineering and Science at Aalborg University, Denmark, process skills are an integrated part of the curriculum objectives. During the first year programme, a special course in Collaboration, Learning and Project Management (CLP) is given to develop those skills. In order...... pronounced than similar studies, that the first year engineering students at Aalborg University are considerable more active than reflective. This results leads to a discussion of whether reflection and conceptualization should be facilitated further in the curriculum to balance the students learning style...
Engineering Infrastructures: Problems of Safety and Security in the Russian Federation
Makhutov, Nikolay A.; Reznikov, Dmitry O.; Petrov, Vitaly P.
Modern society cannot exist without stable and reliable engineering infrastructures (EI), whose operation is vital for any national economy. These infrastructures include energy, transportation, water and gas supply systems, telecommunication and cyber systems, etc. Their performance is commensurate with storing and processing huge amounts of information, energy and hazardous substances. Ageing infrastructures are deteriorating — with operating conditions declining from normal to emergency and catastrophic. The complexity of engineering infrastructures and their interdependence with other technical systems makes them vulnerable to emergency situations triggered by natural and manmade catastrophes or terrorist attacks.
Allan, Gregory
2015-01-01
The Engineers in Scrubs (EiS) training program at the University of British Columbia, affiliated with the Faculty of Applied Science?s Biomedical Engineering Graduate (BMEG) Program, is not a typical graduate school course. Nor does it follow a traditional master?s course rubric that culminates with a tidy end-of-year project. Rather, the course is designed to push students to prototype innovative medical devices, encourage health care collaborations, and create an unprecedented interface between technology and health care to further medicine.
Nicole Hunter, Deirdre-Annaliese
Increasing pressure to transform teaching and learning of engineering is supported by mounting research evidence for the value of learner-centered pedagogies. Despite this evidence, engineering faculty are often unsuccessful in applying such teaching approaches often because they lack the necessary knowledge to customize these pedagogies for their unique contexts. My dissertation study investigated the challenges with facilitation practices in introductory PBL engineering courses and developed a pragmatic researchbased model that provides insights aimed at improving PBL facilitation practices using the Innovation Cycle of Educational Practice and Research (ICEPR) as a lens. The ICEPR is useful for investigating connections between educational practice and research for scholarly and systematic educational innovations. I conducted a three-phase sequential study to address critical gaps in the ICEPR regarding both research on and practice of PBL facilitation in engineering. I focused on identifying challenges in practice, developing a model, and disseminating the model through a typology using multiple qualitative data collection and analysis methods. In Phase 1, I studied a new PBL implementation and identified a challenge with facilitator training specifically with regard to a lack of a pragmatic model of facilitation strategies in engineering. In Phase 2, I investigated the facilitation practices of five facilitators in an established PBL engineering course. This resulted in the Model of PBL Facilitation Strategies for Introductory Engineering Courses (PBL-FIEC), where I specifically operationalized the instructional methods constructs from Collins' Cognitive Apprenticeship Framework to describe the variety of ways instructors facilitate student learning in PBL introductory engineering courses. The PBL-FIEC includes six methods and 27 strategies ways for instructors to facilitate students' learning through providing and prompting demonstrations of cognitive and
Montero, E.; Gonzalez, M. J.
2009-01-01
Problem-based learning has been at the core of significant developments in engineering education in recent years. This term refers to any learning environment in which the problem drives the learning, because it is posed in such a way that students realize they need to acquire new knowledge before the problem can be solved. This paper presents the…
Montero, E.; Gonzalez, M. J.
2009-01-01
Problem-based learning has been at the core of significant developments in engineering education in recent years. This term refers to any learning environment in which the problem drives the learning, because it is posed in such a way that students realize they need to acquire new knowledge before the problem can be solved. This paper presents the…
Yu, Zhenhong; Herndon, Scott C; Ziemba, Luke D; Timko, Michael T; Liscinsky, David S; Anderson, Bruce E; Miake-Lye, Richard C
2012-09-04
Lubrication oil was identified in the organic particulate matter (PM) emissions of engine exhaust plumes from in-service commercial aircraft at Chicago Midway Airport (MDW) and O'Hare International Airport (ORD). This is the first field study focused on aircraft lubrication oil emissions, and all of the observed plumes described in this work were due to near-idle engine operations. The identification was carried out with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF AMS) via a collaborative laboratory and field investigation. A characteristic mass marker of lubrication oil, I(85)/I(71), the ratio of ion fragment intensity between m/z = 85 and 71, was used to distinguish lubrication oil from jet engine combustion products. This AMS marker was based on ion fragmentation patterns measured using electron impact ionization for two brands of widely used lubrication oil in a laboratory study. The AMS measurements of exhaust plumes from commercial aircraft in this airport field study reveal that lubrication oil is commonly present in organic PM emissions that are associated with emitted soot particles, unlike the purely oil droplets observed at the lubrication system vent. The characteristic oil marker, I(85)/I(71), was applied to quantitatively determine the contribution from lubrication oil in measured aircraft plumes, which ranges from 5% to 100%.
Francesco Gregoretti
Full Text Available The reverse engineering of gene regulatory networks using gene expression profile data has become crucial to gain novel biological knowledge. Large amounts of data that need to be analyzed are currently being produced due to advances in microarray technologies. Using current reverse engineering algorithms to analyze large data sets can be very computational-intensive. These emerging computational requirements can be met using parallel computing techniques. It has been shown that the Network Identification by multiple Regression (NIR algorithm performs better than the other ready-to-use reverse engineering software. However it cannot be used with large networks with thousands of nodes--as is the case in biological networks--due to the high time and space complexity. In this work we overcome this limitation by designing and developing a parallel version of the NIR algorithm. The new implementation of the algorithm reaches a very good accuracy even for large gene networks, improving our understanding of the gene regulatory networks that is crucial for a wide range of biomedical applications.
Wedge, David C; Krishna, Ritesh; Blackhurst, Paul; Siepen, Jennifer A; Jones, Andrew R; Hubbard, Simon J
2011-04-01
Confident identification of peptides via tandem mass spectrometry underpins modern high-throughput proteomics. This has motivated considerable recent interest in the postprocessing of search engine results to increase confidence and calculate robust statistical measures, for example through the use of decoy databases to calculate false discovery rates (FDR). FDR-based analyses allow for multiple testing and can assign a single confidence value for both sets and individual peptide spectrum matches (PSMs). We recently developed an algorithm for combining the results from multiple search engines, integrating FDRs for sets of PSMs made by different search engine combinations. Here we describe a web-server and a downloadable application that makes this routinely available to the proteomics community. The web server offers a range of outputs including informative graphics to assess the confidence of the PSMs and any potential biases. The underlying pipeline also provides a basic protein inference step, integrating PSMs into protein ambiguity groups where peptides can be matched to more than one protein. Importantly, we have also implemented full support for the mzIdentML data standard, recently released by the Proteomics Standards Initiative, providing users with the ability to convert native formats to mzIdentML files, which are available to download.
Distributed Collaborative Homework Activities in a Problem-Based Usability Engineering Course
Carroll, John M.; Jiang, Hao; Borge, Marcela
2015-01-01
Teams of students in an upper-division undergraduate Usability Engineering course used a collaborative environment to carry out a series of three distributed collaborative homework assignments. Assignments were case-based analyses structured using a jigsaw design; students were provided a collaborative software environment and introduced to a…
The Chemical Engineer's Toolbox: A Glass Box Approach to Numerical Problem Solving
Coronell, Daniel G.; Hariri, M. Hossein
2009-01-01
Computer programming in undergraduate engineering education all too often begins and ends with the freshman programming course. Improvements in computer technology and curriculum revision have improved this situation, but often at the expense of the students' learning due to the use of commercial "black box" software. This paper describes the…
Flaga Kazimierz; Furtak Kazimierz
2015-01-01
Steel-concrete composite structures have been used in bridge engineering from decades. This is due to rational utilisation of the strength properties of the two materials. At the same time, the reinforced concrete (or prestressed) deck slab is more favourable than the orthotropic steel plate used in steel bridges (higher mass, better vibration damping, longer life).
The Chemical Engineer's Toolbox: A Glass Box Approach to Numerical Problem Solving
Coronell, Daniel G.; Hariri, M. Hossein
2009-01-01
Computer programming in undergraduate engineering education all too often begins and ends with the freshman programming course. Improvements in computer technology and curriculum revision have improved this situation, but often at the expense of the students' learning due to the use of commercial "black box" software. This paper describes the…
Investigating Problem-Based Learning Tutorship in Medical and Engineering Programs in Malaysia
Servant, Virginie F. C.; Dewar, Eleanor F. A.
2015-01-01
Although Malaysia was the first country in Asia to adopt problem-based learning (PBL), the impact that this has had on its tutors remains largely unexplored. This paper details a qualitative study of the changing perceptions of teaching roles in two groups of problem-based learning tutors in two institutional contexts--one in medicine located in…
van den Heuvel, Meta; Jansen, Danielle E M C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Flapper, Boudien C T; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M
2016-01-01
Current evidence on the co-occurrence of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and psychosocial problems mainly concerns parent-reported information, but rarely includes teacher information. The aim of this study was (1) to investigate the teachers' identification of emotional and behavioral problems in children with DCD and (2) to examine the performance of the teacher version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-T) compared with the Teacher Report Form (TRF) in children with DCD. We assessed primary school children (202 boys, 200 girls, range 4-10.8 years, mean age 7.2 years) for DCD following the DSM IV-TR criteria. Emotional and behavioral problems were measured with the TRF (n=327) and the SDQ-T (n=361). DCD was established in 23 (5.7%) children, 16 boys and 7 girls (mean age 7.0 years). Children with DCD had a higher proportion of clinical scores on both the TRF Total Problem Scale (TRF TPS) and SDQ-T Total Difficulties Score (SDQ-T TDS). Children with DCD had increased odds on the TRF domains Thought (odds ratio, OR: 5.39), Externalizing (OR: 4.12) and Internalizing (OR: 4.42) problems, and on all SDQ-T-domains and Total Difficulties score (OR: 7.30). In the DCD group the SDQ-T TDS correlated strongly (Spearman's rho 0.80) with the TRF TPS and demonstrated a moderate agreement (Cohen's Kappa 0.53). In conclusion, teachers identified significantly more emotional and behavioral problems in children with DCD compared with their peers. The SDQ-T showed moderate agreement with the TRF in identifying emotional and behavioral problems in children with DCD.
The cell method for electrical engineering and multiphysics problems an introduction
Alotto, Piergiorgio; Repetto, Maurizio; Rosso, Carlo
2013-01-01
This book presents a numerical scheme for the solution of field problems governed by partial differential equations: the cell method. The technique lends itself naturally to the solution of multiphysics problems with several interacting phenomena. The Cell Method, based on a space-time tessellation, is intimately related to the work of Tonti and to his ideas of classification diagrams or, as they are nowadays called, Tonti diagrams: a graphical representation of the problem's equations made possible by a suitable selection of a space-time framework relating physical variables to each other. The main features of the cell method are presented and links with many other discrete numerical methods (finite integration techniques, finite difference time domain, finite volumes, mimetic finite differences, etc.) are discussed. After outlining the theoretical basis of the method, a set of physical problems which have been solved with the cell method is described. These single and multiphysics problems stem from the aut...
Yekini Shehu
2010-01-01
real Banach space which is also uniformly smooth using the properties of generalized f-projection operator. Using this result, we discuss strong convergence theorem concerning general H-monotone mappings and system of generalized mixed equilibrium problems in Banach spaces. Our results extend many known recent results in the literature.
Sahin, Mehmet
2010-10-01
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of problem-based learning (PBL) on freshmen engineering students' beliefs about physics and physics learning (referred to as epistemological beliefs) and conceptual understanding of physics. The multiple-choice test of energy and momentum concepts and the Colorado learning attitudes about science survey were used to collect the data. The sample consisted of 142 students enrolled in the PBL and traditional lecture classes in the engineering faculty of a state university in Turkey. The analyses showed that the PBL group obtained significantly higher conceptual learning gains than the traditional group and the change (improvement) in the PBL group students' beliefs from the pre- to post test were significantly larger than that of the traditional group. The results revealed that beliefs were correlated with conceptual understanding. Suggestions are presented regarding the implementation of the PBL approach.
WANG Yi-liang; XIE You-bai
2007-01-01
This paper deals with the coupling problem between the dynamic behaviors and the tribological behaviors of the piston-liner systems in multi-cylinder internal combustion engines. Firstly, based on the correction of some errors in the equation of piston secondary motion, which have been employed by many authors for several years, a detailed mathematical model for the coupling problem between the dynamical and tribological behaviors in the piston-liner systems of multi-cylinder internal combustion engines is presented. Secondly, the lubrication and friction between the liner and piston in each cylinder is included applying the average flow model of the Reynolds equation. Thirdly, the vibration of each liner is computed through the finite element model of a four-cylinder engine block, by which not only the liner motions caused by the block vibration but also the local vibration and the local static deformation of each liner can be figured out and taken into account. Through theoretical analysis and computation, some conclusions can be drawn as: 1 ) Both the liner vibration and piston motion are different for different cylinder in a multi-cylinder internal combustion engine, and hence different piston-liner systems will have different tribological behaviors. 2) Different liners have coincident dynamic response on the whole, especially for the lower frequency components. However, differences still exist among the vibrations of different liners, and these differences are mainly owing to the higher frequency components. 3 ) The impacts of liner vibrations on the tribological behaviors in piston-liner systems are primarily ascribed to its higher frequency components.
Fehrenbacher, L.L.; Levinson, T.M.
1985-09-01
The continuous evolution of higher power density propulsion systems has always fueled the search for materials and lubricants with improved thermal and/or durability characteristics. Tribology of the upper cylinder region is the major technology roadblock in the path of the adiabatic diesel engine which has an energy reduction potential that exceeds that of all other engine development types. This tribology assessment resulted in the following major conclusions: a low friction and a low wear seal between the ring belt and cylinder bore are the most critical tribology functions in the diesel combustion chamber; development of solid lubrication systems will not satisfy the simultaneous low friction and low wear requirements in the upper cylinder area; development of separate upper cylinder liquid lubrication systems offers the most attractive design alternative for meeting the operational goals of future ''minimum cooled'' diesel engines.
Durbeej, Natalie; Berman, Anne H; Gumpert, Clara H; Palmstierna, Tom; Kristiansson, Marianne; Alm, Charlotte
2010-12-01
Substance abuse is common among offenders. One method widely used for the detection of substance abuse is screening. This study explored the concurrent validity of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) screening tools in relation to (a) substance abuse and dependency diagnoses and (b) three problem severity domains of the sixth version of the Addiction Severity Index in a sample of 181 suspected offenders with signs of mental health problems. The screening tools showed moderate to high accuracy for identification of dependency diagnoses. The AUDIT was associated with alcohol problem severity, whereas the DUDIT was associated with drug and legal problem severity. Administering the screening tools in the current population yields valid results. However, the suggested cutoff scores should be applied with caution due to the discrepancy between present and previous findings.
Gabriel Pinto
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on examples of educational tools concerning the learning of chemistry for engineering students through different daily life cases. These tools were developed during the past few years for enhancing the active role of students. They refer to cases about mineral water, medicaments, dentifrices and informative panels about solar power, where an adequate quantitative treatment through stoichiometry calculations allows the interpretation of data and values announced by manufacturers. These cases were developed in the context of an inquiry-guided instruction model. By bringing tangible chemistry examples into the classroom we provide an opportunity for engineering students to apply this science to familiar products in hopes that they will appreciate chemistry more, will be motivated to study concepts in greater detail, and will connect the relevance of chemistry to everyday life.
Jensen, Lars Peter; Nygaard, Bjørn; Madsen, Linda
2011-01-01
This paper describes a research project regarding internationalization and development of intercultural competencies at 4 different engineering educations in Denmark. All Danish engineering education institutes have for several years been educating both Danish and foreign students coming either......’ intercultural competencies. It was decided to start a formal research project to investigate some of the existing experiments helping mixed teams to cope with project work in intercultural teams. During spring 2010 the setup for the research project was developed by a group of representatives from...... of intercultural competencies amongst the students, especially if there was a measurable influence in their appreciation of working with people from another culture than their own. The setup was to setup a baseline for the individual student’s intercultural competencies at the beginning of the semester, using...
Prospects and Problems for Identification of Poisonous Plants in China using DNA Barcodes
XIE Lei; WANG YingWei; GUAN ShanYue; XIE LiJing; LONG Xin; SUN ChengYe
2014-01-01
ObjectivePoisonous plants are a deadly threat to public health in China. The traditional clinical diagnosis of the toxic plants isinefficient, fallible, and dependent upon experts. In this study, we tested the performance of DNA barcodes for identification of the most threatening poisonous plants in China. MethodsSeventy-four accessions of 27 toxic plant species in 22 genera and 17 families were sampled andthree DNA barcodes (matK,rbcL, and ITS) were amplified, sequenced and tested.Three methods, Blast,pairwise global alignment (PWG)distance, and Tree-Building were tested for discrimination power. ResultsThe primer universality of all the three markers was high. Except in the case of ITS for Hemerocallisminor, the three barcodes were successfully generated from all the selected species. Among the three methodsapplied, Blast showed the lowest discrimination rate,whereasPWGDistance and Tree-Building methods were equally effective. The ITS barcode showed highest discrimination rates using the PWG Distance and Tree-Building methods. When the barcodes were combined, discrimination rates were increased for the Blast method. ConclusionDNA barcoding technique provides us a fast tool for clinical identification of poisonous plants in China.We suggestmatK,rbcL, ITS used in combination as DNA barcodes for authentication of poisonous plants.
A Problem-Solving Approach to Teaching Creativity for Engineering and Other Disciplines
Chelsey Bradford
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Creativity is an integral part in the careers of every professional, including artists, actors, as well as businessmen and engineers. Engineers, the focus of this effort, are traditionally considered to be systematic thinkers and implementers of constrained procedures and algorithms. In order to challenge this perception, ECE490DI is a class designed to show engineering students that their majors and future careers will not only use creativity, but be fully immersed in it. Once the students realize this fact, the next step is to help them discover their own creativity skills and show them that creativity, like other talents, can be nurtured and strengthened through repetitive use. To accomplish these goals, students in ECE490DI take a class trip to renowned theme parks in Orlando, FL, where they attend multiple workshops in the areas of leadership, teamwork, and creativity. The workshops allow students to exercise their leadership, teamwork, and creativity and show them several tools to expand and further improve their abilities in those areas. Students are also given the chance to meet and interact with theme parks' engineers, also known as "Imagineers," to see the practical applications of creativity in a hands-on creative work environment. While the objectives of ECE490DI were successfully met in previous semesters, the class was redesigned to have a broader scope and a multidisciplinary nature. The multidisciplinary version of the class builds on the assessment results of the previous offerings as well as feedback from participating students, faculty members, and theme parks staff members. The new version of the class includes more meetings throughout the semester to further reinforce the ideas and concepts from the workshops.
Jacobs, D.G.; Epler, J.S.; Rose, R.R.
1980-03-01
A review of problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes has been made in support of the technical aspects of the National Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Research and Development Program being administered by the Low-Level Waste Management Program Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The operating histories of burial sites at six major DOE and five commercial facilities in the US have been examined and several major problems identified. The problems experienced st the sites have been grouped into general categories dealing with site development, waste characterization, operation, and performance evaluation. Based on this grouping of the problem, a number of major technical issues have been identified which should be incorporated into program plans for further research and development. For each technical issue a discussion is presented relating the issue to a particular problem, identifying some recent or current related research, and suggesting further work necessary for resolving the issue. Major technical issues which have been identified include the need for improved water management, further understanding of the effect of chemical and physical parameters on radionuclide migration, more comprehensive waste records, improved programs for performance monitoring and evaluation, development of better predictive capabilities, evaluation of space utilization, and improved management control.
The cell method for electrical engineering and multiphysics problems. An introduction
Alotto, Piergiorgio [Padova Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Industriale; Freschi, Fabio; Repetto, Maurizio [Politecnico di Torino (Italy). Dipt. Energia; Rosso, Carlo [Politecnico di Torino (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Meccanica e Aerospaziale
2013-03-01
Introduction to the Cell Method, a numerical method for the solution of a large class of physical problems as an alternative to the classical Finite Element techniques. Presents important implementation aspects of the technique as well as a complete fully working computer code for the solution of three-dimensional stationary thermal problem. All chapters include extensive bibliographic references. This book presents a numerical scheme for the solution of field problems governed by partial differential equations: the cell method. The technique lends itself naturally to the solution of multiphysics problems with several interacting phenomena. The Cell Method, based on a space-time tessellation, is intimately related to the work of Tonti and to his ideas of classification diagrams or, as they are nowadays called, Tonti diagrams: a graphical representation of the problem's equations made possible by a suitable selection of a space-time framework relating physical variables to each other. The main features of the cell method are presented and links with many other discrete numerical methods (finite integration techniques, finite difference time domain, finite volumes, mimetic finite differences, etc.) are discussed. After outlining the theoretical basis of the method, a set of physical problems which have been solved with the cell method is described. These single and multiphysics problems stem from the authors' research experience in the fields of electromagnetism, elasticity, thermo-elasticity and others. Finally, the implementation of the numerical technique is described in all its main components: space-time discretization, problem formulation, solution and representation of the resulting physical fields.
2012-12-31
....gov . For legal questions concerning this rule contact Karen Petronis, International Law, Legislation... manufacturers. They are: Standardizing the terminology relating to engine thrust/ power. Clarifying the need to... appropriate value of fuel flow to be used at each LTO test point. Clarifying exhaust nozzle terminology for...
2013-10-23
... adopting the gas turbine engine test procedures of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO... in the final rule, noting that the changes would harmonize U.S. regulations with those of ICAO. The... ICAO's Committee of Aviation Environmental Protection. The AIA stated that these differences...
Pochan, M.J.
1985-07-01
A number of problems were identified that could stand in the way of maintaining an adequate, reliable and economic supply of electric power for the United States in the future. The problems were analyzed by studying a specific region, VACAR (Virginia-Carolinas), in some detail. It was concluded that the future power supply is in jeopardy, but that drastic changes in the present system of investor-owned utilities, specifically, deregulation or government ownership, were not justified. It was recommended that the present electric system be modified and strengthened to meet future needs. 2 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.
Identification of Large Space Structures on Orbit
1986-09-01
problem is thus the inverse of the analysis problem for dynamical systems with which the structural engineers are quite familiar . However, whereas the...Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Gagliardt, R. M., "Input Selection for Parameter Identification in Discrete Systems", IEEE Trama . Auto. Cont., Vol. AC-12, Pp
Skinner, Owen S; Schachner, Luis F; Kelleher, Neil L
2016-12-08
Recent advances in top-down mass spectrometry using native electrospray now enable the analysis of intact protein complexes with relatively small sample amounts in an untargeted mode. Here, we describe how to characterize both homo- and heteropolymeric complexes with high molecular specificity using input data produced by tandem mass spectrometry of whole protein assemblies. The tool described is a "search engine for multi-proteoform complexes," (SEMPC) and is available for free online. The output is a list of candidate multi-proteoform complexes and scoring metrics, which are used to define a distinct set of one or more unique protein subunits, their overall stoichiometry in the intact complex, and their pre- and post-translational modifications. Thus, we present an approach for the identification and characterization of intact protein complexes from native mass spectrometry data. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Buhl Stefan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Cycle-to-Cycle Variations (CCV in IC engines is a well-known phenomenon and the definition and quantification is well-established for global quantities such as the mean pressure. On the other hand, the definition of CCV for local quantities, e.g. the velocity or the mixture distribution, is less straightforward. This paper proposes a new method to identify and calculate cyclic variations of the flow field in IC engines emphasizing the different contributions from large-scale energetic (coherent structures, identified by a combination of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD and conditional averaging, and small-scale fluctuations. Suitable subsets required for the conditional averaging are derived from combinations of the the POD coefficients of the second and third mode. Within each subset, the velocity is averaged and these averages are compared to the ensemble-averaged velocity field, which is based on all cycles. The resulting difference of the subset-average and the global-average is identified as a cyclic fluctuation of the coherent structures. Then, within each subset, remaining fluctuations are obtained from the difference between the instantaneous fields and the corresponding subset average. The proposed methodology is tested for two data sets obtained from scale resolving engine simulations. For the first test case, the numerical database consists of 208 independent samples of a simplified engine geometry. For the second case, 120 cycles for the well-established Transparent Combustion Chamber (TCC benchmark engine are considered. For both applications, the suitability of the method to identify the two contributions to CCV is discussed and the results are directly linked to the observed flow field structures.
Zhuoying Tan; Meifeng Cai; Z.Q. Yue; L.G.Tham; C.F.Lee
2007-01-01
The successful application in drilling for HK simple weathered granite foundation has revealed its further use in instrumented drilling system as a ground investigation tool in the detection of other lithology formations, geohazards, underground water, and boundary of orebody. To expand the further use and test the accuracy in identification of formation, an R-20 rotary-hydraulic drill rig was instrumented with a digital drilling process monitoring system (DPM) for drilling in an intricate decomposed granite site.In this test ground, the boreholes revealed that the weathered granite alternately changes between moderate and strong. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the penetrating parameters, indicates the effective thrust force, rotary speed, flushing pressure, penetrating rate, and displacement of the bit fluctuate at ground interfaces. It shows that the parameters get a good response with the change of rock strength at the interfaces, which can reveal the change of the intricate granite formation. Besides, a variable-slope method has been established, for identification of dominative and subsidiary interfaces in the granite site. The result from a t-test shows that the confidence of the instrumented drilling system in identification of the geotechnical interfaces is up to 99%.
Bodeux, J. B.; Golinval, J. C.
2001-06-01
In this paper, the application of auto-regressive moving average vector models to system identification and damage detection is investigated. These parametric models have already been applied for the analysis of multiple input-output systems under ambient excitation. Their main advantage consists in the capability of extracting modal parameters from the recorded time signals, without the requirement of excitation measurement. The excitation is supposed to be a stationary Gaussian white noise. The method also allows the estimation of modal parameter uncertainties. On the basis of these uncertainties, a statistically based damage detection scheme is performed and it becomes possible to assess whether changes of modal parameters are caused by, e.g. some damage or simply by estimation inaccuracies. The paper reports first an example of identification and damage detection applied to a simulated system under random excitation. The `Steel-Quake' benchmark proposed in the framework of COST Action F3 `Structural Dynamics' is also analysed. This structure was defined by the Joint Research Centre in Ispra (Italy) to test steel building performance during earthquakes. The proposed method gives an excellent identification of frequencies and mode shapes, while damping ratios are estimated with less accuracy.
Quality problems root cause identification and variability reduction in casting processes
G. Furgał
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Increasing customer requirements and production costs force casting manufacturers to adopt a methodological approach to manufacturingprocesses, in order to deliver increasingly more repeatable, predictable and competitive products. One of the methods of achieving such results is the reduction of variability of manufacturing processes and the optimization of their control. This paper presents the possibilities granted by the Six Sigma methodology in efficient identification of special factors influencing pre-heat of ceramic moulds and castingparameters, in the minimization of the frequency at which they occur, and in the reduction of key process parameters variability. This paper also shows the usability of the method in achieving measurable business advantages for the company using the example of one DMAIC methodology based project realized in the Investment Foundry Department of WSK “PZL-Rzeszow” S.A.
Lebedev, A. A.; Ivanova, E. G.; Komleva, V. A.; Klokov, N. M.; Komlev, A. A.
2017-01-01
The considered method of learning the basics of microelectronic circuits and systems amplifier enables one to understand electrical processes deeper, to understand the relationship between static and dynamic characteristics and, finally, bring the learning process to the cognitive process. The scheme of problem-based learning can be represented by the following sequence of procedures: the contradiction is perceived and revealed; the cognitive motivation is provided by creating a problematic situation (the mental state of the student), moving the desire to solve the problem, to raise the question "why?", the hypothesis is made; searches for solutions are implemented; the answer is looked for. Due to the complexity of architectural schemes in the work the modern methods of computer analysis and synthesis are considered in the work. Examples of engineering by students in the framework of students' scientific and research work of analog circuits with improved performance based on standard software and software developed at the Department of Microelectronics MEPhI.
Schweitzer, L. E.
1986-01-01
Describes the organization of a crop production systems course for undergraduates in agriculture. Emphasis is placed on problem solving and student interaction and co-operation while working on grain farms and in the classroom. Samples of student evaluations of the course are included. (ML)
Inter-Industry Wage Differentials and the Gender Wage Gap: An Identification Problem.
Horrace, William C.; Oaxaca, Ronald L.
2001-01-01
States that a method for estimating gender wage gaps by industry yields estimates that vary according to arbitrary choice of omitted reference groups. Suggests alternative methods not susceptible to this problem that can be applied to other contexts, such as racial, union/nonunion, and immigrant/native wage differences. (SK)
Identification of drug-related problems by a clinical pharmacist in addition to computerized alerts
R.J. Zaal (Rianne); M.M.P.M. Jansen (Mark M. P.); M. Duisenberg-Van Essenberg (Marjolijn); C.C. Tijssen (Cees); J.A. Roukema; P.M.L.A. van den Bemt (Patricia)
2013-01-01
textabstractBackground Both clinical pharmacists and computerized physician order entry systems with clinical decision support (CPOE/CDSS) can reduce drug-related problems (DRPs). However, the contribution of a clinical pharmacist in addition to CPOE/CDSS has not been established in a prospective st
Karaçam, Aydin; Pulur, Atilla
2016-01-01
This study aims to determine the relation between basketball classification referees' problem solving ability and empathetic tendencies. Research model of the study is relational screening model. Sampling of the study is constituted by 124 male and 18 female basketball classification referees who made active refereeing within Turkish Basketball…
Inter-Industry Wage Differentials and the Gender Wage Gap: An Identification Problem.
Horrace, William C.; Oaxaca, Ronald L.
2001-01-01
States that a method for estimating gender wage gaps by industry yields estimates that vary according to arbitrary choice of omitted reference groups. Suggests alternative methods not susceptible to this problem that can be applied to other contexts, such as racial, union/nonunion, and immigrant/native wage differences. (SK)
The impact of culture collections on molecular identification, taxonomy, and solving real problems
Among the fungi, Fusarium has stood out as a major focus for culture collection resource development over the last century. This has facilitated unprecedented molecular taxonomic advancements, which in turn has led to problem solving in plant pathology, mycotoxicology, medical mycology, and basic re...
Gulbinska, Malgorzata K
2014-01-01
Gaining public attention due, in part, to their potential application as energy storage devices in cars, Lithium-ion batteries have encountered widespread demand, however, the understanding of lithium-ion technology has often lagged behind production. This book defines the most commonly encountered challenges from the perspective of a high-end lithium-ion manufacturer with two decades of experience with lithium-ion batteries and over six decades of experience with batteries of other chemistries. Authors with years of experience in the applied science and engineering of lithium-ion batterie
Giménez, Estela; Gay, Marina; Vilaseca, Marta
2017-01-30
Here we demonstrate the potential of nano-UPLC-LTQ-FT-MS and the Byonic™ proteomic search engine for the separation, detection, and identification of N- and O-glycopeptide glycoforms in standard glycoproteins. The use of a BEH C18 nanoACQUITY column allowed the separation of the glycopeptides present in the glycoprotein digest and a baseline-resolution of the glycoforms of the same glycopeptide on the basis of the number of sialic acids. Moreover, we evaluated several acquisition strategies in order to improve the detection and characterization of glycopeptide glycoforms with the maximum number of identification percentages. The proposed strategy is simple to set up with the technology platforms commonly used in proteomic labs. The method allows the straightforward and rapid obtention of a general glycosylated map of a given protein, including glycosites and their corresponding glycosylated structures. The MS strategy selected in this work, based on a gas phase fractionation approach, led to 136 unique peptides from four standard proteins, which represented 78% of the total number of peptides identified. Moreover, the method does not require an extra glycopeptide enrichment step, thus preventing the bias that this step could cause towards certain glycopeptide species. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003578.
Wachs, Priscila; Righi, Angela Weber; Saurin, Tarcisio Abreu
2012-01-01
Training in non-technical skills (NTS) does not usually question the design of the work system, and thus focuses narrowly on workers as the unit of analysis. This study discusses how the identification of NTS, a major step for developing an NTS training program, might be re-interpreted from the perspective of resilience engineering (RE). This discussion is based on a case study of identifying NTS for electricians who perform emergency maintenance activities in an electricity distribution power line. The results of the case study point out that four data analysis procedures might operationalize the RE perspective: (a) identifying factors that make the work difficult and which could be integrated into NTS training scenarios; (b) identifying recommendations for re-designing the system, in order either to reduce or eliminate the need for NTS; (c) classifying the NTS into pragmatic categories, which are meaningful for workers; and (d) regarding the identification of NTS as an opportunity to give visibility to adaptations carried out by workers.
PREFACE: 6th International Conference on Inverse Problems in Engineering: Theory and Practice
Bonnet, Marc
2008-07-01
The 6th International Conference on Inverse Problems in Engineering: Theory and Practice (ICIPE 2008) belongs to a successful series of conferences held up to now following a three-year cycle. Previous conferences took place in Palm Coast, Florida, USA (1993), Le Croisic, France (1996), Port Ludlow, Washington, USA (1999), Angra dos Reis, Brazil (2002), and Cambridge, UK (2005). The conference has its roots on the informal seminars organized by Professor J V Beck at Michigan State University, which were initiated in 1987. The organization of this Conference, which took place in Dourdan (Paris) France, 15-19 June 2008, was made possible through a joint effort by four research departments from four different universities: LEMTA (Laboratoire de Mécanique Théorique et Appliquée, Nancy-Université) LMS (Laboratoire de Mécanique des Solides, Ecole Polytechnique, Paris) LMAC (Laboratoire de Mathématiques Appliquées, UTC Compiègne) LTN (Laboratoire de Thermocinétique, Université de Nantes) It received support from three organizations: SFT (Société Française de Thermique: French Heat Transfer Association) ACSM (Association Calcul de Structures et Simulation : Computational Structural Mechanics Association) GdR Ondes - CNRS (`Waves' Network, French National Center for Scientific Research) The objective of the conference was to provide the opportunity for interaction and cross-fertilization between designers of inverse methods and practitioners. The delegates came from very different fields, such as applied mathematics, heat transfer, solid mechanics, tomography.... Consequently the sessions were organised along mostly methodological topics in order to facilitate interaction among participants who might not meet otherwise. The present proceedings, published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series, gathers the four plenary invited lectures and the full-length versions of 103 presentations. The latter have been reviewed by the scientific committee (see
Engineering for problem solving in future: Eco-social market economy and eco-social tech
无
2001-01-01
The paper differentiates approaches in technology (end-of-pipe, cleaner production, industrial ecology, zero emission and eco-social tech) and compares them in respect to the problem solving capacity on the ecological as well as social dimension by showing the eco-impact reduction and job creation. Eco-social-tech represents the approach with highest problem solution as it is based on “eco-social market economy”, which will the replace free market economy. The deep background of these innovations is “ecosophy”, the wisdom of nature, which serves as guideline for eco-restructuring the world.
Atluri, S. N.; Nakagaki, M.; Kathiresan, K.
1980-01-01
In this paper, efficient numerical methods for the analysis of crack-closure effects on fatigue-crack-growth-rates, in plane stress situations, and for the solution of stress-intensity factors for arbitrary shaped surface flaws in pressure vessels, are presented. For the former problem, an elastic-plastic finite element procedure valid for the case of finite deformation gradients is developed and crack growth is simulated by the translation of near-crack-tip elements with embedded plastic singularities. For the latter problem, an embedded-elastic-singularity hybrid finite element method, which leads to a direct evaluation of K-factors, is employed.
Muzzolon, Sandra Regina B.; Cat, Mônica Nunes L.; dos Santos, Lúcia Helena C.
2013-01-01
OBJECTIVE To investigate the Brazilian version of Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC) as a screening tool to identify psychosocial and emotional problems in schoolchildren from six to 12 years old. METHODS Diagnostic test conducted in a public school of Curitiba, Paraná (Southern Brazil), to evaluate the PSC accuracy and consistency, considering the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) as the gold standard. Among 415 parents invited for the study, 145 responded to both PSC and CBCL. The results of the two instruments were compared. PSC and CBCL were considered positive if scores ≥28 and >70 respectively. RESULTS Among the 145 cases, 49 (33.8%) were positive for both PSC and CBCL. The ROC curve showed the PSC score of 21 as the best cutoff point for screening psychosocial and emotional problems, with a sensitivity of 96.8% and a specificity of 86.7%. Regarding the reference cutoff (score ≥28 points), the sensitivity was 64.5% and the specificity, 100.0%, similar to those found in the original version of the tool. CONCLUSIONS The Portuguese version of PSC was effective for early identification of emotional and/or psychosocial problems in a schoolchildren group and may be useful for pediatricians. PMID:24142319
Sajkiewicz, P; Kołbuk, D
2014-01-01
Gelatin is one of the most promising materials in tissue engineering as a scaffold component. This biopolymer indicates biocompatibility and bioactivity caused by the existence of specific amino acid sequences, being preferred sites for interactions with cells, with high similarity to natural extracellular matrix. The present paper does not aspire to be a full review of electrospinning of gelatin and gelatin containing nanofibers as scaffolds in tissue engineering. It is focused on the still open question of the role of the higher order structures of gelatin in scaffold's bioactivity/functionality. Gelatin molecules can adopt various conformations depending on temperature, solvent, pH, etc. Our review indicates the potential ways for formation of α-helix conformation during electrospinning and the methods of further structure stabilization. It is intuitively expected that the native α-helix conformation appearing as a result of partial renaturation of gelatin can be beneficial from the viewpoint of bioactivity of scaffolds, providing thus a much cheaper alternative approach as opposed to expensive electrospinning of native collagen.
Beaumont, Peter W. R.
2014-02-01
Predicting precisely where a crack will develop in a material under stress and exactly when in time catastrophic fracture of the component will occur is one the oldest unsolved mysteries in the design and building of large engineering structures. Where human life depends upon engineering ingenuity, the burden of testing to prove a "fracture safe design" is immense. For example, when human life depends upon structural integrity as an essential design requirement, it takes ten thousand material test coupons per composite laminate configuration to evaluate an airframe plus loading to ultimate failure tails, wing boxes, and fuselages to achieve a commercial aircraft airworthiness certification. Fitness considerations for long-life implementation of aerospace composites include understanding phenomena such as impact, fatigue, creep, and stress corrosion cracking that affect reliability, life expectancy, and durability of structure. Structural integrity analysis treats the design, the materials used, and figures out how best components and parts can be joined. Furthermore, SI takes into account service duty. However, there are conflicting aims in the complete design process of designing simultaneously for high efficiency and safety assurance throughout an economically viable lifetime with an acceptable level of risk.
Time and Frequency Domain Identification and Analysis of a Gas Turbine Engine
Boaghe, O.M.; S. A. Billings; L. M. Li; Fleming, P J; Liu, J
2000-01-01
The NARMAX (Nonlinear Auto Regressive Moving Average model with eXogenous inputs) approach has been used to analyse the dynamics of a gas turbine engine. The fuel flow-shaft speed relationship is analysed by identifying both time and frequency domain models of the system. The frequency domain analysis is studied by mapping the discrete-time NARMAX models into the Generalised Frequency Response Functions (GFRF's) to reveal the nonlinear coupling between the various input spectral components an...
Murio, Diego A.
1991-01-01
An explicit and unconditionally stable finite difference method for the solution of the transient inverse heat conduction problem in a semi-infinite or finite slab mediums subject to nonlinear radiation boundary conditions is presented. After measuring two interior temperature histories, the mollification method is used to determine the surface transient heat source if the energy radiation law is known. Alternatively, if the active surface is heated by a source at a rate proportional to a given function, the nonlinear surface radiation law is then recovered as a function of the interface temperature when the problem is feasible. Two typical examples corresponding to Newton cooling law and Stefan-Boltzmann radiation law respectively are illustrated. In all cases, the method predicts the surface conditions with an accuracy suitable for many practical purposes.
Irina Carmen ANDREI
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to set up a method to determine the missing engine design parameters (turbine inlet temperature T3T, airflow rate which significantly influence the jet engines thrust. The authors have introduced a new non-linear equation connecting the fan specific work with the temperature T3T, customized for turbofan. The method of chords, since it converges unconditionally, has been used for solving the non-linear equation of variable temperature T3T. An alternate method, based for the same relation between fan specific work and T3T, has been presented in purpose to determine airflow rate and fan pressure ratio. Two mixed flows turbofans have been considered as study cases. For case #1 it was determined a value comparable to the Turbomeca Larzac turbofan series 04-C6 and 04-C20 which power the AlphaJet machines (series A - Luftwaffe, series E - Dassault Dornier. For the F100-PW229 turbofan, as case #2, being given T3T, then have been determined the airflow rate, fan pressure ratio and fan specific work. After completing the mathematical model with the missing parameters, the performances of the engines at off-design regimes and the operational envelopes revealing i.e. the variations of thrust, specific thrust and fuel specific consumption with altitude and Mach number have been calculated.
Using Mathematics and Engineering to Solve Problems in Secondary Level Biology
Cox, Charles; Reynolds, Birdy; Schunn, Christian; Schuchardt, Anita
2016-01-01
There are strong classroom ties between mathematics and the sciences of physics and chemistry, but those ties seem weaker between mathematics and biology. Practicing biologists realize both that there are interesting mathematics problems in biology, and that viewing classroom biology in the context of another discipline could support students'…
Using Dynamic Geometry and Computer Algebra Systems in Problem Based Courses for Future Engineers
Tomiczková, Svetlana; Lávicka, Miroslav
2015-01-01
It is a modern trend today when formulating the curriculum of a geometric course at the technical universities to start from a real-life problem originated in technical praxis and subsequently to define which geometric theories and which skills are necessary for its solving. Nowadays, interactive and dynamic geometry software plays a more and more…
Development of Problem Sets for K-12 and Engineering on Pharmaceutical Particulate Systems
Savelski, Mariano J.; Slater, C. Stewart; Del Vecchio, Christopher A.; Kosteleski, Adrian J.; Wilson, Sarah A.
2010-01-01
Educational problem sets have been developed on structured organic particulate systems (SOPS) used in pharmaceutical technology. The sets present topics such as particle properties and powder flow and can be integrated into K-12 and college-level curricula. The materials educate students in specific areas of pharmaceutical particulate processing,…
Development of Problem Sets for K-12 and Engineering on Pharmaceutical Particulate Systems
Savelski, Mariano J.; Slater, C. Stewart; Del Vecchio, Christopher A.; Kosteleski, Adrian J.; Wilson, Sarah A.
2010-01-01
Educational problem sets have been developed on structured organic particulate systems (SOPS) used in pharmaceutical technology. The sets present topics such as particle properties and powder flow and can be integrated into K-12 and college-level curricula. The materials educate students in specific areas of pharmaceutical particulate processing,…
YouTube Fridays: Student Led Development of Engineering Estimate Problems
Liberatore, Matthew W.; Vestal, Charles R.; Herring, Andrew M.
2012-01-01
YouTube Fridays devotes a small fraction of class time to student-selected videos related to the course topic, e.g., thermodynamics. The students then write and solve a homework-like problem based on the events in the video. Three recent pilots involving over 300 students have developed a database of videos and questions that reinforce important…
E. E. Grigorenko
2012-09-01
Full Text Available The problem of identification of the interface region between the lobe and the Plasma Sheet (PS – the Plasma Sheet Boundary Layer (PSBL – using ion moments and magnetic field data often arises in works devoted to statistical studies of various PSBL phenomena. Our experience in the identification of this region based on the analysis of ion velocity distribution functions demonstrated that plasma parameters, such as the ion density and bulk velocity, the plasma beta or the dynamic pressure vary widely depending on the state of magnetotail activity. For example, while field-aligned beams of accelerated ions are often observed propagating along the lobeward edge of the PSBL there are times when no signatures of these beams could be observed. In the last case, a spacecraft moving from the lobe region to the PS registers almost isotropic PS-like ion velocity distribution. Such events may be classified as observations of the outer PS region. In this paper, we attempt to identify ion parameter ranges or their combinations that result in a clear distinction between the lobe, the PSBL and the adjacent PS or the outer PS regions. For this we used 100 crossings of the lobe-PSBL-PS regions by Cluster spacecraft (s/c made in different periods of magnetotail activity. By eye inspection of the ion distribution functions we first identify and separate the lobe, the PSBL and the adjacent PS or outer PS regions and then perform a statistical study of plasma and magnetic field parameters in these regions. We found that the best results in the identification of the lobe-PSBL boundary are reached when one uses plasma moments, namely the ion bulk velocity and density calculated not for the entire energy range, but for the energies higher than 2 keV. In addition, we demonstrate that in many cases the plasma beta fails to correctly identify and separate the PSBL and the adjacent PS or the outer PS regions.
Ivanov, P L; Frolova, S A; Orekhov, V A; Iankovskiĭ, N K; Zemskova, E Iu
2001-01-01
Two large-scale episodes described in this paper reflect the first in Russia use of molecular genetic matrilinear markers (analysis of polymorphism of sequences of amplified fragments of mitochondrial DNA hypervariable locuses) in solution of a complex identification problem: forensic medical identification of unidentified fragments of victims of explosions of houses in Moscow in September, 1999, and of soldiers dead in the war conflict in the Chechen Republic in 1994-1996. The results of this work and methodological experience gained in it essentially extend the potentialities of expert studies as regards forensic medical identification of victims of large scale disasters, terroristic acts, and war conflicts.
Hydro-engineering and environmental problems in Poti Black Sea region and ways of their solution
Saghinadze, Ivane; Pkhakadze, Manana; Kodua, Manoni; Gagoshidze, Shalva
2016-04-01
(The article was published with support of the Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation) Work is dedicated to the development of hydro-engineering and environmental protection measures in the Black Sea regions, the main Georgian port of Poti at the mouth of the Rioni, which will minimize the region geomorphological changes caused by the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors, and will over a long period protect coastal areas of these regions from washouts and large scale silting processes. The research objects are: 1. Poti seashore, which has retreated for hundreds of meters, promoted with the existence of underwater canyon along the southern pier of the port; 2. The Rioni river watershed dam, the tail race of which in time was subjected to destruction and substantial washout. Currently the stability of the dam is endangered; 3. "City Canal" - the Rioni river old bed, which is greatly silted up and is virtually unable to perform its function - to feed Poti seashore with solid matter. The work for the hydrodynamics solutions using high-precision mathematical methods. In particular, for the establishment of coastal longshore migrations of sediment and deformations of the coastal zone is used finite element method, Crank-Nicolson scheme and method of upper relaxation in the calculation of wave propagation in the estuarine areas of the Rioni River uses direct and asymptotic (particularly WKB) Methods of mathematical analysis. The results obtained using these models will be put as a base of development of such engineering measures and design proposals which: a) will provide sustained increase of Poti coastal line on the basis of working out of exploitation regimes of the Rioni watershed hydro complex and as a result of performing additional engineering measures in "City Canal"; b) will thoroughly protect the Rioni watershed hydro complex dam tail-water from destruction and washouts. The packets of mathematical programs and analytical methods of calculation
Villas Boas Junior, Manoel; Strauss, Edilberto, E-mail: junior@lmp.ufrj.b [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Ceara/ Universidade do Estado do Ceara, Itaperi, CE (Brazil). Mestrado Integrado em Computacao Aplicada; Nicolau, Andressa dos Santos; Schirru, Roberto, E-mail: andressa@lmp.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Mello, Flavio Luis de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (POLI/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Eletronica e Computacao
2011-07-01
This article presents a computational model of the diagnostic system of transient. The model makes use of segmentation techniques applied to support decision making, based on identification of classes and optimized by Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (PSO). The method proposed aims to classify an anomalous event in the signatures of three classes of the design basis transients postulated for the Angra 2 nuclear plant, where the PSO algorithm is used as a method of separation of classes, being responsible for finding the best centroid prototype vector of each accident/transient, ie equivalent to Voronoi vector that maximizes the number of correct classifications. To make the calculation of similarity between the set of the variables anomalous event in a given time t, and the prototype vector of variables of accident/transients, the metrics of Manhattan, Euclidean and Minkowski were used. The results obtained by the method proposed were compatible with others methods reported in the literature, allowing a solution that approximates the ideal solution, ie the Voronoi vectors. (author)
Ashouri, Mitra; Maghari, Ali; Karimi-Jafari, M H
2015-05-28
Bisphosphonates are important therapeutic agents in bone-related diseases and exhibit complex H-bonding networks. To assess the role of H-bonds in biophosphonate stability, a full conformational search was performed for methylenebisphosphonate (MBP) and 1-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonate (HEDP) using the MP2 method in conjunction with the continuum solvation model. The most stable structures and their equilibrium populations were analyzed at two protonation states via assignment of H-bonding motifs to each conformer. Geometrical and topological approaches for the identification and characterization of H-bonds were compared with each other, and some of the important correlations between H-bond features were described over the entire conformational space of a hydroxy-bisphosphonate moiety. The topologically derived H-bond energy obtained from the local density of potential energy at bond critical points shows consistent correlations with other measures such as H-bond frequency shift. An inverse power form without an intercept predicts topological H-bond energies from hydrogen-acceptor distances with an RMS error of less than 1 kcal mol(-1). The consistency of this measure was further checked by building a model that reasonably reproduces the relative stabilities of different conformers from their hydrogen-acceptor distances. In all systems, the predictions of this model are improved by the consideration of weak H-bonds that have no bond critical point.
Liao, Wenta; Draper, William M
2013-02-21
The mass-to-structure or MTS Search Engine is an Access 2010 database containing theoretical molecular mass information for 19,438 compounds assembled from common sources such as the Merck Index, pesticide and pharmaceutical compilations, and chemical catalogues. This database, which contains no experimental mass spectral data, was developed as an aid to identification of compounds in atmospheric pressure ionization (API)-LC-MS. This paper describes a powerful upgrade to this database, a fully integrated utility for filtering or ranking candidates based on isotope ratios and patterns. The new MTS Search Engine is applied here to the identification of volatile and semivolatile compounds including pesticides, nitrosoamines and other pollutants. Methane and isobutane chemical ionization (CI) GC-MS spectra were obtained from unit mass resolution mass spectrometers to determine MH(+) masses and isotope ratios. Isotopes were measured accurately with errors of Search Engine and details performance testing with over 50 model compounds.
Salvator Abreu
2009-10-01
Full Text Available We explore the use of the Cell Broadband Engine (Cell/BE for short for combinatorial optimization applications: we present a parallel version of a constraint-based local search algorithm that has been implemented on a multiprocessor BladeCenter machine with twin Cell/BE processors (total of 16 SPUs per blade. This algorithm was chosen because it fits very well the Cell/BE architecture and requires neither shared memory nor communication between processors, while retaining a compact memory footprint. We study the performance on several large optimization benchmarks and show that this achieves mostly linear time speedups, even sometimes super-linear. This is possible because the parallel implementation might explore simultaneously different parts of the search space and therefore converge faster towards the best sub-space and thus towards a solution. Besides getting speedups, the resulting times exhibit a much smaller variance, which benefits applications where a timely reply is critical.
Abreu, Salvator; Codognet, Philippe
2009-01-01
We explore the use of the Cell Broadband Engine (Cell/BE for short) for combinatorial optimization applications: we present a parallel version of a constraint-based local search algorithm that has been implemented on a multiprocessor BladeCenter machine with twin Cell/BE processors (total of 16 SPUs per blade). This algorithm was chosen because it fits very well the Cell/BE architecture and requires neither shared memory nor communication between processors, while retaining a compact memory footprint. We study the performance on several large optimization benchmarks and show that this achieves mostly linear time speedups, even sometimes super-linear. This is possible because the parallel implementation might explore simultaneously different parts of the search space and therefore converge faster towards the best sub-space and thus towards a solution. Besides getting speedups, the resulting times exhibit a much smaller variance, which benefits applications where a timely reply is critical.
Methodology of the evolutionary economics in application to the engineering problems
Kolbachev E.B.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Authors present an idea that the consulting engineering services are a type of knowledge mediation institution. This institution decreases a possibility of the participants’ opportunistic behaviour during the purchase and sale deal making. It’s actual, first of all, for the knowledge products, such as innovation projects and R&D results, and other search goods. In the article authors present a set of measurement instruments to make a said kind of valuation. Concept of the set is based on one of the evolutionary economics’ methodologies: a technological structure method. As a criteria for attributing a project to one or another technological structure are used a level of the real technology’s compliance with the extremely efficient, information materialization level, dimension scale of the forming processes and dominant management concept. The approach gives a possibility to minimize the possibility of the existence of the innovation processes participants’ opportunistic behaviour, and to increase the efficiency of the innovation activities.
STATEMENT ON THE ISSUE OF THE PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION OF FRACTAL METAL STRUCTURES
BOLSHAKOV V. I.
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Summary. To study the structure of metals and alloys and its influence on their properties are widely used traditional methods of macro- and microanalysis, X-ray, spectral, thermal and inspection (X-ray, magnetic, ultrasonic. They have their own threshold, often narrowly focused and applied directly depending on the purpose of the research object (pipe, forming rolls, metal, etc.. Currently existing mathematical models of forecasting the qualitative characteristics of metal products based only on an analysis of statistical data do not provide physical-chemical interpretation of the processes that occur during the formation of the structure or who could definitely take into account the effect of the chemical composition and other parameters of the technology. Therefore, the forecast results can not always meet the requirements. In order to obtain acceptable quality results produced by the product specifications developed by the forecast methodology should include the use of both classical and modern methods of structure evaluation. So, to determine the relationship between mechanical properties and structure elements of cast iron roll is planned to use the theory of fractals and multifractal. The proposed method is the most appropriate to quantify the majority of real structures, which the integer approximation of the figures of Euclid introduces some uncertainty, and therefore not always acceptable in practical problems of modern materials. In this regard, it is assumed conducting special experiments, the analysis of which allows to develop a qualitative evaluation of the mechanical properties of the investigated steels and cast iron. As a result of analysis of the production technology of steel and iron and research work aimed at solving the problem of evaluating the mechanical properties of the formulated problem statement of operational forecasting of these properties and the basic ways of its solution.
Studts, Christina R; van Zyl, Michiel A
2013-08-01
Screening preschool-aged children for disruptive behavior disorders is a key step in early intervention. The study goal was to identify screening items with excellent measurement properties at sub-clinical to clinical levels of disruptive behavior problems within the developmental context of preschool-aged children. Parents/caregivers of preschool-aged children (N = 900) were recruited from four pediatric primary care settings. Participants (mean age = 31, SD = 8) were predominantly female (87 %), either white (55 %) or African-American (42 %), and biological parents (88 %) of the target children. In this cross-sectional survey, participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and two parent-report behavioral rating scales: the PSC-17 and the BPI. Item response theory analyses provided item parameter estimates and information functions for 18 externalizing subscale items, revealing their quality of measurement along the continuum of disruptive behaviors in preschool-aged children. Of 18 investigated items, 5 items measured only low levels of disruptive behaviors among preschool-aged children. The remaining 13 items measured sub-clinical to clinical levels of disruptive behavior problems (i.e., >1.5 SD); however, 5 of these items offered less information, suggesting unreliable measurement. The remaining 8 items had high discrimination and difficulty parameters, offering considerable measurement information at sub-clinical to clinical levels of disruptive behavior problems. Behaviors measured by the 8 selected parent-report items were consistent with those identified in recent efforts to distinguish developmentally typical misbehaviors from clinically concerning behaviors among preschool-aged children. These items may have clinical utility in screening young children for disruptive behavior disorders.
Design principles for problem-driven learning laboratories in biomedical engineering education.
Newstetter, Wendy C; Behravesh, Essy; Nersessian, Nancy J; Fasse, Barbara B
2010-10-01
This article presents a translational model of curricular design in which findings from investigating learning in university BME research laboratories (in vivo sites) are translated into design principles for educational laboratories (in vitro sites). Using these principles, an undergraduate systems physiology lab class was redesigned and then evaluated in a comparative study. Learning outcomes in a control section that utilized a technique-driven approach were compared to those found in an experimental class that embraced a problem-driven approach. Students in the experimental section demonstrated increased learning gains even when they were tasked with solving complex, ill structured problems on the bench top. The findings suggest the need for the development of new, more authentic models of learning that better approximate practices from industry and academia.
A new simple method of implicit time integration for dynamic problems of engineering structures
Jun Zhou; Youhe Zhou
2007-01-01
This paper presents a new simple methodof implicit time integration with two control parame-ters for solving initial-value problems of dynamics suchthat its accuracy is at least of order two along with theconditional and unconditional stability regions of theparameters.When the control parameters in the methodare optimally taken in their regions,the accuracy maybe improved to reach of order three.It is found thatthe new scheme can achieve lower numerical ampli-tude dissipation and period dispersion than some of theexisting methods,e.g.the Newmark method and Zhai'sapproach,when the same time step size is used.Theregion of time step dependent on the parameters in thenew scheme is explicitly obtained.Finally,some exam-ples of dynamic problems are given to show the accu-racy and efficiency of the proposed scheme applied indynamic systems.
Malrait, F.
2001-02-15
In order to improve the efficiency of a speed variator or to make autonomous the control of induction motors without mechanical sensor, the speed variator must integrate with a good precision the parameters of the motor to which it is connected. In this work, an identification phase when the motor is off is proposed. This raises the problem of the modeling of the induction motor and of the power stage (saturation model, voltage drop in the power stage components) in an unusual operation zone for a speed variator. The knowledge of the off-line electrical parameters is thus not sufficient. During normal operation, the thermal drift of resistors leads to a parametric error which can create blocking problems in the low sped domain or which can significantly lower the efficiency. The low-speed zone has been analyzed. This zone contains some intrinsic properties of the induction motor: instability, non-observability (first order). The synthesis of an observer of the induction motor is proposed which is based on the linearization of the system around a trajectory. A construction method has been developed to generate a non-singular observer for a system changing with time and having observability singularities. This result comes from this study on systems having controllability singularities for linear systems with time-variable coefficients. An exogenous loop is explicitly proposed which allows to transform the original system into integrator chains without singularities. (J.S.)
A comparison of two different approaches for the damage identification problem
Chiwiacowsky, L D [Programa Interdisciplinar de Pos-Graduacao em Computacao Aplicada (PIPCA), Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS), Av. Unisinos, 955, 93022-000, Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil); Shiguemori, E H [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv), Comando-Geral de Tecnologia Aeroespacial (CTA), P. O. Box 6044, 12228-970, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Velho, H F Campos; Silva, J D S [Laboratorio Associado de Computacao e Matematica Aplicada (LAC), Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), P. O. Box 515, 12245-970, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Gasbarri, P [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Aerospaziale e Astronautica Universita Degli Studi di Roma -' La Sapienza' , Via Eudossiana, 18 - 00184 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: ldchiwiacowsky@unisinos.br, E-mail: elcio@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: haroldo@lac.inpe.br, E-mail: paolo.gasbarri@uniroma1.it, E-mail: demisio@lac.inpe.br
2008-07-15
This work deals with a structural damage detection problem using displacement measurements as experimental data to be used by two different methodologies: the conjugate gradient method with the adjoint equation and an artificial neural network. Both techniques have been employed in order to place and quantify the time-variable damage in a simple truss structure. Numerical experiments have been carried out with synthetic experimental data considering a noise level of 1%. Good recoveries have been achieved with both methodologies and estimation errors have been reported in order to make their comparison possible.
Identification of problem Neisseria gonorrhoeae cultures by standard and experimental tests.
Arko, R J; Finley-Price, K G; Wong, K H; Johnson, S R; Reising, G
1982-01-01
Standard and experimental tests were used by a reference diagnostic laboratory to determine the identity of 182 "suspected" Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates submitted by state health departments because of inconclusive laboratory results. More than 97% of these cultures were subsequently identified by a rapid microcarbohydrate test in conjunction with confirmatory immunological procedures. The experimental rapid slide agglutination test using rough-lipopolysaccharide antibody, the Phadebact co-agglutination test, and fluorescent antibody test identified 49.3 to 94.1% of these cultures. Because of frequent problems with carbohydrate utilization, Neisseria meningitidis and Branhamella catarrhalis were the two microorganisms most often confused with N. gonorrhoeae by submitting laboratories. PMID:6804485
Using Problem Based Learning Methods from Engineering Education in company based development
Kofoed, Lise Busk; Jørgensen, Frances
2007-01-01
This paper discusses how Problem-Based Learning (PBL) methods were used to support a Danish company in its efforts to become more of a 'learning organisation', characterized by sharing of knowledge and experiences. One of the central barriers to organisational learning in this company involved...... motivation for sharing of experiences across organisational boundaries. The case also emphasises the importance of management involvement and support when attempting to develop a learning environment....
Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin
2003-03-15
This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.
Zhao, Xiuliang; Cheng, Yong; Wang, Limei; Ji, Shaobo
2017-03-01
Accurate combustion parameters are the foundations of effective closed-loop control of engine combustion process. Some combustion parameters, including the start of combustion, the location of peak pressure, the maximum pressure rise rate and its location, can be identified from the engine block vibration signals. These signals often include non-combustion related contributions, which limit the prompt acquisition of the combustion parameters computationally. The main component in these non-combustion related contributions is considered to be caused by the reciprocating inertia force excitation (RIFE) of engine crank train. A mathematical model is established to describe the response of the RIFE. The parameters of the model are recognized with a pattern recognition algorithm, and the response of the RIFE is predicted and then the related contributions are removed from the measured vibration velocity signals. The combustion parameters are extracted from the feature points of the renovated vibration velocity signals. There are angle deviations between the feature points in the vibration velocity signals and those in the cylinder pressure signals. For the start of combustion, a system bias is adopted to correct the deviation and the error bound of the predicted parameters is within 1.1°. To predict the location of the maximum pressure rise rate and the location of the peak pressure, algorithms based on the proportion of high frequency components in the vibration velocity signals are introduced. Tests results show that the two parameters are able to be predicted within 0.7° and 0.8° error bound respectively. The increase from the knee point preceding the peak value point to the peak value in the vibration velocity signals is used to predict the value of the maximum pressure rise rate. Finally, a monitoring frame work is inferred to realize the combustion parameters prediction. Satisfactory prediction for combustion parameters in successive cycles is achieved, which
Staeheli, Martha; Aseltine, Robert H; Schilling, Elizabeth; Anderson, Daren; Gould, Bruce
2017-01-01
Behavioral health disorders remain under recognized and under diagnosed among urban primary care patients. Screening patients for such problems is widely recommended, yet is challenging to do in a brief primary care encounter, particularly for this socially and medically complex patient population. In 2013, intervention patients at an urban Connecticut primary clinic were screened for post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and risky drinking (n = 146) using an electronic tablet-based screening tool. Screening data were compared to electronic health record data from control patients (n = 129) to assess differences in the prevalence of behavioral health problems, rates of follow-up care, and the rate of newly identified cases in the intervention group. Results from logistic regressions indicated that both groups had similar rates of disorder at baseline. Patients in the intervention group were five times more likely to be identified with depression (p stress disorder was virtually unrecognized among controls but was observed in 23% of the intervention group (p < 0.001). The vast majority of behavioral health problems identified in the intervention group were new cases. Follow-up rates were significantly higher in the intervention group relative to controls, but were low overall. This tablet-based electronic screening tool identified significantly higher rates of behavioral health disorders than have been previously reported for this patient population. Electronic risk screening using patient-reported outcome measures offers an efficient approach to improving the identification of behavioral health problems and improving rates of follow-up care.
Polanco, Rodrigo; Calderon, Patricia; Delgado, Franciso
A 3-year follow-up evaluation was conducted of an experimental problem-based learning (PBL) integrated curriculum directed to students of the first 2 years of engineering. The PBL curriculum brought together the contents of physics, mathematics, and computer science courses in a single course in which students worked on real-life problems. In…
Pontes, P. C.; Naveira-Cotta, C. P.
2016-09-01
The theoretical analysis for the design of microreactors in biodiesel production is a complicated task due to the complex liquid-liquid flow and mass transfer processes, and the transesterification reaction that takes place within these microsystems. Thus, computational simulation is an important tool that aids in understanding the physical-chemical phenomenon and, consequently, in determining the suitable conditions that maximize the conversion of triglycerides during the biodiesel synthesis. A diffusive-convective-reactive coupled nonlinear mathematical model, that governs the mass transfer process during the transesterification reaction in parallel plates microreactors, under isothermal conditions, is here described. A hybrid numerical-analytical solution via the Generalized Integral Transform Technique (GITT) for this partial differential system is developed and the eigenfunction expansions convergence rates are extensively analyzed and illustrated. The heuristic method of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is applied in the inverse analysis of the proposed direct problem, to estimate the reaction kinetics constants, which is a critical step in the design of such microsystems. The results present a good agreement with the limited experimental data in the literature, but indicate that the GITT methodology combined with the PSO approach provide a reliable computational algorithm for direct-inverse analysis in such reactive mass transfer problems.
Kristjansdottir, Katrin; Hvam, Lars; Shafiee, Sara
2015-01-01
This article suggests a systematic framework for identifying potential areas, where Engineering-To-Order (ETO) companies may increase their profit-ability by implementing a Product Configuration System (PCS). In order to do so a three-step framework is proposed based on literature. The starting...... point is to conduct a profitability analysis to determine the accuracy of the cost estima-tions, and based on that the reason for the deviations across different projects is found. The next step is to generate the scope for different scenarios that aim to improve the current situation. Finally...
Dalton, J.B.; Bove, D.J.; Mladinich, C.S.; Rockwell, B.W.
2004-01-01
A scheme to discriminate and identify materials having overlapping spectral absorption features has been developed and tested based on the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Tetracorder system. The scheme has been applied to remotely sensed imaging spectroscopy data acquired by the Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) instrument. This approach was used to identify the minerals calcite, epidote, and chlorite in the upper Animas River watershed, Colorado. The study was motivated by the need to characterize the distribution of calcite in the watershed and assess its acid-neutralizing potential with regard to acidic mine drainage. Identification of these three minerals is difficult because their diagnostic spectral features are all centered at 2.3 ??m, and have similar shapes and widths. Previous studies overestimated calcite abundance as a result of these spectral overlaps. The use of a reference library containing synthetic mixtures of the three minerals in varying proportions was found to simplify the task of identifying these minerals when used in conjunction with a rule-based expert system. Some inaccuracies in the mineral distribution maps remain, however, due to the influence of a fourth spectral component, sericite, which exhibits spectral absorption features at 2.2 and 2.4 ??m that overlap the 2.3-??m absorption features of the other three minerals. Whereas the endmember minerals calcite, epidote, chlorite, and sericite can be identified by the method presented here, discrepancies occur in areas where all four occur together as intimate mixtures. It is expected that future work will be able to reduce these discrepancies by including reference mixtures containing sericite. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Human factors engineering in healthcare systems: the problem of human error and accident management.
Cacciabue, P C; Vella, G
2010-04-01
This paper discusses some crucial issues associated with the exploitation of data and information about health care for the improvement of patient safety. In particular, the issues of human factors and safety management are analysed in relation to exploitation of reports about non-conformity events and field observations. A methodology for integrating field observation and theoretical approaches for safety studies is described. Two sample cases are discussed in detail: the first one makes reference to the use of data collected in the aviation domain and shows how these can be utilised to define hazard and risk; the second one concerns a typical ethnographic study in a large hospital structure for the identification of most relevant areas of intervention. The results show that, if national authorities find a way to harmonise and formalize critical aspects, such as the severity of standard events, it is possible to estimate risk and define auditing needs, well before the occurrence of serious incidents, and to indicate practical ways forward for improving safety standards.
Stewart, Scott H. MD
2010-05-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brief alcohol intervention may improve outcomes for injury patients with hazardous drinking but is less effective with increased severity of alcohol involvement. This study evaluated a brief method for detecting problem drinking in minor trauma patients and differentiating hazardous drinkers from those with more severe alcohol problems.METHODS: Subjects included 60 minor trauma patients in an academic urban emergency department (ED who had consumed any amount of alcohol in the prior month. Screening and risk stratification involved the use of a heavy-drinking-day screening item and the Rapid Alcohol Problems Screen (RAPS. We compared the heavy-drinking-day item to past-month alcohol use, as obtained by validated self-reporting methods, and measured the percentage of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT to assess the accuracy of self-reporting. The Alcohol Dependence Scale (ADS was administered to gauge the severity of alcohol involvement and compared to the RAPS.RESULTS: Eighty percent of the subjects endorsed at least one heavy drinking day in the past year, and all patients who exceeded recommended weekly drinking limits endorsed at least one heavy drinking day. Among those with at least one heavy drinking day, 58% had a positive RAPS result. Persons with no heavy drinking days (n=12 had a median ADS of 0.5 (range 0 to 3. RAPS-negative persons with heavy drinking days (n=20 had a median ADS of 2 (range 0 to 8. RAPS-positive persons with heavy drinking days (n=28 had a median ADS of 8 (range 1 to 43.CONCLUSION: A heavy-drinking-day item is useful for detecting hazardous drinking patterns, and the RAPS is useful for differentiating more problematic drinkers who may benefit from referral from those more likely to respond to a brief intervention. This represents a time-sensitive approach for risk-stratifying non-abstinent injury patients prior to ED discharge. [West J Emerg Med. 2010 May;11(2:133-7.
Ranganathan, Sridhar; Maranas, Costas D
2010-07-01
The potential of engineering microorganisms with non-native pathways for the synthesis of long-chain alcohols has been identified as a promising route to biofuels. We describe computationally derived predictions for assembling pathways for the production of biofuel candidate molecules and subsequent metabolic engineering modifications that optimize product yield. A graph-based algorithm illustrates that, by culling information from BRENDA and KEGG databases, all possible pathways that link the target product with metabolites present in the production host are identified. Subsequently, we apply our recent OptForce procedure to pinpoint reaction modifications that force the imposed product yield in Escherichia coli. We demonstrate this procedure by suggesting new pathways and genetic interventions for the overproduction of 1-butanol using the metabolic model for Escherichia coli. The graph-based search method recapitulates all recent discoveries based on the 2-ketovaline intermediate and hydroxybutyryl-CoA but also pinpoints one novel pathway through thiobutanoate intermediate that to the best of our knowledge has not been explored before.
Hong, Min-Eui; Lee, Ki-Sung; Yu, Byung Jo; Sung, Young-Je; Park, Sung Min; Koo, Hyun Min; Kweon, Dae-Hyuk; Park, Jae Chan; Jin, Yong-Su
2010-08-20
The economic production of biofuels from renewable biomass using Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires tolerance to high concentrations of sugar and alcohol. Here we applied an inverse metabolic engineering approach to identify endogenous gene targets conferring improved alcohol tolerance in S. cerevisiae. After transformation with a S. cerevisiae genomic library, enrichment of the transformants exhibiting improved tolerance was performed by serial subculture in the presence of iso-butanol (1%). Through sequence analysis of the isolated plasmids from the selected transformants, four endogenous S. cerevisiae genes were identified as overexpression targets eliciting improved tolerance to both iso-butanol and ethanol. Overexpression of INO1, DOG1, HAL1 or a truncated form of MSN2 resulted in remarkably increased tolerance to high concentrations of iso-butanol and ethanol. Overexpression of INO1 elicited the highest ethanol tolerance, resulting in higher titers and volumetric productivities in the fermentation experiments performed with high glucose concentrations. In addition, the INO1-overexpressing strain showed a threefold increase in the specific growth rate as compared to that of the control strain under conditions of high levels of glucose (10%) and ethanol (5%). Although alcohol tolerance in yeast is a complex trait affected by simultaneous interactions of many genes, our results using a genomic library reveal potential target genes for better understanding and possible engineering of metabolic pathways underlying alcohol tolerance phenotypes. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Focusing stochastic simulation for effective problem-solving in reservoir engineering
Norris, R.J. [Elf Aquitaine Production, Pau (France)
1996-08-01
The use of stochastic simulation techniques in modern reservoir description has produced {open_quote}faithful believers{close_quote} and {open_quote}ardent non-believers{close_quote}. The polarity of views usually acts to the detriment of the ultimate effectiveness of stochastic reservoir modelling techniques. On the one hand, if the non-believers hold sway, heterogeneities or uncertainties may be ignored in cases where their impact is, in fact, important. Conversely, if the believers hold sway, complex solutions may be used for less-than-worthy problems; alternatively, one may finish with results well below the promised level of complexity due to mundane time/budget constraints. Whichever direction {open_quote}wins{close_quote} within a given company or department, it is the reservoir management that loses. Stochastic simulation of reservoir heterogeneities is a very powerful set of tools which can often aid in reservoir description, and hence in reservoir simulation and management. To be credible, it is important that the tools are used in a manner which maximizes their benefits, whilst minimizes the costly {open_quote}over-kill{close_quote} potential. This paper presents a simple definition of the three main strengths of the stochastic simulation approach to reservoir description: integration of data; detailed modelling of heterogeneities; and quantification of uncertainties. Through an understanding of how these three elements can be combined in different ratios, realistic solutions to specific problems can be developed. Through careful analysis of the reservoir problems and careful construction of appropriate solutions, stochastic reservoir modelling can better fulfill its promise. We might eventually escape from being believers/non-believers, into being objective users of a powerful tool.
Wassereau, Thibault; Ablitzer, Frédéric; Pézerat, Charles; Guyader, Jean-Louis
2017-07-01
This paper addresses the problem of estimating the local viscoelastic parameters of sandwich beams. An original procedure involving an inverse vibratory method (Force Analysis Technique) and the Timoshenko beam theory is detailed and applied experimentally on a sample presenting a honeycomb core. The major philosophy relies in considering multi-layer beams as equivalent homogeneous structures. This simplified approach is thought to be more representative of the global dynamic behaviour, in addition the reduction of degrees of freedom is obviously an improvement for modelling on Finite Element software. When compared to other usual approaches, the method developed in this paper shows a very good agreement between the experimental sandwich beam and the homogeneous model, which highlights interesting insights for applying it to industrial structures. The local aspect, the robustness and the self-regularization properties are verified on a wide frequency range, making the procedure possibly efficient for characterization of structures on a production line, flaw detection and Structural Health Monitoring.
1980-12-01
31. Giles, William S., and Updike , Stanley, H. "Influence of Low Lead Fuels on Exhaust Valve Performance," SAE PAPER No. 710674 (1971). 32. Chesluk...Problem; "th Lead Free Gasoline," SAE PAPER, No. 710368 (1971). Giles, William S., and Updike , ;tanley H. "Influence Of Low Lead Fuels On Exhaust Valve...34Postulated Mechanism Of Spark Plug Fouling (Appendix -I)," ETHYL CORPORATION (October 5-7, 1954), 165-174. Lane, John C. "Gasoline and other Motor Fuels
McAllister, EW
2014-01-01
Presented in easy-to-use, step-by-step order, Pipeline Rules of Thumb Handbook is a quick reference for day-to-day pipeline operations. For more than 35 years, the Pipeline Rules of Thumb Handbook has served as the ""go-to"" reference for solving even the most day-to-day vexing pipeline workflow problems. Now in its 8th edition, this handbook continues to set the standard by which all other piping books are judged. Along with over 30% new or updated material regarding codes, construction processes, and equipment, this book continues to offer hundreds of ""how-to"" methods and ha
俞德孚; 陈庆东; 李文君
2003-01-01
Based on the theory and the practical experiences of linearity design of feasible design area and inverse solution of non-linear outer characteristic of suspension shock absorber, in accordance with non-linearity outer characteristic formed by open-up damping coefficient, full-open damping coefficient and smoothness to safety ratio of suspension shock absorber, a method and a research conclusion of the feasible design and inverse solution for the basic problems of designing and inverse solution of non-linear outer characteristic of suspension damping components are provided.
Barriers for identification and treatment of problem drinkers in primary care.
Coloma-Carmona, Ainhoa; Carballo, José Luis; Tirado-González, Sonia
Due to the lack of studies in the Spanish population, this study aims to analyze the barriers perceived by health professionals from different Spanish health centers when attempting to identify and treat problem drinkers and the importance given to this aspect, as well as analyzing the possible differences as a function of the professionals' health teams. We also analyze the psychometric properties of the questionnaire used to assess these barriers. The participants included 107 health professionals: 62.7% belonged to the medical team and 32.4% to the nursing team. After we had reviewed previous studies, collecting the main barriers referred to in them, participants completed an ad hoc questionnaire. The main barriers found were the belief that patients will lie about their actual consumption and will not identify its negative consequences, and the belief that they will reject participating in an intervention for their alcohol consumption. No significant differences between doctors and nurses were found in any of the barriers assessed. The results provide empirical evidence of the reliability of the test for the assessment by both teams of professionals. Studies are needed to examine in greater depth these conclusions, extending the number of variables studied to determine a more complete profile of the health professionals who are reluctant to incorporate the assessment and treatment of problem drinkers in their consultation. This could help to improve the design of programs to facilitate and encourage its implementation in primary care. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Antony, J. [Glasgow Caledonian University (United Kingdom). Six Sigma and Process Improvement Research Centre; Kumar, M. [Glasgow Caledonian University (United Kingdom). Division of Management; Tiwari, M.K. [National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology, Ranchi (India). Department of Manufacturing Engineering
2005-08-15
Six Sigma is a systematic methodology for continuous process quality improvement and for achieving operational excellence. The overstatement that often accompanies the presentation and adoption of Six Sigma in industry can lead to unrealistic expectations as to what Six Sigma is truly capable of achieving. This paper deals with the application of Six Sigma based methodology in eliminating an engine-overheating problem in an automotive company. The DMAIC (define-measure-analyse-improve-control) approach has been followed here to solve an underlying problem of reducing process variation and the associated high defect rate. This paper explores how a foundry can use a systematic and disciplined approach to move towards the goal of Six Sigma quality level. The application of the Six Sigma methodology resulted in a reduction in the jamming problem encountered in the cylinder head and increased the process capability from 0.49 to 1.28. The application of DMAIC has had a significant financial impact (saving over $US110 000 per annum) on the bottom-line of the company. (author)
Engineered nanomaterials in soil: Problems in assessing their effect on living organisms
Terekhova, V. A.; Gladkova, M. M.
2013-12-01
Studies on the occurrence and potential effects of nanomaterials (NMs) in the environment are analyzed. Mechanisms of action of some of the well-known nanotechnological products on test cultures are discussed. Attention is focused on the problems of determination of the ecotoxicity of NMs in soils in relation to their instability and variability in the environmental conditions. Our data indicate that the effect of the interactions between the nanoparticles should be taken into consideration in econanotoxicological studies. The formation of aggregates at high concentrations of nanoparticles and an increase in the content of free nanoparticles upon dilution largely explain the inverted dose-response ratio, or the U-shaped curve describing this relationship in the analysis of dispersed systems. Problems in the development of an assessment system for the effect of NMs on environments, including soils, are also discussed. Presently, there are no standards for assessing NMs, and approved Russian and international procedures for checking the sensitivity of standardized test organisms are used. However, the imperfection of the approaches to the analysis of NMs toxicity gives no ground for hampering the development of nanotechnologies for nature conservation purposes.
Current identification in vacuum circuit breakers as a least squares problem*
Ghezzi Luca
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this work, a magnetostatic inverse problem is solved, in order to reconstruct the electric current distribution inside high voltage, vacuum circuit breakers from measurements of the outside magnetic field. The (rectangular final algebraic linear system is solved in the least square sense, by involving a regularized singular value decomposition of the system matrix. An approximated distribution of the electric current is thus returned, without the theoretical problem which is encountered with optical methods of matching light to temperature and finally to current density. The feasibility is justified from the computational point of view as the (industrial goal is to evaluate whether, or to what extent in terms of accuracy, a given experimental set-up (number and noise level of sensors is adequate to work as a “magnetic camera” for a given circuit breaker. Dans cet article, on résout un problème inverse magnétostatique pour déterminer la distribution du courant électrique dans le vide d’un disjoncteur à haute tension à partir des mesures du champ magnétique extérieur. Le système algébrique (rectangulaire final est résolu au sens des moindres carrés en faisant appel à une décomposition en valeurs singulières regularisée de la matrice du système. On obtient ainsi une approximation de la distribution du courant électrique sans le problème théorique propre des méthodes optiques qui est celui de relier la lumière à la température et donc à la densité du courant. La faisabilité est justifiée d’un point de vue numérique car le but (industriel est d’évaluer si, ou à quelle précision, un dispositif expérimental donné (nombre et seuil limite de bruit des senseurs peut travailler comme une “caméra magnétique” pour un certain disjoncteur.
Brame, Jonathon Andrew
photocatalysis can be superiorly effective, engineering reactor systems that enable real-world testing of this technology, and increasing understanding of photocatalytic inhibition mechanisms, photocatalysis can become a tool to help solve global water challenges.
State of art and key problems of OOP for FE programming in engineering analysis
Li, Heng; Zhou, Yunyun
2013-03-01
Object-oriented programming (OOP) has been the most important development method, especially for huge and complicated program systems, since OOP can overcome structural complexity of code, strong coupling among modules and poor maintenance shortcomings in traditional structural programming. Since B.W.R.Forde applied OOP to Finite Element (FE) firstly in 1990, the research in this field has not been stopped. Scholars have taken many positive and useful attempts on study of OOP in FE programming from different aspects. The state of the art of OOP in FE and current development has been reviewed, and the key problems in the OOP FEM fields thus are pointed out, thus prospects of OOP in FE code design are put forward.
Harano, Tomoki; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Yasuno, Emiko; Uehara, Nobutomo
The first author has devised the new cooperative education program to adopt the curricula at Colleges of Technology in Japan. The program consists of the practical work programs at manufacturing industries for three weeks and two weeks in every summer and spring vacation at third to fourth grade year, to enhance the communication skill, and to acquire the practical manufacturing technology and so on. In addition, the program has the practical design project of the manufacturing industry to cultivate the problem-solving skill for the fifth grade students at last. The program has many participants that are forty industry companies and seventy students in successfully. It is found that the program is to enhance the communication skill, writing skill and self-confident as a practical engineer by the iterative work.
Camila Pereira Pinto
2015-06-01
Full Text Available In a highly competitive market, companies need increasingly skilled human resources, especially when it comes to engineering. Universities, therefore, play an important role in this scenario, while training future professionals of the country. However, in this task, the institutions are faced with the challenge of attracting and working with young people of Generation Y, which have characteristics and needs that are not met by traditional teaching methods. Problem-Based Learning (PBL is an approach evolved in order to study and develop educational alternatives that meet the needs of businesses as well as the new student profile. In addition, actively teaching is not a simple task and becomes more complex when it refers to assess the knowledge gained through this method. Thus, this paper presents the planning, implementation and the assessment method adopted in a course of Industrial Engineering at the Federal University of Itajubá based on PBL. For this study it was adopted the action research method, in which the authors actively participated in all stages of the course, acting as facilitators in the course planning, implementation and monitoring. As a result, it is highlighted in this article, the benefits achieved by all involved through active learning, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of the method. Moreover, improvements are proposed for future courses.
利用MATLAB分析求解工程问题%Analysis and Solution of Engineering Problems with MATLAB
范朔
2016-01-01
As a powerful mathematics software, MATLAB, which can be applied in numerical computation, data analysis and data visualization, is an essential tool for solving engineering problems. Nowadays, MATLAB related courses have been of-fered more and more widely among universities in China, but shortages such as disconnection between MATLAB course and other courses, incompleteness of the course structure and vacuum of after-class supply, weaken the significance of the course. This paper aims at using MATLAB to solve engineering problems that students come up with in other courses, reflecting its value, motivating students' interests of learning computational languages and preparing for their future development.%作为一款强大的数学软件， MATLAB可应用于数值计算、数据分析、数据可视化等任务，是解决工程实际问题的强大助力。目前我国各高校相继开设MATLAB相关课程，但普遍存在学习内容与其他课程设置连接不紧密、课程本身结构设置不完备、课后配套体系缺失等问题，大大降低了课程开设的意义。笔者利用MATLAB解决学生接触过的工程实际问题，将MATLAB与学生所学知识相结合，体现其价值，激发学生学习计算机语言的兴趣，也为学生自身后续发展打下坚实基础。
Advances in biomedical engineering
Brown, J H U
1976-01-01
Advances in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 6, is a collection of papers that discusses the role of integrated electronics in medical systems and the usage of biological mathematical models in biological systems. Other papers deal with the health care systems, the problems and methods of approach toward rehabilitation, as well as the future of biomedical engineering. One paper discusses the use of system identification as it applies to biological systems to estimate the values of a number of parameters (for example, resistance, diffusion coefficients) by indirect means. More particularly, the i
Tu, Chengjian; Sheng, Quanhu; Li, Jun; Ma, Danjun; Shen, Xiaomeng; Wang, Xue; Shyr, Yu; Yi, Zhengping; Qu, Jun
2015-11-06
The two key steps for analyzing proteomic data generated by high-resolution MS are database searching and postprocessing. While the two steps are interrelated, studies on their combinatory effects and the optimization of these procedures have not been adequately conducted. Here, we investigated the performance of three popular search engines (SEQUEST, Mascot, and MS Amanda) in conjunction with five filtering approaches, including respective score-based filtering, a group-based approach, local false discovery rate (LFDR), PeptideProphet, and Percolator. A total of eight data sets from various proteomes (e.g., E. coli, yeast, and human) produced by various instruments with high-accuracy survey scan (MS1) and high- or low-accuracy fragment ion scan (MS2) (LTQ-Orbitrap, Orbitrap-Velos, Orbitrap-Elite, Q-Exactive, Orbitrap-Fusion, and Q-TOF) were analyzed. It was found combinations involving Percolator achieved markedly more peptide and protein identifications at the same FDR level than the other 12 combinations for all data sets. Among these, combinations of SEQUEST-Percolator and MS Amanda-Percolator provided slightly better performances for data sets with low-accuracy MS2 (ion trap or IT) and high accuracy MS2 (Orbitrap or TOF), respectively, than did other methods. For approaches without Percolator, SEQUEST-group performs the best for data sets with MS2 produced by collision-induced dissociation (CID) and IT analysis; Mascot-LFDR gives more identifications for data sets generated by higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) and analyzed in Orbitrap (HCD-OT) and in Orbitrap Fusion (HCD-IT); MS Amanda-Group excels for the Q-TOF data set and the Orbitrap Velos HCD-OT data set. Therefore, if Percolator was not used, a specific combination should be applied for each type of data set. Moreover, a higher percentage of multiple-peptide proteins and lower variation of protein spectral counts were observed when analyzing technical replicates using Percolator
Mitre-Hernández Hugo A.
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Software measurement is widely recognized as an essential part of understanding, controlling, monitoring, predicting, and evaluating software development and maintenance projects. Both, software process improvement (SPI and software measurement literature include many case studies of successful companies and descriptions of their measurement programs. However, there are still concerns on how to design efficient strategic measurement programs. These concerns include the lack of involvement of the SEO’s personnel, bad alignment with its strategy and improvement initiative, difficulty to justify the utility of using standards or improvement initiatives, etc. All of the former results in inadequate measurement programs that often lead to poor decisions and economic loss. This paper describes a pilot study to observe and analyze the operation of measurement teams when using measurement methods such as Balanced Objective-Quantifiers Method (BOQM, Practical Software Measurement (PSM and Balanced Scorecard and Goal-Driven Measurement (BSC&GQ[I]M to design a strategic measurement program. From the results of the study, we gained some insight on common difficulties and problems, which are useful to consider when designing of strategic measurement programs. This paper describes an important milestone in achieving our main research goal, evaluate and find suggestions to design a strategic measurement program aligned correctly with the strategic goals, for effective decision making at all organization levels and justify the utilities or benefits of integrating improvement initiatives.
Vlasnikov, A. K.
2014-01-01
Тезисы 64 международной конференции «ЯДРО-2014» (Фундаментальные проблемы ядерной физики, атомной энергетики и ядерных технологий), БГУ, Минск, 1 – 4 июля 2014 года. The scientific program of the conference covers almost all problems in nuclear physics and its applications such as: neutron-rich nuclei, nuclei far from stability valley, giant resonances, many-phonon and many-quasiparticle states in nuclei, high-spin and super-deformed states in nuclei, synthesis of super-heavy elements, ...
A STUDY REGARDING THE IMPLICATIONS OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES ON ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS
Ionela Ramona SURDU
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The transports represent a basic element in the society , that produces effects on the environment quality, it influences direct or indirect the health of the population In the last decades, on the European level, they have been taken a series of measures to limit harm effects on the environment and on the human existence generated by the uncontrolled development of the transport activities. Of the effects that transportation has on the human health are important the one connected to the harmfulness of exhaust which contain NOx, CO, SO2, CO2, volatile organic compounds, heavy metal particles (lead, cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel, selenium, zinc. The traffic impact on health leads to higher incidence of cancers and heart disease, respiratory problems and their severity. The technological improvements that have reduced emissions were offset by the increase in traffic, so the emissions are still rising. Urban traffic is a linear source at low altitude emission of pollutants like Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxozi, sulfur oxides, particulates, lead, volatile organic compounds.
An information-based rough set approach to critical engineering factor identification
Jing Ji; Zheng Dongjian
2008-01-01
In order to analyze the main critical engineering factors, an information-based rough set approach that considers conditional information entropy as a measurement of information has been developed. An algorithm for continuous attribute discretization based on conditional information entropy and an algorithm for rule extraction considering the supports of rules are proposed. The initial decision system is established by collecting enough monitoring data. Then, the continuous attributes are discretized, and the condition attributes are reduced. Finally, the rules that indicate the action law of the main factors are extracted and the results are explained. By applying this approach to a crack in an arch gravity dam, it can be concluded that the water level and the temperature are the main factors affecting the crack opening, and there is a negative correlation between the crack opening and the temperature. This conclusion corresponds with the observation that cracks in most concrete dams are influenced mainly by water level and temperature, and the influence of temperature is more evident.
Hielkema, Margriet; de Winter, Andrea F.; de Meer, Gea; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
2011-01-01
Background: Social-emotional and behavioral problems are common in childhood. Early identification of these is important as it can lead to interventions which may improve the child's prognosis. In Dutch Preventive Child Healthcare (PCH), a new family-centered method has been implemented to identify
Human engineering problems in the operation of controls and the design of aircraft instruments
W.T.V. Adiseshiah
1958-07-01
Full Text Available "Speed and accuracy in performance are major considerations in the design of man-machine systems which involve displays for presenting information to the senses, and controls for human use. Sensory capacity, mobility and muscle strength, mental stamina, and capacity for team work are psychological factors which call for appropriate attention. In the design and selection of control devices, it is important to consider size and shape, location and action of the control devices. These should be compatible with the element to be controlled. four matters call for attention: firstly, control dimensions should take into consideration the normal hand grasp limitations of the operator. Secondly, knob of the controls should be suitably shape coded so as to forestall inadvertent operation of wrong controls. Thirdly, controls which have to be used most often should be placed within convenient reach of the operator. Fourthly, the human operator cannot be expected to perform at maximum capacity for any great length of time. Correctly positioned power controls are being increasingly used in present day aircraft. In the design of aircraft instruments and the layout of flying panels, the limitations of the human operator, emergencies which are likely to arise during flight, and imperfections in the indications of instruments need to be taken into account. The design of aircraft instruments such as the altimeter, the air speed indicator, and the artificial horizon, are being improved from time to time so as to meet the new requirements in flying. Single and multiple instrument combinations have effected a saving of time in locating parts of a total picture, e.g. the composite indication of fuel state in modern aircraft. Many unsolved problems still remain with regard to the use of certain items such as the aiming, photographic and oxygen equipments. "
Mullins, Michael
2006-01-01
advantages in a search for solutions of which integrate these approaches. The Department of Architecture and Design (A&D) at Aalborg University has been intiated with the explicit aim to educate for new disciplines emerging in the interplay between the professions of civil engineering and architecture......University curricula are traditionally based on specialised discipline-specific subjects, which like engineering and architecture approach solutions to design problems with methods suited to their specific view of the issues. Problem-based learning models (PBL) offer a number of potential......, and uses PBL and project-oriented models for its educational form. There is a distinct difference between engineering and architecture in their evolutionary backgrounds and their varying degree of emphasis on natural science. Both present different forms of problem solving that appeal to different learning...
McDowell, Graeme S V; Blanchard, Alexandre P; Taylor, Graeme P; Figeys, Daniel; Fai, Stephen; Bennett, Steffany A L
2014-01-01
The capacity to predict and visualize all theoretically possible glycerophospholipid molecular identities present in lipidomic datasets is currently limited. To address this issue, we expanded the search-engine and compositional databases of the online Visualization and Phospholipid Identification (VaLID) bioinformatic tool to include the glycerophosphoinositol superfamily. VaLID v1.0.0 originally allowed exact and average mass libraries of 736,584 individual species from eight phospholipid classes: glycerophosphates, glyceropyrophosphates, glycerophosphocholines, glycerophosphoethanolamines, glycerophosphoglycerols, glycerophosphoglycerophosphates, glycerophosphoserines, and cytidine 5'-diphosphate 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerols to be searched for any mass to charge value (with adjustable tolerance levels) under a variety of mass spectrometry conditions. Here, we describe an update that now includes all possible glycerophosphoinositols, glycerophosphoinositol monophosphates, glycerophosphoinositol bisphosphates, and glycerophosphoinositol trisphosphates. This update expands the total number of lipid species represented in the VaLID v2.0.0 database to 1,473,168 phospholipids. Each phospholipid can be generated in skeletal representation. A subset of species curated by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research Training Program in Neurodegenerative Lipidomics (CTPNL) team is provided as an array of high-resolution structures. VaLID is freely available and responds to all users through the CTPNL resources web site.
Broersen, Tom; Peters, Ravi; Ledoux, Hugo
2017-09-01
Drainage networks play a crucial role in protecting land against floods. It is therefore important to have an accurate map of the watercourses that form the drainage network. Previous work on the automatic identification of watercourses was typically based on grids, focused on natural landscapes, and used mostly the slope and curvature of the terrain. We focus in this paper on areas that are characterised by low-lying, flat, and engineered landscapes; these are characteristic to the Netherlands for instance. We propose a new methodology to identify watercourses automatically from elevation data, it uses solely a raw classified LiDAR point cloud as input. We show that by computing twice a skeleton of the point cloud-once in 2D and once in 3D-and that by using the properties of the skeletons we can identify most of the watercourses. We have implemented our methodology and tested it for three different soil types around Utrecht, the Netherlands. We were able to detect 98% of the watercourses for one soil type, and around 75% for the worst case, when we compared to a reference dataset that was obtained semi-automatically.
Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole; Rasmussen, Peter Omand
2009-01-01
Unlike most other engineering disciplines, mechatronics as an engineering discipline do not relate to one specic technical eld, but is instead a multidisciplinary engineering problem that not only require knowledge about dierent technical areas, but also insight into how to synergistically combine...... technologies optimally, to design e-cient products and systems. Mechatronic engineering is in this way about mastering a multitude of disciplines, technologies and their integration and interaction and should be taught as such. This paper first considers how mechatronics is typically conceived and practised...... using a subsystem based approach. The challenges related to teaching and learning mechatronics are addressed, discussing how mechatronics is typically taught around the world also illustrating the trends and applications of mechatronic engineering and research. This is followed by an outline...
Identification and engineering of regulation-related genes toward improved kasugamycin production.
Zhu, Chenchen; Kang, Qianjin; Bai, Linquan; Cheng, Lin; Deng, Zixin
2016-02-01
Kasugamycin, produced by Streptomyces kasugaensis and Streptomyces microaureus, is an important amino-glycoside family antibiotic and widely used for veterinary and agricultural applications. In the left flanking region of the previously reported kasugamycin gene cluster, four additional genes (two-component system kasW and kasX, MerR-family kasV, and isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase kasS) were identified both in the low-yielding S. kasugaensis BCRC12349 and high-yielding S. microaureus XM301. Deletion of regulatory gene kasT abolished kasugamycin production, and its overexpression in BCRC12349 resulted in an increased titer by 186 %. Deletion of kasW, kasX, kasV, and kasS improved kasugamycin production by 12, 19, 194, and 22 %, respectively. qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the transcription of kas genes was significantly increased in all the four mutants. Similar gene inactivation was performed in the high-yielding strain S. microaureus XM301. As expected, the deletion of kasW/X resulted in a 58 % increase of the yield from 6 to 9.5 g/L. However, the deletion of kasV and over-expression of kasT had no obvious effect, and the disruption of kasS surprisingly decreased kasugamycin production. In addition, trans-complementation of the kasS mutant with a TTA codon-mutated kasS increased the kasugamycin yield by 20 %. A much higher transcription of kas genes was detected in the high-yielding XM301 than in the low-yielding BCRC12349, which may partially account for the discrepancy of gene inactivation effects between them. Our work not only generated engineered strains with improved kasugamycin yield, but also pointed out that different strategies on manipulating regulatory-related genes should be considered for low-yielding or high-yielding strains.
韩淑云
2016-01-01
分析高职高专粮食工程专业的教学现状，结合粮食工程专业的人才培养目标和教学实际，对粮食工程专业实践教学存在问题进行分析并提出解决思路。%This paper analyzes the status quo of teaching vocational food engineering, food engineering combined with professional training objectives and teaching practical, problem of food engineering practice teaching profession to analyze and propose solutions to ideas.
Darpel, Scott; Beckman, Sean
2016-01-01
Decades of systems engineering practice have demonstrated that the earlier the identification of requirements occurs, the lower the chance that costly redesigns will needed later in the project life cycle. A better understanding of all requirements can also improve the likelihood of a design's success. Significant effort has been put into developing tools and practices that facilitate requirements determination, including those that are part of the model-based systems engineering (MBSE) paradigm. These efforts have yielded improvements in requirements definition, but have thus far focused on a design's performance needs. The identification of safety & mission assurance (S&MA) related requirements, in comparison, can occur after preliminary designs are already established, yielding forced redesigns. Engaging S&MA expertise at an earlier stage, facilitated by the use of MBSE tools, and focused on actual project risk, can yield the same type of design life cycle improvements that have been realized in technical and performance requirements.
Westerholm, R. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry; Pettersson, L.J. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology
1999-12-01
On an assignment from the Transport and Communications Research Board (KFB) a literature study and a study trip to the USA and Great Britain have been performed. The literature study and the study trip was made during late spring and autumn 1999.The purpose of the project was to collect available information about the chemical composition of the product gas from a multi-fuel reformer for a fuel cell vehicle. It was furthermore to identify problems and research needs. The report recommends directions for future major research efforts. The results of the literature study and the study trip led to the following general conclusions: With the technology available today it does not seem feasible to develop a highly efficient and reliable multi-fuel reformer for automotive applications, i. e. for applications where all types of fuels ranging from natural gas to heavy diesel fuels can be used. The potential for developing a durable and reliable system is considerably higher if dedicated fuel reformers are used.The authors propose that petroleum-derived fuels should be designed for potential use in mobile fuel cell applications. In the present literature survey and the site visit discussions we found that there are relatively low emissions from fuel cell engines compared to internal combustion engines. However, the major research work on reformers/fuel cells have been performed during steady-state operation. Emissions during start-up, shutdown and transient operation are basically unknown and must be investigated in more detail. The conclusions and findings in this report are based on open/available information, such as discussions at site visits, reports, scientific publications and symposium proceedings.
Patterson, D.J.; Morrison, K.; Remondino, M.; Slopsema, T.
1980-12-01
A comprehensive data research and analysis for evaluating the use of automotive fuels as a substitute for aviation grade fuel by piston-type general aviation aircraft engines is presented. Historically known problems and potential problems with fuels were reviewed for possible impact relative to application to an aircraft operational environment. This report reviews areas such as: fuel specification requirements, combustion knock, preignition, vapor lock, spark plug fouling, additives for fuel and oil, and storage stability.
Elia, Gianluca; Secundo, Giustina; Taurino, Cesare
This chapter presents a case study where Problem Based Learning (PBL) approach is applied to a Web-based environment. It first describes the main features behind the PBL for creating Business Engineers able to face the grand technological challenges of the 2020. Then it introduces a Web Based system supporting the PBL strategy, called the “Virtual eBMS”. This system has been designed and implemented at the e-Business Management Section of the Scuola Superiore ISUFI - University of Salento (Italy), in the framework of a research project carried out in collaboration with IBM. Besides the logical and technological description of Virtual eBMS, the chapter presents two applications of the platform in two different contexts: an academic context (international master) and an entrepreneurial context (awareness workshop with companies and entrepreneurs). The system is illustrated starting from the description of an operational framework for designing curricula PBL based from the author perspective and, then, illustrating a typical scenario of a learner accessing to the curricula. In the description, it is highlighted both the “structured” way and the “unstructured” way to create and follow an entire learning path.
Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farinholt, Kevin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Todd, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-12-08
This seminar will provide an overview of structural health monitoring (SHM) research that is being undertaken at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The seminar will begin by stating that SHM should be viewed as an important component of the more comprehensive intelligent life-cycle engineering process. Then LANL's statistical pattern recognition paradigm for addressing SHM problems will be introduced and current research that is focused on each part of the paradigm will be discussed. In th is paradigm, the process can be broken down into four parts: (1) Operational Evaluation, (2) Data Acquisition and Cleansing, (3) Feature Extraction, and (4) Statistical Model Development for Feature Discrimination. When one attempts to apply this paradigm to data from real world structures, it quickly becomes apparent that the ability to cleanse, compress, normalize and fuse data to account for operational and environmental variability is a key implementation issue when addressing Parts 2-4 of this paradigm. This discussion will be followed by the introduction a new project entitled 'Intelligent Wind Turbines' which is the focus of much of our current SHM research . This summary will be followed by a discussion of issues that must be addressed if this technology is to make the transition from research to practice and new research directions that are emerging for SHM.
电气安装工程预算相关问题分析%Analysis on related problems of electrical installation engineering budget
郭林丽
2015-01-01
This paper introduced the preparation work of electrical installation engineering budget compilation,from the engineering measure-ment,set quota,budget personnel three angles,analyzed the existing problems in electrical installation engineering budget,and put forward some feasible solutions,in order to improve the engineering budget level of electrical installation.%介绍了电气安装工程预算编制的准备工作，从工程计量、套定额、预算人员三个角度出发，分析了电气安装工程预算中存在的问题，并提出了切实可行的解决措施，以提高电气安装工程预算水平。
The Reflection on the Problem of In-service Engineering Master Training%在职工程硕士培养问题的思考
韩锋
2013-01-01
The purpose of setting the in-service engineering mas-ter is to train high-level, practical, compound engineering talents for companies and the society. The paper analyzes the problems existing in the in-service engineering master training process and proposes improvement suggestion, the author hopes to help orga-nizers improve the quality of in-service engineering master train-ing.% 在职工程硕士学位设置的目的是为企业和社会培养高层次、应用型、复合型的工程技术人才，文章分析了在职工程硕士培养过程中较易出现的问题并提出相关改进建议，希望帮助相关方提高在职工程硕士培养质量。
Pan, Jianqiang
1992-01-01
Several important problems in the fields of signal processing and model identification, such as system structure identification, frequency response determination, high order model reduction, high resolution frequency analysis, deconvolution filtering, and etc. Each of these topics involves a wide range of applications and has received considerable attention. Using the Fourier based sinusoidal modulating signals, it is shown that a discrete autoregressive model can be constructed for the least squares identification of continuous systems. Some identification algorithms are presented for both SISO and MIMO systems frequency response determination using only transient data. Also, several new schemes for model reduction were developed. Based upon the complex sinusoidal modulating signals, a parametric least squares algorithm for high resolution frequency estimation is proposed. Numerical examples show that the proposed algorithm gives better performance than the usual. Also, the problem was studied of deconvolution and parameter identification of a general noncausal nonminimum phase ARMA system driven by non-Gaussian stationary random processes. Algorithms are introduced for inverse cumulant estimation, both in the frequency domain via the FFT algorithms and in the domain via the least squares algorithm.
2010-07-01
... MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 91.113 Requirement of... during engine life; (4) Be written in English; and (5) Be located so as to be readily visible to the average person after the engine is installed in the marine vessel. (b) If the marine vessel obscures...
Statics learning from engineering examples
Emri, Igor
2016-01-01
This textbook introduces and explains the basic concepts on which statics is based utilizing real engineering examples. The authors emphasize the learning process by showing a real problem, analyzing it, simplifying it, and developing a way to solve it. This feature teaches students intuitive thinking in solving real engineering problems using the fundamentals of Newton’s laws. This book also: · Stresses representation of physical reality in ways that allow students to solve problems and obtain meaningful results · Emphasizes identification of important features of the structure that should be included in a model and which features may be omitted · Facilitates students' understanding and mastery of the "flow of thinking" practiced by professional engineers.
Williams, Robert J; Ricciardelli, Lina A
2003-01-01
To examine the role of both positive and negative styles of self-control, and gender-role stereotypes in binge eating and problem drinking. Participants were 428 adolescent boys and 555 girls from predominantly Anglo-Australian backgrounds who attended regional state schools in New South Wales, Australia. Students completed standardized questionnaires that assessed problem drinking, binge eating, self-control styles, and identification with gender-role stereotypes. ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests were conducted to examine differences among adolescents who reported problems in binge eating, drinking, and both domains. Adolescents who reported eating and drinking problems also reported a high negative and a low positive sense of self-control coupled with self-identification with the traits that typically describe negative dimensions of gender-role stereotypes. Regardless of gender, problem drinking was mainly related to traits of negative masculinity (bossy, noisy aggressive, etc.) whereas binge eating was mainly related to negative femininity (shy, needs approval from others, etc.). Participants who reported eating and drinking symptoms recorded low scores on positive control, high scores on negative control, and also high scores on the negative dimensions of masculinity and femininity. A negative and passive style of self-control coupled with an identification with negative dimensions of gender summarizes the type of self-regulation that is implicated in both binge eating and problem drinking, and co-morbid symptoms. There is a need for interventions working toward a more balanced gender self-concept and a positive sense of self-control. Copyright Society for Adolescent Medicine, 2003
Johnson, C. R., Jr.; Balas, M. J.
1980-01-01
A novel interconnection of distributed parameter system (DPS) identification and adaptive filtering is presented, which culminates in a common statement of coupled autoregressive, moving-average expansion or parallel infinite impulse response configuration adaptive parameterization. The common restricted complexity filter objectives are seen as similar to the reduced-order requirements of the DPS expansion description. The interconnection presents the possibility of an exchange of problem formulations and solution approaches not yet easily addressed in the common finite dimensional lumped-parameter system context. It is concluded that the shared problems raised are nevertheless many and difficult.
Houstis, E. N.; Catlin, A. C.; Tsompanopoulou, P.; Gottfried, D.; Balakrishnan, G.; Su, K.; Rice, J. R.
2002-12-01
Gas turbine engines are very complex (with 20-40,000 parts) and have extreme operating conditions. The important physical phenomena take place on scales from 10-100 microns to meters. A complete and accurate dynamic simulation of an entire engine is enormously demanding. Designing a complex system, like a gas turbine engine, will require fast, accurate simulations of computational models from multiple engineering disciplines along with sophisticated optimization techniques to help guide the design process. In this paper, we describe the architecture of an agent-based software framework for the simulation of various aspects of a gas turbine engine, utilizing a "network" of collaborating numerical objects through a set of interfaces among the engine parts. Moreover, we present its implementation using the Grasshopper agent middleware and provide simulation results that show the feasibility of the computational paradigm implemented.
Buch, Anders
2011-01-01
Abstract: Most people agree that our world faces daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel...... dominant perspectives in challenge perception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping...... of engineering education and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter...
Buch, Anders
2012-01-01
Most people agree that our world face daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel dominant...... perspectives in challenge per-ception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping of engineering education...... and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter strives to elicit the bodies...
A Study on the Framework for Problems of Society Design Engineering%社会设计工程问题框架
沙基昌; 刘新建; 石建迈; 陈超
2011-01-01
The concept of Society Design Engineering is proposed as an engineering method to solve social problems and the framework for designing society is developed, which consists of five elements. The relationship of the elements is analyzed. Based on the framework, the formally description for the solution of society problem is presented. Through the analysis of the properties of society design problem, it seems that society design problems may not be solved by using approaches such as game theory or operations research. It may be solved using Society Design Engineering.%为寻求一种解决社会问题的工程化方法,提出了社会设计工程.研究了社会设计工程问题框架,给出了框架的五要素及其相互关系,对问题的解进行了描述.最后,通过分析社会设计工程问题的特点,得出社会设计工程问题不能靠对策论或运筹学等简单方法进行处理,需要运用解决复杂性问题的方法来处理.
Szirbik, Nicolae; Pelletier, Christine; Velthuizen, Vincent; Umeda, Shigeki
2015-01-01
This paper discusses specific educational issues encountered during the Systems Engineering Design course at the Industrial Engineering and Management master program at the University of Groningen. It explains first the concept of an integrative course, an innovation that was applied first in this m
Galantai, M.
1987-01-01
The ventilation system in underground mines where internal combustion engines operate is outlined. The effects of shotfiring on air volumes passing through workings and those supplied by a fan located in it and the effect of internal combustion engines on the gas concentration of workings are analysed. Proposals are presented for the right solutions for the cases in question.
Triantafyllou, Evangelia; Misfeldt, Morten; Timcenko, Olga
2015-01-01
In this article, we present our idea of using a game engine (Unity) to teach Media Technology students mathematics-related concepts. In order to observe how the introduction of a technological tool, namely the game engine, changes the practices in mathematical work, we adopted the anthropological...
Chang, Pei-Fen; Wang, Dau-Chung
2011-08-01
In May 2008, the worst earthquake in more than three decades struck southwest China, killing more than 80,000 people. The complexity of this earthquake makes it an ideal case study to clarify the intertwined issues of ethics in engineering and to help cultivate critical thinking skills. This paper first explores the need to encourage engineering ethics within a cross-cultural context. Next, it presents a systematic model for designing an engineering ethics curriculum based on moral development theory and ethic dilemma analysis. Quantitative and qualitative data from students' oral and written work were collected and analysed to determine directions for improvement. The paper also presents results of an assessment of this interdisciplinary engineering ethics course. This investigation of a disaster is limited strictly to engineering ethics education; it is not intended to assign blame, but rather to spark debate about ethical issues.
Rahimi, Saeed; Wiechowski, W.; Randrup, M.;
2008-01-01
cable in transmission system. The objective of this paper and the companion paper is to address the most important problems expected in transmission system with relatively larger share of long HV underground cables. The end goal will be a guideline to special solutions and precautions to avoid dangerous...... over voltage problems and also resonance problems in a transmission network with future increased share of cables. Two major categories of problems are switching transient and resonance problems. In each category of the possible problems, first some theoretical background is provided...... and then the problem and countermeasures are discussed. In this paper most important resonance problems are addressed and discussed. Three main categories of resonance problems are: Near Resonance, Harmonic resonance and Ferroresonance....
Roth, Wolff-Michael
1995-12-01
The present study was designed to investigate problem- and solution-related activity of elementary students in ill-defined and open-ended settings. One Grade 4/5 class of 28 students engaged in the activities of the “Engineering for Children: Structures” curriculum, designed as a vehicle for introducing science concepts, providing ill-defined problem solving contexts, and fostering positive attitudes towards science and technology. Data included video recordings, ethnographic field notes, student produced artefacts (projects and engineering logbooks), and interviews with teachers and observers. These data supported the notion of problems, solutions, and courses of actions as entities with flexible ontologies. In the course of their negotiations, students demonstrated an uncanny competence to frame and reframe problems and solutions and to decide courses of actions of different complexities in spite of the ambiguous nature of (arte)facts, plans, and language. A case study approach was chosen as the literary device to report these general findings. The discussion focuses on the inevitably ambiguous nature of (arte)facts, plans, and language and the associated notion of “interpretive flexibility.” Suggestions are provided for teachers on how to deal with interpretive flexibility without seeking recourse to the didactic approaches of direct teaching. But what happens when problems and solutions are negotiable, when there are no longer isolated problems which one tries to solve but problems which maintain complex linkages with ensembles of other problems and diverse constraints, or when problems and solutions are simultaneously invented? (Lestel, 1989, p. 692, my translation)
Ryan, R.; Gross, L. A.
1995-01-01
The Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) alternate high-pressure liquid oxygen pump experienced synchronous vibration and ball bearing life problems that were program threatening. The success of the program hinged on the ability to solve these development problems. The design and solutions to these problems are engirded in the lessons learned and experiences from prior programs, technology programs, and the ability to properly conduct failure or anomaly investigations. The failure investigation determines the problem cause and is the basis for recommending design solutions. For a complex problem, a comprehensive solution requires that formal investigation procedures be used, including fault trees, resolution logic, and action items worked through a concurrent engineering-multidiscipline team. The normal tendency to use an intuitive, cut-and-try approach will usually prove to be costly, both in money and time and will reach a less than optimum, poorly understood answer. The SSME alternate high-pressure oxidizer turbopump development has had two complex problems critical to program success: (1) high synchronous vibrations and (2) excessive ball bearing wear. This paper will use these two problems as examples of this formal failure investigation approach. The results of the team's investigation provides insight into the complexity of the turbomachinery technical discipline interacting/sensitivities and the fine balance of competing investigations required to solve problems and guarantee program success. It is very important to the solution process that maximum use be made of the resources that both the contractor and Government can bring to the problem in a supporting and noncompeting way. There is no place for the not-invented-here attitude. The resources include, but are not limited to: (1) specially skilled professionals; (2) supporting technologies; (3) computational codes and capabilities; and (4) test and manufacturing facilities.
Problems in Civil Engineering Cost Management and Measures%土建工程造价管理存在的问题及措施分析
阮立娟
2014-01-01
At present, accompanied by an expansion of the scale in civil engineering and construction, civil engineering cost management has gradually been put on the agenda. This paper discusses the main problems in cost management in the current period, and puts forward the corresponding measures to solve the problem accordingly.%现阶段，伴随土木建筑工程规模的日益扩大，土建工程的造价管理逐渐被提上议事日程。本文主要针对当前一个时期内造价管理的主要问题进行论述，据此提出相应的解决问题的措施。
White, Joey
The applicability of the dataflow architecture to a telemetry simulation is examined with particular reference to the problem of interfacing the simulation with an engineering model flight computer. The discussion covers the transport loop lag problem, simulation moding and control, the dataflow architecture solution, telemetry formatting and serialization, uplink command synchronization and reception, command validation and routing, and on-board computer interface and telemetry data request/response processing. The concepts discussed here have been developed for application on a training simulation for the NASA Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle.
Motte, Damien; Andersson, Per-Erik; Bjärnemo, Robert
2004-01-01
Many specific and precise methods that support the mechanical engineering designer's work during the conceptual design phase exist, while only a few general methods address the embodiment design and detail design phases. Our study presents the pattern of the designer's problem-solving activity during the later phases of the design process. This model is in-tended to serve as a basis for further development of tools and methods directly oriented towards the de-signer at work in these s...
Friis-Møller, Alice; Lemming, L E; Valerius, Niels Henrik
2004-01-01
Francisella philomiragia is a rare gram-negative, halophilic coccobacillus with bizarre spherical forms on primary isolation. A case of F. philomiragia bacteremia in a 24-year-old patient with chronic granulomatous disease is reported. Identification of F. philomiragia was problematic with conven......Francisella philomiragia is a rare gram-negative, halophilic coccobacillus with bizarre spherical forms on primary isolation. A case of F. philomiragia bacteremia in a 24-year-old patient with chronic granulomatous disease is reported. Identification of F. philomiragia was problematic...
Chucholowski, Nepomuk; Langer, Stefan; Ferreira, Marcelo Gitirana Gomes
Engineering changes (ECs) are well known for generating additional costs and decreasing de-velopment efficiency. Yet, they are a fundamental part of product and service development and they are necessary to keep up with, for example, competitors, market trends or new technolo-gies. The effective...... management of engineering changes is a crucial precondition for Brazilian companies to successfully compete not only on the fast growing Brazilian market, but also on the world market which becomes more interesting due to the rising industrial power of Brazil. To achieve improvements in engineering change...... management practice, industry and universities need to work together. In this report the main findings of our study on Engineering Change Management (ECM) in Brazilian companies are presented, which indicate possible solution strategies and further research needs. Our survey aimed on the investigation...
Chucholowski, Nepomuk; Langer, Stefan; Ferreira, Marcelo Gitirana Gomes
management of engineering changes is a crucial precondition for Brazilian companies to successfully compete not only on the fast growing Brazilian market, but also on the world market which becomes more interesting due to the rising industrial power of Brazil. To achieve improvements in engineering change...... management practice, industry and universities need to work together. In this report the main findings of our study on Engineering Change Management (ECM) in Brazilian companies are presented, which indicate possible solution strategies and further research needs. Our survey aimed on the investigation...... of current practice, the biggest challenges and potential strategies of engineering change management. A total of 55 Brazilian companies from a broad range of industry sectors and company sizes participated from December 2011 until January 2012 in the survey which was elaborated and conducted by members...
Blau, P.J.
1992-12-31
Progress in the Field of tribology strongly parallels, and has always been strongly driven by, developments and needs in transportation and related industries. Testing of candidate materials for internal combustion engine applications has historically taken several routes: (1) replacement of parts in actual engines subjected to daily use, (2) testing in special, instrumented test engines, (3) and simulative testing in laboratory tribometers using relatively simple specimens. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach are reviewed using historical examples. A four-decade, retrospective survey of the tribomaterials literature focused on the effectiveness of laboratory simulations for engine materials screening. Guidelines for designing and ducting successful tribology laboratory simulations will be discussed. These concepts were used to design a valve wear simulator at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
9th International Conference on Management Science and Engineering Management
Nickel, Stefan; Machado, Virgilio; Hajiyev, Asaf
2015-01-01
This is the Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Management Science and Engineering Management (ICMSEM) held from July 21-23, 2015 at Karlsruhe, Germany. The goals of the conference are to foster international research collaborations in Management Science and Engineering Management as well as to provide a forum to present current findings. These proceedings cover various areas in management science and engineering management. It focuses on the identification of management science problems in engineering and innovatively using management theory and methods to solve engineering problems effectively. It also establishes a new management theory and methods based on experience of new management issues in engineering. Readers interested in the fields of management science and engineering management will benefit from the latest cutting-edge innovations and research advances presented in these proceedings and will find new ideas and research directions. A total number of 132 papers from 15 countries a...
Maria-Fernanda López-Pérez
2016-10-01
The principal purpose of this work is the students improvement using, as has been mentioned previously, MATLAB in a problem-based learning methodology. This methodology allows a more effective coordination in the degree. The present paper presents a real- world problem and the common elements of most problem-solving contexts and how is designed to function across all disciplines.
Ehrman, Sheryl H.; Castellanos, Patricia; Dwivedi, Vivek; Diemer, R. Bertrum
2007-01-01
A particle technology design problem incorporating population balance modeling was developed and assigned to senior and first-year graduate students in a Particle Science and Technology course. The problem focused on particle collection, with a pipeline agglomerator, Cyclone, and baghouse comprising the collection system. The problem was developed…
Gao, Wei; Chen, Dongliang; Wang, Xu
2016-01-01
To compute the stability of underground engineering, a constitutive model of surrounding rock must be identified. Many constitutive models for rock mass have been proposed. In this model identification study, a generalized constitutive law for an elastic-plastic constitutive model is applied. Using the generalized constitutive law, the problem of model identification is transformed to a problem of parameter identification, which is a typical and complicated optimization. To improve the efficiency of the traditional optimization method, an immunized genetic algorithm that is proposed by the author is applied in this study. In this new algorithm, the principle of artificial immune algorithm is combined with the genetic algorithm. Therefore, the entire computation efficiency of model identification will be improved. Using this new model identification method, a numerical example and an engineering example are used to verify the computing ability of the algorithm. The results show that this new model identification algorithm can significantly improve the computation efficiency and the computation effect.
Sarode, Ketan Dinkar; Kumar, V Ravi; Kulkarni, B D
2016-05-01
An efficient inverse problem approach for parameter estimation, state and structure identification from dynamic data by embedding training functions in a genetic algorithm methodology (ETFGA) is proposed for nonlinear dynamical biosystems using S-system canonical models. Use of multiple shooting and decomposition approach as training functions has been shown for handling of noisy datasets and computational efficiency in studying the inverse problem. The advantages of the methodology are brought out systematically by studying it for three biochemical model systems of interest. By studying a small-scale gene regulatory system described by a S-system model, the first example demonstrates the use of ETFGA for the multifold aims of the inverse problem. The estimation of a large number of parameters with simultaneous state and network identification is shown by training a generalized S-system canonical model with noisy datasets. The results of this study bring out the superior performance of ETFGA on comparison with other metaheuristic approaches. The second example studies the regulation of cAMP oscillations in Dictyostelium cells now assuming limited availability of noisy data. Here, flexibility of the approach to incorporate partial system information in the identification process is shown and its effect on accuracy and predictive ability of the estimated model are studied. The third example studies the phenomenological toy model of the regulation of circadian oscillations in Drosophila that follows rate laws different from S-system power-law. For the limited noisy data, using a priori information about properties of the system, we could estimate an alternate S-system model that showed robust oscillatory behavior with predictive abilities.
Christian F. Janßen
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This contribution is dedicated to demonstrating the high potential and manifold applications of state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics (CFD tools for free-surface flows in civil and environmental engineering. All simulations were performed with the academic research code ELBE (efficient lattice boltzmann environment, http://www.tuhh.de/elbe. The ELBE code follows the supercomputing-on-the-desktop paradigm and is especially designed for local supercomputing, without tedious accesses to supercomputers. ELBE uses graphics processing units (GPU to accelerate the computations and can be used in a single GPU-equipped workstation of, e.g., a design engineer. The code has been successfully validated in very different fields, mostly related to naval architecture and mechanical engineering. In this contribution, we give an overview of past and present applications with practical relevance for civil engineers. The presented applications are grouped into three major categories: (i tsunami simulations, considering wave propagation, wave runup, inundation and debris flows; (ii dam break simulations; and (iii numerical wave tanks for the calculation of hydrodynamic loads on fixed and moving bodies. This broad range of applications in combination with accurate numerical results and very competitive times to solution demonstrates that modern CFD tools in general, and the ELBE code in particular, can be a helpful design tool for civil and environmental engineers.
LP(K)中RBF神经网络的系统识别问题%LP(K) Approximation Problems in System Identification with RBF Neural Networks
南东; 隆金玲
2009-01-01
Lp approximation problems in system identification with RBF neural networks are investigated.It is proved that by superpositions of some functions of one variable in Lploc(R),one can approximate continuous functionals defined on a compact subset of Lp(K) and continuous operators from a compact subset of Lp1 (K1) to a compact subset of Lp2 (K(2).These results show that if its activation function is in Lploc(R) and is not an even polynomial,then this RBF neural networks can approximate the above systems with any accuracy.
Abit Balin
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Although considerable technical preventive measures have been taken in marine diesel engine and auxiliary systems, it is possible to observe unexpected faults in the course of the operating conditions. These faults can become so severe that they can cause losses which can be irreversible. This study aims to present Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and VIKOR (Vise Kriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje methods applied for the expert failure detection of marine diesel engine and auxiliary systems. In this study, the failures of marine diesel engine have been revealed and prioritized. Accordingly, the section of the machine from which the failures primarily arise has been determined. At the same time, the importance of the effective use of time in determining and responding to the failures has been indicated. By means of the evaluation of decision-making groups, the system most severely affected by failures has been decided.
2002-03-01
steadiness and manual dexterity, and reduces eye-hand coordination. 8.1.1.2 Stimulants Drugs that are stimulants include caffeine, cocaine and...decline. At higher doses of indoles, the user may experience euphoria , fear, hostility and confusion. Anaesthetics cause confusion, distorted spatial... Mechanical maintenance personnel 7. Radiological protection technician 8. Chemistry technician 9. Engineering support personnel These training
Gross, Dietmar; Schröder, Jörg; Wall, Wolfgang A; Rajapakse, Nimal
Statics is the first volume of a three-volume textbook on Engineering Mechanics. The authors, using a time-honoured straightforward and flexible approach, present the basic concepts and principles of mechanics in the clearest and simplest form possible to advanced undergraduate engineering students of various disciplines and different educational backgrounds. An important objective of this book is to develop problem solving skills in a systematic manner. Another aim of this volume is to provide engineering students as well as practising engineers with a solid foundation to help them bridge the gap between undergraduate studies on the one hand and advanced courses on mechanics and/or practical engineering problems on the other. The book contains numerous examples, along with their complete solutions. Emphasis is placed upon student participation in problem solving. The contents of the book correspond to the topics normally covered in courses on basic engineering mechanics at universities and colleges. Now in i...
2014-07-02
for hot chocolate ! EXHIBITORS EQUIPMENT OUTDOOR DEMONSTRATIONS Monday, March 17 | 4:00-6:00 pm 10 | Environmental and Engineering Geophysical...advised the NSF with Antarctica ice coring and NASA regarding extraterrestrial drilling and is working with industry on unconventional resources and NREL...electromagnetic (EM) geophysical instrumentation including: industry -standard Ground Conductivity Meters, for environmental / geotechnical site
D'Arcy, Mitch; Bullough, Florence; Moffat, Chris; Borgomeo, Edoardo; Teh, Micheal; Vilar, Ramon; Weiss, Dominik J.
2014-01-01
Synthesizing and testing bicomposite adsorbents for the removal of environmentally problematic oxy-anions is high on the agenda of research-led universities. Here we present a laboratory module successfully developed at Imperial College London that introduces the advanced undergraduate student in engineering (chemical, civil, earth) and science…
Chang, Pei-Fen; Wang, Dau-Chung
2011-01-01
In May 2008, the worst earthquake in more than three decades struck southwest China, killing more than 80,000 people. The complexity of this earthquake makes it an ideal case study to clarify the intertwined issues of ethics in engineering and to help cultivate critical thinking skills. This paper first explores the need to encourage engineering…