WorldWideScience

Sample records for engineering hybrid systems

  1. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  2. Hybrid cognitive engine for radio systems adaptation

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail; Shihada, Basem

    2017-01-01

    of our hybrid engine is validated using software defined radios implementation and simulation in multi-carrier environment. The system throughput, signal to noise and interference ratio, and packet error rate are obtained and compared with other schemes

  3. Systems Engineering of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Technical paper notes systems engineering principles applied to development of electric and hybrid vehicles such that system performance requirements support overall program goal of reduced petroleum consumption. Paper discusses iterative design approach dictated by systems analyses. In addition to obvious peformance parameters of range, acceleration rate, and energy consumption, systems engineering also considers such major factors as cost, safety, reliability, comfort, necessary supporting infrastructure, and availability of materials.

  4. Hybrid cognitive engine for radio systems adaptation

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail

    2017-07-20

    Network efficiency and proper utilization of its resources are essential requirements to operate wireless networks in an optimal fashion. Cognitive radio aims to fulfill these requirements by exploiting artificial intelligence techniques to create an entity called cognitive engine. Cognitive engine exploits awareness about the surrounding radio environment to optimize the use of radio resources and adapt relevant transmission parameters. In this paper, we propose a hybrid cognitive engine that employs Case Based Reasoning (CBR) and Decision Trees (DTs) to perform radio adaptation in multi-carriers wireless networks. The engine complexity is reduced by employing DTs to improve the indexing methodology used in CBR cases retrieval. The performance of our hybrid engine is validated using software defined radios implementation and simulation in multi-carrier environment. The system throughput, signal to noise and interference ratio, and packet error rate are obtained and compared with other schemes in different scenarios.

  5. Mathematical Modeling of Hybrid Electrical Engineering Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A large class of systems that have found application in various industries and households, electrified transportation facilities and energy sector has been classified as electrical engineering systems. Their characteristic feature is a combination of continuous and discontinuous modes of operation, which is reflected in the appearance of a relatively new term “hybrid systems”. A wide class of hybrid systems is pulsed DC converters operating in a pulse width modulation, which are non-linear systems with variable structure. Using various methods for linearization it is possible to obtain linear mathematical models that rather accurately simulate behavior of such systems. However, the presence in the mathematical models of exponential nonlinearities creates considerable difficulties in the implementation of digital hardware. The solution can be found while using an approximation of exponential functions by polynomials of the first order, that, however, violates the rigor accordance of the analytical model with characteristics of a real object. There are two practical approaches to synthesize algorithms for control of hybrid systems. The first approach is based on the representation of the whole system by a discrete model which is described by difference equations that makes it possible to synthesize discrete algorithms. The second approach is based on description of the system by differential equations. The equations describe synthesis of continuous algorithms and their further implementation in a digital computer included in the control loop system. The paper considers modeling of a hybrid electrical engineering system using differential equations. Neglecting the pulse duration, it has been proposed to describe behavior of vector components in phase coordinates of the hybrid system by stochastic differential equations containing generally non-linear differentiable random functions. A stochastic vector-matrix equation describing dynamics of the

  6. Formal Engineering Hybrid Systems: Semantic Underpinnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, M.C.; Bujorianu, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we investigate some issues in applying formal methods to hybrid system development and develop a categorical framework. We study the themes of stochastic reasoning, heterogeneous formal specification and retrenchment. Hybrid systems raise a rich pallets of aspects that need to be

  7. Using hybrid expert system approaches for engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. H.; Boarnet, M. G.; Culbert, C. J.; Savely, R. T.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, the use of hybrid expert system shells and hybrid (i.e., algorithmic and heuristic) approaches for solving engineering problems is reported. Aspects of various engineering problem domains are reviewed for a number of examples with specific applications made to recently developed prototype expert systems. Based on this prototyping experience, critical evaluations of and comparisons between commercially available tools, and some research tools, in the United States and Australia, and their underlying problem-solving paradigms are made. Characteristics of the implementation tool and the engineering domain are compared and practical software engineering issues are discussed with respect to hybrid tools and approaches. Finally, guidelines are offered with the hope that expert system development will be less time consuming, more effective, and more cost-effective than it has been in the past.

  8. Hybrid systems: a real-time interface to control engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Thomas Juul; Heilmann, Søren; Holdgaard, Michael

    1996-01-01

    are usually investigated by control engineers that base their work on the theory of dynamic systems. The mathematical tool for this work is thus mathematical analysis, in particular the theory of differential equations. The paper gives an introduction to a general hybrid systems model for definition of system...

  9. Efficient Proof Engines for Bounded Model Checking of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin; Herde, Christian

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present HySat, a new bounded model checker for linear hybrid systems, incorporating a tight integration of a DPLL-based pseudo-Boolean SAT solver and a linear programming routine as core engine. In contrast to related tools like MathSAT, ICS, or CVC, our tool exploits all...

  10. Method and apparatus for controlling hybrid powertrain system in response to engine temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Ryan D; Spohn, Brian L; Lehmen, Allen J; Cerbolles, Teresa L

    2014-10-07

    A method for controlling a hybrid powertrain system including an internal combustion engine includes controlling operation of the hybrid powertrain system in response to a preferred minimum coolant temperature trajectory for the internal combustion engine.

  11. Hybrid vehicle system studies and optimized hydrogen engine design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. R.; Aceves, S.

    1995-04-01

    We have done system studies of series hydrogen hybrid automobiles that approach the PNGV design goal of 34 km/liter (80 mpg), for 384 km (240 mi) and 608 km (380 mi) ranges. Our results indicate that such a vehicle appears feasible using an optimized hydrogen engine. We have evaluated the impact of various on-board storage options on fuel economy. Experiments in an available engine at the Sandia CRF demonstrated NO(x) emissions of 10 to 20 ppM at an equivalence ratio of 0.4, rising to about 500 ppm at 0.5 equivalence ratio using neat hydrogen. Hybrid simulation studies indicate that exhaust NO(x) concentrations must be less than 180 ppM to meet the 0.2 g/mile ULEV or Federal Tier II emissions regulations. LLNL has designed and fabricated a first generation optimized hydrogen engine head for use on an existing Onan engine. This head features 15:1 compression ratio, dual ignition, water cooling, two valves and open quiescent combustion chamber to minimize heat transfer losses. Initial testing shows promise of achieving an indicated efficiency of nearly 50% and emissions of less than 100 ppM NO(x). Hydrocarbons and CO are to be measured, but are expected to be very low since their only source is engine lubricating oil. A successful friction reduction program on the Onan engine should result in a brake thermal efficiency of about 42% compared to today's gasoline engines of 32%. Based on system studies requirements, the next generation engine will be about 2 liter displacement and is projected to achieve 46% brake thermal efficiency with outputs of 15 kW for cruise and 40 kW for hill climb.

  12. Hybrid heat recovery - flat plate Stirling engine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanizh, A.M.; Budin, R.; Sutlovizh, I.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the possibility of process condensate heat recovery for boiler water preheating as well as for combined heat and power production for chosen process in textile industry has been investigated. The garment industry requires low pressure process steam or hot water for which production expensive fossil fuel should be used. Fuel usage can be reduced by various energy conservation methods. During the process a great quantity of hot condensate or waste hot water is rejected in the sewage system. To reduce heat wastes and improve technological process this condensate could be returned to the boiler for feed water preheating. When 60% condensate is returned to the steam generator about 8 % natural gas is saved. The rest of the condensate should be used for driving low temperature flat plate Stirling motor the advantage of the flat plate Stirling engine is ability to work at low temperatures. This engine produces electrical energy which can put in motion an electrogenerator in the same plant. While Stirling engine can be used electrical power and economical effect could be much greater using such a hybrid system the process waste heat is not only converted into useful work but at the same time thermal pollution is greatly diminished. (Author)

  13. Fundamentals of automotive and engine technology standard drives, hybrid drives, brakes, safety systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid drives and the operation of hybrid vehicles are characteristic of contemporary automotive technology. Together with the electronic driver assistant systems, hybrid technology is of the greatest importance and both cannot be ignored by today’s car drivers. This technical reference book provides the reader with a firsthand comprehensive description of significant components of automotive technology. All texts are complemented by numerous detailed illustrations. Contents History of the automobile.- History of the Diesel engine.- Areas of use for Diesel engines.- Basic principles of the Diesel engine.- Basic principles of Diesel fuel-injection.- Basic principles of the gasoline engine.- Inductive ignition system.- Transmissions for motor vehicles.- Motor vehicle safety.- Basic principles of vehicle dynamics.- Car braking systems.- Vehicle electrical systems.- Overview of electrical and electronic systems in the vehicle.- Control of gasoline engines.- Control of Diesel engines.- Lighting technology.- Elec...

  14. Quantum state engineering in hybrid open quantum systems

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Chaitanya; Larson, Jonas; Spiller, Timothy P.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a possibility to generate nonclassical states in light-matter coupled noisy quantum systems, namely, the anisotropic Rabi and Dicke models. In these hybrid quantum systems, a competing influence of coherent internal dynamics and environment-induced dissipation drives the system into nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). Explicitly, for the anisotropic Rabi model, the steady state is given by an incoherent mixture of two states of opposite parities, but as each parity state disp...

  15. Quantum state engineering in hybrid open quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Chaitanya; Larson, Jonas; Spiller, Timothy P.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate a possibility to generate nonclassical states in light-matter coupled noisy quantum systems, namely, the anisotropic Rabi and Dicke models. In these hybrid quantum systems, a competing influence of coherent internal dynamics and environment-induced dissipation drives the system into nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). Explicitly, for the anisotropic Rabi model, the steady state is given by an incoherent mixture of two states of opposite parities, but as each parity state displays light-matter entanglement, we also find that the full state is entangled. Furthermore, as a natural extension of the anisotropic Rabi model to an infinite spin subsystem, we next explored the NESS of the anisotropic Dicke model. The NESS of this linearized Dicke model is also an inseparable state of light and matter. With an aim to enrich the dynamics beyond the sustainable entanglement found for the NESS of these hybrid quantum systems, we also propose to combine an all-optical feedback strategy for quantum state protection and for establishing quantum control in these systems. Our present work further elucidates the relevance of such hybrid open quantum systems for potential applications in quantum architectures.

  16. Performance optimum analysis of an irreversible molten carbonate fuel cell–Stirling heat engine hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liwei; Zhang, Houcheng; Gao, Songhua; Yan, Huixian

    2014-01-01

    A new hybrid system mainly consists of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and a Stirling heat engine is established, where the Stirling heat engine is driven by the high-quality waste heat generated in the MCFC. Based on the electrochemistry and non-equilibrium thermodynamics, analytical expressions for the efficiency and power output of the hybrid system are derived by taking various irreversible losses into account. It shows that the performance of the MCFC can be greatly enhanced by coupling a Stirling heat engine to further convert the waste heat for power generation. By employing numerical calculations, not only the influences of multiple irreversible losses on the performance of the hybrid system are analyzed, but also the impacts of some operating conditions such as the operating temperature, input gas compositions and operating pressure on the performance of the hybrid system are also discussed. The investigation method in the present paper is feasible for some other similar energy conversion systems as well. - Highlights: • A model of MCFC–Stirling heat engine hybrid system is established. • Analytical expressions for the efficiency and power output are derived. • MCFC performance can be greatly enhanced by coupling a Stirling heat engine. • Effects of some operating conditions on the performance are discussed. • Optimum operation regions are subdivided by multi-objective optimization method

  17. Stirling engine electric hybrid vehicle propulsion system conceptual design study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dochat, G; Artiles, A; Killough, J; Ray, A; Chen, H S

    1978-08-01

    Results of a six-month study to characterize a series Stirling engine electric hybrid vehicle propulsion system are presented. The Stirling engine was selected as the heat conversion element to exploit the high efficiency (> .36), low pollution, multi-fuel and quiet operation of this machine. A free-piston Stirling engine driving a linear alternator in a hermatically sealed enclosure was chosen to gain the reliability, long life, and maintenance free characteristics of a sealed unit. The study performs trade off evaluations, selection of engine, battery, motor and inverter size, optimization of components, and develops a conceptual design and characterization of the total propulsion system. The conclusion of the study is that a Stirling engine electric hybrid propulsion system can be used successfully to augment the battery storage of a passenger vehicle and will result in significant savings of petroleum energy over present passenger vehicles. The performance and range augmentation of the hybrid design results in significant improvements over an all electric vehicle. The hybrid will be capable of performing 99% of the passenger vehicle annual trip distribution requirements with extremely low fuel usage. (TFD)

  18. A Hybrid approach for aeroacoustic analysis of the engine exhaust system

    OpenAIRE

    Sathyanarayana, Y; Munjal, ML

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a new hybrid approach for prediction of noise radiation from engine exhaust systems. It couples the time domain analysis of the engine and the frequency domain analysis of the muffler, and has the advantages of both. In this approach, cylinder/cavity is analyzed in the time domain to calculate the exhaust mass flux history at the exhaust valve by means of the method of characteristics, avoiding the tedious procedure of interpolation at every mesh point and solving a number...

  19. Simulation of hybrid propulsion system using LSRG and single cylinder engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, C.; Ohyama, K.; Wang, W. Q.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays, more and more people are beginning to use hybrid vehicles (HVs). The drive system of HVs needs to produce the electric energy with the electric generator and gearbox powered by an engine. Therefore, the structure becomes complex and the cost is high. To solve this issue, this research proposes a new drive system design that combines the engine and a linear switched reluctance generator (LSRG). When the engine is operating, the LSRG can simultaneously assist the engine’s mechanical output or can generate power to charge the battery. In this research, three research steps are executed. In the first step, the LSRG is designed according to the size of normal engine. Then, finite element analysis is used to get the data of flux linkage and calculate the inductance and translator force. Finally, Simulink models of control system are constructed to verify the performance of LSRG.

  20. Characterization of hybrid lighting systems of the Electrical Engineering Building in the Industrial University of Santander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvis, D.; Exposito, C.; Osma, G.; Amado, L.; Ordóñez, G.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an analysis of hybrid lighting systems of Electrical Engineering Building in the Industrial University of Santander, which is a pilot of green building for warm- tropical conditions. Analysis of lighting performance of inner spaces is based on lighting curves obtained from characterization of daylighting systems of these spaces. A computation tool was made in Excel-Visual Basic to simulate the behaviour of artificial lighting system considering artificial control system, user behaviour and solar condition. Also, this tool allows to estimate the electrical energy consumption of the lighting system for a day, a month and a year.

  1. New high expansion ratio gasoline engine for the TOYOTA hybrid system. Improving engine efficiency with high expansion ratio cycle; Hybrid system yo kobochohi gasoline engine. Kobochohi cycle ni yoru engine no kokoritsuka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, K; Takaoka, T; Ueda, T; Kobayashi, Y [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    50% reduction of CO2 and fuel consumption have been achieved with the newly developed gasoline engine for the Toyota Hybrid System. This is achieved due to the combination of electric motors and the internal combustion engine which is optimized in the size, swept volume and heat cycle. By delaying the intake valve close timing a high expansion ratio (13.5:1) cycle has been realized. Electricmotor assist enable to cut the maximum engine speed, and friction loss. A best fuel consumption figure better than 230 g/kWh has been achieved. Elimination of lightload firing, motor assisted quick start and improvement of catalyst warm up makes to achieve the clean emission level such as 1/10 of Japanese `78 regulation limit. 10 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  2. A Hybrid Approach to Cognitive Engineering: Supporting Development of a Revolutionary Warfighter-Centered Command and Control System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ockerman, Jennifer; McKneely, Jennifer A; Koterba, Nathan

    2005-01-01

    ...) for the requirements analysis and design of revolutionary command and control systems and domains. This hybrid approach uses knowledge elicitation and representation techniques from several current cognitive engineering methodologies...

  3. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  4. A novel bioprinting method and system for forming hybrid tissue engineering constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanjani, Y; Pan, C C; Elomaa, L; Yang, Y

    2015-12-18

    Three dimensional (3D) bioprinting is a promising approach to form tissue engineering constructs (TECs) via positioning biomaterials, growth factors, and cells with controlled spatial distribution due to its layer-by-layer manufacturing nature. Hybrid TECs composed of relatively rigid porous scaffolds for structural and mechanical integrity and soft hydrogels for cell- and growth factor-loading have a tremendous potential to tissue regeneration under mechanical loading. However, despite excessive progress in the field, the current 3D bioprinting techniques and systems fall short in integration of such soft and rigid multifunctional components. Here we present a novel 3D hybrid bioprinting technology (Hybprinter) and its capability enabling integration of soft and rigid components for TECs. Hybprinter employs digital light processing-based stereolithography (DLP-SLA) and molten material extrusion techniques for soft and rigid materials, respectively. In this study, poly-ethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) and poly-(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) were used as a model material for soft hydrogel and rigid scaffold, respectively. It was shown that geometrical accuracy, swelling ratio and mechanical properties of the hydrogel component can be tailored by DLP-SLA module. We have demonstrated the printability of variety of complex hybrid construct designs using Hybprinter technology and characterized the mechanical properties and functionality of such constructs. The compressive mechanical stiffness of a hybrid construct (90% hydrogel) was significantly higher than hydrogel itself (∼6 MPa versus 100 kPa). In addition, viability of cells incorporated within the bioprinted hybrid constructs was determined approximately 90%. Furthermore, a functionality of a hybrid construct composed of porous scaffold with an embedded hydrogel conduit was characterized for vascularized tissue engineering applications. High material diffusion and high cell viability in about 2.5 mm distance

  5. Study of Micro Grid Hybrid System of Photovoltaic and Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novitasari Dwi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has abundant potentials of new and renewable energy that can be used for electricity generation, especially in rural areas which have no access for grid electricity yet. The energy resources can be from solar, water, biomass or biofuel. Many villagers still use diesel generators to produce electricity in their villages. It is considered expensive because fuel price in rural areas increases 2-3 times than the normal price due to transportation cost. Hybrid system using renewable energy resources is one of the solutions to produce electricity in affordable cost for rural area. The idea is to combine diesel generators and photovoltaic toproduce electricity. Moreover, the diesel engine fuel can be replaced with biofuel. This study will analyze the hybrid system in a small scale which consists of 1kWp photovoltaic and 3 kW diesel engine. Electric load power will vary. The system is controlled by a single bidirectional inverter whichconverts power from DC to AC and vice versa

  6. Battery systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahn, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    A complete all-in-one reference on the important interdisciplinary topic of Battery Systems Engineering Focusing on the interdisciplinary area of battery systems engineering, this book provides the background, models, solution techniques, and systems theory that are necessary for the development of advanced battery management systems. It covers the topic from the perspective of basic electrochemistry as well as systems engineering topics and provides a basis for battery modeling for system engineering of electric and hybrid electric vehicle platforms. This original

  7. Novel bio-synthetic hybrid materials and coculture systems for musculoskeletal tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeseung Janice

    Tissue Engineering is a truly exciting field of this age, trying to regenerate and repair impaired tissues. Unlike the old artificial implants, tissue engineering aims at making a long-term functional biological replacement. One strategy for such tissue engineering requires the following three components: cells, scaffolds, and soluble factors. Cells are cultured in a three-dimensional (3D) scaffold with medium containing various soluble factors. Once a tissue is developed in vitro, then it is implanted in vivo. The overall goal of this thesis was to develop novel bio-synthetic hybrid scaffolds and coculture system for musculoskeletal tissue engineering. The most abundant cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) components are collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG), which are the natural scaffold for chondrocytes. As two different peptides, collagen mimetic peptide (CMP) and hyaluronic acid binding peptide (HABPep) were previously shown to bind to collagen and hyaluronic acid (HA) of GAG, respectively, it was hypothesized that immobilizing CMP and HABP on 3D scaffold would results in an interaction between ECM components and synthetic scaffolds via peptide-ECM bindings. CMP or HABPep-conjugated photopolymerizable poly(ethylene oxide) diacrylate (PEODA) hydrogels were synthesized and shown to retain encapsulated collagen or HA, respectively. This result supported that conjugated CMP and HABPep can interact with collagen and HA, respectively, and can serve as biological linkers in 3D synthetic hydrogels. When chondrocytes or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were seeded, cells in CMP-conjugated scaffolds produced significantly more amount of type II collagen and GAG, compared to those in control scaffolds. Moreover, MSCs cultured in CMP-conjugated scaffolds exhibited lower level of hypertrophic markers, cbfa-1 and type X collagen. These results demonstrated that enhanced interaction between collagen and scaffold via CMP improves chondrogenesis of chondrocytes and MSCs and

  8. Engineering Interfacial Energetics: A Novel Hybrid System of Metal Oxide Quantum Dots and Cobalt Complex for Photocatalytic Water Oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Fujun; Shen, Shaohua; Wang, Jian; Guo, Liejin

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A cobalt complex engineers the interfacial energetics of metal oxide quantum dots (n- or p-type) and electrolytes for highly efficient O_2 generation under visible light irradiation. - Highlights: • A noble-metal-free hybrid photocatalytic system using a single-site cobalt catalyst was developed for O_2 generation. • Considerable activity and excellent stability for O_2 production were achieved by this novel system. • CoSlp engineered the QDs/electrolyte interfacical energetics for efficient hole transfer. - Abstract: Here we reported a novel hybrid photocatalytic water oxidation system, containing metal oxide (n-Fe_2O_3 or p-Co_3O_4) quantum dots (QDs) as light harvester, a salophen cobalt(II) complex (CoSlp) as redox catalyst and persulfate (S_2O_8"2"−) as sacrificial electron acceptor, for oxygen generation from fully aqueous solution. The n-Fe_2O_3 QDs/CoSlp and p-Co_3O_4 QDs/CoSlp systems exhibited good O_2 evolution performances, giving turnover numbers (TONs) of ca. 33 and ca. 35 over CoSlp after visible light irradiation for 72 h, respectively. The excellent photocatalytic performance could be ascribed to the efficient hole transfer from QDs to CoSlp catalyst, leading to reduced photogenerated charge recombination, as well as the CoSlp engineered interfacial band bending of QDs, increasing the driving force or decreasing the energy barrier for hole transfer and then benefiting the following O_2 generation at the QDs/electrolyte interface. The present work successfully demonstrated a novel hybrid system for photocatalytic O_2 evolution from fully aqueous solution; and the essential role of cobalt complexes in engineering the interfacial energetics of semiconductors (n- or p-type) and electrolytes could be informative for designing efficient systems for solar water splitting.

  9. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  10. Internal combustion engines in hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de; Beckman, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the use of internal combustion engines in hybrid powertrains is investigated. The substantial difference between the use of internal combustion engines in conventional and in hybrid vehicles mean that engines for hybrid vehicles should be designed specifically for the purpose. At the

  11. Systems for hybrid cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsche, Otmar; Gutmann, Guenter

    Not only sharp competition but also legislation are pushing development of hybrid drive trains. Based on conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, these drive trains offer a wide range of benefits from reduced fuel consumption and emission to multifaceted performance improvements. Hybrid electric drive trains may also facilitate the introduction of fuel cells (FC). The battery is the key component for all hybrid drive trains, as it dominates cost and performance issues. The selection of the right battery technology for the specific automotive application is an important task with an impact on costs of development and use. Safety, power, and high cycle life are a must for all hybrid applications. The greatest pressure to reduce cost is in soft hybrids, where lead-acid embedded in a considerate management presents the cheapest solution, with a considerable improvement in performance needed. From mild to full hybridization, an improvement in specific power makes higher costs more acceptable, provided that the battery's service life is equivalent to the vehicle's lifetime. Today, this is proven for the nickel-metal hydride system. Lithium ion batteries, which make use of a multiple safety concept, and with some development anticipated, provide even better prospects in terms of performance and costs. Also, their scalability permits their application in battery electric vehicles—the basis for better performance and enhanced user acceptance. Development targets for the batteries are discussed with a focus on system aspects such as electrical and thermal management and safety.

  12. Optimization of diesel engine performances for a hybrid wind-diesel system with compressed air energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.; Younes, R.; Basbous, T.; Ilinca, A.; Dimitrova, M.

    2011-01-01

    Electricity supply in remote areas around the world is mostly guaranteed by diesel generators. This relatively inefficient and expensive method is responsible for 1.2 million tons of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in Canada annually. Some low- and high-penetration wind-diesel hybrid systems (WDS) have been experimented in order to reduce the diesel consumption. We explore the re-engineering of current diesel power plants with the introduction of high-penetration wind systems together with compressed air energy storage (CAES). This is a viable alternative to major the overall percentage of renewable energy and reduce the cost of electricity. In this paper, we present the operative principle of this hybrid system, its economic benefits and advantages and we finally propose a numerical model of each of its components. Moreover, we are demonstrating the energy efficiency of the system, particularly in terms of the increase of the engine performance and the reduction of its fuel consumption illustrated and supported by a village in northern Quebec. -- Highlights: → The Wind-Diesel-Compressed Air Storage System (WDCAS) has a very important commercial potential for remote areas. → The WDCAS is conceived like the adaptation of the existing engines at the level of the intake system. → A wind turbine and an air compression and storage system are added on the diesel plant. → This study demonstrates the potential of WDCAS to reduce fuel consumption and increase the efficiency of the diesel engine. → This study demonstrates that we can expect savings which can reach 50%.

  13. Gasoline hybrid pneumatic engine for efficient vehicle powertrain hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova, Zlatina; Maréchal, François

    2015-01-01

    The largest applied convertors in passenger cars are the internal combustion engines – gasoline, diesel, adapted also for operating on alternative fuels and hybrid modes. The number of components that are necessary to realize modern future propulsion system is inexorably increasing. The need for efficiency improvement of the vehicle energy system induces the search for an innovative methodology during the design process. In this article the compressed air is investigated as an innovative solu...

  14. A new hybrid pneumatic combustion engine to improve fuel consumption of wind–Diesel power system for non-interconnected areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basbous, Tammam; Younes, Rafic; Ilinca, Adrian; Perron, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model thermodynamic ideal cycle of a new hybrid pneumaticcombustion engine. ► We optimize commands of all modes and calculate maps of fuel and air consumption. ► We evaluate fuel economy for Wind–Diesel system function of tank volume and wind penetration. ► We find up to 10% of fuel economy i.e. 80 t/year with 100% wind penetration. ► Fuel economy increases with wind penetration and with volume but has asymptotic value. -- Abstract: This paper presents an evaluation of an optimized Hybrid Pneumatic-Combustion Engine (HPCE) concept that permits reducing fuel consumption for electricity production in non-interconnected remote areas, originally equipped with hybrid Wind–Diesel System (WDS). Up to now, most of the studies on the pneumatic hybridization of Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) have dealt with two-stroke pure pneumatic mode. The few studies that have dealt with hybrid pneumatic-combustion four-stroke mode require adding a supplementary valve to charge compressed air in the combustion chamber. This modification means that a new cylinder head should be fabricated. Moreover, those studies focus on spark ignition engines and are not yet validated for Diesel engines. Present HPCE is capable of making a Diesel engine operate under two-stroke pneumatic motor mode, two-stroke pneumatic pump mode and four-stroke hybrid mode, without needing an additional valve in the combustion chamber. This fact constitutes this study’s strength and innovation. The evaluation of the concept is based on ideal thermodynamic cycle modeling. The optimized valve actuation timings for all modes lead to generic maps that are independent of the engine size. The fuel economy is calculated for a known site during a whole year, function of the air storage volume and the wind power penetration rate.

  15. Advanced propulsion system concept for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhate, S.; Chen, H.; Dochat, G.

    1980-01-01

    A series hybrid system, utilizing a free piston Stirling engine with a linear alternator, and a parallel hybrid system, incorporating a kinematic Stirling engine, are analyzed for various specified reference missions/vehicles ranging from a small two passenger commuter vehicle to a van. Parametric studies for each configuration, detail tradeoff studies to determine engine, battery and system definition, short term energy storage evaluation, and detail life cycle cost studies were performed. Results indicate that the selection of a parallel Stirling engine/electric, hybrid propulsion system can significantly reduce petroleum consumption by 70 percent over present conventional vehicles.

  16. Systems Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, William W.

    2016-01-01

    The term “systems engineering” when entered into the Google search page, produces a significant number of results, evidence that systems engineering is recognized as being important for the success of essentially all products. Since most readers of this item will be rather well versed in documents concerning systems engineering, I have elected to share some of the points made on this subject in a document developed by the European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECSS), a component of t...

  17. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  18. Thermogelling chitosan–collagen–bioactive glass nanoparticle hybrids as potential injectable systems for tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Cheisy D.F.; Carvalho, Sandhra M.; Mansur, Herman S., E-mail: hmansur@demet.ufmg.br; Pereira, Marivalda M., E-mail: mpereira@demet.ufmg.br

    2016-01-01

    Recently, stimuli-responsive nanocomposite-derived hydrogels have gained prominence in tissue engineering because they can be applied as injectable scaffolds in bone and cartilage repair. Due to the great potential of these systems, this study aimed to synthesize and characterize novel thermosensitive chitosan-based composites, chemically modified with collagen and reinforced by bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG) on the development of injectable nanohybrids for regenerative medicine applications. Thus, the composite hydrogels were extensively characterized by structural, morphological, rheological, and biological testing. The composites showed thermosensitive response with the gelation temperature at approximately 37 °C, which is compatible with the human body temperature. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated that the chitosan hydrogels exhibited 3D-porous structures, and the incorporation of collagen in the system caused increase on the average pore size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis indicated the main functional groups of each component of the composite system and their chemical interactions forming the scaffold. Moreover, rheological measurements were employed to assess the viscoelastic behavior of the hydrogels as a function of the temperature. The results demonstrated that the addition of collagen and bioactive glass increases the mechanical properties after the gelation process. The addition of 2 wt.% of BG nanoparticles caused an increase of approximately 39% on stiffness compared to pure chitosan and the addition of 30 wt.% collagen caused a further increase on the stiffness by 95%. The cytotoxicity and cell viability of the hydrogels were assessed by MTT and LIVE/DEAD® assays, where the results demonstrated no toxic effect of the composites on the human osteosarcoma cell culture (SAOS) and kidney cells line of human embryo (HEK 293T). Hence, it can be stated that innovative composites were

  19. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments.

  20. Hydrogen hybrid vehicle engine development: Experimental program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Blarigan, P. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A hydrogen fueled engine is being developed specifically for the auxiliary power unit (APU) in a series type hybrid vehicle. Hydrogen is different from other internal combustion (IC) engine fuels, and hybrid vehicle IC engine requirements are different from those of other IC vehicle engines. Together these differences will allow a new engine design based on first principles that will maximize thermal efficiency while minimizing principal emissions. The experimental program is proceeding in four steps: (1) Demonstration of the emissions and the indicated thermal efficiency capability of a standard CLR research engine modified for higher compression ratios and hydrogen fueled operation. (2) Design and test a new combustion chamber geometry for an existing single cylinder research engine, in an attempt to improve on the baseline indicated thermal efficiency of the CLR engine. (3) Design and build, in conjunction with an industrial collaborator, a new full scale research engine designed to maximize brake thermal efficiency. Include a full complement of combustion diagnostics. (4) Incorporate all of the knowledge thus obtained in the design and fabrication, by an industrial collaborator, of the hydrogen fueled engine for the hybrid vehicle power train illustrator. Results of the CLR baseline engine testing are presented, as well as preliminary data from the new combustion chamber engine. The CLR data confirm the low NOx produced by lean operation. The preliminary indicated thermal efficiency data from the new combustion chamber design engine show an improvement relative to the CLR engine. Comparison with previous high compression engine results shows reasonable agreement.

  1. Modeling of hybrid vehicle fuel economy and fuel engine efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei

    "Near-CV" (i.e., near-conventional vehicle) hybrid vehicles, with an internal combustion engine, and a supplementary storage with low-weight, low-energy but high-power capacity, are analyzed. This design avoids the shortcoming of the "near-EV" and the "dual-mode" hybrid vehicles that need a large energy storage system (in terms of energy capacity and weight). The small storage is used to optimize engine energy management and can provide power when needed. The energy advantage of the "near-CV" design is to reduce reliance on the engine at low power, to enable regenerative braking, and to provide good performance with a small engine. The fuel consumption of internal combustion engines, which might be applied to hybrid vehicles, is analyzed by building simple analytical models that reflect the engines' energy loss characteristics. Both diesel and gasoline engines are modeled. The simple analytical models describe engine fuel consumption at any speed and load point by describing the engine's indicated efficiency and friction. The engine's indicated efficiency and heat loss are described in terms of several easy-to-obtain engine parameters, e.g., compression ratio, displacement, bore and stroke. Engine friction is described in terms of parameters obtained by fitting available fuel measurements on several diesel and spark-ignition engines. The engine models developed are shown to conform closely to experimental fuel consumption and motored friction data. A model of the energy use of "near-CV" hybrid vehicles with different storage mechanism is created, based on simple algebraic description of the components. With powertrain downsizing and hybridization, a "near-CV" hybrid vehicle can obtain a factor of approximately two in overall fuel efficiency (mpg) improvement, without considering reductions in the vehicle load.

  2. Modeling of lighting behaviour of a hybrid lighting system in inner spaces of Building of Electrical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, L.; Osma, G.; Villamizar, R.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the modelling of lighting behaviour of a hybrid lighting system - HLS in inner spaces for tropical climate. HLS aims to mitigate the problem of high electricity consumption used by artificial lighting in buildings. These systems integrate intelligently the daylight and artificial light through control strategies. However, selection of these strategies usually depends on expertise of designer and of available budget. In order to improve the selection process of the control strategies, this paper analyses the Electrical Engineering Building (EEB) case, initially modelling of lighting behaviour is established for the HLS of a classroom and an office. This allows estimating the illuminance level of the mixed lighting in the space, and energy consumption by artificial light according to different lighting control techniques, a control strategy based on occupancy and a combination of them. The model considers the concept of Daylight Factor (DF) for the estimating of daylight illuminance on the work plane for tropical climatic conditions. The validation of the model was carried out by comparing the measured and model-estimated indoor illuminances.

  3. Editorial: Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005.......An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005....

  4. Performances Study of a Hybrid Rocket Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian-Nicolae BUTURACHE

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study which analyses the functioning and performances optimization of a hybrid rocket engine based on gaseous oxygen and polybutadiene polymer (HTPB. Calculations were performed with NASA CEA software in order to obtain the parameters resulted following the combustion process. Using these parameters, the main parameters of the hybrid rocket engine were optimized. Using the calculus previously stated, an experimental rocket engine producing 100 N of thrust was pre-dimensioned, followed by an optimization of the rocket engine as a function of several parameters. Having the geometry and the main parameters of the hybrid rocket engine combustion process, numerical simulations were performed in the CFX – ANSYS commercial software, which allowed visualizing the flow field and the jet expansion. Finally, the analytical calculus was validated through numerical simulations.

  5. Hybrid systems with constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Daafouz, Jamal; Sigalotti, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Control theory is the main subject of this title, in particular analysis and control design for hybrid dynamic systems.The notion of hybrid systems offers a strong theoretical and unified framework to cope with the modeling, analysis and control design of systems where both continuous and discrete dynamics interact. The theory of hybrid systems has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade and a large number of diverse and challenging problems have been investigated. Nevertheless, many important mathematical problems remain open.This book is dedicated mainly to

  6. Nitrous Oxide/Paraffin Hybrid Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert; Snyder, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Nitrous oxide/paraffin (N2OP) hybrid rocket engines have been invented as alternatives to other rocket engines especially those that burn granular, rubbery solid fuels consisting largely of hydroxyl- terminated polybutadiene (HTPB). Originally intended for use in launching spacecraft, these engines would also be suitable for terrestrial use in rocket-assisted takeoff of small airplanes. The main novel features of these engines are (1) the use of reinforced paraffin as the fuel and (2) the use of nitrous oxide as the oxidizer. Hybrid (solid-fuel/fluid-oxidizer) rocket engines offer advantages of safety and simplicity over fluid-bipropellant (fluid-fuel/fluid-oxidizer) rocket en - gines, but the thrusts of HTPB-based hybrid rocket engines are limited by the low regression rates of the fuel grains. Paraffin used as a solid fuel has a regression rate about 4 times that of HTPB, but pure paraffin fuel grains soften when heated; hence, paraffin fuel grains can, potentially, slump during firing. In a hybrid engine of the present type, the paraffin is molded into a 3-volume-percent graphite sponge or similar carbon matrix, which supports the paraffin against slumping during firing. In addition, because the carbon matrix material burns along with the paraffin, engine performance is not appreciably degraded by use of the matrix.

  7. A framework for systems engineering research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, L

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This presentation discusses a framework which is proposed to perform systems engineering research within South Africa and the necessity for hybrid research methods in systems engineering....

  8. Hybrid Engine Powered City Car: Fuzzy Controlled Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ataur; Mohiuddin, AKM; Hawlader, MNA; Ihsan, Sany

    2017-03-01

    This study describes a fuzzy controlled hybrid engine powered car. The car is powered by the lithium ion battery capacity of 1000 Wh is charged by the 50 cc hybrid engine and power regenerative mode. The engine is operated with lean mixture at 3000 rpm to charge the battery. The regenerative mode that connects with the engine generates electrical power of 500-600 W for the deceleration of car from 90 km/h to 20 km/h. The regenerated electrical power has been used to power the air-conditioning system and to meet the other electrical power. The battery power only used to propel the car. The regenerative power also found charging the battery for longer operation about 40 minutes and more. The design flexibility of this vehicle starts with whole-vehicle integration based on radical light weighting, drag reduction, and accessory efficiency. The energy efficient hybrid engine cut carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxides (N2O) emission about 70-80% as the loads on the crankshaft such as cam-follower and its associated rotating components are replaced by electromagnetic systems, and the flywheel, alternator and starter motor are replaced by a motor generator. The vehicle was tested and found that it was able to travel 70 km/litre with the power of hybrid engine.

  9. Hybrid Automotive Engine Using Ethanol-Burning Miller Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Leonard

    2004-01-01

    A proposed hybrid (internal-combustion/ electric) automotive engine system would include as its internal-combustion subsystem, a modified Miller-cycle engine with regenerative air preheating and with autoignition like that of a Diesel engine. The fuel would be ethanol and would be burned lean to ensure complete combustion. Although the proposed engine would have a relatively low power-to-weight ratio compared to most present engines, this would not be the problem encountered if this engine were used in a non-hybrid system since hybrid systems require significantly lower power and thus smaller engines than purely internal-combustion-engine-driven vehicles. The disadvantage would be offset by the advantages of high fuel efficiency, low emission of nitrogen oxides and particulate pollutants, and the fact that ethanol is a renewable fuel. The original Miller-cycle engine, named after its inventor, was patented in the 1940s and is the basis of engines used in some modern automobiles, but is not widely known. In somewhat oversimplified terms, the main difference between a Miller-cycle engine and a common (Otto-cycle) automobile engine is that the Miller-cycle engine has a longer expansion stroke while retaining the shorter compression stroke. This is accomplished by leaving the intake valve open for part of the compression stroke, whereas in the Otto cycle engine, the intake valve is kept closed during the entire compression stroke. This greater expansion ratio makes it possible to extract more energy from the combustion process without expending more energy for compression. The net result is greater efficiency. In the proposed engine, the regenerative preheating would be effected by running the intake air through a heat exchanger connected to the engine block. The regenerative preheating would offer two advantages: It would ensure reliable autoignition during operation at low ambient temperature and would help to cool the engine, thereby reducing the remainder of the

  10. New hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardin, B.

    2001-01-01

    New hybrid systems are made up of a subcritical core, a spallation target and a proton accelerator. The neutrons that are produced in the target by the flux of protons are necessary to maintain the chain reaction of fission. Some parameters that are important for a classical nuclear reactor like doppler coefficient or delayed neutron fraction do not matter in a hybrid system. In a PWR-type reactor or in a fast reactor the concentration of actinides has a bad impact on these 2 parameters, so it is justified to study hybrid systems as actinide transmuters. The hybrid system, because of its external source of neutrons can put aside an important reactivity margin. This reactivity margin can be used to design safer nuclear reactors (particularly in some situations of reactivity accidents) or to irradiate fuel elements containing high concentrations of minor actinides that could not be allowed in a classical reactor. This article reviews various ways of integrating hybrid systems in a population of already existing nuclear reactors in order to manage quantities of plutonium, of minor actinides or of long-life fission products. (A.C.)

  11. Hybrid system concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeyro, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid systems studied for fissile material production, were reconsidered for minor actinide and long-lived fission product destruction as alternative to the traditional final disposal of nuclear waste. Now there are attempts to extend the use of the concepts developed for minor actinide incineration to plutonium burning. The most promising hybrid system concept considers fuel and target both as liquids. From the results obtained, the possibility to adopt composite targets seems the most promising solution, but still there remains the problem of Pu production, not acceptable in a burning system. This kind of targets can be mainly used for fissile material production, while for accelerator driven burners it is most convenient to use a liquid lead target. The most suitable solvent is heavy water for minor actinide annihilation in the blanket of a hybrid system. Due to the criticality conditions and the necessity of electric energy production, the blanket using plutonium dissolved in molten salts is the most convenient one. (author)

  12. Fault tolerant control design for hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hao; Jiang, Bin [Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China); Cocquempot, Vincent [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2010-07-01

    This book intends to provide the readers a good understanding on how to achieve Fault Tolerant Control goal of Hybrid Systems. The book can be used as a reference for the academic research on Fault Tolerant Control and Hybrid Systems or used in Ph.D. study of control theory and engineering. The knowledge background for this monograph would be some undergraduate and graduate courses on Fault Diagnosis and Fault Tolerant Control theory, linear system theory, nonlinear system theory, Hybrid Systems theory and Discrete Event System theory. (orig.)

  13. DC Linked Hybrid Generation System with an Energy Storage Device including a Photo-Voltaic Generation and a Gas Engine Cogeneration for Residential Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Chienru; Miyake, Shota; Kakigano, Hiroaki; Miura, Yushi; Ise, Toshifumi; Momose, Toshinari; Hayakawa, Hideki

    For the past few years, a hybrid generation system including solar panel and gas cogeneration is being used for residential houses. Solar panels can generate electronic power at daytime; meanwhile, it cannot generate electronic power at night time. But the power consumption of residential houses usually peaks in the evening. The gas engine cogeneration system can generate electronic power without such a restriction, and it also can generate heat power to warm up house or to produce hot water. In this paper, we propose the solar panel and gas engine co-generation hybrid system with an energy storage device that is combined by dc bus. If a black out occurs, the system still can supply electronic power for special house loads. We propose the control scheme for the system which are related with the charging level of the energy storage device, the voltage of the utility grid which can be applied both grid connected and stand alone operation. Finally, we carried out some experiments to demonstrate the system operation and calculation for loss estimation.

  14. Hybrid Techniques for Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krilavicius, T.

    2006-01-01

    Computer controlled systems are almost omnipresent nowadays. We expect such systems to function properly at any time we need them. The malfunctioning of home electronics just irritates us, but glitches in a car, power plant or medical support system may threaten life, and faults in nuclear missile

  15. Hybrid rocket engine, theoretical model and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelaru, Teodor-Viorel; Mingireanu, Florin

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to build a theoretical model for the hybrid rocket engine/motor and to validate it using experimental results. The work approaches the main problems of the hybrid motor: the scalability, the stability/controllability of the operating parameters and the increasing of the solid fuel regression rate. At first, we focus on theoretical models for hybrid rocket motor and compare the results with already available experimental data from various research groups. A primary computation model is presented together with results from a numerical algorithm based on a computational model. We present theoretical predictions for several commercial hybrid rocket motors, having different scales and compare them with experimental measurements of those hybrid rocket motors. Next the paper focuses on tribrid rocket motor concept, which by supplementary liquid fuel injection can improve the thrust controllability. A complementary computation model is also presented to estimate regression rate increase of solid fuel doped with oxidizer. Finally, the stability of the hybrid rocket motor is investigated using Liapunov theory. Stability coefficients obtained are dependent on burning parameters while the stability and command matrixes are identified. The paper presents thoroughly the input data of the model, which ensures the reproducibility of the numerical results by independent researchers.

  16. Hybrid systems, optimal control and hybrid vehicles theory, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Böhme, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    This book assembles new methods showing the automotive engineer for the first time how hybrid vehicle configurations can be modeled as systems with discrete and continuous controls. These hybrid systems describe naturally and compactly the networks of embedded systems which use elements such as integrators, hysteresis, state-machines and logical rules to describe the evolution of continuous and discrete dynamics and arise inevitably when modeling hybrid electric vehicles. They can throw light on systems which may otherwise be too complex or recondite. Hybrid Systems, Optimal Control and Hybrid Vehicles shows the reader how to formulate and solve control problems which satisfy multiple objectives which may be arbitrary and complex with contradictory influences on fuel consumption, emissions and drivability. The text introduces industrial engineers, postgraduates and researchers to the theory of hybrid optimal control problems. A series of novel algorithmic developments provides tools for solving engineering pr...

  17. Engineering Review Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grems, III, Edward G. (Inventor); Henze, James E. (Inventor); Bixby, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Roberts, Mark (Inventor); Mann, Thomas (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A disciplinal engineering review computer information system and method by defining a database of disciplinal engineering review process entities for an enterprise engineering program, opening a computer supported engineering item based upon the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, managing a review of the opened engineering item according to the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, and closing the opened engineering item according to the opened engineering item review.

  18. Parallel Hybrid Gas-Electric Geared Turbofan Engine Conceptual Design and Benefits Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lents, Charles; Hardin, Larry; Rheaume, Jonathan; Kohlman, Lee

    2016-01-01

    The conceptual design of a parallel gas-electric hybrid propulsion system for a conventional single aisle twin engine tube and wing vehicle has been developed. The study baseline vehicle and engine technology are discussed, followed by results of the hybrid propulsion system sizing and performance analysis. The weights analysis for the electric energy storage & conversion system and thermal management system is described. Finally, the potential system benefits are assessed.

  19. Numerical investigations of hybrid rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betelin, V. B.; Kushnirenko, A. G.; Smirnov, N. N.; Nikitin, V. F.; Tyurenkova, V. V.; Stamov, L. I.

    2018-03-01

    Paper presents the results of numerical studies of hybrid rocket engines operating cycle including unsteady-state transition stage. A mathematical model is developed accounting for the peculiarities of diffusion combustion of fuel in the flow of oxidant, which is composed of oxygen-nitrogen mixture. Three dimensional unsteady-state simulations of chemically reacting gas mixture above thermochemically destructing surface are performed. The results show that the diffusion combustion brings to strongly non-uniform fuel mass regression rate in the flow direction. Diffusive deceleration of chemical reaction brings to the decrease of fuel regression rate in the longitudinal direction.

  20. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnkö, M.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Sere, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time......-derivatives in modelling continuous-time dynamics. The generalized differential action has an intuitively appealing predicate transformer semantics, which we show to be both conjunctive and monotonic. In addition, we show that differential actions blend smoothly with conventional actions in action systems, even under...... parallel composition. Moreover, as the strength of the action system formalism is the support for stepwise development by refinement, we investigate refinement involving a differential action. We show that, due to the predicate transformer semantics, standard action refinement techniques apply also...

  1. Systems engineering simplified

    CERN Document Server

    Cloutier, Robert; Bone, Mary Alice

    2015-01-01

    IntroductionOverviewDiscussion of Common TerminologyThe Case for Systems EngineeringA Brief History of Systems EngineeringSystem ExamplesSummaryThe System Life CycleManaging System Development-The Vee ModelSystem ProductionSystem Utilization and SupportSystem Retirement and DisposalOther Systems Engineering Development ModelsSpiral ModelAgile Model for Systems EngineeringSystem of InterestAbstraction and DecompositionIntegrationDeveloping and Managing RequirementsCyclone Requiremen

  2. Hybrid Propulsion Systems for Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun Abdul Sathar Eqbal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of more efficient propulsion systems for aerospace vehicles is essential to achieve key objectives. These objectives are to increase efficiency while reducing the amount of carbon-based emissions. Hybrid electric propulsion (HEP is an ideal means to maintain the energy density of hydrocarbon-based fuels and utilize energy-efficient electric machines. A system that integrates different propulsion systems into a single system, with one being electric, is termed an HEP system. HEP systems have been studied previously and introduced into Land, Water, and Aerial Vehicles. This work presents research into the use of HEP systems in Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS. The systems discussed in this paper are Internal Combustion Engine (ICE–Electric Hybrid systems, ICE–Photovoltaic (PV Hybrid systems, and Fuel-Cell Hybrid systems. The improved performance characteristics in terms of fuel consumption and endurance are discussed.

  3. General concept of a gas engine for a hybrid vehicle, operating on methanol dissociation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartakovsky, L.; Aleinikov, Y.; Fainberg, V.; Garbar, A.; Gutman, M.; Hetsroni, G.; Schindler, Y.; Zvirin, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents a general concept of a hybrid propulsion system, based on an SI internal combustion engine fueled by methanol dissociation products (MDP). The proposed hybrid propulsion scheme is a series hybrid, which allows the engine to be operated in an on-off mode at constant optimal regime. The engine is fed by gaseous products of methanol dissociation (mainly hydrogen and carbon monoxide) emerging from an on-board catalytic reformer. The general scheme and base operation features of the propulsion system are described. The benefits that may be achieved by combining the well-known idea of on-board methanol dissociation with the hybrid vehicle concept are discussed. The proposed scheme is compared with those of systems operating on gasoline, liquid methanol, hydrogen and also with the multi-regime (not hybrid) engine fed by MDP

  4. Site systems engineering: Systems engineering management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-05-03

    The Site Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) implementation document for the Hanford Site Systems Engineering Policy, (RLPD 430.1) and Systems Engineering Criteria Document and Implementing Directive, (RLID 430.1). These documents define the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) processes and products to be used at Hanford to implement the systems engineering process at the site level. This SEMP describes the products being provided by the site systems engineering activity in fiscal year (FY) 1996 and the associated schedule. It also includes the procedural approach being taken by the site level systems engineering activity in the development of these products and the intended uses for the products in the integrated planning process in response to the DOE policy and implementing directives. The scope of the systems engineering process is to define a set of activities and products to be used at the site level during FY 1996 or until the successful Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) is onsite as a result of contract award from Request For Proposal DE-RP06-96RL13200. Following installation of the new contractor, a long-term set of systems engineering procedures and products will be defined for management of the Hanford Project. The extent to which each project applies the systems engineering process and the specific tools used are determined by the project`s management.

  5. Specification and Verification of Hybrid System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widjaja, Belawati H.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid systems are reactive systems which intermix between two components, discrete components and continuous components. The continuous components are usually called plants, subject to disturbances which cause the state variables of the systems changing continuously by physical laws and/or by the control laws. The discrete components can be digital computers, sensor and actuators controlled by programs. These programs are designed to select, control and supervise the behavior of the continuous components. Specification and verification of hybrid systems has recently become an active area of research in both computer science and control engineering, many papers concerning hybrid system have been published. This paper gives a design methodology for hybrid systems as an example to the specification and verification of hybrid systems. The design methodology is based on the cooperation between two disciplines, control engineering and computer science. The methodology brings into the design of control loops and decision loops. The external behavior of control loops are specified in a notation which is understandable by the two disciplines. The design of control loops which employed theory of differential equation is done by control engineers, and its correctness is also guaranteed analytically or experimentally by control engineers. The decision loops are designed in computing science based on the specifications of control loops. The verification of systems requirements can be done by computing scientists using a formal reasoning mechanism. For illustrating the proposed design, a problem of balancing an inverted pendulum which is a popular experiment device in control theory is considered, and the Mean Value Calculus is chosen as a formal notation for specifying the control loops and designing the decision loops

  6. Chemical-text hybrid search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingyao; Zhou, Bin; Jiang, Shumei; King, Frederick J

    2010-01-01

    As the amount of chemical literature increases, it is critical that researchers be enabled to accurately locate documents related to a particular aspect of a given compound. Existing solutions, based on text and chemical search engines alone, suffer from the inclusion of "false negative" and "false positive" results, and cannot accommodate diverse repertoire of formats currently available for chemical documents. To address these concerns, we developed an approach called Entity-Canonical Keyword Indexing (ECKI), which converts a chemical entity embedded in a data source into its canonical keyword representation prior to being indexed by text search engines. We implemented ECKI using Microsoft Office SharePoint Server Search, and the resultant hybrid search engine not only supported complex mixed chemical and keyword queries but also was applied to both intranet and Internet environments. We envision that the adoption of ECKI will empower researchers to pose more complex search questions that were not readily attainable previously and to obtain answers at much improved speed and accuracy.

  7. Hybrid powertrain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Ricardo C.; O'Neil, Walter K.; Preston, David M.

    2005-09-20

    A hybrid powertrain system is provided that includes a first prime mover having a rotational output, a second prime mover having a rotational output, and a transmission having a main shaft supporting at least two main shaft gears thereon. The transmission includes a first independent countershaft drivingly connected to the first prime mover and including at least one ratio gear supported thereon that meshes with a respective main shaft gear. A second independent countershaft is drivingly connected to the second prime mover and includes at least one ratio gear supported thereon that meshes with a respective main shaft gear. The ratio gears on the first and second countershafts cooperate with the main shaft gears to provide at least one gear ratio between the first and second countershafts and the main shaft. A shift control mechanism selectively engages and disengages the first and second countershafts for rotation with the main shaft.

  8. Dueco Plug-In Hybrid Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillip Eidler

    2011-09-30

    Dueco, a final stage manufacture of utility trucks, was awarded a congressionally directed cost shared contract to develop, test, validate, and deploy several PHEV utility trucks. Odyne will be the primary subcontractor responsible for all aspects of the hybrid system including its design and installation on a truck chassis. Key objectives in this program include developing a better understanding of the storage device and system capability; improve aspects of the existing design, optimization of system and power train components, and prototype evaluation. This two year project will culminate in the delivery of at least five vehicles for field evaluation.

  9. Solar engine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, K.K.; Bahrom Sanugi; Chen, L.C.; Chong, K.K.; Jasmy Yunus; Kannan, K.S.; Lim, B.H.; Noriah Bidin; Omar Aliman; Sahar Salehan; Sheikh Ab Rezan Sheikh A H; Tam, C.M.; Chen, Y.T.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the revolutionary solar engine system in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). The solar engine is a single cylinder stirling engine driven by solar thermal energy. A first prototype solar engine has been built and demonstrated. A new-concept non-imaging focusing heliostat and a recently invented optical receiver are used in the demonstration. Second generation of prototype solar engine is described briefly. In this paper, the solar engine system development is reported. Measurement for the first prototype engine speed, temperature and specifications are presented. The benefits and potential applications for the future solar engine system, especially for the electricity generating aspect are discussed. (Author)

  10. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  11. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  12. Modular supervisory controller for hybrid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos Pereira, A. de

    2000-06-01

    The power supply of remote places has been commonly provided by thermal power plants, usually diesel generators. Although hybrid power systems may constitute the most economical solution in many applications their widespread application to the electrification schemes of remote areas still depends on improvements in the issues of design and operation control. The main limitations of the present hybrid power systems technology, which are identified in this work, are related to the control and supervision of the power system. Therefore this thesis focuses on the modularity of supervisory controllers in order to design cost-competitive and reliable hybrid power systems. The modular supervisory controller created in this project is considered an important part of a system design approach that aims to overcome the technical difficulties of the current engineering practice and contribute to open the market of hybrid power systems. The term modular refers to a set of design characteristics that allows the use of basically the same supervisory controller in different projects. The modularization and standardisation of the controller include several issues such as interfacing components, communication protocols, modelling, programming and control strategies. The modularity can reduce the highly specialised system engineering related to the integration of components, operation and control. It can also avoid the high costs for installation, service and maintenance. A modular algorithm for supervisory controllers has been developed (a Matlab program called SuperCon) using an object-oriented design and it has been tested through several simulations using different hybrid system configurations and different control strategies. This thesis presents a complete control system design process which can be used as the basis for the development and implementation of intelligent and autonomous supervisory controllers for hybrid power systems with modular characteristics. (au)

  13. NASA systems engineering handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishko, Robert; Aster, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; McDuffee, Patrick; Pieniazek, Les; Rowell, Tom; Bain, Beth; Cox, Renee I.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou

    1995-06-01

    This handbook brings the fundamental concepts and techniques of systems engineering to NASA personnel in a way that recognizes the nature of NASA systems and environment. It is intended to accompany formal NASA training courses on systems engineering and project management when appropriate, and is designed to be a top-level overview. The concepts were drawn from NASA field center handbooks, NMI's/NHB's, the work of the NASA-wide Systems Engineering Working Group and the Systems Engineering Process Improvement Task team, several non-NASA textbooks and guides, and material from independent systems engineering courses taught to NASA personnel. Five core chapters cover systems engineering fundamentals, the NASA Project Cycle, management issues in systems engineering, systems analysis and modeling, and specialty engineering integration. It is not intended as a directive.

  14. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    OpenAIRE

    Renuganth Varatharajoo; Ramly Ajir; Tamizi Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS) consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl...

  15. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuganth Varatharajoo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.

  16. Control system for a hybrid powertrain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Ali K.; Demirovic, Besim; Gupta, Pinaki; Kaminsky, Lawrence A.

    2014-09-09

    A vehicle includes a powertrain with an engine, first and second torque machines, and a hybrid transmission. A method for operating the vehicle includes operating the engine in an unfueled state, releasing an off-going clutch which when engaged effects operation of the hybrid transmission in a first continuously variable mode, and applying a friction braking torque to a wheel of the vehicle to compensate for an increase in an output torque of the hybrid transmission resulting from releasing the off-going clutch. Subsequent to releasing the off-going clutch, an oncoming clutch which when engaged effects operation of the hybrid transmission in a second continuously variable mode is synchronized. Subsequent to synchronization of the oncoming clutch, the oncoming clutch is engaged.

  17. Advanced propulsion system for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrup, L. V.; Lintz, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    A number of hybrid propulsion systems were evaluated for application in several different vehicle sizes. A conceptual design was prepared for the most promising configuration. Various system configurations were parametrically evaluated and compared, design tradeoffs performed, and a conceptual design produced. Fifteen vehicle/propulsion systems concepts were parametrically evaluated to select two systems and one vehicle for detailed design tradeoff studies. A single hybrid propulsion system concept and vehicle (five passenger family sedan)were selected for optimization based on the results of the tradeoff studies. The final propulsion system consists of a 65 kW spark-ignition heat engine, a mechanical continuously variable traction transmission, a 20 kW permanent magnet axial-gap traction motor, a variable frequency inverter, a 386 kg lead-acid improved state-of-the-art battery, and a transaxle. The system was configured with a parallel power path between the heat engine and battery. It has two automatic operational modes: electric mode and heat engine mode. Power is always shared between the heat engine and battery during acceleration periods. In both modes, regenerative braking energy is absorbed by the battery.

  18. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D [Lenoir City, TN; Earl, Dennis D [Knoxville, TN; Beshears, David L [Knoxville, TN; Maxey, Lonnie C [Powell, TN; Jordan, John K [Oak Ridge, TN; Lind, Randall F [Lenoir City, TN

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  19. Towards Modelling of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal

    2006-01-01

    system consists of a number of dynamical systems that are glued together according to information encoded in the discrete part of the system. We develop a definition of a hybrid system as a functor from the category generated by a transition system to the category of directed topological spaces. Its...

  20. Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop a unique Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) to achieve a safe, highly-reliable, low-cost and uniquely versatile propulsion...

  1. Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC) proposes to develop a unique Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) to achieve a highly-reliable, low-cost and...

  2. Advanced engineering materials and thick film hybrid circuit technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faisal, S.; Aslam, M.; Mehmood, K.

    2006-01-01

    The use of Thick Film hybrid Technology to manufacture electronic circuits and passive components continues to grow at rapid rate. Thick Film Technology can be viewed as a means of packaging active devices, spanning the gap between monolithic integrated circuit chips and printed circuit boards with attached active and passive components. An advancement in engineering materials has moved from a formulating art to a base of greater understanding of relationship of material chemistry to the details of electrical and mechanical performance. This amazing advancement in the field of engineering materials has brought us up to a magnificent standard that we are able to manufacture small size, low cost and sophisticated electronic circuits of Military, Satellite systems, Robotics, Medical and Telecommunications. (author)

  3. Systems Engineering Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Serna M.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The challenges proposed by the development of the new computer systems demand new guidance related to engineer´s education, because they will solve these problems. In the XXI century, system engineers must be able to integrate a number of topics and knowledge disciplines that complement that traditionally has been known as Computer Systems Engineering. We have enough software development engineers, today we need professional engineers for software integration, leaders and system architects that make the most of the technological development for the benefit of society, leaders that integrate sciences to the solutions they build and propose. In this article the current situation of Computer Systems Engineering is analyzed and is presented a theory proposing the need for modifying the approach Universities have given to these careers, to achieve the education of leader engineers according to the needs of this century.

  4. Systems engineering research

    OpenAIRE

    Sahraoui , Abd-El-Kader; Buede , Dennis ,; Sage , Andrew ,

    2008-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we propose selected research topics that are believed central to progress and growth in the application of systems engineering (SE). As a professional activity, and as an intellectual activity, systems engineering has strong links to such associated disciplines as decision analysis, operation research, project management, quality management, and systems design. When focussing on systems engineering research, we should distinguish between subjects that ar...

  5. CDMA systems capacity engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiseon

    2004-01-01

    This new hands-on resource tackles capacity planning and engineering issues that are crucial to optimizing wireless communication systems performance. Going beyond the system physical level and investigating CDMA system capacity at the service level, this volume is the single-source for engineering and analyzing systems capacity and resources.

  6. Small Hybrid Solar Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, El Hadj Malick; Larrain, Diego; Favrat, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel of mini-hybrid solar power plant integrating a field of solar concentrators, two superposed Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) and a (bio)Diesel engine. Turbines for the organic Rankine Cycles are hermetic scroll expander-generators. Sun tracking solar collectors are composed of rows of flat mirror bands (CEP) arranged in a plane, which focus the solar energy onto a collector tube similar to those used in SEGS plant in California. The wast...

  7. Small Hybrid Solar Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, El Hadj Malick; Favrat, Daniel; Larrain, Diego; Allani, Yassine

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel of mini-hybrid solar power plant integrating a field of solar concentrators, two superposed Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) and a (bio)Diesel engine. Turbines for the organic Rankine Cycles are hermetic scroll expander-generators. Sun tracking solar collectors are composed of rows of flat mirror bands (CEP) arranged in a plane, which focus the solar energy onto a collector tube similar to those used in SEGS plant in California. The waste heat from both...

  8. Systems Engineering Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Project Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is to define and establish the MRS Project Systems Engineering process that implements the approved policy and requirements of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This plan is Volume 5 of the MRS Project Management Plan (PMP). This plan provides the framework for implementation of systems engineering on the MRS Project consistent with DOE Order 4700.1, the OCRWM Program Management System Manual (PMSM), and the OCRWM Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP)

  9. Performance of a hybrid hydrogen–gasoline engine under various operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Changwei; Wang, Shuofeng; Zhang, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We develop a combustion strategy for the hybrid hydrogen–gasoline engine (HHGE). ► The HHGE produced much lower HC and CO emissions at cold start. ► The H 2 -gasoline blends were effective for improving engine performance at idle and part loads. ► The HHGE could run smoothly at lean conditions. -- Abstract: This paper proposed a new combustion strategy for the spark-ignited (SI) engines. A gasoline engine was converted into a hybrid hydrogen–gasoline engine (HHGE) by adding a hydrogen injection system and a hybrid electronic control unit. Different from the conventional gasoline and hydrogen–enriched gasoline engines, the HHGE is fueled with the pure hydrogen at cold start to produce almost zero emissions, with the hydrogen–gasoline blends at idle and part loads to further improve thermal efficiency and reduce emissions, and with the pure gasoline to ensure the engine power output at high loads. Because the HHGE is fueled with the pure gasoline at high loads and speeds, experiments are only conducted at clod start, idle and part load conditions. Since lean combustion avails the further improvement of the engine performance, the HHGE was fueled with the lean mixtures in all tests. The experimental results showed that the hybrid hydrogen–gasoline engine was started successfully with the pure hydrogen, which produced 94.7% and 99.5% reductions in HC and CO emissions within 100 s from the onset of the cold start, compared with the original gasoline engine. At an excess air ratio of 1.37 and idle conditions, indicated thermal efficiency of the 3% hydrogen–blended gasoline engine was 46.3% higher than that of the original engine. Moreover, the engine cyclic variation was eased, combustion duration was shortened and HC, CO and NOx emissions were effectively reduced for the hybrid hydrogen–gasoline engines.

  10. Unified Engineering Software System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, L. R.; Gordon, S.; Peltzman, A.; Dube, M.

    1989-01-01

    Collection of computer programs performs diverse functions in prototype engineering. NEXUS, NASA Engineering Extendible Unified Software system, is research set of computer programs designed to support full sequence of activities encountered in NASA engineering projects. Sequence spans preliminary design, design analysis, detailed design, manufacturing, assembly, and testing. Primarily addresses process of prototype engineering, task of getting single or small number of copies of product to work. Written in FORTRAN 77 and PROLOG.

  11. Compositional Modelling of Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strubbe, S.N.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis we present a modelling framework for compositional modelling of stochastic hybrid systems. Hybrid systems consist of a combination of continuous and discrete dynamics. The state space of a hybrid system is hybrid in the sense that it consists of a continuous component and a discrete

  12. Advanced hybrid vehicle propulsion system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, R.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of a study of an advanced heat engine/electric automotive hybrid propulsion system. The system uses a rotary stratified charge engine and ac motor/controller in a parallel hybrid configuration. The three tasks of the study were (1) parametric studies involving five different vehicle types, (2) design trade-off studies to determine the influence of various vehicle and propulsion system paramaters on system performance fuel economy and cost, and (3) a conceptual design establishing feasibility at the selected approach. Energy consumption for the selected system was .034 1/km (61.3 mpg) for the heat engine and .221 kWh/km (.356 kWh/mi) for the electric power system over a modified J227 a schedule D driving cycle. Life cycle costs were 7.13 cents/km (11.5 cents/mi) at $2/gal gasoline and 7 cents/kWh electricity for 160,000 km (100,000 mi) life.

  13. Formal Description of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chaochen; Ji, Wang; Ravn, Anders P.

    1996-01-01

    A language to describe hybrid systems, i.e. networks of communicating discrete and continuous processes, is proposed. A semantics of the language is given in Extended Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic with a proof system that allows reasoning in mathematical analysis about continuous ...

  14. NASA Systems Engineering Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshorn, Steven R.; Voss, Linda D.; Bromley, Linda K.

    2017-01-01

    The update of this handbook continues the methodology of the previous revision: a top-down compatibility with higher level Agency policy and a bottom-up infusion of guidance from the NASA practitioners in the field. This approach provides the opportunity to obtain best practices from across NASA and bridge the information to the established NASA systems engineering processes and to communicate principles of good practice as well as alternative approaches rather than specify a particular way to accomplish a task. The result embodied in this handbook is a top-level implementation approach on the practice of systems engineering unique to NASA. Material used for updating this handbook has been drawn from many sources, including NPRs, Center systems engineering handbooks and processes, other Agency best practices, and external systems engineering textbooks and guides. This handbook consists of six chapters: (1) an introduction, (2) a systems engineering fundamentals discussion, (3) the NASA program project life cycles, (4) systems engineering processes to get from a concept to a design, (5) systems engineering processes to get from a design to a final product, and (6) crosscutting management processes in systems engineering. The chapters are supplemented by appendices that provide outlines, examples, and further information to illustrate topics in the chapters. The handbook makes extensive use of boxes and figures to define, refine, illustrate, and extend concepts in the chapters.

  15. Nuclear propulsion systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.: Van Haaften, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program of the 1960's and early 1970's was dramatically successful, with no major failures during the entire testing program. This success was due in large part to the successful development of a systems engineering process. Systems engineering, properly implemented, involves all aspects of the system design and operation, and leads to optimization of theentire system: cost, schedule, performance, safety, reliability, function, requirements, etc. The process must be incorporated from the very first and continued to project completion. This paper will discuss major aspects of the NERVA systems engineering effort, and consider the implications for current nuclear propulsion efforts

  16. Hybrid2 - The hybrid power system simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.; Green, H.J.; Dijk, V.A.P. van [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Manwell, J.F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Hybrid rocket engine research program at Ryerson University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpynczyk, J.; Greatrix, D.R. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Hybrid rocket engines (HREs) are a combination of solid and liquid propellant rocket engine designs. A solid fuel grain is located in the main combustion chamber and nozzle aft, while a stored liquid or gaseous oxidizer source supplies the required oxygen content through a throttle valve, for combustion downstream in the main chamber. HREs have drawn significant interest in certain flight applications, as they can be advantageous in terms of cost, ease and safety in storage, controllability in flight, and availability of propellant constituents. Key factors that will lead to further practical usage of HREs for flight applications are their predictability and reproducibility of operational performance. This paper presented information on studies being conducted at Ryerson University aimed at analyzing and testing the performance of HREs. It discussed and illustrated the conventional HRE and analyzed engine performance considerations such as the fuel regression rate, mass flux about the fuel surface, burning rate, and zero transformation parameter. Other factors relating to HRE performance that were presented included induced forward and aft oxidizer flow swirl effects as a means for augmenting the fuel regression rate, stoichiometric grain length issues, and feed system stability. Last, the paper presented a simplified schematic diagram of a proposed thrust/test stand for HRE test firings. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Compact Hybrid Automotive Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.

    1986-01-01

    Power train proposed for experimental vehicle powered by internal combustion engine and electric motor. Intended for front-wheel drive automobile, power train mass produced using existing technology. System includes internal-combustion engine, electric motor, continuously variable transmission, torque converter, differential, and control and adjustment systems for electric motor and transmission. Continuously variable transmission integrated into hydraulic system that also handles power steering and power brakes. Batteries for electric motor mounted elsewhere in vehicle.

  19. Approaches to Low Fuel Regression Rate in Hybrid Rocket Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Pastrone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid rocket engines are promising propulsion systems which present appealing features such as safety, low cost, and environmental friendliness. On the other hand, certain issues hamper the development hoped for. The present paper discusses approaches addressing improvements to one of the most important among these issues: low fuel regression rate. To highlight the consequence of such an issue and to better understand the concepts proposed, fundamentals are summarized. Two approaches are presented (multiport grain and high mixture ratio which aim at reducing negative effects without enhancing regression rate. Furthermore, fuel material changes and nonconventional geometries of grain and/or injector are presented as methods to increase fuel regression rate. Although most of these approaches are still at the laboratory or concept scale, many of them are promising.

  20. Optomechanical systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kasunic, Keith J

    2015-01-01

    Covers the fundamental principles behind optomechanical design This book emphasizes a practical, systems-level overview of optomechanical engineering, showing throughout how the requirements on the optical system flow down to those on the optomechanical design. The author begins with an overview of optical engineering, including optical fundamentals as well as the fabrication and alignment of optical components such as lenses and mirrors. The concepts of optomechanical engineering are then applied to the design of optical systems, including the structural design of mechanical and optical co

  1. Rotary engine cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Charles (Inventor); Gigon, Richard M. (Inventor); Blum, Edward J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A rotary engine has a substantially trochoidal-shaped housing cavity in which a rotor planetates. A cooling system for the engine directs coolant along a single series path consisting of series connected groups of passages. Coolant enters near the intake port, passes downwardly and axially through the cooler regions of the engine, then passes upwardly and axially through the hotter regions. By first flowing through the coolest regions, coolant pressure is reduced, thus reducing the saturation temperature of the coolant and thereby enhancing the nucleate boiling heat transfer mechanism which predominates in the high heat flux region of the engine during high power level operation.

  2. Constructing decidable hybrid systems with velocity bounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belta, C.; Habets, L.C.G.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the question of bi-similarity between hybrid systems and their discrete quotients is studied from a new point of view. We consider two classes of hybrid systems: piecewise affine hybrid systems on simplices and piecewise multi-affine systems on multi-dimensional rectangles. Given a

  3. Systems Engineering Workshops | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workshops Systems Engineering Workshops The Wind Energy Systems Engineering Workshop is a biennial topics relevant to systems engineering and the wind industry. The presentations and agendas are available for all of the Systems Engineering Workshops: The 1st NREL Wind Energy Systems Engineering Workshop

  4. Experimental studies of the air hybrid engine charging operation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, H; Ma, T; Lee, CY

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, theoretical and modelling studies have been carried out on the feasibility and potential of novel mild air hybrid engine concepts based on production components. These mild air hybrid concepts are able to convert vehicle brake energy into pneumatic energy in the form of compressed air stored in the air tank. The compressed air can then be used to crank-start the engine by either injecting and expanding in the cylinder or driving a production air starter. Thus, the reg...

  5. Systems engineering management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, C.W.

    1985-10-01

    The purpose of this Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is to prescribe the systems engineering procedures to be implemented at the Program level and the minimum requirements for systems engineering at the Program-element level. The Program level corresponds to the Director, OCRWM, or to the organizations within OCRWM to which the Director delegates responsibility for the development of the System and for coordinating and integrating the activities at the Program-element level. The Office of Policy and Outreach (OPO) and the Office of Resource Management (ORM) support the Director at the Program level. The Program-element level corresponds to the organizations within OCRWM (i.e., the Office of Geologic Repositories (OGR) and the Office of Storage and Transportation Systems (OSTS)) with overall responsibility for developing the System elements - that is, the mined geologic disposal system (MGDS), monitored retrievable storage (MRS) (if approved by Congress), and the transportation system

  6. Hybrid expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoukalas, L.; Ikonomopoulos, A.; Uhrig, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology that couples rule-based expert systems using fuzzy logic, to pre-trained artificial neutral networks (ANN) for the purpose of transient identification in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). In order to provide timely concise, and task-specific information about the may aspects of the transient and to determine the state of the system based on the interpretation of potentially noisy data a model-referenced approach is utilized. In it, the expert system performs the basic interpretation and processing of the model data, and pre-trained ANNs provide the model. having access to a set of neural networks that typify general categories of transients, the rule based system is able to perform identification functions. Membership functions - condensing information about a transient in a form convenient for a rule-based identification system characterizing a transient - are the output of neural computations. This allows the identification function to be performed with a speed comparable to or faster than that of the temporal evolution of the system. Simulator data form major secondary system pipe rupture is used to demonstrate the methodology. The results indicate excellent noise-tolerance for ANN's and suggest a new method for transient identification within the framework of Fuzzy Logic

  7. Optimal Control of Engine Warmup in Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Reeven Vital

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An Internal Combustion Engine (ICE under cold conditions experiences increased friction losses due to a high viscosity of the lubricant. With the additional control freedom present in hybrid electric vehicles, the losses during warmup can be minimized and fuel can be saved. In this paper, firstly, a control-oriented model of the ICE, describing the warmup behavior, is developed and validated on measured vehicle data. Secondly, the two-state, non-autonomous fuel optimization, for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle with stop-start functionality, is solved using optimal control theory. The principal behavior of the Lagrange multipliers is explicitly derived, including the discontinuities (jumps that are caused by the constraints on the lubricant temperature and the energy in the battery system. The minimization of the Hamiltonian for this two-state problem is also explicitly solved, resulting in a computationally efficient algorithm. The optimal controller shows the fuel benefit, as a function of the initial temperature, for a long-haul truck simulated on the FTP-75.

  8. Combinatorial Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Wisniewski, Rafal; Grunnet, Jacob Deleuran

    2008-01-01

    indicates for a given face the future simplex. In the suggested definition we allow nondeterminacy in form of splitting and merging of solution trajectories. The combinatorial vector field gives rise to combinatorial counterparts of most concepts from dynamical systems, such as duals to vector fields, flow......, flow lines, fixed points and Lyapunov functions. Finally it will be shown how this theory extends to switched dynamical systems and an algorithmic overview of how to do supervisory control will be shown towards the end....

  9. Model Reduction of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza

    gramians. Generalized gramians are the solutions to the observability and controllability Lyapunov inequalities. In the first framework the projection matrices are found based on the common generalized gramians. This framework preserves the stability of the original switched system for all switching...... is guaranteed to be preserved for arbitrary switching signal. To compute the common generalized gramians linear matrix inequalities (LMI’s) need to be solved. These LMI’s are not always feasible. In order to solve the problem of conservatism, the second framework is presented. In this method the projection......High-Technological solutions of today are characterized by complex dynamical models. A lot of these models have inherent hybrid/switching structure. Hybrid/switched systems are powerful models for distributed embedded systems design where discrete controls are applied to continuous processes...

  10. Hybrid vehicle turbine engine technology support (HVTE-TS) project. 1995--1996 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report presents a summary of technical work accomplished on the Hybrid Vehicle Turbine Engine--Technology Support (HVTE-TS) Project during calendar years 1995 and 1996. Work was performed under an initial National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contract DEN3-336. As of September 1996 the contract administration was transferred to the US Department of Energy (DoE) Chicago Operations Office, and renumbered as DE-AC02-96EE50553. The purpose of the HVTE-TS program is to develop gas turbine engine technology in support of DoE and automotive industry programs exploring the use of gas turbine generator sets in hybrid-electric automotive propulsion systems. The program focus is directed to the development of four key technologies to be applied to advanced turbogenerators for hybrid vehicles: Structural ceramic materials and processes; Low emissions combustion systems; Regenerators and seals systems; and Insulation systems and processes. 60 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Control system and method for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamor, Michael Alan

    2001-03-06

    Several control methods are presented for application in a hybrid electric vehicle powertrain including in various embodiments an engine, a motor/generator, a transmission coupled at an input thereof to receive torque from the engine and the motor generator coupled to augment torque provided by the engine, an energy storage device coupled to receive energy from and provide energy to the motor/generator, an engine controller (EEC) coupled to control the engine, a transmission controller (TCM) coupled to control the transmission and a vehicle system controller (VSC) adapted to control the powertrain.

  12. Development of hybrid system for mass productive passenger car; Joyoshayo ryosangata hybrid system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, S; Sasaki, S; Matsui, H; Kubo, K [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The Toyota Hybrid System has two power sources which engage depending on driving conditions. An improved efficiency gasoline engine provides the main power to drive the wheels, as in conventional automobiles. Drive power can also be supplied by an electric motor, which derives its electricity from a battery and a Generator. Fuel efficiency is further boosted by other measures, such as automatically cutting the engine when the vehicle is at a stop and regenerating the energy accumulate during deceleration. Compared with conventional vehicles with a 1.5-liter engine running in 10 {center_dot} 15 mode, the CO2 emissions are reduced by half. Moreover, with the use of a motor to reduce engine load during acceleration, HC, CO, and NOx emissions are cut significantly low levels. 13 figs.

  13. Energy production systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, Thomas Howard

    2017-01-01

    Energy Production Systems Engineering presents IEEE, Electrical Apparatus Service Association (EASA), and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards of engineering systems and equipment in utility electric generation stations. Electrical engineers that practice in the energy industry must understand the specific characteristics of electrical and mechanical equipment commonly applied to energy production and conversion processes, including the mechanical and chemical processes involved, in order to design, operate and maintain electrical systems that support and enable these processes. To aid this understanding, Energy Production Systems Engineeringdescribes the equipment and systems found in various types of utility electric generation stations. This information is accompanied by examples and practice problems. It also addresses common issues of electrical safety that arise in electric generation stations.

  14. System Reliability Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Tae Jin

    2005-02-01

    This book tells of reliability engineering, which includes quality and reliability, reliability data, importance of reliability engineering, reliability and measure, the poisson process like goodness of fit test and the poisson arrival model, reliability estimation like exponential distribution, reliability of systems, availability, preventive maintenance such as replacement policies, minimal repair policy, shock models, spares, group maintenance and periodic inspection, analysis of common cause failure, and analysis model of repair effect.

  15. Hybrid synchronization of hyperchaotic Lu system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we study the hybrid synchronization between two identical hyperchaotic Lu systems. Hybrid synchronization of hyperchaotic Lu system is achieved through synchronization of two pairs of states and anti-synchronization of the other two pairs of states. Active controls are designed to achieve hybrid ...

  16. Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration methods and systems for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.

    2010-10-12

    A control system for controlling regeneration of a particulate filter for a hybrid vehicle is provided. The system generally includes a regeneration module that controls current to the particulate filter to initiate regeneration. An engine control module controls operation of an engine of the hybrid vehicle based on the control of the current to the particulate filter.

  17. Systems Engineering Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, John

    2016-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of the fundamentals and principles of Systems Engineering (SE). This includes understanding the processes that are used to assist the engineer in a successful design, build and implementation of solutions. The context of this presentation will be to describe the involvement of SE throughout the life-cycle of a project from cradle to grave. Due to the ever growing number of complex technical problems facing our world, a Systems Engineering approach is desirable for many reasons. The interdisciplinary technical structure of current systems, technical processes representing System Design, Technical Management and Product Realization are instrumental in the development and integration of new technologies into mainstream applications. This tutorial will demonstrate the application of SE tools to these types of problems..

  18. Systems and Control Engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 5. Systems and Control Engineering - Control Systems-Analysis and Design. A Rama Kalyan J R Vengateswaran. General Article Volume 4 Issue 5 May 1999 pp 88-94 ...

  19. Systems engineering and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchard, Benjamin S

    2010-01-01

    For senior-level undergraduate and first and second year graduate systems engineering and related courses. A total life-cycle approach to systems and their analysis. This practical introduction to systems engineering and analysis provides the concepts, methodologies, models, and tools needed to understand and implement a total life-cycle approach to systems and their analysis. The authors focus first on the process of bringing systems into being--beginning with the identification of a need and extending that need through requirements determination, functional analysis and allocation, design synthesis, evaluation, and validation, operation and support, phase-out, and disposal. Next, the authors discuss the improvement of systems currently in being, showing that by employing the iterative process of analysis, evaluation, feedback, and modification, most systems in existence can be improved in their affordability, effectiveness, and stakeholder satisfaction.

  20. Optimizing the efficiency of a diesel engine for a hybrid wind-diesel experimental validation; Optimisation de l'efficacite du moteur diesel pour un systeme hybride eolien-diesel-validation experimentale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, H.; Dimitrova, M. [TechnoCentre Eolien, Murdochville, PQ (Canada); Ilinca, A. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada); Perron, J. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using a wind-diesel compressed air storage system in large-scale gas turbines at remote sites where a good wind resource is available. Studies have shown that the system can increase the wind energy penetration rate, particularly when combined with a turbo diesel engine. The system increases the power and performance of the diesel engine and reduces fuel consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases greenhouse gases (GHG). This study included a comparison of different technical solutions for the compressed air energy storage system, and described the one that optimized the performance and cost of the overall system. The optimal solution allowed the turbocharger to operate independently of the engine due to the energy provided by the compressed air in the air turbine. Optimization required maximizing the compressor power as an objective function. The energy balance of the engine itself had to be taken into account, along with the turbo charging system. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 16 figs.

  1. Pulsed fission/fusion hybrid engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, G.C.

    1979-01-01

    Research into high-thrust, high-specific impulse rocket engines using energy from nuclear reactions which has been conducted at this organization will be discussed. The engines are all conceptual in nature, yet are within the realization of conventional or near-term technology. The engine concepts under study at Foundation, Inc. are designed to obviate or minimize these negative effects of the ORION scheme. By using non-chemical triggers to initiate a non-breakeven fusion reaction at the core of a target composed of both fission and fusion fuel, it should be possible to employ the fusion neutrons thus produced to begin a fission reaction in U-235 or Pu-239. Since the density of the target can be increased by as much as a factor of 250 through compression of the pellet, the amount of fission material necessary to produce a critical mass can be greatly reduced. (This also means that the amount of fission products produced for a giventhrust level is also reduced from the ORION levels.) Coupling this eeffect to the large number of 14 MeV fusion neutrons produced early in the compression process and subsequently to the heating of some additional fusion fuel surrounding the critical mass leads to the very efficient burnup of the target. This insures both high yield from the target as well as low cost per MJ energy released. Finally, the use of such small pellets allows the scale of the energy released to be tailored to a level usable in rocket engines of a few tens of tons thrust level. (orig.) [de

  2. HYBRID POWER HARVESTER USING ENGINE SOURCE

    OpenAIRE

    Meeran Mydeen, A.Ahmed; Inasu, Kelwin; Venkatesh, M.; Suthesh, C.

    2017-01-01

    In mainly we present a compact, multisource and battery-free energy harvesting from engine source. This battery free generator captures energy from its environment transient thermal gradients as a main source, and vibration as a secondary source allowing early biasing of the generator and stores this energy in ultra-capacitors .In this way, this multi-source architecture benefits from the synergy between energy scavenging and harvesting.

  3. Engineering and physics considerations for a linear theta-pinch hybrid reactor (LTPHR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.; Hagenson, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    A fusion-fission hybrid reactor based on pulsed, high-β, linear theta-pinch magnetic confinement is considered. A preliminary design which incorporates key physics, engineering and economic considerations is presented. An extensive presentation of the system energy balance is made, and this energy balance is evaluated parametrically. The feasibility of end-loss reduction is addressed

  4. The Making of Green Engineers Sustainable Development and the Hybrid Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew

    This book discusses the ways in which engineering educators are responding to the challenges that confront their profession. On the one hand, there is an overarching sustainability challenge: the need for engineers to relate to the problems brought to light in the debates about environmental...... the emergence of new fields of "technosciences" that mix science and technology in new combinations. In the book, the author discusses and exemplifies three contending response strategies on the part of engineers and engineering educators: a commercial strategy that links scientists and engineers into networks...... or systems of innovation; an academic strategy that reasserts the traditional values of science and engineering; and an integrative strategy that aims to combine scientific knowledge and engineering skills with cultural understanding and social responsibility by fostering what the author terms a "hybrid...

  5. IMPULSE CONTROL HYBRID ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the recently introduced approach for modeling and solving the optimal control problem of fixedswitched mode DC-DC power converter. DCDC converters are a class of electric power circuits that used extensively in regulated DC power supplies, DC motor drives of different types, in Photovoltaic Station energy conversion and other applications due to its advantageous features in terms of size, weight and reliable performance. The main problem in controlling this type converters is in their hybrid nature as the switched circuit topology entails different modes of operation, each of it with its own associated linear continuous-time dynamics.This paper analyses the modeling and controller synthesis of the fixed-frequency buck DC-DC converter, in which the transistor switch is operated by a pulse sequence with constant frequency. In this case the regulation of the DC component of the output voltage is via the duty cycle. The optimization of the control system is based on the formation of the control signal at the output.It is proposed to solve the problem of optimal control of a hybrid system based on the formation of the control signal at the output of the controller, which minimizes a given functional integral quality, which is regarded as a linear quadratic Letov-Kalman functional. Search method of optimal control depends on the type of mathematical model of control object. In this case, we consider a linear deterministic model of the control system, which is common for the majority of hybrid electrical systems. For this formulation of the optimal control problem of search is a problem of analytical design of optimal controller, which has the analytical solution.As an example of the hybrid system is considered a step-down switching DC-DC converter, which is widely used in various electrical systems: as an uninterruptible power supply, battery charger for electric vehicles, the inverter in solar photovoltaic power plants.. A

  6. Develop of a quantum electromechanical hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yu; Rouxinol, Francisco; Brito, Frederico; Caldeira, Amir; Irish, Elinor; Lahaye, Matthew

    In this poster, we will show our results from measurements of a hybrid quantum system composed of a superconducting transmon qubit-coupled and ultra-high frequency nano-mechanical resonator, embedded in a superconducting cavity. The transmon is capacitively coupled to a 3.4GHz nanoresonator and a T-filter-biased high-Q transmission line cavity. Single-tone and two-tone transmission spectroscopy measurements are used to probe the interactions between the cavity, qubit and mechanical resonator. These measurements are in good agreement with numerical simulations based upon a master equation for the tripartite system including dissipation. The results indicate that this system may be developed to serve as a platform for more advanced measurements with nanoresonators, including quantum state measurement, the exploration of nanoresonator quantum noise, and reservoir engineering.

  7. Quantum technologies with hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2015-03-01

    An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field.

  8. Quantum technologies with hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field. PMID:25737558

  9. Quantum technologies with hybrid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Bertet, Patrice; Kubo, Yuimaru; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David; Rabl, Peter; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2015-03-31

    An extensively pursued current direction of research in physics aims at the development of practical technologies that exploit the effects of quantum mechanics. As part of this ongoing effort, devices for quantum information processing, secure communication, and high-precision sensing are being implemented with diverse systems, ranging from photons, atoms, and spins to mesoscopic superconducting and nanomechanical structures. Their physical properties make some of these systems better suited than others for specific tasks; thus, photons are well suited for transmitting quantum information, weakly interacting spins can serve as long-lived quantum memories, and superconducting elements can rapidly process information encoded in their quantum states. A central goal of the envisaged quantum technologies is to develop devices that can simultaneously perform several of these tasks, namely, reliably store, process, and transmit quantum information. Hybrid quantum systems composed of different physical components with complementary functionalities may provide precisely such multitasking capabilities. This article reviews some of the driving theoretical ideas and first experimental realizations of hybrid quantum systems and the opportunities and challenges they present and offers a glance at the near- and long-term perspectives of this fascinating and rapidly expanding field.

  10. Analysis of hybrid systems: An ounce of realism can save an infinity of states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin

    1999-01-01

    Hybrid automata have been introduced in both control engineering and computer science as a formal model for the dynamics of hybrid discrete-continuous systems. In the case of so-called linear hybrid automata this formalization supports semi-decision procedures for state reachability, yet no decis...

  11. Systems Safety and Engineering Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Volpe's Systems Safety and Engineering Division conducts engineering, research, and analysis to improve transportation safety, capacity, and resiliency. We provide...

  12. Transforming Systems Engineering through Model Centric Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-08

    Contract No. HQ0034-13-D-0004 Report No. SERC-2017-TR-110 Date: August 8, 2017 Transforming Systems Engineering through Model-Centric... Engineering Technical Report SERC-2017-TR-110 Update: August 8, 2017 Principal Investigator: Mark Blackburn, Stevens Institute of Technology Co...Evangelista Sponsor: U.S. Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC), Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for

  13. Systems and Control Engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 1. Systems and Control Engineering - Notions of Control. A Rama Kalyan J R Vengateswaran. General Article Volume 4 Issue 1 January 1999 pp 45-52. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  14. Hybrid context aware recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rajshree; Tyagi, Jaya; Singh, Sandeep Kumar; Alam, Taj

    2017-10-01

    Recommender systems and context awareness is currently a vital field of research. Most hybrid recommendation systems implement content based and collaborative filtering techniques whereas this work combines context and collaborative filtering. The paper presents a hybrid context aware recommender system for books and movies that gives recommendations based on the user context as well as user or item similarity. It also addresses the issue of dimensionality reduction using weighted pre filtering based on dynamically entered user context and preference of context. This unique step helps to reduce the size of dataset for collaborative filtering. Bias subtracted collaborative filtering is used so as to consider the relative rating of a particular user and not the absolute values. Cosine similarity is used as a metric to determine the similarity between users or items. The unknown ratings are calculated and evaluated using MSE (Mean Squared Error) in test and train datasets. The overall process of recommendation has helped to personalize recommendations and give more accurate results with reduced complexity in collaborative filtering.

  15. Engineering hybrid Co-picene structures with variable spin coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Chunsheng [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Shan, Huan; Li, Bin, E-mail: libin@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: adzhao@ustc.edu.cn; Zhao, Aidi, E-mail: libin@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: adzhao@ustc.edu.cn; Wang, Bing [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2016-04-25

    We report on the in situ engineering of hybrid Co-picene magnetic structures with variable spin coupling using a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope. Single picene molecules adsorbed on Au(111) are manipulated to accommodate individual Co atoms one by one, forming stable artificial hybrid structures with magnetism introduced by the Co atoms. By monitoring the evolution of the Kondo effect at each site of Co atom, we found that the picene molecule plays an important role in tuning the spin coupling between individual Co atoms, which is confirmed by theoretical calculations based on the density-functional theory. Our findings indicate that the hybrid metal-molecule structures with variable spin coupling on surfaces can be artificially constructed in a controlled manner.

  16. Microwave system engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Raff, Samuel J

    1977-01-01

    Microwave System Engineering Principles focuses on the calculus, differential equations, and transforms of microwave systems. This book discusses the basic nature and principles that can be derived from thermal noise; statistical concepts and binomial distribution; incoherent signal processing; basic properties of antennas; and beam widths and useful approximations. The fundamentals of propagation; LaPlace's Equation and Transmission Line (TEM) waves; interfaces between homogeneous media; modulation, bandwidth, and noise; and communications satellites are also deliberated in this text. This bo

  17. Performance and driveline analyses of engine capacity in range extender engine hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praptijanto, Achmad; Santoso, Widodo Budi; Nur, Arifin; Wahono, Bambang; Putrasari, Yanuandri

    2017-01-01

    In this study, range extender engine designed should be able to meet the power needs of a power generator of hybrid electrical vehicle that has a minimum of 18 kW. Using this baseline model, the following range extenders will be compared between conventional SI piston engine (Baseline, BsL), engine capacity 1998 cm3, and efficiency-oriented SI piston with engine capacity 999 cm3 and 499 cm3 with 86 mm bore and stroke square gasoline engine in the performance, emission prediction of range extender engine, standard of charge by using engine and vehicle simulation software tools. In AVL Boost simulation software, range extender engine simulated from 1000 to 6000 rpm engine loads. The highest peak engine power brake reached up to 38 kW at 4500 rpm. On the other hand the highest torque achieved in 100 Nm at 3500 rpm. After that using AVL cruise simulation software, the model of range extended electric vehicle in series configuration with main components such as internal combustion engine, generator, electric motor, battery and the arthemis model rural road cycle was used to simulate the vehicle model. The simulation results show that engine with engine capacity 999 cm3 reported the economical performances of the engine and the emission and the control of engine cycle parameters.

  18. Linear engine development for series hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth-Nagy, Csaba

    This dissertation argues that diminishing oil reserves, concern over global climate change, and desire to improve ambient air quality all demand the development of environment-friendly personal transportation. In certain applications, series hybrid electric vehicles offer an attractive solution to reducing fuel consumption and emissions. Furthermore, linear engines are emerging as a powerplant suited to series HEV applications. In this dissertation, a linear engine/alternator was considered as the auxiliary power unit of a range extender series hybrid electric vehicle. A prototype linear engine/alternator was developed, constructed and tested at West Virginia University. The engine was a 2-stroke, 2-cylinder, dual piston, direct injection, diesel engine. Experiment on the engine was performed to study its behavior. The study variables included mass of the translator, amount of fuel injected, injection timing, load, and stroke with operating frequency and mechanical efficiency as the basis of comparison. The linear engine was analyzed in detail and a simple simulation model was constructed to compare the trends of simulation with the experimental data and to expand on the area where the experimental data were lacking. The simulation was based on a simple and analytical model, rather than a detailed and intensely numerical one. The experimental and theoretical data showed similar trends. Increasing translator mass decreased the operating frequency and increased compression ratio. Larger mass and increased compression ratio improved the ability of the engine to sustain operation and the engine was able to idle on less fuel injected into the cylinder. Increasing the stroke length caused the operating frequency to drop. Increasing fueling or decreasing the load resulted in increased operating frequency. This projects the possibility of using the operating frequency as an input for feedback control of the engine. Injection timing was varied to investigate two different

  19. Control systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Nise, Norman S

    1995-01-01

    This completely updated new edition shows how to use MATLAB to perform control-system calculations. Designed for the professional or engineering student who needs a quick and readable update on designing control systems, the text features a series of tightly focused examples that clearly illustrate each concept of designing control systems. Most chapters conclude with a detailed application from the two case studies that run throughout the book: an antenna asimuth control system and a submarine. The author also refers to many examples of design methods.

  20. Thermal simulation of a cooling system of hybrid commercial vehicles; Thermalsimulation eine Hybrid-LKW-Kuehlsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroh, Christoph; Schnoerch, Stefan; Rathberger, Christian [Magna Powertrain Engineering Center Steyr GmbH und Co. KG, St. Valentin (Austria)

    2012-11-01

    In the past few years hybrid vehicles have been in the center of automotive engineering efforts, in particular in the field of passenger cars. But hybrid powertrains will also be important for commercial trucks. This focus on hybrid vehicles leads to high demands on thermal management since the additional components in a hybrid vehicle need appropriate cooling or even heating. In the given paper the simulation of a complete cooling system of a hybrid commercial vehicle will be explained. For this virtual examination the commercial 1D thermal management software KULI will be used, a co-simulation with several programs will not be done deliberately. Yet all aspects which are relevant for a global assessment of the thermal management are considered. The main focus is put on the investigation of appropriate concepts for the fluid circuits, including low and high temperature circuits, electric water pumps, etc. Moreover, also a refrigerant circuit with a chiller for active battery cooling will be used, the appropriate control strategy is implemented as well. For simulating transient profiles a simple driving simulation model is included, using road profile, ambient conditions, and various vehicle parameters as input. In addition an engine model is included which enables the investigation of fuel consumption potentials. This simulation model shows how the thermal management of a hybrid vehicle can be investigated with a single program and with reasonable effort. (orig.)

  1. Automotive systems engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, Markus [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Regelungstechnik; Winner, Hermann (eds.) [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Fachgebiet Fahrzeugtechnik

    2013-06-01

    Innovative state-of-the-art book. Presents brand new results of a joint workshop in the field of automotive systems engineering. Recommendable to students for further reading even though not a primary text book. This book reflects the shift in design paradigm in automobile industry. It presents future innovations, often referred as ''automotive systems engineering''. These cause fundamental innovations in the field of driver assistance systems and electro-mobility as well as fundamental changes in the architecture of the vehicles. New driving functionalities can only be realized if the software programs of multiple electronic control units work together correctly. This volume presents the new and innovative methods which are mandatory to master the complexity of the vehicle of the future.

  2. Hybrid intelligent optimization methods for engineering problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivanoglu, Yasin Volkan

    The purpose of optimization is to obtain the best solution under certain conditions. There are numerous optimization methods because different problems need different solution methodologies; therefore, it is difficult to construct patterns. Also mathematical modeling of a natural phenomenon is almost based on differentials. Differential equations are constructed with relative increments among the factors related to yield. Therefore, the gradients of these increments are essential to search the yield space. However, the landscape of yield is not a simple one and mostly multi-modal. Another issue is differentiability. Engineering design problems are usually nonlinear and they sometimes exhibit discontinuous derivatives for the objective and constraint functions. Due to these difficulties, non-gradient-based algorithms have become more popular in recent decades. Genetic algorithms (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms are popular, non-gradient based algorithms. Both are population-based search algorithms and have multiple points for initiation. A significant difference from a gradient-based method is the nature of the search methodologies. For example, randomness is essential for the search in GA or PSO. Hence, they are also called stochastic optimization methods. These algorithms are simple, robust, and have high fidelity. However, they suffer from similar defects, such as, premature convergence, less accuracy, or large computational time. The premature convergence is sometimes inevitable due to the lack of diversity. As the generations of particles or individuals in the population evolve, they may lose their diversity and become similar to each other. To overcome this issue, we studied the diversity concept in GA and PSO algorithms. Diversity is essential for a healthy search, and mutations are the basic operators to provide the necessary variety within a population. After having a close scrutiny of the diversity concept based on qualification and

  3. Engineering Elegant Systems: Postulates, Principles, and Hypotheses of Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.

    2018-01-01

    Definition: System Engineering is the engineering discipline which integrates the system functions, system environment, and the engineering disciplines necessary to produce and/or operate an elegant system; Elegant System - A system that is robust in application, fully meeting specified and adumbrated intent, is well structured, and is graceful in operation. Primary Focus: System Design and Integration: Identify system couplings and interactions; Identify system uncertainties and sensitivities; Identify emergent properties; Manage the effectiveness of the system. Engineering Discipline Integration: Manage flow of information for system development and/or operations; Maintain system activities within budget and schedule. Supporting Activities: Process application and execution.

  4. Control of internal combustion engines and hybrid engines; Regelung von Verbrennungsmotoren und Hybridantrieben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isermann, R. [TU Darmstadt (Germany). Forschungsgruppe Regelungstechnik und Prozessautomatisierung

    2007-07-15

    In the development of internal combustion engines, there are increasingly rigid specifications for further reduction of consumption, exhaust and noise emissions, better specific performance, lower weight, and good driving characteristics. The contributions in this special issue provide an insight into the many aspects of internal combustion engine and hybrid engine control. The editors of at journal took care to select interesting papers presented at the 3. VDI/VDE-GMA conference AUTOREG 2006. They show how control and mechatronics support the high demands on functionality in motor car engineering. (orig.)

  5. New hybrid systems: strategy and research programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.B.

    2001-01-01

    This short article gives a status of research and experimental programs concerning new hybrid systems. A hybrid system is made up of a subcritical core, a spallation target and of a particle accelerator that delivers a proton beam. The main asset of hybrid systems is to provide a large reactivity margin that would be very valuable to transmute actinide nuclei efficiently. As a consequence hybrid systems could be considered as actinide burner reactors integrated to a large population of classical nuclear reactors dedicated to electricity production. (A.C.)

  6. Stochastic Reachability Analysis of Hybrid Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bujorianu, Luminita Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic reachability analysis (SRA) is a method of analyzing the behavior of control systems which mix discrete and continuous dynamics. For probabilistic discrete systems it has been shown to be a practical verification method but for stochastic hybrid systems it can be rather more. As a verification technique SRA can assess the safety and performance of, for example, autonomous systems, robot and aircraft path planning and multi-agent coordination but it can also be used for the adaptive control of such systems. Stochastic Reachability Analysis of Hybrid Systems is a self-contained and accessible introduction to this novel topic in the analysis and development of stochastic hybrid systems. Beginning with the relevant aspects of Markov models and introducing stochastic hybrid systems, the book then moves on to coverage of reachability analysis for stochastic hybrid systems. Following this build up, the core of the text first formally defines the concept of reachability in the stochastic framework and then...

  7. Functional Abstraction of Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, L.M.; Blom, Henk A.P.; Hermanns, H.

    2006-01-01

    The verification problem for stochastic hybrid systems is quite difficult. One method to verify these systems is stochastic reachability analysis. Concepts of abstractions for stochastic hybrid systems are needed to ease the stochastic reachability analysis. In this paper, we set up different ways

  8. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle Systems Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, R. F.; Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    Predefined components connected to represent wide variety of propulsion systems. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle System (HEAVY) computer program is flexible tool for evaluating performance and cost of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. Allows designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict performance of proposed drive train.

  9. EHV systems technology - A look at the principles and current status. [Electric and Hybrid Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    An examination of the basic principles and practices of systems engineering is undertaken in the context of their application to the component and subsystem technologies involved in electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) development. The limitations of purely electric vehicles are contrasted with hybrid, heat engine-incorporating vehicle technology, which is inherently more versatile. A hybrid vehicle concept assessment methodology is presented which employs current technology and yet fully satisfies U.S. Department of Energy petroleum displacement goals.

  10. Fuel cell systems and high-integrated combinations of internal combustion engines and generators for hybrid drives; Brennstoffzellensysteme und hoch integrierte Verbrennungsmotor/Generator-Kombinationen fueHybridantriebe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treffinger, P.; Graef, M. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Fahrzeugkonzepte

    2005-07-01

    So called fuel cell hybrid vehicles can be regarded in general as electrical driven vehicles, equipped with a fuel cell as current source, which is connected in parallel with an electrical energy storage. This power train configuration gives very high flexibility realizing the package, because the primary energy converter is not directly connected with the torque converter for propulsion. The studies 'Hy-Wire' and 'Sequel' of GM are adopting this approach as well as the modular vehicle concept of DLR Institute of Vehicle Concepts. The overall efficiency of the above described power train concept depends strongly on the efficiency of the current source. The efficiency potential of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC) systems has been successfully demonstrated by several car manufacturers. However, some technical issues are still to be solved, e.g. operation at low temperatures and power densities of the complete system. There is also no satisfying solution for the on-board storage of hydrogen. A current source based on a free piston linear generator is an alternative to the PEFC system. The free piston linear generator can be realized in several configurations. The approach of DLR, which is explained in this paper, enables the stroke to be adjusted according to the actual load. This especially improves internal efficiency significantly in partial loading conditions and also reduces heat losses. On the base of detailed simulation, underlined by first experimental studies, efficiencies above 35% in a broad operation range are estimated. (orig.)

  11. Parametric systems analysis for ICF hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berwald, D.H.; Maniscalco, J.A.; Chapin, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Parametric design and systems analysis for inertial confinement fusion-fission hybrids are presented. These results were generated as part of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) sponsored Feasibility Assessment of Fusion-Fission Hybrids, using an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) hybrid power plant design code developed in conjunction with the feasibility assessment. The SYMECON systems analysis code, developed by Westinghouse, was used to generate economic results for symbiotic electricity generation systems consisting of the hybrid and its client Light Water Reactors (LWRs). These results explore the entire fusion parameter space for uranium fast fission blanket hybrids, thorium fast fission blanket hybrids, and thorium suppressed fission blanket types are discussed, and system sensitivities to design uncertainties are explored

  12. Detailed Post-Soft Impact Progressive Damage Assessment for Hybrid Structure Jet Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddens, Aaron; Bayandor, Javid; Celestina, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, certification of engine designs for resistance to bird strike is reliant on physical tests. Predictive modeling of engine structural damage has mostly been limited to evaluation of individual forward section components, such as fan blades within a fixed frame of reference, to direct impact with a bird. Such models must be extended to include interactions among engine components under operating conditions to evaluate the full extent of engine damage. This paper presents the results of a study aim to develop a methodology for evaluating bird strike damage in advanced propulsion systems incorporating hybrid composite/metal structures. The initial degradation and failure of individual fan blades struck by a bird were investigated. Subsequent damage to other fan blades and engine components due to resultant violent fan assembly vibrations and fragmentation was further evaluated. Various modeling parameters for the bird and engine components were investigated to determine guidelines for accurately capturing initial damage and progressive failure of engine components. Then, a novel hybrid structure modeling approach was investigated and incorporated into the crashworthiness methodology. Such a tool is invaluable to the process of design, development, and certification of future advanced propulsion systems.

  13. Simulation of hybrid renewable microgeneration systems for variable electricity prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandoni, C.; Renzi, M.; Caresana, F.; Polonara, F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses a hybrid renewable system that consists of a micro-Combined Cooling Heat and Power (CCHP) unit and a solar energy conversion device. In addition to a traditional PV system, a High Concentrator Photovoltaic (HCPV) device, the design of which is suitable for building integration application, was also modelled and embedded in the hybrid system. The work identifies the optimal management strategies for the hybrid renewable system in an effort to minimise the primary energy usage, the carbon dioxide emissions and the operational costs for variable electricity prices that result from the day-ahead electricity market. An “ad hoc” model describes the performance of the HCPV module, PV and Internal Combustion Engine, whilst the other units were simulated based on their main characteristic parameters. The developed algorithm was applied to three different building typologies. The results indicate that the best configuration is the hybrid renewable system with PV, which can provide a yearly primary energy reduction of between 20% and 30% compared to separate production. The hybrid renewable system with HCPV becomes competitive with the PV technology when the level of solar radiation is high. - Highlights: • The paper addresses a hybrid renewable system that consists of a micro-CCHP unit and a solar energy conversion device. • Both PV and High Concentrator Photovoltaic (HCPV) systems have been modelled and embedded in the hybrid system. • The work identifies the optimal management strategies for variable electricity prices. • Hybrid renewable systems provide a yearly primary energy reduction of between 20% and 30% compared to separate production. • When the level of solar radiation is high, HCPV becomes competitive with the PV technology

  14. Framework for systems engineering research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, L

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a framework is proposed to perform systems engineering research within South Africa. It is proposed that within the reference of the National Research Foundation (NRF) classification of research, systems engineering is a Field...

  15. Lower hybrid heating system for an ignition tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, J.; Harkness, S.; Jung, J.; Misra, B.; Moretti, A.; Norem, J.; Stevens, H.

    1978-01-01

    We have attempted to design a complete Lower Hybrid Resonance Heating System (LHRH) that could be used for TFTR, TNS, EPR, or a reactor. In addition to plasma physics constraints, we have considered those imposed by neutron radiation, surface heating of waveguides, sputtering, multipactoring, vacuum systems, materials, window design, engineering, maintenance and assembly. The system uses a Lallia--Brambilla grill which is fed by a number of waveguides entering the reactor by means of a labyrinth

  16. Dynamics and control of hybrid mechanical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leonov, G.A.; Nijmeijer, H.; Pogromski, A.Y.; Fradkov, A.L.

    2010-01-01

    The papers in this edited volume aim to provide a better understanding of the dynamics and control of a large class of hybrid dynamical systems that are described by different models in different state space domains. They not only cover important aspects and tools for hybrid systems analysis and

  17. Preparation of hybrid biomaterials for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Conceição Costa

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering has evolved from the use of biomaterials for bone substitution that fulfill the clinical demands of biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-immunogeneity, structural strength and porosity. Porous scaffolds have been developed in many forms and materials, but few reached the need of adequate physical, biological and mechanical properties. In the present paper we report the preparation of hybrid porous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA/bioactive glass through the sol-gel route, using partially and fully hydrolyzed polyvinyl alcohol, and perform structural characterization. Hybrids containing PVA and bioactive glass with composition 58SiO2-33CaO-9P2O5 were synthesized by foaming a mixture of polymer solution and bioactive glass sol-gel precursor solution. Sol-gel solution was prepared from mixing tetraethoxysilane (TEOS, triethylphosphate (TEP, and calcium chloride as chemical precursors. The hybrid composites obtained after aging and drying at low temperature were chemically and morphologically characterized through infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The degree of hydrolysis of PVA, concentration of PVA solution and different PVA-bioglass composition ratios affect the synthesis procedure. Synthesis parameters must be very well combined in order to allow foaming and gelation. The hybrid scaffolds obtained exhibited macroporous structure with pore size varying from 50 to 600 µm.

  18. Intelligent systems engineering methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouse, Scott

    1990-01-01

    An added challenge for the designers of large scale systems such as Space Station Freedom is the appropriate incorporation of intelligent system technology (artificial intelligence, expert systems, knowledge-based systems, etc.) into their requirements and design. This presentation will describe a view of systems engineering which successfully addresses several aspects of this complex problem: design of large scale systems, design with requirements that are so complex they only completely unfold during the development of a baseline system and even then continue to evolve throughout the system's life cycle, design that involves the incorporation of new technologies, and design and development that takes place with many players in a distributed manner yet can be easily integrated to meet a single view of the requirements. The first generation of this methodology was developed and evolved jointly by ISX and the Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company over the past five years on the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency/Air Force Pilot's Associate Program, one of the largest, most complex, and most successful intelligent systems constructed to date. As the methodology has evolved it has also been applied successfully to a number of other projects. Some of the lessons learned from this experience may be applicable to Freedom.

  19. Development, modeling and research of the system of automatic control and equalization of the charge state of a battery pack of a hybrid engine of a vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhmutov, S.; Sizov, Y.; Kim, M.

    2018-02-01

    The article is devoted to the topical problem of developing effective means of monitoring and leveling the charge state of batteries in a power unit of hybrid and electric cars. A system for automatic control and equalization of the charge state of a battery pack of a combined power plant, the originality of which is protected by the Russian Federation patent, is developed and described. A distinctive feature of the device is the possibility of using it both in conditions of charging (power consumption) and in operating conditions (energy recovery). The device is characterized by high reliability, simplicity of the circuit-making solution, low self-consumption and low cost. To test the efficiency of the proposed device, its computer simulation and experimental research were carried out. As a result of multi factorial experiment, a regression equation has been obtained which makes it possible to judge the high efficiency of detecting the degree of inhomogeneity of controlled batteries with respect to the parameters of an equivalent replacement circuit: voltage, internal resistance and capacitance in the magnitude of the obtained coefficients of influence of each of these factors, and also take into account the effects of their pair interactions.

  20. System for cooling hybrid vehicle electronics, method for cooling hybrid vehicle electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Yu, Wenhua; Singh, Dileep; Zhao, Weihuan

    2017-11-21

    The invention provides a single radiator cooling system for use in hybrid electric vehicles, the system comprising a surface in thermal communication with electronics, and subcooled boiling fluid contacting the surface. The invention also provides a single radiator method for simultaneously cooling electronics and an internal combustion engine in a hybrid electric vehicle, the method comprising separating a coolant fluid into a first portion and a second portion; directing the first portion to the electronics and the second portion to the internal combustion engine for a time sufficient to maintain the temperature of the electronics at or below 175.degree. C.; combining the first and second portion to reestablish the coolant fluid; and treating the reestablished coolant fluid to the single radiator for a time sufficient to decrease the temperature of the reestablished coolant fluid to the temperature it had before separation.

  1. Performance assessment of a Multi-fuel Hybrid Engine for Future Aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, F.; Gangoli Rao, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents performance assessment of the proposed hybrid engine concept using Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) and kerosene. The multi-fuel hybrid engine is a new engine concept integrated with contra rotating fans, sequential dual combustion chambers to facilitate “Energy Mix” in aviation and a

  2. Developing systems engineers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goncalves, D

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available will have rendered him incapable of dealing with the majority of problems that will face him.” (Quoted in [12]). UP has applied the SPICES model, proposed by Harden et al. [12], for developing their medical curriculum. Some aspects of the model... are useful to developing systems engineers and will be considered in SE terms at a relevant level of detail. The SPICES model is contrasted against traditional medical curriculum approaches in TABLE 1. These are two extremes on a continuum. Traditional...

  3. Systems engineering agile design methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the paradigm of the engineering design process. The authors discuss agile systems and engineering design. The book captures the entire design process (functionbases), context, and requirements to affect real reuse. It provides a methodology for an engineering design process foundation for modern and future systems design. This book captures design patterns with context for actual Systems Engineering Design Reuse and contains a new paradigm in Design Knowledge Management.

  4. Apomixis: Engineering the Ability to Harness Hybrid Vigor in Crop Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Joann A; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2017-01-01

    Apomixis, commonly defined as asexual reproduction through seed, is a reproductive trait that occurs in only a few minor crops, but would be highly valuable in major crops. Apomixis results in seed-derived progenies that are genetically identical to their maternal parent. The advantage of apomixis would lie in seed propagation of elite food, feed, and biofuel crops that are heterozygous such as hybrid corn and switchgrass or self-pollinating crops for which no commercial-scale hybrid production system is available. While hybrid plants often outperform parental lines in growth and higher yields, production of hybrid seed is accomplished through carefully controlled, labor intensive crosses. Both small farmers in developing countries who produce their own seed and commercial companies that market hybrid seed could benefit from the establishment of engineered apomixis in plants. In this chapter, we review what has been learned from studying natural apomicts and mutations in sexual plants leading to apomixis-like development, plus discuss how the components of apomixis could be successfully engineered in plants.

  5. Study of hydrogen engine for a hybrid electric vehicle. 1; Hybrid denki jidoshayo suiso engine ni kansuru kenkyu. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, T.; Numata, T. Hiruma, M.; Yamane, K.; Nakajima, Y.; Furuhama, S. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Takagi, Y. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-15

    Study was made on application of a hydrogen engine to series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV). Power of 20kW (for steady driving of a vehicle of 1t in total weight on flat road surface at 100km/h), and NOx emission concentration equivalent to that of EZEV (equivalent zero emission vehicle) were used as target performance. One of the merits of using a hydrogen engine for HEV is that conventional high-reliability gasoline engines can be used as hydrogen engines only by a bit of modification. A modified conventional 4-cylinder 4-cycle gasoline engine was used for this study. Hydrogen gas was continuously supplied through an intake manifold for premixed combustion by spark ignition. Brake thermal efficiency was improved from 30.5% to 35.5% by use of a high compression ratio and reduction of friction loss. NOx emission concentration could be controlled within 10ppm by ultra-lean combustion even at excess air ratios over 2.5. Both high efficiency and low emission were achieved at the same time around 3000rpm in engine revolution. 4 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Hybrid dynamical systems observation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Defoort, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of contributions defining the state of current knowledge and new trends in hybrid systemssystems involving both continuous dynamics and discrete events – as described by the work of several well-known groups of researchers. Hybrid Dynamical Systems presents theoretical advances in such areas as diagnosability, observability and stabilization for various classes of system. Continuous and discrete state estimation and self-triggering control of nonlinear systems are advanced. The text employs various methods, among them, high-order sliding modes, Takagi–Sugeno representation and sampled-data switching to achieve its ends. The many applications of hybrid systems from power converters to computer science are not forgotten; studies of flexible-joint robotic arms and – as representative biological systems – the behaviour of the human heart and vasculature, demonstrate the wide-ranging practical significance of control in hybrid systems. The cross-disciplinary origins of study ...

  7. Hybrid Membrane System for Industrial Water Reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-08-01

    This factsheet describes a project that developed and demonstrated a new hybrid system for industrial wastewater treatment that synergistically combines a forward osmosis system with a membrane distillation technology and is powered by waste heat.

  8. Hybrid system power generation'wind-photovoltaic' connected to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hybrid system power generation'wind-photovoltaic' connected to the ... from Hybrid System, power delivered to or from grid and phase voltage of the inverter leg. ... Renewable Energy, Electrical Network 220 kV, Hybrid System, Solar, MPPT.

  9. A fully adaptive hybrid optimization of aircraft engine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, L.; Druez, B.; Lecerf, N.

    2009-10-01

    A new fully adaptive hybrid optimization method (AHM) has been developed and applied to an industrial problem in the field of the aircraft engine industry. The adaptivity of the coupling between a global search by a population-based method (Genetic Algorithms or Evolution Strategies) and the local search by a descent method has been particularly emphasized. On various analytical test cases, the AHM method overperforms the original global search method in terms of computational time and accuracy. The results obtained on the industrial case have also confirmed the interest of AHM for the design of new and original solutions in an affordable time.

  10. Pneumatic hybridization of a diesel engine using compressed air storage for wind-diesel energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basbous, Tammam; Younes, Rafic; Ilinca, Adrian; Perron, Jean

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we are studying an innovative solution to reduce fuel consumption and production cost for electricity production by Diesel generators. The solution is particularly suitable for remote areas where the cost of energy is very high not only because of inherent cost of technology but also due to transportation costs. It has significant environmental benefits as the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation is a significant source of GHG (Greenhouse Gas) emissions. The use of hybrid systems that combine renewable sources, especially wind, and Diesel generators, reduces fuel consumption and operation cost and has environmental benefits. Adding a storage element to the hybrid system increases the penetration level of the renewable sources, that is the percentage of renewable energy in the overall production, and further improves fuel savings. In a previous work, we demonstrated that CAES (Compressed Air Energy Storage) has numerous advantages for hybrid wind-diesel systems due to its low cost, high power density and reliability. The pneumatic hybridization of the Diesel engine consists to introduce the CAES through the admission valve. We have proven that we can improve the combustion efficiency and therefore the fuel consumption by optimizing Air/Fuel ratio thanks to the CAES assistance. As a continuation of these previous analyses, we studied the effect of the intake pressure and temperature and the exhaust pressure on the thermodynamic cycle of the diesel engine and determined the values of these parameters that will optimize fuel consumption. -- Highlights: ► Fuel economy analysis of a simple pneumatic hybridization of the Diesel engine using stored compressed air. ► Thermodynamic analysis of the pneumatic hybridization of diesel engines for hybrid wind-diesel energy systems. ► Analysis of intake pressure and temperature of compressed air and exhaust pressure on pressure/temperature during Diesel thermodynamic cycle. ► Direct admission of

  11. In Pipe Robot with Hybrid Locomotion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Miclauş

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the paper covers aspects concerning in pipe robots and their components, such as hybrid locomotion systems and the adapting mechanisms used. The second part describes the inspection robot that was developed, which combines tracked and wheeled locomotion (hybrid locomotion. The end of the paper presents the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed robot.

  12. Analysis and evaluation of hybrid scooter transmission systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheu, Kuen-Bao [Department of Vehicle Engineering, National Formosa University, 64 Wunhua Road, Huwei, Yuenlin 63208 (China)

    2007-12-15

    This paper presents a new design concept of transmissions for the hybrid scooters. These transmissions consist of a one-degree-of-freedom planetary gear train and a two-degree-of-freedom planetary gear train to from a split power system and to combine the power of two power sources, a gasoline engine and an electric motor. In order to maximize the performance and reduce emissions, the transmissions can provide a hybrid scooter to run five operating modes: electric motor mode; engine mode; engine/charging mode; power mode, and regenerative braking mode. The main advantages of the transmissions proposed in this paper include the use of only one electric motor/generator, need not use clutch/brake for the shift of the operating modes, and high efficiency. The kinematics, power flow, and mechanical efficiency analyzes are performed; and according to these results, the evaluation of transmission power performances are accomplished. (author)

  13. Sustainability assessment of a hybrid energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, Nain H.; Carvalho, Maria G.

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid energy system in the form of the Object structure is the pattern for the structure of options in the evaluation of a hybrid system. The Object structure is defined as: Hybrid Energy System {[production (solar, wind, biomass, natural gas)] [utilization(electricity, heat, hydrogen)]}. In the evaluation of hybrid energy systems only several options are selected to demonstrate the sustainability assessment method application in the promotion of the specific quality of the hybrid energy system. In this analysis the following options are taken into a consideration: 1.Solar photo-voltaic power plant (PV PP), wind turbine power plant (WTPP) biomass thermal power plant (ThSTPP) for electricity, heat and hydrogen production. 2.Solar PV PP and wind power plant (WPP) for electricity and hydrogen production. 3.Biomass thermal steam turbine power plant (BThSTPP) and WPP for heat and hydrogen production. 4.Combined cycle gas turbine power plant for electricity and hydrogen production. 5.Cogeneration of electricity and water by the hybrid system. The sustainability assessment method is used for the evaluation of quality of the selected hybrid systems. In this evaluation the following indicators are used: economic indicator, environment indicator and social indicator

  14. The new Nissan FF Hybrid + new 4-cylinder 2.5L supercharged engine. A new approach to powersource evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minakawa, Shunichi; Onoyama, Taiichi; Ishizuka, Takashi [Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    2013-08-01

    In 2013, Nissan is going to launch a technology combination of 1-Motor 2-Clutch Parallel Hybrid system and 4-cylinder 2.5L supercharged engine for Infiniti QX60 HYBRID and new Nissan Pathfinder HYBRID. This Hybrid system has been developed to have three key advantages: (1) Significant improvement in fuel economy even when Highway driving, (2) Better response and more direct feeling, (3) Lightweight system and low-cost. To achieve these objectives, Nissan fitted a 1-Motor 2-Clutch Parallel system onto a new generation CVT without Torque Converter, combined with downsized 4 cylinder 2.5L supercharged Engine, which provides better fuel economy and V6 3.5-liter class driving performance. Nissan has developed the following proprietary technologies to realize the development of this Hybrid system: - High output and compact Li-ion battery, - Innovative high speed and precise motor and clutch control. Additionally, new technologies are added to both Engine and CVT. Engine: New 4-lobes Roots supercharger with precise electrical boost control. CVT: Chain driven, high efficiency and low friction with wide cover ratio. In this paper Nissan will introduce an outline of the system, key breakthrough technologies and how low fuel economy comparable with the compact car class, has been achieved and demonstrated. (orig.)

  15. Advanced hybrid and electric vehicles system optimization and vehicle integration

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the results of the research program “Agreement for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles”, funded by the International Energy Agency. The topical focus lies on technology options for the system optimization of hybrid and electric vehicle components and drive train configurations which enhance the energy efficiency of the vehicle. The approach to the topic is genuinely interdisciplinary, covering insights from fields. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and industry experts in the field of automotive engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  16. Optimal Lunar Landing Trajectory Design for Hybrid Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hyun Cho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The lunar landing stage is usually divided into two parts: deorbit burn and powered descent phases. The optimal lunar landing problem is likely to be transformed to the trajectory design problem on the powered descent phase by using continuous thrusters. The optimal lunar landing trajectories in general have variety in shape, and the lunar lander frequently increases its altitude at the initial time to obtain enough time to reduce the horizontal velocity. Due to the increment in the altitude, the lunar lander requires more fuel for lunar landing missions. In this work, a hybrid engine for the lunar landing mission is introduced, and an optimal lunar landing strategy for the hybrid engine is suggested. For this approach, it is assumed that the lunar lander retrofired the impulsive thruster to reduce the horizontal velocity rapidly at the initiated time on the powered descent phase. Then, the lunar lander reduced the total velocity and altitude for the lunar landing by using the continuous thruster. In contradistinction to other formal optimal lunar landing problems, the initial horizontal velocity and mass are not fixed at the start time. The initial free optimal control theory is applied, and the optimal initial value and lunar landing trajectory are obtained by simulation studies.

  17. Hybrid Macro-Micro Fluidics System for a Chip-Based Biosensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tamanaha, C. R; Whitman, L. J; Colton, R.J

    2002-01-01

    We describe the engineering of a hybrid fluidics platform for a chip-based biosensor system that combines high-performance microfluidics components with powerful, yet compact, millimeter-scale pump and valve actuators...

  18. Systems Engineering Leadership Development: Advancing Systems Engineering Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Phil; Whitfield, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Systems Engineering Leadership Development Program, with particular emphasis on the work being done in the development of systems engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center. There exists a lack of individuals with systems engineering expertise, in particular those with strong leadership capabilities, to meet the needs of the Agency's exploration agenda. Therefore there is a emphasis on developing these programs to identify and train systems engineers. The presentation reviews the proposed MSFC program that includes course work, and developmental assignments. The formal developmental programs at the other centers are briefly reviewed, including the Point of Contact (POC)

  19. Engine Yaw Augmentation for Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft via Optimal Control Allocation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brian R.; Yoo, Seung Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetric engine thrust was implemented in a hybrid-wing-body non-linear simulation to reduce the amount of aerodynamic surface deflection required for yaw stability and control. Hybrid-wing-body aircraft are especially susceptible to yaw surface deflection due to their decreased bare airframe yaw stability resulting from the lack of a large vertical tail aft of the center of gravity. Reduced surface deflection, especially for trim during cruise flight, could reduce the fuel consumption of future aircraft. Designed as an add-on, optimal control allocation techniques were used to create a control law that tracks total thrust and yaw moment commands with an emphasis on not degrading the baseline system. Implementation of engine yaw augmentation is shown and feasibility is demonstrated in simulation with a potential drag reduction of 2 to 4 percent. Future flight tests are planned to demonstrate feasibility in a flight environment.

  20. Design and implementation of a hybrid electric motorcycle management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Yuan-Yong; Lu, Shao-Yuan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a successful design and implement of a shunt-winding hybrid electric motorcycle management system which utilizes an electronic control unit (ECU) to integrate two major subsystems together, one being the traditional system of 125 c.c. internal combustion engine and the other an electric power motor. The hybrid electric motorcycle is assembled together robustly by these two major subsystems and eventually leads to successful road tests. The hybrid power system thus implemented can recharge its own batteries with electricity provided by the electrical recharge system and thus increasing the cruising mileages largely. The testing results obtained by using the proposed experimental platform indicate that lead-acid cells can boost their state of charge (SOC) by approximately 4% when it is operated under the hybrid mode for four driving cycles (about 1600 s) with the recharger on in a standard ECE-40 testing procedure. The results of road tests also clearly show that the pollutant emissions of the engine can be reduced at a lower speed or idling condition, and the problem of insufficient cruising range for electric motorcycles can also be greatly enhanced.

  1. Optimization of the stand for test of hybrid rocket engines of solid fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolotorev Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the laboratory experimental stand of the hybrid rocket engine of solid fuel to study ballistic parameters of the engine at burning of high-energy materials in flow of hot gas is presented. Mixture of air with nitrogen with a specified content of active oxygen is used as a gaseous oxidizer. The experimental stand has modular design and consists of system of gas supply, system of heating of gas, system for monitoring gas parameters, to which a load cell with a model engine was connected. The modular design of the stand allows to change its configuration under specific objective. This experimental stand allows to conduct a wide range of the pilot studies at interaction of a hot stream of gas with samples high-energy materials.

  2. Medical imaging education in biomedical engineering curriculum: courseware development and application through a hybrid teaching model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weizhao; Li, Xiping; Chen, Hairong; Manns, Fabrice

    2012-01-01

    Medical Imaging is a key training component in Biomedical Engineering programs. Medical imaging education is interdisciplinary training, involving physics, mathematics, chemistry, electrical engineering, computer engineering, and applications in biology and medicine. Seeking an efficient teaching method for instructors and an effective learning environment for students has long been a goal for medical imaging education. By the support of NSF grants, we developed the medical imaging teaching software (MITS) and associated dynamic assessment tracking system (DATS). The MITS/DATS system has been applied to junior and senior medical imaging classes through a hybrid teaching model. The results show that student's learning gain improved, particularly in concept understanding and simulation project completion. The results also indicate disparities in subjective perception between junior and senior classes. Three institutions are collaborating to expand the courseware system and plan to apply it to different class settings.

  3. Biocombinatorial Engineering of Fungal PKS-NRPS Hybrids for Production of Novel Synthetic Natural Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maria Lund

    encoding a PKS-NRPS hybrid responsible for the production of a medically relevant compound in Talaromyces atroroseus. To the best of my knowledge, this study represents the first example of reverse engineering of a Talaromyces species. In the fourth study (chapter 5), I used the CRISPR-Cas9 system...... structure optimization. Within the last decade, an alternative approach for expanding natural product chemodiversity has been applied. This strategy, known as combinatorial biosynthesis, involves the re-engineering of biosynthetic pathways and ultimately the rational engineering of new natural product...... analogs. This field, however, has proved very challenging and many engineering efforts have resulted in enzymatic loss-of-function or reduced yields. Thus, the future success in combinatorial biosynthetic studies requires a thorough understanding of the structure and function of biosynthetic enzymes...

  4. Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jr., Richard G.; Boberg, Evan S.; Lawrie, Robert E.; Castaing, Francois J.

    1999-08-31

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration.

  5. Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R.G. Jr.; Boberg, E.S.; Lawrie, R.E.; Castaing, F.J.

    1999-08-31

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration. 34 figs.

  6. Recent Advances on Hybrid Intelligent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Melin, Patricia; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This book presents recent advances on hybrid intelligent systems using soft computing techniques for intelligent control and robotics, pattern recognition, time series prediction and optimization of complex problems. Soft Computing (SC) consists of several intelligent computing paradigms, including fuzzy logic, neural networks, and bio-inspired optimization algorithms, which can be used to produce powerful hybrid intelligent systems. The book is organized in five main parts, which contain groups of papers around a similar subject. The first part consists of papers with the main theme of hybrid intelligent systems for control and robotics, which are basically state of the art papers that propose new models and concepts, which can be the basis for achieving intelligent control and mobile robotics. The second part contains papers with the main theme of hybrid intelligent systems for pattern recognition and time series prediction, which are basically papers using nature-inspired techniques, like evolutionary algo...

  7. Detection of cardiovascular anomalies: Hybrid systems approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ledezma, Fernando; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid interpretation of the cardiovascular system. Based on a model proposed by Simaan et al. (2009), we study the problem of detecting cardiovascular anomalies that can be caused by variations in some physiological

  8. Study of Scramjet Engine System

    OpenAIRE

    苅田, 丈士; KANDA, Takeshi

    2001-01-01

    1. Introduction The scramjet engine for the single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) aerospace plane has been studied in the ramjet propulsion research division. The problems of the scramjet are (1) combustion, (2) light structure, (3) startability of the inlet, (4) integration of engines, and (5) cooling. The construction of the cooling system is important for the scramjet engine, because of high heat flux during operation. Cooling is not only a problem for the engine itself, but also for the airframe. ...

  9. Analysis of Hybrid Hydrogen Systems: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; Braun, R.; Munoz, D.; Penev, M.; Kinchin, C.

    2010-01-01

    Report on biomass pathways for hydrogen production and how they can be hybridized to support renewable electricity generation. Two hybrid systems were studied in detail for process feasibility and economic performance. The best-performing system was estimated to produce hydrogen at costs ($1.67/kg) within Department of Energy targets ($2.10/kg) for central biomass-derived hydrogen production while also providing value-added energy services to the electric grid.

  10. Hybrid quantum systems of ions and atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Sias, Carlo; Köhl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we review the progress in experiments with hybrid systems of trapped ions and ultracold neutral atoms. We give a theoretical overview over the atom-ion interactions in the cold regime and give a summary of the most important experimental results. We conclude with an overview of remaining open challenges and possible applications in hybrid quantum systems of ions and neutral atoms.

  11. NASA System Engineering Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Jose

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA's use of systems engineering for the complete life cycle of a project. Systems engineering is a methodical, disciplined approach for the design, realization, technical management, operations, and retirement of a system. Each phase of a NASA project is terminated with a Key decision point (KDP), which is supported by major reviews.

  12. Development of hybrid polymer scaffolds for potential applications in ligament and tendon tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, Sambit [Tissue Repair Lab, Division of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Cho-Hong, James Goh [Tissue Repair Lab, Division of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Siew-Lok, Toh [Tissue Repair Lab, Division of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore)

    2007-09-15

    Fibre-based scaffolds have been widely used for tendon and ligament tissue engineering. Knitted scaffolds have been proved to favour collagenous matrix deposition which is crucial for tendon/ligament reconstruction. However, such scaffolds have the limitation of being dependent on a gel system for cell seeding, which is unstable in a dynamic environment such as the knee joint. This study developed three types of hybrid scaffolds, based on knitted biodegradable polyester scaffolds, aiming to improve mechanical properties and cell attachment and proliferation on the scaffolds. The hybrid scaffolds were created by coating the knitted scaffolds with a thin film of poly ({epsilon}-caprolactone) (group I), poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanofibres (group II) and type 1 collagen (group III). Woven scaffolds were also fabricated and compared with the various hybrid scaffolds in terms of their mechanical properties during in vitro degradation and cell attachment and growth. This study demonstrated that the coating techniques could modulate the mechanical properties and facilitate cell attachment and proliferation in the hybrid scaffold, which could be applied with promise in tissue engineering of tendons/ligaments.

  13. Development of hybrid polymer scaffolds for potential applications in ligament and tendon tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Sambit; Cho-Hong, James Goh; Siew-Lok, Toh

    2007-01-01

    Fibre-based scaffolds have been widely used for tendon and ligament tissue engineering. Knitted scaffolds have been proved to favour collagenous matrix deposition which is crucial for tendon/ligament reconstruction. However, such scaffolds have the limitation of being dependent on a gel system for cell seeding, which is unstable in a dynamic environment such as the knee joint. This study developed three types of hybrid scaffolds, based on knitted biodegradable polyester scaffolds, aiming to improve mechanical properties and cell attachment and proliferation on the scaffolds. The hybrid scaffolds were created by coating the knitted scaffolds with a thin film of poly (ε-caprolactone) (group I), poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanofibres (group II) and type 1 collagen (group III). Woven scaffolds were also fabricated and compared with the various hybrid scaffolds in terms of their mechanical properties during in vitro degradation and cell attachment and growth. This study demonstrated that the coating techniques could modulate the mechanical properties and facilitate cell attachment and proliferation in the hybrid scaffold, which could be applied with promise in tissue engineering of tendons/ligaments

  14. Energy Management of a Hybrid-Power Gas Engine-Driven Heat Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingkun Meng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid-power gas engine-driven heat pump (HPGHP combines hybrid power technology with a gas engine heat pump. The engine in the power system is capable of operating constantly with high thermal efficiency and low emissions during different operating modes. In this paper, the mathematical models of various components is established, including the engine thermal efficiency map and the motor efficiency map. The comprehensive charging/discharging efficiency model and energy management optimization strategy model which is proposed to maximize the efficiency of instantaneous HPGHP system are established. Then, different charging/discharging torque limits are obtained. Finally, a novel gas engine economical zone control strategy which combined with the SOC of battery in real time is put forward. The main operating parameters of HPGHP system under energy management are simulated by Matlab/Simulink and validated by experimental data, such as engine and motor operating torque, fuel consumption rate and comprehensive efficiency, etc. The results show that during 3600 s’ run-time, the SOC value of battery packs varies between 0.58 and 0.705, the fuel consumption rate reaches minimum values of approximately 291.3 g/(kW h when the compressor speed is nearly 1550 rpm in mode D, the engine thermal efficiency and comprehensive efficiency reach maximum values of approximately 0.2727 and 0.2648 when the compressor speed is 1575 rpm and 1475 rpm, respectively, in mode D. In general, the motor efficiency can be maintained above 0.85 in either mode.

  15. Hybrid power filter for advanced power quality in industrial systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švec, J.; Müller, Z.; Kasembe, A. G.; Tlustý, J.; Valouch, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 103, october 2013 (2013), s. 157-167 ISSN 0378-7796 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : hybrid power filter * power quality * industrial system Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.595, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378779613001417

  16. Analysis of Synchronization for Coupled Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Zheng; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2006-01-01

    In the control systems with coupled multi-subsystem, the subsystems might be synchronized (i.e. all the subsystems have the same operation states), which results in negative influence to the whole system. For example, in the supermarket refrigeration systems, the synchronized switch of each...... subsystem will cause low efficiency, inferior control performance and a high wear on the compressor. This paper takes the supermarket refrigeration systems as an example to analyze the synchronization and its coupling strengths of coupled hybrid systems, which may provide a base for further research...... of control strategies. This paper combines topology and section mapping theories together to show a new way of analyzing hybrid systems...

  17. Implementing a Commercial-Strength Parallel Hybrid Movie Recommendation Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amolochitis, Emmanouil; Christou, Ioannis T.; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2014-01-01

    AMORE is a hybrid recommendation system that provides movie recommendations for a major triple-play services provider in Greece. Combined with our own implementations of several user-, item-, and content-based recommendation algorithms, AMORE significantly outperforms other state......-of-the-art implementations both in solution quality and response time. AMORE currently serves daily recommendation requests for all active subscribers of the provider's video-on-demand services and has contributed to an increase of rental profits and customer retention....

  18. Investigation of Dual-Vortical-Flow Hybrid Rocket Engine without Flame Holding Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 250 kgf thrust hybrid rocket engine was designed, tested, and verified in this work. Due to the injection and flow pattern of this engine, this engine was named dual-vortical-flow engine. This propulsion system uses N2O as oxidizer and HDPE as fuel. This engine was numerically investigated using a CFD tool that can handle reacting flow with finite-rate chemistry and coupled with the real-fluid model. The engine was further verified via a hot-fire test for 12 s. The ground Isp of the engine was 232 s and 221 s for numerical and hot-fire tests, respectively. An oscillation frequency with an order of 100 Hz was observed in both numerical and hot-fire tests with less than 5% of pressure oscillation. Swirling pattern on the fuel surface was also observed in both numerical and hot-fire test, which proves that this swirling dual-vortical-flow engine works exactly as designed. The averaged regression rate of the fuel surface was found to be 0.6~0.8 mm/s at the surface of disk walls and 1.5~1.7 mm/s at the surface of central core of the fuel grain.

  19. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS BASED GEARS MATERIAL SELECTION HYBRID INTELLIGENT SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.C. Li; W.X. Zhu; G. Chen; D.S. Mei; J. Zhang; K.M. Chen

    2003-01-01

    An artificial neural networks(ANNs) based gear material selection hybrid intelligent system is established by analyzing the individual advantages and weakness of expert system (ES) and ANNs and the applications in material select of them. The system mainly consists of tow parts: ES and ANNs. By being trained with much data samples,the back propagation (BP) ANN gets the knowledge of gear materials selection, and is able to inference according to user input. The system realizes the complementing of ANNs and ES. Using this system, engineers without materials selection experience can conveniently deal with gear materials selection.

  20. Recommendation systems in software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Robillard, Martin P; Walker, Robert J; Zimmermann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    With the growth of public and private data stores and the emergence of off-the-shelf data-mining technology, recommendation systems have emerged that specifically address the unique challenges of navigating and interpreting software engineering data.This book collects, structures and formalizes knowledge on recommendation systems in software engineering. It adopts a pragmatic approach with an explicit focus on system design, implementation, and evaluation. The book is divided into three parts: "Part I - Techniques" introduces basics for building recommenders in software engineering, including techniques for collecting and processing software engineering data, but also for presenting recommendations to users as part of their workflow.?"Part II - Evaluation" summarizes methods and experimental designs for evaluating recommendations in software engineering.?"Part III - Applications" describes needs, issues and solution concepts involved in entire recommendation systems for specific software engineering tasks, fo...

  1. Hybrid Experiential-Heuristic Cognitive Radio Engine Architecture and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Amanna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of cognitive radio (CR focuses on devices that can sense their environment, adapt configuration parameters, and learn from past behaviors. Architectures tend towards simplified decision-making algorithms inspired by human cognition. Initial works defined cognitive engines (CEs founded on heuristics, such as genetic algorithms (GAs, and case-based reasoning (CBR experiential learning algorithms. This hybrid architecture enables both long-term learning, faster decisions based on past experience, and capability to still adapt to new environments. This paper details an autonomous implementation of a hybrid CBR-GA CE architecture on a universal serial radio peripheral (USRP software-defined radio focused on link adaptation. Details include overall process flow, case base structure/retrieval method, estimation approach within the GA, and hardware-software lessons learned. Unique solutions to realizing the concept include mechanisms for combining vector distance and past fitness into an aggregate quantification of similarity. Over-the-air performance under several interference conditions is measured using signal-to-noise ratio, packet error rate, spectral efficiency, and throughput as observable metrics. Results indicate that the CE is successfully able to autonomously change transmit power, modulation/coding, and packet size to maintain the link while a non-cognitive approach loses connectivity. Solutions to existing shortcomings are proposed for improving case-base searching and performance estimation methods.

  2. Dynamic Systems and Control Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Seok

    1994-02-01

    This book deals with introduction of dynamic system and control engineering, frequency domain modeling of dynamic system, temporal modeling of dynamic system, typical dynamic system and automatic control device, performance and stability of control system, root locus analysis, analysis of frequency domain dynamic system, design of frequency domain dynamic system, design and analysis of space, space of control system and digital control system such as control system design of direct digital and digitalization of consecutive control system.

  3. Dynamic Systems and Control Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Seok

    1994-02-15

    This book deals with introduction of dynamic system and control engineering, frequency domain modeling of dynamic system, temporal modeling of dynamic system, typical dynamic system and automatic control device, performance and stability of control system, root locus analysis, analysis of frequency domain dynamic system, design of frequency domain dynamic system, design and analysis of space, space of control system and digital control system such as control system design of direct digital and digitalization of consecutive control system.

  4. System safety engineering analysis handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijams, T. E.

    1972-01-01

    The basic requirements and guidelines for the preparation of System Safety Engineering Analysis are presented. The philosophy of System Safety and the various analytic methods available to the engineering profession are discussed. A text-book description of each of the methods is included.

  5. Supermarket Refrigeration System - Benchmark for Hybrid System Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Lars Finn; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a supermarket refrigeration system as a benchmark for development of new ideas and a comparison of methods for hybrid systems' modeling and control. The benchmark features switch dynamics and discrete valued input making it a hybrid system, furthermore the outputs are subjected...

  6. Power systems engineering and mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, U G

    1972-01-01

    Power Systems Engineering and Mathematics investigates the application of mathematical aids, particularly the techniques of resource planning, to some of the technical-economic problems of power systems engineering. Topics covered include the process of engineering design and the use of computers in system design and operation; power system planning and operation; time scales and computation in system operation; and load prediction and generation capacity. This volume is comprised of 13 chapters and begins by outlining the stages in the synthesis of designs (or operating states) for engineerin

  7. Systems and Control Engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    design of civil engineering structures has been noted. Protecting ci vil ... R despite disturbing forces such as wind gusts, changes in ambient temperature, etc .. Brief History of ... frequency regulation, boiler control for steam generation, electric.

  8. Configurations of hybrid-electric cars propulsion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cundev, Dobri; Sarac, Vasilija; Stefanov, Goce

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few years, hybrid electric cars have taken significant role in automotive market. There are successful technological solutions of hybrid-electric propulsion systems implemented in commercial passenger cars. Every automobile manufacturer of hybrid vehicles has unique hybrid propulsion system. In this paper, all implemented systems are described, analyzed and compared.

  9. Systems engineering and integration as a foundation for mission engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Beam, David F.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This paper investigates the emerging term mission engineering through the framework of systems engineering and systems integration. Systems engineering concepts, processes, and methodologies are extrapolated for use in conjunction with a systems integration, life-cycle based framework to effect mission engineering. The specific systems engineering concepts of measures of effectiveness, performance and suitability are recommended as fou...

  10. Lifetime prognostics of hybrid backup power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Simon Dyhr; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2017-01-01

    Modern telecommunication power supplies are based on renewable solutions, e.g. fuel cell/battery hybrid systems, for immediate and prolonged load support during grid faults. The high demand for power continuity increases the emphasis on power supply reliability and availability which raises...... the need for monitoring the system condition for timely maintenance and prevention of downtime. Although present on component level, no current literature addresses the condition monitoring from the perspective of a fuel cell/battery hybrid system such as the telecommunication power supply. This paper...... components: fuel cell, battery, and converters, is given. Finally, the paper presents a discussion on the available monitoring techniques from a commercial hybrid system point view....

  11. Engine systems and methods of operating an engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scotto, Mark Vincent

    2018-01-23

    One embodiment of the present invention is a unique method for operating an engine. Another embodiment is a unique engine system. Other embodiments include apparatuses, systems, devices, hardware, methods, and combinations for engines and engine systems. Further embodiments, forms, features, aspects, benefits, and advantages of the present application will become apparent from the description and figures provided herewith.

  12. Engine systems and methods of operating an engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotto, Mark Vincent

    2015-08-25

    One embodiment of the present invention is a unique method for operating an engine. Another embodiment is a unique engine system. Other embodiments include apparatuses, systems, devices, hardware, methods, and combinations for engines and engine systems. Further embodiments, forms, features, aspects, benefits, and advantages of the present application will become apparent from the description and figures provided herewith.

  13. Detection and Elimination of a Potential Fire in Engine and Battery Compartments of Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macam S. Dattathreya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel fuzzy deterministic noncontroller type (FDNCT system and an FDNCT inference algorithm (FIA. The FDNCT uses fuzzy inputs and produces a deterministic non-fuzzy output. The FDNCT is an extension and alternative for the existing fuzzy singleton inference algorithm. The research described in this paper applies FDNCT to build an architecture for an intelligent system to detect and to eliminate potential fires in the engine and battery compartments of a hybrid electric vehicle. The fuzzy inputs consist of sensor data from the engine and battery compartments, namely, temperature, moisture, and voltage and current of the battery. The system synthesizes the data and detects potential fires, takes actions for eliminating the hazard, and notifies the passengers about the potential fire using an audible alarm. This paper also presents the computer simulation results of the comparison between the FIA and singleton inference algorithms for detecting potential fires and determining the actions for eliminating them.

  14. Analysis and design of hybrid control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmborg, J.

    1998-05-01

    Different aspects of hybrid control systems are treated: analysis, simulation, design and implementation. A systematic methodology using extended Lyapunov theory for design of hybrid systems is developed. The methodology is based on conventional control designs in separate regions together with a switching strategy. Dynamics are not well defined if the control design methods lead to fast mode switching. The dynamics depend on the salient features of the implementation of the mode switches. A theorem for the stability of second order switching together with the resulting dynamics is derived. The dynamics on an intersection of two sliding sets are defined for two relays working on different time scales. The current simulation packages have problems modeling and simulating hybrid systems. It is shown how fast mode switches can be found before or during simulation. The necessary analysis work is a very small overhead for a modern simulation tool. To get some experience from practical problems with hybrid control the switching strategy is implemented in two different software environments. In one of them a time-optimal controller is added to an existing PID controller on a commercial control system. Successful experiments with this hybrid controller shows the practical use of the method 78 refs, 51 figs, 2 tabs

  15. MECHATRONICS SYSTEM ENGINEERING FOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Roli, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    rotary vane actuator for robot manipulators is presented. The contribution proposes mathematical modelling, control and simulation of a novel water hydraulic rotary vane actuator applied to power and control a three-links manipulator. The results include engineering design and test of the proposed...

  16. Safety Verification for Probabilistic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lijun; She, Zhikun; Ratschan, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The interplay of random phenomena and continuous real-time control deserves increased attention for instance in wireless sensing and control applications. Safety verification for such systems thus needs to consider probabilistic variations of systems with hybrid dynamics. In safety verification o...... on a number of case studies, tackled using a prototypical implementation....

  17. Stochastic hybrid systems with renewal transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerreiro Tome Antunes, D.J.; Hespanha, J.P.; Silvestre, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    We consider Stochastic Hybrid Systems (SHSs) for which the lengths of times that the system stays in each mode are independent random variables with given distributions. We propose an analysis framework based on a set of Volterra renewal-type equations, which allows us to compute any statistical

  18. Modelling dependable systems using hybrid Bayesian networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neil, Martin; Tailor, Manesh; Marquez, David; Fenton, Norman; Hearty, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid Bayesian network (BN) is one that incorporates both discrete and continuous nodes. In our extensive applications of BNs for system dependability assessment, the models are invariably hybrid and the need for efficient and accurate computation is paramount. We apply a new iterative algorithm that efficiently combines dynamic discretisation with robust propagation algorithms on junction tree structures to perform inference in hybrid BNs. We illustrate its use in the field of dependability with two example of reliability estimation. Firstly we estimate the reliability of a simple single system and next we implement a hierarchical Bayesian model. In the hierarchical model we compute the reliability of two unknown subsystems from data collected on historically similar subsystems and then input the result into a reliability block model to compute system level reliability. We conclude that dynamic discretisation can be used as an alternative to analytical or Monte Carlo methods with high precision and can be applied to a wide range of dependability problems

  19. Systems engineering for very large systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewkowicz, Paul E.

    Very large integrated systems have always posed special problems for engineers. Whether they are power generation systems, computer networks or space vehicles, whenever there are multiple interfaces, complex technologies or just demanding customers, the challenges are unique. 'Systems engineering' has evolved as a discipline in order to meet these challenges by providing a structured, top-down design and development methodology for the engineer. This paper attempts to define the general class of problems requiring the complete systems engineering treatment and to show how systems engineering can be utilized to improve customer satisfaction and profit ability. Specifically, this work will focus on a design methodology for the largest of systems, not necessarily in terms of physical size, but in terms of complexity and interconnectivity.

  20. Chitosan-Based Hyaluronic Acid Hybrid Polymer Fibers as a Scaffold Biomaterial for Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintarou Yamane

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An ideal scaffold material is one that closely mimics the natural environment in the tissue-specific extracellular matrix (ECM. Therefore, we have applied hyaluronic acid (HA, which is a main component of the cartilage ECM, to chitosan as a fundamental material for cartilage regeneration. To mimic the structural environment of cartilage ECM, the fundamental structure of a scaffold should be a three-dimensional (3D system with adequate mechanical strength. We structurally developed novel polymer chitosan-based HA hybrid fibers as a biomaterial to easily fabricate 3D scaffolds. This review presents the potential of a 3D fabricated scaffold based on these novel hybrid polymer fibers for cartilage tissue engineering.

  1. Generalised Computability and Applications to Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korovina, Margarita V.; Kudinov, Oleg V.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the concept of generalised computability of operators and functionals defined on the set of continuous functions, firstly introduced in [9]. By working in the reals, with equality and without equality, we study properties of generalised computable operators and functionals. Also we...... propose an interesting application to formalisation of hybrid systems. We obtain some class of hybrid systems, which trajectories are computable in the sense of computable analysis. This research was supported in part by the RFBR (grants N 99-01-00485, N 00-01- 00810) and by the Siberian Branch of RAS (a...... grant for young researchers, 2000)...

  2. Cardiovascular system simulation in biomedical engineering education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, V. C.

    1972-01-01

    Use of complex cardiovascular system models, in conjunction with a large hybrid computer, in biomedical engineering courses. A cardiovascular blood pressure-flow model, driving a compartment model for the study of dye transport, was set up on the computer for use as a laboratory exercise by students who did not have the computer experience or skill to be able to easily set up such a simulation involving some 27 differential equations running at 'real time' rate. The students were given detailed instructions regarding the model, and were then able to study effects such as those due to septal and valve defects upon the pressure, flow, and dye dilution curves. The success of this experiment in the use of involved models in engineering courses was such that it seems that this type of laboratory exercise might be considered for use in physiology courses as an adjunct to animal experiments.

  3. Engineering Information System (EIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-31

    be availabe and usefu for creating powerful tailored contro and mangeen functions. Mode and Framwork Wirth further elaboration of the EIS portio of...control data and activities of the engineering process. The EIM is a conceptual model of administrative and electroic design information. It records...of the access opeations are derived from the instance variable name and type. An attribute conceptually holds one or more instances of a basic type

  4. System dynamics for mechanical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This textbook is ideal for mechanical engineering students preparing to enter the workforce during a time of rapidly accelerating technology, where they will be challenged to join interdisciplinary teams. It explains system dynamics using analogies familiar to the mechanical engineer while introducing new content in an intuitive fashion. The fundamentals provided in this book prepare the mechanical engineer to adapt to continuous technological advances with topics outside traditional mechanical engineering curricula by preparing them to apply basic principles and established approaches to new problems. This book also: ·         Reinforces the connection between the subject matter and engineering reality ·         Includes an instructor pack with the online publication that describes in-class experiments with minimal preparation requirements ·         Provides content dedicated to the modeling of modern interdisciplinary technological subjects, including opto-mechanical systems, high...

  5. Performance assessment of a multi-fuel hybrid engine for future aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, F.; Gangoli Rao, A.; Bhat, Abhishek; Chen, Min

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the performance assessment of a novel turbofan engine using two energy sources: Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) and kerosene, called Multi-Fuel Hybrid Engine (MFHE). The MFHE is a new engine concept consisting of several novel features, such as a contra-rotating fan to sustain

  6. The ATPG Attack for Reverse Engineering of Combinational Hybrid Custom-Programmable Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-23

    Introduction The widely practiced horizontal integrated circuit supply chain exposes a design to various types of attacks including the reverse engineering ...STT_CMOS designs for reverse- engineering prevention, DAC 2016. [5] M. E. Massad and et. al. Integrated circuit (IC) decamouflaging: reverse...The ATPG Attack for Reverse Engineering of Combinational Hybrid Custom-Programmable Circuits Raza Shafiq Hamid Mahmoodi Houman Homayoun Hassan

  7. Weighted hybrid technique for recommender system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriati, S.; Dwiastuti, Meisyarah; Tulus, T.

    2017-12-01

    Recommender system becomes very popular and has important role in an information system or webpages nowadays. A recommender system tries to make a prediction of which item a user may like based on his activity on the system. There are some familiar techniques to build a recommender system, such as content-based filtering and collaborative filtering. Content-based filtering does not involve opinions from human to make the prediction, while collaborative filtering does, so collaborative filtering can predict more accurately. However, collaborative filtering cannot give prediction to items which have never been rated by any user. In order to cover the drawbacks of each approach with the advantages of other approach, both approaches can be combined with an approach known as hybrid technique. Hybrid technique used in this work is weighted technique in which the prediction score is combination linear of scores gained by techniques that are combined.The purpose of this work is to show how an approach of weighted hybrid technique combining content-based filtering and item-based collaborative filtering can work in a movie recommender system and to show the performance comparison when both approachare combined and when each approach works alone. There are three experiments done in this work, combining both techniques with different parameters. The result shows that the weighted hybrid technique that is done in this work does not really boost the performance up, but it helps to give prediction score for unrated movies that are impossible to be recommended by only using collaborative filtering.

  8. Systems Engineering a Naval Railgun

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bean, John; Shebalin, Paul; Solitario, William

    2006-01-01

    ... to a viable acquisition program. The detailed formulation and application of the railgun systems engineering process will be defined by government acquisition agents and the selected private sector contractors in accordance with United States (US...

  9. A 6-DOF vibration isolation system for hydraulic hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, The; Elahinia, Mohammad; Olson, Walter W.; Fontaine, Paul

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents the results of vibration isolation analysis for the pump/motor component of hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs). The HHVs are designed to combine gasoline/diesel engine and hydraulic power in order to improve the fuel efficiency and reduce the pollution. Electric hybrid technology is being applied to passenger cars with small and medium engines to improve the fuel economy. However, for heavy duty vehicles such as large SUVs, trucks, and buses, which require more power, the hydraulic hybridization is a more efficient choice. In function, the hydraulic hybrid subsystem improves the fuel efficiency of the vehicle by recovering some of the energy that is otherwise wasted in friction brakes. Since the operation of the main component of HHVs involves with rotating parts and moving fluid, noise and vibration are an issue that affects both passengers (ride comfort) as well as surrounding people (drive-by noise). This study looks into the possibility of reducing the transmitted noise and vibration from the hydraulic subsystem to the vehicle's chassis by using magnetorheological (MR) fluid mounts. To this end, the hydraulic subsystem is modeled as a six degree of freedom (6-DOF) rigid body. A 6-DOF isolation system, consisting of five mounts connected to the pump/motor at five different locations, is modeled and simulated. The mounts are designed by combining regular elastomer components with MR fluids. In the simulation, the real loading and working conditions of the hydraulic subsystem are considered and the effects of both shock and vibration are analyzed. The transmissibility of the isolation system is monitored in a wide range of frequencies. The geometry of the isolation system is considered in order to sustain the weight of the hydraulic system without affecting the design of the chassis and the effectiveness of the vibration isolating ability. The simulation results shows reduction in the transmitted vibration force for different working cycles of

  10. Multiuser hybrid switched-selection diversity systems

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2011-09-01

    A new multiuser scheduling scheme is proposed and analyzed in this paper. The proposed system combines features of conventional full-feedback selection-based diversity systems and reduced-feedback switch-based diversity systems. The new hybrid system provides flexibility in trading-off the channel information feedback overhead with the prospected multiuser diversity gains. The users are clustered into groups, and the users\\' groups are ordered into a sequence. Per-group feedback thresholds are used and optimized to maximize the system overall achievable rate. The proposed hybrid system applies switched diversity criterion to choose one of the groups, and a selection criterion to decide the user to be scheduled from the chosen group. Numerical results demonstrate that the system capacity increases as the number of users per group increases, but at the cost of more required feedback messages. © 2011 IEEE.

  11. Automatic control systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Yun Gi

    2004-01-01

    This book gives descriptions of automatic control for electrical electronics, which indicates history of automatic control, Laplace transform, block diagram and signal flow diagram, electrometer, linearization of system, space of situation, state space analysis of electric system, sensor, hydro controlling system, stability, time response of linear dynamic system, conception of root locus, procedure to draw root locus, frequency response, and design of control system.

  12. KESS: Knowledge Engineering Support System

    OpenAIRE

    Said, Mohamed Ben; Dougherty, Nini; Anderson, Curtis; Altman, Stanley J.; Bouhaddou, Omar; Warner, Homer R.

    1987-01-01

    KESS (Knowledge Engineering Support System) is a relational information management system created at the University of Utah to document each step in the building of four expert knowledge bases. In weekly knowledge engineering sessions, groups of experts propose decision making criteria and examine information sources in the process of creating HELP knowledge frames. KESS utilizes many-to-many links with multiple files and central link files to track the different kinds of information generate...

  13. Hybridization of powertrain and downsizing of IC engine - A way to reduce fuel consumption and pollutant emissions - Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katrasnik, Tomaz

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this two part paper is to present the results of extensive simulation and analytical analysis of the energy conversion efficiency in parallel hybrid powertrains. The simulation approach is based on an accurate and fast forward facing simulation model of a parallel hybrid powertrain and a conventional internal combustion engine powertrain. The model of the ICE is based on a verified dynamic model that provides sufficiently small time steps to model adequately the dynamics of electric systems during transient test cycles. Models of the electrical devices enable computation of the instantaneous energy consumption, production and storage as well as computation of the instantaneous energy losses and component efficiencies. Moreover, the paper offers an analytical approach based on the energy balance in order to analyze and predict the energy conversion efficiency of hybrid powertrains. The analysis covers a broad range of parallel hybrid powertrain configurations from mild to full hybrids. Combined simulation and analytical analysis enables deep insight into the energy conversion phenomena in hybrid powertrains. The paper reveals the conditions and influences that lead to improved fuel economy of hybrid powertrains with the emphasis on determining the optimum hybridization ratio. The theoretical background, simulation program and brief analysis of one test cycle are presented in Part 1, whereas the extensive analysis and parametric study is presented in the companion paper, Part 2

  14. An Engineered Kinetic Amplification Mechanism for Single Nucleotide Variant Discrimination by DNA Hybridization Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sherry Xi; Seelig, Georg

    2016-04-20

    Even a single-nucleotide difference between the sequences of two otherwise identical biological nucleic acids can have dramatic functional consequences. Here, we use model-guided reaction pathway engineering to quantitatively improve the performance of selective hybridization probes in recognizing single nucleotide variants (SNVs). Specifically, we build a detection system that combines discrimination by competition with DNA strand displacement-based catalytic amplification. We show, both mathematically and experimentally, that the single nucleotide selectivity of such a system in binding to single-stranded DNA and RNA is quadratically better than discrimination due to competitive hybridization alone. As an additional benefit the integrated circuit inherits the property of amplification and provides at least 10-fold better sensitivity than standard hybridization probes. Moreover, we demonstrate how the detection mechanism can be tuned such that the detection reaction is agnostic to the position of the SNV within the target sequence. in contrast, prior strand displacement-based probes designed for kinetic discrimination are highly sensitive to position effects. We apply our system to reliably discriminate between different members of the let-7 microRNA family that differ in only a single base position. Our results demonstrate the power of systematic reaction network design to quantitatively improve biotechnology.

  15. Evaluation of hybrid power system alternatives: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, Andrew L.

    1999-01-01

    Pursuant to executive and statutory policies, the National Park Service (NPS) has been evaluating the use of photovoltaic (PV) hybrid power systems, for many of its remote, off-grid areas. This paper reports the results of a detailed technical and economic evaluation for one such area: the Needles District of Canyonlands National Park. The study evaluates the presented power systems and five alternative power generation configurations, four of which utilise PV. Projections are provided for the generator run-time and fuel use associated with each configuration as well as all initial and future costs. Included in the study are specific recommendations for energy efficiency improvements at the site. Results show that the generation systems presently in use, two full-time diesel generators, has the lowest conventional 20-year life cycle costs (LCC) of the six systems evaluated. However, when emissions costs are included (per NPS guidelines), several of the PV hybrid alternatives attain a lower LCC than the diesel-only systems. General discussion of the effects of initial versus future costs of PV hybrids as they compare with engine generator system is presented. (Author)

  16. Photovoltaic systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Messenger, Roger A

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundPopulation and Energy DemandEnergy UnitsCurrent World Energy Use PatternsExponential GrowthHubbert's Gaussian ModelNet Energy, Btu Economics, and the Test for SustainabilityDirect Conversion of Sunlight to Electricity with PhotovoltaicsThe SunThe Solar SpectrumThe Effect of Atmosphere on SunlightSunlight SpecificsCapturing SunlightIntroduction to PV SystemsThe PV CellThe PV ModuleThe PV ArrayEnergy StoragePV System LoadsPV System AvailabilityAssociated System Electronic ComponentsGeneratorsBalance of System (BOS) ComponentsGrid-Connected Utility-Interactive PV SystemsApplicable Codes and StandardsDesign Considerations for Straight Grid-Connected PV SystemsDesign of a System Based on Desired Annual System PerformanceDesign of a System Based on Available Roof SpaceDesign of a Microinverter-Based SystemDesign of a Nominal 21 kW System that Feeds a Three-Phase Distribution PanelDesign of a Nominal 250 kW SystemSystem Performance MonitoringMechanical ConsiderationsImportant Properties of MaterialsEstabli...

  17. Detection of cardiovascular anomalies: Hybrid systems approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ledezma, Fernando

    2012-06-06

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid interpretation of the cardiovascular system. Based on a model proposed by Simaan et al. (2009), we study the problem of detecting cardiovascular anomalies that can be caused by variations in some physiological parameters, using an observerbased approach. We present the first numerical results obtained. © 2012 IFAC.

  18. Parametric systems analysis for tandem mirror hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.; Chapin, D.L.; Chi, J.W.H.

    1980-09-01

    Fusion fission systems, consisting of fissile producing fusion hybrids combining a tandem mirror fusion driver with various blanket types and net fissile consuming LWR's, have been modeled and analyzed parametrically. Analysis to date indicates that hybrids can be competitive with mined uranium when U 3 O 8 cost is about 100 $/lb., adding less than 25% to present day cost of power from LWR's. Of the three blanket types considered, uranium fast fission (UFF), thorium fast fission (ThFF), and thorium fission supressed (ThFS), the ThFS blanket has a modest economic advantage under most conditions but has higher support ratios and potential safety advantages under all conditions

  19. Dissipative dynamics of superconducting hybrid qubit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, Enrique; Calero, Jesus M; Reina, John H

    2009-01-01

    We perform a theoretical study of composed superconducting qubit systems for the case of a coupled qubit configuration based on a hybrid qubit circuit made of both charge and phase qubits, which are coupled via a σ x x σ z interaction. We compute the system's eigen-energies in terms of the qubit transition frequencies and the strength of the inter-qubit coupling, and describe the sensitivity of the energy crossing/anti-crossing features to such coupling. We compute the hybrid system's dissipative dynamics for the cases of i) collective and ii) independent decoherence, whereby the system interacts with one common and two different baths of harmonic oscillators, respectively. The calculations have been performed within the Bloch-Redfield formalism and we report the solutions for the populations and the coherences of the system's reduced density matrix. The dephasing and relaxation rates are explicitly calculated as a function of the heat bath temperature.

  20. Hybrid Energy System Modeling in Modelica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Binder; Christiaan J. J. Paredis; Humberto E. Garcia

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a Hybrid Energy System (HES) configuration is modeled in Modelica. Hybrid Energy Systems (HES) have as their defining characteristic the use of one or more energy inputs, combined with the potential for multiple energy outputs. Compared to traditional energy systems, HES provide additional operational flexibility so that high variability in both energy production and consumption levels can be absorbed more effectively. This is particularly important when including renewable energy sources, whose output levels are inherently variable, determined by nature. The specific HES configuration modeled in this paper include two energy inputs: a nuclear plant, and a series of wind turbines. In addition, the system produces two energy outputs: electricity and synthetic fuel. The models are verified through simulations of the individual components, and the system as a whole. The simulations are performed for a range of component sizes, operating conditions, and control schemes.

  1. Fusion systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Summaries of research are included for each of the following topics: (1) fusion reactor systems studies, (2) development of blanket processing technology for fusion reactors, (3) safety studies of fusion concepts, (4) the MACK/MACKLIB system for nuclear response functions, and (5) energy storage and power supply systems for fusion reactors

  2. Structural Control Systems Implemented in Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Pastia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, a great interest has been generated by the use of protection systems to mitigate the effects of dynamic environmental hazards on civil engineering structures, such as earthquakes and strong wind. These control systems develop controllable forces to add or dissipate energy in a structure, or both, due to specific devices integrated with sensors, controllers and real – time process to operate. The paper includes the advantages of these technologies consisting of the following sections: 1 represents an introduction, 2 deals with passive control system, 3 regards some control techniques, 4 concerns hybrid control techniques, 5 contains semi – active control techniques, and 6 is dedicated to general conclusions.

  3. System dynamics an introduction for mechanical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Seeler, Karl A

    2014-01-01

    This essential textbook takes the student from the initial steps in modeling a dynamic system through development of the mathematical models needed for feedback control.  The generously-illustrated, student-friendly text focuses on fundamental theoretical development rather than the application of commercial software.  Practical details of machine design are included to motivate the non-mathematically inclined student. This book also: Emphasizes the linear graph method for modeling dynamic systems Offers a systematic approach for creating an engineering model, extracting information, and formulating mathematical analyses Adopts a unifying theme of power flow as the dynamic agent that eases analysis of hybrid systems, such as machinery Presents differential equations as dynamic operators and stresses input/output relationships Introduces Mathcad and programming in MATLAB Allows for use of Open Source Computational Software (R or C) Features over 1000 illustrations

  4. Preparation, characterisation, engine performance and emission characteristics of coconut oil based hybrid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Pranil J.; Singh, Anirudh [Division of Physics, School of Engineering and Physics, Faculty of Science, Technology and Environment, University of the South Pacific, 325 Fletcher Road, Suva (Fiji); Khurma, Jagjit [Division of Chemistry, School of Biological, Chemical and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Technology and Environment, University of the South Pacific, Suva (Fiji)

    2010-09-15

    In this study, hybrid fuels consisting of coconut oil, aqueous ethanol and a surfactant (butan-1-ol) were prepared and tested as a fuel in a direct injection diesel engine. After determining fuel properties such as the density, viscosity and gross calorific values of these fuels, they were used to run a diesel engine. The engine performance and exhaust emissions were investigated and compared with that of diesel. The experimental results show that the efficiency of the hybrid fuels is comparable to that of diesel. As the viscosity of the hybrid fuels decreased and approached that of diesel, the efficiency increased progressively towards that of diesel. The exhaust emissions were lower than those for diesel, except carbon monoxide emissions, which increased. Hence, it is concluded that these hybrid fuels can be used successfully as an alternative fuel in diesel engines without any modifications. Their completely renewable nature ensures that they are environmentally friendly with regard to their emissions characteristics. (author)

  5. MEMS Rotary Engine Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Pisano, Albert P.; Fu, Kelvin; Walther, David C.; Knobloch, Aaron; Martinez, Fabian; Senesky, Matt; Stoldt, Conrad; Maboudian, Roya; Sanders, Seth; Liepmann, Dorian

    This work presents a project overview and recent research results for the MEMS Rotary Engine Power System project at the Berkeley Sensor & Actuator Center of the University of California at Berkeley. The research motivation for the project is the high specific energy density of hydrocarbon fuels. When compared with the energy density of batteries, hydrocarbon fuels may have as much as 20x more energy. However, the technical challenge is the conversion of hydrocarbon fuel to electricity in an efficient and clean micro engine. A 12.9 mm diameter Wankel engine will be shown that has already generated 4 Watts of power at 9300rpm. In addition, the 1mm and 2.4 mm Wankel engines that BSAC is developing for power generation at the microscale will be discussed. The project goal is to develop electrical power output of 90milliwatts from the 2.4 mm engine. Prototype engine components have already been fabricated and these will be described. The integrated generator design concept utilizes a nickel-iron alloy electroplated in the engine rotor poles, so that the engine rotor also serves as the generator rotor.

  6. A hybrid energy efficient building ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calay, Rajnish Kaur; Wang, Wen Chung

    2013-01-01

    The present paper presents a high performance cooling/heating ventilation system using a rotary heat exchanger (RHE), together with a reverse-cycle heat pump (RCHP) that can be integrated with various heat sources. Energy consumption in the building sector is largely dominated by the energy consumed in maintaining comfortable conditions indoors. For example in many developed countries the building heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems consume up to 50% of the total energy consumed in buildings. Therefore energy efficient HVAC solutions in buildings are critical for realising CO 2 targets at local and global level. There are many heating/cooling concepts that rely upon renewable energy sources and/or use natural low temperature heat sources in the winter and heat sinks in the summer. In the proposed system, waste energy from the exhaust air stream is used to precondition the outdoor air before it is supplied into the building. The hybrid system provides heating in the winter and cooling in the summer without any need for additional heating or cooling devices as required in conventional systems. Its performance is better than a typical reheat or air conditioning system in providing the same indoor air quality (IAQ) levels. It is shown that an energy saving up to 60% (heat energy) is achieved by using the proposed hybrid system in building ventilation applications. -- Highlights: • Hybrid ventilation system: the hybrid ventilation system uses a rotating regenerator and a reversible heat pump. • Heat recovery: heat recovery from exhaust air stream by rotary wheel type heat exchanger. • Reversible cycle heat pump (RCHP): additional heating or cooling of the supply air is provided by the RCHP. • Energy efficiency: energy savings of up to 60% using the proposed system are achievable

  7. Process algebras for hybrid systems : comparison and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khadim, U.

    2008-01-01

    Our research is about formal speci¯cation and analysis of hybrid systems. The formalism used is process algebra. Hybrid systems are systems that exhibit both discrete and continuous behaviour. An example of a hybrid system is a digital controller controlling a physical device such as present in

  8. Hybrid compensation arrangement in dispersed generation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid compensation system consisting of an active filter and distributed passive filters. In the system, each individual passive filter is connected to a distortion source and designed to eliminate main harmonics and supply reactive power for the distortion source, while...... filter system consisting of distributed passive filters and an active filter....... the active filter is responsible for the correction of the system unbalance and the cancellation of the remaining harmonics. The paper also analyzes the effects of the circuit configuration on the system impedance characteristics and consequently the effectiveness of the filter system. Simulation studies...

  9. Adaptive Systems Engineering: A Medical Paradigm for Practicing Systems Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Douglas Hamelin; Ron D. Klingler; Christopher Dieckmann

    2011-06-01

    From its inception in the defense and aerospace industries, SE has applied holistic, interdisciplinary tools and work-process to improve the design and management of 'large, complex engineering projects.' The traditional scope of engineering in general embraces the design, development, production, and operation of physical systems, and SE, as originally conceived, falls within that scope. While this 'traditional' view has expanded over the years to embrace wider, more holistic applications, much of the literature and training currently available is still directed almost entirely at addressing the large, complex, NASA and defense-sized systems wherein the 'ideal' practice of SE provides the cradle-to-grave foundation for system development and deployment. Under such scenarios, systems engineers are viewed as an integral part of the system and project life-cycle from conception to decommissioning. In far less 'ideal' applications, SE principles are equally applicable to a growing number of complex systems and projects that need to be 'rescued' from overwhelming challenges that threaten imminent failure. The medical profession provides a unique analogy for this latter concept and offers a useful paradigm for tailoring our 'practice' of SE to address the unexpected dynamics of applying SE in the real world. In short, we can be much more effective as systems engineers as we change some of the paradigms under which we teach and 'practice' SE.

  10. Computational Intelligence for Engineering Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Madureira, A; Vale, Zita

    2011-01-01

    "Computational Intelligence for Engineering Systems" provides an overview and original analysis of new developments and advances in several areas of computational intelligence. Computational Intelligence have become the road-map for engineers to develop and analyze novel techniques to solve problems in basic sciences (such as physics, chemistry and biology) and engineering, environmental, life and social sciences. The contributions are written by international experts, who provide up-to-date aspects of the topics discussed and present recent, original insights into their own experien

  11. Hybrid system of semiconductor and photosynthetic protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Younghye; Shin, Seon Ae; Lee, Jaehun; Yang, Ki Dong; Nam, Ki Tae

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetic protein has the potential to be a new attractive material for solar energy absorption and conversion. The development of semiconductor/photosynthetic protein hybrids is an example of recent progress toward efficient, clean and nanostructured photoelectric systems. In the review, two biohybrid systems interacting through different communicating methods are addressed: (1) a photosynthetic protein immobilized semiconductor electrode operating via electron transfer and (2) a hybrid of semiconductor quantum dots and photosynthetic protein operating via energy transfer. The proper selection of materials and functional and structural modification of the components and optimal conjugation between them are the main issues discussed in the review. In conclusion, we propose the direction of future biohybrid systems for solar energy conversion systems, optical biosensors and photoelectric devices. (topical reviews)

  12. Nuclear Hybrid Energy System Model Stability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, Michael Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cetiner, Sacit M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    A Nuclear Hybrid Energy System (NHES) uses a nuclear reactor as the basic power generation unit, and the power generated is used by multiple customers as combinations of thermal power or electrical power. The definition and architecture of a particular NHES can be adapted based on the needs and opportunities of different localities and markets. For example, locations in need of potable water may be best served by coupling a desalination plant to the NHES. Similarly, a location near oil refineries may have a need for emission-free hydrogen production. Using the flexible, multi-domain capabilities of Modelica, Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are investigating the dynamics (e.g., thermal hydraulics and electrical generation/consumption) and cost of a hybrid system. This paper examines the NHES work underway, emphasizing the control system developed for individual subsystems and the overall supervisory control system.

  13. Industrial and Systems Engineering Applications in NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Charles H.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the many applications of Industrial and Systems Engineering used for safe NASA missions is shown. The topics include: 1) NASA Information; 2) Industrial Engineering; 3) Systems Engineering; and 4) Major NASA Programs.

  14. Screening candidate systems engineers: a research design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goncalves, DP

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available engineering screening methodology that could be used to screen potential systems engineers. According to their design, this can be achieved by defining a system engineering profile according to specific psychological attributes, and using this profile...

  15. Disease processes as hybrid dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Liò

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the use of hybrid techniques in complex processes of infectious diseases. Since predictive disease models in biomedicine require a multiscale approach for understanding the molecule-cell-tissue-organ-body interactions, heterogeneous methodologies are often employed for describing the different biological scales. Hybrid models provide effective means for complex disease modelling where the action and dosage of a drug or a therapy could be meaningfully investigated: the infection dynamics can be classically described in a continuous fashion, while the scheduling of multiple treatment discretely. We define an algebraic language for specifying general disease processes and multiple treatments, from which a semantics in terms of hybrid dynamical system can be derived. Then, the application of control-theoretic tools is proposed in order to compute the optimal scheduling of multiple therapies. The potentialities of our approach are shown in the case study of the SIR epidemic model and we discuss its applicability on osteomyelitis, a bacterial infection affecting the bone remodelling system in a specific and multiscale manner. We report that formal languages are helpful in giving a general homogeneous formulation for the different scales involved in a multiscale disease process; and that the combination of hybrid modelling and control theory provides solid grounds for computational medicine.

  16. Engineering Multiagent Systems - Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    In the first part I look at a theater performance by artistic director Troels Christian Jakobsen as a multiagent system. It is designed as a self-organising critical system using a framework where within its borders but without a script there is real interaction between the elements of the perfor......In the first part I look at a theater performance by artistic director Troels Christian Jakobsen as a multiagent system. It is designed as a self-organising critical system using a framework where within its borders but without a script there is real interaction between the elements...... of the performance. In the second part I discuss the ideas behind my recent monograph on propositional attitudes and inconsistency tolerance. Natural language sentences are parsed using a categorial grammar and correctness of arguments are decided using a paraconsistent logic. In the third part I present...

  17. Fusion systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Information is given on each of the following topics: (1) fusion reactor systems studies, (2) development of blanket processing technology for fusion reactors, (3) safety studies of CTR concepts, and (4) cross section measurements and techniques

  18. Universal blind quantum computation for hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He-Liang; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Tan; Li, Feng-Guang; Fu, Xiang-Qun; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Hai-Long; Wang, Xiang

    2017-08-01

    As progress on the development of building quantum computer continues to advance, first-generation practical quantum computers will be available for ordinary users in the cloud style similar to IBM's Quantum Experience nowadays. Clients can remotely access the quantum servers using some simple devices. In such a situation, it is of prime importance to keep the security of the client's information. Blind quantum computation protocols enable a client with limited quantum technology to delegate her quantum computation to a quantum server without leaking any privacy. To date, blind quantum computation has been considered only for an individual quantum system. However, practical universal quantum computer is likely to be a hybrid system. Here, we take the first step to construct a framework of blind quantum computation for the hybrid system, which provides a more feasible way for scalable blind quantum computation.

  19. The new 2.5L L4 gasoline engine for LEXUS IS300h. The renewed engine series for FR hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiguro, Fumihisa; Mashiki, Zenichiro; Yamanari, Kenji [Toyota Motor Corporation, Aichi (Japan)

    2013-08-01

    To ensure future sustainable mobility, vehicles have to face crucial problems such as energy security, global warming and air quality. To address these problems, TOYOTA introduced in 1997 the TOYOTA Hybrid System (THS) and has continuously improved its technology, globally contributing to the environmental improvement by its expansion into many markets in the world. TOYOTA presented the renewed 4 Cylinder Engine Series for FF vehicles at this symposium last year. This year, Toyota presents the result of its continuous development for FR Hybrid Vehicles, especially for D and E segment vehicles. Toyota not only improved thermal efficiency and reduced CO{sub 2} but also achieved high power output. In 2012, TOYOTA launched 3.5L V6 engine for LEXUS-GS (2GR-FXE engine), as first engine of this new engine series. In 2013, TOYOTA will launch 2.5L-L4 engine for LEXUS-IS (2AR-FSE engine), as the leading engine of this series. Toyota developed these new engines, aiming at leadership with regard to fuel economy, clean exhaust gas and high reliability. Toyota carried out modifications, taking into account usage of Hybrid System. With targeting highest levels of environmental performance, Toyota improved the vehicle driving performances like acceleration response by the combination of enhanced engine power output and newly developed Hybrid System. One of the biggest feature of this series is new generation D-4S system, including two injectors (for Direct injection and Port injection) for each cylinder, high fuel pressure (greater than 18MPa) and high fuel flow rate. The new generation D-4S system helps achieving high performance and good thermal efficiency. Furthermore, Toyota added on Cooled EGR system to 2AR-FSE engine, contributing to lower the fuel consumption, especially in highway driving. The very low friction technology and the well proven Atkinson Cycle are also key features of this engine series. Thanks to the above features, the new engine series achieves high

  20. Automotive systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Winner, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    This book reflects the shift in design paradigm in automobile industry. It presents future innovations, often referred as  “automotive systems engineering”.  These cause fundamental innovations in the field of driver assistance systems and electro-mobility as well as fundamental changes in the architecture of the vehicles. New driving functionalities can only be realized if the software programs of multiple electronic control units work together correctly. This volume presents the new and innovative methods which are mandatory to master the complexity of the vehicle of the future.

  1. Systems Engineering Management Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-03-10

    hls -iii-rit. -miiiirme 4 --tandnirdized hle iil*ri oa;iu ’ -enperfrm)a- -yýfefi ~lall uitm l--im eniai~ atar n which will lumPremiiieuiea -. v-imli m...with standard component/part selection. and de- tile total system requirements stated in the Sys- tailed functional and physical interfaces: eval- tern...system survivability requirAent. As physical , interface, time, environment, use of these facility requirements are bei developed, standard perts; and

  2. Computer systems and software engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Charles W.

    1988-01-01

    The High Technologies Laboratory (HTL) was established in the fall of 1982 at the University of Houston Clear Lake. Research conducted at the High Tech Lab is focused upon computer systems and software engineering. There is a strong emphasis on the interrelationship of these areas of technology and the United States' space program. In Jan. of 1987, NASA Headquarters announced the formation of its first research center dedicated to software engineering. Operated by the High Tech Lab, the Software Engineering Research Center (SERC) was formed at the University of Houston Clear Lake. The High Tech Lab/Software Engineering Research Center promotes cooperative research among government, industry, and academia to advance the edge-of-knowledge and the state-of-the-practice in key topics of computer systems and software engineering which are critical to NASA. The center also recommends appropriate actions, guidelines, standards, and policies to NASA in matters pertinent to the center's research. Results of the research conducted at the High Tech Lab/Software Engineering Research Center have given direction to many decisions made by NASA concerning the Space Station Program.

  3. Object Based Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    practically impossible where the original SMEs are unavailable or lack perfect recall. 7. Capture the precious and transient logic behind this...complex system. References 1. FITCH, J. Exploiting Decision-to-Requirements Traceability, briefing to NDIA CMMI Conference, November, 2009 2

  4. Systems Security Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-22

    environment that contains network- borne cybersecurity threats, an argument may be made that the firewall increases overall system functionality by reserving...the number of administered devices. This approach to security analysis is at once old and new. In the early days of eCommerce , security

  5. Introducing Model-Based System Engineering Transforming System Engineering through Model-Based Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-31

    Web  Presentation...Software  .....................................................  20   Figure  6.  Published   Web  Page  from  Data  Collection...the  term  Model  Based  Engineering  (MBE),  Model  Driven  Engineering  ( MDE ),  or  Model-­‐Based  Systems  

  6. Fusion systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Research during this report period has covered the following areas: (1) fusion reactor systems studies, (2) development of blanket processing technology for fusion reactors, (3) safety studies of fusion concepts, (4) MACKLIB-IV, a new library of nuclear response functions, (5) energy storage and power supply requirements for commercial fusion reactors, (6) blanket/shield design evaluation for commercial fusion reactors, and (7) cross section measurements, evaluations, and techniques

  7. Security systems engineering overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    Crime prevention is on the minds of most people today. The concern for public safety and the theft of valuable assets are being discussed at all levels of government and throughout the public sector. There is a growing demand for security systems that can adequately safeguard people and valuable assets against the sophistication of those criminals or adversaries who pose a threat. The crime in this country has been estimated at $70 billion in direct costs and up to $300 billion in indirect costs. Health insurance fraud alone is estimated to cost American businesses $100 billion. Theft, warranty fraud, and counterfeiting of computer hardware totaled $3 billion in 1994. A threat analysis is a prerequisite to any security system design to assess the vulnerabilities with respect to the anticipated threat. Having established a comprehensive definition of the threat, crime prevention, detection, and threat assessment technologies can be used to address these criminal activities. This talk will outline the process used to design a security system regardless of the level of security. This methodology has been applied to many applications including: government high security facilities; residential and commercial intrusion detection and assessment; anti-counterfeiting/fraud detection technologies (counterfeit currency, cellular phone billing, credit card fraud, health care fraud, passport, green cards, and questionable documents); industrial espionage detection and prevention (intellectual property, computer chips, etc.); and security barrier technology (creation of delay such as gates, vaults, etc.)

  8. Security systems engineering overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Basil J.

    1997-01-01

    Crime prevention is on the minds of most people today. The concern for public safety and the theft of valuable assets are being discussed at all levels of government and throughout the public sector. There is a growing demand for security systems that can adequately safeguard people and valuable assets against the sophistication of those criminals or adversaries who pose a threat. The crime in this country has been estimated at 70 billion dollars in direct costs and up to 300 billion dollars in indirect costs. Health insurance fraud alone is estimated to cost American businesses 100 billion dollars. Theft, warranty fraud, and counterfeiting of computer hardware totaled 3 billion dollars in 1994. A threat analysis is a prerequisite to any security system design to assess the vulnerabilities with respect to the anticipated threat. Having established a comprehensive definition of the threat, crime prevention, detection, and threat assessment technologies can be used to address these criminal activities. This talk will outline the process used to design a security system regardless of the level of security. This methodology has been applied to many applications including: government high security facilities; residential and commercial intrusion detection and assessment; anti-counterfeiting/fraud detection technologies; industrial espionage detection and prevention; security barrier technology.

  9. Systems engineering at the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkoski, Jason J.; Breidenich, Jennifer L.; Wei, Michael C.; Clatterbaughi, Guy V.; Keng, Pei Yuin; Pyun, Jeffrey

    2012-06-01

    Nanomaterials have provided some of the greatest leaps in technology over the past twenty years, but their relatively early stage of maturity presents challenges for their incorporation into engineered systems. Perhaps even more challenging is the fact that the underlying physics at the nanoscale often run counter to our physical intuition. The current state of nanotechnology today includes nanoscale materials and devices developed to function as components of systems, as well as theoretical visions for "nanosystems," which are systems in which all components are based on nanotechnology. Although examples will be given to show that nanomaterials have indeed matured into applications in medical, space, and military systems, no complete nanosystem has yet been realized. This discussion will therefore focus on systems in which nanotechnology plays a central role. Using self-assembled magnetic artificial cilia as an example, we will discuss how systems engineering concepts apply to nanotechnology.

  10. Systems Engineering 2010 Workshop | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    0 Workshop Systems Engineering 2010 Workshop The 1st NREL Wind Energy Systems Engineering Workshop of the system engineering model. In the middle of the model is optimization, metric tracking &M model, capital cost model, and balance of station. Systems engineering represents a holistic

  11. A Hybrid PCA-CART-MARS-Based Prognostic Approach of the Remaining Useful Life for Aircraft Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sánchez Lasheras

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prognostics is an engineering discipline that predicts the future health of a system. In this research work, a data-driven approach for prognostics is proposed. Indeed, the present paper describes a data-driven hybrid model for the successful prediction of the remaining useful life of aircraft engines. The approach combines the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS technique with the principal component analysis (PCA, dendrograms and classification and regression trees (CARTs. Elements extracted from sensor signals are used to train this hybrid model, representing different levels of health for aircraft engines. In this way, this hybrid algorithm is used to predict the trends of these elements. Based on this fitting, one can determine the future health state of a system and estimate its remaining useful life (RUL with accuracy. To evaluate the proposed approach, a test was carried out using aircraft engine signals collected from physical sensors (temperature, pressure, speed, fuel flow, etc.. Simulation results show that the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach can forecast faults long before they occur and can predict the RUL. The proposed hybrid model presents as its main advantage the fact that it does not require information about the previous operation states of the input variables of the engine. The performance of this model was compared with those obtained by other benchmark models (multivariate linear regression and artificial neural networks also applied in recent years for the modeling of remaining useful life. Therefore, the PCA-CART-MARS-based approach is very promising in the field of prognostics of the RUL for aircraft engines.

  12. Hybrid printing of mechanically and biologically improved constructs for cartilage tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Tao; Binder, Kyle W; Albanna, Mohammad Z; Dice, Dennis; Zhao Weixin; Yoo, James J; Atala, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Bioprinting is an emerging technique used to fabricate viable, 3D tissue constructs through the precise deposition of cells and hydrogels in a layer-by-layer fashion. Despite the ability to mimic the native properties of tissue, printed 3D constructs that are composed of naturally-derived biomaterials still lack structural integrity and adequate mechanical properties for use in vivo, thus limiting their development for use in load-bearing tissue engineering applications, such as cartilage. Fabrication of viable constructs using a novel multi-head deposition system provides the ability to combine synthetic polymers, which have higher mechanical strength than natural materials, with the favorable environment for cell growth provided by traditional naturally-derived hydrogels. However, the complexity and high cost associated with constructing the required robotic system hamper the widespread application of this approach. Moreover, the scaffolds fabricated by these robotic systems often lack flexibility, which further restrict their applications. To address these limitations, advanced fabrication techniques are necessary to generate complex constructs with controlled architectures and adequate mechanical properties. In this study, we describe the construction of a hybrid inkjet printing/electrospinning system that can be used to fabricate viable tissues for cartilage tissue engineering applications. Electrospinning of polycaprolactone fibers was alternated with inkjet printing of rabbit elastic chondrocytes suspended in a fibrin–collagen hydrogel in order to fabricate a five-layer tissue construct of 1 mm thickness. The chondrocytes survived within the printed hybrid construct with more than 80% viability one week after printing. In addition, the cells proliferated and maintained their basic biological properties within the printed layered constructs. Furthermore, the fabricated constructs formed cartilage-like tissues both in vitro and in vivo as evidenced by the

  13. Analysis of a diesel-electric hybrid urban bus system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, W. W.; Sekar, R. R.; Ahlheim, M. C.

    A hybrid bus powered by a diesel engine and a battery pack was analyzed over an idealized bus-driving cycle in Chicago. Three hybrid configurations, two parallel and one series, were evaluated. The results indicate that the fuel economy of a hybrid bus, taking into account the regenerative braking, is comparable with that of a conventional diesel bus. Life-cycle costs are slightly higher because of the added weight and cost of the battery.

  14. Safety Verification for Probabilistic Hybrid Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, J.; She, Z.; Ratschan, Stefan; Hermanns, H.; Hahn, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 6 (2012), s. 572-587 ISSN 0947-3580 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC10048; GA ČR GC201/08/J020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : model checking * hybrid system s * formal verification Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.250, year: 2012

  15. Combining technologies to create bioactive hybrid scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nandakumar, A.; Barradas, A.M.C.; de Boer, Jan; Moroni, Lorenzo; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Habibovic, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Combining technologies to engineer scaffolds that can offer physical and chemical cues to cells is an attractive approach in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this study, we have fabricated polymer-ceramic hybrid scaffolds for bone regeneration by combining rapid prototyping (RP),

  16. TWRS Systems Engineering Working Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiholzer, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this Systems Engineering (SE) Working Plan (SEWP) is to describe how the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) will implement the SE polity and guidance provided in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP). Sections 2.0 through 4.0 cover how the SE process and management will be performed to develop a technical baseline within TWRS. Section 5.0 covers the plans and schedules to implement the SE process and management within TWRS. Detailed information contained in the TWRS Program SEMP is not repeated in this document. This SEWP and the SE discipline defined within apply to the TWRS Program and new and ongoing TWRS projects or activities, including new facilities and safety. The SE process will be applied to the existing Tank Farm operations where the Richland TWRS Program Office management determines the process appropriate and where value will be added to existing Tank Farm system and operations

  17. Application of Chaos Theory to Engine Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Diebner, Hans H.; Tsuda, Ichiro; Hosoi, Yukiharu

    2008-01-01

    We focus on the control issue for engine systems from the perspective of chaos theory, which is based on the fact that engine systems have a low-dimensional chaotic dynamics. Two approaches are discussed: controlling chaos and harnessing chaos, respectively. We apply Pyragas' chaos control method to an actual engine system. The experimental results show that the chaotic motion of an engine system may be stabilized to a periodic motion. Alternatively, harnessing chaos for engine systems is add...

  18. A Hybrid System for Subjectivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Rustamov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We suggested different structured hybrid systems for the sentence-level subjectivity analysis based on three supervised machine learning algorithms, namely, Hidden Markov Model, Fuzzy Control System, and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System. The suggested feature extraction algorithm in our experiment computes a feature vector using statistical textual terms frequencies in a training dataset not having the use of any lexical knowledge except tokenization. Taking into consideration this fact, the above-mentioned methods may be employed in other languages as these methods do not utilize the morphological, syntactical, and lexical analysis in the classification problems.

  19. Aerospace Engineering Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDalsem, William R.; Livingston, Mary E.; Melton, John E.; Torres, Francisco J.; Stremel, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    Continuous improvement of aerospace product development processes is a driving requirement across much of the aerospace community. As up to 90% of the cost of an aerospace product is committed during the first 10% of the development cycle, there is a strong emphasis on capturing, creating, and communicating better information (both requirements and performance) early in the product development process. The community has responded by pursuing the development of computer-based systems designed to enhance the decision-making capabilities of product development individuals and teams. Recently, the historical foci on sharing the geometrical representation and on configuration management are being augmented: Physics-based analysis tools for filling the design space database; Distributed computational resources to reduce response time and cost; Web-based technologies to relieve machine-dependence; and Artificial intelligence technologies to accelerate processes and reduce process variability. Activities such as the Advanced Design Technologies Testbed (ADTT) project at NASA Ames Research Center study the strengths and weaknesses of the technologies supporting each of these trends, as well as the overall impact of the combination of these trends on a product development event. Lessons learned and recommendations for future activities will be reported.

  20. Hybrid Plasma Reactor/Filter for Transportable Collective Protection Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josephson, Gary B.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Frye, J. G.; Riley, Brian J.; Rappe, Kenneth G.

    2011-04-06

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has performed an assessment of a Hybrid Plasma/Filter system as an alternative to conventional methods for collective protection. The key premise of the hybrid system is to couple a nonthermal plasma (NTP) reactor with reactive adsorption to provide a broader envelope of protection than can be provided through a single-solution approach. The first step uses highly reactive species (e.g. oxygen radicals, hydroxyl radicals, etc.) created in a nonthermal plasma (NTP) reactor to destroy the majority (~75% - 90%) of an incoming threat. Following the NTP reactor an O3 reactor/filter uses the O3 created in the NTP reactor to further destroy the remaining organic materials. This report summarizes the laboratory development of the Hybrid Plasma Reactor/Filter to protect against a ‘worst-case’ simulant, methyl bromide (CH3Br), and presents a preliminary engineering assessment of the technology to Joint Expeditionary Collective Protection performance specifications for chemical vapor air purification technologies.

  1. Interface engineering in inorganic hybrid structures towards improved photocatalysis (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yujie

    2016-10-01

    Designing new photocatalytic materials for improving photoconversion efficiency is a promising route to alleviate the steadily worsening environmental issues and energy crisis. Despite the invention of a large number of catalytic materials with well-defined structures, their overall efficiency in photocatalysis is still quite limited as the three key steps - light harvesting, charge generation and separation, and charge transfer to surface for redox reactions - have not been substantially improved. To improve each step in the complex process, there is a major trend to develop materials based on inorganic hybrid structures. In this case, interface engineering holds the promise for boosting the overall efficiency, given the key roles of interface structures in charge and energy transfer. In this talk, I will demonstrate several different approaches to designing inorganic hybrid structures with improved photocatalytic performance via interface engineering. The typical demonstrations include semiconductor-plasmonics systems for broad-spectrum light harvesting, metal-semiconductor interfaces for improved charge separation, semiconductor-MOF (metal-organic framework) configurations for activated surface reactions. It is anticipated that this series of works open a new window to rationally designing inorganic hybrid materials for photo-induced applications. References: (1) Bai, S.; Yang, L.; Wang, C.; Lin, Y.; Lu, J.; Jiang, J. and Xiong, Y.*, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 54, 14810-14814 (2015). (2) Bai, S.; Jiang, J.; Zhang, Q. and Xiong, Y.*, Chem. Soc. Rev. 44, 2893-2939 (2015). (3) Bai, S.; Li, X.; Kong, Q.; Long, R.; Wang, C.; Jiang, J. and Xiong, Y.*, Adv. Mater. 27, 3444-3452 (2015). (4) Bai, S.; Ge, J.; Wang, L.; Gong, M.; Deng, M.; Kong, Q.; Song, L.; Jiang, J.;* Zhang, Q.;* Luo, Y.; Xie, Y. and Xiong, Y.*, Adv. Mater. 26, 5689-5695 (2014). (5) Li, R.; Hu, J.; Deng, M.; Wang, H.; Wang, X.; Hu, Y.; Jiang, H. L.; Jiang, J.;* Zhang, Q.;* Xie, Y. and Xiong, Y.*, Adv. Mater

  2. Co-Simulation of Hybrid Systems with SpaceEx and Uppaal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogomolov, Sergiy; Greitschus, Marius; Jensen, Peter Gjøl

    2015-01-01

    The Functional Mock-up Interface (FMI) is an industry standard which enables co-simulation of complex heterogeneous systems using multiple simulation engines. In this paper, we show how to use FMI in order to co-simulate hybrid systems modeled in the model checkers SPACEEX and UPPAAL. We show how...

  3. Study on Drive System of Hybrid Tree Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Rong-feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid tree harvester with a 60 kW diesel engine combined with a battery pile could be a “green” forest harvesting and transportation system. With the new design, the diesel engine maintains a constant engine speed, keeping fuel consumption low while charging the batteries that drive the forwarder. As an additional energy saving method, the electric motors work as generators to charge the battery pile when the vehicle moves downhill. The vehicle is equipped with six large wheels providing high clearance over uneven terrain while reducing ground pressure. Each wheel is driven via a hub gear by its own alternating current motor, and each of the three wheel pairs can be steered independently. The combination of the diesel engine and six electric motors provides plenty of power for heavy lifting and pulling. The main component parameters of the drive system are calculated and optimized with a set of dynamics and simulated with AVL Cruise software. The results provide practical insights for the fuel tree harvester and are helpful to reduce the structure and size of the tree harvester. Advantage Environment provides information about existing and future products designed to reduce environmental impacts.

  4. Essentials of Project and Systems Engineering Management

    CERN Document Server

    Eisner, Howard S

    2008-01-01

    The Third Edition of Essentials of Project and Systems Engineering Management enables readers to manage the design, development, and engineering of systems effectively and efficiently. The book both defines and describes the essentials of project and systems engineering management and, moreover, shows the critical relationship and interconnection between project management and systems engineering. The author's comprehensive presentation has proven successful in enabling both engineers and project managers to understand their roles, collaborate, and quickly grasp and apply all the basic princip

  5. Biological and mechanical evaluation of a Bio-Hybrid scaffold for autologous valve tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahnavi, S [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, TN 600036 (India); Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Trivandrum, Kerala 695012 (India); Saravanan, U [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, TN 600036 (India); Arthi, N [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, TN 600036 (India); Bhuvaneshwar, G S [Department of Engineering Design, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, TN 600036 (India); Kumary, T V [Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Trivandrum, Kerala 695012 (India); Rajan, S [Madras Medical Mission, Institute of Cardio-Vascular Diseases, Mogappair, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600037 (India); Verma, R S, E-mail: vermars@iitm.ac.in [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, TN 600036 (India)

    2017-04-01

    Major challenge in heart valve tissue engineering for paediatric patients is the development of an autologous valve with regenerative capacity. Hybrid tissue engineering approach is recently gaining popularity to design scaffolds with desired biological and mechanical properties that can remodel post implantation. In this study, we fabricated aligned nanofibrous Bio-Hybrid scaffold made of decellularized bovine pericardium: polycaprolactone-chitosan with optimized polymer thickness to yield the desired biological and mechanical properties. CD44{sup +}, αSMA{sup +}, Vimentin{sup +} and CD105{sup −} human valve interstitial cells were isolated and seeded on these Bio-Hybrid scaffolds. Subsequent biological evaluation revealed interstitial cell proliferation with dense extra cellular matrix deposition that indicated the viability for growth and proliferation of seeded cells on the scaffolds. Uniaxial mechanical tests along axial direction showed that the Bio-Hybrid scaffolds has at least 20 times the strength of the native valves and its stiffness is nearly 3 times more than that of native valves. Biaxial and uniaxial mechanical studies on valve interstitial cells cultured Bio-Hybrid scaffolds revealed that the response along the axial and circumferential direction was different, similar to native valves. Overall, our findings suggest that Bio-Hybrid scaffold is a promising material for future development of regenerative heart valve constructs in children. - Highlights: • We report detailed biological and mechanical investigations of a Bio-Hybrid scaffold. • Optimized polymer thickness yielded desired biological and mechanical properties. • Bio-Hybrid scaffold revealed hVIC proliferation with dense ECM deposition. • Biaxial testing indicated that Bio-Hybrid scaffolds are mechanically stronger than native valves. • Bio-Hybrid scaffold is a promising material for autologous valve tissue engineering.

  6. Hybrid electric vehicle power management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2015-08-25

    Level voltage levels/states of charge are maintained among a plurality of high voltage DC electrical storage devices/traction battery packs that are arrayed in series to support operation of a hybrid electric vehicle drive train. Each high voltage DC electrical storage device supports a high voltage power bus, to which at least one controllable load is connected, and at least a first lower voltage level electrical distribution system. The rate of power transfer from the high voltage DC electrical storage devices to the at least first lower voltage electrical distribution system is controlled by DC-DC converters.

  7. Method Engineering: Engineering of Information Systems Development Methods and Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkkemper, J.N.; Brinkkemper, Sjaak

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes the term method engineering for the research field of the construction of information systems development methods and tools. Some research issues in method engineering are identified. One major research topic in method engineering is discussed in depth: situational methods, i.e.

  8. The engineering of cybernetic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Robert L.

    2002-05-01

    This tutorial develops a logical basis for the engineering of systems that operate cybernetically. The term cybernetic system has a clear quantitative definition. It is a system that dynamically matches acquired information to selected actions relative to a computational issue that defines the essential purpose of the system or machine. This notion requires that information and control be further quantified. The logic of questions and assertions as developed by Cox provides one means of doing this. The design and operation of cybernetic systems can be understood by contrasting these kinds of systems with communication systems and information theory as developed by Shannon. The joint logic of questions and assertions can be seen to underlie and be common to both information theory as applied to the design of discrete communication systems and to a theory of discrete general systems. The joint logic captures a natural complementarity between systems that transmit and receive information and those that acquire and act on it. Specific comparisons and contrasts are made between the source rate and channel capacity of a communication system and the acquisition rate and control capacity of a general system. An overview is provided of the joint logic of questions and assertions and the ties that this logic has to both conventional information theory and to a general theory of systems. I-diagrams, the interrogative complement of Venn diagrams, are described as providing valuable reasoning tools. An initial framework is suggested for the design of cybernetic systems. Two examples are given to illustrate this framework as applied to discrete cybernetic systems. These examples include a predator-prey problem as illustrated through "The Dog Chrysippus Pursuing its Prey," and the derivation of a single-neuron system that operates cybernetically and is biologically plausible. Future areas of research are highlighted which require development for a mature engineering framework.

  9. Method Engineering: Engineering of Information Systems Development Methods and Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkkemper, J.N.; Brinkkemper, Sjaak

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes the term method engineering for the research field of the construction of information systems development methods and tools. Some research issues in method engineering are identified. One major research topic in method engineering is discussed in depth: situational methods, i.e. the configuration of a project approach that is tuned to the project at hand. A language and support tool for the engineering of situational methods are discussed.

  10. Dissipative dynamics of superconducting hybrid qubit systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Enrique; Calero, Jesus M; Reina, John H, E-mail: enriquem@univalle.edu.c, E-mail: j.reina-estupinan@physics.ox.ac.u [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360, Cali (Colombia)

    2009-05-01

    We perform a theoretical study of composed superconducting qubit systems for the case of a coupled qubit configuration based on a hybrid qubit circuit made of both charge and phase qubits, which are coupled via a sigma{sub x} x sigma{sub z} interaction. We compute the system's eigen-energies in terms of the qubit transition frequencies and the strength of the inter-qubit coupling, and describe the sensitivity of the energy crossing/anti-crossing features to such coupling. We compute the hybrid system's dissipative dynamics for the cases of i) collective and ii) independent decoherence, whereby the system interacts with one common and two different baths of harmonic oscillators, respectively. The calculations have been performed within the Bloch-Redfield formalism and we report the solutions for the populations and the coherences of the system's reduced density matrix. The dephasing and relaxation rates are explicitly calculated as a function of the heat bath temperature.

  11. Information technology security system engineering methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, D.

    2003-01-01

    A methodology is described for system engineering security into large information technology systems under development. The methodology is an integration of a risk management process and a generic system development life cycle process. The methodology is to be used by Security System Engineers to effectively engineer and integrate information technology security into a target system as it progresses through the development life cycle. The methodology can also be used to re-engineer security into a legacy system.

  12. Comments On Clock Models In Hybrid Automata And Hybrid Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Ecaterina OLTEAN

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid systems have received a lot of attention in the past decade and a number of different models have been proposed in order to establish mathematical framework that is able to handle both continuous and discrete aspects. This contribution is focused on two models: hybrid automata and hybrid control systems with continuous-discrete interface and the importance of clock models is emphasized. Simple and relevant examples, some taken from the literature, accompany the presentation.

  13. Modelling supervisory controller for hybrid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A; Bindner, H; Lundsager, P [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Jannerup, O [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Automation, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Supervisory controllers are important to achieve optimal operation of hybrid power systems. The performance and economics of such systems depend mainly on the control strategy for switching on/off components. The modular concept described in this paper is an attempt to design standard supervisory controllers that could be used in different applications, such as village power and telecommunication applications. This paper presents some basic aspects of modelling and design of modular supervisory controllers using the object-oriented modelling technique. The functional abstraction hierarchy technique is used to formulate the control requirements and identify the functions of the control system. The modular algorithm is generic and flexible enough to be used with any system configuration and several goals (different applications). The modularity includes accepting modification of system configuration and goals during operation with minor or no changes in the supervisory controller. (au)

  14. A nuclear power plant system engineering workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, J.H.; Crosby, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    System engineers offer an approach for effective technical support for operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. System engineer groups are being set up by most utilities in the United States. Institute of Nuclear Power operations (INPO) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have endorsed the concept. The INPO Good Practice and a survey of system engineer programs in the southeastern United States provide descriptions of system engineering programs. The purpose of this paper is to describe a process for developing a design for a department-level information network of workstations for system engineering groups. The process includes the following: (1) application of a formal information engineering methodology, (2) analysis of system engineer functions and activities; (3) use of Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Plant Information Network (PIN) data; (4) application of the Information Engineering Workbench. The resulting design for this system engineer workstation can provide a reference for design of plant-specific systems

  15. B-2 Systems Engineering Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    of four small circles on the top view in front of the cockpit and on the bottom view engine bay doors. This air data system has no standard pitot ...Skantze, General, Air Force, Source Selection Advisory Board Chairman Erich Smith, Vought, Test Engineer, Systems Engineer, Chief engineer Henry

  16. 1978 source book for fusion--fission hybrid systems. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, J.H.; Pavlenco, G.F.; Kaminski, R.S.

    1978-12-01

    The 1978 Source Book for Fusion--Fission Hybrid Systems was prepared by United Engineers and Constructors Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute. It reviews the current status of fusion--fission hybrid reactors, and presents the prevailing views of members of the fusion community on the RD and D timetable required for the development and commercialization of fusion--fission hybrids. The results presented are based on a review of related references as well as interviews with recognized experts in the field. Contributors from the academic and industrial communities are listed

  17. From hybrid-media system to hybrid-media politicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blach-Ørsten, Mark; Eberholst, Mads Kæmsgaard; Burkal, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    ’ media use is changing rapidly; 15%–16% of Danish candidates used Twitter in 2011 but 68% in 2015. In this large-sample content analysis, party leaders have high traditional-news-media and low Twitter presence, and younger candidates visa-versa, but some politicians have high presence in both. Hybrid...

  18. Optimization of Renewable Energy Hybrid System for Grid Connected Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustaqimah Mustaqimah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Hybrid energy systems are pollution free, takes low cost and less gestation period, user and social friendly. Such systems are important sources of energy for shops, schools, and clinics in village communities especially in remote areas. Hybrid systems can provide electricity at a comparatively economic price in many remote areas. This paper presents a method to jointly determine the sizing and operation control of hybrid energy systems. The model, PV wind hydro and biomass hybrid system connects to grid. The system configuration of the hybrid is derived based on a theoretical domestic load at a typical location and local solar radiation, wind and water flow rate data and biomass availability. The hybrid energy system is proposed for 10 of teacher’s houses of Industrial Training Institute, Mersing. It is predicted 10 kW load consumption per house. The hybrid energy system consists of wind, solar, biomass, hydro, and grid power. Approximately energy consumption is 860 kWh/day with a 105 kW peak demand load. The proposed hybrid renewable consists of solar photovoltaic (PV panels, wind turbine, hydro turbine and biomass. Battery and inverter are included as part of back-up and storage system. It provides the economic sensitivity of hybridization and the economic and environmental benefits of using a blend of technologies. It also presents the trade off that is involved in optimizing a hybrid energy system to harness and utilize the available renewable energy resources efficiently.

  19. Engineered Geothermal System Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, Susan

    2014-06-19

    In June 2009, AltaRock Energy began field work on a project supported by the U.S. Department of Energy entitled “Use of Multiple Stimulations to Improve Economics of Engineered Geothermal Systems in Shallow High Temperature Intrusives.” The goal of the project was to develop an Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) in the portion of The Geysers geothermal field operated by the Northern California Power Agency (NCPA). The project encountered several problems while deepening Well E-7 which culminated in the suspension of field activities in September 2009. Some of the problems encountered are particular to The Geysers area, while others might be encountered in any geothermal field, and they might be avoided in future operations.

  20. SFC Optimization for Aero Engine Based on Hybrid GA-SQP Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Fan, Ding; Sreeram, Victor

    2013-12-01

    This study focuses on on-line specific fuel consumption (SFC) optimization of aero engines. For solving this optimization problem, a nonlinear pneumatic and thermodynamics model of the aero engine is built and a hybrid optimization technique which is formed by combining the genetic algorithm (GA) and the sequential quadratic programming (SQP) is presented. The ability of standard GA and standard SQP in solving this type of problem is investigated. It has been found that, although the SQP is fast, very little SFC reductions can be obtained. The GA is able to solve the problem well but a lot of computational time is needed. The presented hybrid GA-SQP gives a good SFC optimization effect and saves 76.6% computational time when compared to the standard GA. It has been shown that the hybrid GA-SQP is a more effective and higher real-time method for SFC on-line optimization of the aero engine.

  1. A Hybrid Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm Technique for Aircraft Engine Performance Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a model-based diagnostic method, which utilizes Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms, is investigated. Neural networks are applied to estimate the engine internal health, and Genetic Algorithms are applied for sensor bias detection and estimation. This hybrid approach takes advantage of the nonlinear estimation capability provided by neural networks while improving the robustness to measurement uncertainty through the application of Genetic Algorithms. The hybrid diagnostic technique also has the ability to rank multiple potential solutions for a given set of anomalous sensor measurements in order to reduce false alarms and missed detections. The performance of the hybrid diagnostic technique is evaluated through some case studies derived from a turbofan engine simulation. The results show this approach is promising for reliable diagnostics of aircraft engines.

  2. Hybrid quantum systems: Outsourcing superconducting qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Andrew

    Superconducting qubits offer excellent prospects for manipulating quantum information, with good qubit lifetimes, high fidelity single- and two-qubit gates, and straightforward scalability (admittedly with multi-dimensional interconnect challenges). One interesting route for experimental development is the exploration of hybrid systems, i.e. coupling superconducting qubits to other systems. I will report on our group's efforts to develop approaches that will allow interfacing superconducting qubits in a quantum-coherent fashion to spin defects in solids, to optomechanical devices, and to resonant nanomechanical structures. The longer term goals of these efforts include transferring quantum states between different qubit systems; generating and receiving ``flying'' acoustic phonon-based as well as optical photon-based qubits; and ultimately developing systems that can be used for quantum memory, quantum computation and quantum communication, the last in both the microwave and fiber telecommunications bands. Work is supported by Grants from AFOSR, ARO, DOE and NSF.

  3. Optical tristability in a hybrid optomechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari Nejad, A.; Askari, H. R.; Baghshahi, H. R.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate a hybrid optomechanical system consisting of two cavities, which one of them is an optomechanical cavity that includes an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) and the other is a traditional cavity which contains an atomic medium. Hamiltonian of the system is written in a rotating frame with a rotation frequency of the frequency of input field to the system. Using Heisenberg-Langevin equations of motion, the dynamics of the system is described. Applying the steady-state conditions leads to a system of equations of the mean values of the operators of the system. The stability condition of the system is satisfied numerically and behavior of optomechanical cavity is investigated in different situations to find the effect of changing of the parameters of the system on the type of its stability. We show proposed system has the capability of tristable behavior, where, the gain coefficient of OPA acts as a switch in changing the bistability of the system to a tristable manner. The building block of the tristability in this system can be figured out as the enhanced nonlinearity of the system due to the presence of OPA.

  4. Wind Solar Hybrid System Rectifier Stage Topology Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Anup M. Gakare; Subhash Kamdi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents power-control strategies of a grid-connected hybrid generation system with versatile power transfer. The hybrid system allows maximum utilization of freely available renewable sources like wind and photovoltaic energies. This paper presents a new system configuration of the multi input rectifier stage for a hybrid wind and photovoltaic energy system. This configuration allows the two sources to supply the load simultaneously depending on the availability of...

  5. Optimization of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Cordero, Francisco Jose

    Use of diesel generators in remote communities is economically and environmentally unsustainable. Consequently, researchers have focussed on designing hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) for distributed electricity generation in remote communities. However, the cost-effectiveness of interconnecting multiple remote communities (microgrids) has not been explored. The main objective of this thesis is to develop a methodology for optimal design of HRES and microgrids for remote communities. A set of case studies was developed to test this methodology and it was determined that a combination of stand-alone decentralized HRES and microgrids is the most cost-effective power generation scheme when studying a group of remote communities.

  6. Modification to the lower hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gormezano, C.

    1989-01-01

    The main modifications which have to be done to the Lower Hybrid system are related in the change of the plasma shape in front of the grill mouth. In effect, the theoretical coupling efficiency of the LHCD grill depends only upon the density at the grill mouth and upon the launched wave index. In order to minimize the number of modifications to the launcher it is proposed to modify the length of the vacuum waveguides connecting the multijunctions to the vacuum windows. To obtain the new poloidal contour, it is proposed to recover the L1 multijunctions and to remachine their mouth. (U.K.)

  7. SMAP Instrument Mechanical System Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimko, Eric; French, Richard; Riggs, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, scheduled for launch by the end of 2014, is being developed to measure the soil moisture and soil freeze/thaw state on a global scale over a three-year period. The accuracy, resolution, and global coverage of SMAP measurements are invaluable across many science and applications disciplines including hydrology, climate, carbon cycle, and the meteorological, environment, and ecology applications communities. The SMAP observatory is composed of a despun bus and a spinning instrument platform that includes both a deployable 6 meter aperture low structural frequency Astromesh reflector and a spin control system. The instrument section has engendered challenging mechanical system issues associated with the antenna deployment, flexible antenna pointing in the context of a multitude of disturbances, spun section mass properties, spin control system development, and overall integration with the flight system on both mechanical and control system levels. Moreover, the multitude of organizations involved, including two major vendors providing the spin subsystem and reflector boom assembly plus the flight system mechanical and guidance, navigation, and control teams, has led to several unique system engineering challenges. Capturing the key physics associated with the function of the flight system has been challenging due to the many different domains that are applicable. Key interfaces and operational concepts have led to complex negotiations because of the large number of organizations that integrate with the instrument mechanical system. Additionally, the verification and validation concerns associated with the mechanical system have had required far-reaching involvement from both the flight system and other subsystems. The SMAP instrument mechanical systems engineering issues and their solutions are described in this paper.

  8. 4+ Dimensional nuclear systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Kune Y.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) require massive quantity of data during the design, construction, operation, maintenance and decommissioning stages because of their special features like size, cost, radioactivity, and so forth. The system engineering thus calls for a fully integrated way of managing the information flow spanning their life cycle. This paper proposes digital systems engineering anchored in three dimensional (3D) computer aided design (CAD) models. The signature in the proposal lies with the four plus dimensional (4 + D) Technology TM , a critical know how for digital management. ESSE (Engineering Super Simulation Emulation) features a 4 + D Technology TM for nuclear energy systems engineering. The technology proposed in the 3D space and time plus cost coordinates, i.e. 4 + D, is the backbone of digital engineering in the nuclear systems design and management. Dased on an integrated 3D configuration management system, ESSE consists of solutions JANUS (Junctional Analysis Neodynamic Unit SoftPower), EURUS (Engineering Utilities Research Unit SoftPower), NOTUS (Neosystemic Optimization Technical Unit SoftPower), VENUS (Virtual Engineering Neocybernetic Unit SoftPower) and INUUS (Informative Neographic Utilities Unit SoftPower). NOTUS contributes to reducing the construction cost of the NPPs by optimizing the component manufacturing procedure and the plant construction process. Planning and scheduling construction projects can thus benefit greatly by integrating traditional management techniques with digital process simulation visualization. The 3D visualization of construction processes and the resulting products intrinsically afford most of the advantages realized by incorporating a purely schedule level detail based the 4 + D system. Problems with equipment positioning and manpower congestion in certain areas can be visualized prior to the actual operation, thus preventing accidents and safety problems such as collision between two machines and losses in

  9. Systems engineering: A problem of perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senglaub, M.

    1995-08-01

    The characterization of systems engineering as a discipline, process, procedure or a set of heuristics will have an impact on the implementation strategy, the training methodology, and operational environment. The systems engineering upgrade activities in the New Mexico Weapons Development Center and a search of systems engineering related information provides evidence of a degree of ambiguity in this characterization of systems engineering. A case is made in this article for systems engineering being the engineering discipline applied to the science of complexity. Implications of this characterization and some generic issues are delineated with the goal of providing an enterprise with a starting point for developing its business environment.

  10. Hybrid orientation technology and strain engineering for ultra-high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We report here RF MOSFET performance in sub-45-nm hybrid orientation CMOS technology. Based ... can provide a greater benefit for hole mobility (Yang et al. 2003). ... types of structures; type-I with p-FET on the (110) SOI and.

  11. Transforming Systems Engineering through Model-Centric Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-28

    Contract No. HQ0034-13-D-0004 Research Tasks: 48, 118, 141, 157, 170 Report No. SERC-2018-TR-103 Transforming Systems Engineering through...Model-Centric Engineering Technical Report SERC-2018-TR-103 February 28, 2018 Principal Investigator Dr. Mark Blackburn, Stevens Institute of...Systems Engineering Research Center This material is based upon work supported, in whole or in part, by the U.S. Department of Defense through the

  12. Event tree analysis for the system of hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yongwei; Qiu Lijian

    1993-01-01

    The application of probabilistic risk assessment for fusion-fission hybrid reactor is introduced. A hybrid reactor system has been analysed using event trees. According to the character of the conceptual design of Hefei Fusion-fission Experimental Hybrid Breeding Reactor, the probabilities of the event tree series induced by 4 typical initiating events were calculated. The results showed that the conceptual design is safe and reasonable. through this paper, the safety character of hybrid reactor system has been understood more deeply. Some suggestions valuable to safety design for hybrid reactor have been proposed

  13. Stirling Engine Dynamic System Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakis, Christopher G.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermo-Mechanical systems branch at the Glenn Research Center focuses a large amount time on Stirling engines. These engines will be used on missions where solar power is inefficient, especially in deep space. I work with Tim Regan and Ed Lewandowski who are currently developing and validating a mathematical model for the Stirling engines. This model incorporates all aspects of the system including, mechanical, electrical and thermodynamic components. Modeling is done through Simplorer, a program capable of running simulations of the model. Once created and then proven to be accurate, a model is used for developing new ideas for engine design. My largest specific project involves varying key parameters in the model and quantifying the results. This can all be done relatively trouble-free with the help of Simplorer. Once the model is complete, Simplorer will do all the necessary calculations. The more complicated part of this project is determining which parameters to vary. Finding key parameters depends on the potential for a value to be independently altered in the design. For example, a change in one dimension may lead to a proportional change to the rest of the model, and no real progress is made. Also, the ability for a changed value to have a substantial impact on the outputs of the system is important. Results will be condensed into graphs and tables with the purpose of better communication and understanding of the data. With the changing of these parameters, a more optimal design can be created without having to purchase or build any models. Also, hours and hours of results can be simulated in minutes. In the long run, using mathematical models can save time and money. Along with this project, I have many other smaller assignments throughout the summer. My main goal is to assist in the processes of model development, validation and testing.

  14. CLASSIFICATION OF NEURAL NETWORK FOR TECHNICAL CONDITION OF TURBOFAN ENGINES BASED ON HYBRID ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Potapov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This work presents a method of diagnosing the technical condition of turbofan engines using hybrid neural network algorithm based on software developed for the analysis of data obtained in the aircraft life. Methods: allows the engine diagnostics with deep recognition to the structural assembly in the presence of single structural damage components of the engine running and the multifaceted damage. Results: of the optimization of neural network structure to solve the problems of evaluating technical state of the bypass turbofan engine, when used with genetic algorithms.

  15. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Challenges and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sabharwall; S.B. Sitton; S.J. Yoon; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01

    With growing demand of energy and costs of the fossil fuels, coupled with the environmental concerns have resulted in an increased interest in alternative energy sources. Nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) are being considered which incorporates renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy combined with nuclear reactor and energy storage to meet the peak hours demand imposed on the grid, along with providing process heat for other potential industrial applications. This concept could potentially satisfy various energy demands and improve reliability, robustness and resilience for the entire system as a whole, along with economic and net efficiency gains. This paper provides a brief understanding of potential NHES system and architecture along with the challenges

  16. ENGINEERING OF UNIVERSITY INTELLIGENT LEARNING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy M. Trembach

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article issues of engineering intelligent tutoring systems of University with adaptation are considered. The article also dwells on some modern approaches to engineering of information systems. It shows the role of engineering e-learning devices (systems in system engineering. The article describes the basic principles of system engineering and these principles are expanded regarding to intelligent information systems. The structure of intelligent learning systems with adaptation of the individual learning environments based on services is represented in the article.

  17. Solar central receiver hybrid power system. Phase I study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-11-01

    A management plan is presented for implementation during the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System - Phase I study project. The project plan and the management controls that will be used to assure technically adequate, timely and cost effective performance of the work required to prepare the designated end products are described. Bechtel in-house controls and those to be used in directing the subcontractors are described. Phase I of the project consists of tradeoff studies, parametric analyses, and engineering studies leading to conceptual definition and evaluation of a commercial hybrid power system that has the potential for supplying economically competitive electric power to a utility grid in the 1985-1990 time frame. The scope also includes the preparation of a development plan for the resolution of technical uncertainties and the preparation of plans and a proposal for Phase II of the program. The technical approach will be based on a central receiver solar energy collection scheme which supplies thermal energy to a combined cycle, generating system, consisting of a gas turbine cycle combined with a steam bottoming cycle by means of a heat recovery steam generator.

  18. Annular tidal regenerator engine for nuclear circulatory support systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, K.G.; Ruggles, A.E.; Fam, S.S.; Torti, V.A.

    1975-01-01

    In order to simplify the configuration of the tidal regenerator engine nuclear-powered circulatory support system, thereby drastically reducing its size and improving the intrinsic reliability, the engine has been redesigned. This redesign focuses on allowing power to be extracted at the low temperature end of the engine utilizing a piston-cylinder arrangement wherein all of the necessary heat transfer processes occur in the annular gap between the piston and cylinder. In all other respects the engine retains its basic characteristics as a hybrid between a Stirling engine and a Rankine engine. A significant advantage of the new arrangement is the ability to raise the superheat temperature limit from 650 0 F to over 900 0 F. This has yielded an increase in engine efficiency from 10 percent to 14 percent, and further increases are anticipated by utilizing an expansion and/or a binary version of the engine. The implantable system volume has been reduced by a factor of three and orientation insensitivity with respect to gravity has been demonstrated. Many system components have already demonstrated endurances of several thousand hours

  19. A comparative study and analysis of an optimized control strategy for the toyota hybrid system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, Theo; Purnot, Thijs

    2009-01-01

    The Toyota Prius equipped with the Toyota Hybrid System (THS) II vehicle uses a combination of a combustion engine and two electric machines in order to increase the efficiency and the fuel economy. The Energy Management Strategy (EMS) of the THS II is analyzed using measurement data collected with

  20. Airbreathing combined cycle engine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, John

    1992-01-01

    The Air Force and NASA share a common interest in developing advanced propulsion systems for commercial and military aerospace vehicles which require efficient acceleration and cruise operation in the Mach 4 to 6 flight regime. The principle engine of interest is the turboramjet; however, other combined cycles such as the turboscramjet, air turborocket, supercharged ejector ramjet, ejector ramjet, and air liquefaction based propulsion are also of interest. Over the past months careful planning and program implementation have resulted in a number of development efforts that will lead to a broad technology base for those combined cycle propulsion systems. Individual development programs are underway in thermal management, controls materials, endothermic hydrocarbon fuels, air intake systems, nozzle exhaust systems, gas turbines and ramjet ramburners.

  1. Mathematical Modelling of a Hybrid Micro-Cogeneration Group Based on a Four Stroke Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostol Valentin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a part of the work conducted in the first stage of a Research Grant called ”Hybrid micro-cogeneration group of high efficiency equipped with an electronically assisted ORC” acronym GRUCOHYB. The hybrid micro-cogeneration group is equipped with a four stroke Diesel engine having a maximum power of 40 kW. A mathematical model of the internal combustion engine is presented. The mathematical model is developed based on the Laws of Thermodynamics and takes into account the real, irreversible processes. Based on the mathematical model a computation program was developed. The results obtained were compared with those provided by the Diesel engine manufacturer. Results show a very high correlation between the manufacturer’s data and the simulation results for an engine running at 100% load. Future developments could involve using an exergetic analysis to show the ability of the ORC to generate electricity from recovered heat

  2. Engineering the lipid layer of lipid-PLGA hybrid nanoparticles for enhanced in vitro cellular uptake and improved stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yun; Hoerle, Reece; Ehrich, Marion; Zhang, Chenming

    2015-12-01

    Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (NPs), consisting of a polymeric core and a lipid shell, have been intensively examined as delivery systems for cancer drugs, imaging agents, and vaccines. For applications in vaccine particularly, the hybrid NPs need to be able to protect the enclosed antigens during circulation, easily be up-taken by dendritic cells, and possess good stability for prolonged storage. However, the influence of lipid composition on the performance of hybrid NPs has not been well studied. In this study, we demonstrate that higher concentrations of cholesterol in the lipid layer enable slower and more controlled antigen release from lipid-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) acid (lipid-PLGA) NPs in human serum and phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Higher concentrations of cholesterol also promoted in vitro cellular uptake of hybrid NPs, improved the stability of the lipid layer, and protected the integrity of the hybrid structure during long-term storage. However, stabilized hybrid structures of high cholesterol content tended to fuse with each other during storage, resulting in significant size increase and lowered cellular uptake. Additional experiments demonstrated that PEGylation of NPs could effectively minimize fusion-caused size increase after long term storage, leading to improved cellular uptake, although excessive PEGylation will not be beneficial and led to reduced improvement. This paper reports the engineering of the lipid layer that encloses a polymeric nanoparticle, which can be used as a carrier for drug and vaccine molecules for targeted delivery. We demonstrated that the concentration of cholesterol is critical for the stability and uptake of the hybrid nanoparticles by dendritic cells, a targeted cell for the delivery of immune effector molecules. However, we found that hybrid nanoparticles with high cholesterol concentration tend to fuse during storage resulting in larger particles with decreased cellular uptake. This problem is

  3. Experimental study into a hybrid PCCI/CI concept for next-generation heavy-duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Baert, R.S.G.; Dijk, M.D. van

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the first results of an experimental study into a hybrid combustion concept for next-generation heavy-duty diesel engines. In this hybrid concept, at low load operating conditions, the engine is run in Pre-mixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) mode, whereas at high load

  4. Development of maintenance engineering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    Department of JMTR project has developed the Maintenance Engineering System which evaluates the aging tendency of the facilities. The system is used for the repair plan and the replace period of parts, components, equipments or facilities. The system has the data-base which consists of the check data, the inspection data, the trouble data and the repair data at the JMTR since the virgin criticality. The system is utilized maintenance works and concludes the maintenance procedures for the failure components, equipments and facilities. This system has the following characteristics. (1) Anybody can operate the system as easily as word processor. (2) Data are put into by man-machine-interface. (3) The data sheets are with light color and the recognizable arrangements. (4) The system is cost-efficient using commercial personal computers and applications. The research card and the layouts of the input data sheet had been formatted. Data has been begun to be put into the system and to check its functions. The result demonstrates that the system is available for preventive maintenance at the JMTR. (author)

  5. Infectious disease modeling a hybrid system approach

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xinzhi

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents infectious diseases modeled mathematically, taking seasonality and changes in population behavior into account, using a switched and hybrid systems framework. The scope of coverage includes background on mathematical epidemiology, including classical formulations and results; a motivation for seasonal effects and changes in population behavior, an investigation into term-time forced epidemic models with switching parameters, and a detailed account of several different control strategies. The main goal is to study these models theoretically and to establish conditions under which eradication or persistence of the disease is guaranteed. In doing so, the long-term behavior of the models is determined through mathematical techniques from switched systems theory. Numerical simulations are also given to augment and illustrate the theoretical results and to help study the efficacy of the control schemes.

  6. Nanoengineered Plasmonic Hybrid Systems for Bio-nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Kirsty

    Plasmonic hybrid systems are fabricated using a combination of lithography and layer-by-layer directed self-assembly approaches to serve as highly sensitive nanosensing devices. This layer-by-layer directed self-assembly approach is utilized as a hybrid methodology to control the organization of quantum dots (QDs), nanoparticles, and biomolecules onto inorganic nanostructures with site-specific attachment and functionality. Here, surface plasmon-enhanced nanoarrays are fabricated where the photoluminescence of quantum dots and conjugated polymer nanoarrays are studied. This study was performed by tuning the localized surface plasmon resonance and the distance between the emitter and the metal surface using genetically engineered polypeptides as binding agents and biotin-streptavidin binding as linker molecules. In addition, these nanoarrays were also chemically modified to support the immobilization and label-free detection of DNA using surface enhanced Raman scattering. The surface of the nanoarrays was chemically modified using an acridine containing molecule which can act as an intercalating agent for DNA. The self-assembled monolayer (SAM) showed the ability to immobilize and intercalate DNA onto the surface. This SAM system using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) serves as a highly sensitive methodology for the immobilization and label-free detection of DNA applicable into a wide range of bio-diagnostic platforms. Other micropatterned arrays were also fabricated using a combination of soft lithography and surface engineering. Selective single cell patterning and adhesion was achieved through chemical modifications and surface engineering of poly(dimethylsiloxane) surface. The surface of each microwell was functionally engineered with a SAM which contained an aldehyde terminated fused-ring aromatic thiolated molecule. Cells were found to be attracted and adherent to the chemically modified microwells. By combining soft lithography and surface engineering

  7. A PEMFC hybrid electric vehicle real time control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongqiao

    In recent years, environmental friendly technologies and alternative energy solutions have drawn a lot of public attentions due to global energy crisis and pollution issues. Fuel cell (FC), a technology invented almost at the same time as the internal combustion (IC) engine, is now the focus of the automotive industry again. The fuel cell vehicle (FCV) has zero emission and its efficiency is significantly higher than the conventional IC engine power vehicles. Among a variety of FCV technologies, proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC vehicle appears to be far more attractive and mature. The prototype PEMFC vehicle has been developed and demonstrated to the public by nearly all the major automotive manufacturers in recent years. However, to the interest of the public research, publications and documentations on the PEMFC vehicle technology are rarely available due to its proprietary nature, which essentially makes it a secured technology. This dissertation demonstrates a real world application of a PEMFC hybrid electric vehicle. Through presenting the vehicle design concept, developing the real time control system and generating generic operation principles, this dissertation targets at establishing the public knowledge base on this new technology. A complete PEMFC hybrid electric vehicle design, including vehicle components layout, process flow diagram, real time control system architecture, subsystem structures and control algorithms, is presented in order to help understand the whole vehicle system. The design concept is validated through the vehicle demonstration. Generic operating principles are established along with the validation process, which helps populate this emerging technology. Thereafter, further improvements and future research directions are discussed.

  8. Feasibility Study and Optimization of An Hybrid System (Eolian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feasibility Study and Optimization of An Hybrid System (Eolian- Photovoltaic - Diesel) With Provision of Electric Energy Completely Independent. ... reducing emissions of greenhouse gas (CO2 rate = 16086 kg / year for a system using only the generator diesel and is 599 kg / year for the stand alone hybrid system studied).

  9. Development of Traction Drive Motors for the Toyota Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Munehiro

    Toyota Motor Corporation developed in 2005 a new hybrid system for a large SUV. This system included the new development of a high-speed traction drive motor achieving a significant increase in power weight ratio. This paper provides an overview of the hybrid system, discusses the characteristics required of a traction drive motor, and presents the technologies employed in the developed motor.

  10. Model predictive control of hybrid systems : stability and robustness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazar, M.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis considers the stabilization and the robust stabilization of certain classes of hybrid systems using model predictive control. Hybrid systems represent a broad class of dynamical systems in which discrete behavior (usually described by a finite state machine) and continuous behavior

  11. Biological and mechanical evaluation of a Bio-Hybrid scaffold for autologous valve tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnavi, S; Saravanan, U; Arthi, N; Bhuvaneshwar, G S; Kumary, T V; Rajan, S; Verma, R S

    2017-04-01

    Major challenge in heart valve tissue engineering for paediatric patients is the development of an autologous valve with regenerative capacity. Hybrid tissue engineering approach is recently gaining popularity to design scaffolds with desired biological and mechanical properties that can remodel post implantation. In this study, we fabricated aligned nanofibrous Bio-Hybrid scaffold made of decellularized bovine pericardium: polycaprolactone-chitosan with optimized polymer thickness to yield the desired biological and mechanical properties. CD44 + , αSMA + , Vimentin + and CD105 - human valve interstitial cells were isolated and seeded on these Bio-Hybrid scaffolds. Subsequent biological evaluation revealed interstitial cell proliferation with dense extra cellular matrix deposition that indicated the viability for growth and proliferation of seeded cells on the scaffolds. Uniaxial mechanical tests along axial direction showed that the Bio-Hybrid scaffolds has at least 20 times the strength of the native valves and its stiffness is nearly 3 times more than that of native valves. Biaxial and uniaxial mechanical studies on valve interstitial cells cultured Bio-Hybrid scaffolds revealed that the response along the axial and circumferential direction was different, similar to native valves. Overall, our findings suggest that Bio-Hybrid scaffold is a promising material for future development of regenerative heart valve constructs in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Security Research on Engineering Database System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Engine engineering database system is an oriented C AD applied database management system that has the capability managing distributed data. The paper discusses the security issue of the engine engineering database management system (EDBMS). Through studying and analyzing the database security, to draw a series of securi ty rules, which reach B1, level security standard. Which includes discretionary access control (DAC), mandatory access control (MAC) and audit. The EDBMS implem ents functions of DAC, ...

  13. Security Engineering FY17 Systems Aware Cybersecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-07

    Security Engineering – FY17 Systems Aware Cybersecurity Technical Report SERC-2017-TR-114 December 7 2017 Principal Investigator: Dr...December 7, 2017 Copyright © 2017 Stevens Institute of Technology, Systems Engineering Research Center The Systems Engineering Research Center (SERC...supported, in whole or in part, by the U.S. Department of Defense through the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering (ASD

  14. Limit Cycle Analysis in a Class of Hybrid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Favela-Contreras

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid systems are those that inherently combine discrete and continuous dynamics. This paper considers the hybrid system model to be an extension of the discrete automata associating a continuous evolution with each discrete state. This model is called the hybrid automaton. In this work, we achieve a mathematical formulation of the steady state and we show a way to obtain the initial conditions region to reach a specific limit cycle for a class of uncoupled and coupled continuous-linear hybrid systems. The continuous-linear term is used in the sense of the system theory and, in this sense, continuous-linear hybrid automata will be defined. Thus, some properties and theorems that govern the hybrid automata dynamic behavior to evaluate a limit cycle existence have been established; this content is explained under a theoretical framework.

  15. Paraffin-based hybrid rocket engines applications: A review and a market perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Alessandro; Merotto, Laura; Pinarello, Giordano

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid propulsion technology for aerospace applications has received growing attention in recent years due to its important advantages over competitive solutions. Hybrid rocket engines have a great potential for several aeronautics and aerospace applications because of their safety, reliability, low cost and high performance. As a consequence, this propulsion technology is feasible for a number of innovative missions, including space tourism. On the other hand, hybrid rocket propulsion's main drawback, i.e. the difficulty in reaching high regression rate values using standard fuels, has so far limited the maturity level of this technology. The complex physico-chemical processes involved in hybrid rocket engines combustion are of major importance for engine performance prediction and control. Therefore, further investigation is ongoing in order to achieve a more complete understanding of such phenomena. It is well known that one of the most promising solutions for overcoming hybrid rocket engines performance limits is the use of liquefying fuels. Such fuels can lead to notably increased solid fuel regression rate due to the so-called "entrainment phenomenon". Among liquefying fuels, paraffin-based formulations have great potentials as solid fuels due to their low cost, availability (as they can be derived from industrial waste), low environmental impact and high performance. Despite the vast amount of literature available on this subject, a precise focus on market potential of paraffins for hybrid propulsion aerospace applications is lacking. In this work a review of hybrid rocket engines state of the art was performed, together with a detailed analysis of the possible applications of such a technology. A market study was carried out in order to define the near-future foreseeable development needs for hybrid technology application to the aforementioned missions. Paraffin-based fuels are taken into account as the most promising segment for market development

  16. Performance analysis of a novel coaxial power-split hybrid powertrain using a CNG engine and supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Minggao; Zhang, Weilin; Wang, Enhua; Yang, Fuyuan; Li, Jianqiu; Li, Zhongyan; Yu, Ping; Ye, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Four different types of hybrid powertrain for heavy-duty vehicles are reviewed. • A novel coaxial power-split hybrid powertrain is proposed and models are developed. • Performance characteristics are analyzed and compared to a conventional powertrain. • Fuel saving potential is evaluated and explained using energy efficiency method. - Abstract: Energy conservation is a very important task for the automotive industry. The use of hybrid electric vehicles can improve energy efficiency, thus reducing fuel consumption and carbon emissions. In this research, the performance characteristics of a novel coaxial power-split hybrid powertrain for a transit bus are presented. The power sources are a combination of a compressed natural gas (CNG) engine and supercapacitors. A mathematical model for the coaxial power-split hybrid powertrain is established. Subsequently, an analysis program is developed based on Matlab and Advisor. The parameters are specified using experimental data. Afterwards, a rule-based control strategy is designed and optimized from the viewpoint of energy efficiency. Later, the system performance is evaluated using the Chinese Transit Bus City Driving Cycle and compared to a conventional powertrain. The results indicate that the proposed coaxial power-split hybrid powertrain can fulfill the requirements of the transit bus and enhance the energy efficiency dramatically. Moreover, the average energy efficiency of the supercapacitors was found to be above 97% over the entire driving cycle. Using supercapacitors as energy storage devices for the coaxial power-split hybrid powertrain can effectively recover the kinetic energy during regenerative braking and is a good solution for transit buses that require frequent acceleration and deceleration.

  17. Reverse engineering for quality systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    When the age of software engineering began, many companies were faced with a problem of how to support the older, pre-software-engineering, programs. The techniques of reverse engineering and re-engineering were developed to bridge the gap between the past and the present. Although reverse engineering can be used for generating missing documentation, it can also be used as a means to demonstrate quality in these older programs. This paper presents, in the form of a case study, how Rolls-Royce and Associates Limited addressed the quality issues of reverse engineering and re-engineering. (author)

  18. Components and systems for hybrid- and electromobiles; Komponenten und Systeme fuer Hybrid- und Elektrofahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Immle, Michael; Burgmayr, Thomas [Panasonic Electric Works Europe AG, Holzkirchen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    On the Hybrid and Electric Vehicle sector Panasonic Electric Works is working among others on electro-mechanical products, such as contactors for battery disconnection or battery charging, on semi-conductor relays for battery monitoring and on complex systems as battery disconnect units. This paper will show experience on the hybrid vehicle sector. Further on different switching components and their usage will be introduced. As a main topic battery disconnected units will be discussed. Based on an actual example basic development items and system features will be touched and important development stages will be shown. As a general topic a future view on vehicles and batteries, as well as on charging systems and infrastructural necessities will be introduced. (orig.)

  19. The Role of the Military Construction Engineers in the Hybrid War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    an increase in the need for infrastructure. Military construction engineers were responsible for the NIKE construction program, storage sites for...has minimized the significance of geographical and political boundaries. Because of these facts, the NATO Bi-Strategic Command has assessed Hybrid

  20. COOPERATIVE MODE OF ELECTRIC MOTOR AND INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE OPERATION IN THE CONVERSION HYBRID CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the given article the authors proposed a method to control the car, which is converted into a hybrid one. The electric motor and combustion engine operate alternately in the car. They proposed a device for implementing this method and a circuit design for the device in question. They also calculated the dynamics of the vehicle under the joint acceleration.

  1. Effect of gear shift and engine start losses on control strategies for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, V.; Hofman, T.; Steinbuch, M.; Serrarens, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, energetic loss models in the events of shifting gear and starting engine in a parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle equipped with an Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) will be introduced. The optimal control algorithm for the start-stop, power split and gear shift problem based on Dynamic

  2. Improving of Hybrid Rocket Engine on the Basis of Optimizing Design Fuel Grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriekov, K. M.; Ushkin, M. P.

    2015-09-01

    This article examines the processes intrachamber in hybrid rocket engine (HRE) and the comparative assessment of the use of solid rocket motors (SRM) and HRE for meteorological rockets with a mass of payload of the 364 kg. Results of the research showed the possibility of a significant increase in the ballistic effectiveness of meteorological rocket.

  3. Public perception related to a hydrogen hybrid internal combustion engine transit bus demonstration and hydrogen fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickson, Allister; Phillips, Al; Morales, Gene

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen has been widely considered as a potentially viable alternative to fossil fuels for use in transportation. In addition to price competitiveness with fossil fuels, a key to its adoption will be public perceptions of hydrogen technologies and hydrogen fuel. This paper examines public perceptions of riders of a hydrogen hybrid internal combustion engine bus and hydrogen as a fuel source

  4. Engine-start Control Strategy of P2 Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiangyang, Xu; Siqi, Zhao; Peng, Dong

    2017-12-01

    A smooth and fast engine-start process is important to parallel hybrid electric vehicles with an electric motor mounted in front of the transmission. However, there are some challenges during the engine-start control. Firstly, the electric motor must simultaneously provide a stable driving torque to ensure the drivability and a compensative torque to drag the engine before ignition. Secondly, engine-start time is a trade-off control objective because both fast start and smooth start have to be considered. To solve these problems, this paper first analyzed the resistance of the engine start process, and established a physic model in MATLAB/Simulink. Then a model-based coordinated control strategy among engine, motor and clutch was developed. Two basic control strategy during fast start and smooth start process were studied. Simulation results showed that the control objectives were realized by applying given control strategies, which can meet different requirement from the driver.

  5. Solar-Diesel Hybrid Power System Optimization and Experimental Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobus, Headley Stewart

    As of 2008 1.46 billion people, or 22 percent of the World's population, were without electricity. Many of these people live in remote areas where decentralized generation is the only method of electrification. Most mini-grids are powered by diesel generators, but new hybrid power systems are becoming a reliable method to incorporate renewable energy while also reducing total system cost. This thesis quantifies the measurable Operational Costs for an experimental hybrid power system in Sierra Leone. Two software programs, Hybrid2 and HOMER, are used during the system design and subsequent analysis. Experimental data from the installed system is used to validate the two programs and to quantify the savings created by each component within the hybrid system. This thesis bridges the gap between design optimization studies that frequently lack subsequent validation and experimental hybrid system performance studies.

  6. Analytical energy spectrum for hybrid mechanical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Honghua; Xie, Qiongtao; Lee, Chaohong; Guan, Xiwen; Gao, Kelin; Batchelor, Murray T

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the energy spectrum for hybrid mechanical systems described by non-parity-symmetric quantum Rabi models. A set of analytical solutions in terms of the confluent Heun functions and their analytical energy spectrum is obtained. The analytical energy spectrum includes regular and exceptional parts, which are both confirmed by direct numerical simulation. The regular part is determined by the zeros of the Wronskian for a pair of analytical solutions. The exceptional part is relevant to the isolated exact solutions and its energy eigenvalues are obtained by analyzing the truncation conditions for the confluent Heun functions. By analyzing the energy eigenvalues for exceptional points, we obtain the analytical conditions for the energy-level crossings, which correspond to two-fold energy degeneracy. (paper)

  7. Laser engineering of microbial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusupov, V. I.; Gorlenko, M. V.; Cheptsov, V. S.; Minaev, N. V.; Churbanova, E. S.; Zhigarkov, V. S.; Chutko, E. A.; Evlashin, S. A.; Chichkov, B. N.; Bagratashvili, V. N.

    2018-06-01

    A technology of laser engineering of microbial systems (LEMS) based on the method of laser-induced transfer of heterogeneous mixtures containing microorganisms (laser bioprinting) is described. This technology involves laser printing of soil microparticles by focusing near-infrared laser pulses on a specially prepared gel/soil mixture spread onto a gold-coated glass plate. The optimal range of laser energies from the point of view of the formation of stable jets and droplets with minimal negative impact on living systems of giant accelerations, laser pulse irradiation, and Au nanoparticles was found. Microsamples of soil were printed on glucose-peptone-yeast agar plates to estimate the LEMS process influence on structural and morphological microbial diversity. The obtained results were compared with traditionally treated soil samples. It was shown that LEMS technology allows significantly increasing the biodiversity of printed organisms and is effective for isolating rare or unculturable microorganisms.

  8. 23rd International Conference on Systems Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Zydek, Dawid; Chmaj, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    This collection of proceedings from the International Conference on Systems Engineering, Las Vegas, 2014 is orientated toward systems engineering, including topics like aerospace, power systems, industrial automation and robotics, systems theory, control theory, artificial intelligence, signal processing, decision support, pattern recognition and machine learning, information and communication technologies, image processing, and computer vision as well as its applications. The volume’s main focus is on models, algorithms, and software tools that facilitate efficient and convenient utilization of modern achievements in systems engineering.

  9. Screening candidate systems engineers: exploratory results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gonçalves, D

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available systems engineers for further development. Data were collected on personality, cognition, values and competence on 21 SE competencies using four computerised assessments. We report on the cognitive style distribution of the participating engineers...

  10. Integrated engineering system for nuclear facilities building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomura, H.; Miyamoto, A.; Futami, F.; Yasuda, S.; Ohtomo, T.

    1995-01-01

    In the construction of buildings for nuclear facilities in Japan, construction companies are generally in charge of the building engineering work, coordinating with plant engineering. An integrated system for buildings (PROMOTE: PROductive MOdeling system for Total nuclear Engineering) described here is a building engineering system including the entire life cycle of buildings for nuclear facilities. A Three-dimensional (3D) building model (PRO-model) is to be in the core of the system (PROMOTE). Data sharing in the PROMOTE is also done with plant engineering systems. By providing these basic technical foundations, PROMOTE is oriented toward offering rational, highquality engineering for the projects. The aim of the system is to provide a technical foundation in building engineering. This paper discusses the characteristics of buildings for nuclear facilities and the outline of the PROMOTE. (author)

  11. Site characterization for hybrid system construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldana, R.; Miranda, U.; Medrano, M. C. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The basic reason to use alternative systems for electricity generation, in most cases, is the lack of electricity services, such as isolated rural communities which are located far away from the electric distribution line, and the cost of its extension is too expensive, while decentralized power systems can be an economic and appropriate solution to providing these services. Up to now there are several technological options for rural electrification using PV modules, wind plants, water-power plants, anaerobic digesters, or a combination of some of them, according to the availability of energetic resources. The applications include centralized or decentralized systems, autonomous or hybrid systems, isolated or interconnected to the electric line, etc. A particular hybrid system design can be done considering two general aspects, first it is necessary to know the electric consumption that will be supplied, taking into account present and future necessities and how local energetic resources are present in a selected site. Finally, also it is necessary to carry out an economic analysis to determine the cost of kilowatt-hour generated using local energetic resources and compare it with the cost of electricity produced by conventional power systems. [Espanol] La razon principal para el uso de sistemas alternativos de generacion de electricidad, en la mayoria de los casos, es la falta de servicios de electricidad, tal como en las comunidades rurales aisladas localizadas lejos de linea de distribucion electrica, donde el costo de su extension es demasiado caro, mientras que los sistemas descentralizados de energia pueden ser una solucion economica y adecuada para proporcionar estos servicios. Hasta ahora existen varias opciones tecnologicas para la electrificacion rural usando modulos fotovoltaicos, aerogeneradores, plantas hidroelectricas, digestores anaerobicos o una combinacion de algunos de ellos, de acuerdo con la disponibilidad de los recursos energeticos. Las

  12. Site characterization for hybrid system construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldana, R; Miranda, U; Medrano, M C [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The basic reason to use alternative systems for electricity generation, in most cases, is the lack of electricity services, such as isolated rural communities which are located far away from the electric distribution line, and the cost of its extension is too expensive, while decentralized power systems can be an economic and appropriate solution to providing these services. Up to now there are several technological options for rural electrification using PV modules, wind plants, water-power plants, anaerobic digesters, or a combination of some of them, according to the availability of energetic resources. The applications include centralized or decentralized systems, autonomous or hybrid systems, isolated or interconnected to the electric line, etc. A particular hybrid system design can be done considering two general aspects, first it is necessary to know the electric consumption that will be supplied, taking into account present and future necessities and how local energetic resources are present in a selected site. Finally, also it is necessary to carry out an economic analysis to determine the cost of kilowatt-hour generated using local energetic resources and compare it with the cost of electricity produced by conventional power systems. [Espanol] La razon principal para el uso de sistemas alternativos de generacion de electricidad, en la mayoria de los casos, es la falta de servicios de electricidad, tal como en las comunidades rurales aisladas localizadas lejos de linea de distribucion electrica, donde el costo de su extension es demasiado caro, mientras que los sistemas descentralizados de energia pueden ser una solucion economica y adecuada para proporcionar estos servicios. Hasta ahora existen varias opciones tecnologicas para la electrificacion rural usando modulos fotovoltaicos, aerogeneradores, plantas hidroelectricas, digestores anaerobicos o una combinacion de algunos de ellos, de acuerdo con la disponibilidad de los recursos energeticos. Las

  13. Analisa Penerapan Sistem Hybrid Pada Kapal KPC-28 Dengan Kombinasi Diesel Engine dan Motor Listrik Yang Disuplai Dengan Batterai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangguh Tangguh Bimantoro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Teknologi Hybrid System Vessel akhir-akhir ini sedang menjadi bahasan yang sering dibicarakan di dunia pendidikan dan teknologi permesinan. Teknologi Hybrid System Vessel yang dimaksud adalah kapal yang berjalan dengan dua sumber tenaga, mesin yang bekerja dengan sumber tenaga bahan bakar dan motor listrik yang bekerja dengan sumber tenaga listrik. Oleh karena adanya permasalahan tersebut maka dikembangkanlah konsep system hybrid pada kapal.Hybrid ini mengacu teknologi pada mobil hybrid yang sudah dikembangkan sekarang, tujuan dari hybrid ini adalah sebagai penghematan BBM dan juga sebagai pereduksi emisi di system permesinan kapal.Penelitian ini menggunakan simulasi dengan software Maxsurf, kemudian dilakukan dengan metode perhitungan manual yang nantinya digunakan untuk menentukan jumlah batterai yang dibutuhkan pada penggerak motor induksi. Hasil dari penelitian ini berupa desain  Hybrid System kapal KPC – 28, serta hasil analisa Hybrid System di kapal apakah memberikan effisiensi bahan bakar yang cukup hemat dengan tanpa menggunakan Hybrid System pada mesin kapal tersebut.

  14. Advances in communication systems and electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Xu

    2008-01-01

    This volume contains contributions from participants in the 2007 International Multiconference of Engineers and Computer Scientists Topics covered include communications theory, communications protocols, network management, wireless networks, telecommunication, electronics, power engineering, control engineering, signal processing, and industrial applications. The book will offer the states of arts of tremendous advances in communication systems and electrical engineering and also serve as an excellent reference work for researchers and graduate students working with/on communication systems a

  15. Transcription Activator-Like Effectors (TALEs) Hybrid Nucleases for Genome Engineering Application

    KAUST Repository

    Wibowo, Anjar

    2011-06-06

    Gene targeting is a powerful genome engineering tool that can be used for a variety of biotechnological applications. Genomic double-strand DNA breaks generated by engineered site-specific nucleases can stimulate gene targeting. Hybrid nucleases are composed of DNA binding module and DNA cleavage module. Zinc Finger Nucleases were used to generate double-strand DNA breaks but it suffers from failures and lack of reproducibility. The transcription activator–like effectors (TALEs) from plant pathogenic Xanthomonas contain a unique type of DNA-binding domain that bind specific DNA targets. The purpose of this study is to generate novel sequence specific nucleases by fusing a de novo engineered Hax3 TALE-based DNA binding domain to a FokI cleavage domain. Our data show that the de novo engineered TALE nuclease can bind to its target sequence and create double-strand DNA breaks in vitro. We also show that the de novo engineered TALE nuclease is capable of generating double-strand DNA breaks in its target sequence in vivo, when transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that TALE-based hybrid nucleases can be tailored to bind a user-selected DNA sequence and generate site-specific genomic double-strand DNA breaks. TALE-based hybrid nucleases hold much promise as powerful molecular tools for gene targeting applications.

  16. Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Optimal Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Aaron P.

    2009-01-01

    A paper reports the results of a Hybrid Diesel Vehicle Project focused on a parallel hybrid configuration suitable for diesel-powered, medium-sized, commercial vehicles commonly used for parcel delivery and shuttle buses, as the missions of these types of vehicles require frequent stops. During these stops, electric hybridization can effectively recover the vehicle's kinetic energy during the deceleration, store it onboard, and then use that energy to assist in the subsequent acceleration.

  17. A Future with Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems: A NASA Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelRosario, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    The presentation highlights a NASA perspective on Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems for aeronautical applications. Discussed are results from NASA Advance Concepts Study for Aircraft Entering service in 2030 and beyond and the potential use of hybrid electric propulsion systems as a potential solution to the requirements for energy efficiency and environmental compatibility. Current progress and notional potential NASA research plans are presented.

  18. Design, analysis and modeling of a novel hybrid powertrain system based on hybridized automated manual transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guang; Dong, Zuomin

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles are widely accepted as a promising short to mid-term technical solution due to noticeably improved efficiency and lower emissions at competitive costs. In recent years, various hybrid powertrain systems were proposed and implemented based on different types of conventional transmission. Power-split system, including Toyota Hybrid System and Ford Hybrid System, are well-known examples. However, their relatively low torque capacity, and the drive of alternative and more advanced designs encouraged other innovative hybrid system designs. In this work, a new type of hybrid powertrain system based hybridized automated manual transmission (HAMT) is proposed. By using the concept of torque gap filler (TGF), this new hybrid powertrain type has the potential to overcome issue of torque gap during gearshift. The HAMT design (patent pending) is described in details, from gear layout and design of gear ratios (EV mode and HEV mode) to torque paths at different gears. As an analytical tool, mutli-body model of vehicle equipped with this HAMT was built to analyze powertrain dynamics at various steady and transient modes. A gearshift was decomposed and analyzed based basic modes. Furthermore, a Simulink-SimDriveline hybrid vehicle model was built for the new transmission, driveline and vehicle modular. Control strategy has also been built to harmonically coordinate different powertrain components to realize TGF function. A vehicle launch simulation test has been completed under 30% of accelerator pedal position to reveal details during gearshift. Simulation results showed that this HAMT can eliminate most torque gap that has been persistent issue of traditional AMT, improving both drivability and performance. This work demonstrated a new type of transmission that features high torque capacity, high efficiency and improved drivability.

  19. Development of Hybrid Product Breakdown Structure for NASA Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Mark W.; Henry, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The Product Breakdown Structure is traditionally a method of identification of the products of a project in a tree structure. It is a tool used to assess, plan, document, and display the equipment requirements for a project. It is part of a product based planning technique, and attempts to break down all components of a project in as much detail as possible, so that nothing is overlooked. The PBS for ground systems at the Kennedy Space Center is being developed to encompass the traditional requirements including the alignment of facility, systems, and components to the organizational hierarchy. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure is a hybrid in nature in that some aspects of a work breakdown structure will be incorporated and merged with the Architecture Concept of Operations, Master Subsystem List, customer interface, and assigned management responsibility. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure needs to be able to identify the flexibility of support differing customers (internal and external) usage of ground support equipment within the Kennedy Space Center launch and processing complex. The development of the Product Breakdown Structure is an iterative activity Initially documenting the organization hierarchy structure and relationships. The Product Breakdown Structure identifies the linkage between the customer program requirements, allocation of system resources, development of design goals, and identification logistics products. As the Product Breakdown Structure progresses the incorporation of the results of requirement planning for the customer occurs identifying facility needs and systems. The mature Product Breakdown Structure is baselined with a hierarchical drawing, the Product Breakdown Structure database, and an associated document identifying the verification of the data through the life cycle of the program/product line. This paper will document, demonstrate, and identify key aspects of the life cycle of a Hybrid Product

  20. Integrating system safety into the basic systems engineering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    The basic elements of a systems engineering process are given along with a detailed description of what the safety system requires from the systems engineering process. Also discussed is the safety that the system provides to other subfunctions of systems engineering.

  1. Hybrid dislocated control and general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization for the modified Lue chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yuhua; Zhou Wuneng; Fang Jianan

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a modified Lue chaotic system, and some basic dynamical properties are studied. Based on these properties, we present hybrid dislocated control method for stabilizing chaos to unstable equilibrium and limit cycle. In addition, based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization (GHPDS) is proposed, which includes complete dislocated synchronization, dislocated anti-synchronization and projective dislocated synchronization as its special item. The drive and response systems discussed in this paper can be strictly different dynamical systems (including different dimensional systems). As examples, the modified Lue chaotic system, Chen chaotic system and hyperchaotic Chen system are discussed. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of these methods.

  2. Hybrid dislocated control and general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization for the modified Lue chaotic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yuhua [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China) and Department of Maths, Yunyang Teacher' s College, Hubei 442000 (China)], E-mail: yuhuaxu2004@163.com; Zhou Wuneng [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)], E-mail: wnzhou@163.com; Fang Jianan [College of Information Science and Technology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2009-11-15

    This paper introduces a modified Lue chaotic system, and some basic dynamical properties are studied. Based on these properties, we present hybrid dislocated control method for stabilizing chaos to unstable equilibrium and limit cycle. In addition, based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization (GHPDS) is proposed, which includes complete dislocated synchronization, dislocated anti-synchronization and projective dislocated synchronization as its special item. The drive and response systems discussed in this paper can be strictly different dynamical systems (including different dimensional systems). As examples, the modified Lue chaotic system, Chen chaotic system and hyperchaotic Chen system are discussed. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of these methods.

  3. Functional stability of endothelial cells on a novel hybrid scaffold for vascular tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankajakshan, Divya; Krishnan, Lissy K [Thrombosis Research Unit, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojapura, Trivandrum 695 012 (India); Krishnan V, Kalliyana, E-mail: lissykk@sctimst.ac.i [Division of Polymer Technology, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojapura, Trivandrum 695 012 (India)

    2010-12-15

    Porous and pliable conduits made of biodegradable polymeric scaffolds offer great potential for the development of blood vessel substitutes but they generally lack signals for cell proliferation, survival and maintenance of a normal phenotype. In this study we have prepared and evaluated porous poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (PCL) integrated with fibrin composite (FC) to get a biomimetic hybrid scaffold (FC PCL) with the biological properties of fibrin, fibronectin (FN), gelatin, growth factors and glycosaminoglycans. Reduced platelet adhesion on a human umbilical vein endothelial cell-seeded hybrid scaffold as compared to bare PCL or FC PCL was observed, which suggests the non-thrombogenic nature of the tissue-engineered scaffold. Analysis of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after 5 days of endothelial cell (EC) culture on a hybrid scaffold indicated that the prothrombotic von Willebrand factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) were quiescent and stable. Meanwhile, dynamic expressions of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase indicated the desired cell phenotype on the scaffold. On the hybrid scaffold, shear stress could induce enhanced nitric oxide release, which implicates vaso-responsiveness of EC grown on the tissue-engineered construct. Significant upregulation of mRNA for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, collagen IV and elastin, in EC was detected by RT-PCR after growing them on the hybrid scaffold and FC-coated tissue culture polystyrene (FC TCPS) but not on FN-coated TCPS. The results indicate that the FC PCL hybrid scaffold can accomplish a remodeled ECM and non-thrombogenic EC phenotype, and can be further investigated as a scaffold for cardiovascular tissue engineering. (communication)

  4. Functional stability of endothelial cells on a novel hybrid scaffold for vascular tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankajakshan, Divya; Krishnan, Lissy K; Krishnan V, Kalliyana

    2010-01-01

    Porous and pliable conduits made of biodegradable polymeric scaffolds offer great potential for the development of blood vessel substitutes but they generally lack signals for cell proliferation, survival and maintenance of a normal phenotype. In this study we have prepared and evaluated porous poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) integrated with fibrin composite (FC) to get a biomimetic hybrid scaffold (FC PCL) with the biological properties of fibrin, fibronectin (FN), gelatin, growth factors and glycosaminoglycans. Reduced platelet adhesion on a human umbilical vein endothelial cell-seeded hybrid scaffold as compared to bare PCL or FC PCL was observed, which suggests the non-thrombogenic nature of the tissue-engineered scaffold. Analysis of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after 5 days of endothelial cell (EC) culture on a hybrid scaffold indicated that the prothrombotic von Willebrand factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) were quiescent and stable. Meanwhile, dynamic expressions of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase indicated the desired cell phenotype on the scaffold. On the hybrid scaffold, shear stress could induce enhanced nitric oxide release, which implicates vaso-responsiveness of EC grown on the tissue-engineered construct. Significant upregulation of mRNA for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, collagen IV and elastin, in EC was detected by RT-PCR after growing them on the hybrid scaffold and FC-coated tissue culture polystyrene (FC TCPS) but not on FN-coated TCPS. The results indicate that the FC PCL hybrid scaffold can accomplish a remodeled ECM and non-thrombogenic EC phenotype, and can be further investigated as a scaffold for cardiovascular tissue engineering. (communication)

  5. Solar hydrogen hybrid system with carbon storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zini, G.; Marazzi, R.; Pedrazzi, S.; Tartarini, P.

    2009-01-01

    A complete solar hydrogen hybrid system has been developed to convert, store and use energy from renewable energy sources. The theoretical model has been implemented in a dynamic model-based software environment and applied to real data to simulate its functioning over a one-year period. Results are used to study system design and performance. A photovoltaic sub-system directly drives a residential load and, if a surplus of energy is available, an electrolyzer to produce hydrogen which is stored in a cluster of nitrogen-cooled tanks filled with AX-21 activated carbons. When the power converted from the sun is not sufficient to cover load needs, hydrogen is desorbed from activated carbon tanks and sent to the fuel-cell sub-system so to obtain electrical energy. A set of sub-systems (bus-bar, buck- and boost-converters, inverter, control circuits), handle the electrical power according to a Programmable Logic Control unit so that the load can be driven with adequate Quality of Service. Hydrogen storage is achieved through physisorption (weak van der Waals interactions) between carbon atoms and hydrogen molecules occurring at low temperature (77 K) in carbon porous solids at relatively low pressures. Storage modeling has been developed using a Langmuir-Freundlich 1st type isotherm and experimental data available in literature. Physisorption storage provides safer operations along with good gravimetric (10.8% at 6 MPa) and volumetric (32.5 g/l at 6 MPa) storage capacities at costs that can be comparable to, or smaller than, ordinary storage techniques (compression or liquefaction). Several test runs have been performed on residential user data-sets: the system is capable of providing grid independence and can be designed to yield a surplus production of hydrogen which can be used to recharge electric car batteries or fill tanks for non-stationary uses. (author)

  6. Internal combustion engine control for series hybrid electric vehicles by parallel and distributed genetic programming/multiobjective genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladwin, D.; Stewart, P.; Stewart, J.

    2011-02-01

    This article addresses the problem of maintaining a stable rectified DC output from the three-phase AC generator in a series-hybrid vehicle powertrain. The series-hybrid prime power source generally comprises an internal combustion (IC) engine driving a three-phase permanent magnet generator whose output is rectified to DC. A recent development has been to control the engine/generator combination by an electronically actuated throttle. This system can be represented as a nonlinear system with significant time delay. Previously, voltage control of the generator output has been achieved by model predictive methods such as the Smith Predictor. These methods rely on the incorporation of an accurate system model and time delay into the control algorithm, with a consequent increase in computational complexity in the real-time controller, and as a necessity relies to some extent on the accuracy of the models. Two complementary performance objectives exist for the control system. Firstly, to maintain the IC engine at its optimal operating point, and secondly, to supply a stable DC supply to the traction drive inverters. Achievement of these goals minimises the transient energy storage requirements at the DC link, with a consequent reduction in both weight and cost. These objectives imply constant velocity operation of the IC engine under external load disturbances and changes in both operating conditions and vehicle speed set-points. In order to achieve these objectives, and reduce the complexity of implementation, in this article a controller is designed by the use of Genetic Programming methods in the Simulink modelling environment, with the aim of obtaining a relatively simple controller for the time-delay system which does not rely on the implementation of real time system models or time delay approximations in the controller. A methodology is presented to utilise the miriad of existing control blocks in the Simulink libraries to automatically evolve optimal control

  7. Filtering and control of stochastic jump hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Xiuming; Zheng, Wei Xing

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent research work on stochastic jump hybrid systems. Specifically, the considered stochastic jump hybrid systems include Markovian jump Ito stochastic systems, Markovian jump linear-parameter-varying (LPV) systems, Markovian jump singular systems, Markovian jump two-dimensional (2-D) systems, and Markovian jump repeated scalar nonlinear systems. Some sufficient conditions are first established respectively for the stability and performances of those kinds of stochastic jump hybrid systems in terms of solution of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Based on the derived analysis conditions, the filtering and control problems are addressed. The book presents up-to-date research developments and novel methodologies on stochastic jump hybrid systems. The contents can be divided into two parts: the first part is focused on robust filter design problem, while the second part is put the emphasis on robust control problem. These methodologies provide a framework for stability and performance analy...

  8. Energy Optimization for a Weak Hybrid Power System of an Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Quan, Shuhai; Xie, Changjun; Tang, Xinfeng; Ran, Bin; Jiao, Yatian

    2017-11-01

    An integrated starter generator (ISG)-type hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) scheme is proposed based on the automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator (AETEG). An eddy current dynamometer is used to simulate the vehicle's dynamic cycle. A weak ISG hybrid bench test system is constructed to test the 48 V output from the power supply system, which is based on engine exhaust-based heat power generation. The thermoelectric power generation-based system must ultimately be tested when integrated into the ISG weak hybrid mixed power system. The test process is divided into two steps: comprehensive simulation and vehicle-based testing. The system's dynamic process is simulated for both conventional and thermoelectric powers, and the dynamic running process comprises four stages: starting, acceleration, cruising and braking. The quantity of fuel available and battery pack energy, which are used as target vehicle energy functions for comparison with conventional systems, are simplified into a single energy target function, and the battery pack's output current is used as the control variable in the thermoelectric hybrid energy optimization model. The system's optimal battery pack output current function is resolved when its dynamic operating process is considered as part of the hybrid thermoelectric power generation system. In the experiments, the system bench is tested using conventional power and hybrid thermoelectric power for the four dynamic operation stages. The optimal battery pack curve is calculated by functional analysis. In the vehicle, a power control unit is used to control the battery pack's output current and minimize energy consumption. Data analysis shows that the fuel economy of the hybrid power system under European Driving Cycle conditions is improved by 14.7% when compared with conventional systems.

  9. Diesel engine management systems and components

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This reference book provides a comprehensive insight into todays diesel injection systems and electronic control. It focusses on minimizing emissions and exhaust-gas treatment. Innovations by Bosch in the field of diesel-injection technology have made a significant contribution to the diesel boom. Calls for lower fuel consumption, reduced exhaust-gas emissions and quiet engines are making greater demands on the engine and fuel-injection systems. Contents History of the diesel engine.- Areas of use for diesel engines.- Basic principles of the diesel engine.- Fuels: Diesel fuel.- Fuels: Alternative fuels.- Cylinder-charge control systems.- Basic principles of diesel fuel-injection.- Overview of diesel fuel-injection systems.- Fuel supply to the low pressure stage.- Overview of discrete cylinder systems.- Unit injector system.- Unit pump system.- Overview of common-rail systems.- High pressure components of the common-rail system.- Injection nozzles.- Nozzle holders.- High pressure lines.- Start assist systems.-...

  10. Multidisciplinary systems engineering architecting the design process

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A; Demijohn, Russell

    2016-01-01

    This book presents Systems Engineering from a modern, multidisciplinary engineering approach, providing the understanding that all aspects of systems design, systems, software, test, security, maintenance and the full life-cycle must be factored in to any large-scale system design; up front, not factored in later. It lays out a step-by-step approach to systems-of-systems architectural design, describing in detail the documentation flow throughout the systems engineering design process. It provides a straightforward look and the entire systems engineering process, providing realistic case studies, examples, and design problems that will enable students to gain a firm grasp on the fundamentals of modern systems engineering.  Included is a comprehensive design problem that weaves throughout the entire text book, concluding with a complete top-level systems architecture for a real-world design problem.

  11. Portable 25W hybrid fuel cell system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, K.; Slee, R.; Tilley, J.

    2003-01-01

    Increased operating periods for portable electrical equipment are driving the development of battery and fuel cell technologies. Fuel cell systems promise greater endurance than battery based systems, and this paper describes the research into, and design of, a hybrid lithium-ion battery / fuel cell power source. The device is primarily aimed at military applications such as powering army radio sets and the UK MoD's Integrated Soldier Technology (IST) programme, but would be equally suitable as a power source for civilian applications such as camcorders, battery chargers etc. The air-breathing fuel cell comprises low cost, robust components, and a single cell is capable of developing >0.5W cm -2 . This power rating, however, is reduced in a stack where heat rejection becomes a critical issue. The stack design lends itself to facile manufacture, and the stack can be assembled in minutes by simply stacking the components into place. The remainder of the system includes two lithium-ion battery packs which provide start-up and shutdown power, and enable a silent-operating mode, during which the fuel cell is powered down, to be selected. The intelligent, electronic control, based upon an embedded RISC microprocessor, ensures safe operation and the recharge of the batteries. The overall system is capable of delivering 25W continuous power at an operating voltage of 12V dc. Preliminary testing results are reported. Advantages of this system include a relatively high gravimetric power density, load-following operation and the confidence of a high performance battery as an emergency backup. (author)

  12. Environmental Restoration Project - Systems Engineering Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.D.

    1998-06-01

    This Environmental Restoration (ER) Project Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) describes relevant Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) management processes and shows how they implement systems engineering. The objective of this SEMP is to explain and demonstrate how systems engineering is being approached and implemented in the ER Project. The application of systems engineering appropriate to the general nature and scope of the project is summarized in Section 2.0. The basic ER Project management approach is described in Section 3.0. The interrelation and integration of project practices and systems engineering are outlined in Section 4.0. Integration with sitewide systems engineering under the Project Hanford Management Contract is described in Section 5.0

  13. Hybrid synchronization of two independent chaotic systems on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Hybrid synchronization; complex network; information source; chaotic system. ... encryption and decryption through synchronization. However, the ... Certainly, if the two systems are different, the security would be improved. How.

  14. FEASIBILITY STUDY AND OPTIMIZATION OF AN HYBRID SYSTEM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    30 juin 2010 ... preliminary or comparative studies, both during development (design) and normal ... year for a system using only the generator diesel and is 599 kg / year for the ... Keywords: Hybrid system- Wind- Photovoltaic-Diesel- storage ...

  15. Advantages of Hybrid Global Navigation Satellite Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Bilajbegović

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In a decision-making situation, what kind of GPS equipment to purchase, one always has a dilemma, tobuy hybrid (GPS+GLONASS or only GPS receivers? In the case of completeness of the GLONASS satellite system, this dilemma probably would not have existed. The answer to this dilemma is given in the present paper, but for the constellation of the GLONASS satellites in summer 2006 (14 satellites operational. Due to the short operational period of these satellites (for example GLONASS-M, 5 years, and not launching new ones, at this moment (February 25, 2007, only 10 satellites are operational. For the sake of research and giving answers to these questions, about 252 RTK measurements have been done using (GPS and GNSS receivers, on points with different obstructions of horizon. Besides that, initialisation time has been investigated for both systems from about 480 measurements, using rover's antenna with metal cover, during a time interval of 0.5, 2 and 5 seconds. Moreover, accuracy, firmware declared accuracy and redundancy of GPS and GNSS RTK measurements have been investigating.  

  16. Review of hybrid laminar flow control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, K. S. G.; Bertram, O.; Seibel, O.

    2017-08-01

    The aeronautic community always strived for fuel efficient aircraft and presently, the need for ecofriendly aircraft is even more, especially with the tremendous growth of air traffic and growing environmental concerns. Some of the important drivers for such interests include high fuel prices, less emissions requirements, need for more environment friendly aircraft to lessen the global warming effects. Hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) technology is promising and offers possibility to achieve these goals. This technology was researched for decades for its application in transport aircraft, and it has achieved a new level of maturity towards integration and safety and maintenance aspects. This paper aims to give an overview of HLFC systems research and associated flight tests in the past years both in the US and in Europe. The review makes it possible to distinguish between the successful approaches and the less successful or outdated approaches in HLFC research. Furthermore, the technology status shall try to produce first estimations regarding the mass, power consumption and performance of HLFC systems as well as estimations regarding maintenance requirements and possible subsystem definitions.

  17. Performance and energy management of a novel full hybrid electric powertrain system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Cheng-Ta; Hung, Yi-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the performance and energy management between a novel full hybrid electric powertrain and a traditional power-split hybrid system. The developed planetary gearset and dual clutch configuration provides five operation modes. Equations for the torque and speed of power sources for the planetary gearset and dual clutch system and the Toyota Hybrid System are firstly derived. By giving vehicle performance of gradability, maximal speeds in hybrid and pure electric modes, the power sources of the 210 kg target vehicle are: a 125 cc engine and two 1.8 kW motor and generator. The optimal tank-to-wheel efficiencies, ratios of circulating power, and operation points at specific vehicle speeds and out loads are calculated. Simulation results show that the dual-motor electric vehicle mode offers superior performance regarding electric drive; the low capacity of the battery is conducive to reducing manufacturing and maintenance costs; the tank-to-wheel efficiency is mainly operated above 20% while the power split electronic-continuously-variable-transmission mode is the major operation mode, and a maximum of 17% fuel economy improvement is achieved compared with the Toyota Hybrid System in most of the vehicle speed ranges. The outstanding performance warrants further real-system development, especially regarding the implementation in plug-in and sport hybrid powertrain designs. - Highlights: • An innovative power split hybrid powertrain was designed. • Dual-motor electric-vehicle mode highlighted for plug-in function. • Power circulation ratios and five driving modes were analyzed. • Global search method utilized for optimal energy management. • Maximal 17+% fuel improvement compared to Toyota Hybrid System

  18. Hybrid Ti-ceramic bionanomaterials for medical engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niespodziana, K.; Miklaszewski, A.; Jurczyk, M. [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, Sklodowska-Curie 5 Sq., 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Jurczyk, K. [Department of Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Medical Sciences, Bukowska 70 St., 60-812 Poznan (Poland)

    2010-05-15

    In the last decade a great interest has been observed in the field of nanoscale materials. Commercially pure titanium as well as titanium alloys have become predominant in implantology. Low hardness and poor tribiological properties of titanium alloys may become critical factor when wear phenomena are involved. One of the methods that allow the change of properties of Ti alloys is the production of nanocomposites, which will exhibit the favorable mechanical properties of titanium and excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity of ceramics. In this work hybrid Ti-x wt% ceramic (45S5 Bioglass, SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) bionanocomposites (x =0, 3 and 10) were prod-uced by the combination of mechanical alloying and powder metallurgical process. Reinforced by 45S5 Bioglass, SiO{sub 2} or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles, Vickers hardness of Ti-based nanocomposite is higher from two to six times in comparison with pure microcrystalline Ti. Additionally, the experimental results show that in Ringer's solution at 37 C, Ti-based nanocomposites have good corrosion resistance. On the other hand, in vitro studies show that these bionanocomposites have excellent biocompatibility and could integrate with bone (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Hybrid FRP-concrete bridge deck system final report I : development and system performance validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    In this study, the concept of the hybrid FRP-concrete structural systems was applied to both bridge : superstructure and deck systems. Results from the both experimental and computational analysis for : both the hybrid bridge superstructure and deck ...

  20. Control system and method for a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anthony Mark; Blankenship, John Richard; Bailey, Kathleen Ellen; Jankovic, Miroslava

    2001-01-01

    A vehicle system controller (20) is presented for a LSR parallel hybrid electric vehicle having an engine (10), a motor (12), wheels (14), a transmission (16) and a battery (18). The vehicle system controller (20) has a state machine having a plurality of predefined states (22-32) that represent operating modes for the vehicle. A set of rules is defined for controlling the transition between any two states in the state machine. The states (22-32) are prioritized according to driver demands, energy management concerns and system fault occurrences. The vehicle system controller (20) controls the transitions from a lower priority state to a higher priority state based on the set of rules. In addition, the vehicle system controller (20) will control a transition to a lower state from a higher state when the conditions no longer warrant staying in the current state. A unique set of output commands is defined for each state for the purpose of controlling lower level subsystem controllers. These commands serve to achieve the desire vehicle functionality within each state and insure smooth transitions between states.

  1. Hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm and its application in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.Y.; Yan, C.Q.; Wang, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm (HPSO). • Modified Nelder–Mead simplex search method is applied in HPSO. • The algorithm has a high search precision and rapidly calculation speed. • HPSO can be used in the nuclear engineering optimization design problems. - Abstract: A hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm with a feasibility-based rule for solving constrained optimization problems has been developed in this research. Firstly, the global optimal solution zone can be obtained through particle swarm optimization process, and then the refined search of the global optimal solution will be achieved through the modified Nelder–Mead simplex algorithm. Simulations based on two well-studied benchmark problems demonstrate the proposed algorithm will be an efficient alternative to solving constrained optimization problems. The vertical electrical heating pressurizer is one of the key components in reactor coolant system. The mathematical model of pressurizer has been established in steady state. The optimization design of pressurizer weight has been carried out through HPSO algorithm. The results show the pressurizer weight can be reduced by 16.92%. The thermal efficiencies of conventional PWR nuclear power plants are about 31–35% so far, which are much lower than fossil fueled plants based in a steam cycle as PWR. The thermal equilibrium mathematic model for nuclear power plant secondary loop has been established. An optimization case study has been conducted to improve the efficiency of the nuclear power plant with the proposed algorithm. The results show the thermal efficiency is improved by 0.5%

  2. Verification and Validation in Systems Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Debbabi, Mourad; Jarraya, Yosr; Soeanu, Andrei; Alawneh, Luay

    2010-01-01

    "Verification and validation" represents an important process used for the quality assessment of engineered systems and their compliance with the requirements established at the beginning of or during the development cycle. Debbabi and his coauthors investigate methodologies and techniques that can be employed for the automatic verification and validation of systems engineering design models expressed in standardized modeling languages. Their presentation includes a bird's eye view of the most prominent modeling languages for software and systems engineering, namely the Unified Model

  3. A road map for implementing systems engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, F.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). New Mexico Weapons Systems Engineering Center; Bentz, B.; Bahill, A.T. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Studies by academia, industry, and government indicate that applying a sound systems engineering process to development programs is an important tool for preventing cost and schedule overruns and performance deficiencies. There is an enormous body of systems engineering knowledge. Where does one start? How can the principles of systems engineering be applied in the Sandia environment? This road map is intended to be an aid to answering these questions.

  4. Industrial biosystems engineering and biorefinery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shulin

    2008-06-01

    The concept of Industrial Biosystems Engineering (IBsE) was suggested as a new engineering branch to be developed for meeting the needs for science, technology and professionals by the upcoming bioeconomy. With emphasis on systems, IBsE builds upon the interfaces between systems biology, bioprocessing, and systems engineering. This paper discussed the background, the suggested definition, the theoretical framework and methodologies of this new discipline as well as its challenges and future development.

  5. ANALYSING SOLAR-WIND HYBRID POWER GENERATING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ENGİN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a solar-wind hybrid power generating, system that will be used for security lighting was designed. Hybrid system was installed and solar cells, wind turbine, battery bank, charge regulators and inverter performance values were measured through the whole year. Using measured values of overall system efficiency, reliability, demanded energy cost per kWh were calculated, and percentage of generated energy according to resources were defined. We also include in the paper a discussion of new strategies to improve hybrid power generating system performance and demanded energy cost per kWh.

  6. San Juanico Hybrid System Technical and Institutional Assessment: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D.; Newcomb, C.; Yewdall, Z.

    2004-07-01

    San Juanico is a fishing village of approximately 120 homes in the Municipality of Comondu, Baja California. In April, 1999, a hybrid power system was installed in San Juanico to provide 24-hour power, which was not previously available. Before the installation of the hybrid power system, a field study was conducted to characterize the electrical usage and institutional and social framework of San Juanico. One year after the installation of the hybrid power system a''post-electrification'' study was performed to document the changes that had occurred after the installation. In December of 2003, NREL visited the site to conduct a technical assessment of the system.

  7. Photovoltaic solar panel for a hybrid PV/thermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharchenko, R.; Licea-Jimenez, L.; Perez-Garcia, S.A.; Perez-Robles, J.F.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J.; Vorobiev, Y. [CINVESTAV-Queretaro, (Mexico); Vorobiev, P. [Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, (Mexico). Facultad de Ingenieria; Dehesa-Carrasco, U. [Instituto Tec. Del Istmo, Oaxaco (Mexico). Dep. de Ingenieria Electromecanica

    2004-05-01

    The hybrid PV-thermal system was studied, with the photovoltaic panel (PVP) area much smaller than that of the solar collector. Performance of the different panels in the system was investigated, in particular, those made of crystalline (c-) Si, {alpha}-Si and CuInSe{sub 2} as well as different materials and constructions for the thermal contact between the panel and the collector. Our conclusion is that the PVP for application in a hybrid system needs a special design providing efficient heat extraction from it. PVP was designed and made. Its study has shown that this design provides the high electrical and thermal efficiency of the hybrid system. (author)

  8. Nuclear Hybrid Energy System Modeling: RELAP5 Dynamic Coupling Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Nolan Anderson; Haihua Zhao; Shannon Bragg-Sitton; George Mesina

    2012-09-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) research team is currently developing a dynamic simulation of an integrated hybrid energy system. A detailed simulation of proposed NHES architectures will allow initial computational demonstration of a tightly coupled NHES to identify key reactor subsystem requirements, identify candidate reactor technologies for a hybrid system, and identify key challenges to operation of the coupled system. This work will provide a baseline for later coupling of design-specific reactor models through industry collaboration. The modeling capability addressed in this report focuses on the reactor subsystem simulation.

  9. New Burnup Calculation System for Fusion-Fission Hybrid System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isao Murata; Shoichi Shido; Masayuki Matsunaka; Keitaro Kondo; Hiroyuki Miyamaru

    2006-01-01

    Investigation of nuclear waste incineration has positively been carried out worldwide from the standpoint of environmental issues. Some candidates such as ADS, FBR are under discussion for possible incineration technology. Fusion reactor is one of such technologies, because it supplies a neutron-rich and volumetric irradiation field, and in addition the energy is higher than nuclear reactor. However, it is still hard to realize fusion reactor right now, as well known. An idea of combination of fusion and fission concepts, so-called fusion-fission hybrid system, was thus proposed for the nuclear waste incineration. Even for a relatively lower plasma condition, neutrons can be well multiplied by fission in the nuclear fuel, tritium is thus bred so as to attain its self-sufficiency, enough energy multiplication is then expected and moreover nuclear waste incineration is possible. In the present study, to realize it as soon as possible with the presently proven technology, i.e., using ITER model with the achieved plasma condition of JT60 in JAEA, Japan, a new calculation system for fusion-fission hybrid reactor including transport by MCNP and burnup by ORIGEN has been developed for the precise prediction of the neutronics performance. The author's group already has such a calculation system developed by them. But it had a problem that the cross section libraries in ORIGEN did not have a cross section library, which is suitable specifically for fusion-fission hybrid reactors. So far, those for FBR were approximately used instead in the analysis. In the present study, exact derivation of the collapsed cross section for ORIGEN has been investigated, which means it is directly evaluated from calculated track length by MCNP and point-wise nuclear data in the evaluated nuclear data file like JENDL-3.3. The system realizes several-cycle calculation one time, each of which consists of MCNP criticality calculation, MCNP fixed source calculation with a 3-dimensional precise

  10. Content Analysis in Systems Engineering Acquisition Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    Acquisition Activities Karen Holness, Assistant Professor, NPS Update on the Department of the Navy Systems Engineering Career Competency Model Clifford...systems engineering toolkit . Having a common analysis tool that is easy to use would support the feedback of observed system performance trends from the

  11. Tank waste remediation system engineering plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rifaey, S.H.

    1998-01-01

    This Engineering Plan describes the engineering process and controls that will be in place to support the Technical Baseline definition and manage its evolution and implementation to the field operations. This plan provides the vision for the engineering required to support the retrieval and disposal mission through Phase 1 and 2, which includes integrated data management of the Technical Baseline. Further, this plan describes the approach for moving from the ''as is'' condition of engineering practice, systems, and facilities to the desired ''to be'' configuration. To make this transition, Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Engineering will become a center of excellence for TWRS which,will perform engineering in the most effective manner to meet the mission. TWRS engineering will process deviations from sitewide systems if necessary to meet the mission most effectively

  12. Bond graph model-based fault diagnosis of hybrid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Borutzky, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a bond graph model-based approach to fault diagnosis in mechatronic systems appropriately represented by a hybrid model. The book begins by giving a survey of the fundamentals of fault diagnosis and failure prognosis, then recalls state-of-art developments referring to latest publications, and goes on to discuss various bond graph representations of hybrid system models, equations formulation for switched systems, and simulation of their dynamic behavior. The structured text: • focuses on bond graph model-based fault detection and isolation in hybrid systems; • addresses isolation of multiple parametric faults in hybrid systems; • considers system mode identification; • provides a number of elaborated case studies that consider fault scenarios for switched power electronic systems commonly used in a variety of applications; and • indicates that bond graph modelling can also be used for failure prognosis. In order to facilitate the understanding of fault diagnosis and the presented...

  13. Modelling and Verifying Communication Failure of Hybrid Systems in HCSP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Shuling; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid systems are dynamic systems with interacting discrete computation and continuous physical processes. They have become ubiquitous in our daily life, e.g. automotive, aerospace and medical systems, and in particular, many of them are safety-critical. For a safety-critical hybrid system......, in the presence of communication failure, the expected control from the controller will get lost and as a consequence the physical process cannot behave as expected. In this paper, we mainly consider the communication failure caused by the non-engagement of one party in communication action, i.......e. the communication itself fails to occur. To address this issue, this paper proposes a formal framework by extending HCSP, a formal modeling language for hybrid systems, for modeling and verifying hybrid systems in the absence of receiving messages due to communication failure. We present two inference systems...

  14. CAESY - COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wette, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    Many developers of software and algorithms for control system design have recognized that current tools have limits in both flexibility and efficiency. Many forces drive the development of new tools including the desire to make complex system modeling design and analysis easier and the need for quicker turnaround time in analysis and design. Other considerations include the desire to make use of advanced computer architectures to help in control system design, adopt new methodologies in control, and integrate design processes (e.g., structure, control, optics). CAESY was developed to provide a means to evaluate methods for dealing with user needs in computer-aided control system design. It is an interpreter for performing engineering calculations and incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. It is designed to be reasonably flexible and powerful. CAESY includes internally defined functions and procedures, as well as user defined ones. Support for matrix calculations is provided in the same manner as MATLAB. However, the development of CAESY is a research project, and while it provides some features which are not found in commercially sold tools, it does not exhibit the robustness that many commercially developed tools provide. CAESY is written in C-language for use on Sun4 series computers running SunOS 4.1.1 and later. The program is designed to optionally use the LAPACK math library. The LAPACK math routines are available through anonymous ftp from research.att.com. CAESY requires 4Mb of RAM for execution. The standard distribution medium is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (QIC-24) in UNIX tar format. CAESY was developed in 1993 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  15. Gasoline engine management systems and components

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The call for environmentally compatible and economical vehicles necessitates immense efforts to develop innovative engine concepts. Technical concepts such as gasoline direct injection helped to save fuel up to 20 % and reduce CO2-emissions. Descriptions of the cylinder-charge control, fuel injection, ignition and catalytic emission-control systems provides comprehensive overview of today´s gasoline engines. This book also describes emission-control systems and explains the diagnostic systems. The publication provides information on engine-management-systems and emission-control regulations. Contents History of the automobile.- Basics of the gasoline engine.- Fuels.- Cylinder-charge control systems.- Gasoline injection systems over the years.- Fuel supply.- Manifold fuel injection.- Gasoline direct injection.- Operation of gasoline engines on natural gas.- Ignition systems over the years.- Inductive ignition systems.- Ignition coils.- Spark plugs.- Electronic control.- Sensors.- Electronic control unit.- Exh...

  16. Model-Based Systems Engineering in Concurrent Engineering Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Curtis; Infeld, Samantha; Bracken, Jennifer Medlin; McGuire, Melissa; McQuirk, Christina; Kisdi, Aron; Murphy, Jonathan; Cole, Bjorn; Zarifian, Pezhman

    2015-01-01

    Concurrent Engineering Centers (CECs) are specialized facilities with a goal of generating and maturing engineering designs by enabling rapid design iterations. This is accomplished by co-locating a team of experts (either physically or virtually) in a room with a narrow design goal and a limited timeline of a week or less. The systems engineer uses a model of the system to capture the relevant interfaces and manage the overall architecture. A single model that integrates other design information and modeling allows the entire team to visualize the concurrent activity and identify conflicts more efficiently, potentially resulting in a systems model that will continue to be used throughout the project lifecycle. Performing systems engineering using such a system model is the definition of model-based systems engineering (MBSE); therefore, CECs evolving their approach to incorporate advances in MBSE are more successful in reducing time and cost needed to meet study goals. This paper surveys space mission CECs that are in the middle of this evolution, and the authors share their experiences in order to promote discussion within the community.

  17. Small-Signal Analysis of Autonomous Hybrid Distributed Generation Systems in Presence of Ultracapacitor and Tie-Line Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Prakash K.; Mohanty, Soumya R.; Kishor, Nand

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents small-signal analysis of isolated as well as interconnected autonomous hybrid distributed generation system for sudden variation in load demand, wind speed and solar radiation. The hybrid systems comprise of different renewable energy resources such as wind, photovoltaic (PV) fuel cell (FC) and diesel engine generator (DEG) along with the energy storage devices such as flywheel energy storage system (FESS) and battery energy storage system (BESS). Further ultracapacitors (UC) as an alternative energy storage element and interconnection of hybrid systems through tie-line is incorporated into the system for improved performance. A comparative assessment of deviation of frequency profile for different hybrid systems in the presence of different storage system combinations is carried out graphically as well as in terms of the performance index (PI), ie integral square error (ISE). Both qualitative and quantitative analysis reflects the improvements of the deviation in frequency profiles in the presence of the ultracapacitors (UC) as compared to other energy storage elements.

  18. The estimation of energy efficiency for hybrid refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazda, Wiesław; Kozioł, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We present the experimental setup and the model of the hybrid cooling system. ► We examine impact of the operating parameters of the hybrid cooling system on the energy efficiency indicators. ► A comparison of the final and the primary energy use for a combination of the cooling systems is carried out. ► We explain the relationship between the COP and PER values for the analysed cooling systems. -- Abstract: The concept of the air blast-cryogenic freezing method (ABCF) is based on an innovative hybrid refrigeration system with one common cooling space. The hybrid cooling system consists of a vapor compression refrigeration system and a cryogenic refrigeration system. The prototype experimental setup for this method on the laboratory scale is discussed. The application of the results of experimental investigations and the theoretical–empirical model makes it possible to calculate the cooling capacity as well as the final and primary energy use in the hybrid system. The energetic analysis has been carried out for the operating modes of the refrigerating systems for the required temperatures inside the cooling chamber of −5 °C, −10 °C and −15 °C. For the estimation of the energy efficiency the coefficient of performance COP and the primary energy ratio PER for the hybrid refrigeration system are proposed. A comparison of these coefficients for the vapor compression refrigeration and the cryogenic refrigeration system has also been presented.

  19. Engineering the hypersonic phononic band gap of hybrid Bragg stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Dirk; Liaqat, Faroha; El Boudouti, El Houssaine; El Hassouani, Youssef; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram; Tremel, Wolfgang; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Fytas, George

    2012-06-13

    We report on the full control of phononic band diagrams for periodic stacks of alternating layers of poly(methyl methacrylate) and porous silica combining Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. These structures exhibit large and robust on-axis band gaps determined by the longitudinal sound velocities, densities, and spacing ratio. A facile tuning of the gap width is realized at oblique incidence utilizing the vector nature of the elastic wave propagation. Off-axis propagation involves sagittal waves in the individual layers, allowing access to shear moduli at nanoscale. The full theoretical description discerns the most important features of the hypersonic one-dimensional crystals forward to a detailed understanding, a precondition to engineer dispersion relations in such structures.

  20. High thermal efficiency and low emission performance of a methanol reformed gas fueled engine for hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, K.; Nakajima, Y.; Shudo, T.; Hiruma, M. [Musahi Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan); Komatsu, H.; Takagi, Y. [Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., Yokosuka (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    An internal combustion engine (ICE) operation was carried out experimentally by using the mixture of air and fuel simulating the reformed gas as the fuel. It has been found that the engine can expectedly attain ultra-low emission and high thermal efficiency, namely 35% brake thermal efficiency in the basis of the low heat value of the theoretically reformed gas or 42% in the basis of the low heat value of methanol. By using the result for the estimation of the total thermal efficiency at the end of the motor output shaft of a hybrid electric vehicle, it has been found that the total thermal efficiency of the reformed gas engine system is 34% in case of a 120% energy increment and 33% in case of a 116% energy increment with a little higher NOx emission of 60 ppm while the counterpart of the fuel cell system is 34%. When the emission level for EZEV is required, the total thermal efficiency falls to 32% in case of a 120% energy increment and 31% in case of a 116% energy increment. From the points of the reliability proved by the long history, higher specific power and low cost, the internal combustion engine system with the thermal efficiency almost equal to that of the fuel cell (FC) system is further more practical when methanol is used as the fuel. (orig.)

  1. A hybrid system for solar irradiance specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W.; Bouwer, S.

    2006-12-01

    Space environment research and space weather operations require solar irradiances in a variety of time scales and spectral formats. We describe the development of solar irradiance characterization using four models and systems that are also used for space weather operations. The four models/systems include SOLAR2000 (S2K), SOLARFLARE (SFLR), APEX, and IDAR, which are used by Space Environment Technologies (SET) to provide solar irradiances from the soft X-rays through the visible spectrum. SFLR uses the GOES 0.1 0.8 nm X-rays in combination with a Mewe model subroutine to provide 0.1 30.0 nm irradiances at 0.1 nm spectral resolution, at 1 minute time resolution, and in a 6-hour XUV EUV spectral solar flare evolution forecast with a 7 minute latency and a 2 minute cadence. These irradiances have been calibrated with the SORCE XPS observations and we report on the inclusion of these irradiances into the S2K model. The APEX system is a real-time data retrieval system developed in conjunction with the University of Southern California Space Sciences Center (SSC) to provide SOHO SEM data processing and distribution. SSC provides the updated SEM data to the research community and SET provides the operational data to the space operations community. We describe how the SOHO SEM data, and especially the new S10.7 index, is being integrated directly into the S2K model for space weather operations. The IDAR system has been developed by SET to extract coronal hole boundaries, streamers, coronal loops, active regions, plage, network, and background (internetwork) features from solar images for comparison with solar magnetic features. S2K, SFLR, APEX, and IDAR outputs are integrated through the S2K solar irradiance platform that has become a hybrid system, i.e., a system that is able to produce irradiances using different processes, including empirical and physics-based models combined with real-time data integration.

  2. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R [Battle Creek, MI; Hope, Mark E [Marshall, MI; Zou, Zhanjiang [Battle Creek, MI; Kang, Xiaosong [Battle Creek, MI

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  3. Hybrid Life Support System Technology Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, R. C.; Wetzel, J. P.; Richter, R. C.

    2018-02-01

    Demonstration of plant-based hybrid life support technologies in deep space will validate the function of these technologies for long duration missions, such as Mars transit, while providing dietary variety to improve habitability.

  4. An investigation of an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) based on supercapacitor and liquid nitrogen hybridization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xinjing; Xue, Haobai; Xu, Yujie; Chen, Haisheng; Tan, Chunqing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid UPS based on supercapacitor and liquid nitrogen engine is proposed. • The dynamic modelling of the hybrid UPS system is conducted. • The dynamic working performance is obtained and analysed based on the simulation. • The hybrid UPS enjoys environmental benignity, long life and easy maintenance. • It is a highly possible solution to replace conventional UPS systems. - Abstract: An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system based on supercapacitor and liquid nitrogen (LN 2 ) hybridization is first introduced in this paper. Of the newly designed UPS, the supercapacitor reacts instantaneously once the main supply fails, and it also starts the LN 2 power system to produce continuing electricity for the customer. This hybrid UPS system is of environment cleanness, long life time, easy maintenaince, etc. A 10 kW model is analyzed in this study. A two-stage nitrogen expander is designed with the rated speed of 900 rpm as the long time power generation device of the LN 2 cycle. The UPS starting process calculation is carried out. The results reveal that commercial supercapacitors could fulfill this request. This UPS could be a competent choice for the UPS application. Further discussion indicates the LN 2 power system could be used widely from UPS to low carbon vehicles

  5. Advancing Systems Engineering Excellence: The Marshall Systems Engineering Leadership Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Philip; Whitfield, Susan

    2011-01-01

    As NASA undertakes increasingly complex projects, the need for expert systems engineers and leaders in systems engineering is becoming more pronounced. As a result of this issue, the Agency has undertaken an initiative to develop more systems engineering leaders through its Systems Engineering Leadership Development Program; however, the NASA Office of the Chief Engineer has also called on the field Centers to develop mechanisms to strengthen their expertise in systems engineering locally. In response to this call, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed a comprehensive development program for aspiring systems engineers and systems engineering leaders. This presentation will summarize the two-level program, which consists of a combination of training courses and on-the-job, developmental training assignments at the Center to help develop stronger expertise in systems engineering and technical leadership. In addition, it will focus on the success the program has had in its pilot year. The program hosted a formal kickoff event for Level I on October 13, 2009. The first class includes 42 participants from across MSFC and Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF). A formal call for Level II is forthcoming. With the new Agency focus on research and development of new technologies, having a strong pool of well-trained systems engineers is becoming increasingly more critical. Programs such as the Marshall Systems Engineering Leadership Development Program, as well as those developed at other Centers, help ensure that there is an upcoming generation of trained systems engineers and systems engineering leaders to meet future design challenges.

  6. Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Engine Cycle Analysis for Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, James L.; Kim, Hyun Dae; Brown, Gerald V.

    2009-01-01

    Meeting NASA's N+3 goals requires a fundamental shift in approach to aircraft and engine design. Material and design improvements allow higher pressure and higher temperature core engines which improve the thermal efficiency. Propulsive efficiency, the other half of the overall efficiency equation, however, is largely determined by the fan pressure ratio (FPR). Lower FPR increases propulsive efficiency, but also dramatically reduces fan shaft speed through the combination of larger diameter fans and reduced fan tip speed limits. The result is that below an FPR of 1.5 the maximum fan shaft speed makes direct drive turbines problematic. However, it is the low pressure ratio fans that allow the improvement in propulsive efficiency which, along with improvements in thermal efficiency in the core, contributes strongly to meeting the N+3 goals for fuel burn reduction. The lower fan exhaust velocities resulting from lower FPRs are also key to meeting the aircraft noise goals. Adding a gear box to the standard turbofan engine allows acceptable turbine speeds to be maintained. However, development of a 50,000+ hp gearbox required by fans in a large twin engine transport aircraft presents an extreme technical challenge, therefore another approach is needed. This paper presents a propulsion system which transmits power from the turbine to the fan electrically rather than mechanically. Recent and anticipated advances in high temperature superconducting generators, motors, and power lines offer the possibility that such devices can be used to transmit turbine power in aircraft without an excessive weight penalty. Moving to such a power transmission system does more than provide better matching between fan and turbine shaft speeds. The relative ease with which electrical power can be distributed throughout the aircraft opens up numerous other possibilities for new aircraft and propulsion configurations and modes of operation. This paper discusses a number of these new

  7. Insight and Evidence Motivating the Simplification of Dual-Analysis Hybrid Systems into Single-Analysis Hybrid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todling, Ricardo; Diniz, F. L. R.; Takacs, L. L.; Suarez, M. J.

    2018-01-01

    Many hybrid data assimilation systems currently used for NWP employ some form of dual-analysis system approach. Typically a hybrid variational analysis is responsible for creating initial conditions for high-resolution forecasts, and an ensemble analysis system is responsible for creating sample perturbations used to form the flow-dependent part of the background error covariance required in the hybrid analysis component. In many of these, the two analysis components employ different methodologies, e.g., variational and ensemble Kalman filter. In such cases, it is not uncommon to have observations treated rather differently between the two analyses components; recentering of the ensemble analysis around the hybrid analysis is used to compensated for such differences. Furthermore, in many cases, the hybrid variational high-resolution system implements some type of four-dimensional approach, whereas the underlying ensemble system relies on a three-dimensional approach, which again introduces discrepancies in the overall system. Connected to these is the expectation that one can reliably estimate observation impact on forecasts issued from hybrid analyses by using an ensemble approach based on the underlying ensemble strategy of dual-analysis systems. Just the realization that the ensemble analysis makes substantially different use of observations as compared to their hybrid counterpart should serve as enough evidence of the implausibility of such expectation. This presentation assembles numerous anecdotal evidence to illustrate the fact that hybrid dual-analysis systems must, at the very minimum, strive for consistent use of the observations in both analysis sub-components. Simpler than that, this work suggests that hybrid systems can reliably be constructed without the need to employ a dual-analysis approach. In practice, the idea of relying on a single analysis system is appealing from a cost-maintenance perspective. More generally, single-analysis systems avoid

  8. Design and Fabrication of Biodegradable Porous Chitosan/Gelatin/Tricalcium Phosphate Hybrid Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Mohammadi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, based on a biomimetic approach, novel 3D biodegradable porous hybrid scaffolds consisting of chitosan, gelatin, and tricalcium phosphate were developed for bone and cartilage tissue engineering. Macroporous chitosan/ gelatin/β-TCP scaffolds were prepared through the process of freeze-gelation/solid-liquid phase separation. The results showed that the prepared scaffolds are highly porous, with porosities larger than 80%, and have interconnected pores. Biocompatibility studies were successfully performed by in vitro and in vivo assays. Moreover, the attachment, migration, and proliferation of chondrocytes on these unique temporary scaffolds were examined to determine their potentials in tissue engineering applications.

  9. A demonstration of expert systems applications in transportation engineering : volume I, transportation engineers and expert systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Expert systems, a branch of artificial-intelligence studies, is introduced with a view to its relevance in transportation engineering. Knowledge engineering, the process of building expert systems or transferring knowledge from human experts to compu...

  10. Synthesis of new aluminum nano hybrid composite liner for energy saving in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiruvenkadam, N.; Thyla, P.R.; Senthilkumar, M.; Bharathiraja, M.; Murugesan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nano hybrid composite cylinder liner (NL) was developed to replace cast iron liner. • NL improved engine performance, combustion and reduced emissions except NO x . • Teardown analysis provides the suitability of NL for diesel engine. • The developed aluminum NL saved 43.75% of weight than cast iron cylinder liner. - Abstract: This work aims to replace the conventional cast iron cylinder liner (CL) in diesel engine by introducing lightweight aluminum (Al) 6061 nano hybrid composite cylinder liner (NL) by analyzing the performance, combustion, and emission characteristics of an engine. NL was fabricated by bottom pouring stir casting technique with nano- and micro-reinforcement materials. Experimental results proved that the use of NL increased brake thermal efficiency, in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate, and reduced carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and smoke emission in comparison with CL. However, oxides of nitrogen slightly increased with the use of the new liner. No differences in wear or other issues were noted during the engine teardown after 1 year of operation and 2000 h of running. Thus, NL has been recommended to replace the CL to save the energy and to reap environmental benefits

  11. Performance assessment of hybrid power generation systems: Economic and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sharafi, Abdullah; Yilbas, Bekir S.; Sahin, Ahmet Z.; Ayar, T.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A double-step optimization tool for hybrid power generation systems is introduced. • Economical aspects and the impact of the system on the environment are considered. • A hybrid system comprises PV array-wind turbine-battery-diesel engine is considered. • Real time analysis of the system for full year simulation is carried out. • System optimum configuration at point where total performance index is maximized. - Abstract: This article aims to introduce a double-step performance assessment tool for the hybrid power generation systems. As a case study, a hybrid system comprising PV array, wind-turbine, battery bank and diesel engine is incorporated in hourly based simulations to meet power demand of a residence unit at Dhahran area, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Different indicators related to economical and environmental performance assessments of the hybrid system have been considered. In the economic related assessment case, cost of electricity, energy excess percentage, and operating life cycle indicators have been considered and combined to develop the first overall performance index. Renewable contribution, renewable source availability and environmental impact indicators have been considered for the environmental assessment case and they are combined in the second performance index. For either economical or environmental cases, the optimum configuration of the system is achieved by maximizing the first and second overall performance indicators. This innovative optimization tools gives the designer the freedom to assign suitable weights associated with economical aspect, environmental impact, governmental regulations and social impact, for the first and second overall performance indicators, and combine them in the total performance index. The optimum system configuration is at the point where the total performance index is maximized.

  12. Engineering of a polymer layered bio-hybrid heart valve scaffold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahnavi, S., E-mail: jani84@gmail.com [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, TN (India); Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Trivandrum, Kerala 695012 (India); Kumary, T.V., E-mail: tvkumary@yahoo.com [Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Trivandrum, Kerala 695012 (India); Bhuvaneshwar, G.S., E-mail: gs.bhuvnesh@gmail.com [Trivitron Innovation Centre, Department of Engineering Design, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, TN (India); Natarajan, T.S., E-mail: tsniit@gmail.com [Conducting Polymer laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, Chennai 600036, TN (India); Verma, R.S., E-mail: vermars@iitm.ac.in [Stem Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, TN (India)

    2015-06-01

    Current treatment strategy for end stage valve disease involves either valvular repair or replacement with homograft/mechanical/bioprosthetic valves. In cases of recurrent stenosis/ regurgitation, valve replacement is preferred choice of treatment over valvular repair. Currently available mechanical valves primarily provide durability whereas bioprosthetic valves have superior tissue compatibility but both lack remodelling and regenerative properties making their utility limited in paediatric patients. With advances in tissue engineering, attempts have been made to fabricate valves with regenerative potential using various polymers, decellularized tissues and hybrid scaffolds. To engineer an ideal heart valve, decellularized bovine pericardium extracellular matrix (DBPECM) is an attractive biocompatible scaffold but has weak mechanical properties and rapid degradation. However, DBPECM can be modified with synthetic polymers to enhance its mechanical properties. In this study, we developed a Bio-Hybrid scaffold with non-cross linked DBPECM in its native structure coated with a layer of Polycaprolactone-Chitosan (PCL-CH) nanofibers that displayed superior mechanical properties. Surface and functional studies demonstrated integration of PCL-CH to the DBPECM with enhanced bio and hemocompatibility. This engineered Bio-Hybrid scaffold exhibited most of the physical, biochemical and functional properties of the native valve that makes it an ideal scaffold for fabrication of cardiac valve with regenerative potential. - Highlights: • A Bio-Hybrid scaffold was fabricated with PCL-CH blend and DBPECM. • PCL-CH functionally interacted with decellularized matrix without cross linking. • Modified scaffold exhibited mechanical properties similar to native heart valve. • Supported better fibroblast and endothelial cell adhesion and proliferation. • The developed scaffold can be utilized for tissue engineering of heart valve.

  13. Systems Engineering Analysis for Office Space Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    ENGINEERING ANALYSIS FOR OFFICE SPACE MANAGEMENT by James E. Abellana September 2017 Thesis Advisor: Diana Angelis Second Reader: Walter E. Owen...Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING ANALYSIS FOR OFFICE SPACE MANAGEMENT 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) James E. Abellana 7...of the systems engineering method, this thesis develops a multicriteria decision-making framework applicable to space allocation decisions for

  14. Vehicle Systems Engineering and Integration Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    liter turbo diesel Bolt on armor required upgraded suspension, engine, and steering Mattracks or wheels Imbalance in cupola required motorized...liter turbo diesel engine, a new transmission, improved suspension and frame for an increased armor capability, 1,800- 4,400 lb payload and GVW 18,000...space (14 cubic feet), enhanced 6500 turbo diesel engine, higher capacity transmission, air induction system and exhaust systems. Lessons

  15. Modular component kit for hybrid drive systems; Modularer Komponentenbaukasten fuer Hybride Antriebssysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riegger, Peter; Schalk, Johannes; Schmalzing, Claus-Oliver [MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH, Friedrichshafen (Germany). Bereich Forschung Technologieentwicklung

    2013-10-15

    By hybrid drives, fuel consumption in off-road applications can be significantly reduced. However, the additional power train components and degrees of freedom required in the design of hybridised systems involve an increase in system variants. To keep the number of variants as low as possible whilst simultaneously ensuring that hybrid drives can serve as wide a spectrum of applications as possible, MTU has developed a modular system of components. This makes it possible to use customer requirements as a basis for creating innovative drive systems for the widest range of applications. (orig.)

  16. Strontium-rich injectable hybrid system for bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Nuno, E-mail: nsmneves@gmail.com [Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto (Portugal); INEB — Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 823, 4150-180 Porto (Portugal); FMUP — Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, Departamento de Cirurgia, Serviço de Ortopedia, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); Campos, Bruno B. [FCUP — Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Centro de Investigação em Química, Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Rua do Campo Alegre 1021/1055, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Almeida, Isabel F.; Costa, Paulo C. [FFUP — Faculdade de Farmácia da Universidade do Porto, Laboratório de Tecnologia Farmacêutica, Departamento de Ciências do Medicamento, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Cabral, Abel Trigo [FMUP — Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, Departamento de Cirurgia, Serviço de Ortopedia, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); and others

    2016-02-01

    Current challenges in the development of scaffolds for bone regeneration include the engineering of materials that can withstand normal dynamic physiological mechanical stresses exerted on the bone and provide a matrix capable of supporting cell migration and tissue ingrowth. The objective of the present work was to develop and characterize a hybrid polymer–ceramic injectable system that consists of an alginate matrix crosslinked in situ in the presence of strontium (Sr), incorporating a ceramic reinforcement in the form of Sr-rich microspheres. The incorporation of Sr in the microspheres and in the vehicle relies on the growing evidence that Sr has beneficial effects in bone remodeling and in the treatment of osteopenic disorders and osteoporosis. Sr-rich porous hydroxyapatite microspheres with a uniform size and a mean diameter of 555 μm were prepared, and their compression strength and friability tested. A 3.5% (w/v) ultrapure sodium alginate solution was used as the vehicle and its in situ gelation was promoted by the addition of calcium (Ca) or Sr carbonate and Glucone-δ-lactone. Gelation times varied with temperature and crosslinking agent, being slower for Sr than for Ca, but adequate for injection in both cases. Injectability was evaluated using a device employed in vertebroplasty surgical procedures, coupled to a texture analyzer in compression mode. Compositions with 35% w of microspheres presented the best compromise between injectability and compression strength of the system, the force required to extrude it being lower than 100 N. Micro CT analysis revealed a homogeneous distribution of the microspheres inside the vehicle, and a mean inter-microspheres space of 220 μm. DMA results showed that elastic behavior of the hybrid is dominant over the viscous one and that the higher storage modulus was obtained for the 3.5%Alg–35%Sr-HAp-Sr formulation. - Highlights: • We developed a Sr rich viscoelastic hybrid system (alginate matrix crosslinked in

  17. Principles of Sociology in Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.; Andrews, James G.; Larsen, Jordan A.

    2017-01-01

    Systems engineering involves both the integration of the system and the integration of the disciplines which develop and operate the system. Integrating the disciplines is a sociological effort to bring together different groups, often with different terminology, to achieve a common goal, the system. The focus for the systems engineer is information flow through the organization, between the disciplines, to ensure the system is developed and operated with all relevant information informing system decisions. Robert K. Merton studied the sociological principles of the sciences and the sociological principles he developed apply to systems engineering. Concepts such as specification of ignorance, common terminology, opportunity structures, role-sets, and the reclama (reconsideration) process are all important sociological approaches that should be employed by the systems engineer. In bringing the disciplines together, the systems engineer must also be wary of social ambivalence, social anomie, social dysfunction, insider-outsider behavior, unintended consequences, and the self-fulfilling prophecy. These sociological principles provide the systems engineer with key approaches to manage the information flow through the organization as the disciplines are integrated and share their information. This also helps identify key sociological barriers to information flow through the organization. This paper will discuss this theoretical basis for the application of sociological principles to systems engineering.

  18. Air-steam hybrid engine : an alternative to internal combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    In this Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 1 project, an energy-efficient air-steam propulsion system has been developed and patented, and key performance attributes have been demonstrated to be superior to those of internal combustion e...

  19. Multi and mixed 3D-printing of graphene-hydroxyapatite hybrid materials for complex tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakus, Adam E; Shah, Ramille N

    2017-01-01

    With the emergence of three-dimensional (3D)-printing (3DP) as a vital tool in tissue engineering and medicine, there is an ever growing need to develop new biomaterials that can be 3D-printed and also emulate the compositional, structural, and functional complexities of human tissues and organs. In this work, we probe the 3D-printable biomaterials spectrum by combining two recently established functional 3D-printable particle-laden biomaterial inks: one that contains hydroxyapatite microspheres (hyperelastic bone, HB) and another that contains graphene nanoflakes (3D-graphene, 3DG). We demonstrate that not only can these distinct, osteogenic, and neurogenic inks be co-3D-printed to create complex, multimaterial constructs, but that composite inks of HB and 3DG can also be synthesized. Specifically, the printability, microstructural, mechanical, electrical, and biological properties of a hybrid material comprised of 1:1 HA:graphene by volume is investigated. The resulting HB-3DG hybrid exhibits mixed characteristics of the two distinct systems, while maintaining 3D-printability, electrical conductivity, and flexibility. In vitro assessment of HB-3DG using mesenchymal stem cells demonstrates the hybrid material supports cell viability and proliferation, as well as significantly upregulates both osteogenic and neurogenic gene expression over 14 days. This work ultimately demonstrates a significant step forward towards being able to 3D-print graded, multicompositional, and multifunctional constructs from hybrid inks for complex composite tissue engineering. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 274-283, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Hybrid photovoltaic-diesel-battery systems for remote energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bopp, G.; Gabler, H.; Kiefer, K.; Preiser, K.; Wiemken, E. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Photovoltaic solar generators combined with diesel engines and battery energy storage are powering isolated mountain lodges, information centres in nature parks, isolated farms or dwellings all over Europe. A total of 300000 buildings in Europe are estimated to be not connected to the public grid. This represents a major market potential for photovoltaics, as often photovoltaic power generation is less expensive than a connection to the electric utility. The Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE has planned, realized and monitored about 30 hybrid remote energy supply systems with PV generators typically around 5 kW for loads typically around 20 kWh per day. More than one hundred years of operational experience accumulated so far, are a sound foundation on which to draw an interim balance over problems solved and technical questions still under development. Room for further technical development is seen in the domain of system reliability and the reduction of operating costs as well as in the optimization of the utilisation of the electric energy produced by the PV generator. (orig.) 8 refs.

  1. Study of Efficiency Control by Hybrid Jet Engine Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Maksimov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes main control aspects of thrust jet engines, which use fuel components in different states of aggregation (solid fuels - liquid oxidant, a solid oxidizer - liquid fuel. Following the analytical review of literature a conclusion has been drawn that it is technically and functionally complicated to provide a process of thrust control by changing the mass flow and the combustion rate of a solid fuel charge.The objective of this work is to give a theoretical prediction of how the thermal knife impacts on the local combustion rate.The paper presents a diagram of interaction between thermal knife and solid fuel. There are three modes, namely: pyrolysis, transition (from pyrolysis to cutting charge, and fuel cut. In the computational model generation it is assumed that the solid fuel combustion rate is not dependent on the combustion direction, and the temperature distribution along the length of the charge (in the direction perpendicular to the face obeys the Michelson dependence without considering a resistance of the heated layer at the surface of the combustion charge. The paper considers mechanical interaction of the thermal knife with the surface of charge. The Hertz formula describes the relationship between the pressing force, the penetration depth and the radius of thermal knife mark in the fuel.Numerical modeling methods and direct calculations allow us to obtain relationships to describe the changing local combustion rate under the action of the thermal knife on a solid fuel charge in its mechanical penetration, depending on the blade geometry, mechanical properties of charge and pressing force.

  2. Experimental evaluation of hybrid propulsion rocket engine operating with paraffin fuel grain and gaseous oxygen

    OpenAIRE

    Genivaldo Pimenta dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade the hybrid propulsion has been considering as a viable alternative of chemical energy conversion stored in propellants into kinetic energy. This energy is applied in propulsive systems of manned platforms, maneuvering procedures and even in the repositioning process of micro satellites. It presents attractive features and good balance between performance and environmental impact. Paraffin based grains are the hybrid solid fuels appointed as polymeric fuel substitute. The li...

  3. Test and development of a solar-hybrid vehicle prototype and turbo-compressor model for automotive engines

    OpenAIRE

    Naddeo, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    2014 - 2015 In last decade, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) have emerged as real alternatives to engine-driven vehicles, in order to reduce fuel consumption and emissions.... [edited by author] XIV n.s.

  4. Applying Systems Engineering on Energy Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Safi, J.; Muller, G.; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Systems engineering is a discipline with methods and techniques to address complex problems. We want to study how Systems Engineering methods can help to address today's grand challenges, such as the energy problem. The first step is problem definition which aims at articulating the problem in its

  5. Direct hydrogen fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.

    Hybridizing a fuel cell system with an energy storage system offers an opportunity to improve the fuel economy of the vehicle through regenerative braking and possibly to increase the specific power and decrease the cost of the combined energy conversion and storage systems. Even in a hybrid configuration it is advantageous to operate the fuel cell system in a load-following mode and use the power from the energy storage system when the fuel cell alone cannot meet the power demand. This paper discusses an approach for designing load-following fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles and illustrates it by applying it to pressurized, direct hydrogen, polymer-electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems for a mid-size family sedan. The vehicle level requirements relative to traction power, response time, start-up time and energy conversion efficiency are used to select the important parameters for the PEFC stack, air management system, heat rejection system and the water management system.

  6. Renewable energy systems in Mexico: Installation of a hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Ronald C.

    1993-05-01

    Sandia has been providing technical leadership on behalf of DOE and CORECT on a working level cooperative program with Mexico on renewable energy (PROCER). As part of this effort, the Sandia Design Assistance Center (DAC) and the solar energy program staff at Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) in Cuernavaca, Mexico, recently reached agreement on a framework for mutually beneficial technical collaboration on the monitoring and field evaluation of renewable energy systems in Mexico, particularly village-scale hybrid systems. This trip was made for the purpose of planning the details for the joint installation of a data acquisition system (DAS) on a recently completed PV/Wind/Diesel hybrid system in the village of Xcalac on the Southeast coast of the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. The DAS installation will be made during the week of March 15, 1993. While in Mexico, discussions were also held with personnel from.the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) Solar Energy Laboratory and several private sector companies with regard to renewable energy project activities and technical and educational support needs in Mexico.

  7. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems FY16 Modeling Efforts at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetiner, Sacit M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Greenwood, Michael Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Qualls, A. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Guler Yigitoglu, Askin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A nuclear hybrid system uses a nuclear reactor as the basic power generation unit. The power generated by the nuclear reactor is utilized by one or more power customers as either thermal power, electrical power, or both. In general, a nuclear hybrid system will couple the nuclear reactor to at least one thermal power user in addition to the power conversion system. The definition and architecture of a particular nuclear hybrid system is flexible depending on local markets needs and opportunities. For example, locations in need of potable water may be best served by coupling a desalination plant to the nuclear system. Similarly, an area near oil refineries may have a need for emission-free hydrogen production. A nuclear hybrid system expands the nuclear power plant from its more familiar central power station role by diversifying its immediately and directly connected customer base. The definition, design, analysis, and optimization work currently performed with respect to the nuclear hybrid systems represents the work of three national laboratories. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is the lead lab working with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Each laboratory is providing modeling and simulation expertise for the integration of the hybrid system.

  8. Current status of rocket developments in universities -development of a small hybrid rocket with a swirling oxidizer flow type engine

    OpenAIRE

    Yuasa, Saburo; Kitagawa, Koki

    2005-01-01

    To develop an experimental small hybrid rocket with a swirling gaseous oxygen flow type engine, we made a flight model engine. Burning tests of the engine showed that a maximum thrust of 692 N and a specific impulse of 263 s (at sea level) were achieved. We designed a small hybrid rocket with this engine. The rocket measured 1.8 m in length and 15.4 kg in mass. To confirm the flight stability of the rocket, wind tunnel tests using a 112-scale model of the rocket and simulations of the flight ...

  9. Evolutionary design of discrete controllers for hybrid mechatronic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Jean-Francois; Fan, Zhun; Goodman, Erik

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the issue of evolutionary design of controllers for hybrid mechatronic systems. Finite State Automaton (FSA) is selected as the representation for a discrete controller due to its interpretability, fast execution speed and natural extension to a statechart, which is very...... popular in industrial applications. A case study of a two-tank system is used to demonstrate that the proposed evolutionary approach can lead to a successful design of an FSA controller for the hybrid mechatronic system, represented by a hybrid bond graph. Generalisation of the evolved FSA controller...... of the evolutionary design of controllers for hybrid mechatronic systems. Finally, some important future research directions are pointed out, leading to the major work of the succeeding part of the research....

  10. Optimal design of energy storage systems for hybrid vehicle drivetrains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, T.; Hoekstra, D.; Druten, van R.M.; Steinbuch, M.

    2005-01-01

    Current hybrid powertrain simulation packages arebased on discrete (existing) system components and predefinedsystem structures. Optimization of the performance of the hybridpowertrain is then based on finding the most efficient controlstrategy of the primary and secondary power source and

  11. A Structural Model Decomposition Framework for Hybrid Systems Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew; Bregon, Anibal; Roychoudhury, Indranil

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, a large number of practical systems in aerospace and industrial environments are best represented as hybrid systems that consist of discrete modes of behavior, each defined by a set of continuous dynamics. These hybrid dynamics make the on-line fault diagnosis task very challenging. In this work, we present a new modeling and diagnosis framework for hybrid systems. Models are composed from sets of user-defined components using a compositional modeling approach. Submodels for residual generation are then generated for a given mode, and reconfigured efficiently when the mode changes. Efficient reconfiguration is established by exploiting causality information within the hybrid system models. The submodels can then be used for fault diagnosis based on residual generation and analysis. We demonstrate the efficient causality reassignment, submodel reconfiguration, and residual generation for fault diagnosis using an electrical circuit case study.

  12. Hybrid Cooling System for Industrial Application | Ezekwe | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hybrid Cooling System for Industrial Application. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... more than five times over that achieved by using the gas (air) phase alone. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  13. Chip Integrated, Hybrid EHD/Capillary Driven Thermal Management System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Chip-Integrated, Hybrid EHD/Capillary-Driven Thermal Management System is a two year that will leverage independently attained yet related prototype hardware...

  14. Energy Harvesting in Heterogeneous Networks with Hybrid Powered Communication Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad; Celik, Abdulkadir; Kamal, Ahmed E.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate an energy efficient and energy harvesting (EH) system model in heterogeneous networks (HetNets) where all base stations (BSS) are equipped to harvest energy from renewable energy sources. We consider a hybrid power

  15. The Vulcan Advanced Hybrid Manufacturing System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Made In Space is developing the The Vulcan Advanced Hybrid Manufacturing System (VULCAN) to address NASA's requirement to produce high-strength, high-precision...

  16. ON THE STABILIZATION OF THE LINEAR HYBRID SYSTEM STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirillov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The linear control hybrid system, consisting of a fi- nite set of subsystems (modes having different dimensions, is considered. The moments of reset time are determined by some complementary function – evolutionary time. This function satisfies the special complementary ordinary differential equation. The mode stabilization problem is solved for some class of piecewise linear controls. The method of stabilization relies on the set of invariant planes, the existence of which is due to the special form of the hybrid system.

  17. Methodology for the hybrid solution of systems of differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrinaga, E.F.; Lopez, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    This work shows a general methodology of solution to systems of differential equations in hybrid computers. Taking into account this methodology, a mathematical model was elaborated. It offers wide possibilities of recording and handling the results on the basis of using the hybrid system IBM-VIDAC 1224 which the ISCTN has. It also presents the results gained when simulating a simple model of a nuclear reactor, which was used in the validation of the results of the computational model

  18. A novel male sterility-fertility restoration system in plants for hybrid seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surendra Pratap; Singh, Sudhir P; Pandey, Tripti; Singh, Ram Rakshpal; Sawant, Samir V

    2015-06-15

    Hybrid seeds are used for stimulated crop production, as they harness heterosis. The achievement of complete male-sterility in the female-parent and the restored-fertility in F1-hybrids are the major bottlenecks in the commercial hybrid seed production. Here, we report a male sterility-fertility restoration system by engineering the in most nutritive anther wall layer tapetum of female and male parents. In the female parent, high-level, and stringent expression of Arabidopsis autophagy-related gene BECLIN1 was achieved in the tapetum, which altered the tapetal degeneration program, leading to male sterility. This works on our previously demonstrated expression cassette based on functional complementation of TATA-box mutant (TGTA) promoter and TATA-binding protein mutant3 (TBPm3), with modification by conjugating Long Hypocotyle in Far-Red1 fragment (HFR1(NT131)) with TBPm3 (HFR1(NT131)-TBPm3) to exercise regulatory control over it. In the male parent, tapetum-specific Constitutive photo-morphogenesis1 (COP1) was expressed. The F1 obtained by crossing these engineered parents showed decreased BECLIN1 expression, which was further completely abolished when COP1-mutant (COP1(L105A)) was used as a male parent, leading to normal tapetal development and restored fertility. The system works on COP1-HFR1 interaction and COP1-mediated degradation of TBPm3 pool (HFR1(NT131)-TBPm3). The system can be deployed for hybrid seed production in agricultural crops.

  19. Engineering three-dimensional hybrid supercapacitors and microsupercapacitors for high-performance integrated energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kady, Maher F; Ihns, Melanie; Li, Mengping; Hwang, Jee Youn; Mousavi, Mir F; Chaney, Lindsay; Lech, Andrew T; Kaner, Richard B

    2015-04-07

    Supercapacitors now play an important role in the progress of hybrid and electric vehicles, consumer electronics, and military and space applications. There is a growing demand in developing hybrid supercapacitor systems to overcome the energy density limitations of the current generation of carbon-based supercapacitors. Here, we demonstrate 3D high-performance hybrid supercapacitors and microsupercapacitors based on graphene and MnO2 by rationally designing the electrode microstructure and combining active materials with electrolytes that operate at high voltages. This results in hybrid electrodes with ultrahigh volumetric capacitance of over 1,100 F/cm(3). This corresponds to a specific capacitance of the constituent MnO2 of 1,145 F/g, which is close to the theoretical value of 1,380 F/g. The energy density of the full device varies between 22 and 42 Wh/l depending on the device configuration, which is superior to those of commercially available double-layer supercapacitors, pseudocapacitors, lithium-ion capacitors, and hybrid supercapacitors tested under the same conditions and is comparable to that of lead acid batteries. These hybrid supercapacitors use aqueous electrolytes and are assembled in air without the need for expensive "dry rooms" required for building today's supercapacitors. Furthermore, we demonstrate a simple technique for the fabrication of supercapacitor arrays for high-voltage applications. These arrays can be integrated with solar cells for efficient energy harvesting and storage systems.

  20. Engineering three-dimensional hybrid supercapacitors and microsupercapacitors for high-performance integrated energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kady, Maher F.; Ihns, Melanie; Li, Mengping; Hwang, Jee Youn; Mousavi, Mir F.; Chaney, Lindsay; Lech, Andrew T.; Kaner, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Supercapacitors now play an important role in the progress of hybrid and electric vehicles, consumer electronics, and military and space applications. There is a growing demand in developing hybrid supercapacitor systems to overcome the energy density limitations of the current generation of carbon-based supercapacitors. Here, we demonstrate 3D high-performance hybrid supercapacitors and microsupercapacitors based on graphene and MnO2 by rationally designing the electrode microstructure and combining active materials with electrolytes that operate at high voltages. This results in hybrid electrodes with ultrahigh volumetric capacitance of over 1,100 F/cm3. This corresponds to a specific capacitance of the constituent MnO2 of 1,145 F/g, which is close to the theoretical value of 1,380 F/g. The energy density of the full device varies between 22 and 42 Wh/l depending on the device configuration, which is superior to those of commercially available double-layer supercapacitors, pseudocapacitors, lithium-ion capacitors, and hybrid supercapacitors tested under the same conditions and is comparable to that of lead acid batteries. These hybrid supercapacitors use aqueous electrolytes and are assembled in air without the need for expensive “dry rooms” required for building today’s supercapacitors. Furthermore, we demonstrate a simple technique for the fabrication of supercapacitor arrays for high-voltage applications. These arrays can be integrated with solar cells for efficient energy harvesting and storage systems. PMID:25831542

  1. Practical Application of Sociology in Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.; Andrews, James G.; Eckley, Jeri Cassel; Culver, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    Systems engineering involves both the integration of the system and the integration of the disciplines which develop and operate the system. Integrating the disciplines is a sociological effort to bring together different groups, who often have different terminology, to achieve a common goal, the system. The focus for the systems engineer is information flow through the organization, between the disciplines, to ensure the system is developed and operated will all relevant information informing system decisions. The practical application of the sociology in systems engineering brings in various organizational development concepts including the principles of planned renegotiation and the application of principles to address information barriers created by organizational culture. Concepts such as specification of ignorance, consistent terminology, opportunity structures, role-sets, and the reclama (reconsideration) process are all important sociological approaches that help address the organizational social structure (culture). In bringing the disciplines together, the systems engineer must also be wary of social ambivalence, social anomie, social dysfunction, and insider-outsider behavior. Unintended consequences can result when these social issues are present. These issues can occur when localized subcultures shift from the overarching organizational culture, or when the organizational culture prevents achievement of system goals. These sociological principles provide the systems engineer with key approaches to manage the information flow through the organization as the disciplines are integrated and share their information and provides key sociological barriers to information flow through the organization. This paper will discuss the practical application of sociological principles to systems engineering.

  2. Mars Hybrid Propulsion System Trajectory Analysis. Part II; Cargo Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single spaceship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper shows the feasibility of the hybrid transportation architecture to pre-deploy cargo to Mars and Phobos in support of the Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions. The analysis shows that the hybrid propulsion stage is able to deliver all of the current manifested payload to Phobos and Mars through the first three crew missions. The conjunction class trajectory also allows the hybrid propulsion stage to return to Earth in a timely fashion so it can be reused for additional cargo deployment. The 1,100 days total trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to deliver cargo to Mars every other Earth-Mars transit opportunity. For the first two Mars surface mission in the Evolvable Mars Campaign, the short trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to be reused for three round-trip journeys to Mars, which matches the hybrid propulsion stage's designed lifetime for three round-trip crew missions to the Martian sphere of influence.

  3. Qualitative Fault Isolation of Hybrid Systems: A Structural Model Decomposition-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregon, Anibal; Daigle, Matthew; Roychoudhury, Indranil

    2016-01-01

    Quick and robust fault diagnosis is critical to ensuring safe operation of complex engineering systems. A large number of techniques are available to provide fault diagnosis in systems with continuous dynamics. However, many systems in aerospace and industrial environments are best represented as hybrid systems that consist of discrete behavioral modes, each with its own continuous dynamics. These hybrid dynamics make the on-line fault diagnosis task computationally more complex due to the large number of possible system modes and the existence of autonomous mode transitions. This paper presents a qualitative fault isolation framework for hybrid systems based on structural model decomposition. The fault isolation is performed by analyzing the qualitative information of the residual deviations. However, in hybrid systems this process becomes complex due to possible existence of observation delays, which can cause observed deviations to be inconsistent with the expected deviations for the current mode in the system. The great advantage of structural model decomposition is that (i) it allows to design residuals that respond to only a subset of the faults, and (ii) every time a mode change occurs, only a subset of the residuals will need to be reconfigured, thus reducing the complexity of the reasoning process for isolation purposes. To demonstrate and test the validity of our approach, we use an electric circuit simulation as the case study.

  4. A Frequency Control Approach for Hybrid Power System Using Multi-Objective Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Elsayed Lotfy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid power system uses many wind turbine generators (WTG and solar photovoltaics (PV in isolated small areas. However, the output power of these renewable sources is not constant and can diverge quickly, which has a serious effect on system frequency and the continuity of demand supply. In order to solve this problem, this paper presents a new frequency control scheme for a hybrid power system to ensure supplying a high-quality power in isolated areas. The proposed power system consists of a WTG, PV, aqua-electrolyzer (AE, fuel cell (FC, battery energy storage system (BESS, flywheel (FW and diesel engine generator (DEG. Furthermore, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs are implemented at the customer side. A full-order observer is utilized to estimate the supply error. Then, the estimated supply error is considered in a frequency domain. The high-frequency component is reduced by BESS and FW; while the low-frequency component of supply error is mitigated using FC, EV and DEG. Two PI controllers are implemented in the proposed system to control the system frequency and reduce the supply error. The epsilon multi-objective genetic algorithm ( ε -MOGA is applied to optimize the controllers’ parameters. The performance of the proposed control scheme is compared with that of recent well-established techniques, such as a PID controller tuned by the quasi-oppositional harmony search algorithm (QOHSA. The effectiveness and robustness of the hybrid power system are investigated under various operating conditions.

  5. Complex engineering systems science meets technology

    CERN Document Server

    Minai, Ali A; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2006-01-01

    Every time that we take money out of an ATM, surf the internet or simply turn on a light switch, we enjoy the benefits of complex engineered systems. Systems like power grids and global communication networks are so ubiquitous in our daily lives that we usually take them for granted, only noticing them when they break down. But how do such amazing technologies and infrastructures come to be what they are? How are these systems designed? How do distributed networks work? How are they made to respond rapidly in 'real time'? And as the demands that we place on these systems become increasingly complex, are traditional systems-engineering practices still relevant? This volume examines the difficulties that arise in creating highly complex engineered systems and new approaches that are being adopted. Topics addressed range from the formal representation and classification of distributed networked systems to revolutionary engineering practices inspired by biological evolution. By bringing together the latest resear...

  6. Development and Commissioning Results of the Hybrid Sensor Bus Engineering Qualification Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurni, Andreas; Putzer, Phillipp; Roner, Markus; Gurster, Markus; Hulsemeyer, Christian; Lemke, Norbert M. K.

    2016-08-01

    In order to reduce mass, AIT effort and overall costs of classical point-to-point wired temperature sensor harness on-board spacecraft OHB System AGhas introduced the Hybrid Sensor Bus (HSB) system which interrogates sensors connected in a bus architecture. To use the advantages of electrical as wellas of fiber-optical sensing technologies, HSB is designed as a modular measurement system interrogating digital sensors connected on electricalsensor buses based on I2C and fiber-optical sensor buses based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors inscribed in optical fibers. Fiber-optical sensor bus networks on-board satellites are well suited for temperature measurement due to low mass, electro-magnetic insensitivity and the capability to embed them inside structure parts. The lightweight FBG sensors inscribed in radiation tolerant fibers can reach every part of the satellite. HSB has been developed in the frame of the ESA ARTES program with European and German co- funding and will be verified as flight demonstrator on- board the German Heinrich Hertz satellite (H2Sat).In this paper the Engineering Qualification Model (EQM) development of HSB and first commissioning results are presented. For the HSB development requirements applicable for telecommunication satellite platforms have been considered. This includes an operation of at least 15 years in a geostationary orbit.In Q3/2016 the qualification test campaign is planned to be carried out. The HSB EQM undergoes a full qualification according to ECSS. The paper concludes with an outlook regarding this HSB flight demonstrator development and its in-orbit verification (IOV) on board H2Sat.

  7. Application of Hybrid Dynamical Theory to the Cardiovascular System

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2014-10-14

    In hybrid dynamical systems, the state evolves in continuous time as well as in discrete modes activated by internal conditions or by external events. In the recent years, hybrid systems modeling has been used to represent the dynamics of biological systems. In such systems, discrete behaviors might originate from unexpected changes in normal performance, e.g., a transition from a healthy to an abnormal condition. Simplifications, model assumptions, and/or modeled (and ignored) nonlinearities can be represented by sudden changes in the state. Modeling cardiovascular system (CVS), one of the most fascinating but most complex human physiological systems, with a hybrid approach, is the focus of this chapter. The hybrid property appears naturally in the CVS thanks to the presence of valves which, depending on their state (closed or open), divide the cardiac cycle into four phases. This chapter shows how hybrid models can be used for modeling the CVS. In addition, it describes a preliminary study on the detection of some cardiac anomalies based on the hybrid model and using the standard observer-based approach.

  8. The characteristics of mechanical engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, R

    1977-01-01

    The Characteristics of Mechanical Engineering Systems focuses on the characteristics that must be considered when designing a mechanical engineering system. Mechanical systems are presented on the basis of component input-output relationships, paying particular attention to lumped-parameter problems and the interrelationships between lumped components or """"black-boxes"""" in an engineering system. Electric motors and generators are treated in an elementary manner, and the principles involved are explained as far as possible from physical and qualitative reasoning. This book is comprised of

  9. Visualizing systems engineering data with Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barter, R; Vinzant, A.

    1998-01-01

    Systems Engineers are required to deal with complex sets of data. To be useful, the data must be managed effectively, and presented in meaningful terms to a wide variety of information consumers. Two software patterns are presented as the basis for exploring the visualization of systems engineering data. The Model, View, Controller pattern defines an information management system architecture. The Entity, Relation, Attribute pattern defines the information model. MVC Views then form the basis for the user interface between the information consumer and the MVC Controller/Model combination. A Java tool set is described for exploring alternative views into the underlying complex data structures encountered in systems engineering

  10. Rethinking the Systems Engineering Process in Light of Design Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    systems engineering process models (Blanchard & Fabrycky, 1990) and the majority of engineering design education (Dym et al., 2005). The waterfall model ...Engineering Career Competency Model Clifford Whitcomb, Systems Engineering Professor, NPS Corina White, Systems Engineering Research Associate, NPS...Postgraduate School (NPS) in Monterey, CA. He teaches and conducts research in the design of enterprise systems, systems modeling , and system

  11. 16th International Conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems and the 8th World Congress on Nature and Biologically Inspired Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Haqiq, Abdelkrim; Alimi, Adel; Mezzour, Ghita; Rokbani, Nizar; Muda, Azah

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the latest research in hybrid intelligent systems. It includes 57 carefully selected papers from the 16th International Conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems (HIS 2016) and the 8th World Congress on Nature and Biologically Inspired Computing (NaBIC 2016), held on November 21–23, 2016 in Marrakech, Morocco. HIS - NaBIC 2016 was jointly organized by the Machine Intelligence Research Labs (MIR Labs), USA; Hassan 1st University, Settat, Morocco and University of Sfax, Tunisia. Hybridization of intelligent systems is a promising research field in modern artificial/computational intelligence and is concerned with the development of the next generation of intelligent systems. The conference’s main aim is to inspire further exploration of the intriguing potential of hybrid intelligent systems and bio-inspired computing. As such, the book is a valuable resource for practicing engineers /scientists and researchers working in the field of computational intelligence and artificial intelligence.

  12. System for measuring engine exhaust constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carduner, K.R.; Colvin, A.D.; Leong, D.Y.W.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a system for measuring an automotive engine exhaust constituent. It comprises: a meter for determining the mass of air flowing through the engine and for generating an engine airflow signal corresponding to the airflow; sample handling apparatus; diluent adding means; processor means. This patent also describes a method for using an analyzer to determine the amount of lubricating oil consumed by an automotive engine. It comprises: determining the amount of sulfur dioxide within the room air being drawn into the engine; maintaining a constant total flow comprised of a constant fraction of the engine's exhaust gas and a diluent gas through the analyzer, while: determining the amount of sulfur dioxide contained within the engine's exhaust, determining the amount of sulfur dioxide contained within the engine's exhaust, while operating the engine on room air; determining an efficiency factor for the analyzer; and using the efficiency factor and the concentration of sulfur in the engine oil and the amounts of sulfur dioxide determined in steps a and d to determine the amount of lubrication oil leaving the engine through its exhaust

  13. Convective Heat Transfer in a Pneumatic Hybrid Engine Échange de chaleur convectif dans un moteur hybride pneumatique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brejaud P.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Several previous studies have proven that pneumatic hybridization of an internal combustion engine is a technically viable and cost-efficient alternative to electric hybridization. Because the heat transfer process remains a first order factor while the engine operates in a motored or pneumatic mode without combustion, an accurate instantaneous heat transfer model is required in order to predict the in-cylinder pressure. This study shows that the original Woschni model is not suitable for describing the shape of the measured instantaneous heat flux versus crank angle while the engine operates in a motored pneumatic mode, because of the extinction of tumble motion near Top Dead Center (TDC. A modified form of the Woschni model is therefore proposed here that better describes the instantaneous heat flux during compression and expansion strokes, applicable to pneumatic and motored with fuel cut-off modes. First, the new constant parameter model is identified from experimental measurements performed in various motored mode conditions. Next, the pneumatic supercharged mode without combustion (ignition not performed is investigated with the new model using the same identification values as for the motored mode. This study shows that the modified model remains fully applicable to the supercharged mode, despite of a certainly modified in-cylinder aerodynamic structure created by the opening of the charging valve under a high pressure ratio. Plusieurs études ont déjà montré que le concept d’hybride pneumatique est une alternative techniquement et économiquement viable à l’hybridation électrique. Malgré l’absence de combustion lors d’un fonctionnement en mode entraîné ou pneumatique, les échanges de chaleurs convectifs restent un facteur de premier ordre sur un bilan énergétique. Il faut donc disposer d’un modèle précis d’échange de chaleur instantané afin de prévoir la pression instantanée dans un cylindre du moteur. Cette

  14. Energy Efficient Hybrid Dual Axis Solar Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ahammed Ferdaus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and implementation of an energy efficient solar tracking system from a normal mechanical single axis to a hybrid dual axis. For optimizing the solar tracking mechanism electromechanical systems were evolved through implementation of different evolutional algorithms and methodologies. To present the tracker, a hybrid dual-axis solar tracking system is designed, built, and tested based on both the solar map and light sensor based continuous tracking mechanism. These light sensors also compare the darkness and cloudy and sunny conditions assisting daily tracking. The designed tracker can track sun’s apparent position at different months and seasons; thereby the electrical controlling device requires a real time clock device for guiding the tracking system in seeking solar position for the seasonal motion. So the combination of both of these tracking mechanisms made the designed tracker a hybrid one. The power gain and system power consumption are compared with a static and continuous dual axis solar tracking system. It is found that power gain of hybrid dual axis solar tracking system is almost equal to continuous dual axis solar tracking system, whereas the power saved in system operation by the hybrid tracker is 44.44% compared to the continuous tracking system.

  15. A hybrid reconfigurable solar and wind energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkari, Sagar A.

    We study the feasibility of a novel hybrid solar-wind hybrid system that shares most of its infrastructure and components. During periods of clear sunny days the system will generate electricity from the sun using a parabolic concentrator. The concentrator is formed by individual mirror elements and focuses the light onto high intensity vertical multi-junction (VMJ) cells. During periods of high wind speeds and at night, the same concentrator setup will be reconfigured to channel the wind into a wind turbine which will be used to harness wind energy. In this study we report on the feasibility of this type of solar/wind hybrid energy system. The key mechanisms; optics, cooling mechanism of VMJ cells and air flow through the system were investigated using simulation tools. The results from these simulations, along with a simple economic analysis giving the levelized cost of energy for such a system are presented. An iterative method of design refinement based on the simulation results was used to work towards a prototype design. The levelized cost of the system achieved in the economic analysis shows the system to be a good alternative for a grid isolated site and could be used as a standalone system in regions of lower demand. The new approach to solar wind hybrid system reported herein will pave way for newer generation of hybrid systems that share common infrastructure in addition to the storage and distribution of energy.

  16. Concept design for hybrid vehicle power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, T.; Druten, van R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Hybridization implies adding a Secondary power source (e.g. electric motor and battery) (S) to a Primary power source (P) in order to improve the driving functions (e.g. fuel economy, driveability (performance)) of the vehicle. The fuel economy isstrongly determined by the energy management

  17. Reactor systems modeling for ICF hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berwald, D.H.; Meier, W.R.

    1980-10-01

    The computational models of ICF reactor subsystems developed by LLNL and TRW are described and a computer program was incorporated for use in the EPRI-sponsored Feasibility Assessment of Fusion-Fission Hybrids. Representative parametric variations have been examined. Many of the ICF subsystem models are very preliminary and more quantitative models need to be developed and included in the code

  18. Analysis of Linear Hybrid Systems in CLP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banda, Gourinath; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a procedure for representing the semantics of linear hybrid automata (LHAs) as constraint logic programs (CLP); flexible and accurate analysis and verification of LHAs can then be performed using generic CLP analysis and transformation tools. LHAs provide an expressive...

  19. Physiology for engineers applying engineering methods to physiological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chappell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to qualitative and quantitative aspects of human physiology. It looks at biological and physiological processes and phenomena, including a selection of mathematical models, showing how physiological problems can be mathematically formulated and studied. It also illustrates how a wide range of engineering and physics topics, including electronics, fluid dynamics, solid mechanics and control theory can be used to describe and understand physiological processes and systems. Throughout the text there are introductions to measuring and quantifying physiological processes using both signal and imaging technologies. Physiology for Engineers describes the basic structure and models of cellular systems, the structure and function of the cardiovascular system, the electrical and mechanical activity of the heart and provides an overview of the structure and function of the respiratory and nervous systems. It also includes an introduction to the basic concepts and applications of reacti...

  20. Hybrid rocket propulsion systems for outer planet exploration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jens, Elizabeth T.; Cantwell, Brian J.; Hubbard, G. Scott

    2016-11-01

    Outer planet exploration missions require significant propulsive capability, particularly to achieve orbit insertion. Missions to explore the moons of outer planets place even more demanding requirements on propulsion systems, since they involve multiple large ΔV maneuvers. Hybrid rockets present a favorable alternative to conventional propulsion systems for many of these missions. They typically enjoy higher specific impulse than solids, can be throttled, stopped/restarted, and have more flexibility in their packaging configuration. Hybrids are more compact and easier to throttle than liquids and have similar performance levels. In order to investigate the suitability of these propulsion systems for exploration missions, this paper presents novel hybrid motor designs for two interplanetary missions. Hybrid propulsion systems for missions to Europa and Uranus are presented and compared to conventional in-space propulsion systems. The hybrid motor design for each of these missions is optimized across a range of parameters, including propellant selection, O/F ratio, nozzle area ratio, and chamber pressure. Details of the design process are described in order to provide guidance for researchers wishing to evaluate hybrid rocket motor designs for other missions and applications.

  1. DIAGNOSIS WINDOWS PROBLEMS BASED ON HYBRID INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAFWAN O. HASOON

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the artificial intelligence technologies by integrating Radial Basis Function networks with expert systems to construct a robust hybrid system. The purpose of building the hybrid system is to give recommendations to repair the operating system (Windows problems and troubleshoot the problems that can be repaired. The neural network has unique characteristics which it can complete the uncompleted data, the expert system can't deal with data that is incomplete, but using the neural network individually has some disadvantages which it can't give explanations and recommendations to the problems. The expert system has the ability to explain and give recommendations by using the rules and the human expert in some conditions. Therefore, we have combined the two technologies. The paper will explain the integration methods between the two technologies and which method is suitable to be used in the proposed hybrid system.

  2. Hybrid Ventilation with Innovative Heat Recovery—A System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Hellström

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors when low energy houses are built is to have good heat recovery on the ventilation system. However, standard ventilation units use a considerable amount of electricity. This article discusses the consequences on a system level of using hybrid ventilation with heat recovery. The simulation program TRNSYS was used in order to investigate a ventilation system with heat recovery. The system also includes a ground source storage and waste water heat recovery system. The result of the analysis shows that the annual energy gain from ground source storage is limited. However, this is partly a consequence of the fact that the well functioning hybrid ventilation system leaves little room for improvements. The analysis shows that the hybrid ventilation system has potential to be an attractive solution for low energy buildings with a very low need for electrical energy.

  3. Functionalized hybrid nanofibers to mimic native ECM for tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karuppuswamy, Priyadharsini [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Department Physics and Nanotechnology, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Chennai (India); Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy, E-mail: nnijrv@nus.edu.sg [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Navaneethan, Balchandar [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Department Physics and Nanotechnology, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Chennai (India); Laiva, Ashang Luwang; Sridhar, Sreepathy; Ramakrishna, Seeram [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Functionalized hybrid polymer mats fabricated for tissue engineering. • Hybrid polymer mats showed high surface area, high porosity and good wettability. • Incorporation of natural polymers modified the properties of nanofiber mats more biologically favorable for biomedical applications. - Abstract: Nanotechnology being one of the most promising technologies today shows an extremely huge potential in the field of tissue engineering to mimic the porous topography of natural extracellular matrix (ECM). Natural polymers are incorporated into the synthetic polymers to fabricate functionalized hybrid nanofibrous scaffolds, which improve cell and tissue compatibility. The present study identified the biopolymers – aloe vera, silk fibroin and curcumin incorporated into polycaprolactone (PCL) as suitable substrates for tissue engineering. Different combinations of PCL with natural polymers – PCL/aloe vera, PCL/silk fibroin, PCL/aloe vera/silk fibroin, PCL/aloe vera/silk fibroin/curcumin were electrospun into nanofibrous scaffolds. The fabricated two dimensional nanofibrous scaffolds showed high surface area, appropriate mechanical properties, hydrophilicity and porosity, required for the regeneration of diseased tissues. The nanofibrous scaffolds were characterized by Scanning electron microscope (SEM), porometry, Instron tensile tester, VCA optima contact angle measurement and FTIR to analyze the fiber diameter and morphology, porosity and pore size distribution, mechanical strength, wettability, chemical bonds and functional groups, respectively. The average fiber diameter of obtained fibers ranged from 250 nm to 350 nm and the tensile strength of PCL scaffolds at 4.49 MPa increased upto 8.3 MPa for PCL/silk fibroin scaffolds. Hydrophobicity of PCL decreased with the incorporation of natural polymers, especially for PCL/aloe vera scaffolds. The properties of as-spun nanofiber scaffolds showed their potential as promising scaffold materials in

  4. Functionalized hybrid nanofibers to mimic native ECM for tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karuppuswamy, Priyadharsini; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Navaneethan, Balchandar; Laiva, Ashang Luwang; Sridhar, Sreepathy; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Functionalized hybrid polymer mats fabricated for tissue engineering. • Hybrid polymer mats showed high surface area, high porosity and good wettability. • Incorporation of natural polymers modified the properties of nanofiber mats more biologically favorable for biomedical applications. - Abstract: Nanotechnology being one of the most promising technologies today shows an extremely huge potential in the field of tissue engineering to mimic the porous topography of natural extracellular matrix (ECM). Natural polymers are incorporated into the synthetic polymers to fabricate functionalized hybrid nanofibrous scaffolds, which improve cell and tissue compatibility. The present study identified the biopolymers – aloe vera, silk fibroin and curcumin incorporated into polycaprolactone (PCL) as suitable substrates for tissue engineering. Different combinations of PCL with natural polymers – PCL/aloe vera, PCL/silk fibroin, PCL/aloe vera/silk fibroin, PCL/aloe vera/silk fibroin/curcumin were electrospun into nanofibrous scaffolds. The fabricated two dimensional nanofibrous scaffolds showed high surface area, appropriate mechanical properties, hydrophilicity and porosity, required for the regeneration of diseased tissues. The nanofibrous scaffolds were characterized by Scanning electron microscope (SEM), porometry, Instron tensile tester, VCA optima contact angle measurement and FTIR to analyze the fiber diameter and morphology, porosity and pore size distribution, mechanical strength, wettability, chemical bonds and functional groups, respectively. The average fiber diameter of obtained fibers ranged from 250 nm to 350 nm and the tensile strength of PCL scaffolds at 4.49 MPa increased upto 8.3 MPa for PCL/silk fibroin scaffolds. Hydrophobicity of PCL decreased with the incorporation of natural polymers, especially for PCL/aloe vera scaffolds. The properties of as-spun nanofiber scaffolds showed their potential as promising scaffold materials in

  5. Engineered polycaprolactone–magnesium hybrid biodegradable porous scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoi Man Wong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the fabrication of a new biodegradable porous scaffold composed of polycaprolactone (PCL and magnesium (Mg micro-particles. The compressive modulus of PCL porous scaffold was increased to at least 150% by incorporating 29% Mg particles with the porosity of 74% using Micro-CT analysis. Surprisingly, the compressive modulus of this scaffold was further increased to at least 236% when the silane-coupled Mg particles were added. In terms of cell viability, the scaffold modified with Mg particles significantly convinced the attachment and growth of osteoblasts as compared with the pure PCL scaffold. In addition, the hybrid scaffold was able to attract the formation of apatite layer over its surface after 7 days of immersion in normal culture medium, whereas it was not observed on the pure PCL scaffold. This in vitro result indicated the enhanced bioactivity of the modified scaffold. Moreover, enhanced bone forming ability was also observed in the rat model after 3 months of implantation. Though bony in-growth was found in all the implanted scaffolds. High volume of new bone formation could be found in the Mg/PCL hybrid scaffolds when compared to the pure PCL scaffold. Both pure PCL and Mg/PCL hybrid scaffolds were degraded after 3 months. However, no tissue inflammation was observed. In conclusion, these promising results suggested that the incorporation of Mg micro-particles into PCL porous scaffold could significantly enhance its mechanical and biological properties. This modified porous bio-scaffold may potentially apply in the surgical management of large bone defect fixation.

  6. Software And Systems Engineering Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    RSKM 2004 COSO Enterprise RSKM Framework 2006 ISO/IEC 16085 Risk Management Process 2008 ISO/IEC 12207 Software Lifecycle Processes 2009 ISO/IEC...1 Software And Systems Engineering Risk Management John Walz VP Technical and Conferences Activities, IEEE Computer Society Vice-Chair Planning...Software & Systems Engineering Standards Committee, IEEE Computer Society US TAG to ISO TMB Risk Management Working Group Systems and Software

  7. Systems engineering: A formal approach. Part 1: System concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhee, K. M.

    1993-03-01

    Engineering is the scientific discipline focused on the creation of new artifacts that are supposed to be of some use to our society. Different types of artifacts require different engineering approaches. However, in all these disciplines the development of a new artifact is divided into stages. Three stages can always be recognized: Analysis, Design, and Realization. The book considers only the first two stages of the development process. It focuses on a specific type of artifacts, called discrete dynamic systems. These systems consist of active components of actors that consume and produce passive components or tokens. Three subtypes are studied in more detail: business systems (like a factory or restaurant), information systems (whether automated or not), and automated systems (systems that are controlled by an automated information system). The first subtype is studied by industrial engineers, the last by software engineers and electrical engineers, whereas the second is a battlefield for all three disciplines. The union of these disciplines is called systems engineering.

  8. Control strategy of hydraulic/electric synergy system in heavy hybrid vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hui; Yang Lifu; Jing Junqing; Luo Yanling

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption and exhaust emissions of hybrid vehicles strongly depend on the energy storage source and the applied control strategy. Heavy vehicles have the characteristics of frequent starts/stops and significant amounts of braking energy, which needs to find a more efficient way to store and use the high power flow. A novel parallel hybrid vehicles configuration consisting of hydraulic/electric synergy system is proposed to overcome the existing drawbacks of single energy storage source in heavy hybrid vehicles. A control strategy combining a logic threshold approach and key parameters optimization algorithm is developed to achieve acceptable vehicle performance while simultaneously maximizing engine fuel economy and maintaining the battery state of charge in its rational operation range at all times. The experimental and simulation results illustrate the potential of the proposed control strategy in terms of fuel economy and in keeping the deviations of SOC at high efficiency range.

  9. Control strategy of hydraulic/electric synergy system in heavy hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Hui; Yang Lifu; Junqing Jing; Yanling Luo [Jiangsu Xuzhou Construction Machinery Research Institute, Jiangsu (China)

    2011-01-15

    Energy consumption and exhaust emissions of hybrid vehicles strongly depend on the energy storage source and the applied control strategy. Heavy vehicles have the characteristics of frequent starts/stops and significant amounts of braking energy, which needs to find a more efficient way to store and use the high power flow. A novel parallel hybrid vehicles configuration consisting of hydraulic/electric synergy system is proposed to overcome the existing drawbacks of single energy storage source in heavy hybrid vehicles. A control strategy combining a logic threshold approach and key parameters optimization algorithm is developed to achieve acceptable vehicle performance while simultaneously maximizing engine fuel economy and maintaining the battery state of charge in its rational operation range at all times. The experimental and simulation results illustrate the potential of the proposed control strategy in terms of fuel economy and in keeping the deviations of SOC at high efficiency range. (author)

  10. Contemporary issues in systems science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, M; Weijnen, M

    2015-01-01

    This volume provides a comprehensive overview of all important areas in systems science and engineering and poses the issues and challenges in these areas in order to deal with ever-increasingly complex systems and newly emergent applications. The topics range from discrete event systems, distributed intelligent systems, grey systems, and enterprise information systems to conflict resolution, robotics and intelligent sensing, smart grids, and system of systems approaches. Individual chapters are written by leading experts in the field.

  11. Process Systems Engineering Education: Learning by Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, A.; Alhammadi, H. Y.; Romagnoli, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss our approach in teaching the final-year course Process Systems Engineering. Students are given ownership of the course by transferring to them the responsibility of learning. A project-based group environment stimulates learning while solving a real engineering problem. We discuss postgraduate student involvement and how…

  12. A multiply-add engine with monolithically integrated 3D memristor crossbar/CMOS hybrid circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, B; Lastras-Montaño, M A; Adam, G; Prezioso, M; Hoskins, B; Payvand, M; Madhavan, A; Ghofrani, A; Theogarajan, L; Cheng, K-T; Strukov, D B

    2017-02-14

    Silicon (Si) based complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology has been the driving force of the information-technology revolution. However, scaling of CMOS technology as per Moore's law has reached a serious bottleneck. Among the emerging technologies memristive devices can be promising for both memory as well as computing applications. Hybrid CMOS/memristor circuits with CMOL (CMOS + "Molecular") architecture have been proposed to combine the extremely high density of the memristive devices with the robustness of CMOS technology, leading to terabit-scale memory and extremely efficient computing paradigm. In this work, we demonstrate a hybrid 3D CMOL circuit with 2 layers of memristive crossbars monolithically integrated on a pre-fabricated CMOS substrate. The integrated crossbars can be fully operated through the underlying CMOS circuitry. The memristive devices in both layers exhibit analog switching behavior with controlled tunability and stable multi-level operation. We perform dot-product operations with the 2D and 3D memristive crossbars to demonstrate the applicability of such 3D CMOL hybrid circuits as a multiply-add engine. To the best of our knowledge this is the first demonstration of a functional 3D CMOL hybrid circuit.

  13. Pragmatic electrical engineering systems and instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Eccles, William

    2011-01-01

    Pragmatic Electrical Engineering: Systems and Instruments is about some of the non-energy parts of electrical systems, the parts that control things and measure physical parameters. The primary topics are control systems and their characterization, instrumentation, signals, and electromagnetic compatibility. This text features a large number of completely worked examples to aid the reader in understanding how the various principles fit together.While electric engineers may find this material useful as a review, engineers in other fields can use this short lecture text as a modest introduction

  14. Biological Systems Thinking for Control Engineering Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Murray-Smith

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms are often quoted in discussions about the contribution of biological systems thinking to engineering design. This paper reviews work on the neuromuscular system, a field in which biological systems thinking could make specific contributions to the development and design of automatic control systems for mechatronics and robotics applications. The paper suggests some specific areas in which a better understanding of this biological control system could be expected to contribute to control engineering design methods in the future. Particular emphasis is given to the nonlinear nature of elements within the neuromuscular system and to processes of neural signal processing, sensing and system adaptivity. Aspects of the biological system that are of particular significance for engineering control systems include sensor fusion, sensor redundancy and parallelism, together with advanced forms of signal processing for adaptive and learning control. 

  15. Analysis on a hybrid desiccant air-conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, C.X.; Dai, Y.J.; Wu, J.Y.; Wang, R.Z.

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid desiccant-assisted preconditioner and split cooling coil system, which combines the merits of moisture removal by desiccant and cooling coil for sensible heat removal, is a potential alternative to conventional vapor compression cooling systems. In this paper, experiments on a hybrid desiccant air-conditioning system, which is actually an integration of a rotary solid desiccant dehumidification and a vapor compression air-conditioning unit, had been carried out. It is found that, compared with the conventional VC (vapor compression) system, the hybrid desiccant cooling system economizes 37.5% electricity powers when the process air temperature and relative humidity are maintained at 30 o C, and 55% respectively. The reason why the hybrid desiccant cooling system features better performance relative to the VC system lies in the improvement brought about in the performance of the evaporator in VC unit due to desiccant dehumidification. A thermodynamic model of the hybrid desiccant system with R-22 as the refrigerant has been developed and the impact of operating parameters on the sensible heat ratio of the evaporator and the electric power saving rate has been analyzed. It is found that a majority of evaporators can operate in the dry condition even if the regeneration temperature is lower (i.e. 80 o C)

  16. Split-gene system for hybrid wheat seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Katja; Rubtsova, Myroslava; Gils, Mario

    2014-06-24

    Hybrid wheat plants are superior in yield and growth characteristics compared with their homozygous parents. The commercial production of wheat hybrids is difficult because of the inbreeding nature of wheat and the lack of a practical fertility control that enforces outcrossing. We describe a hybrid wheat system that relies on the expression of a phytotoxic barnase and provides for male sterility. The barnase coding information is divided and distributed at two loci that are located on allelic positions of the host chromosome and are therefore "linked in repulsion." Functional complementation of the loci is achieved through coexpression of the barnase fragments and intein-mediated ligation of the barnase protein fragments. This system allows for growth and maintenance of male-sterile female crossing partners, whereas the hybrids are fertile. The technology does not require fertility restorers and is based solely on the genetic modification of the female crossing partner.

  17. Nuclear engine system simulation (NESS) program update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheil, C.M.; Pelaccio, D.G.; Petrosky, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    The second phase of development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine system design analysis code has been completed. The standalone, versatile Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS) code provides an accurate, detailed assessment of engine system operating performance, weight, and sizes. The critical information is required to support ongoing and future engine system and stage design study efforts. This recent development effort included incorporation of an updated solid-core nuclear thermal reactor model that yields a reduced core weight and higher fuel power density when compared to a NERVA type reactor. NESS can now analyze expander, gas generator, and bleed cycles, along with multi-redundant propellant pump feed systems. Performance and weight of efficient multi-stage axial turbopump can now be determined, in addition to the traditional centrifugal pump

  18. The rural areas electrification with a hybrid photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocev, Kiril I.; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Tudzharov, Gjorgji

    2001-01-01

    Depending on a daily load demand, distance from the utility grid and the available solar energy, the rural villages electrification with a hybrid photovoltaic (PV) system can be a cheaper solution than the classic electrification, by connecting them to the utility grid. Besides PV generator, the considered hybrid system is consisted of a battery and a diesel gen set. For the concrete case - rural village with estimated daily load demand of 15.5 kWh/day, with the computer program PVFORM, which is modified for such hybrid system, were simulated a few hundreds PV systems, with different sizes of the PV generator and of the battery capacity. Analyzing the obtained results, it can be foreseen the influence of the component size on the system functionality. From the mass of possible system combinations, it is chosen one that has 42 % lower initial investment, than the initial investment for connection of the village to the utility grid. (Original)

  19. Hybrid Intrusion Detection System for DDoS Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Cepheli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS attacks are one of the major threats and possibly the hardest security problem for today’s Internet. In this paper we propose a hybrid detection system, referred to as hybrid intrusion detection system (H-IDS, for detection of DDoS attacks. Our proposed detection system makes use of both anomaly-based and signature-based detection methods separately but in an integrated fashion and combines the outcomes of both detectors to enhance the overall detection accuracy. We apply two distinct datasets to our proposed system in order to test the detection performance of H-IDS and conclude that the proposed hybrid system gives better results than the systems based on nonhybrid detection.

  20. A reconfigurable hybrid supervisory system for process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, H.E.; Ray, A.; Edwards, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a reconfigurable approach to decision and control systems for complex dynamic processes. The proposed supervisory control system is a reconfigurable hybrid architecture structured into three functional levels of hierarchy, namely, execution, supervision, and coordination. While the bottom execution level is constituted by either reconfigurable continuously varying or discrete event systems, the top two levels are necessarily governed by reconfigurable sets of discrete event decision and control systems. Based on the process status, the set of active control and supervisory algorithm is chosen. The reconfigurable hybrid system is briefly described along with a discussion on its implementation at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II of Argonne National Laboratory. A process control application of this hybrid system is presented and evaluated in an in-plant experiment

  1. A reconfigurable hybrid supervisory system for process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, H.E.; Ray, A.; Edwards, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a reconfigurable approach to decision and control systems for complex dynamic processes. The proposed supervisory control system is a reconfigurable hybrid architecture structured into three functional levels of hierarchy, namely, execution, supervision, and coordination. While, the bottom execution level is constituted by either reconfigurable continuously varying or discrete event systems, the top two levels are necessarily governed by reconfigurable sets of discrete event decision and control systems. Based on the process status, the set of active control and supervisory algorithm is chosen. The reconfigurable hybrid system is briefly described along with a discussion on its implementation at the Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 of Argonne National Laboratory. A process control application of this hybrid system is presented and evaluated in an in-plant experiment

  2. OCRWM Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Systems Engineering Management Plan (OCRWM SEMP) specifies the technical management approach for the development of the waste management system, and specifies the approach for the development of each of the system elements -- the waste acceptance system, the transportation system, the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility, and the mined geologic disposal system, which includes site characterization activity. The SEMP also delineates how systems engineering will be used by OCRWM to describe the system development process; it identifies responsibilities for its implementation, and specifies the minimum requirements for systems engineering. It also identifies the close interrelationship of system engineering and licensing processes. This SEMP, which is a combined OCRWM and M ampersand O SEMP, is part of the top-level program documentation and is prepared in accordance with the direction provided in the Program Management System Manual (PMSM). The relationship of this document to other top level documents in the CRWMS document hierarchy is defined in the PMSM. A systems engineering management plan for each project, which specifies the actions to be taken in implementing systems engineering at the project level, shall be prepared by the respective project managers. [''Program'' refers to the CRWMS-wide activity and ''project'' refers to that level responsible for accomplishing the specific activities of that segment of the program.] The requirements for the project level SEMPs are addressed in Section 4.2.2.2. They represent the minimum set of requirements, and do not preclude the broadening of systems engineering activities to meet the specific needs of each project

  3. QM/MM hybrid calculation of biological macromolecules using a new interface program connecting QM and MM engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, Yohsuke; Tateno, Masaru [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Ohta, Takehiro [Center for Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: tateno@ccs.tsukuba.ac.jp

    2009-02-11

    An interface program connecting a quantum mechanics (QM) calculation engine, GAMESS, and a molecular mechanics (MM) calculation engine, AMBER, has been developed for QM/MM hybrid calculations. A protein-DNA complex is used as a test system to investigate the following two types of QM/MM schemes. In a 'subtractive' scheme, electrostatic interactions between QM/MM regions are truncated in QM calculations; in an 'additive' scheme, long-range electrostatic interactions within a cut-off distance from QM regions are introduced into one-electron integration terms of a QM Hamiltonian. In these calculations, 338 atoms are assigned as QM atoms using Hartree-Fock (HF)/density functional theory (DFT) hybrid all-electron calculations. By comparing the results of the additive and subtractive schemes, it is found that electronic structures are perturbed significantly by the introduction of MM partial charges surrounding QM regions, suggesting that biological processes occurring in functional sites are modulated by the surrounding structures. This also indicates that the effects of long-range electrostatic interactions involved in the QM Hamiltonian are crucial for accurate descriptions of electronic structures of biological macromolecules.

  4. A systems engineering primer for every engineer and scientist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, William R.

    2001-12-10

    The Systems Engineering (SE) staff at LBNL has generated the following artifacts to assist projects with implementing a systems approach: (1) The present document that focuses on the what, why, and when of SE. It also provides a simple case-study to illustrate several SE tasks. (2) A web site with primary emphasis on the project life-cycle and workflow, (http://www-eng.LBNL.gov/Systems/index.html). It includes: SE guidelines and principles; A list of in-house tools; Templates; Case studies with ''how to'' examples; and Links to useful SE material. These sources are living documents to be updated as necessary. The viewpoint adopted in this document is that what LBNL engineers and scientists need is a set of principles and guiding practices for developing R and D systems rather than a ''cookbook''. There are many excellent ''how to'' resources such as the ''INCOSE Systems Engineering Handbook'' to guide those in search of more details. The SE staff is another resource available to consult and support projects. This document specifies SE principles and activities that are applicable to all LBNL projects independent of their specific differences. Each project should tailor the SE implementation to meet its individual needs and culture including project-specific resources, procedures, products, and tools.

  5. A systems engineering primer for every engineer and scientist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, William R.

    2001-01-01

    The Systems Engineering (SE) staff at LBNL has generated the following artifacts to assist projects with implementing a systems approach: (1) The present document that focuses on the what, why, and when of SE. It also provides a simple case-study to illustrate several SE tasks. (2) A web site with primary emphasis on the project life-cycle and workflow, (http://www-eng.LBNL.gov/Systems/index.html). It includes: SE guidelines and principles; A list of in-house tools; Templates; Case studies with ''how to'' examples; and Links to useful SE material. These sources are living documents to be updated as necessary. The viewpoint adopted in this document is that what LBNL engineers and scientists need is a set of principles and guiding practices for developing R and D systems rather than a ''cookbook''. There are many excellent ''how to'' resources such as the ''INCOSE Systems Engineering Handbook'' to guide those in search of more details. The SE staff is another resource available to consult and support projects. This document specifies SE principles and activities that are applicable to all LBNL projects independent of their specific differences. Each project should tailor the SE implementation to meet its individual needs and culture including project-specific resources, procedures, products, and tools

  6. Vibration control of bridges and buildings hybrid system. Kyoryoter dot tatemono no shindo seigyo hybrid hoshiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanida, K. (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-11-15

    Multistory buildings, suspension bridges, and cable stayed bridges tend to become huge, and technology of controlling their vibration caused by strong winds and earthquakes is becoming an important subject for study. A description is made on a hybrid system which is a combination of the conventional passive system and active system, having merits of both of the systems. Verification test made using a model and an example of application to an actual bridge are introduced. This hybrid control system has been applied to the main tower of the cable stayed bridge on Route 12 of the Tokyo expressway. It is installed and in operation on the top of the tower to improve the workability, and can decrease the vibration of the tower caused by vortical excitation produced during the construction of the main tower. With the hybrid system, the actuator capacity can be reduced to about 1/5 for the similar damping performance to that of the active system with the same mass ratio. In addition, the weight of the equipment can be nearly halved in comparison with the passive system. Moreover, it has such a high safety characteristic as being used as a passive system when power supply is cut off because the controlling force of the system is smaller as compared with the active system. 2 refs., 11 figs.

  7. Analysis of a Hybrid Mechanical Regenerative Braking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toh Xiang Wen Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative braking systems for conventional vehicles are gaining attention as fossil fuels continue to be depleted. The major forms of regenerative braking systems include electrical and mechanical systems, with the former being more widely adopted at present. However mechanical systems are still feasible, including the possible hybrid systems of two mechanical energy recovery systems. A literature study was made to compare the various mechanical energy recovery systems. These systems were compared based on their advantages and disadvantages with regards to energy storage, usage, and maintenance. Based on the comparison, the most promising concept appeared to be one that combined the flywheel and the pneumatic energy recovery systems. A CAD model of this hybrid system was produced to better visualise the design. This was followed by analytical modelling of the energy recovery systems. The analysis indicated that the angular velocity had an extremely significant impact on the power loss and energy efficiency. The results showed that the hybrid system can provide better efficiency but only when operating within certain parameters. Future work is required to further improve the efficiency of this hybrid system.

  8. Performance estimation of photovoltaic–thermoelectric hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jin; Xuan, Yimin; Yang, Lili

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical model for evaluating the efficiency of concentrating PV–TE (photovoltaic–thermoelectric) hybrid system is developed in this paper. Hybrid systems with different photovoltaic cells are studied, including crystalline silicon photovoltaic cell, silicon thin-film photovoltaic cell, polymer photovoltaic cell and copper indium gallium selenide photovoltaic cell. The influence of temperature on the efficiency of photovoltaic cell has been taken into account based on the semiconductor equations, which reveals different efficiency temperature characteristic of polymer photovoltaic cells. It is demonstrated that the polycrystalline silicon thin-film photovoltaic cell is suitable for concentrating PV–TE hybrid system through optimization of the convection heat transfer coefficient and concentrating ratio. The polymer photovoltaic cell is proved to be suitable for non-concentrating PV–TE hybrid system. - Highlights: • Performances of four types of photovoltaic–thermoelectric hybrid systems are studied. • Temperature is one of dominant factors of affecting the conversion efficiency of PV–TE systems. • One can select a proper PV–TE assembly system according to given operating conditions

  9. Linker Flexibility Facilitates Module Exchange in Fungal Hybrid PKS-NRPS Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maria Lund; Petersen, Thomas Isbrandt; Petersen, Lene Maj

    2016-01-01

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) each give rise to a vast array of complex bioactive molecules with further complexity added by the existence of natural PKS-NRPS fusions. Rational genetic engineering for the production of natural product derivatives....... We succeeded in the construction of a functional cross-species chimeric PKS-NRPS expressed in Aspergillus nidulans. Module swapping of the two PKS-NRPS natural hybrids CcsA from Aspergillus clavatus involved in the biosynthesis of cytochalasin E and related Syn2 from rice plant pathogen Magnaporthe...... oryzae lead to production of novel hybrid products, demonstrating that the rational re-design of these fungal natural product enzymes is feasible. We also report the structure of four novel pseudo pre-cytochalasin intermediates, niduclavin and niduporthin along with the chimeric compounds niduchimaeralin...

  10. SOFC/TEG hybrid mCHP system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-03-15

    The starting point for this project have been the challenge has been to develop a cost effective solution with long term stability. This is where a focused effort in a strong consortium covering material research, module development and manufacture as well as device design and optimization can make a real difference. In March 2010 the SOFTEG phase II project was initiated and a cooperation organization was established to implement the project as a development and demonstration project involving the staff from all project partners. The project is now completed with excellent and documented outcome. The final results by Alpcon have been demonstration as a TEG-based mCHP system calls CHP Dual Engine Power System, which will be applicable as both a standalone TEG-CHP hybrid system, but also as an auxiliary power unit and power booster for the SOFC system. However the SOFC system cannot cover the household's heat demand alone so it is necessary to combine a SOFC system together with a water heater/boiler system to cover the peak heat demand of a residential house or a complex building. The SOFTEG project partners achieved significant results that mainly can be outlined as following: 1) University of Aarhus has improved the thermal stability of ZnSb by optimizing the concentration of Nano composite material. 2) The grain size and its influence on the sintering process by spark plasma method are investigated by Aarhus University, but further work seems to be necessary. 3) The TE material is going to commercialization by Aarhus University. 4) Aalborg University has prepared simulation tools for complex thermoelectric simulation in non-steady state condition. 5) The new type DCDC interleaved converter using the MPPT system for optimal power tracing is designed, build and tested by Aalborg University in cooperation with Alpcon. This task is included overall system design, control system implementation and power electronic control design. 6) Full scale practical

  11. A Comparison of Hybrid Approaches for Turbofan Engine Gas Path Fault Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Feng; Wang, Yafan; Huang, Jinquan; Wang, Qihang

    2016-09-01

    A hybrid diagnostic method utilizing Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and Adaptive Genetic Algorithm (AGA) is presented for performance degradation estimation and sensor anomaly detection of turbofan engine. The EKF is used to estimate engine component performance degradation for gas path fault diagnosis. The AGA is introduced in the integrated architecture and applied for sensor bias detection. The contributions of this work are the comparisons of Kalman Filters (KF)-AGA algorithms and Neural Networks (NN)-AGA algorithms with a unified framework for gas path fault diagnosis. The NN needs to be trained off-line with a large number of prior fault mode data. When new fault mode occurs, estimation accuracy by the NN evidently decreases. However, the application of the Linearized Kalman Filter (LKF) and EKF will not be restricted in such case. The crossover factor and the mutation factor are adapted to the fitness function at each generation in the AGA, and it consumes less time to search for the optimal sensor bias value compared to the Genetic Algorithm (GA). In a word, we conclude that the hybrid EKF-AGA algorithm is the best choice for gas path fault diagnosis of turbofan engine among the algorithms discussed.

  12. Hybrid Recommendation System Memanfaatkan Penggalian Frequent Itemset dan Perbandingan Keyword

    OpenAIRE

    Suka Parwita, Wayan Gede; Winarko, Edi

    2015-01-01

    Abstrak Recommendation system sering dibangun dengan memanfaatkan data peringkat item dan data identitas pengguna. Data peringkat item merupakan data yang langka pada sistem yang baru dibangun. Sedangkan, pemberian data identitas pada recommendation system dapat menimbulkan kekhawatiran penyalahgunaan data identitas. Hybrid recommendation system memanfaatkan algoritma penggalian frequent itemset dan perbandingan keyword dapat memberikan daftar rekomendasi tanpa menggunakan data identi...

  13. Resilin-like polypeptide-poly(ethylene gylcol) hybrid hydrogels for mechanically-demanding tissue engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, Christopher Leland

    Technological progress in the life sciences and engineering has combined with important insights in the fields of biology and material science to make possible the development of biological substitutes which aim to restore function to damaged tissue. Numerous biomimetic hydrogels have been developed with the purpose of harnessing the regenerative capacity of cells and tissue through the rational deployment of biological signals. Aided by recombinant DNA technology and protein engineering methods, a new class of hydrogel precursor, the biosynthetic protein polymer, has demonstrated great promise towards the development of highly functional tissue engineering materials. In particular, protein polymers based upon resilin, a natural protein elastomer, have demonstrated outstanding mechanical properties that would have great value in soft tissue applications. This dissertation introduces hybrid hydrogels composed of recombinant resilin-like polypeptides (RLPs) cross-linked with multi-arm PEG macromers. Two different chemical strategies were employed to form RLP-PEG hydrogels: one utilized a Michael-type addition reaction between the thiols of cysteine residues present within the RLP and vinyl sulfone moieties functionalized on a multi-arm PEG macromer; the second system cross-links a norbornene-functionalized RLP with a thiol-functionalized multi-arm PEG macromer via a photoinitiated thiol-ene step polymerization. Oscillatory rheology and tensile testing confirmed the formation of elastic, resilient hydrogels in the RLP-PEG system cross-linked via Michael-type addition. These hydrogels supported the encapsulation and culture of both human aortic adventitial fibroblasts and human mesenchymal stem cells. Additionally, these RLP-PEG hydrogels exhibited phase separation behavior during cross-linking that led to the formation of a heterogeneous microstructure. Degradation could be triggered through incubation with matrix metalloproteinase. Photocross-linking was conferred to

  14. Multi-Agent System based Event-Triggered Hybrid Controls for High-Security Hybrid Energy Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Chun-Xia; Yue, Dong; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes multi-agent system based event- triggered hybrid controls for guaranteeing energy supply of a hybrid energy generation system with high security. First, a mul-ti-agent system is constituted by an upper-level central coordi-nated control agent combined with several lower......-level unit agents. Each lower-level unit agent is responsible for dealing with internal switching control and distributed dynamic regula-tion for its unit system. The upper-level agent implements coor-dinated switching control to guarantee the power supply of over-all system with high security. The internal...

  15. Preliminary engineering design and cost of Advanced Compressed-Air Storage (ACAS) A-5 hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnowicz, E. J.; Blackman, J.; Woodhull, A. S.; Zaugg, P.

    1981-08-01

    The advanced compressed air energy (ACAS) plant investiated operates on a partial adiabatic, partial fuel fired cycle. Only a limited advancement in state-of-the-art technology is projected for this hybrid arrangement. The A-5 hybrid systems stores the heat of compression from the low pressure and intermediate pressure compressors in a thermal energy store (TES). The heat collected in the TES is available for preheating the air from the storage cavern prior to its entering the low pressure turbine combustor. This reduces the amount of fuel consumed during power generation. The fuel heat rate for the hybrid cycle is 2660 Btu/kWh as compared to approximately 4000 Btu/kWh for a conventional CAES plant. A virtual stand-off between the hybrid plant and a conventional CAES plant at 235 mills/kWh in 1990 dollars is shown. With a lower cost and increased fuel cost projections, the hybrid system operating cost is less than that for a conventional CAES plant.

  16. System Engineering Process Realization Toolkit, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA faces many systems engineering challenges as it seeks to conduct exploration and science missions concurrently. One such challenge is implementing a repeatable...

  17. Framework to investigate emergence in system engineering

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oosthuizen, R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available System Engineering is the process of identifying, implementing and maintaining solutions to real world problems. Some problems tend to be messy with no single solution or set of effective and accurate requirements, often resulting in implementation...

  18. Analysis of hybrid energy systems for application in southern Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adaramola, Muyiwa S.; Agelin-Chaab, Martin; Paul, Samuel S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The option of using hybrid energy for electricity in remote areas of Ghana is examined. • The cost of electricity produced by the hybrid system is found to be $0.281/kW h. • The levelized cost of electricity increase by 9% when the PV price is increased from $3000/kW to $7500/kW. - Abstract: Due to advances in renewable energy technologies and increase in oil price, hybrid renewable energy systems are becoming increasingly attractive for power generation applications in remote areas. This paper presents an economic analysis of the feasibility of utilizing a hybrid energy system consisting of solar, wind and diesel generators for application in remote areas of southern Ghana using levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) and net present cost of the system. The annual daily average solar global radiation at the selected site is 5.4 kW h/m 2 /day and the annual mean wind speed is 5.11 m/s. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) software was employed to carry out the present study. Both wind data and the actual load data have been used in the simulation model. It was found that a PV array of 80 kW, a 100 kW wind turbine, two generators with combined capacity of 100 kW, a 60 kW converter/inverter and a 60 Surrette 4KS25P battery produced a mix of 791.1 MW h of electricity annually. The cost of electricity for this hybrid system is found to be $0.281/kW h. Sensitivity analysis on the effect of changes in wind speed, solar global radiation and diesel price on the optimal energy was investigated and the impact of solar PV price on the LCOE for a selected hybrid energy system was also presented

  19. Performance analysis of a photovoltaic-thermochemical hybrid system prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wenjia; Ling, Yunyi; Liu, Xiangxin; Hao, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A modular photovoltaic-thermochemical hybrid system prototype is proposed. •Net solar-electric efficiency up to 41% is achievable. •Stable solar power supply is achievable via convenient energy storage. •The modular design facilitates the scalability of the hybrid system. -- Abstract: A solar photovoltaic (PV) thermochemical hybrid system consisting of a point-focus Fresnel concentrator, a PV cell and a methanol thermochemical reactor is proposed. In particular, a reactor capable of operating under high solar concentration is designed, manufactured and tested. Studies on both kinetic and thermodynamic characteristics of the reactor and the system are performed. Analysis of numerical and experimental results shows that with cascaded solar energy utilization and synergy among different forms of energy, the hybrid system has the advantages of high net solar-electric efficiency (up to 41%), stable solar energy power supply, solar energy storage (via syngas) and flexibility in application scale. The hybrid system proposed in this work provides a potential solution to some key challenges of current solar energy utilization technologies.

  20. Applying systems engineering in the civil engineering industry : an analysis of systems engineering projects of a Dutch water board

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, R. S. (Robin); Vromen, R. M.(Rick); Boes, J. (Hans)

    2017-01-01

    The past decade, practice and literature have shown an increasing interest in Systems Engineering (SE) in the civil engineering industry. The aim of this study is to analyse to what extent SE is applied in six civil engineering SE projects of a Dutch water board. The projects were analysed using a